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Title: The Art of Perfumery - And Methods of Obtaining the Odors of Plants
Author: Piesse, George William  Septimus, 1820-1882
Language: English
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The Art






From the rafters of the roof of the Drying House are suspended in
bunches all the herbs that the grower cultivates. To accelerate the
desiccation of rose leaves and other petals, the Drying House is fitted
up with large cupboards, which are slightly warmed with a convolving
flue, heated from a fire below.

The flower buds are placed upon trays made of canvas stretched upon a
frame rack, being not less than twelve feet long by four feet wide. When
charged they are placed on shelves in the warm cupboards till dry.








       *       *       *       *       *


19 St. James Street.


By universal consent, the physical faculties of man have been divided
into five senses,--seeing, hearing, touching, tasting, and smelling. It
is of matter pertaining to the faculty of Smelling that this book mainly
treats. Of the five senses, that of smelling is the least valued, and,
as a consequence, is the least tutored; but we must not conclude from
this, our own act, that it is of insignificant importance to our welfare
and happiness.

By neglecting to tutor the olfactory nerve, we are constantly led to
breathe impure air, and thus poison the body by neglecting the warning
given at the gate of the lungs. Persons who use perfumes are more
sensitive to the presence of a vitiated atmosphere than those who
consider the faculty of smelling as an almost useless gift.

In the early ages of the world the use of perfumes was in constant
practice, and it had the high sanction of Scriptural authority.

The patrons of perfumery have always been considered the most civilized
and refined people of the earth. If refinement consists in knowing how
to enjoy the faculties which we possess, then must we learn not only how
to distinguish the harmony of color and form, in order to please the
sight, the melody of sweet sounds to delight the ear; the comfort of
appropriate fabrics to cover the body, and to please the touch, but the
smelling faculty must be shown how to gratify itself with the
odoriferous products of the garden and the forest.

Pathologically considered, the use of perfumes is in the highest degree
prophylactic; the refreshing qualities of the citrine odors to an
invalid is well known. Health has often been restored when life and
death trembled in the balance, by the mere sprinkling of essence of
cedrat in a sick chamber.

The commercial value of flowers is of no mean importance to the wealth
of nations. But, vast as is the consumption of perfumes by the people
under the rule of the British Empire, little has been done in England
towards the establishment of flower-farms, or the production of the raw
odorous substances in demand by the manufacturing perfumers of Britain;
consequently nearly the whole are the produce of foreign countries.
However, I have every hope that ere long the subject will attract the
attention of the Society of Arts, and favorable results will doubtless
follow. Much of the waste land in England, and especially in Ireland,
could be very profitably employed if cultivated with odor-bearing

The climate of some of the British colonies especially fits them for the
production of odors from flowers that require elevated temperature to
bring them to perfection.

But for the lamented death of Mr. Charles Piesse,[A] Colonial Secretary
for Western Australia, I have every reason to believe that flower-farms
would have been established in that colony long ere the publication of
this work. Though thus personally frustrated in adapting a new and
useful description of labor to British enterprise, I am no less sanguine
of the final result in other hands.

Mr. Kemble, of Jamaica, has recently sent to England some fine samples
of Oil of Behn. The Moringa, from which it is produced, has been
successfully cultivated by him. The Oil of Behn, being a perfectly
inodorous fat oil, is a valuable agent for extracting the odors of
flowers by the maceration process.

At no distant period I hope to see, either at the Crystal Palace,
Sydenham, at the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, or elsewhere, a place to
illustrate the commercial use of flowers--eye-lectures on the methods of
obtaining the odors of plants and their various uses. The
horticulturists of England, being generally unacquainted with the
methods of economizing the scents from the flowers they cultivate,
entirely lose what would be a very profitable source of income. For many
ages copper ore was thrown over the cliffs into the sea by the Cornish
miners working the tin streams; how much wealth was thus cast away by
ignorance we know not, but there is a perfect parallel between the old
miners and the modern gardeners.

Many readers of the "Gardeners' Chronicle" and of the "Annals of
Pharmacy and Chemistry" will recognize in the following pages much
matter that has already passed under their eyes.

To be of the service intended, such matter must however have a book
form; I have therefore collected from the above-mentioned periodicals
all that I considered might be useful to the reader.

To Sir Wm. Hooker, Dr. Lindley, Mr. W. Dickinson, and Mr. W. Bastick, I
respectfully tender my thanks for the assistance they have so freely
given whenever I have had occasion to seek their advice.





Perfumes in use from the Earliest Periods--Origin lost in the Depth of
its Antiquity--Possibly derived from Religious Observances--Incense or
Frankincense burned in Honor of the Divinities--Early Christians put to
Death for refusing to offer Incense to Idols--Use of perfumes by the
Greeks and Romans--Pliny and Seneca observe that some of the luxurious
People scent themselves Three Times a Day--Use of Incense in the Romish
Church--Scriptural Authority for the use of Perfume--Composition of the
Holy Perfume--The Prophet's Simile--St. Ephræm's Will--Fragrant
Tapers--Constantine provides fragrant Oil to burn at the
Altars--Frangipanni--Trade in the East in Perfume Drugs--The Art of
Perfumery of little Distinction in England--Solly's admirable Remarks on
Trade Secrets--British Horticulturists neglect to collect the Fragrance
of the Flowers they cultivate--The South of France the principal Seat of
the Art--England noted for Lavender--Some Plants yield more than one
Perfume--Odor of Plants owing to a peculiar Principle known as Essential
Oil or Otto


Consumption of Perfumery--Methods of obtaining the Odors:--Expression,
Distillation, Maceration, Absorption


Steam-Still--Macerating Pan--Ottos exhibited at the Crystal Palace of
1851--SIMPLE EXTRACTS:--Allspice, Almond, Artificial Otto of
Almonds, Anise, Balm, Balsams, Bay, Bergamot, Benzoin, Caraway,
Cascarilla, Cassia, Cassie, Cedar, Cedrat, Cinnamon, Citron, Citronella,
Clove, Dill, Eglantine or Sweet Brier, Elder, Fennel, Flag, Geranium,
Heliotrope, Honeysuckle, Hovenia, Jasmine, Jonquil, Laurel, Lavender,
Lemon-grass, Lilac, Lily, Mace, Magnolia, Marjoram, Meadow-sweet,
Melissa, Mignonette, Miribane, Mint, Myrtle, Neroli, Nutmeg, Olibanum,
Orange, Orris, Palm, Patchouly, Sweet Pea (Theory of Odors), Pineapple,
Pink, Rhodium (Rose yields two Odors), Rosemary, Sage, Santal,
Sassafras, Spike, Storax, Syringa, Thyme, Tonquin, Tuberose, Vanilla,
Verbena or Vervain, Violet, Vitivert, Volkameria, Wallflower,
Winter-green--Duty on Essential Oils--Quantity imported--Statistics,





SMELLING SALTS:--Ammonia, Preston Salts, Inexhaustible Salts,
Eau de Luce, Sal Volatile

Henry's Vinegar, Vinaigre à la Rose, Four Thieves' Vinegar, Hygienic
Vinegar, Violet Vinegar, Toilet Vinegar, Vinaigre de Cologne



Proposed Use of the Term "Otto" to denote the odoriferous Principle of

COMPOUND ODORS:--The Alhambra Perfume--The Bosphorus
Bouquet--Bouquet d'Amour--Bouquet des Fleurs du Val
d'Andorre--Buckingham Palace Bouquet--Délices--The Court Nosegay--Eau de
Chypre--The Empress Eugenie's Nosegay--Esterhazy--Ess Bouquet--Eau de
Cologne. (French and English Spirit.) Flowers of Erin--Royal Hunt
Bouquet--Extract of Flowers--The Guards' Bouquet--Italian
Nosegay--English Jockey Club--French Jockey Club. (Difference of the
Odor of English and French Perfumes due to the Spirit of Grape and Corn
Spirit.) A Japanese Perfume--The Kew Garden
Nosegay--Millefleurs--Millefleurs et Lavender--Delcroix's
Lavender--Marechale--Mousselaine--Bouquet de Montpellier--Caprice de la
Mode--May Flowers--Neptune, or Naval Nosegay--Bouquet of all
Nations--Isle of Wight Bouquet--Bouquet du Roi--Bouquet de la Reine
Victoria--Rondeletia. (Odors properly blended produce new Fragrances.)
Bouquet Royal--Suave--Spring Flowers--Tulip Nosegay--The Wood
Violet--Windsor Castle Bouquet--Yacht Club Nosegay


The ancient Perfumes were only odoriferous Gums--Abstaining from the Use
of Perfumes a Sign of Humiliation--The Vase at Alnwick Castle--Sachet
Powders--Sachet au Chypre--Sachet à la Frangipanne--Heliotrope
Sachet--Lavender Sachet--Sachet à la
Maréchale--Mousselaine--Millefleur--Portugal Sachet--Patchouly
Sachet--Pot Pourri--Olla Podrida--Rose Sachet--Santal-wood
Sachet--Sachet (without a name)--Vervain Sachet--Vitivert--Violet
Sachet--Perfumed Leather--Russia Leather--Peau d'Espagne--Perfumed
Letter Paper--Perfumed Book-markers--Cassolettes, and Printaniers

Pastils--The Censer--Vase in the British Museum--Method of using the
Censer--Incense for Altar Service--Yellow Pastils--Dr. Paris's
Pastils--Perfumer's Pastils--Piesse's Pastils--Fumigation--The Perfume
Lamp--Incandescent Platinum--Eau à Bruler--Eau pour Bruler--Fumigating
Paper--Perfuming Spills--Odoriferous Lighters



Perfumed Soap--Ancient Origin of Soap--Early Records of the Soap Trade
in England--Perfumers not Soap Makers--Remelting--Primary Soaps--Curd
Soap--Oil Soap--Castile Soap--Marine Soap--Yellow Soap--Palm
Soap--Excise Duty on Soap--Fig Soft Soap--Naples Soft Soap--The
remelting Process--Soap cutting--Soap stamping--Scented Soaps

Almond Soap--Camphor Soap--Honey Soap--White Windsor Soap--Brown Windsor
Soap--Sand Soap--Fuller's Earth Soap--Scenting Soaps Hot--Scenting Soaps
Cold--Colored Soaps:--Red, Green, Blue, Brown Soaps--Otto of Rose
Soap--Tonquin Musk Soap--Orange-Flower Soap--Santal-wood
Soap--Spermaceti Soap--Citron Soap--Frangipanne Soap--Patchouly
Soap--Soft or Potash Soaps--Saponaceous Cream of Almonds--Soap
Powders--Rypophagon Soap--Ambrosial Cream--Transparent soft
Soap--Transparent hard Soap--Medicated Soaps--Juniper Tar Soap--Iodine
Soap--Sulphur Soap--Bromine Soap--Creosote Soap--Mercurial Soap--Croton
Oil Soap--Their Use in Cutaneous Diseases



Form Emulsions or Milks when mixed with Water--Prone to
Change--Amandine--Olivine--Honey and Almond Paste--Pure Almond
Paste--Almond Meal--Pistachio Nut Meal--Jasmine Emulsion--Violet



Liebig's notice of Almond Milk--Milk of Roses--Milk of Almonds--Milk of
Elder--Milk of Dandelion--Milk of Cucumber--Essence of Cucumber--Milk of
Pistachio Nuts--Lait Virginal--Extract of Elder Flowers



Manipulation--Cold Cream of Almonds--Violet Cold Cream--Imitation Violet
Cold Cream--Cold Cream of various Flowers--Camphor Cold Cream--Cucumber
Cold Cream--Piver's Pomade of Cucumber--Pomade Divine--Almond
Balls--Camphor Balls--Camphor Paste--Glycerine Balsam--Rose Lip
Salve--White Lip Salve--Common Lip Salve



Pomatum, as its name implies, originally made with Apples--Scentless
Grease--Enfleurage and Maceration process--Acacia, or Cassie
Pomade--Benzoin Pomade and Oil--Vanilla Oil and Pomade--Pomade called
Bear's Grease--Circassian Cream--Balsam of Flowers--Crystallized
Oils--Castor Oil Pomatum--Balsam of Neroli--Marrow Cream--Marrow
Pomatum--Violet Pomatum--Pomade Double, Millefleurs--Pomade à la
Heliotrope--Huile Antique--Philocome--Pomade Hongroise--Hard or Stick
Pomatums--Black and Brown Cosmetique



Painting the Face universal among the Women of Egypt--Kohhl, the Smoke
of Gum Labdanum, used by the Girls of Greece to color the Lashes and
Sockets of the Eye--Turkish Hair Dye--Rastikopetra Dye--Litharge
Dye--Silver Dye--Hair Dyes, with Mordant--Inodorous Dye--Brown and Black
Hair Dye--Liquid Lead Dye--Depilatory, Rusma



Violet Powder--Rose Face Powder--Perle Powder--Liquid Blanc for
Theatrical Use--Calcined Talc--Rouge and Red Paints--Bloom of
Roses--Carmine Toilet Rouge--Carthamus Flowers--Pink Saucers--Crépon



Mialhi's Tooth Powder--Camphorated Chalk--Quinine Tooth Powder--Prepared
Charcoal--Peruvian Bark Powder--Homoeopathic Chalk--Cuttle-Fish
Powder--Borax and Myrrh--Farina Piesse's Dentifrice--Rose Tooth
Powder--Opiate Paste--Violet Mouth Wash--Eau Botot--Botanic
Styptic--Tincture of Myrrh and Borax--Myrrh with Eau de
Cologne--Camphorated Eau de Cologne



Rosemary Hair Wash--Athenian Water--Vegetable or Botanic Hair
Wash--Astringent Extract of Roses and Rosemary--Saponaceous Wash--Egg
Julep--Bandolines--Rose and Almond Bandoline

Contents of Appendix.

Manufacture of Glycerine

Test for Alcohol in Essential Oils

Detection of Poppy and other drying Oils in Almond and Olive Oil

Coloring matter of Volatile Oils

Artificial Preparation of Otto of Cinnamon

Detection of Spike Oil and Turpentine in Lavender Oil

The Orange Flower Waters of Commerce

Concentrated Elder Water

ARNALL on Spirits of Wine

Purification of Spirits by Filtration

COBB on Otto of Lemons

BASTICK on Benzoic Acid

On the Coloring matters of Flowers

Bleaching Bees' Wax

Chemical Examination of Naples Soap

Manufacture of Soap

How to Ascertain the Commercial Value of Soap

On the Natural Fats

Perfumes as Preventives of Mouldiness

BASTICK on Fusel Oil

BASTICK'S Pine Apple Flavor

WAGNER'S Essence of Quince

Preparation of Rum-ether

Artificial Fruit essences

Volatile Oil of Gaultheria

Application of Chemistry to Perfumery

Correspondence from the Journal of the Society of Arts

Quantities of Ottos yielded by various Plants

French and English Weights and Measures compared


Drying House, Mitcham, Surrey, (Frontispiece.)

Smelling, from the Dresden Gallery, (Vignette.)

Pipette, to draw off small Portions of Otto from Water

Tap Funnel for separating Ottos from Waters, and Spirits from Oil

The Almond

Styrax Benzoin

Cassie Buds

The Clove

The Jasmine

The Orange

The Patchouly Plant





Civet Cat

Musk Pod

Musk Deer

The Censer

Perfume Lamp

Slab Soap Gauge

Barring Gauge

Squaring Gauge

Soap Scoops

Soap Press


Soap Plane

Oil Runner




    "By Nature's swift and secret working hand
    The garden glows, and fills the liberal air
    With lavish odors.
                       There let me draw
    Ethereal soul, there drink reviving gales,
    Profusely breathing from the spicy groves
    And vales of fragrance."--THOMSON.

Among the numerous gratifications derived from the cultivation of
flowers, that of rearing them for the sake of their perfumes stands
pre-eminent. It is proved from the oldest records, that perfumes have
been in use from the earliest periods. The origin of this, like that of
many other arts, is lost in the depth of its antiquity; though it had
its rise, no doubt, in religious observances. Among the nations of
antiquity, an offering of perfumes was regarded as a token of the most
profound respect and homage. Incense, or Frankincense, which exudes by
incision and dries as a gum, from _Arbor-thurifera_, was formerly burnt
in the temples of all religions, in honor of the divinities that were
there adored. Many of the primitive Christians were put to death because
they would not offer incense to idols.

    "Of the use of these luxuries by the Greeks, and afterwards by the
    Romans, Pliny and Seneca gives much information respecting perfume
    drugs, the method of collecting them, and the prices at which they
    sold. Oils and powder perfumery were most lavishly used, for even
    three times a day did some of the luxurious people anoint and
    scent themselves, carrying their precious perfumes with them to
    the baths in costly and elegant boxes called NARTHECIA."

In the Romish Church incense is used in many ceremonies, and
particularly at the solemn funerals of the hierarchy, and other
personages of exalted rank.

Pliny makes a note of the tree from which frankincense is procured, and
certain passages in his works indicate that dried flowers were used in
his time by way of perfume, and that they were, as now, mixed with
spices, a compound which the modern perfumer calls _pot-pourri_, used
for scenting apartments, and generally placed in some ornamental Vase.

It was not uncommon among the Egyptian ladies to carry about the person
a little pouch of odoriferous gums, as is the case to the present day
among the Chinese, and to wear beads made of scented wood. The
"bdellium" mentioned by Moses in Genesis is a perfuming gum, resembling
frankincense, if not identical with it.

Several passages in Exodus prove the use of perfumes at a very early
period among the Hebrews. In the thirtieth chapter of Exodus the Lord
said unto Moses: "1. And thou shalt make an altar to burn incense upon;
of Shittim wood shalt thou make it." "7. And Aaron shall burn thereon
sweet incense every morning; when he dresseth the lamps he shall burn
incense upon it." "34. Take unto thee sweet spices, stacte, and onycha,
and galbanum; these sweet spices with pure frankincense: of each shall
there be a like weight." "35. And thou shalt make it a perfume, a
confection after the art of the apothecary, tempered together pure and
holy." "36. And thou shalt beat some of it very small, and put of it
before the testimony in the tabernacle of the congregation, where I will
meet with thee; it shall be unto you most holy." "37. And as for the
perfume which thou shalt make, ye shall not make to yourselves according
to the composition thereof; it shall be unto thee holy for the Lord."
"38. Whosoever shall make like unto that to smell thereto, shall even be
cut off from his people."

    "It was from this religious custom, of employing incense in the
    ancient temples, that the royal prophet drew that beautiful simile
    of his, when he petitioned that his prayers might ascend before
    the Lord like incense, Luke 1:10. It was while all the multitude
    was praying without, at the hour of incense, that there appeared
    to Zachary an angel of the Lord, standing on the right side of the
    altar of incense. That the nations attached a meaning not only of
    personal reverence, but also of religious homage, to an offering
    of incense, is demonstrable from the instance of the Magi, who,
    having fallen down to adore the new-born Jesus, and recognized his
    Divinity, presented Him with gold, myrrh and frankincense. The
    primitive Christians imitated the example of the Jews, and adopted
    the use of incense at the celebration of the Liturgy. St. Ephræm,
    a father of the Syriac Church, directed in his will that no
    aromatic perfumes should be bestowed upon him at his funeral, but
    that the spices should rather be given to the sanctuary. The use
    of incense in all the Oriental churches is perpetual, and almost
    daily; nor do any of them ever celebrate their Liturgy without it,
    unless compelled by necessity. The Coptic, as well as other
    Eastern Christians, observe the same ceremonial as the Latin
    Church in incensing their altar, the sacred vessels, and
    ecclesiastical personages."--DR. ROCK'S _Hierurgia_.

Perfumes were used in the Church service, not only under the form of
incense, but also mixed in the oil and wax for the lamps and lights
commanded to be burned in the house of the Lord. The brilliancy and
fragrance which were often shed around a martyr's sepulchre, at the
celebration of his festival, by multitudes of lamps and tapers, fed with
aromatics, have been noticed by St. Paulinus:--

    "With crowded lamps are these bright altars crowned,
    And waxen tapers, shedding perfume round
    From fragrant wicks, beam calm a scented ray,
    To gladden night, and joy e'en radiant day."

    DR. ROCK'S _Hierurgia_.

Constantine the Great provided fragrant oils, to be burned at the altars
of the greater churches in Rome; and St. Paulinus, of Nola, a writer of
the end of the fourth and beginning of the fifth century, tells us how,
in his times, wax tapers were made for church use, so as to shed
fragrance as they burned:--

    "Lumina cerates adolentur odora papyris."

A perfume in common use, even to this day, was the invention of one of
the earliest of the Roman nobles, named Frangipani, and still bears his
name; it is a powder, or sachet, composed of every known spice, in equal
proportions, to which is added ground iris or orris root, in weight
equal to the whole, with one per cent. of musk or civet. A liquid of the
same name, invented by his grandson Mercutio Frangipani, is also in
common use, prepared by digesting the Frangipane powder in rectified
spirits, which dissolves out the fragrant principles. This has the merit
of being the most lasting perfume made.

    "The trade for the East in perfume-drugs caused many a vessel to
    spread its sails to the Red Sea, and many a camel to plod over
    that tract which gave to Greece and Syria their importance as
    markets, and vitality to the rocky city of Petra. Southern Italy
    was not long ere it occupied itself in ministering to the luxury
    of the wealthy, by manufacturing scented unguents and perfumes. So
    numerous were the UNGUENTARII, or perfumers, that they
    are said to have filled the great street of ancient

As an art, in England, perfumery has attained little or no distinction.
This has arisen from those who follow it as a trade, maintaining a
mysterious secrecy about their processes. No manufacture can ever become
great or important to the community that is carried on under a veil of

    "On the subject of trade mystery I will only observe, that I am
    convinced that it would be far more to the interest of
    manufacturers if they were more willing to profit by the
    experience of others, and less fearful and jealous of the supposed
    secrets of their craft. It is a great mistake to think that a
    successful manufacturer is one who has carefully preserved the
    secrets of his trade, or that peculiar modes of effecting simple
    things, processes unknown in other factories, and mysteries beyond
    the comprehension of the vulgar, are in any way essential to skill
    as a manufacturer, or to success as a trader."--PROFESSOR

If the horticulturists of England were instructed how to collect the
odors of flowers, a new branch of manufacture would spring up to vie
with our neighbors' skill in it across the Channel.

Of our five senses, that of SMELLING has been treated with
comparative indifference. However, as knowledge progresses, the various
faculties with which the Creator has thought proper in his wisdom to
endow man will become developed, and the faculty of Smelling will meet
with its share of tuition as well as Sight, Hearing, Touch, and Taste.

Flowers yield perfumes in all climates, but those growing in the warmer
latitudes are most prolific in their odor, while those from the colder
are the sweetest. Hooker, in his travels in Iceland, speaks of the
delightful fragrance of the flowers in the valley of Skardsheidi; we
know that winter-green, violets, and primroses are found here, and the
wild thyme, in great abundance. Mr. Louis Piesse, in company with
Captain Sturt, exploring the wild regions of South Australia, writes:
"The rains have clothed the earth with a green as beautiful as a
Shropshire meadow in May, and with flowers, too, as sweet as an English
violet; the pure white anemone resembles it in scent. The Yellow Wattle,
when in flower, is splendid, and emits a most fragrant odor."

Though many of the finest perfumes come from the East Indies, Ceylon,
Mexico, and Peru, the South of Europe is the only real garden of utility
to the perfumer. Grasse and Nice are the principal seats of the art;
from their geographical position, the grower, within comparatively short
distances, has at command that change of climate best fitted to bring to
perfection the plants required for his trade. On the seacoast his Cassiæ
grows without fear of frost, one night of which would destroy all the
plants for a season; while, nearer the Alps, his violets are found
sweeter than if grown in the warmer situations, where the orange tree
and mignionette bloom to perfection. England can claim the superiority
in the growth of lavender and peppermint; the essential oils extracted
from these plants grown at Mitcham, in Surrey, realize eight times the
price in the market of those produced in France or elsewhere, and are
fully worth the difference for delicacy of odor.

The odors of plants reside in different parts of them, sometimes in the
roots, as in the iris and vitivert; the stem or wood, in cedar and
sandal; the leaves, in mint, patchouly, and thyme; the flower, in the
roses and violets; the seeds in the Tonquin bean and caraway; the bark,
in cinnamon, &c.

Some plants yield more than one odor, which are quite distinct and
characteristic. The orange tree, for instance, gives three--from the
leaves one called _petit grain_; from the flowers we procure _neroli_;
and from the rind of the fruit, essential oil of orange, _essence of
Portugal_. On this account, perhaps, this tree is the most valuable of
all to the operative perfumer.

The fragrance or odor of plants is owing, in nearly all cases, to a
perfectly volatile oil, either contained in small vessels, or sacs
within them, or generated from time to time, during their life, as when
in blossom. Some few exude, by incision, odoriferous gums, as benzoin,
olibanum, myrrh, &c.; others give, by the same act, what are called
balsams, which appear to be mixtures of an odorous oil and an inodorous
gum. Some of these balsams are procured in the country to which the
plant is indigenous by boiling it in water for a time, straining, and
then boiling again, or evaporating it down till it assumes the
consistency of treacle. In this latter way is balsam of Peru procured
from the _Myroxylon peruiferum_, and the balsam of Tolu from the
_Myroxylon toluiferum_. Though their odors are agreeable, they are not
much applied in perfumery for handkerchief use, but by some they are
mixed with soap, and in England they are valued more for their medicinal
properties than for their fragrance.


    "Were not summer's distillations left
      A liquid prisoner, pent in walls of glass,
    Beauty's effect with beauty were bereft,
      Nor it, nor no remembrance what it was;
    But flowers distilled, though they with winter meet,
    Leese but their show, their substance still lives sweet."


The extensive flower farms in the neighborhood of Nice, Grasse,
Montpellier, and Cannes, in France, at Adrianople (Turkey in Asia), at
Broussa and Uslak (Turkey in Asia), and at Mitcham, in England, in a
measure indicate the commercial importance of that branch of chemistry
called perfumery.

British India and Europe consume annually, at the very lowest estimate,
150,000 gallons of perfumed spirits, under various titles, such as eau
de Cologne, essence of lavender, esprit de rose, &c. The art of
perfumery does not, however, confine itself to the production of scents
for the handkerchief and bath, but extends to imparting odor to
inodorous bodies, such as soap, oil, starch, and grease, which are
consumed at the toilette of fashion. Some idea of the commercial
importance of this art may be formed, when we state that one of the
large perfumers of Grasse and Paris employs annually 80,000 lbs. of
orange flowers, 60,000 lbs. of cassia flowers, 54,000 lbs. of
rose-leaves, 32,000 lbs. of jasmine blossoms, 32,000 lbs. of violets,
20,000 lbs. of tubereuse, 16,000 lbs. of lilac, besides rosemary, mint,
lemon, citron, thyme, and other odorous plants in large proportion. In
fact, the quantity of odoriferous substances used in this way is far
beyond the conception of those even used to abstract statistics.

To the chemical philosopher, the study of perfumery opens a book as yet
unread; for the practical perfumer, on his laboratory shelves, exhibits
many rare essential oils, such as essential oil of the flower of the
_Acacia farnesiana_, essential oil of violets, tubereuse, jasmine, and
others, the compositions of which have yet to be determined.

The exquisite pleasure derived from smelling fragrant flowers would
almost instinctively induce man to attempt to separate the odoriferous
principle from them, so as to have the perfume when the season denies
the flowers. Thus we find the alchemists of old, torturing the plants in
every way their invention could devise for this end; and it is on their
experiments that the whole art of perfumery has been reared. Without
recapitulating those facts which may be found diffused through nearly
all the old authors on medical botany, chemistry, pharmacy, and works of
this character, from the time of Paracelsus to Celnart, we may state at
once the mode of operation adopted by the practical perfumer of the
present day for preparing the various extracts or essences, waters,
oils, pomades, &c., used in his calling.

The processes are divided into four distinct operations; viz.--

1. _Expression_; 2. _Distillation_; 3. _Maceration_; 4. _Absorption_.

1. _Expression_ is only adopted where the plant is very prolific in its
volatile or essential oil,--_i.e._ its odor; such, for instance, as is
found in the pellicle or outer peel of the orange, lemon, and citron,
and a few others. In these cases, the parts of the plant containing the
odoriferous principle are put sometimes in a cloth bag, and at others by
themselves into a press, and by mere mechanical force it is squeezed
out. The press is an iron vessel of immense strength, varying in size
from six inches in diameter, and twelve deep, and upwards, to contain
one hundred weight or more; it has a small aperture at the bottom to
allow the expressed material to run for collection; in the interior is
placed a perforated false bottom, and on this the substance to be
squeezed is placed, covered with an iron plate fitting the interior;
this is connected with a powerful screw, which, being turned, forces the
substance so closely together, that the little vessels containing the
essential oils are burst, and it thus escapes. The common tincture press
is indeed a model of such an instrument. The oils which are thus
collected are contaminated with watery extracts, which exudes at the
same time, and from which it has to be separated; this it does by itself
in a measure, by standing in a quiet place, and it is then poured off
and strained.

[Illustration: Pipette to draw off small portions of otto from water.]

2. _Distillation._--The plant, or part of it, which contains the
odoriferous principle, is placed in an iron, copper, or glass pan,
varying in size from that capable of holding from one to twenty gallons,
and covered with water; to the pan a dome-shaped lid is fitted,
terminating with a pipe, which is twisted corkscrew fashion, and fixed
in a bucket, with the end peeping out like a tap in a barrel. The water
in the still--for such is the name of the apparatus--is made to boil;
and having no other exit, the steam must pass through the coiled pipe;
which, being surrounded with cold water in the bucket, condenses the
vapor before it can arrive at the tap. With the steam, the volatile
oils--_i.e._ perfume--rises, and is liquefied at the same time. The
liquids which thus run over, on standing for a time, separate into two
portions, and are finally divided with a funnel having a stopcock in the
narrow part of it. By this process, the majority of the volatile or
essential oils are procured. In some few instances alcohol--_i.e._
rectified spirit of wine--is placed upon the odorous materials in lieu
of water, which, on being distilled, comes away with the perfuming
substance dissolved in it. But this process is now nearly obsolete, as
it is found more beneficial to draw the oil or essence first with water,
and afterwards to dissolve it in the spirit. The low temperature at
which spirit boils, compared with water, causes a great loss of
essential oil, the heat not being sufficient to disengage it from the
plant, especially where seeds such as cloves or caraway are employed. It
so happens, however, that the finest odors, the _recherché_ as the
Parisians say, cannot be procured by this method; then recourse is had
to the next process.

[Illustration: Tap funnel for separating ottos from water and spirits
from oil.]

3. _Maceration._--Of all the processes for procuring the perfumes of
flowers, this is the most important to the perfumer, and is the least
understood in England; as this operation yields not only the most
exquisite essences indirectly, but also nearly all those fine pomades
known here as "French pomatums," so much admired for the strength of
fragrance, together with "French oils" equally perfumed. The operation
is conducted thus:--For what is called pomade, a certain quantity of
purified mutton or deer suet is put into a clean metal or porcelain pan,
this being melted by a steam heat; the kind of flowers required for the
odor wanted are carefully picked and put into the liquid fat, and
allowed to remain from twelve to forty-eight hours; the fat has a
particular affinity or attraction for the oil of flowers, and thus, as
it were, draws it out of them, and becomes itself, by their aid, highly
perfumed; the fat is strained from the spent flowers, and fresh are
added four or five times over, till the pomade is of the required
strength; these various strengths of pomatums are noted by the French
makers as Nos. 6, 12, 18, and 24, the higher numerals indicating the
amount of fragrance in them. For perfumed oils the same operation is
followed; but, in lieu of suet, fine olive oil or oil of ben, derived
from the ben nuts of the Levant, is used, and the same results are
obtained. These oils are called "Huile Antique" of such and such a

When neither of the foregoing processes gives satisfactory results, the
method of procedure adopted is by,--

4. _Absorption_, or _Enfleurage._--The odors of some flowers are so
delicate and volatile, that the heat required in the previously named
processes would greatly modify, if not entirely spoil them; this
process is, therefore, conducted cold, thus:--Square frames, about three
inches deep, with a glass bottom, say two feet wide and three feet long,
are procured; over the glass a layer of fat is spread, about half an
inch thick, with a kind of plaster knife or spatula; into this the
flower buds are stuck, cup downwards, and ranged completely over it, and
there left from twelve to seventy-two hours.

Some houses, such as that of Messrs. Pilar and Sons; Pascal Brothers; H.
Herman, and a few others, have 3000 such frames at work during the
season; as they are filled, they are piled one over the other, the
flowers are changed so long as the plants continue to bloom, which now
and then exceeds two or three months.

For oils of the same plants, coarse linen cloths are imbued with the
finest olive oil or oil of ben, and stretched upon a frame made of iron;
on these the flowers are laid and suffered to remain a few days. This
operation is repeated several times, after which the cloths are
subjected to great pressure, to remove the now perfumed oil.

As we cannot give any general rule for working, without misleading the
reader, we prefer explaining the process required for each when we come
to speak of the individual flower or plant.


Whenever a Still is named, or an article is said to be distilled or
"drawn," it must be understood to be done so by steam apparatus, as this
is the only mode which can be adopted for obtaining anything like a
delicate odor; the old plan of having the fire immediately under the
still, conveying an empyreumatic or burnt smell to the result, has
become obsolete in every well-regulated perfumatory.

The steam-still differs from the one described only in the lower part,
or pan, which is made double, so as to allow steam from a boiler to
circulate round the pan for the purpose of boiling the contents, instead
of the direct fire. In macerating, the heat is applied in the same way,
or by a contrivance like the common glue-pot, as made use of nowadays.

This description of apparatus will be found very useful for experiments
which we will suggest by-and-by.

The perfumes for the handkerchief, as found in the shops of Paris and
London, are either simple or compound; the former are called extracts,
_extraits_, _esprits_, or essences, and the latter _bouquets_ and
nosegays, which are mixtures of the extracts so compounded in quantity
that no one flower or odor can be discovered as predominating over
another; and when made of the delicate-scented flowers carefully
blended, they produce an exquisite sensation on the olfactory nerve,
and are therefore much prized by all who can afford to purchase them.

We shall first explain the mode for obtaining the simple extracts of
flowers. This will be followed by the process for preparing ambergris,
musk, and civet, substances, which, though of animal origin, are of the
utmost importance as forming a large part in the most approved bouquets;
and we shall conclude this department of the art with recipes for all
the fashionable bouquets and nosegays, the value of which, we doubt not,
will be estimated according to the labor bestowed upon their analysis.

In order to render the work more easy of consultation, we have adopted
the alphabetical arrangement in preference to a more scientific

Among the collection of ottos of the East India Company at the
Exhibition of 1851, were several hitherto unknown in this country, and
possessing much interest.

It is to be regretted, that no person having any practical knowledge of
perfumery was placed on the jury of Class IV or XXIX. Had such been the
case, the desires of the exhibitors would probably have been realized,
and European perfumers benefited by the introduction of new odors from
the East. Some of the ottos sent by a native perfumer of Benares were
deemed worthy of honorable mention. Such as _Chumeylee_, _Beyla_,
_Begla_, _Moteya_, and many others from the Moluccas, but without any
information respecting them.

We are not going to speak of, perhaps, more than a tithe of the plants
that have a perfume--only those will be mentioned that are used by the
operative perfumer, and such as are imitated by him in consequence of
there being a demand for the article, which circumstances prevent him
from obtaining in its genuine state. The first that comes under our
notice is--

ALLSPICE.--The odoriferous principle of allspice, commonly
called pimento, is obtained by distilling the dried fruit, before it is
quite ripe, of the _Eugenia pimenta_ and _Myrtus pimenta_ with water. It
is thus procured as an essential oil; it is but little used in
perfumery, and when so, only in combination with other spice oils; for
scenting soap it is, however, very agreeable, and much resembles the
smell of cloves, and deserves more attention than it has hitherto
received. Mixed in the proportion of two ounces of oil of allspice with
one gallon of rectified spirit of wine, it forms what may be termed
extract of allspice, which extract will be found very useful in the
manufacture of low-priced bouquets.


    "Mark well the flow'ring almonds in the wood;
    If od'rous blooms the bearing branches load,
    The glebe will answer to the sylvan reign,
    Great heats will follow, and large crops of grain."


This perfume has been much esteemed for many ages. It may be procured by
distilling the leaves of any of the laurel tribe, and the kernels of
stone fruit; for trade purposes, it is obtained from the bitter
almonds, and exists in the skin or pellicle that covers the seed after
it is shelled. In the ordinary way, the almonds are put into the press
for the purpose of obtaining the mild or fat oil from the nut; the cake
which is left after this process is then mixed with salt and water, and
allowed to remain together for about twenty-four hours prior to
distillation. The reason for moistening the cake is well understood to
the practical chemist, and although we are not treating the subject of
perfumery in a chemical sense, but only in a practical way, it may not
be inappropriate here to observe, that the essential oil of almonds does
not exist ready formed to any extent in the nut, but that it is produced
by a species of fermentation, from the amygdalin and emulsine contained
in the almonds, together with the water that is added. Analogous
substances exist in laurel leaves, and hence the same course is to be
pursued when they are distilled. Some manufacturers put the moistened
cake into a bag of coarse cloth, or spread it upon a sieve, and then
force the stream through it; in either case, the essential oil of the
almond rises with the watery vapor, and is condensed in the still-worm.
In this concentrated form, the odor of almonds is far from agreeable;
but when diluted with spirit, in the proportion of about one and a half
ounce of the oil to a gallon of spirit or alcohol, it is very pleasant.

[Illustration: Almond.]

The essential oil of almonds, enters into combination with soap, cold
cream, and many other materials prepared by the perfumer; for which see
their respective titles.

Fourteen pounds of the cake yield about one ounce of essential oil.

In experiments with this substance, it must be carefully remembered that
it is exceedingly _poisonous_, and, therefore, great caution is
necessary in its admixture with substances used as a cosmetic, otherwise
dangerous results may ensue.

_Artificial Otto of Almonds._--Five or six years ago, Mr. Mansfield, of
Weybridge, took out a patent for the manufacture of otto of almonds from
benzole. (Benzole is obtained from tar oil.) His apparatus, according to
the Report of the juries of the 1851 Exhibition, consists of a large
glass tube in the form of a coil, which at the upper end divides into
two tubes; each of which is provided with a funnel. A stream of nitric
acid flows slowly into one of the funnels, and benzole into the other.
The two substances meet at the point of union of the tubes, and a
combination ensues with the evolution of heat. As the newly formed
compound flows down through the coil it becomes cool, and is collected
at the lower extremity; it then requires to be washed with water, and
lastly with a dilute solution of carbonate of soda, to render it fit for
use. Nitro-benzole, which is the chemical name for this artificial otto
of almonds, has a different odor to the true otto of almonds, but it can
nevertheless be used for perfuming soap. Mr. Mansfield writes to me
under date of January 3d, 1855:--"In 1851, Messrs. Gosnell, of Three
King Court, began to make this perfume under my license; latterly I
withdrew the license from them by their consent, and since then it is
not made that I am aware of." It is, however, quite common in Paris.

ANISE.--The odorous principle is procured by distilling the
seeds of the plant _Pimpinella anisum_; the product is the oil of
aniseed of commerce. As it congeals at a temperature of about 50° Fahr.,
it is frequently adulterated with a little spermaceti, to give a certain
solidity to it, whereby other cheaper essential oils can be added to it
with less chance of detection. As the oil of aniseed is quite soluble in
spirit, and the spermaceti insoluble, the fraud is easily detected.

This perfume is exceedingly strong, and is, therefore, well adapted for
mixing with soap and for scenting pomatums, but does not do nicely in
compounds for handkerchief use.

BALM, oil of Balm, called also oil of Melissa, is obtained by
distilling the leaves of the _Melissa officinalis_ with water; it comes
from the still tap with the condensed steam or water, from which it is
separated with the tap funnel. But it is very little used in perfumery,
if we except its combination in _Aqua di Argento_.

BALSAM.--Under this title there are two or three substances
used in perfumery, such as balsam of Peru, balsam of Tolu, and balsam of
storax (also called liquid amber). The first-named, is procured from the
_Myroxylon peruiferum_; it exudes from the tree when wounded, and is
also obtained by boiling down the bark and branches in water. The latter
is the most common method for procuring it. It has a strong odor, like

Balsam of Tolu flows from the _Toluifera balsammum_. It resembles common
resin (rosin); with the least warmth, however, it runs to a liquid, like
brown treacle. The smell of it is particularly agreeable, and being
soluble in alcohol makes a good basis for a bouquet, giving in this
respect a permanence of odor to a perfume which the simple solution of
an oil would not possess. For this purpose all these balsams are very
useful, though not so much used as they might be.

    "ULEX has found that balsam of Tolu is frequently
    adulterated with common resin. To detect this adulteration he
    pours sulphuric acid on the balsam, and heats the mixture, when
    the balsam dissolves to a cherry-red fluid, without evolving
    sulphurous acid, but with the escape of benzoic or cinnamic acid,
    if no common resin is present. On the contrary, the balsam foams,
    blackens, and much sulphurous acid is set free, if it is
    adulterated with common resin."--_Archives der Pharmacie_.

Balsam of storax, commonly called gum styrax, is obtained in the same
manner, and possessing similar properties, with a slight variation of
odor, is applicable in the same manner as the above.

They are all imported from South America, Chili, and Mexico, where the
trees that produce them are indigenous.

BAY, oil of sweet Bay, also termed essential oil of
laurel-berries, is a very fragrant substance, procured by distillation
from the berries of the bay laurel. Though very pleasant, it is not much

BERGAMOT.--This most useful perfume is procured from the
_Citrus Bergamia_, by expression from the peel of the fruit. It has a
soft sweet odor, too well known to need description here. When new and
good it has a greenish-yellow tint, but loses its greenness by age,
especially if kept in imperfectly corked bottles. It then becomes cloudy
from the deposit of resinous matter, produced by the contact of the air,
and acquires a turpentine smell.

It is best preserved in well-stoppered bottles, kept in a cool cellar,
and in the dark; light, especially the direct sunshine, quickly
deteriorates its odor. This observation may be applied, indeed, to all
perfumes, except rose, which is not so spoiled.

When bergamot is mixed with other essential oils it greatly adds to
their richness, and gives a sweetness to spice oils attainable by no
other means, and such compounds are much used in the most highly scented
soaps. Mixed with rectified spirit in the proportions of about four
ounces of bergamot to a gallon, it forms what is called "extract of
bergamot," and in this state is used for the handkerchief. Though well
covered with extract of orris and other matters, it is the leading
ingredient in Bayley and Blew's Ess. Bouquet (see BOUQUETS).

[Illustration: Styrax Benzoin.]

BENZOIN, also called Benjamin.--This is a very useful substance
to perfumers. It exudes from the _Styrax benzoin_ by wounding the tree,
and drying, becomes a hard gum-resin. It is principally imported from
Borneo, Java, Sumatra, and Siam. The best kind comes from the latter
place, and used to be called Amygdaloides, because of its being
interspersed with several white spots, which resemble broken almonds.
When heated, these white specks rise as a smoke, which is easily
condensed upon paper. The material thus separated from the benzoin is
called flowers of benzoin in commerce, and by chemists is termed benzoic
acid. It has all, or nearly all, the odor of the resin from which it is

The extract, or tincture of benzoin, forms a good basis for a
bouquet.[B] Like balsam of Tolu, it gives permanence and body to a
perfume made with an essential oil in spirit.

The principal consumption of benzoin is in the manufacture of pastilles
(see PASTILLES), and for the preparation of fictitious vanilla
pomade (see POMATUMS).

CARAWAY.--This odoriferous principle is drawn by distillation
from the seeds of the _Carum carui_. It has a very pleasant smell, quite
familiar enough without description. It is well adapted to perfume soap,
for which it is much used in England, though rarely if ever on the
continent; when dissolved in spirit it may be used in combination with
oil of lavender and bergamot for the manufacture of cheap essences, in a
similar way to cloves (see CLOVES). If caraway seeds are
ground, they are well adapted for mixing to form sachet powder (see

CASCARILLA.--The bark is used in the formation of pastilles,
and also enters into the composition known as _Eau à Bruler_, for
perfuming apartments, to which we refer.

The bark alone of this plant is used by the manufacturing perfumer, and
that only in the fabrication of pastilles. The _Cascarilla gratissimus_
is however so fragrant, that according to Burnett its leaves are
gathered by the Koras of the Cape of Good Hope as a perfume, and both
the _C. fragrans_ and _C. fragilis_ are odoriferous. It behooves
perfumers, therefore, who are on the look out for novelties, to obtain
these leaves and ascertain the result of their distillation.

Messrs. Herring and Co., some years ago, drew the oil of cascarilla, but
it was only offered to the trade as a curiosity.

CASSIA.--The essential oil of cassia is procured by distilling
the outer bark of the _Cinnamomum cassia_. 1 cwt. of bark yields rather
more than three quarters of a pound of oil; it has a pale yellow color;
in smell it much resembles cinnamon, although very inferior to it. It is
principally used for perfuming soap, especially what is called "military
soap," as it is more aromatic or spicy than flowery in odor; it
therefore finds no place for handkerchief use.


    "The short narcissus and fair daffodil,
    Pansies to please the sight, and _cassie_ sweet to swell."

    DRYDEN'S _Virgil_.

This is one of those fine odors which enters into the composition of the
best handkerchief bouquets.

[Illustration: Flower-buds of the Acacia Farnesiana.]

When smelled at alone, it has an intense violet odor, and is rather
sickly sweet.

It is procured by maceration from the _Acacia farnesiana_. The purified
fat is melted, into which the flowers are thrown and left to digest for
several hours; the spent flowers are removed, and fresh are added, eight
or ten times, until sufficient richness of perfume is obtained. As many
flowers are used as the grease will cover, when they are put into it, in
a liquid state.

After being strained, and the pomade has been kept at a heat sufficient
only to retain its liquidity, all impurities will subside by standing
for a few days. Finally cooled, it is the cassie pomade of commerce. The
_Huile de Cassie_, or fat oil of cassie, is prepared in a similar
manner, substituting the oil of Egyptian ben nut, olive oil, or almond
oil, in place of suet. Both these preparations are obviously only a
solution of the true essential oil of cassie flowers in the neutral
fatty body. Europe may shortly be expecting to import a similar scented
pomade from South Australia, derived from the Wattle, a plant that
belongs to the same genus as the _A. farnesiana_, and which grows most
luxuriantly in Australia. Mutton fat being cheap, and the wattle
plentiful, a profitable trade may be anticipated in curing the flowers,

To prepare the extract of cassie, take six pounds of No. 24 (best
quality) cassie pomade, and place upon it one gallon of the best
rectified spirit, as sent out by Bowerbank, of Bishopsgate. After it has
digested for three weeks or a month, at a summer heat, it is fit to draw
from the pomatum, and, if good, has a beautiful green color and rich
flowery smell of the cassie blossom. All extracts made by this
process--_maceration_, or, as it may be called, cold _infusion_, give a
more natural smell of the flowers to the result, than by merely
dissolving the essential oil (procured by distillation) in the spirit;
moreover, where the odor of the flower exists in only very minute
quantities, as in the present instance, and with violet, jasmine, &c.,
it is the only practical mode of proceeding.

In this, and all other similar cases, the pomatum must be cut up into
very small pieces, after the domestic manner of "chopping suet," prior
to its being infused in the alcohol. The action of the mixture is simply
a change of place in the odoriferous matter, which leaves the fat body
by the superior attraction, or affinity, as the chemists say, of the
spirits of wine, in which it freely dissolves.

The major part of the extract can be poured or drawn off the pomatum
without trouble, but it still retains a portion in the interstices,
which requires time to drain away, and this must be assisted by placing
the pomatum in a large funnel, supported by a bottle, in order to
collect the remainder. Finally, all the pomatum, which is now called
_washed pomatum_, is to be put into a tin, which tin must be set into
hot water, for the purpose of melting its contents; when the pomatum
thus becomes liquefied, any extract that is still in it rises to the
surface, and can be skimmed off, or when the pomatum becomes cold it can
be poured from it.

The washed pomatum is preserved for use in the manufacture of dressing
for the hair, for which purpose it is exceedingly well adapted, on
account of the purity of the grease from which it was originally
prepared, but more particularly on account of a certain portion of odor
which it still retains; and were it not used up in this way, it would be
advisable to put it for a second infusion in spirit, and thus a weaker
extract could be made serviceable for lower priced articles.

I cannot leave cassie without recommending it more especially to the
notice of perfumers and druggists, as an article well adapted for the
purpose of the manufacture of essences for the handkerchief and pomades
for the hair. When diluted with other odors, it imparts to the whole
such a true flowery fragrance, that it is the admiration of all who
smell it, and has not a little contributed to the great sale which
certain proprietary articles have attained.

We caution the inexperienced not to confound cassie with cassia, which
has a totally different odor. See ACACIA POMADE.

CEDAR WOOD now and then finds a place in a perfumer's
warehouse; when ground, it does well to form a body for sachet powder.
Slips of cedar wood are sold as matches for lighting lamps, because
while burning an agreeable odor is evolved; some people use it also, in
this condition, distributed among clothes in drawers to "prevent moth."
On distillation it yields an essential oil that is exceedingly fragrant.

Messrs. Rigge and Co., of London, use it extensively for scenting soap.

LEBANON CEDAR WOOD. (_For the Handkerchief._)

Otto of cedar,             1 oz.
Rectified spirit,        1 pint.
Esprit rose trip,      1/4 pint.

The tincture smells agreeably of the wood, from which it can readily be
made. Its crimson color, however, prohibits it from being used for the
handkerchief. It forms an excellent tincture for the teeth, and is the
basis of the celebrated French dentifrice "eau Botot."

CEDRAT.--This perfume is procured from the rind of the citron
fruit (_Citrus medica_), both by distillation and expression; it has a
very beautiful lemony odor, and is much admired. It is principally used
in the manufacture of essences for the handkerchief, being too expensive
for perfuming grease or soap. What is called extract of cedrat is made
by dissolving two ounces of the above essential oil of citron in one
pint of spirits, to which some perfumers add half an ounce of bergamot.

CINNAMON.--Several species of the plant _Laurus cinnamomum_
yield the cinnamon and cassia of commerce. Its name is said to be
derived from _China Amomum_, the bark being one of the most valued
spices of the East. Perfumers use both the bark and the oil, which is
obtained by distillation from it. The ground bark enters into the
composition of some pastilles, tooth powders, and sachets. The essential
oil of cinnamon is principally brought to this country from Ceylon; it
is exceedingly powerful, and must be used sparingly. In such compounds
as cloves answer, so will cinnamon.

CITRON.--On distilling the flowers of the _Citrus medica_, a
very fragrant oil is procured, which is a species of neroli, and is
principally consumed by the manufacturers of eau de Cologne.

CITRONELLA.--Under this name there is an oil in the market,
chiefly derived from Ceylon and the East Indies; its true origin we are
unable to decide; in odor it somewhat resembles citron fruit, but is
very inferior. Probably it is procured from one of the grasses of the
_Andropogon_ genus. Being cheap, it is extensively used for perfuming
soap. What is now extensively sold as "honey" soap, is a fine yellow
soap slightly perfumed with this oil. Some few use it for scenting
grease, but it is not much admired in that way.

CLOVES.--Every part of the clove plant (_Caryophyllus
aromaticus_) abounds with aromatic oil, but it is most fragrant and
plentiful in the unexpanded flower-bud, which are the cloves of
commerce. Cloves have been brought into the European market for more
than 2000 years. The plant is a native of the Moluccas and other islands
in the China seas. "The average annual crop of cloves," says Burnett,
"is, from each tree, 2 or 2-1/2 lbs., but a fine tree has been known to
yield 125 lbs. of this spice in a single season, and as 5000 cloves only
weigh one pound, there must have been at least 625,000 flowers upon this
single tree."

[Illustration: Clove.]

The oil of cloves may be obtained by expression from the fresh
flower-buds, but the usual method of procuring it is by distillation,
which is carried on to a very great extent in this country. Few
essential oils have a more extensive use in perfumery than that of
cloves; it combines well with grease, soap, and spirit, and, as will be
seen in the recipes for the various bouquets given hereafter, it forms a
leading feature in some of the most popular handkerchief essences,
Rondeletia, the Guard's Bouquet, &c., and will be found where least
expected. For essence of cloves, dissolve oil of cloves in the
proportion of two ounces of oil to one gallon of spirit.

DILL.--Perfumers are now and then asked for "dill water;" it
is, however, more a druggist's article than a perfumer's, as it is more
used for its medicinal qualities than for its odor, which by the way, is
rather pleasant than otherwise. Some ladies use a mixture of half dill
water and half rose water, as a simple cosmetic, "to clear the

The oil of dill is procured by submitting the crushed fruit of dill
(_Anethum graveolens_) with water to distillation. The oil floats on the
surface of the distillate, from which it is separated by the funnel in
the usual manner; after the separation of the oil, the "water" is fit
for sale. Oil of dill may be used with advantage, if in small
proportions, and mixed with other oils, for perfuming soap.

EGLANTINE, or SWEET BRIAR, notwithstanding what the
poet Robert Noyes says--

                  "In fragrance yields,
    Surpassing citron groves or spicy fields,"

does not find a place in the perfumer's "scent-room" except in name.
This, like many other sweet-scented plants, does not repay the labor of
collecting its odor. The fragrant part of this plant is destroyed more
or less under every treatment that it is put to, and hence it is
discarded. As, however, the article is in demand by the public, a
species of fraud is practised upon them, by imitating it thus:--


Spirituous extract of French rose pomatum,        1 pint.
     "        "       cassie,                   1/4 "
     "        "       fleur d'orange,           1/4 "
Esprit de rose,                                 1/4 "
Oil of neroli,                                1/2 drachm.
Oil of lemon grass (verbena oil),             1/2 "

ELDER (_Sambucus nigra_).--The only preparation of this plant
for its odorous quality used by the perfumer, is elder-flower water. To
prepare it, take nine pounds of elder-flowers, free from stalk, and
introduce it to the still with four gallons of water; the first three
gallons that come over is all that need be preserved for use; one ounce
of rectified spirit should be added to each gallon of "water" distilled,
and when bottled it is ready for sale. Other preparations of elder
flowers are made, such as milk of elder, extract of elder, &c., which
will be found in their proper place under Cosmetics. Two or three new
materials made from this flower will also be given hereafter, which are
likely to meet with a very large sale on account of the reputed cooling
qualities of the ingredients; of these we would call attention more
particularly to cold cream of elder-flowers, and to elder oil for the

The preparations of elder-flowers, if made according to the
Pharmacopoeias, are perfectly useless, as the forms therein given show
an utter want of knowledge of the properties of the materials employed.

FENNEL (_Foeniculum vulgare_).--Dried fennel herb, when
ground, enters into the composition of some sachet powders. The oil of
fennel, in conjunction with other aromatic oils, may be used for
perfuming soap. It is procurable by distillation.

FLAG (SWEET) (_Acorus calamus_).--The roots, or
rhizome, of the sweet flag, yield by distillation a pleasant-smelling
oil; 1 cwt. of the rhizome will thus yield one pound of oil. It can be
used according to the pleasure of the manufacturer in scenting grease,
soap, or for extracts, but requires other sweet oils with it to hide its

GERANIUM (_Pelargonium odoratissimum_, rose-leaf
geranium).--The leaves of this plant yield by distillation a very
agreeable rosy-smelling oil, so much resembling real otto of rose, that
it is used very extensively for the adulteration of that valuable oil,
and is grown very largely for that express purpose. It is principally
cultivated in the south of France, and in Turkey (by the rose-growers).
In the department of Seine-et-Oise, at Montfort-Lamaury, in France,
hundreds of acres of it may be seen growing. 1 cwt. of leaves will yield
about two ounces of essential oil. Used to adulterate otto of rose, it
is in its turn itself adulterated with ginger grass oil (_Andropogon_),
and thus formerly was very difficult to procure genuine; on account of
the increased cultivation of the plant, it is now, however, easily
procured pure. Some samples are greenish-colored, others nearly white,
but we prefer that of a brownish tint.

When dissolved in rectified spirit, in the proportion of about six
ounces to the gallon, it forms the "extract of rose-leaf geranium" of
the shops. A word or two is necessary about the oil of geranium, as much
confusion is created respecting it, in consequence of there being an oil
under the name of geranium, but which in reality is derived from the
_Andropogon nardus_, cultivated in the Moluccas. This said andropogon
(geranium!) oil can be used to adulterate the true geranium, and hence
we suppose its nomenclature in the drug markets. The genuine rose-leaf
geranium oil fetches about 6_s._ per ounce, while the andropogon oil is
not worth more than that sum per pound. And we may observe here, that
the perfuming essential oils are best purchased through the wholesale
perfumers, as from the nature of their trade they have a better
knowledge and means of obtaining the real article than the drug-broker.
On account of the pleasing odor of the true oil of rose-leaf geranium,
it is a valuable article for perfuming many materials, and appears to
give the public great satisfaction.

HELIOTROPE.--Either by maceration or enfleurage with clarified
fat, we may obtain this fine odor from the flowers of the _Heliotrope
Peruvianum_ or _H. grandiflorum_. Exquisite as the odor of this plant
is, at present it is not applied to use by the manufacturing perfumer.
This we think rather a singular fact, especially as the perfume is
powerful and the flowers abundant. We should like to hear of some
experiments being tried with this plant for procuring its odor in this
country, and for that purpose now suggest the mode of operation which
would most likely lead to successful results. For a small trial in the
first instance, which can be managed by any person having the run of a
garden, we will say, procure an ordinary glue-pot now in common use,
which melts the material by the boiling of water; it is in fact a
water-bath, in chemical parlance--one capable of holding a pound or more
of melted fat. At the season when the flowers are in bloom, obtain half
a pound of fine mutton suet, melt the suet and strain it through a close
hair-sieve, allow the liquefied fat, as it falls from the sieve, to drop
into cold spring water; this operation granulates and washes the blood
and membrane from it. In order to start with a perfectly inodorous
grease, the melting and granulation process may be repeated three or
four times; finally, remelt the fat and cast it into a pan to free it
from adhering water.

Now put the clarified suet into the macerating pot, and place it in such
a position near the fire of the greenhouse, or elsewhere that will keep
it warm enough to be liquid; into the fat throw as many flowers as you
can, and there let them remain for twenty-four hours; at this time
strain the fat from the spent flowers and add fresh ones; repeat this
operation for a week: we expect at the last straining the fat will have
become very highly perfumed, and when cold may be justly termed _Pomade
à la Heliotrope_.

The cold pomade being chopped up, like suet for a pudding, is now to be
put into a wide-mouthed bottle, and covered with spirits as highly
rectified as can be obtained, and left to digest for a week or more; the
spirit then strained off will be highly perfumed; in reality it will be
_extract of Heliotrope_, a delightful perfume for the handkerchief. The
rationale of the operation is simple enough: the fat body has a strong
affinity or attraction for the odorous body, or essential oil of the
flowers, and it therefore absorbs it by contact, and becomes itself
perfumed. In the second operation, the spirit has a much greater
attraction for the fragrant principle than the fatty matter; the former,
therefore, becomes perfumed at the expense of the latter. The same
experiment may be repeated with almond oil substituted for the fat.

The experiment here hinted at, may be varied with any flowers that there
are to spare; indeed, by having the macerating bath larger than was
mentioned above, an excellent _millefleur_ pomade and essence might be
produced from every conservatory in the kingdom, and thus we may receive
another enjoyment from the cultivation of flowers beyond their beauty of
form and color.

We hope that those of our readers who feel inclined to try experiments
of this nature will not be deterred by saying, "they are not worth the
trouble." It must be remembered, that very fine essences realize in the
London perfumery warehouses 16_s._ per pint of 16 ounces, and that fine
_flowery-scented_ pomades fetch the same sum per pound. If the
experiments are successful they should be published, as then we may hope
to establish a new and important manufacture in this country. But we are

The odor of heliotrope resembles a mixture of almonds and vanilla, and
is well imitated thus:--


Spirituous extract of vanilla,               1/2 pint.
     "       "    French rose pomatum,       1/4   "
     "       "    orange-flower pomatum,         2 oz.
     "       "    ambergris,                     1 oz.
Essential oil of almonds,                     5 drops.

A preparation made in this manner under the name of _Extract de
Heliotrope_ is that which is sold in the shops of Paris and London, and
is really a very nice perfume, passing well with the public for a
genuine extract of heliotrope.


    "Copious of flower the woodbine, pale and wan,
    But well compensating her sickly looks
    With never-cloying odors."

What the poet Cowper here says is quite true; nevertheless, it is a
flower that is not used in practical perfumery, though there is no
reason for abandoning it. The experiments suggested for obtaining the
odor of Heliotrope and Millefleur (thousand flowers) are also applicable
to this, as also to Hawthorn. A good IMITATION OF HONEYSUCKLE
is made thus:--

Spirituous extract of rose pomatum,     1 pint.
              "   "   violet    "       1 "
              "   "   tubereuse "       1 "
Extract of vanilla,                   1/4 "
       "   Tolu,                      1/4 "
Otto neroli,                          10 drops.
   " almonds,                          5    "

The prime cost of a perfume made in this manner would probably be too
high to meet the demand of a retail druggist; in such cases it may be
diluted with rectified spirit to the extent "to make it pay," and will
yet be a nice perfume. The formula generally given herein for odors is
in anticipation that when bottled they will retail for at least
eighteen-pence the fluid ounce! which is the average price put on the
finest perfumery by the manufacturers of London and Paris.

HOVENIA.--A perfume under this name is sold to a limited
extent, but if it did not smell better than the plant _Hovenia dulcis_
or _H. inequalis_, a native of Japan, it would not sell at all. The
article in the market is made thus:--

Rectified spirit,        1 quart.
Rose-water,             1/2 pint.
Otto lemons,              1/2 oz.
Otto of rose,           1 drachm.
      " cloves,          1/2 "
      " neroli,         10 drops.

First dissolve the ottos in the spirit, then add the rose-water. After
filtration it is ready for sale. When compounds of this kind do not
become bright by passing through blotting-paper, the addition of a
little carbonate of magnesia prior to filtering effectually clears them.
The water in the above recipe is only added in order that the article
produced may be retailed at a moderate price, and would, of course, be
better without that "universal friend."


                    "Luxuriant above all,
    The jasmine throwing wide her elegant sweets."

This flower is one of the most prized by the perfumer. Its odor is
delicate and sweet, and so peculiar that it is without comparison, and
as such cannot be imitated. When the flowers of the _Jasminum
odoratissimum_ are distilled, repeatedly using the water of
distillation over fresh flowers, the essential oil of jasmine may be
procured. It is, however, exceedingly rare, on account of the enormous
cost of production. There was a fine sample of six ounces exhibited in
the Tunisian department of the Crystal Palace, the price of which was
9_l._ the fluid ounce! The plant is the Yasmyn of the Arabs, from which
our name is derived.

In the perfumer's laboratory, the method of obtaining the odor is by
absorption, or, as the French term it, _enfleurage_; that is, by
spreading a mixture of pure lard and suet on a glass tray, and sticking
the fresh-gathered flowers all over it, leaving them to stand a day or
so, and repeating the operation with fresh flowers--the grease absorbs
the odor. Finally, the pomade is scraped off the glass or slate, melted
at as low a temperature as possible, and strained.

Oils strongly impregnated with the fragrance are also prepared much in
the same way. Layers of cotton wool, previously steeped in oil of ben
(obtained by pressure from the blanched nuts of the _Moringa oleifera_)
are covered with jasmine flowers, which is repeated several times;
finally, the cotton or linen cloths which some perfumers use, are
squeezed under a press. The jasmine oil thus produced is the _Huile
antique au jasmin_ of the French houses.

The "extract of jasmine" is prepared by pouring rectified spirit on the
jasmine pomade or oil, and allowing them to remain together for a
fortnight at a summer heat. The best quality extract requires two
pounds of pomatum to every quart of spirit. The same can be done with
the oil of jasmine. If the pomade is used, it must be cut up fine
previously to being put into the spirit; if the oil is used, it must be
shaken well together every two or more hours, otherwise, on account of
its specific gravity, the oil separates, and but little surface is
exposed to the spirit. After the extract is strained off, the "washed"
pomatum or oil is still useful, if remelted, in the composition of
pomatum for the hair, and gives more satisfaction to a customer than any
of the "creams and balms," &c. &c., made up and scented with essential
oils; the one smells of the flower, the other "a nondescript."

[Illustration: Jasmine.]

The extract of jasmine enters into the composition of a great many of
the most approved handkerchief perfumes sold by the English and French
perfumers. Extract of jasmine is sold for the handkerchief often pure,
but is one of those scents which, though very gratifying at first,
becomes what people call "sickly" after exposure to the oxidizing
influence of the air, but if judiciously mixed with other perfumes of an
opposite character is sure to please the most fastidious customer.

JONQUIL.--The scent of the jonquil is very beautiful; for
perfumery purposes it is however but little cultivated in comparison
with jasmine and tubereuse. It is prepared exactly as jasmine. The
Parisian perfumers sell a mixture which they call "extract of jonquil."
The plant, however, only plays the part of a godfather to the offspring,
giving it its name. The so-called jonquil is made thus:--

Spirituous extract of jasmine pomade,           1 pint.
"           "         tubereuse "               1 "
"           "         fleur d'orange,         1/2 "
Extract of vanilla,                     2 fluid ounces.

LAUREL.--By distillation from the berries of the _Laurus
nobilis_, and from the leaves of the _Laurus cerasus_, an oil and
perfumed water are procurable of a very beautiful and fragrant
character. Commercially, however, it is disregarded, as from the
similarity of odor to the oil distilled from the bitter almond, it is
rarely, if ever, used by the perfumer, the latter being more economical.

LAVENDER.--The climate of England appears to be better adapted
for the perfect development of this fine old favorite perfume than any
other on the globe. "The ancients," says Burnett, "employed the flowers
and the leaves to aromatize their baths, and to give a sweet scent to
water in which they washed; hence the generic name of the plant,

Lavender is grown to an enormous extent at Mitcham, in Surrey, which is
the seat of its production, in a commercial point of view. Very large
quantities are also grown in France, but the fine odor of the British
produce realizes in the market four times the price of that of
Continental growth. Burnett says that the oil of _Lavandula spica_ is
more pleasant than that derived from the other species, but this
statement must not mislead the purchaser to buy the French spike
lavender, as it is not worth a tenth of that derived from the _Lavandulæ
veræ_. Half-a-hundred weight of good lavender flowers yield, by
distillation, from 14 to 16 oz. of essential oil.

All the inferior descriptions of oil of lavender are used for perfuming
soaps and greases; but the best, that obtained from the Mitcham
lavender, is entirely used in the manufacture of what is called lavender
water, but which, more properly, should be called essence or extract of
lavender, to be in keeping with the nomenclature of other essences
prepared with spirit.

The number of formulæ published for making a liquid perfume of lavender
is almost endless, but the whole of them may be resolved into essence of
lavender, simple; essence of lavender, compound; and lavender water.

There are two methods of making essence of lavender:--1. By distilling
a mixture of essential oil of lavender and rectified spirit; and the
other--2. By merely mixing the oil and the spirit together.

The first process yields the finest quality: it is that which is adopted
by the firm of Smyth and Nephew, whose reputation for this article is
such that it gives a good character in foreign markets, especially
India, to all products of lavender of English manufacture. Lavender
essence, that which is made by the still, is quite white, while that by
mixture only always has a yellowish tint, which by age becomes darker
and resinous.


To produce a very fine distillate, take--

Otto of English Lavender,                 4 oz.
Rectified spirit (60 over proof),      5 pints.
Rose-water,                             1 pint.

Mix and distil five pints for sale. Such essence of lavender is
expensive, but at 10_s._ a pint of 14 oz! there _is_ a margin for
profit. It not being convenient to the general dealer to sell distilled
lavender essence, the following form, by mixture, will produce a
first-rate article, and nearly as white as the above.


Otto of lavender,          3-1/2 oz.
Rectified spirit,          2 quarts.

The perfumer's retail price for such quality is 8_s._ per pint of 14 oz.

Many perfumers and druggists in making lavender water or essence, use a
small portion of bergamot, with an idea of improving its quality--a very
erroneous opinion; moreover, such lavender quickly discolors.


English oil of lavender,      4 oz.
Spirit,                   3 quarts.
Rose-water,                 1 pint.

Filter as above, and it is ready for sale.

COMMON LAVENDER WATER.--Same form as the above, substituting
French lavender for the British.

Recipes for Rondeletia, Lavender Bouquet, and other lavender compounds,
will be given when we come to speak of compound perfumes, which will be
reserved until we have finished explaining the method of making the
simple essences.

LEMON.--This fine perfume is abstracted from the _Citrus
limonum_, by expression, from the rind of the fruit. The otto of lemons
in the market is principally from Messina, where there are hundreds of
acres of "lemon groves." Otto of lemons, like all the ottos of the
Citrus family, is rapidly prone to oxidation when in contact with air
and exposure to light; a high temperature is also detrimental, and as
such is the case it should be preserved in a cool cellar. Most of the
samples from the gas-heated shelves of the druggists' shops, are as much
like essence of turpentine, to the smell, as that of lemons; rancid oil
of lemons may, in a great measure, be purified by agitation with warm
water and final decantation. When new and good, lemon otto may be freely
used in combination with rosemary, cloves, and caraway, for perfuming
powders for the nursery. From its rapid oxidation, it should not be used
for perfuming grease, as it assists rather than otherwise all fats to
turn rancid; hence pomatums so perfumed will not keep well. In the
manufacture of other compound perfumes, it should be dissolved in
spirit, in the proportion of six to eight ounces of oil to one gallon of
spirit. There is a large consumption of otto of lemons in the
manufacture of Eau de Cologne; that Farina uses it is easily discovered
by adding a few drops of Liq. Ammoniæ fort. to half an ounce of his Eau
de Cologne, the smell of the lemon is thereby brought out in a
remarkable manner.

Perhaps it is not out of place here to remark, that in attempts to
discover the composition of certain perfumes, we are greatly assisted by
the use of strong Liq. Ammoniæ. Certain of the essential oils combining
with the Ammonia, allow those which do not do so, if present in the
compound, to be smelt.

LEMON GRASS.--According to Pereira, the otto in the market
under this name is derived from the _Andropogon schoenanthus_ a
species of grass which grows abundantly in India. It is cultivated to a
large extent in Ceylon and in the Moluccas purposely for the otto, which
from the plant is easily procured by distillation. Lemon grass otto, or,
as it is sometimes called, oil of verbena, on account of its similarity
of odor to that favorite plant, is imported into this country in old
English porter and stout bottles. It is very powerful, well adapted for
perfuming soaps and greases, but its principal consumption is in the
manufacture of artificial essence of verbena. From its comparatively low
price, great strength, and fine perfume (when diluted), the lemon grass
otto may be much more used than at present, with considerable advantage
to the retail shopkeeper.

LILAC.--The fragrance of the flowers of this ornamental shrub
is well known. The essence of lilac is obtained either by the process of
maceration, or enfleurage with grease, and afterwards treating the
pomatum thus formed with rectified spirit, in the same manner as
previously described for cassie; the odor so much resembles tubereuse,
as to be frequently used to adulterate the latter, the demand for
tubereuse being at all times greater than the supply. A beautiful
IMITATION OF ESSENCE OF WHITE LILAC may be compounded thus:--

Spirituous extract from tubereuse pomade,            1 pint.
          "        of orange-flower pomade,        1/4 "
Otto of almonds,                                    3 drops.
Extract of civet,                                    1/2 oz.

The civet is only used to give permanence to the perfume of the

LILY.--The manufacturing perfumer rejects the advice of the
inspired writer, to "consider the lilies of the field." Rich as they are
in odor, they are not cultivated for their perfume. If lilies are thrown
into oil of sweet almonds, or ben oil, they impart to it their sweet
smell; but to obtain anything like fragrance, the infusion must be
repeated a dozen times with the same oil, using fresh flowers for each
infusion, after standing a day or so. The oil being shaken with an equal
quantity of spirit for a week, gives up its odor to the alcohol, and
thus extract of lilies _may_ be made. But how it _is_ made is thus:--


Extract of tubereuse,        1/2 pint.
   "       jasmine,              1 oz.
   "       fleur d'orange,       2 oz.
   "       vanilla,              3 oz.
   "       cassie,           1/4 pint.
   "       rose,             1/4  "
Otto of almonds,              3 drops.

Keep this mixture together for a month, and then bottle it for sale. It
is a perfume that is very much admired.

MACE.--Ground mace is used in the manufacture of some of those
scented powders called Sachets. A strong-smelling essential oil may be
procured from it by distillation, but it is rarely used.

MAGNOLIA.--The perfume of this flower is superb; practically,
however, it is of little use to the manufacturer, the large size of the
blossoms and their comparative scarcity prevents their being used, but a
very excellent imitation of its odor is made as under, and is that which
is found in the perfumers' shops of London and Paris.


Spirituous extract of orange-flower pomatum,      1 pint.
      "       "       rose pomatum,              2 pints.
      "       "       tubereuse pomatum,        1/2 pint.
      "       "       violet pomatum,           1/2 "
Essential oil of citron,                           3 drs.
      "       "  almonds,                       10 drops.

MARJORAM.--The otto procured by distilling _Origanum majorana_,
commonly called oil of oringeat by the French, is exceedingly powerful,
and in this respect resembles all the ottos from the different species
of thyme, of which the marjoram is one. One hundred weight of the dry
herb yields about ten ounces of the otto. Oringeat oil is extensively
used for perfuming soap, but more in France than in England. It is the
chief ingredient used by Gelle Frères, of Paris, for scenting their
"Tablet Monstre Soap," so common in the London shops.

MEADOW SWEET.--A sweet-smelling otto can be produced by
distilling the _Spiræa ulmaria_, but it is not used by perfumers.


MIGNONETTE.--But for the exquisite odor of this little flower,
it would scarcely be known otherwise than as a weed. Sweet as it is in
its natural state, and prolific in odor, we are not able to maintain its
characteristic smell as an essence. Like many others, during separation
from the plant, the fragrance is more or less modified; though not
perfect, it still reminds the sense of the odor of the flowers. To give
it that sweetness which it appears to want, a certain quantity of
violet is added to bring it up to the market odor.

As this plant is so very prolific in odor, we think something might be
done with it in England, especially as it flourishes as well in this
country as in France; and we desire to see Flower Farms and organized
Perfumatories established in the British Isles, for the extraction of
essences and the manufacture of pomade and oils, of such flowers as are
indigenous, or that thrive in the open fields of our country. Besides
opening up a new field of enterprise and good investment for capital, it
would give healthy employment to many women and children. Open air
employment for the young is of no little consideration to maintain the
stamina of the future generation; for it cannot be denied that our
factory system and confined cities are prejudicial to the physical
condition of the human family.

To return from our digression. The essence of mignonette, or, as it is
more often sold under the name of Extrait de Rézéda, is prepared by
infusing the rézéda pomade in rectified spirit, in the proportion of one
pound of pomade to one pint of spirit, allowing them to digest together
for a fortnight, when the essence is filtered off the pomade. One ounce
of extrait d'ambré is added to every pint. This is done to give
permanence to the odor upon the handkerchief, and does not in any way
alter its odor.

MIRIBANE.--The French name for artificial essence of almond
(see ALMOND).

MINT.--All the _Menthidæ_ yield fragrant ottos by
distillation. The otto of the spear-mint (_M. viridis_) is exceedingly
powerful, and very valuable for perfuming soap, in conjunction with
other perfumes. Perfumers use the ottos of the mint in the manufacture
of mouth-washes and dental liquids. The leading ingredient in the
celebrated "eau Botot" is oil of peppermint in alcohol. A good imitation
may be made thus:--


Tincture of cedar wood,      1 pint.
  " myrrh,                     1 oz.
Oil of peppermint,           1/2 dr.
 " spear mint,               1/4 dr.
 " cloves,                 10 drops.
 " roses,                  10  "

Modifications of this formula can be readily suggested, but the main
object is to retain the mint ottos, as they have more power than any
other aromatic to overcome the smell of tobacco. Mouth-washes, it must
be remembered, are as much used for rinsing the mouth after smoking as
for a dentifrice.

MYRTLE.--A very fragrant otto may be procured by distilling
both flowers and leaves of the common myrtle; one hundred-weight will
yield about five ounces of the volatile oil. The demand for essence of
myrtle being very limited, the odor as found in the perfumers' shops is
very rarely a genuine article, but it is imitated thus:--


Extract of vanilla,             1/2 pint.
   "       roses                  1  "
Extract of fleur d'orange,      1/2 pint.
    "      tubereuse,           1/2  "
    "      jasmine,                 2 oz.

Mix and allow to stand for a fortnight: it is then fit for bottling, and
is a perfume that gives a great deal of satisfaction.

Myrtle-flower water is sold in France under the name of eau d'ange, and
may be prepared like rose, elder, or other flower waters.

NEROLI, OR ORANGE-FLOWER.--Two distinct odors are procurable
from the orange-blossom, varying according to the methods adopted for
procuring them. This difference of perfume from the same flower is a
great advantage to the manufacturer. This curious fact is worthy of
inquiry by the chemical philosopher. It is not peculiar to the
orange-flower, but applies to many others, especially rose--probably to
all flowers.

When orange-flowers are treated by the maceration process, that is, by
infusion in a fatty body, we procure orange-flower pomatum, its strength
and quality being regulated by the number of infusions of the flower
made in the same grease.

By digesting this orange-flower pomatum in rectified spirits in the
proportions of from six pounds to eight pounds of pomade to a gallon of
spirit, for about a fortnight at a summer heat, we obtain the extrait de
fleur d'orange, or extract of orange-flowers, a handkerchief perfume
surpassed by none. In this state its odor resembles the original so
much, that with closed eyes the best judge could not distinguish the
scent of the extract from that of the flower. The peculiar flowery odor
of this extract renders it valuable to perfumers, not only to sell in a
pure state, but slightly modified with other _extraits_ passes for
"sweet pea," "magnolia," &c., which it slightly resembles in fragrance.

[Illustration: Orange.]

Now, when orange-flowers are distilled with water, we procure the otto
of the blossom, which is known commercially as oil of neroli. The neroli
procured from the flowers of the Citrus aurantium is considered to be
the finest quality, and is called "neroli petale." The next quality,
"neroli bigarade," is derived from the blossoms of the _Citrus
bigaradia_, or Seville orange. Another quality, which is considered
inferior to the preceding, is the neroli petit grain, obtained by
distilling the leaves and the young unripe fruit of the different
species of the citrus.

The "petale" and "bigarade" neroli are used to an enormous extent in the
manufacture of eau de Cologne and other handkerchief perfumes. The petit
grain is mainly consumed for scenting soap. To form the esprit de
neroli, dissolve 1-1/2 oz. of neroli petale in one gallon of rectified
spirits. Although very agreeable, and extensively used in the
manufacture of bouquets, it has no relation to the flowery odor of the
extrait de fleur d'orange, as derived from the same flowers by
maceration; in fact, it has as different an odor as though obtained from
another plant, yet in theory both these _extraits_ are but alcoholic
solutions of the otto of the flower.

The water used for distillation in procuring the neroli, when well freed
from the oil, is imported into this country under the name of eau de
fleur d'orange, and may be used, like elder-flower and rose-water, for
the skin, and as an eye lotion. It is remarkable for its fine fragrance,
and it is astonishing that it is not more used, being moderate in price.
(See _Syringa_.)

NUTMEG.--The beautiful odor of the nutmeg is familiar to all.
Though an otto can be drawn from them of a very fragrant character, it
is rarely used in perfumery. The ground nuts are, however, used
advantageously in the combinations of scented powders used for scent
bags.--See "Sachet's Powders."

OLIBANUM is a gum resin, used to a limited extent in this
country, in the manufacture of incense and pastilles. It is chiefly
interesting as being one of those odoriferous bodies of which frequent
mention is made in the Holy volume.[C]

"It is believed," says Burnett, "to have been one of the ingredients in
the sweet incense of the Jews; and it is still burnt as incense in the
Greek and Romish churches, where the diffusion of such odors round the
altar forms a part of the prescribed religious service."

Olibanum is partially soluble in alcohol, and, like most of the balsams,
probably owes its perfume to a peculiar odoriferous body, associated
with the benzoic acid it contains.

For making the tincture or extract of olibanum, take 1 pound of the gum
to 1 gallon of the spirit.

ORANGE.--Under the title "Neroli" we have already spoken of the
odoriferous principle of the orange-blossom. We have now to speak of
what is known in the market as Essence of Orange, or, as it is more
frequently termed, Essence of Portugal,--a name, however, which we
cannot admit in a classified list of the "odors of plants."

The otto of orange-peel, or odoriferous principle of the orange fruit,
is procured by expression and by distillation. The peel is rasped in
order to crush the little vessels or sacs that imprison the otto.

Its abundance in the peel is shown by pinching a piece near the flame of
a candle; the otto that spirts out ignites with a brilliant

It has many uses in perfumery, and from its refreshing fragrance finds
many admirers.

It is the leading ingredient in what is sold as "Lisbon Water" and "Eau
de Portugal." The following is a very useful form for preparing


Rectified spirit (not less than 60 over proof),      1 gallon.
Otto of orange peel,                                     3 oz.
  "     lemon peel,                                      3 oz.
  "     rose                                           1/4 oz.

This is a form for


Rectified spirit (60 over proof),      1 gallon.
Essential oil of orange peel,              6 oz.
   "             lemon peel,               1 oz.
   "             lemon grass,            1/4 oz.
   "             bergamot,                 1 oz.
   "             otto of rose,           1/4 oz.

It should be noted that these perfumes are never to be filled into wet
bottles, for if in any way damp from water, a minute portion of the
ottos are separated, which gives an opalescent appearance to the
mixture. Indeed, all bottles should be _spirit rinsed_ prior to being
filled with any perfume, but especially with those containing essences
of orange or lemon peel.

ORRIS, properly IRIS.--The dried rhizome of _Iris
florentina_ has a very pleasant odor, which, for the want of a better
comparison, is said to resemble the smell of violets; it is, however,
exceedingly derogatory to the charming aroma of that modest flower when
such invidious comparisons are made. Nevertheless the perfume of iris
root is good, and well worthy of the place it has obtained as a
perfuming substance. The powder of orris root is very extensively used
in the manufacture of sachet powders, tooth-powder, &c. It fathers that
celebrated "oriental herb" known as "Odonto." For tincture of orris, or,
as the perfumers call it,


Take orris root, crushed,        7 lbs.
Rectified spirits,            1 gallon.

After standing together for about a fortnight, the extract is fit to
take off. It requires considerable time to drain away, and, to prevent
loss, the remainder of the orris should be placed in the tincture press.
This extract enters into the composition of many of the most celebrated
bouquets, such as "Jockey Club," and others, but is never sold alone,
because its odor, although grateful, is not sufficiently good to stand
public opinion upon its own merits; but in combination its value is very
great; possessing little aroma itself, yet it has the power of
strengthening the odor of other fragrant bodies; like the flint and
steel, which though comparatively incombustible, readily fire
inflammable bodies.

PALM.--The odor of palm oil--the fat oil of commerce--is due to
a fragrant principle which it contains. By infusion in alcohol, the
odoriferous body is dissolved, and resembles, to a certain extent, the
tincture of orris, or of extract of violet, but is very indifferent, and
is not likely to be brought into use, though several attempts have been
made to render it of service when the cultivation of the violets have
failed from bad seasons.

PATCHOULY.--_Pogostemon patchouly_ (LINDLEY),
_Plectranthus crassifolius_ (BURNETT), is an herb that grows
extensively in India and China. It somewhat resembles our garden sage in
its growth and form, but the leaves are not so fleshy.

[Illustration: Patchouly.]

The odor of patchouly is due to an otto contained in the leaves and
stems, and is readily procured by distillation. 1 cwt. of good herb will
yield about 28 oz. of the essential oil, which is of a dark brown color,
and of a density about the same as that of oil of sandal wood, which it
resembles in its physical character. Its odor is the most powerful of
any derived from the botanic kingdom; hence, if mixed in the proportion
of measure for measure, it completely covers the smell of all other


Rectified spirit,       1 gallon.
Otto of patchouly,      1-1/4 oz.
  "     rose,             1/4 oz.

The essence of patchouly thus made is that which is found in the
perfumers' shops of Paris and London. Although few perfumes have had
such a fashionable run, yet when smelled at in its pure state, it is far
from agreeable, having a kind of mossy or musty odor, analogous to
Lycopodium, or, as some say, it smells of "old coats."

The characteristic smell of Chinese or Indian ink is due to some
admixture of this herb.

The origin of the use of patchouly as a perfume in Europe is curious. A
few years ago real Indian shawls bore an extravagant price, and
purchasers could always distinguish them by their odor; in fact, they
were perfumed with patchouly. The French manufacturers had for some time
successfully imitated the Indian fabric, but could not impart the odor.

At length they discovered the secret, and began to import the plant to
perfume articles of their make, and thus palm off homespun shawls as
real Indian! From this origin the perfumers have brought it into use.
Patchouly herb is extensively used for scenting drawers in which linen
is kept; for this purpose it is best to powder the leaves and put them
into muslin sacks, covered with silk, after the manner of the
old-fashioned lavender-bag. In this state it is very efficacious in
preventing the clothes from being attacked by moths. Several
combinations of patchouly will be given in the recipes for "bouquets and

PEA (SWEET).--A very fine odor may be abstracted from
the flowers of the chick-vetch by maceration in any fatty body, and then
digesting the pomade produced in spirit. It is, however, rarely
manufactured, because a very close


can be prepared thus:--

Extract of tuberose,               1/2 pint.
  "        fleur d'orange,         1/2  "
  "        rose from pomatum,      1/2  "
  "        vanilla,                    1 oz.

Scents, like sounds, appear to influence the olfactory nerve in certain
definite degrees. There is, as it were, an octave of odors like an
octave in music; certain odors coincide, like the keys of an instrument.
Such as almond, heliotrope, vanilla, and orange-blossoms blend together,
each producing different degrees of a nearly similar impression. Again,
we have citron, lemon, orange-peel, and verbena, forming a higher octave
of smells, which blend in a similar manner. The metaphor is completed by
what we are pleased to call semi-odors, such as rose and rose geranium
for the half note; petty grain, neroli, a black key, followed by fleur
d'orange. Then we have patchouli, sandal-wood, and vitivert, and many
others running into each other.

From the odors already known we may produce, by uniting them in proper
proportion, the smell of almost any flower, except jasmine.

The odor of some flowers resembles others so nearly that we are almost
induced to believe them to be the same thing, or, at least, if not
evolved from the plant as such, to become so by the action of the
air-oxidation. It is known that some actually are identical in
composition, although produced from totally different plants, such as
camphor, turpentine, rosemary. Hence we may presume that chemistry will
sooner or later produce one from the other, for with many it is merely
an atom of water or an atom of oxygen that causes the difference. It
would be a grand thing to produce otto of roses from oil of rosemary, or
from the rose geranium oil, and theory indicates its possibility.

The essential oil of almonds in a bottle that contains a good deal of
air-oxygen, and but a very little of the oil, spontaneously passes into
another odoriferous body, benzoic acid; which is seen in crystals to
form over the dry parts of the flask. This is a natural illustration of
this idea. In giving the recipe for "sweet pea" as above, we form it
with the impression that its odor resembles the orange-blossom, which
similarity is approached nearer by the addition of the rose and

The vanilla is used merely to give permanence to the scent on the
handkerchief, and this latter body is chosen in preference to extract of
musk or ambergris, which would answer the same purpose of giving
permanence to the more volatile ingredients; because the vanilla
strikes the same key of the olfactory nerve as the orange-blossom, and
thus no new idea of a different scent is brought about as the perfume
dies off from the handkerchief. When perfumes are not mixed upon this
principle, then we hear that such and such a perfume becomes "sickly" or
"faint" after they have been on the handkerchief a short time.

PINE-APPLE.--Both Dr. Hoffman and Dr. Lyon Playfair have fallen
into some error in their inferences with regard to the application of
this odor in perfumery. After various practical experiments conducted in
a large perfumatory, we have come to the conclusion that it cannot be so
applied, simply because when the essence of pine-apple is smelled at,
the vapor produces an involuntary action of the larynx, producing cough,
when exceedingly dilute. Even in the infinitesimal portions it still
produces disagreeable irritation of the air-pipes, which, if prolonged,
such as is expected if used upon a handkerchief, is followed by intense
headache. It is obvious, therefore, that the legitimate use of the
essence of pine-apple (butyric ether) cannot be adapted with benefit to
the manufacturing perfumer, although invaluable to the confectioner as a
flavoring material. What we have here said refers to the artificial
essence of pine-apple, or butyrate of ethyloxide, which, if very much
diluted with alcohol, resembles the smell of pine-apple, and hence its
name; but how far the same observations are applicable to the true
essential oil from the fruit or epidermis of the pine-apple, remains to
be seen _when_ we procure it. As the West Indian pine-apples are now
coming freely into the market, the day is probably not distant when
demonstrative experiments can be tried; but hitherto it must be
remembered our experiments have only been performed with a body
_resembling in smell_ the true essential oil of the fruit. The physical
action of all ethers upon the human body is quite sufficient to prevent
their application in perfumery, however useful in confectionary, which
it is understood has to deal with another of the senses,--not of smell,
but of taste. The commercial "essence of pine-apple," or "pine-apple
oil," and "jargonelle pear-oil," are admitted only to be _labelled_
such, but really are certain organic acid ethers. For the present, then,
perfumers must only look on these bodies as so many lines in the "Poetry
of Science," which, for the present, are without practical application
in his art.

PINK.--_Dianthus Caryophyllus._--The clove pink emits a most
fragrant odor, "especially at night," says Darwin.

    "The lavish pink that scents the garden round,"

is not, however, at present applied in perfumery, except in name.


Esprit rose,                 1/2 pint.
   "   fleur d'orange,       1/4   "
   "     "   de cassie,      1/4   "
   "   vanilla,                  2 oz.
Oil of cloves,               10 drops.

It is remarkable how very much this mixture resembles the odor of the
flower, and the public never doubt its being the "real thing."

RHODIUM.--When rose-wood, the lignum of the _Convolvulus
scoparius_, is distilled, a sweet-smelling oil is procured, resembling
in some slight degree the fragrance of the rose, and hence its name. At
one time, that is, prior to the cultivation of the rose-leaf geranium,
the distillates from rose-wood and from the root of the _Genista
canariensis_ (Canary-rose-wood), were principally drawn for the
adulteration of real otto of roses, but as the geranium oil answers so
much better, the oil of rhodium has fallen into disuse, hence its
comparative scarcity in the market at the present day, though our
grandfathers knew it well. One cwt. of wood yields about three ounces of

Ground rose-wood is valuable as a basis in the manufacture of sachet
powders for perfuming the wardrobe.

The French have given the name jacaranda to rose-wood, under the idea
that the plant called jacaranda by the Brazilians yields it, which is
not the case; "the same word has perhaps been the origin of
palisander--palixander, badly written."--_Burnett_.


    "Go, crop the gay rose's vermeil bloom,
    And waft its spoils, a sweet perfume,
          In incense to the skies."


This queen of the garden loses not its diadem in the perfuming world.
The oil of roses, or, as it is commonly called, the otto, or attar, of
roses, is procured (contrary to so many opposite statements) simply by
distilling the roses with water.

The otto, or attar, of rose of commerce is derived from the _Rosa
centifolia provincialis_. Very extensive rose farms exist at Adrianople
(Turkey in Europe); at Broussa, now famous as the residence of
Abd-el-Kader; and at Uslak (Turkey in Asia); also at Ghazepore, in

The cultivators in Turkey are principally the Christian inhabitants of
the low countries of the Balkan, between Selimno, and Carloya, as far as
Philippopolis, in Bulgaria, about 200 miles from Constantinople. In good
seasons, this district yields 75,000 ounces; but in bad seasons only
20,000 to 30,000 ounces of attar are obtained. It is estimated that it
requires at least 2000 rose blooms to yield one drachm of otto.

The otto slightly varies in odor from different districts; many places
furnish an otto which solidifies more readily than others, and,
therefore, this is not a sure guide of purity, though many consider it
such. That which was exhibited in the Crystal Palace of 1851, as "from
Ghazepore," in India, obtained the prize.

    "Attar of roses, made in Cashmere, is considered superior to any
    other; a circumstance not surprising, as, according to Hugel, the
    flower is here produced of surpassing fragrance as well as beauty.
    A large quantity of rose-water twice distilled is allowed to run
    off into an open vessel, placed over night in a cool running
    stream, and in the morning the oil is found floating on the
    surface in minute specks, which are taken off very carefully by
    means of a blade of sword-lily. When cool it is of a dark green
    color, and as hard as resin, not becoming liquid at a temperature
    about that of boiling water. Between 500 and 600 pounds' weight of
    leaves is required to produce one ounce of the attar."--_Indian

Pure otto of roses, from its cloying sweetness, has not many admirers;
when diluted, however, there is nothing to equal it in odor, especially
if mixed in soap, to form rose soap, or in pure spirit, to form the
esprit de rose. The soap not allowing the perfume to evaporate very
fast, we cannot be surfeited with the smell of the otto.

The finest preparation of rose as an odor is made at Grasse, in France.
Here the flowers are not treated for the otto, but are subjected to the
process of maceration in fat, or in oil, as described under jasmine,
heliotrope, &c.

The rose pomade thus made, if digested in alcohol, say 8 lbs. of No. 24
Pomade to one gallon of spirit, yields an esprit de rose of the first
order, very superior to that which is made by the addition of otto to
spirit. It is difficult to account for this difference, but it is
sufficiently characteristic to form a distinct odor. See the article on
fleur d'orange and neroli (pp. 77, 78), which have similar qualities,
previously described. The esprit de rose made from the French rose
pomade is never sold retail by the perfumer; he reserves this to form
part of his _recherche_ bouquets.

Some wholesale druggists have, however, been selling it now for some
time to country practitioners, for them to form extemporaneous
rose-water, which it does to great perfection. Roses are cultivated to
a large extent in England, near Mitcham, in Surrey, for perfumers' use,
to make rose-water. In the season when successive crops can be got,
which is about the end of June, or the early part of July, they are
gathered as soon as the dew is off, and sent to town in sacks. When they
arrive, they are immediately spread out upon a cool floor: otherwise, if
left in a heap, they heat to such an extent, in two or three hours, as
to be quite spoiled. There is no organic matter which so rapidly absorbs
oxygen, and becomes heated spontaneously, as a mass of freshly gathered

To preserve these roses, the London perfumers immediately pickle them;
for this purpose, the leaves are separated from the stalks, and to every
bushel of flowers, equal to about six pounds' weight, one pound of
common salt is thoroughly rubbed in. The salt absorbs the water existing
in the petals, and rapidly becomes brine, reducing the whole to a pasty
mass, which is finally stowed away in casks. In this way they will keep
almost any length of time, without the fragrance being seriously
injured. A good rose-water can be prepared by distilling 12 lbs. of
pickled roses, and 2-1/2 gallons of water. "Draw" off two gallons; the
product will be the double-distilled rose-water of the shops. The
rose-water that is imported from the South of France is, however, very
superior in odor to any that can be produced here. As it is a residuary
product of the distillation of roses for procuring the attar, it has a
richness of aroma which appears to be inimitable with English-grown
roses. There are four modifications of essence of rose for the
handkerchief, which are the _ne plus ultra_ of the perfumer's art. They
are,--esprit de rose triple, essence of white of roses, essence of tea
rose, and essence of moss rose. The following are the recipes for their


Rectified alcohol,      1 gallon.
Otto of rose,               3 oz.

Mix at a summer heat; in the course of a quarter of an hour the whole of
the otto is dissolved, and is then ready for bottling and sale. In the
winter season beautiful crystals of the otto--if it is good--appear
disseminated through the esprit.


Spirituous extract from French Rose pomatum,      1 quart.
Esprit de rose triple,                             1 pint.
Extracts fleur d'orange pomatum,                    1  "
    "     of ambergris,                           1/2  "
    "        musk,                                   4 oz.

Allow the ingredients to remain together for a fortnight; then filter,
if requisite, and it is ready for sale.


Esprit de rose from pomatum,      1 quart.
  "        "   triple,            1 "
  "       violette,               1 "
Extracts of jasmine                1 pint.
    "       patchouly,           1/2 "


Esprit de rose pomade,              1 pint.
"          " triple,                1 "
Extract of rose-leaf geranium,      1 "
  "        sandal-wood,           1/2 "
  "        neroli,                1/4 "
  "        orris,                 1/4 "


    "There's rosemary, that's for remembrance."


By distilling the _Rosmarinus officinalis_ a thin limpid otto is
procured, having the characteristic odor of the plant, which is more
aromatic than sweet. One cwt. of the fresh herb yields about twenty-four
ounces of oil. Otto of rosemary is very extensively used in perfumery,
especially in combination with other ottos for scenting soap. Eau de
Cologne cannot be made without it, and in the once famous "Hungary
water" it is the leading ingredient. The following is the composition of


Rectified alcohol,                    1 gallon.
Otto of English rosemary,                 2 oz.
"       lemon-peel,                       1 oz.
"       balm (_Melissa_),                 1 oz.
"       mint,                       1/2 drachm.
Esprit de rose,                         1 pint.
Extract of fleur d'orange,              1  "

It is put up for sale in a similar way to eau de Cologne, and is said to
take its name from one of the queens of Hungary, who is reported to
have derived great benefit from a bath containing it, at the age of
seventy-five years. There is no doubt that clergymen and orators, while
speaking for any time, would derive great benefit from perfuming their
handkerchief with Hungary water or eau de Cologne, as the rosemary they
contain excites the mind to vigorous action, sufficient of the stimulant
being inhaled by occasionally wiping the face with the handkerchief
wetted with these "waters." Shakspeare giving us the key, we can
understand how it is that such perfumes containing rosemary are
universally said to be "so refreshing!"

SAGE.--A powerful-scenting otto can be procured by distillation
from any of the _Salvieæ_. It is rarely used, but is nevertheless very
valuable in combination for scenting soap.

Dried sage-leaves, ground, will compound well for sachets.

SANTAL.--_Santalum album_.

    "The santal tree perfumes, when riven,
    The axe that laid it low." CAMERON.

This is an old favorite with the lovers of scent; it is the wood that
possesses the odor. The finest santal-wood grows in the island of Timor,
and the Santal-wood Islands, where it is extensively cultivated for the
Chinese market. In the religious ceremonies of the Brahmins, Hindoos,
and Chinese, santal-wood is burned, by way of incense, to an extent
almost beyond belief. The _Santala_ grew plentifully in China, but the
continued offerings to the Buddahs have almost exterminated the plant
from the Celestial Empire; and such is the demand, that it is about to
be cultivated in Western Australia, in the expectation of a profitable
return, which we doubt not will be realized; England alone would consume
tenfold the quantity it does were its price within the range of other
perfuming substances. The otto which exists in the santal-wood is
readily procured by distillation; 1 cwt. of good wood will yield about
30 ounces of otto.

[Illustration: Santal-wood.]

The white ant, which is so common in India and China, eating into every
organic matter that it comes across, appears to have no relish for
santal-wood; hence it is frequently made into caskets, jewel-boxes,
deed-cases, &c. This quality, together with its fragrance, renders it a
valuable article to the cabinet-makers of the East.

The otto of santal is remarkably dense, and is above all others
oleaginous in its appearance, and, when good, is of a dark straw color.
When dissolved in spirit, it enters into the composition of a great many
of the old-fashioned bouquets, such as "Marechale," and others, the
formulæ of which will be given hereafter. Perfumers thus make what is


Rectified spirits,                              7 pints.
Esprit de rose,                                  1 pint.
Essential oil, _i.e._ otto, of santal,             3 oz.

All those EXTRACTS, made by dissolving the otto in alcohol, are
nearly white, or at least only slightly tinted by the color of the oil
used. When a perfumer has to impart a delicate _odeur_ to a lady's
_mouchoir_, which in some instances costs "no end of money," and is an
object, at any cost, to retain unsullied, it behooves his reputation to
sell an article that will not stain a delicate white fabric. Now, when a
perfume is made in a direct manner from any wood or herb, as tinctures
are made, that is, by infusion in alcohol, there is obtained, besides
the odoriferous substance, a solution of coloring and extractive matter,
which is exceedingly detrimental to its fragrance, besides seriously
staining any cambric handkerchief that it may be used upon; and for this
reason this latter method should never be adopted, except for use upon
silk handkerchiefs.

The odor of santal assimilates well with rose; and hence, prior to the
cultivation of rose-leaf geranium, it was used to adulterate otto of
roses; but is now but seldom used for that purpose.

By a "phonetic" error, santal is often printed "sandal," and "sandel."

SASSAFRAS.--Some of the perfumers of Germany use a tincture of
the wood of the _Laurus sassafras_ in the manufacture of hair-washes and
other nostrums; but as, in our opinion, it has rather a "physicky" smell
than flowery, we cannot recommend the German recipes. The _Eau
Athenienne_, notwithstanding, has some reputation as a hair-water, but
is little else than a weak tincture of sassafras.

SPIKE.--French oil of lavender, which is procured from the
_Lavandula spica_, is generally called oil of spike. (See Lavender.)

STORAX and TOLU are used in perfumery in the same way
as benzoin, namely, by solution in spirit as a tincture. An ounce of
tincture of storax, tolu, or benzoin, being added to a pound of any very
volatile perfume, gives a degree of permanence to it, and makes it last
longer on the handkerchief than it otherwise would: thus, when any
perfume is made by the solution of an otto in spirit, it is usual to add
to it a small portion of a substance which is less volatile, such as
extract of musk, extract of vanilla, ambergris, storax, tolu, orris,
vitivert, or benzoin; the manufacturer using his judgment and discretion
as to which of these materials are to be employed, choosing, of course,
those which are most compatible with the odor he is making.

The power which these bodies have of "fixing" a volatile substance,
renders them valuable to the perfumer, independent of their aroma, which
is due in many cases to benzoic acid, slightly modified by an esential
oil peculiar to each substance, and which is taken up by the alcohol,
together with a portion of resin. When the perfume is put upon a
handkerchief, the most volatile bodies disappear first: thus, after the
alcohol has evaporated, the odor of the ottos appear stronger; if it
contains any resinous body, the ottos are held in solution, as it were,
by the resin, and thus retained on the fabric. Supposing a perfume to be
made of otto only, without any "fixing" substance, then, as the perfume
"dies away," the olfactory nerve, if tutored, will detect its
composition, for it spontaneously analyzes itself, no two ottos having
the same volatility: thus, make a mixture of rose, jasmine, and
patchouly; the jasmine predominates first, then the rose, and, lastly,
the patchouly, which will be found hours after the others have

SYRINGA.--The flowers of the _Philadelphus coronarius_, or
common garden syringa, have an intense odor resembling the
orange-blossom; so much so, that in America the plant is often termed
"mock orange." A great deal of the pomatum sold as pommade surfin, à la
fleur d'orange, by the manufacturers of Cannes, is nothing more than
fine suet perfumed with syringa blossoms by the maceration process.
Fine syringa pomade could be made in England at a quarter the cost of
what is paid for the so-called orange pomatum.

THYME.--All the different species of thyme, but more
particularly the lemon thyme, the _Thymus serpyllum_, as well as the
marjorams, origanum, &c., yield by distillation fragrant ottos, that are
extensively used by manufacturing perfumers for scenting soaps; though
well adapted for this purpose, they do not answer at all in any other
combinations. Both in grease and in spirit all these ottos impart an
herby smell (very naturally) rather than a flowery one, and, as a
consequence, they are not considered _recherché_.

When any of these herbs are dried and ground, they usefully enter into
the composition of sachet powders.

TONQUIN, or TONKA.--The seeds of the _Dipterix
odorata_ are the tonquin or _coumarouma_ beans of commerce. When fresh
they are exceedingly fragrant, having an intense odor of newly made hay.
The _Anthoxanthum odoratum_, or sweet-smelling vernal grass, to which
new hay owes its odor, probably yields identically the same fragrant
principle, and it is remarkable that both tonquin beans and vernal
grass, while actually growing, are nearly scentless, but become rapidly
aromatic when severed from the parent stock.

Chemically considered, tonquin beans are very interesting, containing,
when fresh, a fragrant volatile otto (to which their odor is
principally due), benzoic acid, a fat oil and a neutral
principal--_Coumarin_. In perfumery they are valuable, as, when ground,
they form with other bodies an excellent and permanent sachet, and by
infusion in spirit, the tincture or extract of tonquin enters into a
thousand of the compound essences; but on account of its great strength
it must be used with caution, otherwise people say your perfume is
"snuffy," owing to the predominance of the odor and its well-known use
in the boxes of those who indulge in the titillating dust.

[Illustration: Tonquin.]


Tonquin beans,              1 lb.
Rectified spirit,       1 gallon.

Digest for a month at a summer heat. Even after this maceration they are
still useful when dried and ground in those compounds known as POT
POURRI, OLLA PODRIA, &c. The extract of tonquin, like
extract of orris and extract of vanilla, is never sold pure, but is only
used in the manufacture of compound perfumes. It is the leading
ingredient in _Bouquet du Champ_--The field Bouquet--the great
resemblance of which to the odor of the hay-field, renders it a favorite
to the lovers of the pastoral.

TUBEROSE.--One of the most exquisite odors with which we are
acquainted is obtained by _enfleurage_ from the tuberose flower. It is,
as it were, a nosegay in itself, and reminds one of that delightful
perfume observed in a well-stocked flower-garden at evening close;
consequently it is much in demand by the perfumers for compounding sweet


Eight pounds of No. 24 tuberose pomatum, cut up very fine, is to be
placed into 1 gallon of the best rectified spirit. After standing for
three weeks or a month at summer heat, and with frequent agitation, it
is fit to draw off, and being strained through cotton wool, is ready
either for sale or use in the manufacture of bouquets.

This essence of tuberose, like that of jasmine, is exceedingly volatile,
and if sold in its pure state quickly "flies off" the handkerchief; it
is therefore necessary to add some fixing ingredient, and for this
purpose it is best to use one ounce of extract of orris, or half an
ounce of extract of vanilla, to every pint of tuberose.

VANILLA.--The pod or bean of the _Vanilla planifolia_ yields a
perfume of rare excellence. When good, and if kept for some time, it
becomes covered with an efflorescence of needle crystals possessing
properties similar to benzoic acid, but differing from it in
composition. Few objects are more beautiful to look upon than this, when
viewed by a microscope with the aid of polarized light.

[Illustration: Vanilla.]


Vanilla pods,                 1/2 lb.
Rectified spirit,           1 gallon.

Slit the pods from end to end, so as to lay open the interior, then cut
them up in lengths of about a quarter of an inch, macerate with
occasional agitation for about a month; the tincture thus formed will
only require straining through cotton to be ready for any use that is
required. In this state it is rarely sold for a perfume, but is consumed
in the manufacture of compound odors, bouquets, or nosegays, as they
are called.

Extract of Vanilla is also used largely in the manufacture of
hair-washes, which are readily made by mixing the extract of vanilla
with either rose, orange, elder, or rosemary water, and afterwards

We need scarcely mention, that vanilla is greatly used by cooks and
confectioners for flavoring.

VERBENA, or VERVAINE.--The scented species of this
plant, the lemon verbena, _Aloysia citriodora_ (Hooker), gives one of
the finest perfumes with which we are acquainted; it is well known as
yielding a delightful fragrance by merely drawing the hand over the
plant; some of the little vessels or sacks containing the otto must be
crushed in this act, as there is little or no odor by merely smelling at
the plant.

The otto, which can be extracted from the leaves by distillation with
water, on account of its high price, is scarcely, if ever, used by the
manufacturing perfumer, but it is most successfully imitated by mixing
the otto of lemon grass, _Andropogon schoenanthus_, with rectified
spirit, the odor of which resembles the former to a nicety. The
following is a good form for making the


Rectified spirit,            1 pint.
Otto of lemon grass,      3 drachms.
  "     lemon peel,            2 oz.
  "     orange peel,         1/2 oz.

After standing together for a few hours and then filtering, it is fit
for sale.

Another mixture of this kind, presumed by the public to be made from the
same plant, but of a finer quality, is composed thus--it is sold under
the title


Rectified spirit,                   1 pint.
Otto of orange peel,                  1 oz.
 " lemon peel,                        2 oz.
 " citron,                        1 drachm.
 " lemon grass,              2-1/2 drachms.
Extrait de fleur d'orange,            7 oz.
 "           "  tubereuse,            7 oz.
Esprit de rose,                   1/2 pint.

This mixture is exceedingly refreshing, and is one of the most elegant
perfumes that is made. Being white, it does not stain the handkerchief.
It is best when sold fresh made, as by age the citrine oils oxidize, and
the perfume acquires an ethereal odor, and then customers say "it is
sour." The vervaine thus prepared enters into the composition of a great
many of the favorite bouquets that are sold under the title "Court
Bouquet," and others which are mixtures of violet, rose, and jasmine,
with verbena or vervaine in different proportions. In these
preparations, as also in Eau de Portugal, and in fact where any of the
citrine ottos are used, a much finer product is obtained by using grape
spirit or brandy in preference to the English corn spirit as a solvent
for them. Nor do they deteriorate so quickly in French spirit as in
English. Whether this be due to the oil of wine (oeanthic ether) or
not we cannot say, but think it is so.


    "The forward violet thus did I chide:
    Sweet thief, whence didst thou steal thy sweet that smells,
    If not from my love's breath?"

The perfume exhaled by the _Viola odorata_ is so universally admired,
that to speak in its favor would be more than superfluous. The demand
for the "essence of violets" is far greater than the manufacturing
perfumers are at present able to supply, and as a consequence, it is
difficult to procure the genuine article through the ordinary sources of

Real violet is, however, sold by many of the retail perfumers of the
West End of London, but at a price that prohibits its use except by the
affluent or extravagant votaries of fashion. The violet farms from
whence the flowers are procured to make this perfume are very extensive
at Nice and Grasse, also in the neighborhood of Florence. The true
smelling principle or otto of violets has never yet been isolated: a
very concentrated solution in alcohol impresses the olfactory nerve with
the idea of the presence of hydrocyanic acid, which is probably a true
impression. Burnett says that the plant _Viola tricolor_ (heart's ease),
when bruised, smells like peach kernels, and doubtless, therefore,
contains prussic acid.

The flowers of the heart's ease are scentless, but the plant evidently
contains a principle which in other species of the Viola, is eliminated
as the "sweet that smells" so beautifully alluded to by Shakspeare.

For commercial purposes, the odor of the violet is procured in
combination with spirit, oil, or suet, precisely according to the
methods previously described for obtaining the aroma of some other
flowers before mentioned, such as those for cassie, jasmine,
orange-flower, namely, by maceration, or by _enfleurage_, the former
method being principally adopted, followed by, when "essence" is
required, digesting the pomade in rectified alcohol.

Good essence of violets, thus made, is of a beautiful green color, and,
though of a rich deep tint, has no power to stain a white fabric, and
its odor is perfectly natural.

The essence of violet, as prepared for retail sale, is thus made,
according to the quality and strength of the pomade:--Take from six to
eight pounds of the violet pomade, chop it up fine, and place it into
one gallon of perfectly clean (free from fusel oil) rectified spirit,
allow it to digest for three weeks or a month, then strain off the
essence, and to every pint thereof add three ounces of tincture of orris
root, and three ounces of esprit de cassie; it is then fit for sale.

We have often seen displayed for sale in druggists' shops plain tincture
of orris root, done up in nice bottles, with labels upon them inferring
the contents to be "Extract of Violet;" customers thus once "taken in"
are not likely to be so a second time.

A good IMITATION ESSENCE OF VIOLETS is best prepared thus--

Spirituous extract of cassie pomade,         1 pint.
Esprit de rose, from pomade,               1/2 "
Tincture of orris,                         1/2 "
Spirituous extract of tuberose pomade,     1/2 "
Otto of almonds,                            3 drops.

After filtration it is fit for bottling. In this mixture, it is the
extract of cassie which has the leading smell, but modified by the rose
and tuberose becomes very much like the violet. Moreover, it has a green
color, like the extract of violet; and as the eye influences the
judgment by the sense of taste, so it does with the sense of smell.
Extract of violet enters largely into the composition of several of the
most popular bouquets, such as extract of spring flowers and many

VITIVERT, or Kus-Kus, is the rhizome of an Indian grass. In the
neighborhood of Calcutta, and in the city, this material has an
extensive use by being manufactured into awnings, blinds, and
sun-shades, called Tatty. During the hot seasons an attendant sprinkles
water over them; this operation cools the apartment by the evaporation
of the water, and, at the same time, perfumes the atmosphere, in a very
agreeable manner, with the odoriferous principle of the vitivert. It has
a smell between the aromatic or spicy odor and that of flowers--if such
a distinction can be admitted. We classify it with orris root, not that
it has any odor resembling it, but because it has a like effect in use
in perfumery, and because it is prepared as a tincture for obtaining its

About four pounds of the dried vitivert, as it is imported, being cut
small and set to steep in a gallon of rectified spirits for a fortnight,
produces the

ESSENCE OF VITIVERT of the shops. In this state it is rarely
used as a perfume, although it is occasionally asked for by those who,
perhaps, have learnt to admire its odor by their previous residence in
"the Eastern clime." The extract, essence, or tincture of vitivert,
enters into the composition of several of the much-admired and old
bouquets manufactured in the early days of perfumery in England, such as
"_Mousselaine des Indies_," for which preparation M. Delcroix, in the
zenith of his fame, created quite a _furor_ in the fashionable world.

[Illustration: Vitivert.]

Essence of vitivert is also made by dissolving 2 oz. of otto of vitivert
in 1 gallon of spirit; this preparation is stronger than the tincture,
as above.

MARECHALE and BOUQUET DU ROI, perfumes which have also
"had their day," owe much of their peculiarity to the vitivert contained
in them.

Bundles of vitivert are sold for perfuming linen and preventing moth,
and, when ground, is used to manufacture certain sachet powders.

Otto of vitivert is procurable by distillation; a hundred-weight of
vitivert yields about 14 oz. of otto, which in appearance very much
resembles otto of santal. I have placed a sample of it in the museum at

VOLKAMERIA.--An exquisite perfume is sold under this name,
presumed, of course, to be derived from the _Volkameria inermis_
(LINDLEY). Whether it has a smell resembling the flower of that
plant, or whether the plant blooms at all, we are unable to say. It is a
native of India, and seems to be little known even in the botanic
gardens of this country; however, the plant has a name, and that's
enough for the versatile Parisian perfumer, and if the mixture he makes
"takes" with the fashionable world--the plant which christens it has a
fine perfume for a certainty!


Esprit de violette,      1 pint.
   "      tubereuse,      1  "
   "      jasmine,      1/4  "
   "      rose,         1/2  "
Essence de muse,           2 oz.

WALLFLOWER (_Cherianthus_).--Exquisite as is the odor of this
flower, it is not used in perfumery, though no doubt it might be, and
very successfully too, were the plant cultivated for that purpose. To
this flower we would direct particular attention, as one well adapted
for experiments to obtain its odoriferous principle in this country, our
climate being good for its production. The mode for obtaining its odor
has been indicated when we spoke of heliotrope, page 60. And if it
answers on the small scale, there is little doubt of success in the
large way, and there is no fear but that the scent of the old English
wallflower will meet with a demand.

An IMITATION ESSENCE OF WALLFLOWER can be compounded thus:--

Extract fleur d'orange,         1 pint.
  "     vanilla,                1/2 "
Esprit de rose,                  1  "
Extract of orris,               1/2 "
  "     cassie,                 1/2 "
Essential oil of almonds,      5 drops.

Allow this mixture to be made up for two or three weeks prior to putting
it up for sale.

WINTER GREEN (_Trientalis Europoea_).--A perfuming otto can
be procured by distilling the leaves of this plant: it is principally
consumed in the perfuming of soaps. Upon the strength of the name of
this odorous plant a very nice handkerchief perfume is made.


Esprit de rose,             1 pint.
Essence of lavender,        1/4 "
Extract of neroli,          1/2 "
  "        vanilla,         1/4 "
  "        vitivert,        1/4 "
  "        cassie,          1/2 "
  "        ambergris,       1/4 "

We have now described all the important odoriferous bodies which are
used by the manufacturing perfumer, as derived from the botanic kingdom;
it may be understood that where an odoriferous material is unnoticed,
it has no qualities peculiar enough to be remarked on, and that the
methods adopted for preparing its essence, extract, water, or oil, are
analogous to those that have been already noticed, that is, by the
processes of _maceration_, _absorption_, or _enfleurage_ for flowers, by
_tincturation_ for roots, and by _distillation_ for seeds, modified
under certain circumstances.

There are, however, three other important derivative odors--ambergris,
civet, and musk--which, being from the animal kingdom, are treated
separately from plant odors, in order, it is considered, to render the
whole matter less confused to manufacturers who may refer to them.
Ammonia and acetic acid, holding an indefinite position in the order we
have laid down, may also come in here without much criticism, being
considered as primitive odors.

On terminating our remarks relating to the simple preparations of the
odors of plants, and before we speak of perfumes of an animal origin, or
of those compound _odors_ sold as bouquets, nosegays, &c., it may
probably be interesting to give a few facts and statistics, showing the
consumption, in England, of the several substances previously named.


Otto of bergamot,                                         28,574
  "  caraway,                                              3,602
  "  cassia,                                               6,163
  "  cloves,                                                 595
Otto of lavender,                                         12,776
  "     lemon,                                            67,348
  "     peppermint,                                       16,059
  "     roses,                                             1,268
  "     spearmint,                                           163
  "     thyme,                                            11,418
  "     lemon grass,                     }
  "     citronella,                      }                47,380
And other ottos not otherwise described, }
Total essential oils or ottos imported in one year,      195,346

at the duty of 1_s._ per pound, yield a revenue annually of 9,766_l._

It would appear by the above return that our consumption of otto of
cloves was exceedingly small; whereas it is probably ten times that
amount. The fact is, several of the English wholesale druggists are very
large distillers of this otto, leaving little or no room for the sale
and importation of foreign distilled otto of cloves. Again, otto of
caraway, the English production of that article is quite equal to the
foreign; also, otto of lavender, which is drawn in this country probably
to the extent of 6000 lbs. annually.

There were also passed through the Custom House for home consumption, in

Pomatums, procured by enfleurage, maceration,
  &c., commonly called "French Pomatums,"
  average value of 6_s._ per pound, and paying
  a duty of 1_s._ per pound, valued by the importers
  at                                                      £1,306
Perfumery not otherwise described; value                  £1,920

Number of bottles of eau de Cologne, paying
a duty of 1_s._ each,[D]                  19,777

Revenue from eau de Cologne manufactured out of England, say 20,000
flacons at 8_d._ = 8,000_l._ annually.

The total revenue derived from various sources, even upon this low scale
of duties, from the substances with which "Britannia perfumes her pocket
handkerchief," cannot be estimated at less than 40,000_l._ per annum.
This, of course, includes the duty upon the spirits used in the home
manufacture of perfumery.



In the previous articles we have only spoken of the odors of plants; we
now enter upon those materials used in perfumery of an animal origin.
The first under our notice is--

AMBERGRIS.--This substance is found in the sea, floating near
the islands of Sumatra, Molucca, and Madagascar; also on the coasts of
America, Brazil, China, Japan, and the Coromandel. The western coast of
Ireland is often found to yield large pieces of this substance. The
shores of the counties of Sligo, Mayo, Kerry, and the isles of Arran,
are the principal places where it has been found. In the "Philosophical
Transactions" there is an account of a lump found on the beach of the
first-mentioned county, in the year 1691, which weighed 52 oz., and was
bought on the spot for 20_l._, but which afterwards was sold in London
for more than 100_l._ (Philos. Trans. No. 227, p. 509). We are quite
within limit in stating that many volumes concerning the origin of
ambergris have been written, but the question respecting it is still at
issue. It is found in the stomachs of the most voracious fishes, these
animals swallowing, at particular times, everything they happen to meet
with. It has been particularly found in the intestines of the spermaceti
whale, and most commonly in sickly fish, whence it is supposed to be the
cause or effect of the disease.

Some authors, and among them Robert Boyle, consider it to be of
vegetable production, and analogous to amber; hence its name
amber-_gris_ (gray) gray amber. It is not, however, within the province
of this work to discuss upon the various theories about its production,
which could probably be satisfactorily explained if our modern
appliances were brought to bear upon the subject. The field is open to
any scientific enthusiast; all recent authors who mention it, merely
quoting the facts known more than a century ago.

A modern compiler, speaking of ambergris, says, "It smells like dried
cow-dung." Never having smelled this latter substance, we cannot say
whether the simile be correct; but we certainly consider that its
perfume is most incredibly overrated; nor can we forget that
HOMBERG found that "a vessel in which he had made a long
digestion of the human fæces had acquired a very strong and perfect
smell of ambergris, insomuch that any one would have thought that a
great quantity of essence of ambergris had been made in it. The perfume
(_odor!_) was so strong that the vessel was obliged to be moved out of
the laboratory." (Mem. Acad. Paris, 1711.)

Nevertheless, as ambergris is extensively used as a perfume, in
deference to those who admire its odor, we presume that it has to many
an agreeable smell.

Like bodies of this kind undergoing a slow decomposition and possessing
little volatility, it, when mixed with other very fleeting scents, gives
permanence to them on the handkerchief, and for this quality the
perfumer esteems it much.


Is only kept for mixing; when retailed it has to be sweetened up to the
public nose; it is then called after the Parisian name


Esprit de rose triple,       1/2 pint.
Extract of ambergris,          1  "
Essence of musk,             1/4  "
Extract of vanilla,          2 ounces.

This perfume has such a lasting odor, that a handkerchief being well
perfumed with it, will still retain an odor even after it has been

The fact is, that both musk and ambergris contain a substance which
clings pertinaciously to woven fabrics, and not being soluble in weak
alkaline lyes, is still found upon the material after passing through
the lavatory ordeal.

Powdered ambergris is used in the manufacture of cassolettes--little
ivory or bone boxes perforated--which are made to contain a paste of
strong-smelling substances, to carry in the pocket or reticule; also in
the making of peau d'Espagne, or Spanish skin, used for perfuming
writing paper and envelopes, and which will be described hereafter.

[Illustration: Civet Cat.]

CIVET.--This substance is secreted by the _Viverra civetta_, or
civet cat. It is formed in a large double glandular receptacle between
the anus and the pudendum of the creature. Like many other substances of
Oriental origin, it was first brought to this country by the Dutch.

When the civet cats are kept in a state of confinement, which at one
time was common in Amsterdam, they are placed in strong cages, so
constructed as to prevent the animal from turning round and biting the
person employed in collecting the secreted substance. This operation is
said to be performed twice a week, and is done by scraping out the civet
with a small spoon: about a drachm at a time is thus obtained. A good
deal of the civet now brought to European markets is from Calicut,
capital of the province of Malabar, and from Bassora on the Euphrates.

In its pure state, civet has, to nearly all persons, a most disgusting
odor; but when diluted to an infinitesimal portion, its perfume is
agreeable. It is difficult to ascertain the reason why the same
substance, modified only by the quantity of matter presented to the
nose, should produce an opposite effect on the olfactory nerve; but such
is the case with nearly all odorous bodies, especially with ottos,
which, if smelled at, are far from nice, and in some cases, positively
nasty--such as otto of neroli, otto of thyme, otto of patchouly; but if
diluted with a thousand times its volume of oil, spirit, &c., then their
fragrance is delightful.

Otto of rose to many has a sickly odor, but when eliminated in the
homeopathic quantities as it rises from a single rose-bloom, who is it
that will not admit that "the rose is sweet?" The odor of civet is best
imparted, not by actual contact, but by being placed in the neighborhood
of absorbent materials. Thus, when spread upon leather, which, being
covered with silk and placed in a writing-desk, perfumes the paper and
envelopes delightfully, and so much so, that they retain the odor after
passing through the post.

EXTRACT OF CIVET is prepared by rubbing in a mortar one ounce
of civet with an ounce of orris-root powder, or any other similar
material that will assist to break up or divide the civet; and then
placing the whole into a gallon of rectified spirits; after macerating
for a month, it is fit to strain off. It is principally used as a
"fixing" ingredient, in mixing essences of delicate odor. The French
perfumers use the extract of civet more than English manufacturers, who
seem to prefer extract of musk. From a quarter of a pint to half a pint
is the utmost that ought to be mixed with a gallon of any other perfume.

CASTOR is a secretion of the _Castor fiber_, or beaver, very
similar to civet. Though we have often heard of its being used in
perfumery, we do not personally know that such is the case.

MUSK.--This extraordinary substance, like civet, is an animal
secretion; it is contained in excretory follicles about the navel of the
male animal. In the perfumery trade these little bags are called "pods,"
and as imported it is called "pod musk." When the musk is separated from
the skin or sack in which it is contained, it is then called "grain

The musk deer (_Moschus moschatus_) is an inhabitant of the great
mountain range which belts the north of India, and branches out into
Siberia, Thibet, and China. And it is also found in the Altaic range,
near Lake Baikal, and in some other mountain ranges, but always on the
borders of the line of perpetual snow. It is from the male animal only
that the musk is produced.

[Illustration: Musk Pod, actual size.]

It formerly was held in high repute as a medicine, and is still so among
Eastern nations. The musk from Boutan, Tonquin, and Thibet, is most
esteemed, that from Bengal is inferior, and from Russia is of still
lower quality. The strength and the quantity produced by a single animal
varies with the season of the year and the age of the animal. A single
musk pod usually contains from two to three drachms of grain musk. Musk
is imported into England from China, in caddies of from 50 to 100 ounces
each. When adulterated with the animal's blood, which is often the case,
it forms into lumps or clots; it is sometimes also mixed with a dark,
friable earth. Those pods in which little pieces of lead are discovered,
as a general rule, yield the finest quality of musk; upon this rule, we
presume that the best musk is the most worthy of adulteration. Musk is
remarkable for the diffusiveness and subtlety of its scent; everything
in its vicinity soon becomes affected by it, and long retains its odor,
although not in actual contact with it.

It is a fashion of the present day for people to say "that they do not
like musk;" but, nevertheless, from great experience in one of the
largest manufacturing perfumatories in Europe, we are of opinion that
the public taste for musk is as great as any perfumer desires. Those
substances containing it always take the preference in ready sale--so
long as the vendor takes care to assure his customer "that there is no
musk in it."

[Illustration: The Musk Deer.]

The perfumer uses musk principally in the scenting of soap, sachet
powder, and in mixing for liquid perfumery. The just reputation of
Paris's original Windsor soap is due, in the main, to its delightful
odor. The soap is, doubtless, of the finest quality, but its perfume
stamps it among the _élite_--its fragrance it owes to musk.

The alkaline reaction of soap is favorable to the development of the
odoriferous principle of musk. If, however, a strong solution of potass
be poured on to grain musk, ammonia is developed instead of the true
musk smell.


Grain musk,                2 oz.
Rectified spirit,      1 gallon.

After standing for one month, at a summer temperature, it is fit to draw
off. Such an extract is that which is used for mixing in other perfumes.
That extract of musk which is prepared for retail sale, is prepared


Extract of musk (as above),       1 pint.
     "     ambergris,             1/2 "
     "   rose triple,             1/4 "

Mix and filter it; it is then fit for bottling.

This preparation is sweeter than pure extract of musk made according to
our first formula, and is also more profitable to the vendor. It will be
seen hereafter that the original extract of musk is principally used for
a fixing ingredient in other perfumes, to give permanence to a volatile
odor; customers requiring, in a general way, that which is incompatible,
namely, that a perfume shall be strong to smell, _i.e._ very volatile,
and that it shall remain upon the handkerchief for a long period,
_ergo_, not volatile! Small portions of extract of musk, mixed with
esprit de rose, violet, tuberose, and others, do, in a measure, attain
this object; that is, after the violet, &c., has evaporated, the
handkerchief still retains an odor, which, although not that of the
original smell, yet gives satisfaction, because it is pleasant to the
nasal organ.


AMMONIA.--Under the various titles of "Smelling Salts,"
"Preston Salts," "Inexhaustible Salts," "Eau de Luce," "Sal Volatile,"
ammonia, mixed with other odoriferous bodies, has been very extensively
consumed as material for gratifying the olfactory nerve.

The perfumer uses liq. amm. fortis, that is, strong liquid ammonia, and
the sesqui-carbonate of ammonia, for preparing the various "salts" that
he sells. These materials he does not attempt to make; in fact, it is
quite out of his province so to do, but he procures them ready for his
hand through some manufacturing chemist. The best preparation for
smelling-bottles is what is termed INEXHAUSTIBLE SALTS, which
is prepared thus:--

Liquid ammonia,                  1 pint.
Otto of rosemary,              1 drachm.
  "     English lavender,      1 "
  "     bergamot,            1/2 "
  "     cloves,              1/2 "

Mix the whole together with agitation in a very strong and
well-stoppered bottle.

This mixture is used by filling the smelling-bottles with any porous
absorbent material, such as asbestos, or, what is better, sponge
cuttings, that have been well beaten, washed, and dried. These cuttings
can be procured at a nominal price from any of the sponge-dealers,
being the trimming or roots of the Turkey sponge, which are cut off
before the merchants send it into the retail market. After the bottles
are filled with the sponge, it is thoroughly saturated with the scented
ammonia, but no more is poured in than the sponge will retain, when the
bottles are inverted; as, if by any chance the ammonia runs out and is
spilt over certain colored fabrics, it causes a stain. When such an
accident happens, the person who sold it is invariably blamed.

When the sponge is saturated properly, it will retain the ammoniacal
odor longer than any other material; hence, we presume, bottles filled
in this way are called "inexhaustible," which name, however, they do not
sustain more than two or three months with any credit; the warm hand
soon dissipates the ammonia under any circumstances, and they require to
be refilled.

For transparent colored bottles, instead of sponge, the perfumers use
what they call insoluble crystal salts (sulphate of potass). The bottles
being filled with crystals, are covered either with the liquid ammonia,
scented as above, or with alcoholic ammonia. The necks of the bottles
are filled with a piece of white cotton; otherwise, when inverted, from
the non-absorbent quality of the crystals, the ammonia runs out, and
causes complaints to be made. The crystals are prettier in colored
bottles than the sponge; but in plain bottles the sponge appears quite
as handsome, and, as before observed, it holds the ammonia better than
any other material. Perfumers sell also what is called WHITE
SMELLING SALTS, and PRESTON SALTS. The White Smelling Salt
is the sesqui-carbonate of ammonia in powder, with which is mixed any
perfuming otto that is thought fit,--lavender otto giving, as a general
rule, the most satisfaction.

PRESTON SALTS, which is the cheapest of all the ammoniacal
compounds, is composed of some easily decomposable salt of ammonia and
lime, such as equal parts of muriate of ammonia, or of sesqui-carbonate
of ammonia, and of fresh-slaked lime. When the bottles are filled with
this compound, rammed in very hard, a drop or two of some cheap otto is
poured on the top prior to corking. For this purpose otto of French
lavender, or otto of bergamot, answers very well. We need scarcely
mention that the corks are dipped into melted sealing-wax, or brushed
over with liquid wax, that is, red or black wax dissolved in alcohol, to
which a small portion of ether is added. The only other compound of
ammonia that is sold in the perfumery trade is Eau de Luce, though
properly it belongs to the druggist. When correctly made--which is very
rarely the case--it retains the remarkable odor of oil of amber, which
renders it characteristic.


Tincture of benzoin: or,    }
   "        balsam of Peru, }       1 oz.
Otto of lavender,               10 drops.
Oil of amber,                    5   "
Liquor ammonia,                     2 oz.

If requisite, strain through cotton wool, but it must not be filtered,
as it should have the appearance of a milk-white emulsion.

ACETIC ACID AND ITS USE IN PERFUMERY.--The pungency of the odor
of vinegar naturally brought it into the earliest use in the art of

The acetic acid, evolved by distilling acetate of copper (verdigris), is
the true "aromatic" vinegar of the old alchemists.

The modern aromatic vinegar is the concentrated acetic acid aromatized
with various ottos, camphor, &c., thus--


Concentrated acetic acid,           8 oz.
Otto of English lavender,      2 drachms.
 "        "     rosemary,       1 drachm.
 "      cloves,                 1   "
 "      camphor,                    1 oz.

First dissolve the bruised camphor in the acetic acid, then add the
perfumes; after remaining together for a few days, with occasional
agitation, it is to be strained, and is then ready for use.

Several forms for the preparation of this substance have been published,
almost all of which, however, appear to complicate and mystify a process
that is all simplicity.

The most popular article of this kind is--


Dried leaves of rosemary, rue, wormwood, sage,
 mint, and lavender flowers, each,                  1/2 oz.
Bruised nutmeg, cloves, angelica root, and
 camphor, each,                                     1/4 oz.
Alcohol (rectified),                                  4 oz.
Concentrated acetic acid,                            16 oz.

Macerate the materials for a day in the spirit; then add the acid, and
digest for a week longer, at a temperature of about 14° C. or 15° C.
Finally, press out the new aromatized acid, and filter it.

As this mixture must not go into the ordinary metallic tincture press,
for the obvious reason of the chemical action that would ensue, it is
best to drain as much of the liquor away as we can, by means of a common
funnel, and then to save the residue from the interstices of the herbs,
by tying them up in a linen cloth, and subjecting them to pressure by
means of an ordinary lemon-squeezer, or similar device.


Concentrated acetic acid,           1 oz.
Otto of roses,                1/2 drachm.

Well shaken together.

It is obvious that vinegars differently perfumed may be made in a
similar manner to the above, by using other ottos in place of the otto
of roses. All these concentrated vinegars are used in the same way as
perfumed ammonia, that is, by pouring three or four drachms into an
ornamental "smelling" bottle, previously filled with crystals of
sulphate of potash, which forms the "sel de vinaigre" of the shops; or
upon sponge into little silver boxes, called vinaigrettes, from their
French origin. The use of these vinegars had their origin in the
presumption of keeping those who carried them from the effects of
infectious disease, doubtless springing out of the story of the "four
thieves' vinegar," which is thus rendered in Lewis's Dispensatory:

"It is said that during the plague at Marseilles, four persons, by the
use of this preservative, attended, unhurt, multitudes of those that
were affected; that under the color of these services, they robbed both
the sick and the dead; and that being afterwards apprehended, one of
them saved himself from the gallows by disclosing the composition of the
prophylactic (a very likely story!!), which was as follows:--


Take fresh tops of common wormwood, Roman
 wormwood, rosemary, sage, mint, and rue, of
 each,                                               3/4 oz.
Lavender flowers,                                      1 oz.
Garlic, calamus aromaticus, cinnamon, cloves,
 and nutmeg, each,                                 1 drachm.
Camphor,                                             1/2 oz.
Alcohol or brandy,                                     1 oz.
Strong vinegar,                                     4 pints.

Digest all the materials, except the camphor and spirit, in a closely
covered vessel for a fortnight, at a summer heat; then express and
filter the vinaigre produced, and add the camphor previously dissolved
in the brandy or spirit."

A very similar and quite as effective a preparation may be made by
dissolving the odorous principle of the plants indicated in a mixture of
alcohol and acetic acid. Such preparations, however, are more within the
province of the druggist than perfumer. There are, however, several
preparations of vinegar which are sold to some extent for mixing with
the water for lavatory purposes and the bath, their vendors endeavoring
to place them in competition with Eau de Cologne, but with little
avail. Among them may be enumerated--


Brandy,                    1 pint.
Otto of cloves,          1 drachm.
 "      lavender,        1   "
 "      marjoram,      1/2 drachm.
Gum benzoin,                 1 oz.

Macerate these together for a few hours, then add--

Brown vinegar,            2 pints.

and strain or filter, if requisite, to be bright.

TOILET VINEGAR (_à la Violette_).

Extract of cassie,            1/2 pint.
  "        orris,             1/4  "
Esprit de rose, triple,       1/4  "
White wine vinegar,            2 pints.

TOILET VINEGAR (_à la Rose_).

Dried rose-leaves,               4 oz.
Esprit de rose, triple,      1/2 pint.
White wine vinegar,           2 pints.

Macerate in a close vessel for a fortnight, then filter and bottle for


To eau de Cologne,            1 pint,
Add, strong acetic acid,      1/2 oz.

Filter if necessary.

Without unnecessarily repeating similar formulæ, it will be obvious to
the reader that vinegar of any flower may be prepared in a similar way
to those above noticed; thus, for vinaigre à la jasmine, or for vinaigre
à la fleur d'orange, we have only to substitute the esprit de jasmine,
or the esprit de fleur d'orange, in place of the Eau de Cologne, to
produce orange-flower or jasmine vinegars; however, these latter
articles are not in demand, and our only reason for explaining how such
preparations may be made, is in order to suggest the methods of
procedure to any one desirous of making them leading articles in their

We perhaps may observe, _en passant_, that where economy in the
production of any of the toilet vinegars is a matter of consideration,
they have only to be diluted with rose-water down to the profitable
strength required.

Any of the perfumed vinegars that are required to produce opalescence,
when mixed with water, must contain some gum-resin, like the hygienic
vinegar, as above. Either myrrh, benzoin, storax, or tolu, answer
equally well.



In the previous articles we have endeavored to explain the mode of
preparing the primitive perfumes--the original odors of plants. It will
have been observed, that while the majority can be obtained under the
form of otto or essential oil, there are others which hitherto have not
been isolated, but exist only in solution in alcohol, or in a fatty
body. Of the latter are included all that are most prized, with the
exception of otto of rose--that diamond among the odoriferous gems.
Practically, we have no essential oils or ottos of Jasmine, Vanilla,
Acacia, Tuberose, Cassie, Syringa, Violets, and others. What we know of
these odors is derived from esprits, obtained from oils or fats, in
which the several flowers have been repeatedly infused, and afterwards
infusing such fats or oils in alcohol. Undoubtedly, these odors are the
most generally pleasing, while those made from the essential oils
(_i.e._ otto), dissolved in spirit, are of a secondary character. The
simple odors, when isolated, are called ESSENTIAL OILS or
OTTOS; when dissolved or existing in solution in alcohol, by
the English they are termed ESSENCES, and by the French
EXTRAITS or ESPRITS; a few exceptions prove this rule.
Essential oil of orange-peel, and of lemon-peel, are frequently termed
in the trade "Essence" of orange and "Essence" of lemons, instead of
essential oil or otto of lemons, &c. The sooner the correct nomenclature
is used in perfumery, as well as in the allied arts, the better, and the
fewer blunders will be made in the dispensatory. It appears to the
writer, that if the nomenclature of these substances were revised, it
would be serviceable; and he would suggest that, as a significant,
brief, and comprehensive term, Otto be used as a prefix to denote that
such and such a body is the odoriferous principle of the plant. We
should then have otto of lavender instead of essential oil of lavender,
&c. &c. In this work it will be seen that the writer has generally used
the word OTTO in place of "essential oil," in accordance with
his views. Where there exists a solution of an essential oil in a fat
oil, the necessity of some such significant distinction is rendered
obvious, for commercially such articles are still called "oils"--oil of
jasmine, oil of roses, &c. It cannot be expected that the public will
use the words "fat" oil and "essential" oil, to distinguish these
differences of composition.

There are several good reasons why the odoriferous principle of plants
should not be denominated oils. In the first place, it is a bad
principle to give any class of substances the same signification as
those belonging to another. Surely, there are enough distinguishing
qualities in their composition, their physical character, and chemical
reaction, to warrant the application of a significant name to that large
class of substances known as the aroma of plants!

When the chemical nomenclature was last revised, the organic bodies
were little dealt with. We know that we owe this universal "oil" to the
old alchemist, much in the same way as "spirit" has been used, but a
little consideration quickly indicates the folly of its continued use.
We can no longer call otto of rosemary, or otto of nutmegs, essential
oil of rosemary or nutmegs, with any more propriety than we can term
sulphuric acid "oil" of vitriol. All the chemical works speak of the
odoriferous bodies as "essential" or "volatile" oils, and of the greasy
bodies as "fat" or "unctuous" oils. Oils, properly so called, unite with
salifiable bases and form soap; whereas the essential or volatile oils,
_i.e._ what we would please to call the ottos, do no such thing. On the
contrary, they unite with acids in the majority of instances.

The word oil must hereafter be confined to those bodies to which its
literal meaning refers--fat, unctuous, inodorous (when pure), greasy
substances--and can no longer be applied to those odoriferous materials
which possess qualities diametrically opposite to oil. We have grappled
with "spirit," and fixed its meaning in a chemical sense; we have no
longer "spirit" of salt, or "spirit" of hartshorn. Let us no longer have
almond oil "essential," almond oil "unctuous," and the like.

It remains only for us to complete the branch of perfumery which relates
to odors for the handkerchief, by giving the formulæ for preparing the
most favorite "bouquets" and "nosegays." These, as before stated, are
but mixtures of the simple ottos in spirit, which, properly blended,
produce an agreeable and characteristic odor,--an effect upon the
smelling nerve similar to that which music or the mixture of harmonious
sounds produces upon the nerve of hearing, that of pleasure.


Extract of tubereuse,               1 pint.
    "      geranium,              1/2 "
    "      acacia,                1/4 "
    "      fleur d'orange,        1/4 "
    "      civet,                 1/4 "


Extract of acacia,                           1 pint.
    "      jasmine,        }
    "      rose triple,    } of each,      1/2 "
    "      fleur d'orange, }
    "      tubereuse,      }
    "      civet,                          1/4 "
Otto of almonds,                           10 drops.


Esprit de rose,         }
    "     jasmine,      } from pomade, of each,      1 pint.
    "     violette,     }
    "     cassie,       }
Extract of musk,      } of each,                   1/2 "
    "      ambergris, }

Mix and filter.


Extrait de jasmine,  }
    "      rose,     } from pomade, of each,      1 pint.
    "      violette, }
    "      tuberose, }
Extract of orris,                                 1 "
Otto of geranium,                                 1/4 oz.


Extrait de fleur d'orange,}
    "      cassie,        } from pomade, of each,       1 pint.
    "      jasmine,       }
    "      rose,          }
Extract of orris,      } of each,                       1/2 "
    "      ambergris,  }
Otto of neroli,                                     1/2 drachm.
   "    lavender,                                    1/2   "
   "    rose,                                          1   "


Extrait de rose,     }
    "      violette, } from pomade, of each,        1 pint.
    "      tuberose, }
Extract of orris,     } of each,                  1/2 "
    "      ambergris, }
Otto of bergamot, }
   "    Limette,  } of each,                        1/4 oz.
   "    cedret,   }


Extrait de rose,     }
    "      violette, } of each,         1 pint.
    "      jasmine,  }
Esprit de rose triple,                  1   "
Extract of musk,      } of each,          1 oz.
    "      ambergris, }
Otto of lemon,     } of each,           1/2 oz.
   "    bergamot,  }
   "    neroli,                       1 drachm.


This is an old-fashioned French perfume, presumed to be derived from the
_Cyperus esculentus_ by some, and by others to be so named after the
Island of Cyprus; the article sold, however, is made thus--

Extract of musk,                          1 pint.
    "      ambergris,    }
    "      vanilla,      } of each,     1/2 "
    "      tonquin bean, }
    "      orris,        }
Esprit de rose triple,                   2 pints.

The mixture thus formed is one of the most lasting odors that can be


Extract of musk,    }
    "      vanilla, } of each,      1/4 pint.
    "      tonquin, }
    "      neroli,  }
    "      geranium,    }
    "      rose triple, } of each,  1/2  "
    "      santal,      }


Extrait de fleur d'orange (from pomade),          1 pint.
Esprit de rose triple,                            1  "
Extract of vitivert, }
    "      vanilla,  } of each,                   2  "
    "      orris,    }
    "      tonquin,  }
Esprit de neroli,                                 1   "
Extract of ambergris,                           1/2   "
Otto of santal,                               1/2 drachm.
   "    cloves,                               1/2     "

Notwithstanding the complex mixture here given, it is the vitivert that
gives this bouquet its peculiar character. Few perfumes have excited
greater _furor_ while in fashion.


The reputation of this perfume has given rise to numerous imitations of
the original article, more particularly on the continent. In many of the
shops in Germany and in France will be seen bottles labelled in close
imitation of those sent out by Bayley and Co., Cockspur Street, London,
who are, in truth, the original makers.

Esprit de rose triple,        1 pint.
Extract of ambergris,           2 oz.
    "      orris,               8  "
Otto of lemons,                1/4 "
   "    bergamot,               1  "

The name "Ess" bouquet, which appears to puzzle some folk, is but a mere
contraction of "essence" of bouquet.

EAU DE COLOGNE. (_La première qualité._)

Spirit (from grape), 60 over proof,      6 gallons.
Otto of neroli, _Petale_,                     3 oz.
   "      "     _Bigarade_,                   1 "
   "    rosemary,                             2 "
   "    orange-peel,                          5 "
   "    citron-peel,                          5 "
   "    bergamot-peel,                        2 "

Mix with agitation; then allow it to stand for a few days perfectly
quiet, before bottling.

EAU DE COLOGNE. (_La deuxième qualité._)

Spirit (from corn),                  6 gallons.
Otto of neroli, _Petit-grain_,            2 oz.
   "       "    _Petale_,               1/2 "
   "    rosemary,                        2  "
   "    orange-peel, }
   "    lemon,       } of each,          4  "
   "    bergamot,    }

Although Eau de Cologne was originally introduced to the public as a
sort of "cure-all," a regular "elixir of life," it now takes its place,
not as a pharmaceutical product, but among perfumery. Of its remedial
qualities we can say nothing, such matter being irrelevant to the
purpose of this book. Considered, however, as a perfume, with the public
taste it ranks very high; and although it is exceedingly volatile and
evanescent, yet it has that excellent quality which is called
"refreshing." Whether this be due to the rosemary or to the spirit, we
cannot say, but think something may be attributed to both. One important
thing relating to Eau de Cologne must not, however, pass unnoticed, and
that is, the quality of the spirit used in its manufacture. The utter
impossibility of making brandy with English spirit in any way to
resemble the real Cognac, is well known. It is equally impossible to
make Eau de Cologne with English spirit, to resemble the original
article. To speak of the "purity" of French spirit, or of the "impurity"
of English spirit, is equally absurd. The fact is, that spirit derived
from grapes, and spirit obtained from corn, have each so distinct and
characteristic an aroma, that the one cannot be mistaken for the other.
The odor of grape spirit is said to be due to the oeanthic ether which
it contains. The English spirit, on the other hand, owes its odor to
fusel oil. So powerful is the oeanthic ether in the French spirit,
that notwithstanding the addition to it of such intensely odoriferous
substances as the ottos of neroli, rosemary, and others, it still gives
a characteristic perfume to the products made containing it, and hence
the difficulty of preparing Eau de Cologne with any spirit destitute of
this substance.

Although very fine Eau de Cologne is often made by merely mixing the
ingredients as indicated in the recipe as above, yet it is better,
first, to mix all the citrine ottos with spirit, and then to distil the
mixture, afterwards adding to the distillate the rosemary and nerolies,
such process being the one adopted by the most popular house at Cologne.

A great many forms for the manufacture of Eau de Cologne have been
published, the authors of some of the recipes evidently having no
knowledge, in a practical sense, of what they were putting by theory on
paper; other venturers, to show their lore, have searched out all the
aromatics of Lindley's Botany, and would persuade us to use absinthe,
hyssop, anise, juniper, marjoram, caraway, fennel, cumin, cardamom,
cinnamon, nutmeg, serpolet, angelica, cloves, lavender, camphor, balm,
peppermint, galanga, lemon thyme, &c. &c. &c.

All these, however, are but hum--! Where it is a mere matter of profit,
and the formula that we have given is too expensive to produce the
article required, it is better to dilute the said Cologne with a weak
spirit, or with rose-water, rather than otherwise alter its form;
because, although weak, the true aroma of the original article is

The recipe of the second quality of Eau de Cologne is given, to show
that a very decent article can be produced with English spirit.


Extract of white rose (see WHITE ROSE),     1 pint.
      "    vanilla,                           1 oz.


Esprit de rose triple,              1 pint.
"  neroli,        }
" acacia,         }
" fleur d'orange, }  of each      1/4  "
"  musk,          }
" orris,          }
"  tonquin,                       1/2 "
Otto of citron                   2 drachms.


Esprit de rose,}
"  tubereuse,  } from pomade, of each,          1 pint.
"  violette,   }
Extract of benzoin,                           1-1/2 oz.
Otto of bergamot,                                  2 "
"  lemon,      }
" orange,      } of each,                        1/2 "


Esprit de rose,         2 pints.
  "       neroli,      1/2 pint.
Extract of vanilla,        2 oz.
   "       orris,          2  "
   " musk,             1/4 pint.
Otto of cloves,      1/2 drachm.


Esprit de rose, from pomade,                2 pints.
  "       rose triple,                       1 pint.
  "       jasmine,  }
  "       violette, } from pomade, each,      1  "
Extract of cassie,                          1/2  "
   "       musk,      }
   "       ambergris, } of each,               2 oz.

JOCKEY CLUB BOUQUET. (_English formula._)

Extract of orris root,                        2 pints.
Esprit de rose, triple,                        1 pint.
  "       rose de pomade,                      1   "
Extrait de cassie,    }
   "       tubereuse, } de pomade, of each     1/2 "
   "       ambergris, }                        1/2 "
Otto of bergamot,                              1/2 oz.

JOCKEY CLUB BOUQUET. (_French formula._)

Esprit de rose, de pomade,       1 pint.
  "       tubereuse,             1   "
  "       cassie,              1/2   "
  "       jasmine,             1/4   "
Extract of civet,                  3 oz.

Independently of the materials employed being different to the original
English recipe, it must be remembered that all the French perfumes are
made of brandy, _i.e._ grape spirit; whereas the English perfumes are
made with corn spirit, which alone modifies their odor. Though good for
some mixtures, yet for others the grape spirit is very objectionable, on
account of the predominance of its own aroma.

We have spoken of the difference in the odor between the English and
French spirit; the marked distinction of British and Parisian perfumes
made according to the same recipes is entirely due to the different
spirits employed. Owing to the strong "bouquet," as the French say, of
their spirit in comparison with ours, the continental perfumers claim a
superiority in the quality of their perfumes. Now, although we candidly
admit that _some_ odors are better when prepared with grape spirit than
with that from corn spirit, yet there are others which are undoubtedly
the best when prepared with spirit derived from the latter source. Musk,
ambergris, civet, violet, tubereuse, and jasmine, if we require to
retain their true aroma when in solution in alcohol, must be made with
the British spirit.

All the citrine odors, verveine, vulnerary waters, Eau de Cologne, Eau
de Portugal, Eau d'Arquebuzade, and lavender, can alone be brought to
perfection by using the French spirit in their manufacture. If extract
of jasmine, or extract of violet, &c., be made with the French or brandy
spirit, the true characteristic odor of the flower is lost to the
olfactory nerve--so completely does the oeanthic ether of the grape
spirit hide the flowery aroma of the otto of violet in solution with it.
This solves the paradox that English extract of violet and its
compounds, "spring flowers," &c., is at all times in demand on the
Continent, although the very flowers with which we make it are grown

On the contrary, if an English perfumer attempts to make Eau de
Portugal, &c., to bear any comparison as a fine odor to that made by
Lubin, of Paris, without using grape spirit, his attempts will prove a
failure. True, he makes Eau de Portugal even with English corn spirit,
but judges of the article--and they alone can stamp its merit--discover
instantly the same difference as the connoisseur finds out between
"Patent British" and foreign brandy.

Perhaps it may not be out of place here to observe that what is sold in
this country as British brandy is in truth grape spirit, that is,
foreign brandy very largely diluted with English spirit! By this scheme,
a real semblance to the foreign brandy flavor is maintained; the
difference in duty upon English and foreign spirit enables the makers of
the "capsuled" article to undersell those who vend the unsophisticated

Some chemists, not being very deep in the "tricks of trade," have
thought that some flavoring, or that oeanthic ether, was used to
impart to British spirit the Cognac aroma. An article is even in the
market called "Essence of Cognac," but which is nothing more than very
badly made butyric ether.

On the Continent a great deal of spirit is procured by the fermentation
of the molasses from beet-root; this, of course, finds its way into the
market, and is often mixed with the grape spirit; so, also, in England
we have spirit from potatoes, which is mixed in the corn spirit. These
adulterations, if we may so term it, modify the relative odors of the
primitive alcohols.


Extract of rose triple, }
    "      vitivert,    }
    "      patchouly,   } of each,      1/2 pint.
    "      cedar,       }
    "      santal,      }
    "      vervaine,                    1/4  "


Esprit de neroli (_Petale_),                     1 pint.
    "     cassie,    }
    "     tubereuse, } from pomade, of each,     1/2 "
    "     jasmine,   }
    "     geranium,                              1/2 "
    "     musk,      } of each,                    3 oz.
    "     ambergris, }


Esprit de rose triple,                              1 pint.
    "     rose de pomade,}
    "     tubereuse,     }
    "     jasmine,       } from pomade, of each,     1/2 "
    "     fleur d'orange,}
    "     cassie,        }
    "     violette,      }
Extract of cedar,                                    1/4 "
Extract of vanilla,   }
    "      ambergris, } of each,                      2 oz.
    "      musk,      }
Otto of almonds, }
   "    neroli,  } of each,                       10 drops.
   "    cloves,  }
   "    bergamot,                                     1 oz.

These ingredients are to remain together for at least a fortnight, then
filtered prior to sale.


Essence of lavender (_Mitcham_),           1/2 pint.
Eau des millefleurs,                         1  "


Spirits from grape,                       1 pint.
French otto of lavender,                    1 oz.
Extract of ambergris,                       2 oz.

The original "lavender aux millefleurs" is that of Delcroix; its
peculiar odor is due to the French otto of lavender, which, although
some folks like it, is very inferior to the English otto of lavender;
hence the formula first given is far superior to that by the inventor,
and has almost superseded the original preparations.

There are several other compounds or bouquets of which lavender is the
leading ingredient, and from which they take their name, such as
lavender and ambergris, lavender and musk, lavender and maréchale, &c.,
all of which are composed of fine spirituous essences of lavender, with
about 15 per cent. of any of the other ingredients.


Esprit de rose triple,     }
                           } of each,      1 pint.
Extrait de fleur d'orange, }

     "      vitivert,  }
     "      vanilla,   }
     "      orris,     } of each,          1/2 "
     "      tonquin,   }
Esprit de neroli,      }
Extract of musk,      } of each,         1/4 pint.
    "      ambergris, }
Otto of cloves, } of each,             1/2 drachm.
   "    santal, }


Bouquet maréchale,                                1 pint.
Extrait de cassie,   }
    "      jasmine,  } from pomade, of each,      1/2 "
    "      tubereuse,}
    "      rose,     }
Otto of santal,                                 2 drachms.


Extrait de tubereuse,                         1 pint.
    "      rose de pomade,                    1   "
    "      rose triple,                       1   "
Extract of musk,      } of each,              1/4 "
    "      ambergris, }
Otto of cloves,                          1-1/2 drachm.
   "    bergarmot,                             1/2 oz.


Extrait de jasmine,        }
    "      tubereuse,      } of each,         1/2 pint.
    "      cassie,         }
    "      fleur d'orange, }
Otto of almonds,                              10 drops.
   "    nutmegs,                              10   "
Extract of civet,                             1/4 pint.


Extract of rose (de pomade), }
    "      jasmine,          } of each,       1/2 pint.
    "      fleur d'orange,   }
    "      cassie,           }
    "      vanilla,                           1    "
Otto of almonds,                            1/4 drachm.


Extrait de rose, triple, }
    "      santal,       } of each,               1/2 pint.
    "      vitivert,     }
    "      patchouly,    }
    "      verbena,                               1/8  "


Countries wherein the Odors
  are produced.
TURKEY,         Esprit de rose triple,            1/2 pint.
AFRICA,         Extract of jasmine,               1/2  "
ENGLAND,            "      lavender,              1/4  "
FRANCE,             "      tubereuse,             1/2  "
SOUTH AMERICA,      "      vanilla,               1/4  "
TIMOR,              "      santal,                1/4  "
ITALY,              "      violet,                1    "
HINDOOSTAN,         "      patchouly,             1/4  "
CEYLON,         Otto of citronella,               1 drachm.
SARDINIA,           "      lemons,                  1/4 oz.
TONQUIN,        Extract of musk,                  1/4 pint.


Extract of orris,                                 1/2 pint.
    "      vitivert,                              1/4  "
    "      santal,                                1    "
    "      rose,                                  1/2  "


Extract of jasmine, }
    "      violet,  } from pomade, of each,         1 pint.
    "      rose     }
    "      vanilla,  } of each,                   1/4 pint.
    "      vitivert, }
    "      musk,      } of each,                      1 oz.
    "      ambergris, }
Otto of bergamot,                                     1 oz.
   "    cloves,                                   1 drachm.


Esprit de rose,      } from pomade, of each,      1 pint.
Extrait de violette, }
    "      tubereuse,                           1/2 "
    "      fleur d'orange,                      1/4 "
Otto of bergamot,                                 1/4 oz.


The perfume bearing the above name is undoubtedly one of the most
gratifying to the smelling nerve that has ever been made. Its inventors,
Messrs. Hannay and Dietrichsen, have probably taken the _name_ of this
odor from the _Rondeletia_, the _Chyn-len_ of the Chinese; or from the
R. odorata of the West Indies, which has a sweet odor. We have before
observed that there is a similarity of effect upon the olfactory nerve
produced by certain odors, although derived from totally different
sources: that, for instance, otto of almonds may be mixed with extract
of violet in such proportion that, although the odor is increased, yet
the character peculiar to the violet is not destroyed. Again: there are
certain odors which, on being mixed in due proportion, produce a new
aroma, perfectly distinct and peculiar to itself. This effect is
exemplified by comparison with the influence of certain colors when
mixed, upon the nerve of vision: such, for instance, as when yellow and
blue are mixed, the result we call green; or when blue and red are
united, the compound color is known as puce or violet.

Now when the odor of lavender and odor of cloves are mixed, they produce
a new fragrance, _i.e._ Rondeletia! It is such combinations that
constitute in reality "a new perfume," which, though often advertised,
is very rarely attained. Jasmine and patchouly produce a novel aroma,
and many others in like manner; proportion and relative strength, when
so mixed, must of course be studied, and the substances used
accordingly. If the same quantity of any given otto be dissolved in a
like proportion of spirit, and the solution be mixed in equal
proportions, the strongest odor is instantly indicated by covering or
hiding the presence of the other. In this way we discover that
patchouly, lavender, neroli, and verbena are the most potent of the
vegetable odors, and that violet, tubereuse, and jasmine are the most

Many persons will at first consider that we are asking too much, when we
express a desire to have the same deference paid to the olfactory nerve,
as to the other nerves that influence our physical pleasures and pains.
By tutoring the olfactory nerve, it is capable of perceiving matter in
the atmosphere of the most subtle nature: not only that which is
pleasant, but also such as are unhealthful. If an unpleasant odor is a
warning to seek a purer atmosphere, surely it is worth while to
cultivate that power which enables us to act up to that warning for the
general benefit of health.

To return, however, to Rondeletia: it will be seen by the annexed
formulæ, that, besides the main ingredients to which it owes its
peculiar character--that is, cloves and lavender--it contains musk,
vanilla, &c. These substances are used in these as in nearly all other
bouquets for the sole purpose of fixing the more volatile odors to the


Spirit (brandy 60 o.p.),                        1 gallon.
Otto of lavender,                                   2 oz.
  "     cloves,                                     1 oz.
  "     roses,                                 3 drachms.
  "     bergamot,                                   1 oz.
Extract of musk,    }
  "      vanilla,   } each,                     1/4 pint.
  "      ambergris, }

The mixture must be made at least a month before it is fit for sale.
Very excellent Rondeletia may also be made with English spirit.


Extract of rose (from pomade),                  1 pint.
Esprit de rose, triple,                         1/2 "
Extract of jasmine,   } from pomade, each,      1/2 "
  "        violet,    }
  "        verbena,   }  each,                2-1/2 oz.
  "        cassie,    }
Otto of lemons,       }  each,                  1/4 oz.
  "     bergamot,     }
Extract of musk,      }  each,                    1 oz.
  "        ambergris, }


Extract of tubereuse, }
  "        jasmine,   } from pomade, each,      1 pint.
  "        cassie,    }
  "        rose,      }
  "        vanilla,                               5 oz.
  "        musk,      } each,                     2 oz.
  "        ambergris, }
Otto of bergamot,                               1/4 oz.
  "     cloves,                               1 drachm.


Extract of rose,        } from pomade, each,      1 pint.
  "        violet,      }
  "        rose, triple,                        2-1/2 oz.
  "        cassie,                              2-1/2 oz.
Otto of bergamot,                              2 drachms.
Extract of ambergris,                               1 oz.

The just reputation of this perfume places it in the first rank of the
very best mixtures that have ever been made by any manufacturing
perfumer. Its odor is truly flowery, but peculiar to itself. Being
unlike any other aroma it cannot well be imitated, chiefly because there
is nothing that we are acquainted with that at all resembles the odor of
the esprit de rose, as derived from macerating rose pomade in spirit, to
which, and to the extract of violet, nicely counterpoised, so that
neither odor predominates, the peculiar character of "Spring Flowers" is
due; the little ambergris that is present gives permanence to the odor
upon the handkerchief, although from the very nature of the ingredients
it may be said to be a fleeting odor. "Spring Flowers" is an
Englishman's invention, but there is scarcely a perfumer in Europe that
does not attempt an imitation.


Nearly all the tulip tribe, although beautiful to the eye, are
inodorous. The variety called the Duc Van Thol, however, yields an
exquisite perfume, but it is not used by the manufacturer for the
purpose of extracting its odor. He, however, borrows its poetical name,
and makes an excellent imitation thus:--

Extract of tubereuse, } from pomade each,       1 pint.
  "        violet,    }
  "        rose,                                1/2 "
  "        orris,                                 3 oz.
Otto of almonds,                               3 drops.


Under the head Violet, we have already explained the method of preparing
the extract or essence of that modest flower. The Parisian perfumers
sell a mixture of violet, which is very beautiful, under the title of
the Violet des Bois, or the Wood Violet, which is made thus:--

Extract of violet,                             1 pint.
"          orris,                                3 oz.
"          cassie,                               3 oz.
"          rose (from pomade)                    3 oz.
Otto of almonds,                              3 drops.

This mixture, in a general way, gives more satisfaction to the customer
than the pure violet.


Alcohol,                                      1 pint.
Otto of neroli,    }
"       rose,      }  each,                   1/4 oz.
"       lavender,  }
"       bergamot,  }
"       cloves,                              8 drops.
Extract of orris,                             1 pint.
"          jasmine, }  each,                  1/4 "
"          cassie,  }
"          musk,      }  each,              2-1/2 oz.
"          ambergris, }


Extract of santal,                     1 pint.
   "       neroli,                     1   "
   "       jasmine,     } each,      1/2   "
   "       rose triple, }
   "       vanilla,                  1/4   "
Flowers of benzoin,                    1/4 oz.

We have now completed the branch of the Art of Perfumery which relates
to handkerchief perfumes, or wet perfumery. Although we have rather too
much encroached upon the space of this work in giving the composition of
so many bouquets, yet there are many left unnoticed which are popular.
Those that are given are noted more particularly for the peculiar
character of their odor, and are selected from more than a thousand
recipes that have been practically tried.

Those readers who require to know anything about the simple extracts of
flowers are referred to them under their respective alphabetical titles.


The previous articles have exclusively treated of Wet Perfumes; the
present matter relates, to Dry Perfumes,--sachet powders, tablets,
pastilles, fumigation by the aid of heat of volatile odorous resins, &c.
&c. The perfumes used by the ancients were, undoubtedly, nothing more
than the odoriferous gums which naturally exude from various trees and
shrubs indigenous to the Eastern hemisphere: that they were very
extensively used and much valued, we have only to read the Scriptures
for proofs:--"Who is this that cometh ... perfumed with myrrh and
frankincense, with all the powders of the merchant?" (Song of Solomon,
3:6.) Abstaining from the use of perfume in Eastern countries is
considered as a sign of humiliation:--"The Lord will take away the
tablets, and it shall come to pass that instead of a sweet smell there
shall be a stink." (Exod. 35:22; Isaiah 3:20, 24.) The word tablets in
this passage means perfume boxes, curiously inlaid, made of metal, wood,
and ivory. Some of these boxes may have been made in the shape of
buildings, which would explain the word _palaces_, in Psalm 14:8:--"All
thy garments smell of myrrh, and aloes, and cassia, out of the ivory
palaces, whereby they have made thee glad." From what is said in Matt.
2:11, it would appear that perfumes were considered among the most
valuable gifts which man could bestow;--"And when they (the wise men)
had opened their treasures, they presented unto him (Christ) gifts;
gold, and frankincense, and myrrh." As far as we are able to learn, all
the perfumes used by the Egyptians and Persians during the early period
of the world were _dry_ perfumes, consisting of spikenard (_Nardostachys
jatamansi_), myrrh, olibanum, and other gum-resins, nearly all of which
are still in use by the manufacturers of odors. Among the curiosities
shown at Alnwick Castle is a vase that was taken from an Egyptian
catacomb. It is full of a mixture of gum-resin, &c., which evolve a
pleasant odor to the present day, although probably 3000 years old. We
have no doubt that the original use of this vase and its contents were
for perfuming apartments, in the same way that pot pourri is now used.


The French and English perfumers concoct a great variety of these
substances, which being put into silk bags, or ornamental envelopes,
find a ready sale, being both good to smell and economical as a means of
imparting an agreeable odor to linen and clothes as they lie in drawers.
The following formula shows their composition. Every material is either
to be ground in a mill, or powdered in a mortar, and afterwards sifted.


Ground rose-wood,                           1 lb.
  "      cedar-wood,                        1 lb.
  "      santal-wood,                       1 lb.
Otto of rhodium, or otto of rose,      3 drachms.

Mix and sift; it is then fit for sale.


Orris-root powder,                     3 lbs.
Vitivert powder,                      1/4 lb.
Santal-wood powder,                   1/4 lb.
Otto of neroli,     }
 "      rose,       } of each,      1 drachm.
 "      santal,     }
Musk-pods, ground,                      1 oz.

The name of this sachet has been handed down to us as being derived from
a Roman of the noble family of Frangipani. Mutio Frangipani was an
alchemist, evidently of some repute, as we have another article called
rosolis, or ros-solis, _sun-dew_, an aromatic spirituous liquor, used as
a stomachic, of which he is said to be the inventor, composed of wine,
in which is steeped coriander, fennel, anise, and musk.


Powdered orris,                    2 lbs.
Rose leaves, ground,                1 lb.
Tonquin beans, ground,            1/2 lb.
Vanilla beans,                    1/4 lb.
Grain musk,                       1/4 oz.
Otto of almonds,                 5 drops.

Well mixed by sifting in a coarse sieve, it is fit for sale.

It is one of the best sachets made, and is so perfectly _au naturel_ in
its odor to the flower from which it derives its name, that no person
unacquainted with its composition would, for an instant, believe it to
be any other than the "real thing."


Lavender flowers, ground,           1 lb.
Gum benzoin, in powder,           1/4 lb.
Otto of lavender,                 1/4 oz.


Powder of santal-wood,            1/2 lb.
   "      orris-root,             1/2 lb.
Rose-leaves, ground,              1/4 lb.
Cloves, ground,                   1/4 lb.
Cassia-bark,                      1/4 lb.
Grain musk,                   1/2 drachm.


Vitivert, in powder,                        1 lb.
Santal-wood, }
Orris,       } each,                      1/2 lb.
Black-currant leaves (_casse_),           1/2 lb.
Benzoin, in powder,                       1/4 lb.
Otto of thyme,                           5 drops.
 "      roses,                        1/2 drachm.


Lavender-flowers, ground, }
Orris,                    } each,             1 lb.
Rose-leaves,              }
Benzoin,                  }
Tonquin,                     }
Vanilla,                     } each,        1/4 lb.
Santal,                      }
Musk and civet,                          2 drachms.
Cloves, ground,                             1/4 lb.
Cinnamon,       } each,                       2 oz.
Allspice,       }


Dried orange-peel,                    1 lb.
 " lemon-peel,                      1/2 lb.
 " orris-root,                      1/2 lb.
Otto of orange-peel,                  1 oz.
 "  neroli,                     1/4 drachm.
 "  lemon-grass,                1/4   "


Patchouly herb, ground,                   1 lb.
Otto of patchouly,                  1/4 drachm.

Patchouly herb is often sold in its natural state, as imported, tied up
in bundles of half a pound each.


This is a mixture of dried flowers and spices _not_ ground.

Dried lavender,                     1 lb.
Whole rose-leaves,                  1 lb.
Crushed orris (coarse),           1/2 lb.
Broken cloves,   }
  "    cinnamon, } each,            2 oz.
  "    allspice, }
Table salt,                         1 lb.

We need scarcely observe that the salt is only used to increase the bulk
and weight of the product, in order to sell it cheap.


This is a similar preparation to pot pourri. No regular form can be
given for it, as it is generally made, or "knocked up," with the refuse
and spent materials derived from other processes in the manufacture of
perfumery; such as the spent vanilla after the manufacture of tincture
or extract of vanilla, or of the grain musk from the extract of musk,
orris from the tincture, tonquin beans, after tincturation, &c. &c.,
mixed up with rose-leaves, lavender, or any odoriferous herbs.


Rose heels or leaves,        1 lb.
Santal-wood, ground,       1/2 lb.
Otto of roses,             1/4 oz.


This is a good and economical sachet, and simply consists of the ground
wood. Santal-wood is to be purchased from some of the wholesale
drysalters; the drug-grinders are the people to reduce it to powder for
you--any attempt to do so at home will be found unavailable, on account
of its toughness.

SACHET (_without a name_).

Dried thyme,        }
  " lemon thyme,    } of each,   1/4 lb.
  " mint,           }
  " marjoram,       }
  " lavender,                    1/2 lb.
  " rose heels,                    1 lb.
Ground cloves,                     2 oz.
Allspice,                          2 oz.
Musk in grain,                 1 drachm.


Lemon-peel, dried and ground,       1 lb.
  "  thyme,                       1/4 lb.
Otto of lemon-grass,            1 drachm.
  "      "    peel,               1/2 oz.
  "     bergamot,                   1 oz.


The fibrous roots of the _Anthoxanthum muricatum_ being ground,
constitute the sachet, bearing the name as above, derived from the
Tamool name, _vittie vayer_, and by the Parisian _vetiver_. Its odor
resembles myrrh. Vitivert is more often sold tied up in bunches, as
imported from India, than ground, and is used for the prevention of
moth, rather than as a perfume.


Black-currant leaves (_casse_),              1 lb.
Rose heels or leaves,                        1 lb.
Orris-root powder,                          2 lbs.
Otto of almonds,                       1/4 drachm.
Grain musk,                              1     "
Gum benzoin, in powder,                    1/2 lb.

Well mix the ingredients by sifting; keep them together for a week in a
glass or porcelain jar before offering for sale.

There are many other sachets manufactured besides those already given,
but for actual trade purposes there is no advantage in keeping a greater
variety than those named. There are, however, many other substances used
in a similar way; the most popular is the


Peau d'Espagne, or Spanish skin, is nothing more than highly perfumed
leather. Good sound pieces of wash leather are to be steeped in a
mixture of ottos, in which are dissolved some odoriferous gum-resins,
thus:--Otto of neroli, otto of rose, santal, of each half an ounce; otto
of lavender, verbena, bergamot, of each a quarter of an ounce; otto of
cloves and cinnamon, of each two drachms; with any others thought fit.
In this mixture dissolve about two ounces of gum benzoin; now place the
skin to steep in it for a day or so, then hang it over a line to dry. A
paste is now to be made by rubbing in a mortar one drachm of civet with
one drachm of grain musk, and enough solution of gum acacia or gum
tragacantha to give it a spreading consistence; a little of any of the
ottos that may be left from the steep stirred in with the civet, &c.,
greatly assists in making the whole of an equal body; the skin being cut
up into pieces of about four inches square are then to be spread over,
plaster fashion, with the last-named compost; two pieces being put
together, having the civet plaster inside them, are then to be placed
between sheets of paper, weighed or pressed, and left to dry thus for a
week; finally, each double skin, now called peau d'Espagne, is to be
enveloped in some pretty silk or satin, and finished off to the taste of
the vender.

Skin or leather thus prepared evolves a pleasant odor for years, and
hence they are frequently called "the inexhaustible sachet." Being
flat, they are much used for perfuming writing-paper.

The lasting odor of Russia leather is familiar to all and pleasing to
many; its perfume is due to the aromatic saunders-wood with which it is
tanned, and to the empyreumatic oil of the bark of the birch tree, with
which it is curried. The odor of Russia leather is, however, not
_recherché_ enough to be considered as a perfume; but, nevertheless,
leather can be impregnated by steeping in the various ottos with any
sweet scent, and which it retains to a remarkable degree, especially
with otto of santal or lemon-grass (_Verbena_). In this manner the odor
of the peau d'Espagne can be greatly varied, and gives great
satisfaction, on account of the permanence of its perfume.


If a piece of peau d'Espagne be placed in contact with paper, the latter
absorbs sufficient odor to be considered as "perfumed;" it is obvious
that paper for writing upon must not be touched with any of the odorous
tinctures or ottos, on account of such matters interfering with the
fluidity of the ink and action of the pen; therefore, by the process of
infection, as it were, alone can writing paper be perfumed to advantage.

Besides the sachets mentioned there are many other substances applied as
dry perfumes, such as scented wadding, used for quilting into all sorts
of articles adapted for use in a lady's boudoir. Pincushions, jewel
cases, and the like are lined with it. Cotton, so perfumed, is simply
steeped in some strong essence of musk, &c.


We have seen that leather can be impregnated with odoriferous
substances, in the manufacture of peau d'Espagne; just so is card-board
treated prior to being made up into book-marks. In finishing them for
sale, taste alone dictates their design; some are ornamented with beads,
others with embroidery.


Cassolettes and Printaniers are little ivory boxes, of various designs,
perforated in order to allow the escape of the odors contained therein.
The paste used for filling these "ivory palaces whereby we are made
glad," is composed of equal parts of grain musk, ambergris, seeds of the
vanilla-pod, otto of roses, and orris powder, with enough gum acacia, or
gum tragacantha, to work the whole together into a paste. These things
are now principally used for perfuming the pocket or reticule, much in
the same way that ornamental silver and gold vinagrettes are used.


There is no doubt whatever that the origin of the use of pastils, or
pastilles, as they are more often called, from the French, has been
derived from the use of incense at the altars of the temples during the
religious services:--"According to the custom of the priest's office,
his lot (Zacharias') was to burn incense when he went into the temple
of the Lord." (Luke 1:9.) "And thou shalt make an altar to burn
incense.... And Aaron shall burn thereon sweet incense every morning
when he dresseth the lamps, and at even when he lighteth the lamps he
shall burn incense upon it." (Exodus 30.)

An analogous practice is in use to the present day in the Roman Catholic
churches, but, instead of being consumed upon an altar, the incense is
burned in a censer, as doubtless many of our readers have seen. "As soon
as the signal was given by the chief priest the incense was kindled, the
holy place was filled with perfume, and the congregation without joined
in prayers." (_Carpenters Temple service of the Hebrews._)


"On the walls of every temple in Egypt, from Meröe to Memphis, the
censer is depicted smoking before the presiding deity of the place; on
the walls of the tombs glow in bright colors the preparation of spices
and perfumes." In the British Museum there is a vase (No. 2595) the body
of which is intended to contain a lamp, the sides being perforated to
admit the heat from the flame to act upon the projecting tubes; which
are intended to contain ottos of flowers placed in the small vases at
the end of the tubes; the heat volatilizes the ottos, and quickly
perfumes an apartment. This vase or censer is from an Egyptian catacomb.

[Illustration: The Censer.]

The Censer, as used in the "holy places," is made either of brass,
German silver, or the precious metals; its form somewhat resembles a
saucer and an inverted cup, which latter is perforated, to allow the
escape of the perfume. In the outer saucer is placed an inner one of
copper, which can be taken out and filled with ignited charcoal. When in
use, the ignited carbon is placed in the censer, and is then covered
with the incense; the heat rapidly volatilizes it in visible fumes. The
effect is assisted by the incense-bearer swinging the censer, attached
to three long chains, in the air. The manner of swinging the censer
varies slightly in the churches in Rome, in France, and in England, some
holding it above the head. At LA MADELEINE the method is always
to give the censer a full swing at the greatest length of the chains
with the right hand, and to catch it up short with the left hand.

Several samples of "incense prepared for altar service," as sent out by
Mr. Martin, of Liverpool, appear to be nothing more than gum olibanum,
of indifferent quality, and not at all like the composition as
especially commanded by God, the form for which is given in full in

The pastils of the moderns are really but a very slight modification of
the incense of the ancients. For many years they were called Osselets of
Cyprus. In the old books on pharmacy a certain mixture of the then known
gum-resins was called Suffitus, which being thrown upon hot ashes
produced a vapor which was considered to be salutary in many diseases.

It is under the same impression that pastils are now used, or at least
to cover the _mal odeur_ of the sick-chamber.

There is not much variety in the formula of the pastils that are now in
use; we have first the


Santal-wood, in powder,                 1 lb.
Gum benzoin,                        1-1/2 lb.
 "  Tolu,                             1/4 lb.
Otto of santal,      }
 "      cassia,      } each,       3 drachms.
 "      cloves,      }
Nitrate of potass,                  1-1/2 oz.
Mucilage of tragacantha, q.s. to make the whole into a stiff paste.

The benzoin, santal-wood, and Tolu, are to be powdered and mixed by
sifting them, adding the ottos. The nitre being dissolved in the
mucilage, is then added. After well beating in a mortar, the pastils are
formed in shape with a pastil mould, and gradually dried.

The Chinese josticks are of a similar composition, but contain no Tolu.
Josticks are burned as incense in the temples of the Buddahs in the
Celestial Empire, and to such an extent as to greatly enhance the value
of santal-wood.


Benzoin,     }
Cascarilla,  }  of each,      1/4 lb.
Myrrh,                      1-1/4 oz.
Charcoal,                   1-1/2 lb.
Otto of nutmegs, } of each,
  "     cloves,  }            3/4 oz.
Nitre,                          2 oz.

Mix as in the preceding.


Well-burned charcoal,            1 lb.
Benzoin,                       3/4 lb.
Tolu,           }
Vanilla pods,   } of each,     1/4 lb.
Cloves,         }
Otto of santal, }
  "     neroli, } of each,       2 dr.
Nitre,                       1-1/2 oz.
Mucilage tragacantha,          _q.s._


Willow charcoal,             1/2 lb.
Benzoic acid,                  6 oz.
Otto of thyme,   }
  "     caraway, }
  "     rose,    } of each,  1/2 dr.
  "     lavender,}
  "     cloves,  }
  "     santal,  }

Prior to mixing, dissolve 3/4 oz. nitre in half a pint of distilled or
ordinary rose water; with this solution thoroughly wet the charcoal, and
then allow it to dry in a warm place.

When the thus nitrated charcoal is quite dry, pour over it the mixed
ottos, and stir in the flowers of benzoin. When well mixed by sifting
(the sieve is a better tool for mixing powders than the pestle and
mortar), it is finally beaten up in a mortar, with enough mucilage to
bind the whole together, and the less that is used the better.

A great variety of formulæ have been published for the manufacture of
pastils; nine-tenths of them contain some woods or bark, or aromatic
seeds. Now, when such substances are burned, the chemist knows that if
the ligneous fibre contained in them undergoes combustion--the slow
combustion--materials are produced which have far from a pleasant odor;
in fact, the smell of burning wood predominates over the volatilized
aromatic ingredients; it is for this reason alone that charcoal is used
in lieu of other substances. The use of charcoal in a pastil is merely
for burning, producing, during its combustion, the heat required to
quickly volatilize the perfuming material with which it is surrounded.
The product of the combustion of charcoal is inodorous, and therefore
does not in any way interfere with the fragrance of the pastil. Such is,
however, not the case with any ingredients that may be used that are not
in themselves perfectly volatile by the aid of a small increment of
heat. If combustion takes place, which is always the case with all the
aromatic woods that are introduced into pastils, we have, besides the
volatilized otto which the wood contains, all the compounds naturally
produced by the slow burning of ligneous matter, spoiling the true odor
of the other ingredients volatilized.

There are, it is true, certain kinds of fumigation adopted occasionally
where these products are the materials sought. By such fumigation, as
when brown paper is allowed to smoulder (undergo slow combustion) in a
room for the purpose of covering bad smells. By the quick combustion of
tobacco, that is, combustion with flame, there is no odor developed, but
by its slow combustion, according to the method adopted by those who
indulge in "the weed," the familiar aroma, "the cloud," is generated,
and did not exist ready formed in the tobacco. Now a well-made pastil
should not develope any odor of its own, but simply volatilize that
fragrant matter, whatever it be, used in its manufacture. We think that
the fourth formula given above carries out that object.

It does not follow that the formulæ that are here given produce at all
times the odor that is most approved; it is evident that in pastils, as
with other perfumes, a great deal depends upon taste. Many persons very
much object to the aroma of benzoin, while they greatly admire the fumes
of cascarilla.


Shortly after the discovery of the peculiar property of spongy platinum
remaining incandescent in the vapor of alcohol, the late Mr. I. Deck, of
Cambridge, made a very ingenious application of it for the purpose of
perfuming apartments. An ordinary spirit lamp is filled with Eau de
Cologne, and "trimmed" with a wick in the usual manner. Over the centre
of the wick, and standing about the eighth of an inch above it, a small
ball of spongy platinum is placed, maintained in its position by being
fixed to a thin glass rod, which is inserted into the wick.

[Illustration: Perfume Lamp.]

Thus arranged, the lamp is to be lighted and allowed to burn until the
platinum becomes red hot; the flame may then be blown out, nevertheless
the platinum remains incandescent for an indefinite period. The
proximity of a red-hot ball to a material of the physical quality of Eau
de Cologne, diffused over a surface of cotton wick, as a matter of
course causes its rapid evaporation, and as a consequence the diffusion
of odor.

Instead of the lamp being charged with Eau de Cologne, we may use Eau de
Portugal, vervaine, or any other spirituous essence. Several perfumers
make a particular mixture for this purpose, which is called


Eau de Cologne,                          1 pint.
Tincture of benzoin,                       2 oz.
   "        vanilla,                       1 oz.
Otto of thyme,  }
   "    mint,   } of each,           1/2 drachm.
   "    nutmeg, }

Another form, called


Rectified spirit,                        1 pint.
Benzoic acid,                            1/2 oz.
Otto of thyme,   } of each,            1 drachm.
   "    caraway, }
   "    bergamot,                          2 oz.

Persons who are in the habit of using the perfume lamps will, however
frequently observe that, whatever difference there may be in the
composition of the fluid introduced into the lamp, there is a degree of
similarity in the odor of the result when the platinum is in action.
This arises from the fact, that so long as there is the vapor of
alcohol, mixed with oxygen-air, passing over red-hot platinum, certain
definite products always result, namely, acetic acid, aldehyde, and
acetal, which are formed more or less and impart a peculiar and rather
agreeable fragrance to the vapor, but which overpowers any other odor
that is present.


There are two modes of preparing this article:--

1. Take sheets of light cartridge paper, and dip them into a solution of
alum--say, alum, one ounce; water, one pint. After they are thoroughly
moistened, let them be well dried; upon one side of this paper spread a
mixture of equal parts of gum benzoin, olibanum, and either balm of Tolu
or Peruvian balsam, or the benzoin may be used alone. To spread the gum,
&c., it is necessary that they be melted in an earthenware vessel and
poured thinly over the paper, finally smoothing the surface with a hot
spatula. When required for use, slips of this paper are held over a
candle or lamp, in order to evaporate the odorous matter, but not to
ignite it. The alum in the paper prevents it a to certain extent from

2. Sheets of good light paper are to be steeped in a solution of
saltpetre, in the proportions of two ounces of the salt to one pint of
water, to be afterwards thoroughly dried.

Any of the odoriferous gums, as myrrh, olibanum, benzoin, &c., are to be
dissolved to saturation in rectified spirit, and with a brush spread
upon one side of the paper, which, being hung up, rapidly dries.

Slips of this paper are to be rolled up as spills, to be ignited, and
then to be blown out.

The nitre in the paper causes a continuance of slow combustion,
diffusing during that time the agreeable perfume of the odoriferous
gums. If two of these sheets of paper be pressed together before the
surface is dry, they will join and become as one. When cut into slips,
they form what are called Odoriferous Lighters, or Perfumed Spills.



The word soap, or sope, from the Greek _sapo_, first occurs in the works
of Pliny and Galen. Pliny informs us that soap was first discovered by
the Gauls, that it was composed of tallow and ashes, and that the German
soap was reckoned the best. According to Sismondi, the French historian,
a soapmaker was included in the retinue of Charlemagne.

At Pompeii (overwhelmed by an eruption of Vesuvius A.D. 79), a
soap-boiler's shop with soap in it was discovered during some
excavations made there not many years ago. (_Starke's Letters from

From these statements it is evident that the manufacture of soap is of
very ancient origin; indeed, Jeremiah figuratively mentions it--"For
though thou wash thee with natron, and take thee much soap, yet thine
iniquity is marked before me." (Jer. 2:22.)

Mr. Wilson says that the earliest record of the soap trade in England is
to be found in a pamphlet in the British Museum, printed in 1641,
entitled "A short Account of the Soap Business." It speaks more
particularly about the duty, which was then levied for the first time,
and concerning certain patents which were granted to persons, chiefly
Popish recusants, for some pretended new invention of white soap,
"which in truth was not so." Sufficient is said here to prove that at
that time soap-making was no inconsiderable art.

It would be out of place here to enter into the details of soap-making,
because perfumers do not manufacture that substance, but are merely
"remelters," to use a trade term. The dyer purchases his dye-stuffs from
the drysalters already fabricated, and these are merely modified under
his hands to the various purposes he requires; so with the perfumer, he
purchases the various soaps in their raw state from the soap-makers,
these he mixes by remelting, scents and colors according to the article
to be produced.

The primary soaps are divided into hard and soft soaps: the hard soaps
contain soda as the base; those which are soft are prepared with potash.
These are again divisible into varieties, according to the fatty matter
employed in their manufacture, also according to the proportion of
alkali. The most important of these to the perfumer is what is termed
curd soap, as it forms the basis of all the highly-scented soaps.

CURD SOAP is a nearly neutral soap, of pure soda and fine

OIL SOAP, as made in England, is an uncolored combination of
olive oil and soda, hard, close grain, and contains but little water in

CASTILE SOAP, as imported from Spain, is a similar combination,
but is colored by protosulphate of iron. The solution of the salt being
added to the soap after it is manufactured, from the presence of
alkali, decomposition of the salt takes place, and protoxide of iron is
diffused through the soap of its well-known black color, giving the
familiar marbled appearance to it. When the soap is cut up into bars,
and exposed to the air, the protoxide passes by absorption of oxygen
into peroxide; hence, a section of a bar of Castile soap shows the outer
edge red-marbled, while the interior is black-marbled. Some Castile soap
is not artificially colored, but a similar appearance is produced by the
use of a barilla or soda containing sulphuret of the alkaline base, and
at other times from the presence of an iron salt.

MARINE SOAP is a cocoanut-oil soap, of soda containing a great
excess of alkali, and much water combination.

YELLOW SOAP is a soda soap, of tallow, resin, of lard, &c. &c.

PALM SOAP is a soda soap of palm oil, retaining the peculiar
odor and color of the oil unchanged. The odoriferous principle of palm
oil resembling that from orris-root, can be dissolved out of it by
tincturation with alcohol; like ottos generally, it remains intact in
the presence of an alkali, hence, soap made of palm oil retains the odor
of the oil.

The public require a soap that will not shrink and change shape after
they purchase it. It must make a profuse lather during the act of
washing. It must not leave the skin rough after using it. It must be
either quite inodorous or have a pleasant aroma. None of the above soaps
possess all these qualities in union, and, therefore, to produce such an
article is the object of the perfumer in his remelting process.

Prior to the removal of the excise duty upon soap, in 1853, it was a
commercial impossibility for a perfumer to _manufacture_ soap, because
the law did not allow less than one ton of soap to be made at a time.
This law, which, with certain modifications had been in force since the
reign of Charles I, confined the actual manufacture of that article to
the hands of a few capitalists. Such law, however, was but of little
importance to the perfumer, as a soap-boiling plant and apparatus is not
very compatible with a laboratory of flowers; yet, in some exceptional
instances, these excise regulations interfered with him; such, for
instance, as that in making soft soap of lard and potash, known, when
perfumed, as _Crême d'Amande_; or unscented, as a Saponaceous Cream,
which has, in consequence of that law, been entirely thrown into the
hands of our continental neighbors.

FIG SOFT SOAP is a combination of oils, principally olive oil
of the commonest kind, with potash.

NAPLES SOFT SOAP is a fish oil (mixed with Lucca oil) and
potash, colored brown for the London shavers, retaining, when pure, its
unsophisticated "fishy" odor.

The above soaps constitute the real body or base of all the fancy
scented soaps as made by the perfumers, which are mixed and remelted
according to the following formula:--

The remelting process is exceedingly simple. The bar soap is first cut
up into thin slabs, by pressing them against a wire fixed upon the
working bench. This cutting wire (piano wire is the kind) is made taut
upon the bench, by being attached to two screws. These screws regulate
the height of the wire from the bench, and hence the thickness of the
slabs from the bars. The soap is cut up into thin slabs, because it
would be next to impossible to melt a bar whole, on account of soap
being one of the worst conductors of heat.

The melting pan is an iron vessel, of various sizes, capable of holding
from 28 lbs. to 3 cwt., heated by a steam jacket, or by a water-bath.
The soap is put into the pan by degrees, or what is in the vernacular
called "rounds," that is, the thin slabs are placed perpendicularly all
round the side of the pan; a few ounces of water are at the same time
introduced, the steam of which assists the melting. The pan being
covered up, in about half an hour the soap will have "run down." Another
round is then introduced, and so continued every half hour until the
whole "melting" is finished. The more water a soap contains, the easier
is it melted; hence a round of marine soap, or of new yellow soap, will
run down in half the time that it requires for old soap.

When different soaps are being remelted to form one kind when finished,
the various sorts are to be inserted into the pan in alternate rounds,
but each round must consist only of one kind, to insure uniformity of
condition. As the soap melts, in order to mix it, and to break up lumps,
&c., it is from time to time "_crutched_." The "crutch" is an instrument
or tool for stirring up the soap; its name is indicative of its form, a
long handle with a short cross--an inverted 'T', curved to fit the curve
of the pan. When the soaps are all melted, it is then colored, if so
required, and then the perfume is added, the whole being thoroughly
incorporated with the crutch.

[Illustration: Frame and Slab Gauge.]

The soap is then turned into the "frame." The frame is a box made in
sections, in order that it can be taken to pieces, so that the soap can
be cut up when cold; the sections or "lifts" are frequently made of the
width of the intended bar of soap.

[Illustration: Barring Gauge.]

Two or three days after the soap has been in the frame, it is cool
enough to cut into slabs of the size of the lifts or sections of the
frame; these slabs are set up edgeways to cool for a day or two more; it
is then barred by means of a wire. The lifts of the frame regulate the
widths of the bars; the gauge regulates their breadth. The density of
the soap being pretty well known, the gauges are made so that the
soap-cutter can cut up the bars either into fours, sixes, or eights;
that is, either into squares of four, six, or eight to the pound weight.
Latterly, various mechanical arrangements have been introduced for
soap-cutting, which in very large establishments, such as those at
Marseilles in France, are great economisers of labor; but in England the
"wire" is still used.

[Illustration: Squaring Gauge.]

[Illustration: Soap Scoop.]

For making tablet shapes the soap is first cut into squares, and is
then put into a mould, and finally under a press--a modification of an
ordinary die or coin press. Balls are cut by hand, with the aid of a
little tool called a "scoop," made of brass or ivory, being, in fact, a
ring-shaped knife. Balls are also made in the press with a mould of
appropriate form. The grotesque form and fruit shape are also obtained
by the press and appropriate moulds. The fruit-shaped soaps, after
leaving the mould, are dipped into melted wax, and are then colored
according to artificial fruit-makers' rules.

[Illustration: Soap Press.]

[Illustration: Moulds.]

The "variegated" colored soaps are produced by adding the various
colors, such as smalt and vermilion, previously mixed with water, to the
soap in a melted state; these colors are but slightly crutched in, hence
the streaky appearance or party color of the soap; this kind is also
termed "marbled" soap.


This soap, by some persons "supposed" to be made of "sweet almond oil,"
and by others to be a mystic combination of sweet and bitter almonds, is
in reality constituted thus:--

Finest curd soap,                       1 cwt.
  "    oil soap,                       14 lbs.
  "    marine,                         14 lbs.
Otto of almonds,                     1-1/2 lb.
  "     cloves,                        1/4 lb.
  "     caraway,                       1/2 lb.

By the time that half the curd soap is melted, the marine soap is to be
added; when this is well crutched, then add the oil soap, and finish
with the remaining curd. When the whole is well melted, and just before
turning it into the frame, crutch in the mixed perfume.

Some of the soap "houses" endeavored to use Mirabane or artificial
essence of almonds (see ALMOND) for perfuming soap, it being
far cheaper than the true otto of almonds; but the application has
proved so unsatisfactory in practice, that it has been abandoned by
Messrs. Gibbs, Pineau (of Paris), Gosnell, and others who used it.


Curd soap,                  28 lbs.
Otto of rosemary,         1-1/4 lb.
Camphor,                  1-1/4 lb.

Reduce the camphor to powder by rubbing it in a mortar with the addition
of an ounce or more of almond oil, then sift it. When the soap is melted
and ready to turn out, add the camphor and rosemary, using the crutch
for mixing.


Best yellow soap,           1 cwt.
Fig soft soap,             14 lbs.
Otto of citronella,      1-1/2 lb.


Curd soap,                       1 cwt.
Marine soap,                    21 lbs.
Oil soap,                       14 lbs.
Otto of caraway,             1-1/2 lbs.
"       thyme,   }
"     rosemary,  } of each      1/2 lb.
"       cassia,}
"       cloves,} of each        1/4 lb.


Curd soap,                        3/4 cwt.
Marine soap,                      1/4  "
Yellow soap,                      1/4  "
Oil soap,                         1/4  "
Brown coloring (caramel),        1/2 pint.
Otto of caraway,    }
"  cloves,          }
"  thyme,           }   each,      1/2 lb.
"  cassia,          }
"  petit grain,     }
"  French lavender, }


Curd soap,                          7 lbs.
Marine soap,                        7 lbs.
Sifted silver sand,                28 lbs.
Otto of thyme,           }
     "  cassia,          }
     "  caraway,         } each,     2 oz.
     "  French lavender, }


Curd soap,                     10-1/2 lbs.
Marine soap,                    3-1/2 lbs.
Fuller's earth (baked),            14 lbs.
Otto of French lavender,             2 oz.
"  origanum,                         1 oz.

The above forms are indicative of the method adopted for perfuming soaps
while hot or melted.

All the very highly scented soaps are, however, perfumed cold, in order
to avoid the loss of scent, 20 per cent. of perfume being evaporated by
the hot process.

The variously named soaps, from the sublime "Sultana" to the ridiculous
"Turtle's Marrow," we cannot of course be expected to notice; the reader
may, however, rest assured that he has lost nothing by their omission.

The receipts given produce only the finest quality of the article
named. Where cheap soaps are required, not much acumen is necessary to
discern that by omitting the expensive perfumes, or lessening the
quantity, the object desired is attained. Still lower qualities of
scented soap are made by using greater proportions of yellow soap, and
employing a very common curd, omitting the oil soap altogether.


In the previous remarks, the methods explained of scenting soap involved
the necessity of melting it. The high temperature of the soap under
these circumstances involves the obvious loss of a great deal of perfume
by evaporation. With very highly scented soaps, and with perfume of an
expensive character, the loss of ottos is too great to be borne in a
commercial sense; hence the adoption of the plan of


This method is exceedingly convenient and economical for scenting small
batches, involving merely mechanical labor, the tools required being
simply an ordinary carpenter's plane, and a good marble mortar, and
lignum vitæ pestle.

The woodwork of the plane must be fashioned at each end, so that when
placed over the mortar it remains firm and not easily moved by the
parallel pressure of the soap against its projecting blade.

To commence operations, we take first 7 lbs., 14 lbs., or 21 lbs. of the
bars of the soap that it is intended to perfume. The plane is now laid
upside down across the top of the mortar.

Things being thus arranged, the whole of the soap is to be pushed across
the plane until it is all reduced into fine shavings. Like the French
"Charbonnier," who does not saw the wood, but woods the saw, so it will
be perceived that in this process we do not plane the soap, but that we
soap the plane, the shavings of which fall lightly into the mortar as
quickly as produced.

[Illustration: Soaping the Plane.]

Soap, as generally received from the maker, is the proper condition for
thus working; but if it has been in stock any time it becomes too hard,
and must have from one to three ounces of distilled water sprinkled in
the shaving for every pound of soap employed, and must lay for at least
twenty-four hours to be absorbed before the perfume is added.

When it is determined what size the cakes of soap are to be, what they
are to sell for, and what it is intended they should cost, then the
maker can measure out his perfume.

In a general way, soaps scented in this way retail from 4_s._ to 10_s._
per pound, bearing about 100 per cent. profit, which is not too much
considering their limited sale. The soap being in a proper physical
condition with regard to moisture, &c., is now to have the perfume well
stirred into it. The pestle is then set to work for the process of
incorporation. After a couple of hours of "warm exercise," the soap is
generally expected to be free from streaks, and to be of one uniform

For perfuming soap in large portions by the cold process, instead of
using the pestle and mortar as an incorporator, it is more convenient
and economical to employ a mill similar in construction to a cake
chocolate-mill, or a flake cocoa-mill; any mechanical apparatus that
answers for mixing paste and crushing lumps will serve pretty well for
blending soap together.

Before going into the mill, the soap is to be reduced to shavings, and
have the scent and color stirred in; after leaving it, the flakes or
ribands of soap are to be finally bound together by the pestle and
mortar into one solid mass; it is then weighed out in quantities for the
tablets required, and moulded by the hand into egg-shaped masses; each
piece being left in this condition, separately laid in rows on a sheet
of white paper, dries sufficiently in a day or so to be fit for the
press, which is the same as that previously mentioned. It is usual,
before placing the cakes of soap in the press, to dust them over with a
little starch-powder, or else to very slightly oil the mould; either of
these plans prevents the soap from adhering to the letters or embossed
work of the mould--a condition essential for turning out a clean
well-struck tablet.

The body of all the fine soaps mentioned below should consist of the
finest and whitest curd soap, or of a soap previously melted and colored
to the required shade, thus:--

ROSE-COLORED SOAP is curd soap stained with vermilion, ground
in water, thoroughly incorporated when the soap is melted, and not very

GREEN SOAP is a mixture of palm oil soap and curd soap, to
which is added powdered smalt ground with water.

BLUE SOAP, curd soap colored with smalt.

BROWN SOAP, curd soap with caramel, _i.e._ burnt sugar.

The intensity of color varies, of course, with the quantity of coloring.

Some kinds of soap become colored or tinted to a sufficient extent by
the mere addition of the ottos used for scenting, such as "spermaceti
soap," "lemon soap," &c., which become of a beautiful pale lemon color
by the mere mixing of the perfume with the curd soap.


(_To retail at 10s. per pound_.)

Curd soap (previously colored with vermilion),      4-1/2 lbs.
Otto of rose,                                            1 oz.
Spirituous extract of musk,                              2 oz.
Otto of santal,                                        1/4 oz.
  "     geranium,                                      1/4 oz.

Mix the perfumes, stir them in the soap shavings, and beat together.


Pale brown-colored curd soap,        5 lbs.
Grain musk,                         1/4 oz.
Otto of bergamot,                     1 oz.

Rub the musk with the bergamot, then add it to the soap, and beat up.


Curd soap,                           7 lbs.
Otto of neroli,                   3-1/2 oz.


Curd soap,                           7 lbs.
Otto of santal,                       7 oz.
"       bergamot,                     2 oz.


Curd soap,                          14 lbs.
Otto of bergamot,                2-1/2 lbs.
     "  lemon,                      1/2 lb.


Curd soap,                           6 lbs.
Otto of citron,                     3/4 lb.
   "    verbena (lemon-grass),      1/2 oz.
   "    bergamot,                     4 oz.
   "    lemon,                        2 oz.

One of the best of fancy soaps that is made.


Curd soap (previously colored light brown),       7 lbs.
Civet,                                           1/4 oz.
Otto of neroli,                                  1/2 oz.
"       santal,                                1-1/2 oz.
"       rose,                                    1/4 oz.
"       vitivert,                                1/2 oz.

Rub the civet with the various ottos, mix, and beat in the usual manner.


Curd soap,                       4-1/2 lbs.
Otto of patchouly,                    1 oz.
"       santal,   }
"       vitivert, } of each,        1/4 oz.


The preparation sold under this title is a potash soft soap of lard. It
has a beautiful pearly appearance, and has met with extensive demand as
a shaving soap. Being also used in the manufacture of
EMULSINES, it is an article of no inconsiderable consumption by
the perfumer. It is made thus:--

Clarified lard,                                       7 lbs.
Potash of lye (containing 26 per cent. of caustic
  potash),                                        3-3/4 lbs.
Rectified spirit,                                      3 oz.
Otto of almonds,                                  2 drachms.

_Manipulation_.--Melt the lard in a porcelain vessel by a salt-water
bath, or by a steam heat under 15 lbs. pressure; then run in the lye,
_very slowly_, agitating the whole time; when about half the lye is in,
the mixture begins to curdle; it will, however, become so firm that it
cannot be stirred. The crême is then finished, but is not pearly; it
will, however, assume that appearance by long trituration in a mortar,
gradually adding the alcohol, in which has been dissolved the perfume.


These preparations are sold sometimes as a dentifrice and at others for
shaving; they are made by reducing the soap into shavings by a plane,
then thoroughly drying them in a warm situation, afterwards grinding in
a mill, then perfuming with any otto desired.


Best yellow soap, }
Fig soft soap,    } equal parts melted together.

Perfume with anise and citronella.


Color the grease very strongly with alkanet root, then proceed as for
the manufacture of saponaceous cream. The cream colored in this way has
a blue tint; when it is required of a purple color we have merely to
stain the white saponaceous cream with a mixture of vermilion and smalt
to the shade desired. Perfume with otto of oringeat.


Solution caustic potash (_Lond. Ph_.),            6 lbs.
Olive oil,                                         1 lb.

Perfume to taste.

Before commencing to make the soap, reduce the potash lye to one half
its bulk by continued boiling. Now proceed as for the manufacture of
saponaceous cream. After standing a few days, pour off the waste liquor.


Reduce the soap to shavings, and dry them as much as possible, then
dissolve in alcohol, using as little spirit as will effect the solution,
then color and perfume as desired, and cast the product in appropriate
moulds; finally dry in a warm situation.

Until the Legislature allows spirit to be used for manufacturing
purposes, free of duty, we cannot compete with our neighbors in this


This soap is made from the tar of the wood of the _Juniperus communis_,
by dissolving it in a fixed vegetable oil, such as almond or olive oil,
or in fine tallow, and forming a soap by means of a weak soda lye, after
the customary manner. This yields a moderately firm and clear soap,
which may be readily used by application to parts affected with
eruptions at night, mixed with a little water, and carefully washed off
the following morning. This soap has lately been much used for eruptive
disorders, particularly on the Continent, and with varying degrees of
success. It is thought that the efficient element in its composition is
a rather less impure hydrocarburet than that known in Paris under the
name _huile de cade_. On account of its ready miscibility with water, it
possesses great advantage over the common tar ointment.


Six years ago I began making a series of medicated soaps, such as
SOAP, CROTON OIL SOAP, and many others. These soaps are prepared by
adding the medicant to curd soap, and then making in a tablet form for
use. For sulphur soap, the curd soap may be melted, and flowers of
sulphur added while the soap is in a soft condition. For antimony soap
and mercurial soap, the low oxides of the metals employed may also be
mixed in the curd soap in a melted state. Iodine, bromine, creosote
soap, and others containing very volatile substances, are best prepared
cold by shaving up the curd soap in a mortar, and mixing the medicant
with it by long beating.

In certain cutaneous diseases the author has reason to believe that they
will prove of infinite service as auxiliaries to the general treatment.
It is obvious that the absorbent vessels of the skin are very active
during the lavoratory process; such soap must not, therefore, be used
except by the special advice of a medical man. Probably these soaps will
be found useful for internal application. The precedent of the use of
Castile soap (containing oxide of iron) renders it likely that when
prejudice has passed away, such soaps will find a place in the
pharmacopoeias. The discovery of the solubility, under certain
conditions, of the active alkaloids, quinine, morphia, &c., in oil, by
Mr. W. Bastick, greatly favors the supposition of analogous compounds in



From soaps proper we now pass to those compounds used as substitutes for
soap, which are classed together under one general title as above, for
the reason that all cosmetiques herein embraced have the property of
forming emulsions with water.

Chemically considered, they are an exceedingly interesting class of
compounds, and are well worthy of study. Being prone to decomposition,
as might be expected from their composition, they should be made only in
small portions, or, at least, only in quantities to meet a ready sale.

While in stock they should be kept as cool as possible, and free from a
damp atmosphere.


Fine almond oil,                                         7 lbs.
Simple syrup,[E]                                          4 oz.
White soft soap, or saponaceous cream, _i.e._ }
  Crême d'Amande,                                  }      1 oz.
Otto of almonds,                                          1 oz.
     "  bergamot,                                         1 oz.
     "  cloves,                                         1/2 oz.

Rub the syrup with the soft soap until the mixture is homogeneous, then
rub in the oil by degrees; the perfume having been previously mixed with
the oil.

[Illustration: Oil-Runner in Emulsine Process.]

In the manufacture of amandine (and olivine) the difficulty is to get in
the quantity of oil indicated, without which it does not assume that
transparent jelly appearance which good amandine should have. To attain
this end, the oil is put into "a runner," that is, a tin or glass
vessel, at the bottom of which is a small faucet and spigot, or tap. The
oil being put into this vessel is allowed to run slowly into the mortar
in which the amandine is being made, just as fast as the maker finds
that he can incorporate it with the paste of soap and syrup; and so long
as this takes place, the result will always have a jelly texture to the
hand. If, however, the oil be put into the mortar quicker than the
workman can blend it with the paste, then the paste becomes "oiled," and
may be considered as "done for," unless, indeed, the whole process be
gone through again, starting off with fresh syrup and soap, using up the
greasy mass as if it were pure oil. This liability to "go off,"
increases as the amandine nears the finish; hence extra caution and
plenty of "elbow grease" must be used during the addition of the last
two pounds of oil. If the oil be not perfectly fresh, or if the
temperature of the atmosphere be above the average of summer heat, it
will be almost impossible to get the whole of the oil given in the
formula into combination; when the mass becomes bright and of a
crystalline lustre, it will be well to stop the further addition of oil
to it.

This and similar compounds should be potted as quickly as made, and the
lids of the pots banded either with strips of tin-foil or paper, to
exclude air. When the amandine is filled into the jars, the top or face
of it is marked or ornamented with a tool made to the size of half the
diameter of the interior of the jar, in a similar way to a saw; a piece
of lead or tortoise-shell, being serrated with an angular file, or piece
of an "old saw," will do very well; place the marker on the amandine,
and turn the jar gently round.


Gum acacia, in powder,                  2 oz.
Honey,                                  6 oz.
Yolk of eggs, in number,                   5.
White soft soap,                        3 oz.
Olive oil,                             2 lbs.
Green oil,                              1 oz.
Otto of bergamot,                       1 oz.
"  lemon,                               1 oz.
"  cloves,                            1/2 oz.
"  thyme and cassia, each,        1/2 drachm.

Rub the gum and honey together until incorporated, then add the soap
and egg. Having mixed the green oil and perfumes with the olive oil, the
mixture is to be placed in the runner, and the process followed exactly
as indicated for amandine.

HONEY AND ALMOND PASTE. (_Pâte d'Amande au Miel_.)

Bitter almonds, blanched and ground,      1/2 lb.
Honey,                                      1 lb.
Yolk of eggs, in number,                       8.
Almond oil,                                 1 lb.
Otto of bergamot,                         1/4 oz.
  "     cloves,                           1/4 oz.

Rub the eggs and honey together first, then gradually add the oil, and
finally the ground almonds and the perfume.


Bitter almonds, blanched and ground,        1-1/2 lb.
Rose-water,                               1-1/2 pint.
Alcohol (60 o.p.),                             16 oz.
Otto of bergamot,                               3 oz.

Place the ground almonds and one pint of the rose-water into a stewpan;
with a slow and steady heat, cook the almonds until their granular
texture assumes a pasty form, constantly stirring the mixture during the
whole time, otherwise the almonds quickly burn to the bottom of the pan,
and impart to the whole an empyreumatic odor.

The large quantity of otto of almonds which is volatilized during the
process, renders it essential that the operator should avoid the vapor
as much as possible.

When the almonds are nearly cooked, the remaining water is to be added;
finally the paste is put into a mortar, and well rubbed with the pestle;
then the perfume and spirit are added. Before potting this paste, as
well as honey paste, it should be passed through a medium fine sieve, to
insure uniformity of texture, especially as almonds do not grind kindly.

Other pastes, such as _Pâte de Pistache_, _Pâte de Cocos_, _Pâte de
Guimauve_, are prepared in so similar a manner to the above that it is
unnecessary to say more about them here, than that they must not be
confounded with preparations bearing a similar name made by


Ground almonds,             1 lb.
Wheat flour,                1 lb.
Orris-root powder,        1/4 lb.
Otto of lemon,            1/2 oz.
  "     almonds,      1/4 drachm.


Pistachio nuts (decorticated as almonds    }
                are bleached),             }       1 lb.
Orris powder,                                      1 lb.
Otto of neroli,                                1 drachm.
 "      lemons,                                  1/2 oz.

Other meals, such as perfumed oatmeal, perfumed bran, &c., are
occasionally in demand, and are prepared as the foregoing.

All the preceding preparations are used in the lavatory process as
substitutes for soap, and to "render the skin pliant, soft, and fair!"


Saponaceous cream,          1 oz.
Simple syrup,           1-1/2 oz.
Almond oil,                 1 lb.
Best jasmine oil,         1/2 lb.


Saponaceous cream,          1 oz.
Syrup of violets,       1-1/2 oz.
Best violet oil,        1-1/2 lb.

Emulsin of other odors can be prepared with tubereuse, rose, or cassie
(acacia) oil (prepared by enfleurage or maceration).

For the methods of mixing the ingredients, see "Amandine," p. 195.

On account of the high price of the French oils, these preparations are
expensive, but they are undoubtedly the most exquisite of cosmetiques.



In the perfumery trade, few articles meet with a more ready sale than
that class of cosmetiques denominated milks. It has long been known that
nearly all the seeds of plants which are called nuts, when decorticated
and freed from their pellicle, on being reduced to a pulpy mass, and
rubbed with about four times their weight of water, produce fluid which
has every analogy to cow's milk. The milky appearance of these emulsions
is due to the minute mechanical division of the oil derived from the
nuts being diffused through the water. All these emulsions possess great
chemical interest on account of their rapid decomposition, and the
products emanating from their fermentation, especially that made with
sweet almonds and pistachios (_Pistachia vera_).

In the manufacture of various milks for sale, careful manipulation is of
the utmost importance, otherwise these emulsions "will not keep;" hence
more loss than profit.

"Transformation takes place in the elements of vegetable caseine
(existing in seeds) from _the very moment_ that sweet almonds are
converted into almond-milk."--LIEBIG. This accounts for the
difficulty many persons find in making milk of almonds that does not
spontaneously divide, a day or so after its manufacture.


Valencia almonds (blanched),                  1/2 lb.
Rose-water,                                  1 quart.
Alcohol (60 o.p.),                          1/4 pint.
Otto of rose,                               1 drachm.
White wax, spermaceti, oil soap, each,        1/2 oz.

_Manipulation_.--Shave up the soap, and place it in a vessel that can be
heated by steam or water-bath; add to it two or three ounces of
rose-water. When the soap is perfectly melted, add the wax and
spermaceti, without dividing them more than is necessary to obtain the
correct weight; this insures their melting slowly, and allows time for
their partial saponification by the fluid soap; occasional stirring is
necessary. While this is going on, blanch the almonds, carefully
excluding every particle that is in the least way damaged. Now proceed
to beat up the almonds in a scrupulously clean mortar, allowing the
rose-water to trickle into the mass by degrees; the runner, as used for
the oil in the manufacture of olivine, is very convenient for this
purpose. When the emulsion of almonds is thus finished, it is to be
strained, _without pressure_, through clean _washed_ muslin (_new_
muslin often contains starch, flour, gum, or dextrine).

The previously-formed saponaceous mixture is now to be placed in the
mortar, and the ready-formed emulsion in the runner; the soapy compound
and the emulsion is then carefully blended together. As the last of the
emulsion runs into the mortar, the spirit, in which the otto of roses
has been dissolved, is to take its place, and to be _gradually_ trickled
into the other ingredients. A too sudden addition of the spirit
frequently coagulates the milk and causes it to be curdled; as it is,
the temperature of the mixture rises, and every means must be taken to
keep it down; the constant agitation and cold mortar effecting that
object pretty well. Finally, the now formed milk of roses is to be

The almond residue may be washed with a few ounces of fresh rose-water,
in order to prevent any loss in bulk to the whole given quantity. The
newly-formed milk should be placed into a bottle having a tap in it
about a quarter of an inch from the bottom. After standing perfectly
quiet for twenty-four hours it is fit to bottle. All the above
precautions being taken, the milk of roses will keep any time without
precipitate or creamy supernatation. These directions apply to all the
other forms of milk now given.


Bitter almonds (blanched),            10 oz.
Distilled (or rose) water,          1 quart.
Alcohol (60 o.p.),                 3/4 pint.[F]
Otto of almonds,                 1/2 drachm.
 "      bergamot,                 2 drachms.
Wax, spermaceti,       }
Almond oil, curd soap, } each,       1/2 oz.


Sweet almonds,                                       4 oz.
Elder-flower water,                                1 pint.
Alcohol (60 o.p.),                                   8 oz.
Oil of elder flowers, prepared by maceration,      1/2 oz.
Wax, sperm, soap, each,                            1/2 oz.


Sweet almonds,                                     4 oz.
Rose-water,                                      1 pint.
Expressed juice of dandelion root,                 1 oz.
Esprit tubereuse,                                  8 oz.
Green oil, wax,                      }
Curd soap,                           } each      1/2 oz.

Let the juice of the dandelion be perfectly fresh pressed; as it is in
itself an emulsion, it may be put into the mortar after the almonds are
broken up, and stirred with the water and spirit in the usual manner.


Sweet almonds,                       4 oz.
Expressed juice of cucumbers,      1 pint.
Spirit (60 o.p.),                    8 oz.
Essence of cucumbers,            1/4 pint.
Green oil, wax, }
Curd soap,      } each             1/2 oz.

Raise the juice of the cucumbers to the boiling point for half a minute,
cool it as quickly as possible, then strain through fine muslin; proceed
to manipulate in the usual manner.


Break up in a mortar 28 lbs. of good fresh cucumbers; with the pulp
produced mix 2 pints rectified spirit (sp. gr. .837), and allow the
mixture to stand for a day and night; then distil the whole, and draw
off a pint and a half. The distillation may be continued so as to obtain
another pint fit for ulterior purposes.

CREME DE PISTACHE. (_Milk of Pistachio Nuts_.)

Pistachio nuts,                       3 oz.
Orange-flower water,           3-1/4 pints.
Esprit neroli,                    3/4 pint.
Palm soap,      }
Green oil, wax, } each,               1 oz.
Spermaceti,     }


Rose-water,                 1 quart.
Tincture benzoin,            1/2 oz.

Add the water very slowly to the tincture; by so doing an opalescent
milky fluid is produced, which will retain its consistency for many
years; by reversing this operation, pouring the tincture into the water,
a cloudy precipitate of the resinous matter ensues, which does not again
become readily suspended in the water.


Elder-flower water,              1 quart.
Tincture benzoin,                   1 oz.

Manipulate as for virgin's milk.

Similar compounds may, of course, be made with orange-flower and other



GALEN, the celebrated physician of Pergamos, in Asia, but who
distinguished himself at Athens, Alexandria, and Rome, about 1700 years
ago, was the inventor of that peculiar unguent, a mixture of grease and
water, which is now distinguished as cold cream in perfumery, and as
_Ceratum Galeni_ in Pharmacy.

The modern formula for cold cream is, however, quite a different thing
to that given in the works of Galen in point of odor and quality,
although substantially the same--grease and water. In perfumery there
are several kinds of cold cream, distinguished by their odor, such as
that of camphor, almond, violet, roses, &c. Cold cream, as made by
English perfumers, bears a high reputation, not only at home, but
throughout Europe; the quantity exported, and which can only be reckoned
by jars in hundreds of dozens, and the repeated announcements that may
be seen in the shops on the Continent, in Germany, France, and Italy, of
"Cold Crême Anglaise," is good proof of the estimation in which it is


Almond oil,                    1 lb.
Rose-water,                    1 lb.
White wax,  }
spermaceti, } each,            1 oz.
Otto of roses,           1/2 drachm.

_Manipulation_.--Into a well-glazed thick porcelain vessel, which
should be deep in preference to shallow, and capable of holding twice
the quantity of cream that is to be made, place the wax and sperm; now
put the jar into a boiling bath of water; when these materials are
melted, add the oil, and again subject the whole to heat until the
flocks of wax and sperm are liquefied; now remove the jar and contents,
and set it under a runner containing the rose-water: the runner may be a
tin can, with a small tap at the bottom, the same as used for the
manufacture of milk of roses. A stirrer must be provided, made of
lancewood, flat, and perforated with holes the size of a sixpence,
resembling in form a large palette-knife. As soon as the rose-water is
set running, the cream must be kept agitated until the whole of the
water has passed into it; now and then the flow of water must be
stopped, and the cream which sets at the sides of the jar scraped down,
and incorporated with that which remains fluid. When the whole of the
water has been incorporated, the cream will be cool enough to pour into
the jars for sale; at that time the otto of rose is to be added. The
reason for the perfume being put in at the last moment is obvious--the
heat and subsequent agitation would cause unnecessary loss by
evaporation. Cold cream made in this way sets quite firmly in the jars
into which it is poured, and retains "a face" resembling pure wax,
although one-half is water retained in the interstices of the cream.
When the pots are well glazed, it will keep good for one or two years.
If desired for exportation to the East or West Indies, it should always
be sent out in stoppered bottles.


Is prepared precisely as the above; but in place of otto of roses otto
of almonds is used.


Huile violette,                1 lb.
Rose-water,                    1 lb.
Wax and spermaceti, each,      1 oz.
Otto of almonds,            5 drops.


Almond oil,               3/4 lb.
Huile cassie,             1/4 lb.
Rose-water,                 1 lb.
Sperm and wax,              1 oz.
Otto of almonds,      1/4 drachm.

This is an elegant and economical preparation, generally admired.


Are prepared in similar manner to violet (first form); they are all very
exquisite preparations, but as they _cost_ more than rose cold cream,
perfumers are not much inclined to introduce them in lieu of the latter.

CAMPHOR COLD CREAM. (_Otherwise Camphor Ice_.)

Almond oil,                1 lb.
Rose-water,                1 lb.
Wax and Spermaceti,        1 oz.
Camphor,                   2 oz.
Otto of rosemary,      1 drachm.

Melt the camphor, wax, and sperm, in the oil, then manipulate as for
cold cream of roses.

CUCUMBER COLD CREAM. (_Crême de Concombre_.)

Almond oil,                     1 lb.
Green oil,                      1 oz.
Juice of cucumber,              1 lb.
Wax and sperm, each,            1 oz.
Otto of neroli,           1/4 drachm.

The cucumber juice is readily obtained by subjecting the fruit to
pressure in the ordinary tincture press. It must be raised to a
temperature high enough to coagulate the small portion of albumen which
it contains, and then strained through fine linen, as the heat is
detrimental to the odor on account of the great volatility of the otto
of cucumber. The following method may be adopted with advantage:--Slice
the fruit very fine with a cucumber-cutter, and place them in the oil;
after remaining together for twenty-four hours, repeat the operation,
using fresh fruit in the strained oil; no warmth is necessary, or at
most, not more than a summer heat; then proceed to make the cold cream
in the usual manner, using the almond oil thus odorized, the rose-water,
and other ingredients in the regular way, perfuming, if necessary, with
a little neroli.

Another and commoner preparation of cucumber is found among the
Parisians, which is lard simply scented with the juice from the fruit,
thus:--The lard is liquefied by heat in a vessel subject to a
water-bath; the cucumber juice is then stirred well into it; the vessel
containing the ingredients is now placed in a quiet situation to cool.
The lard will rise to the surface, and when cold must be removed from
the fluid juice; the same manipulation being repeated as often as
required, according to the strength of odor of the fruit desired in the


Benzoinated lard,         6 lbs.
Spermaceti,               2 lbs.
Essence of cucumbers,      1 lb.

Melt the stearine with the lard, then keep it constantly in motion while
it cools, now beat the grease in a mortar, gradually adding the essence
of cucumbers; continue to beat the whole until the spirit is evaporated,
and the pomade is beautifully white.

_Melons_ and other similar fruit will scent grease treated in the same
way. (See "Essence of Cucumbers," p. 204.)


Among the thousand and one quack nostrums, pomade divine, like James's
powder, has obtained a reputation far above the most sanguine
expectations of its concoctors. This article strictly belongs to the
druggist, being sold as a remedial agent; nevertheless, what _is_ sold
is almost always vended by the perfumer. It is prepared thus:--

Spermaceti,           1/4 lb.
Lard,                 1/2 lb.
Almond oil,           3/4 lb.
Gum benzoin,          1/4 lb.
Vanilla beans,      1-1/2 oz.

Digest the whole in a vessel heated by a water-bath at a temperature not
exceeding 90° C. After five or six hours it is fit to strain, and may be
poured into the bottles for sale. (Must be _stamped_ if its medicinal
qualities are stated.)


Purified suet,              1 lb.
White wax,                1/2 lb.
Otto of almonds,        1 drachm.
  "     cloves,       1/4 drachm.


Purified suet,                               1 lb.
White wax,                                 1/2 lb.
Camphor,                                   1/4 lb.
Otto of French lavender or rosemary,       1/2 oz.

Both the above articles are sold either white or colored with alkanet
root. When thoroughly melted, the material is cast in a mould; ounce
gallipots with smooth bottoms answer very well for casting in. Some
venders use only large pill-boxes.


Sweet almond oil,                1/2 lb.
Purified lard,                   1/4 lb.
Wax and spermaceti, }
Camphor,            } each,        1 oz.


White wax,  }
Spermaceti, } each,            1 oz.
Almond oil,                  1/2 lb.
Glycerine,                     2 oz.
Otto of roses,           1/4 drachm.

Of the remedial action of any of the above preparations we cannot here
discuss; in giving the formulæ, it is enough for us that they are sold
by perfumers.


Almond oil,                        1/2 lb.
Spermaceti and wax, each,            2 oz.
Alkanet root,                        2 oz.
Otto of roses,                 1/4 drachm.

Place the wax, sperm, and oil on to the alkanet root in a vessel heated
by steam or water-bath; after the materials are melted, they must digest
on the alkanet to extract its color for at least four or five hours;
finally, strain through fine muslin, then add the perfume just before it


Almond oil,                        1/4 lb.
Wax and Spermaceti, each,            1 oz.
Otto of almonds,               1/2 drachm.
     "  geranium,                    1/4 "

After lip salve is poured into the pots and got cold, a red-hot iron
must be held over them for a minute or so, in order that the heat
radiated from the irons may melt the surface of the salve and give it
an even face.


Is made simply of equal parts of lard and suet, colored with alkanet
root, and perfumed with an ounce of bergamot to every pound of salve.



The name of pomatum is derived from _pomum_, an apple, because it was
originally made by macerating over-ripe apples in grease.

If an apple be stuck all over with spice, such as cloves, then exposed
to the air for a few days, and afterwards macerated in purified melted
lard, or any other fatty matter, the grease will become perfumed.
Repeating the operation with the same grease several times, produces
real "pomatum."

According to a recipe published more than a century ago the form given
is:--"Kid's grease, an orange sliced, pippins, a glass of rose-water,
and half a glass of white wine, boiled and strained, and at last
sprinkled with oil of sweet almonds." The author, Dr. Quincy, observes,
that "the apple is of no significance at all in the recipe," and, like
many authors of the present day, concludes that the reader is as well
acquainted with the subject as the writer, and therefore considers that
the weights or bulk of the materials in his recipe are, likewise, of no
significance. According to ancient writers, unguent, pomatum, ointment,
are synonymous titles for medicated and perfumed greases. Among biblical
interpreters, the significant word is mostly rendered "ointment;" thus
we have in Prov. 27:9, "Ointment and perfume rejoice the heart;" in
Eccles. 9:8, "Let thy head lack no ointment."

Perfumers, acting upon their own or Dr. Quincy's advice, pay no regard
to the apples in the preparation of pomatum, but make it by perfuming
lard or suet, or a mixture of wax, spermaceti, and oil, or some of them
or all blended, to produce a particular result, according to the name
that it bears.

The most important thing to consider in the manufacture of pomatum, &c.,
is to start off with a _perfectly inodorous_ grease, whatever that
grease may be.

Inodorous lard is obtained thus:--Take, say 28 lbs. of _perfectly fresh_
lard, place it in a well-glazed vessel, that can be submitted to the
heat of a boiling salt-water bath, or by steam under a slight pressure;
when the lard is melted, add to it one ounce of powdered alum and two
ounces of table salt; maintain the heat for some time, in fact till a
scum rises, consisting in a great measure of coagulated proteine
compounds, membrane, &c., which must be skimmed off; when the liquid
grease appears of a uniform nature it is allowed to grow cold.

The lard is now to be washed. This is done in small portions at a time,
and is a work of much labor, which, however, is amply repaid by the
result. About a pound of the grease is now placed on a slate slab a
little on the incline, a supply of good water being set to trickle over
it; the surface of the grease is then constantly renewed by an operative
working a muller over it, precisely as a color-maker grinds paints in
oil. In this way the water removes any traces of alum or salt, also the
last traces of nitrogenous matter. Finally, the grease, when the whole
is washed in this way, is remelted, the heat being maintained enough to
drive off any adhering water. When cold it is finished.

Although purifying grease in this way is troublesome, and takes a good
deal of time, yet unless done so, it is totally unfit for perfuming with
flowers, because a bad grease will cost more in perfume to cover its
_mal odeur_ than the expense of thus deodorizing it. Moreover, if lard
be used that "smells of the pig," it is next to impossible to impart to
it any delicate odor; and if strongly perfumed by the addition of ottos,
the unpurified grease will not keep, but quickly becomes rancid. Under
any circumstances, therefore, grease that is not _perfectly inodorous_
is a very expensive material to use in the manufacture of pomades.

In the South and flower-growing countries, where the fine pomades are
made by ENFLEURAGE, or by MACERATION[G] (see pp. 37,
38), the purification of grease for the purpose of these manufactures is
of sufficient importance to become a separate trade.

The purification of beef and mutton suet is in a great measure the same
as that for lard: the greater solidity of suets requires a mechanical
arrangement for washing them of a more powerful nature than can be
applied by hand labor. Mr. Ewen, who is undoubtedly the best
fat-purifier in London, employs a stone roller rotating upon a circular
slab; motion is given to the roller by an axle which passes through the
centre of the slab, or rather stone bed, upon which the suet is placed;
being higher in the centre than at the sides, the stream of water flows
away after it has once passed over the suet; in other respects the
treatment is the same as for lard. These greases used by perfumers have
a general title of "body," tantamount to the French nomenclature of
_corps_; thus we have pomades of hard corps (suet), pomades of soft
corps (lard). For making _extraits_, such as extrait de violette,
jasmin, the pomades of hard corps are to be preferred; but when scented
pomade is to be used in fabrication of unguents for the hair, pomades of
soft corps are the most useful.

The method of perfuming grease by the direct process with flowers having
already been described under the respective names of the flowers that
impart the odor thereto, it remains now only to describe those compounds
that are made from them, together with such incidental matter connected
with this branch of perfumery as has not been previously mentioned.

ACACIA POMADE, commonly called CASSIE POMATUM, is made
with a purified body-grease, by maceration with the little round yellow
buds of the _Acacia Farnesiana_.

Black currant leaves, and which the French term _cassie_, have an odor
very much resembling cassie (acacia), and are used extensively for
adulterating the true acacia pomades and oils. The near similarity of
name, their analogous odor (although the plants have no botanical
connection), together with the word _cassia_, a familiar perfume in
England, has produced generally confused ideas in this country as to the
true origin of the odor now under discussion. Cassie, casse, cassia, it
will be understood now, are three distinct substances; and in order to
render the matter more perspicuous in future, the materials will always
be denominated ACACIA, if prepared from the _Acacia
Farnesiana_; CASSE, when from _black currant_; and
CASSIA, if derived from the bark of the _Cinnamomum Cassia_.


Benzoic acid is perfectly soluble in hot grease. Half an ounce of
benzoic acid being dissolved in half a pint of hot olive or almond oil,
deposits on cooling beautiful acicular crystals, similar to the crystals
that effloresce from vanilla beans; a portion of the acid, however,
remains dissolved in the oil at the ordinary temperature, and imparts to
it the peculiar aroma of benzoin; upon this idea is based the principle
of perfuming grease with gum benzoin by the direct process, that is, by
macerating powdered gum benzoin in melted suet or lard for a few hours,
at a temperature of about 80° C. to 90° C. Nearly all the gum-resins
give up their odoriferous principle to fatty bodies, when treated in the
same way; this fact becoming generally known, will probably give rise to
the preparation of some new remedial ointments, such as _Unguentum
myrrhæ_, _Unguentum assafoetida_, and the like.

TONQUIN POMADE, and TONQUIN OIL, are prepared by
macerating the ground Tonquin beans in either melted fat or warm oil,
from twelve to twenty-eight hours, in the proportion of

Tonquin beans,      1/2 lb.
Fat or oil,          4 lbs.

Strain through fine muslin; when cold, the grease will have a fine odor
of the beans.


Vanilla pods,       1/4 lb.
Fat or oil,          4 lbs.

Macerate at a temperature of 25° C. for three or four days; finally

These pomatums and oils, together with the French pomades and huiles
already described, constitute the foundation of the preparations of all
the best hair greases sold by perfumers. Inferior scented pomatums and
oils are prepared by perfuming lard, suet, wax, oil, &c., with various
ottos; the results, however, in many instances more expensive than the
foregoing, are actually inferior in their odor or bouquet--for grease,
however slightly perfumed by maceration or enfleurage with flowers, is
far more agreeable to the olfactory nerve than when scented by ottos.

The undermentioned greases have obtained great popularity, mainly
because their perfume is lasting and flowery.


The most popular and "original" bears' grease is made thus:--

Huile de rose,                }
"        fleur d'orange,      }
"        acacia,              } of each,       1/2 lb.
"        tubereuse and jasmin,}
Almond oil,                                    10 lbs.
Lard,                                          12 lbs.
Acacia pomade,                                  2 lbs.
Otto of bergamot,                                4 oz.
"       cloves,                                  2 oz.

Melt the solid greases and oils together by a water-bath,
then add the ottos.

Bears' grease thus prepared is just hard enough to "set" in the pots at
a summer heat. In very warm weather, or if required for exportation to
the East or West Indies, it is necessary to use in part French pomatums
instead of oils, or more lard and less almond oil.


Purified lard,                           1 lb.
Benzoin suet,                            1 lb.
French rose pomatum,                   1/2 lb.
Almond oil, colored with alkanet,       2 lbs.
Otto of rose,                          1/4 oz.


French rose pomatum,         12 oz.
"      violet pomatum,       12 oz.
Almond oil,                  2 lbs.
Otto of bergamot,           1/4 oz.

CRYSTALLIZED OIL. (_First quality_).

Huile de rose,                  1 lb.
"        tubereuse,             1 lb.
"        fleur d'orange,      1/2 lb.
Spermaceti,                     8 oz.

CRYSTALLIZED OIL. (_Second quality_.)

Almond,             2-1/2 lbs.
Spermaceti,            1/2 lb.
Otto of lemon,           3 oz.

Melt the spermaceti in a vessel heated by a water-bath, then add the
oils; continue the heat until all flocks disappear; let the jars into
which it is poured be warm; cool as slowly as possible, to insure good
crystals; if cooled rapidly, the mass congeals without the appearance of
crystals. This preparation has a very nice appearance, and so far sells
well; but its continued use for anointing the hair renders the head
scurfy; indeed, the crystals of sperm may be combed out of the hair in
flakes after it has been used a week or two.


Tubereuse pomatum,        1 lb.
Castor oil,             1/2 lb.
Almond oil,             1/2 lb.
Otto of bergamot,         1 oz.


French rose pomatum,           1/2 lb.
"      jasmine pomatum,        1/2 lb.
Almond oil,                    3/4 lb.
Otto of neroli,              1 drachm.


Purified lard,               1 lb.
Almond oil,                  1 lb.
Palm oil,                    1 oz.
Otto of cloves,        1/2 drachm.
"       bergamot,          1/2 oz.
"       lemon,           1-1/2 oz.


Purified lard,            4 lbs.
"        suet,            2 lbs.
Otto of lemon,             1 oz.
"       bergamot,        1/2 oz.
"       cloves,       3 drachms.

Melt the greases, then beat them up with a whisk or flat wooden spatula
for half an hour or more; as the grease cools, minute vesicles of air
are inclosed by the pomatum, which not only increase the bulk of the
mixtures, but impart a peculiar mechanical aggregation, rendering the
pomatum light and spongy; in this state it is obvious that it fills out
more profitably than otherwise.


Purified lard,                     1 lb.
_Washed_ acacia pomatum,           6 oz.
"             rose pomatum,        4 oz.

Manipulate as for marrow pomatum.

In all the cheap preparations for the hair, the manufacturing perfumers
used the washed French pomatums and the washed French oils for making
their greases. Washed pomatums and washed oils are those greases that
originally have been the best pomatums and huiles prepared by enfleurage
and by maceration with the flowers; which pomades and huiles have been
subject to digestion in alcohol for the manufacture of essences for the
handkerchief. After the spirit has been on the pomatums, &c., it is
poured off; the residue is then called _washed_ pomatum, and still
retain an odor strong enough for the manufacture of most hair greases.

For pomatums of other odors it is only necessary to substitute rose,
jasmine, tubereuse, and others, in place of the acacia pomatum in the
above formulæ.


Rose, jasmine, fleur d'orange, violet, tubereuse, &c., are all made in
winter, with two-thirds best French pomatum, one-third best French oils;
in summer, equal parts.


French rose pomade,              1 lb.
Vanilla oil,                   1/2 lb.
Huile de jasmine,                4 oz.
"        tubereuse,              2 oz.
"        fleur d'orange,         2 oz.
Otto of almonds,              6 drops.
"    cloves,                  3 drops.

HUILE ANTIQUE. (_A la Heliotrope_.)

Same as the above, substituting rose oil for the pomade.


The name of this preparation, which is a compound of Greek and Latin,
signifying "a friend to the hair," was first introduced by the Parisian
perfumers; and a very good name it is, for Philocome is undoubtedly one
of the best unguents for the hair that is made.

PHILOCOME. (_First quality_.)

White wax,                   10 oz.
Fresh rose-oil,               1 lb.
"  acacia oil,              1/2 lb.
"  jasmine oil,             1/2 lb.
"  fleur d'orange oil,        1 lb.
"  tubereuse oil,             1 lb.

Melt the wax in the huiles by a water-bath, at the lowest possible
temperature. Stir the mixture as it cools; do not pour out the Philocome
until it is nearly cool enough to set; let the jars, bottles, or pots
into which it is filled for sale be slightly warmed, or at least of the
same temperature as the Philocome, otherwise the bottles chill the
material as it is poured in, and make it appear of an uneven texture.

PHILOCOME. (_Second quality_.)

White wax,               5 oz.
Almond oil,             2 lbs.
Otto of bergamot,        1 oz.
"  lemon,              1/2 oz.
"  lavender,        2 drachms.
"  cloves,           1 drachm.


Take 1 ounce of wax to 1 pound of oil.

POMMADE HONGROISE. (_For the Moustache_.)

Lead plaster,            1 lb.
Acacia huile,            2 oz.
Otto of roses,      2 drachms.
"  cloves,           1 drachm.
"  almonds,          1 drachm.

Color to the tint required with ground amber and sienna in oil; mix the
ingredients by first melting the plaster in a vessel in boiling water.
Lead plaster is made with oxide of lead boiled with olive oil: it is
best to procure it ready made from the wholesale druggists.


Purified suet,              1 lb.
White wax,                  1 lb.
Jasmine pomatum,          1/2 lb.
Tubereuse pomatum,        1/2 lb.
Otto of rose,           1 drachm.

ANOTHER FORM,--_cheaper_.

Suet,                      1 lb.
Wax,                     1/2 lb.
Otto of bergamot,          1 oz.
"       cassia,        1 drachm.

The above recipes produce WHITE BATONS. BROWN and
BLACK BATONS are also in demand. They are made in the same way
as the above, but colored with lamp-black or umber ground in oil. Such
colors are best purchased ready ground at an artist's colorman's.


Such as is sold by RIMMEL, is prepared with a nicely-scented
soap strongly colored with lamp-black or with umber. The soap is melted,
and the coloring added while the soap is soft; when cold it is cut up in
oblong pieces.

It is used as a temporary dye for the moustache, applied with a small
brush and water.



By way of personal adornment, few practices are of more ancient origin
than that of painting the face, dyeing the hair, and blackening the
eyebrows and eyelashes.

It is a practice universal among the women of the higher and middle
classes in Egypt, and very common among those of the lower orders, to
blacken the edge of the eyelids, both above and below the eye, with a
black powder, which they term _kohhl_. The kohhl is applied with a small
probe of wood, ivory, or silver, tapering towards the end, but blunt.
This is moistened sometimes with rose-water, then dipped in the powder,
and drawn along the edges of the eyelids. It is thought to give a very
soft expression to the eye, the size of which, in appearance, it
enlarges; to which circumstances probably Jeremiah refers when he
writes, "Though thou rentest thy face (or thine eyes) with painting, in
vain shalt thou make thyself fair."--_Jer._ 4:30. See also
LANE'S _Modern Egyptians_, vol. i, p. 41, et seq.

A singular custom is observable both among Moorish and Arab
females--that of ornamenting the face between the eyes with clusters of
bluish spots or other small devices, and which, being stained, become
permanent. The chin is also spotted in a similar manner, and a narrow
blue line extends from the point of it, and is continued down the
throat. The eyelashes, eyebrows, and also the tips and extremities of
the eyelids, are colored black. The soles, and sometimes other parts of
the feet, as high as the ankles, the palms of the hands, and the nails,
are dyed with a yellowish-red, with the leaves of a plant called Henna
(_Lawsonia inermis_), the leaf of which somewhat resembles the myrtle,
and is dried for the purposes above mentioned. The back of the hand is
also often colored and ornamented in this way with different devices. On
holidays they paint their cheeks of a red brick color, a narrow red line
being also drawn down the temples.

In Greece, "for coloring the lashes and sockets of the eye they throw
incense or gum labdanum on some coals of fire, intercept the smoke which
ascends with a plate, and collect the soot. This I saw applied. A girl,
sitting cross-legged as usual on a sofa, and closing one of her eyes,
took the two lashes between the forefinger and thumb of her left hand,
pulled them forward, and then, thrusting in at the external corner a
sort of bodkin or probe which had been immersed in the soot, and
withdrawing it, the particles previously adhering to the probe remained
within the eyelashes."--CHANDLER'S _Travels in Greece._

Dr. Shaw states that among other curiosities that were taken out of the
tombs at Sahara relating to Egyptian women, he saw a joint of the common
reeds, which contained one of these bodkins and an ounce or more of this

In England the same practice is adopted by many persons that have gray
hair; but instead of using the black material in the form of a powder,
it is employed as a crayon, the color being mixed with a greasy body,
such as the brown and black stick pomatums, described in the previous


In Constantinople there are some persons, particularly Armenians, who
devote themselves to the preparation of cosmetics, and obtain large sums
of money from those desirous of learning this art. Amongst these
cosmetics is a black dye for the hair, which, according to Landerer, is
prepared in the following manner:--

Finely pulverized galls are kneaded with a little oil to a paste, which
is roasted in an iron pan until the oil vapors cease to evolve, upon
which the residue is triturated with water into a paste, and heated
again to dryness. At the same time a metallic mixture, which is brought
from Egypt to the commercial marts of the East, and which is termed in
Turkish _Rastiko-petra_, or _Rastik-Yuzi_, is employed for this purpose.
This metal, which looks like dross, is by some Armenians intentionally
fused, and consists of iron and copper. It obtains its name from its use
for the coloration of the hair, and particularly the eyebrows--for
_rastik_ means eyebrows, and _yuzi_ stone. The fine powder of this metal
is as intimately mixed as possible with the moistened gall-mass into a
paste, which is preserved in a damp place, by which it acquires the
blackening property. In some cases this mass is mixed with, the powder
of odorous substances which are used in the seraglio as perfumes, and
called _harsi_, that is, pleasant odor; and of these the principal
ingredient is ambergris. To blacken the hair a little of this dye is
triturated in the hand or between the fingers, with which the hair or
beard is well rubbed. After a few days the hair becomes very beautifully
black, and it is a real pleasure to see such fine black beards as are
met with in the East among the Turks who use this black dye. Another and
important advantage in the use of this dye consists therein, that the
hair remains soft, pliant, and for a long time black, when it has been
once dyed with this substance. That the coloring properties of this dye
are to be chiefly ascribed to the pyrogallic acid, which can be found by
treating the mass with water, may be with certainty assumed.


Powdered litharge,       2 lbs.
Quicklime,              1/2 lb.
Calcined magnesia,      1/2 lb.

Slake the lime, using as little water as possible to make it
disintegrate, then mix the whole by a sieve.


Slaked lime,               3 lbs.
White lead in powder,      2 lbs.
Litharge,                   1 lb.

Mix by sifting, bottle, and well cork.

_Directions_ to be sold with the above.--"Mix the powder with enough
water to form a thick creamy fluid; with the aid of a small brush;
completely cover the hair to be dyed with this mixture; to dye a light
brown, allow it to remain on the hair four hours; dark brown, eight
hours; black, twelve hours. As the dye does not act unless it is moist,
it is necessary to keep it so by wearing an oiled silk, india-rubber, or
other waterproof cap.

"After the hair is dyed, the refuse must be thoroughly washed from the
head with plain water; when dry, the hair must be oiled."

SIMPLE SILVER DYE. (_Otherwise "Vegetable Dye._")

Nitrate of silver,        1 oz.
Rose-water,             1 pint.

Before using this dye it is necessary to free the hair from grease by
washing it with soda or pearlash and water. The hair must be quite dry
prior to applying the dye, which is best laid on with an old
tooth-brush. This dye does not "strike" for several hours. It needs
scarcely be observed that its effects are more rapidly produced by
exposing the hair to sunshine and air.


Nitrate of silver,                              1 oz., blue bottles.
Rose-water,                                             9 oz.    "
_The mordant_.--Sulphuret of potassium,        1 oz., white bottles.
"                    Water,                               8 oz.   "


Nitrate of silver,                            1 oz., blue bottles.
Water,                                                 6 oz.  "
_The mordant_.--Sulphuret of potassium,      1 oz., white bottles.
    "                Water,                          6 oz.    "

The mordant is to be applied to the hair first; when dry, the silver

Great care must be taken that the sulphuret is fresh made, or at least,
well preserved in closed bottles, otherwise, instead of the mordant
acting to make to make the hair black, it will tend to impart a _yellow_
hue. When the mordant is good, it has a very disagreeable odor, and
although this is the quickest and best dye, its unpleasant smell has
given rise to the


_Blue bottles._--Dissolve the nitrate of silver in the water as in the
above, then add liquid ammonia by degrees until the mixture becomes
cloudy from the precipitate of the oxide of silver, continue to add
ammonia in small portions until the fluid again becomes bright from the
oxide of silver being redissolved.

_White bottles_.--Pour half a pint of boiling rose-water upon three
ounces of powdered gall-nuts; when cold, strain and bottle. This forms
the mordant, and is used in the same way as the first-named dye, like
the sulphuret mordant. It is not so good a dye as the previous one.


_Blue Bottles_.--Saturated solution of sulphate of copper; to this add
ammonia enough to precipitate the oxide of copper and redissolve it (as
with the silver in the above), producing the azure liquid.

_White Bottles_.--_Mordant_.--Saturated solution of prussiate of

Artificial hair, for the manufacture of perukes, is dyed in the same
manner as wool.

There are in the market several other hair dyes, but all of them are but
modifications of the above, possessing no marked advantage.


Liquid hair dye, not to blacken the skin, may be thus
prepared:--Dissolve in one ounce of liquor potassæ as much
freshly-precipitated oxide of lead as it will take up, and dilute the
resulting clear solution with three ounces of distilled water. Care must
be taken not to wet the skin unnecessarily with it.

QUICK DEPILATORY OR RUSMA. (_For removing hair._)

As the ladies of this country consider the growth of hair upon the upper
lip, upon the arms, and on the back of the neck, to be detrimental to
beauty, those who are troubled with such physical indications of good
health and vital stamina have long had recourse to rusma or depilatory
for removing it.

This or analogous preparations were introduced into this country from
the East, rusma having been in use in the harems of Asia for many ages.

Best lime slaked,             3 lb.
Orpiment, in powder,       1/2 lbs.

Mix the material by means of a drum sieve; preserve the same for sale
in well-corked or stoppered bottles.

_Directions_ to be sold with the above. Mix the depilatory powder with
enough water to render it of a creamy consistency; lay it upon the hair
for about five minutes, or until its caustic action upon the skin
renders it necessary to be removed; a similar process to shaving is then
to be gone through, but instead of using a razor, operate with an ivory
or bone paper-knife; then wash the part with plenty of water, and apply
a little cold cream.

The precise time to leave depilatory upon the part to be depilated
cannot be given, because there is a physical difference in the nature of
hair. "Raven tresses" require more time than "flaxen locks;" the
sensitiveness of the skin has also to be considered. A small feather is
a very good test for its action.

A few readers will, perhaps, be disappointed in finding that I have only
given one formula for depilatory. The receipts might easily have been
increased in number, but not in quality. The use of arsenical compounds
is objectionable, but it undoubtedly increases the depilating action of
the compounds. A few compilers of "Receipt Books," "Supplements to
Pharmacopoeias," and others, add to the lime "charcoal powder,"
"carbonate of potass," "starch," &c.; but what action have these
materials--chemically--upon hair? The simplest depilatory is moistened
quicklime, but it is less energetic than the mixture recommended above;
it answers very well for tanners and fellmongers, with whom time is no



A lady's toilet-table is incomplete without a box of some absorbent
powder; indeed, from our earliest infancy, powder is used for drying the
skin with the greatest benefit; no wonder that its use is continued in
advanced years, if, by slight modifications in its composition, it can
be employed not only as an absorbent, but as a means of "personal
adornment." We are quite within limits in stating that many ton-weights
of such powders are used in this country annually. They are principally
composed of various starches, prepared from wheat, potatoes, and various
nuts, mixed more or less with powdered talc--of Haüy, steatite
(soap-stone), French chalk, oxide of bismuth, and oxide of zinc, &c. The
most popular is what is termed


Wheat starch,                    12 lbs.
Orris-root powder,                2 lbs.
Otto of lemon,                   1/2 oz.
"  bergamot,                     3/4 oz.
"  cloves,                    2 drachms.


Wheat starch,                   7 lbs.
Rose Pink,                 1/2 drachm.
Otto of rose,               2 drachms.
"  santal,                  2  "


Is pure wheat starch.


Starch,                   1 lb.
Oxide of Bismuth,         4 oz.


French chalk,                      1 lb.
Oxide of bismuth,                  1 oz.
Oxide of zinc,                     1 oz.


Is pure oxide of bismuth in powder.


Is levigated talc passed through a silk sieve.

This is the best face powder made, particularly as it does not discolor
from emanation of the skin or impure atmosphere.


The use of a white paint by actresses and dancers, is absolutely
necessary; great exertion produces a florid complexion, which is
incompatible with certain scenic effects, and requires a cosmetic to
subdue it.

Madame V----, during her stage career, has probably consumed more than
half a hundredweight of oxide of bismuth, prepared thus:--

Rose or orange-flower water,      1 pint.
Oxide of bismuth,                   4 oz.

Mixed by long trituration.


Is also extensively used as a toilet powder, and is sold under various
names; it is not so unctuous as the ordinary kind.


These preparations are in demand, not only for theatrical use, but by
private individuals. Various shades of color are made, to suit the
complexions of the blonde and brunette. One of the best kind is that


Strong liquid ammonia,         1/2 oz.
Finest carmine,                1/4 oz.
Rose-water,                    1 pint.
Esprit de rose (triple),       1/2 oz.

Place the carmine into a pint bottle, and pour on it the ammonia; allow
them to remain together, with occasional agitation, for two days; then
add the rose-water and esprit, and well mix. Place the bottle in a quiet
situation for a week; any precipitate of impurities from the carmine
will subside; the supernatant "Bloom of Roses" is then to be bottled for
sale. If the carmine was perfectly pure there would be no precipitate;
nearly all the carmine purchased from the makers is more or less
sophisticated, its enormous price being a premium to its adulteration.

Carmine cannot be manufactured _profitably_ on a small scale for
commercial purposes; four or five manufacturers supply the whole of
Europe! M. Titard, Rue Grenier St. Lazare, Paris, produces, without
doubt, the finest article; singular enough, however, the principal
operative in the establishment is an old Englishman.

"The preparation of the finest carmine is still a mystery, because, on
the one hand, its consumption being very limited, few persons are
engaged in its manufacture, and, upon the other, the raw material being
costly, extensive experiments on it cannot be conveniently
made."--DR. URE.

In the _Encyclopédie Roret_ will be found no less than a dozen recipes
for preparing carmine; the number of formulæ will convince the most
superficial reader that the true form is yet withheld.

Analysis has taught us its exact composition; but a certain dexterity of
manipulation and proper temperature are indispensable to complete

Most of the recipes given by Dr. Ure, and others, are from this source;
but as they possess no practical value we refrain from reprinting them.


Are prepared of different shades by mixing fine carmine with talc
powder, in different proportions, say, one drachm of carmine to two
ounces of talc, or one of carmine to three of talc, and so on. These
rouges are sold in powder, and also in cake or china pots; for the
latter the rouge is mixed with a minute portion of solution of gum
tragacanth. M. Titard prepares a great variety of rouges. In some
instances the coloring-matter of the cochineal is spread upon thick
paper and dried very gradually; it then assumes a beautiful green tint.
This curious optical effect is also observed in "pink saucers." What is
known as Chinese book rouge is evidently made in the same way, and has
been imported into this country for many years.

When the bronze green cards are moistened with a piece of damp cotton
wool, and applied to the lips or cheeks, the color assumes a beautiful
rosy hue. Common sorts of rouge, called "theatre rouge," are made from
the Brazil-wood lake; another kind is derived from the safflower
(_Carthamus tinctorius_); from this plant also is made


The safflower is washed in water until the yellow coloring-matter is
removed; the carthamine or color principle is then dissolved out by a
weak solution of carbonate of soda; the coloring is then precipitated
into the saucers by the addition of sulphuric acid to the solution.

Cotton wool and crape being colored in the same way are used for the
same purpose, the former being sold as Spanish wool, the latter as
Crépon rouge.



TOOTH powders, regarded as a means merely of cleansing the
teeth, are most commonly placed among cosmetics; but this should not be,
as they assist greatly in preserving a healthy and regular condition of
the dental machinery, and so aid in perfecting as much as possible the
act of mastication. In this manner, they may be considered as most
useful, although it is true, subordinate medicinal agents. By a careful
and prudent use of them, some of the most frequent causes of early loss
of the teeth may be prevented; these are, the deposition of tartar, the
swelling of the gums, and an undue acidity of the saliva. The effect
resulting from accumulation of the tartar is well known to most persons,
and it has been distinctly shown that swelling of the substance of the
gums will hasten the expulsion of the teeth from their sockets; and the
action of the saliva, if unduly acid, is known to be at least injurious,
if not destructive. Now, the daily employment of a tooth powder
sufficiently hard, so as to exert a tolerable degree of friction upon
the teeth, without, at the same time, injuring the enamel of the teeth,
will, in most cases, almost always prevent the tartar accumulating in
such a degree as to cause subsequent injury to the teeth; and a flaccid,
spongy, relaxed condition of the gums may be prevented or overcome by
adding to such a tooth powder, some tonic and astringent ingredient. A
tooth powder containing charcoal and cinchona bark, will accomplish
these results in most cases, and therefore dentists generally recommend
such. Still, there are objections to the use of charcoal; it is too hard
and resisting, its color is objectionable, and it is perfectly insoluble
by the saliva, it is apt to become lodged between the teeth, and there
to collect decomposing animal and vegetable matter around such particles
as may be fixed in this position. Cinchona bark, too, is often stringy,
and has a bitter, disagreeable taste. M. Mialhe highly recommends the
following formula:--


Sugar of milk, one thousand parts; lake, ten parts; pure tannin, fifteen
parts; oil of mint, oil of aniseed, and oil of orange flowers, so much
as to impart an agreeable flavor to the composition.

His directions for the preparation of this tooth powder, are, to rub
well the lake with the tannin, and gradually add the sugar of milk,
previously powdered and sifted; and lastly, the essential oils are to be
carefully mixed with the powdered substances. Experience has convinced
him of the efficacy of this tooth powder, the habitual employment of
which, will suffice to preserve the gums and teeth in a healthy state.
For those who are troubled with excessive relaxation and sponginess of
the gums, he recommends the following astringent preparation:--


Alcohol, one thousand parts; genuine kino, one hundred parts; rhatany
root, one hundred parts; tincture of balsam of tolu, two parts; tincture
of gum benzoin, two parts; essential oil of canella, two parts;
essential oil of mint, two parts; essential oil of aniseed, one part.

The kino and the rhatany root are to be macerated in the alcohol for
seven or eight days; and after filtration, the other articles are to be
added. A teaspoonful of this preparation mixed in three or four
spoonfuls of water, should be used to rinse the mouth, after the use of
the tooth powder.


Precipitated chalk,                  1 lb.
Powdered orris-root,               1/2 lb.
Powdered camphor,                  1/4 lb.

Reduce the camphor to powder by rubbing it in a mortar with a little
spirit, then sift the whole well together. On account of the volatility
of camphor, the powder should always be sold in bottles, or at least in
boxes lined with tinfoil.


Precipitated chalk,              1 lb.
Starch Powder,                 1/2 lb.
Orris powder,                  1/2 lb.
Sulphate of quinine,         1 drachm.

After sifting, it is ready for sale.


Fresh-made charcoal in fine powder,       7 lbs.
Prepared chalk,                           1 lb.
Orris-root,                               1 lb.
Catechu,                                1/2 lb.
Cassia bark,                            1/2 lb.
Myrrh,                                  1/4 lb.



Peruvian bark in powder,            1/2 lb.
Bole Ammoniac,                        1 lb.
Orris powder,                         1 lb.
Cassia bark,                        1/2 lb.
Powdered myrrh,                     1/2 lb.
Precipitated chalk,                 1/2 lb.
Otto of cloves,                     3/4 oz.


Precipitated chalk,      1 lb.
Powder orris,            1 oz.
"      starch,           1 oz.


Powdered cuttle-fish,             1/2 lb.
Precipitated chalk,                 1 lb.
Powder orris,                     1/2 lb.
Otto of lemons,                     1 oz.
"  neroli,                    1/2 drachm.


Precipitated chalk,             1 lb.
Borax powder,                 1/2 lb.
Myrrh powder,                 1/4 lb.
Orris,                        1/4 lb.


Precipitated chalk,            2 lbs.
Orris-root,                    2 lbs.
Rose pink,                  1 drachm.
Very fine powdered sugar,     1/2 lb.
Otto of neroli,           1/2 drachm.
"  lemons,                    1/4 oz.
"  bergamot,                  1/4 oz.
"  orange-peel,               1/4 oz.
"  rosemary,                1 drachm.


Precipitated chalk,        1 lb.
Orris,                   1/2 lb.
Rose pink,            2 drachms.
Otto of rose,          1 drachm.
"  santal,           1/4 drachm.


Honey,                          1/2 lb.
Chalk,                          1/2 lb.
Orris,                          1/2 lb.
Rose Pink,                   2 drachms.
Otto of cloves, }
"  nutmeg,      } each,     1/2 drachm.
"  rose,        }
Simple syrup,         enough to form a paste.



Tincture of orris,      1/2 pint.
Esprit de rose,         1/2 pint.
Spirit,                 1/2 pint.
Otto of almonds,         5 drops.


Tincture of cedar wood,            1 pint.
" myrrh,                         1/4 pint.
" rhatany,                       1/4 pint.
Otto of peppermint,               5 drops.

All these tinctures should be made with grape spirit, or at least with
pale unsweetened brandy.


Rectified spirit,                1 quart.
Rhatany root, }
Gum myrrh,    } of each,            2 oz.
Whole cloves, }

Macerate for fourteen days, and strain.


Spirits of wine,              1 quart.
Borax,   }
Honey,   } of each,              1 oz.
Gum myrrh,                       1 oz.
Red sanders wood,                1 oz.

Rub the honey and borax well together in a mortar, then gradually add
the spirit, which should not be stronger than .920, _i.e._ proof spirit,
the myrrh, and sanders wood, and macerate for fourteen days.


Eau de Cologne,               1 quart.
Gum myrrh,                       1 oz.

Macerate for fourteen days, and filter.


Eau de Cologne,        1 quart.
Camphor,                  5 oz.




Rosemary free from stalk,               10 lbs.
Water,                              12 gallons.

Draw off by distillation ten gallons for use in perfumery manufacture.


Rosemary water,                    1 gallon.
Rectified spirit,                  1/2 pint.
Pearlash,                              1 oz.

Tinted with brown coloring.


Rose-water,                       1 gallon.
Alcohol,                            1 pint.
Sassafras wood,                     1/4 lb.
Pearlash,                             1 oz.

Boil the wood in the rose-water in a glass vessel; then, when cold, add
the pearlash and spirit.


Rose-water,        }
Rectified spirits, } of each,             2 quarts.
Extrait de fleur d'orange, }
" jasmin,                  }
" acacia,                  } of each,      1/4 pint.
" rose,                    }
" tubereuse,               }
Extract of vanilla,                        1/2 pint.

This is a very beautifully-scented hair wash. It retails at a price
commensurate with its cost.


Rosemary water,          2 quarts.
Esprit de rose,          1/2 pint.
Rectified spirit,      1-1/2 pint.
Extract of vanilla,       1 quart.
Magnesia to clear it,        2 oz.

Filter through paper.


Rectified spirit,             1 pint.
Rose-water,                 1 gallon.
Extract of rondeletia,      1/2 pint.
Transparent soap,             1/2 oz.
Hay saffron,              1/2 drachm.

Shave up the soap very fine; boil it and the saffron in a quart of the
rose-water; when dissolved, add the remainder of the water, then the
spirit, finally the rondeletia, which is used by way of perfume. After
standing for two or three days, it is fit for bottling. By transmitted
light it is transparent, but by reflected light the liquid has a pearly
and singular wavy appearance when shaken. A similar preparation is
called Egg Julep.


Various preparations are used to assist in dressing the hair in any
particular form. Some persons use for that purpose a hard pomatum
containing wax, made up into rolls, called thence _Baton Fixeteur._ The
little "feathers" of hair, with which some ladies are troubled, are by
the aid of these batons made to lie down smooth. For their formula, see
p. 224, 225.

The liquid bandolines are principally of a gummy nature, being made
either with Iceland moss, or linseed and water variously perfumed, also
by boiling quince-seed with water. Perfumers, however, chiefly make
bandoline from gum tragacanth, which exudes from a shrub of that name
which grows plentifully in Greece and Turkey.


Gum tragacanth,                    6 oz.
Rose-water,                    1 gallon.
Otto of roses,                   1/2 oz.

Steep the gum in the water for a day or so. As it swells and forms a
thick gelatinous mass, it must from time to time be well agitated. After
about forty-eight hours' maceration it is then to be squeezed through a
coarse clean linen cloth, and again left to stand for a few days, and
passed through a linen cloth a second time, to insure uniformity of
consistency; when this is the case, the otto of rose is to be thoroughly
incorporated. The cheap bandoline is made without the otto; for colored
bandoline, it is to be tinted with ammoniacal solution of carmine, i.e.
_Bloom of Roses_. See p. 236.


Is made precisely as the above, scenting with a quarter of an ounce of
otto of almonds in place of the roses.

            "Nor the sweet smell
    Of different flowers in odor and in hue
    Can make me any longer story tell."




       *       *       *       *       *


Glycerine is generally made on the large scale, on the one hand, by
directly saponifying oil with the oxide of lead, or, on the other, from
the "waste liquor" of soap manufacturers. To obtain glycerine by means
of the first of these methods is the reverse of simple, and at the same
time somewhat expensive; and by means of the second process, the
difficulty of entirely separating the saline matters of the waste liquor
renders it next to impossible to procure a perfectly pure result. To
meet both these difficulties, and to meet the steadily increasing demand
for glycerine, Dr. Campbell Morfit recommends the following process,
which, he asserts, he has found, by experience, to combine the desirable
advantages of economy as regards time, trouble, and expense. One hundred
pounds of oil, tallow, lard, or stearin are to be placed in a clean
iron-bound barrel, and melted by the direct application of a current of
steam. Whilst still fluid and warm, add to it fifteen pounds of lime,
previously slaked, and made into a milky mixture with two and a half
gallons of water; then cover the vessel, and continue the steaming for
several hours, or until the saponification shall be completed. This may
be known when a sample of the soap when cold gives a smooth and bright
surface on being scraped with the finger-nail, and at the same time,
breaks with a crackling noise. By this process the fat or oil is
decomposed, its acids uniting with the lime to form insoluble lime-soap,
while the eliminated glycerine remains in solution in the water along
with the excess of the lime. After it has been sufficiently boiled, it
is allowed to cool and to settle, and it is then to be strained.

The strained liquid contains only the glycerine and excess of lime, and
requires to be carefully concentrated by heated steam. During
evaporation, a portion of the lime is deposited, on account of its
lesser solubility in hot than in cold water. The residue is removed by
treating the evaporated liquid with a current of carbonic acid gas,
boiling by heated steam to convert a soluble bicarbonate of lime that
may have been formed into insoluble neutral carbonate, decanting or
straining off the clear supernatant liquid from the precipitated
carbonate of lime, and evaporating still further, as before, if
necessary, so as to drive off any excess of water. As nothing fixed or
injurious is employed in this process, glycerine, prepared in this
manner, may be depended upon for its almost absolute purity.

M. Jahn's process is as follows:--

Take of finely-powdered litharge five pounds, and olive oil nine pounds.
Boil them together over a gentle fire, constantly stirring, with the
addition occasionally of a small quantity of warm water, until the
compound has the consistence of plaster. Jahn boils this plaster for
half an hour with an equal weight of water, keeping it at the same time
constantly stirred. When cold, he pours off the supernatant fluid, and
repeats the boiling three times at least with a fresh portion of water.
The sweet fluids which result are mixed, and evaporated to six pounds,
and sulphuretted hydrogen conducted through them as long as sulphuret
of lead is precipitated. The liquid filtered from the sulphuret of lead
is to be reduced to a thin syrupy consistence by evaporation. To remove
the brown coloring matter, it must be treated with purified animal
charcoal. However, this agent does not prevent the glycerine becoming
slightly colored upon further evaporation. It possesses also still a
slight smell and taste of lead plaster, which may be removed by diluting
it with water, and by digestion with animal charcoal, and some fresh
burnt-wood charcoal. After filtration, this liquid must be evaporated
until it has acquired a specific gravity of 1.21, when it will be found
to be free from smell, and of a pale yellow color. For the preparation
of glycerine, distilled water is necessary, to prevent it being
contaminated with the impurities of common water. Jahn obtained, by this
method, from the above quantity of lead plaster, upwards of seven ounces
of glycerine.--_Archives der Pharmacie_.

       *       *       *       *       *


J.J. Bernoulli recommends for this purpose acetate of potash. When to an
ethereal oil, contaminated with alcohol, dry acetate of potash is added,
this salt dissolves in the alcohol, and forms a solution from which the
volatile oil separates. If the oil be free from alcohol, this salt
remains dry therein.

Wittstein, who speaks highly of this test, has suggested the following
method of applying it as the best:--In a dry test-tube, about half an
inch in diameter, and five or six inches long, put no more than eight
grains of powdered dry acetate of potash; then fill the tube two-thirds
full with the essential oil to be examined. The contents of the tube
must be well stirred with a glass rod, taking care not to allow the salt
to rise above the oil; afterwards set aside for a short time. If the
salt be found at the bottom of the tube dry, it is evident that the oil
contains no spirit. Oftentimes, instead of the dry salt, beneath the oil
is found a clear syrupy fluid, which is a solution of the salt in the
spirit, with which the oil was mixed. When the oil contains only a
little spirit, a small portion of the solid salt will be found under the
syrupy solution. Many essential oils frequently contain a trace of
water, which does not materially interfere with this test, because,
although the acetate of potash becomes moist thereby, it still retains
its pulverent form.

A still more certain result may be obtained by distillation in a
water-bath. All the essential oils which have a higher boiling-point
than spirit, remain in the retort, whilst the spirit passes into the
receiver with only a trace of the oil, where the alcohol may be
recognized by the smell and taste. Should, however, a doubt exist, add
to the distillate a little acetate of potash and strong sulphuric acid,
and heat the mixture in a test-tube to the boiling-point, when the
characteristic odor of acetic ether will be manifest, if any alcohol be

       *       *       *       *       *


It is known that the olein of the drying oils may be distinguished from
the olein of those oils which remain greasy in the air by the first not
being convertible into elaidic acid, consequently it does not become
solid. Professor Wimmer has recently proposed a convenient method for
the formation of elaidin, which is applicable for the purpose of
detecting the adulteration of almond and olive oils with drying oils. He
produces nitrous acid by treating iron filings in a glass bottle with
nitric acid. The vapor of nitrous acid is conducted through a glass tube
into water, upon which the oil to be tested is placed. If the oil of
almonds or olives contains only a small quantity of poppy oil when thus
treated, it is entirely converted into crystallized elaidin, whilst the
poppy oil swims on the top in drops.

       *       *       *       *       *



It is well known that most ethereal oils are colorless; however, there
are a great number colored, some of which are blue, some green, and some
yellow. Up to the present time the question has not been decided,
whether it is the necessary property of ethereal oils to have a color,
or whether their color is not due to the presence of some coloring
matter which can be removed. It is most probable that their color arises
from the presence of a foreign substance, as the colored ethereal oils
can at first, by careful distillation, be obtained colorless, whilst
later the colored portion passes over. Subsequent appearances lead to
the solution of the question, and are certain evidence that ethereal
oils, when they are colored, owe their color to peculiar substances
which, by certain conditions, may be communicated from one oil to
another. When a mixture of oils of wormwood, lemons, and cloves is
subjected to distillation, the previously green-colored oil of wormwood
passes over, at the commencement, colorless, while, towards the end of
the distillation, after the receiver has been frequently charged, the
oil of cloves distils over in very dense drops of a dark green color. It
therefore appears that the green coloring matter of the oil of wormwood
has been transferred to the oil of cloves.--_Zeitschrift für Pharmacie._

       *       *       *       *       *



Some years since, Strecker has shown that styrone, which is obtained
when styracine is treated with potash, is the alcohol of cinnamic acid.
Wolff has converted this alcohol by oxidizing agents into cinnamic acid.
The author has now proved that under the same conditions by which
ordinary alcohol affords aldehyde, styrone affords the aldehyde of
cinnamic acid, that is, oil of cinnamon. It is only necessary to moisten
platinum black with styrone, and let it remain in the air some days,
when by means of the bisulphite of potash the aldehyde double compound
may be obtained in crystals, which should be washed in ether. By the
addition of diluted sulphuric acid, the aldehyde of cinnamic acid is
afterwards procured pure. These crystals also dissolve in nitric acid,
and then form after a few moments crystals of the nitrate of the hyduret
of cinnamyle. The conversion of styrone into the hyduret of cinnamyle by
the action of the platinum black is shown by the following equation:

    C_{18}H_{10}O_{2} + 2 O = C_{18}H_{8}O_{2} + 2 HO.--_Comptes Rendus._

       *       *       *       *       *



There are two kinds of lavender oil known in commerce; one, which is
very dear, and is obtained from the flowers of the _Lavandula vera_; the
other is much cheaper, and is prepared from the flowers of the
_Lavandula spica_. The latter is generally termed oil of spike. In the
south of France, whether the oil be distilled from the flowers of the
_Lavandula vera_ or _Lavandula spica_, it is named oil of lavender.

By the distillation of the whole plant or only the stalk and the leaves,
a small quantity of oil is obtained, which is rich in camphor, and is
there called oil of spike. Pure oil of lavender should have a specific
gravity from .876 to .880, and be completely soluble in five parts of
alcohol of a specific gravity of .894. A greater specific gravity shows
that it is mixed with oil of spike; and a less solubility, that it
contains oil of turpentine.

       *       *       *       *       *



There are three sorts of orange-flower waters found in commerce. The
first is distilled from the flowers; the second is made with distilled
water and neroli; and the third is distilled from the leaves, the stems,
and the young unripe fruit of the orange tree. The first may be easily
distinguished by the addition of a few drops of sulphuric acid to some
of the water in a tube; a fine rose color is almost immediately
produced. The second also gives the same color when it is freshly
prepared; but after a certain time, two or three months at the farthest,
this color is no longer produced, and the aroma disappears completely.
The third is not discolored by the addition of the sulphuric acid; it
has scarcely any odor, and that rather an odor of the lemon plant than
of orange-flowers.--_Bulletin de la Société Pharmaceutique d'Indre et

       *       *       *       *       *


Krembs recommends the following process for making a concentrated
elder-flower water, from which he states the ordinary water can be
extemporaneously prepared, of excellent quality, and of uniform
strength:--2 lbs. of the flowers are to be distilled with water until
that which passes into the receiver has lost nearly all perfume. This
will generally happen when from 15 to 18 pounds have passed over. To the
distillate, 2 lbs. of alcohol are to be added, and the mixture distilled
until about 5 lbs. are collected. This liquor contains all the odor of
the flowers. To make the ordinary water, 2 ounces of the concentrated
water are to be added to 10 ounces of distilled water.--_Buchner's

       *       *       *       *       *



The strength of spirit of wine is, by law, regulated by proof spirit
(sp. gr. .920) as a standard; and accordingly as it is either stronger
or weaker than the above, it is called so much per cent. above or below
proof. The term _per cent._ is used in this instance in a rather
peculiar sense. Thus, spirit of wine at 56 per cent. overproof,
signifies that 100 gallons of it are equal to 156 gallons of proof
spirit; while a spirit at 20 per cent. underproof, signifies that 100
gallons are equal to 80 gallons at proof. The rectified spirit of the
Pharmacopoeia is 56 per cent. overproof, and may be reduced to proof
by strictly adhering to the directions there given, viz., to mix five
measures with three of water. The result, however, will not be eight
measures of proof spirit; in consequence of the _contraction_ which
ensues, there will be a deficiency of about [Symbol: oz.]iv in each
gallon. This must be borne in mind in preparing tinctures.

During a long series of experiments on the preparation of ethers, it
appeared a desideratum to find a ready method of ascertaining how much
spirit of any density would be equal to one chemical equivalent of
absolute alcohol. By a modification of a rule employed by the Excise,
this question may be easily solved. The Excise rule is as follows:--

To reduce from any given strength to any required strength, _add_ the
_overproof_ per centage _to_ 100, or _subtract_ the _underproof_ per
centage _from_ 100. Multiply the result by the quantity of spirit, and
divide the product by the number obtained by _adding_ the _required_ per
centage overproof, or _subtracting_ the _required_ per centage
underproof, to or from 100, as the case may be. The result will give the
measure of the spirit at the strength required.

Thus, suppose you wished to reduce 10 gallons of spirit, at 54
overproof, down to proof, add 54 to 100 = 154; multiply by the quantity,
10 gallons (154 × 10) = 1540. The required strength being proof, of
course there is nothing either to add to or take from 100; therefore,
1540 divided by 100 = 15.4 gallons at proof; showing that 10 gallons
must be made to measure 15 gallons, 3 pints, 4 fl. oz., by the addition
of water.

To ascertain what quantity of spirit of any given strength will contain
one equivalent of absolute alcohol. Add the overproof per centage of the
given spirit to 100, as before; and with the number thus obtained divide
4062.183. The result gives in gallons the quantity equal to four
equivalents (46 × 4).

_Example._--How much spirit at 54 per cent. overproof is equal to 1
equivalent of absolute alcohol?


54 + 100 = 154 and 4062.183 = 26.3778 galls., or 26 galls. 3 pts.

which, divided by 4, gives 6 gallons, 4 pints, 15 oz.

Suppose the spirit to be 60 overproof,--

      4062.183                    {one-fourth of which is equal
then ---------- = 25.388 gallons, {to 6 gallons, 2 pints,
     (100 + 60)                   {15-1/2 oz.

This rule is founded on the following data. As a gallon of water weighs
10 lbs., it is obvious that the specific gravity of any liquid
multiplied by 10 will give the weight of one gallon. The specific
gravity of absolute alcohol is 0.793811; hence, the weight of one gallon
will be 7.93811 lbs., and its strength is estimated at 75.25 overproof.

4 equivalents of alcohol = 46 × 4 = 184,


23.17936 gallons × 7.93811 lbs. per gallon, also = 184.0003094.

Hence it appears that 23.17936 gallons of absolute alcohol are equal to
4 equivalents. By adding the overproof per centage (75.25) to 100, and
multiplying by the quantity (23.17936 gallons) we get the constant
number 4062.183.

The rule might have been calculated so as to show _at once_ the
equivalent, without dividing by 4; but it would have required several
more places of decimals; it will give the required quantity to a
fraction of a fluid drachm.

       *       *       *       *       *



Instead of resorting to repeated distillations for effecting the
purification of spirits, Mr. Schaeffer proposes the use of a filter. In
a suitable vessel, the form of which is not material, a filtering bed is
constructed in the following manner:--On a false perforated bottom,
covered with woollen or other fabric, a layer of about six inches of
well-washed and very clean river sand is placed; next about twelve
inches of granular charcoal, preferring that made from birch; on the
charcoal is placed a layer of about one inch of wheat, boiled to such an
extent as to cause it to swell as large as possible, and so that it will
readily crush between the fingers. Above this is laid about ten inches
of charcoal, then about one inch of broken oyster shells, and then about
two inches more of charcoal, over which is placed a layer of woollen or
other fabric, and over it a perforated partition, on to which the spirit
to be filtered is poured; the filter is kept covered, and in order that
the spirit may flow freely into the compartment of the filter below the
filtering materials, a tube connects such lower compartment with the
upper compartment of the filter, so that the air may pass freely
between the lower and upper compartments of the filter. On each, of the
several strata above described, it is desirable to place a layer of
filtering paper.

The charcoal suitable for the above purpose is not such as is obtained
in the ordinary mode of preparation. It is placed in a retort or oven,
and heated to a red heat until the blue flame has passed off, and the
flame become red. The charcoal is then cooled in water, in which
carbonate of potash has previously been dissolved, in the proportion of
two ounces of carbonate to fifty gallons of water. The charcoal being
deprived of the water is then reduced to a granular state, in which
condition it is ready for use.

       *       *       *       *       *



(_Read before the Chemical Discussion Society._)

I have recently made some experiments with oil of lemons, of which the
following is a short account:--

Being constantly annoyed by the deposit and alteration in my essence of
lemons, I have tried various methods of remedying the inconvenience.

I first tried redistilling it, but besides the loss consequent on
distilling small quantities, the flavor is thereby impaired. As the oil
became brighter when heated, I anticipated that all its precipitable
matter would be thrown down at a low temperature, and I applied a
freezing mixture, keeping the oil at zero for some hours. No such
change, however, took place.

The plan which I ultimately decided upon as the best which I had
arrived at, was to shake up the oil with a little boiling water, and to
leave the water in the bottle; a mucilaginous preparation forms on the
top of the water, and acquires a certain tenacity, so that the oil may
be poured off to nearly the last, without disturbing the deposit.
Perhaps cold water would answer equally well, were it carefully agitated
with the oil and allowed some time to settle. A consideration of its
origin and constitution, indeed, strengthens this opinion; for although
lemon otto is obtained both by distillation and expression, that which
is usually found in commerce is prepared by removing the "flavedo" of
lemons with a rasp, and afterwards expressing it in a hair sack,
allowing the filtrate to stand, that it may deposit some of its
impurities, decanting and filtering. Thus obtained it still contains a
certain amount of mucilaginous matter, which undergoes spontaneous
decomposition, and thus (acting, in short, as a ferment) accelerates a
similar change in the oil itself. If this view of its decomposition be a
correct one, we evidently, in removing this matter by means of the
water, get rid of a great source of alteration, and attain the same
result as we should by distillation, without its waste or deterioration
in flavor.

I am, however, aware that some consider the deposit to be modified
resin.[H] Some curious experiments of Saussure have shown that volatile
oils absorb oxygen immediately they have been drawn from the plant, and
are partially converted into a resin, which remains dissolved in the
remainder of the essence.

He remarked that this property of absorbing oxygen gradually increases,
until a maximum is attained, and again diminishes after a certain lapse
of time. In the oil of lavender this maximum remained only seven days,
during each of which it absorbed seven times its volume of oxygen. In
the oil of lemons the maximum was not attained until at the end of a
month; it then lasted twenty-six days; during each of which it absorbed
twice its volume of oxygen. The oil of turpentine did not attain the
maximum for five months, it then remained for one month, during which
time it absorbed daily its own volume of oxygen.

It is the resin formed by the absorption of oxygen, and remaining
dissolved in the essence, which destroys its original flavor. The oil of
lemons presents a very great analogy with that of oil of turpentine, so
far as regards its transformations, and its power of rotating a ray of
polarized light. Authorities differ as regards this latter property.
Pereira states that the oil of turpentine obtained by distillation with
water, from American turpentine, has a molecular power of right-handed
rotation, while the French oil of turpentine had a left-handed rotation.
Oil of lemons rotates a ray of light to the right, but in France a
distilled oil of lemons, sold as scouring drops for removing spots of
grease, possesses quite the opposite power of rotation, and has lost all
the original peculiar flavor of the oil. Oil of lemons combines with
hydrochloric acid to form an artificial camphor, just in the same manner
as does oil of turpentine, but its atom is only one half that of the oil
of turpentine. The artificial camphor of oil of lemons is represented by
the formula, C_{10}H_{8}HCl; the artificial camphor of oil of turpentine
by C_{20}H_{16}HCl.

According to M. Biot, the camphor formed by the oil of lemons does not
exercise any action on polarized light, whilst the oil of lemons itself
rotates a ray to the right. The camphor from oil of turpentine, on the
contrary, does exercise on the polarized ray the same power as the oil
possessed while in its isolated state, of rotating to the left. These
molecular properties establish an essential difference between the oils
of turpentine and lemons, and may serve to detect adulteration and
fraud. It is also a curious fact, that from the decomposition of these
artificial camphors by lime, volatile oils may be obtained by
distillation, isomeric with the original oils from which the camphors
were formed; but in neither case has the new product any action on
polarized light.

In conclusion, I would recommend that this oil, as well as all other
essential oils, be kept in a cool, dark place, where no very great
changes of temperature occur.

       *       *       *       *       *



Dr. Mohr's process for obtaining benzoic acid, which is adopted by the
Prussian Pharmacopoeia, unquestionably has the reputation of being the
best. According to this process, coarsely-powdered gum benzoin is to be
strewed on the flat bottom of a round iron pot which has a diameter of
nine inches, and a height of about two inches. On the surface of the pot
is spread a piece of filtering paper, which is fastened to its rim by
starch paste. A cylinder of very thick paper is attached by means of a
string to the top of the iron pot. Heat is then applied by placing the
pot on a plate covered with sand, over the mouth of a furnace. It must
remain exposed to a gentle fire from four to six hours. Mohr usually
obtains about an ounce and a half of benzoic acid from twelve ounces of
gum benzoin by the first sublimation. As the gum is not exhausted by the
first operation, it may be bruised when cold and again submitted to the
action of heat, when a fresh portion of benzoic acid will sublime from
it. This acid thus obtained, is not perfectly pure and white, and Mohr
states that it is a question, in a medicinal and perfumery point of
view, whether it is so valuable when perfectly pure, as when it contains
a small portion of a fragrant volatile oil, which rises with it from the
gum in the process of sublimation.

The London Pharmacopoeia directs that it shall be prepared by
sublimation, and does not prescribe that it shall be free from this oil,
to which it principally owes its agreeable odor.

By the second sublimation the whole of the benzoic acid is not
volatilized. What remains in the resin may be separated by boiling it
with caustic lime, and precipitating the acid from the resulting
benzoate of lime with hydrochloric acid. Benzoic acid can be obtained
also in the wet way, and the resin yields a greater product in this
process than in the former; yet it has a less perfumery value, because
it is free from the volatile oil which, as above stated, gives it its
peculiar odor. The wet method devised by Scheele is as follows:--Make
one ounce of freshly-burnt lime into a milk with from four to six ounces
of hot water. To the milk of lime, four ounces of powdered benzoin and
thirty ounces of water are to be added, and the mixture boiled for half
an hour, and stirred during this operation, and afterwards strained
through linen. The residue must be a second time boiled with twenty
ounces of water and strained, and a third time with ten ounces; the
fluid products must be mixed and evaporated to one-fourth of their
volume, and sufficient hydrochloric acid added to render them slightly
acid. When quite cold, the crystals are to be separated from the fluid
by means of a linen strainer, upon which they are to be washed with cold
water, and pressed, and then dissolved in hot distilled water, from
which the crystals separate on cooling. When hydrochloric acid is added
to a cold concentrated solution of the salts of benzoic acid, it is
precipitated as a white powder. If the solution of the salts of this
acid is too dilute and warm, none or only a portion of the benzoic acid
will be separated. However, the weaker the solution is, and the more
slowly it is cooled, the larger will be the crystals of this acid. In
the preparation of this acid in the wet way, lime is to be preferred to
every other base, because it forms insoluble combinations with the
resinous constituents of the benzoin, and because it prevents the
gum-resin from conglomerating into an adhesive mass, and also because an
excess of this base is but slightly soluble.

Stoltze has recommended a method by which all the acid can be removed
from the benzoin:--The resin is to be dissolved in spirit, to which is
to be added a watery solution of carbonate of soda, decomposed
previously by alcohol. The spirit is to be removed by distillation, and
the remaining watery solution, from which the resin has been separated
by filtration, treated with dilute sulphuric acid, to precipitate the
benzoic acid. This method gives the greatest quantity of acid, but is
attended with a sacrifice of time and alcohol, which renders it in an
economical point of view inferior to the above process of Scheele. It
is so far valuable, that the total acid contents of the resin can be
determined by it.

Dr. Gregory considers the following process for obtaining benzoic acid
the most productive. Dissolve benzoin in strong alcohol, by the aid of
heat, and add to the solution, whilst hot, hydrochloric acid, in
sufficient quantity to precipitate the resin. When the mixture is
distilled, the benzoic acid passes over in the form of benzoic ether.
Distillation must be continued as long as any ether passes over. Water
added towards the end of the operation will facilitate the expulsion of
the ether from the retort. When the ether ceases to pass over, the hot
water in the retort is filtered, which deposits benzoic acid on cooling.
The benzoic ether and all the distilled liquids are now treated with
caustic potash until the ether is decomposed, and the solution is heated
to boiling, and super-saturated with hydrochloric acid, which
afterwards, on cooling, deposits, in crystals, benzoic acid.

Benzoic acid, as it exists in the resin, is the natural production of
the plant from which the resin is derived. It may also be produced
artificially. Abel found that when cumole (C_{18}H_{12}) was treated
with nitric acid, so dilute that no red vapors were evolved for several
days, this hydro-carbon was converted into benzoic acid. Guckelberger
has, by the oxidation of casein with peroxide of manganese and sulphuric
acid, obtained as one of the products benzoic acid. Albumen, fibrin, and
gelatin yielded similar results when treated as above. Wöhler has
detected benzoic acid in Canadian castor, along with salicin. It is also
formed by the oxidation of the volatile oil of bitter almonds. Benzoate
of potash results when chloride of benzoyle is treated with caustic
potash. Benzoic acid in the animal economy is converted into hippuric
acid, which may by the action of acids, be reconverted into benzoic

Benzoic acid should be completely volatile, without leaving any ash or
being carbonized when heated. When dissolved in warm water, to which a
little nitric acid has been added, nitrate of silver and chloride of
barium should produce no precipitates. Oxalate of potash should give no
turbidity to an ammoniacal solution of this acid. When heated with an
excess of caustic potash it should evolve no smell of ammonia,
otherwise, it has been adulterated with sal ammoniac. In spirit, benzoic
acid is easily soluble, and requires 200 parts of cold and 20 parts of
boiling water to dissolve one part of it.

       *       *       *       *       *



Chemists possess only a very incomplete knowledge of the coloring
matters of flowers. Their investigation involves difficulties which
cannot be mistaken. The matters which color flowers are uncrystallized;
they frequently change by the action of the reagents employed for their
preparation; and, also, very brilliantly-colored flowers owe their color
to very small quantities of coloring matter.

On the nature of the coloring matters of flowers several opinions have
been expressed. Some observers have assumed that flowers owe their color
to only two coloring matters, one of which is termed anthocyan, and the
other anthoxanthine. Others will find a relation between the green
coloring of leaves, the chlorophylle, and the coloring matters of
flowers. They support their opinion generally on the results of the
elementary analysis of those different bodies; but all chemists know
that chlorophylle has not yet been prepared in a pure condition.
Probably, it retains various quantities of fatty and albuminous bodies.
Further, the coloring matters of flowers are scarcely known, so that it
is impossible to establish relations supported by the necessarily
uncertain composition of impure bodies.

Some time since the blue color of flowers was ascribed to the presence
of indigo; but Chevreul has shown, in a certain way, that the blue
substance of flowers is always reddened by acids; and that with indigo
it is quite different, which, as is known, retains its blue color even
when the strongest acids are allowed to act on it.

It is thus seen that the coloring matters of flowers have heretofore
only in a superficial manner been examined, and that it is important to
again undertake their complete examination, as these bodies are
interesting to the chemist, because they are employed as reagents in the
laboratory for the recognition of alkalies; and by an improved knowledge
of them the florist might find the way by which he could give to
cultivated flowers various colors.

We have believed that before undertaking their elementary analysis,
methods must be carefully sought for which can be followed for the
obtainment of the coloring matters of flowers, and that it should be
proved whether these substances are to be considered as independent
bodies, or whether they proceed from one and the same matter, which is
changed in various ways by the juices of the plant.

We now publish the results of our first investigations.

_Blue Coloring Matter of Flowers (Cyanine)._--The blue coloring matter
of flowers we propose to call cyanine. To obtain this substance we treat
the petals of _Centauria cyanus_, _Viola odorata_, or _Iris
pseudacorus_, with boiling alcohol, by which the flowers are
decolorized; and the liquid acquires immediately a fine blue color.

If the coloring matter is allowed to remain some time in contact with
alcohol, it is perceived that the blue of the liquid gradually
disappears, and soon a yellow brown coloration takes its place. The
coloring matter has in this case suffered an actual reduction by the
prolonged action of the alcohol, but it will again assume its original
color when the alcohol is allowed to evaporate in the air. Nevertheless,
the alcohol must not be allowed to remain in contact too long with the
coloring matter, because the alcoholic extract will not then again
assume its blue coloration by the action of oxygen.

The residue remaining from the evaporation of the alcohol is treated
with water, which separates a fatty and resinous substance. The watery
solution which contains the coloring matter is then precipitated by
neutral acetate of lead. The precipitate, which possesses a beautiful
green color, can be washed with plenty of water, and then decomposed
with sulphuretted hydrogen; the coloring matter passes into the watery
solution, which is carefully evaporated in a water-bath; the residue is
again dissolved in absolute alcohol; and lastly, the alcoholic solution
is mixed with ether, which precipitates the cyanine in the form of blue

Cyanine is uncrystallizable, soluble in water and alcohol, insoluble in
ether; acids, and acid salts color it immediately red; by alkalies it
is, as known, colored green. Cyanine appears to behave as an acid, at
least it forms with lime, baryta, strontia, oxide of lead, &c., green
compounds insoluble in water.

Bodies absorbing oxygen, as sulphurous acid, phosphorous acid, and
alcohols, decolorize it; under the influence of oxygen its color is

We must here mention that Moroz has prepared a beautiful blue substance
from _Centauria cyanus_ by treatment with absolute alcohol.

_Rose-red Coloring Matter._--We have employed alcohol to extract the
substance which colors rose-red certain dahlias, roses, poeonias, &c.
For the procuration of this coloring matter the method pursued is
exactly as that for the preparation of cyanine.

By an attentive comparison of the properties of this coloring matter
with those of cyanine, we have found that the rose-red coloring matter
is the same as the blue, or at least results from a modification of the
same independent principle. It appears in the rose-red modification,
when the juice of the plant, with which it exists in contact, possesses
an acid reaction. We have always observed this acid reaction in the
juices of plants with red or rose-red coloration, while the blue juices
of plants have always exhibited an alkaline reaction.

We have exposed most of the rose-red or red-colored flowers which are
cultivated in the Paris Museum to the influence of alkalies, and have
seen that they first become blue and then green by their action.

It is often perceived that certain rose-red flowers, as those of the
_Mallow_, and in particular those of the _Hibiscus Syriacus_, acquire by
fading a blue and then a green coloration, which change, as we have
found, depends on the decomposition of an organic nitrogenous substance,
which is found very frequently in the petals. This body generates as it
decomposes ammonia, which communicates to the flowers the blue or green
color. By action of weak acids, the petals can be restored to their
rose-red color.

The alteration of color of certain rose-red flowers can also be
observed when the petals are very rapidly dried, for example, in
_vacuo_, by which it cannot be easily assumed that a nitrogenous body
has undergone decomposition to the evolution of ammonia. But, before all
things, it must be mentioned that in this case the modification of color
passes into violet, and never arrives at green; and, further, that it is
always accompanied with the evolution of carbonic acid, which we have
detected by a direct experiment. Petals which were before rose-red, and
have become violet by slight drying, evolve carbonic acid, and on that
account it may be assumed that the rose-red color is produced in the
petals by this carbonic acid, and that by its expulsion the petals
assume the blue color, by which the flowers with neutral juices are

We believe that we are able to speak with certainty that flowers with a
rose-red, violet, or blue color, owe their coloration to one and the
same substance, but which is modified in various ways by the influence
of the juices of plants.

Scarlet-red flowers also contain cyanine reddened by an acid, but in
such cases this substance is mixed with a yellow coloring matter which
we will now describe.

_Yellow Coloring Matter._--The simplest experiments show that no analogy
exists between the substance which colors flowers yellow and that of
which we have already spoken. The agents which generate so easily with
cyanine, the rose-red, violet, or green coloration, cannot in any case
impart these colors to the yellow substance obtained from flowers.

By the examination of the various yellow-colored flowers, we have
ascertained that they owe their coloration to two substances, which
differ from one another in their properties, and appear not to be
derived from the same independent principle. One is completely insoluble
in water, which we have termed xanthine, a name which Runge has given
to a yellow matter from madder. As this name has not been accepted in
science, we have employed it to denote one of the coloring matters of
yellow flowers. The other substance is very soluble in water, and is by
us termed xantheine.

_Xanthine, or the Yellow Coloring Matter insoluble in water._--We have
prepared this coloring matter from many yellow flowers, but chiefly from
_Helianthus annuus_.

To obtain it we treat the flowers with boiling absolute alcohol, which
dissolves the coloring matter in the heat, and by cooling almost
completely allows it again to precipitate. The yellow deposit which is
obtained in this way, is not pure xanthine, as it contains a rather
considerable quantity of oil. To separate this oil we have recourse to a
moderate saponification; thus, we heat the yellow precipitate with a
small quantity of alkali to saponify the fatty body mixed with the
xanthine, which even contains the xanthine dissolved. As the coloring
matter is soluble in the soap solution, we do not treat the mass with
water, but decompose it with an acid which isolates the xanthine and the
fatty acids resulting from the saponification. This precipitate we treat
with cold alcohol, which leaves behind the fatty acids, and dissolves
the xanthine. This substance is a fine yellow color, insoluble in water,
but soluble in alcohol and ether, which are thereby colored golden
yellow. It appears to be uncrystallizable, and possesses the general
properties of resins.

Xanthine, in combination with cyanine, modified by the various juices of
plants, communicates in variable proportions orange-yellow, scarlet-red,
and red colors to flowers.

_Xantheine, or the Coloring Matter soluble in water._--By the
preparation of the substance which colors yellow certain dahlias, it is
at once perceived that it has no analogy to xanthine. The latter is as
known insoluble in water, while the coloring matter under consideration
is readily soluble in water.

To obtain the xanthine we treat the petals of yellow flowering dahlias
with alcohol, which quickly dissolves the yellow coloring matter,
besides the fat and resin. The solution is evaporated to dryness, and
the residue treated with water, whereby the fat and resin are separated.
The water is again evaporated to dryness, and the residue treated with
absolute alcohol. The resulting solution diluted with water is mixed
with neutral acetate of lead, which precipitates the coloring matters.
The lead precipitate is then decomposed with sulphuric acid, upon which
the xantheine which remains dissolved in the water is purified by

Xantheine is soluble in water, alcohol, and ether, but crystallizes from
none of these solutions. Alkalies color it intensely brown. Its power of
coloration is considerable. It dyes various fabrics of a yellow tone,
which is without brilliancy. Acids again destroy the brown coloration
produced by alkalies. Xantheine combines with most metallic bases, and
forms therewith yellow or brown insoluble lakes.

The facts here related agree with all which has been previously observed
regarding the coloring matters of flowers. It is known that blue flowers
can become red, and even white, where their coloring matter is
destroyed, but never yellow--and _vice versâ_. These three coloring
matters can generate the colors either alone or by admixture, which are
seen in flowers; but whether they are the only matters which color
flowers, we are at present unable to determine.--_Journal de

       *       *       *       *       *



This improved process consists of two parts:--1st, the application of
highly-heated steam to heat the fatty matters under treatment, by which
means the requisite heat for melting these substances is obtained, and
at the same time the atmosphere is thereby excluded; the heated steam so
applied in its passage off, carries with it the offensive smells given
off by the fatty matters, and being made to traverse a pipe or passage
up or along which gaseous chlorine is allowed to flow, a complete
disinfection of the offensive products is thereby effected. 2dly, the
treating of bees'-wax in a mixture of hard acid fat and bees'-wax, with
compounds of chlorine and oxygen, preferring to employ that disengaged
from chlorate of potash by treating it with sulphuric acid. For this
purpose, Mr. Wilson takes at the rate, say, of a ton of yellow
bees'-wax, and melts and boils it up with free steam for about half an
hour. It is then allowed to stand a short time, and is then decanted
into another vessel provided with a steam-pipe to emit free steam; about
20 lbs. of chlorate of potash is added, and the steam turned on; 80 lbs.
of sulphuric acid, diluted with a like weight of water, is then
gradually added. The matters are allowed to stand for a short time, and
are then decanted into another vessel, and again boiled up with free
steam, and treated with a like quantity of diluted sulphuric acid. The
bees'-wax is then decanted into a receiver, and is ready for use. The
bees'-wax may, before undergoing these processes, be combined and boiled
up with a hard fatty acid, and then treated as above described.

       *       *       *       *       *


A. Faiszt has submitted this celebrated shaving soap to analysis. He
states that it is made by saponifying mutton fat with lime, and then
separating the fatty acids from the soap thus formed, by means of a
mineral acid. These fatty acids are afterwards combined with ordinary
caustic potash to produce the Naples soap. He found that 100 parts of
this soap contained

Fatty acids,                                  57.14
Potash combined with the fatty acids,         10.39
Sulphate of potash, chloride of potassium,
  with a trace of carbonate of potash,         4.22
Silica, &c.,                                   0.46
Water,                                        27.68
_Gewerbeblatt aus Wurttemberg._

       *       *       *       *       *


The removal of the duty from soap, and the consequent emancipation of
this branch of industry from the tender mercies of the Excise, has given
a fresh impetus to the manufacture of this important article of daily
use, and enabled some processes to be practically carried out in
England, which, previous to the removal of the duty, could not be
adopted in this part of her Majesty's dominions.

It will doubtless appear strange to those unacquainted with the
circumstances, that owing to the mode of levying the duty by
admeasurement, and not by actual weight, the maker of a particular kind
of soap was debarred the privilege of manufacturing in this country.
Fortunately for him, the manufacture of soap being free from all Excise
restrictions in Ireland, he was enabled to carry out his process in the
sister kingdom, whence it was exported to England, and admitted here on
payment of the Customs' duty, which was the same as the Excise duty on
its manufacture here. All this roundabout method of doing business is
now done away with, and no restriction now exists to mar the peace of
the soap manufacturer.

Amongst various new processes lately introduced is that of Mr. H.C.
Jennings, which is practically carried out in the following manner:--

Combine 1000 lbs. of stearic or margaric acid, as free from elaine or
oleine as possible, or palmatine, or any vegetable or animal stearine or
margarine, at the temperature of 212° Fahr., with a solution of
bicarbonate of potash or soda, specific gravity 1500. Constantly stir or
mix until an intimate combination is obtained, and that the elements
will not part when tried upon glass or any other similar substance. When
the mass is cooled down to about 60° Fahr. add one pound per cent. of
liquor ammoniæ, specific gravity 880, and one pound per cent. of
strongest solution of caustic potash; these are to be added gradually,
and fully mixed or stirred until perfectly combined. Dissolve 15 to 18
pounds per cent. of common resin of commerce, by boiling it with a
solution of subcarbonate of potash and common soda of commerce, in equal
parts, as much as will give the solution a specific gravity of about
1800, when boiling hot. Mix these perfectly with the above-mentioned
stearic or margaric acids, and carbonated alkali; then add a strong
solution of caustic potash or soda, until a perfect saponification is
produced. The dose of caustic alkali will much depend upon the purity of
the stearine or margarine employed. The separation is now effected by
using common salt, or sulphate of soda, &c., as is known and practised
by soap manufacturers. If the soap intended to be produced is to be
colorless, no resin must be employed, and a larger dose of liquor
ammoniæ and caustic alkali must be used, according to the dryness of the
stearine matters to be operated upon.

       *       *       *       *       *



In consequence of the ceremonious process by which the fatty acids are
determined in one portion of the soap, and the alkali by the
incineration of another, I consider the following method is not unworthy
of publication, because it appears to afford quicker and more correct
results by reason of the greater simplicity of the manipulation. It is
available principally for soda soaps, which are the most common; but it
may be also employed with corresponding alterations for soaps which have
other bases.

A piece of soap weighing two or three grammes is dissolved in a tared
beaker glass of about 160 cubic centimetres capacity with 80 to 100
cubic centimetres of water, by heat, in a water-bath, and then three or
four times the quantity of diluted sulphuric acid or as much as is
necessary to decompose the soap, added from a burette. When, after
repeated agitation, the fatty acids have separated in a transparent
clear stratum from the aqueous solution, it is allowed to cool, and then
the contents of the beaker glass are placed in a moistened filter, which
has been previously dried at 212° Fahr. and weighed. The contents of the
filter are washed until their acid reaction disappears. In the meanwhile
the beaker glass is placed in a steam-bath, so that, it being already
dry, may support the washed and partly dry filter, which is laid on the
mouth of the glass as if it were in the funnel. The fatty acids soon
pass through the paper, and for the most part flow ultimately to the
bottom of the beaker glass; the increase of weight of which, after
cooling, and the subtraction of the weight of the filter, gives the
quantity of fatty acids present in the soap. A second drying and
weighing is not necessary, if on the cold sides of the interior of the
glass no damp is to be observed, which is occasioned by a trace of water
still present. If the quantity of oxide of iron added to marble the soap
is considerable, it may be easily found by incinerating the filter and
determining the weight of the residue.

The fluid runs from the fatty acids on the filter, which, with the
washings, has been preserved in a sufficiently large beaker glass, is
colored with tincture of litmus, and decomposed with a test alkaline
solution until the blue color appears. The difference of the quantity of
alkali required to neutralize the sulphuric acid, and the quantity of
sulphuric acid used in the first instance, allows a calculation to be
made as to the quantity of effective alkali in the soap, for example:--

23.86 grms. of soap (partly cocoa-nut oil soap).
17.95    "     fatty acids with filter.
04.44    "     filter.
13.51 grms. of hydrates of fatty acids = 56.62 per cent.

28.00 cub. cent. of the diluted sulphuric acid applied for the
          decomposition of the soap, of which 100 cub. cent.
          represent 2982 grms. of carbonate of soda.

17.55 cub. cent. of alkaline fluid, which were used for the
          saturation of the above acid, and of which 100 cub.
          cent. saturate an equal quantity of that acid.
10.45 cub. cent. of the sulphuric necessary for the alkali
          contained in the soap, representing 0.1823 grms. of
          soda = 7.64 per cent.

A determination of the alkali as a sulphate afforded in another portion
of soap 9.57 per cent. of soda, because the sulphate of soda and
chloride of sodium present in the soap gave up their alkali.

The alkaline fluid applied by me was a saccharine solution of lime,
which can be naturally replaced by a solution of soda, and must be if
the chloride of sodium and sulphate of soda mixed with the soap shall be
determined in the following way:--

The fluid again exactly neutralized with alkali is evaporated to
dryness, and the residue gently heated to redness. As in the above
manipulation, the fluid was not heated to the boiling point, the
original chloride of sodium and sulphate of soda are contained in the
weighed residue, besides the soda of the soap and that which has been
added with the sulphuric acid, forming sulphate of soda. A second
exposure to a red heat with sulphuric acid converts the whole residue
into sulphate of soda, and from the increase of weight, by a comparison
of the equivalents of NaCl and NaO, SO_{3} the quantity of the former
may be decided. According to the equivalents which Kopp furnished in
1850, the increase of weight to the chloride of sodium is as 1:4.68. The
original sulphate of soda must be, lastly, found by the subtraction of
the same salt formed plus the calculated chloride of sodium from the
first heated residue.

In practice, it is seldom necessary to proceed with the determination of
the chloride of sodium and sulphate of soda, except with stirred and
cocoa-nut oil soaps; certainly less of the truth is seen if, after the
above determination of the fatty acids and the effective alkali, the
absent per centage of water is introduced in the calculation, than if
the water is reckoned, which is never completely evolved from soap, even
technically prepared at 302° Fahr., and another determination made of
the fatty acids or alkali _en bloc_ the fatty acids, or even the
alkaline contents.

The method here given partakes of the usual imperfections, that the
fatty acids as well as the unsaponified soap are equally estimated, and
the mixed hydrate or carbonate of the alkali as well as the combined
alkali. The presence of the carbonate can be easily recognized by the
foaming of the soap solution, upon the addition of the sulphuric acid.
These imperfections, however, are of little importance.

It must be granted that the minutely correct determination of the
constitution of soap must be always yielded up to those who are
technically conversant with this department of chemistry, the estimation
of free alkali and unchanged fat excluded in, at least, by certain ages
of the soap. Further, a considerable excess of one or another ingredient
soon betrays itself by a corresponding departure in the soap of the
characteristic properties of a good product, and a small excess can be
judged sufficiently exact from the proportion of the alkali, which,
supposing soda present, should not amount to more than 13 per cent. with
a pure cocoa-nut oil soap, not less than 11.5 per cent. with a tallow
soap; but with palm oil and mixed soaps the one or the other limit
approximates.--_Journal für Praktische Chemie._

       *       *       *       *       *



The fats which exist in nature can be divided into the general and the
special; the former exist in almost all plants and parts of plants; the
latter includes only some vegetable substances, as _laurostearine_,
_myristicine_, and _palmatine_. The consistence of fats of the general
kind depend upon the proportions of margarine, stearine, and oleine
contained in them. The former preponderate in the solid fats (butter,
lard, and tallow); and the latter in the fluid ones or oils. According
as an oil contains oleic acid or olinic acid, it is termed a fatty or
drying oil. To the class of fatty oils belong olive, almond, hazel-nut,
beech, rape oils, &c.; to that of drying oils, linseed, nut, hemp,
poppy, grape-seed, oils, &c.; which are used for varnishes.

In the vegetable kingdom the fats are chiefly in the seeds and in their
coverings, seldom in the perispemium (poppy), and in the fleshy
substance surrounding the seed (olive). The fat in the seed is mostly
enclosed in cells with a proteine compound. In the animal kingdom
certain parts of the body are quite filled with fat-cells, particularly
under the skin (_Paniculus adiposus_), in the cavities of the abdomen,
in the so-called _omentum_, in the kidneys and the tubulated canals of
the bones. Fat is also enclosed in cells (fatty globules) in milk.

It is established, without a doubt, that a greater portion of the fat
which exists in the animal kingdom originates from the vegetable
kingdom, for it is introduced into the body cotemporaneously with the
proteine compounds of that kingdom. A portion of the fat as well as wax
is formed in the animal organismus, as shown by a number of
observations, and in most cases it is unquestionable that the
non-nitrogenous nutriments, as starch, serve for the formation of fat by
a process of deoxidation; nevertheless, the formation of fat in the
animal body appears only to take place when the substances containing
starch enter the body simultaneously with fat.

If the fat existing in the animal body is contained in cellular tissue,
its separation may be simply effected by placing the incised tissue in
hot water. The cells burst and the fat collects itself on the surface of
the water. If vegetable substances contain fat in large quantity, as,
for example, seeds, it may be obtained by expression. The dried seeds
are bruised and expressed between either cold or hot metallic plates.
Olives are laid in heaps before expression; when they begin to ferment,
they can be completely expressed. If animal and vegetable substances
contain only a little fat, it must be extracted by ether.

In the pure condition the fats are mostly odorless and tasteless; when
they possess an odor, it arises mostly from the presence of small
quantities of volatile fatty acids, as butyric acid, capric acid, &c.;
which becomes free through the decomposition of their oxide of glycyl
combinations. This ensues by the presence of water and air through a
kind of fermentation, and as it appears, by the presence of a
nitrogenous substance. The fats are insoluble in water, and, with the
exception of castor oil, are taken up by cold alcohol in very small
quantities, however, more in proportion as they contain oleine. In
boiling alcohol they are dissolved, but are, for the most part, again
separated on cooling, particularly those rich in stearine. All fats are
taken up by ether but those containing stearine in the smallest

Their specific gravities fluctuate between .91 and .93. When heated,
fats assume a dark color, and boil between 482° and 572° Fahr., but the
boiling-point continuously rises, while an uninterrupted decomposition
proceeds. From oxide of glycyl ensues acroline; oleic acid affords a
fatty acid, and among the decomposition products of fats containing
stearine and margarine are found pure margaric acid, and, at the same
time, some hydro-carbons are formed. When exposed quickly to a high
temperature, fats are completely decomposed. (Oil gas.) In closed
vessels the pure fats undergo no change, but, placed in thin layers in
the air, the fats containing oleine and oline rapidly absorb oxygen
under the strong evolution of heat, which will inflame porous bodies, as
cotton wool. The purer the fats are the more quickly their oxidation
results. When the fats contain slimy materials, these latter can be
destroyed with a little oxide of lead and water. (Preparation for the
application of varnishes.) The action of nitric acid, nitrous acid,
chlorine, sulphuric acid, &c., on fats is the same as that of these
bodies on the fatty acids. The fatty oils dissolve sulphur in the heat
which is again partly precipitated on cooling. When sulphur is heated
with fatty oils, namely, with linseed oil, it dissolves by degrees, and
a thick dark mass is formed, the so-called balsam of sulphur. By raising
the heat, a violent reaction ensues under the evolution of sulphuretted
hydrogen, and, at the same time, an oil resembling oil of garlic
volatilizes. This oil begins to boil at 160° Fahr., but its
boiling-point rises continually.

       *       *       *       *       *


An interesting paper on this subject has been published by Dr.
Macculloch. We presume our readers are aware that mouldiness is
occasioned by the growth of minute vegetables. Ink, paste, leather, and
seeds, are the substances that most frequently suffer from it. The
effect of cloves in preserving ink is well known; any of the essential
oils answer equally well. Leather may be kept free from mould by the
same substances. Thus Russian leather, which is perfumed with the tar of
birch, never becomes mouldy; indeed it prevents it from occurring in
other bodies. A few drops of any essential oil are sufficient also to
keep books entirely free from it. For harness, oil of turpentine is
recommended. Bookbinders, in general, employ alum for preserving their
paste; but mould frequently forms on it. Shoemakers' resin is sometimes
also used for the same purpose; but it is less effectual than oil of
turpentine. The best preventives, however, are the essential oils, even
in small quantity, as those of peppermint, anise, or cassia, by which
paste may be kept almost any length of time; indeed, it has, in this
way, been preserved for years. The paste recommended by Dr. Macculloch
is made in the usual way, with flour, some brown sugar, and a little
corrosive sublimate; the sugar keeping it flexible when dry, and the
sublimate preventing it from fermenting, and from being attacked by
insects. After it is made, a few drops of any of the essential oils are
added. Paste made in this way dries when exposed to the air, and may be
used merely by wetting it. If required to be kept always ready for use,
it ought to be put into covered pots. Seeds may also be preserved by
the essential oils; and this is of great consequence, when they are to
be sent to a distance. Of course moisture must be excluded as much as
possible, as the oils or ottos prevent only the bad effects of mould.

       *       *       *       *       *



This organic compound was first discovered by Scheele, as one of the
distillation products of the wort obtained from the fermentation of
potatoes. It has been subsequently examined by Pelletier, Dumas,
Cahours, and others. It is generally now termed the hydrate of the oxide
of amyl, from amyl being supposed to be its base or radical, as cyanogen
is regarded to be the radical of another series of compounds.

It passes over towards the termination of the distillation process in a
white turbid fluid, which consists of a watery and alcoholic solution of
the fusel oil. The crude oil, consisting of about one-half of its weight
of alcohol and water, may be purified, being shaken with water and
redistilled, with the previous addition of chloride of calcium. When the
temperature of the contents of retort reaches 296° Fahr., pure fusel oil
distils over.

Fusel oil is a colorless oily fluid, which possesses at first not an
unagreeable odor, but at last is very disgusting, producing oppression
at the chest and exciting cough. It has a sharp hot taste, and burns
with a white blue flame. It boils at 296° Fahr., and at temperature of
-4° Fahr. it becomes solid, and forms crystals. Its specific gravity at
59° Fahr. is 0.8124, and its formula C_{10}H_{12}O_{2}. On paper it
produces a greasy stain, which disappears by heat, and when exposed to
the action of the air it acquires an acid reaction. Fusel oil is
slightly soluble in water, to which it imparts its odor; and soluble in
all proportions in alcohol, ether, volatile and fixed oils, and acetic
acid. It dissolves phosphorus, sulphur, and iodine without any
noticeable change, and also mixes with caustic soda and potash. It
rapidly absorbs hydrochloric acid, with the disengagement of heat. When
mixed with concentrated sulphuric acid, the mixture becomes of a
violet-red color, and bisulphate of amyloxide is formed. Nitric acid and
chlorine decompose it. By its distillation with anhydrous phosphoric
acid, a fluid, oily combination of hydrogen and carbon results. By
oxidation with bichromate of potash and sulphuric acid, fusel oil yields
valerianic acid, which is used in medicine, and apple-oil, employed as a
flavoring ingredient in confectionery.

       *       *       *       *       *



The above essence is, as already known, butyric ether more or less
diluted with alcohol; to obtain which pure, on the large scale and
economically, the following process is recommended:--

Dissolve 6 lbs. of sugar and half an ounce of tartaric acid, in 26 lbs.
of boiling water. Let the solution stand for several days; then add 8
ounces of putrid cheese broken up with 3 lbs. of skimmed and curdled
sour milk and 3 lbs. of levigated chalk. The mixture should be kept and
stirred daily in a warm place, at the temperature of about 92° Fahr.,
as long as gas is evolved, which is generally the case for five or six

The liquid thus obtained, is mixed with an equal volume of cold water,
and 8 lbs. of crystallized carbonate of soda, previously dissolved in
water, added. It is then filtered from the precipitated carbonate of
lime; the filtrate is to be evaporated down to 10 lbs., when 5-1/2 lbs.
of sulphuric acid, previously diluted with an equal weight of water, are
to be carefully added. The butyric acid, which separates on the surface
of the liquid as a dark-colored oil, is to be removed, and the rest of
the liquid distilled; the distillate is now neutralized with carbonate
of soda, and the butyric acid separated as before, with sulphuric acid.

The whole of the crude acid is to be rectified with the addition of an
ounce of sulphuric acid to every pound. The distillate is then saturated
with fused chloride of calcium, and redistilled. The product will be
about 28 ounces of pure butyric acid. To prepare the butyric acid or
essence of pine-apple, from this acid proceed as follows:--Mix, by
weight, three parts of butyric acid with six parts of alcohol, and two
parts of sulphuric acid in a retort, and submit the whole, with a
sufficient heat, to a gentle distillation, until the fluid which passes
over ceases to emit a fruity odor. By treating the distillate with
chloride of calcium, and by its redistillation, the pure ether may be

The boiling-point of butyric ether is 238° Fahr. Its specific gravity,
0.904, and its formula,

C_{12}H_{12}O_{4}, or C_{4}H_{5}O + C_{8}H_{7}O_{3}.

Bensch's process, above described, for the production of butyric acid,
affords a remarkable exemplification of the extraordinary
transformations that organic bodies undergo in contact with ferment, or
by catalytic action. When cane sugar is treated with tartaric acid,
especially under the influence of heat, it is converted into grape
sugar. This grape sugar, in the presence of decomposing nitrogenous
substances, such as cheese, is transformed in the first instance into
lactic acid, which combines with the lime of the chalk. The acid of the
lactate of lime, thus produced, is by the further influence of the
ferment changed into butyric acid. Hence, butyrate of lime is the final
result of the catalytic action in the process we have here recommended.

       *       *       *       *       *



It has been believed, until the most recent period, that the peel of
quinces contains oenanthylate of ethyl-oxide. New researches, however,
have led to the supposition that the odorous principle of quinces is
derived from the ether of pelargonic acid. In my last research on the
action of nitric acid on oil of rue, I found that besides the fatty
acids, which Gerhardt had already discovered, pelargonic acid is formed.
This process may be advantageously employed for the preparation of crude
pelargonate of ethyl-oxide, which, on account of its extremely agreeable
odor, may be applied as a fruit essence equally with those prepared by
Dobereiner, Hofmann, and Fehling. For the preparation of the liquid,
which can be named the essence of quince, oil of rue is treated with
double its quantity of very diluted nitric acid, and the mixture heated
until it begins to boil. After some time two layers are to be observed
in the liquid: the upper one is brownish, and the lower one consists of
the products of the oxidation of oil of rue and the excess of nitric
acid. The lower layer is freed from the greater part of its nitric acid
by evaporation in a chloride of zinc bath. The white flocks frequently
found in the acid liquid, which are probably fatty acids, are separated
by filtration. The filtrate is mixed with spirit, and long digested in a
gentle heat, by which a fluid is formed, which has the agreeable odor of
quince in the highest degree, and may be purified by distillation. The
spirituous solution of pelargonic ether may also be profitably prepared
from oleic acid, according to Gottlieb's method.--_Journal für
Praktische Chemie._

       *       *       *       *       *


Take of black oxide of manganese, of sulphuric acid, each twelve pounds;
of alcohol, twenty-six pounds; of strong acetic acid, ten pounds. Mix,
and distil twelve pints. The ether, as above prepared, is an article of
commerce in Austria, being the body to which rum owes its peculiar
flavor.--_Austrian Journal of Pharmacy._

       *       *       *       *       *



_Pine-apple Oil_ is a solution of one part of butyric ether, in eight or
ten parts of alcohol. For the preparation of this ether, pure butyric
acid must be first obtained by the fermentation of sugar, according to
the method of Bensch. One pound of this acid is dissolved in one pound
of strong alcohol, and mixed with from a quarter to half an ounce of
sulphuric acid; the mixture is heated for some minutes, whereby the
butyric ether separates as a light stratum. The whole is mixed with half
its volume of water, and the upper stratum then removed; the heavy fluid
is distilled, by which more butyric ether is obtained. The distillate
and the removed oily liquid are shaken with a little water, the lighter
portion of the liquid removed, which at last, by being shaken with water
and a little soda, is freed from adhering acid.

For the preparation of the essence of pine-apple, one pound of this
ether is dissolved in 8 or 10 pounds of alcohol. 20 or 25 drops of this
solution is sufficient to give to one pound of sugar a strong taste of
pine-apple, if a little citric or tartaric acid has been added.

_Pear-oil._--This is an alcoholic solution of acetate of amyloxide, and
acetate of ethyloxide. For its preparation, one pound of glacial acetic
acid is added to an equal weight of fusel-oil (which has been prepared
by being washed with soda and water, and then distilled at a temperature
between 254° and 284° Fahr.), and mixed with half a pound of sulphuric
acid. The mixture is digested for some hours at a temperature of 254°,
by which means acetate of amyloxide separates, particularly on the
addition of some water. The crude acetate of amyloxide obtained by
separation, and by the distillation of the liquid to which the water has
been added, is finally purified by being washed with soda and water.
Fifteen parts of acetate of amyloxide are dissolved with half a part of
acetic ether in 100 or 120 parts of alcohol; this is the essence of
pear, which, when employed to flavor sugar or syrup, to which a little
citric or tartaric acid has been added, affords the flavor of bergamot
pears, and a fruity, refreshing taste.

_Apple-oil_ is an alcoholic solution of valerianate of amyloxide. It is
obtained impure, as a by product, when for the preparation of valerianic
acid, fusel-oil is distilled with bichromate of potash and sulphuric
acid. It is better prepared in the following manner:--For the
preparation of valerianic acid, 1 part of fusel-oil is mixed gradually
with 3 parts of sulphuric acid, and 2 parts of water added. A solution
of 2-1/4 parts of bichromate of potash, with 4-1/2 parts of water, is
heated in a tubulated retort, and into this fluid the former mixture is
gradually poured, so that the ebullition is not too rapid. The
distillate is saturated with carbonate of soda, and warmed, when a
solution of 3 parts of crystallized carbonate of soda, 2 parts of strong
sulphuric acid, diluted with an equal quantity of water, are added. The
valerianic acid separates as an oily stratum.

One part, by weight, of pure fusel-oil is carefully mixed with an equal
weight of sulphuric acid. The cold solution is added to 1-1/4 parts of
the above valerianic acid; the mixture is warmed for some minutes (not
too long or too much) in a water-bath, and then mixed with a little
water, by which means the impure valerianate of amyloxide separates,
which is washed with water and carbonate of soda. For use as an essence
of apples, one part of this valerianate of amyloxide is dissolved in 6
or 8 parts of alcohol.

       *       *       *       *       *



The chemical history of this oil is one of great importance and
interest, affording, as it does, one of the examples where the progress
of modern chemistry has succeeded in producing artificially a complex
organic body, previously only known as the result of vital force.

This volatile oil is obtained from the winter-green, an American shrub
of the heath family, by distillation. When this plant is distilled, at
first an oil passes over which consists of C_{10}H_{8}, but when the
temperature reaches 464° Fahr., a pure oil distils into the receiver.
Therefore the essential oil of this plant, like many others, consists of
two portions--one a hydro-carbon, and the other an oxygenated compound;
this latter is the chief constituent of the oil, and that which is of so
much chemical interest, from the fact that it has been artificially

It is termed, when thus prepared, the spiroylate of the oxide of methyl,
and is obtained when two parts of wood spirit, one and a half parts of
spiroylic acid, and one part of sulphuric acid are distilled together.
It is a colorless liquid, of an agreeable aromatic odor and taste; it
dissolves slightly in water, but in all proportions in ether and
alcohol; it boils between 411° and 435° Fahr., and has a specific
gravity of 1.173. This compound expels carbonic acid from its
combinations, and forms a series of salts, which contain one atom of
base and one atom of spiroylate of the oxide of methyl. It behaves
therefore as a conjugate acid. Its formula is C_{14}H_{5}O_{5} +

The spiroylic acid may be separated from the natural oil by treating it
with a concentrated solution of caustic potash at a temperature of 113°
Fahr., when wood spirit is formed and evaporates, and the solution
contains the spiroylate of potash, from which, when decomposed with
sulphuric acid, the spiroylic acid separates and subsides in the fluid.

Spiroylic acid is also formed by the oxidation of spiroyligenic acid,
and when saligenin, salicin, courmacin, or indigo, is heated with
caustic potash.

       *       *       *       *       *



_Professor to the Royal College of Chemistry, London_.

Cahours' excellent researches concerning the essential oil of
_Gaultheria procumbens_ (a North American plant of the natural order of
the Ericinæ of Jussieu), which admits of so many applications in
perfumery,[I] have opened a new field in this branch of industry. The
introduction of this oil among compound ethers must necessarily direct
the attention of perfumers[J] towards this important branch of
compounds, the number of which is daily increasing by the labors of
those who apply themselves to organic chemistry. The striking similarity
of the smell of these ethers to that of fruit had not escaped the
observation of chemistry; however, it was reserved to practical men to
discover by which choice and combinations it might be possible to
imitate the scent of peculiar fruits to such a nicety, that makes it
probable that the scent of the fruit is owing to a natural combination
identical to that produced by art; so much so, as to enable the chemist
to produce from fruits the said combinations, provided he could have at
his disposal a sufficient quantity to operate upon. The manufacture of
artificial aromatic oils for the purpose of perfumery[K] is, of course,
a recent branch of industry; nevertheless, it has already fallen into
the hands of several distillers, who produce sufficient quantity to
supply the trade; a fact, which has not escaped the observation of the
Jury at the London Exhibition. In visiting the stalls of English and
French perfumers at the Crystal Palace, we found a great variety of
these chemical perfumes, the applications of which were at the same time
practically illustrated by confectionery flavored by them. However, as
most of the samples of the oils sent to the Exhibition were but small, I
was prevented, in many cases, from making an accurate analysis of them.
The largest samples were those of a compound labelled "pear-oil," which,
by analysis, I discovered to be an alcoholic solution of pure acetate of
amyloxide. Not having sufficient quantity to purify it for combustion, I
dissolved it with potash, by which free fusel-oil was separated, and
determined the acetic acid in the form of a silver salt.

  0.3080 gram. of silver salt = 0.1997 gram. of silver.

The per centage of silver in acetate of silver is, according to

  Theory,          64.68
  Experiment,      64.55

The acetate of amyloxide, which, according to the usual way of preparing
it, represents one part sulphuric acid, one part fusel-oil, and two
parts of acetate of potash, had a striking smell of fruit, but it
acquired the pleasant flavor of the jargonelle pear only after having
been diluted with six times its volume of spirit of wine.

Upon further inquiry I learned that considerable quantities of this oil
are manufactured by some distillers,--from fifteen to twenty pounds
weekly,--and sold to confectioners, who employ it chiefly in flavoring
pear-drops, which are nothing else but barley-sugar, flavored with this

I found, besides the pear-oil, also an _apple-oil_, which, according to
my analysis, is nothing but valerianate of amyloxide. Every one must
recollect the insupportable smell of rotten apples which fills the
laboratory whilst making valerianic acid. By operating upon this raw
distillate produced with diluted potash, valerianic acid is removed, and
an ether remains behind, which, diluted in five or six times its volume
of spirits of wine, is possessed of the most pleasant flavor of apples.

The essential oil[L] most abundant in the Exhibition was the pine-apple
oil, which, as you well know, is nothing else but the butyrate of
ethyloxide. Even in this combination, like in the former, the pleasant
flavor or scent is only attained by diluting the ether with alcohol. The
butyric ether which is employed in Germany to flavor bad rum, is
employed in England to flavor an acidulated drink called pine-apple ale.
For this purpose they generally do not employ pure butyric acid, but a
product obtained by saponification of butter, and subsequent
distillation of the soap with concentrated sulphuric acid and alcohol;
which product contains, besides the butyric ether, other ethers, but
nevertheless can be used for flavoring spirits. The sample I analyzed
was purer, and appeared to have been made with pure butyric ether.

Decomposed with potash and changed into silver salt, it gave

0.4404 gram. of silver salt = 0.2437 gram. of silver.

The per centage of silver in the butyrate of silver is according to

Theory,      55.38
Experiment,  55.33

Both English and French exhibitors have also sent samples of cognac-oil
and grape-oil, which are employed to flavor the common sorts of brandy.
As these samples were very small, I was prevented from making an
accurate analysis. However, I am certain that the grape-oil is a
combination of amyl, diluted with much alcohol; since, when acted upon
with concentrated sulphuric acid, and the oil freed from alcohol by
washing it with water, it gave amylsulphuric acid, which was identified
by the analysis of the salt of barytes.

1.2690 gram. of amylsulphate of barytes gave 0.5825 gram. of sulphate of
barytes. This corresponds to 45.82 per cent. of sulphate of barytes.

Amylsulphate of barytes, crystallized with two equivalents of water,
contains, according to the analysis of Cahours and Kekule, 45.95 per
cent. of sulphate of barytes. It is curious to find here a body, which,
on account of its noxious smell, is removed with great care from
spirituous liquors, to be applied under a different form for the purpose
of imparting to them a pleasant flavor.

I must needs here also mention the artificial oil of bitter almonds.
When Mitscherlich, in the year 1834, discovered the nitrobenzol, he
would not have dreamed that this product would be manufactured for the
purpose of perfumery, and, after twenty years, appear in fine labelled
samples at the London Exhibition. It is true that, even at the time of
the discovery of nitrobenzol, he pointed out the striking similarity of
its smell to that of the oil of bitter almonds. However, at that time,
the only known sources for obtaining this body were the compressed gases
and the distillation of benzoic acid, consequently the enormity of its
price banished any idea of employing benzol as a substitute for oil of
bitter almonds. However, in the year 1845, I succeeded by means of the
anilin-reaction in ascertaining the existence of benzol in common
coal-tar oil; and, in the year 1849, C.B. Mansfield proved, by careful
experiments, that benzol can be won without difficulty in great
quantity from coal-tar oil. In his essay, which contains many
interesting details about the practical use of benzol, he speaks
likewise of the possibility of soon obtaining the sweet-scented
nitrobenzol in great quantity. The Exhibition has proved that his
observation has not been left unnoticed by the perfumers. Among French
perfumeries we have found, under the name of artificial oil of bitter
almonds, and under the still more poetical name of "essence de mirbane,"
several samples of essential oils, which are no more nor less than
nitrobenzol. I was not able to obtain accurate details about the extent
of this branch of manufacture, which seems to be of some importance. In
London, this article is manufactured with success. The apparatus
employed is that of Mansfield, which is very simple. It consists of a
large glass worm, the upper extremity of which divides in two branches
or tubes, which are provided with funnels. Through one of these funnels
passes a stream of concentrated nitric acid; the other is destined as a
receiver of benzol, which, for this purpose, requires not to be quite
pure; at the angle from where the two tubes branch out, the two bodies
meet together, and instantly the chemical combination takes place, which
cools sufficiently by passing through the glass worm. The product is
afterwards washed with water, and some diluted solution of carbonate of
soda; it is then ready for use. Notwithstanding the great physical
similarity between nitrobenzol and oil of bitter almonds, there is yet a
slight _difference in smell which can be detected by an experienced
nose_.[M] However, nitrobenzol is very useful in scenting soap, and
might be employed with great advantage by confectioners and cooks,
particularly on account of its safety, being entirely free from prussic

There were, besides the above, several other artificial oils; they all,
however, were more or less complicated, and in so small quantities, that
it was impossible to ascertain their exact nature, and it was doubtful
whether they had the same origin as the former.

The application of organic chemistry to perfumery is quite new; it is
probable that the study of all the ethers or ethereal combinations
already known, and of those which the ingenuity of the chemist is daily
discovering, will enlarge the sphere of their practical applications.
The capryl-ethers lately discovered by Bouis are remarkable for their
aromatic smells (the acetate of capryloxide is possessed of the most
intense and pleasant smell), and they promise a large harvest to the
manufacturers of perfumes.--_Annalen der Chemie._

       *       *       *       *       *




When such periodicals as "Household Words" and the "Family Herald"
contain scientific matters, treated in a manner to popularize science,
all real lovers of philosophy must feel gratified; a little fiction, a
little metaphor, is expected, and is accepted with the good intention
with which it is given, in such popular prints; but when the "Journal of
the Society of Arts" reprints quotations from such sources, without
modifying or correcting their expressions, it conveys to its readers a
tissue of fiction rather too flimsy to bear a truthful analysis.[O]

In the article on Chemistry and Perfumery, in No. 47, you quote that
"some of the most delicate perfumes are now made by chemical artifice,
and not, as of old, by distilling them from flowers." Now, sir, this
statement conveys to the public a very erroneous idea; because the
substances afterwards spoken of are named essences of fruit, and not
essences of flowers, and the essences of fruits named in your article
never are, and never can be, used in perfumery. This assertion is based
on practical experience. The artificial essences of fruits are ethers:
when poured upon a handkerchief, and held up to the nose, they act, as
is well known, like chloroform. Dare a perfumer sell a bottle of such a
preparation to an "unprotected female?"

Again, you quote that "the drainings of cow-houses are the main source
to which the manufacturer applies for the production of his most
delicate and admired perfumes."

Shade of Munchausen! must I refute this by calling your attention to the
fact that in the south of France more than 80,000 persons are employed,
directly and indirectly, in the cultivation of flowers, and in the
extraction of their odors for the use of perfumers? that Italy
cultivates flowers for the same purpose to an extent employing land as
extensive as the whole of some English counties? that tracts of
flower-farms exist in the Balkan, in Turkey, more extensive than the
whole of Yorkshire? Our own flower-farms at Mitcham, in Surrey, need not
be mentioned in comparison, although important. These, sir, are the main
sources of perfumes. There are other sources at Thibet, Tonquin, and in
the West Indies; but enough has been said, I hope, to refute the
cow-house story. This story is founded on the fact that Benzoic acid
_can be_ obtained from the draining of stables, and that Benzoic acid
has rather a pleasant odor. Some of the largest wholesale perfumers use
five or six pounds of gum benzoin per annum, but none use the benzoic
acid. The lozenge-makers consume the most of this article when prepared
for commercial purposes; as also the fruit essences. Those of your
readers interested in what _really is used_ in perfumery, are referred
to the last six numbers of the "Annals of Pharmacy and Practical
Chemistry," article "Perfumery."

    Your obedient servant,



The discussion about chemistry and perfumery, in reality amounts to
this: Mr. Septimus Piesse confines the term "perfumery" to such things
as Eau de Cologne, &c.; perfumed soaps, groceries, &c., he does not
appear to class as "perfumery." Now the artificial scents are as yet
chiefly used for the latter substances, which in common language, and, I
should say, in a perfumer's nomenclature also, would be included in
perfumery. The authority for cows' urine being used for perfumery is to
be found in a little French work called, I believe, "La Chimie de
l'Odorat" in which a full description is given of the collection of
fresh urine and its application to this purpose. I need scarcely say,
that it is the benzoic acid of the urine which is the odoriferous

    Your obedient servant,
            A PERFUMER.

[When benzoic acid is prepared by any of the wet processes, it is _free
from the fragrant volatile oil_ which accompanies it when prepared by
sublimation from the resin, and to which oil the acid of commerce owes
its peculiar odor. This fact completely nullifies the above
assertion.--SEPTIMUS PIESSE.]



If the author of the Letter on Chemistry and Perfumery, published in No.
50 of your Journal, and intended as a reply to mine--though none was
needed--which appeared in No. 49, really be a perfumer, as his signature
implies, he would know that I could not, though ever so inclined,
"confine the term perfumery" to various odoriferous substances, and
exclude scented soaps; because he would be aware that one-third of the
returns of every manufacturing perfumer is derived from perfumed soap. I
do however emphatically exclude from the term perfumery, "groceries,
&c.," the _et cætera_ meaning, I presume, "confectionery," because
perfumery has to do with one of the senses, SMELLING, while
groceries, &c., are distinguishable by another, TASTE; and had
not our physical faculties clearly made the distinction, commerce and
manufactures would have defined them: I therefore repeat, that the
artificial essences of fruits are not used in perfumery, as stated in
No. 47, from the quoted authorities. If any man can deny this assertion,
let him now do so, "or forever after hold his peace," at least upon
this subject. The "Journal of the Society of Arts" is not a medium of
mere controversy. If a statement be made in error, let truth correct it,
which, if gain-sayed, it should be done, not under the veil of an
anonymous correspondent, but with a name to support the assertion.
Science has to deal with tangible facts and figures, to the political
alone belongs the anonymous ink-spiller.

    I am, sir, yours faithfully,
    42 Chapel Street, Edgware Road.

[If the word _flavor_ had been used by the various authors who have
written upon this subject, in place of the word _perfume_, the
dissemination of an erroneous idea would have been prevented: the word
perfume, applied to pear-oil, pine-apple oil, &c., implies, and the
general tenor of the remarks of the writers leads the reader to infer,
that these substances are used by perfumers, who not only do not, but
cannot use them in their trade.

But for _flavoring_ nectar, lozenges, sweetmeats, &c., these ethers, or
oils as the writers term them, are extensively used, and quite in
accordance with assertions of Hoffman, Playfair, Fehling, and Bastick.
However, the glorious achievements of modern chemistry have not lost
anything by this misapplication of a trade term.--SEPTIMUS

       *       *       *       *       *



                           Pounds                     Of otto.
Orange-peel,                10 yield about               1 oz.
Dry marjoram herb,          20      "                    3 oz.
Fresh   "    "             100      "                    3 oz.
  "   Peppermint,          100      "               3 to 4 oz.
Dry      "                  25      "               3 to 4 oz.
 "  Origanum,               25      "               2 to 3 oz.
 "  Thyme,                  20      "           1 to 1-1/2 oz.
 "  Calamus,                25      "               3 to 4 oz.
Anise-seed,                 25      "              9 to 12 oz.
Caraway,                    25      "                   16 oz.
Cloves,                      1      "                2-1/2 oz.
Cinnamon,                   25      "                    3 oz.
Cassia,                     25      "                    3 oz.
Cedar-wood,                 28      "                    4 oz.
Mace,                        2      "                    3 oz.
Nutmegs,                     2      "               3 to 4 oz.
Fresh balm herb,            60      "          1 to 1-1/2 oz.
Cake of bitter almond,      14      "                    1 oz.
Sweet flag root,           112      "                   16 oz.
Geranium leaves,           112      "                    2 oz.
Lavender flowers,          112      "             30 to 32 oz.
Myrtle leaves,             112      "                    5 oz.
Patchouly herb,            112      "                   28 oz.
Province rose blossom,     112      "      1-1/2 to 2 drachms.
Rhodium-wood,              112      "               3 to 4 oz.
Santal-wood,               112      "                   30 oz.
Vitivert or kus-kus-root,  112      "                   15 oz.

       *       *       *       *       *



|        |Imperial |         |Troy     |Kilo-    |Lbs.      |
|Litres. |Gallons. |Grammes. |Grains.  |grammes. |Avoird.   |
|  1,    | 0.22010 |  1,     |  15.434 |  1,     |  2.20486 |
|  2,    | 0.44019 |  2,     |  30.868 |  2,     |  4.40971 |
|  3,    | 0.66029 |  3,     |  46.302 |  3,     |  6.61457 |
|  4,    | 0.88039 |  4,     |  61.736 |  4,     |  8.81943 |
|  5,    | 1.10048 |  5,     |  77.170 |  5,     | 11.02429 |
|  6,    | 1.32058 |  6,     |  92.604 |  6,     | 13.22914 |
|  7,    | 1.54068 |  7,     | 108.038 |  7,     | 15.43400 |
|  8,    | 1.76077 |  8,     | 123.472 |  8,     | 17.63886 |
|  9,    | 1.98087 |  9,     | 138.906 |  9,     | 19.84371 |


|Imp.     |          |Troy    |         |Lbs.     |Kilo-    |
|Gallons. |Litres.   |Grains. |Grammes. |Avoird.  |grammes. |
|  1,     |  4.54346 |  1,    | 0.06479 |  1,     | 0.45354 |
|  2,     |  9.08692 |  2,    | 0.12958 |  2,     | 0.90709 |
|  3,     | 13.63038 |  3,    | 0.19438 |  3,     | 1.36063 |
|  4,     | 18.17384 |  4,    | 0.25917 |  4,     | 1.81418 |
|  5,     | 22.71730 |  5,    | 0.32396 |  5,     | 2.26772 |
|  6,     | 27.26076 |  6,    | 0.38875 |  6,     | 2.72126 |
|  7,     | 31.80422 |  7,    | 0.45354 |  7,     | 3.17481 |
|  8,     | 36.34768 |  8,    | 0.51834 |  8,     | 3.62835 |
|  9,     | 40.89114 |  9,    | 0.58313 |  9,     | 4.08190 |


[A] Brother of the Author.

[B] See Appendix, "Benzoic Acid."

[C] See "Incense."

[D] The duty on eau de Cologne is now, according to the last tariff,
8_d._ per flacon of 4 oz., or 20_s._ per gallon.

[E] Simple syrup consists of 3 lbs. of loaf sugar, boiled for a minute
in one pint, imperial, of distilled water.

[F] The imperial measure only is recognized among perfumers.

[G] Annals of Pharmacy, vol. ii, pp. 168, 169.

[H] The deposit is nearly insoluble in water, is acid and astringent to
the taste, gives an acid reaction with litmus. Spirit of wine dissolves
out a small portion, which, on evaporation, leaves a thick oleo-resinous
substance, having a rancid smell. Ether leaves a pleasant-smelling
resin, somewhat resembling camphor. The remainder is nearly insoluble in
liq. ammoniæ, liq. potassæ, more soluble in nitric acid, and well
deserves to be further examined.

[I] Qy. Confectionery?

[J] Qy. Confectioners?

[K] Confectionery.

[L] The writer means ether!

[M] See "Almond."

[N] No. 49.

[O] If our Correspondent had carefully read the article he so fiercely
attacks, he would have seen that the authorities were Dr. Lyon
Playfair's Lecture, and Professsor Fehling, in the "Wurtemberg Journal
of Industry."--ED.

[P] No. 50.

[Q] No. 52.

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