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´╗┐Title: Visit to Iceland
Author: Pfeiffer, Ida, 1797-1858
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Visit to Iceland" ***

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Transcribed from the 1853 Ingram, Cooke, and Co. edition by David Price,
email ccx074@pglaf.org; second proof by Mike Ruffell.



VISIT TO ICELAND
AND THE
SCANDINAVIAN NORTH


                      TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN OF
                           MADAME IDA PFEIFFER.

                                   WITH
                        Numerous Explanatory Notes
                                   AND
                         EIGHT TINTED ENGRAVINGS.

                            TO WHICH ARE ADDED
                      AN ESSAY ON ICELANDIC POETRY,
                     FROM THE FRENCH OF M. BERGMANN;
             A TRANSLATION OF THE ICELANDIC POEM THE VOLUSPA;
                 AND A BRIEF SKETCH OF ICELANDIC HISTORY.

                             Second Edition.

                                 LONDON:
                          INGRAM, COOKE, AND CO.
                                   1853

                     [Picture: Pictorial title page]



ADVERTISEMENT TO THE FIRST EDITION


The success which attended the publication in this Series of Illustrated
Works of _A Woman's Journey round the World_, has induced the publication
of the present volume on a country so little known as Iceland, and about
which so little recent information exists.

The translation has been carefully made, expressly for this Series, from
the original work published at Vienna; and the Editor has added a great
many notes, wherever they seemed necessary to elucidate the text.

In addition to the matter which appeared in the original work, the
present volume contains a translation of a valuable Essay on Icelandic
poetry, by M. Bergmann; a translation of an Icelandic poem, the
'Voluspa;' a brief sketch of Icelandic History; and a translation of
Schiller's ballad, 'The Diver,' which is prominently alluded to by Madame
Pfeiffer in her description of the Geysers. {1}

The Illustrations have been printed in tints, so as to make the work
uniform with the _Journey round the World_.

London, August 1, 1852.



AUTHOR'S PREFACE


"Another journey--a journey, moreover, in regions which every one would
rather avoid than seek.  This woman only undertakes these journeys to
attract attention."

"The first journey, for a woman ALONE, was certainly rather a bold
proceeding.  Yet in that instance she might still have been excused.
Religious motives may perhaps have actuated her; and when this is the
case, people often go through incredible things.  At present, however, we
can see no just reason which could excuse an undertaking of this
description."

Thus, and perhaps more harshly still, will the majority judge me.  And
yet they will do me a grievous wrong.  I am surely simple and harmless
enough, and should have fancied any thing in the world rather than that
it would ever be my fate to draw upon myself in any degree the notice of
the public.  I will merely indicate, as briefly as may be, my character
and circumstances, and then I have no doubt my conduct will lose its
appearance of eccentricity, and seem perfectly natural.

When I was but a little child, I had already a strong desire to see the
world.  Whenever I met a travelling-carriage, I would stop involuntarily,
and gaze after it until it had disappeared; I used even to envy the
postilion, for I thought he also must have accomplished the whole long
journey.

As I grew to the age of from ten to twelve years, nothing gave me so much
pleasure as the perusal of voyages and travels.  I ceased, indeed, to
envy the postilions, but envied the more every navigator and naturalist.

Frequently my eyes would fill with tears when, having ascended a
mountain, I saw others towering before me, and could not gain the summit.

I made several journeys with my parents, and, after my marriage, with my
husband; and only settled down when it became necessary that my two boys
should visit particular schools.  My husband's affairs demanded his
entire attention, partly in Lemberg, partly in Vienna.  He therefore
confided the education and culture of the two boys entirely to my care;
for he knew my firmness and perseverance in all I undertook, and doubted
not that I would be both father and mother to his children.

When my sons' education had been completed, and I was living in peaceful
retirement, the dreams and aspirations of my youth gradually awoke once
more.  I thought of strange manners and customs, of distant regions,
where a new sky would be above me, and new ground beneath my feet.  I
pictured to myself the supreme happiness of treading the land once
hallowed by the presence of our Saviour, and at length made up my mind to
travel thither.

As dangers and difficulties rose before my mind, I endeavoured to wean
myself from the idea I had formed--but in vain.  For privation I cared
but little; my health was good and my frame hardy: I did not fear death.
And moreover, as I was born in the last century, I could travel ALONE.
Thus every objection was overcome; every thing had been duly weighed and
considered.  I commenced my journey to Palestine with a feeling of
perfect rapture; and behold, I returned in safety.  I now feel persuaded
that I am neither tempting Providence, nor justly incurring the
imputation of wishing to be talked about, in following the bent of my
inclinations, and looking still further about me in the world I chose
Iceland for my destination, because I hoped there to find Nature in a
garb such as she wears nowhere else.  I feel so completely happy, so
brought into communion with my Maker, when I contemplate sublime natural
phenomena, that in my eyes no degree of toil or difficulty is too great a
price at which to purchase such perfect enjoyment.

And should death overtake me sooner or later during my wanderings, I
shall await his approach in all resignation, and be deeply grateful to
the Almighty for the hours of holy beauty in which I have lived and gazed
upon His wonders.

And now, dear reader, I would beg thee not to be angry with me for
speaking so much of myself; it is only because this love of travelling
does not, according to established notions, seem proper for one of my
sex, that I have allowed my feelings to speak in my defence.

Judge me, therefore, not too harshly; but rather grant me the enjoyment
of a pleasure which hurts no one, while it makes me happy.

                                                               THE AUTHOR.



CHAPTER I


In the year 1845 I undertook another journey; {2} a journey, moreover, to
the far North.  Iceland was one of those regions towards which, from the
earliest period of my consciousness, I had felt myself impelled.  In this
country, stamped as it is by Nature with features so peculiar, as
probably to have no counterpart on the face of the globe, I hoped to see
things which should fill me with new and inexpressible astonishment.  How
deeply grateful do I feel to Thee, O Thou that hast vouchsafed to me to
behold the fulfilment of these my cherished dreams!

The parting from all my dear ones had this time far less bitterness; I
had found by experience, that a woman of an energetic mind can find her
way through the world as well as a man, and that good people are to be
met with every where.  To this was added the reflection, that the
hardships of my present voyage would be of short duration, and that five
or six months might see me restored to my family.

I left Vienna at five o'clock on the morning of the tenth of April.  As
the Danube had lately caused some devastations, on which occasion the
railroad had not entirely escaped, we rode for the first four miles, as
far as Florisdorf, in an omnibus--not the most agreeable mode of
travelling.  Our omnibuses are so small and narrow, that one would
suppose they were built for the exclusive accommodation of consumptive
subjects, and not for healthy, and in some cases portly individuals,
whose bulk is further increased by a goodly assemblage of cloaks, furs,
and overcoats.

At the barriers a new difficulty arose.  We delivered up our
pass-warrants (_passirscheine_) in turn, with the exception of one young
man, who was quite astounded at the demand.  He had provided nothing but
his passport and testimonials, being totally unaware that a pass-warrant
is more indispensable than all the rest.  In vain did he hasten into the
bureau to expostulate with the officials,--we were forced to continue our
journey without him.

We were informed that he was a student, who, at the conclusion of term,
was about to make holiday for a few weeks at his parents' house near
Prague.  Alas, poor youth! he had studied so much, and yet knew so
little.  He had not even an idea of the overwhelming importance of the
document in question.  For this trifling omission he forfeited the fare
to Prague, which had been paid in advance.

But to proceed with my journey.

At Florisdorf a joyful surprise awaited me.  I met my brother and my son,
who had, it appears, preceded me.  We entered the train to proceed in
company to Stockerau, a place between twelve and thirteen miles off; but
were obliged to alight halfway, and walk a short distance.  The
Embankment had given way.  Luckily the weather was favourable, inasmuch
as we had only a violent storm of wind.  Had it rained, we should have
been wetted to the skin, besides being compelled to wade ankle-deep in
mud.  We were next obliged to remain in the open air, awaiting the
arrival of the train from Stockerau, which unloaded its freight, and
received us in exchange.

At Stockerau I once more took leave of my companions, and was soon
securely packed in the post-carriage for transmission.

In travelling this short distance, I had thus entered four carriages; a
thing sufficiently disagreeable to an unencumbered person, but infinitely
more so to one who has luggage to watch over.  The only advantage I could
discover in all this was, that we had saved half an hour in coming these
seventeen miles.  For this, instead of 9 fl. 26 kr. from Vienna to
Prague, we paid 10 fl. 10 kr. from Stockerau to Prague, without reckoning
expense of omnibus and railway.  It was certainly a dearly-bought
half-hour. {3}

The little town of Znaim, with its neighbouring convent, is situated on a
large plain, extending from Vienna to Budwitz, seventeen miles beyond
Znaim; the monotony of the view is only broken here and there by low
hills.

Near Schelletau the scenery begins to improve.  On the left the view is
bounded by a range of high hills, with a ruined castle, suggestive of
tragical tales of centuries gone by.  Fir and pine forests skirt the
road, and lie scattered in picturesque groups over hill and dale.

April 11th.

Yesterday the weather had already begun to be ungracious to us.  At Znaim
we found the valleys still partly covered with snow, and the fog was at
times so thick, that we could not see a hundred paces in advance; but
to-day it was incomparably worse.  The mist resolved itself into a mild
rain, which, however, lost so much of its mildness as we passed from
station to station, that every thing around us was soon under water.  But
not only did we ride through water, we were obliged to sit in it also.
The roof of our carriage threatened to become a perfect sieve, and the
rain poured steadily in.  Had there been room for such a proceeding, we
should all have unfurled our umbrellas.

On occasions like these, I always silently admire the patience of my
worthy countrymen, who take every thing so good-humouredly.  Were I a
man, I should pursue a different plan, and should certainly not fail to
complain of such carelessness.  But as a woman, I must hold my peace;
people would only rail at my sex, and call it ill-humoured.  Besides, I
thanked my guardian-angel for these discomforts, looking upon them as a
preparation for what was to befall me in the far North.

Passing several small towns and villages, we at length entered the
Bohemian territory, close behind Iglau.  The first town which we saw was
Czaslau, with its large open square, and a few neat houses; the latter
provided with so-called arbours (or _verandahs_), which enable one to
pass round the square dry-footed, even in the most rainy weather.

Journeying onwards, we noticed the fine cathedral and town of Kuttenberg,
once famous for its gold and silver mines. {4}  Next comes the great
tobacco-manufactory of Sedlitz, near which we first see the Elbe, but
only for a short time, as it soon takes another direction.  Passing the
small town of Collin, we are whirled close by the battle-field where, in
the year 1757, the great King Frederick paid his score to the Austrians.
An obelisk, erected a few years since to the memory of General Daun,
occupies a small eminence on the right.  On the left is the plain of
Klephorcz, where the Austrian army was drawn up. {5}

At eleven o'clock on the same night we reached



PRAGUE.


As it was my intention to pursue my journey after two days, my first walk
on the following morning was to the police-office, to procure a passport
and the all-important pass-warrant; my next to the custom-house, to take
possession of a small chest, which I had delivered up five days before my
departure, and which, as the expeditor affirmed, I should find ready for
me on my arrival at Prague. {6}  Ah, Mr. Expeditor! my chest was not
there.  After Saturday comes Sunday; but on Sunday the custom-house is
closed.  So here was a day lost, a day in which I might have gone to
Dresden, and even visited the opera.

On Monday morning I once more hastened to the office in anxious
expectation; the box was not yet there.  An array of loaded wagons had,
however, arrived, and in one of these it might be.  Ah, how I longed to
see my darling little box, in order that I might--_not_ press it to my
heart, but unpack it in presence of the excise officer!

I took merely a cursory glance at Prague, as I had thoroughly examined
every thing there some years before.  The beautiful "Graben" and
Horse-market once more excited my admiration.  It was with a peculiar
feeling that I trod the old bridge, from which St. John of Nepomuk was
cast into the Moldau for refusing to publish the confession of King
Wenceslaus' consort. {7}  On the opposite bank I mounted the Hradschin,
and paid a visit to the cathedral, in which a large sarcophagus,
surrounded and borne by angels, and surmounted by a canopy of crimson
damask, is dedicated to the memory of the saint.  The monument is of
silver, and the worth of the metal alone is estimated at 80,000 florins.
The church itself is not spacious, but is built in the noble Gothic
style; the lesser altars, however, with their innumerable gilded wooden
figures, look by contrast extremely puny.  In the chapel are many
sarcophagi, on which repose bishops and knights hewn in stone, but so
much damaged, that many are without hands and feet, while some lack
heads.  To the right, at the entrance of the church, is the celebrated
chapel of St. Wenceslaus, with its walls ornamented with frescoes, of
which the colours and designs are now almost obliterated.  It is further
enriched with costly stones.

Not far from the cathedral is situated the palace of Count Czernin, a
building particularly favoured with windows, of which it has one for
every day in the year.  I was there in an ordinary year, and saw 365; how
they manage in leap-year I do not know.  The view from the belvedere of
this palace well repays the observer.  It takes in the old and new town,
the noble river with its two bridges (the ancient venerable-looking stone
structure, and the graceful suspension-bridge, six hundred paces long),
and the hills round about, clothed with gardens, among which appear neat
country-houses.

The streets of the "Kleinseite" are not particularly attractive, being
mostly tortuous, steep, and narrow.  They contain, however, several
remarkable palaces, among which that of Wallenstein Duke of Friedland
stands pre-eminent. {8}

After visiting St. Nicholas' Church, remarkable for the height of its
spire and its beautifully arched cupola, I betook myself to Wimmer's
gardens, and thence to the "Bastei," a place of public resort with the
citizens of Prague.

I could now observe the devastation caused by the rising of the water
shortly before my arrival.  The Moldau had overstepped its banks in so
turbulent a manner, as to carry along with it several small houses, and
even a little village not far from Prague, besides damaging all the
dwellings upon its banks.  The water had indeed already fallen, but the
walls of the houses were soaked through and through; the doors had been
carried away, and from the broken windows no faces looked out upon the
passers-by.  The water had risen two feet more than in 1784, in which
year the Moldau had also attained an unusual height.

From the same tower of observation, I looked down upon the great open
space bought a few years ago, and intended to be occupied by the termini
of the Vienna and Dresden railroads.  Although several houses were only
just being pulled down, and the foundations of but few buildings were
laid, I was assured that within six months every thing would be
completed.

I have still to mention a circumstance which struck me during my morning
peregrinations, namely, the curious method in which milk, vegetables, and
other provisions are here brought to town.  I could have fancied myself
transported to Lapland or Greenland, on meeting every where carts to
which two, three, or four dogs were harnessed.  One pair of dogs will
drag three hundredweight on level ground; but when they encounter a hill,
the driver must lend a helping hand.  These dogs are, besides, careful
guardians; and I would not advise any one to approach a car of this kind,
as it stands before the inn-door, while the proprietor is quenching his
thirst within, on the money he has just earned.

At five o'clock on the morning of the 15th of April I left Prague, and
rode for fourteen miles in the mail-carriage, as far as Obristwy on the
Elbe, at which place I embarked for Dresden, on board the steamer
Bohemia, of fifty-horse power, a miserable old craft, apparently a
stranger to beauty and comfort from her youth up.  The price charged for
this short passage of eight or nine hours is enormously dear.  The
travellers will, however, soon have their revenge on the extortionate
proprietors; a railroad is constructing, by means of which this distance
will be traversed in a much shorter time, and at a great saving of
expense.

But at any rate the journey by water is the more agreeable; the way lies
through very picturesque scenery, and at length through "Saxon
Switzerland" itself.  The commencement of the journey is, however, far
from pleasing.  On the right are naked hills, and on the left large
plains, over which, last spring, the swollen stream rolled, partly
covering the trees and the roofs of the cottages.  Here I could for the
first time see the whole extent of the calamity.  Many houses had been
completely torn down, and the crops, and even the loose alluvial earth
swept away; as we glided by each dreary scene of devastation, another yet
more dismal would appear in its place.

This continued till we reached Melnick, where the trees become higher,
and groups of houses peer forth from among the innumerable vineyards.
Opposite this little town the Moldau falls into the Elbe.  On the left,
in the far distance, the traveller can descry St. George's Mount, from
which, as the story goes, Czech took possession of all Bohemia.

Below the little town of Raudnitz the hills gave place to mountains, and
as many enthusiasts can only find those regions romantic where the
mountains are crowned with half-ruined castles and strongholds, good old
Time has taken care to plant there two fine ruins, Hafenberg and Skalt,
for the delectation of such sentimental observers.

Near Leitmeritz, a small town with a handsome castle, and a church and
convent, the Eger flows into the Elbe, and a high-arched wooden bridge
connects the two banks.  Here our poor sailors had difficult work to
lower the mast and the funnel.

The rather pretty village of Gross-Czernoseck is remarkable for its
gigantic cellars, hewn out of the rock.  A post-carriage could easily
turn round in one of these.  The vats are of course proportioned to the
cellars, particularly the barrels called the "twelve apostles," each of
which holds between three and four thousand gallons.  It would be no more
than fair to stop here awhile, to give every hero of the bottle an
opportunity to enjoy a sight of these palace-cellars, and to offer a
libation to the twelve apostles; but the steamer passed on, and we were
obliged to make the most of the descriptions furnished by those who were
more at home in these parts, and had no doubt frequently emerged in an
inspired state from the depths of the cellars in question.

The view now becomes more and more charming: the mountains appear to draw
closer together, and shut in the bed of the stream; romantic groups of
rocks, with summits crowned by rains yet more romantic, tower between.
The ancient but well-preserved castle of Schreckenstein, built on a rock
rising boldly out of the Elbe, is particularly striking; the approaches
to it are by serpentine walks hewn out of the rock.

Near the small town of Aussig we find the most considerable coal-mines in
Bohemia.  In their neighbourhood is situated the little mountain estate
Paschkal, which produces a kind of wine said to resemble champagne.

The mountains now become higher and higher, but above them all towers the
gigantic Jungfernsprung (Maiden's Leap).  The beauty of this region is
only surpassed by the situation of the town and castle of Tetschen.  The
castle stands on a rock, between twenty and thirty feet high, which seems
to rise out of the Elbe; it is surrounded by hot-houses and charming
gardens, shelving downwards as far as the town, which lies in a blooming
valley, near a little harbour.  The valley itself, encompassed by a chain
of lofty mountains, seems quite shut out from the rest of the world.

The left bank of the river is here so crowded with masses and walls of
rock, that there is only room at intervals for an isolated farm or hut.
Suddenly the tops of masts appear between the high rocks, a phenomenon
which is soon explained; a large gap in one of the rocky walls forms a
beautiful basin.

And now we come to Schandau, a place consisting only of a few houses; it
is a frontier town of the Saxon dominions.  Custom-house officers, a race
of beings ever associated with frontier towns, here boarded our vessel,
and rummaged every thing.  My daguerreotype apparatus, which I had locked
up in a small box, was looked upon with an eye of suspicion; but upon my
assertion that it was exclusively intended for my own use, I and my
apparatus were graciously dismissed.

In our onward journey we frequently observed rocks of peculiar shapes,
which have appropriate names, such as the "Zirkelstein," "Lilienstein,"
&c.  The Konigstein is a collection of jagged masses of rock, on which is
built the fortress of the same name, used at present as a prison for
great criminals.  At the foot of the rocks lies the little town of
Konigstein.  Not far off, on the right bank, a huge rock, resting on
others, bears a striking resemblance to a human head.  The more distant
groups of rocks are called those of "Rathen," but are considered as
belonging to Saxon Switzerland.  The "Basteien" (Bastions) of this
Switzerland, close by which we now pass, are most wonderful
superpositions of lofty and fantastically shaped rocks.  Unfortunately,
the steamer whirled us so rapidly on our way, that whilst we contemplated
one bank, the beauteous scenes on the opposite side had already glided
from our view.  In much too short a time we had passed the town of Pirna,
situate at the commencement of this range of mountains.  The very ancient
gate of this town towers far above all the other buildings.

Lastly we see the great castle Sonnenstein, built on a rock, and now used
as an asylum for lunatics.

All the beautiful and picturesque portion of our passage is now past, and
the royal villa of Pillnitz, with its many Chinese gables, looks
insignificant enough, after the grand scenes of nature.  A chain of
hills, covered with the country-houses of citizens, adjoins it; and on
the right extends a large plain, at the far end of which we can dimly
descry the Saxon metropolis.  But what is that in the distance?  We have
hardly time to arrange our luggage, when the anchor is let go near the
fine old Dresden Bridge.

This bridge had not escaped unscathed by the furious river.  One of the
centre arches had given way, and the cross and watchbox which surmounted
it were precipitated into the flood.  At first, carriages still passed
over the bridge; it was not until some time afterwards that the full
extent of the damage was ascertained, and the passage of carriages over
the bridge discontinued for many months.

As I had seen the town of Dresden several years before, and the only
building new to me was the splendid theatre, I took advantage of the few
evening hours of my stay to visit this structure.

Standing in the midst of the beautiful Cathedral-square, its noble
rotunda-like form at once rivets the attention.  The inner theatre is
surrounded by a superb broad and lofty corridor, with fine bow-windows
and straight broad staircases, leading in different directions towards
the galleries.  The interior of the theatre is not so spacious as,
judging from the exterior, one would imagine it to be, but the
architecture and decorations are truly gorgeous and striking.  The boxes
are all open, being separated from each other merely by a low partition;
the walls and chairs are covered with heavy silken draperies, and the
seats of the third and fourth galleries with a mixture of silk and
cotton.  One single circumstance was disagreeable to me in an acoustic
point of view--I could hear the slightest whisper of the prompter as
distinctly as though some one had been behind me reading the play.  The
curtain had scarcely fallen before the whole house was empty, and yet
there was no crowding to get out.  This first drew my attention to the
numerous and excellently contrived doors.

                                                               April 16th.

The Dresden omnibuses may be cited as models of comfort; one is certain
of plenty of room, and there is no occasion to dread either the corpulent
persons or the furs and cloaks of fellow-passengers.  A bell-pull is
fixed in the interior of the carriage, so that each individual can give
the coachman a signal when he or she wishes to alight.  These omnibuses
call at the principal inns, and wait for a moment; but the traveller who
is not ready in advance is left behind.

At half-past five in the morning it called at our hotel.  I was ready and
waiting, and drove off comfortably to the railway.  The distance from
Dresden to Leipzig is reckoned at fifty-six miles, and the journey
occupied three hours.

The first fourteen miles are very agreeable; gardens, fields, and
meadows, pine-forests in the plain and on the hills, and between these,
villages, farms, country-houses, and solitary chapels, combine to form a
very pretty landscape.  But the scene soon changes, and the town of
Meissen (famous for its porcelain manufactory), on the right hand, seems
to shut out from our view all that is picturesque and beautiful.

From here to Leipzig we travel through a wearisome monotonous plain,
enlivened at long intervals by villages and scattered farms.  There is
nothing to see but a great tunnel, and the river Pleisse--the latter, or
rather the Elster, is rendered famous by the death of Prince Poniatowski.
{9}

The town of Leipzig, celebrated far and wide for its fairs, and more for
its immense publishing trade, presents an appearance of noise and bustle
proportionate to its commercial importance.  I found streets, squares,
and inns alike crowded. {10}

Perhaps there does not exist a town with its houses, and consequently its
streets, so disfigured with announcements, in all sizes and shapes,
covering its walls, and sometimes projecting several feet, as Leipzig.

Among the public buildings, those which pleased me most were the
Augusteum and the Burgerschule.  The Bucherhalle (book-hall) I should
suppose indebted for its celebrity rather to its literary contents than
to its architectural beauty or its exterior.  The hall itself is indeed
large, and occupies the whole length of the building, while the lower
story consists of several rooms.  The hall, the chambers, and the
exterior are all plain, and without particular decoration.  The Tuchhalle
(cloth-hall) is simply a large house, with spacious chambers, containing
supplies of cloth.  The Theatre stands on a very large square, and does
not present a very splendid appearance, whether viewed from within or
from without.  The plan of having stalls in front of the boxes in the
second and third galleries was a novelty to me.  The orchestra I could
only hear, but could not discover its whereabouts; most probably it was
posted behind the scenes.  On inquiry, I was told that this was only done
on extraordinary occasions, when the seats in the orchestra were
converted into stalls, as was the case on the night of my visit.  The
play given was "the original Tartuffe," a popular piece by Gutzkow.  It
was capitally performed.

In the Leipzig theatre I had a second opportunity of observing, that as
regards the love of eating our good Saxons are not a whit behind the
much-censured Viennese.  In the Dresden theatre I had admired a couple of
ladies who sat next me.  They came provided with a neat bag, containing a
very sufficient supply of confectionery, to which they perseveringly
applied themselves between the acts.  But at Leipzig I found a
delicate-looking mother and her son, a lad of fifteen or sixteen years,
regaling themselves with more solid provisions--white bread and small
sausages.  I could not believe my eyes, and had made up my mind that the
sausages were artificially formed out of some kind of confectionery--but
alas! my nose came forward but too soon, as a potent witness, to
corroborate what I was so unwilling to believe!

Neither did these two episodes take place in the loftiest regions of
Thalia's temple, but in the stalls of the second tier.

Beautiful alleys are planted round Leipzig.  I took a walk into the
Rosenthal (Valley of Roses), which also consists of splendid avenues and
lawns.  A pretty coffee-house, with a very handsome alcove, built in a
semicircular form, invites the weary traveller to rest and refreshment,
while a band of agreeable music diffuses mirth and good humour around.

The rest of the scenery around Leipzig presents the appearance of a vast
and monotonous plain.

                                                               April 17th.

I had intended to continue my journey to Hamburgh via Berlin, but the
weather was so cold and stormy, and the rain poured down so heavily, that
I preferred the shorter way, and proceeded by rail to Magdeburg.  Flying
through the dismal plain past Halle, Kothen, and other towns, of which I
could only discern groups of houses, we hurriedly recognised the Saale
and the Elbe; and towards 10 o'clock in the morning arrived at Magdeburg,
having travelled seventy miles in three hours and a quarter.

As the steamer for Hamburgh was not to start until 3 o'clock, I had ample
time to look at the town.

Magdeburg is a mixed pattern of houses of ancient, mediaeval, and modern
dates.  Particularly remarkable in this respect is the principal street,
the "Broadway," which runs through the whole of the town.  Here we can
see houses dating their origin from the most ancient times; houses that
have stood proof against sieges and sackings; houses of all colours and
forms; some sporting peaked gables, on which stone figures may still be
seen; others covered from roof to basement with arabesques; and in one
instance I could even detect the remains of frescoes.  In the very midst
of these relics of antiquity would appear a house built in the newest
style.  I do not remember ever having seen a street which produced so
remarkable an impression on me.  The finest building is unquestionably
the venerable cathedral.  In Italy I had already seen numbers of the most
beautiful churches; yet I remained standing in mute admiration before
this masterpiece of Gothic architecture.

The monument with the twelve Apostles in this church is a worthy memorial
of the celebrated sculptor Vischer.  In order to view it, it is necessary
to obtain the special permission of the commandant.

The cathedral square is large, symmetrical, and decorated with two alleys
of trees; it is also used as a drilling-ground for the soldiers' minor
manoeuvres.  I was particularly struck with the number of military men to
be seen here.  Go where I would, I was sure to meet soldiers and
officers, frequently in large companies; in time of war it could scarcely
have been worse.  This was an unmistakeable token that I was on Prussian
territory.

The open canals, which come from all the houses, and meander through the
streets, are a great disfigurement to the town.

Half-past three o'clock came only too quickly, and I betook myself on
board the steamer _Magdeburg_, of sixty-horse power, to proceed to
Hamburgh.  Of the passage itself I can say nothing, except that a journey
on a river through execrable scenery is one of the most miserable things
that can well be imagined.  When, in addition to this, the weather is
bad, the ship dirty, and one is obliged to pass a night on board, the
discomfort is increased.  It was my lot to endure all this: the weather
was bad, the ship was dirty, the distance more than 100 miles, so that we
had the pleasant prospect of a delightful night on board the ship.  There
were, moreover, so many passengers, that we were forced to sit crowded
together; so there we sat with exemplary patience, stared at each other,
and sighed bitterly.  Order was entirely out of the question; no one had
time to think of such a thing.  Smoking and card-playing were
perseveringly carried on all day and all night; it can easily be imagined
that things did not go so quietly as at an English whist-party.  The
incessant rain rendered it impossible to leave the cabin even for a short
time.  The only consolation I had was, that I made the acquaintance of
the amiable composer Lorzing, a circumstance which delighted me the more,
as I had always been an admirer of his beautiful original music.



CHAPTER II


Morning dawned at length, and in a short time afterwards we reached the
great commercial city, which, half destroyed by the dreadful
conflagration of 1842, had risen grander and more majestic from its
ashes. {11}  I took up my quarters with a cousin, who is married to the
Wurtemburg consul, the merchant Schmidt, in whose house I spent a most
agreeable and happy week.  My cousin-in-law was polite enough to escort
me every where himself, and to shew me the lions of Hamburgh.

First of all we visited the Exchange between the hours of one and two,
when it is at the fullest, and therefore best calculated to impress a
stranger with an idea of the extent and importance of the business
transacted there.  The building contains a hall of great size, with
arcades and galleries, besides many large rooms, which are partly used
for consultations, partly for the sale of refreshments.  The most
interesting thing of all is, however, to sit in the gallery, and looking
downwards, to observe the continually increasing crowd passing and
repassing each other in the immense hall and through the galleries and
chambers, and to listen to the hubbub and noise of the thousands of eager
voices talking at once.  At half-past one o'clock the hall is at its
fullest, and the noise becomes absolutely deafening; for now they are
marking up the rates of exchange, by which the merchants regulate their
monetary transactions.

Leaving the Exchange, we bent our steps towards the great harbour, and
entering a small boat, cruised in and about it in all directions.  I had
resolved to count only the three-masted ships; but soon gave it up, for
their number seemed overwhelming, even without reckoning the splendid
steamers, brigs, sloops, and craft.  In short, I could only gaze and
wonder, for at least 900 ships lay before me.

Let any one fancy an excursion amidst 900 ships, great and small, which
lined both shores of the Elbe in tiers of three deep or more; the passing
to and fro of countless boats busily employed in loading or unloading
these vessels; these things, together with the shouting and singing of
the sailors, the rattling of anchors which are being weighed, and the
rush and swell of passing steamers, combine to constitute a picture not
to be surpassed in any city except in that metropolis of the world,
London. {12}

The reason of this unusual activity in the harbour lay in the severity of
the past winter.  Such a winter had not been experienced for seventy
years: the Elbe and the Baltic lay for months in icy chains, and not a
ship could traverse the frozen river, not an anchor could be weighed or
lowered.  It was only a short time before my arrival that the passage had
once more become free.

In the neighbourhood of the harbour are situated the greater number of
the so-called "yards."  I had read concerning them that, viewed from the
exterior, they look like common houses; but that they constitute separate
communities, and contain alleys and streets, serving as the domicile of
innumerable families.  I visited several of these places, and can assure
the reader that I saw nothing extraordinary in them.  Houses with two
large wings, forming an alley of from eighty to a hundred paces in
length, are to be met with in every large town; and that a number of
families should inhabit such a house is not remarkable, considering that
they are all poor, and that each only possesses a single small apartment.

The favourite walk in the town is the "Jungfernstieg" (Maiden's Walk), a
broad alley, extending round a spacious and beautiful basin of the
Alster.  On one side are splendid hotels, with which Hamburgh is richly
provided; on the other, a number of private residences of equal
pretensions.  Other walks are, the "Wall," surrounding the town, and the
"Botanical Garden," which resembles a fine park.  The noblest building,
distinguished alike as regards luxury, skill, tastefulness of design, and
stability, is the Bazaar.  It is truly a gigantic undertaking, and the
more to be admired from the fact that it is not built upon shares, but at
the expense of a single individual, Herr Carl Sillem; the architect's
name is Overdick.  The building itself is constructed entirely of stone,
and the walls of the great room and of the hall are inlaid with marble.
A lofty cupola and an immense glazed dome cover both the great room and
the hall; the upper staircases are ornamented with beautiful statues.
When in the evening it is brilliantly lighted with gas, and further
ornamented by a tasteful display of the richest wares, the spectator can
almost fancy himself transported to a fairy palace.

Altogether the shops in Hamburgh are very luxurious.  The wares lie
displayed in the most tasteful manner behind huge windows of plate-glass,
which are often from five to six feet broad, and eight or ten feet high;
a single sheet frequently costs 600 florins.  This plate-glass luxury is
not confined to shops, but extends to windows generally, not only in
Hamburgh, but also in Altona, and is also seen in the handsomest
country-houses of the Hamburghers.  Many a pane costs eight or ten
florins; and the glass is insured in case of breakage, like houses in
case of fire.

This display of glass is equalled by the costliness of the furniture,
which is almost universally of mahogany; a wood which is here in such
common use, that in some of the most elegant houses the very
stair-banisters are constructed of it.  Even the pilots have often
mahogany furniture.

The handsomest and most frequented street is the "Neue Wall" (New Wall).
I was particularly struck with the number of shops and dwellings
underground, to which one descends by a flight of six or eight stairs; an
iron railing is generally placed before the entrance, to prevent the
passers-by from falling down.

A very practical institution is the great slaughterhouse, in which all
cattle are killed on certain days of the week.

Concerning the town of Altona, I have only to observe that it appeared to
me a continuation of Hamburgh; from which town, indeed, it is only
separated by a wooden door.  A very broad, handsome street, or, more
properly speaking, an elongated square, planted with a double row of
large trees, is the most remarkable thing about Altona, which belongs to
the Danish Government, and is considered, after Copenhagen, the most
important place in the kingdom.

It is a delicious ride to the village of Blankenese, distant nine miles
from Hamburgh; the road lies among beautiful country-houses and large
park-like gardens.  Blankenese itself consists of cottages, grouped in a
picturesque manner round the Sulberg, a hill from which the traveller
enjoys a very extended view over the great plain, in which it is the only
elevated point.  The course of the Elbe, as it winds at moderate speed
towards the sea, is here to be traced almost to its embouchure at
Cuxhaven.

The breadth of the Elbe at Blankenese exceeds two miles.

Another interesting excursion is to the "New Mills," a little village on
the Elbe, not more than half a mile from Altona, and inhabited only by
fishermen and pilots.  Whoever wishes to form an idea of Dutch prettiness
and cleanliness should come here.

The houses are mostly one story high, neatly and tastefully built; the
brightest of brass handles adorn the street-doors; the windows are kept
scrupulously clean, and furnished with white curtains.

In Saxony I had found many dwellings of the peasantry tidy and neat
enough, displaying at any rate more opulence than we are accustomed to
find with this class of people; but I had seen none to compete with this
pretty village.

Among the peasants' costumes, I only liked that worn by the women from
the "Vierlanden."  They wear short full skirts of black stuff, fine white
chemisettes with long sleeves, and coloured bodices, lightly fastened in
front with silk cords or silver buckles.  Their straw hats have a most
comical appearance; the brim of the hat is turned up in such a manner
that the crown appears to have completely sunk in.  Many pretty young
girls dressed in this manner come to Hamburgh to sell flowers, and take
up their position in front of the Exchange.

The 26th of April, the day appointed for my departure, arrived only too
speedily.  To part is the unavoidable fate of the traveller; but
sometimes we part gladly, sometimes with regret.  I need not write many
pages to describe my feelings at the parting in Hamburgh.  I was leaving
behind me my last relations, my last friends.  Now I was going into the
wide world, and among strangers.

At eight o'clock in the morning I left Altona, and proceeded by railway
to Kiel.

I noticed with pleasure that on this railway even the third-class
carriages were securely covered in, and furnished with glass windows.  In
fact, they only differed from those of the first and second class in
being painted a different colour, and having the seats uncushioned.

The whole distance of seventy miles was passed in three hours; a rapid
journey, but agreeable merely by its rapidity, for the whole
neighbourhood presents only widely-extended plains, turf-bogs and
moorlands, sandy places and heaths, interspersed with a little meadow or
arable land.  From the nature of the soil, the water in the ditches and
fields looked black as ink.

Near Binneburg we notice a few stunted plantations of trees.  From
Eisholm a branch-line leads to Gluckstadt, and another from Neumunster, a
large place with important cloth-factories, to Rendsburg.

From here there is nothing to be seen but a convent, in which many Dukes
of Holstein lie buried, and several unimportant lakes; for instance,
those of Bernsholm, Einfeld, and Schulhof.  The little river Eider would
have passed unnoticed by me, had not some of my fellow-passengers made a
great feature of it.  In the finest countries I have found the natives
far less enthusiastic about what was really grand and beautiful, than
they were here in praise of what was neither the one nor the other.  My
neighbour, a very agreeable lady, was untiring in laudation of her
beautiful native land.  In her eyes the crippled wood was a splendid
park, the waste moorland an inexhaustible field for contemplation, and
every trifle a matter of real importance.  In my heart I wished her joy
of her fervid imagination; but unfortunately my colder nature would not
catch the infection.

Towards Kiel the plain becomes a region of low hills.  Kiel itself is
prettily situated on the Baltic, which, viewed from thence, has the
appearance of a lake of middling size.  The harbour is said to be good;
but there were not many ships there. {13}  Among these was the steamer
destined to carry me to Copenhagen.  Little did I anticipate the good
reason I should have to remember this vessel.

Thanks to the affectionate forethought of my cousin Schmidt, I found one
of his relations, Herr Brauer, waiting for me at the railway.  I was
immediately introduced to his family, and passed the few hours of my stay
very agreeably in their company.

Evening approached, and with it the hour of embarkation.  My kind friends
the Brauers accompanied me to the steamer, and I took a grateful leave of
them.

I soon discovered the steamer _Christian VIII._, of 180-horse power, to
be a vessel dirtier and more uncomfortable than any with which I had
become acquainted in my maritime excursions.  Scrubbing and sweeping
seemed things unknown here.  The approach to the cabin was by a flight of
stairs so steep, that great care was requisite to avoid descending in an
expeditious but disagreeable manner, by a fall from top to bottom.  In
the fore-cabin there was no attempt at separate quarters for ladies and
gentlemen.  In short, the arrangements seemed all to have been made with
a view of impressing the ship vividly on the recollection of every
traveller.

At nine o'clock we left Kiel.  The day and the twilight are here already
longer than in the lands lying to the south and the west.  There was
light enough to enable me to see, looming out of the surrounding
darkness, the fortress "Friedrichsort," which we passed at about ten
o'clock.

                                                               April 27th.

To-day I still rose with the sun; but that will soon be a difficult
matter to accomplish; for in the north the goddess of light makes amends
in spring and summer for her shortcomings during the winter.  I went on
deck, and looked on the broad expanse of ocean.  No land was to be seen;
but soon a coast appeared, then disappeared, and then a new and more
distant one rose out of the sea.  Towards noon we reached the island of
Moen, which lies about forty {14} miles distant from Copenhagen.  It
forms a beautiful group of rocks, rising boldly from the sea.  They are
white as chalk, and have a smooth and shining appearance.  The highest of
these walls of rock towers 400 feet above the level of the surrounding
ocean.  Soon we saw the coast of Sweden, then the island of Malmo; and at
last Copenhagen itself, where we landed at four o'clock in the afternoon.
The distance from Kiel to Copenhagen is 136 sea-miles.

I remained seven days at Copenhagen, and should have had ample time to
see every thing, had the weather been more favourable.  But it blew and
rained so violently, that I was obliged to give up all thoughts of
visiting the surrounding parks, and was fain to content myself with
seeing a few of the nearest walks, which I accomplished with some
difficulty.

The first street in Copenhagen which I traversed on coming from the
harbour generally produces a great impression.  It is called the "Broad
Street," and leads from the harbour through the greater part of the town.
In addition to its breadth it is very long and regular, and the splendid
palaces and houses on either side give it a remarkably grand appearance.

It is a peculiar sight, when, in the midst of this fine quarter, we come
suddenly upon a ruin, a giant building resting on huge pillars, but half
completed, and partly covered with moss and lichens.  It was intended for
a splendid church, and is built entirely of marble; but the soft ground
would not bear the immense weight.  The half-finished building began to
sink, and the completion of the undertaking became for ever impossible.

Many other streets rival the "Broad Street" in size and magnificence.
Foremost among them comes the Amalienstrasse.  The most bustling, but by
far not the finest, are the Oster and Gotherstrasse.  To walk in these is
at first quite a difficult undertaking for a stranger.  On one side of
the pavement, which is raised about a foot above the carriage-way, he
comes continually in contact with stairs, leading sometimes to warehouses
above, at others to subterranean warehouses below the level of the
street.  The approaches to the latter are not guarded by railings as in
Hamburgh.  The other side of the pavement is bounded by a little
unostentatious rivulet, called by unpoetical people "canal," into which
tributaries equally sweet pour from all the neighbouring houses.  It is
therefore necessary to take great care, lest you should fall into the
traitorous depths on the one side, or stumble over the projecting steps
on the other.  The pavement itself is covered with a row of stone slabs,
a foot and a half wide, on which one walks comfortably enough.  But then
every body contends for the possession of these, to avoid the uneven and
pointed stones at the side.  This, added to the dreadful crowding,
renders the street one which would scarcely be chosen for a walk, the
less so as the shops do not contain any thing handsome, the houses are
neither palace-like nor even tastefully built, and the street itself is
neither of the broadest nor of the cleanest.

The squares are all large and regularly built.  The finest is the
Kongensnytorf (King's New Market).  Some fine mansions, the chief
guard-house, the theatre, the chief coffee-houses and inns, the academy
of the fine arts, and the building belonging to the botanical garden, the
two last commonly known by the name of "Charlottenburg," are among the
ornaments of this magnificent square, in the midst of which stands a
beautiful monument, representing Christian V. on horseback, and
surrounded by several figures.

Smaller, but more beautiful in its perfect symmetry, is the
"Amalienplatz," containing four royal palaces, built exactly alike, and
intersected by four broad streets in the form of a cross.  This square
also is decorated by a monument standing in the midst, and representing
Frederick V.  In another fine square, the "Nytorf" (New Market), there is
a fountain.  Its little statue sends forth very meagre jets of water, and
the fountain is merely noticeable as being the only one I could find at
Copenhagen.

The traveller can hardly fail of being surprised by the number and
magnificence of the palaces, at sight of which he could fancy himself in
the metropolis of one of the largest kingdoms.  The "Christianensburg" is
truly imperial; it was completely destroyed by fire in the year 1794, but
has since been rebuilt with increased splendour.  The chapel of this
palace is very remarkable.  The interior has the appearance rather of a
concert-room than of a building devoted to purposes of worship.
Tastefully decorated boxes, among which we notice that of the king,
together with galleries, occupy the upper part of the chapel; the lower
is filled with benches covered with red velvet and silk.  The pulpit and
altar are so entirely without decoration, that, on first entering, they
wholly escape notice.

In the "Christianensburg" is also the "Northern Museum," peculiarly rich
in specimens of the ornaments, weapons, musical instruments, and other
mementoes of northern nations.

The Winter Riding-school, in which concerts are frequently given, is
large and symmetrical.  I admired the stalls, and yet more the grey
horses which occupied them--descendants of the pure Arabian and wild
Norwegian breeds--creatures with long manes and tails of fine silky hair.
Every one who sees these horses, whether he be a connoisseur or one of
the uninitiated, must admire them.

Adjoining the "Christianensburg" is Thorwaldsen's Museum, a square
building with fine saloons, lighted from above.  When I saw it, it was
not completed; the walls were being painted in fresco by some of the
first native artists.  The sculptured treasures were there, but
unfortunately yet unpacked.

In the midst of the courtyard Thorwaldsen's mausoleum is being erected.
There his ashes will rest, with his exquisitely finished lion as a
gravestone above them. {15}

The largest among the churches is the "Woman's Church."  The building has
no architectural beauty; the pillars, galleries, and cupola are all of
wood, covered with a mixture of sand and plaster.  But whatever may be
wanting in outward splendour is compensated by its contents, for this
church contains the masterpieces of Thorwaldsen.  At the high altar
stands his glorious figure of our Saviour, in the niches of the wall his
colossal twelve apostles.

In the contemplation of these works we forget the plainness of the
building which contains them.  May the fates be prosperous, and no
conflagration reach this church, built as it is half of wood!

The Catholic Church is small, but tasteful beyond expression.  The late
emperor of Austria presented to it a good full-toned organ, and two
oil-paintings, one by Kuppelweiser, the other by a pupil of this master.

In the "Museum of Arts" I was most interested in the ancient chair, used
in days of yore by Tycho de Brahe. {16}

The Exchange is a curious ancient building.  It is very long and narrow,
and surmounted by nine peaks, from the centre of which protrudes a
remarkable pointed tower, formed of four crocodiles' tails intertwined.

The hall itself is small, low, and dark; it contains a full-length
portrait in oil of Tycho de Brahe.  Nearly all the upper part of the
building is converted into a kind of bazaar, and the lower portion
contains a number of small and dingy booths.

Several canals, having an outlet into the sea, give a peculiar charm to
the town.  They are, in fact, so many markets; for the craft lying in
them are laden with provisions of all kinds, which are here offered for
sale.

The Sailors' Town, adjoining Copenhagen, and situated near the harbour,
is singularly neat and pretty.  It consists of three long, broad,
straight streets, built of houses looking so exactly alike, that on a
foggy night an accurate knowledge of the locality is requisite to know
one from the other.  It looks as though, on each side of the way, there
were only one long house of a single floor, with a building one story
high in the middle.  In the latter dwell the commandant and overseers.

The lighting of the streets is managed in Copenhagen in the same way as
in our smaller German towns.  When "moonlight" is announced in the
calendar, not a lamp is lighted.  If the lady moon chooses to hide behind
dark clouds, that is her fault.  It would be insolent to attempt to
supply the place of her radiance with miserable lamps--a wise
arrangement! (?)

Of the near walks, the garden of the "Rosenburg," within the town,
pleased me much; as did also the "Long Line," an alley of beautiful trees
extending parallel with the sea, and in which one can either walk or
ride.  A coffee-house, in front of which there is music in fine weather,
attracts many of the loungers.  The most beautiful place of all is the
"Kastell," above the "Long Line," from whence one can enjoy a beautiful
view.  The town lies displayed below in all its magnificence: the
harbour, with its many ships; the sparkling blue Sound, which spreads its
broad expanse between the coasts of Denmark and Sweden, and washes many a
beautiful group of islands belonging to one or the other of these
countries.  The background of the picture alone is uninteresting, as
there is no chain of mountains to form a horizon, and the eye wanders
over the boundless flats of Denmark.

Among the vessels lying at anchor in the harbour I saw but few
three-masters, and still fewer steamers.  The ships of the fleet
presented a curious appearance; at the first view they look like great
houses with flag-staves, for every ship is provided with a roof, out of
which the masts rise into the air; they are besides very high out of the
water, so that all the port-holes and the windows of the cabins appear in
two or three stories, one above the other.

A somewhat more distant excursion, which can be very conveniently made in
a capital omnibus, takes you to the royal chateau "Friedrichsberg," lying
before the water-gate, two miles distant from the town.  Splendid avenues
lead to this place, where are to be found all the delights that can
combine to draw a citizen into the country.  There are a tivoli, a
railway, cabinets, and booths with wax-figures, and countless other
sights, besides coffee-houses, beer-rooms, and music.  The gardens are
planted at the sides with a number of small arbours, each containing a
table and chairs, and all open in front, so as to shew at one view all
the visitors of these pretty natural huts.  On Sundays, when the gardens
are crowded, this is a very animated sight.

On the way to this "Prater" of Copenhagen, we pass many handsome villas,
each standing in a fine garden.

                [Picture: Copenhagen: From Frederiesbourg]

The royal palace is situated on the summit of a hill, at the end of the
avenue, and is surrounded by a beautiful park; it commands a view of a
great portion of the town, with the surrounding country and the sea;
still I far prefer the prospect from the "Kastell."  The Park contains a
considerable island, which, during some part of the year, stands in the
midst of an extensive lake.  This island is appropriated to the Court,
but the rest of the park is open to the public.

Immediately outside the water-gate stands an obelisk, remarkable neither
for its beauty nor for the skill displayed in its erection, for it
consists of various stones, and is not high, but interesting from the
circumstance to which it owes its origin.  It was erected by his grateful
subjects in memory of the late king Christian VII., to commemorate the
abolition of feudal service.  Surely no feeling person can contemplate
without joyful emotion a monument like this.

I have here given a faithful account of what I saw during my short stay
at Copenhagen.  It only remains for me to describe a few peculiar customs
of the people, and so I will begin as it were at the end, with the burial
of the dead.  In Denmark, as in fact in the whole of Scandinavia, not
excepting Iceland, it is customary not to bury the dead until eight or
ten days have elapsed.  In winter-time this is not of so much
consequence, but in summer it is far from healthy for those under the
same roof with the corpse.  I was present at Copenhagen at the funeral of
Dr. Brandis, physician to the king.  Two of the king's carriages and a
number of private equipages attended.  Nearly all these were empty, and
the servants walked beside them.  Among the mourners I did not notice a
single woman; I supposed that this was only the case at the funerals of
gentlemen, but on inquiry I found that the same rule is observed at the
burial of women.  This consideration for the weaker sex is carried so
far, that on the day of the funeral no woman may be seen in the house of
mourning.  The mourners assemble in the house of the deceased, and
partake of cold refreshments.  At the conclusion of the ceremony they are
again regaled.  What particularly pleased me in Copenhagen was, that I
never on any occasion saw beggars, or even such miserably clad people as
are found only too frequently in our great cities.  Here there are no
doubt poor people, as there are such every where else in the world, but
one does not see them beg.  I cannot help mentioning an arrangement which
certainly deserves to be universally carried out;--I mean, the setting
apart of many large houses, partly belonging to the royal family, partly
to rich private people or to companies, for the reception of poor people,
who are here lodged at a much cheaper rate than is possible in ordinary
dwellings.

The costumes of the peasants did not particularly please me.  The women
wear dresses of green or black woollen stuff, reaching to the ankle, and
trimmed at the skirt with broad coloured woollen borders.  The seams of
the spenser, and the arm-holes, are also trimmed with smaller coloured
borders.  On their heads they wear a handkerchief, and over this a kind
of shade, like a bonnet.  On Sundays I saw many of them in small, pretty
caps, worked with silk, with a border of lace of more than a hand's
breadth, plaited very stiffly; at the back they have large bows of fine
riband, the ends of which reach half down to their feet.  I found nothing
very remarkable in the dress of the peasants.  As far as strength and
beauty were concerned, I thought these peasants were neither more nor
less gifted than those of Austria.  As regards the beauty of the fair
sex, I should certainly give the preference to the Austrians.  Fair hair
and blue eyes predominate.

I saw but few soldiers; their uniforms, particularly those worn by the
king's life-guards, are very handsome.

I especially noticed the drummers; they were all little lads of ten or
twelve years old.  One could almost have exclaimed, "Drum, whither art
thou carrying that boy?"  To march, and to join in fatiguing manoeuvres,
carrying such a drum, and beating it bravely at the same time, is rather
cruel work for such young lads.  Many a ruined constitution may be
ascribed to this custom.

During my stay in Copenhagen I spent many very delightful hours with
Professor Mariboe and his amiable family, and with the kind clergyman of
the embassy, Herr Zimmermann.  They received me with true politeness and
hospitality, and drew me into their circle, where I soon felt myself
quite at ease.  I shall never forget their friendship, and shall make use
of every opportunity to shew them my appreciation of it.  Herr Edouard
Gottschalk and Herr Knudson have also my best thanks.  I applied to the
first of these gentlemen to procure me a passage to Iceland, and he was
kind enough to use his interest with Herr Knudson on my behalf.

Herr Knudson is one of the first general dealers in Copenhagen, and
carries on a larger and more extended commerce with Iceland than any
other house trading thither.  He is already beginning to retire, as the
continual journeys are becoming irksome to him; but he still owns a
number of great and small vessels, which are partly employed in the
fisheries, and partly in bringing all kinds of articles of consumption
and luxury to the different harbours of Iceland.

He himself goes in one of his ships every year, and stays a few months in
Iceland to settle his affairs there.  On the recommendation of Herr
Gottschalk, Herr Knudson was kind enough to give me a passage in the ship
in which he made the journey himself; a favour which I knew how to value.
It is certainly no small kindness to take a lady passenger on such a
journey.  Herr Knudson knew neither my fortitude nor my perseverance; he
did not know whether I should be able to endure the hardships of a
journey to the north, whether I would bear sea-sickness philosophically,
or even if I had courage enough, in case of storms or bad weather, to
abstain from annoying the captain by my fears or complaints at a time
when he would only have too much to harass him.  The kind man allowed no
such considerations to influence him.  He believed me when I promised to
behave courageously come what might, and took me with him.  Indeed his
kindness went so far that it is to him I owe every comfort I enjoyed in
Iceland, and every assistance in furthering the attainment of my
journey's object.  I could certainly not have commenced a voyage under
better auspices.

All ships visiting Iceland leave Copenhagen at the end of April, or at
the latest in the middle of May.  After this time only one ship is
despatched, to carry the mails of the Danish government.  This vessel
leaves Copenhagen in October, remains in Iceland during the winter
months, and returns in March.  The gain or loss of this expedition is
distributed in shares among the merchants of Copenhagen.

Besides this, a French frigate comes to Iceland every spring, and cruises
among the different harbours until the middle of August.  She
superintends the fishing vessels, which, attracted by the large profits
of the fisheries, visit these seas in great numbers during the summer.
{17}

Opportunities of returning from Iceland occur during the summer until the
end of September, by means of the merchant-ships, which carry freights
from the island to Denmark, England, and Spain.

At length, on Sunday the 4th of May, a favourable wind sprung up.  Herr
Knudson sent me word to be ready to embark at noon on board the fine brig
_John_.

I immediately proceeded on board.  The anchor was weighed, and the sails,
unfolding themselves like giant wings, wafted us gently out of the
harbour of Copenhagen.  No parting from children, relations, or
old-cherished friends embittered this hour.  With a glad heart I bade
adieu to the city, in the joyful hope soon to see the fulfilment of my
long-expected journey.

The bright sky smiled above us, and a most favourable wind filled our
sails.  I sat on deck and revelled in the contemplation of scenes so new
to me.  Behind us lay spread the majestic town; before us the Sound, an
immense natural basin, which I could almost compare to a great Swiss
lake; on the right and left were the coasts of Sweden and Denmark, which
here approach each other so closely that they seem to oppose a barrier to
the further progress of the adventurous voyager.

Soon we passed the little Swedish town of Carlscrona, and the desolate
island Hveen, on which Tycho de Brahe passed the greater portion of his
life, occupied with stellar observations and calculations.  Now came a
somewhat dangerous part, and one which called into action all the careful
seamanship of the captain to bring us safely through the confined sea and
the strong current,--the entrance of the Sound into the Cattegat.

The two coasts here approach to within a mile of each other.  On the
Swedish side lies the pretty little town of Helsingborg, on the Danish
side that of Helsingor, and at the extremity of a projecting neck of land
the fortress Kronburg, which demands a toll of every passing ship, and
shews a large row of threatening cannon in case of non-compliance.  Our
toll had already been paid before leaving Copenhagen; we had been
accurately signalled, and sailed fearlessly by. {18}

The entrance once passed, we entered the Cattegat, which already looked
more like the great ocean: the coasts retired on each side, and most of
the shifts and barques, which till now had hovered around us on all
sides, bade us "farewell."  Some bent their course towards the east,
others towards the west; and we alone, on the broad desert ocean, set
sail for the icy north.  Twilight did not set in until 9 o'clock at
night; and on the coasts the flaming beacons flashed up, to warn the
benighted mariner of the proximity of dangerous rocks.

I now offered up my thanksgiving to Heaven for the protection hitherto
vouchsafed me, with a humble prayer for its continuance.  Then I
descended to the cabin, where I found a convenient bunk (a kind of crib
fixed to the side of the ship); I laid myself down, and was soon in a
deep and refreshing sleep.

I awoke full of health and spirits, which, however, I enjoyed but for a
short time.  During the night we had left behind us the "Cattegat" and
the "Skagerrack," and were driving through the stormy German Ocean.  A
high wind, which increased almost to a gale, tumbled our poor ship about
in such a manner, that none but a good dancer could hope to maintain an
upright position.  I had unfortunately been from my youth no votary of
Terpsichore, and what was I to do?  The naiads of this stormy region
seized me, and bandied me to and fro, until they threw me into the arms
of what was, according to my experience, if not exactly after Schiller's
interpretation, "the horrible of horrors,"--sea-sickness.  At first I
took little heed of this, thinking that sea-sickness would soon be
overcome by a traveller like myself, who should be inured to every thing.
But in vain did I bear up; I became worse and worse, till I was at length
obliged to remain in my berth with but one consoling thought, namely,
that we were to-day on the open sea, where there was nothing worthy of
notice.  But the following day the Norwegian coast was in sight, and at
all hazards I must see it; so I crawled on deck more dead than alive,
looked at a row of mountains of moderate elevation, their tops at this
early season still sparkling with their snowy covering, and then hurried
back, benumbed by the piercing icy wind, to my good warm feather-bed.
Those who have never experienced it can have no conception of the biting,
penetrating coldness of a gale of wind in the northern seas.  The sun
shone high in the heavens; the thermometer (I always calculate according
to Reaumur) stood 3 degrees above zero; I was dressed much more warmly
than I should have thought necessary when, in my fatherland, the
thermometer was 8 or 10 degrees _below_ zero, and yet I felt chilled to
the heart, and could have fancied that I had no clothes on at all.

On the fourth night we sailed safely past the Shetland Islands; and on
the evening of the fifth day we passed so near the majestic rocky group
of the Feroe Islands, that we were at one time apprehensive of being cast
upon the rocks by the unceasing gale. {19}

Already on the seventh day we descried the coast of Iceland.  Our passage
had been unprecedentedly quick; the sailors declared that a favourable
gale was to be preferred even to steam, and that on our present voyage we
should certainly have left every steamer in our wake.  But I, wretched
being that I was, would gladly have dispensed with the services both of
gale and steam for the sake of a few hours' rest.  My illness increased
so much, that on the seventh day I thought I must succumb.  My limbs were
bathed in a cold perspiration; I was as weak as an infant, and my mouth
felt parched and dry.  I saw that I must now either make a great effort
or give up entirely; so I roused myself, and with the assistance of the
cabin-boy gained a seat, and promised to take any and every remedy which
should be recommended.  They gave me hot-water gruel with wine and sugar;
but it was not enough to be obliged to force this down, I was further
compelled to swallow small pieces of raw bacon highly peppered, and even
a mouthful of rum.  I need not say what strong determination was required
to make me submit to such a regimen.  I had, however, but one choice,
either to conquer my repugnance or give myself up a victim to
sea-sickness; so with all patience and resignation I received the
proffered gifts, and found, after a trial of many hours, that I could
manage to retain a small dose.  This physicking was continued for two
long, long days, and then I began slowly to recover.

I have here circumstantially described both my illness and its cure,
because so many people are unfortunately victims to the complaint, and
when under its influence cannot summon resolution to take sustenance.  I
should advise all my friends not to hold out so long as I did, but to
take food at once, and continue to do so until the system will receive
it.

As I was now convalescent, I tried to recruit my wearied mind by a
diligent study of the mode of life and customs of the mariners of the
northern seas.

Our ship's company consisted of Herr Knudson, Herr Bruge (a merchant whom
we were to land at the Westmann Islands), the captain, the mate, and six
or seven sailors.  Our mode of life in the cabin was as follows: in the
morning, at seven o'clock, we took coffee, but whence this coffee came,
heaven knows!  I drank it for eleven days, and could never discover any
thing which might serve as a clue in my attempt to discover the country
of its growth.  At ten o'clock we had a meal consisting of bread and
butter and cheese, with cold beef or pork, all excellent dishes for those
in health; the second course of this morning meal was "tea-water."  In
Scandinavia, by the way, they never say, "I drink _tea_," the word
"water" is always added: "I drink _tea-water_."  Our "tea-water" was, if
possible, worse than its predecessor, the incomparable coffee.  Thus I
was beaten at all points; the eatables were too strong for me, the
drinkables too--too--I can find no appropriate epithet--probably too
artificial.  I consoled myself with the prospect of dinner; but, alas,
too soon this sweet vision faded into thin air!  On the sixth day I made
my first appearance at the covered table, and could not help at once
remarking the cloth which had been spread over it.  At the commencement
of our journey it might perhaps have been white; now it was most
certainly no longer of that snowy hue.  The continual pitching and
rolling of the ship had caused each dish to set its peculiar stamp upon
the cloth.  A sort of wooden network was now laid upon it, in the
interstices of which the plates and glasses were set, and thus secured
from falling.  But before placing it on the table, our worthy cabin-boy
took each plate and glass separately, and polished it on a towel which
hung near, and in colour certainly rather resembling the dingy floor of
the cabin than the bight-hued rainbow.  This could still have been
endured, but the article in question really did duty _as a towel_ in the
morning, before extending its salutary influence over plates and glasses
for the remainder of the day.

On making discoveries such as these, I would merely turn away my eyes,
and try to think that perhaps _my glass_ and _my plate_ would be more
delicately manipulated, or probably escape altogether; and then I would
turn my whole attention to the expected dishes.

First came soup; but instead of gravy-soup, it was water-soup, with rice
and dried plums.  This, when mingled with red wine and sugar, formed a
most exquisite dish for Danish appetites, but it certainly did not suit
mine.  The second and concluding course consisted of a large piece of
beef, with which I had no fault to find, except that it was too heavy for
one in my weak state of health.  At supper we had the same dishes as at
dinner, and each meal was followed by "tea-water."  At first I could not
fancy this bill of fare at all; but within a few days after my
convalesence, I had accustomed myself to it, and could bear the sea-diet
very well. {20}

As the rich owner of the vessel was on board, there was no lack of the
best wines, and few evenings passed on which a bowl of punch was not
emptied.  There was, however, a reason found why every bottle of wine or
bowl of punch should be drunk: for instance, at our embarkation, to drink
the health of the friends we were leaving, and to hope for a quick and
prosperous voyage; then, when the wind was favourable, its health was
drunk, with the request that it would remain so; when it was contrary,
with the request that it would change; when we saw land, we saluted it
with a glass of wine, or perhaps with several, but I was too ill to
count; when we lost sight of it, we drank a farewell glass to its health:
so that every day brought with it three or four distinct and separate
occasions for drinking wine. {21}

The sailors drank tea-water without sugar every morning and evening, with
the addition of a glass of brandy; for dinner they had pease, beans,
barley, or potatoes, with salted cod, bacon, "or junk;" good sea-biscuit
they could get whenever they chose.

The diet is not the worst part of these poor people's hardships.  Their
life may be called a continual fight against the elements; for it is
precisely during the most dreadful storms, with rain and piercing cold,
that they have to be continually upon deck.  I could not sufficiently
admire the coolness, or rather the cheerfulness and alacrity with which
they fulfilled their onerous duties.  And what reward have they?  Scanty
pay, for food the diet I have just described, and for their
sleeping-place the smallest and most inconvenient part of the ship, a
dark place frequently infested with vermin, and smelling offensively from
being likewise used as a receptacle for oil-colours, varnish, tar,
salt-fish, &c. &c.

To be cheerful in the midst of all this requires a very quiet and
contented mind.  That the Danish sailors are contented, I had many
opportunities of observing during the voyage of which I am speaking, and
on several other occasions.

But after all this long description, it is high time that I should return
to the journey itself.

The favourable gale which had thus wafted us to the coast of Iceland
within seven days, now unfortunately changed its direction, and drove us
back.  We drifted about in the storm-tost ocean, and many a Spanish wave
{22} broke completely over our ship.  Twice we attempted to approach the
Westmann Islands {23} (a group belonging to Iceland) to watch an
opportunity of casting anchor, and setting ashore our fellow-traveller
Herr Bruge; but it was in vain, we were driven back each time.  At
length, at the close of the eleventh day, we reached Havenfiord, a very
good harbour, distant nine miles from Reikjavik, the capital of Iceland.

In spite of the very inopportune change in the direction of the wind, we
had had an unprecedentedly quick passage.  The distance from Copenhagen
to Iceland, in a straight line, is reckoned at 1200 geographical miles;
for a sailing vessel, which must tack now and then, and must go as much
with the wind as possible, 1500 to 1600 miles.  Had the strong wind,
which was at first so favourable, instead of changing on the seventh day,
held on for thirty or forty hours longer, we should have landed in
Iceland on the eighth or ninth day--even the steamer could not have
accomplished the passage so quickly.

The shores of Iceland appeared to me quite different from what I had
supposed them to be from the descriptions I had read.  I had fancied them
naked, without tree or shrub, dreary and desert; but now I saw green
hills, shrubs, and even what appeared to be groups of stunted trees.  As
we came nearer, however, I was enabled to distinguish objects more
clearly, and the green hills became human dwellings with small doors and
windows, while the supposed groups of trees proved in reality to be heaps
of lava, some ten or twelve feet high, thickly covered with moss and
grass.  Every thing was new and striking to me; I waited in great
impatience till we could land.

At length the anchor descended; but it was not till next morning that the
hour of disembarkation and deliverance came.

But one more night, and then, every difficulty overcome, I should tread
the shores of Iceland, the longed-for, and bask as it were in the wonders
of this island, so poor in the creations of art, so rich in the phenomena
of Nature.

                                * * * * *

Before I land in Iceland, I must trouble the reader with a few
preliminary observations regarding this island.  They are drawn from
Mackenzie's _Description of Iceland_, a book the sterling value of which
is appreciated every where. {24}

The discovery of Iceland, about the year of our Lord 860, is attributed
to the spirit of enterprise of some Swedish and Norwegian pirates, who
were drifted thither on a voyage to the Feroe Isles.  It was not till the
year 874 that the island was peopled by a number of voluntary emigrants,
who, feeling unhappy under the dominion of Harold Harfraga (fine hair),
arrived at the island under the direction of Ingold. {25}  As the
newcomers are said to have found no traces of dwellings, they are
presumed to be the first who took possession of the island.

At this time Iceland was still so completely covered with underwood, that
at some points it was necessary to cut a passage.  Bringing with them
their language, religion, customs, and historical monuments, the
Norwegians introduced a kind of feudal system, which, about the year 928,
gave place to a somewhat aristocratic government, retaining, however, the
name of a republic.  The island was divided into four provinces, over
each of which was placed an hereditary governor or judge.

The General Assembly of Iceland (called Allthing) was held annually on
the shores of the Lake Thingvalla.  The people possessed an excellent
code of laws, in which provision had been made for every case which could
occur.

This state of things lasted for more than 300 years, a period which may
be called the golden age of Iceland.  Education, literature, and even
refined poetry flourished among the inhabitants, who took part in
commerce and in the sea-voyages which the Norwegians undertook for
purposes of discovery.

The "Sagas," or histories of this country, contain many tales of personal
bravery.  Its bards and historians visited other climes, became the
favourites of monarchs, and returned to their island covered with honour
and loaded with presents.  The _Edda_, by Samund, is one of the most
valued poems of the ancient days of Iceland.  The second portion of the
_Edda_, called _Skalda_, dates from a later period, and is ascribed by
many to the celebrated Snorri Sturluson.  Isleif, first Bishop of
Skalholt, was the earliest Icelandic historian; after him came the noted
Snorri Sturluson, born in 1178, who became the richest and mightiest man
in Iceland.

Snorri Sturluson was frequently followed to the General Assembly of
Iceland by a splendid retinue of 800 armed men.  He was a great historian
and poet, and possessed an accurate knowledge of the Greek and Latin
tongues, besides being a powerful orator.  He was also the author of the
_Heims-kringla_.

The first school was founded at Skalholt, about the middle of the
eleventh century, under Isleif, first Bishop of Iceland; four other
schools and several convents soon followed.  Poetry and music seem to
have formed a staple branch of education.

The climate of Iceland appears to have been less inclement than is now
the case; corn is said to have grown, and trees and shrubs were larger
and thicker than we find them at present.  The population of Iceland was
also much more numerous than it is now, although there were neither towns
nor villages.  The people lived scattered throughout the island; and the
General Assembly was held at Thingvalla, in the open air.

Fishing constituted the chief employment of the Icelanders.  Their
clothing was woven from the wool of their sheep.  Commerce with
neighbouring countries opened to them another field of occupation.

The doctrines of Christianity were first introduced into Iceland, in the
year 981, by Friederich, a Saxon bishop.  Many churches were built, and
tithes established for the maintenance of the clergy.  Isleif, first
Bishop of Skalholt, was ordained in the year 1057.  After the
introduction of Christianity, all the Icelanders enjoyed an
unostentatious but undisturbed practice of their religion.

Greenland and the most northern part of America are said to have been
discovered by Icelanders.

In the middle of the thirteenth century Iceland came into the power of
the Norwegian kings.  In the year 1380 Norway was united to the crown of
Denmark; and Iceland incorporated, without resistance, in the Danish
monarchy.  Since the cession of the island to Norway, and then to
Denmark, peace and security took the place of the internal commotions
with which, before this time, Iceland had been frequently disturbed; but
this state of quiet brought forth indolence and apathy.  The voyages of
discovery were interfered with by the new government, and the commerce
gradually passed into the hands of other nations.  The climate appears
also to have changed; and the lessened industry and want of perseverance
in the inhabitants have brought agriculture completely into decline.

In the year 1402 the plague broke out upon the island, and carried off
two-thirds of the population.

The first printing-press was established at Hoolum, about the year 1530,
under the superintendence of the Bishop, John Areson.

The reformation in the Icelandic Church was not brought about without
disturbance.  It was legally established in the year 1551.

During the fifteenth century the Icelanders suffered more from the
piratical incursions of foreigners.  As late as the year 1616 the French
and English nations took part in these enormities.  The most melancholy
occurrence of this kind took place in 1627, in which year a great number
of Algerine pirates made a descent upon the Icelandic coast, murdered
about fifty of the inhabitants, and carried off nearly 400 others into
captivity. {26}

The eighteenth century commenced with a dreadful mortality from the
smallpox; of which disease more than 16,000 of the inhabitants died.  In
1757 a famine swept away about 10,000 souls.

The year 1783 was distinguished by most dreadful volcanic outbreaks in
the interior of the island.  Tremendous streams of lava carried all
before them; great rivers were checked in their course, and formed lakes.
For more than a year a thick cloud of smoke and volcanic ashes covered
the whole of Iceland, and nearly darkened the sunlight.  Horned cattle,
sheep, and horses were destroyed; famine came, with its accompanying
illnesses; and once more appeared the malignant small-pox.  In a few
years more than 11,000 persons had died; more than one-fourth of the
whole present population of the island.

Iceland lies in the Atlantic ocean; its greatest breadth is 240
geographical miles, and its extreme length from north to south 140 miles.
The number of inhabitants is estimated at 48,000, and the superficial
extent of the island at 29,800 square miles.



CHAPTER III


On the morning of the 16th of May I landed in the harbour of Havenfiord,
and for the first time trod the shores of Iceland.  Although I was quite
bewildered by sea-sickness, and still more by the continual rocking of
the ship, so that every object round me seemed to dance, and I could
scarcely make a firm step, still I could not rest in the house of Herr
Knudson, which he had obligingly placed at my disposal.  I must go out at
once, to see and investigate every thing.  I found that Havenfiord
consisted merely of three wooden houses, a few magazines built of the
same material, and some peasants' cottages.

The wooden houses are inhabited by merchants or by their factors, and
consist only of a ground-floor, with a front of four or six windows.  Two
or three steps lead up to the entrance, which is in the centre of the
building, and opens upon a hall from which doors lead into the rooms to
the right and left.  At the back of the house is situated the kitchen,
which opens into several back rooms and into the yard.  A house of this
description consists only of five or six rooms on the ground-floor and a
few small attic bedrooms.

The internal arrangements are quite European.  The furniture--which is
often of mahogany,--the mirrors, the cast-iron stoves, every thing, in
short, come from Copenhagen.  Beautiful carpets lie spread before the
sofas; neat curtains shade the windows; English prints ornament the
whitewashed walls; porcelain, plate, cut-glass, &c., are displayed on
chests and on tables; and flower-pots with roses, mignonnette, and pinks
spread a delicious fragrance around.  I even found a grand pianoforte
here.  If any person could suddenly, and without having made the journey,
be transported into one of these houses, he would certainly fancy himself
in some continental town, rather than in the distant and barren island of
Iceland.  And as in Havenfiord, so I found the houses of the more opulent
classes in Reikjavik, and in all the places I visited.

From these handsome houses I betook myself to the cottages of the
peasants, which have a more indigenous, Icelandic appearance.  Small and
low, built of lava, with the interstices filled with earth, and the whole
covered with large pieces of turf, they would present rather the
appearance of natural mounds of earth than of human dwellings, were it
not that the projecting wooden chimneys, the low-browed entrances, and
the almost imperceptible windows, cause the spectator to conclude that
they are inhabited.  A dark narrow passage, about four feet high, leads
on one side into the common room, and on the other to a few compartments,
some of which are used as storehouses for provisions, and the rest as
winter stables for the cows and sheep.  At the end of this passage, which
is purposely built so low, as an additional defence against the cold, the
fireplace is generally situated.  The rooms of the poorer class have
neither wooden walls nor floors, and are just large enough to admit of
the inhabitants sleeping, and perhaps turning round in them.  The whole
interior accommodation is comprised in bedsteads with very little
covering, a small table, and a few drawers.  Beds and chests of drawers
answer the purpose of benches and chairs.  Above the beds are fixed rods,
from which depend clothes, shoes, stockings, &c.  A small board, on which
are arranged a few books, is generally to be observed.  Stoves are
considered unnecessary; for as the space is very confined, and the house
densely populated, the atmosphere is naturally warm.

Rods are also placed round the fireplace, and on these the wet clothes
and fishes are hung up in company to dry.  The smoke completely fills the
room, and slowly finds its way through a few breathing-holes into the
open air.

Fire-wood there is none throughout the whole island.  The rich
inhabitants have it brought from Norway or Denmark; the poor burn turf,
to which they frequently add bones and other offal of fish, which
naturally engender a most disagreeable smoke.

On entering one of these cottages, the visitor is at a loss to determine
which of the two is the more obnoxious--the suffocating smoke in the
passage or the poisoned air of the dwelling-room, rendered almost
insufferable by the crowding together of so many persons.  I could almost
venture to assert, that the dreadful eruption called Lepra, which is
universal throughout Iceland, owes its existence rather to the total want
of cleanliness than to the climate of the country or to the food.

Throughout my subsequent journeys into the interior, I found the cottages
of the peasants every where alike squalid and filthy.  Of course I speak
of the majority, and not of the exceptions; for here I found a few rich
peasants, whose dwellings looked cleaner and more habitable, in
proportion to the superior wealth or sense of decency of the owners.  My
idea is, that the traveller's estimate of a country should be formed
according to the habits and customs of the generality of its inhabitants,
and not according to the doings of a few individuals, as is often the
case.  Alas, how seldom did I meet with these creditable exceptions!

The neighbourhood of Havenfiord is formed by a most beautiful and
picturesque field of lava, at first rising in hills, then sinking into
hollows, and at length terminating in a great plain which extends to the
base of the neighbouring mountains.  Masses of the most varied forms,
often black and naked, rise to the height of ten or fifteen feet, forming
walls, ruined pillars, small grottoes, and hollow spaces.  Over these
latter large slabs often extend, and form bridges.  Every thing around
consists of suddenly cooled heaped-up masses of lava, in some instances
covered to their summits with grass and moss; this circumstance gives
them, as already stated, the appearance of groups of stunted trees.
Horses, sheep, and cows were clambering about, diligently seeking out
every green place.  I also clambered about diligently; I could not tire
of gazing and wondering at this terribly beautiful picture of
destruction.

After a few hours I had so completely forgotten the hardships of my
passage, and felt myself so much strengthened, that I began my journey to
Reikjavik at five o'clock on the evening of the same day.  Herr Knudson
seemed much concerned for me; he warned me that the roads were bad, and
particularly emphasised the dangerous abysses I should be compelled to
pass.  I comforted him with the assurance that I was a good horsewoman,
and could hardly have to encounter worse roads than those with which I
had had the honour to become acquainted in Syria.  I therefore took leave
of the kind gentleman, who intended to stay a week or ten days in
Havenfiord, and mounting a small horse, set out in company of a female
guide.

In my guide I made the acquaintance of a remarkable antiquity of Iceland,
who is well worthy that I should devote a few words to her description.
She is above seventy years of age, but looks scarcely fifty; her head is
surrounded by tresses of rich fair hair.  She is dressed like a man;
undertakes, in the capacity of messenger, the longest and most fatiguing
journeys; rows a boat as skilfully as the most practised fisherman; and
fulfils all her missions quicker and more exactly than a man, for she
does not keep up so good an understanding with the brandy-bottle.  She
marched on so sturdily before me, that I was obliged to incite my little
horse to greater speed with my riding-whip.

At first the road lay between masses of lava, where it certainly was not
easy to ride; then over flats and small acclivities, from whence we could
descry the immense plain in which are situated Havenfiord, Bassastadt,
Reikjavik, and other places.  Bassastadt, a town built on a promontory
jutting out into the sea, contains one of the principal schools, a church
built of masonry, and a few cottages.  The town of Reikjavik cannot be
seen, as it is hidden behind a hill.  The other places consist chiefly of
a few cottages, and only meet the eye of the traveller when he approaches
them nearly.  Several chains of mountains, towering one above the other,
and sundry "Jokuls," or glaciers, which lay still sparkling in their
wintry garb, surround this interminable plain, which is only open at one
end, towards the sea.  Some of the plains and hills shone with tender
green, and I fancied I beheld beautiful meadows.  On a nearer inspection,
however, they proved to be swampy places, and hundreds upon hundreds of
little acclivities, sometimes resembling mole-hills, at others small
graves, and covered with grass and moss.

I could see over an area of at least thirty or forty miles, and yet could
not descry a tree or a shrub, a bit of meadow-land or a friendly village.
Every thing seemed dead.  A few cottages lay scattered here and there; at
long intervals a bird would hover in the air, and still more seldom I
heard the kindly greeting of a passing inhabitant.  Heaps of lava,
swamps, and turf-bogs surrounded me on all sides; in all the vast expanse
not a spot was to be seen through which a plough could be driven.

After riding more than four miles, I reached a hill, from which I could
see Reikjavik, the chief harbour, and, in fact, the only town on the
island.  But I was deceived in my expectations; the place before me was a
mere village.

The distance from Havenfiord to Reikjavik is scarcely nine miles; but as
I was unwilling to tire my good old guide, I took three hours to
accomplish it.  The road was, generally speaking, very good, excepting in
some places, where it lay over heaps of lava.  Of the much-dreaded dizzy
abysses I saw nothing; the startling term must have been used to
designate some unimportant declivities, along the brow of which I rode,
in sight of the sea; or perhaps the "abysses" were on the lava-fields,
where I sometimes noticed small chasms of fifteen or sixteen feet in
depth at the most.

Shortly after eight o'clock in the evening I was fortunate enough to
reach Reikjavik safe and well.  Through the kind forethought of Herr
Knudson, a neat little room had been prepared for me in one of his houses
occupied by the family of the worthy baker Bernhoft, and truly I could
not have been better received any where.

During my protracted stay the whole family of the Bernhofts shewed me
more kindness and cordiality than it has been my lot frequently to find.
Many an hour has Herr Bernhoft sacrificed to me, in order to accompany me
in my little excursions.  He assisted me most diligently in my search for
flowers, insects, and shells, and was much rejoiced when he could find me
a new specimen.  His kind wife and dear children rivalled him in
willingness to oblige.  I can only say, may Heaven requite them a
thousand-fold for their kindness and friendship!

I had even an opportunity of hearing my native language spoken by Herr
Bernhoft, who was a Holsteiner by birth, and had not quite forgotten our
dear German tongue, though he had lived for many years partly in Denmark,
partly in Iceland.

So behold me now in the only town in Iceland, {27} the seat of the
so-called cultivated classes, whose customs and mode of life I will now
lay before my honoured readers.

Nothing was more disagreeable to me than a certain air of dignity assumed
by the ladies here; an air which, except when it is natural, or has
become so from long habit, is apt to degenerate into stiffness and
incivility.  On meeting an acquaintance, the ladies of Reikjavik would
bend their heads with so stately and yet so careless an air as we should
scarcely assume towards the humblest stranger.  At the conclusion of a
visit, the lady of the house only accompanies the guest as far as the
chamber-door.  If the husband be present, this civility is carried a
little further; but when this does not happen to be the case, a stranger
who does not know exactly through which door he can make his exit, may
chance to feel not a little embarrassed.  Excepting in the house of the
"Stiftsamtmann" (the principal official on the island), one does not find
a footman who can shew the way.  In Hamburgh I had already noticed the
beginnings of this dignified coldness; it increased as I journeyed
further north, and at length reached its climax in Iceland.

Good letters of recommendation often fail to render the northern grandees
polite towards strangers.  As an instance of this fact, I relate the
following trait:

Among other kind letters of recommendation, I had received one addressed
to Herr von H---, the "Stiftsamtmann" of Iceland.  On my arrival at
Copenhagen, I heard that Herr von H--- happened to be there.  I therefore
betook myself to his residence, and was shewn into a room where I found
two young ladies and three children.  I delivered my letter, and remained
quietly standing for some time.  Finding at length that no one invited me
to be seated, I sat down unasked on the nearest chair, never supposing
for an instant that the lady of the house could be present, and neglect
the commonest forms of politeness which should be observed towards every
stranger.  After I had waited for some time, Herr von H--- graciously
made his appearance, and expressed his regret that he should have very
little time to spare for me, as he intended setting sail for Iceland with
his family in a short time, and in the interim had a number of weighty
affairs to settle at Copenhagen; in conclusion, he gave me the friendly
advice to abandon my intention of visiting Iceland, as the fatigues of
travelling in that country were very great; finding, however, that I
persevered in my intention, he promised, in case I set sail for Reikjavik
earlier than himself, to give me a letter of recommendation.  All this
was concluded in great haste, and we stood during the interview.  I took
my leave, and at first determined not to call again for the letter.  On
reflection, however, I changed my mind, ascribed my unfriendly reception
to important and perhaps disagreeable business, and called again two days
afterwards.  Then the letter was handed to me by a servant; the high
people, whom I could hear conversing in the adjoining apartment, probably
considered it too much trouble to deliver it to me personally.

On paying my respects to this amiable family in Reikjavik, I was not a
little surprised to recognise in Frau von H--- one of those ladies who in
Copenhagen had not had the civility to ask me to be seated.  Five or six
days afterwards, Herr von H--- returned my call, and invited me to an
excursion to Vatne.  I accepted the invitation with much pleasure, and
mentally asked pardon of him for having formed too hasty an opinion.
Frau von H---, however, did not find her way to me until the fourth week
of my stay in Reikjavik; she did not even invite me to visit her again,
so of course I did not go, and our acquaintance terminated there.  As in
duty bound, the remaining dignitaries of this little town took their tone
from their chief.  My visits were unreturned, and I received no
invitations, though I heard much during my stay of parties of pleasure,
dinners, and evening parties.  Had I not fortunately been able to employ
myself, I should have been very badly off.  Not one of the ladies had
kindness and delicacy enough to consider that I was alone here, and that
the society of educated people might be necessary for my comfort.  I was
less annoyed at the want of politeness in the gentlemen; for I am no
longer young, and that accounts for every thing.  When the women were
wanting in kindliness, I had no right to expect consideration from the
gentlemen.

I tried to discover the reason of this treatment, and soon found that it
lay in a national characteristic of these people--their selfishness.

It appears I had scarcely arrived at Reikjavik before diligent inquiries
were set on foot as to whether I was _rich_, and should see much company
at my house, and, in fact, whether much could be got out of me.

To be well received here it is necessary either to be rich, or else to
travel as a naturalist.  Persons of the latter class are generally sent
by the European courts to investigate the remarkable productions of the
country.  They make large collections of minerals, birds, &c.; they bring
with them numerous presents, sometimes of considerable value, which they
distribute among the dignitaries; they are, moreover, the projectors of
many an entertainment, and even of many a little ball, &c.; they buy up
every thing they can procure for their cabinets, and they always travel
in company; they have much baggage with them, and consequently require
many horses, which cannot be hired in Iceland, but must be bought.  On
such occasions every one here is a dealer: offers of horses and cabinets
pour in on all sides.

The most welcome arrival of all is that of the French frigate, which
visits Iceland every year; for sometimes there are _dejeuners a la
fourchette_ on board, sometimes little evening parties and balls.  There
is at least something to be got besides the rich presents; the
"Stiftsamtmann" even receives 600 florins per annum from the French
government to defray the expense of a few return balls which he gives to
the naval officers.

With me this was not the case: I gave no parties--I brought no
presents--they had nothing to expect from me; and therefore they left me
to myself. {28}

For this reason I affirm that he only can judge of the character of a
people who comes among them without claim to their attention, and from
whom they have nothing to expect.  To such a person only do they appear
in their true colours, because they do not find it worth while to
dissemble and wear a mask in his presence.  In these cases the traveller
is certainly apt to make painful discoveries; but when, on the other
hand, he meets with good people, he may be certain of their sincerity;
and so I must beg my honoured readers to bear with me, when I mention the
names of all those who heartily welcomed the undistinguished foreigner;
it is the only way in which I can express my gratitude towards them.

As I said before, I had intercourse with very few people, so that ample
time remained for solitary walks, during which I minutely noticed every
thing around me.

The little town of Reikjavik consists of a single broad street, with
houses and cottages scattered around.  The number of inhabitants does not
amount to 500.

The houses of the wealthier inhabitants are of wood-work, and contain
merely a ground-floor, with the exception of a single building of one
story, to which the high school, now held at Bassastadt, will be
transferred next year.  The house of the "Stiftsamtmann" is built of
stone.  It was originally intended for a prison; but as criminals are
rarely to be met with in Iceland, the building was many years ago
transformed into the residence of the royal officer.  A second stone
building, discernible from Reikjavik, is situated at Langarnes, half a
mile from the town.  It lies near the sea, in the midst of meadows, and
is the residence of the bishop.

The church is capable of holding only at the most from 100 to 150
persons; it is built of stone, with a wooden roof.  In the chambers of
this roof the library, consisting of several thousand volumes, is
deposited.  The church contains a treasure which many a larger and
costlier edifice might envy,--a baptismal font by Thorwaldsen, whose
parents were of Icelandic extraction.  The great sculptor himself was
born in Denmark, and probably wished, by this present, to do honour to
the birth-place of his ancestors.

To some of the houses in Reikjavik pieces of garden are attached.  These
gardens are small plots of ground where, with great trouble and expense,
salad, spinach, parsley, potatoes, and a few varieties of edible roots,
are cultivated.  The beds are separated from each other by strips of turf
a foot broad, seldom boasting even a few field-flowers.

The inhabitants of Iceland are generally of middle stature, and strongly
built, with light hair, frequently inclining to red, and blue eyes.  The
men are for the most part ugly; the women are better favoured, and among
the girls I noticed some very sweet faces.  To attain the age of seventy
or eighty years is here considered an extraordinary circumstance. {29}
The peasants have many children, and yet few; many are born, but few
survive the first year.  The mothers do not nurse them, and rear them on
very bad food.  Those who get over the first year look healthy enough;
but they have strangely red cheeks, almost as though they had an
eruption.  Whether this appearance is to be ascribed to the sharp air, to
which the delicate skin is not yet accustomed, or to the food, I know
not.

In some places on the coast, when the violent storms prevent the poor
fishermen for whole weeks from launching their boats, they live almost
entirely on dried fishes' heads. {30}  The fishes themselves have been
salted down and sold, partly to pay the fishermen's taxes, and partly to
liquidate debts for the necessaries of the past season, among which
brandy and snuff unfortunately play far too prominent a part.

Another reason why the population does not increase is to be found in the
numerous catastrophes attending the fisheries during the stormy season of
the year.  The fishermen leave the shore with songs and mirth, for a
bright sky and a calm sea promise them good fortune.  But, alas, tempests
and snow-storms too often overtake the unfortunate boatmen!  The sea is
lashed into foam, and mighty waves overwhelm boats and fishermen
together, and they perish inevitably.  It is seldom that the father of a
family embarks in the same boat with his sons.  They divide themselves
among different parties, in order that, if one boat founder, the whole
family may not be destroyed.

I found the cottages of the peasants at Reikjavik smaller, and in every
respect worse provided, than those at Havenfiord.  This seems, however,
to be entirely owing to the indolence of the peasants themselves; for
stones are to be had in abundance, and every man is his own builder.  The
cows and sheep live through the winter in a wretched den, built either in
the cottage itself or in its immediate neighbourhood.  The horses pass
the whole year under the canopy of heaven, and must find their own
provender.  Occasionally only the peasant will shovel away the snow from
a little spot, to assist the poor animals in searching for the grass or
moss concealed beneath.  It is then left to the horses to finish clearing
away the snow with their feet.  It may easily be imagined that this mode
of treatment tends to render them very hardy; but the wonder is, how the
poor creatures manage to exist through the winter on such spare diet, and
to be strong and fit for work late in the spring and in summer.  These
horses are so entirely unused to being fed with oats, that they will
refuse them when offered; they are not even fond of hay.

As I arrived in Iceland during the early spring, I had an opportunity of
seeing the horses and sheep in their winter garments.  The horses seemed
to be covered, not with hair, but with a thick woolly coat; their manes
and tails are very long, and of surprising thickness.  At the end of May
or the beginning of June the tail and mane are docked and thinned, their
woolly coat falls of itself, and they then look smooth enough.  The sheep
have also a very thick coat during the winter.  It is not the custom to
shear them, but at the beginning of June the wool is picked off piece by
piece with the hand.  A sheep treated in this way sometimes presents a
very comical appearance, being perfectly naked on one side, while on the
other it is still covered with wool.

The horses and cows are considerably smaller than those of our country.
No one need journey so far north, however, to see stunted cattle.
Already, in Galicia, the cows and horses of the peasants are not a whit
larger or stronger than those in Iceland.  The Icelandic cows are further
remarkable only for their peculiarly small horns; the sheep are also
smaller than ours.

Every peasant keeps horses.  The mode of feeding them is, as already
shewn, very simple; the distances are long, the roads bad, and large
rivers, moorlands, and swamps must frequently be passed; so every one
rides, both men, women, and children.  The use of carriages is as totally
unknown throughout the island as in Syria.

The immediate vicinity of Reikjavik is pretty enough.  Some of the
townspeople go to much trouble and expense in sometimes collecting and
sometimes breaking the stones around their dwellings.  With the little
ground thus obtained they mix turf, ashes, and manure, until at length a
soil is formed on which something will grow.  But this is such a gigantic
undertaking, that the little culture bestowed on the spots wholly
neglected by nature cannot be wondered at.  Herr Bernhoft shewed me a
small meadow which he had leased for thirty years, at an annual rent of
thirty kreutzers.  In order, however, to transform the land he bought
into a meadow, which yields winter fodder for only one cow, it was
necessary to expend more than 150 florins, besides much personal labour
and pains.  The rate of wages for peasants is very high when compared
with the limited wants of these people: they receive thirty or forty
kreutzers per diem, and during the hay-harvest as much as a florin.

For a long distance round the town the ground consists of stones, turf,
and swamps.  The latter are mostly covered with hundreds upon hundreds of
great and small mounds of firm ground.  By jumping from one of these
mounds to the next, the entire swamp may be crossed, not only without
danger, but dry-footed.

In spite of all this, one of these swamps put me in a position of much
difficulty and embarrassment during one of my solitary excursions.  I was
sauntering quietly along, when suddenly a little butterfly fluttered past
me.  It was the first I had seen in this country, and my eagerness to
catch it was proportionately great.  I hastened after it; thought neither
of swamp nor of danger, and in the heat of the chase did not observe that
the mounds became every moment fewer and farther between.  Soon I found
myself in the middle of the swamp, and could neither advance nor retreat.
Not a human being could I descry; the very animals were far from me; and
this circumstance confirmed me as to the dangerous nature of the ground.
Nothing remained for me but to fix my eyes upon one point of the
landscape, and to step out boldly towards it.  I was often obliged to
hazard two or three steps into the swamp itself, in order to gain the
next acclivity, upon which I would then stand triumphantly, to determine
my farther progress.  So long as I could distinguish traces of horses'
hoofs, I had no fear; but even these soon disappeared, and I stood there
alone in the morass.  I could not remain for ever on my tower of
observation, and had no resource but to take to the swamp once more.  I
must confess that I experienced a very uncomfortable feeling of
apprehension when my foot sank suddenly into the soft mud; but when I
found that it did not rise higher than the ankles, my courage returned; I
stepped out boldly, and was fortunate enough to escape with the fright
and a thorough wetting.

The most arduous posts in the country are those of the medical men and
clergymen.  Their sphere of action is very enlarged, particularly that of
the medical man, whose practice sometimes extends over a distance of
eighty to a hundred miles.  When we add to this the severity of the
winter, which lasts for seven or eight months, it seems marvellous that
any one can be found to fill such a situation.

In winter the peasants often come with shovels, pickaxes, and horses to
fetch the doctor.  They then go before him, and hastily repair the worst
part of the road; while the doctor rides sometimes on one horse,
sometimes on another, that they may not sink under the fatigue.  And thus
the procession travels for many, many miles, through night and fog,
through storm and snow, for on the doctor's promptitude life and death
often hang.  When he then returns, quite benumbed, and half dead with
cold, to the bosom of his family, in the expectation of rest and
refreshment, and to rejoice with his friends over the dangers and
hardships he has escaped, the poor doctor is frequently compelled to set
off at once on a new and important journey, before he has even had time
to greet the dear ones at home.

Sometimes he is sent for by sea, where the danger is still greater on the
storm-tost element.

Though the salary of the medical men is not at all proportionate to the
hardships they are called upon to undergo, it is still far better than
that of the priests.

The smallest livings bring in six to eight florins annually, the richest
200 florins.  Besides this, the government supplies for each priest a
house, often not much better than a peasant's cottage, a few meadows, and
some cattle.  The peasants are also required to give certain small
contributions in the way of hay, wool, fish, &c.  The greater number of
priests are so poor, that they and their families dress exactly like the
peasants, from whom they can scarcely be distinguished.  The clergyman's
wife looks after the cattle, and milks cows and ewes like a maid-servant;
while her husband proceeds to the meadow, and mows the grass with the
labourer.  The intercourse of the pastor is wholly confined to the
society of peasants; and this constitutes the chief element of that
"patriarchal life" which so many travellers describe as charming.  I
should like to know which of them would wish to lead such a life!

The poor priest has, besides, frequently to officiate in two, three, or
even four districts, distant from four to twelve miles from his
residence.  Every Sunday he must do duty at one or other of these
districts, taking them in turn, so that divine service is only performed
at each place once in every three or four weeks.  The journeys of the
priest, however, are not considered quite so necessary as those of the
doctor; for if the weather is very bad on Sundays, particularly during
the winter, he can omit visiting the most distant places.  This is done
the more readily, as but few of the peasants would be at church; all who
lived at a distance remaining at home.

The Sysselmann (an officer similar to that of the sheriff of a county) is
the best off.  He has a good salary with little to do, and in some places
enjoys in addition the "strand-right," which is at times no
inconsiderable privilege, from the quantity of drift timber washed ashore
from the American continent.

Fishing and the chase are open to all, with the exception of the
salmon-fisheries in the rivers; these are farmed by the government.
Eider-ducks may not be shot, under penalty of a fine.  There is no
military service, for throughout the whole island no soldiers are
required.  Even Reikjavik itself boasts only two police-officers.

Commerce is also free; but the islanders possess so little commercial
spirit, that even if they had the necessary capital, they would never
embark in speculation.

The whole commerce of Iceland thus lies in the hands of Danish merchants,
who send their ships to the island every year, and have established
factories in the different ports where the retail trade is carried on.

These ships bring every thing to Iceland, corn, wood, wines, manufactured
goods, and colonial produce, &c.  The imports are free, for it would not
pay the government to establish offices, and give servants salaries to
collect duties upon the small amount of produce required for the island.
Wine, and in fact all colonial produce, are therefore much cheaper than
in other countries.

The exports consist of fish, particularly salted cod, fish-roe, tallow,
train-oil, eider-down, and feathers of other birds, almost equal to
eider-down in softness, sheep's wool, and pickled or salted lamb.  With
the exception of the articles just enumerated, the Icelanders possess
nothing; thirteen years ago, when Herr Knudson established a bakehouse,
{31} he was compelled to bring from Copenhagen, not only the builder, but
even the materials for building, stones, lime, &c.; for although the
island abounds with masses of stone, there are none which can be used for
building an oven, or which can be burnt into lime: every thing is of
lava.

Two or three cottages situated near each other are here dignified by the
name of a "place."  These places, as well as the separate cottages, are
mostly built on little acclivities, surrounded by meadows.  The meadows
are often fenced in with walls of stone or earth, two or three feet in
height, to prevent the cows, sheep, and horses from trespassing upon them
to graze.  The grass of these meadows is made into hay, and laid up as a
winter provision for the cows.

I did not hear many complaints of the severity of the cold in winter; the
temperature seldom sinks to twenty degrees below zero; the sea is
sometimes frozen, but only a few feet from the shore.  The snowstorms and
tempests, however, are often so violent, that it is almost impossible to
leave the house.  Daylight lasts only for five or six hours, and to
supply its place the poor Icelanders have only the northern light, which
is said to illumine the long nights with a brilliancy truly marvellous.

The summer I passed in Iceland was one of the finest the inhabitants had
known for years.  During the month of June the thermometer often rose at
noon to twenty degrees.  The inhabitants found this heat so
insupportable, that they complained of being unable to work or to go on
messages during the day-time.  On such warm days they would only begin
their hay-making in the evening, and continued their work half the night.

The changes in the weather are very remarkable.  Twenty degrees of heat
on one day would be followed by rain on the next, with a temperature of
only five degrees; and on the 5th of June, at eight o'clock in the
morning, the thermometer stood at one degree below zero.  It is also
curious that thunderstorms happen in Iceland in winter, and are said
never to occur during the summer.

From the 16th or 18th of June to the end of the month there is no night.
The sun appears only to retire for a short time behind a mountain, and
forms sunset and morning-dawn at the same time.  As on one side the last
beam fades away, the orb of day re-appears at the opposite one with
redoubled splendour.

During my stay in Iceland, from the 15th of May to the 29th of July, I
never retired to rest before eleven o'clock at night, and never required
a candle.  In May, and also in the latter portion of the month of July,
there was twilight for an hour or two, but it never became quite dark.
Even during the last days of my stay, I could read until half-past ten
o'clock.  At first it appeared strange to me to go to bed in broad
daylight; but I soon accustomed myself to it, and when eleven o'clock
came, no sunlight was powerful enough to cheat me of my sleep.  I found
much pleasure in walking at night, at past ten o'clock, not in the pale
moonshine, but in the broad blaze of the sun.

It was a much more difficult task to accustom myself to the diet.  The
baker's wife was fully competent to superintend the cooking according to
the Danish and Icelandic schools of the art; but unfortunately these
modes of cookery differ widely from ours.  One thing only was good, the
morning cup of coffee with cream, with which the most accomplished
gourmand could have found no fault: since my departure from Iceland I
have not found such coffee.  I could have wished for some of my dear
Viennese friends to breakfast with me.  The cream was so thick, that I at
first thought my hostess had misunderstood me, and brought me curds.  The
butter made from the milk of Icelandic cows and ewes did not look very
inviting, and was as white as lard, but the taste was good.  The
Icelanders, however, find the taste not sufficiently "piquant," and
generally qualify it with train-oil.  Altogether, train-oil plays a very
prominent part in the Icelandic kitchen; the peasant considers it a most
delicious article, and thinks nothing of devouring a quantity of it
without bread, or indeed any thing else. {32}

I did not at all relish the diet at dinner; this meal consisted of two
dishes, namely, boiled fish, with vinegar and melted butter instead of
oil, and boiled potatoes.  Unfortunately I am no admirer of fish, and now
this was my daily food.  Ah, how I longed for beef-soup, a piece of meat,
and vegetables, in vain!  As long as I remained in Iceland, I was
compelled quite to give up my German system of diet.

After a time I got on well enough with the boiled fish and potatoes, but
I could not manage the delicacies of the island.  Worthy Madame Bernhoft,
it was so kindly meant on her part; and it was surely not her fault that
the system of cookery in Iceland is different from ours; but I could not
bring myself to like the Icelandic delicacies.  They were of different
kinds, consisting sometimes of fishes, hard-boiled eggs, and potatoes
chopped up together, covered with a thick brown sauce, and seasoned with
pepper, sugar, and vinegar; at others, of potatoes baked in butter and
sugar.  Another delicacy was cabbage chopped very small, rendered very
thin by the addition of water, and sweetened with sugar; the accompanying
dish was a piece of cured lamb, which had a very unpleasant "pickled"
flavour.

On Sundays we sometimes had "Prothe Grutze," properly a Scandinavian
dish, composed of fine sago boiled to a jelly, with currant-juice or red
wine, and eaten with cream or sugar.  Tapfen, a kind of soft cheese, is
also sometimes eaten with cream and sugar.

In the months of June and July the diet improved materially.  We could
often procure splendid salmon, sometimes roast lamb, and now and then
birds, among which latter dainties the snipes were particularly good.  In
the evening came butter, cheese, cold fish, smoked lamb, and eggs of
eider-ducks, which are coarser than hen's eggs.  In time I became so
accustomed to this kind of food, that I no longer missed either soup or
beef, and felt uncommonly well.

My drink was always clear fresh water; the gentlemen began their dinner
with a small glass of brandy, and during the meal all drank beer of Herr
Bernhoft's own brewing, which was very good.  On Sundays, a bottle of
port or Bordeaux sometimes made its appearance at our table; and as we
fared at Herr Bernhoft's, so it was the custom in the houses of all the
merchants and officials.

At Reikjavik I had an opportunity of witnessing a great religious
ceremony.  Three candidates of theology were raised to the ministerial
office.  Though the whole community here is Lutheran, the ceremonies
differ in many respects from those of the continent of Europe, and I will
therefore give a short sketch of what I saw.  The solemnity began at
noon, and lasted till four o'clock.  I noticed at once that all the
people covered their faces for a moment on entering the church, the men
with their hats, and the women with their handkerchiefs.  Most of the
congregation sat with their faces turned towards the altar; but this rule
had its exceptions.  The vestments of the priests were the same as those
worn by our clergymen, and the commencement of the service also closely
resembled the ritual of our own Church; but soon this resemblance ceased.
The bishop stepped up to the altar with the candidates, and performed
certain ceremonies; then one would mount the pulpit and read part of a
sermon, or sing a psalm, while the other clergymen sat round on chairs,
and appeared to listen; then a second and a third ascended the pulpit,
and afterwards another sermon was preached from the altar, and another
psalm sung; then a sermon was again read from the pulpit.  While
ceremonies were performed at the altar, the sacerdotal garments were
often put on and taken off again.  I frequently thought the service was
coming to a close, but it always began afresh, and lasted, as I said
before, until four o'clock.  The number of forms surprised me greatly, as
the ritual of the Lutheran Church is in general exceedingly simple.

On this occasion a considerable number of the country people were
assembled, and I had thus a good opportunity of noticing their costumes.
The dresses worn by the women and girls are all made of coarse black
woollen stuffs.  The dress consists of a long skirt, a spencer, and a
coloured apron.  On their heads they wear a man's nightcap of black
cloth, the point turned downwards, and terminating in a large tassel of
wool or silk, which hangs down to the shoulder.  Their hair is unbound,
and reaches only to the shoulder: some of the women wear it slightly
curled.  I involuntarily thought of the poetical descriptions of the
northern romancers, who grow enthusiastic in praise of ideal "angels'
heads with golden tresses."  The hair is certainly worn in this manner
here, and our poets may have borrowed their descriptions from the
Scandinavians.  But the beautiful faces which are said to beam forth from
among those golden locks exist only in the poet's vivid imagination.

Ornamental additions to the costume are very rare.  In the whole assembly
I only noticed four women who were dressed differently from the others.
The cords which fastened their spencers, and also their girdles, were
ornamented with a garland worked in silver thread.  Their skirts were of
fine black cloth, and decorated with a border of coloured silk a few
inches broad.  Round their necks they wore a kind of stiff collar of
black velvet with a border of silver thread, and on their heads a black
silk handkerchief with a very strange addition.  This appendage consisted
of a half-moon fastened to the back of the head, and extending five or
six inches above the forehead.  It was covered with white lawn arranged
in folds; its breadth at the back of the head did not exceed an inch and
a half, but in front it widened to five or six inches.

The men, I found, were clothed almost like our peasants.  They wore
small-clothes of dark cloth, jackets and waistcoats, felt hats, or fur
caps; and instead of boots a kind of shoe of ox-hide, sheep, or
seal-skin, bound to the feet by a leather strap.  The women, and even the
children of the officials, all wear shoes of this description.

It was very seldom that I met people so wretchedly and poorly clad as we
find them but too often in the large continental towns.  I never saw any
one without good warm shoes and stockings.

The better classes, such as merchants, officials, &c. are dressed in the
French style, and rather fashionably.  There is no lack of silk and other
costly stuffs.  Some of these are brought from England, but the greater
part come from Denmark.

On the king's birthday, which is kept every year at the house of the
Stiftsamtmann, the festivities are said to be very grand; on this
occasion the matrons appear arrayed in silk, and the maidens in white
jaconet; the rooms are lighted with wax tapers.

Some speculative genius or other has also established a sort of club in
Reikjavik.  He has, namely, hired a couple of rooms, where the
townspeople meet of an evening to discuss "tea-water," bread and butter,
and sometimes even a bottle of wine or a bowl of punch.  In winter the
proprietor gives balls in these apartments, charging 20 kr. for each
ticket of admission.  Here the town grandees and the handicraftsmen, in
fact all who choose to come, assemble; and the ball is said to be
conducted in a very republican spirit.  The shoemaker leads forth the
wife of the Stiftsamtmann to the dance, while that official himself has
perhaps chosen the wife or daughter of the shoemaker or baker for his
partner.  The refreshments consist of "tea-water" and bread and butter,
and the room is lighted with tallow candles.  The music, consisting of a
kind of three-stringed violin and a pipe, is said to be exquisitely
horrible.

In summer the dignitaries make frequent excursions on horse-back; and on
these occasions great care is taken that there be no lack of provisions.
Commonly each person contributes a share: some bring wine, others cake;
others, again, coffee, and so on.  The ladies use fine English
side-saddles, and wear elegant riding-habits, and pretty felt hats with
green veils.  These jaunts, however, are confined to Reikjavik; for, as I
have already observed, there is, with the exception of this town, no
place in Iceland containing more than two or three stores and some
half-dozen cottages.

To my great surprise, I found no less than six square piano-fortes
belonging to different families in Reikjavik, and heard waltzes by our
favourite composers, besides variations of Herz, and some pieces of
Liszt, Wilmers, and Thalberg.  But such playing!  I do not think that
these talented composers would have recognised their own works.

In conclusion, I must offer a few remarks relative to the travelling in
this country.

The best time to choose for this purpose is from the middle of June to
the end of August at latest.  Until June the rivers are so swollen and
turbulent, by reason of the melting snows, as to render it very dangerous
to ride through them.  The traveller must also pass over many a field of
snow not yet melted by the sun, and frequently concealing chasms and
masses of lava; and this is attended with danger almost as great.  At
every footstep the traveller sinks into the snow; and he may thank his
lucky stars if the whole rotten surface does not give way.  In September
the violent storms of wind and rain commence, and heavy falls of snow may
be expected from day to day.

A tent, provisions, cooking utensils, pillows, bed-clothes, and warm
garments, are highly necessary for the wayfarer's comfort.  This
paraphernalia would have been too expensive for me to buy, and I was
unprovided with any thing of the kind; consequently I was forced to
endure the most dreadful hardships and toil, and was frequently obliged
to ride an immense distance to reach a little church or a cottage, which
would afford me shelter for the night.  My sole food for eight or ten
days together was often bread and cheese; and I generally passed the
night upon a chest or a bench, where the cold would often prevent my
closing my eyes all night.

It is advisable to be provided with a waterproof cloak and a sailor's
tarpaulin hat, as a defence against the rain, which frequently falls.  An
umbrella would be totally useless, as the rain is generally accompanied
by a storm, or, at any rate, by a strong wind; when we add to this, that
it is necessary in some places to ride quickly, it will easily be seen
that holding an umbrella open is a thing not to be thought of.

Altogether I found the travelling in this country attended with far more
hardship than in the East.  For my part, I found the dreadful storms of
wind, the piercing air, the frequent rain, and the cold, much less
endurable than the Oriental heat, which never gave me either cracked lips
or caused scales to appear on my face.  In Iceland my lips began to bleed
on the fifth day; and afterwards the skin came off my face in scales, as
if I had had the scrofula.  Another source of great discomfort is to be
found in the long riding-habit.  It is requisite to be very warmly clad;
and the heavy skirts, often dripping with rain, coil themselves round the
feet of the wearer in such a manner, as to render her exceedingly awkward
either in mounting or dismounting.  The worst hardship of all, however,
is the being obliged to halt to rest the horses in a meadow during the
rain.  The long skirts suck up the water from the damp grass, and the
wearer has often literally not a dry stitch in all her garments.

Heat and cold appear in this country to affect strangers in a remarkable
degree.  The cold seemed to me more piercing, and the heat more
oppressive in Iceland, than when the thermometer stood at the same points
in my native land.

In summer the roads are marvellously good, so that one can generally ride
at a pretty quick pace.  They are, however, impracticable for vehicles,
partly because they are too narrow, and partly also on account of some
very bad places which must occasionally be encountered.  On the whole
island not a single carriage is to be found.

The road is only dangerous when it leads through swamps and moors, or
over fields of lava.  Among these fields, such as are covered with white
moss are peculiarly to be feared, for the moss frequently conceals very
dangerous holes, into which the horse can easily stumble.  In ascending
and descending the hills very formidable spots sometimes oppose the
traveller's progress.  The road is at times so hidden among swamps and
bogs, that not a trace of it is to be distinguished, and I could only
wonder how my guide always succeeded in regaining the right path.  One
could almost suppose that on these dangerous paths both horse and man are
guided by a kind of instinct.

Travelling is more expensive in Iceland than any where else, particularly
when one person travels alone, and must bear all the expense of the
baggage, the guide, ferries, &c.  Horses are not let out on hire, they
must be bought.  They are, however, very cheap; a pack-horse costs from
eighteen to twenty-four florins, and a riding-horse from forty to fifty
florins.  To travel with any idea of comfort it is necessary to have
several pack-horses, for they must not be heavily laden; and an
additional servant must likewise be hired, as the guide only looks after
the saddle-horses, and, at most, one or two of the pack-horses.  If the
traveller, at the conclusion of the journey, wishes to sell the horses,
such a wretchedly low price is offered, that it is just as well to give
them away at once.  This is a proof of the fact that men are every where
alike ready to follow up their advantage.  These people are well aware
that the horses must be left behind at any rate, and therefore they will
not bid for them.  I must confess that I found the character of the
Icelanders in every respect below the estimate I had previously formed of
it, and still further below the standard given in books.

In spite of their scanty food, the Icelandic horses have a marvellous
power of endurance; they can often travel from thirty-five to forty miles
per diem for several consecutive days.  But the only difficulty is to
keep the horse moving.  The Icelanders have a habit of continually
kicking their heels against the poor beast's sides; and the horse at last
gets so accustomed to this mode of treatment, that it will hardly go if
the stimulus be discontinued.  In passing the bad pieces of road it is
necessary to keep the bridle tight in hand, or the horse will stumble
frequently.  This and the continual urging forward of the horse render
riding very fatiguing. {33}

Not a little consideration is certainly required before undertaking a
journey into the far north; but nothing frightened me,--and even in the
midst of the greatest dangers and hardships I did not for one moment
regret my undertaking, and would not have relinquished it under any
consideration.

I made excursions to every part of Iceland, and am thus enabled to place
before my readers, in regular order, the chief curiosities of this
remarkable country.  I will commence with the immediate neighbourhood of
Reikjavik.



CHAPTER IV


                                                                 May 25th.

Stiftsamtmann von H--- was to-day kind enough to pay me a visit, and to
invite me to join his party for a ride to the great lake Vatne.  I gladly
accepted the invitation, for, according to the description given by the
Stiftsamtmann, I hoped to behold a very Eden, and rejoiced at the
prospect of observing the recreations of the higher classes, and at the
same time gaining many acquisitions in specimens of plants, butterflies,
and beetles.  I resolved also to test the capabilities of the Icelandic
horses more thoroughly than I had been able to do during my first ride
from Havenfiord to Reikjavik, as I had been obliged on that occasion to
ride at a foot-pace, on account of my old guide.

The hour of starting was fixed for two o'clock.  Accustomed as I am to
strict punctuality, I was ready long before the appointed time, and at
two o'clock was about to hasten to the place of rendezvous, when my
hostess informed me I had plenty of time, for Herr von H--- was still at
dinner.  Instead of meeting at two o'clock, we did not assemble until
three, and even then another quarter of an hour elapsed before the
cavalcade started.  Oh, Syrian notions of punctuality and dispatch!
Here, almost at the very antipodes, did I once more greet ye.

The party consisted of the nobility and the town dignitaries.  Among the
former class may be reckoned Stiftsamtmann von H--- and his lady; a privy
councillor, Herr von B---, who had been sent from Copenhagen to attend
the "Allthing" (political assembly); and a Danish baron, who had
accompanied the councillor.  I noticed among the town dignitaries the
daughter and wife of the apothecary, and the daughters of some merchants
resident here.

Our road lay through fields of lava, swamps, and very poor grassy
patches, in a great valley, swelling here and there into gentle
acclivities, and shut in on three sides by several rows of mountains,
towering upwards in the most diversified shapes.  In the far distance
rose several jokuls or glaciers, seeming to look proudly down upon the
mountains, as though they asked, "Why would ye draw men's eyes upon you,
where we glisten in our silver sheen?"  In the season of the year at
which I beheld them, the glaciers were still very beautiful; not only
their summits, but their entire surface, as far as visible, being covered
with snow.  The fourth side of the valley through which we travelled was
washed by the ocean, which melted as it were into the horizon in
immeasurable distance.  The coast was dotted with small bays, having the
appearance of so many lakes.

As the road was good, we could generally ride forward at a brisk pace.
Occasionally, however, we met with small tracts on which the Icelandic
horse could exercise its sagacity and address.  My horse was careful and
free from vice; it carried me securely over masses of stone and chasms in
the rocks, but I cannot describe the suffering its trot caused me.  It is
said that riding is most beneficial to those who suffer from
liver-complaints.  This may be the case; but I should suppose that any
one who rode upon an Icelandic horse, with an Icelandic side-saddle,
every day for the space of four weeks, would find, at the expiration of
that time, her liver shaken to a pulp, and no part of it remaining.

All the rest of the party had good English saddles, mine alone was of
Icelandic origin.  It consisted of a chair, with a board for the back.
The rider was obliged to sit crooked upon the horse, and it was
impossible to keep a firm seat.  With much difficulty I trotted after the
others, for my horse would not be induced to break into a gallop.

At length, after a ride of an hour and a half, we reached a valley.  In
the midst of a tolerably green meadow I descried what was, for Iceland, a
farm of considerable dimensions, and not far from this farm was a very
small lake.  I did not dare to ask if this was the _great_ lake Vatne, or
if this was the delicious prospect I had been promised, for my question
would have been taken for irony.  I could not refrain from wonder when
Herr von H--- began praising the landscape as exquisite, and farther
declaring the effect of the lake to be bewitching.  I was obliged, for
politeness' sake, to acquiesce, and leave them in the supposition that I
had never seen a larger lake nor a finer prospect.

We now made a halt, and the whole party encamped in the meadow.  While
the preparations for a social meal were going on, I proceeded to satisfy
my curiosity.

The peasant's house first attracted my attention.  I found it to consist
of one large chamber, and two of smaller size, besides a storeroom and
extensive stables, from which I judged that the proprietor was rich in
cattle.  I afterwards learnt that he owned fifty sheep, eight cows, and
five horses, and was looked upon as one of the richest farmers in the
neighbourhood.  The kitchen was situated at the extreme end of the
building, and was furnished with a chimney that seemed intended only as a
protection against rain and snow, for the smoke dispersed itself
throughout the whole kitchen, drying the fish which hung from the
ceiling, and slowly making its exit through an air-hole.

The large apartment boasted a wooden bookshelf, containing about forty
volumes.  Some of these I turned over, and in spite of my limited
knowledge of the Danish language, could make out enough to discover that
they were chiefly on religious subjects.  But the farmer seemed also to
love poetry; among the works of this class in his library, I noticed
Kleist, Muller, and even Homer's _Odyssey_.  I could make nothing of the
Icelandic books; but on inquiring their contents, I was told that they
all treated of religious matters.

After inspecting these, I walked out into the meadow to search for
flowers and herbs.  Flowers I found but few, as it was not the right time
of the year for them; my search for herbs was more successful, and I even
found some wild clover.  I saw neither beetles nor butterflies; but, to
my no small surprise, heard the humming of two wild bees, one of which I
was fortunate enough to catch, and took home to preserve in spirits of
wine.

On rejoining my party, I found them encamped in the meadow around a
table, which had in the meantime been spread with butter, cheese, bread,
cake, roast lamb, raisins and almonds, a few oranges, and wine.  Neither
chairs nor benches were to be had, for even wealthy peasants only possess
planks nailed to the walls of their rooms; so we all sat down upon the
grass, and did ample justice to the capital coffee which made the
commencement of the meal.  Laughter and jokes predominated to such an
extent, that I could have fancied myself among impulsive Italians instead
of cold Northmen.

There was no lack of wit; but to-day I was unfortunately its butt.  And
what was my fault?--only my stupid modesty.  The conversation was carried
on in the Danish language; some members of our party spoke French and
others German, but I purposely abstained from availing myself of their
acquirements, in order not to disturb the hilarity of the conversation.
I sat silently among them, and was perfectly contented in listening to
their merriment.  But my behaviour was set down as proceeding from
stupidity, and I soon gathered from their discourse that they were
comparing me to the "stone guest" in Mozart's _Don Giovanni_.  If these
kind people had only surmised the true reason of my keeping silence, they
would perhaps have thanked me for doing so.

As we sat at our meal, I heard a voice in the farmhouse singing an
Icelandic song.  At a distance it resembled the humming of bees; on a
nearer approach it sounded monotonous, drawling, and melancholy.

While we were preparing for our departure, the farmer, his wife, and the
servants approached, and shook each of us by the hand.  This is the usual
mode of saluting such _high_ people as we numbered among our party.  The
true national salutation is a hearty kiss.

On my arrival at home the effect of the strong coffee soon began to
manifest itself.  I could not sleep at all, and had thus ample leisure to
make accurate observations as to the length of the day and of the
twilight.  Until eleven o'clock at night I could read ordinary print in
my room.  From eleven till one o'clock it was dusk, but never so dark as
to prevent my reading in the open air.  In my room, too, I could
distinguish the smallest objects, and even tell the time by my watch.  At
one o'clock I could again read in my room.



EXCURSION TO VIDOE.


The little island of Vidoe, four miles distant from Reikjavik, is
described by most travellers as the chief resort of the eider-duck.  I
visited the island on the 8th of June, but was disappointed in my
expectations.  I certainly saw many of these birds on the declivities and
in the chasms of the rocks, sitting quietly on their nests, but nothing
approaching the thousands I had been led to expect.  On the whole, I may
perhaps have seen from one hundred to a hundred and fifty nests.

The most remarkable circumstance connected with the eider-ducks is their
tameness during the period of incubation.  I had always regarded as myths
the stories told about them in this respect, and should do so still had I
not convinced myself of the truth of these assertions by laying hands
upon the ducks myself.  I could go quite up to them and caress them, and
even then they would not often leave their nests.  Some few birds,
indeed, did so when I wished to touch them; but they did not fly up, but
contented themselves with coolly walking a few paces away from the nest,
and there sitting quietly down until I had departed.  But those which
already had live young, beat out boldly with their wings when I
approached, struck at me with their bills, and allowed themselves to be
taken up bodily rather than leave the nest.  They are about the size of
our ducks; their eggs are of a greenish grey, rather larger than hen's
eggs, and taste very well.  Altogether they lay about eleven eggs.  The
finest down is that with which they line their nests at first; it is of a
dark grey colour.  The Icelanders take away this down, and the first nest
of eggs.  The poor bird now robs herself once more of a quantity of down
(which is, however, not of so fine a quality as the first), and again
lays eggs.  For the second time every thing is taken from her; and not
until she has a third time lined the nest with her down is the eider-duck
left in peace.  The down of the second, and that of the third quality
especially, are much lighter than that of the first.  I also was
sufficiently cruel to take a few eggs and some down out of several of the
nests. {34}

I did not witness the dangerous operation of collecting this down from
between the clefts of rocks and from unapproachable precipices, where
people are let down, or to which they are drawn up, by ropes, at peril of
their lives.  There are, however, none of these break-neck places in the
neighbourhood of Reikjavik.



SALMON FISHERY.


I made another excursion to a very short distance (two miles) from
Reikjavik, in the company of Herr Bernhoft and his daughter, to the
Laxselv (salmon river) to witness the salmon-fishing, which takes place
every week from the middle of June to the middle of August.  It is
conducted in a very simple manner.  The fish come up the river in the
spawning season; the stream is then dammed up with several walls of stone
loosely piled to the height of some three feet; and the retreat of the
fish to the sea is thus cut off.  When the day arrives on which the
salmon are to be caught, a net is spread behind each of these walls.
Three or four such dams are erected at intervals, of from eighty to a
hundred paces, so that even if the fishes escape one barrier, they are
generally caught at the next.  The water is now made to run off as much
as possible; the poor salmon dart to and fro, becoming every moment more
and more aware of the sinking of the water, and crowd to the weirs,
cutting themselves by contact with the sharp stones of which they are
built.  This is the deepest part of the water; and it is soon so thronged
with fish, that men, stationed in readiness, can seize them in their
hands and fling them ashore.

The salmon possess remarkable swiftness and strength.  The fisherman is
obliged to take them quickly by the head and tail, and to throw them
ashore, when they are immediately caught by other men, who fling them
still farther from the water.  If this is not done with great quickness
and care, many of the fishes escape.  It is wonderful how these creatures
can struggle themselves free, and leap into the air.  The fishermen are
obliged to wear woollen mittens, or they would be quite unable to hold
the smooth salmon.  At every day's fishing, from five hundred to a
thousand fish are taken, each weighing from five to fifteen pounds.  On
the day when I was present eight hundred were killed.  This salmon-stream
is farmed by a merchant of Reikjavik.

The fishermen receive very liberal pay,--in fact, one-half of the fish
taken.  And yet they are dissatisfied, and show so little gratitude, as
seldom to finish their work properly.  So, for instance, they only
brought the share of the merchant to the harbour of Reikjavik, and were
far too lazy to carry the salmon from the boat to the warehouse, a
distance certainly not more than sixty or seventy paces from the shore.
They sent a message to their employer, bidding him "send some fresh
hands, for they were much too tired."  Of course, in a case like this,
all remonstrance is unavailing.

As in the rest of the world, so also in Iceland, every occasion that
offers is seized upon for a feast or a merry-making.  The day on which I
witnessed the salmon-fishing happened to be one of the few fine days that
occur during a summer in Iceland.  It was therefore unanimously concluded
by several merchants, that the day and the salmon-fishing should be
celebrated by a _dejeuner a la fourchette_.  Every one contributed
something, and a plentiful and elegant breakfast was soon arranged, which
quite resembled an entertainment of the kind in our country; this one
circumstance excepted, that we were obliged to seat ourselves on the
ground, by reason of a scarcity of tables and benches.  Spanish and
French wines, as well as cold punch, were there in plenty, and the
greatest hilarity prevailed.

I made a fourth excursion, but to a very inconsiderable distance,--in
fact, only a mile and a half from Reikjavik.  It was to see a hot and
slightly sulphurous spring, which falls into a river of cold water.  By
this lucky meeting of extremes, water can be obtained at any temperature,
from the boiling almost to the freezing point.  The townspeople take
advantage of this good opportunity in two ways, for bathing and for
washing clothes.  The latter is undoubtedly the more important purpose of
application, and a hut has been erected, in order to shield the poor
people from wind and rain while they are at work.  Formerly this hut was
furnished with a good door and with glazed windows, and the key was kept
at an appointed place in the town, whence any one might fetch it.  But
the servants and peasant girls were soon too lazy to go for the key; they
burst open the lock, and smashed the windows, so that now the hut has a
very ruinous appearance, and affords but little protection against the
weather.  How much alike mankind are every where, and how seldom they do
right, except when it gives them no trouble, and then, unfortunately,
there is not much merit to be ascribed to them, as their doing right is
merely the result of a lucky chance!  Many people also bring fish and
potatoes, which they have only to lay in the hot water, and in a short
time both are completely cooked.

This spring is but little used for the purpose of bathing; at most
perhaps by a few children and peasants.  Its medicinal virtues, if it
possesses any, are completely unknown.



THE SULPHUR-SPRINGS AND SULPHUR-MOUNTAINS OF KRISUVIK.


The 4th of June was fixed for my departure.  I had only to pack up some
bread and cheese, sugar and coffee, then the horses were saddled, and at
seven o'clock the journey was happily commenced.  I was alone with my
guide, who, like the rest of his class, could not be considered as a very
favourable specimen of humanity.  He was very lazy, exceedingly
self-interested, and singularly loath to devote any part of his attention
either to me or to the horses, preferring to concentrate it upon brandy,
an article which can unfortunately be procured throughout the whole
country.

I had already seen the district between Reikjavik and Havenfiord at my
first arrival in Iceland.  At the present advanced season of the year it
wore a less gloomy aspect: strawberry-plants and violets,--the former,
however, without blossoms, and the latter inodorous,--were springing up
between the blocks of lava, together with beautiful ferns eight or ten
inches high.  In spite of the trifling distance, I noticed, as a rule,
that vegetation was here more luxuriant than at Reikjavik; for at the
latter place I had found no strawberry-plants, and the violets were not
yet in blossom.  This difference in the vegetation is, I think, to be
ascribed to the high walls of lava existing in great abundance round
Havenfiord; they protect the tender plants and ferns from the piercing
winds.  I noticed that both the grass and the plants before mentioned
throve capitally in the little hollows formed by masses of lava.

A couple of miles beyond Havenfiord I saw the first birch-trees, which,
however, did not exceed two or three feet in height, also some
bilberry-plants.  A number of little butterflies, all of one colour, and,
as it seemed to me, of the same species, fluttered among the shrubs and
plants.

The manifold forms and varied outline of the lava-fields present a
remarkable and really a marvellous appearance.  Short as this journey
is--for ten hours are amply sufficient for the trip to Krisuvik,--it
presents innumerable features for contemplation.  I could only gaze and
wonder.  I forgot every thing around me, felt neither cold nor storm, and
let my horse pick his way as slowly as he chose, so that I had once
almost become separated from my guide.

One of the most considerable of the streams of lava lay in a spacious
broad valley.  The lava-stream itself, about two miles long, and of a
considerable breadth, traversing the whole of the plain, seemed to have
been called into existence by magic, as there was no mountain to be seen
in the neighbourhood from which it could have emerged.  It appeared to be
the covering of an immense crater, formed, not of separate stones and
blocks, but of a single and slightly porous mass of rock ten or twelve
feet thick, broken here and there by clefts about a foot in breadth.

Another, and a still larger valley, many miles in circumference, was
filled with masses of lava shaped like waves, reminding the beholder of a
petrified sea.  From the midst rose a high black mountain, contrasting
beautifully with the surrounding masses of light-grey lava.  At first I
supposed the lava must have streamed forth from this mountain, but soon
found that the latter was perfectly smooth on all sides, and terminated
in a sharp peak.  The remaining mountains which shut in the valley were
also perfectly closed, and I looked in vain for any trace of a crater.

We now reached a small lake, and soon afterwards arrived at a larger one,
called Kleinfarvatne.  Both were hemmed in by mountains, which frequently
rose abruptly from the waters, leaving no room for the passage of the
horses.  We were obliged sometimes to climb the mountains by fearfully
dizzy paths; at others to scramble downwards, almost clinging to the face
of the rock.  At some points we were even compelled to dismount from our
horses, and scramble forward on our hands and knees.  In a word, these
dangerous points, which extended over a space of about seven miles, were
certainly quite as bad as any I had encountered in Syria; if any thing,
they were even more formidable.

I was, however, assured that I should have no more such places to
encounter during all my further journeys in Iceland, and this information
quite reconciled me to the roads in this country.  For the rest, the path
was generally tolerably safe even during this tour, which continually led
me across fields of lava.

A journey of some eight-and-twenty miles brought us at length into a
friendly valley; clouds of smoke, both small and great, were soon
discovered rising from the surrounding heights, and also from the valley
itself; these were the sulphur-springs and sulphur-mountains.

I could hardly restrain my impatience while we traversed the couple of
miles which separated us from Krisuvik.  A few small lakes were still to
be crossed; and at length, at six o'clock in the evening, we reached our
destination.

With the exception of a morsel of bread and cheese, I had eaten nothing
since the morning; still I could not spare time to make coffee, but at
once dismounted, summoned my guide, and commenced my pilgrimage to the
smoking mountains.  At the outset our way lay across swampy places and
meadow lands; but soon we had to climb the mountains themselves, a task
rendered extremely difficult by the elastic, yielding soil, in which
every footstep imprinted itself deeply, suggesting to the traveller the
unpleasant possibility of his sinking through,--a contingency rendered
any thing but agreeable by the neighbourhood of the boiling springs.  At
length I gained the summit, and saw around me numerous basins filled with
boiling water, while on all sides, from hill and valley, columns of
vapour rose out of numberless clefts in the rocks.  From a cleft in one
rock in particular a mighty column of vapour whirled into the air.  On
the windward side I could approach this place very closely.  The ground
was only lukewarm in some places, and I could hold my hand for several
moments to the gaps from which steam issued.  No trace of a crater was to
be seen.  The bubbling and hissing of the steam, added to the noise of
the wind, occasioned such a deafening clamour, that I was very glad to
feel firmer ground beneath my feet, and to leave the place in haste.  It
really seemed as if the interior of the mountain had been a boiling
caldron.  The prospect from these mountains is very fine.  Numerous
valleys and mountains innumerable offered themselves to my view, and I
could even discern the isolated black rock past which I had ridden five
or six hours previously.

I now commenced my descent into the valley; at a few hundred paces the
bubbling and hissing were already inaudible.  I supposed that I had seen
every thing worthy of notice; but much that was remarkable still
remained.  I particularly noticed a basin some five or six feet in
diameter, filled with boiling mud.  This mud has quite the appearance of
fine clay dissolved in water; its colour was a light grey.

From another basin, hardly two feet in diameter, a mighty column of steam
shot continually into the air with so much force and noise that I started
back half stunned, and could have fancied the vault of heaven would
burst.  This basin is situated in a corner of the valley, closely shut in
on three sides by hills.  In the neighbourhood many hot springs gushed
forth; but I saw no columns of water, and my guide assured me that such a
phenomenon was never witnessed here.

There is more danger in passing these spots than even in traversing the
mountains.  In spite of the greatest precautions, I frequently sank in
above the ankles, and would then draw back with a start, and find my foot
covered with hot mud.  From the place where I had broken through, steam
and hot mud, or boiling water, rose into the air.

Though my guide, who walked before me, carefully probed the ground with
his stick, he several times sank through half-way to the knee.  These men
are, however, so much accustomed to contingencies of this kind that they
take little account of them.  My guide would quietly repair to the next
spring and cleanse his clothes from mud.  As I was covered with it to
above the ankles, I thought it best to follow his example.

For excursions like these it is best to come provided with a few boards,
five or six feet in length, with which to cover the most dangerous
places.

At nine o'clock in the evening, but yet in the full glare of the sun, we
arrived at Krisuvik.  I now took time to look at this place, which I
found to consist of a small church and a few miserable huts.

I crept into one of these dens; it was so dark that a considerable time
elapsed before I could distinguish objects, the light was only admitted
through a very small aperture.  I found in this hut a few persons who
were suffering from the eruption called "lepra," a disease but too
commonly met with in Iceland.  Their hands and faces were completely
covered with this eruption; if it spreads over the whole body the patient
languishes slowly away, and is lost without remedy.

Churches are in this country not only used for purposes of public
worship, but also serve as magazines for provisions, clothes, &c., and as
inns for travellers.  I do not suppose that a parallel instance of
desecration could be met with even among the most uncivilised nations.  I
was assured, indeed, that these abuses were about to be remedied.  A
reform of this kind ought to have been carried out long ago; and even now
the matter seems to remain an open point; for wherever I came the church
was placed at my disposal for the night, and every where I found a store
of fish, tallow, and other equally odoriferous substances.

The little chapel at Krisuvik is only twenty-two feet long by ten broad;
on my arrival it was hastily prepared for my reception.  Saddles, ropes,
clothes, hats, and other articles which lay scattered about, were hastily
flung into a corner; mattresses and some nice soft pillows soon appeared,
and a very tolerable bed was prepared for me on a large chest in which
the vestments of the priest, the coverings of the altar, &c., were
deposited.  I would willingly have locked myself in, eaten my frugal
supper, and afterwards written a few pages of my diary before retiring to
rest; but this was out of the question.  The entire population of the
village turned out to see me, old and young hastened to the church, and
stood round in a circle and gazed at me.

Irksome as this curiosity was, I was obliged to endure it patiently, for
I could not have sent these good people away without seriously offending
them; so I began quietly to unpack my little portmanteau, and proceeded
to boil my coffee over a spirit-lamp.  A whispering consultation
immediately began; they seemed particularly struck by my mode of
preparing coffee, and followed every one of my movements with eager eyes.
My frugal meal dispatched, I resolved to try the patience of my audience,
and, taking out my journal, began to write.  For a few minutes they
remained quiet, then they began to whisper one to another, "She writes,
she writes," and this was repeated numberless times.  There was no sign
of any disposition to depart; I believe I could have sat there till
doomsday, and failed to tire my audience out.  At length, after this
scene had lasted a full hour, I could stand it no longer, and was fain to
request my amiable visitors to retire, as I wished to go to bed.

My sleep that night was none of the sweetest.  A certain feeling of
discomfort always attaches to the fact of sleeping in a church alone, in
the midst of a grave-yard.  Besides this, on the night in question such a
dreadful storm arose that the wooden walls creaked and groaned as though
their foundations were giving way.  The cold was also rather severe, my
thermometer inside the church shewing only two degrees above zero.  I was
truly thankful when approaching day brought with it the welcome hour of
departure.

                                                                 June 5th.

The heavy sleepiness and extreme indolence of an Icelandic guide render
departure before seven o'clock in the morning a thing not to be thought
of.  This is, however, of little consequence, as there is no night in
Iceland at this time of year.

Although the distance was materially increased by returning to Reikjavik
by way of Grundivik and Keblevik, I chose this route in order to pass
through the wildest of the inhabited tracts in Iceland.

The first stage, from Krisuvik to Grundivik, a distance of twelve to
fourteen miles, lay through fields of lava, consisting mostly of small
blocks of stone and fragments, filling the valley so completely that not
a single green spot remained.  I here met with masses of lava which
presented an appearance of singular beauty.  They were black mounds, ten
or twelve feet in height, piled upon each other in the most varied forms,
their bases covered with a broad band of whitish-coloured moss, while the
tops were broken into peaks and cones of the most fantastic shapes.
These lava-streams seem to date from a recent period, as the masses are
somewhat scaly and glazed.

Grundivik, a little village of a few wretched cottages, lies like an
oasis in this desert of lava.

My guide wished to remain here, asserting that there was no place between
this and Keblevik where I could pass the night, and that it would be
impossible for our horses, exhausted as they were with yesterday's march,
to carry us to Keblevik that night.  The true reason of this suggestion
was that he wished to prolong the journey for another day.

Luckily I had a good map with me, and by dint of consulting it could
calculate distances with tolerable accuracy; it was also my custom before
starting on a journey to make particular inquiries as to how I should
arrange the daily stages.

So I insisted upon proceeding at once; and soon we were wending our way
through fields of lava towards Stad, a small village six or seven miles
distant from Grundivik.

On the way I noticed a mountain of most singular appearance.  In colour
it closely resembled iron; its sides were perfectly smooth and shining,
and streaks of the colour of yellow ochre traversed it here and there.

Stad is the residence of a priest.  Contrary to the assertions of my
guide, I found this place far more cheerful and habitable than Grundivik.
Whilst our horses were resting, the priest paid me a visit, and conducted
me, not, as I anticipated, into his house, but into the church.  Chairs
and stools were quickly brought there, and my host introduced his wife
and children to me, after which we partook of coffee, bread and cheese,
&c.  On the rail surrounding the altar hung the clothes of the priest and
his family, differing little in texture and make from those of the
peasants.

The priest appeared to be a very intelligent, well-read man.  I could
speak the Danish language pretty fluently, and was therefore able to
converse with him on various subjects.  On hearing that I had already
been in Palestine, he put a number of questions to me, from which I could
plainly see that he was alike well acquainted with geography, history,
natural science, &c.  He accompanied me several miles on my road, and we
chatted away the time very pleasantly.

The distance between Krisuvik and Keblevik is about forty-two miles.  The
road lies through a most dreary landscape, among vast desert plains,
frequently twenty-five to thirty miles in circumference, entirely
divested of all traces of vegetation, and covered throughout their
extreme area by masses of lava--gloomy monuments of volcanic agency.  And
yet here, at the very heart of the subterranean fire, I saw only a single
mountain, the summit of which had fallen in, and presented the appearance
of a crater.  The rest were all completely closed, terminating sometimes
in a beautiful round top, and sometimes in sharp peaks; in other
instances they formed long narrow chains.

Who can tell whence these all-destroying masses of lava have poured
forth, or how many hundred years they have lain in these petrified
valleys?

Keblevik lies on the sea-coast; but the harbour is insecure, so that
ships remain here at anchor only so long as is absolutely necessary;
there are frequently only two or three ships in the harbour.

A few wooden houses, two of which belong to Herr Knudson, and some
peasants' cottages, are the only buildings in this little village.  I was
hospitably received, and rested from the toils of the day at the house of
Herr Siverson, Herr Knudson's manager.

On the following day (June 6th) I had a long ride to Reikjavik,
thirty-six good miles, mostly through fields of lava.

The whole tract of country from Grundivik almost to Havenfiord is called
"The lava-fields of Reikianes."

Tired and almost benumbed with cold, I arrived in the evening at
Reikjavik, with no other wish than to retire to rest as fast as possible.

In these three days I had ridden 114 miles, besides enduring much from
cold, storms, and rain.  To my great surprise, the roads had generally
been good; there were, however, many places highly dangerous and
difficult.

But what mattered these fatigues, forgotten, as they were, after a single
night's rest? what were they in comparison to the unutterably beautiful
and marvellous phenomena of the north, which will remain ever present to
my imagination so long as memory shall be spared me?

The distances of this excursion were: From Reikjavik to Krisuvik, 37
miles; from Krisuvik to Keblevik, 39 miles; from Keblevik to Reikjavik,
38 miles: total, 114 miles.



CHAPTER V


As the weather continued fine, I wished to lose no time in continuing my
wanderings.  I had next to make a tour of some 560 miles; it was
therefore necessary that I should take an extra horse, partly that it
might carry my few packages, consisting of a pillow, some rye-bread,
cheese, coffee, and sugar, but chiefly that I might be enabled to change
horses every day, as one horse would not have been equal to the fatigue
of so long a journey.

My former guide could not accompany me on my present journey, as he was
unacquainted with most of the roads.  My kind protectors, Herr Knudson
and Herr Bernhoft, were obliging enough to provide another guide for me;
a difficult task, as it is a rare occurrence to find an Icelander who
understands the Danish language, and who happens to be sober when his
services are required.  At length a peasant was found who suited our
purpose; but he considered two florins per diem too little pay, so I was
obliged to give an additional zwanziger.  On the other hand, it was
arranged that the guide should also take two horses, in order that he
might change every day.

The 16th of June was fixed for the commencement of our journey.  From the
very first day my guide did not shew himself in an amiable point of view.
On the morning of our departure his saddle had to be patched together,
and instead of coming with two horses, he appeared with only one.  He
certainly promised to buy a second when we should have proceeded some
miles, adding that it would be cheaper to buy one at a little distance
from the "capital."  I at once suspected this was merely an excuse of the
guide's, and that he wished thereby to avoid having the care of four
horses.  The event proved I was right; not a single horse could be found
that suited, and so my poor little animal had to carry the guide's
baggage in addition to my own.

Loading the pack-horses is a business of some difficulty, and is
conducted in the following manner: sundry large pieces of dried turf are
laid upon the horse's back, but not fastened; over these is buckled a
round piece of wood, furnished with two or three pegs.  To these pegs the
chests and packages are suspended.  If the weight is not quite equally
balanced, it is necessary to stop and repack frequently, for the whole
load at once gets askew.

The trunks used in this country are massively constructed of wood,
covered with a rough hide, and strengthened on all sides with nails, as
though they were intended to last an eternity.  The poor horses have a
considerable weight to bear in empty boxes alone, so that very little
real luggage can be taken.  The weight which a horse has to carry during
a long journey should never exceed 150lbs.

It is impossible to remember how many times our baggage had to be
repacked during a day's journey.  The great pieces of turf would never
stay in their places, and every moment something was wrong.  Nothing less
than a miracle, however, can prevail on an Icelander to depart from his
regular routine.  His ancestors packed in such and such a manner, and so
he must pack also. {35}

We had a journey of above forty miles before us the first day, and yet,
on account of the damaged saddle, we could not start before eight o'clock
in the morning.

The first twelve or fourteen miles of our journey lay through the great
valley in which Reikjavik is situated; the valley contains many low
hills, some of which we had to climb.  Several rivers, chief among which
was the Laxselv, opposed our progress, but at this season of the year
they could be crossed on horseback without danger.  Nearly all the
valleys through which we passed to-day were covered with lava, but
nevertheless offered many beautiful spots.

Many of the hills we passed seemed to me to be extinct volcanoes; the
whole upper portion was covered with colossal slabs of lava, as though
the crater had been choked up with them.  Lava of the same description
and colour, but in smaller pieces, lay strewed around.

For the first twelve or fourteen miles the sea is visible from the brow
of every successive hill.  The country is also pretty generally
inhabited; but afterwards a distance of nearly thirty miles is passed, on
which there is not a human habitation.  The traveller journeys from one
valley into another, and in the midst of these hill-girt deserts sees a
single small hut, erected for the convenience of those who, in the
winter, cannot accomplish the long distance in one day, and must take up
their quarters for the night in the valley.  No one must, however, rashly
hope to find here a human being in the shape of a host.  The little house
is quite uninhabited, and consists only of a single apartment with four
naked walls.  The visitor must depend on the accommodation he carries
with him.

The plains through which we travelled to-day were covered throughout with
one and the same kind of lava.  It occurs in masses, and also in smaller
stones, is not very porous, of a light grey colour, and mixed, in many
instances, with sand or earth.

Some miles from Thingvalla we entered a valley, the soil of which is
fine, but nevertheless only sparingly covered with grass, and full of
little acclivities, mostly clothed with delicate moss.  I have no doubt
that the indolence of the inhabitants alone prevents them from materially
improving many a piece of ground.  The worst soil is that in the
neighbourhood of Reikjavik; yet there we see many a garden, and many a
piece of meadow-land, wrung, as it were, from the barren earth by labour
and pains.  Why should not the same thing be done here--the more so as
nature has already accomplished the preliminary work?

Thingvalla, our resting-place for to-night, is situate on a lake of the
same name, and only becomes visible when the traveller is close upon it.
The lake is rather considerable, being almost three miles in length, and
at some parts certainly more than two miles in breadth; it contains two
small islands,--Sandey and Nesey.

My whole attention was still riveted by the lake and its naked and gloomy
circle of mountains, when suddenly, as if by magic, I found myself
standing on the brink of a chasm, into which I could scarcely look
without a shudder; involuntarily I thought of Weber's _Freyschutz_ and
the "Wolf's Hollow." {36}

The scene is the more startling from the circumstance that the traveller
approaching Thingvalla in a certain direction sees only the plains beyond
this chasm, and has no idea of its existence.  It was a fissure some five
or six fathoms broad, but several hundred feet in depth; and we were
forced to descend by a small, steep, dangerous path, across large
fragments of lava.  Colossal blocks of stone, threatening the unhappy
wanderer with death and destruction, hang loosely, in the form of
pyramids and of broken columns, from the lofty walls of lava, which
encircle the whole long ravine in the form of a gallery.  Speechless, and
in anxious suspense, we descend a part of this chasm, hardly daring to
look up, much less to give utterance to a single sound, lest the
vibration should bring down one of these avalanches of stone, to the
terrific force of which the rocky fragments scattered around bear ample
testimony.  The distinctness with which echo repeats the softest sound
and the lightest footfall is truly wonderful.

The appearance presented by the horses, which are allowed to come down
the ravine after their masters have descended, is most peculiar.  One
could fancy they were clinging to the walls of rock.

This ravine is known by the name of Almanagiau.  Its entire length is
about a mile, but a small portion only can be traversed; the rest is
blocked up by masses of lava heaped one upon the other.  On the right
hand, the rocky wall opens, and forms an outlet, over formidable masses
of lava, into the beautiful valley of Thingvalla.  I could have fancied I
wandered through the depths of a crater, which had piled around itself
these stupendous barriers during a mighty eruption in times long gone by.

The valley of Thingvalla is considered one of the most beautiful in
Iceland.  It contains many meadows, forming, as it were, a place of
refuge for the inhabitants, and enabling them to keep many head of
cattle.  The Icelanders consider this little green valley the finest spot
in the world.  Not far from the opening of the ravine, on the farther
bank of the river Oxer, lies the little village of Thingvalla, consisting
of three or four cottages and a small chapel.  A few scattered farms and
cottages are situated in the neighbourhood.

Thingvalla was once one of the most important places in Iceland; the
stranger is still shewn the meadow, not far from the village, on which
the Allthing (general assembly) was held annually in the open air.  Here
the people and their leaders met, pitching their tents after the manner
of nomads.  Here it was also that many an opinion and many a decree were
enforced by the weight of steel.

The chiefs appeared, ostensibly for peace, at the head of their tribe;
yet many of them returned not again, but beneath the sword-stroke of
their enemies obtained that peace which no man seeketh, but which all men
find.

On one side the valley is skirted by the lake, on the other it is bounded
by lofty mountains, some of them still partly covered with snow.  Not far
from the entrance of the ravine, the river Oxer rushes over a wall of
rock of considerable height, forming a beautiful waterfall.

It was still fine clear daylight when I reached Thingvalla, and the sky
rose pure and cloudless over the far distance.  It seemed therefore the
more singular to me to see a few clouds skimming over the surface of the
mountains, now shrouding a part of them in vapour, now wreathing
themselves round their summits, now vanishing entirely, to reappear again
at a different point.

This is a phenomenon frequently observed in Iceland during the finest
days, and one I had often noticed in the neighbourhood of Reikjavik.
Under a clear and cloudless sky, a light mist would appear on the brow of
a mountain,--in a moment it would increase to a large cloud, and after
remaining stationary for a time, it frequently vanished suddenly, or
soared slowly away.  However often it may be repeated, this appearance
cannot fail to interest the observer.

Herr Beck, the clergyman at Thingvalla, offered me the shelter of his hut
for the night; as the building, however, did not look much more promising
than the peasants' cottages by which it was surrounded, I preferred
quartering myself in the church, permission to do so being but too easily
obtained on all occasions.  This chapel is not much larger than that at
Krisuvik, and stands at some distance from the few surrounding cottages.
This was perhaps the reason why I was not incommoded by visitors.  I had
already conquered any superstitious fears derived from the proximity of
my silent neighbours in the churchyard, and passed the night quietly on
one of the wooden chests of which I found several scattered about.  Habit
is certainly every thing; after a few nights of gloomy solitude one
thinks no more about the matter.

                                                                June 17th.

Our journey of to-day was more formidable than that of yesterday.  I was
assured that Reikholt (also called Reikiadal) was almost fifty miles
distant.  Distances cannot always be accurately measured by the map;
impassable barriers, only to be avoided by circuitous routes, often
oppose the traveller's progress.  This was the case with us to-day.  To
judge from the map, the distance from Thingvalla to Reikholt seemed less
by a great deal than that from Reikjavik to Thingvalla, and yet we were
full fourteen hours accomplishing it--two hours longer than on our
yesterday's journey.

So long as our way lay through the valley of Thingvalla there was no lack
of variety.  At one time there was an arm of the river Oxer to cross, at
another we traversed a cheerful meadow; sometimes we even passed through
little shrubberies,--that is to say, according to the Icelandic
acceptation of the term.  In my country these lovely shrubberies would
have been cleared away as useless underwood.  The trees trail along the
ground, seldom attaining a height of more than two feet.  When one of
these puny stems reaches four feet in height, it is considered a gigantic
tree.  The greater portion of these miniature forests grow on the lava
with which the valley is covered.

The formation of the lava here assumes a new character.  Up to this point
it has mostly appeared either in large masses or in streams lying in
strata one above the other; but here the lava covered the greater portion
of the ground in the form of immense flat slabs or blocks of rock, often
split in a vertical direction.  I saw long fissures of eight or ten feet
in breadth, and from ten to fifteen feet in depth.  In these clefts the
flowers blossom earlier, and the fern grows taller and more luxuriantly,
than in the boisterous upper world.

After the valley of Thingvalla has been passed the journey becomes very
monotonous.  The district beyond is wholly uninhabited, and we travelled
many miles without seeing a single cottage.  From one desert valley we
passed into another; all were alike covered with light-grey or yellowish
lava, and at intervals also with fine sand, in which the horses sunk
deeply at every step.  The mountains surrounding these valleys were none
of the highest, and it was seldom that a jokul or glacier shone forth
from among them.  The mountains had a certain polished appearance, their
sides being perfectly smooth and shining.  In some instances, however,
masses of lava formed beautiful groups, bearing a great resemblance to
ruins of ancient buildings, and standing out in peculiarly fine relief
from the smooth walls.

These mountains are of different colours; they are black or brown, grey
or yellow, &c.; and the different shades of these colours are displayed
with marvellous effect in the brilliant sunshine.

Nine hours of uninterrupted riding brought us into a large tract of
moorland, very scantily covered with moss.  Yet this was the first and
only grazing-place to be met with in all the long distance from
Thingvalla.  We therefore made a halt of two hours, to let our poor
horses pick a scanty meal.  Large swarms of minute gnats, which seemed to
fly into our eyes, nose, and mouth, annoyed us dreadfully during our stay
in this place.

On this moor there was also a small lake; and here I saw for the first
time a small flock of swans.  Unfortunately these creatures are so very
timid, that the most cautious approach of a human being causes them to
rise with the speed of lightning into the air.  I was therefore obliged
perforce to be content with a distant view of these proud birds.  They
always keep in pairs, and the largest flock I saw did not consist of more
than four such pairs.

Since my first arrival in Iceland I had considered the inhabitants an
indolent race of people; to-day I was strengthened in my opinion by the
following slight circumstance.  The moorland on which we halted to rest
was separated from the adjoining fields of lava by a narrow ditch filled
with water.  Across this ditch a few stones and slabs had been laid, to
form a kind of bridge.  Now this bridge was so full of holes that the
horses could not tell where to plant their feet, and refused obstinately
to cross it, so that in the end we were obliged to dismount and lead them
across.  We had scarcely passed this place, and sat down to rest, when a
caravan of fifteen horses, laden with planks, dried fish, &c. arrived at
the bridge.  Of course the poor creatures observed the dangerous ground,
and could only be driven by hard blows to advance.  Hardly twenty paces
off there were stones in abundance; but rather than devote a few minutes
to filling up the holes, these lazy people beat their horses cruelly, and
exposed them to the risk of breaking their legs.  I pitied the poor
animals, which would be compelled to recross the bridge, so heartily,
that, after they are gone, I devoted a part of my resting-time to
collecting stones and filling up the holes,--a business which scarcely
occupied me a quarter of an hour.

It is interesting to notice how the horses know by instinct the dangerous
spots in the stony wastes, and in the moors and swamps.  On approaching
these places they bend their heads towards the earth, and look sharply
round on all sides.  If they cannot discover a firm resting-place for the
feet, they stop at once, and cannot be urged forward without many blows.

After a halt of two hours we continued our journey, which again led us
across fields of lava.  At past nine o'clock in the evening we reached an
elevated plain, after traversing which for half an hour we saw stretched
at our feet the valley of Reikholt or Reikiadal; it is fourteen to
seventeen miles long, of a good breadth, and girt round by a row of
mountains, among which several jokuls sparkle in their icy garments.

A sunset seen in the sublime wildness of Icelandic scenery has a
peculiarly beautiful effect.  Over these vast plains, divested of trees
or shrubs, covered with dark lava, and shut in by mountains almost of a
sable hue, the parting sun sheds an almost magical radiance.  The peaks
of the mountains shine in the bright parting rays, the jokuls are
shrouded in the most delicate roseate hue, while the lower parts of the
mountains lie in deep shadow, and frown darkly on the valleys, which
resemble a sheet of dark blue water, with an atmosphere of a bluish-red
colour floating above it.  The most impressive feature of all is the
profound silence and solitude; not a sound can be heard, not a living
creature is to be seen; every thing appears dead.  Throughout the broad
valleys not a town nor a village, no, not even a solitary house or a tree
or shrub, varies the prospect.  The eye wanders over the vast desert, and
finds not one familiar object on which it can rest.

To-night, as at past eleven o'clock we reached the elevated plain, I saw
a sunset which I shall never forget.  The sun disappeared behind the
mountains, and in its stead a gorgeous ruddy gleam lighted up hill and
valley and glacier.  It was long ere I could turn away my eyes from the
glittering heights, and yet the valley also offered much that was
striking and beautiful.

Throughout almost its entire length this valley formed a meadow, from the
extremities of which columns of smoke and boiling springs burst forth.
The mists had almost evaporated, and the atmosphere was bright and clear,
more transparent even than I had seen it in any other country.  I now for
the first time noticed, that in the valley itself the radiance was almost
as clear as the light of day, so that the most minute objects could be
plainly distinguished.  This was, however, extremely necessary, for steep
and dangerous paths lead over masses of lava into the valley.  On one
side ran a little river, forming many picturesque waterfalls, some of
them above thirty feet in height.

I strained my eyes in vain to discover any where, in this great valley, a
little church, which, if it only offered me a hard bench for a couch,
would at any rate afford me a shelter from the sharp night-wind; for it
is really no joke to ride for fifteen hours, with nothing to eat but
bread and cheese, and then not even to have the pleasant prospect of a
hotel _a la villa de Londres_ or _de Paris_.  Alas, my wishes were far
more modest.  I expected no porter at the gate to give the signal of my
arrival, no waiter, and no chambermaid; I only desired a little spot in
the neighbourhood of the dear departed Icelanders.  I was suddenly
recalled from these happy delusions by the voice of the guide, who cried
out: "Here we are at our destination for to-night."  I looked joyfully
round; alas! I could only see a few of those cottages which are never
observed until you almost hit your nose against one of them, as the
grass-covered walls can hardly be distinguished from the surrounding
meadow.

It was already midnight.  We stopped, and turned our horses loose, to
seek supper and rest in the nearest meadow.  Our lot was a less fortunate
one.  The inhabitants were already buried in deep slumbers, from which
even the barking set up by the dogs at our approach failed to arouse
them.  A cup of coffee would certainly have been very acceptable to me;
yet I was loath to rouse any one merely for this.  A piece of bread
satisfied my hunger, and a draught of water from the nearest spring
tasted most deliciously with it.  After concluding my frugal meal, I
sought out a corner beside a cottage, where I was partially sheltered
from the too-familiar wind; and wrapping my cloak around me, lay down on
the ground, having wished myself, with all my heart, a good night's rest
and pleasant dreams, in the broad daylight, {37} under the canopy of
heaven.  Just dropping off to sleep, I was surprised by a mild rain,
which, of course, at once put to flight every idea of repose.  Thus,
after all, I was obliged to wake some one up, to obtain the shelter of a
roof.

The best room, _i.e._ the store-room, was thrown open for my
accommodation, and a small wooden bedstead placed at my disposal.
Chambers of this kind are luckily found wherever two or three cottages
lie contiguous to each other; they are certainly far from inviting, as
dried fish, train-oil, tallow, and many other articles of the same
description combine to produce a most unsavoury atmosphere.  Yet they are
infinitely preferable to the dwellings of the peasants, which, by the by,
are the most filthy dens that can be imagined.  Besides being redolent of
every description of bad odour, these cottages are infested with vermin
to a degree which can certainly not be surpassed, except in the dwellings
of the Greenlanders and Laplanders.

                                                                June 18th.

Yesterday we had been forced to put upon our poor horses a wearisome
distance of more than fifty miles, as the last forty miles led us through
desert and uninhabited places, boasting not even a single cottage.
To-day, however, our steeds had a light duty to perform, for we only
proceeded seven miles to the little village of Reikiadal, where I halted
to-day, in order to visit the celebrated springs.

The inconsiderable village called Reikiadal, consisting only of a church
and a few cottages, is situated amidst pleasant meadows.  Altogether this
valley is rich in beautiful meadow-lands; consequently one sees many
scattered homesteads and cottages, with fine herds of sheep, and a
tolerable number of horses; cows are less plentiful.

The church at Reikiadal is among the neatest and most roomy of those
which came under my observation.  The dwelling of the priest too, though
only a turf-covered cottage, is large enough for the comfort of the
occupants.  This parish extends over a considerable area, and is not
thinly inhabited.

My first care on my arrival was to beg the clergyman, Herr Jonas Jonason,
to procure for me, as expeditiously as possible, fresh horses and a
guide, in order that I might visit the springs.  He promised to provide
me with both within half an hour; and yet it was not until three hours
had been wasted, that, with infinite pains, I saw my wish fulfilled.
Throughout my stay in Iceland, nothing annoyed me more than the slowness
and unconcern displayed by the inhabitants in all their undertakings.
Every wish and every request occupies a long time in its fulfilment.  Had
I not been continually at the good pastor's side, I believe I should
scarcely have attained my object.  At length every thing was ready, and
the pastor himself was kind enough to be my guide.

We rode about four miles through this beautiful vale, and in this short
distance were compelled at least six times to cross the river Sidumule,
which rolls its most tortuous course through the entire valley.  At
length the first spring was reached; it emerges from a rock about six
feet in height, standing in the midst of a moor.  The upper cavity of the
natural reservoir, in which the water continually boils and seethes, is
between two and three feet in diameter.  This spring never stops; the jet
of water rises two, and sometimes even four feet high, and is about
eighteen inches thick.  It is possible to increase the volume of the jet
for a few seconds, by throwing large stones or lumps of earth into the
opening, and thus stirring up the spring.  The stones are cast forcibly
forth, and the lumps of earth, dissolved by the action of the water,
impart to the latter a dingy colour.

Whoever has seen the jet of water at Carlsbad, in Bohemia, can well
imagine the appearance of this spring, which closely resembles that of
Carlsbad. {38}

In the immediate neighbourhood of the spring is an abyss, in which water
is continually seething, but never rises into the air.  At a little
distance, on a high rock, rising out of the river Sidumule, not far from
the shore, are other springs.  They are three in number, each at a short
distance from the next, and occupy nearly the entire upper surface of the
rock.  Lower down we find a reservoir of boiling water; and at the foot
of the rock, and on the nearest shore, are many more hot springs; but
most of these are inconsiderable.  Many of these hot springs emerge
almost from the cold river itself.

The chief group, however, lies still farther off, on a rock which may be
about twenty feet in height, and fifty in length.  It is called Tunga
Huer, and rises from the midst of a moor.  On this rock there are no less
than sixteen springs, some emerging from its base, others rather above
the middle, but none from the top of the rock.

The construction of the basins and the height and diameter of the jets
were precisely similar to those I have already described.  All these
sixteen springs are so near each other that they do not even occupy two
sides of the rock.  It is impossible to form an idea of the magnificence
of this singular spectacle, which becomes really fairy-like, if the
beholder have the courage to climb the rock itself, a proceeding of some
danger, though of little difficulty.  The upper stratum of the rock is
soft and warm, presenting almost the appearance of mud thickened with
sand and small stones.  Every footstep leaves a trace behind it, and the
visitor has continually before his eyes the fear of breaking through, and
falling into a hot spring hidden from view by a thin covering.  The good
pastor walked in advance of me, with a stick, and probed the dangerous
surface as much as possible.  I was loath to stay behind, and suddenly we
found ourselves at the summit of the rock.  Here we could take in, at one
view, the sixteen springs gushing from both its sides.  If the view from
below had been most interesting and singular, how shall I describe its
appearance as seen from above?  Sixteen jets of water seen at one glance,
sixteen reservoirs, in all their diversity of form and construction,
opening at once beneath the feet of the beholder, seemed almost too
wonderful a sight.  Forgetting all pusillanimous feelings, I stood and
honoured the Creator in these his marvellous works.  For a long time I
stood, and could not tire of gazing into the abysses from whose darkness
the masses of white and foaming water sprung hissing into the air, to
fall again, and hasten in quiet union towards the neighbouring river.
The good pastor found it necessary to remind me several times that our
position here was neither of the safest nor of the most comfortable, and
that it was therefore high time to abandon it.  I had ceased to think of
the insecurity of the ground we trod, and scarcely noticed the mighty
clouds of hot vapour which frequently surrounded and threatened to
suffocate us, obliging us to step suddenly back with wetted faces.  It
was fortunate that these waters contain but a very small quantity of
brimstone, otherwise we could scarcely have long maintained our elevated
position.

The rock from which these springs rise is formed of a reddish mass, and
the bed of the river into which the water flows is also completely
covered with little stones of the same colour.

On our way back we noticed, near a cottage, another remarkable
phenomenon.  It was a basin, in whose depths the water boils and bubbles
violently; and near this basin are two unsightly holes, from which
columns of smoke periodically rise with a great noise.  Whilst this is
going on, the basin fills itself more and more with water, but never so
much as to overflow, or to force a jet of water into the air; then the
steam and the noise cease in both cavities, and the water in the
reservoir sinks several feet.

This strange phenomenon generally lasts about a minute, and is repeated
so regularly, that a bet could almost be made, that the rising and
falling of the water, and the increased and lessened noise of the steam,
shall be seen and heard sixty or sixty-five times within an hour.

In communication with this basin is another, situate at a distance of
about a hundred paces in a small hollow, and filled like the former with
boiling water.  As the water in the upper basin gradually sinks, and
ceases to seethe, it begins to rise in the lower one, and is at length
forced two or three feet into the air; then it falls again, and thus the
phenomenon is continually repeated in the upper and the lower basin
alternately.

At the upper spring there is also a vapour-bath.  This is formed by a
small chamber situate hard by the basin, built of stones and roofed with
turf.  It is further provided with a small and narrow entrance, which
cannot be passed in an upright position.  The floor is composed of stone
slabs, probably covering a hot spring, for they are very warm.  The
person wishing to use this bath betakes himself to this room, and
carefully closes every cranny; a suffocating heat, which induces violent
perspiration over the whole frame, is thus generated.  The people,
however, seldom avail themselves of this bath.

On my return I had still to visit a basin with a jet of water, in a fine
meadow near the church; a low wall of stone has been erected round this
spring to prevent the cattle from scalding themselves if they should
approach too near in the ardour of grazing.  Some eighty paces off is to
be seen the wool-bath erected by Snorri Sturluson.  It consists of a
stone basin three or four feet in depth, and eighteen or twenty in
diameter.  The approach is by a few steps leading to a low stone bench,
which runs round the basin.  The water is obtained from the neighbouring
spring, but is of so high a temperature that it is impossible to bathe
without previously cooling it.  The bath stands in the open air, and no
traces are left of the building which once covered it.  It is now used
for clothes and sheep's wool.

I had now seen all the interesting springs on this side of the valley.
Some columns of vapour, which may be observed from the opposite end of
the valley, proceed from thermal springs, that offer no remarkable
feature save their heat.

On our return the priest took me to the churchyard, which lay at some
distance from his dwelling, and showed me the principal graves.  Though I
thought the sight very impressive, it was not calculated to invigorate
me, when I considered that I must pass the approaching night alone in the
church, amidst these resting-places of the departed.

The mound above each grave is very high, and the greater part of them are
surmounted by a kind of wooden coffin, which at first sight conveys the
impression that the dead person is above ground.  I could not shake off a
feeling of discomfort; and such is the power of prejudice, that--I
acknowledge my weakness--I was even induced to beg that the priest would
remove one of the covers.  Though I knew full well that the dead man was
slumbering deep in the earth, and not in this coffin, I felt a shudder
pass over me as the lid was removed, and I saw--as the priest had assured
me I should do--merely a tombstone with the usual inscription, which this
coffin-like covering is intended to protect against the rude storms of
the winter.

Close beside the entrance to the church is the mound beneath which rest
the bones of Snorri Sturluson, the celebrated poet; {39} over this grave
stands a small runic stone of the length of the mound itself.  This stone
is said to have once been completely covered with runic characters; but
all trace of these has been swept away by the storms of five hundred
winters, against which the tomb had no protecting coffin.  The stone,
too, is split throughout its entire length into two pieces.  The mound
above the grave is often renewed, so that the beholder could often fancy
he saw a new-made grave.  I picked all the buttercups I could find
growing on the grave, and preserved them carefully in a book.  Perhaps I
may be able to give pleasure to several of my countrywomen by offering
them a floweret from the grave of the greatest of Icelandic poets.

                                                                June 19th.

In order to pursue my journey without interruption, I hired fresh horses,
and allowed my own, which were rather fatigued, to accompany us unloaded.
My object in this further excursion was to visit the very remarkable
cavern of Surthellir, distant a good thirty-three miles from this place.
The clergyman was again kind enough to make the necessary arrangements
for me, and even to act as my Mentor on the journey.

Though we were only three strong, we departed with a retinue of seven
horses, and for nearly ten miles rode back the same way by which I had
come from Reikholt on the preceding morning; then we turned off to the
left, and crossing hills and acclivities, reached other valleys, which
were partly traversed by beautiful streams of lava, and partly
interspersed with forests--_forests_, as I have already said, according
to Icelandic notions.  The separate stems were certainly slightly higher
than those in the valley of Thingvalla.

At Kalmannstunga we left the spare horses, and took with us a man to
serve as guide in the cavern, from which we were now still some seven
miles distant.  The great valley in which this cavern lies is reckoned
among the most remarkable in Iceland.  It is a most perfect picture of
volcanic devastation.  The most beautiful masses of lava, in the most
varied and picturesque forms, occupy the whole immeasurable valley.  Lava
is to be seen there in a rough glassy state, forming exquisite flames and
arabesques; and in immense slabs, lying sometimes scattered, sometimes
piled in strata one above the other, as though they had been cast there
by a flood.  Among these, again, lie mighty isolated streams, which must
have been frozen in the midst of their course.  From the different
colours of the lava, and their transitions from light grey to black, we
can judge of the eruptions which have taken place at different periods.
The mountains surrounding this valley are mostly of a sombre hue; some
are even black, forming a striking contrast to the neighbouring jokuls,
which, in their large expanse, present the appearance almost of a sea of
ice.  I found one of these jokuls of a remarkable size; its shining
expanse extended far down into the valley, and its upper surface was
almost immeasurable.

The other mountains were all smooth, as though polished by art; in the
foreground I only noticed one which was covered with wonderful forms of
dried lava.  A deathlike silence weighed on the whole country round, on
hill and on valley alike.  Every thing seemed dead, all round was barren
and desert, so that the effect was truly Icelandic.  The greater portion
of Iceland might be with justice designated the "Northern Desert."

The cavern of Surthellir lies on a slightly elevated extended plain,
where it would certainly not be sought for, as we are accustomed to see
natural phenomena of this description only in the bowels of rocks.  It
is, therefore, with no little surprise that the traveller sees suddenly
opening before him a large round basin about fifteen fathoms in diameter,
and four in depth.  It was with a feeling of awe that I looked downwards
on the countless blocks of rock piled one upon the other, extending on
one side to the edge of the hollow, across which the road led to the dark
ravines farther on.

We were compelled to scramble forward on our hands and knees, until we
reached a long broad passage, which led us at first imperceptibly
downwards, and then ran underneath the plain, which formed a rocky cavern
above our heads.  I estimated the different heights of this roof at not
less than from eighteen to sixty feet; but it seldom reached a greater
elevation than the latter.  Both roof and walls are in some places very
pointed and rough: a circumstance to be ascribed to the stalactites which
adhere to them, without, however, forming figures or long sharp points.

From this principal path several smaller ones lead far into the interior
of this stony region; but they do not communicate with each other, and
one is compelled to return from each side-path into the main road.  Some
of these by-paths are short, narrow, and low; others, on the contrary,
are long, broad, and lofty.

In one of the most retired of these by-paths I was shewn a great number
of bones, which, I was told, were those of slaughtered sheep and other
animals.  I could gather, from the account given by the priest of the
legend concerning them, that, in days of yore, this cave was the resort
of a mighty band of robbers.  This must have been a long, long time ago,
as this is related as a legend or a fable.

For my part, I could not tell what robbers had to do in Iceland.  Pirates
had often come to the island; but for these gentry this cavern was too
far from the sea.  I cannot even imagine beasts of prey to have been
there; for the whole country round about is desert and uninhabited, so
that they could have found nothing to prey upon.  In fact, I turned over
in my mind every probability, and can only say that it appeared to me a
most remarkable circumstance to find in this desert place, so far from
any living thing, a number of bones, which, moreover, looked as fresh as
if the poor animals to whom they once belonged had been eaten but a short
time ago.  Unfortunately I could obtain no satisfactory information on
this point.

It is difficult to imagine any thing more laborious than to wander about
in this cavern.  As the road had shewed itself at the entrance of the
cavern, so it continued throughout its whole extent.  The path consisted
entirely of loose fragments of lava heaped one upon the other, over which
we had to clamber with great labour.  None of us could afford to help the
others; each one was fully occupied with himself.  There was not a single
spot to be seen on which we could have stood without holding fast at the
same time with our hands.  We were sometimes obliged to seat ourselves on
a stone, and so to slide down; at others, to take hands and pull one
another to the top of high blocks of stone.

We came to several immense basins, or craters, which opened above our
heads, but were inaccessible, the sides being too steep for us to climb.
The light which entered through these openings was scarcely enough to
illumine the principal path, much less the numerous by-paths.

At Kalmannstunga I had endeavoured to procure torches, but was obliged to
consider myself fortunate in getting a few tapers.  It is necessary to
provide oneself with torches at Reikjavik.

The parts of the cavern beneath the open craters were still covered with
a considerable quantity of snow, by which our progress was rendered very
dangerous.  We frequently sunk in, and at other times caught our feet
between the stones, so that we could scarcely maintain our balance.  In
the by-paths situated near these openings an icy rind had formed itself,
which was now covered with water.  Farther on, the ice had melted; but it
was generally very dirty, as a stratum of sand mixed with water lay there
in place of the stones.  The chief path alone was covered with blocks of
lava; in the smaller paths I found only strata of sand and small pieces
of lava.

The magical illumination produced by the sun's rays shining through one
of these craters into the cavern produced a splendid effect.  The sun
shone perpendicularly through the opening, spread a dazzling radiance
over the snow, and diffused a pale delicate light around us.  The effect
of this point of dazzling light was the more remarkable from its
contrasting strongly with the two dark chasms, from the first of which we
had emerged to continue our journey through the obscurity of the second.

This subterranean labyrinth is said to extend in different directions for
many miles.  We explored a portion of the chief path and several
by-paths, and after a march of two hours returned heartily tired to the
upper world.  We then rested a quarter of an hour, and afterwards
returned at a good round pace to Kalmannstunga.

Unfortunately I do not possess sufficient geognostic knowledge to be able
to set this cavern down as an extinct volcano.  But in travelling in a
country where every hill and mountain, every thing around, in fact,
consists of lava, even the uninitiated in science seeks to discover the
openings whence these immense masses have poured.  The stranger curiously
regards the top of each mountain, thinking every where to behold a
crater, but both hill and dale appear smooth and closed.  With what joy
then does he hail the thought of having discovered, in this cavern,
something to throw light upon the sources of these things!  I, at least,
fancied myself walking on the hearth of an extinct volcano; for all I
saw, from the masses of stone piled beneath my feet and the immense basin
above my head, were both of lava.  If I am right in my conjecture, I do
not know; I only speak according to my notions and my views.

I was obliged to pass this night in a cottage.  Kalmannstunga contains
three such cottages, but no chapel.  Luckily I found one of these houses
somewhat larger and more cleanly than its neighbours; it could almost
come under the denomination of a farm.  The occupants, too, had been
employed during my ride to the cavern in cleansing the best chamber, and
preparing it, as far as possible, for my reception.  The room in question
was eleven feet long by seven broad; the window was so small and so
covered with dirt that, although the sun was shining in its full glory, I
could scarcely see to write.  The walls, and even the floor, were
boarded--a great piece of luxury in a country where wood is so scarce.
The furniture consisted of a broad bedstead, two chests of drawers, and a
small table.  Chairs and benches are a kind of _terra incognita_ in the
dwellings of the Icelandic peasantry; besides, I do not know where such
articles could be stowed in a room of such dimensions as that which I
occupied.

My hostess, the widow of a wealthy peasant, introduced to me her four
children, who were very handsome, and very neatly dressed.  I begged the
good mother to tell me the names of the young ones, so that I might at
least know a few Icelandic names.  She appeared much flattered at my
request, and gave me the names as follows: Sigrudur, Gudrun, Ingebor, and
Lars.

I should have felt tolerably comfortable in my present quarters,
accustomed as I am to bear privations of all kinds with indifference, if
they would but have left me in peace.  But the reader may fancy my horror
when the whole population, not only of the cottage itself, but also of
the neighbouring dwellings, made their appearance, and, planting
themselves partly in my chamber and partly at the door, held me in a far
closer state of siege than even at Krisuvik.  I was, it appeared, quite a
novel phenomenon in the eyes of these good people, and so they came one
and all and stared at me; the women and children were, in particular,
most unpleasantly familiar; they felt my dress, and the little ones laid
their dirty little countenances in my lap.  Added to this, the confined
atmosphere from the number of persons present, their lamentable want of
cleanliness, and their filthy habit of spitting, &c., all combined to
form a most dreadful whole.  During these visits I did more penance than
by the longest fasts; and fasting, too, was an exercise I seldom escaped,
as I could touch few Icelandic dishes.  The cookery of the Icelandic
peasants is wholly confined to the preparation of dried fish, with which
they eat fermented milk that has often been kept for months; on very rare
occasions they have a preparation of barley-meal, which is eaten with
flat bread baked from Icelandic moss ground fine.

I could not but wonder at the fact that most of these people expected to
find me acquainted with a number of things generally studied only by men;
they seemed to have a notion that in foreign parts women should be as
learned as men.  So, for instance, the priests always inquired if I spoke
Latin, and seemed much surprised on finding that I was unacquainted with
the language.  The common people requested my advice as to the mode of
treating divers complaints; and once, in the course of one of my solitary
wanderings about Reikjavik, on my entering a cottage, they brought before
me a being whom I should scarcely have recognised as belonging to the
same species as myself, so fearfully was he disfigured by the eruption
called "lepra."  Not only the face, but the whole body also was covered
with it; the patient was quite emaciated, and some parts of his body were
covered with sores.  For a surgeon this might have been an interesting
sight, but I turned away in disgust.

But let us turn from this picture.  I would rather tell of the angel's
face I saw in Kalmannstunga.  It was a girl, ten or twelve years of age,
beautiful and lovely beyond description, so that I wished I had been a
painter.  How gladly would I have taken home with me to my own land, if
only on canvass, the delicate face, with its roguish dimples and speaking
eyes!  But perhaps it is better as it is; the picture might by some
unlucky chance have fallen into the hands of some too-susceptible youth,
who, like Don Sylvio de Rosalva, in Wieland's _Comical Romance_, would
immediately have proceeded to travel through half the world to find the
original of this enchanting portrait.  His spirit of inquiry would
scarcely have carried him to Iceland, as such an apparition would never
be suspected to exist in such a country, and thus the unhappy youth would
be doomed to endless wandering.

                                                                June 20th.

The distance from Kalmannstunga to Thingvalla is fifty-two miles, and the
journey is certainly one of the most dreary and fatiguing of all that can
be made in Iceland.  The traveller passes from one desert valley into
another; he is always surrounded by high mountains and still higher
glaciers, and wherever he turns his eyes, nature seems torpid and dead.
A feeling of anxious discomfort seizes upon the wanderer, he hastens with
redoubled speed through the far-stretched deserts, and eagerly ascends
the mountains piled up before him, in the hope that better things lie
beyond.  It is in vain; he only sees the same solitudes, the same
deserts, the same mountains.

On the elevated plateaux several places were still covered with snow;
these we were obliged to cross, though we could frequently hear the
rushing of the water beneath its snowy covering.  We were compelled also
to pass over coatings of ice spread lightly over rivers, and presenting
that blue colour which is a certain sign of danger.

Our poor horses were sometimes very restive; but it was of no use; they
were beaten without mercy until they carried us over the dangerous
places.  The pack-horse was always driven on in front with many blows; it
had to serve as pioneer, and try if the road was practicable.  Next came
my guide, and I brought up the rear.  Our poor horses frequently sank up
to their knees in the snow, and twice up to the saddle-girths.  This was
one of the most dangerous rides I have ever had.  I could not help
continually thinking what I should do if my guide were to sink in so
deeply that he could not extricate himself; my strength would not have
been sufficient to rescue him, and whither should I turn to seek for
help?  All around us was nothing but a desert and snow.  Perhaps my lot
might have been to die of hunger.  I should have wandered about seeking
dwellings and human beings, and have entangled myself so completely among
these wastes that I could never have found my way.

When at a distance I descried a new field of snow (and unfortunately we
came upon them but too frequently), I felt very uncomfortable; those
alone who have themselves been in a similar situation can estimate the
whole extent of my anxiety.

If I had been travelling in company with others, these fears would not
have disturbed me; for there reciprocal assistance can be rendered, and
the consciousness of this fact seems materially to diminish the danger.

During the season in which the snow ceases to form a secure covering,
this road is but little travelled.  We saw nowhere a trace of footsteps,
either of men or animals; we were the only living beings in this dreadful
region.  I certainly scolded my guide roundly for bringing me by such a
road.  But what did I gain by this?  It would have been as dangerous to
turn back as to go on.

A change in the weather, which till now had been rather favourable,
increased the difficulties of this journey.  Already when we left
Kalmannstunga, the sky began to be overcast, and the sun enlivened us
with its rays only for a few minutes at a time.  On our reaching the
higher mountains the weather became worse; for here we encountered clouds
and fog, which wreaked their vengeance upon us, and which only careered
by to make room for others.  An icy storm from the neighbouring glaciers
was their constant companion, and made me shiver so much that I could
scarcely keep my saddle.  We had now ridden above thirteen hours.  The
rain poured down incessantly, and we were half dead with cold and wet; so
I at length determined to halt for the night at the first cottage: at
last we found one between two or three miles from Thingvalla.  I had now
a roof above my head; but beyond this I had gained nothing.  The cottage
consisted of a single room, and was almost completely filled by four
broad bedsteads.  I counted seven adults and three children, who had all
to be accommodated in these four beds.  In addition to this, the kvef, a
kind of croup, prevailed this spring to such an extent that scarcely any
one escaped it.  Wherever I went, I found the people afflicted with this
complaint; and here this was also the case; the noise of groaning and
coughing on all sides was quite deplorable.  The floor, moreover, was
revoltingly dirty.

The good people were so kind as immediately to place one of their beds at
my disposal; but I would rather have passed the night on the threshold of
the door than in this disgusting hole.  I chose for my lodging-place the
narrow passage which separated the kitchen from the room; I found there a
couple of blocks, across which a few boards had been laid, and this
constituted the milk-room: it might have been more properly called the
smoke-room; for in the roof were a few air-holes, through which the smoke
escaped.  In this smoke or milk-room--whichever it may be called--I
prepared to pass the night as best I could.  My cloak being wet through,
I had been compelled to hang it on a stick to dry; and thus found myself
under the necessity of borrowing a mattress from these unhealthy people.
I laid myself down boldly, and pretended sleepiness, in order to deliver
myself from the curiosity of my entertainers.  They retired to their
room, and so I was alone and undisturbed.  But yet I could not sleep; the
cold wind, blowing in upon me through the air-holes, chilled and wetted
as I already was, kept me awake against my will.  I had also another
misfortune to endure.  As often as I attempted to sit upright on my
luxurious couch, my head would receive a severe concussion.  I had
forgotten the poles which are fixed across each of these antechambers,
for the purpose of hanging up fish to dry, &c.  Unfortunately I could not
bear this arrangement in mind until after I had received half a dozen
salutations of this description.

                                                                June 21st.

At length the morning so long sighed for came; the rain had indeed
ceased; but the clouds still hung about the mountains, and promised a
speedy fall; I nevertheless resolved rather to submit myself to the fury
of the elements than to remain longer in my present quarters, and so
ordered the horses to be saddled.

Before my departure roast lamb and butter were offered me.  I thanked my
entertainers; but refrained from tasting any thing, excusing myself on
the plea of not feeling hungry, which was in reality the case; for if I
only looked at the dirty people who surrounded me, my appetite vanished
instantly.  So long as my stock of bread and cheese lasted, I kept to it,
and ate nothing else.

Taking leave of my good hosts, we continued our journey to Reikjavik, by
the same road on which I had travelled on my journey hither.  This had
not been my original plan on starting from Reikjavik; I had intended to
proceed from Thingvalla directly to the Geyser, to Hecla, &c.; but the
horses were already exhausted, and the weather so dreadfully bad, without
prospect of speedy amendment, that I preferred returning to Reikjavik,
and waiting for better times in my pleasant little room at the house of
the good baker.

We rode on as well as we could amidst ceaseless storms of wind and rain.
The most disagreeable circumstance of all was our being obliged to spend
the hours devoted to rest in the open air, under a by no means cloudless
sky, as during our whole day's journey we saw not a single hut, save the
solitary one in the lava desert, which serves as a resting-place for
travellers during the winter.  So we continued our journey until we
reached a scanty meadow.  Here I had my choice either to walk about for
two hours, or to sit down upon the wet grass.  I could find nothing
better to do than to turn my back upon the wind and rain, to remain
standing on one spot, to have patience, and for amusement to observe the
direction in which the clouds scudded by.  At the same time I discussed
my frugal meal, more for want of something to do than from hunger; if I
felt thirsty, I had only to turn round and open my mouth.

If there are natures peculiarly fitted for travelling, I am fortunate in
being blessed with such an one.  No rain or wind was powerful enough to
give me even a cold.  During this whole excursion I had tasted no warm or
nourishing food; I had slept every night upon a bench or a chest; had
ridden nearly 255 miles in six days; and had besides scrambled about
bravely in the cavern of Surthellir; and, in spite of all this privation
and fatigue, I arrived at Reikjavik in good health and spirits.

Short summary of this journey:


                                    Miles
First day, from Reikjavik to        46
Thingvalla
Second day, from Thingvalla to      51
Reikholt
Third day, from Reikholt to the     19
different springs, and back again
Fourth day, from Reikholt to        40
Surthellir, and back to
Kalmannstunga
Fifth day, from Kalmannstunga to    51
Thingvalla
Sixth day, from Thingvalla to       46
Reikjavik
Total                               253



CHAPTER VI


The weather soon cleared up, and I continued my journey to the Geyser and
to Mount Hecla on the 24th June.  On the first day, when we rode to
Thingvalla, we passed no new scenery, but saw instead an extremely
beautiful atmospheric phenomenon.

                          [Picture: The Geysers]

As we approached the lake, some thin mist-clouds lowered over it and over
the earth, so that it seemed as if it would rain.  One portion of the
firmament glowed with the brightest blue; while the other part was
obscured by thick clouds, through which the sun was just breaking.  Some
of its rays reached the clouds of mist, and illuminated them in a
wonderfully beautiful manner.  The most delicate shades of colour seemed
breathed, as it were, over them like a dissolving rainbow, whose glowing
colours were intermingled and yet singly perceptible.  This play of
colours continued for half an hour, then faded gradually till it vanished
entirely, and the ordinary atmosphere took its place.  It was one of the
most beautiful appearances I had ever witnessed.

                                                                June 25th.

The roads separate about a mile behind the little town of Thingvalla; the
one to the left goes to Reikholt, the right-hand one leads to the Geyser.
We rode for some time along the shores of the lake, and found at the end
of the valley an awful chasm in the rock, similar to the one of
Almanagiau, which we had passed on such a wretched road.

The contiguous valley bore a great resemblance to that of Thingvalla; but
the third one was again fearful.  Lava covered it, and was quite
overgrown with that whitish moss, which has a beautiful appearance when
it only covers a portion of the lava, and when black masses rise above
it, but which here presented a most monotonous aspect.

We also passed two grottoes which opened at our feet.  At the entrance of
one stood a pillar of rock supporting an immense slab of lava, which
formed an awe-inspiring portal.  I had unfortunately not known of the
existence of these caves, and was consequently unprepared to visit them.
Torches, at least, would have been requisite.  But I subsequently heard
that they were not at all deep, and contained nothing of interest.

In the course of the day we passed through valleys such as I had seen
nowhere else in Iceland.  Beautiful meadow-lawns, perfectly level,
covered the country for miles.  These rich valleys were, of course,
tolerably well populated; we frequently passed three or four contiguous
cottages, and saw horses, cows, and sheep grazing on these fields in
considerable numbers.

The mountains which bounded these valleys on the left seemed to me very
remarkable; they were partly brown, black, or dark blue, like the others;
but the bulk of which they were composed I considered to be fine
loam-soil layers, if I may trust my imperfect mineralogical knowledge.
Some of these mountains were topped by large isolated lava rocks, real
giants; and it seemed inexplicable to me how they could stand on the soft
soil beneath.

In one of these valleys we passed a considerable lake, on and around
which rose circling clouds of steam proceeding from hot springs, but of
no great size.  But after we had already travelled about twenty-five
miles, we came to the most remarkable object I had ever met with; this
was a river with a most peculiar bed.

This river-bed is broad and somewhat steep; it consists of lava strata,
and is divided lengthwise in the middle by a cleft eighteen to twenty
feet deep, and fifteen to eighteen feet broad, towards which the bubbling
and surging waters rush, so that the sound is heard at some distance.  A
little wooden bridge, which stands in the middle of the stream, and over
which the high waves constantly play, leads over the chasm.  Any one not
aware of the fact can hardly explain this appearance to himself, nor
understand the noise and surging of the stream.  The little bridge in the
centre would be taken for the ruins of a fallen bridge, and the chasm is
not seen from the shore, because the foaming waves overtop it.  An
indescribable fear would seize upon the traveller when he beheld the
venturous guide ride into the stream, and was obliged to follow without
pity or mercy.

The priest of Thingvalla had prepared me for the scene, and had advised
me to _walk_ over the bridge; but as the water at this season stood so
high that the waves from both sides dashed two feet above the bridge, I
could not descend from my horse, and was obliged to ride across.

The whole passage through the stream is so peculiar, that it must be
seen, and can scarcely be described.  The water gushes and plays on all
sides with fearful force; it rushes into the chasm with impetuous
violence, forms waterfalls on both sides, and breaks itself on the
projecting rocks.  Not far from the bridge the cleft terminates; and the
whole breadth of the waters falls over rocks thirty to forty feet high.
The nearer we approached the centre, the deeper, more violent, and
impetuous grew the stream, and the more deafening was the noise.  The
horses became restless and shy; and when we came to the bridge, they
began to tremble, they reared, they turned to all sides but the right
one, and refused to obey the bridle.  With infinite trouble we at last
succeeded in bringing them across this dangerous place.

The valley which is traversed by this peculiar river is narrow, and quite
enclosed by lava mountains and hills; the inanimate, silent nature around
is perfectly adapted to imprint this scene for ever on the traveller's
memory.

This remarkable stream had been the last difficulty; and now we proceeded
quietly and safely through the beautiful valleys till we approached the
Geyser, which a projecting hillock enviously concealed from my anxiously
curious gaze.  At last this hillock was passed; and I saw the Geyser with
its surrounding scenery, with its immense steam pillars, and the clouds
and cloudlets rising from it.  The hill was about two miles distant from
the Geyser and the other hot springs.  There they were, boiling and
bubbling all around, and through the midst lay the road to the basin.
Eighty paces from it we halted.

And now I stood before the chief object of my journey; I saw it, it was
so near me, and yet I did not venture to approach it.  But a peasant who
had followed us from one of the neighbouring cottages, and had probably
guessed my anxiety and my fear, took me by the hand and constituted
himself my cicerone.  He had unfortunately, it being Sunday, paid too
great a devotion to the brandy-bottle, so that he staggered rather than
walked, and I hesitated to trust myself to the guidance of this man, not
knowing whether he had reason enough left to distinguish how far we might
with safety venture.  My guide, who had accompanied me from Reikjavik,
assured me indeed that I might trust him in spite of his intoxication,
and that he would himself go with us to translate the peasant's Icelandic
jargon into Danish; but nevertheless I followed with great trepidation.

He led me to the margin of the basin of the great Geyser, which lies on
the top of a gentle elevation of about ten feet, and contains the outer
and the inner basins.  The diameter of the outer basin may be about
thirty feet; that of the inner one six to seven feet.  Both were filled
to the brim, the water was pure as crystal, but boiled and bubbled only
slightly.  We soon left this spot; for when the basins are quite filled
with water it is very dangerous to approach them, as they may empty
themselves any moment by an eruption.  We therefore went to inspect the
other springs.

My unsteady guide pointed those out which we might unhesitatingly
approach, and warned me from the others.  Then we returned to the great
Geyser, where he gave me some precautionary rules, in case of an
intervening eruption, and then left me to prepare some accommodation for
my stay.  I will briefly enumerate the rules he gave me.

"The pillar of water always rises perpendicularly, and the overflowing
water has its chief outlets on one and the same side.  The water does
indeed escape on the other side, but only in inconsiderable quantities,
and in shapeless little ducts, which one may easily evade.  On this side
one may therefore approach within forty paces even during the most
violent eruptions.  The eruption announces itself by a dull roaring; and
as soon as this is heard, the traveller must hastily retire to the
above-named distance, as the eruption always follows very quickly after
the noise.  The water, however, does not rise high every time, often only
very inconsiderably, so that, to see a very fine explosion, it is often
necessary to stay some days here."

The French scholar, M. P. Geimard, has provided for the accommodation of
travellers with a truly noble disinterestedness.  He traversed the whole
of Iceland some years ago and left two large tents behind him; one here,
and the other in Thingvalla.  The one here is particularly appropriate,
as travellers are frequently obliged, as stated above, to wait several
days for a fine eruption.  Every traveller certainly owes M. Geimard the
warmest thanks for this convenience.  A peasant, the same who guides
travellers to the springs, has the charge of it, and is bound to pitch it
for any one for a fee of one or two florins.

When my tent was ready it was nearly eleven o'clock.  My companions
retired, and I remained alone.

It is usual to watch through the night in order not to miss an eruption.
Now, although an alternate watching is no very arduous matter for several
travellers, it became a very hard task for me alone, and an Icelandic
peasant cannot be trusted; an eruption of Mount Hecla would scarcely
arouse him.

I sat sometimes before and sometimes in my tent, and listened with
anxious expectation for the coming events; at last, after midnight--the
witching hour--I heard some hollow sounds, as if a cannon were being
fired at a great distance, and its echoing sounds were borne by the
breeze.  I rushed from my tent and expected subterranean noises, violent
cracking and trembling of the earth, according to the descriptions I had
read.  I could scarcely repress a slight sensation of fear.  To be alone
at midnight in such a scene is certainly no joke.

Many of my friends may remember my telling them, before my departure,
that I expected I should need the most courage on my Icelandic journey
during the nights at the Geyser.

These hollow sounds were repeated, at very short intervals, thirteen
times; and each time the basin overflowed and ejected a considerable
quantity of water.  The sounds did not seem to proceed from subterranean
ragings, but from the violent agitation of the waters.  In a minute and a
half all was over; the water no longer overflowed, the caldron and basin
remained filled, and I returned to my tent disappointed in every way.
This phenomenon was repeated every two hours and a half, or, at the
latest, every three hours and a half.  I saw and heard nothing else all
night, the next day, or the second night.  I waited in vain for an
eruption.

When I had accustomed myself to these temporary effusions of my
neighbour, I either indulged in a gentle slumber in the intermediate
time, or I visited the other springs and explored.  I wished to discover
the boiling vapour and the coloured springs which many travellers assert
they have seen here.

All the hot-springs are united with a circumference of 800 to 900 paces:
several of them are very remarkable, but the majority insignificant.

They are situated in the angle of an immense valley at the foot of a
hill, behind which extends a chain of mountains.  The valley is entirely
covered with grass, and the vegetation only decreases a little in the
immediate vicinity of the springs.  Cottages are built every where in the
neighbourhood; the nearest to the springs are only about 700 to 800 paces
distant.

I counted twelve large basins with boiling and gushing springs; of
smaller ones there were many more.

Among the gushing springs the Strokker is the most remarkable.  It boils
and bubbles with most extraordinary violence at a depth of about twenty
feet, shoots up suddenly, and projects its waters into the air.  Its
eruptions sometimes last half an hour, and the column occasionally
ascends to a height of forty feet.  I witnessed several of its eruptions;
but unfortunately not one of the largest.  The highest I saw could not
have been above thirty feet, and did not last more than a quarter of an
hour.  The Strokker is the only spring, except the Geyser, which has to
be approached with great caution.  The eruptions sometimes succeed each
other quickly, and sometimes cease for a few hours, and are not preceded
by any sign.  Another spring spouts constantly, but never higher than
three to four feet.  A third one lies about four or five feet deep, in a
rather broad basin, and produces only a few little bubbles.  But this
calmness is deceptive: it seldom lasts more than half a minute, rarely
two or three minutes; then the spring begins to bubble, to boil, and to
wave and spout to a height of two or three feet; without, however,
reaching the level of the basin.  In some springs I heard boiling and
foaming like a gentle bellowing; but saw no water, sometimes not even
steam, rising.

Two of the most remarkable springs which can perhaps be found in the
world are situated immediately above the Geyser, in two openings, which
are separated by a wall of rock scarcely a foot wide.  This partition
does not rise above the surface of the soil, but descends into the earth;
the water boils slowly, and has an equable, moderate discharge.  The
beauty of these springs consists in their remarkable transparency.  All
the varied forms and caves, the projecting peaks, and edges of rock, are
visible far down, until the eye is lost in the depths of darkness.  But
the greatest beauty of the spring is the splendid colouring proceeding
from the rock; it is of the tenderest, most transparent, pale blue and
green, and resembles the reflection of a Bengal flame.  But what is most
strange is, that this play of colour proceeds from the rock, and only
extends eight to ten inches from it, while the other water is colourless
as common water, only more transparent, and purer.

I could not believe it at first, and thought it must be occasioned by the
sun; I therefore visited the springs at different times, sometimes when
the sun shone brightly, sometimes when it was obscured by clouds, once
even after its setting; but the colouring always remained the same.

One may fearlessly approach the brink of these springs.  The platform
which projects directly from them, and under which one can see in all
directions, is indeed only a thin ledge of rock, but strong enough to
prevent any accident.  The beauty consists, as I have said, in the
magical illumination, and in the transparency, by which all the caves and
grottoes to the greatest depths become visible to the eye.  Involuntarily
I thought of Schiller's _Diver_. {40}  I seemed to see the goblet hang on
the peaks and jags of the rock; I could fancy I saw the monsters rise
from the bottom.  It must be a peculiar pleasure to read this splendid
poem in such an appropriate spot.

I found scarcely any basins of Brodem or coloured waters.  The only one
of the kind which I saw was a small basin, in which a brownish-red
substance, rather denser than water, was boiling.  Another smaller
spring, with dirty brown water, I should have quite overlooked, if I had
not so industriously searched for these curiosities.

At last, after long waiting, on the second day of my stay, on the 27th
June, at half-past eight in the morning, I was destined to see an
eruption of the Geyser in its greatest perfection.  The peasant, who came
daily in the morning and in the evening to inquire whether I had already
seen an eruption, was with me when the hollow sounds which precede it
were again heard.  We hastened out, and I again despaired of seeing any
thing; the water only overflowed as usual, and the sound was already
ceasing.  But all at once, when the last sounds had scarcely died away,
the explosion began.  Words fail me when I try to describe it: such a
magnificent and overpowering sight can only be seen once in a lifetime.

All my expectations and suppositions were far surpassed.  The water
spouted upwards with indescribable force and bulk; one pillar rose higher
than the other; each seemed to emulate the other.  When I had in some
measure recovered from the surprise, and regained composure, I looked at
the tent.  How little, how dwarfish it seemed as compared to the height
of these pillars of water!  And yet it was about twenty feet high.  It
did, indeed, lie ten feet lower than the basin of the Geyser; but if tent
had been raised above tent, these ten feet could only be deducted once,
and I calculated, though my calculation may not be correct, that one
would need to pile up five or six tents to have the height of one of the
pillars.  Without exaggeration, I think the largest spout rose above one
hundred feet high, and was three to four feet in diameter.

Fortunately I had looked at my watch at the beginning of the hollow
sounds, the forerunners of the eruption, for during its continuance I
should probably have forgotten to do so.  The whole lasted four minutes,
of which the greater half must have been taken up by the eruption itself.

When this wonderful scene was over, the peasant accompanied me to the
basin.  We could now approach it and the boiler without danger, and
examine both at leisure.  There was now nothing to fear; the water had
entirely disappeared from the outer basin.  We entered it and approached
the inner basin, in which the water had sunk seven or eight feet, where
it boiled and bubbled fiercely.

With a hammer I broke some crust out of the outer as well as out of the
inner basin; the former was white, the latter brown.  I also tasted the
water; it had not an unpleasant taste, and can only contain an
inconsiderable proportion of sulphur, as the steam does not even smell of
it.

I went to the basin of the Geyser every half hour to observe how much
time was required to fill it again.  After an hour I could still descend
into the outer basin; but half an hour later the inner basin was already
full, and commenced to overflow.  As long as the water only filled the
inner basin it boiled violently; but the higher it rose in the outer one,
the less it boiled, and nearly ceased when the basin was filled: it only
threw little bubbles here and there.

After a lapse of two hours--it was just noon--the basin was filled nearly
to the brim; and while I stood beside it the water began again to bubble
violently, and to emit the hollow sounds.  I had scarcely time to
retreat, for the pillars of water rose immediately.  This time they
spouted during the noise, and were more bulky than those of the first
explosion, which might proceed from their not rising so high, and
therefore remaining more compact.  Their height may have been from forty
to fifty feet.  The basins this time remained nearly as full after the
eruption as before.

I had now seen two eruptions of the Geyser, and felt amply compensated
for my persevering patience and watchfulness.  But I was destined to be
more fortunate, and to experience its explosions in all their variety.
The spring spouted again at seven o'clock in the evening, ascended higher
than at noon, and brought up some stones, which looked like black spots
and points in the white frothy water-column.  And during the third night
it presented itself under another phase: the water rose in dreadful,
quickly-succeeding waves, without throwing rays; the basin overflowed
violently, and generated such a mass of steam as is rarely seen.  The
wind accidentally blew it to the spot where I stood, and it enveloped me
so closely that I could scarcely see a few feet off.  But I perceived
neither smell nor oppression, merely a slight degree of warmth.

                                                                June 28th.

As I had now seen the Geyser play so often and so beautifully, I ordered
my horses for nine o'clock this morning, to continue my journey.  I made
the more haste to leave, as a Dutch prince was expected, who had lately
arrived at Reikjavik, with a large retinue, in a splendid man-of-war.

I had the luck to see another eruption before my departure at half-past
eight o'clock; and this one was nearly as beautiful as the first.  This
time also the outer basin was entirely emptied, and the inner one to a
depth of six or seven feet.  I could therefore again descend into the
basin, and bid farewell to the Geyser at the very brink of the crater,
which, of course, I did.

I had now been three nights and two days in the immediate vicinity of the
Geyser, and had witnessed five eruptions, of which two were of the most
considerable that had ever been known.  But I can assure my readers that
I did not find every thing as I had anticipated it according to the
descriptions and accounts I had read.  I never heard a greater noise than
I have mentioned, and never felt any trembling of the earth, although I
paid the greatest attention to every little circumstance, and held my
head to the ground during an eruption.

It is singular how many people repeat every thing they hear from
others--how some, with an over-excited imagination, seem to see, hear,
and feel things which do not exist; and how others, again, tell the most
unblushing falsehoods.  I met an example of this in Reikjavik, in the
house of the apothecary Moller, in the person of an officer of a French
frigate, who asserted that he had "ridden to the very edge of the crater
of Mount Vesuvius."  He probably did not anticipate meeting any one in
Reikjavik who had also been to the crater of Vesuvius.  Nothing irritates
me so much as such falsehoods and boastings; and I could not therefore
resist asking him how he had managed that feat.  I told him that I had
been there, and feared danger as little as he could do; but that I had
been compelled to descend from my donkey near the top of the mountain,
and let my feet carry me the remainder of the journey.  He seemed rather
embarrassed, and pretended he had meant to say _nearly_ to the crater;
but I feel convinced he will tell this story so often that he will at
last believe it himself.

I hope I do not weary my readers by dwelling so long on the subject of
the Geyser.  I will now vary the subject by relating a few circumstances
that came under my notice, which, though trifling in themselves, were yet
very significant.  The most unimportant facts of an almost unknown
country are often interesting, and are often most conclusive evidences of
the general character of the nation.

I have already spoken of my intoxicated guide.  It is yet inexplicable to
me how he could have conducted me so safely in such a semi-conscious
state; and had he not been the only one, I should certainly not have
trusted myself to his guidance.

Of the want of cleanliness of the Icelanders, no one who has not
witnessed it can have any idea; and if I attempted to describe some of
their nauseous habits, I might fill volumes.  They seem to have no
feeling of propriety, and I must, in this respect, rank them as far
inferior to the Bedouins and Arabs--even to the Greenlanders.  I can,
therefore, not conceive how this nation could once have been
distinguished for wealth, bravery, and civilisation.

On this day I proceeded on my journey about twenty-eight miles farther to
Skalholt.

For the first five miles we retraced our former road; then we turned to
the left and traversed the beautiful long valley in which the Geyser is
situated.  For many miles we could see its clouds of steam rising to the
sky.  The roads were tolerable only when they passed along the sides of
hills and mountains; in the plains they were generally marshy and full of
water.  We sometimes lost all traces of a road, and only pushed on
towards the quarter in which the place of our destination was situated;
and feared withal to sink at every pace into the soft and unresisting
soil.

I found the indolence of the Icelandic peasants quite unpardonable.  All
the valleys through which we passed were large morasses richly overgrown
with grass.  If the single parishes would unite to dig trenches and drain
the soil, they would have the finest meadows.  This is proved near the
many precipices where the water has an outlet; in these spots the grass
grows most luxuriantly, and daisies and herbs flourish there, and even
wild clover.  A few cottages are generally congregated on these oases.

Before arriving at the village of Thorfastadir, we already perceived
Hecla surrounded by the beautiful jokuls.

I arrived at Thorfastadir while a funeral was going on.  As I entered the
church the mourners were busily seeking courage and consolation in the
brandy-bottle.  The law commands, indeed, that this be not done in the
church; but if every one obeyed the law, what need would there be of
judges?  The Icelanders must think so, else they would discontinue the
unseemly practice.

When the priest came, a psalm or a prayer--I could not tell which it was,
being Icelandic--was so earnestly shouted by peasants under the
leadership of the priest and elders, that the good people waxed quite
warm and out of breath.  Then the priest placed himself before the
coffin, which, for want of room, had been laid on the backs of the seats,
and with a very loud voice read a prayer which lasted more than half an
hour.  With this the ceremony within the church was concluded, and the
coffin was carried round the church to the grave, followed by the priest
and the rest of the company.  This grave was deeper than any I had ever
seen.  When the coffin had been lowered, the priest threw three handfuls
of earth upon it, but none of the mourners followed his example.  Among
the earth which had been dug out of the grave I noticed four skulls,
several human bones, and a board of a former coffin.  These were all
thrown in again upon the coffin, and the grave filled in presence of the
priest and the people.  One man trod the soil firm, then a little mound
was made and covered with grass-plots which were lying ready.  The whole
business was completed with miraculous speed.

The little town of Skalholt, my station this night, was once as
celebrated in religious matters as Thingvalla had been politically
famous.  Here, soon after the introduction of Christianity, the first
bishopric was founded in 1098, and the church is said to have been one of
the largest and richest.  Now Skalholt is a miserable place, and consists
of three or four cottages, and a wretched wooden church, which may
perhaps contain a hundred persons; it has not even its own priest, but
belongs to Thorfastadir.

My first business on arriving was to inspect the yet remaining relics of
past ages.  First I was shewn an oil-picture which hangs in the church,
and is said to represent the first bishop of Skalholt, Thorlakur, who was
worshipped almost as a saint for his strict and pious life.

After this, preparations were made to clear away the steps of the altar
and several boards of the flooring.  I stood expectantly looking on,
thinking that I should now have to descend into a vault to inspect the
embalmed body of the bishop.  I must confess this prospect was not the
most agreeable, when I thought of the approaching night which I should
have to spend in this church, perhaps immediately over the grave of the
old skeleton.  I had besides already had too much to do with the dead for
one day, and could not rid myself of the unpleasant grave-odour which I
had imbibed in Thorfastadir, and which seemed to cling to my dress and my
nose. {41}  I was therefore not a little pleased when, instead of the
dreaded vault and mummy, I was only shewn a marble slab, on which were
inscribed the usual notifications of the birth, death, &c. of this great
bishop.  Besides this, I saw an old embroidered stole and a simple golden
chalice, both of which are said to be relics of the age of Thorlakar.

Then we ascended into the so-called store-room, which is only separated
from the lower portion of the church by a few boards, and which extends
to the altar.  Here are kept the bells and the organ, if the church
possesses one, the provisions, and a variety of tools.  They opened an
immense chest for me there, which seemed to contain only large pieces of
tallow made in the form of cheeses; but under this tallow I found the
library, where I discovered an interesting treasure.  This was, besides
several very old books in the Icelandic tongue, three thick folio
volumes, which I could read very easily; they were German, and contained
Luther's doctrines, letters, epistles, &c.

I had now seen all there was to be seen, and began to satisfy my physical
wants by calling for some hot water to make coffee, &c.  As usual, all
the inhabitants of the place ranged themselves in and before the church,
probably to increase their knowledge of the human race by studying my
peculiarities.  I soon, however, closed the door, and prepared a splendid
couch for myself.  At my first entrance into the church, I had noticed a
long box, quite filled with sheep's wool.  I threw my rugs over this, and
slept as comfortably as in the softest bed.  In the morning I carefully
teased the wool up again, and no one could then have imagined where I had
passed the night.

Nothing amused me more, when I had lodgings of this description, than the
curiosity of the people, who would rush in every morning, as soon as I
opened the door.  The first thing they said to each other was always,
"Krar hefur hun sovid" (Where can she have slept?).  The good people
could not conceive how it was possible to spend a night _alone_ in a
church surrounded by a churchyard; they perhaps considered me an evil
spirit or a witch, and would too gladly have ascertained how such a
creature slept.  When I saw their disappointed faces, I had to turn away
not to laugh at them.

                                                                June 29th.

Early the next morning I continued my journey.  Not far from Skalholt we
came to the river Thiorsa, which is deep and rapid.  We crossed in a
boat; but the horses had to swim after us.  It is often very troublesome
to make the horses enter these streams; they see at once that they will
have to swim.  The guide and boatmen cannot leave the shore till the
horses have been forced into the stream; and even then they have to throw
stones, to threaten them with the whip, and to frighten them by shouts
and cries, to prevent them from returning.

When we had made nearly twelve miles on marshy roads, we came to the
beautiful waterfall of the Huitha.  This fall is not so remarkable for
its height, which is scarcely more than fifteen to twenty feet, as for
its breadth, and for its quantity of water.  Some beautiful rocks are so
placed at the ledge of the fall, that they divide it into three parts;
but it unites again immediately beneath them.  The bed of the river, as
well as its shores, is of lava.

The colour of the water is also a remarkable feature in this river; it
inclines so much to milky white, that, when the sun shines on it, it
requires no very strong imaginative power to take the whole for milk.

Nearly a mile above the fall we had to cross the Huitha, one of the
largest rivers in Iceland.  Thence the road lies through meadows, which
are less marshy than the former ones, till it comes to a broad stream of
lava, which announces the vicinity of the fearful volcano of Hecla.

I had hitherto not passed over such an expanse of country in Iceland as
that from the Geyser to this place without coming upon streams of lava.
And this lava-stream seemed to have felt some pity for the beautiful
meadows, for it frequently separated into two branches, and thus enclosed
the verdant plain.  But it could not withstand the violence of the
succeeding masses; it had been carried on, and had spread death and
destruction everywhere.  The road to it, through plains covered with dark
sand, and over steep hills intervening, was very fatiguing and laborious.

We proceeded to the little village of Struvellir, where we stopped to
give our horses a few hours' rest.  Here we found a large assembly of men
and animals. {42}  It happened to be Sunday, and a warm sunny day, and so
a very full service was held in the pretty little church.  When it was
over, I witnessed an amusing rural scene.  The people poured out of the
church,--I counted ninety-six, which is an extraordinarily numerous
assemblage for Iceland,--formed into little groups, chatting and joking,
not forgetting, however, to moisten their throats with brandy, of which
they had taken care to bring an ample supply.  Then they bridled their
horses and prepared for departure; now the kisses poured in from all
sides, and there was no end of leave-taking, for the poor people do not
know whether they shall ever meet again, and when.

In all Iceland welcome and farewell is expressed by a loud kiss,--a
practice not very delightful for a non-Icelander, when one considers
their ugly, dirty faces, the snuffy noses of the old people, and the
filthy little children.  But the Icelanders do not mind this.  They all
kissed the priest, and the priest kissed them; and then they kissed each
other, till the kissing seemed to have no end.  Rank is not considered in
this ceremony; and I was not a little surprised to see how my guide, a
common farm-labourer, kissed the six daughters of a judge, or the wife
and children of a priest, or a judge and the priest themselves, and how
they returned the compliment without reserve.  Every country has its
peculiar customs!

The religious ceremonies generally begin about noon, and last two or
three hours.  There being no public inn in which to assemble, and no
stable in which the horses can be fastened, all flock to the open space
in front of the church, which thus becomes a very animated spot.  All
have to remain in the open air.

When the service was over, I visited the priest, Herr Horfuson; he was
kind enough to conduct me to the Salsun, nine miles distant, principally
to engage a guide to Hecla for me.

I was doubly rejoiced to have this good man at my side, as we had to
cross a dangerous stream, which was very rapid, and so deep that the
water rose to the horses' breasts.  Although we raised our feet as high
as possible, we were yet thoroughly wet.  This wading across rivers is
one of the most unpleasant modes of travelling.  The horse swims more
than it walks, and this creates a most disagreeable sensation; one does
not know whither to direct one's eyes; to look into the stream would
excite giddiness, and the sight of the shore is not much better, for that
seems to move and to recede, because the horse, by the current, is forced
a little way down the river.  To my great comfort the priest rode by my
side to hold me, in case I should not be able to keep my seat.  I passed
fortunately through this probation; and when we reached the other shore,
Herr Horfuson pointed out to me how far the current had carried us down
the river.

The valley in which Salsun and the Hecla are situated is one of those
which are found only in Iceland.  It contains the greatest contrasts.
Here are charming fields covered with a rich green carpet of softest
grass, and there again hills of black, shining lava; even the fertile
plains are traversed by streams of lava and spots of sand.  Mount Hecla
notoriously has the blackest lava and the blackest sand; and it may be
imagined how the country looks in its immediate neighbourhood.  One hill
only to the left of Hecla is reddish brown, and covered with sand and
stones of a similar colour.  The centre is much depressed, and seems to
form a large crater.  Mount Hecla is directly united with the
lava-mountains piled round it, and seems from the plain only as a higher
point.  It is surrounded by several glaciers, whose dazzling fields of
snow descend far down, and whose brilliant plains have probably never
been trod by human feet; several of its sides were also covered with
snow.  To the left of the valley near Salsun, and at the foot of a
lava-hill, lies a lovely lake, on whose shores a numerous flock of sheep
were grazing.  Near it rises another beautiful hill, so solitary and
isolated, that it looks as if it had been cast out by its neighbours and
banished hither.  Indeed, the whole landscape here is so peculiarly
Icelandic, so strange and remarkable, that it will ever remain impressed
on my memory.

Salsun lies at the foot of Mount Hecla, but is not seen before one
reaches it.

Arrived at Salsun, our first care was to seek a guide, and to bargain for
every thing requisite for the ascension of the mountain.  The guide was
to procure a horse for me, and to take me and my former guide to the
summit of Hecla.  He demanded five thaler and two marks (about fifteen
shillings), a most exorbitant sum, on which he could live for a month.
But what could we do?  He knew very well that there was no other guide to
be had, and so I was forced to acquiesce.  When all was arranged, my kind
companion left me, wishing me success on my arduous expedition.

I now looked out for a place in which I could spend the night, and a
filthy hole fell to my lot.  A bench, rather shorter that my body, was
put into it, to serve as my bed; beside it hung a decayed fish, which had
infected the whole room with its smell.  I could scarcely breathe; and as
there was no other outlet, I was obliged to open the door, and thus
receive the visits of the numerous and amiable inhabitants.  What a
strengthening and invigorating preparation for the morrow's expedition!

At the foot of Mount Hecla, and especially in this village, every thing
seems to be undermined.  Nowhere, not even on Mount Vesuvius, had I heard
such hollow, droning sounds as here,--the echoes of the heavy footsteps
of the peasants.  These sounds made a very awful impression on me as I
lay all night alone in that dark hole.

My Hecla guide, as I shall call him to distinguish him from my other
guide, advised me to start at two o'clock in the morning, to which I
assented, well knowing, however, that we should not have mounted our
horses before five o'clock.

As I had anticipated, so it happened.  At half-past five we were quite
prepared and ready for departure.  Besides bread and cheese, a bottle of
water for myself, and one of brandy for my guides, we were also provided
with long sticks, tipped with iron points to sound the depth of the snow,
and to lean upon.

We were favoured by a fine warm sunny morning, and galloped briskly over
the fields and the adjoining plains of sand.  My guide considered the
fine weather a very lucky omen, and told me that M. Geimard, the
before-mentioned French scholar, had been compelled to wait three days
for fine weather.  Nine years had elapsed, and no one had ascended the
mountain since then.  A prince of Denmark, who travelled through Iceland
some years before, had been there, but had returned without effecting his
purpose.

Our road at first led us through beautiful fields, and then over plains
of black sand enclosed on all sides by streams, hillocks, and mountains
of piled-up lava.  Closer and closer these fearful masses approach, and
scarcely permit a passage through a narrow cleft; we had to climb over
blocks and hills of lava, where it is difficult to find a firm
resting-place for the foot.  The lava rolled beside and behind us, and we
had to proceed carefully not to fall or be hit by the rolling lava.  But
most dangerous were the chasms filled with snow over which we had to
pass; the snow had been softened by the warmth of the season, so that we
sank into it nearly every step, or, what was worse, slipped back more
than we had advanced.  I scarcely think there can be another mountain
whose ascent offers so many difficulties.

After a labour of about three hours and a half we neared the summit of
the mountain, where we were obliged to leave our horses.  I should,
indeed, have preferred to do so long before, as I was apprehensive of the
poor animals falling as they climbed over these precipices--one might
almost call them rolling mountains--but my guide would not permit it.
Sometimes we came to spots where they were useful, and then he maintained
that I must ride as far as possible to reserve my strength for the
remaining difficulties.  And he was right; I scarcely believe I should
have been able to go through it on foot, for when I thought we were near
the top, hills of lava again rose between us, and we seemed farther from
our journey's end than before.

My guide told me that he had never taken any one so far on horseback, and
I can believe it.  Walking was bad enough--riding was fearful.

At every fresh declivity new scenes of deserted, melancholy districts
were revealed to us; every thing was cold and dead, every where there was
black burnt lava.  It was a painful feeling to see so much, and behold
nothing but a stony desert, an immeasurable chaos.

There were still two declivities before us,--the last, but the worst.  We
had to climb steep masses of lava, sharp and pointed, which covered the
whole side of the mountain.  I do not know how often I fell and cut my
hands on the jagged points of the lava.  It was a fearful journey!

The dazzling whiteness of the snow contrasted with the bright black lava
beside it had an almost blinding effect.  When crossing fields of snow I
did not look at the lava; for having tried to do so once or twice, I
could not see my way afterwards, and had nearly grown snow-blind.

                             [Picture: Hecla]

After two hours' more labour we reached the summit of the mountain.  I
stood now on Mount Hecla, and eagerly sought the crater on the snowless
top, but did not find it.  I was the more surprised, as I had read
detailed accounts of it in several descriptions of travel.

I traversed the whole summit of the mountain and climbed to the adjoining
jokul, but did not perceive an opening, a fissure, a depressed space, nor
any sign of a crater.  Lower down in the sides of the mountain, but not
in the real cone, I saw some clefts and fissures from which the streams
of lava probably poured.  The height of the mountain is said to be 4300
feet.

During the last hour of our ascent the sun had grown dim.  Clouds of mist
blown from the neighbouring glaciers enshrouded the hill-tops, and soon
enveloped us so closely that we could scarcely see ten paces before us.
At last they dissolved, fortunately not in rain but in snow, which
profusely covered the black uneven lava.  The snow remained on the
ground, and the thermometer stood at one degree of cold.

In a little while the clear blue sky once more was visible, and the sun
again shone over us.  I remained on the top till the clouds had separated
beneath us, and afforded me a better distant view over the country.

My pen is unfortunately too feeble to bring vividly before my readers the
picture such as I beheld it here, and to describe to them the desolation,
the extent and height of these lava-masses.  I seemed to stand in a
crater, and the whole country appeared only a burnt-out fire.  Here lava
was piled up in steep inaccessible mountains; there stony rivers, whose
length and breadth seemed immeasurable, filled the once-verdant fields.
Every thing was jumbled together, and yet the course of the last eruption
could be distinctly traced.

I stood there, in the centre of horrible precipices, caves, streams,
valleys, and mountains, and scarcely comprehended how it was possible to
penetrate so far, and was overcome with terror at the thought which
involuntarily obtruded itself--the possibility of never finding my way
again out of these terrible labyrinths.

Here, from the top of Mount Hecla, I could see far into the uninhabited
country, the picture of a petrified creation, dead and motionless, and
yet magnificent,--a picture which once seen can never again fade from the
memory, and which alone amply compensates for all the previous troubles
and dangers.  A whole world of glaciers, lava-mountains, snow and
ice-fields, rivers and lakes, into which no human foot has ever ventured
to penetrate.  How nature must have laboured and raged till these forms
were created!  And is it over now?  Has the destroying element exhausted
itself; or does it only rest, like the hundred-headed Hydra, to break
forth with renewed strength, and desolate those regions which, pushed to
the verge of the sea-shore, encircle the sterile interior as a modest
wreath?  I thank God that he has permitted me to behold this chaos in his
creation; but I thank him more heartily that he has placed me to dwell in
regions where the sun does more than merely give light; where it inspires
and fertilises animals and plants, and fills the human heart with joy and
thankfulness towards its Creator. {43}

The Westmann Isles, which are said to be visible from the top of Hecla, I
could not see; they were probably covered by clouds.

During the ascent of the Hecla I had frequently touched lava,--sometimes
involuntarily, when I fell; sometimes voluntarily, to find a hot or at
least a warm place.  I was unfortunate enough only to find cold ones.
The falling snow was therefore most welcome, and I looked anxiously
around to see a place where the subterranean heat would melt it.  I
should then have hastened thither and found what I sought.  But
unfortunately the snow remained unmelted every where.  I could neither
see any clouds of smoke, although I gazed steadily at the mountain for
hours, and could from my post survey it far down the sides.

As we descended we found the snow melting at a depth of 500 to 600 feet;
lower down, the whole mountain smoked, which I thought was the
consequence of the returning warmth of the sun, for my thermometer now
stood at nine degrees of heat.  I have noticed the same circumstance
often on unvolcanic mountains.  The spots from which the smoke rose were
also cold.

The smooth jet-black, bright, and dense lava is only found on the
mountain itself and in its immediate vicinity.  But all lava is not the
same: there is jagged, glassy, and porous lava; the former is black, and
so is the sand which covers one side of Hecla.  The farther the lava and
sand are from the mountain, the more they lose this blackness, and their
colour plays into iron-colour and even into light-grey; but the
lighter-coloured lava generally retains the brightness and smoothness of
the black lava.

After a troublesome descent, having spent twelve hours on this excursion,
we arrived safely at Salsun; and I was on the point of returning to my
lodging, somewhat annoyed at the prospect of spending another night in
such a hole, when my guide surprised me agreeably by the proposition to
return to Struvellir at once.  The horses, he said, were sufficiently
rested, and I could get a good room there in the priest's house.  I soon
packed, and in a short time we were again on horseback.  The second time
I came to the deep Rangaa, I rode across fearlessly, and needed no
protection at any side.  Such is man: danger only alarms him the first
time; when he has safely surmounted it once, he scarcely thinks of it the
second time, and wonders how he can have felt any fear.

I saw five little trees standing in a field near the stream.  The stems
of these, which, considering the scarcity of trees in Iceland, may be
called remarkable phenomena, were crooked and knotty, but yet six or
seven feet high, and about four or five inches in diameter.

As my guide had foretold, I found a very comfortable room and a good bed
in the priest's house.  Herr Horfuson is one of the best men I have ever
met with.  He eagerly sought opportunities for giving me pleasure, and to
him I owe several fine minerals and an Icelandic book of the year 1601.
May God reward his kindness and benevolence!

                                                                 July 1st.

We retraced our steps as far as the river Huitha, over which we rowed,
and then turned in another direction.  Our journey led us through
beautiful valleys, many of them producing abundance of grass; but
unfortunately so much moss grew among it, that these large plains were
not available for pastures, and only afforded comfort to travellers by
their aspect of cheerfulness.  They were quite dry.

The valley in which Hjalmholm, our resting-place for this night, was
situated, is traversed by a stream of lava, which had, however, been
modest enough not to fill up the whole valley, but to leave a space for
the pretty stream Elvas, and for some fields and hillocks, on which many
cottages stood.  It was one of the most populous valleys I had seen in
Iceland.

Hjalmholm is situated on a hill.  In it lives the Sysselmann of the
Rangaar district, in a large and beautiful house such as I saw no where
in Iceland except in Reikjavik.  He had gone to the capital of the island
as member of the Allthing; but his daughters received me very hospitably
and kindly.

We talked and chatted much; I tried to display my knowledge of the Danish
language before them, and must often have made use of curious phrases,
for the girls could not contain their laughter.  But that did not abash
me; I laughed with them, applied to my dictionary, which I carried with
me, and chatted on.  They seemed to gather no very high idea of the
beauty of my countrywomen from my personal appearance; for which I humbly
crave the forgiveness of my countrywomen, assuring them that no one
regrets the fact more than I do.  But dame Nature always treats people of
my years very harshly, and sets a bad example to youth of the respect due
to age.  Instead of honouring us and giving us the preference, she
patronises the young folks, and every maiden of sixteen can turn up her
nose at us venerable matrons.  Besides my natural disqualifications, the
sharp air and the violent storms to which I had been subjected had
disfigured my face very much.  They had affected me more than the burning
heat of the East.  I was very brown, my lips were cracked, and my nose,
alas, even began to rebel against its ugly colour.  It seemed anxious to
possess a new, dazzling white, tender skin, and was casting off the old
one in little bits.

The only circumstance which reinstated me in the good opinion of the
young girls was, that having brushed my hair unusually far out of my
face, a white space became visible.  The girls all cried out
simultaneously, quite surprised and delighted: "Hun er quit" (she is
white).  I could not refrain from laughing, and bared my arm to prove to
them that I did not belong to the Arab race.

A great surprise was destined me in this house; for, as I was ransacking
the Sysselmann's book-case, I found Rotteck's Universal History, a German
Lexicon, and several poems and writings of German poets.

                                                                  July 2d.

The way from Kalmannstunga to Thingvalla leads over nothing but lava, and
the one to-day went entirely through marshes.  As soon as we had crossed
one, another was before us.  Lava seemed to form the soil here, for
little portions of this mineral rose like islands out of the marshes.

The country already grew more open, and we gradually lost sight of the
glaciers.  The high mountains on the left seemed like hills in the
distance, and the nearer ones were really hills.  After riding about nine
miles we crossed the large stream of Elvas in a boat, and then had to
tread carefully across a very long, narrow bank, over a meadow which was
quite under water.  If a traveller had met us on this bank, I do not know
what we should have done; to turn round would have been as dangerous as
to sink into the morass.  Fortunately one never meets any travellers in
Iceland.

Beyond the dyke the road runs for some miles along the mountains and
hills, which all consist of lava, and are of a very dark, nearly black
colour.  The stones on these hills were very loose; in the plain below
many colossal pieces were lying, which must have fallen down; and many
others threatened to fall every moment.  We passed the dangerous spot
safely, without having had to witness such a scene.

I often heard a hollow sound among these hills; I at first took it for
distant thunder, and examined the horizon to discover the approaching
storm.  But when I saw neither clouds nor lightning, I perceived that I
must seek the origin of the sounds nearer, and that they proceeded from
the falling portions of rock.

The higher mountains to the left fade gradually more and more from view;
but the river Elvas spreads in such a manner, and divides into so many
branches, that one might mistake it for a lake with many islands.  It
flows into the neighbouring sea, whose expanse becomes visible after
surmounting a few more small hills.

The vale of Reikum, which we now entered, is, like that of Reikholt, rich
in hot springs, which are congregated partly in the plain, partly on or
behind the hills, in a circumference of between two and three miles.

When we had reached the village of Reikum I sent my effects at once to
the little church, took a guide, and proceeded to the boiling springs.  I
found very many, but only two remarkable ones; these, however, belong to
the most noteworthy of their kind.  The one is called the little Geyser,
the other the Bogensprung.

The little Geyser has an inner basin of about three feet diameter.  The
water boils violently at a depth of from two to three feet, and remains
within its bounds till it begins to spout, when it projects a beautiful
voluminous steam of from 20 to 30 feet high.

At half-past eight in the evening I had the good fortune to see one of
these eruptions, and needed not, as I had done at the great Geyser, to
bivouac near it for days and nights.  The eruption lasted some time, and
was tolerably equable; only sometimes the column of water sank a little,
to rise to its former height with renewed force.  After forty minutes it
fell quite down into the basin again.  The stones we threw in, it
rejected at once, or in a few seconds, shivered into pieces, to a height
of about 12 to 15 feet.  Its bulk must have been 1 to 1.5 feet in
diameter.  My guide assured me that this spring generally plays only
twice, rarely thrice, in twenty-four hours, and not, as I have seen it
stated, every six minutes.  I remained near it till midnight, but saw no
other eruption.

This spring very much resembles the Strukker near the great Geyser, the
only difference being that the water sinks much lower in the latter.

The second of the two remarkable springs, the arched spring, is situated
near the little Geyser, on the declivity of a hill.  I had never seen
such a curious formation for the bed of a spring as this is.  It has no
basin, but lies half open at your feet, in a little grotto, which is
separated into various cavities and holes, and which is half-surrounded
by a wall of rock bending over it slightly at a height of about 2 feet,
and then rises 10 to 12 feet higher.  This spring never is at rest more
than a minute; then it begins to rise and boil quickly, and emits a
voluminous column, which, striking against the projecting rock, is
flattened by it, and rises thence like an arched fan.  The height of this
peculiarly-spread jet of water may be about 12 feet, the arch it
describes 15 to 20 feet, and its breadth 3 to 8 feet.  The time of
eruption is often longer than that of repose.  After an eruption the
water always sinks a few feet into the cave, and for 15 or 20 seconds
admits of a glance into this wonderful grotto.  But it rises again
immediately, fills the grotto and the basin, which is only a continuation
of the grotto, and springs again.

I watched this miraculous play of nature for more than an hour, and could
not tear myself from it.  This spring, which is certainly the only one of
its kind, gratified me much more than the little Geyser.

There is another spring called the roaring Geyser; but it is nothing more
than a misshapen hole, in which one hears the water boil, but cannot see
it.  The noise is, also, not at all considerable.

                                                                  July 3d.

Near Reikum we crossed a brook into which all the hot springs flow, and
which has a pretty fall.  We then ascended the adjoining mountain, and
rode full two hours on the high plain.  The plain itself was monotonous,
as it was only covered with lava-stones and moss, but the prospect into
the valley was varied and beautiful.  Vale and sea were spread before me,
and I saw the Westmann Islands, with their beautiful hills, which the
envious clouds had concealed from me on the Hecla, lying in the distance.
Below me stood some houses in the port-town, Eierbach, and near them the
waters of the Elvas flow into the sea.

At the end of this mountain-level a valley was situated, which was also
filled with lava, but with that jagged black lava which presents such a
beautiful appearance.  Immense streams crossed it from all sides, so that
it almost resembled a black lake separated from the sea by a chain of
equally black mountains.

We descended into this sombre vale through piles of lava and fields of
snow, and went on through valleys and chasms, over fields of lava, plains
of meadow-land, past dark mountains and hills, till we reached the chief
station of my Icelandic journey, the town of Reikjavik.

The whole country between Reikum and Reikjavik, a distance of 45 to 50
miles, is, for the most part, uninhabited.  Here and there, in the fields
of lava, stand little pyramids of the same substance, which serve as
landmarks; and there are two houses built for such persons as are obliged
to travel during the winter.  But we found much traffic on the road, and
often overtook caravans of 15 to 20 horses.  Being the beginning of
August, it was the time of trade and traffic in Iceland.  Then the
country people travel to Reikjavik from considerable distances, to change
their produce and manufactures, partly for money, partly for necessaries
and luxuries.  At this period the merchants and factors have not hands
enough to barter the goods or close the accounts which the peasants wish
to settle for the whole year.

At this season an unusual commotion reigns in Reikjavik.  Numerous groups
of men and horses fill the streets; goods are loaded and unloaded;
friends who have not met for a year or more welcome each other, others
take leave.  On one spot curious tents {44} are erected, before which
children play; on another drunken men stagger along, or gallop on
horseback, so that one is terrified, and fears every moment to see them
fall.

This unusual traffic unfortunately only lasts six or eight days.  The
peasant hastens home to his hay-harvest; the merchant must quickly
regulate the produce and manufactures he has purchased, and load his
ships with them, so that they may sail and reach their destination before
the storms of the autumnal equinox.


                                    Miles.
From Reikjavik to Thingvalla is     45
From Thingvalla to the Geyser       36
From the Geyser to Skalholt         28
From Skalholt to Salsun             36
From Salsun to Struvellir           9
From Struvellir to Hjalmholm        28
From Hjalmholm to Reikum            32
From Reikum to Reikjavik            45
                                    259
CHAPTER VII


During my travels in Iceland I had of course the opportunity of becoming
acquainted with its inhabitants, their manners and customs.  I must
confess that I had formed a higher estimate of the peasants.  When we
read in the history of that country that the first inhabitants had
emigrated thither from civilised states; that they had brought knowledge
and religion with them; when we hear of the simple good-hearted people,
and their patriarchal mode of life in the accounts of former travellers,
and which we know that nearly every peasant in Iceland can read and
write, and that at least a Bible, but generally other religions books
also, are found in every cot,--one feels inclined to consider this nation
the best and most civilised in Europe.  I deemed their morality
sufficiently secured by the absence of foreign intercourse, by their
isolated position, and the poverty of the country.  No large town there
affords opportunity for pomp or gaiety, or for the commission of smaller
or greater sins.  Rarely does a foreigner enter the island, whose
remoteness, severe climate, inhospitality, and poverty, are uninviting.
The grandeur and peculiarity of its natural formation alone makes it
interesting, and that does not suffice for the masses.

I therefore expected to find Iceland a real Arcadia in regard to its
inhabitants, and rejoiced at the anticipation of seeing such an Idyllic
life realised.  I felt so happy when I set foot on the island that I
could have embraced humanity.  But I was soon undeceived.

I have often been impatient at my want of enthusiasm, which must be
great, as I see every thing in a more prosaic form than other travellers.
I do not maintain that my view is _right_, but I at least possess the
virtue of describing facts as I see them, and do not repeat them from the
accounts of others.

I have already described the impoliteness and heartlessness of the
so-called higher classes, and soon lost the good opinion I had formed of
them.  I now came to the working classes in the vicinity of Reikjavik.
The saying often applied to the Swiss people, "No money, no Swiss," one
may also apply to the Icelanders.  And of this fact I can cite several
examples.

Scarcely had they heard that I, a foreigner, had arrived, than they
frequently came to me, and brought quite common objects, such as can be
found any where in Iceland, and expected me to pay dearly for them.  At
first I purchased from charity, or to be rid of their importunities, and
threw the things away again; but I was soon obliged to give this up, as I
should else have been besieged from morning to night.  Their anxiety to
gain money without labour annoyed me less than the extortionate prices
with which they tried to impose on a stranger.  For a beetle, such as
could be found under every stone, they asked 5 kr. (about 2d.); as much
for a caterpillar, of which thousands were lying on the beach; and for a
common bird's egg, 10 to 20 kr. (4d. to 8d.)  Of course, when I declined
buying, they reduced their demand, sometimes to less than half the
original sum; but this was certainly not in consequence of their honesty.
The baker in whose house I lodged also experienced the selfishness of
these people.  He had engaged a poor labourer to tar his house, who, when
he had half finished his task, heard of other employment.  He did not
even take the trouble to ask the baker to excuse him for a few days; he
went away, and did not return to finish the interrupted work for a whole
week.  This conduct was the more inexcusable as his children received
bread, and even butter, twice a week from the baker.

I was fortunate enough to experience similar treatment.  Herr Knudson had
engaged a guide for me, with whom I was to take my departure in a few
days.  But it happened that the magistrate wished also to take a trip,
and sent for my guide.  The latter expected to be better paid by him, and
went; he did not come to me to discharge himself, but merely sent me word
on the eve of my departure, that he was ill, and could therefore not go
with me.  I could enumerate many more such examples, which do not much
tend to give a high estimate of Icelandic morality.

I consoled myself with the hope of finding simplicity and honesty in the
more retired districts, and therefore anticipated a twofold pleasure from
my journey into the interior.  I found many virtues, but unfortunately so
many faults, that I am no longer inclined to exalt the Icelandic peasants
as examples.

The best of their virtues is their honesty.  I could leave my baggage
unguarded any where for hours, and never missed the least article, for
they did not even permit their children to touch any thing.  In this
point they are so conscientious, that if a peasant comes from a distance,
and wishes to rest in a cottage, he never fails to knock at the door,
even if it is open.  If no one calls "come in," he does not enter.  One
might fearlessly sleep with open doors.

Crimes are of such rare occurrence here, that the prison of Reikjavik was
changed into a dwelling-house for the chief warden many years since.
Small crimes are punished summarily, either in Reikjavik or at the seat
of the Sysselmann.  Criminals of a deeper dye are sent to Copenhagen, and
are sentenced and punished there.

My landlord at Reikjavik, the master-baker Bernhoft, told me that only
one crime had been committed in Iceland during the thirteen years that he
had resided there.  This was the murder of an illegitimate child
immediately after its birth.  The most frequently occurring crime is
cow-stealing.

I was much surprised to find that nearly all the Icelanders can read and
write.  The latter quality only was somewhat rarer with the women.
Youths and men often wrote a firm, good hand.  I also found books in
every cottage, the Bible always, and frequently poems and stories,
sometimes even in the Danish language.

They also comprehend very quickly; when I opened my map before them, they
soon understood its use and application.  Their quickness is doubly
surprising, if we consider that every father instructs his own children,
and sometimes the neighbouring orphans.  This is of course only done in
the winter; but as winter lasts eight months in Iceland, it is long
enough.

There is only one school in the whole island, which originally was in
Bessestadt, but has been removed to Reikjavik since 1846.  In this school
only youths who can read and write are received, and they are either
educated for priests, and may complete their studies here, or for
doctors, apothecaries, or judges, when they must complete their studies
in Copenhagen.

Besides theology, geometry, geography, history, and several languages,
such as Latin, Danish, and, since 1846, German and also French, are
taught in the school of Reikjavik.

The chief occupation of the Icelandic peasants consists in fishing, which
is most industriously pursued in February, March, and April.  Then the
inhabitants of the interior come to the coasting villages and hire
themselves to the dwellers on the beach, the real fishermen, as
assistants, taking a portion of the fish as their wages.  Fishing is
attended to at other times also, but then exclusively by the real
fishermen.  In the months of July and August many of the latter go into
the interior and assist in the hay-harvest, for which they receive
butter, sheep's wool, and salt lamb.  Others ascend the mountains and
gather the Iceland moss, of which they make a decoction, which they drink
mixed with milk, or they grind it to flour, and bake flat cakes of it,
which serve them in place of bread.

The work of the women consists in the preparation of the fish for drying,
smoking, or salting; in tending the cattle, in knitting, sometimes in
gathering moss.  In winter both men and women knit and weave.

As regards the hospitality of the Icelanders, {45} I do not think one can
give them so very much credit for it.  It is true that priests and
peasants gladly receive any European traveller, and treat him to every
thing in their power; but they know well that the traveller who comes to
their island is neither an adventurer nor a beggar, and will therefore
pay them well.  I did not meet one peasant or priest who did not accept
the proffered gift without hesitation.  But I must say of the priests
that they were every where obliging and ready to serve me, and satisfied
with the smallest gift; and their charges, when I required horses for my
excursions, were always moderate.  I only found the peasant less
interested in districts where a traveller scarcely ever appeared; but in
such places as were more visited, their charges were often exorbitant.
For example, I had to pay 20 to 30 kr. (8d. to 1s.) for being ferried
over a river; and then my guide and I only were rowed in the boat, and
the horses had to swim.  The guide who accompanied me on the Hecla also
overcharged me; but he knew that I was forced to take him, as there is no
choice of guides, and one does not give up the ascent for the sake of a
little money.

This conduct shows that the character of the Icelanders does not belong
to the best; and that they take advantage of travellers with as much
shrewdness as the landlords and guides on the continent.

A besetting sin of the Icelanders is their drunkenness.  Their poverty
would probably not be so great if they were less devoted to brandy, and
worked more industriously.  It is dreadful to see what deep root this
vice has taken.  Not only on Sundays, but also on week-days, I met
peasants who were so intoxicated that I was surprised how they could keep
in their saddle.  I am, however, happy to say that I never saw a woman in
this degrading condition.

Another of their passions is snuff.  They chew and snuff tobacco with the
same infatuation as it is smoked in other countries.  But their mode of
taking it is very peculiar.  Most of the peasants, and even many of the
priests, have no proper snuff-box, but only a box turned of bone, shaped
like a powder-flask.  When they take snuff, they throw back their head,
insert the point of the flask in their nose, and shake a dose of tobacco
into it.  They then, with the greatest amiability, offer it to their
neighbour, he to his, and so it goes round till it reaches the owner
again.

I think, indeed, that the Icelanders are second to no nation in
uncleanliness; not even to the Greenlanders, Esquimaux, or Laplanders.
If I were to describe a portion only of what I experienced, my readers
would think me guilty of gross exaggeration; I prefer, therefore, to
leave it to their imagination; merely saying that they cannot conceive
any thing too dirty for Iceland delicacy.

Beside this very estimable quality, they are also insuperably lazy.  Not
far from the coast are immense meadows, so marshy that it is dangerous to
cross them.  The fault lies less in the soil than the people.  If they
would only make ditches, and thus dry the ground, they would have the
most splendid grass.  That this would grow abundantly is proved by the
little elevations which rise from above the marshes, and which are
thickly covered with grass, herbage, and wild clover.  I also passed
large districts covered with good soil, and some where the soil was mixed
with sand.

I frequently debated with Herr Boge, who has lived in Iceland for forty
years, and is well versed in farming matters, whether it would not be
possible to produce important pasture-grounds and hay-fields with
industry and perseverance.  He agreed with me, and thought that even
potato-fields might be reclaimed, if only the people were not so lazy,
preferring to suffer hunger and resign all the comforts of cleanliness
rather than to work.  What nature voluntarily gives, they are satisfied
with, and it never occurs to them to force more from her.  If a few
German peasants were transported hither, what a different appearance the
country would soon have!

The best soil in Iceland is on the Norderland.  There are a few
potato-grounds there, and some little trees, which, without any
cultivation, have reached a height of seven to eight feet.  Herr Boge,
established here for thirty years, had planted some mountain-ash and
birch-trees, which had grown to a height of sixteen feet.

In the Norderland, and every where except on the coast, the people live
by breeding cattle.  Many a peasant there possesses from two to four
hundred sheep, ten to fifteen cows, and ten to twelve horses.  There are
not many who are so rich, but at all events they are better off than the
inhabitants of the sea-coast.  The soil there is for the most part bad,
and they are therefore nearly all compelled to have recourse to fishing.

Before quitting Iceland, I must relate a tradition told me by many
Icelanders, not only by peasants, but also by people of the so-called
higher classes, and who all implicitly believe it.

It is asserted that the inhospitable interior is likewise populated, but
by a peculiar race of men, to whom alone the paths through these deserts
are known.  These savages have no intercourse with their
fellow-countrymen during the whole year, and only come to one of the
ports in the beginning of July, for one day at the utmost, to buy several
necessaries, for which they pay in money.  They then vanish suddenly, and
no one knows in which direction they are gone.  No one knows them; they
never bring their wives or children with them, and never reply to the
question whence they come.  Their language, also, is said to be more
difficult than that of the other inhabitants of Iceland.

One gentleman, whom I do not wish to name, expressed a wish to have the
command of twenty to twenty-five well-armed soldiers, to search for these
wild men.

The people who maintain that they have seen these children of nature,
assert that they are taller and stronger than other Icelanders; that
their horses' hoofs, instead of being shod earth iron, have shoes of
horn; and that they have much money, which they can only have acquired by
pillage.  When I inquired what respectable inhabitants of Iceland had
been robbed by these savages, and when and where, no one could give me an
answer.  For my part, I scarcely think that one man, certainly not a
whole race, could live by pillage in Iceland.



DEPARTURE FROM ICELAND.--JOURNEY TO COPENHAGEN.


I had seen all there was to be seen in Iceland, had finished all my
excursions, and awaited with inexpressible impatience the sailing of the
vessel which was destined to bring me nearer my beloved home.  But I had
to stay four very long weeks in Reikjavik, my patience being more
exhausted from day to day, and had after this long delay to be satisfied
with the most wretched accommodation.

The delay was the more tantalising, as several ships left the port in the
mean time, and Herr Knudson, with whom I had crossed over from
Copenhagen, invited me to accompany him on his return; but all the
vessels went to England or to Spain, and I did not wish to visit either
of these countries.  I was waiting for an opportunity to go to
Scandinavia, to have at least a glance at these picturesque districts.

At last there were two sloops which intended to sail towards the end of
July.  The better of the two went to Altona; the destination of the other
was Copenhagen.  I had intended to travel in the former; but a merchant
of Reikjavik had already engaged the only berth,--for there rarely is
more than one in such a small vessel,--and I deemed myself lucky to
obtain the one in the other ship.  Herr Bernhoft thought, indeed, that
the vessel might be too bad for such a long journey, and proposed to
examine it, and report on its condition.  But as I had quite determined
to go to Denmark, I requested him to waive the examination, and agree
with the captain about my passage.  If, as I anticipated, he found the
vessel too wretched, his warnings might have shaken my resolution, and I
wished to avoid that contingency.

We heard, soon, that a young Danish girl, who had been in service in
Iceland, wished to return by the same vessel.  She had been suffering so
much from home-sickness, that she was determined, under any
circumstances, to see her beloved fatherland again.  If, thought I to
myself, the home-sickness is powerful enough to make this girl
indifferent to the danger, longing must take its place in my breast and
effect the same result.

Our sloop bore the consolatory name of Haabet (hope), and belonged to the
merchant Fromm, in Copenhagen.

Our departure had been fixed for the 26th of July, and after that day I
scarcely dared to leave my house, being in constant expectation of a
summons on board.  Violent storms unfortunately prevented our departure,
and I was not called till the 29th of July, when I had to bid farewell to
Iceland.

This was comparatively easy.  Although I had seen many wonderful views,
many new and interesting natural phenomena, I yet longed for my
accustomed fields, in which we do not find magnificent and overpowering
scenes, but lovelier and more cheerful ones.  The separation from Herr
Knudson and the family of Bernhoft was more difficult.  I owed all the
kindness I had experienced in the island, every good advice and useful
assistance in my travels, only to them.  My gratitude to these kind and
good people will not easily fade from my heart.

At noon I was already on board, and had leisure to admire all the gay
flags and streamers with which the French frigate anchoring here had been
decked, to celebrate the anniversary of the July revolution.

I endeavoured to turn my attention as much as possible to exterior
objects, and not to look at our ship, for all that I had involuntarily
seen had not impressed me very favourably.  I determined also not to
enter the cabin till we were in the open sea and the pilots had left our
sloop, so that all possibility of return would be gone.

Our crew consisted of captain, steersman, two sailors, and a cabin-boy,
who bore the title of cook; we added that of valet, as he was appointed
to wait on us.

When the pilots had left us, I sought the entrance of the cabin,--the
only, and therefore the common apartment.  It consisted of a hole two
feet broad, which gaped at my feet, and in which a perpendicular ladder
of five steps was inserted.  I stood before it puzzled to know which
would be the best mode of descent, but knew no other way than to ask our
host the captain.  He shewed it me at once, by sitting at the entrance
and letting his feet down.  Let the reader imagine such a proceeding with
our long dresses, and, above all, in bad weather, when the ship was
pitched about by storms.  But the thought that many other people are
worse off, and can get on, was always the anchor of consolation to which
I held; I argued with myself that I was made of the same stuff as other
human beings, only spoiled and pampered, but that I could bear what they
bore.  In consequence of this self-arguing, I sat down at once, tried the
new sliding-ladder, and arrived below in safety.

I had first to accustom my eyes to the darkness which reigned here, the
hatches being constructed to admit the light very sparingly.  I soon,
however, saw too much; for all was raggedness, dirt, and disorder.  But I
will describe matters in the order in which they occurred to me; for, as
I flatter myself that many of my countrywomen will in spirit make this
journey with me, and as many of them probably never had the opportunity
of being in such a vessel, I wish to describe it to them very accurately.
All who are accustomed to the sea will testify that I have adhered
strictly to the truth.  But to return to the sloop.  Its age emulated
mine, she being a relic of the last century.  At that time little regard
was paid to the convenience of passengers, and the space was all made
available for freight; a fact which cannot surprise us, as the seaman's
life is passed on deck, and the ship was not built for travellers.  The
entire length of the cabin from one berth to the other was ten feet; the
breadth was six feet.  The latter space was made still narrower by a box
on one side, and by a little table and two little seats on the other, so
that only sufficient space remained to pass through.

At dinner or supper, the ladies--the Danish girl and myself--sat on the
little benches, where we were so squeezed, that we could scarcely move;
the two cavaliers--the captain and the steersman--were obliged to stand
before the table, and eat their meals in that position.  The table was so
small that they were obliged to hold their plates in their hands.  In
short, every thing shewed the cabin was made only for the crew, not for
the passengers.

The air in this enclosure was also not of the purest; for, besides that
it formed our bed-room, dining-room, and drawing-room, it was also used
as store-room, for in the side cupboards provisions of various kinds were
stored, also oil-colours, and a variety of other matter.  I preferred to
sit on the deck, exposed to the cold and the storm, or to be bathed by a
wave, than to be half stifled below.  Sometimes, however, I was obliged
to descend, either when rain and storms were too violent, or when the
ship was so tossed by contrary winds that the deck was not safe.  The
rolling and pitching of our little vessel was often so terrible, that we
ladies could neither sit nor stand, and were therefore obliged to lie
down in the miserable berths for many a weary day.  How I envied my
companion! she could sleep day and night, which I could not.  I was
nearly always awake, much to my discomfort; for the hatches and the
entrance were closed during the storm, and an Egyptian darkness, as well
as a stifling atmosphere, filled the cabin.

In regard to food, all passengers, captain and crew, ate of the same
dish.  The morning meal consisted of miserable tea, or rather of nauseous
water having the colour of tea.  The sailors imbibed theirs without
sugar, but the captain and the steersman took a small piece of candied
sugar, which does not melt so quickly as the refined sugar, in their
mouth, and poured down cup after cup of tea, and ate ship's biscuit and
butter to it.

The dinner fare varied.  The first day we had salt meat, which is soaked
the evening before, and boiled the next day in sea-water.  It was so
salt, so hard, and so tough, that only a sailor's palate can possibly
enjoy it.  Instead of soup, vegetables, and pudding, we had pearl-barley
boiled in water, without salt or butter; to which treacle and vinegar was
added at the dinner-table.  All the others considered this a delicacy,
and marvelled at my depraved taste when I declared it to be unpalatable.

The second day brought a piece of bacon, boiled in sea-water, with the
barley repeated.  On the third we had cod-fish with peas.  Although the
latter were boiled hard and without butter, they were the most eatable of
all the dishes.  On the fourth day the bill of fare of the first was
repeated, and the same course followed again.  At the end of every dinner
we had black coffee.  The supper was like the breakfast,--tea-water,
ship's biscuit and butter.

I wished to have provided myself with some chickens, eggs, and potatoes
in Reikjavik, but I could not obtain any of these luxuries.  Very few
chickens are kept--only the higher officials or merchants have them; eggs
of eider-ducks and other birds may often be had, but more are never
collected than are wanted for the daily supply, and then only in spring;
for potatoes the season was not advanced enough.  My readers have now a
picture of the luxurious life I led on board the ship.  Had I been
fortunate enough to voyage in a better vessel, where the passengers are
more commodiously lodged and better fed, the seasickness would certainly
not have attacked me; but in consequence of the stifling atmosphere of
the cabin and the bad food, I suffered from it the first day.  But on the
second I was well again, regained my appetite, and ate salt meat, bacon,
and peas as well as a sailor; the stockfish, the barley, and the coffee
and tea, I left untouched.

A real sailor never drinks water; and this observation of mine was
confirmed by our captain and steersman: instead of beer or wine, they
took tea, and, except at meals, cold tea.

On Sunday evenings we had a grand supper, for the captain had eight eggs,
which he had brought from Denmark, boiled for us four people.  The crew
had a few glasses of punch-essence mixed in their tea.

As my readers are now acquainted with the varied bill of fare in such a
ship, I will say a few words of the table-linen.  This consisted only of
an old sailcloth, which was spread over the table, and looked so dirty
and greasy that I thought it would be much better and more agreeable to
leave the table uncovered.  But I soon repented the unwise thought, and
discovered how important this cloth was.  One morning I saw our valet
treating a piece of sailcloth quite outrageously: he had spread it upon
the deck, stood upon it, and brushed it clean with the ship's broom.  I
recognised our tablecloth by the many spots of dirt and grease, and in
the evening found the table bare.  But what was the consequence?
Scarcely had the tea-pot been placed on the table than it began to slip
off; had not the watchful captain quickly caught it, it would have fallen
to the ground and bathed our feet with its contents.  Nothing could stand
on the polished table, and I sincerely pitied the captain that he had not
another tablecloth.

My readers will imagine that what I have described would have been quite
sufficient to make my stay in the vessel any thing but agreeable; but I
discovered another circumstance, which even made it alarming.  This was
nothing less than that our little vessel was constantly letting in a
considerable quantity of water, which had to be pumped out every few
hours.  The captain tried to allay my uneasiness by asserting that every
ship admitted water, and ours only leaked a little more because it was so
old.  I was obliged to be content with his explanation, as it was now too
late to think of a change.  Fortunately we did not meet with any storms,
and therefore incurred less danger.

Our journey lasted twenty days, during twelve of which we saw no land;
the wind drove us too far east to see the Feroe or the Shetland Isles.  I
should have cared less for this, had I seen some of the monsters of the
deep instead, but we met with scarcely any of these amiable animals.  I
saw the ray of water which a whale emitted from his nostrils, and which
exactly resembled a fountain; the animal itself was unfortunately too far
from our ship for us to see its body.  A shark came a little nearer; it
swam round our vessel for a few moments, so that I could easily look at
him: it must have been from sixteen to eighteen feet long.

The so-called flying-fish afforded a pretty sight.  The sea was as calm
as a mirror, the evening mild and moonlight; and so we remained on deck
till late, watching the gambols of these animals.  As far as we could
see, the water was covered with them.  We could recognise the younger
fishes by their higher springs; they seemed to be three to four feet
long, and rose five to six feet above the surface of the sea.  Their
leaping looked like an attempt at flying, but their gills did not do them
good service in the trial, and they fell back immediately.  The old fish
did not seem to have the same elasticity; they only described a small
arch like the dolphins, and only rose so far above the water that we
could see the middle part of their body.

These fish are not caught; they have little oil, and an unpleasant taste.

On the thirteenth day we again saw land.  We had entered the Skagerrak,
and saw the peninsula of Jutland, with the town of Skaggen.  The
peninsula looks very dreary from this side; it is flat and covered with
sand.

On the sixteenth day we entered the Cattegat.  For some time past we had
always either been becalmed or had had contrary winds, and had been
tossed about in the Skagerrak, the Cattegat, and the Sound for nearly a
week.  On some days we scarcely made fifteen to twenty leagues a day.  On
such calm days I passed the time with fishing; but the fish were wise
enough not to bite my hook.  I was daily anticipating a dinner of
mackerel, but caught only one.

The multitude of vessels sailing into the Cattegat afforded me more
amusement; I counted above seventy.  The nearer we approached the
entrance of the Sound, the more imposing was the sight, and the more
closely were the vessels crowded together.  Fortunately we were favoured
by a bright moonlight; in a dark or stormy night we should not with the
greatest precaution and skill have been able to avoid a collision.

The inhabitants of more southern regions have no idea of the
extraordinary clearness and brilliancy of a northern moonlight night; it
seems almost as if the moon had borrowed a portion of the sun's lustre.
I have seen splendid nights on the coast of Asia, on the Mediterranean;
but here, on the shores of Scandinavia, they were lighter and brighter.

I remained on deck all night; for it pleased me to watch the forests of
masts crowded together here, and endeavouring simultaneously to gain the
entrance to the Sound.  I should now be able to form a tolerable idea of
a fleet, for this number of ships must surely resemble a merchant-fleet.

On the twentieth day of our journey we entered the port of Helsingor.
The Sound dues have to be paid here, or, as the sailor calls it, the ship
must be cleared.  This is a very tedious interruption, and the stopping
and restarting of the ship very incommodious.  The sails have to be
furled, the anchor cast, the boat lowered, and the captain proceeds on
shore; hours sometimes elapse before he has finished.  When he returns to
the ship, the boat has to be hoisted again, the anchor raised, and the
sails unfurled.  Sometimes the wind has changed in the mean time; and in
consequence of these formalities, the port of Copenhagen cannot be
reached at the expected time.

If a ship is unfortunate enough to reach Helsingor on a dark night, she
may not enter at all for fear of a collision.  She has to anchor in the
Cattegat, and thus suffer two interruptions.  If she arrives at Helsingor
in the night before four o'clock, she has to wait, as the custom-house is
not opened till that time.

The skipper is, however, at liberty to proceed direct to Copenhagen, but
this liberty costs five thalers (fifteen shillings).  If, however, the
toll may thus be paid in Copenhagen just as easily, the obligation to
stop at Helsingor is only a trick to gain the higher toll; for if a
captain is in haste, or the wind is too favourable to be lost, he
forfeits the five thalers, and sails on to Copenhagen.

Our captain cared neither for time nor trouble; he cleared the ship here,
and so we did not reach Copenhagen until two o'clock in the afternoon.
After my long absence, it seemed so familiar, so beautiful and grand, as
if I had seen nothing so beautiful in my whole life.  My readers must
bear in mind, however, where I came from, and how long I had been
imprisoned in a vessel in which I scarcely had space to move.  When I put
foot on shore again, I could have imitated Columbus, and prostrated
myself to kiss the earth.



DEPARTURE FROM COPENHAGEN.--CHRISTIANIA.


On the 19th August, the day after my arrival from Iceland, at two o'clock
in the afternoon, I had already embarked again; this time in the fine
royal Norwegian steamer _Christiania_, of 170 horsepower, bound for the
town of Christiania, distant 304 sea-miles from Copenhagen.  We had soon
passed through the Sound and arrived safely in the Cattegat, in which we
steered more to the right than on the journey to Iceland; for we not only
intended to see Norway and Sweden, but to cast anchor on the coast.

We could plainly see the fine chain of mountains which bound the Cattegat
on the right, and whose extreme point, the Kulm, runs into the sea like a
long promontory.  Lighthouses are erected here, and on the other numerous
dangerous spots of the coast, and their lights shine all around in the
dark night.  Some of the lights are movable, and some stationary, and
point out to the sailor which places to avoid.

                                                              August 20th.

Bad weather is one of the greatest torments of a traveller, and is more
disagreeable when one passes through districts remarkable for beauty and
originality.  Both grievances were united to-day; it rained, almost
incessantly; and yet the passage of the Swedish coast and of the little
fiord to the port of Gottenburg was of peculiar interest.  The sea here
was more like a broad stream which is bounded by noble rocks, and
interspersed by small and large rocks and shoals, over which the waters
dashed finely.  Near the harbour, some buildings lie partly on and partly
between the rocks; these contain the celebrated royal Swedish
iron-foundry, called the new foundry.  Even numerous American ships were
lying here to load this metal. {46}

The steamer remains more than four hours in the port of Gottenburg, and
we had therefore time to go into the town, distant about two miles, and
whose suburbs extend as far as the port.  On the landing-quay a captain
lives who has always a carriage and two horses ready to drive travellers
into the town.  There are also one-horse vehicles, and even an omnibus.
The former were already engaged; the latter, we were told, drives so
slowly, that nearly the whole time is lost on the road; so I and two
travelling companions hired the captain's carriage.  The rain poured in
torrents on our heads; but this did not disturb us much.  My two
companions had business to transact, and curiosity attracted me.  I did
not at that time know that I should have occasion to visit this pretty
little town again, and would not leave without seeing it.

The suburbs are built entirely of wood, and contain many pretty one-story
houses, surrounded, for the most part, by little gardens.  The situation
of the suburbs is very peculiar.  Rocks, or little fields and meadows,
often lie between the houses; the rocks even now and then cross the
streets, and had to be blasted to form a road.  The view from one of the
hills over which the road to the town lies is truly beautiful.

The town has two large squares: on the smaller one stands the large
church; on the larger one the town-hall, the post-office, and many pretty
houses.  In the town every thing is built of bricks.  The river Ham flows
through the large square, and increases the traffic by the many ships and
barks running into it from the sea, and bringing provisions, but
principally fuel, to market.  Several bridges cross it.  A visit to the
well-stocked fish-market is also an interesting feature in a short visit
to this town.

I entered a Swedish house for the first time here.  I remarked that the
floor was strewed over with the fine points of the fir-trees, which had
an agreeable odour, a more healthy one probably than any artificial
perfume.  I found this custom prevalent all over Sweden and Norway, but
only in hotels and in the dwellings of the poorer classes.

About eleven o'clock in the forenoon we continued our journey.  We
steered safely through the many rocks and shoals, and soon reached the
open sea again.  We did not stand out far from the shore, and saw several
telegraphs erected on the rocks.  We soon lost sight of Denmark on the
left, and arrived at the fortress Friedrichsver towards evening, but
could not see much of it.  Here the so-called Scheren begin, which extend
sixty leagues, and form the Christian's Sound.  By what I could see in
the dim twilight, the scene was beautiful.  Numerous islands, some merely
consisting of bare rocks, others overgrown with slender pines, surrounded
us on all sides.  But our pilot understood his business perfectly, and
steered us safely through to Sandesund, spite of the dark night.  Here we
anchored, for it would have been too dangerous to proceed.  We had to
wait here for the steamer from Bergen, which exchanged passengers with
us.  The sea was very rough, and this exchange was therefore extremely
difficult to effect.  Neither of the steamers would lower a boat; at last
our steamer gave way, after midnight, and the terrified and wailing
passengers were lowered into it.  I pitied them from my heart, but
fortunately no accident happened.

                                                               August 21st

I could see the situation of Sandesund better by day; and found it to
consist only of a few houses.  The water is so hemmed in here that it
scarcely attains the breadth of a stream; but it soon widens again, and
increases in beauty and variety with every yard.  We seemed to ride on a
beautiful lake; for the islands lie so close to the mountains in the
background, that they look like a continent, and the bays they form like
the mouths of rivers.  The next moment the scene changes to a succession
of lakes, one coming close on the other; and when the ship appears to be
hemmed in, a new opening is suddenly presented to the eye behind another
island.  The islands themselves are of a most varied character: some only
consist of bare rocks, with now and then a pine; some are richly covered
with fields and groves; and the shore presents so many fine scenes, that
one hardly knows where to look in order not to miss any of the beauties
of the scenery.  Here are high mountains overgrown from the bottom to the
summit with dark pine-groves; there again lovely hills, with verdant
meadows, fertile fields, pretty farmsteads and yards; and on another side
the mountains separate and form a beautiful perspective of precipices and
valleys.  Sometimes I could follow the bend of a bay till it mingled with
the distant clouds; at others we passed the most beautiful valleys,
dotted with little villages and towns.  I cannot describe the beauties of
the scenery in adequate terms: my words are too weak, and my knowledge
too insignificant; and I can only give an idea of my emotions, but not
describe them.

Near Walloe the country grows less beautiful; the mountains decrease into
hills, and the water is not studded with islands.  The little town itself
is almost concealed behind the hills.  A remarkable feature is the long
row of wooden huts and houses adjoining, which all belong to a salt-work
established there.

We entered one of the many little arms of the sea to reach the town of
Moss.  Its situation is beautiful, being built amphi-theatrically on a
hillock which leans against a high mountain.  A fine building on the
sea-shore, whose portico rests upon pillars, is used for a bathing
institution.

A dock-yard, in which men-of-war are built at the expense of the state,
is situated near the town of Horten, which is also picturesquely placed.
There does not seem to be much work doing here, for I only saw one ship
lying at anchor, and none on the stocks.  About eight leagues beyond
Horten a mountain rises in the middle of the sea, and divides it into two
streams, uniting again beyond it, and forming a pretty view.

We did not see Christiania till we were only ten leagues from it.  The
town, the suburbs, the fortress, the newly-erected royal palace, the
freemasons' lodge, &c., lie in a semicircle round the port, and are
bounded by fields, meadows, woods, and hills, forming a delightful
_coup-d'oeil_.  It seems as if the sea could not part from such a lovely
view, and runs in narrow streams, through hills and plains, to a great
distance beyond the town.

Towards eleven o'clock in the forenoon we reached the port of
Christiania.  We had come from Sandesund in seven hours, and had stopped
four times on the way; but the boats with new-comers, with merchandise
and letters, had always been ready, had been received, and we had
proceeded without any considerable delay.



CHAPTER VIII


My first care on arriving in this town was to find a countrywoman of mine
who had been married to a lawyer here.  It is said of the Viennese that
they cannot live away from their Stephen's steeple; but here was a proof
of the contrary, for there are few couples living so happily as these
friends, and yet they were nearly one thousand miles from St. Stephen's
steeple. {47}

I passed through the whole town on the way from the quay to the hotel,
and thence to my friend.  The town is not large, and not very pretty.
The newly-built portion is the best, for it at least has broad, tolerably
long streets, in which the houses are of brick, and sometimes large.  In
the by-streets I frequently found wooden barracks ready to fall.  The
square is large, but irregular; and as it is used as a general
market-place, it is also very dirty.

                          [Picture: Christiania]

In the suburbs the houses are mostly built of wood.  There are some
rather pretty public buildings; the finest among them are the royal
castle and the fortress.  They are built on little elevations, and afford
a beautiful view.  The old royal palace is in the town, but not at all
distinguishable from a common private house.  The house in which the
Storthing {48} assembles is large, and its portico rests on pillars; but
the steps are of wood, as in all stone houses in Scandinavia.  The
theatre seemed large enough for the population; but I did not enter it.
The freemasons' lodge is one of the most beautiful buildings in the town;
it contains two large saloons, which are used for assemblies or
festivities of various kinds, besides serving as the meeting-place of the
freemasons.  The university seemed almost too richly built; it is not
finished yet, but is so beautiful that it would be an ornament to the
largest capital.  The butchers' market is also very pretty.  It is of a
semi-circular shape, and is surrounded by arched passages, in which the
buyers stand, sheltered from the weather.  The whole edifice is built of
bricks, left in their natural state, neither stuccoed with mortar nor
whitewashed.  There are not many other palaces or fine public buildings,
and most of the houses are one-storied.

One of the features of the place--a custom which is of great use to the
traveller, and prevails in all Scandinavian towns--is, that the names of
the streets are affixed at every corner, so that the passer-by always
knows where he is, without the necessity of asking his way.

Open canals run through the town; and on such nights as the almanac
announces a full or bright moon the streets are not lighted.

Wooden quays surround the harbour, on which several large warehouses,
likewise built of wood, are situated; but, like most of the houses, they
are roofed with tiles.

The arrangement and display of the stores are simple, and the wares very
beautiful, though not of home manufacture.  Very few factories exist
here, and every thing has to be imported.

I was much shocked at the raggedly-clad people I met every where in the
streets; the young men especially looked very ragged.  They rarely
begged; but I should not have been pleased to meet them alone in a
retired street.

I was fortunate enough to be in Christiania at the time when the
Storthing was sitting.  This takes place every three years; the sessions
commence in January or February, and usually last three months; but so
much business had this time accumulated, that the king proposed to extend
the length of the session.  To this fortunate accident I owed the
pleasure of witnessing some of the meetings.  The king was expected to
close the proceedings in September. {49}

The hall of meeting is long and large.  Four rows of tapestried seats,
one rising above the other, run lengthways along the hall, and afford
room for eighty legislators.  Opposite the benches a table stands on a
raised platform, and at this table the president and secretary sit.  A
gallery, which is open to the public, runs round the upper portion of the
hall.

Although I understood but little of the Norwegian language, I attended
the meetings daily for an hour.  I could at least distinguish whether
long or short speeches were made, or whether the orator spoke fluently.
Unfortunately, the speakers I heard spoke the few words they mustered
courage to deliver so slowly and hesitatingly, that I could not form a
very favourable idea of Norwegian eloquence.  I was told that the
Storthing only contained three or four good speakers, and they did not
display their talents during my stay.

I have never seen such a variety of carriages as I met with here.  The
commonest and most incommodious are called Carriols.  A carriol consists
of a narrow, long, open box, resting between two immensely high wheels,
and provided with a very small seat.  You are squeezed into this
contrivance, and have to stretch your feet forward.  You are then buckled
in with a leather apron as high as the hips, and must remain in this
position, without moving a limb, from the beginning to the end of your
ride.  A board is hung on behind the box for the coachman; and from this
perch he, in a kneeling or standing position, directs the horses, unless
the temporary resident of the box should prefer to take the reins
himself.  As it is very unpleasant to hear the quivering of the reins on
one side and the smacking of the whip on the other, every one, men and
women, can drive.  Besides these carriols, there are phaetons, droschkas,
but no closed vehicles.

The carts which are used for the transport of beer are of a very peculiar
construction.  The consumption of beer in Christiania is very great, and
it is at once bottled when made, and not sold in casks.  The carts for
the transport of these bottles consist of roomy covered boxes a foot and
a half high, which are divided into partitions like a cellaret, in which
many bottles can be easily and safely transported from one part to
another.

Another species of basket, which the servants use to carry such articles
as are damp or dirty, and which my readers will excuse my describing, is
made of fine white tin, and provided with a handle.  Straw baskets are
only used for bread, and for dry and clean provisions.

There are no public gardens or assemblies in Christiania, but numerous
promenades; indeed, every road from the town leads to the most beautiful
scenery, and every hill in the neighbourhood affords the most delightful
prospects.

Ladegardoen is the only spot which is often resorted to by the citizens
by carriage or on foot.  It affords many and splendid views of the sea
and its islands, of the surrounding mountains, valleys, and pine and fir
groves.  The majority of the country-houses are built here.  They are
generally small, but pretty, and surrounded by flower-gardens and
orchards.  While there, I seemed to be far in the south, so green and
verdant was the scenery.  The corn-fields alone betrayed the north.  Not
that the corn was poor; on the contrary, I found many ears bending to the
ground under their weight; but now, towards the end of August, most of it
was standing uncut in the fields.

Near the town stands a pine-grove, from which one has splendid views; two
monuments are raised in it, but neither of them are of importance: one is
raised to the memory of a crown-prince of Sweden, Christian Augustus; the
other to Count Hermann Wenel Jarlsberg.



JOURNEY TO DELEMARKEN.


All I had hitherto seen in Norway had gratified me so much, that I could
not resist the temptation of a journey to the wildly romantic regions of
Delemarken.  I was indeed told that it would be a difficult undertaking
for a female, alone and almost entirely ignorant of the language, to make
her way through the peasantry.  But I found no one to accompany me, and
was determined to go; so I trusted to fate, and went alone.

According to the inquires I had instituted in respect to this journey, I
anticipated that my greatest difficulties would arise from the absence of
all institutions for the speedy and comfortable progress of travellers.
One is forced to possess a carriage, and to hire horses at every station.
It is sometimes possible to hire a vehicle, but this generally consists
only of a miserable peasant's cart.  I hired, therefore, a carriol for
the whole journey, and a horse to the next station, the townlet of
Drammen, distant about twenty-four miles.

On the 25th August, at three o'clock in the afternoon, I left
Christiania, squeezed myself into my carriage, and, following the example
of Norwegian dames, I seized the reins.  I drove as if I had been used to
it from infancy.  I turned right and left, and my horse galloped and
trotted gaily on.

The road to Drammen is exquisite, and would afford rich subjects for an
artist.  All the beauties of nature are here combined in most perfect
harmony.  The richness and variety of the scenery are almost oppressive,
and would be an inexhaustible subject for the painter.  The vegetation is
much richer than I had hoped to find it so far north; every hill, every
rock, is shaded by verdant foliage; the green of the meadows was of
incomparable freshness; the grass was intermingled with flowers and
herbs, and the corn-fields bent under their golden weight.

I have been in many countries, and have seen beautiful districts; I have
been in Switzerland, in Tyrol, in Italy, and in Salzburg; but I never saw
such peculiarly beautiful scenery as I found here: the sea every where
intruding and following us to Drammen; here forming a lovely lake on
which boats were rocking, there a stream rushing through hills and
meadows; and then again, the splendid expanse dotted with proud
three-masters and with countless islets.  After a five hours' ride
through rich valleys and splendid groves, I reached the town of Drammen,
which lies on the shores of the sea and the river Storri Elf, and whose
vicinity was announced by the beautiful country-houses ornamenting the
approach to it.

A long, well-built wooden bridge, furnished with beautiful iron
palisadings, leads over the river.  The town of Drammen has pretty
streets and houses, and above 6000 inhabitants.  The hotel where I lodged
was pretty and clean.  My bedroom was a large room, with which the most
fastidious might have been contented.  The supper which they provided for
me was, however, most frugal, consisting only of soft-boiled eggs.  They
gave me neither salt nor bread with them, nor a spoon; nothing but a
knife and fork.  And it is a mystery to me how soft eggs can be eaten
without bread, and with a knife and fork.

                                                              August 25th.

I hired a fresh horse here, with which I proceeded to Kongsberg, eighteen
miles farther.  The first seven miles afforded a repetition of the
romantic scenery of the previous day, with the exception of the sea.  But
instead I had the beautiful river, until I had ascended a hill, from
whose summit I overlooked a large and apparently populous valley, filled
with groups of houses and single farms.  It is strange that there are
very few large towns in Norway; every peasant builds his house in the
midst of his fields.

Beyond this hill the scenery grows more monotonous.  The mountains are
lower, the valley narrower, and the road is enclosed by wood or rocks.
One peculiarity of Norwegian rocks is their humidity.  The water
penetrates through countless fissures, but only in such small quantities
as to cover the stones with a kind of veil.  When the sun shines on these
wet surfaces of rock, of which there are many and large ones, they shine
like mirrors.

Delemarken seems to be tolerably populous.  I often met with solitary
peasant-huts in the large gloomy forests, and they gave some life to the
monotonous landscape.  The industry of the Norwegian peasant is very
great; for every spot of earth, even on the steepest precipices, bore
potatoes, barley, or oats; their houses also look cheerful, and were
painted for the most part of a brick-red colour.

I found the roads very good, especially the one from Christiania to
Drammen; and the one from Drammen to Kongsberg was not very
objectionable.  There is such an abundance of wood in Norway, that the
streets on each side are fenced by wooden enclosures; and every field and
meadow is similarly protected against the intrusion of cattle, and the
miserable roads through the woods are even covered with round trunks of
trees.

The peasantry in this district have no peculiar costume; only the
head-covering of the females is curious.  They wear a lady's hat, such as
was fashionable in the last century, ornamented with a bunch behind, and
with an immense shade in front.  They are made of any material, generally
of the remains of old garments; and only on Sundays better ones, and
sometimes even silk ones, make their appearance.

In the neighbourhood of Kongsberg this head-dress is no longer worn.
There they wear little caps like the Suabian peasantry, petticoats
commencing under the shoulders, and very short spencers: a very ugly
costume, the whole figure being spoilt by the short waist.

The town of Kongsberg is rather extended, and is beautifully situated on
a hill in the centre of a splendid wooded valley.  It is, like all the
towns in Norway except Christiania, built of wood; but it has many
pretty, neat houses and some broad streets.

The stream Storri Elf flows past the town, and forms a small but very
picturesque waterfall a little below the bridge.  What pleased me most
was the colour of the water as it surged over the rock.  It was about
noon as I drove across the bridge; the sun illuminated the whole country
around, and the waves breaking against the rocks seemed by this light of
a beautiful pale-yellow colour, so that they resembled thick masses of
pure transparent amber.

Two remarkable sights claimed my attention at Kongsberg,--a rich
silver-mine, and a splendid waterfall called the Labrafoss.  But as my
time was limited and I could only remain a few hours in Kongsberg, I
preferred to see the waterfall and believe the accounts of the
silver-mine; which were, that the deepest shaft was eight hundred feet
below the surface, and that it was most difficult to remain there, as the
cold, the smoke, and the powder-smell had a very noxious effect on the
traveller accustomed to light and air.

I therefore hired a horse and drove to the fall, which is situated in a
narrow pass about four miles from Kongsberg.  The river collects in a
quiet calm basin a little distance above the fall, and then rushes over
the steep precipice with a sudden bound.  The considerable depth of the
fall and the quality of water make it a very imposing sight.  This is
increased by a gigantic rock planted like a wall in the lower basin, and
opposing its body to the progress of the hurrying waters.  The waves
rebound from the rock, and, collecting in mighty masses, rush over it,
forming several smaller waterfalls in their course.

I watched it from a high rock, and was nevertheless covered by the spray
to such a degree, that I sometimes could scarcely open my eyes.  My guide
then took me to the lower part of the fall, so that I might have a view
of it from all sides; and each view seemed different and more splendid.
I perceived the same yellow transparent colour which I had remarked in
the fall at Kongsberg in the waters which dashed over the rock and were
illuminated by the sun.  I imagine it arises from the rock, which is
every where of a brownish-red colour, for the water itself was clear and
pure.

At four o'clock in the afternoon I left Kongsberg, and drove to Bolkesoe,
a distance of eighteen miles.  It was by no means a beautiful or an
agreeable drive; for the road was very bad, and took me through passes
and valleys, across woods and over steep mountains, while the night was
dark and unilluminated by the moon.  The thought involuntarily entered my
mind, how easily my guide, who sat close behind me on the vehicle, could
put me out of the world by a gentle blow, and take possession of my
effects.  But I had confidence in the upright character of the
Norwegians, and drove on quietly, devoting my attention entirely to the
reins of my little steed, which I had to lead with a sure hand over hill
and valley, over ruts and stones, and along precipices.  I heard no sound
but the rushing of the mountain-river, which leaped, close beside us,
over the rocks, and was heard rushing in the far distance.

We did not arrive at Bolkesoe until ten o'clock at night.  When we
stopped before an insignificant-looking peasant's cot, and I remembered
my Icelandic night-accommodations, whose exterior this resembled, my
courage failed me; but I was agreeably disappointed when the peasant's
wife led me up a broad staircase into a large clean chamber furnished
with several good beds, some benches, a table, a box, and an iron stove.
I found equal comforts on all the stations of my journey.

There are no proper hotels or posthouses on the little-frequented
Norwegian roads; but the wealthy peasants undertake the duties of both.
I would, however, advise every traveller to provide himself with bread
and other provisions for the trip; for his peasant-host rarely can
furnish him with these.  His cows are on the hills during the summer;
fowls are far too great a luxury for him; and his bread is scarcely
eatable: it consists of large round cakes, scarcely half an inch thick,
and very hard; or of equally large cakes scarcely as thick as a knife,
and quite dry.  The only eatables I found were fish and potatoes; and
whenever I could stay for several hours, they fetched milk for me from
the hills.

The travelling conveniences are still more unattainable; but these I will
mention in a future chapter, when my experience will be a little more
extensive.

                                                              August 26th.

I could not see the situation of the town of Bolkesoe till daylight
to-day, for when I arrived the darkness of night concealed it.  It is
situated in a pretty wooded vale, on a little hill at whose foot lies a
beautiful lake of the same name.

The road from here to Tindosoe, about sixteen miles, is not practicable
for vehicles, and I therefore left my carriol here and proceeded on
horseback.  The country grows more quiet and uninhabited, and the valleys
become real chasms.  Two lakes of considerable size form an agreeable
variety to the wildness of the scenery.  The larger one, called the
Foelsoe, is of a regular form, and above two miles in diameter; it is
encircled by picturesque mountains.  The effect of the shadows which the
pine-covered mountain-tops throw on the lakes is particularly attractive.
I rode along its shores for more than an hour, and had leisure to see and
examine every thing very accurately, for the horses here travel at a very
slow pace.  The reason of this is partly that the guide has no horse, and
walks beside you in a very sleepy manner; the horse knows its master's
peculiarities by long experience, and is only too willing to encourage
him in his slow, dull pace.  I spent more than five hours in reaching
Tindosoe.  My next object of interest was the celebrated waterfall of
Rykanfoss, to reach which we had to cross a large lake.  Although it had
rained incessantly for an hour, and the sky looked threatening, I at once
hired a boat with two rowers to continue my journey without interruption;
for I anticipated a storm, and then I should not have found a boatman who
would have ventured a voyage of four or five hours on this dangerous
lake.  In two hours my boat was ready, and I started in the pouring rain,
but rejoiced at least at the absence of fog, which would have concealed
the beauties of nature which surrounded me.  The lake is eighteen miles
long, but in many parts only from two to three miles wide.  It is
surrounded by mountains, which rise in terraces without the least gap to
admit a distant view.  As the mountains are nearly all covered with dark
fir-groves, and overshadow the whole breadth of the narrow lake, the
water seems quite dark, and almost black.  This lake is dangerous to
navigate on account of the many rocks rising perpendicularly out of the
water, which, in a storm, shatter a boat dashed against them to pieces,
and the passengers would find an inevitable grave in the deep waters.  We
had a flesh and a favourable breeze, which blew us quickly to our
destination.  One of the rocks on the coast has a very loud echo.

An island about a mile long divides the lake into equal parts; and when
we had passed it, the landscape became quite peculiar.  The mountains
seemed to push before each other, and try whose foot should extend
farthest into the sea.  This forms numerous lovely bays; but few of them
are adapted for landing, as the dangerous rocks seem to project every
where.

The little dots of field and meadow which seem to hang against the rock,
and the modest cottages of the peasants, which are built on the points of
the most dangerous precipices, and over which rocks and stones tower as
mountains, present a very curious appearance.  The most fearful rocks
hang over the huts, and threaten to crush them by falling, which would
inevitably carry cottage and field with them into the sea.  It is
difficult to say whether the boldness or the stupidity of the peasants
induces them to choose such localities for their dwellings.

From the mountains many rivers flow into the lake, and form beautiful
falls.  This might only have been the case at that time, because it was
raining incessantly, and the water poured down from all sides, so that
the mountains seemed embroidered with silver threads.  It was a beautiful
sight; but I would willingly have relinquished it for a day of sunshine.
It is no trifle to be exposed to such a shower-bath from morning till
night; I was wet through, and had no hope for better weather, as the sky
was clouded all round.  My perseverance was nearly exhausted; and I was
on the point of relinquishing the purpose of my journey,--the sight of
the highest Norwegian waterfall,--when it occurred to me that the bad
weather was most favourable for my plan, as each drop of water would
increase the splendour of the waterfall.

After three hours and a half's rowing we reached Haukaness-am-See, where
it is usual to stop a night as there is a pretty farm here, and the
distance from the fall is still considerable.

                                                              August 27th.

My first care in the morning was the weather; it was unchanged, and the
experienced peasants prophesied that it would remain wet.  As I would not
return nor wait for better weather, I could only take to my boat again,
put on my half-dried cloak, and row on boldly.

The termination of the lake, which we soon reached, was already
sufficient to compensate for my perseverance.  A high mountain advances
into the lake, and divides it into two beautiful bays.  We entered the
left bay, and landed at Mael, which lies at the mouth of the river
Rykaness.  The distance from Haukaness is a little more than two miles.
I had to mount a horse to reach the waterfall, which was yet eleven miles
distant.  The road runs through a narrow valley, which gradually narrows
still more until it can only contain the river; and the traveller is
obliged to ascend the heights and grope on along the sides of the
mountains.  Below in the vale he sees the foam of the waves surging
against the rocks; they flow like a narrow band of silver in the deep
chasm.  Sometimes the path is so high that one neither sees nor hears the
river.  The last half mile has to be journeyed on foot, and goes past
spots which are really dangerous; numerous waterfalls rush from the
mountain-sides, and have to be crossed on paths of tree-trunks laid
alongside each other; and roads scarcely a foot wide lead along giddy
precipices.  But the traveller may trust unhesitatingly to his guide's
arm, who has hitherto led every one in safety to his destination.

The road from Haukaness to the waterfall must be the finest that can be
imagined on a bright sunny day; for I was enchanted with the
wildly-romantic scenery in spite of the incessant rain and my wet
clothes, and would on no consideration have missed this sight.
Unfortunately the bad weather increased, and thick fogs rolled down into
the valleys.  The water flowed down from the mountains, and transformed
our narrow path into a brook, through which we had to wade ankle-deep in
water.  At last we reached the spot which afforded the best view of the
fall.  It was yet free from mist, and I could still admire the
extraordinary beauty of the fall and its quantity of water.  I saw the
immense mountain-rock which closes the valley, the tremendous pillar of
water which dashes over it, and rebounds from the rock projecting in the
centre of the fall, filling the whole valley with clouds of spray, and
concealing the depth to which it descends.  I saw this, one of the rarest
and of the most magnificent of natural beauties; but alas, I saw it only
for a moment, and had scarcely time to recover from the surprise of the
first view when I lost it for ever!  I was not destined to see the single
grandeurs of the fall and of the surrounding scenery, and was fain to be
content with one look, one glance.  Impenetrable mists rolled from all
sides into the wild glen, and shrouded every thing in complete darkness;
I sat on a piece of rock, and gazed for two hours stedfastly at the spot
where a faint outline of the fall was scarcely distinguishable through
the mist sometimes this faint trace even was lost, and I could perceive
its vicinity only by the dreadful sounds of the fall, and by the
trembling of the rock beneath my feet.

After I had gazed, and hoped, and raised my eyes entreatingly to heaven
for a single ray of sunshine, all in vain, I had at last to determine on
my return.  I left my post almost with tears in my eyes, and turned my
head more backwards than forwards as we left the spot.  At the least
indication of a clearing away of the fog I should have returned.

But I retired farther and farther from it till I reached Mael again,
where I sadly entered my boat, and proceeded uninterruptedly to Tindosoe.
I arrived there towards ten o'clock at night.  The wet, the cold, the
want of food, and, above all, the depressed and disappointed state of my
mind, had so affected me, that I went to bed with a slight attack of
fever, and feared that I should not be able to continue my journey on the
following day.  But my strong constitution triumphed over every thing,
and at five o'clock in the morning I was ready to continue my journey to
Bolkesoe on horseback.

I was obliged to hurry for fear of missing the departure of the steamer
from Christiania.  The journey to Delemarken had been represented to me
as much shorter than I found it in reality; for the constant waiting for
horses, boats, guides, &c. takes up very much time.

                                                              August 28th.

I had ordered my horse to be ready at five o'clock, but was obliged to
wait for it until seven o'clock.

Although I made only a short trip into the interior, I had sufficient
opportunities for experiencing the extortions and inconveniences to which
a traveller is liable in Norway.  No country in Europe is so much in its
infancy as regards all conveniences for locomotion.  It is true that
horses, carriages, boats, &c. can be had at every station, and the law
has fixed the price of these commodities; but every thing is in the hands
of the peasants and the publicans, and they are so skilled in tormenting
the traveller by their intentional slowness, that he is compelled to pay
the two-fold tax, in order to proceed a little more quickly.  The
stations are short, being rarely above five or six miles, and one is
therefore constantly changing horses.  Arrived at a station, it either
happens that there is really no horse to be had, or that this is an
ostensible excuse.  The traveller is told that the horse has to be
fetched from the mountain, and that he can be served in one and a half or
two hours.  Thus he rides one hour, and waits two.  It is also necessary
to keep the tariff, as every trifle, the saddle, the carriage, the
harness, fetching the horse, the boat, &c., has to be paid for extra; and
when the traveller does not know the fixed prices, he is certain to be
dreadfully imposed upon.  At every station a book lies, containing the
legal prices; but it is written in the language of the district, and
utterly unintelligible to the stranger.  Into this book, which is
examined by the judge of the district every month, one may enter
complaints against the peasant or publican; but they do not seem to fear
it, for the guide who accompanied me to the fall of Rykanfoss endeavoured
to cheat me twice in the most barefaced manner, by charging me six-fold
for the use of the saddles and the fetching of the horse.  When I
threatened to inscribe my complaint in the book, he seemed not to care,
and insisted on his demand, till I was obliged to pay him.  On my return
to Mael, I kept my word, asked for the book, and entered my complaint,
although I was alone with all the peasants.  It was not so much the money
which annoyed me, as the shameless imposition.  I am of opinion that
every one should complain when he is wronged; if it does not benefit him,
it will make the matter more easy for his successor.

I must confess, in justice to the peasants, that they were very indignant
when I told them of the dishonesty of their countryman, and did not
attempt to prevent my complaint.

To conclude my journey, I need only remark that, although the rain had
ceased, the sky was still covered with clouds, and the country shrouded
in mist.  I therefore took the shorter road to Christiania, by which I
had come, although I thereby missed a beautiful district, where I should,
as I was told, have seen the most splendid perspective views in Norway.
This would have been on the road from Kongsberg over Kroxleben to
Christiania.  The finest part is near Kroxleben.

But the time was too short to take this round, and I returned by way of
Drammen.  In the village of Muni, about five miles from Kongsberg, where
I arrived at seven o'clock in the evening, the amiable host wished to
keep me waiting again two hours for a horse; and as this would probably
have happened at every station, I was obliged to hire a horse for the
whole distance to Christiania, at a threefold price.  I slept here for a
few hours, left in the night at one o'clock, and arrived at Christiania
the following afternoon at two.

On this journey I found all those people very kind and obliging with whom
I came into no sort of pecuniary relation; but the hosts, the boatmen,
the drivers, the guides, were as selfish and grasping as in any other
country.  I believe that kindness and disinterestedness would only be
found in any district by him who has the good fortune to be the first
traveller.

This little excursion was very dear; and yet I think I could now travel
cheaply even in this country, universally acknowledged to be dear.  I
would go with the steamer along the coast to Hammerfest, buy a little
vehicle and a good horse there, and then travel pleasantly, and without
annoyance, through the whole country.  But for a family who wished to
travel in a comfortable covered carriage, it would be incalculably dear,
and in many parts impossible, on account of the bad roads.

The Norwegian peasantry are strong and robust, but their features are not
the most comely, and they seemed neither wealthy nor cleanly.  They were
generally very poorly clad, and always barefooted.  Their cottages, built
of wood and covered with tiles, are more roomy than those of the
Icelanders; but they are nevertheless dirty and wretched.  A weakness of
the Norwegians is their fondness for coffee, which they drink without
milk or sugar.  The old women, as well as the men, smoke their pipes
morning and night.


                                    Miles.
From Christiania to Kongsberg is    41
about
From Kongsberg to the waterfall     5
Labrafoss
From Kongsberg to Bolkosoe          14
From Bolkosoe to Tindosoe           16
From Tindosoe across the lake to    16
Mael
From Mael to the waterfall          11
Rykanfoss
                                    103
CHAPTER IX


                                                              August 30th.

At seven o'clock this morning I left Christiania, accompanied by the good
wishes of my countrywoman and her husband, and went back to Gottenburg by
the same steamer which had brought me thence ten days before.  I need
only mention the splendid view of a portion of Christian's Sound--also
called Fiord--which I lost on the former journey from the darkness of the
night.  We passed it in the afternoon.  The situation of the little town
of Lauervig is superb.  It is built on a natural terrace, bordered in the
background by beautiful mountains.  In front, the fortress of
Friedrichsver lies on a mountain surrounded by rocks, on which little
watch-towers are erected; to the left lies the vast expanse of sea.

We were delayed an hour at Friedrichsver to transfer the travellers for
Bergen {50} to a vessel waiting for them, as we had stopped on our
previous journey at Sandesund for the same purpose.

This is the last view in the fiord; for now we steered into the open sea,
and in a few hours we had lost sight of land.  We saw nothing but land
and water till we arrived the next morning at the Scheren, and steered
for Gottenburg.

                                                              August 31st.

The sea had been rough all night, and we therefore reached Gottenburg
three hours later than usual.  In this agitated sea, the surging of the
breakers against the many rocks and islets near Gottenburg has a very
curious effect.

The few travellers who could keep on their feet, who did not suffer from
sea-sickness, and remained on deck, spoke much of the dangerous storm.  I
had frequently marvelled to hear people who had made a journey, if it
were even only a short one of forty to sixty leagues, relate of some
fearful storm they had witnessed.  Now I comprehended the reason, when I
heard the travellers beside me call the brisk breeze, which only
occasioned what seamen call a little swell, a dreadful storm; and they
will probably tell at home of the dangers they have passed.  Storms are,
fortunately, not so frequent.  I have travelled many thousand leagues,
and have often met with stormy weather, especially on the passage from
Copenhagen to Iceland; but I only experienced one real storm, but a
violent and dangerous one, as I was crossing the Black Sea to
Constantinople in April 1842.

We arrived at Gottenburg at nine instead of at six o'clock in the
morning.  I landed at once, to make the celebrated trip through the
locks, over the waterfalls of Trollhatta, with the next Stockholm
steamer.  By the junction of the river Gotha with some of the interior
lakes, this great construction crosses the whole country, and connects
the North Sea with the Baltic.

I found the town of Gottenburg very animated, on account of the presence
of the king of Sweden, who was spending a few days here on his way to
Christiania to prorogue the Storthing.  I arrived on a Sunday, and the
king, with his son, were in the church.  The streets swarmed with human
beings, all crowding towards the cathedral to catch a glimpse of his
majesty on his departure.  I, of course, mingled with the crowd, and was
fortunate enough to see the king and prince come out of the church, enter
their carriage, and drive away very near to me.  Both were handsome,
amiable-looking men.  The people rushed after the carriage, and eagerly
caught the friendly bows of the intelligent father and his hopeful son;
they followed him to his palace, and stationed themselves in front of it,
impatiently longing for the moment when the royal pair would appear at a
window.

I could not have arrived at a more favourable time; for every one was in
holiday attire, and the military, the clergy, the officials, citizens and
people, were all exerting themselves to the utmost to do honour to their
king.

I noticed two peasant-girls among the crowd who were peculiarly dressed.
They wore black petticoats reaching half way down the calf of the leg,
red stockings, red spensers, and white chemises, with long white sleeves;
a kerchief was tied round the head.  Some of the citizens' wives wore
caps like the Suabian caps, covered by a little black, embroidered veil,
which, however, left the face free.

Here, as in Copenhagen, I noticed boys of ten to twelve years of age
among the drummers, and in the bands of the military.

The king remained this day and the next in Gottenburg, and continued his
journey on the Tuesday.  On the two evenings of his stay the windows in
the town were ornamented with wreaths of fresh flowers, interspersed with
lighted tapers.  Some houses displayed transparencies, which, however,
did not place the inventive powers of the amiable Gottenburgers in a very
favourable light.  They were all alike, consisting of a tremendous O
(Oscar), surmounted by a royal crown.

I was detained four days in Gottenburg; and small consideration seems to
be paid to the speedy transport of travellers in Sweden.  The steamer for
Stockholm started on the day I arrived from Christiania, but
unfortunately at five o'clock in the morning; and as in the month of
September only two steamers go in the week to Stockholm, I was compelled
to wait till Thursday.  The time hung heavily on my hands; for I had seen
the town itself, and the splendid views on the hills between the suburbs,
during my former visit to the town, and the other portions only consisted
of bare rocks and cliffs, which were of no interest.

                                                            September 4th.

The press of travellers was so great this time, that two days before the
departure the cabins were all engaged; several ladies and gentlemen who
would not wait for the next steamer were compelled to be satisfied with
the deck, and I was among them; for the probability of such a crowd of
passengers had not occurred to me, and I applied for a place only two
days before our departure.  During the journey fresh passengers were
taken in at every station, and the reader may conceive the misery of the
poor citizens unused to such hardships.  Every one sought a shelter for
the night, and the little cabins of the engineer and steersman were given
up to some, while others crept into the passages, or squatted down on the
steps of the stairs leading to the cabins.  A place was offered to me in
the engineer's cabin; but as three or four other persons were to share
the apartment calculated only for one person, I preferred to bivouac
night and day upon deck.  One of the gentlemen was kind enough to lend me
a thick cloak, in which I could wrap myself; and so I slept much more
comfortably under the high canopy of heaven than my companions did in
their sweating-room.

The arrangements in the vessels navigating the Gotha canal are by no
means the best.  The first class is very comfortable, and the cabin-place
is divided into pretty light divisions for two persons; but the second
class is all the more uncomfortable: its cabin is used for a common
dining-room by day, and by night hammocks are slung up in it for sleeping
accommodation.  The arrangements for the luggage are worse still.  The
canal-boats, having only a very small hold, trunks, boxes, portmanteaus,
&c. are heaped up on the deck, not fastened at all, and very
insufficiently protected against rain.  The consequence of this
carelessness on a journey of five or six days was, that the rain and the
high waves of the lakes frequently put the after-deck several inches
under water, and then the luggage was wetted through.  It was worse still
in a squall on the Wenner lake; for while the ship was rather roughly
tossed about, many a trunk lost its equilibrium and fell from its high
position, frequently endangering the safety of the passengers' heads.
The fares are, however, very cheap, which seemed doubly strange, as the
many locks must cause considerable expense.

And now for the journey itself.  We started at five o'clock in the
morning, and soon arrived in the river Gotha, whose shores for the first
few miles are flat and bare.  The valley itself is bounded by bare, rocky
hills.  After about nine miles we came to the town of Kongelf, which is
said to have 1000 inhabitants.  It is so situated among rocks, that it is
almost hidden from view.  On a rock opposite the town are the ruins of
the fortress Bogus.  Now the scenery begins to be a little more
diversified, and forests are mingled with the bleak rocks; little valleys
appear on both the shores; and the river itself, here divided by an
islet, frequently expands to a considerable breadth.  The peasants'
cottages were larger and better than those in Norway; they are generally
painted brick-red, and are often built in groups.

The first lock is at Lilla Edet: there are five here; and while the ship
passes through them, the passengers have leisure to admire the contiguous
low, but broad and voluminous fall of the Gotha.

This first batch of locks in the canal extends over some distance past
the fall, and they are partly blasted out of the rock, or built of stone.
The river past Akestron flows as through a beautiful park; the valley is
hemmed in by fertile hills, and leaves space only for the stream and some
picturesque paths winding along its shores, and through the pine-groves
descending to its banks.

In the afternoon we arrived at the celebrated locks near Trollhatta.
They are of gigantic construction, which the largest states would be
honoured in completing, and which occasion surprise when found in a
country ranking high neither in extent nor in influence.  There are
eleven locks here, which rise 112 feet in a space of 3500 feet.  They are
broad, deep, blasted out of the rock, and walled round with fine
freestone.  They resemble the single steps of a giant's staircase; and by
this name they might fitly rank as one of the wonders of the world.  Lock
succeeds lock, mighty gates close them, and the large vessel rises
miraculously to the giddy heights in a wildly romantic country.

                      [Picture: Falls of Trollhatta]

Scarcely arrived at the locks, the traveller is surrounded by a crowd of
boys, who offer their services as guides to the waterfalls near
Trollhatta.  There is abundance of time for this excursion; for the
passage of the ship through the many locks occupies three to four hours,
and the excursion can be made in half the time.  Before starting, it is,
however, advisable to climb the rock to which the locks ascend.  A
pavilion is erected on its summit, and the view from it down over all the
locks is exceedingly fine.

Pretty paths hewn out of the wood lead to Trollhatta, which is charmingly
situated in a lovely valley, surrounded by woods and hills, on the shore
of a river, whose white foaming waves contrast strongly with the dark
foliage of the overshadowing groves.  The canal, which describes a large
semicircle round the chief stream, glitters in the distance; but the
highest locks are quite concealed behind rocks; we could neither observe
the opening of the gates nor the rising of the water in them, and were
therefore surprised when suddenly the masts and then the ship itself rose
from the depth.  An invisible hand seemed to raise it up between the
rocks.

The falls of the river are less distinguished for their height than for
their diversity and their volumes of water.  The principal arm of the
river is divided at the point of decline into two equal falls by a little
island of rock.  A long narrow suspension-bridge leads to this island,
and hangs over the fall; but it is such a weak, frail construction, that
one person only can cross it at a time.  The owner of this dangerous path
keeps it private, and imposes a toll of about 3.5d. on all passengers.

A peculiar sensation oppresses the traveller crossing the slender path.
He sees the stream tearing onwards, breaking itself on the projecting
rock, and fall surging into the abyss; he sees the boiling waves beneath,
and feels the bridge vibrate at every footstep, and timidly hastens to
reach the island, not taking breath to look around until he has found
footing; on the firm island.  A solid rock projects a little over the
fall, and affords him a safe position, whence he sees not only the two
falls on either side, but also several others formed above and below his
point of view.  The scene is so enchanting, that it is difficult to tear
oneself away.

Beyond Trollhatta the river expands almost to a lake, and is separated
into many arms by the numerous islands.  The shores lose their beauty,
being flat and uninteresting.

We unfortunately did not reach the splendid Wennersee, which is from
forty-five to sixty-five miles long, and proportionally broad, until
evening, when it was already too dark to admire the scenery.  Our ship
remained some hours before the insignificant village Wennersborg.

We had met six or seven steamers on our journey, which all belonged to
Swedish or Norwegian merchants; and it afforded us a peculiarly
interesting sight to see these ships ascend and descend in the high
locks.

                                                            September 5th.

As we were leaving Wennersborg late on the previous night, and were
cruising about the sea, a contrary wind, or rather a squall, arose, which
would have signified little to a good vessel, but to which our small ship
was not equal.  The poor captain tried in vain to navigate the steamer
across the lake; he was at last compelled to give up the attempt, to
return and to cast anchor.  We lost our boat during this storm; a high
wave dashed over the deck and swept it away: it had probably been as well
fastened as our boxes and trunks.

Though it was but nine o'clock in the morning, our captain declared that
he could not proceed during the day, but that if the weather became more
favourable, he would start again about midnight.  Fortunately a
fishing-boat ventured to come alongside, and some of the passengers
landed.  I was among them, and made use of this opportunity to visit some
cottages lying at the edge of a wood near the lake.  They were very
small, but consisted of two chambers, which contained several beds and
other furniture; the people were also somewhat better clad than the
Norwegians.  Their food too was not so unpalatable; they boiled a thick
mess of coarse black flour, which was eaten with sweet milk.

                                                            September 6th.

We raised anchor at one o'clock in the morning, and in about five hours
arrived at the island Eken, which consists entirely of rock, and is
surrounded by a multitude of smaller islets and cliffs.  This is one of
the most important stations in the lake.  A large wooden warehouse stands
on the shore, and in it is stored the merchandise of the vicinity
intended for export; and in return it receives the cargo from the ships.
There are always several vessels lying at anchor here.

We had now to wind through a cluster of islands, till we again reached
the open lake, which, however, was only remarkable for its size.  Its
shores are bare and monotonous, and only dotted here and there with woods
or low hills; the distant view even is not at all noteworthy.  One of the
finest views is the tolerably large castle of Leko, which lies on a rock,
and is surrounded by fertile groves.

Further off rises the Kinne Kulle, {51} to which the traveller's
attention is directed, because it is said to afford an extended view, not
only over the lake, but far into the country.  A curious grotto is said
to exist in this hill; but unfortunately one loses these sights since the
establishment of steamers, for we fly past every object of interest, and
the longest journey will soon be described in a few words.

A large glass-factory is established at Bromoe, which fabricates
window-glass exclusively.  We stopped a short time, and took a
considerable cargo of the brittle material on board.

The factory and the little dwellings attached to it are prettily situated
on the undulating ground.

Near Sjotorp we entered the river again through several locks.  The
passage of the Wennersee is calculated at about ten or eleven hours.

The river at first winds through woods; and while the ship slowly passes
through the locks, it is pleasanter to walk a portion of the distance in
their shade.  Farther on it flows through broad valleys, which, however,
present no very attractive features.

                                                            September 7th.

Early in the morning we crossed the pretty Vikensee, which distinguishes
itself, like all Swedish lakes, by the multitude of its islands, cliffs,
and rocks.  These islands are frequently covered with trees, which make
the view more interesting.

The lake is 306 feet above the level of the North Sea, and is the highest
point of the journey; from thence the locks begin to descend.  The number
of ascending and descending locks amounts to seventy-two.

A short canal leads into the Boltensee, which is comparatively free from
islands.  The passage across this little lake is very charming; the
shores are diversified by hills, woods, meadows, and fields.  After it
comes the Weltersee, which can be easily defended by the beautiful
fortress of Karlsborg.  This lake has two peculiarities: one being the
extraordinary purity and transparency of its waters; the other, the
number of storms which prevail in it.  I was told that it frequently
raged and stormed on the lake while the surrounding country remained calm
and free.  The storm sometimes overtakes the ship so suddenly and
violently, that escape is impossible; and the sagas and fables told of
the deceitful tricks of these waves are innumerable.

We fortunately escaped, and crossed its surface cheerfully and merrily.
On its shores are situated the beautiful ladies' pensionary, Wadstena,
and the celebrated mountain Omberg, at whose foot a battle was fought.

The next canal is short, and leads through a lovely wood into the little
lake of Norbysee.  It is customary to walk this distance, and inspect the
simple monument of Count Platen, who made the plans for the locks and
canals,--a lasting, colossal undertaking.  The monument is surrounded by
an iron railing, and consists of a slab bearing an inscription, simply
stating in Swedish his name, the date of his death, &c.  Nearly opposite
the monument, on the other side of the canal, is the town of Motala,
distinguished principally for its large iron factories, in which the
spacious work-rooms are especially remarkable.

Fifteen locks lead from the Norbysee into the Roxersee, which is a
descent of 116 feet.  The canal winds gracefully through woods and
meadows, crossed by pretty roads, and studded with elegant little houses
and larger edifices.  Distant church-steeples point out the village of
Norby, which sometimes peeps forth behind little forests, and then
vanishes again from the view of the traveller.  When the sun shines on
the waters of this canal, it has a beautiful, transparent, pea-green
colour, like the purest chrysolite.

The view from the hill which rises immediately before the lake of Roxen
is exceedingly fine.  It looks down upon an immense valley, covered with
the most beautiful woods and rocks, and upon the broad lake, whose arm
flows far in land.  The evening sun shed its last rays over a little town
on the lake-shore, and its newly-painted tiles shone brightly in its
light beams.

While the ship descended through the many locks, we visited the
neighbouring church of the village of Vretakloster, which contains the
skeletons of several kings in beautifully-made metal coffins.

We then crossed the lake, which is from four to five miles broad, and
remained all night before the entrance of the canal leading into a bay of
the Baltic.

                                                            September 8th.

This canal is one of the longest; its environs are very pretty, and the
valley through which it runs is one of the largest we had passed.  The
town of Soderkoping is situated at the foot of high, picturesque groups
of rocks, which extend to a considerable distance.

Every valley and every spot of soil in Sweden are carefully cultivated.

The people in general are well dressed, and inhabit small but very pretty
houses, whose windows are frequently decorated with clean white
draperies.  I visited several of these houses, as we had abundance of
time for such excursions while the ship was going through the locks.  I
think one might walk the whole distance from Gottenburg to Stockholm in
the same time that the ship takes for the journey.  We lose some hours
daily with the locks, and are obliged to lie still at night on their
account.  The distance is calculated at from 180 to 250 miles, and the
journey takes five days.

In the evening we approached the Baltic, which has the same character as
the Scheren of the North Sea.  The ship threads its way through a shoal
of islands and islets, of rocks and cliffs; and it is as difficult to
imagine here as there how it is possible to avoid all the projecting
cliffs, and guide the ship so safely through them.  The sea divides
itself into innumerable arms and bays, into small and large lakes, which
are formed between the islands and rocks, and are hemmed in by beautiful
hills.  But nothing can exceed the beauty of the view of the castle
Storry Husby, which lies on a high mountain, in a bay.  In front of the
mountain a beautiful meadow-lawn reaches to the shores of the sea, while
the back is surrounded in the distance by a splendid pine-forest.  Near
this picturesque castle a steeple rises on a neighbouring island, which
is all that remains of the ancient castle of Stegeborg.  Nothing can be
more romantic than the scenery here, and on the whole journey over the
fiord; for it presents itself in ever-varying pictures to the traveller's
notice.

But gradually the hills become lower, the islands more rare; the sea
supersedes every thing, and seems jealously anxious to exclude other
objects from the traveller's attention, as if it wished to monopolise it.
Now we were in the open sea, and saw only water and sky; and then again
we were so hemmed in by the rocks and cliffs, that it would be impossible
to extricate the ship without the assistance of an experienced pilot.

                                                            September 9th.

We left the sea, and entered another lake, the Malarsee, celebrated for
its numerous islands, by a short canal.  The town of Sotulje lies at its
entrance, charmingly situated in a narrow valley at the foot of a rather
steep hill.  This lake at first resembles a broad river, but widens at
every step, and soon shews itself in its whole expanse.  The passage of
the Malarsee takes four hours, and is one of the most charming excursions
that can be made.  It is said to contain about a thousand islets of
various sizes; and it may be imagined how varied in form and feature the
scenery must be, and, like the fiord of the Baltic, what a constant
succession of new scenes it must present.

The shores also are very beautiful: in some spots hills descend sharply
to the water's edge, the steep rocks forming dangerous points; on others
dark, sombre pine-forests grow; and again there are gay valleys and
meadows, with villages or single cottages.  Many travellers assert that
this lake is, after all, very monotonous; but I cannot agree with their
opinion.  I found it so attractive, that I could repeat the journey many
times without wearying of this lovely sameness.  It certainly has not the
majestic backgrounds of the Swiss lakes; but this profusion of small
islands is a pleasing peculiarity which can be found on no other lake.

On the summit of a steep precipice of the shore the hat of the
unfortunate Eric is hoisted, fastened to a long pole.  History tells that
this king fled from the enemy in a battle; that one of his soldiers
pursued him, and reproached him for his cowardice, whereupon Eric, filled
with shame and despair, gave spurs to his horse and leaped into the
fearful abyss.  At his fall his hat was blown from his head, and was left
on this spot.

Not far from this point the suburbs of Stockholm make their appearance,
being spread round one of the broad arms of the lake.  With increasing
curiosity we gazed towards the town as we gradually approached it.  Many
of the pretty villas, which are situated in the valleys or on the sides
of the hills as forerunners of the town, come into view, and the suburbs
rise amphi-theatrically on the steep shores.  The town itself closes the
prospect by occupying the whole upper shore of the lake, and is flanked
by the suburbs at either side.  The Ritterholm church, with its cast-iron
perforated towers, and the truly grand royal palace, which is built
entirely in the Italian style, can be seen and admired from this
distance.

We had scarcely cast anchor in the port of Stockholm, when a number of
Herculean women came and offered us their services as porters.  They were
Delekarliers, {52} who frequently come to Stockholm to earn a livelihood
as porters, water-carriers, boatwomen, &c.  They easily find employment,
because they possess two excellent qualities: they are said to be
exceedingly honest and hard-working, and, at the same time, have the
strength and perseverance of men.

Their dress consists of black petticoats, which come half way over the
calf of the leg, red bodices, white chemises with long sleeves, short
narrow aprons of two colours, red stockings, and shoes with wooden soles
an inch thick.  They twist a handkerchief round their head, or put on a
little close black cap, which fits close on the back part of the head.

In Stockholm there are entire houses, as well as single rooms, which, as
in a hotel, are let by the day.  They are much cheaper than hotels, and
are therefore more in demand.  I at once hired one of these rooms, which
was very clean and bright, and for which, with breakfast, I only paid one
riksdaler, which is about one shilling.



CHAPTER X


As my journey was ostensibly only to Iceland, and as I only paid a flying
visit to this portion of Scandinavia, my readers will pardon me if I
treat it briefly.  This portion of Europe has been so frequently and so
excellently described by other travellers, that my observations would be
of little importance.

I remained in Stockholm six days, and made as good use of my time as I
could.  The town is situated on the shores of the Baltic Sea and the
Malar lake.  These two waters are connected by a short canal, on whose
shores the most delightful houses are erected.

                           [Picture: Stockholm]

My first visit was to the beautiful church of Ritterholm, which is used
more for a cemetery and an armory than for a place of worship.  The
vaults serve as burial-places for the kings, and their monuments are
erected in the side-chapels.  On each side of the nave of the church are
placed effigies of armed knights on horseback, whose armour belonged to
the former kings of Sweden.  The walls and angles of the church are
profusely decorated with flags and standards, said to number five
thousand.  In addition to this, the keys of conquered towns and
fortresses hang along the side-walls, and drums are piled upon the floor;
trophies taken from different nations with which Sweden has been at war.

Besides these curiosities, several coats of armour and garments of
Swedish regents are displayed behind glass-cases in the side-chapels.
Among them, the dress which Charles XII. wore on the day of his death,
and his hat perforated by a ball, interested me most.  His riding-boots
stand on the ground beside it.  The modern dress and hat, embroidered
with gold and ornamented with feathers, of the last king, the founder of
the new dynasty, is not less interesting, partly perhaps from the great
contrast.

The church of St. Nicholas stands on the same side of the canal, and is
one of the finest Protestant churches I had seen; it is very evident that
it was built in Catholic times, and that its former decorations have been
allowed to remain.  It contains several large and small oil-paintings,
some ancient and some modern monuments, and a profusion of gilding.  The
organ is fine and large; flanking the entrance of the church are
beautiful reliefs, hewn in stone; and above it, carved in wood, a statue
of the archangel Michael, larger than life, sitting on horseback on a
bridge, in the act of killing the dragon.

Near the church is situated the royal palace, which needs a more fluent
pen than mine to describe it.  It would fill a volume were I to enumerate
and describe the treasures, curiosities, and beauties of its
construction, or its interior arrangement; I can only say that I never
saw any thing to equal it, except the royal palace of Naples.  Such an
edifice is the more surprising in the north, and in a country which has
never been overstocked with wealth.

The church of Shifferholm is remarkable only for its position and its
temple-like form; it stands on the ledge of a rock facing the royal
palace, on the opposite shore of the same indentation of the Baltic.  A
long bridge of boats leads from the one to the other.

The church of St. Catharine is large and beautiful.  In an outer angle of
the church is shewn the stone on which one of the brothers Sturre was
beheaded. {53}

On the Ritterplatz stands the Ritterhouse, a very fine palace; also the
old royal palace, and several other royal and private mansions; but they
are not nearly so numerous nor so fine as in Copenhagen, and the streets
and squares also cannot be compared with those of the capital of Denmark.

The finest prospect is from a hill in one of the suburbs called the Great
Mosbecken; it affords a magnificent view of the sea and the lake, of the
town and its suburbs, as far as the points of the mountains, and of the
lovely country-houses which border the shores of lake and sea.  The town
and its environs are so interspersed with islets and rocks, that these
seem to be part of the town; and this gives Stockholm such a curious
appearance, that I can compare it to no other city I have seen.  Wooded
hills and naked rocks prolong the view, and their ridges extend into the
far distance; while level fields and lawns take up but a very small
proportion of the magnificent scenery.

On descending from this hill the traveller should not fail to go to
Sodermalm, and to inspect the immense iron-stores, where iron is heaped
up in countless bars.  The corn-market of Stockholm is insignificant.
The principal buildings besides those already enumerated are, the bank,
the mint, the guard-house, the palace of the crown-prince, the theatre,
&c.  The latter is interesting, partly because Gustavus III. was shot in
it.  He fell on the stage, while a grand masquerade was taking place, for
which the theatre had been changed into a ball-room.  The king was shot
by a mask, and died in a few hours.

There is not a representation in the theatre every night; and on the one
evening of performance during my visit a festival was to be celebrated in
the hall of antiquities.  The esteemed artist Vogelberg, a native of
Sweden, had beautifully sculptured the three heathen gods, Thor, Balder,
and Odin, in colossal size, and brought them over from Rome.  The statues
had only been lately placed, and a large company had been invited to meet
in the illuminated saloon, and do honour to the artist.  Solemn hymns
were to be sung at the uncovering of the statues, beside other
festivities.  I was fortunate enough to receive an invitation to this
festival, which was to commence a little past seven.  Before that I went
to the theatre, which, I was told, would open at half-past six.  I
intended to remain there half an hour, and then drive to the palace,
where my friends would meet me to accompany me to the festival.  I went
to the theatre at six, and anxiously waited half an hour for the
commencement of the overture; it was after half-past six, and no signs of
the commencement.  I looked again at the bill, and saw, to my annoyance,
that the opera did not begin till seven.  But as I would not leave until
I had seen the stage, I spent the time in looking at the theatre itself.
It is tolerably large, and has five tiers of boxes, but is neither
tastefully nor richly decorated.  I was most surprised at the exorbitant
price and the variety of seats.  I counted twenty-six different kinds; it
seems that every row has a different price, else I don't understand how
they could make such a variety.

At last the overture began; I listened to it, saw the curtain rise,
looked at the fatal spot, and left after the first air.  The door-keeper
followed me, took my arm, and wished to give me a return-ticket; and when
I told him that I did not require one, as I did not intend to return, he
said that it had only just commenced, and that I ought to stop, and not
have spent all the money for nothing.  I was unfortunately too little
acquainted with the Swedish language to explain the reason of my
departure, so I could give him no answer, but went away.  I, however,
heard him say to some one, "I never met with such a woman before; she sat
an hour looking at the curtain, and goes away as soon as it rises."  I
looked round and saw how he shook his head thoughtfully, and pointed with
his forefinger to his forehead.  I could not refrain from smiling, and
enjoyed the scene as much as I should have done the second act of
Mozart's _Don Giovanni_.

I called for my friends at the royal palace, and spent the evening very
agreeably in the brilliantly-illuminated galleries of antiquities and of
pictures.  I had the pleasure also of being introduced to Herr Vogelberg.
His modest, unpretending manners must inspire every one with respect,
even if one does not know what distinguished talent he possesses.

The royal park is one of the finest sights in the neighbourhood of
Stockholm, and is one of the best of its kind.  It is a fine large
natural park, with an infinity of groves, meadows, hills, and rocks; here
and there lies a country-house with its fragrant flower-garden, or
tasteful coffee and refreshment houses, which on fine Sundays are filled
with visitors from the town.  Good roads are made through the park, and
commodious paths lead to the finest points of view over sea and land.

The bust of the popular poet Bellmann stands on an open sunny spot, and
an annual festival is given here in his honour.

Deeper in the park lies the so-called Rosenthal (Rose valley), a real
Eden.  The late king was so partial to this spot, that he spent many
hours in the little royal country-house here, which is built on a retired
spot in the midst of groves and flower-beds.  In front of the palace
stands a splendid vase made of a single piece of porphyry.  I was told
that it was the largest in Europe, but I consider the one in the Museum
of Naples much larger.

I spent the last hours of my visit to Stockholm in this spot, with the
amiable family of Herr Boje from Finnland, whose acquaintance I had made
on the journey from Gottenburg to Stockholm.  I shall therefore never
forget this beautiful park and the agreeable associations connected with
it.

I made a very agreeable excursion also to the royal palace of Haga, to
the large cemetery, and to the military school Karlberg.

The royal castle of Haga is surrounded by a magnificent park, which owes
little to art; it contains some of the finest trees, with here and there
a hill, and is crossed by majestic alleys and well-kept roads for driving
and walking.  The palace itself is so small, that I could not but admire
the moderation of the royal family; but I was informed that this is the
smallest of their summer palaces.

Nearly opposite to this park is the great cemetery; but as it has only
existed for about seventeen years, the trees in it are yet rather young.
This would be of little consequence in other countries, but in Sweden the
cemeteries serve as promenades, and are crossed by alleys, ornamented
with groves, and provided with seats for the accommodation of visitors.
This cemetery is surrounded by a dark pine-forest, and really seems quite
shut off from the outer world.  It is the only burial-place out of the
town; the others all lie between the churches and the neighbouring
houses, whose fronts often form the immediate boundary.  Burials take
place there constantly, so that the inhabitants are quite familiar with
the aspect of death.

From the great cemetery a road leads to the neighbouring Karlberg, which
is the academy for military and naval cadets.  The extensive buildings
attached to this seminary are built on the slope of a mountain, which is
washed on one side by the waters of the lake, and surrounded on the other
by the beautiful park-plantations.

Before leaving Stockholm I had the honour of being introduced to her
majesty the Queen of Sweden.  She had heard of my travels, and took a
particular interest in my account of Palestine.  In consequence of this
favour, I received the special permission to inspect the whole interior
of the palace.  Although it was inhabited, I was conducted, not only
through the state-rooms, but through all the private rooms of the court.
It would be impossible to describe the splendour which reigns here, the
treasures of art, the magnificent appointments, and the evident taste
every where displayed.  I was delighted with all the treasures and
splendour, but still more with the warm interest with which her majesty
conversed with me about Palestine.  This interview will ever dwell on my
memory as the bright salient point of my northern expedition.



EXCURSION TO THE OLD ROYAL CASTLE OF GRIPTHOLM ON THE MALARSEE


Every Sunday morning, at eight o'clock, a little steamer leaves Stockholm
for this castle; the distance is about forty-five miles, and is passed in
four hours; four hours more are allowed for the stay, and in the evening
the steamer returns to Stockholm.  This excursion is very interesting,
although we pass the greater part of the time on that portion of the lake
which we had seen on our arrival, but for the last few miles the ship
turned into a pretty bay, at whose apex the castle is situated.  It is
distinguished for its size, its architecture, and its colossal turrets.
It is unfortunately, however, painted with the favourite brick-red colour
of the Swedes.

Two immense cannons, which the Swedes once gained in battle from the
Russians, stand in the courtyard.  The apartments in the castle, which
are kept in good condition, display neither splendour nor profusion of
appointments, indeed almost the contrary.  The pretty theatre is,
however, an exception: for its walls are inlaid from top to bottom with
mirrors, its pillars are gilt, and the royal box tapestried with rich red
velvet.  There has been no performance here since the death of Gustavus
III.

The immensely massive walls are a remarkable feature of this palace, and
must measure about three yards in thickness in the lower stories.

The upper apartments are all large and high, and afford a splendid view
of the lake from their windows.  But it is impossible to enjoy these
beautiful scenes when one thinks of the sad events which have taken place
here.

Two kings, John III. and Eric XIV., the latter with four of his
ministers, who were subsequently beheaded, were imprisoned here for many
years.  The captivity of John III. would not have been so bad, if
captivity were not bad enough in itself.  He was confined in a large
splendid saloon, but which he was not permitted to quit, and which he
would therefore probably have gladly exchanged for the poorest hut and
liberty.  His wife inhabited two smaller apartments adjoining; she was
not treated as a prisoner, and could leave the castle at will.  His son
Sigismund was born here in the year 1566, and the room and bed in which
he was born are still shewn as curiosities.

Eric's fate was much more unfortunate, for he was kept in narrow and dark
confinement.  A small rudely-furnished apartment, with narrow,
iron-barred windows, in one of the little turrets was his prison.  The
entrance was closed by a solid oaken door, in which a small opening had
been made, through which his food was given him.  For greater security
this oaken door was covered by an iron one.  Round the outside of the
apartment a narrow gallery had been made, on which the guards were
posted, and could at all times see their prisoner through the barred
windows.  The spot is still shewn at one of the windows where the king
sat for hours looking into the distance, his head leaning on his hand.
What must have been his feelings as he gazed on the bright sky, the
verdant turf, and the smiling lake!  How many sighs must have been echoed
from these walls, how many sleepless nights must he have passed during
those two long years in anxious expectation of the future!

The guide who took us round the castle maintained that the floor was more
worn on this spot than any where else, and that the window-sash had been
hollowed by the elbow of the miserable king; but I could not perceive any
difference.  Eric was kept imprisoned here for two years, and was then
taken to another prison.

There is a large picture-gallery in this castle; but it contains
principally portraits of kings, not only of Sweden, but of other
countries, from the Middle Ages down to the present time; also portraits
of ministers, generals, painters, poets, and learned men; of celebrated
Swedish females, who have sacrificed themselves for their country, and of
the most celebrated female beauties.  The name and date of birth of each
person are affixed to his or her portrait, so that each visitor may find
his favourite without guide or catalogue.  In many of them the colouring
and drawing are wretched enough, but we will hope that the resemblance is
all the more striking.

On our return several gentlemen were kind enough to direct my attention
to the most interesting points of the lake.  Among these I must mention
Kakeholm, its broadest point; the island of Esmoi, on which a Swedish
female gained a battle; Norsberg, also celebrated for a battle which took
place there; and Sturrehof, the property of a great Swedish family.  Near
Bjarkesoe a simple cross is erected, ostensibly on the spot where
Christianity was first introduced.  Indeed the Malarsee has so many
historical associations, in addition to the attractions of its scenery,
that it is one of the most interesting seas not only of Sweden but of
Europe.



JOURNEY FROM STOCKHOLM TO UPSALA AND TO THE IRON-MINES OF DANEMORA


                                                           September 12th.

The intercourse between Stockholm and Upsala is very considerable.  A
steamer leaves both places every day except Sunday, and traverses the
distance in six hours.

Tempted by this convenient opportunity of easily and quickly reaching the
celebrated town of Upsala, and by the unusually fine weather, I took my
passage one evening, and was greatly disappointed when, on the following
morning, the rain poured down in torrents.  But if travellers paid much
attention to the weather, they would not go far; so I nevertheless
embarked at half-past seven, and arrived safely in Upsala.  I remained in
the cabin during the passage, and could not even enjoy the prospect from
the cabin-windows, for the rain beat on them from the outside, while
inside they were obscured by the heat.  But I did not venture on deck,
hoping to be favoured by better weather on my return.

At last, about three o'clock, when I had been in Upsala more than an
hour, the weather cleared up, and I sallied out to see the sights.

First I visited the cathedral.  I entered, and stood still with
astonishment at the chief portal, on looking up at the high roof resting
on two rows of pillars, and covering the whole church.  It is formed in
one beautiful straight line, unbroken by a single arch.  The church
itself is simple: behind the grand altar a handsome chapel is erected,
the ceiling of which is painted azure blue, embossed with golden stars.
In this chapel Gustavus I. is interred between his two wives.  The
monument which covers the grave is large, and made of marble, but clumsy
and void of taste.  It represents a sarcophagus, on which three bodies,
the size of life, are laid; a marble canopy is raised over them.  The
walls of the chapel are covered with pretty frescoes, representing the
most remarkable scenes in the life of this monarch.  The most interesting
among them are, one in which he enters a peasant's hut in peasant's
attire, at the same moment that his pursuers are eagerly inquiring after
him in front of the hut; the other, when he stands on a barrel, also
dressed as a peasant, and harangues his people.  Two large tablets in a
broad gold frame contain in Swedish, and not in the Latin language, the
explanation of the different pictures, so that every Swede may easily
learn the monarch's history.

Several other monuments are erected in the side-chapels; those of
Catharine Magelone, John III., Gustavus Erichson, who was beheaded, and
of the two brothers Sturre, who were murdered.  The monument of
Archbishop Menander, in white marble, is a tasteful and artistic modern
production.  The great Linnaeus is buried under a simple marble slab in
this church; but his monument is in one of the side-chapels, and not over
his grave, and consists of a beautiful dark-brown porphyry slab, on which
his portrait is sculptured in relief.

The splendid organ, which reaches nearly to the roof of the church, also
deserves special attention.  The treasure-chamber does not contain great
treasures; the blood-stained and dagger-torn garments of the unfortunate
brothers Sturre are kept in a glass case here; and here also stands a
wooden statue of the heathen god Thor.  This wooden affair seems to have
originally been an Ecce Homo, which was perhaps the ornament of some
village church, then carried off by some unbeliever, and made more
shapeless than its creator, not proficient in art, had made it.  It has a
greater resemblance now to a frightful scarecrow than to any thing else.

The churchyard near the church is distinguished for its size and beauty.
It is surrounded by a wall of stone two feet high, surmounted by an iron
palisading of equal height, broken by stone pillars.  On several sides,
steps are made into the burying-ground over this partition.  In this
cemetery, as in the one of Stockholm, one seems to be in a lovely garden,
laid out with alleys, arbours, lawns, &c.; but it is more beautiful than
the other, because it is older.  The graves are half concealed by
arbours; many were ornamented with flowers and wreaths, or hedged by
rose-bushes.  The whole aspect of this cemetery, or rather of this
garden, seems equally adapted for the amusement of the living or the
repose of the dead.

The monuments are in no way distinguished; only two are rather
remarkable, for they consist of tremendous pieces of rock in their
natural condition, standing upright on the graves.  One of these
monuments resembles a mountain; it covers the ashes of a general, and is
large enough to have covered his whole army; his relatives probably took
the graves of Troy as a specimen for their monument.  It is moreover
inscribed by very peculiar signs, which seemed to me to be runic
characters.  The good people have united in this monument two
characteristics of the ancients of two entirely distinct empires.

The university or library building in Upsala is large and beautiful; it
is situated on a little hill, with a fine front facing the town.  The
park, which is, however, still somewhat young, forms the background. {54}

Near this building, on the same hill, stands a royal palace, conspicuous
for its brick-red colour.  It is very large, and the two wings are
finished by massive round towers.

In the centre of the courtyard, behind the castle, is placed a colossal
bust of Gustavus I., and a few paces from it two artificial hills serve
as bastions, on which cannons are planted.  This being the highest point
of the town, affords the best view over it, and over the surrounding
country.

The town itself is built half of wood and half of stone, and is very
pretty, being crossed by broad streets, and ornamented with tastefully
laid-out gardens.  It has one disadvantage, which is the dark
brownish-red colour of the houses, which has a peculiarly sombre
appearance in the setting sun.

An immense and fertile plain, diversified by dark forests contrasting
with the bright green meadows and the yellow stubble-fields, surrounds
the town, and in the distance the silvery river Fyris flows towards the
sea.  Forests close the distant view with their dark shadows.  I saw but
few villages; they may, however, have been hidden by the trees, for that
they exist seems to be indicated by the well-kept high roads crossing the
plain in all directions.

Before quitting my position on the bastions of the royal palace I cast a
glance on the castle-gardens, which were lying lower down the hill, and
are separated from the castle by a road; they do not seem to be large,
but are very pretty.

I should have wished to be able to visit the botanic garden near the
town, which was the favourite resort of Linnaeus, whose
splendidly-sculptured bust is said to be its chief ornament; but the sun
was setting behind the mountains, and I repaired to my chamber, to
prepare for my journey to Danemora.

                                                           September 13th.

I left Upsala at four o'clock in the morning, to proceed to the far-famed
iron-mines of Danemora, upwards of thirty miles distant, and where I
wished to arrive before twelve, as the blasting takes place at that hour,
after which the pits are closed.  As I had been informed how slowly
travelling is done in this country, and how tedious the delays are when
the horses are changed, I determined to allow time enough for all
interruptions, and yet arrive at the appointed hour.

A few miles behind Upsala lies Old Upsala (Gamla Upsala).  I saw the old
church and the grave-hills in passing; three of the latter are remarkably
large, the others smaller.  It is presumed that the higher ones cover the
graves of kings.  I saw similar tumuli during my journey to Greece, on
the spot where Troy is said to have stood.  The church is not honoured as
a ruin; it has yet to do service; and it grieved me to see the venerable
building propped up and covered with fresh mortar on many a time-worn
spot.

Half way between Upsala and Danemora we passed a large castle, not
distinguished for its architecture, its situation, or any thing else.
Then we neared the river Fyris, and the long lake of Danemora; both are
quite overgrown with reeds and grass, and have flat uninteresting shores;
indeed the whole journey offers little variety, as the road lies through
a plain, only diversified by woods, fields, and pieces of rock.  These
are interesting features, because one cannot imagine how they came there,
the mountains being at a great distance, and the soil by no means rocky.

The little town of Danemora lies in the midst of a wood, and only
consists of a church and a few large and small detached houses.  The
vicinity of the mines is indicated before arriving at the place by
immense heaps of stones, which are brought by horse-gins from the pits,
and which cover a considerable space.

I had fortunately arrived in time to see the blastings.  Those in the
great pit are the most interesting; for its mouth is so very large, that
it is not necessary to descend in order to see the pit-men work; all is
visible from above.  This is a very peculiar and interesting sight.  The
pit, 480 feet deep, with its colossal doors and entrances leading into
the galleries, looks like a picture of the lower world, from which
bridges of rocks, projections, arches and caverns formed in the walls,
ascend to the upper world.  The men look like pigmies, and one cannot
follow their movements until the eye has accustomed itself to the depth
and to the darkness prevailing below.  But the darkness is not very
dense; I could distinguish most of the ladders, which seemed to me like
children's toys.

It was nearly twelve, and the workmen left the pits, with the exception
of those in charge of the mines.  They ascended by means of little tubs
hanging by ropes, and were raised by a windlass.  It is a terrible sight
to see the men soaring up on the little machine, especially when two or
three ascend at once; for then one man stands in the centre, while the
other two ride on the edge of the tub.

                       [Picture: Mines of Danemora]

I should have liked to descend into the great pit, but it was too late on
this day, and I would not wait another.  I should not have feared the
descent, as I was familiar with such adventures, having explored the
salt-mines of Wieliczka and Bochnia, in Gallicia, some years before, in
which I had had to let myself down by a rope, which is a much more
dangerous method than the tub.

With the stroke of twelve, four blasting trains in the large pit were
fired.  The man whose business it was to apply the match ran away in
great haste, and sheltered himself behind a wall of rock.  In a few
moments the powder flashed, some stones fell, and then a fearful crash
was heard all around, followed by the rolling and falling of the blasted
masses.  Repeated echoes announced the fearful explosion in the interior
of the pits: the whole left a terrible impression on me.  Scarcely had
one mine ceased to rage, when the second began, then the third, and so
on.  These blastings take place daily in different mines.

The other pits are deeper, the deepest being 600 feet; but the mouths are
smaller, and the shafts not perpendicular, so that the eye is lost in
darkness, which is a still more unpleasant sensation.  I gazed with
oppressed chest into the dark space, vainly endeavouring to distinguish
something.  I should not like to be a miner; I could not endure life
without the light of day; and when I turned from the dark pits, I cast my
eyes thankfully on the cheerful landscape basking in the sun.

I returned to Upsala on the same day, having made this little journey by
post.  I can merely narrate the facts, without giving an opinion on the
good or bad conveniences for locomotion, as this was more a pleasure-trip
than a journey.

As I had hired no carriage, I had a different vehicle at every station,
and these vehicles consisted of ordinary two-wheeled wooden carts.  My
seat was a truss of hay covered with the horse-cloth.  If the roads had
not been so extremely good, these carts would have shaken terribly; but
as it was, I must say that I rode more comfortably than in the carriols
of the Norwegians, although they were painted and vanished; for in them I
had to be squeezed in with my feet stretched out, and could not change my
position.

The stations are unequal,--sometimes long, sometimes short.  The
post-horses are provided here, as in Norway, by wealthy peasants, called
Dschns-peasants.  These have to collect a certain number of horses every
evening for forwarding the travellers the next morning.  At every
post-house a book is kept, in which the traveller can see how many horses
the peasant has, how many have already been hired, and how many are left
in the stable.  He must then inscribe his name, the hour of his
departure, and the number of horses he requires.  By this arrangement
deception and extortion are prevented, as every thing is open, and the
prices fixed. {55}

Patience is also required here, though not so much as in Norway.  I had
always to wait from fifteen to twenty minutes before the carriage was
brought and the horses and harness prepared, but never longer; and I must
admit that the Swedish post-masters hurried as much as possible, and
never demanded double fare, although they must have known that I was in
haste.  The pace of the horse depends on the will of the coachman and the
powers of his steed; but in no other country did I see such consideration
paid to the strength of the horses.  It is quite ridiculous to see what
small loads of corn, bricks, or wood, are allotted to two horses, and how
slowly and sleepily they draw their burdens.

The number of wooden gates, which divide the roads into as many parts as
there are common grounds on it, are a terrible nuisance to travellers.
The coachman has often to dismount six or eight times in an hour to open
and close these gates.  I was told that these delectable gates even exist
on the great high road, only not quite in such profusion as on the
by-roads.

Wood must be as abundant here as in Norway, for every thing is enclosed;
even fields which seem so barren as not to be worth the labour or the
wood.

The villages through which I passed were generally pretty and cheerful,
and I found the cottages, which I entered while the horses were changed,
neatly and comfortably furnished.

The peasants of this district wear a peculiar costume.  The men, and
frequently also the boys, wear long dark-blue cloth surtouts, and cloth
caps on their heads; so that, at a distance, they look like gentlemen in
travelling dress.  It seems curious to a foreigner to see these apparent
gentlemen following the plough or cutting grass.  At a nearer view, of
course the aspect changes, and the rents and dirt appear, or the leathern
apron worn beneath the coat, like carpenters in Austria, becomes visible.
The female costume was peculiar only in so far that it was poor and
ragged.  In dress and shoes the Norwegian and Swedes are behind the
Icelanders, but they surpass them in the comfort of their dwellings.

                                                           September 14th.

To-day I returned to Stockholm on the Malarsee, and the weather being
more favourable than on my former passage, I could remain on deck the
whole time.  I saw now that we sailed for several miles on the river
Fyris, which flows through woods and fields into the lake.

The large plain on which old and new Upsala lie was soon out of sight,
and after passing two bridges, we turned into the Malar.  At first there
are no islands on its flat expanse, and its shores are studded with low
tree-covered hills; but we soon, however, arrived at the region of
islands, where the passage becomes more interesting, and the beauty of
the shores increases.  The first fine view we saw was the pretty estate
Krusenberg, whose castle is romantically situated on a fertile hill.  But
much more beautiful and surprising is the splendid castle of Skukloster,
a large, beautiful, and regular pile, ornamented with four immense round
turrets at the four corners, and with gardens stretching down to the
water's edge.

From this place the scenery is full of beauty and variety; every moment
presents another and a more lovely view.  Sometimes the waters expand,
sometimes they are hemmed in by islands, and become as narrow as canals.
I was most charmed with those spots where the islands lie so close
together that no outlet seems possible, till another turn shews an
opening between them, with a glimpse of the lake beyond.  The hills on
the shores are higher, and the promontories larger, the farther the ship
advances; and the islands appear to be merely projections of the
continent, till a nearer approach dispels the illusion.

The village of Sixtuna lies in a picturesque and charming little valley,
filled with ruins, principally of round towers, which are said to be the
remains of the Roman town of Sixtum; the name being retained by the new
town with a slight modification.

After this follow cliffs and rocks rising perpendicularly from the sea,
and whose vicinity would be by no means desirable in a storm.  Of the
castle of Rouse only three beautiful domes rise above the trees; a
frowning bleak hill conceals the rest from the eye.  Then comes a palace,
the property of a private individual, only remarkable for its size.  The
last of the notabilities is the Rokeby bridge, said to be one of the
longest in Sweden.  It unites the firm land with the island on which the
royal castle of Drottingholm stands.  The town of Stockholm now becomes
visible; we turn into the portion of the lake on which it lies, and
arrive there again at two o'clock in the afternoon.



FROM STOCKHOLM TO TRAVEMUNDE AND HAMBURGH


I bade farewell to Stockholm on the 18th September, and embarked in the
steamer _Svithiold_, of 100-horse power, at twelve o'clock at noon, to go
to Travemunde.

Few passages can be more expensive than this one is.  The distance is
five hundred leagues, and the journey generally occupies two and a half
to three days; for this the fare, without food, is four pounds.  The food
is also exorbitantly dear; in addition to which the captain is the
purveyor; so that there is no appeal for the grossest extortion or
insufficiency.

It pained me much when one of the poorer travellers, who suffered greatly
from sea-sickness, having applied for some soup to the steward, who
referred him to the amiable captain, to hear him declare he would make no
exception, and that a basin of soup would be charged the whole price of a
complete dinner.  The poor man was to do without the soup, of which he
stood so much in need, or scrape every farthing together to pay a few
shillings daily for his dinner.  Fortunately for him some benevolent
persons on deck paid for his meals.  Some of the gentlemen brought their
own wine with them, for which they had to pay as much duty to the captain
as the wine was worth.

To these pleasures of travelling must be added the fact, that a Swedish
vessel does not advance at all if the weather is unfavourable.  Most of
the passengers considered that the engines were inefficient.  However
this may be, we were delayed twenty-four hours at the first half of our
journey, from Stockholm to Calmar, although we had only a slight breeze
against us and a rather high sea, but no storm.  In Calmar we cast
anchor, and waited for more favourable wind.  Several gentlemen, whose
business in Lubeck was pressing, left the steamer, and continued their
journey by land.

At first the Baltic very much resembles the Malarsee; for islands, rocks,
and a variety of scenery make it interesting.  To the right we saw the
immensely long wooden bridge of Lindenborg, which unites one of the
larger islands with the continent.

At the end of one of the turns of the sea lies the town of Wachsholm; and
opposite to it, upon a little rocky island, a splendid fortress with a
colossal round tower.  Judging by the number of cannons planted along the
walls, this fortress must be of great importance.  A few hours later we
passed a similar fortress, Friedrichsborg; it is not in such an open
situation as the other, but is more surrounded by forests.  We passed at
a considerable distance, and could not see much of it, nor of the castle
lying on the opposite side, which seems to be very magnificent, and is
also surrounded by woods.

The boundaries of the right shore now disappear, but then again appear as
a terrible heap of naked rocks, at whose extreme edge is situated the
fine fortress Dolero.  Near it groups of houses are built on the bare
rocks projecting into the sea, and form an extensive town.

September 19th.

To-day we were on the open, somewhat stormy sea.  Towards noon we arrived
at the Calmar Sound, formed by the flat, uniform shores of the long
island Oland on the left, and on the right by Schmoland.  In front rose
the mountain-island the Jungfrau, to which every Swede points with
self-satisfied pride.  Its height is only remarkable compared with the
flatness around; beside the proud giant-mountain of the same name in
Switzerland it would seem like a little hill.

                                                           September 20th.

On account of the contrary wind, we had cast anchor here last night, and
this morning continued the journey to Calmar, where we arrived about two
in the forenoon.  The town is situated on an immense plain, and is not
very interesting.  A few hours may be agreeably spent here in visiting
the beautiful church and the antiquated castle, and we had more than
enough leisure for it.  Wind and weather seemed to have conspired against
us, and the captain announced an indefinite stay at this place.  At first
we could not land, as the waves were too high; but at last one of the
larger boats came alongside, and the more curious among us ventured to
row to the land in the unsteady vessel.

The exterior of the church resembles a fine antiquated castle from its
four corner towers and the lowness of its dome, which rises very little
above the building, and also because the other turrets here and there
erected for ornament are scarcely perceptible.  The interior of the
church is remarkable for its size, its height, and a particularly fine
echo.  The tones of the organ are said to produce a most striking effect.
We sent for the organist, but he was nowhere to be found; so we had to
content ourselves with the echo of our own voices.  We went from this
place to the old royal castle built by Queen Margaret in the sixteenth
century.  The castle is so dilapidated inside that a tarrying in the
upper chambers is scarcely advisable.  The lower rooms of the castle have
been repaired, and are used as prisons; and as we passed, arms were
stretched forth from some of the barred windows, and plaintive voices
entreated the passers-by to bestow some trifle upon the poor inmates.
Upwards of 140 prisoners are said to be confined here. {56}

About three o'clock in the afternoon the wind abated, and we continued
our journey.  The passage is very uniform, and we saw only flat, bare
shores; a group of trees even was a rarity.

                                                           September 21st.

When I came on deck this morning the Sound was far behind us.  To the
left we had the open sea; on the right, instead of the bleak Schmoland,
we had the bleaker Schonen, which was so barren, that we hardly saw a
paltry fishing-village between the low sterile hills.

At nine o'clock in the morning we anchored in the port of Ystadt.  The
town is pretty, and has a large square, in which stand the house of the
governor, the theatre, and the town-hall.  The streets are broad, and the
houses partly of wood and partly of stone.  The most interesting feature
is the ancient church, and in it a much-damaged wooden altar-piece, which
is kept in the vestry.  Though the figures are coarse and
disproportionate, one must admire the composition and the carving.  The
reliefs on the pulpit, and a beautiful monument to the right of the
altar, also deserve admiration.  These are all carved in wood.

In the afternoon we passed the Danish island Malmo.

At last, after having been nearly four days on the sea instead of two
days and a half, we arrived safely in the harbour of Travemunde on the
22d September at two o'clock in the morning.  And now my sea-journeys
were over; I parted sorrowfully from the salt waters, for it is so
delightful to see the water's expanse all around, and traverse its
mirror-like surface.  The sea presents a beautiful picture, even when it
storms and rages, when waves tower upon waves, and threaten to dash the
vessel to pieces or to engulf it--when the ship alternately dances on
their points, or shoots into the abyss; and I frequently crept for hours
in a corner, or held fast to the sides of the ship, and let the waves
dash over me.  I had overcome the terrible sea-sickness during my
numerous journeys, and could therefore freely admire these fearfully
beautiful scenes of excited nature, and adore God in His grandest works.

We had scarcely cast anchor in the port when a whole array of coachmen
surrounded us, volunteering to drive us overland to Hamburgh, a journey
of thirty-six miles, which it takes eight hours to accomplish.

Travemunde is a pretty spot, which really consists of only one street, in
which the majority of the houses are hotels.  The country from here to
Lubeck, a distance of ten miles, is very pretty.  A splendid road, on
which the carriages roll smoothly along, runs through a charming wood
past a cemetery, whose beauty exceeds that of Upsala; but for the
monuments, one might take it for one of the most splendid parks or
gardens.

I regretted nothing so much as being unable to spend a day in Lubeck, for
I felt very much attracted by this old Hanse town, with its
pyramidically-built houses, its venerable dome, and other beautiful
churches, its spacious squares, &c.; but I was obliged to proceed, and
could only gaze at and admire it as I hurried through.  The pavement of
the streets is better than I had seen it in any northern town; and on the
streets, in front of the houses, I saw many wooden benches, on which the
inhabitants probably spend their summer evenings.  I saw here for the
first time again the gay-looking street-mirrors used in Hamburgh.  The
Trave, which flows between Travemunde and Lubeck, has to be crossed by
boat.  Near Oldesloe are the salt-factories, with large buildings and
immensely high chimneys; an old romantic castle, entirely surrounded by
water, lies near Arensburg.

Past Arensburg the country begins to be uninteresting, and remains so as
far as Hamburgh; but it seems to be very fertile, as there is an
abundance of green fields and fine meadows.

The little journey from Lubeck to Hamburgh is rather dear, on account of
the almost incredible number of tolls and dues the poor coachmen have to
pay.  They have first to procure a license to drive from Lubeck into
Hamburgh territory, which costs about 1_s._ 3_d._; then mine had to pay
twice a double toll of 8_d._, because we passed through before five
o'clock in the morning, and the gates, which are not opened till five
o'clock, were unfastened especially for us; besides these, there was a
penny toll on nearly every mile.

This dreadful annoyance of the constant stopping and the toll-bars is
unknown in Norway and in Sweden.  There, an annual tax is paid for every
horse, and the owner can then drive freely through the whole country, as
no toll-bars are erected.

The farm-houses here are very large and far-spread, but the reason is,
that stable, barn, and shippen are under the same roof: the walls of the
houses are of wood filled in with bricks.

After passing Arensburg, we saw the steeples of Wandsbeck and Hamburgh in
the distance; the two towns seem to be one, and are, in fact, only
separated by pretty country-houses.  But Wandsbeck compared to Hamburgh
is a village, not a town.

I arrived in Hamburgh about two o'clock in the afternoon; and my
relatives were so astonished at my arrival, that they almost took me for
a ghost.  I was at first startled by their reception, but soon understood
the reason of it.

At the time I left Iceland another vessel went to Altona, by which I sent
a box of minerals and curiosities to my cousin in Hamburgh.  The sailor
who brought the box gave such a description of the wretched vessel in
which I had gone to Copenhagen, that, after having heard nothing of me
for two months, he thought I must have gone to the bottom of the sea with
the ship.  I had indeed written from Copenhagen, but the letter had been
lost; and hence their surprise and delight at my arrival.



CHAPTER XI


I had not much time to spare, so that I could only stay a few days with
my relatives in Hamburgh; on the 26th September, I went in a little
steamer from Hamburgh to Harburg, where we arrived in three quarters of
an hour.  From thence I proceeded in a stage-carriage to Celle, about
sixty-five miles.

The country is not very interesting; it consists for the most part of
plains, which degenerate into heaths and marshes; but there are a few
fertile spots peeping out here and there.

                                                           September 27th.

We arrived at Celle in the night.  From here to Lehrte, a distance of
about seven miles, I had to hire a private conveyance, but from Lehrte
the railway goes direct to Berlin. {57}  Many larger and smaller towns
are passed on this road; but we saw little of them, as the stations all
lie at some distance, and the railway-train only stops a few minutes.

The first town we passed was Brunswick.  Immediately beyond the town lies
the pretty ducal palace, built in the Gothic style, in the centre of a
fine park.  Wolfenbuttel seems to be a considerable town, judging by the
quantity of houses and church-steeples.  A pretty wooden bridge, with an
elegantly-made iron balustrade, is built here across the Ocker.  From the
town, a beautiful lane leads to a gentle hill, on whose top stands a
lovely building, used as a coffee-house.

As soon as one has passed the Hanoverian domains the country, though it
is not richer in natural curiosities, is less abundant in marshes and
heaths, and is very well-cultivated land.  Many villages are spread
around, and many a charming town excites the wish to travel through at a
slower pace.

We passed Schepenstadt, Jersheim, and Wegersleben, which latter town
already belongs to Prussia.  In Ashersleben and in Magdeburg we changed
carriages.  Near Salze we saw some fine buildings which belong to the
extensive saltworks existing here.  Jernaudau is a colony of Moravians.
I should have wished to visit the town of Kotten,--for nothing can be
more charming than the situation of the town in the midst of fragrant
gardens,--but we unfortunately only stopped there a few minutes.  The
town of Dessau is also surrounded by pretty scenery: several bridges
cross the various arms of the Elbe; that over the river itself rests on
solid stone columns.  Of Wittenberg we only saw house tops and
church-steeples; the same of Juterbog, which looks as if it were newly
built.  Near Lukewalde the regions of sand begin, and the uniformity is
only broken by a little ridge of wooded hills near Trebbin; but when
these are past, the railway passes on to Berlin through a melancholy,
unmitigated desert of sand.

I had travelled from six o'clock this morning until seven in the evening,
over a distance of about two hundred and twenty miles, during which time
we had frequently changed carriages.

The number of passengers we had taken up on the road was very great, on
account of the Leipzic fairs; sometimes the train had thirty-five to
forty carriages, three locomotives, and seven to eight hundred
passengers; and yet the greatest order had prevailed.  It is a great
convenience that one can take a ticket from Lehrte to Berlin, although
the railway passes through so many different states, because then one
needs not look after the luggage or any thing else.  The officials on the
railway are all very civil.  As soon as the train stopped, the guards
announced with a loud voice the time allowed, however long or short it
might be; so that the passengers could act accordingly, and take
refreshments in the neighbouring hotels.  The arrangements for alighting
are very convenient: the carriages run into deep rails at the stations,
so that the ground is level with the carriages, and the entrance and exit
easy.  The carriages are like broad coaches; two seats ran breadthwise
across them, with a large door at each side.  The first and second class
contain eight persons in each division, the third class ten.  The
carriages are all numbered, so that every passenger can easily find his
seat.

By these simple arrangements the traveller may descend and walk about a
little, even though the train should only stop two minutes, or even
purchase some refreshments, without any confusion or crowding.

These conveniences are, of course, impossible when the carriages have the
length of a house, and contain sixty or seventy persons within locked
doors, and where the doors are opened by the guards, who only call out
the name of the station without announcing how long the stay is.  In such
railways it is not advisable for travellers to leave their seats; for
before they can pass from one end of the carriage to the other, through
the narrow door and down the steep steps, the horn is sounded, and at the
same time the train moves on; the sound being the signal for the
engine-driver, the passengers having none.

In these states there was also not the least trouble with the passport
and the intolerable pass-tickets.  No officious police-soldier comes to
the carriage, and prevents the passengers alighting before they have
answered all his questions.  If passports had to be inspected on this
journey, it would take a few days, for they must always be taken to the
passport-office, as they are never examined on the spot.

Such annoying interruptions often occur several times in the same state.
And one need not even come from abroad to experience them, as a journey
from a provincial to a capital town affords enough scope for annoyance.

I had no reason to complain of such annoyances in any of the countries
through which I had hitherto passed.  My passport was only demanded in my
hotel in the capitals of the countries, if I intended to remain several
days.  In Stockholm, however, I found a curious arrangement; every
foreigner there is obliged to procure a Swedish passport, and pay
half-a-crown for it, if he only remains a few hours in the town.  This
is, in reality, only a polite way of taking half-a-crown from the
strangers, as they probably do not like to charge so much for a simple
_vise_!



STAY IN BERLIN--RETURN TO VIENNA


I have never seen a town more beautifully or regularly built than
Berlin,--I mean, the town of Berlin itself,--only the finest streets,
palaces, and squares of Copenhagen would bear a comparison with it.

I spent but a few days here, and had therefore scarcely time to see the
most remarkable and interesting sights.

The splendid royal palace, the extensive buildings for the
picture-gallery and museums, the great dome--all these are situated very
near each other.

The Dome church is large and regularly built; a chapel, surrounded by an
iron enclosure, stands at each side of the entrance.  Several kings are
buried here, and antiquated sarcophagi cover their remains, known as the
kings' graves.  Near them stands a fine cast-iron monument, beneath which
Count Brandenburg lies.

The Catholic church is built in the style of the Rotunda in Rome; but,
unlike it, the light falls from windows made around the walls, and not
from above.  Beautiful statues and a simple but tasteful altar are the
only ornaments of this church.  The portico is ornamented by beautiful
reliefs.

The Werder church is a modern erection, built in the Gothic style, and
its turrets are ornamented by beautiful bronze reliefs.  The walls inside
are inlaid with coloured wood up to the galleries, where they terminate
in Gothic scroll-work.  The organ has a full, clear tone; in front of it
stands a painting which, at first sight, resembles a scene from heathen
mythology more than a sacred subject.  A number of cupids soar among
wreaths of flowers, and surround three beautiful female figures.

The mint and the architectural college stand near this church.  The
former is covered with fine sculptures; the latter is square, of a
brick-red colour, without any architectural embellishment, and perfectly
resembling an unusually large private house.  The ground-floor is turned
into fine shops.

Near the palace lies the Opera Square, in which stand the celebrated
opera-house, the arsenal, the university, the library, the academy, the
guardhouse, and several royal palaces.  Three statues ornament the
square: those of General Count Bulov, General Count Scharnhorst, and
General Prince Blucher.  They are all three beautifully sculptured, but
the drapery did not please me; it consisted of the long military cloth
cloak, which, opening in front, afforded a glimpse of the splendid
uniforms.

The arsenal is one of the finest buildings in Berlin, and forms a square;
at the time of my stay some repairs were being made, so that it was
closed.  I had to be content with glimpses through the windows of the
first floor, which showed me immense saloons filled by tremendous
cannons, ranged in rows.

The guardhouse is contiguous, and resembles a pretty temple, with its
portico of columns.

The opera-house forms a long detached square.  It would have a much
better effect if the entrances were not so wretched.  The one at the
grand portal looks like a narrow, miserable church-door, low and gloomy.
The other entrances are worse still, and one would not suppose that they
could lead to such a splendid interior, whose appointments are
indescribably luxurious and commodious.  The pit is filled by rows of
comfortably-cushioned chairs with cushioned backs, numbered, but not
barred.  The boxes are divided by very low partitions, so that the
aristocratic world seems to sit on a tribune.  The seats in the pit and
the first and second tiers are covered with dark-red silk damask; the
royal box is a splendid saloon, the floor of which is covered with the
finest carpets.  Beautiful oil-paintings, in tasteful gold frames,
ornament the plafond; but the magnificent chandelier is the greatest
curiosity.  It looks so massively worked in bronze, that it is painful to
see the heavy mass hang so loosely over the heads of the spectators.  But
it is only a delusion; for it is made of paste-board, and bronzed over.
Innumerable lamps light the place; but one thing which I miss in such
elegant modern theatres is a clock, which has a place in nearly every
Italian theatre.

The other buildings on this square are also distinguished for their size
and the beauty of their architecture.

An unusually broad stone bridge, with a finely-made iron balustrade, is
built over a little arm of the Spree, and unites the square of the opera
with that on which the palace stands.

The royal museum is one of the finest architectural piles, and its high
portal is covered with beautiful frescoes.  The picture-gallery contains
many _chefs-d'oeuvre_; and I regretted that I had not more time to
examine it and the hall of antiquities, having only three hours for the
two.

From the academy runs a long street lined with lime-trees, and which is
therefore called Under-the-limes (_unter den Linden_).  This alley forms
a cheerful walk to the Brandenburg-gate, beyond which the
pleasure-gardens are situated.  The longest and finest streets which run
into the lime-alley are the Friedrichs Street and the Wilhelms Street.
The Leipziger Street also belongs to the finest, but does not run into
this promenade.

The Gens-d'arme Square is distinguished by the French and German
churches, at least by their exterior,--by their high domes, columns, and
porticoes.  The interiors are small and insignificant.  On this square
stands also the royal theatre, a tasteful pile of great beauty, with many
pillars, and statues of muses and deities.

I ascended the tower on which the telegraph works, on account of the view
over the town and the flat neighbourhood.  A very civil official was
polite enough to explain the signs of the telegraph to me, and to permit
me to look at the other telegraphs through his telescope.

The Konigstadt, situated on the opposite shore of the Spree, not far from
the royal palace, contains nothing remarkable.  Its chief street, the
Konigsstrasse, is long, but narrow and dirty.  Indeed it forms a great
contrast to the town of Berlin in every thing; the streets are narrow,
short, and winding.  The post-office and the theatres are the most
remarkable buildings.

The luxury displayed in the shop-windows is very great.  Many a mirror
and many a plate-glass window reminded me of Hamburgh's splendour, which
surpasses that of Berlin considerably.

There are not many excursions round Berlin, as the country is flat and
sandy.  The most interesting are to the pleasure-gardens, Charlottenburg,
and, since the opening of the railway, to Potsdam.

The park or pleasure-garden is outside the Brandenburg-gate; it is
divided into several parts, one of which reminded me of our fine Prater
in Vienna.  The beautiful alleys were filled with carriages, riders, and
pedestrians; pretty coffee-houses enlivened the woody portions, and merry
children gambolled on the green lawns.  I felt so much reminded of my
beloved Prater, that I expected every moment to see a well-known face, or
receive a friendly greeting.  Kroll's Casino, sometimes called the
Winter-garden, is built on this side of the park.  I do not know how to
describe this building; it is quite a fairy palace.  All the splendour
which fancy can invent in furniture, gilding, painting, or tapestry, is
here united in the splendid halls, saloons, temples, galleries, and
boxes.  The dining-room, which will dine 1800 persons, is not lighted by
windows, but by a glass roof vaulted over it.  Rows of pillars support
the galleries, or separate the larger and smaller saloons.  In the
niches, and in the corners, round the pillars, abound fragrant flowers,
and plants in chaste vases or pots, which transform this place into a
magical garden in winter.  Concerts and _reunions_ take place here every
Sunday, and the press of visitors is extraordinary, although smoking is
prohibited.  This place will accommodate 5000 persons.

That side of the park which lies in the direction of the Potsdam-gate
resembles an ornamental garden, with its well-kept alleys, flower-beds,
terraces, islets, and gold-fish ponds.  A handsome monument to the memory
of Queen Louise is erected on the Louise island here.

On this side, the coffee-house Odeon is the best, but cannot be compared
to Kroll's casino.  Here also are rows of very elegant country-houses,
most of which are built in the Italian style.



CHARLOTTENBURG


This place is about half an hour's distance from the Brandenburg-gate,
where the omnibuses that depart every minute are stationed.  The road
leads through the park, beyond which lies a pretty village, and adjoining
it is the royal country-palace of Charlottenburg.  The palace is built in
two stories, of which the upper one is very low, and is probably only
used for the domestics.  The palace is more broad than deep; the roof is
terrace-shaped, and in its centre rises a pretty dome.  The garden is
simple, and not very large, but contains a considerable orangery.  In a
dark grove stands a little building, the mausoleum in which the image of
Queen Louise has been excellently executed by the famed artist Rauch.
Here also rest the ashes of the late king.  There is also an island with
statues in the midst of a large pond, on which some swans float proudly.
It is a pity that dirt does not stick to these white-feathered animals,
else they would soon be black swans; for the pond or river surrounding
the island is one of the dirtiest ditches I have ever seen.

Fatigue would be very intolerable in this park, for there are very few
benches, but an immense quantity of gnats.



POTSDAM.


The distance from Berlin to Potsdam is eighteen miles, which is passed by
the railroad in three-quarters of an hour.  The railway is very
conveniently arranged; the carriages are marked with the names of the
station, and the traveller enters the carriage on which the place of his
destination is marked.  Thus, the passengers are never annoyed by the
entrance or exit of passengers, as all occupying the same carriage
descend at the same time.

The road is very uninteresting; but this is compensated for by Potsdam
itself, for which a day is scarcely sufficient.

Immediately in front of the town flows the river Havel, crossed by a
long, beautiful bridge, whose pillars are of stone, and the rest of the
bridge of iron.  The large royal palace lies on the opposite shore, and
is surrounded by a garden.  The garden is not very extensive, but large
enough for the town, and is open to the public.  The palace is built in a
splendid style, but is unfortunately quite useless, as the court has
beautiful summer-palaces in the neighbourhood of Potsdam, and spends the
winter in Berlin.

The castle square is not very good; it is neither large nor regular, and
not even level.  On it stands the large church, which is not yet
completed, but promises to be a fine structure.  The town is tolerably
large, and has many fine houses.  The streets, especially the Nauner
Street, are wide and long, but badly paved; the stones are laid with the
pointed side upwards, and for foot-passengers there is a stone pavement
two feet broad on one side of the street only.  The promenade of the
townspeople is called Am Kanal (beside the canal), and is a fine square,
through which the canal flows, and is ornamented with trees.

Of the royal pleasure-palaces I visited that of Sans Souci first.  It is
surrounded by a pretty park, and lies on a hill, which is divided into
six terraces.  Large conservatories stand on each side of these; and in
front of them are long alleys of orange and lemon-trees.

The palace has only a ground floor, and is surrounded by arbours, trees,
and vines, so that it is almost concealed from view.  I could not inspect
the interior, as the royal family was living there.

A side-path leads from here to the Ruinenberg, on which the ruins of a
larger and a smaller temple, raised by the hand of art, are tastefully
disposed.  The top of the hill is taken up by a reservoir of water.  From
this point one can see the back of the palace of Sans Souci, and the
so-called new palace, separated from the former by a small park, and
distant only about a quarter of an hour.

The new palace, built by Frederick the Great, is as splendid as one can
imagine.  It forms a lengthened square, with arabesques and flat columns,
and has a flat roof, which is surrounded by a stone balustrade, and
ornamented by statues.

The apartments are high and large, and splendidly painted, tapestried,
and furnished.  Oil-paintings, many of them very good, cover the walls.
One might fill a volume with the description of all the wonders of this
place, which is, however, not inhabited.

Behind the palace, and separated from it by a large court, are two
beautiful little palaces, connected by a crescent-shaped hall of pillars;
broad stone steps lead to the balconies surrounding the first story of
the edifices.  They are used as barracks, and are, as such, the most
beautiful I have ever seen.

From here a pleasant walk leads to the lovely palace of Charlottenburg.
Coming from the large new palace it seemed too small for the dwelling
even of the crown-prince.  I should have taken it for a splendid pavilion
attached to the new palace, to which the royal family sometimes walked,
and perhaps remained there to take refreshment.  But when I had inspected
it more closely, and seen all the comfortable little rooms, furnished
with such tasteful luxury, I felt that the crown-prince could not have
made a better choice.

Beautiful fountains play on the terraces; the walls of the corridors and
anterooms are covered with splendid frescoes, in imitation of those found
in Pompeii.  The rooms abound in excellent engravings, paintings, and
other works of art; and the greatest taste and splendour is displayed
even in the minor arrangements.

A pretty Chinese chiosque, filled with good statues, which have been
unfortunately much damaged and broken, stands near the palace.

These three beautiful royal residences are situated in parks, which are
so united that they seem only as one.  The parks are filled with fine
trees, and verdant fields crossed by well-kept paths and drives; but I
saw very few flower-beds in them.

When I had contemplated every thing at leisure, I returned to the palace
of Sans Souci, to see the beautiful fountains, which play twice a week,
on Tuesday and Friday, from noon till evening.  The columns projected
from the basin in front of the castle are so voluminous, and rise with
such force, that I gazed in amazement at the artifice.  It is real
pleasure to be near the basin when the sun shines in its full splendour,
forming the most beautiful rainbows in the falling shower of drops.
Equally beautiful is a fountain rising from a high vase, enwreathed by
living flowers, and falling over it, so that it forms a quick, brisk
fountain, transparent, and pure as the finest crystal.  The lid of the
vase, also enwreathed with growing flowers, rises above the fountain.
The Neptune's grotto is of no great beauty; the water falls from an urn
placed over it, and forms little waterfalls as it flows over
nautilus-shells.

The marble palace lies on the other side of Potsdam, and is half an
hour's distance from these palaces; but I had time enough to visit it.

Entering the park belonging to this palace, a row of neat peasants'
cottages is seen on the left; they are all alike, but separated by fruit,
flower, or kitchen-gardens.  The palace lies at the extreme end of the
park, on a pretty lake formed by the river Havel.  It certainly has some
right to the name of marble palace; but it seems presumption to call it
so when compared to the marble palaces of Venice, or the marble mosques
of Constantinople.

The walls of the building are of brick left in its natural colour.  The
lower and upper frame-work, the window-sashes, and the portals, are all
of marble.  The palace is partly surrounded by a gallery supported on
marble columns.  The stairs are of fine white marble, and many of the
apartments are laid with this mineral.  The interior is not nearly so
luxurious as the other palaces.

This was the last of the sights I saw in Potsdam or the environs of
Berlin; for I continued my journey to Vienna on the following day.

Before quitting Berlin, I must mention an arrangement which is
particularly convenient for strangers--namely, the fares for
hackney-carriages. One need ask no questions, but merely enter the
carriage, tell the coachman where to drive, and pay him six-pence.  This
moderate fare is for the whole town, which is somewhat extensive.  At all
the railway stations there are numbers of these vehicles, which will
drive to any hotel, however far it may be from the station, for the same
moderate fare.  If only all cab-drivers were so accommodating!

                                                              October 1st.

The railway goes through Leipzic to Dresden, where I took the mail-coach
for Prague at eight o'clock the same evening, and arrived there in
eighteen hours.

As it was night when we passed, we did not enjoy the beautiful views of
the Nollendorf mountain.  In the morning we passed two handsome
monuments, one of them, a pyramid fifty-four feet high, to the memory of
Count Colloredo, the other to the memory of the Russian troops who had
fallen here; both have been erected since the wars of Napoleon.

On we went through charming districts to the famed bathing-place Teplitz,
which is surrounded by the most beautiful scenery; and can bear
comparison with the finest bathing-places of the world.

Further on we passed a solitary basaltic rock, Boren, which deserves
attention for its beauty and as a natural curiosity.  We unfortunately
hurried past it, as we wished to reach Prague before six o'clock, so that
we might not miss the train to Vienna.

My readers may imagine our disappointment on arriving at the gates of
Prague, when our passports were taken from us and not returned.  In vain
we referred to the _vise_ of the boundary-town Peterswalde; in vain we
spoke of our haste.  The answer always was, "That is nothing to us; you
can have your papers back to-morrow at the police-office."  Thus we were
put off, and lost twenty-four hours.

I must mention a little joke I had on the ride from Dresden to Prague.
Two gentlemen and a lady beside myself occupied the mail-coach; the lady
happened to have read my diary of Palestine, and asked me, when she heard
my name, if I were that traveller.  When I had acknowledged I was that
same person, our conversation turned on that and on my present journey.
One of the gentlemen, Herr Katze, was very intelligent, and conversed in
a most interesting manner on countries, nationalities, and scientific
subjects.  The other gentleman was probably equally well informed, but he
made less use of his acquirements.  Herr Katze remained in Teplitz, and
the other gentleman proceeded with us to Vienna.  Before arriving at our
destination, he asked me if Herr Katze had not requested me to mention
his name in my next book, and added, that if I would promise to do the
same, he would tell me his name.  I could not refrain from smiling, but
assured him that Herr Katze had not thought of such a thing, and begged
him not to communicate his name to me, so that he might see that we
females were not so curious as we are said to be.  But the poor man could
not refrain from giving me his name--Nicholas B.--before we parted.  I do
not insert it for two reasons: first, because I did not promise to name
him; and secondly, because I do not think it would do him any service.

The railway from Prague to Vienna goes over Olmutz, and makes such a
considerable round, that the distance is now nearly 320 miles, and the
arrangements on the railway are very imperfect.

There were no hotels erected on the road, and we had to be content with
fruit, beer, bread, and butter, &c. the whole time.  And these provisions
were not easily obtained, as we could not venture to leave the carriages.
The conductor called out at every station that we should go on directly,
although the train frequently stood upwards of half an hour; but as we
did not know that before, we were obliged to remain on our seats.  The
conductors were not of the most amiable character, which may perhaps be
ascribed to the climate; for when we approached the boundary of the
Austrian states at Peterswalde, the inspector received us very gruffly.
We wished him good evening twice, but he took no notice of it, and
demanded our papers in a loud and peremptory tone; he probably thought us
as deaf as we thought him.  At Ganserndorf, twenty-five miles from
Vienna, they took our papers from us in a very uncivil, uncourteous
manner.

On the 4th of October, 1845, after an absence of six months, I arrived
again in sight of the dear Stephen's steeple, as most of my countrywomen
would say.

I had suffered many hardships; but my love of travelling would not have
been abated, nor would my courage have failed me, had they been ten times
greater.  I had been amply compensated for all.  I had seen things which
never occur in our common life, and had met with people as they are
rarely met with--in their natural state.  And I brought back with me the
recollections of my travels, which will always remain, and which will
afford me renewed pleasure for years.

And now I take leave of my dear readers, requesting them to accept with
indulgence my descriptions, which are always true, though they may not be
amusing.  If I have, as I can scarcely hope, afforded them some
amusement, I trust they will in return grant me a small corner in their
memories.

In conclusion, I beg to add an Appendix, which may not be uninteresting
to many of my readers, namely:

1.  A document which I procured in Reikjavik, giving the salaries of the
royal Danish officials, and the sources from whence they are paid.

2.  A list of Icelandic insects, butterflies, flowers, and plants, which
I collected and brought home with me.



APPENDIX A


Salaries of the Royal Danish Officials in Iceland, which they receive
from the Icelandic land-revenues.



                                    Florins {58}
The Governor of Iceland             2000
   Office expenses                  600
The deputy for the western          1586
district
   Office expenses                  400
   Rent                             200
The deputy for the northern and     1286
eastern districts
   Office expenses                  400
The bishop of Iceland, who draws    800
his salary from the
school-revenues, has paid him
from this treasury
The members of the Supreme Court:
   One judge                        1184
   First assessor                   890
   Second assessor                  740
The land-bailiff of Iceland         600
   Office expenses                  200
   Rent                             150
The town-bailiff of Reikjavik       300
The first police-officer of         200
Reikjavik, who is at the same
time gaoler, and therefore has 50
_fl._ more than the second
officer
The second police-officer           150
The mayor of Reikjavik only draws   150
from this treasury his
house-rent, which is
The sysselman of the Westmanns      296
Islands
The other sysselmen, each           230
Medical department and midwifery:
   The physician                    900
      House-rent                    150
   Apothecary of Reikjavik          185
      House-rent                    150
   The second apothecary at         90
Sikkisholm
   Six surgeons in the country,     300
each
      House-rent for some           30
         For others                 25
   A medical practitioner on the    110
Northland
   Reikjavik has two midwives,      50
each receives
   The other midwives in Iceland,   100
amounting to thirty, each
receives
   These midwives are instructed
and examined by the land
physician, who has the charge of
paying them annually.
Organist of Reikjavik               100
From the school-revenues
   The bishop receives              1200
   The teachers at the high
school:
   The teacher of theology          800
   The head assistant, besides      500
free lodging
   The second assistant             500
      House-rent                    50
   The third assistant              500
      House-rent                    50
   The resident at the school       170



LIST OF INVERTEBRATED ANIMALS collected in Iceland


1.  CRUSTACEA.

Pagarus Bernhardus, _Linnaeus_.

2.  INSECTA.

a.  _Coleoptera_.  Nebria rubripes, _Dejean_.  Patrobus hyperboreus.
Calathus melanocephalus, _Fabr_.  Notiophilus aquaticus.  Amara vulgaris,
_Duftsihm_.  Ptinus fur, _Linn_.  Aphodius Lapponum, _Schh_.
Otiorhynchus laevigatus, _Dhl_.  Otiorhynchus Pinastri, _Fabr_.
Otiorhynchus ovatus.  Staphylinus maxillosus.  Byrrhus pillula.

b.  _Neuroptera_.  Limnophilus lineola, _Schrank_.

c.  _Hymenoptera_.  Pimpla instigator, _Gravh_.  Bombus subterraneus,
_Linn_.

d.  _Lepidoptera_.  Geometra russata, Hub.  Geom. alche millata.  Geom.
spec. nov.

e.  _Diptera_.  Tipula lunata, _Meig_.  Scatophaga stercoraria.  Musca
vomitaria.  Musca mortuorum.  Helomyza serrata.  Lecogaster islandicus,
_Scheff_. {59}  Anthomyia decolor, _Fallin_.



LIST OF ICELANDIC PLANTS _collected by Ida Pfeiffer in the Summer of the
year_ 1845


_Felices_.  Cystopteris fragilis.

_Equisetaceae_.  Equisetum Teltamegra.

_Graminae_.  Festuca uniglumis.

_Cyperaceae_.  Carea filiformis.  Carea caespitosa.  Eriophorum
caespitosum.

_Juncaceae_.  Luzula spicata.  Luzula campestris.

_Salicineae_.  Salix polaris.

_Polygoneae_.  Remux arifolus.  Oxyria reniformes.

_Plumbagineae_.  Armeria alpina (in the interior mountainous districts).

_Compositae_.  Chrysanthemum maritimum (on the sea-shore, and on marshy
fields).  Hieracium alpinum (on grassy plains).  Taraxacum alpinum.
Erigeron uniflorum (west of Havenfiord, on rocky soil).

_Rubiaceae_.  Gallium pusillum.  Gallium verum.

_Labiatae_.  Thynus serpyllum.

_Asperifoliae_.  Myosotis alpestris.  Myosotis scorpioicles.

_Scrophularineae_.  Bartsia alpina (in the interior north-western
valleys).  Rhinanthus alpestris.

_Utricularieae_.  Pinguicula alpina.  Pinguicula vulgaris.

_Umbelliferae_.  Archangelica officinalis (Havenfiord).

_Saxifrageae_.  Saxifraga caespitosa (the real Linnaean plant: on rocks
round Hecla).

_Ranunculaceae_.  Ranunculus auricomus.  Ranunculus nivalis.  Thalictrum
alpinum (growing between lava, near Reikjavik).  Caltha palustris.

_Cruciferae_.  Draba verna.  Cardamine pratensis.

_Violariceae_.  Viola hirta.

_Caryophylleae_.  Sagina stricta.  Cerastium semidecandrum.  Lepigonum
rubrum.  Silene maritima.  Lychnis alpina (on the mountain-fields round
Reikjavik).

_Empetreae_.  Empetrum nigrum.

_Geraniaceae_.  Geranium sylvaticum (in pits near Thingvalla).

_Troseaceae_.  Parnassia palustris.

_OEnothereae_.  Epilobium latifolium (in clefts of the mountain at the
foot of Hecla).  Epilobium alpinum (in Reiker valley, west of
Havenfiord).

_Rosaceae_.  Rubus arcticus.  Potentilla anserina.  Potentilla
gronlandica (on rocks near Kallmanstunga and Kollismola).  Alchemilla
montana.  Sanguisorba officinalis.  Geum rivale.  Dryas octopela (near
Havenfiord).

_Papilionaceae_.  Trifolium repens.



FOOTNOTES:


{1}  In this Gutenberg eText only Madame Pfeiffer's work appears--DP.

{2}  Madame Pfeiffer's first journey was to the Holy Land in 1842; and on
her return from Iceland she started in 1846 on a "Journey round the
World," from which she returned in the end of 1848.  This adventurous
lady is now (1853) travelling among the islands of the Eastern
Archipelago.

{3}  A florin is worth about 2_s._ 1_d._; sixty kreutzers go to a florin.

{4}  At Kuttenberg the first silver groschens were coined, in the year
1300.  The silver mines are now exhausted, though other mines, of copper,
zinc, &c. are wrought in the neighbourhood.  The population is only half
of what it once was. --ED.

{5}  The expression of Madame Pfeiffer's about Frederick "paying his
score to the Austrians," is somewhat vague.  The facts are these.  In
1757 Frederick the Great of Prussia invaded Bohemia, and laid siege to
Prague.  Before this city an Austrian army lay, who were attacked with
great impetuosity by Frederick, and completely defeated.  But the town
was defended with great valour; and during the time thus gained the
Austrian general Daun raised fresh troops, with which he took the field
at Collin.  Here he was attacked by Frederick, who was routed, and all
his baggage and cannon captured.  This loss was "paying his score;" and
the defeat was so complete, that the great monarch sat down by the side
of a fountain, and tracing figures in the sand, was lost for a long time
in meditation on the means to be adopted to retrieve his fortune.

{6}  I mention this little incident to warn the traveller against parting
with his effects.

{7}  The true version of this affair is as follows.  John of Nepomuk was
a priest serving under the Archbishop of Prague.  The king, Wenceslaus,
was a hasty, cruel tyrant, who was detested by all his subjects, and
hated by the rest of Germany.  Two priests were guilty of some crime, and
one of the court chamberlains, acting under royal orders, caused the
priests to be put to death.  The archbishop, indignant at this, placed
the chamberlain under an interdict.  This so roused the king that he
attempted to seize the archbishop, who took refuge in flight.  John of
Nepomuk, however, and another priest, were seized and put to the torture
to confess what were the designs of the archbishop.  The king seems to
have suspected that the queen was in some way connected with the line of
conduct pursued by the archbishop.  John of Nepomuk, however, refused,
even though the King with his own hand burned him with a torch.
Irritated by his obstinate silence, the king caused the poor monk to be
cast over the bridge into the Moldau.  This monk was afterwards
canonised, and made the patron saint of bridges.--ED.

{8}  Albert von Wallenstein (or Waldstein), the famous Duke of Friedland,
is celebrated as one of the ablest commanders of the imperial forces
during the protracted religious contest known in German history as the
"Thirty Years' War."  During its earlier period Wallenstein greatly
distinguished himself, and was created by the Emperor Ferdinand Duke of
Friedland and generalissimo of the imperial forces.  In the course of a
few months Wallenstein raised an army of forty thousand men in the
Emperor's service.  The strictest discipline was preserved _within_ his
camp, but his troops supported themselves by a system of rapine and
plunder unprecedented even in those days of military license.  Merit was
rewarded with princely munificence, and the highest offices were within
the reach of every common soldier who distinguished himself;--trivial
breaches of discipline were punished with death.  The dark and ambitious
spirit of Wallenstein would not allow him to rest satisfied with the
rewards and dignities heaped upon him by his imperial master.  He
temporised and entered into negotiations with the enemy; and during an
interview with a Swedish general (Arnheim), is even said to have proposed
an alliance to "hunt the Emperor to the devil."  It is supposed that he
aspired to the sovereignty of Bohemia.  Ferdinand was informed of the
ambitious designs of his general, and at length determined that
Wallenstein should die.  He despatched one of his generals, Gallas, to
the commander-in-chief, with a mandate depriving him of his dignity of
generalissimo, and nominating Gallas as his successor.  Surprised before
his plans were ripe, and deserted by many on whose support he had relied,
Wallenstein retired hastily upon Egra.  During a banquet in the castle,
three of his generals who remained faithful to their leader were murdered
in the dead of night.  Roused by the noise, Wallenstein leapt from his
bed, and encountered three soldiers who had been hired to despatch him.
Speechless with astonishment and indignation, he stretched forth his
arms, and receiving in his breast the stroke of a halbert, fell dead
without a groan, in the fifty-first year of his age.

The following anecdote, curiously illustrative of the state of affairs in
Wallenstein's camp, is related by Schiller in his _History of the Thirty
Years' War_, a work containing a full account of the life and actions of
this extraordinary man.  "The extortions of Wallenstein's soldiers from
the peasants had at one period reached such a pitch, that severe
penalties were denounced against all marauders; and every soldier who
should be convicted of theft was threatened with a halter.  Shortly
afterwards, it chanced that Wallenstein himself met a soldier straying in
the field, whom he caused to be seized, as having violated the law, and
condemned to the gallows without a trial, by his usual word of doom: "Let
the rascal be hung!"  The soldier protested, and proved his innocence.
"Then let them hang the innocent," cried the inhuman Wallenstein; "and
the guilty will tremble the more."  The preparations for carrying this
sentence into effect had already commenced, when the soldier, who saw
himself lost without remedy, formed the desperate resolution that he
would not die unrevenged.  Rushing furiously upon his leader, he was
seized and disarmed by the bystanders before he could carry his intention
into effect.  "Now let him go," said Wallenstein; "it will excite terror
enough.""--ED.

{9}  Poniatowski was the commander of the Polish legion in the armies of
Napoleon, by whom he was highly respected.  At the battle of Leipzig,
fought in October 1813, Poniatowski and Marshal MacDonald were appointed
to command the rear of Napoleon's army, which, after two days hard
fighting, was compelled to retreat before the Allies.  These generals
defended the retreat of the army so gallantly, that all the French
troops, except those under their immediate command, had evacuated the
town.  The rear-guard was preparing to follow, when the only bridge over
the Elster that remained open to them was destroyed, through some
mistake.  This effectually barred the escape of the rear of Napoleon's
army.  A few, among whom was Marshal MacDonald, succeeded in swimming
across; but Poniatowski, after making a brave resistance, and refusing to
surrender, was drowned in making the same attempt.--ED.

{10}  Leipzig has long been famous as the chief book-mart of Germany.  At
the great Easter meetings, publishers from all the different states
assemble at the "Buchhandler Borse," and a large amount of business is
done.  The fairs of Leipzig have done much towards establishing the
position of this city as one of the first trading towns in Germany.  They
take place three times annually: at New-year, at Easter, and at
Michaelmas; but the Easter fair is by far the most important.  These
commercial meetings last about three weeks, and during this time the town
presents a most animated appearance, as the streets are thronged with the
costumes of almost every nation, the smart dress of the Tyrolese
contrasting gaily with the sombre garb of the Polish Jews.  The amount of
business transacted at these fairs is very considerable; on several
occasions, above twenty thousand dealers have assembled.  The trade is
principally in woollen cloths; but lighter wares, and even ornaments of
every description, are sold to a large extent.  The manner in which every
available place is taken advantage of is very curious: archways, cellars,
passages, and courtyards are alike filled with merchandise, and the
streets are at times so crowded as to be almost impassable.  When the
three weeks have passed, the wooden booths which have been erected in the
market-place and the principal streets are taken down, the buyers and
sellers vanish together, and the visitor would scarcely recognise in the
quiet streets around him the bustling busy city of a few days ago.--ED.

{11}  The fire broke out on 4th May 1842, and raged with the utmost fury
for three days.  Whole streets were destroyed, and at least 2000 houses
burned to the ground.  Nearly half a million of money was raised in
foreign countries to assist in rebuilding the city, of which about a
tenth was contributed by Britain.  Such awful fires, fearful though they
are at the time, seem absolutely necessary to great towns, as they cause
needful improvements to be made, which the indolence or selfishness of
the inhabitants would otherwise prevent.  There is not a great city that
has not at one time or another suffered severely from fire, and has risen
out of the ruins greater than before.--ED.

{12}  There are no docks at Hamburgh, consequently all the vessels lie in
the river Elbe, and both receive and discharge their cargoes there.
Madame Pfeiffer, however, is mistaken in supposing that only London could
show a picture of so many ships and so much commercial activity
surpassing that of Hamburgh.  Such a picture, more impressive even than
that seen in the Elbe, is exhibited every day in the Mersey or the
Hudson.--ED.

{13}  Kiel, however, is a place of considerable trade; and doubtless the
reason why Madame Pfeiffer saw so few vessels at it was precisely the
same reason why she saw so many at Hamburgh.  Kiel contains an excellent
university.--ED.

{14}  At sea I calculate by sea-miles, of which sixty go to a degree.

{15}  This great Danish sculptor was born of poor parents at Copenhagen,
on the 19th November, 1770; his father was an Icelander, and earned his
living by carving figure-heads for ships.  Albert, or "Bertel," as he is
more generally called, was accustomed during his youth to assist his
father in his labours on the wharf.  At an early age he visited the
Academy at Copenhagen, where his genius soon began to make itself
conspicuous.  At the age of sixteen he had won a silver, and at twenty a
gold medal.  Two years later he carried off the "great" gold medal, and
was sent to study abroad at the expense of the Academy.  In 1797 we find
him practising his art at Rome under the eye of Zoega the Dane, who does
not, however, seem to have discovered indications of extraordinary genius
in the labours of his young countryman.  But a work was soon to appear
which should set all questions as to Thorwaldsen's talent for ever at
rest.  In 1801 he produced his celebrated statue of "Jason," which was at
once pronounced by the great Canova to be "a work in a new and a grand
style."  After this period the path of fame lay open before the young
sculptor; his bas-reliefs of "Summer" and "Autumn," the "Dance of the
Muses," "Cupid and Psyche," and numerous other works, followed each other
in rapid succession; and at length, in 1812, Thorwaldsen produced his
extraordinary work, "The Triumph of Alexander."  In 1819 Thorwaldsen
returned rich and famous to the city he had quitted as a youth
twenty-three years before; he was received with great honour, and many
feasts and rejoicings were held to celebrate his arrival.  After a
sojourn of a year Thorwaldsen again visited Rome, where he continued his
labours until 1838, when, wealthy and independent, he resolved to rest in
his native country.  This time his welcome to Copenhagen was even more
enthusiastic than in 1819.  The whole shore was lined with spectators,
and amid thundering acclamations the horses were unharnessed from his
carriage, and the sculptor was drawn in triumph by the people to his
_atelier_.  During the remainder of his life Thorwaldsen passed much of
his time on the island of Nyso, where most of his latest works were
executed.  On Sunday, March 9th, 1842, he had been conversing with a
circle of friends in perfect health.  Halm's tragedy of _Griselda_ was
announced for the evening, and Thorwaldsen proceeded to the theatre to
witness the performance.  During the overture he rose to allow a stranger
to pass, then resumed his seat, and a moment afterwards his head sunk on
his breast--he was dead!

His funeral was most sumptuous.  Rich and poor united to do honour to the
memory of the great man, who had endeared himself to them by his virtues
as by his genius.  The crown-prince followed the coffin, and the people
of Copenhagen stood in two long rows, and uncovered their heads as the
coffin of the sculptor was carried past.  The king himself took part in
the solemnity.  At the time of his decease Thorwaldsen had completed his
seventy-second year.--ED.

{16}  Tycho de Brahe was a distinguished astronomer, who lived between
1546 and 1601.  He was a native of Denmark.  His whole life may be said
to have been devoted to astronomy.  A small work that he published when a
young man brought him under the notice of the King of Denmark, with whose
assistance he constructed, on the small island of Hulln, a few miles
north of Copenhagen, the celebrated Observatory of Uranienburg.  Here,
seated in "the ancient chair" referred to in the text, and surrounded by
numerous assistants, he directed for seventeen years a series of
observations, that have been found extremely accurate and useful.  On the
death of his patron he retired to Prague in Bohemia, where he was
employed by Rodolph II. then Emperor of Germany.  Here he was assisted by
the great Kepler, who, on Tycho's death in 1601, succeeded him.--ED.

{17}  The fisheries of Iceland have been very valuable, and indeed the
chief source of the commerce of the country ever since it was discovered.
The fish chiefly caught are cod and the tusk or cat-fish.  They are
exported in large quantities, cured in various ways.  Since the discovery
of Newfoundland, however, the fisheries of Iceland have lost much of
their importance.  So early as 1415, the English sent fishing vessels to
the Icelandic coast, and the sailors who were on board, it would appear,
behaved so badly to the natives that Henry V. had to make some
compensation to the King of Denmark for their conduct.  The greatest
number of fishing vessels from England that ever visited Iceland was
during the reign of James I., whose marriage with the sister of the
Danish king might probably make England at the time the most favoured
nation.  It was in his time that an English pirate, "Gentleman John," as
he was called, committed great ravages in Iceland, for which James had
afterwards to make compensation.  The chief markets for the fish are in
the Catholic countries of Europe.  In the seventeenth century, a great
traffic in fish was carried on between Iceland and Spain.--ED.

{18}  The dues charged by the Danish Government on all vessels passing
through the Sound have been levied since 1348, and therefore enjoy a
prescriptive right of more than five hundred years.  They bring to the
Danish Government a yearly revenue of about a quarter of a million; and,
in consideration of the dues, the Government has to support certain
lighthouses, and otherwise to render safe and easy the navigation of this
great entrance to the Baltic.  Sound-dues were first paid in the palmy
commercial days of the Hanseatic League.  That powerful combination of
merchants had suffered severely from the ravages of Danish pirates, royal
and otherwise; but ultimately they became so powerful that the rich
merchant could beat the royal buccaneer, and tame his ferocity so
effectually as to induce him to build and maintain those beacon-lights on
the shores of the Sound, for whose use they and all nations and merchants
after them have agreed to pay certain duties.--ED.

{19}  The Feroe Islands consist of a great many islets, some of them mere
rocks, lying about halfway between the north coast of Scotland and
Iceland.  At one time they belonged to Norway, but came into the
possession of Denmark at the same time as Iceland.  They are exceedingly
mountainous, some of the mountains attaining an elevation of about 2800
feet.  The largest town or village does not contain more than 1500 or
1600 inhabitants.  The population live chiefly on the produce of their
large flocks of sheep, and on the down procured, often at great risk to
human life, from the eider-duck and other birds by which the island is
frequented.--ED.

{20}  I should be truly sorry if, in this description of our "life aboard
ship," I had said any thing which could give offence to my kind friend
Herr Knudson.  I have, however, presumed that every one is aware that the
mode of life at sea is different to life in families.  I have only to
add, that Herr Knudson lived most agreeably not only in Copenhagen, but
what is far more remarkable, in Iceland also, and was provided with every
comfort procurable in the largest European towns.

{21}  It is not only at sea that ingenious excuses for drinking are
invented.  The lovers of good or bad liquor on land find these reasons as
"plenty as blackberries," and apply them with a marvellous want of stint
or scruple.  In warm climates the liquor is drank to keep the drinker
cool, in cold to keep him warm; in health to prevent him from being sick,
in sickness to bring him back to health.  Very seldom is the real reason,
"because I like it," given; and all these excuses and reasons must be
regarded as implying some lingering sense of shame at the act, and as
forming part of "the homage that vice always pays to virtue."--ED.

{22}  The sailors call those waves "Spanish" which, coming from the west,
distinguish themselves by their size.

{23}  These islands form a rocky group, only one of which is inhabited,
lying about fifteen miles from the coast.  They are said to derive their
name from some natives of Ireland, called West-men, who visited Iceland
shortly after its discovery by the Norwegians.  In this there is nothing
improbable, for we know that during the ninth and tenth centuries the
Danes and Normans, called Easterlings, made many descents on the Irish
coast; and one Norwegian chief is reported to have assumed sovereign
power in Ireland about the year 866, though he was afterwards deposed,
and flung into a lough, where he was drowned: rather an ignominious death
for a "sea-king."--ED.

{24}  This work, which Madame Pfeiffer does not praise too highly, was
first published in 1810.  After passing through two editions, it was
reprinted in 1841, at a cheap price, in the valuable people's editions of
standard works, published by Messrs. Chambers of Edinburgh.

{25}  It is related of Ingold that he carried with him on his voyage the
door of his former house in Ireland, and that when he approached the
coast he cast it into the sea, watching the point of land which it
touched; and on that land he fixed his future home.  This land is the
same on which the town of Reikjavik now stands.  These old sea-kings,
like the men of Athens, were "in all things too superstitious."--ED.

{26}  These sea-rovers, that were to the nations of Europe during the
middle ages what the Danes, Norwegians, and other northmen were at an
earlier period, enjoyed at this time the full flow of their lawless
prosperity.  Their insolence and power were so great that many nations,
our own included, were glad to purchase, by a yearly payment, exemption
from the attacks of these sea-rovers.  The Americans paid this tribute so
late as 1815.  The unfortunate Icelanders who were carried off in the
seventeenth century nearly all died as captives in Algiers.  At the end
of ten years they were liberated; but of the four hundred only
thirty-seven were alive when the joyful intelligence reached the place of
their captivity; and of these twenty-four died before rejoining their
native land.--ED.

{27}  This town, the capital of Iceland, and the seat of government, is
built on an arm of the sea called the Faxefiord, in the south-west part
of the island.  The resident population does not exceed 500, but this is
greatly increased during the annual fairs.  It consists mainly of two
streets at right angles to each other.  It contains a large church built
of stone, roofed with tiles; an observatory; the residences of the
governor and the bishop, and the prison, which is perhaps the most
conspicuous building in the town.--ED.

{28}  As Madame Pfeiffer had thus no opportunity of attending a ball in
Iceland, the following description of one given by Sir George Mackenzie
may be interesting to the reader.

"We gave a ball to the ladies of Reikjavik and the neighbourhood.  The
company began to assemble about nine o'clock.  We were shewn into a small
low-roofed room, in which were a number of men, but to my surprise I saw
no females.  We soon found them, however, in one adjoining, where it is
the custom for them to wait till their partners go to hand them out.  On
entering this apartment, I felt considerable disappointment at not
observing a single woman dressed in the Icelandic costume.  The dresses
had some resemblance to those of English chambermaids, but were not so
smart.  An old lady, the wife of the man who kept the tavern, was habited
like the pictures of our great-grandmothers.  Some time after the dancing
commenced, the bishop's lady, and two others, appeared in the proper
dress of the country.

"We found ourselves extremely awkward in dancing what the ladies were
pleased to call English country dances.  The music, which came from a
solitary ill-scraped fiddle, accompanied by the rumbling of the same
half-rotten drum that had summoned the high court of justice, and by the
jingling of a rusty triangle, was to me utterly unintelligible.  The
extreme rapidity with which it was necessary to go through many
complicated evolutions in proper time, completely bewildered us; and our
mistakes, and frequent collisions with our neighbours, afforded much
amusement to our fair partners, who found it for a long time
impracticable to keep us in the right track.  When allowed to breathe a
little, we had an opportunity of remarking some singularities in the
state of society and manners among the Danes of Reikjavik.  While
unengaged in the dance, the men drink punch, and walk about with
tobacco-pipes in their mouths, spitting plentifully on the floor.  The
unrestrained evacuation of saliva seems to be a fashion all over Iceland;
but whether the natives learned it from the Danes, or the Danes from the
natives, we did not ascertain.  Several ladies whose virtue could not
bear a very strict scrutiny were pointed out to us.

"During the dances, tea and coffee were handed about; and negus and punch
were ready for those who chose to partake of them.  A cold supper was
provided, consisting of hams, beef, cheese, &c., and wine.  While at
table, several of the ladies sang, and acquitted themselves tolerably
well.  But I could not enjoy the performance, on account of the incessant
talking, which was as fashionable a rudeness in Iceland as it is now in
Britain.  This, however, was not considered as in the least unpolite.
One of the songs was in praise of the donors of the entertainment; and,
during the chorus, the ceremony of touching each other's glasses was
performed.  After supper, waltzes were danced, in a style that reminded
me of soldiers marching in cadence to the dead march in Saul.  Though
there was no need of artificial light, a number of candles were placed in
the rooms.  When the company broke up, about three o'clock, the sun was
high above the horizon."

{29}  A man of eighty years of age is seldom seen on the
island.--_Kerguelen_.

{30}  Kerguelen (writing in 1768) says: "They live during the summer
principally on cod's heads.  A common family make a meal of three or four
cods' heads boiled in sea-water."--ED.

{31}  This bakehouse is the only one in Iceland, and produces as good
bread and biscuit as any that can be procured in Denmark.  [In
Kerguelen's time (1768) bread was very uncommon in Iceland.  It was
brought from Copenhagen, and consisted of broad thin cakes, or
sea-biscuits, made of rye-flour, and extremely black.--ED.]

{32}  In all high latitudes fat oily substances are consumed to a vast
extent by the natives.  The desire seems to be instinctive, not acquired.
A different mode of living would undoubtedly render them more susceptible
to the cold of these inclement regions.  Many interesting anecdotes are
related of the fondness of these hyperborean races for a kind of food
from which we would turn in disgust.  Before gas was introduced into
Edinburgh, and the city was lighted by oil-lamps, several Russian
noblemen visited that metropolis; and it is said that their longing for
the luxury of train-oil became one evening so intense, that, unable to
procure the delicacy in any other way, they emptied the oil-lamps.  Parry
relates that when he was wintering in the Arctic regions, one of the
seamen, who had been smitten with the charms of an Esquimaux lady, wished
to make her a present, and knowing the taste peculiar to those regions,
he gave her with all due honours a pound of candles, six to the pound!
The present was so acceptable to the lady, that she eagerly devoured the
lot in the presence of her wondering admirer.--ED.

{33}  An American travelling in Iceland in 1852 thus describes, in a
letter to the _Boston Post_, the mode of travelling:--"All travel is on
horseback.  Immense numbers of horses are raised in the country, and they
are exceedingly cheap.  As for travelling on foot, even short journeys,
no one ever thinks of it.  The roads are so bad for walking, and
generally so good for riding that shoe-leather, to say nothing of
fatigue, would cost nearly as much as horse-flesh.  Their horses are
small, compact, hardy little animals, a size larger than Shetland ponies,
but rarely exceeding from 12 or 13.5 hands high.  A stranger in
travelling must always have a 'guide,' and if he does go equipped for a
good journey and intends to make good speed, he wants as many as six
horses; one for himself, one for the guide, one for the luggage, and
three relay horses.  Then when one set of horses are tired the saddles
are exchanged to the others.  The relay horses are tied together and are
either led or driven before the others.  A tent is often carried, unless
a traveller chooses to chance it for his lodgings.  Such an article as an
hotel is not kept in Iceland out of the capital.  You must also carry
your provisions with you, as you will be able to get but little on your
route.  Plenty of milk can be had, and some fresh-water fish.  The
luggage is carried in trunks that are hung on each side of the horse, on
a rude frame that serves as a pack-saddle.  Under this, broad pieces of
turf are placed to prevent galling the horse's back."

{34}  The down of the eider-duck forms a most important and valuable
article of Icelandic commerce.  It is said that the weight of down
procurable from each nest is about half a pound, which is reduced
one-half by cleansing.  The down is sold at about twelve shillings per
pound, so that the produce of each nest is about three shillings.  The
eider-duck is nearly as large as the common goose; and some have been
found on the Fern Islands, off the coast of Northumberland.--ED.

{35}  The same remark applies with equal force to many people who are not
Icelanders.  It was once the habit among a portion of the population of
Lancashire, on returning from market, to carry their goods in a bag
attached to one end of a string slung over their shoulders, which was
balanced by a bag containing a stone at the other.  Some time ago, it was
pointed out to a worthy man thus returning from market, that it would be
easier for him to throw away the stone, and make half of his load balance
the other half, but the advice was rejected with disdain; the plan he had
adopted was that of his forefathers, and he would on no account depart
from it.--ED.

{36}  The description of the Wolf's Hollow occurs in the second act of
_Der Freyschutz_, when Rodolph sings:

    "How horrid, dark, and wild, and drear,
    Doth this gaping gulf appear!
    It seems the hue of hell to wear.
    The bellowing thunder bursts yon clouds,
       The moon with blood has stained her light!
    What forms are those in misty shrouds,
       That stalk before my sight?
    And now, hush! hush!
    The owl is hooting in yon bush;
    How yonder oak-tree's blasted arms
       Upon me seem to frown!
    My heart recoils, but all alarms
       Are vain: fate calls, I must down, down."

{37}  The reader must bear in mind that, during the season of which I
speak, there is no twilight, much less night, in Iceland.

{38}  The springs of Carlsbad are said to have been unknown until about
five hundred years ago, when a hunting-dog belonging to one of the
emperors of Germany fell in, and by his howling attracted the hunters to
the spot.  The temperature of the chief spring is 165 degrees.--ED.

{39}  History tells of this great Icelandic poet, that owing to his
treachery the free island of Iceland came beneath the Norwegian sceptre.
For this reason he could never appear in Iceland without a strong guard,
and therefore visited the Allthing under the protection of a small army
of 600 men.  Being at length surprised by his enemies in his house at
Reikiadal, he fell beneath their blows, after a short and ineffectual
resistance.  [Snorri Sturluson, the most distinguished name of which
Iceland can boast, was born, in 1178, at Hoam.  In his early years he was
remarkably fortunate in his worldly affairs.  The fortune he derived from
his father was small, but by means of a rich marriage, and by
inheritance, he soon became proprietor of large estates in Iceland.  Some
writers say that his guard of 600 men, during his visit to the Allthing,
was intended not as a defence, as indicated in Madame Pfeiffer's note,
but for the purposes of display, and to impress the inhabitants with
forcible ideas of his influence and power.  He was invited to the court
of the Norwegian king, and there he either promised or was bribed to
bring Iceland under the Norwegian power.  For this he has been greatly
blamed, and stigmatised as a traitor; though it would appear from some
historians that he only undertook to do by peaceable means what otherwise
the Norwegian kings would have effected by force, and thus saved his
country from a foreign invasion.  But be this as it may, it is quite
clear that he sunk in the estimation of his countrymen, and the feeling
against him became so strong, that he was obliged to fly to Norway.  He
returned, however, in 1239, and in two years afterwards he was
assassinated by his own son-in-law.  The work by which he is chiefly
known is the _Heimskringla_, or Chronicle of the Sea-Kings of Norway, one
of the most valuable pieces of northern history, which has been admirably
translated into English by Mr. Samuel Laing.  This curious name of
Heimskringla was given to the work because it contains the words with
which begins, and means literally _the circle of the world_.--ED.]

{40}  A translation of this poem will be found in the Appendix.  [Not
included in this Gutenberg eText--DP]

{41}  In Iceland, as in Denmark, it is the custom to keep the dead a week
above ground.  It may be readily imagined that to a non-Icelandic sense
of smell, it is an irksome task to be present at a burial from beginning
to end, and especially in summer.  But I will not deny that the continued
sensation may have partly proceeded from imagination.

{42}  Every one in Iceland rides.

{43}  I cannot forbear mentioning a curious circumstance here.  When I
was at the foot of Mount Etna in 1842, the fiery element was calmed; some
months after my departure it flamed with renewed force.  When, on my
return from Hecla, I came to Reikjavik, I said jocularly that it would be
most strange if this Etna of the north should also have an eruption now.
Scarcely had I left Iceland more than five weeks when an eruption, more
violent than the former one, really took place.  This circumstance is the
more remarkable, as it had been in repose for eighty years, and was
already looked upon as a burnt-out volcano.  If I were to return to
Iceland now, I should be looked upon as a prophetess of evil, and my life
would scarcely be safe.

{44}  Every peasant in tolerably good circumstances carries a little tent
with him when he leaves home for a few days.  These tents are, at the
utmost, three feet high, five or six feet long, and three broad.

{45}  "Though their poverty disables them from imitating the hospitality
of their ancestors in all respects, yet the desire of doing it still
exists: they cheerfully give away the little they have to spare, and
express the utmost joy and satisfaction if you are pleased with the
gift."  _Uno von Troil_, 1772.--ED.

{46}  The presence of American ships in the port of Gottenburg is not to
be wondered at, seeing that nearly three-fourths of all the iron exported
from Gottenburg is to America.--ED.

{47}  "St. Stephen's steeple" is 450 feet high, being about 40 feet
higher than St. Paul's, and forms part of St. Stephen's Cathedral in
Vienna, a magnificent Gothic building, that dates as far back as the
twelfth century.  It has a great bell, that weighs about eighteen tons,
being more than double the weight of the bell in St. Peter's at Rome, and
four times the weight of the "Great Tom of Lincoln."  The metal used
consisted of cannons taken from the Turks during their memorable sieges
of Vienna.  The cathedral is 350 feet long and 200 wide, being less than
St. Paul's in London, which is 510 feet long and 282 wide.--ED.

{48}  The _Storthing_ is the name given to the Norwegian parliament,
which assembles once every three years at Christiania.  The time and
place of meeting are fixed by law, and the king has no power to prevent
or postpone its assembly.  It consists of about a hundred members, who
divide themselves into two houses.  The members must not be under thirty
years of age, and must have lived for ten years in Norway.  The electors
are required to be twenty-five years of age, and to be either burgesses
of a town, or to possess property of the annual value of 30_l._  The
members must possess the same qualification.  The members of the
Storthing are usually plain-spoken, sensible men, who have no desire to
shine as orators, but who despatch with great native sagacity the
business brought before them.  This Storthing is the most independent
legislative assembly in Europe; for not only has the king no power to
prevent its meeting at the appointed time, but should he refuse to assent
to any laws that are passed, these laws come into force without his
assent, provided they are passed by three successive parliaments.--ED.

{49}  The present king of Sweden and Norway is Oscar, one of the few
fortunate scions of those lowly families that were raised to royal power
and dignity by Napoleon.  His father, Bernadotte, was the son of an
advocate, and entered the French army as a common soldier; in that
service he rose to the rank of marshal, and then became crown-prince, and
ultimately king of Sweden.  He died in 1844.  The mother of Oscar was
Desiree Clary, a sister of Julie Clary, wife of Joseph Bonaparte, the
elder brother of Napoleon.  This lady was asked in marriage by Napoleon
himself, but her father refused his assent; and instead of becoming an
unfortunate empress of France, she became a fortunate queen of Sweden and
Norway.  Oscar was born at Paris in 1799, and received his education
chiefly in Hanover.  He accompanied his father to Sweden in 1810, and
ascended the throne on his father's death in 1844.  In 1824 he married
Josephine Beauharnois, daughter of Prince Eugene, and granddaughter of
the brilliant and fascinating Josephine, the first and best wife of
Napoleon.  Oscar is much beloved by his subjects; his administration is
mild, just, and equable; and his personal abilities and acquirements are
far beyond the average of crowned heads.--ED.

{50}  Bergen is a town of about twenty-five thousand inhabitants,
situated near the Kons Fiord, on the west coast of Norway, and distant
about 350 miles from Christiania.  It is the seat of a bishopric, and a
place of very considerable trade, its exports being chiefly fish.  It has
given its name to a county and a township in the state of New Jersey.
There are three other Bergens,--one in the island of Rugen, one in the
Netherlands, and another in the electorate of Hesse.

{51}  _Kulle_ is the Swedish for hill.

{52}  Delekarlien is a Swedish province, situated ninety or one hundred
miles north of Stockholm.

{53}  The family of Sturre was one of the most distinguished in Sweden.
Sten Sturre introduced printing into Sweden, founded the University of
Upsala, and induced many learned men to come over.  He was mortally
wounded in a battle against the Danes, and died in 1520.

His successors as governors, Suante, Nilson Sturre, and his son, Sten
Sturre the younger, still live in the memory of the Swedish nation, and
are honoured for their patriotism and valour.

{54}  The University of Upsala is the most celebrated in the north.  It
owes its origin to Sten Sturre, the regent of the kingdom, by whom it was
founded in 1476, on the same plan as the University of Paris.  Through
the influence of the Jesuits, who wished to establish a new academy in
Stockholm, it was dissolved in 1583, but re-established in 1598.
Gustavus Vasa, who was educated at Upsala, gave it many privileges, and
much encouragement; and Gustavus Adolphus reconstituted it, and give it
very liberal endowments.  There are twenty-four professors, and the
number of students is between four and five hundred.--ED.

{55}  See novel of _Ivar_, _the Skjuts Boy_, by Miss Emilie Carlen.

{56}  At Calmar was concluded, in 1397, the famous treaty which bears its
name, by which Denmark, Sweden, and Norway were united under one crown,
that crown placed nominally on the head of Eric Duke of Pomerania, but
virtually on that of his aunt Margaret, who has received the name of "the
Semiramis of the North." --ED.

{57}  There is now a railway direct from Hamburgh to Berlin.--ED.

{58}  A florin is about two shillings sterling.--_Tr._

{59}  Herr T. Scheffer of Modling, near Vienna, gives the following
characteristic of this new dipteral animal, which belongs to the family
muscidae, and resembles the species borborus:

_Antennae_ deflexae, breves, triarticulatae, articulo ultimo phoereco;
seda nuda.

_Hypoctoma_ subprominulum, fronte lata, setosa.  _Oculi_ rotundi, remoti.
Abdomen quinque annulatum, dorso nudo.  _Tarsi_ simplices.  _Alae_
incumbentes, abdomine longiores, nervo primo simplici.

Niger, abdomine nitido, antennis pedibusque rufopiceis.





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