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Title: The Departing Soul's Address to the Body - A Fragment of a Semi-Saxon Poem, Discovered Among the - Archives of Worcester Cathedral
Author: Phillipps, Thomas, 1792-1872
Language: English
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_The student of our early literature and language is indebted to the
zeal of Sir Thomas Phillipps, for the discovery of the following
interesting Fragment, which appears to have formed part of a volume that
contained Ælfric's Grammar and Glossary, probably of the Twelfth
Century. The fragments were discovered among the archives of Worcester
Cathedral; and in 1836 Sir Thomas Phillipps printed the whole of them in
folio. I know not whether the form or the typographical arrangement has
been the cause of the neglect of this publication; but it has escaped
both Mr. Wright and Mr. Thorpe. The former, in his interesting edition
of "The Latin Poems of Walter de Mapes," where he has given the literary
history of this legend with extracts, has not even referred to our
fragment; nor has Mr. Thorpe adverted to it in his publication of the
"Codex Exoniensis," which contains an Anglo-Saxon poem of the same kind,
with which it is interesting to compare this later version of the
legend. There is a portion of another semi-Saxon poem, entitled "The
Grave," printed in Mr. Conybeare's "Illustrations," and by Mr. Thorpe in
his "Analecta Anglo-Saxonica," which appears to be by the same hand, or
at any rate of the same school and age. Indeed some of the lines and
thoughts are identical with passages of the following poem. Mr. Thorpe
has justly called "The Grave" a singularly impressive and almost
appalling fragment; expressions equally characteristic of that with
which the reader is here presented._

_This impressive character, coupled with the interest which the fragment
possesses, as a specimen of the moral poetry of our ancestors, and as
throwing light upon the transition of our language from Saxon to
English, has been the motive for producing it in a more legible form
than that in which it first appeared._

_In one of the smaller poems (No. V.), printed by Mr. Wright with the
Owl and the Nightingale, from the Cottonian MS. Calig. A. ix. "The sorie
sowle maketh hire mone," in language not dissimilar to that used in the
following fragment; and the dreary imagery of the house appointed for
all living, and the punishment which awaits a wicked life at its close,
are painted in an equally fearful manner._

_Mr. Thorpe points to an Anglo-Saxon prose Homily as the original of the
poem on the same theme in the Exeter MS., which is repeated, with some
variation, in the Vercelli Codex. In a rude and simple age this dramatic
way of awakening the sinner to a sense of his perilous state, was
perhaps the most effective that could have been chosen, and it was
naturally a favorite with the moral and religious teachers for some
centuries. M. Karajan, in a very pleasing little publication
(Frülingsgabe für freunde Alterer Literatur, Wien 1839) has printed the
"Visio Philiberti," a Latin poem in dialogue on this subject, with two
old German versions; and the notes contain some interesting information
relating to similar compositions; but Mr. Wright's volume, before
referred to, contains ample illustrations of the legend in all

_The fragment here given, it will be seen, is very defective. An attempt
has been made to supply words which were wanting, from the mutilation of
the MS. leaves; but what is engrafted on the original is scrupulously
distinguished by the Italic character. A version has also been added,
the imperfections of which those who are acquainted with the
difficulties of such renderings will best know how to excuse._

_The language of this poem seems to have a striking resemblance to that
of one of the MSS. of Laȝamon, and we may hope, when the lovers of
our early lore shall be favoured with the long and anxiously expected
edition of that work by Sir Frederick Madden, that much light will be
thrown upon the history of the transitions of our language._

_For what has been already done by Conybeare, Price, Kemble, Thorpe,
Madden, Stevenson, Wright, Way and others, the present writer is most
grateful; but he would wish to see the same spirit and enthusiasm, the
same unwearied zeal displayed in the elucidation of the noble remains of
our Anglo-Saxon ancestors, and of the interesting stores of our early
literature and language, which has been so long a distinguishing feature
of Germany, whose example has of late years lighted up a similar
patriotic flame in France and Belgium._

_Mickleham, August 20, 1844._



*    *    *    *  en earde.             *    *    *    *
and alle theo isceæfestan.              *    *    *    *
the him to  *    *    *                 *    *    *    *
and mid muchele _wisdome_.              and with much _wisdom_
_thon_ne mon he idihte.             5   then man he framed,
and him on ileide.                      bestowed on him
lif and soule.                          life and soul,
softliche he heo isom_ne_.              tenderly he united them;
ac thær bith sor idol.                  but there is a sad portion
that bodeth that bearn.            10   which awaits that child.
thonne hit iboren bith.                 When it is born;
hit _woan_eth and mænet theo weowe.     it waileth, and bemoans the woe,
and thene seoruhfule sith.              and the sorrowful time,
and that sori idol.                     and that sad lot,
that soule schal _hire li_came.    15   that shall the soul from her body
sorliche idælen.                        sadly separate.
Forthon hit cumeth weopinde.            Therefore it cometh weeping,
and woniende iwiteth.                   and wailing departeth,
_thonne D_eath mid his pricke.          when Death, with his dart,
pineth thene licame.               20   pineth the body.
He walketh and wendeth.                 He walketh and goeth,
and woneth _his si_thes.                and bewails his destiny;
he sæith on his bedde.                  he saith, on his bed,
wo me that ic libbe.                    Wo me! that I live;
that æffre min lif dawes.          25   that ever my life
thus _lon_ge me ilesteth.               so long endureth.
for heui is his greoning.               For heavy is his groaning,
and seohrful is his woaning.            and sorrowful his wailing.
and all _reowliche_ his sith.           and all rueful his lot,
mid seorwe biwunden.               30   with sorrow encompassed.
him deaueth tha æren.                   His ears deafen,
him dimmeth _tha_ eiȝen.                his eyes become dim,
him scerpeth the neose.                 his nose sharpens,
him scrincketh tha lippen.              his lips shrink,
him scorteth _the_ tunge.          35   his tongue shorteneth
him truketh his iwit.                   his sense faileth,
him teoreth his miht.                   his strength wasteth,
him coldeth his _heorte_.               his _heart_ chilleth,
_him_ leggeth the ban stille.           his bones lie still;
thonne bith that soule hus.        40   then is that soul-house
seoruhliche bereaved.                   wofully bereaved
_of_ also muchele wunne.                of as much delight
the ther inne wunede                    as therein dwelled.
thus bith thæs bearnes.                 Thus are these children
mid pin_unge_ ifulled.             45   filled with torment;
theo moder greoneth.                    The mother groaneth,
and that bearn woaneth.                 and the child waileth;
so bith theo _hear_dtid.                so is that hard hap
mid balewen imenged.                    with torment mingled.
So bith eft the feorthsith.        50   So is oft the departure,
sorhliche to dæ_led_                    miserably apportioned,
mid seoruwen al bewunden.               with sorrow all surrounded,
thonne the licame and the sowle.        when the body and the soul
soriliche to _dæl_eth.                  sorrowfully separate.
thonne bith that wræcche lif.      55   Then is that wretched life
iended al mid sori sith.                ended all with sad departure;
thonne bith the _bodi_ge.               then is the body
iflut to then flore.                    banished to the floor;
he bith eastward istreiht.              he is stretcht eastward;
he bith sone stif.                 60   he is soon stiff;
he _hear_deth also clei.                he hardens like clay;
hit is him ikunde.                      it is of kin to him.
mon hine met mit on ȝerde.              They measure him with a yard,
and tha mol_de_ seoththen.              and that dust, thenceforth,
ne mot he of thære molde.          65   may not of the earth
habben namore.                          have any more
thonne that rihte imet.                 than that right measured
r_ih_tliche tæcheth.                    rightly teacheth.
Thonne lith the clei clot.              Then lies the clay clod
cold on then flore.                70   cold on the floor,
and him sone from _fleoth_.             and soon from him _flee_
theo he ær freome dude.                 those he before help did;
nulleth heo mid honden.                 nor will they, with _their_ hands,
his heafod riht wen_den_.               lay his head straight;
heom thuncheth that hore honden.        they think that their hands
swuthe beoth ifuled.               76   are much defiled
gif heo hondleth the _d_æde.            if they handle the dead.
Seoththen his deaȝes beoth igon.        After his days are gone,
sone cumeth that wrecche wif.           soon cometh the wretched wife,
_forh_oweth thene earfeth sith.    80   lamenteth the woeful time,
forbindeth thæs dædan muth.             binds up the mouth of the dead,
and his dimme eiȝen.                    and closes his dim eyes.
*    *    *  _ie_ thet riche[A] wif.    *    *    *  that wretched wife
forhoweth thene earueth sith.           lamenteth the woeful time;
for ufel is that wrecche lufe.     85   for evil is that wretched love
_thon_ne theo unblisse cumath.          when adversity cometh.
Thonne besihth theo soule.              Then saith the soul
sorliche to then lich_ame_.             sadly to the body,
*    *    *    *    *                   *    *    *    *    *
_hwi noldest bethenchen_ thu me.   90   _why wouldst thou not think of me_
theo hwule thet ic wunede inne the.     while that I dwelt in thee,
for thu were leas and lutiȝ.            for thou wert false and deceitful,
and _un_riht lufedest.                  and iniquity didst love;
godnesse and riht.                      goodness and justice
æfre thu onscunedest.              95   ever thou didst shun.
hwar is nu the _mo_dinesse.             Where is now the pride
swo muchel the thu lufedæst.            thou so much didst love?
hwar beoth nu theo pundes.              Where are now the pounds
thurh  *    *    *  newes igædered.     by  *    *    *  gathered?
heo weren monifolde.              100   they were manifold,
bi markes itolde.                       counted by marks.
hwar beoth _nu_ theo goldfæten.         Where are now the vessels of gold
theo the guldene.                       that thou idolized,
comen to thine honden.                  as they came to thy hands?
thin blisse is _nu_ al igon.      105   Thy bliss is now all gone;
min seoruwe is fornon.                  my sorrow is near.
hwar beoth nu thin wæde.                Where are now thy clothes
the th_u_ wel lufedest.                 that thou well didst love?
hwar beoth the.                         Where are they
seten sori ofer the.              110   that sate sorry over thee,
beden swuthe ȝeorne.                    praying right earnestly
_that_ the come bote.                   that help _might_ come to thee?
heo_m_ thuthte alto longe.              They thought it all too long
that thu were on live.                  that thou wert alive,
for heo _we_ren grædie.           115   for they were greedy
to gripen thin æihte.                   to gripe thy property.
nu heo hi dælith heom imang.            Now they divide it among them,
_heo_ doth the withuten.                they do without thee,
ac nu heo beoth fuse.                   eke now they are prompt
to bringen the ut of huse.        120   to bring thee out of house;
bergen the ut æt thire dure.            bearing thee out at the door.
Of weolen thu art bedæled.              Of wealth thou art deprived.
Hwui noldest th_u be_thenchen me.       Why wouldst thou not think of me
theo hwile ic was innen the.            while I was within thee?
ac scendest me mid sunne.         125   but blemished me with sin.
fo_rthi_ ic seoruhful eam.              Therefore I sorrowful am;
weile that ic souhte.                   alas! that I sought
so seoruhfulne buc.                     such a miserable body.
noldest th_u lo_kien lufe.              Nor wouldst thou observe love
with ilærede men.                 130   with learned men,
ȝiven ham of thine gode.                give them part of thy wealth
that heo the fo_re_ beden.              that they _might_ pray for thee,
heo mihten mid salm songe.              that they might with psalm sung
thine sunne acwenchen.                  thy sin extinguish,
mid  *    *    *  re_in_esse.     135   with  *    *    *
thine misdeden forebiddan.              pray for thy misdeeds;
heo mihten offrian loc.                 that they might offer gifts
leofli_che_ for the.                    acceptable for thee,
swuth deor thurthe lac.                 through the most dear sacrifice
licame Cristes.                   140   of Christ's body;
thurh thære thu wære.                   by which thou were
alese_d_ from helle wite.               redeemed from pains of hell;
and mid his reade blode.                and with his red blood,
that he ȝeat on rode.                   that he shed on the cross,
the thu we_ren_ ifreoed.          145   by which thou wert freed
to farene into heouene.                 to enter into heaven.
ac thu fenge to theowdome.              But thou took to thraldom
thurh thæs de_ofles_ lore.              through the devil's lore.
Bi the hit is iseid.                    Concerning thee it is said
and soth hit is on boken.         150   in books, and true it is:
_Qui custodiat divitias._               _Qui custodiat divitias,_
_Ser_vus _est divitiis._                _Servus est divitiis._
Thu were theow.                         Thou wert slave
thines weolan.                          to thy wealth,
noldest thu nouht.                155   nor wouldst thou ought
thærof d_ælen_.                         thereof distribute
for Drihtenes willæn.                   for God's pleasure;
ac æfre thu grædiliche,                 but thou ever greedily
gæderdest the more.                     didst gather the more.
lu_ther_liche eart thu forloren.  160   Miserably art thou separated
from al that thu lufedest.              from all that thou lovedst,
and ic scal wræcche soule.              and I, wretched soul, shall
_ece_ we nu driæn.                      now suffer everlasting woe.
eart thu nu loth and unwurth.           Thou art now loathsome and contemptible
alle thine freonden.              165   to all thy friends.
nu ha_m thun_cheth alto long.           Now they think it all too long
that thu ham neih list.                 that thou liest nigh them,
ær thu beo ibrouht.                     ere thou be brought
thær thu be_grafen_ scalt.              where thou shalt be buried
on deope sæthe.                   170   in a deep pit,
on durelease huse.                      in a doorless house,
thær wurmes wældeth.                    where worms possess
al_le that_ wurthest was.               all that was most honoured
fuweles quale holde.                    of the foul dead carcase,
the thu icwemedest ær.            175   that thou formerly delightedst
mid alre _kunde_ swetnesse.             with all kind of sweetness,
theo thu swuthe lufedest.               that thou much didst love.
theo swetnesse is nu al agon.           The sweetness is now all gone,
that b_ittere_ the bith fornon.         the bitter is thee near,
that bittere ilæsteth æffre.      180   that bitter lasteth ever,
that swete ne cumeth the _næffre_.      that sweet cometh to thee never.
*    *    *    *    *                   *    *    *    *    *
_thun_cheth that thu hire bi_lei_ben.   thinketh that thou here remain.
ȝet sæith theo sowle.                   Yet saith the soul
soriliche to then licame.         185   sadly to the body:
sæ _ne thea_rft thu on stirope.         see, thou canst not on stirrup
stonden mid fotan.                      stand with thy feet,
on nenne goldfohne bowe.                on no gold-glittering saddle;
for thu _scal_t faren alto howe.        for thou shalt journey all to woe,
and thu scalt nu ruglunge.        190   and thou shalt now backwards
ridæn to thære eorthe.                  ride to the earth;
ut _sceo_t æt thære dure.               shut out at the door,
ne thearft thu næffre onȝean.           nor canst thou ever again
cumæn reowliche riden.                  come fiercely riding.
_nu alle_ beræfed.                195   Now all bereaved,
ac thene eorthliche weole.              eke the earthly wealth,
the thu iwold ohtest.                   that thou possessed power _over_.
nu mon mæi _seg_gen bi the.             Now they may say of thee,
thes mon is iwiten.                     this man is departed,
nu her weila.                     200   Alas! now here,
and his weolæn beoth her belæfed.       and his wealth is here left behind.
_nol_de he nefre thær of don.           he would never do therewith
his drihtenes wille.                    his Lord's will.
ac æfre thu gæderest.                   But ever thou didst gather
gær_sumen_ thine feonde.          205   riches of thine enemies.
nulleth heo nimen gete.                 Yet will they not take
hwo hit biȝete.                         who procured it?
nafst thu bute _we_lawei.               nor hast thou but well away!
that thu weole heuedest.                that thou hadst wealth.
al is reowliche thin sith.        210   All ruefull is thy lot,
efter thin wrecche lif.                 after thy wicked life.
theo men beoth the blithre.             Those men are the blither
the arisen ær with the.                 that formerly jangled with thee,
that thin muth is betuned.              that thy mouth is closed,
_the_ theo teone ut lettest.      215   with which thou reproach uttered,
the he heom sore grulde.                which sorely provoked them;
thet ham gros the aȝan.                 that they raged against thee;
_dæ_th hine haveth bituned.             death hath closed it,
and thene teone aleid.                  and the anger taken away.
Soth is iseid.                    220   Truly it is said
on then salme _be_c.                    in the Psalm book,
_Os tuum habundavit malitia_,           _os tuum habundavit malitia_,
was on thine muthe.                     wickedness ripe
luthernesse ripe.                       was in thy mouth.
_no_ldest thu on thine huse.      225   Thou wouldst not in thy house
herborwen theo wrecchen.                shelter the poor,
ne mihten heo under _thine_ roue.       nor might they under thy roof
none reste finden.                      find any rest;
noldest thu næfre helpen.               nor wouldst thou ever help
tham orlease w_recche_n.          230   the unhappy wretches;
ac thu sete on thine benche.            but thou sate on thy bench,
underleid mid thine bolstre.            underlaid with thy bolster,
thu wurpe _cn_eow ofer cneow.           thou threw knee over knee,
ne icneowe thu the sulfen.              nor knew thou thyself
that thu scoldest mid wurmen.     235   that thou shouldst with worms
_husien_ in eorthan.                    dwell in the earth.
nu thu hauest neowe hus.                Now thou hast a new house,
inne bethrungen.                        a crowded dwelling;
lowe beoth the helewewes.               low is the covering,
unheiȝe beoth the sidwowes.       240   unhigh the sidewalls,
thin rof liith on thin breoste ful      thy roof lieth on thy breast full
    _nei_.                                  _nigh_.
colde is the ibedded.                   Cold art thou embedded,
clothes bidcled.                        beclad in clothes
nulleth thine hinen.                    thy hinds would refuse.
clothes the sen  *    *    *      245   Clothes the sen  *    *    *
for heom thuncheth alto lut.            for they think all too little
that thu heom bilefdest.                that thou didst leave them;
that thu hefdest on hor_de_.            that thou hadst in hoard
theo hit wulleth heldan.                they will it keep.
thus is iwitan thin weole.        250   Thus is departed thy wealth,
wendest thet hit thin were.             _thou_ thoughtest that it thine were.
thus _reowliche_ nu thin sith.          Thus ruefull now thy lot,
efter thin wrecche lif.                 after thy wretched life.
the sculen nu waxen.                    Now wormes shall grow
wurmes besiden.                   255   beside thee,
_thene_ hungrie feond.                  the hungry enemy
theo the freten wulleth.                that will devour thee,
heo wulleth the frecliche freten.       they will thee greedily devour;
for _heo_ thin flæsc liketh.            for they like thy flesh,
he_o_ wulleth freten thin fule hold.    they will devour thy foul carcase,
theo hwule heo hit fin_deth_.     261   as long as they find it;
thonne hit al bith agon.                when it is all gone
heo wulleth gnawen thin bon.            they will gnaw thy bone;
theo orlease wu_rmes_.                  those vile worms,
heo windeth on thin armes.        265   they wind on thy arms,
heo breketh thine breoste.              they break up thy breast,
and borieth the ofer al.                and perforate thee all over;
_heo_ reoweth in and ut.                they rove in and out,
thet hord is hore open.                 that hoard is open to them,
and so heo wulleth waden.         270   and so they will wade
wide in thi _wom_be.                    wide in thy stomach;
todelen thine thermes.                  parting thy entrails
theo the deore weren.                   that were dear to thee.
lifre and thine lihte.                  Thy liver and thy lights
lod_liche_ torenden.              275   loathfully rending,
and so scal formelten.                  and so shall waste away
mawe and thin milte.                    thy maw and thy melt,
and so scal win  *    *    *            and so shall win  *    *    *
*    *    *    *    *                   *    *    *    *    *
_wur_mes of thine flæsc.          280   worms of thy flesh,
thu scalt fostren thine feond.          thou shalt nourish thine enemy
thet thu beo al ifreten                 until thou art all devoured;
_thu_ scalt nu herborwen.               thou shalt now harbour
unhol wihte.                            hateful creatures,
noldest thu ær gode men.          285   (heretofore thou wouldst not, good men,
for lufe go_de sel_lan.                 for love, give _of thy_ goods;)
heo wulleth wurchen hore hord.          they will work their hoard
on thine heaued ponne.                  in thy skull.
m_oton_ heo bileafen.                   Should they leave
thine lippen unfreten.            290   thy lips undevoured,
ac thu scalt grisliche grennien.        eke thou shalt grin horribly,
_that_ hwo so hit iseiȝe.               that whosoever sees it
he mihte beon offered.                  he might be frightened;
Reowliche bith so thin sith.            so rueful is thy lot,
efter _thin_ wercche lif.         295   after thy wicked life.
nu me wule swopen thine flor.           Now men will sweep thy floor,
and thet flet clensien.                 and cleanse the dwelling;
for hit is h_eom_ lothre.               for it is the loather to them
the thu theron leiȝe.                   that thou liest thereon.
heo wulleth mid holiwatere.       300   They will, with holy water,
beworpen ec theo p_ædas_.               sprinkle eke the vestments,
blecsien ham ȝeorne.                    cleansing them carefully
to burewen ham with the.                to bury them with thee;
beren ut thin bed strau.                bear out thy bed-straw
b_rennen_ hit mid fure.           305   to burn it with fire.
thus thu ert nu ilufed.                 Thus thou art now beloved
seoththen thu me forlure.               since thou lost me.
al hit is reow_liche_ thin sith.        All rueful is thy lot,
efter thin wrecche lif.                 after thy wicked life.
ȝet sæith the soule.              310   Yet saith the soul
so_r_iliche to hire licame.             sadly to the body,
_nol_dest thu la erming.                Alas! miserable, wouldst thou not
her o to wunienne.                      here for ever dwell?
nes hit the no wiht icunde.             it was no whit known to thee
that thu icore_n me_ hefdest.     315   that thou hadst chosen me;
nes hit icunde the.                     it was not known to thee
more then thine cunne biuoren the.      more than to thy kin before thee,
ne heold is thin _æiȝe_ opene.          nor was thine eye held open
theo hwule ic the inne was.             while I was within thee.
hwi noldest thu lefen.            320   Why wouldst thou not believe,
tha thu hi iseiȝe.                      though thou saw it,
hu thin ford_feren_.                    how thy forefathers
ferden biforen the.                     went before thee.
nu heo wunieth on eorthe.               Now they dwell in the earth,
wurmes ham habbeth todæled.       325   worms have shared them,
is_ceorf hore_ sorhfulle bones.         gnawed their miserable bones
the theo sunne wrohten.                 with which they wrought sin.
tha ȝet seith theo soule.               Again saith the soul,
soriliche to hire li_chame_.            sorrowfully to the body,
æfre thu were luther.             330   thou wert ever wicked
theo hwile thu lif hæfdest.             whilst thou hadst life,
thu were leas and luti.                 thou wert false and deceitful,
and unriht lufede_st_.                  and loved injustice
_and_ luthere deden.                    and wicked deeds,
deredest cristene men.            335   and injured Christian men
and mid worde and mid werke.            with word and with work,
so thu wurst mihte.                     as thou worst might.
_ic was_ from Gode clene.               I was sent to thee
to the isend.                           innocent from God,
ac thu hauest unc fordon.         340   but thou hast undone us,
mid thine luthere deden.                with thy wicked deeds.
_æfre_ thu were gredi.                  Ever thou wert greedy,
and mid gromen the onfulled.            and filled thyself with fierceness,
unneathe ic on the.                     I hardly in thee
eni wununge ha_uede_.             345   had any dwelling,
for hearde nithe.                       for hard covetousness,
and ofer mete fulle.                    and foul gluttony;
for thin wombe was thin god.            for thy belly was thy god,
and thin wulder _thu_ iscend.     349   and thou spoiled thy glory.
forloren thu havest theo ece blisse.    Lost thou hast everlasting bliss,
binumen thu havest the paradis.         thou hast deprived thee of Paradise.
bi_nu_men the is that holi lond.        Taken from thee is that holy land;
then deofle thu bist isold on hond.     thou art given into the devil's hand,
for noldest thu nefre _habb_en inouh.   for thou wouldst never have enough,
buten thu hefdest unifouh.        355   unless thou hadst repletion.
Nu is that swete al agon.               Now is the sweet all gone,
thet bittere the bi_th_ fornon.         the bitter is near thee,
that bittere ilest the efre.            that bitter lasteth thee ever,
thet gode ne cumeth the nefre.          that good cometh to thee never.
thus ageth nu th_in sith_.        360   Thus goeth now thy lot,
æfter thin wrecce lif.                  after thy wicked life.
thu wendest that thin ende.             Thou thoughtest that thine end
nefre ne cuman scolde.                  should never come.
to long  *    *    *  lede death the.   Too long  *    *    *  death thee,
that he nolde nimen the.          365   that he would not take thee,
for efre thu arerdest sake.             for thou ever raised up strife
and unseihte  *    *    *               and discord,  *    *    *
and ic was with innen the.              and I was within thee
biclused swuthe fule.                   most foully enclosed;
thu were wedlowe.                 370   thou wert faithless
and mon sware.                          and perjured,
and  *    *    *  hund inouh.           and  *    *    *  enough;
for thu were mid sunne.                 for thou wert with sin
ifulled al with inne.                   filled all within,
for the deofle l_ored the al_l.   375   for the devil taught thee all,
ord fulneih thine heorte.               chief full nigh thy heart.
efre thu woldest fullen.                Ever thou wouldst fulfil,
al that was his wille.                  all that was his will.
*    *    *    *    *                   *    *    *    *    *
*    *    *  thu nefre th.        380   *    *    *    *    *
_drihtenes_  *    *    *                *    *    *    *    *
*    *    *  _iwo_ld ahte.              *    *    *    *    *
The ȝet seith theo soule.               Again, saith the soul,
soriliche to hire licame.               sadly to the body,
clene bith the eor_the_.          385   the earth is pure
_ær_ thu to hire to cume.               e'er thou come to it,
ac thu heo afulest.                     but thou defilest it
mid thin fule holde.                    with thy foul carcase;
thet is that fu_lnesse_.                only that foulness is
afursed from monnen.              390   removed from men;
nu thu bist bihuded.                    now thou art hidden
on alre horde fulest.                   in foulest hoard,
on _deope_ seathe.                      in a deep pit,
on durelease huse.                      in a doorless house.
thu scalt rotien.                 395   Thou shalt rot
and brostnian.                          and corrupt;
thine bon beoth bedæled.                thy bones will be separated
_from th_ære wæde.                      from the clothing
the heo weren to iwunede.               in which they were inhabited;
breketh lith from lithe.          400   limb breaks from limb;
liggeth the bon stil.                   the bones lie still,
_tha_ ure drihten eft.                  until our Lord again
of deathe heo aræreth.                  from death raiseth them,
so he alle men deth.                    as he doth all men,
thonne domes daie _cume_th.       405   when doomsday cometh.
thonne scalt thu erming.                Then shalt thou, miserable!
up arisen.                              up arise,
imeten thine morth deden.               thy deadly sins measured,
theo the murie _were_n.                 that were so pleasant to thee;
seoruhful and sorimod.            410   sorrowful and melancholy,
so thin lif wrouhte.                    the crimes of thy life.
nu beoth thine earen fordutte.          Now are thine ears closed,
_non drea_me ihereth.                   no pleasant sounds they hear;
theo leorneden theo listen.             they learned, they listened
tha luthere weren.                415   to those that were wicked.
[_mid_] wowe domes.                     With unjust judgments,
and gultes _feole_.                     and many trespasses,
_thu_ othre beræfedest.                 thou others bereaved
rihtes istreones.                       of rightful wealth,
_thurh_ thæs deofles lore,        420   through the devil's lore,
theo the likede wel.                    that thou liked well.
the _deofle_ tuhte his hearpe.          The _devil_ touched his harp,
and tuhte the to him.                   and enticed thee to him;
thu iherdest thene dream.               thou heardest the harmony;
he was drih_tene f_ulloth.        425   it was hateful to the Lord.
he swefede the.                         He lulled thee
mid then sweize.                        with the sound;
swote thu sleptest.                     sweetly thou sleptest
longe on thine bedde.                   long in thy bed;
_n_is the to chirche.             430   nor art thou at church,
ne mostes thu iheren.                   nor canst thou hear
theo holie dræmes.                      those holy sounds,
theo bellen rungen.                     the bells tolling,
_that s_iker becnunge wæs.              that a sure beckoning was;
ne holie lore.                    435   nor holy lore
the unker helpe wære.                   that should be our help.
ac efre he tuhte the.                   But ever he enticed thee,
_andnu_ beo the iwold ahte.             and now thou art in his power;
ac nu beoth fordutte.                   eke now are closed
thine dream thurles.              440   thy doors of sound,
ne ihereth heo _ne_ more.               nor hear they more
non herunge of the.                     any praise of thee,
ær theo bemen blowen.                   until the trumpets blow
the unc becnien scu_llen_.              which shall summon us
_f_rom deathes dimnesse.          445   from death's dimness
to drihtenes dome.                      to the Lord's doom.
thonne thu scalt iheren.                Then thou shalt hear
thene _lauer_de dom.                    the Lord doom,
the thu on thisse life.                 that thou in this life
lutherliche of eodest.            450   wickedly walked.
Thet et seith the sowle.                Again saith the soul
_soril_iche to hire licame.             sadly to the body,
nu thu bist afursed.                    now thou art separated
from alle thine freonden.               from all thy friends;
nu is thin muth forscutted.       455   now is thy mouth prevented,
for death hine haueth fordutted.        for death has closed it;
ne bith he _ne m_are undon.             nor will it be ever opened
ær cume thæs heiȝe kinges dom.          before the high King's doom.
thonne hit bith isene.                  Then it will be seen,
_thet_ on Psalme seith.           460   as the Psalm sayeth,
_Reddituri sunt de factis propriis      _Reddituri sunt de factis propriis
    rationem._                              rationem._
thonne sculen theo _w_eile.             Then shall those servants
seggen hore deden.                      tell their deeds,
wisliche thurh wisdome.                 truly through wisdom,
for drihten hit wot.              465   for the Lord knoweth them;
_thon_ne heo onfoth hore dom.           then they receive their doom
of drihtenes muthe.                     from the Lord's mouth,
also hit is awriten.                    as it is written;
of _drih_tenes muthe.                   from the Lord's mouth:
_Ite maledicti in ignem eternum._ 470   _Ite maledicti in ignem eternum._
thonne sculen wit si_thien_.            Then shall we depart
to alre seoruwe mest.                   into uttermost sorrow,
faren mid feondes.                      go with fiends
in thet eche fur.                       in that everlasting fire,
beornen _æ_fre.                   475   to burn for ever;
ende nis ther nefre.                    end is there never.
_Et quia bona egerunt ibunt in vitam    _Et quia bona egerunt ibunt in vitam
    eternam._                               eternam._
thonne _go_n theo goden.                Then go the good,
mid Gode sithian.                       departing with God,
echeliche wunien.                 480   to dwell everlastingly
in alre wuldre.                         in ever-during glory.
*    *    *    *    *                   *    *    *    *    *
*    *    *  me suke to the.            *    *    *    *    *
_Osmeum aperui, et attraxi ipsum._      _Osmeum aperui, et attraxi ipsum._
thu  *    *    *  et drowe me to the.   thou  *    *    *  drew me to thee,
walawa! and wa is me.             486   well away! and woe is me!
that ic efre com to the.                that I ever came to thee;
for noldest _thu_ mid thine muthe.      for thou wouldst not with thy mouth
bimænen thine neode.                    bewail thy infirmities;
ac æfre diȝelliche.               490   but ever darkly
thu woldest _ham_ bidernan.             thou wouldst hide them;
noldest thu ham siggen.                 nor wouldst thou confess them;
biforen none preosten.                  before any priest,
ther _al_le men secheth ham ore.        where all men seek pardon,
bimæneth hore misdeden.           495   bewail their misdeeds,
and seoththen milts_unge_ foth.         and afterwards obtain mercy;
thurh sothne scrift.                    through true shrift
sithieth to Criste.                     depart to Christ;
seggeth hore sunnen.                    confess their sins
and hor _soules_ helpith.         500   and help their souls,
thurh sothe bireousunge.                through true repentance.
theo soule reste onfoth.                the soul acquires rest;
ac ne the _scalt_ nefre resten.         but thou shalt never rest,
thurh thine bireousunge.                through thy repentance.
ac altogædere ic am forlor_en_.   505   Eke I am altogether lost
_thurh_ thine luthere deden.            through thy wicked deeds;
noldest thu mid muthe.                  thou wouldst not with thy mouth
bidden me none milt_sunge_.             pray for mercy to me;
nu thu ert adumbed.                     now thou art bedumbed,
and death haueth the keiȝe.       510   and death has caught thee;
mid clutes thu ert forl_ig_den.         thou art laid out with rags,
and loth alle freonden.                 and loath to all thy friends,
efre ma eft.                            for ever and ever
on to lokienne.                         to look on.
thus is reoulic_he thin_ sith.    515   Thus rueful is thy lot,
efter thine wrecche lif.                after thy wicked life;
for thu were beset.                     for thou wert beset
thicke mid sunne.                       thick with sin,
and alle _theo_ weren prickiende.       and they all were pricking
so wiles on ile.                  520   like quills on porcupine;
he bith thicke mid wiles.               he is thick _set_ with quills;
ne prikieth he_om_ no wiht.             they prick him not,
for al bith that softe.                 for the soft part is all
iwend to him sulfen.                    turned to himself,
that ne mawen his wil_es_.        525   that his quills cannot
_pri_kien him sore.                     prick him sore,
for al bith that scearpe.               for the points are all
him iwend fromward.                     turned him fromward.
So thu we_ren_ mid sunne.               Thus thou wert with sin
iset alle with inne.              530   beset all within;
theo sunfule pikes.                     those sinful pikes
prikieth me fuls_ore_.                  prick me full sore,
_ac thu al that_ softe was.             but thou all that was soft
iwend to the sulven.                    turned to thyself,
and efre thet scerpe.             535   and ever the sharp
scored me touar_des_.                   scored me towards,
heo weren iwend.                        they were turned
so me wurst was.                        as was worst for me,
ich was mid thine prickunge.            I was with the pricking
ipin_ed ful_sore.                 540   pained ful sore:
ac nu me wulleth prikien.               but now will prick me
theo pikes inne helle.                  those pikes in hell;
pinion me ful so_re_.                   punish me full sore
for thine sunne.                        for thy sin.
Ic was on heihnes isceapen.       545   On high was I created,
and soule ihoten.                       and named soul.
Ic was the seo_fothe_ isceaft.          I was the seventh creation,
So theo bec seggeth.                    as the book says,
the the Almihti God.                    that Almighty God
mildeliche iwrouhte.              550   mercifully wrought.
wisli_che_ mid worde.                   Truly by his word
so hit al iwearth.                      thus it all came to pass:
heouene and eorthe.                     heaven and earth,
luft and engles.                        air and angels,
wind and wa_tere_.                555   wind and water,
thæs monnes soule.                      the soul of man,
this beoth theo seouene.                these are the seven
the ic ær foreseide.                    that I before mentioned.
this was ma_kede_.                      These were made
thæs Almihties fæder.             560   by the Almighty Father;
of thissen andweorke.                   of this substance
alle thing he iwrouhte.                 all things he wrought;
and th_us_ hit is iwriten.              and thus it is written
on holie wisdome.                       in holy wisdom,
_Fiat et facta sunt omnia._       565   _Fiat et facta sunt omnia._
He seide iwu_rthe_.                     He said, let be,
_and_ alle thing iworthen.              and all things were;
thus mid one worde.                     thus with one word
al hit was iwurthen.                    was all created;
he iscop th_onne_ thene sune.     570   he made then the sun,
alle isceafte wisliche.                 all truly created
thurh wisdome.                          by his wisdom,
and efre he hit wiseth.                 and he guides it ever,
_Imaginem et similitudinem._            _Imaginem et similitudinem._
and ic deorewurthe.               575   And I, in the dear
drihtenes onlicn_esse_.                 Lord's likeness.
*    *    *    *    *                   *    *    *    *    *
*    *    *    *  of God.               *    *    *  of God,
and ic the imæne.                       and me between,
mid lothre lufe.                  580   with pure love,
and ic thin wale iwearth.               and I thy bliss decreed;
hu so _thu nol_dest.                    how so thou wouldst not;
weila thine fule iwill.                 alas! thy foul will
wo haveth hit me idon.                  hath wrought my woe.
Thu fule mathe _mæ_te.            585   Thou foul food for worms,
hwi hauest thu me biswiken.             why hast thou deceived me?
For thine fule sunne.                   For thy wicked sin
ic scal nu _in helle_.                  I shall now in hell
dreiȝen ther wrecche sith.              suffer there a wretched time,
all for thine fule lif.           590   all for thy wicked life;
ȝet ic wulle the ætwi_nne_.             yet I will flee thee
_and thine_ wea sithes.                 and thy dreary fate.
Nu ic scal soriliche.                   Now I shall sorrowfully
sithien from the.                       depart from thee;
nu beoth thine teth atru.         595   thy teeth are now poisonous;
_thin_ tunge is ascorted.               thy tongue is shortened,
theo the facen was.                     which was so deceitful
and then feonde icweme.                 and pleasing to the fiend.
Mid wowe _dreames_.                     With unjust judgments,
and mid gultes feole.             600   and with many trespasses,
_thu_ othre birefedest.                 thou bereaved others
rihtes istreones.                       of their rightful wealth,
gæderest to  *    *    *  ime.          gatheredest  *    *    *
ac hit is nu all igon.                  but it is now all gone
thurh thæs deofles lore.          605   through the devil's lore,
the the licode wel.                     that thou liked so well.
Nu lith thin _bodige_ stille.           Now lieth thy body still
on ful colde denne.                     in full cold den;
nafest thu gaersume themo.              nor hast thou the treasure
the heo was spekinde.             610   of which she spake;
_for_ heo was faken biforen.            for she was deceitful before,
and atterne bihinden.                   and envenomed after;
heo demde feole domes.                  she pronounced many judgments
the drihten _was_ lothe.                that were hateful to the Lord.
Iseid hit is on psalme.           615   It is said in the Psalm,
and ful sothe hit is bihire.            and full true it is of her:
_Lingua tua concinnabat dolos._         _Lingua tua concinnabat dolos._
Heo ȝeothede fakenliche.                She poured out deceitfully,
and then feonde icwemde.                and pleased the fiend;
heo heou mid hearde worde.        620   she hewed with hard words,
and _icwem_de tha wrecches.             and delighted the wretches.
scearpe heo was and kene.               Sharp she was and keen,
and cwemde then deofle.                 and pleased the devil
mid alle then sun_ne_.                  with all the sin
_that_ efre was his wille.        625   that ever was his will.
A wurthe hire wa.                       Wo be to her!
that heo spekinde was so.               that she spake so;
heo haue_th_ unc _dom_ned.              she has damned us
to deoppere helle.                      to deeper hell.
Nis hit non sellic.               630   Is it not wonderful,
thauh ic segge of boken.                though I read in books,
thauh ic _thonne_ that sothe repie.     though I then the truth gathered,
for ic was ilered.                      for I was taught
of mine leoue fæder.                    by my dear father
feire on frumthe.                 635   beautifully in the beginning,
aer ic _ford_ferde.                     before I departed,
ic was Godes douhter.                   I was God's daughter,
ac thu amerdest that foster.            but thou didst hinder that fostering.
ic sceolde lif holden.                  I might life have held,
_me selle_the he wolde.           640   that he would have given me.
Sone thu were lifleas.                  Soon thou wert lifeless,
seoththen ic the forleas.               sithence I left thee.
Ic was thin imake.                      I was thy wife,
_so so_ bec seggeth.                    as the book says:
_Uxor tua sicut vitis habundans._ 645   _Uxor tua sicut vitis habundans._
Ic was the biwedded.                    I was wedded to thee
wurthliche  *    *    *  e.             honourably,
et then fontstone.                      at the fount stone,
that thu haucst ifuled.                 that thou hast defiled
mid thine fule othes.             650   with thy foul oaths.
Thu hafest thin ful_luht_ forloren.     Thou hast forfeited thy baptism
behinden and biuoren.                   here and hereafter.
Feire thu were imerked.                 Fair thou wert marked,
heie on thine heafde.                   high on thy head,
_mid th_en holie ele.             655   with the holy oil
Thu hauest kine merke.                  Thou hadst the mark of royalty;
thu scoldest beon on heouene.           thou mightst have been in heaven,
heih  *    *    *  under Gode.          high  *    *    *  under God,
ȝif thu hit ne forlure.                 if thou hadst not forfeited it
thuruh thæs deofles lore.         660   through the devil's lore.
Thine godfæderes _ihat_en.              Thy godfathers promised,
ær heo the forleten.                    before they relinquished thee,
that thu me scoldest holden.            that thou shouldst keep me
thuruh holie lufe Cristes.              in Christ's holy love
and _drig_htene lawe.             665   and the law of God,
ledene me to Criste.                    and lead me to Christ.
Thu withsoke thene deofel.              Thou renounced the devil,
efter drihtenes cw_ithe_.               (after the Lord's word,)
_his_ modes and his wrænches.           his moods, and his deceits,
and his wieles thærto.            670   and his wiles thereto.
Seoththen thu hine lufedest.            Afterwards thou lovedst him,
and for_w_inne drihten.                 and rebelled against the Lord,
for thu lufedest theo lawen.            for thou lovedst the traitors
the drihten weren lothe.                that were hateful to God;
unker team _for_loren.            675   our progeny lost
the wit scolden teman.                  that we should bring forth;
so ic was the betæiht.                  as I was given to thee
that wit scolden teman.                 that we might propagate.
Thu _haue_st beon bearne fæder.         Thou hast been father of children,
and ic hore moder.                680   and I their mother;
wit scolden fostrien bearn.             we should foster our progeny,
and bring _ham_ to Criste.              and bring them to Christ.
Thet beoth theos bearn.                 These are the children
so so bec mæneth.                       that the book mentions:
_Filii tui sicut novell_  *    *    *   _Filii tui sicut novell_  *    *    *

                              _Cetera desunt._

[Footnote A: Wrecche?]



No 5

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