Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Gardening for the Million
Author: Pink, Alfred
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Gardening for the Million" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



GARDENING FOR THE MILLION

_By_ ALFRED PINK

AUTHOR OF "RECIPES FOR THE MILLION."



T. FISHER UNWIN



PREFACE.


It is with the object of stimulating the cultivation of gardens still
more beautiful than those generally to be met with that the present
volume has been written. It has not been thought necessary to repeat
in each case the times when the seeds of the various flowers and
plants are to be sown. A careful attention to the remarks made
under the headings of "Annuals," "Biennials," "Perennials," and
"Seed-Sowing" will supply all the information needed. That the work
may prove useful to those at least who supervise their own gardens is
the sincere wish of the author.

DULWICH.



GARDENING FOR THE MILLION


A

Aaron's Rod.--_See_ "Solidago."

Abelia.--Very ornamental evergreen shrubs, bearing tubular,
funnel-shaped flowers. They succeed in any ordinary soil if the
situation is warm and sheltered, and are readily raised by cuttings.
Height, 3 ft. to 4 ft.

Abies _(Spruce Firs)_.--Among these ornamental conifers mention may be
made of the beautiful Japanese Spruce Ajanensis, which grows freely
in most soils and has dual-coloured leaves--dark green on the upper
surface and silvery white underneath; this makes a grand single
specimen anywhere. The White Spruce (_Abies Alba Glauca_) is a rapid
grower, but while it is small makes a lovely show in the border; it
prefers a moist situation. Of the slow-growing and dwarf varieties
Gregorii is a favourite. The Caerulea, or Blue Spruce, is also very
beautiful. Clanbrasiliana is a good lawn shrub, never exceeding 4 ft.
in height. The Pigmy Spruce (_A. Pygmea_) is the smallest of all firs,
only attaining the height of 1 ft. Any of these may be increased by
cuttings.

Abronia.--Handsome half-hardy annual trailers. Grow in sandy peat and
multiply by root division. Flowers in April. Height, 4 in. to 6 in.

Abutilon.--Evergreen greenhouse shrubs of great beauty and easy
cultivation. May be raised from seed, or by cuttings of young shoots
placed in spring or summer in sand under glass, or with a bottom heat.
Cut the old plants back in January, and when new shoots appear re-pot
the plants. Height, 5 ft. to 8 ft.

Acacia.--Winter and spring flowering greenhouse shrubs with charming
flowers and graceful foliage. May be grown from seed, which should be
soaked in warm water for twenty-four hours, or they may be propagated
by layers, cuttings placed in heat, or suckers. They like a rich sandy
loam soil. Height, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Acæna.--These shrubby plants are herbaceous and mostly hardy, of a
creeping nature, fast growers, and suitable for dry banks or rough
stony places. They flourish best in sandy loam and peat, and may be
increased by cuttings placed under glass. The flowers, which are
green, are produced in May. The height of the various kinds varies
from 3 in. to 2 ft.

Acantholimon Glumaceum _(Prickly Thrift)_.--This is a frame evergreen
perennial, thriving in any light, rich soil. It can be increased by
dividing the roots. In May it puts forth its rose-coloured flowers.
Height, 3 in.

Acanthus.--A coarse, yet stately hardy perennial, which has large
ornamental foliage, and flowers in August. It is not particular as to
soil or situation, but free space should be given it. Will grow from
seed sown from March to midsummer, or in August or September in a
sheltered situation. Will also bear dividing. Height, 3 ft.

Acer (_Maple_).--Very vigorous plants, suitable when young for pots,
and afterwards for the shrubbery. The A. Negundo Variegata has silvery
variegated leaves, which contrast effectively with dark foliage,
Campestre Colchicum Rubrum, with its bright crimson palmate leaves,
is very ornamental, as is also Negundo Californicum Aurem, with its
golden-yellow foliage. The Maple grows best in a sandy loam. It may be
increased by cuttings planted in a shaded situation, or by layers, but
the choice varieties are best raised from seed sown as soon as it is
ripe.

Achillea Ptarmica (_Sneezewort_).--A pure white hardy perennial which
blooms in August. The dried leaves, powdered, produce sneezing.
Any soil. Best increased by rooted off-sets. Flowers from July to
September. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Achimenes.--Fine plants, suitable for the greenhouse, sitting-room, or
hanging baskets. Plant six tubers in a 5-in. pot, with their growing
ends inclining to the centre and the roots to the edge of the pot, and
cover them an inch deep with a compost of peat, loam, and leaf-mould,
or a light, sandy soil. Keep them well supplied with liquid manure
while in a growing state. Height, 6 in. to 2-1/2 ft.

Aconite (_Monk's-Hood or Wolf's-Bane_).--Very pretty and very hardy,
and succeeds under the shade of trees; but being very poisonous should
not be grown where there are children. Increased by division or
by seeds. Flowers June to July. Height, 4 ft. (_See also_ "Winter
Aconites.")

Acorus (_Sweet Flag)._--A hardy bog plant, having an abundance of
light-coloured evergreen foliage. It will grow in any wet soil.
Height, 2 ft.

Acroclinium.--Daisy-like everlastings. Half-hardy annuals suitable
for cutting during summer, and for winter bouquets. Sow in pots in
February or March, cover lightly with fine soil, plunge the pot in
gentle heat, place a square of glass on the top, and gradually harden
off. Seed may also be sown in the open during May or in autumn for
early flowering. Height, 1 ft.

Acrophyllum Verticillatum.--A greenhouse evergreen shrub. It will grow
in any soil, and may be increased by cuttings of half-ripened wood.
March is its flowering season. Height, 3 ft.

Acrotis.--These are mostly hardy herbaceous plants from South Africa.
The soil should consist of two parts loam and one part leaf-mould, and
the situation should be dry and sunny. Seed may be sown early in March
in gentle heat, and the plants grown on in a cold frame till May, when
they may be planted out a foot apart. They will flower at midsummer.
Winter in a warm greenhouse. Height, 2 ft. Some few are of a creeping
nature.

Actaea Spicata (_Bane Berry_).--A hardy herbaceous perennial which
delights in a shady position, and will even grow under trees. It is
increased by division of the roots, or it may readily be raised from
seed in ordinary soil. May is its flowering month. Height, 3 ft.

Actinella Grandiflora.--A showy herbaceous plant, bearing large
orange-coloured flowers in July. It is not particular as to soil, and
is increased by dividing the roots. Height, 1 ft.

Actinomeris Squarrosa.--This hardy and ornamental herbaceous plant
bears heads of bright yellow flowers, resembling small sunflowers,
from June to August. It thrives in any loamy soil, and is easily
increased by dividing the root. Height, 4 ft.

Adam's Needle.--_See_ "Yucca."

Adenandra Fragrans.--An evergreen shrub suitable for the greenhouse.
It thrives best in a mixture of sandy peat and turfy loam. Cuttings
of the young branches stuck in sand will strike. It flowers in June.
Height, 3 ft.

Adenophora Lilifolia.--Pretty hardy perennials suitable for the
border. Produce drooping pale blue flowers on branching spikes in
July. Any soil suits them. They may be grown from seed, but will not
allow being divided at the root. Height, 1 ft.

Adlumia Cirrhosa.--Interesting hardy climbers. Will grow in any soil,
and are readily increased by seeds sown in a damp situation. Require
the support of stakes. Bloom in August. Height, 15 ft.

Adonis Flos.--Showy crimson summer flowers, requiring only the
simplest treatment of hardy annuals. Sow in March or April in the open
border. Height, 1 ft.

Adonis Pyrenaica.--A rare but charming Pyrenean perennial species,
with thick ornamental foliage, and producing large golden-yellow
flowers from May to July. It needs no special treatment. Height, 1-1/2
ft.

Adonis Vernalis.--A favourite hardy perennial, which grows freely from
seed in any garden soil. It may also be increased by dividing the
roots. Height, 1 ft.

Æthionema Cordifolium.--This little Alpine plant is a hardy evergreen
that is very suitable for rock-work, as it will grow in any soil. Its
rose-hued flowers are produced in June. It may be propagated by seeds
or cuttings. Height, 3 in.

Agapanthus (_African Lily_).--This is a noble plant, which succeeds
well in the open if placed in a rich, deep, moist loam in a sunny
situation or in partial shade. In pots it requires a strong loamy soil
with plenty of manure. Throughout the summer the pots should stand
in pans of water. Re-pot in March. Give it plenty of pot room, say a
9-in. pot for each plant. In winter protect from severe frost, and
give but very little water. The flowers are both lovely and showy,
being produced during August in great bunches on stems 3 ft. high. The
plant is nearly hardy. Several growing together in a large tub produce
a fine effect. It is increased by dividing the root while in a dormant
state.

Ageratum.--Effective half-hardy annual bedding plants, thriving best
in a light, rich soil. Seed should be sown in heat in February or
March. Cuttings root freely under glass. Height, 1-1/2 ft. There is a
dwarf variety suitable for ribbon borders and edgings. Height, 6 in.

Agricultural Seeds.--Required per statute acre.

Carrot 5 to 6 lb. Cabbage (to transplant) 1" Cabbage (to drill) 2 to
3" Kohl Rabi (to drill) 2 to 3" Lucerne 16 to 20" Mangold Wurtzel 5
to 7" Mustard (Broadcast) 10 to 20" Rape or Cole 4 to 6" Rye Grass,
Italian 3 bus. Rye Grass, Perennial 2" Sainfoin 4" Tares, or Vetches
3" Turnip, Swedish 3 lb. Turnip, Common 2 to 3" Trifolium 16 to 20"

Agrostemma.--A hardy annual that is very pretty when in flower;
suitable for borders. Flourishes in any soil, and is easily raised
from seed sown in spring. Blooms in June and July. There are also
perennial varieties: these are increased by division of the root.
Height, 1 ft. to 3 ft.

Agrostis.--A very elegant and graceful species of Bent-Grass. It is a
hardy annual, and is largely used for bouquets. Sow the seed in March.
Height, 1 ft. to 1-1/2 ft.

Ajuga Reptans.--A hardy herbaceous perennial, suitable for the front
of borders. It will grow in any soil, and may be propagated by seeds
or division. May is its flowering season. Height, 6 in.

Akebia Quinata.--This greenhouse evergreen twining plant delights in a
soil of loam and peat; flowers in March, and is increased by dividing
the roots. Height, 10 ft.

Alchemilla Alpina (_Lady's Mantle_).--A useful hardy perennial for
rock-work. It will grow in any soil, if not too wet, and may be
increased by seed sown in the spring or early autumn, or by dividing
the roots. It flowers in June. Height, 1 ft.

Allium Descendens.--A hardy, bulbous perennial. Plant in October or
November in any garden soil, and the flowers will be borne in July.
Height, 1 ft.

Allium Neapolitanum.--This is popularly known as the "Star." It bears
large heads of pure white flowers, and is suitable for borders, pots,
or forcing in a cool house. Any common soil suits it. It is increased
by off-sets. Being one of our earliest spring flowers, the bulbs
should be planted early in autumn. Height, 1 ft.

Allspice.--_See_ "Calycanthus" and "Chimonanthus."

Alonsoa.--A pretty and free-blooming half-hardy annual, which produces
fine spikes of orange-scarlet flowers in June. It is multiplied by
cuttings or seeds. Height, 1 ft. to 1-1/2 ft.

Aloysia Citriodora.--This favourite lemon-scented verbena should be
grown in rich mould. If grown in the open, it should be trained to a
wall facing south, and in winter the roots need protecting with a heap
of ashes and the branches to be tied up with matting. It is increased
by cuttings planted in sand. August is its flowering season. Height, 3
ft.

Alsine Rosani.--This pretty little herbaceous plant, with its cushions
of green growth, makes a very fine display on rock-work or in any
shady position. Ordinary soil suits; it is of easy culture, and
flowers during June and July. Height, 3 in.

Alstromeria (_Peruvian Lilies_).--These beautiful summer-flowering
hardy perennials produce large heads of lily-like blossoms in great
profusion, which are invaluable for cutting for vase decorations as
the bloom lasts a long time in water. Plant in autumn 6 in. deep in a
well-drained sunny situation, preferably on a south border. Protect
in winter with a covering of leaves or litter. They may be grown from
seed sown as soon as it is ripe in sandy loam. They bloom in July.
Height, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Alternantheras.--Cuttings of this greenhouse herbaceous plant may be
struck in autumn, though they are usually taken from the old plants in
spring. Insert them singly in 4-1/2-in. pots filled with coarse sand,
loam, and leaf-mould. When rooted, place them near the glass, and keep
the temperature moist and at 60 degrees or 65 degrees, then they will
flower in July. Height, 4 in. to 1 ft.

Althea--_See_ "Hibiscus."

Alyssum.--Well adapted for rock-work or the front of flower-beds,
and is best sown in autumn. The annual, or Sweet Alyssum, bears an
abundance of scented white flowers in June, and on to the end of
September. The hardy perennial, Saxatile (commonly called Gold Dust),
bears yellow flowers in spring. Height, 6 in.

Amaranthus.--The foliage of these half-hardy annual plants are
extremely beautiful, some being carmine, others green and crimson,
some yellow, red, and green. They are very suitable either for bedding
or pot plants. Sow the seed early in spring in gentle heat, and plant
out in May or June in very rich soil. If put into pots, give plenty of
room for the roots and keep well supplied with water. Flower in July
and August. Height, 1-1/2 ft. to 6 ft.

Amaryllis.--These plants bear large drooping bell-shaped lily-like
blossoms. They thrive best in a compost of turfy loam and peat, with
a fair quantity of sand. The pots must in all cases be well drained.
Most of the stove and greenhouse species should be turned out of their
pots in autumn, and laid by in a dry place until spring, when they
should be re-potted and kept liberally supplied with water. A.
Reticulata and A. Striatifolia bloom best, however, when undisturbed.
Discontinue watering when the foliage shows signs of failing, but
avoid shrivelling the leaves. The hardy varieties should be planted
6 in. deep in light, well--drained soil, and allowed to remain
undisturbed for two or three years, when they will probably require
thinning out. They are increased by off-sets from the bulbs.

The Belladonna (_Belladonna Lily_) should be planted in June in a
sheltered border in rich, well-drained soil.

Formosissima (_the Scarlet Jacobean Lily_) is a gem for the
greenhouse, and very suitable for forcing, as it will bloom two or
three times in a season. It should be potted in February.

Lutea (_Sternbergia)_ flowers in autumn. Plant 4 in. deep from October
to December.

Purpurea (_Vallota Purpurea or Scarborough Lily_) is a very beautiful
free bloomer. October and November or March and April are the most
favourable times for potting, but established plants should be
re-potted in June or July.

Ambrosia Mexicana.--A hardy annual of the simplest culture. Sow the
seed in spring in any fine garden soil. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

American Plants.--These thrive most in a peat or bog soil, but where
this cannot be obtained a good fertile loam, with a dressing of fresh
cow manure once in two years, may be used; or leaf-mould and soil from
the surface of pasture land, in the proportions of three parts of the
former to one of the latter. The soil should be chopped up and used
in a rough condition. Sickly plants with yellowish foliage may be
restored by applying liquid manure once a week during the month of
July. A light top-dressing of cow manure applied annually, and keeping
the roots free from stagnant water, will preserve the plants in good
health.

Ammobium.--Pretty hardy perennials which may be very easily raised
from seed on a sandy soil. Flower in June. Height, 2 ft.

Ampelopsis.--Handsome and rapid climbers, with noble foliage, some
changing to a deep crimson in autumn. The Veitchii clings to the wall
without nailing, and produces a profusion of lovely leaves which
change colour. Any of the varieties may be grown in common garden
soil, and may be increased by layers.

Anagallis (_Pimpernel_.)--Very pretty. Sow the hardy annuals in the
open early in March; the biennials or half-hardy perennials in pots in
a greenhouse or a frame, and plant out when strong enough. May also be
increased by cuttings planted in ordinary soil under glass. Flower in
July. Height, 6 in.

Anchusa.--Anchusa Capensis is best raised in a frame and treated as
a greenhouse plant, though in reality it is a hardy perennial. The
annual and biennial kinds succeed well if sown in the open in rich
soil. All are ornamental and open their flowers in June. Height, 1-1/2
ft. (_See also_ "Bugloss.")

Andromeda.--An ornamental evergreen shrub, commonly known as the Marsh
Cystus, and thriving in a peat soil with partial shade. May be grown
from seed sown directly it is ripe and only lightly covered with
soil, as the seed rots if too much mould is placed over it. Place the
seedlings in a cold frame and let them have plenty of air. It is
more generally increased by layers in September, which must not be
disturbed for a year. Drought will kill it, so the roots must never be
allowed to get dry. It flowers in April and May. Height, 2 ft.

Androsace.--Pretty little plants, mostly hardy, but some require the
protection of a frame. They grow best in small pots in a mixture
of turfy loam and peat. Water them very cautiously. They flower at
different seasons, some blooming as early as April, while others do
not put forth flower till August. They can be increased by division as
well as by seed. Height, 6 in.

Anemones.--These are highly ornamental, producing a brilliant display
of flowers. The scarlets make very effective beds. They are mostly
hardy, and may be grown in any moist, light, rich garden soil,
preferably mixed with a good proportion of silver sand. They should
occupy a sunny and well-drained situation. For early spring flowering
plant from October to December, placing the tubers 2-1/2 or 3 in. deep
and 4 or 5 in. apart, with a trowelful of manure under each plant, but
not touching them. A little sea sand or salt mixed with the soil is a
preventive of mildew. If planted in February and March they will
bloom from April to June. They are increased by seeds, divisions, or
off-sets; the greenhouse varieties from cuttings in light loam under
glass. The tubers will not keep long out of the ground. In growing
from seed choose seeds from single-flowering plants; sow in March
where they are intended to flower 1 in. deep and 9 in. apart; cover
with leaf-mould. Two or three sowings may be made also during the
summer. Height, 6 in. to 2 ft.

Anemonopsis Macrophylla.--A rather scarce but remarkably handsome
perennial, producing lilac-purple flowers with yellow stamens in July
and August. It will grow in ordinary soil, and may be increased by
division. Height, 2 ft.

Angelonia Grandiflora Alba.--An elegant and graceful greenhouse plant,
giving forth a delicious aromatic odour. It grows best in a compost
of turfy loam and peat, but thrives in any light, rich soil. Take
cuttings during summer, place them under glass, but give a little air
occasionally. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Annuals.--Plants of this description arrive at maturity, bloom,
produce seed, and die in one season.

_Hardy_.--The seed should be sown thinly in the open borders
during March, April, or May in fine soil, covering slightly with
well-prepared mould--very small seeds require merely a dusting over
them. When the plants are large enough to handle, thin them out
boldly, to allow them to develop their true character. By this means
strong and sturdy plants are produced and their flowering properties
are enhanced. Many of the hardy annuals may be sown in August and
September for spring flowering, and require little or no protection
from frost.

_Half-Hardy._--These are best sown in boxes 2 or 3 in. deep during
February and March, and placed on a slight hotbed, or in a greenhouse
at a temperature of about 60 degrees. The box should be nearly
filled with equal parts of good garden soil and coarse silver sand,
thoroughly mixed, and have holes at the bottom for drainage. Scatter
the seeds thinly and evenly over the soil and cover very lightly. Very
small seeds, such as lobelia and musk, should not be covered by earth,
but a sheet of glass over the box is beneficial, as it keeps the
moisture from evaporating too quickly. Should watering become
necessary, care must be taken that the seeds are not washed out. As
soon as the young plants appear, remove the glass and place them near
the light, where gentle ventilation can be given them to prevent long
and straggly growth. Harden off gradually, but do not plant out until
the weather is favourable. Seed may also be sown in a cold frame in
April, or in the open border during May; or the plants may be raised
in the windows of the sitting-room.

_Tender_.--These must be sown on a hotbed, or in rather stronger heat
than is necessary for half-hardy descriptions. As soon as they are
large enough to be shifted, prick them off into small pots, gradually
potting them on into larger sizes until the flowering size is reached.

Anomatheca Cruenta.--This produces an abundance of bright red flowers
with a dark blotch and a low growth of grass-like foliage. It is
suitable for either vases, edges, or groups. Plant the bulbs in autumn
in a mixture of loam and peat, and the plants will flower in July.
They require a slight protection from frost. If the seed is set as
soon as it is ripe it produces bulbs which will flower the following
year. Height, 6 in.

Antennaria.--Hardy perennial plants, requiring a rich, light soil.
They flower in June and July, and may be increased by cuttings or
division. The heights of the various kinds range from 3 in. to 2 ft.

Anthemis Tinctoria (_Yellow Marguerites_).--These perennials are
almost hardy, needing protection merely in severe weather. They are
readily raised from seed sown in gentle heat early in spring or by
slips during the summer months. Transplant into light soil. As pot
plants they are very effective. June is their flowering period.
Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Anthericum Liliago (_St. Bernard's Lily_).--One of the finest of hardy
plants, and easy to grow. Planted in deep, free, sandy soil, it will
grow vigorously, and in early summer throw up spikes of snowy-white,
lily-like blossoms from 2 to 3 feet in height. It may be divided every
three or four years, but should not be disturbed oftener. Mulching in
early springtime is advantageous.

Anthericum Liliastrum _(St. Bruno's Lily_).--This hardy perennial is a
profuse bloomer, throwing up spikes of starry white flowers from May
to July. Treat in the same manner as the foregoing. Height, 2 ft.

Anthoxanthum Gracila.--Sweet vernal grass. It is graceful and
ornamental, and is used for edgings. Sow in spring, keeping the seed
moist until it germinates. Height, 6 in.

Anthyllis Montana.--A fine hardy perennial for rock-work. It is of a
procumbent habit, and has a woody nature. A vegetable soil is best
suited for its growth, and its roots should be in contact with large
stones. It may be increased by cuttings taken in spring and planted in
the shade in leaf-mould. It flowers at midsummer. Height, 6 in.

Antirrhinum (_Snapdragon_).--Handsome hardy perennials; most effective
in beds or borders. They stand remarkably well both drought and
excessive rainfall, and succeed in any common soil. Seeds sown early
in spring produce flowers the same year. For spring bedding, sow in
July; keep the young plants in a cold frame, and plant out in March or
April. Choice sorts may be plentifully increased by cuttings taken in
July or August. Flower from July to September. Height, 1-1/2 ft. to 2
ft.

Ants in Gardens.--Contrary to general belief, ants do more good
than harm to a garden; but as they are unsightly on flowers, it is
advisable to tie a little wool round the stems of standard roses and
other things upon which they congregate. They will not crawl over the
wool. A little sulphur sprinkled over a plant will keep them from it;
while wall-fruit, etc., may be kept free from them by surrounding it
with a broad band of chalk. Should they become troublesome on account
of their numbers a strong decoction of elder leaves poured into the
nest will destroy them; or a more expeditious method of getting rid of
them is to put gunpowder in their nests and fire it with a piece of
touch-paper tied on to a long stick.

Aotus Gracillima.--A charming and graceful evergreen shrub, whose
slender branches are covered with small pea-like flowers in May. It is
most suitable for the greenhouse, and delights in a soil of loamy peat
and sand. Cuttings of half-ripened wood planted under glass will take
root. Height, 3 ft.

Aphides, or plant-lice, make their presence known by the plant
assuming an unhealthy appearance, the leaves curling up, etc.
Frequently swarms of ants (which feed upon the aphides) are found
beneath the plants attacked. Syringe the plant all over repeatedly
with gas-tar water, or with tobacco or lime-water. The lady-bird is
their natural enemy.

Apios Tuberosa (_Glycine Apios_).--An American climbing plant which
produces in the autumn bunches of purple flowers of an agreeable
odour. The foliage is light and elegant. The plant is quite hardy. It
enjoys a light soil and a good amount of sunshine. It may be increased
by separating the tubers after the tops have died down, and planting
them while they are fresh. Height, 12 ft.

Aponogeton.--_See_ "Aquatics."

Apples.--Apples delight in a moist, cool climate. All apples will not
succeed on the same soil, some preferring clay, while others grow best
in sandy loam or in well-drained peat. For a deep, good soil and a
sheltered situation the standard form grafted on the Crab-apple is
generally considered to be the most profitable. For shallow soils it
is better to graft on to the Paradise stock, as its roots do not run
down so low as the Crab. The ground, whether deep or shallow, should
receive a good mulching in the autumn; that on the deep soil being dug
in at the approach of spring, while that on the shallow soil should
be removed in the spring to allow the ground to be lightly forked and
sweetened, replacing the manure when the dry, hot weather sets in. The
best time to perform the grafting is March, and it should be done
on the whip-handle system, particulars of which will be found under
"Grafting." Young trees may be planted in the autumn, as soon as the
leaves have fallen. Budding is done in August, just in the same manner
as roses. In spring head back to the bud; a vigorous shoot will then
be produced, which can be trained as desired. Apples need very little
pruning, it being merely necessary to remove branches growing in the
wrong direction; but this should be done annually, while the branches
are young--either at the end of July or in winter. If moss makes its
appearance, scrape it off and wash the branches with hot lime. The
following sorts may be specially recommended:--For heavy soils,
Duchess of Oldenburgh, equally suitable for cooking or dessert;
Warner's King, one of the best for mid-season; and King of the
Pippins, a handsome and early dessert apple. For light, warm soils,
Cox's Orange Pippin or Bess Pool. The Devonshire Quarrenden is a
delicious apple, and will grow on any good soil. In orchards standards
should stand 40 ft. apart each way, and dwarfs from 10 ft. to 15 ft.

Apricots.--Early in November is the most favourable time for planting
Apricots. The soil--good, sound loam for preference--should be dug 3
ft. deep, and mixed with one-fourth its quantity of rotten leaves and
one-fourth old plaster refuse. Place a substratum of bricks below each
tree and tread the earth very firmly round the roots. They will not
need any manure until they are fruiting, when a little may be applied
in a weak liquid form, but a plentiful supply of water should be given
during spring and summer months. The fan shape is undoubtedly the best
way of training the branches, as it allows a ready means of tucking
small yew branches between them to protect the buds from the cold.
They may be grown on their own roots by planting the stone, but a
quicker way to obtain fruit is to bud them on to vigorous seedling
plum trees. This should be done in August, inserting the bud on
the north or north-west side of the stem and as near the ground as
possible. To obtain prime fruit, thin the fruit-buds out to a distance
of 6 in. one from the other. In the spring any leaf-buds not required
for permanent shoots can be pinched back to three or four leaves
to form spurs. The Apricot is subject to a sort of paralysis, the
branches dying off suddenly. The only remedy for this seems to be to
prevent premature vegetation. The following are good sorts: Moor Park,
Grosse Peche, Royal St. Ambroise, Kaisha, Powell's Late, and Oullin's
Early. In plantations they should stand 20 ft. apart.

Aquatics.--All aquatics grow best in wicker-baskets filled with earth.
Cover the surface of the earth with hay-bands twisted backwards and
forwards and round the plant, and lace it down with tarred string, so
as to keep the earth and plant from being washed out. The following
make good plants:--White Water Lily (_Nymphaea Alba_) in deep water
with muddy bottom; Yellow Water Lily (_Nuphar Lutea_); and Nuphar
Advena, having yellow and red flowers; Hottonia Palustris, bearing
flesh-coloured flowers, and Alismas, or Water Plantain, with white,
and purple and white flowers. Water Forget-me-nots (_Myosotis
Palustris_) flourish on the edges of ponds or rivers. The Water
Hawthorn (_Aponogetou Distachyon_) does well in a warm, sheltered
position, and may be grown in loam, plunged in a pan of water.
Calla Ethiopica bears pretty white flowers, so also does the
before-mentioned Aponogeton Distachyon. The Flowering Rush (_Butomus
Umbellatus_), produces fine heads of pink flowers. The Water Violet
merely needs to be laid on the surface of the water; the roots float.
For shallow water Menyanthus Trifoliata (Three-leaved Buckbean) and
Typha Latifolia (Broad-leaved Cat's Tail) are suitable. Weeping
Willows grow readily from cuttings of ripened shoots, planted in moist
soil in autumn. Spiraea does well in moist situations, near water.
Aquatics are propagated by seed sown under water: many will allow of
root-division. Tender Aquatics are removed in winter to warm-water
tanks.

Aquilegia (_Columbine_).--Very ornamental and easily-grown hardy
perennials. Sow seed in March in sandy soil, under glass, and
transplant when strong enough. Common garden soil suits them. The
roots may be divided in spring or autumn. The flowers are produced
from May to July. Height, 2 ft.

Arabis Alpina (_Rock Cress, or Snow in Summer_).--Pure white hardy
perennial, which is valuable for spring bedding. Not particular to
soil, and easily raised from seed sown from March to June, placed
under a frame, and transplanted in the autumn, or it may be propagated
by slips, but more surely by rootlets taken after the plants have done
flowering. Plant 3 in. apart. Height, 6 in.

Aralia (_Fatsia Japonica_).--Fine foliage plants, very suitable for a
shady situation in a living-room. They may be raised from seed sown
in autumn in a gentle heat, in well-drained pots of light sandy soil.
Keep the mould moist, and when the plants are large enough to handle,
pot them off singly in thumb pots, using rich, light, sandy soil. Do
not pot too firmly. Keep them moist, but do not over water, especially
in winter, and re-pot as the plants increase in size. Be careful not
to let the sun shine on them at any time, as this would cause the
leaves to lose their fresh colour.

Aralia Sieboldi (_Fig Palm_).--This shrub is an evergreen, and is
generally given stove culture, though it proves quite hardy in the
open, where its large deep-green leaves acquire a beauty surpassing
those grown indoors. Slips of half-ripened wood taken at a joint in
July may be struck in heat and for the first year grown on in the
greenhouse. The young plants should be hardened off and planted out
in May in a sunny situation. It should be grown in well-drained sandy
loam. Is increased also by off-sets, and blooms (if at all) in July.
Height, 3 ft.

Aralia Sinensis. _See_ "Dimorphantus."

Araucaria Imbricata (_The Monkey Puzzle, or Chilian Pine_).--This
strikingly handsome conifer is very suitable for a forecourt or for
a single specimen on grass. Young plants are sometimes grown in the
conservatory and in the borders of shrubberies, as well as in the
centres of beds. It requires a good stiff sandy loam, which must be
well drained, and plenty of room for root action should be allowed.
Young plants are obtained from seed sown in good mellow soil. Water
sparingly, especially during the winter.

Arbor Vitae. _See_ "Thuya."

Arbutus (_Strawberry Tree_).--Elegant evergreen shrubs with dark
foliage of great beauty during October and November, when they produce
an abundance of pearly-white flowers, and the fruit of the previous
year is ripe. A. Unedo is particularly charming. They flourish in the
open in sandy loam. The dwarfs are increased by layers, the rest by
seeds or by budding on each other.

Arctostaphylos.--These evergreen shrubs need the same treatment as
Arbutos. A. Uva-ursi, or Creeping Arbutos, is a pretty prostrate
evergreen, which flowers in May, and is only 3 in. high.

Arctotis.--A showy and interesting half-hardy annual. Raise the seed
in a frame in March, and transplant in May. It succeeds best in a
mixture of loam and peat. It flowers in June. Height, 1 ft.

Arctotis Grandis.--A very handsome, half-hardy annual producing large
daisy-like flowers on long wiry stems, the upper part being white and
the base yellow and lilac, while the reverse of the petals are of
a light lilac. The seed should be sown early in spring on a slight
hot-bed, and the plants potted off, when sufficiently strong, using a
rich, light mould. They may be transferred to the border as soon as
all fear of frost is over. Height, 2-1/2 ft.

Ardisia Japonica.--An evergreen shrub which delights in a mixture of
loam and peat. Cuttings will strike if planted in sand under glass
with a little bottom heat. It flowers in July. Height, 6 ft.

Arenaria Balearica (_Sand Wort_).--A hardy evergreen trailing plant of
easy culture, provided it is favoured with a sandy soil. Its cushions
of white flowers are produced in July, and it may be increased by seed
or division. Height, 3 in. It is a beautiful plant for moist, shady
rock-work.

Argemone.--Interesting hardy annuals, succeeding well in any common
garden soil. Are increased by suckers or by seed sown in spring.
Height, 6 in. to 3 ft.

Aristolochia Sipho (_Dutchman's Pipe_).--This hardy, deciduous climber
grows best in peat and sandy loam with the addition of a little dung.
It may be raised from cuttings placed in sand under glass. Height, 30
ft.

Armeria (_Thrift_).--Handsome hardy perennials for rock-work or pots.
They require an open, rich, sandy soil. Bloom June to September.
Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Arnebia.--Ornamental hardy annuals, closely allied to the Anchusa.
The seeds are sown in the open in spring, and flowers are produced in
July. Height, 2 ft. There is also a dwarf hardy perennial variety (_A.
Echioides_) known as the Prophet's Flower, growing about 1 ft. high,
and flowering early in summer. It needs no special treatment.

Artemisia Annua.--Pretty hardy annuals, the silvery leaves of the
plant being very effective on rock-work. Sow the seed in spring where
it is to flower. Height, 6 ft.

Artemisia Arborea. _See_ "Southernwood."

Artemisia Villarsii.--A hardy perennial whose graceful sprays of
finely-cut silvery foliage are very useful for mixing with cut
flowers. It may be grown from seed on any soil, and the roots bear
dividing; flowers from June to August. Height, 2 ft.

Artichokes.--The Jerusalem variety will flourish in light sandy soil
where few other things will grow. Plant the tubers in March, 6 in.
deep and 12 in. apart in rows 3 ft. asunder, and raise and store them
in November. The Globe variety is increased by off-sets taken in
March. Set them in deeply manured ground in threes, at least 2 ft.
apart and 4 ft. from row to row. Keep them well watered, and the
ground between them loose. They bear best when two or three years old.

Arum Lilies.--In warm districts these beautiful plants may be grown
in damp places out of doors, with a south aspect and a background of
shrubs, though, not being thoroughly hardy, it is safer to grow them
in pots. They may be raised from seed in boxes of leaf-mould and sand,
covering them with glass, and keeping them well watered. As soon as
they can be handled, transplant them into small pots, and pot on as
they increase in size. They may also be increased by the small shoots
that form round the base of the corms, using a compost of loam,
leaf-mould, and sand, with a little crushed charcoal. In June
transplant them in the open to ripen their corms, and in August
put them carefully into 6-in. pots filled with the above-mentioned
compost. They need at all times a good amount of moisture, especially
at such times as they are removed from one soil to another. At the
same time, it is necessary to procure good drainage. It is well to
feed them every other day with weak liquid manure. A temperature of 55
degrees throughout the winter is quite sufficient. When grown in the
open, the bulbs should be placed 3 in. below the soil, with a little
silver sand beneath each, and not be disturbed oftener than once in
four years. Three or four may stand a foot apart. Stake neatly the
flower stems. They flower from September to June.

Arums.--Remarkably handsome plants with fine foliage and curious
inflorescence more or less enclosed in a hooded spathe, which is
generally richly coloured and marked. They are hardy, easily grown in
any soil (a good sandy one is preferable), and flower in July. Height,
1-1/2 ft. (_See also_ "Calla.")

Asarum Europaeum.--This curious hardy perennial will grow in almost
any soil, and may be increased by taking off portions of the root
early in autumn, placing them in small pots till the beginning of
spring, then planting them out. It produces its purple flowers in May.
Height, 9 in.

Asclepias (_Swallow-Wort_).--Showy hardy perennials which require
plenty of room to develop. They may be grown from seed sown in August
or April, or can be increased by division of the root. A very light
soil is needed, and plenty of sunshine. Flowers are produced in July.
Height, 1 ft. to 2-1/2 ft.

Asparagus.--Sow in March or April, in rich light soil, allowing the
plants to remain in the seed-beds until the following spring; then
transplant into beds thoroughly prepared by trenching the ground 3 ft.
deep, and mixing about a foot thick of well-rotted manure and a good
proportion of broken bones and salt with the soil. The plants should
stand 2 ft. apart. In dry weather water liberally with liquid manure,
and fork in a good supply of manure every autumn. Give protection in
winter. The plants should not be cut for use until they become strong
and throw up fine grass, and cutting should not be continued late in
the season. April is a good time for making new beds. The roots should
be planted as soon as possible after they are lifted, as exposure to
the air is very injurious to them.

Asparagus Plumosus Nanus is a greenhouse variety, bearing fern-like
foliage. The seeds should be sown in slight heat early in spring.

Asparagus Sprengeri.--This delightful greenhouse climber is seen to
best advantage when suspended in a hanging basket, but it also makes
an attractive plant when grown on upright sticks, or on trellis-work.
It is useful for cut purposes, lasting a long time in this state,
and is fast taking the place of ferns, its light and elegant foliage
making it a general favourite. It should be grown in rich, light
mould, and may be propagated by seed or division. The roots should not
be kept too wet, especially in cold weather.

Asperula (_Woodruff_).--A. Azurea Setosa is a pretty, light-blue
hardy annual, which is usually sown in the open in autumn for early
flowering; if sown in the spring it will bloom in June or July. A.
Odorata is a hardy perennial, merely needing ordinary treatment. It is
serviceable for perfuming clothes, etc. Asperulas thrive in a moist
soil, and grow well under the shade of trees. Height, 1 ft.

Asphalte Paths.--Sift coarse gravel so as to remove the dusty portion,
and mix it with boiling tar in the proportion of 25 gallons to each
load. Spread it evenly, cover the surface with a layer of spar,
shells, or coarse sand, and roll it in before the tar sets.

Asphodelus.--Bold hardy herbaceous plants; fine for borders; will grow
in common soil, and flower between May and August. Increased by young
plants taken from the roots. Height, 2-1/2 ft. to 4 ft.

Aspidistra.--This greenhouse herbaceous perennial is a drawing-room
palm, and is interesting from the fact that it produces its flowers
beneath the surface of the soil. It thrives in any fairly good mould,
but to grow it to perfection it should be accommodated with three
parts loam, one part leaf-mould, and one part sand. It will do in any
position, but is best shaded from the midday sun. It may be increased
by suckers, or by dividing the roots in April, May, or June. Supply
the plant freely with water, especially when root-bound. When dusty,
the leaves should be sponged with tepid milk and water--a teacup of
the former to a gallon of the latter. This imparts a gloss to the
leaves. A poor sandy soil is more suitable for the variegated kind, as
this renders the variegation more constant. Height, 1 ft. to 2 ft.

Asters.--This splendid class of half-hardy annuals has been vastly
improved by both French and German cultivators. Speaking generally,
the flowers of the French section resemble the chrysanthemum, and
those of the German the paeony. They all delight in a very rich, light
soil, and need plenty of room from the commencement of their growth.
The first sowing may be made in February or March, on a gentle hotbed,
followed by others at about fourteen days' interval. The seeds are
best sown in shallow drills and lightly covered with soil, then
pressed down by a board. Prick out the seedlings 2 in. apart, and
plant them out about the middle of May in a deeply-manured bed. If
plant food be given it must be forked in lightly, as the Aster is very
shallow-rooting, and it should be discontinued when the buds appear.
For exhibition purposes remove the middle bud, mulch the ground with
some good rotten soil from an old turf heap, and occasionally give a
little manure water.

Astilbe.--Ornamental, hardy herbaceous perennials, with large handsome
foliage, and dense plumes of flowers, requiring a peaty soil for their
successful cultivation. They may be grown from seed sown in July or
August, or may be increased by division. They flower at the end of
July. The varieties vary in height, some growing as tall as 6 ft.

Astragalus Alpinus.--A hardy perennial bearing bluish-purple flowers.
It will grow in any decent soil, and can be propagated from seed sown
in spring or autumn, or by division. Height, 6 ft.

Astragalus Hypoglottis.--A hardy deciduous trailing plant, producing
purple flowers in July. Sow the seed early in spring on a moderate
hotbed, and plant out into any garden soil. Height, 3 in.

Astragalus Lotoides.--This pretty little trailer is of the same height
as A. Hypoglottis, and merely requires the same treatment. It flowers
in August.

Astrantia.--This herbaceous plant is quite hardy, and will thrive in
any good garden soil, producing its flowers in June and July. Seed may
be sown either in autumn or spring. Height, 1-1/2 ft. to 2 ft.

Atragene Austriaca.--Handsome, hardy climbers, which may be grown in
any garden soil. They flower in August, and are increased by layers or
by cuttings under glass. Height, 8 ft.

Atriplex.--Straggling hardy annuals of very little beauty. Will grow
in any soil if sown in spring, and only require ordinary attention.
Flower in July. Height, 5 ft.

Aubergine.--_See_ "Egg-Plant."

Aubrietia.--An early spring-blooming hardy perennial. Very ornamental
either in the garden or on rock-work, the flowers lasting a long time.
An open and dry situation suits it best. May be readily raised from
seed, and increased by dividing the roots or by cuttings under a
glass. Flowers in March and April. Height 6 in.

Aucuba.--Hardy evergreen shrubs, some having blotched leaves. They
look well standing alone on grass plots, and are indifferent to
soil or position. Cuttings may be struck in any garden soil under a
hand-glass in August, or by layers in April or May. When the male and
female varieties are planted together, the latter produce an abundance
of large red berries, rendering the plant very showy and ornamental.
They bloom in June. Height, 6 ft.

Auricula.--This is a species of primrose, and is sometimes called
Bear's Ear from the shape of its leaves. It succeeds best in a mixture
of loam and peat, or in four parts rotten loam, two parts rotten cow
dung, and one part silver sand; delights in shade, and will not bear
too much water. It makes an effective border to beds, and is readily
propagated by off-sets taken early in autumn, or in February or March,
by division of roots immediately after flowering, or from seed sown in
March on gentle heat in firmly pressed light, rich soil, covered with
a piece of glass and shaded from the sun till the plants are well up,
when sun and air is needed. When large enough to handle, prick them
out in a cold frame 6 in. apart, and keep them there through the
winter. Take care to press the soil well round the roots of off-sets.
October is a good time for making new borders. The half-hardy kinds
require the protection of a house in winter. Height, 6 in.

Avena Sterilis.--A very singular hardy-annual ornamental grass,
generally known as Animated Oats. Very useful in a green state for
mixing with cut flowers. Sow in March or early in April. Height, 3 ft.

Azaleas (_Greenhouse_).--A good soil for these deciduous shrubs is
made by mixing a fair quantity of silver sand with good fibrous peat.
The plants must never be allowed to become too wet nor too dry, and
must be shaded from excessive sunshine. After they have flowered
remove the remains of the blooms, place the plants out of doors in
the sun to ripen the wood, or in a temperature of 60 degrees or
65 degrees, and syringe them freely twice a day. If they require
shifting, it must be done directly the flowers have fallen. Cuttings
taken off close to the plant will root in sand under a glass placed in
heat. A. Indica is a plant of great beauty. Stand it in the open air
in summer, in a partially shaded position. In winter remove it to a
cool part of the greenhouse. The hardy varieties should receive the
same treatment as rhododendrons. Flowers in June. Height, 4 ft.

Azara Microphylla--This hardy evergreen shrub, with its fan-like
branches and small dark, glossy leaves, is very ornamental and
sweet-scented. It is increased by placing cuttings of ripened wood in
sand under glass with a little heat. Height, 3 ft.


B


Babianas.--Charming, sweet-scented flowers, suitable for either pot
cultivation or the border. In August or September place five bulbs in
a well-drained 5-in. pot, using rich, light, very sandy soil; cover
them completely, and press the mould down gently. Water very sparingly
until the roots are well formed; indeed, if the soil is moist when the
bulbs are planted, no water will be needed till the new growth appears
above ground. Stand the pots in ashes and cover them with 3 in. of
cocoa-nut fibre. When the flower spikes are formed, give weak liquid
manure twice a week till the flowers open. Keep them in a temperature
of 55 degrees. When the foliage begins to die down gradually, lessen
the amount of moisture given. The bulbs while dormant are best left in
the pots. For cultivation in the open, choose a warm situation, make
the soil light and sandy, adding a good proportion of well-rotted
manure, and plant the bulbs 5 in. deep either in autumn or spring.
Height, 6 in. to 9 in.

Bahia Lanata.--A hardy herbaceous plant of easy culture from seed sown
in spring or autumn in any garden soil. It produces bright orange
flowers from June to August. Height, 1 ft.

Bahia Trolliifolia.--This hardy herbaceous perennial will grow in any
kind of soil. It flowers in August, and can be increased by division.
Height, 1 ft.

Balsams.--The seeds of these tender annuals require to be sown in
early spring in a hot-house or a warm frame having a temperature of 65
to 75 degrees. When 2 or 3 in. high, or large enough to handle, prick
off singly into small pots, shade them till they are established, and
re-pot as they advance in strength in a compost of loam, leaf-mould,
sand, and old manure. Give them air when the weather is favourable.
The last shift should be into 24-sized pots. Supply them with an
abundance of liquid manure, admit as much air as possible, and syringe
freely. They must never be allowed to get dry. Secure their stems
firmly to sticks. They will flower in the open early in September.
Height, 1-1/2 ft. to 2 ft.

Bambusa.--The dwarf-growing Bamboos Fortunei variegata and
Viridi-striata make graceful edgings to borders or paths. The whole
family like a rich, loamy, damp soil.

Baneberry.--_See_ "Actæa."

Baptisia Australis.--This ornamental hardy perennial makes a good
border plant, growing in any loamy soil, and producing its blue
flowers in June and July. It can be multiplied by dividing the root.
Height, 3 ft.

Barbarea.--_See_ "Rocket."

Barberries.--Very ornamental hardy shrubs, bearing rich yellow flowers
in spring and attractive fruit in the autumn. Most handsome when
trained to a single stem and the head allowed to expand freely. They
are not particular as to soil, but prefer a rather light one, and
succeed best in a moist, shady situation. Cuttings or layers root
freely in the open. They require very little attention, beyond
occasionally cutting away some of the old branches to make room for
new growth. Height, 1-1/2 ft. to 2 ft.

Bartonia aurea.--Beautiful hardy annuals, the flowers of which open
at night and effuse a delightful odour. Sow the seed in autumn on a
gentle hotbed; pot off, and protect in a greenhouse during the winter.
Plant them out in the open in May, where they will flower in June.
Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Bay, Sweet _(Laurus Nobilis_).--This half-hardy evergreen shrub likes
a sheltered position. Protection from severe frosts is requisite,
especially while it is young. It is more suitable as an isolated
specimen plant than for the border. Increased by layers or by cuttings
of the roots.

Beans, Broad.--A deep, strong loam is most suitable, but good crops
can be obtained from any garden soil. The first sowing should be made
in February or March, and in succession to May. A sowing of Beck's
Green Gem or Dwarf Fan may even be made in November in rows 2 ft.
apart. Other varieties should be planted in rows 3 ft. apart, sowing
the seed 3 in. deep and at intervals of 6 in. When the plants have
done flowering pinch off the tops, to ensure a better crop; and if
the black fly has attacked them, take off the tops low enough down to
remove the pests, and burn them at once. Seville Longpod and Aquadulce
may be recommended for an early crop, and Johnson's Wonderful and
Harlington Windsor for a main one.

Beans, French.--The soil should be dug over to a depth of at least 12
in. and liberally enriched with manure. In the open ground the first
sowing may be made about the third week in April, another sowing early
in May, and subsequent sowings for succession every two or three weeks
until the end of July. Plant in rows 2 ft apart, and the seeds 6 to 9
in. apart in the rows. A sharp look-out ought to be kept for slugs,
which are very partial to French Beans when pushing through the soil.
For forcing, sow in pots under glass from December to March.

Beans, Runner.--These are not particular as to position or soil, but
the best results are obtained by placing them in a deep rich mould
where they can get a fair amount of sunlight. Sow, from the second
week in May until the first week in July for succession, in rows 6 ft.
apart, thinning the plants out to 1 ft. apart in the rows. Protect
from slugs when the plants are coming through the ground, and support
them with sticks immediately the growth begins to run. Scarlet Runners
may be kept dwarf by pinching off the tops when the plants are about 1
ft. high, and nipping off the subsequent shoots when 6 in. long.

Beet.--Land that has been well manured for the previous crop is the
best on which to obtain well-shaped roots of high quality. Sow in
April and May in drills 18 in. apart, and thin out the plants to about
9 in. apart. Take up for use as wanted until November, when the whole
crop should be taken up and stored in dry sand, and in a place where
neither moisture nor frost can reach them. When storing them cut off
the tails and some portion of the crowns, but be careful not to wound
any part of the fleshy root.

Begonias.--A somewhat succulent genus of conservatory plants. They all
require a very rich loamy soil containing a little sand; and heat,
moisture, and shade are essential to their health. Cuttings 2 or 3 in.
long will root readily in spring or summer. Stand the cuttings in the
shade and do not over-water them; or they may be raised from seed sown
in March in a hot-house or frame having a temperature of 65 degrees.
Height, 1 ft. to 3 ft.

Tuberous Begonias should be planted in small pots placed in heat,
early in spring, and at intervals of a fortnight for succession, using
a compost of equal parts of fibrous loam, leaf-mould, and sand. Press
the soil rather firmly so as to promote sturdy growth, and only just
cover the top of the tuber. Water moderately till the plants begin to
grow freely. Gradually harden off, and plant out the last week in
May or early in June, or shift into larger pots for conservatory
decoration. Cuttings may be taken in April. The plants may also be
raised from seed sown in February or March in a temperature of 65
degrees. Before sowing mix the seed with silver sand, then sprinkle it
evenly over a box or pan of moist, fine, light loam and silver sand;
cover with a sheet of glass, and keep shaded. Transplant into small
pots, and pot on from time to time as the plants increase in size.
Plants so treated will flower in June or July. When the leaves of the
old plants turn yellow keep the roots quite dry, afterwards turn them
out of the pots and bury them in cocoa-nut fibre till January, when
they must be re-potted.

Belladonna Lily.--_See_ "Amaryllis."

Bellis Perennis.--_See_ "Daisies."

Benthamia.--An ornamental half-hardy shrub. A profuse bloomer, the
flowers of which are followed by edible strawberry-like fruit. Will
succeed in any good garden against a south wall. Easily raised from
seed or by layers. Flowers in August. Height, 3 ft.

Berberidopsis Corallina.--Distinct and very pretty evergreen climbing
shrubs, which prove hardy in the south and west, but need protection
in other places. They are not particular as to soil, and may be
increased by cuttings.

Bergamot _(Monardia Didyma_).--This hardy perennial will grow almost
anywhere, and may be increased by seed or by division of the root. It
flowers in _July_. Height, 4 ft.

Beta Cicla.--A hardy annual which succeeds in any common soil. Its
dark crimson and yellow flowers are borne in August. Height, 6 ft. It
is used as spinach. In Germany the midrib of the leaf is boiled and
eaten with gravy or melted butter.

Betonica.--_See_ "Stachys."

Biennials.--These plants take two years to flower, and then they die
away altogether. The seed of the hardy varieties is sown thinly in
the open border any time between April and June, and the plants
transferred in the autumn to the place where they are intended to
bloom. Seed is also sown in August and September for flowering the
following year. The half-hardy kinds may be sown in May or June. These
require protection during winter, such as is afforded by a cold pit,
frame, or greenhouse, or the covering of a mat or litter.

Bignonia _(Trumpet Flower_).--This is admirably suitable for a south
wall, but it requires plenty of room. It is propagated by cuttings
placed in sand, or by cuttings of the root. These should be planted
out in the spring, or autumn will do if they are covered with a
hand-glass.

Biota.--_See_ "Thuya."

Bird Cherry.--_See_ "Cerasus."

Blackberries.--To obtain good crops plant in a poor, dry soil on
raised banks facing south. The bushes should be planted 6 ft. apart.

Bladder Nut.--_See_ "Staphylea."

Blanket Flower.--_See_ "Gaillardia."

Bleeding Heart.--_See_ "Dielytra."

Bocconia Cordata.--Ornamental hardy perennials. They do best on a
loamy soil, and may be increased by suckers taken from established
plants in the summer and placed in rich soil; or by cuttings planted
in sand, in a gentle heat under glass; also by seed sown during the
autumn months. They appear to the greatest advantage when grown as
solitary plants, away from other tall-growing flowers. The variety B.
Frutescens has an exceedingly pretty foliage. August is the month in
which they flower. Height, 6 ft.

Bog or Marsh Land.--By planting a few of the more distinct species
adapted for such positions, bogs or marshes may be made interesting.
The following plants are suitable:--Arundo Donax, Bambusa Fortunei,
Cypripedium Spectabile, Dondia Epipactis, Drosera Rotundifolia,
Gunnera Scabra, Iris Kaempferi, Iris pseud-Acorus, Juncus Zebrinus,
Myosotis Palustris, Osmunda Regalis, Parnassia Palustris, Pinguicula
Vulgaris, Polygonum Sieboldi, and Sarracenia Purpurea.

Boltonia Asteroides.--This is a hardy perennial which flowers in
September. The same treatment that is given to Asters is suitable for
this plant. Height, 3 ft.

Bomarea.--A useful greenhouse climber, the flowers of which are
valuable for cutting, as they last a long time in water. It thrives
best in a mixture of sand, peat, and loam.

Borago Laxiflora.--This very choice Boragewort is a trailing hardy
biennial. It produces lovely pale pendent flowers from June to
August, will grow in almost any soil, and can be increased by seed or
division. Height, 1 ft.

Borecole, Kale, or Curled Greens.--Sow towards the end of March or
early in April. Plant out as soon as ready in moderately rich soil in
rows 3 ft. apart, and the plants 2 ft. apart in the rows. If the seed
is sown thickly, the young plants must be pricked off into another bed
until ready for planting, as strong, sturdy plants always produce the
best results. They may succeed peas without any fresh manure.

Boronias.--Greenhouse evergreen shrubs. A single plant of B.
Megastigma is sufficient to perfume a good-sized house. B. Drummondi,
Elatior, Heterophylla, and Serrulata are all good plants. The pots
should be filled with sandy peat and be well drained. They are
propagated by cuttings taken at a joint and placed under glass. May is
their flowering month. Height, 2 ft.

Bougainvillea.--A greenhouse evergreen climber, thriving best in a
loamy soil. It flowers in June, and may be increased by cuttings.
Height, 15 ft.

Bousingaultia Basselloides.--A rapidly growing climber, beautiful both
in flower and foliage, the former of which is pure white, produced in
July in elegant racemes from 6 in. to 8 in. long. It is nearly hardy;
very suitable for a cool greenhouse. Any garden soil suits it. Height,
6 ft.

Bouvardias.--Favourite stove plants. They are propagated by pieces of
the thick fleshy roots, about 2 in. long, inserted in light, rich,
sandy soil, and plunged in a bottom-heat. Plant out in May in rich,
light soil, cutting back all the over-vigorous growth, so as to form a
well-balanced plant. At the approach of cold weather they may be taken
up and potted off, using small pots to prevent them damping off. In a
warm greenhouse they will flower all the winter.

Box Edging.--A deep loam suits the box best. Cuttings should be taken
early in autumn. Dig a trench, and make the bottom firm and even. Set
the young plants thinly and at regular intervals, leaving the tops 1
in. above the surface. Tread the soil firmly against them. Cover with
1 in. of gravel to prevent them growing too luxuriantly. The end of
June is a good time for clipping. May be transplanted early in spring
or late in autumn. (_See also_ "Buxus.")

Brachycome (_Swan River Daisy_).--Beautiful little half-hardy annuals
bearing cineraria-like flowers that open well in the border in summer.
If well watered in autumn and removed to the greenhouse they will
continue to bloom during early winter. Sow the seed as for ordinary
half-hardy annuals in rich, light mould, covering them sparingly.
Bloom in May. Height, 6 in.

Bravoa Geminiflora (_Twin Flower_).--This hardy bulbous plant bears
lovely racemes of coral-coloured flowers in July. A rich loam suits it
best. Height, 1 ft.

Briza (_Quaking Grass_).--There are several varieties of this
ornamental hardy annual grass. Briza Gracillis is slender, and very
pretty both in a green and dried state. Briza Maxima bears large
and handsome panicles. Each variety should be sown in pots, or on a
sheltered bed out of doors, early in spring. Height, 1 ft.

Broccoli.--Requires a heavy, deep, rich soil, and liquid manure during
growth. For earliest crop sow thinly in beds early in March, giving a
little protection if necessary. Successional sowings should be made to
the end of June, to produce a constant supply till Cauliflowers are
ready. Transplant, when large enough to handle, about 2 ft. from each
other. Keep the ground free from weeds, and earth the plants up as
they advance in growth. Sow Purple Sprouting Broccoli in May for late
spring supplies.

Brodiaea Coccinea.--Handsome plants for rock-work or the border. On a
dry, light, sandy soil, with plenty of sunshine, their gorgeous spikes
of brilliant scarlet flowers are very attractive in May. The bulbs may
be planted in November, and left undisturbed.

Broom.--Hardy shrubs thriving in almost any soil. Cuttings will
strike if planted in sand under glass. (_See also_ "Genista" _and_
"Spartium.")

Broussonetia Papyrifera.--A very effective deciduous shrub, with
large, curiously-cut leaves. It likes an open soil, and is propagated
by cuttings. February is its blooming time. Height, 12 ft.

Browallia.--Very handsome half-hardy annuals; will grow readily from
seed in any garden soil, but prefer a sandy one. They bloom in July.
Height, 2 ft.

Brussels Sprouts.--For a first crop sow early in March, and in April
for succession. Transplant as soon as ready into deeply-trenched,
well-manured soil, about 2 ft. apart. Hoe well, and keep clear from
weeds. For exhibition and early use sow in a greenhouse, or in a frame
over a gentle hotbed, about the middle of February; prick off into a
cold frame, gradually harden off, and plant out in May.

Bryanthus Erectus.--A hardy evergreen shrub, which will grow in any
soil if the situation is shady and damp. It thrives without any
sunshine, but will not endure the constant dropping of moisture upon
its leaves from trees. Cuttings strike readily. April is its flowering
time. Height, 1 ft.

Budding.--Budding consists in raising an eye or bud from one part of
a bush or tree and transplanting it to another part, or to any other
plant of the same species. The process is not only more simple and
rapid than that of grafting, but many leading nurserymen contend that
a better union is effected, without the risk of dead wood being left
at the junction. It may be performed at any time from June to August,
cloudy days being most suitable, as the buds unite better in wet
weather. It is chiefly employed on young trees having a smooth and
tender bark. Of the various systems of budding, that known as the
Shield is probably the most successful. Make a small horizontal cut
in the bark of the stock, and also a vertical one about an inch long,
thus forming an elongated T shape. Next select a branch of the current
year's growth on which there is a well-formed leaf-bud. Pass a sharp
knife 1/2 in. above the bud and the same distance below it, taking
about a third of the wood with the bud. If in the process of detaching
it the interior of the bud is torn away it is useless, and a fresh bud
must be taken. Now hold the bud in the mouth, and with as little delay
as possible raise the bark of the stock with a knife, insert the bud,
and bind it on with raffia. When the bud begins to grow the binding
must be loosened. To prevent the shoots being torn away by the wind a
stake may be tied on to the stock, and the new shoot secured to it by
means of raffia. Fruit trees are sometimes budded close to the soil on
stocks 1-1/2 ft. in height. The buds are rubbed off the stock as soon
as they appear, but the stock is not cut away until the following
spring.

Buddlea.--Half-hardy, tall, deciduous greenhouse shrubs, delighting in
a loamy soil mixed with peat. They may be grown out of doors during
the summer, but need the protection of a house in winter.

Bugloss (_Anchusa_).--This showy plant, bearing large blue flowers in
June, may be increased by division of the roots into as many plants as
there are heads, from slips, or from seed sown in the open border in
spring. It is popularly known as Ox-Tongue.

Bulbocodium Trigynum (_Colchicum Caucasium_).--A miniature hardy
bulbous plant, which produces in February and March erect flowers
about the size of snowdrops. Set the bulbs in sandy loam or
leaf-mould, choosing a sunny situation. The bulbs may be divided every
other year. Height, 2 in.

Bulbocodium Vernum (_Spring Saffron_).--This bulb produces early in
spring, and preceding the foliage, a mass of rose-purple flowers close
to the ground. It is perfectly hardy, and valuable for edgings
or rock-work. Plant in autumn in light vegetable mould, and in a
sheltered, well-drained position. It will not grow in stiff, clay
soil. The bulbs may be divided every two years, after the tops have
died down. This dwarf plant flowers from January to March. Height, 6
in.

Buphthalmum Salicifolium (_Deep Golden-yellow Marguerite_).--Showy
and ornamental hardy perennials. They will grow in any good soil, and
flower from May to September; may be increased by suckers. Height,
1-1/2 ft.

Burning Bush.--_See_ "Dictamnus" _and_ "Fraxinella."

Buxus (_Tree Box_).--A useful evergreen shrub which may be grown in
any soil or situation. The B. Japonica Aurea is one of the best golden
plants known for edgings to a walk. The closer it is clipped the
brighter it becomes. Increased by suckers or layers.


C


Cabbage.--Sow from February to April for an autumn supply, and in July
and August for spring cutting. As soon as the plants have made four or
five leaves, transplant into soil that has been liberally manured and
trenched, or dug deeply, placing them 18 in. or 2 ft. apart, according
to the kind grown. Keep the soil well broken up, and give a liberal
supply of liquid manure while they are in a growing state. An open
and sunny situation is necessary. Among the best varieties for
spring sowing are Heartwell, Early Marrow, Little Pixie, Nonpareil,
Sugarloaf, and Early Dwarf York. For autumn sowing, Ellam's Dwarf
Early Spring, Defiance, and Enfield Market may be recommended.

Coleworts may be sown in June, July, and August for succession,
placing them about a foot apart, and cutting before they heart.

Chou de Burghley is of great value for spring sowing, and will be
found very useful during autumn and early in winter. This vegetable
is sometimes called Cabbage Broccoli, on account of the miniature
Broccoli which are formed among its inner leaves towards autumn.

Couve Tronchuda, known also as Braganza Marrow and Portugal Cabbage,
should be sown in March, April, and May for succession.

Savoy Cabbage is sown in March or April, and given the same treatment
as other Cabbage. Its flavour is much improved if the plants are
mellowed by frost before being cut for use.

Red Dutch is used almost solely for pickling. Its cultivation is
precisely the same as the white varieties.

Cacalia.--Hardy annuals, remarkable for their awkward-looking stems
and discoloured leaves. They grow best in a mixture of sandy loam,
brick rubbish, and decomposed dung, well reduced. They require very
little water while growing, and the pots must be well drained.
Cuttings, laid by for a few days to dry, strike readily. Flower in
June. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Cactus.--A sandy loam with brick rubbish and a little peat or rotten
manure suits them. Echinopsis is a good plant for cool houses or
windows. During the summer it should be syringed over-head with tepid
water, and weak soot water should be given three times a week. It is
propagated by off-sets planted in sand, also by slicing off a portion
from the top of the plant and placing it in light, rich, porous loam.

Caladiums.--Favourite hothouse foliage plants, generally grown in peat
soil at a temperature of 70 degrees. They require plenty of light
while growing, and to be kept moderately moist at the roots. As the
leaves lose colour less water should be given, and during winter they
must be kept almost dry. When fresh growth begins, shake them out of
their pots and put them into fresh mould. In syringing the plants use
nothing but the purest rainwater, but the less the leaves are wetted
the better for the appearance of the plants. They may be increased by
dividing the root stock into as many pieces as there are crowns. These
should be planted in very rich, sandy soil, an inch or so below the
surface.

Calamintha Grandiflora.--This hardy herbaceous plant has
sweetly-fragrant foliage, and bears rose-coloured flowers from May
to September. Any loamy soil suits it, and it is easily increased by
suckers. Height, 1 ft.

Calampelis.--A species of half-hardy climbing plants of great merit.
They are elegant when in flower, and will endure the open air. They
should be trained to a south wall, or over a vase, or up a pillar.
Any light loamy soil suits them, and they are easily increased by
cuttings. Flower in July. Height, 10 ft. (_See also_ "Eccremocarpus.")

Calandrinia.--Very pretty hardy annuals. They grow well in sunny
places in a mixture of loam and peat, and may be raised from seed sown
in the spring or by cuttings placed under hand-glasses. Bloom in July.
Height, 6 in. to 1 ft.

Calceolaria.--Many of the varieties are suitable for the greenhouse
only. They may be grown from seed, but as this is so small it should
not be covered; and in watering them it is best to stand the seed-pans
in water so that the moisture ascends, as watering from the top might
wash the seed too deeply into the soil. July and August are the two
best months for sowing. The half-shrubby kinds make fine bedding
plants. They are easily reared from cuttings. These are best taken
in October. Put them in light, sandy mould on a well-drained north
border; press the earth round them, and cover with a hand-glass. In
very frosty weather a mat should be laid over the glass. Pot them off
in spring; give plenty of air, and plant them out at the beginning of
June, or before, if weather permits.

Calendula (_Marigolds_).--Very showy hardy annuals. They merely
require sowing in the open in autumn for an early display of bloom,
or in spring for a later show, but the autumn sowing gives the more
satisfaction. Flower during June and July. Height, 1 ft.


Californian Plants.--Great care should be taken not to allow the sun
to strike on the collar of any of the plants from California, as they
readily succumb if it does so.


Calla.--These showy plants, sometimes called Arum, are worth
cultivating. They make handsome pot-plants, bearing fine white flowers
in the spring. May be grown from seeds, or roots may be divided.
They are quickly increased by off-sets from the root in August or
September. Plant the off-sets from the fleshy roots singly in small,
well-drained pots of sandy loam with one-fourth leaf-mould or
well-rotted manure, and keep them in a very warm situation. Water them
well while in growth, scantily after the leaves begin to wither, and
afterwards give only enough moisture to keep them alive. Leave the
plants in the light while the leaves die off, and then place them in a
shed, in complete repose, for a month or so. Re-pot them in October
or November, and give plenty of water. They may stand in saucers of
water, but this must be changed daily. They flower from May to July.
Height, 2 ft.

Callichroa.--A hardy annual which well deserves a place in the garden
border, both on account of its dwarf and slender habit and also the
colour of its flowers. It is satisfied with any ordinary soil. The
seed is raised on a hotbed in March, or in the open in April, and it
blooms in the autumn. Height, 1 ft.

Calliopsis.--_See_ "Coreopsis."

Callirhoe (_Digitata_).--Hardy annuals demanding but little attention.
The seed is sown in the open in March. Height, 1 ft.

Calochortus Luteus.--This very handsome hardy perennial thrives best
in sandy peat with a little loam. It produces yellow flowers in July,
and is propagated by offsets from the bulbs. Height, 1 ft.


Caltha.--Early-flowering, showy perennials, all thriving in a moist or
boggy situation. C. Leptosepala is especially choice, its pure white
flowers resembling a water-lily. They may be increased from seed, or
by division. Height, 1 ft.

Calthus Palustris Flore-Pleno (_Double Marsh Marigold_).--This hardy
herbaceous perennial is very useful for mixing with cut flowers. It
will grow anywhere, but prefers a clayey soil and a boggy situation,
and may be increased by dividing the roots in spring. A succession of
flowers are borne from April to June. Height, 9 in.

Calycanthus Floridus (_Allspice_).--This shrub likes an open loamy
soil; flowers in July, and is propagated by layers. Height, 6 ft.

Calystegia.--A perfectly hardy climbing convolvulus, and a beautiful
plant for covering arbours, etc., growing 20 ft. to 30 ft. in one
season. It thrives in any loamy soil or situation; flowers from May to
September, and may be increased by division of the roots.


Camassia Esculenta.--A handsome, hardy, bulbous plant, bearing
clusters of beautiful blue flowers in July. It needs a sandy peat
border under a north wall, and is increased by bulbs or seeds. Plant
the bulbs early in October, 4 in. deep and 5 in. apart. Height, 1-1/3
ft.


Camellias.--The best soil for these beautiful greenhouse evergreens is
a mixture of rough peat, plenty of sand, and a little turfy loam. The
greenhouse should be kept rather close, at a temperature of 55 degrees
to 60 degrees, while the plants are growing; but abundant syringing is
necessary at all times. Induce a vigorous growth of wood, and let this
be well matured by exposure to the sun and free ventilation. Old and
straggling plants may be renovated by cutting them hard back as soon
as they go out of flower, and placing them in a warm house where
a moist atmosphere is maintained. This will induce them to break.
Comparatively little water should be given for some time after they
are cut back. When the state of the roots require the plants to be
re-potted, remove as much of the old soil as possible without injuring
them, and put them into the smallest sized pots into which they can
be got, with fresh soil. This may be done after the last flower has
fallen, or after the buds have fairly commenced to push. The plants
may be placed out of doors at the beginning of June, and returned to
the greenhouse in October. There are several varieties suitable for
growing in the open. These should be provided with a soil, 2 ft. deep,
composed of peat, leaf-mould, and cows' dung. The roots should
always be kept moist and cool, and the plants disturbed as little as
possible. A top dressing of fresh soil may be given each winter, and
the plants protected from frost by binding straw round the stems.


Campanula.--A showy genus of plants, mostly hardy perennials, which
need no special treatment. They are readily raised from seed, or
division of roots. The less hardy kinds may be sown on a hotbed or in
the greenhouse, and when large enough potted off. Campanula Mayii is a
grand plant for hanging baskets, and also grows well trained up
sticks in a pyramidal form. A rich, gritty soil suits them all. The
tall-growing varieties make fine pot-plants. Flower in July. Height, 1
ft. to 5 ft.

Canary Creeper (_Tropaeolum Canariense_).--This is eminently suitable
for trellis-work or for walls. Its elegant foliage and bright yellow
flowers make it a general favourite. It may be raised from seed on
a hotbed in spring, gradually hardened off, and planted out in May.
Height, 10 ft.

Candytuft (_Iberis_).--Very pretty hardy annuals. Sow the seed in
autumn in a light, rich soil, or in spring if a less prolonged
flowering season will give satisfaction. Bloom in May or June. Height,
1 ft.

Canna (_Indian Shot or Hemp_).--For pot-plants on terraces, gravel
walks, and such like places, few things can equal and none surpass
Cannas. They are half-hardy perennials, and may be increased from
seed or by dividing the roots late in autumn, allowing them first to
partially dry. File the tough skin off one end of the seed, and steep
it in hot water for a few hours before it is sown, then stand it in a
hot place till it has germinated. Harden off and plant out, or shift
into larger pots in June, using a rich, light soil. Lift and store the
roots in autumn in the same way as Dahlias. Different kinds flower at
various seasons, so that a succession of bloom may be had throughout
the year. Height, 2 ft. to 10 ft.

Cannabis Gigantea (_Giant Hemp_).--This half-hardy Hemp is grown for
its ornamental foliage, and is treated as above described. Height, 6
ft.

Canterbury Bells.--Showy hardy biennials, which may be raised from
seed sown in the spring. Transplant in the autumn to the border where
they are intended to flower. The seed may also be sown in a sheltered
position in August or September. Flower in July. Height, 2 ft.

Cape Primroses.--_See_ "Streptocarpus."

Caprifolium.--_See_ "Honeysuckle."

Capsicum.--Sow early in March in well-drained pots of rich, light,
free mould; cover the seed with 1/2 in. of soil, and keep it
constantly moist at a temperature of 65 degrees. When strong enough
to handle put two or three plants in a 5-in. pot, and replace them in
warmth. Keep them rather close till established, then shift them into
7-in. pots. When established remove them to a cold frame and harden
off. Plant out at the end of May in a warm situation. Keep them well
supplied with water in dry weather and syringe the leaves. By stopping
the shoots they become nice, bushy shrubs. Flower in July. Height,
1-1/2 ft.

Cardamine Pratensis (_Cuckoo Flower, or Milkmaid_).--This hardy
perennial thrives in a moist, shady situation. It produces its purple
flowers from May to August, and is easily propagated by seeds or
division. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Cardamine Trifolia.--A hardy herbaceous plant; will grow in any soil,
flowers in May, and is easily raised from seed. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Cardoons.--Sow two or three seeds together in clumps 1 ft. apart, in
trenches prepared as for Celery, in April or May. When 6 in. high pull
up the superfluous plants, leaving the strongest one in each case.
When they have attained the height of 1-1/2 ft, tie the leaves lightly
to a stake and earth-up the stem. Keep them well supplied with water,
adding a little guano. They will be ready for use in September.
Another sowing may be made in June for a spring crop.

Carduus (_Milk Thistle_).--Coarse hardy annuals; somewhat ornamental,
but are hardly more than weeds. They grow freely from seed, and flower
from June to August. Height, 2 ft. to 4 ft.

Carex Japonica.--This is a graceful and very beautiful variegated
grass, striped green, silver, and gold, and makes a fine decoration
for the table. It will grow in any moderately moist soil, and bears
dividing. Sow in spring.

Carlina.--Ornamental, thistle-like, hardy perennials, which will grow
in any ordinary soil. Flowers are borne from June to September. Seed
may be sown as soon as it is ripe. Height, 9 in. to 2 ft.

Carnations.--These are divided into three classes, but they are all
said originally to come from the clove: (1) Flakes, which are striped
with one colour and white; (2) Bizarres, those streaked with two
colours and white; (3) Picotees, which have each petal margined with
colour on a white or yellow ground, or dotted with small spots. For
pot culture, about the end of March put two roots in an 11-in. pot,
filled with light, turfy loam, well drained (too much moisture being
injurious), pressing the earth firmly round the roots. Stand them on
a bed of ashes in a sheltered position, and when the flower-stems
appear, stake and tie up carefully. As the buds swell thin out the
weakly ones. To prevent them bursting unevenly put an india-rubber
ring round the bud, or tie it with raffia. They will flourish in
the open borders even in towns if planted in light loam, and may be
propagated by _layers_ at the end of July or beginning of August.
Choose for this purpose fine outside shoots, not those which have
borne flowers. Cut off all the lower leaves, leaving half a dozen near
the top untouched. Make incisions on the under sides of the layers,
just below the third joint. Peg down, and cover the stems with equal
quantities of leaf-mould and light loam. Do not water them till the
following day. The young plants may be separated and potted off as
soon as they have taken root--say, the end of August. They may also be
increased by _pipings_. Fill the pots nearly to the top with light,
rich mould and fill up with silver sand. Break off the pipings at the
third joint, then in each piping cut a little upward slit, plant them
pretty thickly in the sand, and place the pot on a gentle hotbed, or
on a bed of sifted coal ashes. Put on the sashes, and keep the plants
shaded from the sun till they have taken root, then harden off
gradually, and place each of the young plants separately in a small
pot. Carnations may also be grown from seed sown in spring. When the
seedlings have made six or eight leaves, prick them out into pots
or beds. They will flower the following year. The beds must be well
drained, as stagnant wet is very injurious to them.

Carnation Margaritae.--May be sown in heat during February or March,
pricked out when strong enough, and planted in the open in May or
June.

Carpenteria Californica.--The white flowers of this evergreen shrub,
which make their appearance in July, are delicately fragrant. The
plant is most suitable for a cool greenhouse, but does well in the
open, in warm, well-drained situations. When grown in pots the mould
should consist of two parts turfy loam, one part peat, and a little
sharp sand. It may be increased by seeds or by cuttings planted in
sandy soil, with a medium bottom heat.

Carrots.--To grow them to perfection carrots require a deep, rich,
sandy soil, which has been thoroughly trenched and manured the
previous autumn. For the main crop the seed should be sown in March,
either broadcast or in rows 18 in. apart. A calm day must be chosen
for sowing, as the seed is very light and liable to be blown about. It
has also a tendency to hang together, to obviate which it is generally
rubbed into some light soil or sand previously to being scattered.
Thin out to a distance of from 4 to 7 in., according to the kind
grown. For early use the French Horn may be sown on a hotbed in
January and February. Keep the surface of the ground well open with
the hoe.

Cassia Corymbosa.--This stove shrub is an evergreen. It should be
grown in a mixture of loam and peat, and may be increased by cuttings
planted in sand under glass in a little heat. It flowers in July.
Height, 3 ft.

Castor Oil Plants.--_See_ "Ricinus."

Catananche.--Pretty hardy biennials that will grow in almost any
soil, and may be increased by seed or division. They bloom in August.
Height, 21/2 ft. to 3 ft.

Catchfly.--_See_ "Silene."

Cathcartia Villosa.--A beautiful Himalayan poppy, possessing a rich,
soft, hairy foliage and yellow flowers, borne in succession from
June to September. Any light, rich soil suits it, but it requires a
sheltered position. It is propagated by seeds sown in spring. Height,
11/2 ft.

Cauliflowers.--Sow thinly in pans or shallow boxes early in February
and March on a gentle bottom-heat. Make a larger and the main sowing
in the open ground in March, April, and May for autumn cutting. A
sowing should also be made in August for spring and summer use. These
latter should be pricked into a frame or under a hand-glass during the
winter, and in spring planted out so as to stand 30 in. apart. When
the heads appear break some of the large leaves down over them to
afford protection, and during the whole of their growth pour plenty of
water round the stems in dry weather. They require a thoroughly rich
and well-tilled soil to grow them to perfection.

Ceanothus.--A genus of handsome and ornamental evergreen shrubs.
They are free-flowering and suitable for the conservatory or outdoor
decoration if placed in warm situations. They flourish best in peat
and loam, and are increased by cuttings planted in sand and subjected
to gentle heat. Height, 3 ft. to 6 ft.

Cedronella.--Ornamental hardy perennials; will grow in any soil, but
require a little protection in the winter. They produce their deep
purple flowers in June. Height, 3 ft.

Cedrus Deodora.--A beautiful and graceful conifer, its arched branches
being thickly set with long grey-coloured or whitish-green leaves. In
its young stage it makes an exquisite specimen for the lawn. It is
the best of all the Cedars for such a purpose. The usual method of
propagating it is by grafting it on to the common Larch.

Celery.--Sow in February or early in March on a mild hotbed for the
earliest crop. Prick the seedlings off into shallow boxes as soon as
they are large enough to handle, and keep them rather close and warm
until they are established. Towards the end of March prick them out in
rows in a frame, setting them 6 in. apart each way, and early in
May transfer to rather shallow trenches, protecting them from night
frosts. For main and late crops sow in a cold frame in April and plant
out in June or July, 9 in. apart, in trenches 3 ft. distant from each
other, 9 in. wide, and 18 in. deep, pressing the soil firmly round the
roots. Earthing up should be delayed until the plants are nearly full
grown, and should be done gradually; but let the whole be completed
before the autumn is far advanced. When preparing the trench plenty of
manure should be dug into the soil. Water liberally until earthed up
to ensure crisp, solid hearts, and an occasional application of liquid
manure will benefit the plants. During winter protect from frost with
straw, or other suitable material.

Celosia (_Feathered Cockscomb_).--Sow the seed in early spring in
a warm frame; prick off singly into small pots, and re-pot as they
advance in strength in a compost of loam, leaf-mould, old manure,
and sand. Their final shift should be into 24-sized pots. Give them
abundance of liquid manure, never allowing them to become dry, and
syringe freely. These half-hardy annuals, rising to the height of 3
ft. and bearing fine spikes of flowers in July and August, make fine
pot-plants for table decoration. They may be planted in the open, in
June, choosing a warm, sheltered situation and rich, loamy soil.

Centaurea.--The hardy annual and biennial kinds merely require to be
sown in the open in the autumn. The half-hardy ones must be sown on
a slight hotbed, where they should remain till strong enough to be
planted in the border. Cuttings of the perennials should be inserted
singly in 3-in. pots filled with sandy loam, placed in a shady, cool
frame till established, and then watered very carefully. The different
varieties vary from 6 in. to 2 ft. in height, and flower from June to
August.

Centauridium Drummondi.--A blue hardy annual which may be sown in the
open in spring.

Centranthus.--Ornamental hardy annuals. Sow in the open border in
March in any good, well-drained soil. They flower in June. Height,
1-1/2 ft.

Cephalaria (_Yellow Scabious_).--Strong-growing hardy perennials,
suitable for backs of borders. They succeed in any garden soil, and
are propagated by seed or division of root. Height, 3 ft. to 5-1/2 ft.

Cephalotaxus (_Podocarpus Koraiana_).--Handsome conifers of the Yew
type. These shrubs are quite hardy, and in favoured localities will
produce berries. They succeed best in a damp, shady spot, and may be
increased by cuttings planted in heavy loam.

Cerastium Biebersteini.--A hardy trailing perennial which will grow in
any light soil, and may be increased by suckers. It flowers in June.
Height, 6 in.

Cerasus Padus (_Bird Cherry_).--An ornamental tree; useful in the
shrubbery in its earlier stages, as it will grow in any soil. It may
be increased by seed, budding, or grafting; flowers in April. Height,
35 ft.

Cerinthe.--Hardy annuals, suitable for any ordinary soil, and needing
merely ordinary treatment. A grand plant for bees. Height, 1 ft.

Cestrums.--Charming conservatory plants, flowering early in spring.
Cuttings may be taken in autumn, placed in small pots in a light
compost of peat and sand, and given a little bottom-heat. The young
plants may be topped to form bushy ones. Re-pot before the roots have
filled the small pots, using two parts loam, one part peat, and one
part sharp sand. C. Parqui is suitable for the open if planted in a
sheltered position.

Chamaepeuce.--Half-hardy perennial Thistle plants of little merit. Any
soil suits them, and they may be increased by seed or division. Flower
in June. Height, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Chamaerops (_Chusan Palm_).--Fine greenhouse plants, delighting in a
rich, loamy soil. Height, 10 ft.

Cheiranthus.--_See_ "Wallflower."

Chelidonium.--This hardy perennial will flourish in any garden soil;
flowers in May, and may be increased by division. Height, 2 ft.

Chelone.--Charming hardy herbaceous plants. Succeed well in a mixture
of peat and loam or any rich soil. Increased by division of root, or
by seed treated like other hardy perennials. They are very effective
for the centre of beds, or in groups. Bloom in July. Height, 3 ft.

Cherries.--A light, rich soil is the one that Cherries succeed in
best, though they will grow in any fairly good dry ground. The
position should be open, but at the same time sheltered, as the
blossoms are liable to be cut off by spring frosts. The planting may
be done at any time during November and the beginning of March, when
the ground is in a workable condition. Cherries are often worked upon
the Mahaleb stock. As they have a tendency to gumming and canker,
the knife should be used as little as possible, but where pruning is
necessary, let it be done in the summer. If gumming occurs, cut away
the diseased parts and apply Stockholm tar to the wounds. Aphides or
black-fly may be destroyed by tobacco dust and syringing well with an
infusion of soft soap. Morello succeeds on a north wall. Bigarreau,
Waterloo, Black Eagle, Black Tartarian, May Duke, White Heart, and
Kentish are all good sorts. Bush trees should stand 10 ft. apart,
standards 30 ft.

Cherry (_Cornelian_).--_See_ "Cornus Mas."

Cherry Pie.--_See_ "Heliotrope."

Chervil.--For summer use sow in March, and for winter requirements in
July and August, in shallow drills 6 or 8 in. apart. Cut for use when
3 or 4 in. high. The tender tops and leaves are used in soups and
stews, to which they impart a warm, aromatic flavour. They likewise
give piquancy to mixed salads.

Chestnuts.--To raise trees from seed sow the nuts in November, about
2 in. deep. When two years old they may be transplanted to their
permanent site. The only pruning they require is to cut away any
branches which would prevent the tree forming a well-balanced head.

Chicory.--Sow in May or June in drills of rich soil, and thin out to
6 in. apart. In autumn lift the roots and store them in dry sand. To
force leaves for salads, plant the roots closely together in boxes or
large pots, with the tops only exposed, using ordinary soil; place
in a temperature of 55 degrees, and keep in the dark. Long blanched
leaves will soon appear, ready for use.

Chilli.--Same treatment as Capsicum.

Chimonanthus Fragrans (_Japan Allspice_).--This delightfully fragrant
hardy shrub, known as the Winter Flower, produces its blooms in
January before the leaves appear. Should sharp frost set in,
protection ought to be given to the flowers. The plant requires a
fairly good soil, and is most at home when trained against a wall. It
is generally propagated by means of layers. Height, 6 ft.

Chinese Sacred Narcissus (_Oriental Lily, Joss Flower, or Flower of
the Gods, the Chinese emblem of good luck_).--This is a very beautiful
variety of the Polyanthus Narcissus, and is grown to bloom at the
advent of the Chinese New Year. It is very fragrant and free blooming,
and is generally flowered in an ornamental bowl of water, the bulb
being surrounded with pretty pebbles to keep it well balanced. It may
also be grown in a pot of mould, kept in a dark place for about ten
days, then placed in a sunny position and supplied with water. It
flowers from six to eight weeks after planting.

Chionanthus Virginica (_Fringe Tree_).--A curious shrub which is best
raised from seed. It succeeds in any soil, and bears white flowers in
July. It will grow to the height of 20 ft. or more.

Chionodoxa Luciliae (_Glory of the Snow_).--A pretty hardy
spring-flowering bulbous plant. The blossoms, from five to six in
number, are produced on gracefully arched stems, 4 to 8 in. high, and
are nearly 1 in. across, star-like in form, and of a lovely blue tint
on the margin, gradually merging into pure white in the centre. Fine
for growing in clumps. Plant the bulbs in autumn in equal parts of
loam, peat, and sand. It succeeds fairly well in the open, but reaches
perfection in a cold frame, where the flowers will be produced in
March. Height, 6 in.

Choisya Ternata (_Mexican Orange_).--A pretty evergreen wall plant,
bearing sweet-scented white flowers in July. The bush is round, and
extremely ornamental when grown in the shrubbery. It delights in a
mixture of peat and loam, and is propagated by cuttings placed in sand
under a handglass, or, better still, by layers of the lower branches
in March, detaching them in the autumn. While young it makes a fine
pot-plant. Height, 6 ft.

Chorozemas.--These Australian plants delight in rich turfy peat mixed
with fibrous loam, leaf-mould, and coarse sand. When freshly potted
they should be given a warm part of the greenhouse and watered
cautiously till they are in full growth, when a little clear liquid
manure may be given twice a week. May be shifted at any time except
from October to Christmas. Propagated by cuttings about 1 or 2 in.
long of half-ripened young wood taken in July or August, and inserted
in sand under a glass. When the pots are full of roots shift the
plants into larger sizes. They bloom nearly all the year round,
especially in the winter and spring. The plants have rather a rambling
habit, and are usually trained over balloon or pyramidal trellises;
but this trouble can be spared by cutting them back freely and
employing a few light sticks to keep them within bounds.

Christmas Rose.--_See_ "Helleborus."

Chrysanthemum.--The Chrysanthemum will grow in any good mould, a
naturally good soil being often preferable to an artificial one. Where
the ground is not in good condition a compost may be made of one-half
rich loam and one-fourth each of well-rotted manure and leaf-mould,
with sufficient sand to keep it porous. Cuttings taken in November or
December make the finest exhibition plants. Pot them singly in 2-in.
or 3-in. pots; stand them on coal ashes in a cold frame, and re-pot
them in March or April in 6-in. pots, making the soil moderately firm.
When they attain the height of 6 in. pinch off the extreme point of
the shoot, which will induce the growth of side-shoots. Shift the
plants from time to time into larger pots, until at the end of May
they receive their final shift into 10-in. pots, after which they
must not on any account be stopped. In June they may be placed in a
sheltered and partially shaded part of the open border, standing the
pots on pieces of slate to prevent the ingress of worms. Syringe the
leaves each day and give the roots a liberal supply of liquid manure.
When the flower-buds begin to show colour, discontinue the manure
water. Thin out the flower-buds, leaving two or three only of the
strongest on each stem. At the end of September they must be removed
to a cool greenhouse to flower. Where there is no greenhouse a canvas
structure may be erected to protect them from the cold. Good plants
for the border may be raised from cuttings in March or April. These
should be kept close in a frame until rooted, then gradually hardened
off, and planted in rich soil. Syringing with soot-water twice a week
until the flower-buds appear will darken the leaves and deepen the
colour of the flowers.

Chrysogonum Virginianum.--A free-flowering, hardy, herbaceous plant,
best grown in loam and peat. Its deep-golden, star-shaped flowers are
produced from June to September. Cuttings of ripened wood planted in
sand and subjected to moist heat will strike. It may also be increased
by dividing the root. Height, 1 ft.

Cichorium Intybus.--This is a hardy herbaceous plant producing blue
flowers in July. It will grow in any soil and needs no special
treatment. Seeds may be sown either in autumn or spring. Height, 2 ft.

Cimcifuga.--These hardy herbaceous plants will flourish in any good
garden soil and are easily raised from seed, or they may be increased
by dividing the roots. Various species produce their flowers from May
to September. Height, 1 ft. to 3 ft.

Cinerarias.--These grow well in a soil composed of equal parts of rich
loam, leaf-mould, and thoroughly rotted horse-dung, liberally mixed
with sharp sand. They are increased by seed, cuttings, or off-sets.
The seed should be sown as soon as it is ripe and covered with the
lightest layer of the finest soil; or it may be sown during March on a
slight hotbed. Keep the young plants shaded from the sun, and as soon
as they can be handled put them into 3-in. pots. Return them to the
hotbed and keep them shaded till established, then gradually harden
them off, and towards the end of May they may be planted in the open,
choosing a sheltered situation. The first flower-stem should be cut
out close to the bottom, but the side-shoots may either be reduced
or not. At the end of September place them in a cool frame to bloom
during the following month. They require to be well supplied with
manure water. As soon as the plants have done flowering, cut them
down, and keep them well supplied with water, and in March shake them
out of their pots and plant each sucker separately. Other sowings may
be made in April and May. To obtain cuttings, when the plants have
flowered cut them down, and when they have again grown large enough
take the cuttings and plant them in pots filled with the above
compost, putting a layer of silver sand on the top. When the cuttings
have made shoots 3 in. long, pinch off the tops to make the plants
grow bushy. Re-pot when the roots are well grown, but before they get
matted, and give occasionally a little liquid manure. Keep a good
look-out for green fly, and as soon as this nuisance appears fumigate
the plants with tobacco paper. An excess of fumigation is injurious.
Those that have bloomed in pots may be planted in the north border of
the garden in July, where they may shed their seed, from which early
plants will be produced. They may also be increased by off-sets. If
the old plants are cut down and kept well watered they will throw
up suckers, which may be separated and potted off into thumb pots,
transplanting into larger ones when required. They must _always_ be
kept shaded from the sun. A cool frame suits them in summer, and being
nearly hardy, should never be subjected to a forcing temperature,
sufficient heat to keep away frost and damp being all that is
necessary.

Cinnamon Plant.--This is a stove or greenhouse plant, and requires a
loam and peat soil. Cuttings of the ripe wood strike freely.

Cissus Orientalis.--Useful climbing plants which delight in a light,
rich soil. They are increased by cuttings planted under glass and kept
in a gentle, moist heat.

Cistus (_Rock Rose_).--A compost of loam and peat suits these
beautiful evergreen shrubs. They may be increased by layers, ripe
cuttings covered with a hand-glass, or seed. Though the plants are
pretty hardy it is advisable to afford them protection during severe
frosts. June is their flowering month. Height, 3 ft. to 6 ft.

Citrus Japonica.--A greenhouse evergreen tree, requiring a rich loamy
soil. Very little water should be given it while in a growing state.
It is generally budded on an orange or lemon tree and plunged in a
bottom-heat. June is its flowering season. Height, 5 ft.

Cladanthus.--The annuals may be sown in the open in April to flower in
July. The greenhouse evergreens may be propagated by cuttings under
glass. These produce flowers in June.

Clarkia.--These hardy annuals make a pretty display in the borders
during summer. Seed ripens plentifully, and merely requires sowing in
the open in March, or in September if protected in winter. The bloom
lasts from June to September. Height, 18 in.

Claytonia Sibirica.--A hardy herbaceous plant which yields light
yellow flowers in June. It is not particular as to soil, and may be
raised from seed sown either in autumn or spring. It stands division
of the root. Height, 4 ft.

Clematis (_Virgin's Bower_).--These plants like a dry situation. They
will grow in smoky districts, and may be increased by cuttings of firm
side-shoots under a glass in summer or by layers in September. With
the protection of a greenhouse they come into flower early in spring.
They are the most beautiful of all flowering hardy climbers. The stove
and greenhouse varieties are best planted in loam and peat, though
they will thrive in any light soil. Any good garden soil suits the
hardy kinds. The herbaceous varieties are increased by dividing the
roots early in spring. They bloom at various periods. After they have
ceased to flower, the Jackmanni and Viticella sections should be cut
down to within 9 or 12 in. of the ground. The Patens and Florida
do not require pruning; those of the Lanuginosa should be cut back
moderately, but not too close. A good dressing of leaf-mould and
manure should be dug in about November. Heights vary from 2 ft. to 20
ft. (_See also_ "Traveller's Joy.")

Cleome.--The species of this genus are very pretty and free flowering,
some being half-hardy climbers notable for their foliage. They like
a rich, light soil. Cuttings of the stove kinds root freely under a
glass. Some of the annual species require to be sown in a hotbed frame
or in a hot-house, then potted off and placed with tender annuals. The
hardier ones may be sown on a hotbed, and afterwards planted out in a
sheltered position. They flower in May, June, and July. Heights vary
from 6 in. to 8 ft.

Clethra Alnifolia.--This hardy deciduous shrub bears in September
deliciously scented pure white flowers on the side-shoots of the
previous year's growth. It needs a light soil and a dry, sunny
situation. It may be propagated by cuttings placed under glass in
sandy loam, or by suckers taken when the leaves have fallen, but is
more generally increased by layers. Height, 3 ft.

Clianthus.--A genus of very elegant, free-flowering, evergreen
greenhouse shrubs. They flourish in the border of the conservatory (or
against a south wall if protected from cold) in an equal mixture of
loam, peat, and sand. Cuttings root freely in the same soil under
glass. Seed sown early in spring produce flowers the first year, in
May. Height, 3 ft. to 4 ft.

Clintonia.--Very pretty half-hardy annuals; useful for beds, edging,
pots, or rock-work. They produce an abundance of Lobelia-like flowers
in August. Sow the seed in the open in spring. Height, 6 in.

Clitoria.--A greenhouse climbing or trailing plant, which thrives in a
mixture of loam, peat, and sand. Cuttings will strike in heat, but it
is more readily grown from seed.

Clivias (_Caffre Lilies_).--Most beautiful evergreen plants for
the greenhouse. The soil most suitable for them is a compost of
leaf-mould, loam, and sand. Give a liberal supply of water when in
full growth, but from September to February keep them only moderately
moist. Shade from strong sunshine, and keep the temperature at from 60
to 70 degrees. They will not bear much disturbance. Seed may be sown
in bottom-heat early in spring, or they may be increased by suckers.

Cobæa Scandens.--This rapid climber is well adapted for the
conservatory, but it will thrive in the open air if the root is
protected during the winter. If planted against a rough wall its
tendrils will catch in the crevices and support it without any
assistance. It requires plenty of room and a rather poor soil,
otherwise it runs to leaf instead of to bloom. The tops of the shoots
should be constantly pinched off, to induce thickness of growth.
Cuttings of firm side-shoots taken in summer will root under glass in
a little moist heat; but it is best raised from seed, sown sideways,
in a hotbed in March. Its blue and purple flowers are produced in
August. Height, 10 ft. to 20 ft.

Cob Nuts.--_See_ "Filberts."

Cockscomb.--These tender annuals should be sown on a moderate hotbed
in March or April, in pans of leaf-mould and sand, covering with 1/4
in. of soil. When a couple of inches high place them in small pots,
replace them on the hotbed, and give shade till they have taken fresh
root. When the weather is favourable let them have a moderate amount
of fresh air. Afterwards shift them into larger pots, and when the
combs are full grown place them in the greenhouse, taking care not to
allow any damp to lodge on them, at the same time supplying them
well with water and all the air possible. Height, 9 in. (_See also_
"Celosia.")

Codonopsis.--These hardy perennials are best grown in sandy peat and
loam. They are easily raised from seed or cuttings, and produce their
flowers in July and August. Height, 1 ft.

Coix Lachryma (_Job's Tears_).--A half-hardy, annual, ornamental grass
bearing clusters of beautiful pearl-like seeds. Sow in a warm spot in
April, barely covering the seed with fine soil, and keep the surface
of the ground moist till germination is ensured. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Colchicum (_Autumn-Flowering Crocus_).--Plant the bulbs in February in
light, loamy soil, placing them 2 in. deep and 3 in. apart. They
are readily increased by off-sets from the bulb. September is their
flowering season. Height, 3 in. (_See also_ "Bulbocodium.")

Coleus.--Tender perennial shrubs of some merit, requiring the
protection of a greenhouse. Keep the plants root-bound and near the
glass, with a good supply of heat and moisture. They succeed best in
a mixture of loam and peat. Cuttings of shoots 3 in. long planted in
sand, covered with a glass, and plunged in heat 60 to 70 degrees,
will strike. Pot off singly in loam and sand. Bloom in June or July.
Height, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Colletia.--Ornamental evergreen shrubs. A mixture of peat and loam,
with a sheltered position, is their delight. Cuttings will strike
in sand if covered with glass. They produce their flowers in July.
Height, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Collinsia.--Most elegant hardy annuals, doing well in any garden soil.
The seed is sown in autumn for early flowering, and in spring for a
later display. Bloom May to August. Height, 1 ft.

Collomia.--Hardy annuals, possessing little beauty. Treat as
Collinsia. Flower in July. Height, 1 ft. to 2 ft.

Colt's-foot.--This hardy perennial flowers before the leaves appear.
It grows best in a moist, clayey soil, and may be increased by pieces
of the running root.

Columbine.--_See_ "Aquilegia."

Colutea Arborescens (_Bladder Senna_).--A shrub with Acacia-like
leaves and producing yellow Pea-shaped flowers in July, followed with
bladder-shaped seed vessels. It will grow in any soil, and may be
raised either from seed or cuttings taken in autumn. Height, 10 ft.

Commelina Sellowina (_Blue Spider Wort, or Day Flower_).--A pretty
greenhouse climber, bearing cobalt-blue flowers. It should occupy a
sunny position, and be watered freely from March to September, after
which very little should be given.

Commelina Tuberosa.--Perfectly hardy plants, bearing in June blue or
white flowers the size of a shilling. The bulbs may be planted in
spring in any garden soil; the plants are increased by off-sets.
Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Compost Heap.--Get a heap of dead leaves and press and jam them down
as closely as possible. Then take as much manure, in appearance,
as you have dead leaves, and for each cartload have two bushels of
unslaked quicklime and some earth. Now spread upon the ground, in some
out-of-the-way corner, a layer of the dead leaves, upon which sprinkle
a layer of lime, and over that a thin layer of earth. Next lay on a
covering of manure, then a layer of leaves, and one of lime and earth
as before, and proceed in this way till all the materials are used up.
It will be well, however, to give the heap a good watering whenever
you come to the layer of leaves. This slakes the lime and hastens the
decomposition of the vegetable matter. After letting it stand for
about six weeks, begin at the top of the heap and turn it completely
over, so that what was at the bottom will be at the top. Repeat this
operation from time to time at intervals of six or seven weeks, until
it has become perfectly friable and will powder through a garden-fork
like dust. It will then be ready for use. This compost is invigorating
to flowers of all kinds, and is so ready for them to assimilate.

Comptonia Asplenifolia.--This ornamental deciduous shrub is quite
hardy, but requires a light, sandy loam or peat soil and a shady
situation. It is increased by layers. Blooms in April. Height, 4 ft.

Cone Flower.--_See_ "Echinacea."

Conifers.--Conifers (so called because they bear cones in place of
ordinary seed) are mostly of tall growth, yet among the class are many
low--growing evergreens well adapted for the lawn or border. Indeed,
any of the specimens may be utilised in this way, but of course must
be removed from the shrubbery or border before they attain undue
proportions. They are hardy, and, generally speaking, not particular
as to soil or situation. Firs, Pines, Cedars, etc., come under this
heading, and mention is made in other parts of this work of those most
suitable for the amateur's requirements.

Convallaria Prolificans.--This is one of the most beautiful hardy
perennials known. It has large, deep-green foliage, with erect and
much-branched flower-stems. The flowers are white, internally flushed
rose; are very fragrant, and are produced from May to September. The
plant will grow in any ordinary soil, and may be increased by dividing
the root. Height, 2-1/2 ft.

Convolvulus (_Morning Glory_).--Showy plants. The tender species are
well adapted for the stove or conservatory, and are best grown in loam
and peat: cuttings strike freely in sand under a glass. The half-hardy
annual kinds should be sown on a gentle hotbed in February, and when
large enough transferred to the open; or they may be sown in the open
in April. Hardy kinds merely require sowing in the open, early in
spring. The stove and greenhouse annuals and biennials require to be
sown in heat, and treated as other stove and greenhouse annuals and
biennials. Flowering season, May to July. Height, 6 in. to 15 ft.

Coral Plant.--_See_ "Erythrina."

Corchorus.--_See_ "Kerria."

Cordyline.--A stove evergreen shrub, which may be grown in any light,
vegetable mould or in peat and loam, and is easily increased by
suckers. It flowers in spring. Height, 3 ft.

Coreopsis.--Very pretty and long-flowering. They all like a light,
rich, and sandy soil. Cuttings of the stove kinds root freely under
glass. Hardy perennials may be divided at the roots. The annuals may
be sown either in the autumn or in March; they bear transplanting.
Longipes flowers in April; Grandiflora in August. Useful as cut
flowers. Height, 1-1/2 ft. to 3 ft.

Cornel.--_See_ "Cornus."

Cornflower.--_See_ "Cyanus."

Corn Salad (_Lamb's Lettuce_).--Sow in drills--the plants to stand 6
in. apart--from March till August, in well-drained sandy loam. Autumn
sowings will stand the winter and prove useful in early spring. It
must be gathered young.

Cornus Canadensis (_Canadian Cornel_).--A pretty herbaceous plant,
suitable for moist parts of rock-work. It is very hardy, likes a light
soil, and produces flowers from June to August. The roots may be
divided in autumn, or in the early part of spring. Height, 8 in.

Cornus Mas (_Cornelian Cherry_).--This hardy deciduous shrub does
well in common soil if a fair amount of moisture be given. Its yellow
flowers are produced on bare stems from February to April. It may be
increased by seeds, cuttings, or layers, autumn being the time to
propagate.

Coronilla.--The greenhouse shrubs should be grown in peat and loam.
They are raised by seeds and by cuttings. Most of the hardy perennials
need protection in winter, therefore they are best grown in pots.
These are propagated by seed or division. The annuals need no special
treatment.

Coronilla Iberica.--A pretty creeping hardy perennial suitable for
rock-work, on which its bright yellow flowers are very attractive
during June and July. It thrives best in a mixture of peat and loam,
and may be increased by seeds or division of the roots. Height, 6 in.

Correa Cardinalis.--An evergreen greenhouse shrub. Place in equal
parts of sand and loam, and propagate by cuttings, which should have
plenty of room, as they are liable to damp off. July is its flowering
season. Height, 4 ft. C. Magnifica is also a capital plant.

Cortusa Matthioli.--This ornamental hardy herbaceous plant thrives
best in a mixture of peat and loam. It is advisable to give protection
to the roots in winter. It may be increased by seeds or by division of
the roots. It makes a good pot-plant, and produces flowers in May and
June. Height, 1 ft.

Corydalis (_Fumitory_).--These low-growing perennials are suitable for
dry positions on rock-work. They are not particular as to soil, and
may be increased by division of roots, while some scatter seed in
abundance. Their flowering period extends over many months. Height, 6
in. to 1 ft.

Cosmea Bipinnata.--A very pretty half-hardy annual which flowers in
July. Sow the seed early in spring on a slight hotbed covered with
glass, and transplant to the flower border at the end of May. Height,
2 ft.

Cosmos.--Pretty plants, the flowers resembling a single Dahlia. They
are mostly hardy, but some need protection. The annuals should
be raised on a hotbed in February and be planted out in May. The
perennials, too, are brought forward in heat. Some flower in June,
others in September. Height, 1 ft. to 3 ft.

Cotoneaster.--Evergreen shrubs which will grow in any soil and are
easily increased by layers. C. Hookeriana attains the dimensions of
small trees, and produces a profusion of white flowers and bright
crimson berries. C. Simonsii is largely used as a hedge. Height, 6 ft.
to 8 ft. C. Rupestris is a small-leaved, prostrate perennial species,
bearing white flowers from May to August, followed by red berries.
Height, 3 in.

Cotyledon Chrysantha (_Umbilicus)._--A choice Alpine succulent which
thrives in a sandy loam, or in well-drained pots of the same soil. It
flowers from May to August, and is multiplied by cuttings, which must
be left to dry for a few days in a sunny place. Flowers are produced
from May to August. Height, 3 in.

Cowslips.--Well-known hardy perennials. These require the same
treatment as Primulas. Plant in a mixture of loam and peat, and divide
as soon as the bloom has died off. Height, 6 in.

Cowslips, Cape.--_See_ "Lachenalia."

Crambe Cordifolia (_Tournefort, or Sea Cabbage_).--This hardy
herbaceous plant is suitable for a wild garden. It likes a good, rich
soil, and is easily increased by seed or division. August is its
flowering period. Height, 3 ft.

Crane's Bill.--_See_ "Geranium Argentium."

Crataegus Pyracantha (_Fire Thorn_).--This hardy, ornamental shrub
will grow in any soil. It should be planted early in spring on a south
or south-west wall, and may be increased by seeds, by budding, or by
grafting. The profuse brilliant orange-coloured berries of the C.
Lelandii (Mespilus) ensures it a place on walls and trellises. A sunny
position gives best results. Prune in March.

Creeping Jenny.--_See_ "Lysimachia Nummularia."

Crepis (_Hawkweed_).--An interesting hardy annual. It merely requires
sowing in spring, and will grow in any soil. The flowers are produced
in June. Height, 1 ft.

Cress.--Sow at intervals of a week from March to September in the open
ground, and during the winter months in frames. A shady position is
most suitable. By these frequent sowings, and by often cutting over
such as readily renew a bottom growth, a constant succession of tender
shoots is obtained.

Crocus.--Among our earliest spring flowers. These will grow in any
garden soil, but prefer rich, sandy earth. Plant in October or
November, 3 in. deep and 2 in. apart. Take the roots up every second
year, and plant the small off-sets in a nursery bed for two years,
when they will be fit for the beds or borders. Protect the bulbs from
mice, as they are very partial to them, especially in winter.

_Indoor Culture_.--Select strong bulbs of the seedling varieties, and
plant them in succession, commencing early in autumn, in good, rich,
sandy soil. A liberal supply of water is necessary during the blooming
season, but perfect drainage must be secured. They grow well in bowls
filled with wet moss or sand. Height, 6 in. (_See also_ "Colchicum.")

Crotons.--Fine-foliaged hothouse plants. A mixture of peat and sandy
loam suits their growth, and they require a good amount of light to
properly colour their leaves, with a night temperature of 70 degrees.

Crowea Saligna.--Charming greenhouse evergreen shrubs, which send
forth their purple flowers in September. They grow best in loam and
peat. Cuttings may be struck in sand under bell-glasses. Height, 3 ft.

Crown Imperials.--_See_ "Fritillarias."

Crucianella Stylosa.--A hardy perennial. Sow in August or September in
a sheltered spot to stand the winter. The seed may also be sown from
March to midsummer, and the plants moved in autumn to the place where
they are to bloom. Their delicate pink flowers are produced in July.
Height, 1 ft.

Cuckoo Flower.--_See_ "Cardamine."

Cucumbers.--A rich, loamy soil is most suitable for their growth. Sow
frame varieties in a heat of 75 degrees or 85 degrees during February
and March for summer use, and when the plants are of sufficient size
transplant to a well-prepared hotbed. Sow again in September for
winter use. The hardy or ridge cucumbers (which are not suited for
frame or hothouse culture) should be raised in a frame or hot-bed in
April, and planted out about the middle of May in a warm border on
strawed ridges prepared with good stable manure, placing a hand-glass
over each plant until it is well established.

Cunila Mariana (_Dittany_).--This hardy perennial produces heads of
pretty purple flowers from July to September. It is not particular as
to soil, and can easily be increased by division. Height, 1 ft.

Cuphea.--Shrubs of a rather pretty description. The stove varieties
require a sandy loam to grow in, and may be propagated by cuttings.
The annuals should be sown on a gentle hotbed, and when strong enough
potted off and kept in the greenhouse; they should not be moved into
the open before the end of May. The perennial species if sown early
make good bedding plants the first year; they need protection in the
winter.

Currants.--_Black._--A rich, deep soil and a moist situation, together
with partial shade, are most suitable for their growth. They succeed
better as bushes than as espaliers or trained to walls. Cuttings of
the previous year's growth are taken in autumn and planted firmly 1
ft. by 6 in. apart. In two years shift every alternate plant so as to
allow room for expansion, and plant out finally to a distance of 5 ft.
In pruning the bushes, remember that the fruit is borne on the young
wood, therefore only sufficient should be cut away to allow of
the admission of air and sunshine and the further growth of young
branches. A portion of the old wood should be removed each year. Mulch
the roots, and keep the plants supplied with water in dry seasons.
Baldwin's Black, Ogden's Black, Black Naples, Lee's Prolific, James'
Prolific, and Old Black are among the best.

_Red and White._--An open, sunny position is needed. The soil that
suits them best is a deeply-manured, stiff loam. They are readily
raised from cuttings--which should be as long and strong as
possible--taken in autumn. Cut away all the eyes except the three
uppermost ones, and plant firmly in rows 1 ft. by 6 in. apart.
Transplant at the end of the second year to a distance of 5 ft. apart.
While the plants are young cut out all the top centre branches,
cutting always to an outgrowing bud, so as to give a cylindrical form
to the bush. In further pruning leave the leading shoots untouched,
but shorten all others to 4 in. or 6 in., and cut out all old, mossy
wood. Towards the end of June is a good time for cutting the young
wood away. The fruit is produced on spurs. In the autumn of each year
carefully dig in a good dressing of half-rotted manure, in such a
manner as not to injure the roots. Among the leading red varieties are
the following:--Champagne, Cherry, Chiswick Red, Houghton Castle, Raby
Castle, and Red Dutch. Of the white fruit the White Dutch and the
Cut-leaved White are the leaders. In plantations they should stand
from 4 ft. to 6 ft. apart.

Currants, Flowering.--_See_ "Ribes."

Cyanthus Lobatus--A small, but very beautiful procumbent perennial,
well adapted to fill moist places on rock-work if the situation is
open and sunny. A mixture of vegetable mould and sand suits it, and it
is best increased by cuttings placed in moist peat. It flowers in the
autumn, the flower-stems being from 6 in. to 1 ft. in length.

Cyanus(_Cornflower_).--Very pretty and free-blooming hardy annuals.
Sow the seed in the open in autumn for an early display of flowers,
or in March for a later one. Thin out to 2 ft. apart. Bloom in July.
Height, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Cyclamen.--Charming winter and spring blooming bulbous greenhouse
plants, which thrive in a mixture of sandy loam and vegetable mould.
They require a moist atmosphere and a uniform temperature not lower
than 50 degrees. They may be increased by seed sown in slight heat as
soon as it is ripe. Plant the bulbs in October, also in February and
March, placing them so that the crown is level with the top of the
pots. One full-sized bulb is sufficient for a 6-in. pot, which must be
provided with good drainage and placed on a layer of coal ashes that
is kept constantly moist. Water moderately till growth begins, then
increase the supply. Give a little liquid manure, in a weak state, if
a large quantity of flower-buds appear. When the blooming season is
over, plunge the pots in a shady, well-drained border, and when the
leaves start afresh turn the plants carefully out of the pots, so
as not to injure their roots, and re-pot in fresh soil. C. Persicum
flowers in February, and C. Neapolitanum in April. C. Europeum is a
hard variety, thriving in any situation. It produces sweetly-scented
flowers throughout July and August. It does best when planted under
trees, or in partial shade on rock-work, in well-drained, good loamy
or peaty soil mixed with a fair proportion of brick rubble. Plant the
corms in September 3 in. apart, and 1-1/2 in. deep. Height, 6 in. to 9
in.

Cydonia (_Pyrus_).--These hardy plants are well adapted for
trellis-work, but are more effective when grown as bushes, and flower
more freely than when trained to the wall, the bloom often lasting to
the winter. They will grow in any soil, and are increased by suckers.
Height, 4 ft. and upwards.

Cyperius Alternifolius.--A stove grass which will grow in any soil,
but requires a plentiful supply of water. It is increased by dividing
the roots. Height, 2 ft.

Cypress (_Cupressus_).--Among these useful conifers C. Lawsoniana has
no superior as a single specimen for the decoration of the lawn. Of
free growth and perfectly hardy, it succeeds in almost any soil or
situation. C. Fraserii is also hardy, of erect habit, and of a rich
glaucous hue. When it attains a good size it is very ornamental. The
beautiful silver variegated variety Argenteo Variegata deserves a
place in every shrubbery. Nana Alba Maculata is a dwarf globular
plant, the slender branches of which are tipped with white, giving it
the appearance of being partly covered with snow. Pygmea is a compact
dwarf-growing variety suitable for the centre of small beds and for
rock-work. Japan Cypresses are elegant little shrubs, one of the
finest being Retinospora Ericoides, whose peculiar violet-red leaves
contrast charmingly with light green plants. Any of the above may be
increased by cuttings. They succeed best in a rich, deep loam, and are
improved by thinning out the branches where too thick, and pinching
out the stronger shoots where too thin, so as to encourage new growth.

Cypripedium (_Hardy Ladies' Slipper Orchid_).--This plant is of
the simplest culture and is well adapted for pots, ferneries, or
rock-work. It is most at home in a well-drained yet moist peaty soil,
and kept in a frame or on a shady border, where it will bloom in June.
Protect from frost and heavy rains, but never allow the roots to get
dry. Height, 1 ft.

Cytisus.--Elegant hardy shrubs with finely-cut leaves and terminal
racemes of Pea-shaped flowers in July. They will grow in any soil, and
are readily raised from seed or layers. Height, 3 ft. to 4 ft.


D


Daffodils.--These will grow in any good, cool, moist, well-drained
garden soil if sand be put round their roots, but thrive best in a
moderately rich loam. They may remain in the ground for years, for
large bulbs produce the finest flowers. When the flowering is over the
leaves must be allowed to die down, not cut off. Plant from September
to December. The top of the bulb should be about 3 in. below the
surface, according to its size; 10 in. apart is a good distance.
Daffodils are also suitable for pot culture. Plant three to six bulbs,
according to size, in a 4-in. or 5-in. pot, using a compost of two
parts fibrous loam, one part leaf-mould, and one part sand. Place the
pots on a bed of ashes, and cover with 4 in. of cocoa-nut fibre. As
soon as top growth has commenced, remove the plants indoors, and
give plenty of light and air to prevent them being drawn. Daffodils
likewise make a good display when planted on a lawn.

Dahlias.--These attractive plants require a deep, friable soil, not
over rich. They may be grown from seed sown on a hotbed in March and
lightly covered with fine mould. As soon as they are up give all the
air which can with safety be given. When the seedlings are large
enough pot them off singly in the smallest-sized pots or round the
edges of 6-in. ones. Plant them out at the end of May, 1 ft. apart;
they will flower at the end of August. Any that turn out very good had
better be propagated by cuttings from the young tops, to save the kind
in case the roots should die. When flowering is over take up the young
bulbs and treat them as directed afterwards for old tubers.

Another way to propagate them is to place the old tubers in soil over
a hotbed early in March. When the shoots are a couple of inches high
the tubers may be taken up and divided with a sharp knife. Pot off
separately. Water them occasionally with liquid manure, made from
guano and powdered charcoal, well mixed with rain water, and plant
them out early in May. Give them plenty of room, and tie the branches
securely to stakes firmly fixed in the soil. When they have become
good bushy plants put a layer of half-rotted manure round each plant.
As soon as frost turns their foliage brown take them up, cut off the
roots, leaving about 6 in. of stem attached, and plunge them into a
box of sand, chaff, or ashes, and preserve them from damp, frost, and
heat during the winter.

Daisies (_Bellis Perennis_).--These pretty, little hardy perennials
are very useful as edgings. To grow them to perfection the ground
should be highly manured, and the roots divided every year, planting
them out 6 in. apart in a cool, shady situation. October is a suitable
time for transplanting. They flower continuously from February to
July. Height, 6 in.

Dandelions.--Dandelions on lawns, etc., may be killed by cutting them
down as low as possible, and putting a little gas-tar or a pinch of
salt on the wound. Or they may be dug up and blanched for mixing with
salad. In this case plant six roots in an 8-in. pot, and place an
inverted flower-pot over the whole, in order to exclude the light; the
plants are sometimes blanched in the open by covering them with old
tan or fine ashes. The flowers must be kept picked off, for they soon
run to seed, and if unattended to become troublesome.

Daphne.--Beautiful shrubs, mostly evergreens, bearing elegant flowers
followed by bright-red poisonous berries. D. Mezereum is the most
common variety, and is very suitable for the front of shrubberies. The
Chinese variety D. Odorata is too tender for outdoors, but makes a
fine ornament for the greenhouse. The dwarf kinds, bearing fragrant
pink flowers, are rather tender, but are very useful for rockeries
occupying sheltered positions. They all need a peaty soil, and may
be increased by grafting on to the common Spurge Laurel. Different
varieties flower at various periods, from February to October. Height,
9 in. to 6 ft, but the majority are from 2 ft. to 3 ft. high.

Datura.--Ornamental half-hardy annuals. The seeds of all the species
must be sown on a hotbed early in spring. When the plants are strong
enough transplant them in the border, where they will bloom more
freely than in pots. The seeds of D. Ceratocaula will sometimes remain
several years in the ground before they germinate. They flower in
July. Height, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Day Flower.--_See_ "Commelina."

Day Lily.--_See_ "Hemerocallis."

Delphinium (_Larkspur_).--The gorgeous spikes of flowers produced by
these plants render them invaluable for the border. They like a deep
soil, highly enriched. The perennials may be divided at the root in
autumn, care being taken not to injure the young fleshy sprouts. The
annuals are readily raised from seed. The quickest way to grow the
perennial varieties from seed is to sow in a frame with a slight
bottom-heat, at any time from March to August; but sowings made in the
open from April to June will succeed. Keep the ground moist, and shade
from the sun till the plants are up, then transplant to nursery beds
for the summer, afterwards transferring them to their final quarters.
Flower in June and July. Height, 1-1/2 ft. to 6 ft.

Dentaria Digitata (_Toothwort_).--This tuberous hardy perennial grows
well in old leaf-mould, and is very suitable for the base portion of
rock-work, where it can obtain both shade from the midday sun and
moisture. It is readily increased by cutting the roots into pieces
about 1-1/2 in. long, and replanting them where they are intended to
bloom, putting 1 in. or so of sand round them. They flower in May.
Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Desfontania Spinosa.--A fine, evergreen wall shrub with holly-like
leaves, and long, pendulous scarlet and orange flowers in June. It
grows best in a compost of loam, peat, and sand, with a south or west
aspect. It is propagated by cuttings under glass. Height, 10 ft.

Desmodium Canadense.--This is a fine border hardy perennial, producing
long racemes of rosy-purple flowers in June or July. It prefers a soil
of sandy loam and peat, and may be increased by seed or by cuttings
planted in sand and subjected to heat. Height, 4 ft.

Desmodium Pendulaeflorum.--A hardy evergreen shrub, flowering in July.
It thrives in sandy loam and peat. Cuttings planted in sand with a
little bottom-heat and under glass will strike. Height, 6 ft.

Deutzia.--A beautiful conservatory shrub, bearing in spring a large
quantity of flowers resembling the snowdrop. A peaty soil suits it. It
is pretty hardy. Height, 3 ft.

Devil-in-a-Bush.--_See_ "Nigella."

Dianthus.--Very beautiful and fragrant flowers. The genus embraces
Carnations, Pinks, Picotees, and Sweet Williams. The soil most
suitable for them is a light, loamy one, mixed with a little rotten
dung and sand. It is well to confine the rarer kind to pots, so as
the better to protect them in winter. They are propagated by layers,
cuttings, or division of roots. If the cuttings are taken about the
middle of June, and placed under glass on a gentle hotbed, they will
be ready in about three weeks to plant out in the open. The annuals
and biennials merely require sowing where they are intended to bloom.
Flower in July. Height, 1-1/2 ft. to 2 ft.

Dictamnus (_Burning Bush_).--_See_ "Fraxinella."

Dielytra Spectabilis (_Venus's Car, Bleeding Heart, or Lyre
Flower_).--One of the most elegant hardy perennials for forcing
for table decorations, or cutting for vases. The graceful, pendent
branches are laden with beautiful red or purple heart-shaped flowers;
these, combined with the delicate green of the foliage, give them a
conspicuous place among plants. Out of doors in summer, among shrubs
or herbaceous plants, they are exceedingly attractive. Let them be
planted in tufty groups in a warm, sheltered border of rich, light
soil. They may be increased by division of the root, as in the Dahlia,
or by cuttings. Height, 3 ft.

Digitalis (_Foxglove_).--Very showy, hardy, perennial border plants.
They will grow in any garden soil, and are readily raised from seed,
which, if sown in the autumn, will produce flowers the following June
and July. Height, 1 ft. to 3 ft.

Digitata.--_See_ "Callirhoe."

Dimorphantus _(Aralia Sinensis_).--The Dimorphantus Mandschuricus is
one of the noblest of deciduous shrubs, the foliage being very large
and much divided. Any soil is suitable for its growth, and it may be
propagated by cuttings of ripe wood, taken at a joint and planted on a
shaded site. It produces its flowers at midsummer. Height, 4 ft. to 6
ft.

Dimorphotheca Ecklonis.--This plant is not perhaps quite hardy, still
it may be grown out of doors in a sheltered, sunny situation. It
grows well in sandy loam and leaf-mould, and requires a good deal
of moisture in the summer months, though from autumn till spring it
should be kept on the dry side. During winter it is safest to afford
it protection. It is generally raised from cuttings late in summer,
which are kept through the winter in small pots in the greenhouse.

Diphylleia Cymosa.--A very pretty bog plant which blooms from June to
August. Plant in rich, light soil, and give plenty of water. It is
propagated by division. Height, 9 in.

Diplacus Glutinosus _(Hard-wooded Mimulus_).--This elegant greenhouse
shrub is an evergreen which delights in a rich, sandy loam. It flowers
in June, and is increased by cuttings. Height, 3 ft.

Diplopappus.--Dwarf-growing evergreen shrubs of pretty habit. The
golden stems and leaves of D. Chrysophylla render that variety
specially attractive. A sandy loam is most suitable for their growth.
They require the warmest situation the garden affords, and to be
protected during the winter. Cuttings strike readily. They flower in
August. Height, 2 ft.

Disbudding--The object of Disbudding is to prevent the growth of
branches which, from their position, would be useless to the tree, and
would consequently have to be cut away later on. The process is both
simple and expeditious. The trees are gone over once a week during the
spring, and the useless buds are rubbed off with the thumb, taking off
first those which are most unfavourably situated. The work should be
done gradually, so as not to give any check to the tree.

The term is also applied to the pinching out of flower-buds, such as
those of the Chrysanthemum, so as to give more room and strength to
the remaining blooms.

Disemma.--Splendid evergreen climbers, suitable either for the
greenhouse or in a sheltered position out of doors. Plant in rich,
loamy soil mixed with peat, and, if grown in the open, give protection
to the roots during the winter. They flower in July, and may be
increased by cuttings planted in sand under glass. Height, 20 ft. to
30 ft.

Dittany.--_See_ "Cunila."

Docks, to Kill.--Cut the weeds down to the ground, and run a skewer
dipped in vitriol through the roots.

Dodecatheon.--A hardy perennial, which is very ornamental when in
flower. It grows best in a loamy soil, and is easily increased by
dividing the roots. Blooms in May. Height, 1 ft.

Dog's-Tooth Violets.--_See_ "Violets."

Dolichos Lablab.--Half-hardy annuals. The seed should be sown in
spring in pots placed in heat, and kept in the hothouse till May, when
the plants may be set out in a sheltered position, placing sticks for
them to run up, in the like manner to Beans. Flower in July. Height, 6
ft.

Dondia Epipactis.--A very pretty and extremely hardy little perennial,
suitable for either pot culture or rock-work. It thrives in peat or
leaf-mould, and likes a moist position. Strong clumps may be divided
in February, but it is rather shy at being moved. It flowers in May.
Height, 6 in.

Doronicum (_Leopards Bane_).--An ornamental hardy perennial. It will
grow in any garden soil, and may be propagated from seed sown either
in the autumn or spring, or by dividing the root. It produces its
flowers in May. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Draba.--Pretty dwarf Alpine plants which bloom during April and May;
very suitable for rock-work. They flourish in a compost of loam and
peat, and may be propagated by seed or division. Height, 1-1/2 in. to
3 in.

Dracaena Indivisa.--A stove evergreen shrub much valued for its
foliage and as a table plant. It requires a light, loamy soil and
plenty of light. Cuttings stuck in tan or peat and sand, and provided
with strong heat, will strike. It flowers in June. Height, 3 ft.

Dracocephalum (_Dragon's Head_).--Ornamental plants, mostly bearing
lilac or blue flowers. Many of the half-hardy kinds are grown in pots,
so that they may the more readily be removed to the greenhouse in
winter. The perennials are propagated by dividing the roots. The
annuals are increased from seed sown in March or early in April. They
like a rich, light soil, and come into bloom in June and July. Height,
1 ft. to 2 ft.

Dracophyllum.--Greenhouse evergreen shrubs of an ornamental character.
The pots should be filled with an equal mixture of sand and peat. They
are propagated by planting the young shoots in sand, covering them
with a hand-glass, and plunging them in heat. They flower in June.
Height, 2 ft.

Dragon's Head.--_See_ "Dracocephalum."

Dryas Octopetala (_Mountain Avens_).--A prostrate, creeping perennial
which bears white Anemone-like flowers from July to September. It
thrives in peat, and is increased by seeds, cuttings, or division.
Not being quite hardy, protection should be afforded during winter.
Height, 6 in.

Dutchman's Pipe--_See_ "Aristolochia."


E


Earwigs, to Trap.--An inverted flower-pot, containing a little dry
moss or hay, placed on a stick, forms a good trap for these pests.
They will also congregate in any hollow stems of plants that may be
laid about. They may be destroyed by shaking them into boiling water.

Eccremocarpus (_Calampelis_).--These climbing half-hardy perennials
will grow in any garden soil, a light, loamy one being preferable.
Sow the seed in autumn on a slight hotbed, pot off, and winter in a
greenhouse. The plants will be ready to turn out on a warm south wall
in April or May. Cut them down in the autumn, and cover the roots with
dry leaves: they will shoot up again in the spring. The foliage
is dark and Clematis-like; the flowers are borne in clusters, are
tube-shaped, and bright orange-scarlet in colour. They are increased
by cuttings.

Echeveria.--Choice greenhouse evergreen shrubs. They grow best in a
sandy loam, with a little peat, mixed with pulverised brick rubbish.
Water must be given cautiously. Young plants may be taken off the
parent in October and pressed firmly, but without bruising them, in
light, rich soil. Cuttings should be left for a few days to dry before
planting. They flower in autumn. In winter keep them in a cold frame,
and as dry as possible. Height, 1 ft. to 2 ft.

Echinacea Purpurea (_Purple Cone Flower_).--A stately hardy perennial,
very pretty when in flower, but hardly suitable for cutting purposes.
It likes a rich, light, loam soil and plenty of sunshine. The roots
may be divided in spring, after growth has fairly started. It blooms
during September and October. Height, 2-1/2 ft.

Echinops (_Globe Thistle_).--Coarse perennial plants, of stiff growth.
Any soil suits them, and they may be increased by dividing the roots.
They bloom in July. Height, 4 ft.

Echium Creticum.--A scarlet-flowering hardy annual which should be
grown wherever bees are kept. Sow in spring in any garden soil.
Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Edelweiss.--_See_ "Gnaphalium."

Edraianthus Dalmaticus.--A charming little herbaceous perennial which
proves quite hardy in our climate, and well deserves a place in the
rockery. Plant in deep, rich loam, and cover the surface of the crown
with 1/2 in. of coarse sand. It may be propagated from off-sets, taken
with as much root as possible as soon as flowering ceases. Winter the
young plants in a cold frame, and do not give them too much water, or
they will rot. They will bloom in July and August. Height, 4 in.

Egg-Plant (_Aubergine_).--The fruit of the egg-plant is edible. The
seed is sown in March or April in pots of well-drained, light, rich
soil, and placed in a cucumber frame or on a hotbed with a temperature
of 75 degrees. When the plants are fairly up they are potted off
separately, and when they have started into growth the points are
pinched out, so as to induce a bushy habit. It is necessary to keep
the roots well supplied with water. When the fruit is set, the growth
is stopped at the first joint beyond it. They are mostly treated as
greenhouse pot-plants, but may be grown in the open if planted on a
south border, in ridges like those made for cucumbers, and covered
with hand-glasses till established. The Aubergine is a tender annual.
Height, 2 ft.

Eggs of Insects, to Destroy.--Into 3 gallons of water stir 1/4 peck
of lime, 1/2 lb. of sulphur, and 1/2 lb. of tobacco. When settled,
syringe the trees and walls with the clear liquid. More water may be
added afterwards.

Eichhornia Crassipes Major.--A pretty and curious plant which may be
grown in bowls of water like the Chinese Lily. The stalks are bladders
about the size of a greengage, which enable the plant to float. The
flowers are soft lilac-rose in colour, and sparkle as if polished,
each one being about 2 in. in diameter. A little soil at the bottom of
the bowl is beneficial. It will flourish out of doors in summer.

Elder.--_See_ "Sambucus."

Eleagnus.--Effective variegated shrubs which prove perfectly hardy
in the south of England. They grow in any ordinary soil, and are
increased by cuttings. Height, 10 ft.

Elsholtzia Cristata.--Hardy annuals of great value where there are
bees, the flowers being very sweet. Sow in the open in spring. Height,
1 ft.

Empetrum.--Small hardy evergreen shrubs requiring an elevated and
exposed position, and a dry, barren soil. They flower in May, and are
propagated by layers. Height, 1 ft.

Endive.--Sow at intervals from May till the end of August, but the
principal sowing, to stand the winter, should be made the first week
in August, giving the plants the protection of a frame. When the early
sown ones are 2 in. high transplant them to a rich nursery bed. When 4
in. high lift them carefully, with the soil round the roots, and place
them in drills about 3 in. deep and 1 ft. apart each way. Water well
immediately after planting, and keep the soil moist.

Epacris.--Pretty Heath-like shrubs. They like a sandy peat soil, and
plenty of moisture. The pots in which they grow should be provided
with ample drainage and stood in a larger-sized pot, with wet moss
between the two. As soon they have done blooming cut them back freely,
and when the fresh shoots are 2 or 3 in. long, pot them off, placing
them in a close, cool pit for three or four weeks. Gradually harden
off, then place them in a sunny situation out of doors, and remove
them to the conservatory in October. They only need sufficient heat to
keep out the frost. Cuttings of the young wood placed in sand with a
little bottom-heat will strike.

Epigaea Repens (_Creeping Laurel_).--This creeper is hardy and
evergreen, and its flowers possess a delicious fragrance. It may be
grown in loam and sandy peat or in leaf-mould with a little sand
added, in a well-sheltered and moist situation; and may be propagated
by layers, in the same manner as Carnations. It flowers in April.
Height, 6 in.

Epilobium Angustifolium.--An ornamental herbaceous plant which may be
grown in any common soil from seed sown in autumn, or may be increased
by division of the roots. It puts forth its flowers in July. Height, 4
ft.

Epimedium.--An elegant hardy perennial, suitable for shaded borders
or rock-work. The best soil for it is sandy peat. It flowers between
April and June, and is increased by dividing the root. Height, 1 ft.

Eragrostis Elegans (_Love Grass_).--One of the best of our hardy,
annual, ornamental grasses. Sown in March, it will reach perfection in
August or September. Height, 1 ft.

Eranthis Hyemalis.--_See_ "Winter Aconite."

Eremurus Robustus.--This hardy perennial bears tall, handsome spikes
of sweetly-scented, peach-coloured flowers in May. It will grow in
any ordinary soil, and is easily propagated by young plants from the
roots. Height, I ft.

Ericas (_Heaths_).--It is useless to attempt to grow these beautiful
shrubs unless proper soil is provided. The free-growing kinds thrive
best in good black peat and require large pots. The dwarf and
hard-wooded kinds must be provided with sandy peat, and the pots
thoroughly well drained. They need less water than the free-growing
kinds. They all want a good deal of air, and must not be crowded too
closely together. Protect from frost and damp. Cuttings off the tender
tops of the shoots planted in sand under glass will strike. The
cuttings of the stronger-growing kinds should be somewhat longer. As
soon as rooted, pot off singly, place in a close frame, and harden off
by degrees. The hardy sorts grow in a sandy peat, and may be increased
by layers or by cuttings. They bloom at various times. Height, 6 in.
to 4 ft. (_See_ "Heaths, Greenhouse.")

Erigeron.--Very handsome hardy perennials, producing a copious display
of bloom. They will grow in any soil, and may be increased by division
or by seed sown between March and July, or in August or September.
They flower at the end of July. Height, 1 ft.

Erinus.--The hardy perennial kinds bloom in March, the greenhouse
varieties in May. The latter are very pretty. They all like a sandy
soil, and may be increased by seed or by division. Height, 6 in. to 9
in.

Eriogonum.--These pretty, hardy, herbaceous plants bloom in June. They
grow best in a compost of loam and peat, and are easily raised from
seed. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Eriostemon.--Greenhouse evergreen shrubs. Grow in sandy peat with a
little loam added. Cuttings will strike in sand. They flower in May
and June. Height, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Erodium.--An extensive genus of very beautiful plants, mostly hardy.
They will grow in any soil, and merely require ordinary treatment. The
bloom is produced in June or July. Height, 4 in. to 1 ft.

Eryngium.--A very ornamental and beautiful kind of Thistle. They are
mostly quite hardy, and will grow in any garden soil, though they
thrive best in a light, sandy one. The greenhouse and frame varieties
should be grown in pots, so that they can be easily housed in winter.
They are readily increased by seed or division, and produce their
flowers in July. Height, 1 ft. to 4 ft.

Erysimum.--Flowers of little merit. The herbaceous kinds thrive in
common soil, but do best in a mixture of loam and peat. They may be
increased by cuttings placed under glass. The annuals and biennials
merely need sowing in the open during autumn. They bloom in June and
July. Height, 1-1/2 ft. to 2 ft.

Erythrina Crista Galli (_Coral Plant_).--A showy, summer-blooming
greenhouse plant. Place it in turfy loam enriched with old manure. It
may be transferred to the garden in the summer, and when the wood is
ripe cut it back and keep it dry till spring. Cuttings taken at a
joint, with the leaves left on, may be struck in sand.

Erythronium Dens-Canis _(Dog's Tooth Violets_).--_See_ "Violets."

Escallonia.--Handsome, half-hardy, evergreen shrubs, possessing rich
glaucous leaves and bunches of tubular flowers. A peat and sandy loam
soil suits them best. They may be planted against, and trained to, a
south wall, but need protection from frost. The laterals may be cut
back fairly close in March to encourage new growth. They may be
propagated by layering in the autumn, or by suckers taken in the
spring. Height, 3 ft.

Eschscholtzia.--Pretty hardy annuals, especially during August, when
they are in flower. Any rich soil suits them. Easily raised from seed
sown on a gentle hotbed in spring, and afterwards transplanted to the
border. They flower longest if sown in autumn, but the young plants
need protection through the winter. Height, 1 ft.

Eucalyptus Citriodora.--A useful window or greenhouse plant, with
small, oblong, bright green leaves, furnished with appendages that
emit an odour resembling the Lemon-scented Verbena. It is of easy
cultivation, growing freely from seed sown in slight heat. Height, 4
ft.

Eucalyptus Globulus.--A greenhouse everlasting tree, commonly known as
Blue Gum. It delights in a mixture of peat, loam, and sand. Cuttings,
which should not be too ripe, root in sand under glass. It may be
grown from seed sown, in a temperature of 65 degrees, from February to
April. It flowers in June.

Eucharidium.--Pretty little hardy annuals, nearly allied to the
Clarkia. The seed may be sown in autumn for early flowering, or in
spring for blooming in July. Height, 1 ft.

Eucomis Punctata.--A fine, autumn-blooming plant, bearing long spikes
of fragrant creamy-white flowers and curiously-spotted stems. It may
be grown in any rich soil. Height, 2 ft.

Eucryphia Pinnatifida.--A dwarf evergreen shrub with flowers
resembling a white St. John's Wort. It grows best in a compost of loam
and peat, and is propagated by cuttings planted in sand, and subjected
to heat.

Eugenia Ugni.--An evergreen shrub which produces white flowers in May,
succeeded by round, edible berries. It should be grown in loam and
peat. Ripened cuttings may be struck in sand under glass. Height, 4
ft.

Eulalia Japonica.--A hardy perennial Giant Grass. It is very handsome
as single specimens on lawns, or used in groups on the margins of
shrubberies. The flower panicles in their first stage have erect
branches, but as the flowers open these curl over gracefully,
resembling a Prince of Wales feather. Height, 6 ft.

Euonymus Radicans Variegata.--A hardy evergreen shrub which, given a
sunny situation, will grow in any soil, though a rich, sandy one is
preferable. It may be increased by layers, by seed, by cuttings of
ripe wood taken early in autumn and planted in the shade, or by
dividing strong roots. May is its time to flower. Height, 6 ft. Other
varieties of the Euonymus, or Spindle Tree, are equally hardy, and
easy to propagate.

Eupatorium Odoratum.--A greenhouse shrub which bears sweet-scented
white flowers in August, continuing in bloom for a long while. It may
be planted out at the end of May, but must be lifted before the frost
comes. When flowering ceases, give less water and prune hard back. It
grows well in peat and loam, and is increased by seed or by cuttings
of the young shoots in spring in bottom-heat. Pinch back freely until
the end of July, leaving all growth after that period. Height, 2-1/2
ft.

Euphorbia.--An elegant class of plants. The stove and greenhouse
varieties are generally succulent, and require but little water, while
the hardy kinds need plenty of moisture. Any rich, light soil suits
them, but for the tender, succulent plants it should be mixed with
brick rubbish. Best grown from seed, though the roots may be divided.
Height, 2 ft.

Eurya Latifolia Variegata.--A fine, variegated, large-leaved
evergreen, very suitable for covering a low wall, or for conservatory
decoration. It delights in a compost of loam and peat, and is
propagated by cuttings planted in a sandy soil on gentle heat. Height,
2 ft.

Eurybia.--Very pretty flowering shrubs for walls, borders, or
rockeries. They require a light, rich soil, and may be increased by
seeds sown early in spring on a gentle hotbed. Height, 2 ft.

Eutaxia Myrtifolia.--Pretty evergreen shrubs, suitable for the
greenhouse. They thrive best in a mixture of peat and loam, and
require the pots to be well drained. To have nice bushy plants they
must be pinched back well. Cuttings will strike in sand under glass.
They flower in August. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Eutoca.--Exceedingly pretty hardy annuals. Sow the seed in light soil
early in spring where it is to flower, and thin out so that the plants
have plenty of room. They bloom in July. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Evening Primrose.--_See_ "Oenothera."

Everlasting Peas.--_See_ "Peas, Everlasting."


F


Fabacea.--_See_ "Thermopsis."

Fatsia Japonica.--_See_ "Aralia."

Feather Grass.--_See_ "Stipa Pennata."

Fennel.--Sow the seed in April, cover lightly with fine mould, and
when the plants are strong enough set them out 1 ft. apart. Cut off
the flower-stalks as soon as they appear, to prevent them running to
seed. The bed will last for years. (_See also_ "Ferula.")

Fenzlia.--Elegant half-hardy annuals. Sow the seed on a peat soil. If
this be done in autumn, they will flower in April or May; if sown in
spring, they will bloom in autumn. Height, 6 in.

Ferns.--Most Ferns delight in a loose soil, an abundance of moisture,
and a warm, humid atmosphere. The stove and greenhouse kinds are best
cultivated in a mixture of sandy loam and peat. The hardy kinds grow
best among rock-work or in a shady border: a light, sandy soil suits
them. They may be increased by dividing the roots.

Ferns from Seed.--Collect the spore-fronds towards the end of summer,
just as the spore-cases begin to open. Place them on a sheet of paper
in a box for a few days, keeping it in a dry place. Most of the spores
will fall out, the others may be rubbed out with the hand. These
spores will keep good a long time, but are best sown within a year.
Fill the pots with good heavy loam, water freely, and apply a coating
of charcoal, coarse sand, and sphragnum moss, rubbed through a fine
sieve. Damp the surface, sow the spores thinly, and cover with glass.
Keep the soil moist by standing the pots for a time each day up to
their rim in water. No surface water should be given. Stand the pots
in a warm, light place in the greenhouse, but keep them shaded from
the sun. When the surface is covered with growth, prick out into pans
or boxes, using a rich, light soil. When they are large enough pot
them off singly in thumb-pots, re-potting as soon as these are filled
with roots.

Ferraria.--_See_ "Tigridia."

Ferula (_Giant Fennel_).--Strong-growing, hardy, herbaceous plants.
F. Gigantea has bright, glistening foliage, changing to a brilliant
orange, and attains a height of 8 ft or 10 ft. F. Tingitana is very
stately and graceful, growing 4 ft. high. They are easily raised
from seed, will grow in any garden soil, and flower in August and
September.

Festuca.--An annual ornamental grass, which is grown best on a loamy
soil. Sow the seed in March, and keep moist till it germinates.
Height, 1 ft.

Feverfew.--This hardy perennial will grow in any soil and ripen its
seed freely. Young plants, obtained by sowing the seed early in
spring, are very useful for edgings; when planted alternately with, or
in proximity to, Lobelia a pretty effect is produced.

Ficaria Grandiflora.--A hardy perennial which thrives well when
planted under the shade of trees. It is increased by separating the
tubers in autumn, and produces its flowers in May. Height, 6 in.

Ficus Elastica (_India-rubber Plant_).--This thrives well in any
light, rich soil, or in loam and peat. Keep it moderately moist
throughout the winter, using tepid water. In summer any of the
artificial manures may be used. Sponge the leaves once a week to free
them from dust, and keep the plant well sheltered from draughts.
Cuttings with uninjured leaves will root in autumn in sand with a
bottom-heat of 65 or 75 degrees; or the cuttings may be taken in
spring, stem-rooting the slips. It flowers in May, and sometimes
attains the height of 20 ft.

Fig Palm.--_See_ "Aralia."

Figs.--Though in some parts of our country Figs are cropped on
standards, as a rule they require to be trained on a wall having a
southern exposure. The soil should be a fairly good loam mixed with
old mortar and crushed bones, but no manure is needed. The end of
March or the beginning of April is the most favourable time for
planting. The trees should be firmly set, and the surface of the soil
kept moist until they are established. Manure may be given--preferably
in a liquid state--when heavy crops of fruit are being borne. Old and
exhausted wood may be cut away in April, but the knife must be used
sparingly. The branches should be trained to a distance of 10 in.
apart, and the fruit-bearing shoots may be pinched back with the thumb
and finger at the end of August. The fruit is borne on the previous
year's growth. They may be increased by layers, by suckers, or by
cuttings of the young wood placed in sand and plunged in a bottom-heat
under glass. Brown Turkey, Black Ischia, Yellow Ischia, White
Marseilles, Brunswick, and St John's are all good varieties for
open-air cultivation, or for growing in houses.

When grown under glass, Figs may be trained on trellises near the roof
of the house, or may be planted in tubs or pots, not allowing too much
root-room. At starting the temperature in the day should be about 60
degrees, and at night 55 degrees. More heat can be given as the plants
advance, keeping up a moist atmosphere, but taking care not to give
too much water to the roots. By pinching off the points of the shoots
when they have made five or six leaves a second crop of fruit will
be obtained. Use the knife upon them as little as possible. When the
fruit begins to ripen admit air, and as soon as it is gathered give
liquid manure to the roots every other day to encourage a second crop.
When the plants are at rest they need hardly any water.

Filberts and Cob Nuts.--These Nuts will succeed on any soil that is
not cold or wet. The bushes should be planted in October, when the
leaves have nearly all fallen. Make the soil firm about the roots and
give a mulching of stable manure. At the beginning of April the old
and exhausted wood may be cut away, as well as any branches that
obstruct light and air. Encourage well-balanced heads to the bushes
by cutting back any branch that grows too vigorously, and remove all
suckers as they make an appearance, except they are required for
transplanting. The crop is produced on the small wood. The best method
of propagation is by layers in November or any time before the buds
swell in spring. The process is simple, it merely requiring a notch
to be made in a branch of two or three years' growth, which is then
pegged down 2 or 3 in. below the surface. The following autumn it may
be cut away from its parent, pruned, and planted. They may also be
grown from nuts sown in autumn and transplanted when two years old. In
Kent the bushes are kept low and wide-spreading, by which means the
harvest is more readily reaped. On a fairly good soil they should
stand from 10 to 14 ft. apart. Lambert's Filberts, Frizzled Filberts,
Purple Filberts are good varieties, the former two bearing abundantly.
Among the best of the Cobs may be mentioned the Great Cob and
Merveille de Bollwyller.

Fire Thorn.--_See_ "Crataegus."

Flea Bane.--_See_ "Inula" _and_ "Stenactis."

Flower-Pots, Sizes of.--Various practices prevail at different
potteries, but the appended names and sizes are generally adopted. In
every case the inside measurement is taken.

  Inches     Inches
  SIZES.                          across Top.   Deep.

  Thimbles                            2         2
  Thumbs                              2-1/2     2-1/2
  Sixties (60's)                      3         3-1/2
  Fifty-fours (54's)                  4         4
  Forty-eights (48's)                 4-1/2     5
  Thirty-twos (32's)                  6         6
  Twenty-fours (24's)                 8-1/2     8
  Sixteens (16's)                     9-1/2     9
  Twelves (12's)                     11-1/2    10
  Eights (8's)                       12        11
  Sixes (6's)                        13        11
  Fours (4's)                        15        13
  Threes (3's)                       17        13
  Twos (2's)                         18        14

Foam Flower.--_See_ "Tiarella."

Fontanesia Phillyraeoides.--This shrub will grow in any soil, but
needs protection in severe weather. It may be propagated by layers or
by cuttings planted under glass. August is its time for flowering.
Height, 10 ft.

Forget-me-not.--_See_ "Myosotis."

Forsythia.--Any good soil suits these pretty shrubs. F. Suspensa
thrives best under greenhouse treatment, but F. Viridissima is quite
hardy. The former flowers in March, the latter in February. They may
be increased by layers or cuttings. Height, 10 ft.

Foxglove.--_See_ "Digitalis."

Fragaria Indica (_Ornamental Strawberry_).--A rich or peaty mould
suits this half-hardy perennial. It may be saved through the winter by
protecting the roots, but seed sown in spring will generally fruit the
same year. It flowers in July. Height, 1 ft.

Francoa.--Hardy perennials bearing white flowers from June to
September. They like a good, warm soil. The only way of raising them
is from seed. They require a slight protection in winter. Height,
2-1/2 ft.

Fraxinella (_Dictamnus_).--This ornamental hardy perennial is commonly
known as the Burning Bush. It succeeds in any garden soil, and is
easily raised from seed, which ripens freely. If the flowers are
rubbed they emit a fine odour. It blooms in June. Height, 3 ft.

Freesia.--Remarkably pretty and graceful Cape flowers, possessing a
most agreeable perfume. The plants grow about 9 in. high and produce
six or eight tubular flowers on a stem. They are easily cultivated in
a cool greenhouse, frame, or window, and are invaluable for cutting,
the long sprays lasting from two to three weeks in water. The bulbs
should be planted early in the spring in rich, very sandy soil, and
given the protection of a cold frame in the winter. By successional
plantings they may be had in bloom from January to May. Put six to
twelve bulbs in a 4-in. or 8-in pot, place in a sunny position in
a cold frame, and cover with damp cinder ashes to keep them fairly
moist. When growth has begun and the pots are full of roots, remove
the covering of ashes, but keep the pots in the frame, giving a little
ventilation when the weather is mild, and watering carefully when the
soil appears dry. Protect from frost by a covering of mats. For early
flowering remove the plants to a warm greenhouse when the flower
spikes appear, keeping them as near the glass as possible. When the
buds are developed an occasional application of weak liquid manure
will prove beneficial.

Fremontia Californica.--A beautiful and somewhat singular wall shrub,
with large yellow flowers. Any soil is suitable for it, but a south or
west aspect is indispensable.

Fringe Tree.--_See_ "Chionanthus."

Fritillarias (_Crown Imperials, or Snake's Head Lilies_).--Soil, sandy
loam, or well-drained, deep, rich mould. Plant in the open ground in
autumn; take the bulbs up as soon as the leaves decay, and preserve
them in a rather moist place. Increased by off-sets taken from the old
roots every third year. They are not so suitable for pot culture
as for outdoor decoration. They are quite hardy, and flower in the
spring, bearing clusters of pendent bell-shaped flowers surrounded
with tufts of fresh green leaves.

F. Meleagris are of dwarf, slender growth, and bear in early spring
elegant pendent flowers of various shades netted and marked with
darker colours. These are suitable for either the border or pots.
Plant in autumn.

Fruit Trees, the Pruning of.--Cut away all growths that have an inward
tendency, and do not allow any shoot to cross over or come in contact
with another; also keep the centres of the trees or bushes open. The
fruit of trees thus treated is not so liable to be blown down by the
wind, and the sun can more readily ripen it. If the ground is poor a
dressing of rotted manure worked into the soil will be beneficial to
the roots.

Fuchsias.--These like a warm and moist atmosphere. The hardy sorts do
well out of doors in rich, light soil. On the approach of frost cut
them down and cover the roots with 3 or 4 in. of coal dust, ashes, or
moss. Remove the ashes in April and thin out the shoots in May. They
will also grow well from cuttings taken off the old wood as soon as
they are 1 in. long, inserted in sand and placed under glass, or
plunged in dung at a temperature of 60 degrees. Cuttings will also
strike in loam and leaf-mould. If grown in pots, take them indoors
before the frosty weather begins, and give them very little or no
water at all during the winter. Keep them in a cool place, yet free
from frost. Re-pot them in the spring, trimming the branches and
roots, and making a compost for them of one-half mellow yellow loam,
one quarter leaf-mould, and one quarter old manure. Place them in a
frame with bottom-heat, and water and syringe them moderately while
they are growing. When they are in full growth never give them plain
water, but always plenty of liquid manure.

Fumitory.--_See_ "Corydalis."

Funkia.--Ornamental plants which delight in a deep, light soil and a
warm, moist situation, without which they will not flower. They are
increased by division (which should not be too severe) and bloom in
July and August. Height, 1 1/2 ft.

Furze.--Enjoys a sandy soil. Increased by cuttings taken in spring
or autumn and placed in a shady border under hand-glasses. It is of
evergreen habit, and forms a dense and highly ornamental hedge. (_See
also_ "Ulex.")


G


Gages.--The cultivation of Gages is similar to that of Plums. In the
open they may be grown as dwarfs or pyramids, and in orchard-houses
as gridirons, cordons, or in pots. The chief points to observe are to
thin the branches in order to admit plenty of light into the middle of
the tree, thus inducing the production of a plentiful supply of fruit
spurs, and to occasionally lift and root-prune the tree if growing
too strong. Among the choicest sorts are: Bonne Bouche (producing its
fruit at the end of August), Coe's Golden Drop (end of September),
Old Green Gage (August), Guthrie's Late Green Gage (September),
M'Laughlin's Gage (end of August), Oullin's Golden Gage (end of
August), and Reine Claude de Bavay (beginning of October).

Gaillardia (_Blanket Flower_).--Very ornamental flowers, which will
grow in any common soil, but thrive most in a light, rich one. Seeds
of the annual kinds are sown in the spring. The perennials are
increased by dividing the roots. Bloom in July. Height, 1 ft. to 2 ft.

Galanthus.--_See_ "Snowdrops."

Galax Aphylla (_Wand Plant_).--The Heart-shaped Galax is a charming
little plant for rock-work. It is perennial, and does not lose the old
leaves till the new ones appear. A rich, light mould is required for
its growth, and its situation should be a somewhat shady one. Its
flowers are borne in July and August, on stalks 1 ft. or more high.
The plant may be increased by taking up a strong clump, shaking it
apart, and transplanting at once. (_See also_ "Shortia.")

Galega (_Goats Rue_).--Ornamental hardy perennials, requiring plenty
of room. They are readily increased by seed or division of the root,
and flower in July. Height, 3 ft. to 4 ft.

Galium.--This hardy herbaceous plant blooms in July. It will grow in
any soil, and can be increased by division of the root. Height, 1 ft.

Gardenias.--Plant in a hothouse in fibrous peat mixed with a large
proportion of sand. Give plenty of heat and moisture during growth,
with a thin shade to keep off the sun's midday rays. Lower the
temperature as soon as growth is completed, and in the middle of
summer stand the plants out in the open for a week or two for the wood
to ripen. Height, 3 ft.

Garlic.--Plant small cloves from February to April in rows 9 in. apart
and 6 in. from each other in the row. Lift them when the leaves die
down, dry them in the sunshine, and store in an airy, cool shed.

Garrya Elliptica.--A hardy evergreen shrub, which is very suitable
in its early stages for pot-culture. A light, loamy soil is what it
likes. Cuttings taken in August and placed in sand under a hand-glass
will strike freely, but it is most readily increased by layers. In
October it bears graceful yellowish-green tassels of flowers from the
ends of its shoots. Height, 6 ft.

Gasteria Verrucosa.--This plant grows best in pots of turfy loam and
leaf-mould, to which has been added a little old mortar. Good drainage
is essential. Water freely in summer, and keep just moist in winter.
Keep the foliage clean by sponging. Give plenty of light, and during
warm weather turn the plants out of doors.

Gastrolobium.--Elegant evergreen shrubs which flower in April and May.
They are most suitable for adorning the greenhouse, and grow best in
a soil of loamy peat and sand. Cuttings of half-ripened wood planted
under glass will take root. Height, 2 ft.

Gaultheria.--Dwarf, creeping evergreen shrubs, having dark foliage
and producing white flowers in May, June, or July. They require to be
grown in peat, and are increased by layers. G. Procumbens is suitable
for rockeries, as it only grows to the height of 6 in. G. Shallon
attains the height of 2 ft.

Gaura Lindheimeri.--This free-flowering, hardy, herbaceous plant will
thrive in any light, rich soil. It bears elegant spikes of white
flowers from May onwards, followed by red bracts in September, and is
readily propagated by seeds. Height, 4 ft.

Gazania Splendens.--A showy greenhouse plant. It may be planted in the
open in warm positions, but will require protecting in winter. Grow it
in peat and loam. Cuttings will strike if placed in sand under glass.
It flowers in July. Height, 1 ft.

Genethyllis.--Greenhouse evergreen shrubs which thrive best in sandy
loam and peat. Cuttings of the young wood planted in the same soil and
plunged in heat will take root. Their flowering season is in August.
Height, 3 ft.

Genista (_Broom_).--G. Canariense is an exceedingly ornamental and
free-flowering greenhouse shrub. It should be planted in a mixture of
loam, peat, and sand. Young cuttings inserted in sand under a glass
take root readily. It blooms in June. Height, 2 ft. Hardy species of
Genista may be placed in the front of shrubberies. They are increased
by seeds or by layers.

Gentians.--The herbaceous kinds do best in a light, rich soil, such as
loam and peat mixed with vegetable mould. The annuals are raised from
seed sown as soon as it is ripe; if left till spring before it is sown
it will probably not come up till the second year. The perennials are
increased by dividing the roots. Both of the latter kinds do best in
a dry, sandy soil. Gentiana Acaulis, or Gentianella, is very suitable
for edgings, or for rock-work; it is an evergreen creeper, and bears
large trumpet-shaped flowers of rich ultramarine blue. All the
Gentians need plenty of free air, and some of them moisture at the
roots. Bloom in July. Height, 4 in. to 2 ft.

Geranium Argentium(_Silvery Crane's-Bill_).--This hardy perennial
alpine is very effective on rock-work, especially in front of dark
stones; but provision must be made for its long tap roots. A rich,
deep loam suits it well. Its seeds germinate freely when sown in peat
and sand. Flowers are borne from May to July. Height, 6 in.

Geraniums.--Take cuttings in July or August, and let them he to
partially dry for twenty-four hours before planting. When rooted pot
them off in 60's, and keep them under glass during the winter at a
temperature of 55 degrees. If the cuttings are taken in September put
three or four slips in a 48-size pot. In the spring they should be
re-potted singly and hardened off as early as possible. A suitable
soil for them is made by mixing two parts of good turfy loam, one of
leaf-mould, one of well-decomposed cow-dung, and a good proportion
of silver sand. Bone dust is an excellent addition to the soil. Old
plants stripped of their leaves may be packed in sand during the
winter, and re-potted in spring.

Gerardia.--These hardy perennials form pyramidal bushes bearing
Pentstemon-like flowers, thickly set and varying in colour from
light pink to dark purple. A peat soil suits them best. They may be
propagated by cuttings placed under glass, but are best grown from
seed. July is their flowering season. Height, 1 ft. to 2 ft.

German Seeds.--These require to be sown in a cold frame in seed-pans,
in the greenhouse, or under a handglass, in good, rich compost,
composed of old turf, leaf-mould, some well-rotted manure, and silver
sand. The seeds should be sown thinly and watered sparingly. Sow early
in April, and transplant in the middle or end of May in rich soil.
Water occasionally with weak liquid manure.

Gesneria.--Handsome greenhouse perennials. They thrive in any light,
rich soil. Cuttings will strike readily either in sand or soil if
placed under glass in heat. They may also be raised from seed sown in
a temperature of 75 degrees in March or April. They flower in October.
Height, 18 in.

Geum.--Very handsome hardy perennials. They grow well in any light,
rich, loamy soil, and may be increased either by seeds or by dividing
the roots. G. Coccineum is extremely pretty. Flower in July. Height,
18 in.

Gherkins.--Sow the seed the first week in April in small pots, and
cover it lightly with fine soil. Plunge the pots in a hotbed covered
with a frame. When grown to nice little plants, remove them to a cold
frame to harden, and plant them out on a warm border towards the end
of May. When the fruit begins to form, give liquid manure twice a
week. For pickling they must be cut while small.

Gilia.--Extremely pretty and free-flowering hardy annuals, deserving
of a place in every garden. They are very suitable for small beds.
They should be sown in the open early in spring. G. Tricolour may be
sown in autumn. Bloom in July. Height, 1 ft.

Gillenia Trifoliata.--The Three-Leaved Gillenia is a hardy herbaceous
perennial which is very useful as a cut flower for the decoration of
vases, etc. It should be grown in large clumps, delights in a deep,
moist soil and partial shade, and may be propagated by dividing the
roots early in spring. It lasts in bloom from June to August. Height,
1 ft.

Gladiolus.--Dig the ground out to a depth of 1 ft. or 15 in.; put in
a layer of leaf-mould or rotted manure, and then 4 or 5 in. of earth
mixed with sand; insert the bulbs (6 in. from the surface and 9 in.
apart), cover them with 1 in. of sand, and fill up with earth. In
frosty weather cover with a thick layer of litter. Give plenty of
water when they begin to throw up their flower-stems. They may be
planted at any time between December and the end of March. If planted
late in the season, a depth of 3 or 4 in. is enough. The roots must
be kept dry in winter. They are increased by off-sets, taken when the
bulbs are removed from the ground after the leaves have turned yellow.
These should be planted at once in well-drained earth. If early
flowers are required, plant the old bulbs in pots (three to six bulbs
being placed in a 5-in. pot) any time between December and March. Give
them frame culture up to the second week in May, when they may be
transferred to the border. The flowers are invaluable for vase
decoration.

Glaucium Flavum Tricolor (_Hardy Horn Poppy_).--The large, brilliant,
orange-red flowers of this plant are very effective in the border, and
the bloom is continuous during the greater part of the summer. The
seed is rather slow to germinate, but when sown in the open ground in
autumn, it blooms from June to August; when sown in early spring it
flowers from July to September. Height, 2 ft.

Glaux Maritima (_Sea Milkweed_).--A pretty little hardy trailing plant
bearing flesh-coloured flowers in June and July. It grows in sandy
loam, and is raised from seed sown in spring. Height, 3 in.

Globe Amaranthus (_Gomphrena_).--This tender annual is well known for
its clover-like heads of everlasting flowers. It will grow in any rich
soil, but to produce really fine plants, much attention must be given
to shifting, watering, etc. Increased by seed in the same manner as
other tender annuals. Blooms in July. Height, 1 ft.

Globe Flower.--_See_ "Trollius."

Globe Thistle.--_See_ "Echinops."

Globularia Trichosantha.--A pretty dwarf perennial rock-plant bearing
pale blue flowers in May and June. It is hardy, thrives in light,
sandy soil, and is increased by either seeds or cuttings planted in
sand. Height, 6 in. The greenhouse varieties of Globularia grow best
in loam and peat.

Glory of the Snow.--_See_ "Chionodoxa."

Gloxinias.--A very ornamental family of tuberous-rooted hothouse
plants. They are of two classes, the drooping and the erect. Pot at
any time during January and March in a mixture of equal quantities of
loam, peat, and sand, with the addition of a little vegetable soil,
and place in a warm (60 degrees), moist temperature, where they can be
favoured with a little shade. In summer supply the roots plentifully
with water, but give them very little in winter. Overhead watering
is likely to rot the leaves and flowers. G. Maculata is increased by
division. The leaves of most of the others, if taken off close to the
stem, and planted, will soon make young plants. They may be raised
from seed sown from March to July in a hothouse or frame having a
temperature of 65 to 75 degrees. They flower in June, and on into
September. Height, 6 in. to 1 ft.

Glycine.--_See_ "Wistaria" _and_ "Apios."

Gnaphalium _(Edelweiss_).--Hardy everlasting flowers, which are
covered with a woolly substance. They may be grown in any light, rich
soil. The shrubby and herbaceous kinds may be increased by cuttings
or division. The annuals are easily raised from seed. They flower in
July. Height, 1 ft.

Goat's Rue.--_See_ "Galega."

Godetia.--Very pretty hardy annuals, that may be grown in any garden
soil. Sow in the autumn for early flowering, or in spring for later
blooms. July is their ordinary season of coming into flower. Height,
1-1/2 ft. to 2 ft.

Golden Feather.--Hardy annual foliage plants. They are not particular
as to soil, and are easily raised from seed sown early in spring. They
bloom in July. Height, 1 ft.

Golden Rod.--_See_ "Solidago."

Gompholobium.--Delicate greenhouse evergreen shrubs requiring a soil
of sandy loam and peat and but little water. They flower in June, and
are propagated by cuttings planted in sand under glass. Height, 2 ft.

Gomphrena.--_See_ "Globe Amaranthus."

Gooseberries.--From the middle of October to the end of November is
the best time for planting. To produce good crops the soil should be
rich, deep, and well drained. The position should be somewhat cool and
sheltered, and a liberal quantity of liquid manure is beneficial. In
dry seasons mulching may be resorted to with advantage. Cuttings are
taken in autumn as soon as the leaves begin to fall. Select strong
shoots about 1 ft. long. Cut the bottom end straight across, just
below a joint, and with a sharp knife remove all the buds or eyes from
the base to within a couple of inches of the top, so as to prevent the
formation of suckers. Plant the shoots firmly 3 in. deep, in rows 1
ft. apart and 6 in. apart in the rows, on a north border. At the end
of the second season cut back all leading shoots to two-thirds of
their length. In after years remove weak and superfluous branches, as
also any that are growing near the ground, but plenty of young wood
must always be left on the bushes. The pruning may be done either in
spring or autumn. The following varieties may be recommended:--Red,
White, and Yellow Champagne, Wilmot's Early Red, Golden Drop,
Ironmonger, and Warrington Red for dessert; while for preserving and
culinary purposes Old Rough Red, Conquering Hero, Favourite, Broom
Girl, British Crown, Ironsides, Lady Leicester, Thumper, Green Walnut,
Leader, and Moreton Hero may be classed among the leading varieties.
When grown in bush form ample room must be allowed between each to
enable one to get round the bushes to gather the fruit.

Gooseberry Caterpillar.--To prevent caterpillars attacking
Gooseberries syringe the bushes with a decoction of common foxglove
(Digitalis), or dust the leaves with Hellebore powder. If the
caterpillar has begun its attack, sprinkle some fresh lime below the
bushes, and shake the bushes vigorously, so that the insects are
dislodged.

Gorse.--_See_ "Ulex."

Gourds.--Sow at the end of March or the beginning of April on a
slight hotbed; pot off when the plants are sufficiently advanced,
and transplant to the open border in June. They are well adapted for
arbours, trellis-work, or sloping banks. The following are among the
most ornamental:--Abobra Viridiflora, Benincasa Cerifera (Wax Gourd),
Bryonopsis Erythrocarpa, Coccinea Indica (scarlet fruit), Cucumis
Anguinus (Serpent Gourd), Cucumis Dipsaceus (Teasel Gourd), Cucumis
Dudaim (Balloon Gourd), Cucumis Erinaceus (Hedgehog Gourd), Cucumis
Grossularoides (Gooseberry Gourd), Cucumis Perennis, Cucurbita
Argyrosperma, Cucurbita Melopepo, Cyclanthera Explodens (Bombshell
Gourd), Cyclanthera Pedata, Eopepon Aurantiacum, Eopepon Vitifolius,
Lagenaria Clavata (Club Gourd), Lagenaria Enormis, Lagenaria Leucantha
Depressa, Lagenaria Leucantha Longissima, Lagenaria Plate de Corse,
Lagenaria Poire a Poudre, Lagenaria Siphon, Luffa Cylindrica, Luffa
Solly Qua, Melothria Scabra, Momordica Balsamina, Momordica Charantia,
Momordica Elaterium, Mukia Scabrella, Scotanthus Tubiflorus,
Trichosanthes Anguina, Trichosanthes Coccinea, Trichosanthes
Colubrina, and Trichosanthes Palmata.

Grafting.--The objects of Grafting are to bring a bush or tree into an
earlier state of bearing than it would do naturally; to produce good
fruit from an inferior plant; and to save space by putting dwarf
scions on to rampant-growing trees. By the process of uniting
strong-growing trees to those of a weaker nature their exuberance is
checked, and weaker ones are improved by being worked on those of
a stronger growth. Whatever form of Grafting is adopted, the inner
layers of the bark of the stock or tree on which the operation is
performed, must be brought into direct contact with the inner layers
of the bark of the branch which is grafted, or, as it is called,
the scion. This scion should be a branch of the early growth of the
previous year's wood, and should be in the same state of vegetation as
the stock. If the scion is in a more advanced state than the stock,
its growth may be stopped by cutting it off and burying it in the
earth under a north wall until the stock has advanced sufficiently in
growth. Grafting of all kinds is best done in March, when the sap is
flowing freely. Many methods of Grafting are adopted, the following
being the principal:--

Whip or Tongue Grafting is suitable for almost any description of
trees. Saw the stock off level at any desired height, then make a deep
upward slanting cut through the bark at the top 2 or 3 in. in length,
and in the middle of the cut turn the knife downwards and cut out a
thin wedge-shaped socket. Next cut the scion in a similar manner so
that it will fit exactly into the incision of the stock, bringing the
bark of each into direct contact. Bind it firmly in position, and
cover it over, from the top of the stock to the bottom of the scion,
with grafting wax or clay. When the scion and the stock are united,
which is demonstrated by the former making growth, remove the wax and
cut away all shoots that may be produced on the stock.

In the French mode of Grafting known as the Bertemboise, the crown of
the stock is cut at a long level, about 1 in. at the top being left
square, and an angular piece is cut away in which the scion is
inserted. It is then bound and waxed over.

Theophrastes or Rind Grafting is used where a tree has strong roots
but inferior fruit. The branches are cut off about 1-1/2 or 2 ft. from
the main stem. A sharp cut 2 or 3 in. in length is made down the bark
of the branches, and the lower parts of the scion, selected from a
superior tree, having been cut into tongues resembling the mouth-piece
of a flageolet, the bark of the branches is lifted with a knife, and
the tongues of the scions are slipped in, bound, and waxed.

Side Grafting is useful where it is desired to replenish the tree
with a fresh branch. A T-shaped cut is made in the stem of the tree,
extending to the inner bark; the scion is prepared by a longitudinal
sloping cut of the same length as that in the stem, into which it
is inserted, and the two are bound together and treated like other
grafts.

Approach Grafting is the most favourable method of obtaining choice
varieties of the vine, or of growing weak sorts on roots of a stronger
growth. The scion is generally grown in a pot. A portion of the bark
is cut from both scion and stock while the vine is in active growth,
and the two wounded parts brought into contact, so that they fit
exactly. They are then tied together, and moss (kept constantly wet)
is bound round the parts. The union may be completed by the following
spring, but it is safer to leave the cutting down of the stock to the
point of union and the separation of the scion from the potted plant
until the second spring.

Grafting Wax (_Cobbetts_), etc.--Pitch and resin four parts each,
beeswax two parts, tallow one part. Melt and mix the ingredients, and
use when just warm. It may be rolled into balls and stored in a dry
place.

Clay bands are frequently employed for excluding the air from wounds
caused in the process of grafting. These are liable to crack, unless
the clay is well kneaded and mixed with wood ashes or dry horse
droppings.

Grapes.--The cultivation of Grapes in the open in our cloudy and
changeable climate cannot be looked forward to with any certainty of
success. Two successive favourable seasons are indispensable--one to
ripen the wood, and the next to ripen the fruit. Nevertheless, the
highly ornamental foliage of the vine entitles it to a place on our
walls, and every facility should be afforded for the production of a
chance crop of fruit. The soil most suited to the growth of the vine
is a medium loam, with which is incorporated a quantity of crushed
chalk and half-inch bones. It should be given a south aspect, and be
liberally supplied with water in dry seasons. April is the best time
to plant it, spreading the roots out equally about 9 in. below the
surface of the soil, and mulching with 3 or 4 in. of manure. Should
mildew set in, syringe the vine with a mixture of soapsuds and
sulphur. To secure a continuance of fruit, cut out some of the old
rods each year as soon as the leaves fall, and train young shoots in
their places. Last year's shoots produce other shoots the ensuing
summer, and these are the fruit-bearers. One bunch of grapes is enough
for a spur to carry. Professional gardeners cast off the weight of the
bunches, and allow 1 ft. of rod to each pound of fruit. Tie or nail
the bunches to the trellis or wall, and remove all branches or leaves
that intercept light and air.

The vine may be increased by layers at the end of September. Cut a
notch at a bud, and bury it 4 or 5 in. deep, leaving two or three eyes
above ground. It may also be propagated by cuttings, about 1 ft. in
length, of the last year's growth, with 1 in. of old wood attached,
taken the latter end of February. Plant these deep in the ground,
leaving one eye only above the surface. Both the Black Hamburgh and
Royal Muscadine ripen as well as any in the open.

It is under glass only that Grapes can be brought to perfection.
Here a night temperature of 55 to 65 degrees, with a rise of 5 or 10
degrees in the day, should be maintained, the walls and paths damped
once or twice a day, and the vine syringed frequently until it comes
into bloom, when syringing must cease, and a drier atmosphere is
necessary; the moisture being reduced by degrees. As the grapes ripen,
admit more air, and reduce the heat, otherwise the fruit will shrivel.
After gathering the grapes syringe the vine frequently to clear it
from spiders or dust, and keep the house cool to induce rest to the
plant. The fruit may be preserved for a long while in a good condition
by cutting it with about 1 ft. of the rod attached, and inserting the
cuttings in bottles of water in which a piece of charcoal is placed:
the bottles to be placed in racks nailed on to an upright post in any
room or cellar where an equable temperature of 45 or 50 degrees can be
kept up. The system of pruning adopted is that known as spur pruning
(_see_ "Pruning"). Mrs. Pearson is a very fine variety, and produces
very sweet berries; the Frontignan Grizzly Black and White are also
delicious.

Grasses, Natural--

_AGROSTIS STOLONIFERA_ (_Creeping Bent Grass_).--Useful for damp
meadows.

_ALOPECURUS PRATENSIS_ (_Meadow Foxtail_).--Strong-growing and very
nutritious.

_ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM_ (_True Sweet Vernal_),--Hardy and gives
fragrance to hay.

_AVENA FLAVESCENS_ (_Yellow Oat Grass_).--Fine for sheep; grows freely
on light soils.

_CYNOSURUS CRISTATUS_ (_Crested Dogstail_).--Suitable for any soil.

_DACTYLIS GLOMERATA_ (_Cocksfoot_).--Strong and coarse-growing; cattle
are fond of it.

_FESTUCA DURIUSCULA_ (_Hard Fescue_).--Dwarf-growing; excellent for
sheep.

_FESTUCA ELATIOR_ (_Tall Fescue_).--Useful for cold, strong soils.

_FESTUCA OVINA_ (_Sheep's Fescue_).--Fine for dry, sandy soils.

_FESTUCA OVINA TENUIFOLIA_ (_Slender Fescue_).--Suitable for mountain
pastures.

_FESTUCA PRATENSIS_ (_Meadow Fescue_).--Good permanent grass for rich,
moist soil.

_PHLEUM PRATENSE_ (_Timothy, or Catstail_).--Suitable for strong
soils; nutritious and hardy.

_POA NEMORALIS_ (_Wood Meadow Grass_).--Good for poor soils.

_POA PRATENSIS_ (_Smooth-stalked Meadow Grass_).--Grows well on light,
dry soil, and also in water-meadows.

_POA TRIVIALIS_ (_Rough-stalked Meadow Grass_).--Fine for damp soil.

Grasses, Ornamental.--Fine for mixing in a green state with cut
flowers, or in a dried condition for the decoration of vases, winter
bouquets, etc. To have them in perfection gather them while quite
fresh, with the pollen on them. Cut with as long stems as possible,
arrange lightly in vases, and keep them in the dark till they are
dried and the stems become stiff. The Grasses may be divided into two
sections, viz., those for bouquets or edgings, and those grown in the
border or on lawns for specimen plants. The class is numerous, but
the following (which may be found described herein under alphabetical
classification) may be mentioned:--

For bouquets and edgings: Agrostis, Anthoxanthum, Avena, Briza, Coix
Lachryma, Eragrostis, Festuca, Hordeum Jubatum, Lagurus, and Stipa
Pennata. For specimen plants: Eulalia, Gynerium, Panicum, Phalaris,
and Zea.

Gratiola Officinalis.--This hardy herbaceous plant bears light blue
flowers in July. A rich, moist soil is its delight. It is propagated
by dividing the roots. Height, 1 ft.

Green Fly.--Fumigate the infected plants with tobacco, and afterwards
syringe them with clear water; or the plants may be washed with
tobacco water by means of a soft brush.

Grevillea.--Handsome greenhouse shrubs, which require a mould composed
of equal parts of peat, sand, and loam. Give plenty of water in
summer, a moderate amount at other seasons. Ripened cuttings may be
rooted in sand, under a glass. Young plants may also be obtained from
seed. They bloom in June. Their common height is from 3 to 4 ft.,
but G. Robusta attains a great height. Grevilleas will grow well in
windows facing south.

Griselinia Littoralis.--A dwarf-growing, light-coloured evergreen
shrub, which will thrive near the sea. It requires a light, dry soil,
and may be increased by cuttings.

Guelder Rose.--_See_ "Viburnum."

Guernsey Lily (_Nerine Sarniense_).--Soil, strong, rich loam with
sand, well drained. Plant the bulbs deeply in a warm, sheltered
position, and let them remain undisturbed year by year. Keep the beds
dry in winter, and protect the roots from frost. They also make good
indoor plants, potted in moss or cocoa-nut fibre in September, or they
may be grown in vases of water.

Gumming of Trees.--Scrape the gum off, wash the place thoroughly with
clear water, and apply a compost of horse-dung, clay, and tar.

Gunnera Manicata (_Chilian Rhubarb_).--This hardy plant bears large
leaves on stout foot-stalks, and is very ornamental in the backs of
borders, etc. Planted in a rich, moist soil, it will flower in August.
It can be propagated by division. Height, 6 ft.

Gunnera Scabra.--Has gigantic leaves, 4 to 5 ft. in diameter, on
petioles 3 to 6 ft. in length. It prefers a moist, shady position, and
bears division. Makes a fine addition to a sub-tropical garden, where
it will flower in August. Height, 6 ft.

Gynerium (_Pampas Grass_).--This unquestionably is the grandest of all
grasses, and is sufficiently hardy to endure most of our winters. It
is, however, desirable to give it some protection. It requires a deep,
rich, alluvial soil, with plenty of room and a good supply of water.
Plants may be raised from seed sown thinly in pots during February or
March, barely covering it with very fine soil, and keeping the surface
damp. Plant out at end of May. They will flower when three or four
years old. The old leaves should be allowed to remain on till the
new ones appear, as they afford protection to the plant. It may be
increased by division of the root. Height, 7 ft.

Gypsophila.--Of value for table bouquets, etc. They will grow in any
soil, but prefer a chalky one. The herbaceous kinds are increased by
cuttings; the annuals are sown in the open either in autumn or spring.
They bloom during July and August. Height, 1 ft. to 3 ft.


H


Habrothamnus.--These beautiful evergreen shrubs require greenhouse
culture, and to be grown in sandy loam and leaf-mould. The majority of
them flower in spring. Height, 4 ft. to 6 ft.

Halesia Tetraptera (_Snowdrop Tree_).--This elegant shrub will grow in
any soil, and may be propagated by cuttings of the roots or by layers.
The pendent white flowers are produced close to the branches in June.
Height, 8 ft.

Hamamelis (_Witch Hazel_).--An ornamental shrub which will grow in
ordinary soil, but thrives best in a sandy one. It is increased by
layers. May is its season for flowering. Height, 12 ft. to 15 ft. H.
Arborea is a curious small tree, producing brownish-yellow flowers in
mid-winter.

Harpalium Rigidum.--A hardy perennial, producing very fine yellow
flowers in the autumn. It will grow in any good garden soil, and may
be propagated by seed sown in early autumn, or by division of the
roots. Height, 3 ft.

Hawkweed.--_See_ "Crepis" _and_ "Hieracium."

Heartsease.--_See_ "Pansies."

Heaths, Greenhouse.--For their successful growth Heaths require a
well-drained soil, composed of three parts finely pulverised peat and
one part silver sand, free ventilation, and a careful supply of water,
so that the soil is always damp. If they suffer a check they are
hard to bring round, especially the hard-wooded kinds. Some of the
soft-wooded Heaths, such as the H. Hyemalis, are easier of management.
After they have flowered they may be cut hard back, re-potted, and
supplied with liquid manure. The stout shoots thus obtained will bloom
the following season. (_See also_ "Ericas.")

Hedera.--_See_ "Ivy."

Hedychium Gardnerianum.--A hothouse herbaceous plant, delighting in a
rich, light soil, plenty of room in the pots for the roots, and a good
amount of sunshine. In the spring a top-dressing of rich manure and
soot should be given. From the time the leaves begin to expand,
and all through its growing stage, it needs plenty water, and an
occasional application of liquid manure. The foliage should not be cut
off when it dies, but allowed to remain on all the winter. While the
plant is dormant keep it rather dry and quite free from frost. It
may be increased by dividing the roots, but it blooms best when
undisturbed. July is its flowering month. Height, 6 ft.

Hedysarum.--Hardy perennials, requiring a light, rich soil, or loam
and peat. They may be raised from seed, or increased by dividing the
roots in spring. H. Multijugum bears rich purple flowers. Height, 6
in. to 3 ft.

Heleniums.--The Pumilum is a very pretty hardy perennial that may be
grown in any soil, and increased by dividing the roots. It produces
its golden flowers in August. Height, 1-1/2 ft. H. Autumnale is also
easy to grow, but flowers a month later than the Pumilum, and attains
a height of 3 ft. H. Bigelowi is the best of the late autumn-flowering
species, producing an abundance of rich yellow flowers with purple
discs. Flowers in August. Height, 3-1/2 ft.

Helianthemum Alpinum (_Rock Roses_).--These hardy perennials are best
grown in sandy loam and peat, and may be increased by cuttings placed
under glass in a sheltered situation. Bloom in June or July. Height, 1
ft.

Helianthus (_Sunflowers_).--The tall variety is a very stately plant,
suitable for the background or a corner of the border. Well-grown
flowers have measured 16 in. in diameter. The miniature kinds make
fine vase ornaments. They grow in any garden soil, and are easily
increased by seed raised on a hotbed in spring and afterwards
transplanted. The perennials may be propagated by division of the
root. They produce their flowers in August. Height, 3 ft. to 6 ft.

Helichrysum.--Fine everlasting hardy annuals, that grow best in a
mixture of three parts peat and one part sandy loam. May be readily
raised from seed sown in a cold frame in March, or cuttings taken off
at a joint will strike in peat and sand. Bloom during July and August.
For winter decoration the flowers should be gathered in a young state,
as they continue to develop after being gathered. Height, 1 ft. to 6
ft, but most of them are 2 ft. high.

Heliophila.--Pretty little hardy annuals, thriving best in sandy loam
and peat. Sow the seed early in spring in pots placed in a gentle
hotbed, and plant out in May. They flower in June. Height, 9 in.

Heliopsis.--This hardy perennial is useful for cutting purposes, the
flowers being borne on long stalks, and lasting for two or three weeks
in water. It is not particular as to soil, and may be increased by
dividing the roots. Height, 5 ft.

Heliotrope.--Commonly called Cherry Pie. Sow the seed early in spring
in light, rich soil in a little heat, and plant out in May. The best
plants, however, are obtained from cuttings taken off when young,
in the same way as Verbenas and bedding Calceolarias. They are very
sensitive to frost. Flower in June. Height, 1 ft.

Helipterium.--A half-hardy annual, bearing everlasting flowers. It
should receive the same treatment as Helichrysum. Blooms in May or
June. Height, 2 ft.

Helleborus (_Christmas Rose_).--As its name implies, the Hellebore
flowers about Christmas, and that without any protection whatever. The
foliage is evergreen, and of a dark colour. When the plant is once
established it produces flowers in great abundance. The plants of the
white-flowered variety should be protected with a hand-light when the
flower-buds appear, in order to preserve the blossoms pure and clean.
Any deeply-dug rich garden soil suits it, and it is most at home under
the shade of a tree. It prefers a sheltered situation, and during the
summer months a mulching of litter and an occasional watering will be
beneficial. Readily increased by division in spring or seed. Height, 1
ft.

Helonias Bullata.--A pretty herbaceous plant, bearing dense racemes of
purple-rose flowers from June to August. It grows best in peat, in a
moist position. It can be raised from seed or increased by division of
the roots. Height 1-1/2 ft.

Hemerocallis (_Day Lily_).--Old-fashioned plants of great merit.
Planted in large clumps they produce a grand effect. They are easily
grown in any common garden soil, and bloom in July. Height, 3 ft. H.
Kwanso has handsome, variegated foliage.

Hemp.--_See_ "Canna" _and_ "Cannabis."

Hepatica.--This enjoys a rather light, sandy soil and a shady
situation. The roots should be taken up and divided every second year.
Well adapted for surrounding beds or clumps of Rhododendrons. Flowers
in March. Height, 4 in.

Heracleum.--Coarse hardy biennials, that may be grown in any kind of
soil, and are readily raised from seed. They flower at midsummer.
Height, 2 ft. to 4 ft.

Herbs.--Thyme, Marjoram, Chervil, Basil, Burnet, Hyssop, Savory, etc.,
should be sown early in spring, in dry, mild weather, in narrow drills
about 1/2 in. deep and 8 or 9 in. apart, covered evenly with soil,
and transplanted when strong enough. Mint is quickly increased by
separating the roots in spring, and covering them with 1 in. of earth.
Sage is propagated by slips of the young shoots taken either in
spring or autumn. If planted in light soil and in a sunny position it
produces very fragrant flowers. Chives should be planted 6 or 8 in.
apart: they are increased by division in spring. Penny Royal, like
mint generally, will grow from very small pieces of the root; it needs
to be frequently transplanted, and to be kept from a damp condition.
Rosemary will grow from cuttings planted under glass in a shady spot.
Thyme likes a light, rich soil, and bears division. Sorrel will grow
in any soil, and the roots should be divided every two or three years.
Chamomile roots are divided and subdivided in spring. Herbs should be
harvested on a fine day, just before they are in full bloom. Tie them
up in small bunches and hang in the shade to dry, then wrap in paper
and store in air-tight vessels, or rub the leaves to a powder and keep
in tightly-corked bottles. They will retain their strength for a long
time.

Herbs, the Uses of Sweet and Pot.--

_ANGELICA_.--A biennial. Leaves and stalks are eaten raw or boiled;
the seeds are aromatic, and used to flavour spirits.

_ANISE_.--Leaves used for garnishing, and for seasoning, like fennel;
the seeds are medicinal.

_BALM_.--A hardy perennial. Makes a useful tea and wine for fevers.

_BASIL_, Sweet and Bush.--Half-hardy annuals. The leaves and tops
of the shoots, on account of their clove-like flavour, are used for
seasoning soups and introduced into salads.

_BORAGE_.--Hardy annual. Used for salads and garnishing, and as an
ingredient in cool drinks; excellent also for bees.

_CHAMOMILE_.--A hardy perennial. Flowers used medicinally.

_CARAWAY_.--A biennial. Leaves used in soups, and the seeds in
confectionery and medicine.

_CHERVIL_.--An annual. Useful for salads.

_CHIVES_.--Hardy perennial. The young tops used to flavour soups, etc.

_CORIANDER_.--A hardy annual. Cultivated for garnishing.

_DILL_.--A hardy perennial. Leaves used in soups and sauces, also in
pickles.

_FENNEL_.--Hardy perennial. Used in salads and in fish sauce, also for
garnishing dishes.

_HOREHOUND_.--Hardy perennial. Leaves and young shoots used for making
a beverage for coughs.

_HYSSOP_.--Hardy evergreen shrub. Leaves and young shoots used for
making tea; also as a pot herb.

_LAVENDER_.--Hardy perennial. Cultivated for its flowers, for the
distillation of lavender water, for flavouring sauces, and for
medicinal purposes.

_MARIGOLD_, Pot.--Hardy annual. Flowers used in soups.

_MARJORAM_, Sweet or Knotted, and Pot.--Hardy annuals. Aromatic and
sweet flavour. Used for stuffings and as a pot herb; leaves dried for
winter use.

_RAMPION_.--Hardy perennial. Roots used as a radish; they have a nutty
flavour.

_ROSEMARY_.--Hardy ornamental shrub. Sprigs used for garnishing and
the leaves in drink.

_RUE_.--Hardy evergreen shrub. Leaves used for medicinal drinks;
useful for poultry with croup.

_SAGE_.--Hardy perennial. Decoction of leaves drank as tea; used also
for stuffing, meats, and sauces.

_SAVORY_, Summer.--Hardy annual. Used for flavouring soups and salads.

_SAVORY_, Winter.--Hardy evergreen shrub. Its aromatic flavour makes
it valuable as a pot herb.

_SCURVY GRASS_.--The small leaves are eaten as watercress.

_SKIRRET_.--Hardy perennial. Sweet, white, and pleasant; the tubers
are boiled and served up with butter.

_SORREL_, Broad-Leaved.--Hardy perennial. Imparts an acid flavour to
salads and soups.

_THYME_, Broad-Leaved.--Hardy perennial. Young leaves and tops used
for stuffing, also in soups and sauces.

_TARRAGON_.--Hardy perennial. For flavouring vinegar; also used in
salads, soups, and pickles.

_WORMWOOD_.--A hardy shrub. Beneficial to horses and poultry, and is
used for medical purposes.

Herniaria Glabra.--These dwarf carpeting plants are of easy culture.
Grow from seed in spring and transplant into sandy soil. Height, 1-1/2
in.

Hesperis.--_See_ "Rocket."

Heuchera.--Very neat, but not showy, hardy American perennials. They
may be grown in any ordinary light garden soil, are increased by
dividing the root, and bloom in May. Height, 1 ft. to 2 ft.

Hibbertia Dentata.--An evergreen twining plant, requiring a greenhouse
for its cultivation and a soil of sandy loam and peat. It flowers in
July, and is increased by cuttings taken in spring or summer and kept
under glass. Height, 6 ft.

Hibiscus Africanus.--A handsome hardy annual Mallow. Sow in March
in slight heat, and plant out in May 10 in. apart. Grows best in a
mixture of loam and peat. Blooms in June. Height, 2 ft.

Hibiscus Syriacus (_Rose of Sharon_).--A hardy, deciduous,
autumn-flowering shrub, which will grow in common soil, and may be
propagated by seeds, layers, or cuttings planted under glass. Height,
6 ft.

Hieracium (_Hawkweed_).--A free-growing hardy perennial, suitable for
a sunny bank or border. It is not particular as to soil. From June to
September it produces orange-brown flowers. It grows freely from seed,
and the roots bear division. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Hippeastrums.--_See_ "Amaryllis."

Hippocrepis.--Very pretty hardy trailing perennials, covered from May
to July with golden Pea-shaped flowers. They will grow in any light,
sandy soil, and may be increased by cuttings, which root readily under
glass. Height, 3 in. to 6 in.

Hippophae.--Ornamental shrubs, thriving in ordinary soil, and
increased by layers or cuttings of the roots. H. Rhamnoides (Sea
Buckthorn) flowers in May. Height, 12 ft.

Holboellia Latifolia.--_See_ "Stauntonia Latifolia."

Holly (_Ilex_).--This pleasing hardy evergreen shrub thrives best on
a deep, sandy loam, but will grow in any good soil, provided the
position is dry. It succeeds well in the shade. Cuttings of young
shoots having 1 in. of the old wood attached will strike root, but the
plant is of very slow growth, and takes at least four years to grow
into a good bush. Choice varieties may be grafted or budded on to the
common sorts in June or July. To grow Holly from seed, gather the
berries when ripe, crush them, and mix them up with a little sandy
loam, bury them in a hole 3 ft. deep, and cover with litter. Dig them
up and sow them in March. Big bushes are best moved at the end of
August, mixing the earth to a puddle before planting. The less pruning
they receive the better. They may be trimmed in spring.

Hollyhock.--May be raised from seed or cuttings. Sow the seed about
the second week of March in very rich soil, and cover it with 1 in. of
dry earth. In June (having soaked the bed thoroughly overnight) remove
the young plants to a nursery-bed, setting them 6 in. apart. Press the
earth firmly round the roots, and water plentifully until settled. In
the autumn plant them where they are to bloom. Cuttings may be taken
as soon as the flowers appear, or from the old plants in autumn. Each
joint having an eye will furnish a plant. Select side branches having
two or three joints and leaves. Cut the shoots through just under the
lower joint, leaving the leaf entire; cut it also about 2 in. above
the joint. Plant in equal parts of loam, gritty sand, and leaf-mould;
shelter from the sun, and sprinkle them every day in fine weather with
water. If the cuttings are taken in autumn pot them off in 60-sized
pots, and keep them in a cold frame till the spring, when they may be
planted out. Flowers in August. Height, 6 ft.

Homerias.--Beautiful little South African plants. For out-door
cultivation plant the bulbs in a dry, warm situation, from October
to January, 3 in. deep, and the same distance apart, in rich, light,
well-drained soil, and protect them from heavy rains with a good layer
of leaves. For pot culture put four or five bulbs in a 5-in. pot,
place in a cold frame, and cover with cocoa-nut fibre until the growth
appears. Water moderately, and when the flowers fade abstain from
supplying moisture. The bulbs are not quite hardy, therefore they
should be removed indoors before frosts appear.

Homogyne Alpina.--Hardy herbaceous plants flowering in April. Any soil
is suitable for them, and they may be increased by division. Height, 6
in.

Honesty (_Lunaria_).--Interesting hardy biennials. When dried, the
shining seed-pods make a handsome addition to winter bouquets, mixed
with ornamental grass. Any common soil suits them. Sow the seed any
time from April to June, and transplant them to the border in the
autumn for flowering the following May. Height, 1-1/2 ft. to 3 ft.

Honeysuckles.--These rapid twiners thrive in any loamy soil, and may
be increased by putting down layers in the autumn, after the leaves
begin to fall. They can also be propagated by cuttings taken in the
autumn and planted in a shady, sheltered spot. Caprifolium Brachypoda
and the evergreen C. Sempervirens are handsome, free-flowering kinds,
suitable for almost any situation. C. Aurea-reticulata has beautifully
variegated leaves, which render it very ornamental. Height, 6 ft. to 8
ft.

Hop.--A useful hardy climber for covering verandahs, summer-houses,
etc. Plant in rich, loamy soil, and increase by dividing the roots.
(_See also_ "Humulus Japonicus.")

Hordeum Jubatum (_Squirrel-tail Grass)_.--A very pretty species
resembling miniature barley. Sow seed in March, covering it very
lightly, and keep the surface of the soil moist till the grass
appears. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Horminum Pyrenaicum.--This hardy perennial produces erect white
flowers with blue corolla in June or July. It will grow in any
ordinary soil, but needs protection in winter, as it is apt to be
injured by damp. It may be propagated either by seed or division.
Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Horn Poppy.--_See_ "Glaucium."

Horseradish.--Plant in October or February in deep, rich soil; or it
may be grown on a heap of cinder-ashes, or on any light ground through
which the roots can make their way readily. The best way to increase
it is by slips taken from the roots. It requires little or no
attention beyond pinching out the tops when running to seed and
keeping the ground hoed.

Hotbeds, to Make.--Take dead leaves and stable-straw, with the dung,
in the proportion of two double loads for a three-light frame. Turn it
over four or five times during a fortnight, watering it if it is dry.
Then mark out the bed, allowing 1 ft. or more each way than the size
of the frame. Shake the compost well up, and afterwards beat it down
equally with the fork. Place the frame on the bed, leaving the lights
off for four or five days to allow the rank steam to escape. Keep a
thermometer in the frame, and as soon as the temperature falls below
70 degrees apply a lining of fresh dung to the front and one side of
the bed, and when this again declines, add another lining to the back
and other side, and so on from time to time as occasion requires. The
mats used for covering the frames in frosty weather should be made to
fit the top, and not hang over the sides.

Houseleek.--_See_ "Sempervivum."

Houstonia Coerulea.--These hardy little evergreens are more generally
known as Bluets. They make charming ornaments for rock-work, planted
between large stones, but in this position they need protection from
severe frosts. When planted in pots and placed in a cold frame they
show to most advantage. A mixture of leaf-mould and sand, and a
moist but well-drained situation is what they delight in. They bloom
continuously from April to July. Height, 3 in.

Hovea Celsi.--A greenhouse shrub, which is evergreen and elegant when
in flower in June. A sandy loam and peat soil is most suitable, and
it may be increased by cuttings planted in sand under a hand-glass.
Height, 3 ft.

Humea.--A remarkably handsome and graceful plant, the leaves of which
when slightly bruised yield a strong odour. It is equally suitable for
the centre of beds or large borders, and placed in pots on terraces or
the lawn it is very effective. The seed should be raised on a gentle
hotbed, then potted off and kept in the greenhouse till the second
year, when it may be turned out into a warm situation. It generally
succeeds better in such a position than in the greenhouse. Flowers in
July. Height, 6 ft. to 8 ft.

Humulus Japonicus.--(_Japanese Hop_).--A hardy annual Hop of rapid
growth, the leaves of which are splashed with white. Useful for
covering arbours, verandahs, etc. A deep, loamy soil suits it best.
Increased by seed sown in gentle heat in February, and gradually
hardened off. Flowers in July. Height, 20 ft.

Hutchinsia Alpina.--This small alpine creeper is a profuse bloomer,
its glistening white flowers being produced at all seasons. It grows
in moist vegetable mould, and bears transplanting at any season. Care,
however, is required to prevent its roots over-running and choking
other things. Height, 2 in.

Hyacinths.--May be grown in pots, in glasses, or in beds and borders.
The soil should be rich and light. Good loam mixed with old manure and
a little leaf-mould and sand suits them very well. If intended to be
grown in pots the best time to begin potting is early in September,
putting more in at intervals of two or three weeks until the end of
December. One bulb is sufficient for a 5-in. or 6-in. pot, or three
may be placed in an 8-in. pot. The soil under the bulb should not be
pressed down. The top of the bulb should be just above the surface.
Place the pots on a bed of ashes in a cold frame, put a small inverted
pot over the top of the bulb, and cover the whole with cocoa-nut fibre
or cinder-ashes to the depth of about 4 in. In about a month roots
will have formed with about 1 in. of top growth. The plants may then
be taken out, gradually exposed to the light, and finally removed to
the conservatory or sunny window. The doubles do best in pots.

For growing in glasses select the firmest and best-shaped bulbs.
Those with single blossoms are preferable, as they are of stronger
constitution than the doubles. Fill the glasses with pure pond or rain
water, so that the bulbs just escape touching it, and put a piece
of charcoal in each glass, and change the water when it becomes
offensive, taking care that the temperature is not below that which is
poured away. Stand the glasses in a cool, dark place for three or four
weeks until the roots have made considerable progress, then gradually
inure to the full light. September is a good time to start the growth.

When planted in beds or borders, place the bulbs about 4 in. deep and
6 in. apart, putting a little silver sand below each one. This may be
done at any time from October till frost sets in. They succeed fairly
well in any good garden soil, but give greatest satisfaction when the
ground is rich and light.

Hyacinthus (_Muscari_).--A very hardy race of spring-flowering bulbs.
Though the varieties are very dissimilar in appearance, they all
produce a good effect, especially when planted in good large clumps.
Plant from September to December. A sandy soil suits them best.
The following are well-known varieties:--_BOTRYOIDES_ (_Grape
Hyacinth_).--Very pretty and hardy, bearing fine spikes of deep,
rich blue flowers in compact clusters on a stem 6 to 9 in. high.
Sweet-scented, and blooms about May. The _Alba_, or white, variety is
also sweet-scented.

Hyacinthus--_continued_.

_CANDICANS_ (_Galtonia_).--The white Cape Hyacinth, or Spire Lily.
A hardy, summer-flowering, bulbous plant 3 ft. to 4 ft. in height,
gracefully surmounted with from twenty to fifty pendent, bell-shaped
snow-white flowers. Thrives in any position and equally suitable for
indoor or outdoor decoration.

_MOSCHATUS_ (_Musk Hyacinth_).--Bears very fragrant purplish flowers.

_PLVMOSUM_ (_Feather Hyacinth_).--A fine, hardy, dwarf plant suitable
for any soil. Its massive sprays of fine blue flowers, arranged in
curious clusters, 5 to 6 in. in length, resemble much-branched slender
coral.

_RACEMOSUM_ (_Starch Hyacinth_).--Rich dark-blue or reddish-purple
flowers. Very free-flowering and fine for massing. It is similar to
the Cape Hyacinth, but flowers in denser spikes.

Hydrangea.--This shrub delights in a moist, sheltered position and
rich soil. It may be increased at any time from cuttings of the young
side-shoots, 2 or 3 in. long, under glass, in sandy soil. The old
stems will also strike if planted in a sheltered situation. The plants
should be cut back when they have done flowering, and protected from
frost; or they may be cut down to the root and covered with manure.
They are well suited for the front of shrubberies, and also make fine
plants for pot cultivation. The flowers are produced in June and July.
Height, 3 ft.

Hymenanthera Crassifolia.--Ornamental evergreen shrubs, thriving best
in a compost of loam and peat. They are increased by cuttings planted
in sand and subjected to a little heat. Height, 6 ft.

Hymenoxys.--Pretty little hardy annuals that may be easily raised
from seed sown early in March in any garden soil. They bloom in June.
Height, 1 ft.

Hypericum (_St. John's Wort_).--Favourite dwarf shrubs. Any soil suits
the hardy kinds, but they prefer shade and moisture. These may be
increased by seed or division. The greenhouse varieties thrive best in
a mixture of loam and peat. Young cuttings placed in sand under glass
will strike. July is their flowering season. Height, 1-1/2 ft. to 2
ft.


I


Iberis.--_See_ "Candytuft."

Ice Plants.--_See_ "Mesembryanthemum."

Ilex.--_See_ "Holly."

Impatiens Sultani.--Half-hardy perennials. May be raised from seed
sown early in spring on a hotbed, or later on in a shady spot in the
open border; greenhouse culture, however, is more suitable. They bloom
in August. Height, 11/2 ft.

Incarvilleas.--Ornamental hardy herbaceous plants, of easy culture.
They are suitable for the border or the rockery, and will grow in any
soil if not too dry and exposed. The tuberous roots may be planted at
any time in autumn, 4 in. deep. I. Delavayi makes a fine solitary or
lawn plant, its leaves being from 1 to 3 ft. long; the soft rose-pink,
Mimulus-shaped flowers, which are carried on stout stems well above
the foliage, appearing in May. Care should be taken not to disturb it
in spring, and it is advisable to cover the roots in winter with a
pyramid of ashes, which may be carefully removed at the end of April.
Incarvilleas may be propagated by seed sown, as soon as it is ripe,
in light, well-drained soil, giving the young plants protection in a
frame during the first winter, with enough water merely to keep them
moist. Height, 2 ft.

Indian Corn.--_See_ "Zea."

Indian Shot.--_See_ "Canna."

India-rubber Plants.--_See_ "Ficus."

Indigofera.--Beautiful evergreen shrubs. I. Australis has elegant,
fern-like foliage and racemes of pink or purple Pea-shaped flowers in
April. I. Decora Alba bears its white flowers in July. They require a
sandy loam or peat soil, and greenhouse culture. Cuttings of the young
wood planted in sand under glass will strike. Height, 21/2 ft.

Insects on Plants.--To destroy insects on plants wash the plant with
Tobacco-Water (_which see_). Or put 1 oz. of quassia chips in a muslin
bag, pour on some boiling water, and make it up to I gallon; dissolve
1 oz. of soft soap, add it to the chips, and stir well. Use it two or
three times during spring and early summer.

Inula Royleana (_Fleabane_).--A hardy perennial which flowers in
November. It will grow in any garden soil, and can be increased by
seeds, or by division of the roots. Height, 3 ft.

Ionopsidium.--These hardy annuals grow freely in any rich, damp soil;
a shady position is indispensable. Height, 1/8 ft.

Ipomoea.--These beautiful climbing plants are very suitable for
covering trellis-work, or for the pillars or rafters of the
stove-house. The seed is generally sown in April on a hotbed or under
glass, and the young plants set out in the border of the house in May
in light, rich soil. Success is mainly secured by allowing plenty of
root-room. The perennial kinds are increased from cuttings taken from
the small side-shoots placed in sand in a brisk bottom-heat. If grown
in the open they often shed their seed, and come up year after year
with but little attention. They make a good contrast to Canariensis.
The Ipomoea Horsfalliae, with its bright scarlet flowers, has a
lovely appearance, but must be treated as a stove evergreen. This is
propagated by layers, or by grafting on some strong-growing kind. It
thrives in loam and peat mixed with a little dung, and flowers in July
or August. Height, 6 ft. to 10 ft.

Ipomopsis.--A very beautiful half-hardy biennial, but difficult to
cultivate. Some gardeners steep the seed in hot water before sowing
it; but the best way seems to be to sow it in July in 3-in. pots in
equal parts of sandy peat and loam, ensuring good drainage, and place
it in a cold frame, giving it very little water. When the leaves
appear, thin out the plants to three or four in each pot. Replace them
in the frame for a week or so, then remove them to a light, airy part
of the greenhouse for the winter. During this period be careful not
to over-water them. In spring shift them into well-drained 4-1/2-in.
pots, using the same kind of soil as before, and taking great care not
to injure the roots; still give the least possible amount of water. If
plenty of light and air be given, they will flower in July or August.
Height, 2 ft.

Iresines.--Take cuttings of these greenhouse plants in autumn; insert
them thinly in 48-size pots filled with coarse sand, loam, and
leaf-mould, and place in a uniform temperature of 60 or 70 degrees.
When they have taken root place them near the glass. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Iris.--The Iris is the orchid of the flower garden; its blossoms are
the most rich and varied in colour of hardy plants. For cutting, for
vases, table decoration, etc., it is exceedingly useful, as it is very
free-flowering, and lasts a long time in water. It thrives in almost
any soil, though a sandy one suits it best, and is strikingly
effective when planted in clumps. It soon increases if left
undisturbed. The English Iris blooms in June and July, bearing large
and magnificent flowers ranging in colour from white to deep purple,
some being self-colours, while others are prettily marbled. The German
Iris is especially suitable for town gardens. The Spanish Iris blooms
a fortnight before the English. Its flowers, however, are smaller,
and the combinations of colours very different. The Leopard Iris
(_Pardanthus Chinensis_)is very showy, its orange-yellow flowers,
spotted purple-brown, appearing in June and July. They are quite
hardy. The best time for planting them is October or November,
selecting a sunny position. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Isopyrums--Hardy herbaceous plants of great beauty, nearly related to
the Thalictrums. They will grow in any ordinary soil, but flourish
best in vegetable mould, and in a moist, yet open, situation. They
are readily raised from seed, or may be propagated by division of the
roots in autumn. They flower in July. Height, 1 ft. to 1-1/2 ft.

Ivy (_Hedera_).--A deep, rich soil suits the common Ivy; the more
tender kinds require a lighter mould. To increase them, plant slips in
a north border in sandy soil. Keep them moist through the autumn,
and plant them out when well rooted. The following are the principal
choice sorts:--Aurea Spectabilis, palmate-leaved, blotched with
yellow; Cavendishii, a slender-growing variety, leaves margined with
white, with a bronzy shade on the edge; Conglomerata, crumpled leaves;
Elegantissima, slender-growing, with silvery variegated leaves; Irish
Gold-Blotch, large leaves, blotched with yellow; Latifolia Maculata,
large white-blotched leaves; Lee's Silver, silver variegated;
Maderiensis Variegata, leaves broadly marked with white; Marmorata,
small leaves blotched and marbled with white; Pupurea, small leaves
of a bright green changing to bronzy-purple; Rhomboides Obovata, deep
green foliage; Rhomboides Variegata, greyish-green leaves, edged with
white; and Silver Queen, a good hardy variety.

Ixias.--Plant out of doors from September to December, in a
sunny, sheltered position, in light, rich, sandy soil. For indoor
cultivation, plant four bulbs in a 5-in. pot in a compost of loam,
leaf-mould, and silver sand. Plunge the pot in ashes in a frame or
cold pit, and withhold water until the plants appear. When making free
growth remove them to the conservatory or greenhouse, placing them
near the glass, and give careful attention to the watering. Ixias are
also known under the name of African Corn Lilies.


J


Jacobaea (_Ragwort_).--May be raised from cuttings in the same way as
Verbenas, and will grow freely from seeds sown in autumn or spring.
It delights in a rich, light soil. The purple Jacobaea is a great
favourite of the public. Flowers in August. Height, 1 ft.

Jacob's Ladder.--_See_ "Polemonium."

Jasione Perennis (_Sheep Scabious_).--A hardy perennial which produces
a profusion of heads of blue flowers in June, and continues to bloom
till August. It enjoys a peat soil, and should have the protection of
a frame during the winter. It can be propagated by seeds, cuttings, or
division. Height, 1 ft.

Jasminum.--These are favourite plants for training over arbours or
trellis-work, and for growing against walls. The hardy kinds will
flourish in ordinary soil. The stove and greenhouse sorts should
be provided with a mixture of sandy peat and loam. They may all be
increased by cuttings of ripened wood planted in a sandy soil under
glass. J. Nudifolium produces an abundance of bright flowers after
its leaves have fallen, and is very suitable for town gardens. J.
Unofficinale is likewise adapted for town, bearing confinement well,
and has very sweet flowers. J. Revolutum needs protection in severe
weather. They bloom in July. Height, 12 ft.

Job's Tears.--_See_ "Coix Lachryma."

Jonquils.--These are quite hardy, and may be grown in the open in the
same manner as Hyacinths. Five or six bulbs in a 5-in. pot make a
very pretty bouquet. They are excellent early flowers, and very
odoriferous. Plant in autumn, placing sand round the bulbs. Best not
disturbed too often. The leaves should not be cut off when withering,
but allowed to die down. They bloom in April. Height, 1 ft.

Joss Flower.--_See_ "Chinese Sacred Narcissus."

Juniper (_Juniperus_).--These useful conifers prefer dry chalk or
sandy soils, but will thrive in any ground that is not too heavy.
J. Japonica, Sabina, and Tamariscifolia do well on steep banks and
rock-work. They may be propagated by seeds, grafting, or by cuttings
of firm young shoots planted in a sandy compost, kept shaded, and
covered with a hand-glass.


K


Kadsura Japonica.--This is a beautiful creeper for a south or west
aspect. It thrives best in loam and sandy peat. Cuttings may be struck
in sand, placed under a glass, and subjected to heat.

Kale.--_See_ "Borecole."

Kalmia Latifolia.--This hardy, dwarf evergreen shrub is deservedly a
great favourite. It produces a wealth of flowers in large clusters. It
requires to be grown in peat or good leaf-mould, and needs pure air.
It is increased by pegging down the lower branches, which soon become
rooted. The flowers are produced from June to August. Height, 2 ft.

Kalosanthes.--Showy greenhouse succulent plants. A light, turfy loam
is suitable for them, and they may be increased by placing cuttings of
the young shoots in a sandy soil on a slight hotbed in spring. Pinch
them back so as to produce a bushy growth, and give support to the
heavy heads of bloom. The cuttings should be left for twenty-four
hours to dry before they are planted. The plants require very little
water, and they flower in July. Height, 6 in. to 1 ft.

Kaulfussia.--Sow this pretty hardy annual in April in the open border,
or in March in slight heat. It may also be sown in autumn for early
flowering. It will succeed in any light soil, blooming in July.
Height, 6 in.

Kennedya Marryattæ.--A greenhouse evergreen twining plant of a very
beautiful order, which thrives best in a compost of sandy loam and
peat. Cuttings of the young wood planted in sand, and having a
bottom-heat, will strike. It produces its flowers in May. Height, 4
ft. Other varieties of Kennedyas range from 2 to 10 ft. They all need
to be well drained and not to stand too near the pipes.

Kerria (_Corchorus_).--Beautiful hardy shrubs, which may be grown in
any garden soil, and can be propagated by cuttings of the young wood,
taken at a joint, and placed under glass. They flower at midsummer.
Height, 4 ft.

Koelreuteria Paniculata.--This is an ornamental tree bearing long
spikes of yellow flowers in July. It will grow in any soil, but
requires a sheltered position, and may be increased by layers or root
cuttings. Height, 10 ft.

Kohl Rabi (_Turnip-rooted Cabbage_).--Though mostly grown as a farm
crop, this vegetable is strongly recommended for garden cultivation,
as it is both productive and nutritious, and is delicious when cooked
while still very small and young. Sow in March, and transplant to
deeply-dug and liberally manured ground, at a distance of 15 in. from
each other.


L


Lachenalia. (_Cape Cowslips_).--Charming greenhouse plants for pot
or basket culture. Pot in December in a compost of fibrous loam,
leaf-mould, and sand; place as near the glass as possible, and never
allow the soil to become dry, but maintain good drainage, and only
give a little water till they have produced their second leaves. No
more heat is required than will keep out the frost.

Lactuca Sonchifolia. (_Sow Thistle-Leaved Lettuce_).--An ornamental,
but not handsome, hardy perennial, with leaves 1 ft. in length and
9 in. in breadth. It is of neat habit and enjoys the sunshine. A
deeply-dug, sandy loam suits it, and it may be increased by seed or
division of the roots. The flowers are produced from September till
frost sets in. Height, 2 ft.

Ladies' Slipper Orchid.--_See_ "Cypripedium."

Lady's Mantle.--_See_ "Alchemilla."

Lagurus Ovatus.--This hardy annual is commonly known as Hare's-Tail
Grass. It is distinctly ornamental, producing elegant egg-shaped tufts
of a silvery-white hue, and is fine for ornamenting bouquets. Sow in
March, and keep the ground moist till the seed germinates. Height, 1
ft.

Lallemantia Canescens.--Bees are very fond of this blue hardy annual,
which may readily be grown from seed sown in the spring. Height, 1 ft.

Lamium.--These plants are mostly of a hardy herbaceous description and
of little value. They will grow well in any kind of soil, flowering
from March to July, according to their varieties, and can be
propagated by seed or division. Height, 6 in. to 1 ft.

Lantana.--These dwarf, bushy, half-hardy perennial shrubs bear
Verbena-like blossoms. They like a dry and warm situation and rich,
light soil. The seed is sown in March to produce summer and autumn
blooming plants. If cuttings are placed in sand, in heat, they will
take root easily. Height, 1 ft. to 1-1/2 ft.

Lapageria Rosea.--A beautiful climbing plant which bears large
rose-coloured flowers in May. It can be grown in any light, rich soil,
but a compost of leaf-mould, sand, and peat suits it best. It makes
a very desirable greenhouse plant, and can be increased either by
cuttings or by division. Lapagerias require partial shade, plenty of
water, and good drainage. Height, 10 ft.

Lardizabala Biternata.--This climbing shrub has fine ornamental
foliage. It is most suitable for a south or west aspect, where it
proves hardy; in other positions protection should be afforded. It
will grow in any good soil. May is the month in which it flowers.
Height, 20 ft.

Larkspur.--The Stock-flowered Larkspur is of the same habit as the
Dutch Rocket, but has longer spikes and larger and more double
flowers. The Hyacinth-flowered is an improved strain of the Rocket.
Among other of the hardy annual varieties may be mentioned the
Candelabrum-formed, the Emperor, and the Ranunculi-flowered. They are
charming flowers for beds or mixed borders, and only require the same
treatment as ordinary annuals, when they will flower in June. Height,
1 ft. to 2-1/2 ft. For perennial Larkspurs, _see_ "Delphinium."

Lasiandra.--Stove evergreen shrubs, flourishing best in a mixture of
equal parts of loam, peat, and sand. They are propagated by cuttings
of the young wood, plunged in heat. July is their flowering month.
Height, 5 ft.

Lasthenia.--A hardy annual of a rather pretty nature, suitable for
flower-beds or borders. Autumn is the best time for sowing the seed,
but it may also be sown early in the spring. It blooms in May. Height,
1 ft.

Lathyrus.--Handsome plants when in flower, the larger kinds being well
adapted as backgrounds to other plants in the shrubbery, where they
will require supports. They may be planted in any garden soil, and can
be increased by seed, and some of the perennial kinds by division of
the root. L. Latifolia (Everlasting Pea) flowers in August, other
varieties at different times, from May onwards. Height, 1 ft. to 8 ft.

Laurel.--Laurels will grow in any good garden soil. They are grown
both as bushes and standards, and require but little attention beyond
watering. The standards are produced by choosing a young Portugal
plant and gradually removing the side-shoots on the lower part of the
stem, and when the desired height is reached a well-balanced head is
cultivated, any eyes that break out on the stem being rubbed off
with the thumb. Lauro Rotundifolia is beyond dispute the best of all
Laurels; it is of free growth and of dense habit, and its leaves are
roundish and of a lively green. (_See also_ "Epigaea.") All Laurels
may be propagated by cuttings and by layers, the latter being the plan
usually adopted.

Laurestinus.--_See_ "Viburnum Tinus."

Laurus.--_See_ "Bay, Sweet."

Lavatera.--The greenhouse and frame kinds grow in any light soil, and
are increased by cuttings of the ripened wood, under glass. The hardy
herbaceous species grow well in any common soil, and are propagated by
seeds or division. The annuals are sown in the open in spring. Some
bloom in June, others as late as August. Height, 2 ft. to 5 ft.

Lavender (_Lavandula Spied_).--A hardy shrub whose sweetly-scented
flowers, which are produced in August, are much prized. A dry,
gravelly soil is what it likes best. Young plants should be raised
every three years. It is readily propagated from seed sown in spring.
Cuttings about 8 in. long, taken in autumn and planted 4 in. deep
under a hand-light or in a shaded, sheltered position, will strike.
Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Lawns--To make or renovate Lawns sow the seed on damp ground during
March or April, if possible, but in any case not later than September,
as the young plants are easily ruined by frost. Rake the seed in
lightly, afterwards roll with a wooden roller, and carefully weed the
ground until the grass is well established. To form a thick bottom
quickly on new Lawns sow 60 lbs., or 3 bushels, to the acre; for
improving old ones, 20 lbs. per acre. Frequent cutting and rolling is
essential to success. If the grass is inclined to grow rank and coarse
it will be much improved by a good dressing of sand over it; if it has
an inclination to scald and burn up, sprinkle it with guano or soot
just before a shower of rain. An accumulation of moss upon a lawn can
only be cured by under-draining.

Lawns, Shrubs for.--_See_ "Shrubs for Lawns."

Layering.--_See under_ "Carnations."

Ledum (_Labrador Tea_).--Low-growing American evergreen shrubs,
thriving best in sandy peat, and may be increased by layers.

Leek.--Sow early in March, and prick out the plants in rich soil, in a
sheltered position, to strengthen. As soon as they are large enough,
plant them out in very rich, light ground in drills 6 in. between each
plant and the rows 18 in. apart. For large exhibition Leeks sow in
boxes in February, under glass. Plant out in June in trenches 15 in.
wide and 18 in. deep, with plenty of old manure at the bottom of the
trench and 6 in. of good light mould on the top of it. Gradually earth
up as the stems grow. Water liberally in dry weather, and give a
little weak liquid manure occasionally.

Leontopodium.--Hardy perennials, succeeding best in peat soil. They
are most suitable for rock-work, and may be increased by seed or
division of the roots. Bloom is produced in June. Height, 6 in.

Leopard's Bane.--_See_ "Doronicum."

Leptosiphon.--Charming hardy annuals which make nice pot-plants. The
seed should be sown in rich, light soil--peat for preference. If this
is done in autumn they will flower in April and May; if sown in
spring they will bloom in autumn. They are very attractive in beds or
ribbons, and also on rock-work. Height, 3 in. to 1 ft.

Leptospermum.--Neat greenhouse evergreen shrubs, most at home in equal
portions of loam, peat, and sand. Cuttings may be struck in sand under
glass. They flower in June. Height, 4 ft. to 5 ft.

Leschenaultia.--Elegant greenhouse shrubs, delighting in a mixture of
turfy loam, peat, and sand. They are evergreen, flower in June, and
are propagated by cuttings of the young wood under glass. Height, 1
ft.

Lettuce.--Sow early in February on a slight hotbed, and prick out into
a well-manured and warm border, having the soil broken down fine on
the surface. For early summer supplies sow outdoors in March, and at
intervals till the middle of September for later crops. Some of the
plants raised in September should be wintered in a cold frame, and the
remainder transplanted to a dry, sheltered border, or protected with
hand-lights. The June and July sowings may be made where the plants
are intended to remain. They should stand from 6 to 9 in. apart. A
north border is a suitable position in the summer months, as they are
less exposed to the sun, and do not run to seed so quickly. The Cos
Lettuce requires to be tied up to blanch; this should be done ten days
before it is wanted for use. Cabbage Lettuce does not need to be tied.

Leucanthemum (_Hardy Marguerites_).--Same treatment as Chrysanthemum.

Leucojum (_Snowflake_).--Also known as St. Agnes' Flower. Handsome
plants. The flowers are pure white, every petal being tipped with
green, dropping in a cluster of from six to eight blooms, each nearly
1 in. long. They grow freely in almost any soil, sandy loam being
preferable. Increased by off-sets from the bulb, or by seed as soon as
it is ripe. The spring snowflake blooms in March, the summer variety
in June. The latter is a much more vigorous plant than the former.
Height, 12 in. to 18 in.

Leucophyton Browni.--A popular white-foliaged bedding plant, which may
be increased by dibbling cuttings in sandy soil and placing them in a
cool frame.

Lewisia Rediviva.--This makes a pretty rock-plant. It is a perennial
and quite hardy, but requires plenty of sun. During April and May it
produces large flowers varying in colour from satiny rose to white.
The most suitable soil is a light loam mixed with brick rubbish. It
is increased by division of the root, or it may be raised from seed.
Height, 3 in.

Leycesteria Formosa.--Ornamental plants, the flowers resembling Hops
of a purple colour. They will grow in any soil, but need protection in
winter. They are multiplied by cuttings. Height, 3 ft.

Liatris Pycnostachya.--A curious old herbaceous perennial, now seldom
met with, sending up late in summer a dense cylindrical purple spike
2 ft. high. It needs a rich, light, sandy soil, and to be protected
during the winter with a thick covering of litter. The roots may be
divided in the spring. Height, 3 ft.

Libertia Formosa.--The narrow foliage and spikes of pure white
flowers, produced in May and June, render this hardy perennial very
ornamental. The soil should consist of equal parts of loam and peat.
It is propagated by dividing the roots. Height, 1 ft.

Libonia Floribunda.--This is a winter-flowering plant, and is easily
grown in a cool greenhouse. It is very useful for table decoration,
its slender red and yellow tubes of bloom being very effective, but it
does not do to keep it for any length of time in a room where there
is gas. When flowering has ceased, encourage new growth by giving it
plenty of water, air, and sunlight. The new shoots should be cut back
in May, and the tips of them used as cuttings, which strike readily in
good mould. Height, 2 ft.

Ligustrum _(Privet)._--L. Ovalifolium is a handsome hardy evergreen,
of very rapid growth, and one of the best ornamental hedge plants in
cultivation, especially for towns or smoky situations. L. Japonicum is
likewise ornamental and hardy: Tricolor is considered one of the
best light-coloured variegated plants grown. L. Coriaceum is a
slow-growing, compact bush with very dark, shining green leaves,
which are round, thick, and leathery. Privet will grow in any soil or
situation, and is readily increased by cuttings planted in the shade
in spring.

Lilac--_See_ "Syringa."

Lilium.--The Lily is admirably adapted for pot culture, the
conservatory, and the flower border, and will flourish in any light
soil or situation. To produce fine specimens in pots they should be
grown in a mixture of light turfy loam and leaf-mould. Six bulbs
planted in a 12-in. pot form a good group. The pots should have free
ventilation, and the bulbs be covered with 1 in. of mould. For outdoor
cultivation plant the bulbs 4 to 5 in. deep, from October to March.
After once planting they require but little care, and should not be
disturbed oftener than once in three years, as established plants
bloom more freely than if taken up annually. Give a thin covering of
manure during the winter. Lilium seed may be sown in well-drained pots
or shallow boxes filled with equal parts of peat, leaf-mould, loam,
and sand. Cover the seeds slightly with fine mould and place the boxes
or pots in a temperature of 55 or 65 degrees. A cold frame will
answer the purpose, but the seeds will take longer to germinate. The
Lancifolium and Auratum varieties have a delicious fragrance.

Lilium--_continued_.

_CANDIDUM_ (the Madonna, or White Garden Lily) should be planted
before the middle of October, if possible, in groups of three, in
well-drained, highly-manured loam. Should they decline, take them up
in September and re-plant at once in fresh, rich soil, as they will
not stand being kept out of the ground long. They are increased by
off-sets. As soon as these are taken from the parent bulb, plant them
in a nursery-bed; after two years they may be transferred to the
garden. This Lily is quite hardy, and needs no protection during
winter.

_LANCIFOLIUM_ make very fine pot-plants, or they may be placed in a
sunny situation in the border, but in the latter case they must have
a thick covering of dry ashes in winter. If grown in pots place them,
early in March, in rich, sandy soil. Three bulbs are sufficient for an
11-in. pot. Give very little water, but plenty air in mild weather.
Let them grow slowly. When all frost is over place pans under them,
mulch the surface with old manure, and supply freely with air and
water. They are propagated by off-sets.

_MARTAGON_ (or Turk's Cap) requires the same treatment as the
Candidum, with the exception that a little sand should be added to the
soil.

_TIGRINUM_ (Tiger Lily) also receives the same treatment as the
Madonna. When the flower-stems grow up they throw out roots. A few
lumps of horse manure should be placed round for these roots to lay
hold of. They are increased by the tiny bulbs which form at the axis
of the leaves of the flower-stem. When these fall with a touch they
are planted in rich, light earth, about 6 in. apart. In four or five
years' time they will make fine bulbs.

_AURATUM_ and _SZOVITZIANUM_ (or Colchicum) thrive best in a deep,
friable, loamy soil, which should be well stirred before planting. If
the soil is of a clayey nature it should be loosened to a depth of
several feet, and fresh loam, coarse sand, and good peat or leaf-mould
added, to make it sufficiently light.

For _PARDALINUM_ (the Panther Lily) and _SUPERBUM_ mix the garden soil
with three parts peat and one part sand, and keep the ground moist.
They should occupy a rather shady position.

All the other varieties will succeed in any good garden soil enriched
with leaf-mould or well-decayed manure.

For _VALLOTA_ (Scarborough Lily), _BELLADONNA_, and _FORMOSISSIMA_ (or
Jacobean) Lilies, _see_ "Amaryllis."

For _AFRICAN LILY, see_ "Agapanthus."

For _PERUVIAN LILIES, see_ "Alstromeria."

For _ST BERNARD'S_ and _ST BRUNO'S LILIES, see_ "Anthericum."

For _CAFFRE LILIES, see_ "Clivias."

Lily of the Valley.--Set the roots in bunches 1 ft. apart, and before
severe weather sets in cover them with a dressing of well-rotted
manure. They should not be disturbed, even by digging among the roots.
If grown in pots, they should be kept in a cool place and perfectly
dry when their season is over: by watering they will soon come into
foliage and flower again. For forcing put ten or twelve "buds" in a
5-in. pot--any light soil will do--plunge the pot in a sheltered part
of the garden. From this they may be removed to the forcing-house as
required to be brought into bloom. Plunge the pots in cocoa-nut fibre
and maintain an even temperature of from 65 to 70 degrees.

Limnanthes Douglasii.--Very elegant and beautiful hardy annuals,
which are slightly fragrant. They must be grown in a moist and shady
situation. The seeds ripen freely, and should be sown in autumn to
produce bloom in June, or they may be sown in spring for flowering at
a later period. Height, 1 ft.

Linaria.--These all do best in a light, sandy loam, and make good
plants for rock-work. L. Bipartita is suitable for an autumn sowing.
The other annuals are raised in spring. L. Triornithophora is a
biennial, and may be sown any time between April and June, or in
August. The hardy perennial, L. Alpina, should be sown in April, and
if necessary transplanted in the autumn. Linarias flower from July to
September. Height, 6 in. to 1 ft.

Linnaea Borealis.--A rare, native, evergreen creeping perennial.
From July to September it bears pale pink flowers; it makes a pretty
pot-plant, and also does well in the open when planted in a shady
position. It enjoys a peat soil, and is propagated by separating the
creeping stems after they are rooted. Height, 11/2 in.

Linum (_Flax_).--This succeeds best in rich, light mould. The Linum
Flavum, or Golden Flax, is very suitable for pot culture; it grows 9
in. in height, and bears brilliant yellow flowers. It requires the
same treatment as other half-hardy perennials. The Scarlet Flax is an
annual, very free-flowering, and unsurpassed for brilliancy; easily
raised from seed sown in spring. Height, 11/2 ft. The hardy, shrubby
kinds may be increased by cuttings placed under glass. A mixture
of loam and peat makes a fine soil for the greenhouse and frame
varieties. They flower from March to July.

Lippia Reptans.--A frame creeping perennial which flowers in June. It
requires a light soil. Cuttings of the young wood may be struck under
glass. Height, 1 ft.

Lithospermum Prostratum.--A hardy perennial, evergreen trailer,
needing no special culture, and adapting itself to any soil. It is
increased by cuttings of the previous year's growth, placed in peat
and silver sand, shaded and kept cool, but not too wet. They should be
struck early in summer, so as to be well rooted before winter sets in.
Its blue flowers are produced in June. Height, 1 ft.

Loasa.--The flowers are both beautiful and curiously formed, but the
plants have a stinging property. They grow well in any loamy soil, and
are easily increased by seed sown in spring. Flowers are produced in
June and July. Height, 2 ft. Besides the annuals there is a half-hardy
climber, L. Aurantiaca, bearing orange-coloured flowers, and attaining
the height of 10 or 12 ft.

Lobelia.--These effective plants may be raised from seed sown in
January or February in fine soil. Sprinkle a little silver sand or
very fine mould over the seed; place in a greenhouse, or in a frame
having a slight bottom-heat, and when large enough prick them out
about 1 in. apart; afterwards put each single plant in a thumb-pot,
and plant out at the end of May. As the different varieties do not
always come true from seed, it is best to propagate by means of
cuttings taken in autumn, or take up the old plants before the frost
gets to them, remove all the young shoots (those at the base of the
plant are best, and if they have a little root attached to them so
much the better), and plant them thinly in well-drained, shallow pans
of leaf-mould and sand; plunge the pans in a hotbed under a frame,
shade them from hot sunshine, and when they are rooted remove them to
the greenhouse till spring, at which time growth must be encouraged by
giving a higher temperature and frequent syringing. They may then be
planted out in light, rich soil, where they will bloom in June or
July. Height, 4 in.

Lobels Catchfly.--_See_ "Silene."

London Pride.--_See_ "Saxifrage."

Lonicera.--Hardy deciduous shrubs, which will grow in any ordinary
soil, and produce their flowers in April or May. They are propagated
by cuttings planted in a sheltered position. Prune as soon as
flowering is over. Height, from 3 ft. to 10 ft.

Lophospermum.--Very elegant half-hardy climbers. Planted against a
wall in the open air, or at the bottom of trellis-work, they will
flower abundantly in June, but the protection of a greenhouse is
necessary in winter. They like a rich, light soil, and may be grown
from seeds sown on a slight hotbed in spring, or from cuttings taken
young and placed under glass. Height, 10 ft.

Love Apples.--_See_ "Tomatoes."

Love Grass.--_See_ "Eragrostis."

Love-in-a-Mist.--_See_ "Nigella."

Love-lies-Bleeding (_Amaranthus Caudatus_).--A hardy annual bearing
graceful drooping racemes of crimson blossom. The seed should be sown
in the open at the end of March, and thinned out or transplanted with
a good ball of earth. Makes a fine border plant. Height, 2 ft.

Luculia Gratissima.--A fine plant either for the wall or border. It
grows well in a compost of peat and light, turfy loam, but it is not
suitable for pot culture. During growing time abundance of water
is needed. When flowering has ceased, cut it hard back. It may be
increased by layering, or by cuttings placed in sand under glass and
subjected to heat. It flowers in August. Height, 8 ft.

Lunaria.--_See_ "Honesty."

Lupins.--Though old-fashioned flowers, these still rank among our most
beautiful annual and herbaceous border plants. They may be grown in
any soil, but a rich loam suits them best. The seed germinates freely
when sown in March, and the flowers are produced in July. Height, 2
ft. to 3 ft.

Lychnis.--Hardy perennials which, though rather straggling, deserve
to be cultivated on account of the brilliancy of their flowers. L.
Chalcedonica, commonly known as Ragged Robin, is perhaps the most
showy variety; but L. Viscaria Plena, or Catchfly, is a very beautiful
plant. They grow freely in light, rich, loamy soil, but need dividing
frequently to prevent them dwindling away. The best season for this
operation is early in spring. Beyond the care that is needed to
prevent the double varieties reverting to a single state, they merely
require the same treatment as other hardy perennials. They flower in
June and July. Height, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Lyre Flower.--_See_ "Dielytra."

Lysimachia Clethroides.--This hardy perennial has something of the
appearance of a tall Speedwell. When in flower it is attractive, and
as it blooms from July on to September it is worth a place in the
border. A deep, rich loam is most suitable for its growth, and a
sheltered position is of advantage. The roots may be divided either in
November or early in spring. Height, 3 ft.

Lysimachia Nummularia (_Creeping Jenny_).--This plant is extremely
hardy, and is eminently suitable either for rock-work or pots. It is
of the easiest cultivation, and when once established requires merely
to be kept in check. Every little piece of the creeping root will, if
taken off, make a fresh plant.

Lythrum.--Very handsome hardy perennials which thrive in any garden
soil, and may be raised from seed or increased by dividing the roots.
They flower in July. Height, of different varieties, 6 in. to 4 ft.


M


Madia.--A hardy annual of a rather handsome order. The seed should be
sown in May in a shady situation. The plant is not particular as to
soil, and will flower about eight weeks after it is sown, and continue
to bloom during August and September. Height, 11/2 ft.

Magnolia Grandiflora.--A handsome, hardy evergreen, with large
shining, Laurel-shaped leaves, and highly-scented, Tulip-shaped white
flowers. A noble plant for a spacious frontage, but in most places
requires to be grown on a wall. It flourishes in any damp soil, and is
increased by layers. Flowers in August. Height, 20 ft.

Mahonia.--Handsome evergreen shrubs, useful for covert planting or for
grouping with others. They grow best in a compost of sand, peat, and
loam, and may be propagated by cuttings or by layers of ripened wood,
laid down in autumn. They flower in April. Height, 4 ft. to 6 ft.

Maianthemum Bifolium.--The flowers of this hardy perennial are
produced in April and May, and somewhat resemble miniature Lily of the
Valley. Seed may be sown at the end of July. The plant will grow in
any soil, but delights in partial shade. Height, 6 in.

Maize.--_See_ "Zea."

Malope.--Very beautiful hardy annuals having soft leaves. They may be
raised from seed sown in April in any garden soil. They bloom in June
or July. Height, 11/2 ft. to 2 ft.

Malva.--Very ornamental plants, more especially the greenhouse
varieties. The hardy perennials succeed in any good garden soil, and
are increased by seed sown in the autumn, or by division of the
root. The greenhouse kinds should be grown in rich earth: these are
propagated by cuttings planted in light soil. The annuals are poor
plants. Some of the varieties bloom in June, others in August. Height,
2 ft.

Mandevillea Suaveolens.--A fine climbing plant bearing very sweet
white flowers in June. It is rather tender, and more suitable for the
conservatory than the open air. It does not make a good pot-plant, but
finds a suitable home in the border of the conservatory in equal parts
of peat and sandy loam. In pruning adopt the same method as for the
vine or other plants which bear flowers on wood of the same year's
growth. It is propagated by seed sown in heat, or by cuttings under
glass. Syringe the leaves daily during the hot season. A temperature
of from 40 to 50 degrees in winter, and from 55 to 65 degrees in
summer should be maintained. Height, 10 ft.

Manures.--One of the best fertilisers of the soil is made by
saturating charred wood with urine. This may be drilled in with seeds
in a dry state. For old gardens liquid manure is preferable to stable
manure, and if lime or chalk be added it will keep in good heart for
years without becoming too rich. A good manure is made by mixing 64
bushels of lime with 2 cwts. of salt. This is sufficient for one
acre. It should be forked in directly it is put upon the ground.
Superphosphate of lime mixed with a small amount of nitrate of
soda and forked into the ground is also a fine manure, but is more
expensive than that made from lime and salt. Charred cow-dung is
ready for immediate use. For established fruit-trees use, in showery
weather, equal quantities of muriate of potash and nitrate of soda,
scattering 1 oz. to the square yard round the roots. Peruvian guano,
in the proportion of 1 oz. to each gallon of water, is a very powerful
and rapid fertiliser. In whatever form manure is given, whether in
a dry or liquid form, care must be taken not to administer it in
excessive quantities, for too strong a stimulant is as injurious as
none at all. In ordinary cases loam with a fourth part leaf-mould is
strong enough for potting purposes; and no liquid except plain water
should be given until the plants have been established some time. For
roses, rhubarb, and plants that have occupied the same ground for a
considerable time, mix 1 lb. of superphosphate of lime with 1/2 lb. of
guano and 20 gallons of water, and pour 2 or 3 gallons round each root
every third day while the plants are in vigorous growth. Herbaceous
plants are better without manure. Liquid manure should be of the same
colour as light ale.

Maple.--_See_ "Acer."

Marguerites (_Chrysanthemums Frutescens_).--The White Paris Daisies
are very effective when placed against scarlet Geraniums or other
brightly-coloured flowers, and likewise make fine pot-plants. They
will grow in any light soil, and merely require the same treatment
as other half-hardy perennials. Height, 1 ft. (_See also_ "Anthemis"
_and_ "Buphthalmum.")

Margyricarpus Setosus (_Bristly Pearl Fruit_).--A charming little
evergreen, of procumbent growth, bearing throughout the whole summer
a number of berries on the main branches. Being only half-hardy, it
requires protection from frost, but in the warmer weather it may be
planted on rock-work in sandy loam and vegetable mould. Cuttings
planted in moist peat under a hand-glass will strike, or it may be
propagated by layers. Height, 6 in.

Marigolds.--Handsome and free-flowering half-hardy annuals. The
greenhouse varieties thrive in a mixture of loam and peat, and
cuttings root easily if planted in sand under glass. The African and
tall French varieties make a fine display when planted in shrubberies
or large beds, while the dwarf French kinds are very effective in the
foreground of taller plants, or in beds by themselves. They are raised
from seed sown in a slight heat in March, and planted out at the
end of May in any good soil. Height, 6 in. to 2 ft. (_See also_
"Calendula," "Tagetes," _and_ "Calthus.")

Martynia.--Handsome half-hardy, fragrant annuals. The seed should be
sown on a hotbed in March. When the plants are sufficiently advanced
transplant them singly into pots of light, rich earth, and keep them
in the stove or greenhouse, where they will flower in June. Height, 11/2
ft.

Marvel of Peru (_Mirabilis_).--Half-hardy perennials, which are very
handsome when in flower, and adorn equally the greenhouse or the open.
They may be increased by seed sown in light soil in July or August and
planted out in the border in spring. At the approach of frost take the
roots up and store them in dry ashes or sand. They flower in July.
Height, 2 ft.

Massonia.--Singular plants, which to grow to perfection should be
placed in a mixture of loam, peat, and sand. They require no water
while in a dormant state, and may be increased by seed or by off-sets
from the bulbs. Height, 3 in. to 6 in.

Mathiola.--_See_ "Stocks."

Mathiola Bicornis (_Night-scented Stocks_).--A favourite hardy annual
whose lilac flowers are fragrant towards evening. They may be grown
from seed sown between February and May on any ordinary soil. Height,
1 ft.

Matricaria.--This is a half-hardy annual of little interest so far as
its flowers are concerned, and is mostly grown as a foliage plant. The
seed should be sown in a frame in March, and transplanted at the end
of May. Height, 1 ft.

Maurandia Barclayana.--This elegant twining plant is best grown in
pots, so that it can more conveniently be taken indoors in the winter.
The soil should be light and rich. Cuttings can be taken either in
spring or autumn, or it may be raised from seed. It does very well in
the open during the summer, placed against a wall or trellis-work, but
will not stand the cold. In the greenhouse it reaches perfection, and
blooms in July. Height, 10 ft.

Mazus Pumilio.--A pretty diminutive herbaceous plant. When grown in
peat and sand in an open situation it survives from year to year, but
it will not live through the winter in cold clay soils. Its pale green
foliage is seen to advantage in carpet bedding, and its branched
violet flowers, put forth from June to September, make it a desirable
rock-work plant. It may be increased by transplanting, at the end of
April, the rooted stems which run under the surface of the ground.

Meconopsis Cambrica(_Welsh Poppy_).--An ornamental hardy perennial,
often found on English rocks. It may be grown in any light, rich soil,
is easily raised from seed, and blooms in June. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Medlars.--These trees will grow on any well-drained soil. The Dutch
Medlar is most prized, as it bears the largest fruit. It is raised
from seed, and usually trained to a standard form. The Nottingham and
Royal are also excellent varieties. Any special variety may be grafted
on to the seedlings. On deep soils it is best grafted on the Pear
stock; on light, sandy soil it may be grafted on the White Thorn. No
pruning is required, beyond cutting away cross-growing branches.

Megasea.--This hardy herbaceous plant flowers from April to June.
A light, sandy soil suits it best. It may be grown from seed or
multiplied by division. Height, 1 ft.

Melissa Officinalis.--A hardy perennial, flowering in July. Any soil
suits it. It is increased by division of the root. Height, 1 ft.

Melittis Melissophyllum (_Large-flowered Bastard Balm_).--This
handsome perennial is not often seen, but it deserves to be more
generally grown, especially as it will thrive in almost any soil;
but to grow it to perfection, it should be planted in rich loam. It
flowers from June to August, and may be increased by division of the
roots any time after the latter month. Height, 11/2 ft.

Melon.--Sow from January to June in pots plunged in a hotbed, the
temperature of which should not be under 80 degrees. When the plants
have made four or five leaves, set them out in a house or hotbed
having a temperature ranging from 75 to 85 degrees. Keep the plants
well thinned and water carefully, as they are liable to damp off at
the collar if they have too much wet. Do not allow them to ramble
after the fruit has begun to swell, nor allow the plants to bear more
than two, or at most three, melons each. They require a strong,
fibry, loamy soil, with a little rotten manure worked in. The Hero of
Lockinge is a grand white-fleshed variety, and Blenheim Orange is a
handsome scarlet-fleshed sort.

Menispermum Canadense (_Moon seed_).--A pretty slender-branched,
hardy, climbing, deciduous shrub, with yellow flowers in June,
followed with black berries. It grows in any soil, and can be
propagated by seed, by division of roots, or by planting cuttings in
spring in a sheltered spot. Height, 10 ft.

Mentha Rotundifloria Variegata (_Variegated Mint_).--A hardy
perennial, which may be grown in any soil, and is easily increased by
dividing the roots. It flowers in July. Height, 2 ft.

Menyanthes.--Treat as other hardy aquatics.

Menziesia (_Irish Heath_).--This evergreen thrives best in fibrous
peat to which a fair quantity of silver sand has been added. While
excessive moisture is injurious, the plant must not be kept too dry;
the best condition for it is to be constantly damp. Slips torn off
close to the stem will root in sand under glass, placed in gentle
heat. Height, 2 ft.

Mertensia.--These hardy perennials flower from March to July. They
will grow in any garden soil, but do best in peat, and are propagated
by division. They make fine border plants. Mertensia Maritima and
M. Parviflora, however, are best grown in pots, in very sandy soil,
perfection being afforded them during the winter. Height, 11/2 ft. to 2
ft.

Mesembryanthemums (_Ice Plants_).--These half-hardy, annual succulents
have a bright green foliage covered with ice-like globules. They must
be raised in a greenhouse or on a hotbed, sowing the seed in April on
sandy soil. Prick the young plants out in May. If grown in pots they
thrive best in a light, sandy loam. In the border they should occupy a
hot and dry situation. Keep the plants well watered until established,
afterwards give a little liquid manure. May be increased by cuttings
taken in autumn. Cuttings of the more succulent kinds should be
allowed to dry a little after planting before giving them water. A
dry pit or frame is sufficient protection in the winter; they merely
require to be kept from frost. Flower in July. Height, 1 ft.

Mespilus.--_For treatment, see_ "Medlars."

Meum Athamanticum.--A hardy perennial with graceful, feathery green
foliage, but of no special beauty. It is a native of our shores, will
grow in any soil, blooms in July or August, and is freely propagated
by seeds. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Michaelmas Daisies (_Starworts_).--A numerous family of hardy
herbaceous perennials. Some few are very pretty, while others can only
be ranked with wild flowers. They thrive in any soil or position, but
flourish best where there is a due proportion of sunshine. They are
easily raised from seed, sown early in spring, or may be increased
by root-division either in the autumn, as soon as they have done
flowering, or in the spring. They vary in height from 1 ft. to 5 ft.

Michauxia Campanuloides.--This is an attractive border biennial,
bearing from March to June white campanula-like flowers tinged with
purple, on erect stems. It is not particular as to soil, but requires
a southern position and protection in winter. Propagated by seeds in
the same way as other biennials. Height, 4 ft.

Mignonette.--For summer-flowering plants sow the seed in spring, and
thin out to a distance of 9 in. apart. To obtain bloom during the
winter and spring successive sowings are necessary. Let the first of
these be made the second week in July in light, rich soil; pot off
before frost sets in, plunge them in old tan or ashes, and cover with
a frame facing the west. Another sowing should be made about the
middle of August, giving them the same treatment as the previous; and
a third one in February, in gentle heat. Height, 9 in. to 3 ft. The
Mignonette tree is produced by taking a vigorous plant of the spring
sowing, and removing all the lower shoots in the autumn. Pot it in
good loam, and keep it in the greenhouse in a growing state, but
removing all the flowers. By the spring the stem will be woody. Let
the same treatment be given it the second year, and the third season
it will have become a fine shrub. It may be made to bloom during the
winter by picking off the blossom in the summer and autumn. Height, 3
ft.

Mildew.--Syringe with a strong decoction of green leaves and tender
branches of the elder-tree, or with a solution of nitre made in the
proportion of 1 oz. of nitre to each gallon of water. Another good
remedy is to scatter sulphur over the leaves while the dew is upon
them, afterwards giving them a syringing of clear water.

Milkmaid.--_See_ "Cardamine."

Milk Thistle.--_See_ "Carduus."

Mimosa.--These shrubs are often called Sensitive Plants, on account
of the leaves of several of the species of this genus shrinking when
touched. They grow well in loam and peat with a little sand, but
require to be planted in a warm situation or to have greenhouse care.
Cuttings of the young wood root readily in sand under a glass. They
may also be raised from seed. Mimosa Pudica exhibits most sensibility.
Height, 2 ft.

Mimulus (_Monkey Flower_).--Showy half-hardy perennials which thrive
in moist and shady situations and in almost any soil. They may be
grown from seed sown in slight heat from February to May, or increased
by division of the root. The frame and greenhouse kinds grow best in a
rich, light soil, and may be multiplied by cuttings. The annuals may
be sown where they are to flower. They bloom in June and July. Height,
2 in. to 11/2 ft. (_See also_ "Diplacus.")

Mina Lobata.--A charming half-hardy annual climber, bearing singularly
shaped flowers, produced on long racemes. When young the buds are a
vivid red, changing to orange-yellow, and when fully expanded the
flowers are creamy-white. It thrives in loam and peat to which
a little dung has been added, and is well adapted for arbours,
trellises, or stumps of trees. Sow the seed on a hotbed in March,
harden off, and transplant when all fear of frost is over. Height, 8
ft. to 12 ft.

Mint.--May be grown in any garden soil. It is increased by runners,
which, if not held in check, become very troublesome. The roots may be
confined by means of tiles or slates. Flowers in July. Height, 11/2 ft.

Mistletoe.--Raise the bark of an apple, pear, or oak tree on the
underneath part of a branch and insert some well-ripened berries, then
tie the bark down neatly with raffia or woollen yarn. If the berries
were inserted on the top of the branch the operation would result in
failure, as the birds would devour them.

Mitella Diphylla.--A hardy perennial which bears slender racemes of
white flowers in April. It makes a pretty rock plant, delights in a
peat soil, and is increased by division of the root. Height, 6 in.

Moles.--These pests may be destroyed by placing in their runs worms
that have been kept for some time in mould to which carbonate of
barytes has been added.

Monardia Didyma (_Oswego Mint, or Horse Balm_).--_See_ "Bergamot."

Monetia Barlerioides.--An ornamental shrub, suitable for the
greenhouse or stove. It requires to be grown in loam and peat, and
may be increased by cuttings planted in sand, under glass, in a
bottom-heat. Height, 3 ft.

Monkey Flower.--_See_ "Mimulus."

Monkey Puzzle.--_See_ "Araucaria."

Monk's-hood.--_See_ "Aconite."

Montbretia.--Very graceful and showy plants. The flowers, which are
like small Gladioli, are produced on long branched spikes and are
excellent for cutting. Plant 3 in. deep and 2 in. apart in sandy loam
and leaf-mould. The corms should never be kept long out of the ground,
as they shrivel, and weak growth and few flowers are the result.
Though they are hardy it is well to give them a covering of litter in
winter. They may also be grown in pots. Height, 2-1/2 ft.

Moraea Iridioides.--These plants flower in May, and require the same
treatment as Ixias.

Morina (_Whorl Flower_).--An ornamental hardy perennial, which is
seldom met with. It forms rosettes of large, deep green, shiny foliage
and stout spikes of rose-coloured flowers in whorls, which make it one
of the most attractive of Thistles. It likes a rich, light soil, is
increased by seed sown in the autumn, also by division in August, and
flowers in July. Height, 21/2 ft.

Morisia Hypogaea.--This is a pretty hardy perennial for rock-work. It
flowers in May, and is raised from seed sown as soon as it is ripe.
Height, 2 in.

Morna Elegans.--Beautiful half-hardy annuals. For early flowering sow
the seed in September: for later blooms sow in February in slight
heat, pot off, affording good drainage to the plants. They are very
sensitive to cold, and should not be placed out of doors before the
end of May. Avoid over-watering, as this would prove fatal to them.
The soil should be light and sandy. Those sown in September will bloom
in the greenhouse in May; those sown in February will flower in the
open in the autumn. Height, 11/2 ft.

Morning Glory.--_See_ "Convolvulus."

Morrenia Odorata.--A good twining plant for the greenhouse, producing
fragrant cream-coloured flowers in July. It will grow in any good
loamy soil, and may be increased by cuttings. Height, 3 ft.

Moss.--To eradicate moss from fruit-trees wash the branches with
strong brine or lime water. If it makes its appearance on the lawn,
the first thing to do is to ensure a good drainage to the ground, rake
the moss out, and apply nitrate of soda at the rate of 1 cwt. to the
half-acre, then go over the grass with a heavy roller. Should moss
give trouble by growing on gravel paths, sprinkle the ground with salt
in damp weather.

Mountain _Avens.--See_ "Dryas."

Muhlenbeckia Complexa.--A very decorative climber, hardy in nature but
requiring a good amount of sunshine to make it bloom. A well-drained,
sandy soil is best for its growth, and it can be increased by cuttings
of hardy shoots taken early in summer. Height, 6 ft.

Mulberries.--Any good soil will grow the Mulberry. The tree is hardy,
but the fruit wants plenty of sunshine to bring it to perfection. It
may be propagated by cuttings of wood one year old with a heel two
years old attached. The only pruning necessary is to keep the branches
well balanced. Autumn is the time to do this, not forgetting that the
fruit is borne on the young wood. When grown in tubs or large pots
in the greenhouse the fruit attains the perfection of flavour. In
addition to the Large Black and the White (Morus Alba) the New Weeping
Russian White may be recommended.

Mulching.--_See_ "Soil."

Muscari.--_See_ "Hyacinthus."

Muscari Botryoides.--_See_ "Hyacinthus."

Mushrooms.--Take partially dry horse manure and lay it in a heap
to ferment. Turn and mix it well every few days, and when well and
equally fermented, which will be from ten to fourteen days, make it
into a bed 4 ft. wide and 2 ft. deep, mixing it well together and
beating or treading it firmly. When the temperature of the bed falls
to 75 degrees, or a little under, the spawn may be inserted in pieces
about the size of a walnut, 2 in. deep and 6 in. apart. Now give
a covering of loamy soil, 2 in. deep, and beat it down evenly and
firmly. Finish off with a covering of clean straw or hay about 1 ft.
thick. Water when necessary with lukewarm water; but very little
should be given till the Mushrooms begin to come up, then a plentiful
supply may be given. They may be grown in any warm cellar or shed, and
usually appear in from four to six weeks after planting.

Musk (_Mimulus Moschatus_).--A well-known sweet-scented, half-hardy
perennial, well adapted for pot culture. A moist, shady position is
most congenial to it when placed in the border. Seed sown in autumn
make fine, early-flowering greenhouse plants. For summer blooming
the seed is sown early in spring, under a frame or hand-glass, at a
temperature of from 55 to 60 degrees. It is readily propagated by
division. Height, 6 in.

Mustard and Cress.--For sowing in the open choose a shady border, make
the surface fine and firm, and water it well before putting down the
seed. Let the seed be sown thickly at intervals of seven or fourteen
days from March to September. As the Cress does not germinate so
quickly as the Mustard, the former should be sown four days before
the latter. The seed must not be covered, but simply pressed into the
surface of the soil. Keep the ground moist, and cut the crop when the
second leaf appears. For winter use it is best sown in boxes and grown
in a frame, the seed being covered with flannel kept constantly moist.
This may be removed as soon as the seed germinates. Gardeners mostly
prefer to grow it through coarse flannel, to avoid the possibility of
grit being sent to table. The curled leaf Cress is the best, and the
new Chinese Mustard is larger in leaf than the old variety, and is
very pungent in flavour.

Myosotis (_Forget-me-not_).--The perennial varieties of these
beautiful plants grow best in moist places, such as the edges of ponds
or ditches; but they also do well in pots among Alpine plants. Most of
them may be increased by root division, and all of them by seed. The
annuals like a dry, sandy soil, and are grown from seed sown in March.
They flower in June or July. Height, 6 in.

Myrica Gala (_Candleberry Myrtle_).--This hardy deciduous shrub is
very ornamental, and its foliage is scented like the myrtle. It
will grow in light, rich soil, but thrives best in peat, and may be
increased by seeds or layers. May is its flowering time. Height, 4 ft.
M. Cerifera is treated in precisely the same manner. Height, 6 ft.

Myrsiphyllum Asparagoides.--_See_ "Smilax."

Myrtle (_Myrtus_).--Will strike readily if the cuttings be placed in a
bottle of water till roots grow, and then planted; or young cuttings
will strike in sandy soil under a hand-glass. They succeed best in a
mixture of sandy loam and peat and on a south wall. Near the sea they
prove quite hardy. Height, 6 ft.


N


Narcissus.--_See_ "Daffodils."

Nasturtiums.--These are among the most useful of our hardy annuals,
producing a display of the brightest of colours throughout the entire
summer. The tall-growing climbers make a gay background to a border,
and are equally valuable for trellis-work, while the dwarf varieties
are first-class bedding plants, and of great service for ribboning.
The seeds may be sown in pots in September or in the open ground early
in spring. A light sandy or gravelly soil is the best to produce a
wealth of bloom. Height, 6 ft. and 1 ft.

Nectarines.--Require the same treatment as the Peach. In fact, the
Nectarine stone sometimes produces a Peach, and a Peach stone often
produces a Nectarine. Fairchild's, Humboldt, Lord Napier, and Red
Roman are useful varieties. They should stand 20 ft. apart.

Neilla.--These shrubs thrive in ordinary soil, and are increased by
cuttings of the young wood. They flower in July. N. Torreyi bears
white Spiraea-like flowers, which are very effective. Height, 6 ft.

Nemesia.--A most beautiful half-hardy annual of the Antirrhinum class.
Sow the seed early in spring on a hotbed, and plant out in May in
rich, light soil. Cuttings of the young wood will strike under glass.
Height, 1-1/2 ft. to 2-1/2 ft.

Nemophila.--Pretty, neat, and compact hardy annuals, well worth
cultivating. They succeed best in a moist and shady situation, delight
in peat or vegetable mould, and when grown in circles are very
striking. If wanted to flower early, sow the seed in autumn, or on a
hotbed in spring; and if required for late blooming, sow in the open
in March. Treated thus they flower from June to September. Height, 1
ft.

Nepeta Glechoma Variegata.--A very useful plant for hanging baskets.
It can be trained as a pyramid or allowed to hang down; in many cases
it is employed as edgings. It is of easy culture, and does well as a
window plant or in a cool greenhouse. The soil should be light and
dry. It flowers in July, and may be increased by root-division.

Nerine Sarniense.--_See_ "Guernsey Lily."

Nertera Depressa (_Coral Berry_).--This pretty Moss-like plant is
fairly hardy, and is eminently suited for a sheltered position on the
rockery. The soil should consist of leaf-mould and sand, and overhead
sprinkling with soft water is very beneficial. In cold districts it is
better to grow it in the greenhouse. The flowers are produced in
July, succeeded by orange-coloured berries. It is easily increased by
dividing it early in the spring. Height, 3 in.

Neuvusia Alabamensis.--A tamarix-like shrub, bearing clusters of white
flowers early in spring. Will grow in any soil or situation. Increased
by cuttings placed in sand under glass.

Nicotiana (_Tobacco Plants_).--Very showy half-hardy annuals. N.
Affinis bears long, tubular, sweet-scented, white flowers in July, and
grows to the height of 3 ft. N. Virginica produces immense leaves and
pink flowers, and the plants are 4 to 5 ft. high. The seed is sown
on a hotbed in spring, and when the second or third leaf appears the
plants are put into small pots and placed in a frame till the end of
May, when they are transferred to the border.

Nierembergia (_Cup Flowers_).--These elegant half-hardy annuals
grow well in any light soil, but prefer a mixture of sandy loam and
leaf-mould. Sow the seed in March or April in slight heat, harden off,
and plant out in May as soon as all fear of frost is over. They flower
in July. Height, 9 in. to 1 ft.

Nierembergia Rivularis.--This herbaceous plant is of a creeping
nature; it has deep green ovate foliage and large saucer-shaped white
flowers. It needs a moist position, and is increased by division. The
bloom is produced throughout June, July, and August. Height, 3 in.

Nigella.--These hardy annuals, a species of Fennel-flower, are both
curious and ornamental. Perhaps the best known among them is N.
Hispanica, or Love-in-a-Mist. They only require sowing in the open in
spring--but not before the middle of March--to produce flowers in July
and August. Height, 9 in. to 2 ft.

Night-scented Stocks.--_See_ "Mathiola."

Nolana.--Hardy annuals that are suitable for the border, as they are
very showy when in flower. The seed should be sown in spring on a
gentle hotbed, and the plants transferred to the garden about the
middle of May. N. Atriplicifolia may be sown in the open in the
autumn. They flower in July and August. Height, 6 in. to 2 ft.

North Borders, Plants suitable for.--Hardy Camellias, Chrysanthemums,
black and green Tea Plant, Rhododendrons, Ferns, Red Currants, Morello
Cherries, and spring and summer cuttings of all sorts.

Nuttallia.--This early-flowering shrub is only hardy in the south and
south-west of our country. It requires a light, rich soil, and may be
increased by division. Racemes of white flowers are produced during
February and March. Height, 2 ft.

Nycterina.--Exquisite little half-hardy plants, suitable for pots or
rock-work. The seed should be sown early in spring on a gentle hotbed,
and the young plants transferred to the pots or open ground at the end
of May, using a light, rich soil. Height, 3 in.

Nymphaea Alba.--A hardy aquatic perennial, frequently found in our
ponds. It flowers in June, and may be increased by dividing the roots.
Height, 1 ft.


O


Odontoglossum Grande.--A most beautiful orchid, delighting in a
temperature of from 60 to 70 degrees and an abundance of water during
summer, but good drainage is essential. The blooms are yellow, spotted
and streaked with venetian red, and are often 6 in. across. The pots
should be two-thirds filled with crocks, then filled up with fibrous
peat and sphagnum moss. During winter only a very little moisture
should be given.

Oenothera.--The Evening Primroses are most useful and beautiful
plants, well suited for ornamenting borders, beds, edgings, or
rock-work. All the species are free-flowering, and grow well in any
good, rich soil. The annual and biennial kinds are sown in the open
in spring. The perennials may be increased by dividing the roots, by
cuttings, or by seed, the plants from which will flower the first
season if sown early in spring. They bloom in June and July. Height, 6
in. to 4 ft.

Olearia.--These evergreen shrubs thrive in peat and loam, and may be
increased by division of the roots. O. Haastii has foliage resembling
the Box, and a profusion of white, sweet-scented flowers in summer: a
chalk soil suits it admirably. Height, 3 ft. to 4 ft.

Omphalodes Verna.--A hardy perennial which may be grown under the
shade of trees in ordinary soil. It produces its flowers in March, and
is increased by dividing the roots in autumn. Height, 6 in.

Oncidium Sarcodes.--Plant these Orchids firmly in well-drained pots,
using equal parts of live sphagnum and fibrous peat. Give one good
watering as soon as the potting is finished, and stand them in a
light, warm part of the greenhouse. They will require very little more
water until the roots have taken hold of the soil--only sufficient to
keep the pseudo-bulbs from shrivelling--and during the winter months
scarcely any moisture is needed. They flower in August. Height, 1-1/2
ft.

Onions.--Require a deep, rich, heavy soil. Where the ground is not
suitable it should have had a good dressing of rotten manure the
previous autumn, and left in ridges during the winter. Level the
ground, and make it very firm just before the time of sowing. The seed
should be sown early in March for the main crop and for salad and
pickling Onions, and in August for summer use. Thin out to about 6
in. apart, excepting those intended to be gathered while small. The
Tripoli varieties attain a large size if transplanted in the spring.
The Silver-skins do best on a poor soil. For exhibition Onions sow in
boxes early in February in a greenhouse; when about 1 in. high prick
out, 3 in. apart, into other boxes; give gentle heat and plenty of
air, and when they have grown 6 in. high put them in a cool frame
until the middle of April, when they must be planted in the open, 1
ft. apart.

Ononis Rotundifolia (_Round-leaved Restharrow_).--A charming hardy
evergreen of a shrubby nature. It will grow in any ordinary garden
soil, and is increased by seed, sown as soon as it is ripe. It is most
effective in clumps, and blooms from June to September. Height, 1-1/2
ft.

Onopordon.--Half-hardy perennials of a rather interesting nature and
of easy cultivation. Sow the seed any time between March and June.
They require the protection of a frame or greenhouse during winter,
and produce flowers in July. Height, 6 in. to 8 ft.

Onosma Taurica (_Golden Drop_).--This hardy herbaceous plant is very
pretty when in flower, and suitable for rock-work. It requires a
well-drained vegetable mould, and to be planted where it can obtain
plenty of sun. It is increased from cuttings taken in summer, placed
in a cucumber frame, kept shaded for about a fortnight, and hardened
off before the winter. The flowers succeed one another from June to
November. Height, 1 ft.

Opuntia Rafinesquii (_Hardy Prickly Fig_).--A dwarf hardy Cactus with
sulphur-coloured flowers, produced from June to August; very suitable
for dry spots in rock-work. It grows best in peat with a little sand,
and is propagated by separating the branches at a joint, and allowing
them to dry for a day or so before putting them into the soil. Height,
2 ft.

Orange, Mexican.--_See_ "Choisya."

Orchids.--The four classes into which these charming and interesting
plants are divided may be described as (1) those coming from the
tropics, (2) from South Africa, (3) from the South of Europe, and
(4) our native varieties. The first require a stove, the second a
greenhouse, the third and fourth slight protection during winter. As
their natural character differs so widely it is necessary to ascertain
from what part of the globe they come, and to place them in houses
having as near as possible the same temperature and humidity as that
to which they are accustomed. The pots in which they are grown should
be filled with fibrous peat and sphagnum moss, largely mixed with
charcoal, and abundant drainage ensured. They are propagated by
dividing the root stocks, by separating the pseudo-bulbs, and, in case
of the Dendrobiums, by cuttings. Orchis Foliosa (_Leafy Orchis_) may
be grown in the open ground in good sandy loam. When once established
it is best not to disturb it, but if needed it may be increased by
division, after the tops have died down. Orchis Fusca (_Brown Orchis_)
may likewise be planted in the open, in a sheltered position, in fine
loam and leaf-mould, the soil to be well drained, yet constantly
moist.

Origanum Pulchellum.--Popularly known as the Beautiful Marjoram, this
plant is useful for cutting for vases. It is perennial and hardy, and
thrives in a dry situation with a sunny aspect and in a sandy soil.
The bloom is in its best condition in October. The rooted shoots may
be divided in spring or almost at any other period, or it may be
propagated by taking cuttings in summer. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Ornithogalum.--O. Arabicum bears a large white flower with a shiny
black centre. It is a fine plant for pot culture, or it may be grown
in water like the Hyacinth. It may be planted in the open early in
spring in sandy loam and peat. Take it up before the frost sets in and
store it in a dry place, as it requires no moisture while in a dormant
state. In September the flowers are produced. Height, 6 in. O.
Umbellatum (_Star of Bethlehem_) is a pretty little flower often found
in English meadows, is quite hardy, and once established may be left
undisturbed for years. It throws up large heads of starry flowers,
which are produced in great abundance. While in a dormant state the
bulbs should be kept almost dry. It is propagated by off-sets; flowers
in May. Height, 1 ft.

Orobus.--These hardy perennials bear elegant Pea-shaped blossoms. The
plants will grow readily in any light soil, and are easily increased
by root-division in the spring, or by seeds. They flower in June.
Height, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Osmanthus.--These elegant hardy evergreen shrubs succeed best in
light, sandy loam, and like a dry situation. They may be increased by
cuttings of the young shoots with a little old wood attached, or they
may be grafted on to common Privet. The variegated varieties are very
beautiful. They grow well on chalk soils. Height, 4 ft. to 6 ft.

Othera Japonica.--A newly introduced evergreen shrub very similar to
the Holly. It is perfectly hardy and may be treated in the same manner
as that plant.

Ourisia Coccinea.--A hardy herbaceous, surface-creeping perennial of
singular beauty as regards both leaf and flower. The soil in which it
is grown must be well drained, a peat one being preferable; and the
position it occupies must be well shaded from the rays of the midday
sun. It flowers from May onwards to September, the cut bloom being
admirable for mixing with fern leaves. As soon as new life starts in
spring the roots may be divided. Height, 9 in.

Oxalis.--A genus of very pretty bulbous plants that thrive well in a
mixture of loam, peat, and sand, or will grow in any light soil. Most
of the tender kinds may be reared in a frame if protected from frost
in the winter. After they have done flowering they should be kept dry
until they begin to grow afresh. They are increased by off-sets from
the bulb. The hardy species should be planted in a shady border, where
they will grow and flower freely. The seeds of these may be sown in
the open in spring. Some of the varieties have fibrous roots: these
will bear dividing. They are equally suitable for pots, borders, or
rock-work. Height, 9 in. to 3 ft.

Ox-Tongue.--_See_ "Bugloss."

Oxythopis Campestris.--A hardy perennial with lemon-yellow flowers in
June and July. It will grow in any good garden soil, and is propagated
by seed only, which should be sown where the plants are intended to be
grown. Height, 6 in.


P


Pachysandra.--This early hardy perennial has ornamental foliage and
blooms in April. It will succeed in almost any soil, and may be
increased by suckers from the roots. Height, 1 ft.

Paeonies.--These beautiful flowering plants are mostly hardy enough to
endure our winters. The herbaceous kinds are increased by dividing the
plants at the roots, leaving a bud on each slip. The shrubby species
are multiplied by cuttings taken in August or September, with a piece
of the old wood attached, and planted in a sheltered situation. Tree
Paeonies require protection in winter, and may be propagated by
grafting on to the others, by suckers, or by layers. New varieties are
raised from seed. A rich, loamy soil suits them best. Height, 2 ft.

Palms from Seed.--Soak the seed in tepid water for twenty-four hours,
then put them singly 1 in. deep in 2-in. pots filled with equal parts
of loam, leaf-mould, and sand. Cover the pots with glass and stand
them in the warmest part of a hothouse. Shade from strong sunshine,
and keep the soil just moist. Re-pot as soon as the roots have filled
the old ones.

Pampas Grass.--_See_ "Gynerium."

Pampas Lily of the Valley.--_See_ "Withania."

Pancratium.--A handsome class of plants. Their habit of growth is
somewhat like that of the Amaryllis. They are admirably adapted for
growing in pots in the greenhouse. They may also be planted in the
open ground under a south wall. The bulbs should be placed in a
composition of three parts light, sandy loam and one of vegetable
mould. They are increased by off-sets from the roots, or by seeds, by
which the new varieties are obtained. Height, 1 ft. to 2 ft.

Pandanus Veitchi (_Variegated Screw Pine_).--For table decoration or
vases this is a most useful plant. It requires a warm greenhouse where
a temperature of 60 or 70 degrees can be kept up throughout the year,
and grows well in equal parts of peat and loam with one-sixth part
sand. During the autumn a little liquid manure is beneficial. In the
winter months it should be watered carefully, but in the summer it is
improved by syringing with warm water. It is propagated very easily by
suckers taken off in spring or summer, placed in a temperature of 75
degrees.

Panicum.--Handsome ornamental grasses. They will grow in any soil
or situation. P. Capillare is an annual, suitable for bouquets or
edgings; it is increased by seed. P. Altissimum, an annual, and P.
Sulcatum, a most elegant greenhouse plant, are fine for specimens.
P. Plicatum is highly ornamental and hardy, but is best grown as a
conservatory or window plant; it has a Palm-like appearance, and is
of quick growth. Most of the plants flower in July. They may be
propagated by seed or by division of the roots. Average height, 1-1/2
ft.

Pansies (_Heartsease_).--Grow well from seed sown in July or August on
a raised bed of light earth. They may also be increased from cuttings
taken in August, September, April, or May, selecting young side-shoots
and planting them in light earth mixed with silver sand. The cuttings
should be kept in a cool frame, moderately moist, and shaded from the
hot sun. They can likewise be increased by layers, merely pegging them
down and not slitting them on account of their tendency to damp off.
They may also be increased by dividing the roots in April or May. They
should be planted where they will get all the morning sun, yet be
sheltered from mid-day rays; in an open and airy situation, yet
protected from cutting winds. While the plants are blooming they
should be supplied with liquid manure.

Papaver (_Poppy_).--These showy flowers are most at home in a rich,
light soil. They are easily raised from seed sown where they are
intended to bloom. The perennials may also be increased by dividing
the roots. They flower at midsummer. Height varies from 1 ft. to 3 ft.

Pardanthus Chinensis.--_See_ "Iris."

Parsley.--In order to grow Parsley to perfection it is necessary that
the ground be well drained, as the roots and stems must be kept dry,
and the soil should be rich and light. Three sowings may be made
during the year: the first in spring for late summer and autumn use,
the next in June for succession, and another in August or September
for spring and early summer use. Thin out or transplant, to 6 in.
apart. Parsley takes longer than most seeds to germinate; it must
therefore be watched during dry weather and watered if necessary.
Plants potted in September and placed in a cold frame, or protected
in the open from rain and frost with a covering of mats supported by
arches, will be valuable for winter use.

Parsnips.--These succeed best in a rich soil, but the application of
fresh manure should be avoided, as it induces forked and ill-shaped
roots. Let the ground be trenched two spits deep and left ridged up as
long as possible. As early in March as the weather will permit level
the surface and sow the seed in drills 15 in. apart, covering it with
half an inch of fine soil. When the plants are 2 or 3 in. high, thin
them out to 9 in. apart. They may be taken up in November and, after
cutting off the tops, stored in a pit or cellar in damp sand, or they
may be left in the ground till required for use.

Passion Flower.--Cuttings of the young shoots strike readily in sand
under glass. The plant likes a good loamy soil mixed with peat. A
sheltered position with a south or south-western aspect should be
assigned those grown out of doors, and the root should be well
protected in winter. The flowers are borne on seasoned growth of the
current year: this fact must be considered when pruning the plants.
During the hot months the roots require a copious supply of water, and
the foliage should be syringed freely. Passiflora Cærulea is fine for
outdoor culture, and Countess Guiglini makes a capital greenhouse
plant.

Pavia Macrostachya.--This is a deciduous hardy shrub or tree which
bears elegant racemes of white Chestnut-like flowers in July. Any
soil suits it. It is propagated by layers or by grafting it on to the
Horse-chestnut. Height, 10 ft.

Peaches.--These are best grown on a strong loam mixed with old mortar;
though any soil that is well drained will produce good fruit. When
possible, a south wall should be chosen; but they are not particular
as to position, providing they are afforded shelter from cold winds.
November and February are the most favourable months for planting. The
roots should be carefully arranged at equal distances apart, 3 or 4
in. below the surface of soil, and then covered with fine mould. Avoid
giving manure at all times, except when the trees are bearing fruit
heavily. Train the shoots about 6 in. apart, removing all the
wood-buds except one at the base of the shoot and one at the point.
Keep the flowers dry and free from frost by means of an overhead
shelter, to which tiffany or canvas can be attached, which should,
however, only be used so long as the cold weather lasts. To ensure
good fruit, thin the same out to 6 in. apart as soon as it attains
the size of a small pea, and when the stoning period is passed remove
every alternate one, so that they will be 1 ft. apart. After gathering
the fruit, remove any exhausted and weak wood, leaving all that is
of the thickness of a black-lead pencil. To keep the foliage clean,
syringe once a day with water; this may be continued until the
fruit is nearly ripe. The following may be recommended for outdoor
cultivation:--Hale's Early, Dagmar, and Waterloo for fruiting in July
or August; Crimson Galande, Dymond, and the well-known Bellegarde
for succession in September; and Golden Eagle for a late sort. When
planted in quantities, Peaches should stand 20 ft. apart.

When grown under glass a day temperature of 50 degrees, falling to 45
degrees at night, is sufficient to start with, gradually increasing it
so that 65 degrees by day and 55 by night is reached at the period of
blossoming. Syringe the leaves daily until the flowers are produced,
then discontinue it, merely keeping the walls near the pipes and
the paths damp. As soon as the fruit is set the syringing should
recommence. Water of the same temperature as that of the house should
in all cases be used. When the fruit begins to ripen, cease once more
the syringing until it is gathered, then admit air freely, wash the
trees daily, and apply liquid manure to the roots in sufficient
quantities to keep the soil moist during the time the trees are at
rest. Rivers's Early, Pitmaston Orange, Dagmar, and Royal George are
all good under glass.

Pears.--Wherever Apples are a success Pears will grow. As a rule, they
are best grown dwarf. On light soils they should be grafted on to Pear
stocks, but on heavy soils they are best worked on the Quince. The
fruiting of young trees may be accelerated by lifting them when about
five years old, spreading out the roots 1 ft. below the surface of the
soil, and mulching the ground. The mulching should be raked off in the
spring, the ground lightly stirred with a fork and left to sweeten,
and another mulching applied when the weather becomes hot and dry.
In pruning, leave the leading branches untouched, but let all cross
shoots be removed, and the young wood be cut away in sufficient
quantity to produce a well-balanced tree, and so equalise the flow
of sap. Some of the pruning may be done in summer, but directly the
leaves fall is the time to perform the main work. A good syringing
once a week with the garden hose will keep the trees vigorous and free
from insects. Should scab make its appearance on the leaves, spray
them occasionally with Bordeaux Mixture, using the minimum strength at
first, and a stronger application afterwards if necessary. There
are over 500 varieties of Pears, so it is no easy matter to give a
selection to suit all tastes, but a few may be named as most likely to
give satisfaction. Louise Bonne de Jersey succeeds in almost any soil
and in any situation, is a great favourite, and ripens its fruit in
October. Beurré Giffard makes a fine standard, and ripens in July.
Beurré Hardy is delicious in October and November. Doyenné du Comice
is one of the best-flavoured, and is very prolific. Beurré d'Amanlis
ripens in August. Williams's Bon Chrêtien, Aston Town, Pitmaston
Duchess, Clapp's Favourite, Comte de Lamy, and Josephine de Malines
are all reliable for dessert, while for stewing purposes Catillac,
Black Pear of Worcester, Verulam, and Vicar of Winkfield are among the
best. In orchards standards should be from 20 to 25 ft. apart; dwarfs
12 ft. to 1 rod.

Peas.--For the production of heavy summer and autumn crops a rich and
deeply-stirred soil is essential, one of the best fertilisers being
well-decayed farmyard manure; but for the earliest crop a poorer soil,
if deep and well pulverised, will give the best results. Peas under
3 ft. in height do not require sticking, but they can be more easily
gathered if a few small twigs are used to keep the haulm off the
ground. If sown in successive lines the space between the rows should
correspond with the height of the variety grown. A good plan is to
arrange the rows 10 or 15 ft. apart, and crop the intervening spaces
with early dwarf vegetables. The earliest varieties may be sown from
November to February, on the warmest and most sheltered border: these
may be gathered in May and June. The second early round, varieties, if
sown from January to April, will be ready for gathering in June and
July. The main crop round varieties may be sown from February to May:
these will be ready to gather in July and August. The early wrinkled
varieties may be sown from March to June, for gathering between June
and September. Sow main crop and late varieties at intervals of
fourteen days from March to May: these will be ready to gather in
July, August, and September. When the plants are a couple of inches
high draw the earth neatly round them, and stake the taller varieties
as soon as the tendrils appear. Keep them well watered in dry weather,
and if on a light soil a mulching of manure will be beneficial. As
soon as the pods are setting apply weak liquid manure to the roots
when the ground is moist.

Peas, Everlasting (_Lathyrus Latifolia_).--These well-known and
favourite hardy perennials are very useful for covering trellises,
etc. They will grow in any garden soil, and may be raised from seed
sown early in spring in slight heat. Where there is no greenhouse or
frame the seed may be planted, about 1/2 in. deep, round the edges of
pots filled with nice, light soil, and covered with a sheet of glass,
keeping the soil moist till the seed germinates. When the plants are
strong enough they may be placed in their permanent quarters. They
bloom from June to September. Old roots may be divided. Height, 6 ft.

Peas, Sweet.--These most beautiful and profuse blooming hardy annuals
will grow almost anywhere, but they prefer a dry soil that is
both rich and light. The seed should be sown as early in March as
practicable, and in April and May for succession. When the plants are
2 or 3 in. high a few twigs may be placed among them, to which they
will cling. The flowers are produced in July, and the more liberally
they are gathered the longer the plants will continue to bloom.
Height, 3 ft.

Pelargonium.--The shrubby kinds will grow well in any rich soil; loam
and decayed leaves form a good compost for them. They require good
drainage and plenty of air and light while in a vigorous state.
Cuttings root readily in either soil or sand, especially if placed
under glass. Most of the hard-wooded varieties are more easily
increased by cuttings from the roots. The tuberous-rooted ones should
be kept quite dry while dormant, and may be increased by small
off-sets from the roots.

Pentstemon.--This charming hardy perennial is deserving of a place in
every garden. It may be grown in any good soil, but a mixture of loam
and peat is most suitable. The seed may be sown in April, and the
plants transferred when strong enough to their flowering quarters; or
it may be sown in a sheltered position during August or September to
stand the winter. It may also be increased by dividing the roots in
spring, as soon as growth begins. Cuttings of the young side-shoots
about 6 in. long may be taken at any period--the middle of September
is a good time; these should be placed under a hand-glass in sandy
loam and leaf-mould. These cuttings will flower the first year. It
blooms from May to October. Height, 2 ft.

Peppermint.--This may be grown on any damp or marshy soil, and
increased by dividing the roots.

Perennials.--These are plants that die down during the winter, but
spring up and produce new stems annually. Some, as for instance
Antirrhinums and Pansies, flower the first season, but usually they do
not bloom till the second season. Many of the species improve by age,
forming large clumps or bushes. The stock is increased by division
of the roots, which, if judiciously done, improves the plant. Like
annuals, they are divided into classes of Hardy, Half-hardy, and
Tender plants.

Hardy perennials do not require artificial heat to germinate the
seeds, or at any period of their growth, but are the most easily
cultivated of all plants. Seed may be sown from March to midsummer,
transplanting in the autumn to their flowering quarters; or it may
be sown in August and September in a sheltered position to stand the
winter.

Half-hardy plants require artificial heat to germinate their seed, and
must be gradually introduced into the open. They may be sown during
March and April in frames or a greenhouse, when many will bloom the
first season. If sown between May and the end of August they will
flower the following spring and summer. They require protection during
winter, such as is afforded by a cold pit, frame, or greenhouse, or
the covering of a mat or litter. Tender perennials may be sown as
directed above, but the plants should be kept constantly under glass.

Some perennials, such as Pinks, Carnations, Saxifrages, etc., do
not die down, but retain their leaves. These are called evergreen
perennials.

Pergularia.--Very fragrant twining plants, suitable for trellis-work,
arbours, etc. A rich soil suits them best. They are easily increased
by cuttings sown in sand under glass. They flower at midsummer.
Height, 8 ft. to 12 ft.

Perilla Nankinensis.--A plant of little merit, except for its foliage,
which is of a rich bronze purple. It bears a cream-coloured flower in
July. It may be raised in the same manner as other half-hardy annuals,
and prefers a light, loamy soil. Height, 1 1/2 ft.

Periploca Graeca.--A hardy, deciduous, twining shrub, which will grow
in any soil, and may be increased by layers or by cuttings placed
under glass. It flowers in July. Height, 10 ft.

Periwinkle.--_See_ "Vinca."

Pernettya.--An American evergreen shrub, which, like all of its class,
thrives best in sandy peat; it delights in partial shade, and a moist
but well-drained position. It is increased by layers in September,
which should not be disturbed for a year. It is a good plan to mulch
the roots with leaf-mould or well-rotted manure. Height, 5 ft.

Petunias.--These ornamental half-hardy perennials prefer a mixture of
sandy loam and vegetable mould, but will grow in any rich, light
soil. Seeds sown in March or April, at a temperature of from 65 to 75
degrees, make fine bedding plants for a summer or autumn display.
As the seeds are very minute, they should be covered merely with a
dusting of the finest of soil. Moisture is best supplied by standing
the pots up to the rims in water. Pot off singly, harden off, and
plant out at the end of May. May also easily be raised from cuttings,
which will strike at any season in heat, but care must be taken that
they do not damp off. They flower in July and August. Height, 1-1/2
ft. to 2 ft.

Phacelia Campanularia.--A superb, rich blue, hardy annual. It will
grow in any soil, and is easily raised from seed sown in spring.
Flowers are borne in June. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Phalaris.--P. Arundinacea is the well-known perennial Ribbon Grass;
it is easily grown from seed, and the root allows division. P.
Canariensis is the useful canary seed: it may be propagated from seed
on any soil. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Philadelphus.--Among the best of our flowering shrubs, producing a
wealth of sweetly-scented flowers. For cultivation, _see_ "Syringa."

Philesia.--An American evergreen shrub which grows best in peat, but
will thrive in any light soil. It should occupy a cool position, but
be well sheltered from winds. It is increased by suckers. Flowers in
June. Height, 4 ft.

Phillyrea.--This effective border evergreen will grow in any ordinary
garden soil, and may be increased either by layers or cuttings. It has
dark green shining leaves, and is quite hardy. Height, 6 ft.

Phlomis (_Lion's Tail_).--This effective hardy perennial will grow in
any rich, light soil in a warm position, and is a fine lawn plant.
Flowers are produced from June to August. It may be increased by seed
or division. Protect the plant from damp in winter. Height, 3 ft.

Phlox.--For richness of colour and duration of bloom there are few
plants that can rival either the annual or perennial Phlox. The
trailing kinds are very suitable for small pots or rock-work, C.
Drummondi for beds, and the French perennials, P. Decussata, for mixed
borders. A rich, loamy soil suits them best, and they must never
lack moisture. They are easily raised in spring from seed, and the
perennials may be increased by cuttings placed under glass, or by
division. Flower in July. Height, 1 ft. to 2 ft.

Phormium Tenax.--A greenhouse herbaceous plant which succeeds best in
rich loam. It flowers in August, and may be propagated by dividing the
roots. Height, 3 ft.

Phygelius Capensis.--A greenhouse perennial bearing carmine and yellow
flowers in June, but is hardy enough to be grown on a warm border. It
is increased by off-sets from the root, taken off in May. Height, 2
ft.

Physalis (_Winter Cherry_).--A rich, light soil is most suitable for
the stove and greenhouse kinds, cuttings of which root freely under
glass. The hardy kinds will grow in any soil, and are increased by
seed. P. Francheti produces seed-pods over 2 in. in diameter, the
Cherry-like fruit of which is edible and makes a fine preserve. It is
larger than that of the old Winter Cherry, P. Alkekengi. They flower
in August. Height, 1 ft. to 2 ft.

Physianthus Albens.--This evergreen climber is a good plant for
training to the rafters of a greenhouse. It grows well in a mixture
of sandy loam and peat, and should receive bold treatment. Its white
flowers are produced in July. The plant is propagated by seeds, also
by cuttings. Height, 20 ft.

Physostegia.--Ornamental hardy herbaceous plants, ranging in colour
from white to purple. They like a rich soil, and can be raised from
seed sown in March. They also bear division. July and August are their
flowering months. Height, from 1 ft. to 5 ft.

Phyteuma Hallierii.--A very pretty hardy perennial. It will thrive in
any soil, blooms from May to August, and can be readily increased by
seed or division. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Phytolacca Decandra (_Virginian Poke_).--A very fine herbaceous plant,
bearing bunches of pretty black berries. It requires a rich soil and
plenty of room for its widespreading branches. Cuttings will strike
under glass, or the seed may be sown in autumn. It flowers in August.
Height, 6 ft.

Picotees.--_See_ "Carnations."

Pimelias.--Very beautiful, compact, and free-growing greenhouse
everlasting shrubs. The most suitable soil consists of three parts
sandy peat and one part loam, with good drainage. June or July is
their flowering season. They may be grown from seed or young cuttings
2 in. long, placed in sandy peat, with a little bottom heat. Do not
give too much water. Height, 2 ft. to 4 ft.

Pimpernel.--_See_ "Anagallis."

Pinguicula Grandiflora (_Great Irish Butterwort_).--This handsome,
hardy bog-plant produces deep violet-blue flowers in August and
September. It may be grown in any damp soil and increased by division.
Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Pinks.--Will live in almost any soil, but if large blooms are required
rich earth is essential. They are increased by pipings taken in May
or June. These should be planted out in October, but must be given a
well-drained position, as too much wet is injurious to them. Do not
set the roots too deep, but let the collar of the plant be on a level
with the soil.

Pinus.--As a tall specimen tree nothing is more graceful than the
Corsican Pine (_Pinus Laricio_). P. Strobus Nana is a curious dwarf
variety, rarely exceeding 3 ft. in height. The Argentea Aurea is also
of dwarf habit. Its leaves, which are green in summer, change to a
bright golden colour in winter. The Umbrella Pine (_Sciadopitys_) is a
very striking conifer, and does well everywhere. It gets its name from
its leaves being set at regular intervals round the branches, like
the ribs of an umbrella. The Pinus may be increased by layers, or by
sowing the cones in spring, after they have opened out, in rather
sandy soil, covering them lightly.

Piping.--This consists in drawing out the young grass, or shoots, from
the joints of Pinks, etc., from May to July being the time for doing
so. Place them in light, sandy soil, and cover them with a hand-glass.
Towards the end of September they may be planted out in beds or potted
off in rich, light loam. In either case they must not be planted too
deeply. The crust of the soil should be level with the collar of the
plant. If the pots are put into a frame the plants will require very
little water during winter, but as much air should be given as is
possible. In March re-pot them, using 8-1/2-in. pots.

Platycodon (_Japanese Balloon Flower_).--Hardy and elegant herbaceous
plants, requiring a sandy soil. They may be raised either from seeds
or from cuttings of the young growth; they flower in July. Height, 1
ft.

Platystemon Californicus.--Pretty hardy annuals which thrive in a
sandy soil. They are easily raised from seed sown in March or April,
and bring forth their flowers in August. Height, 1 ft.

Pleroma Elegans.--A beautiful evergreen shrub for a greenhouse. Pot in
equal parts of loam, peat, and sand. It flowers in July. Cuttings may
be struck in peat in a rather warm temperature. Height, 4 ft.

Plumbago.--These pretty evergreens will grow in any soil, and can be
propagated in September by cuttings of half-ripened wood having
a heal, planted in a sandy soil, and kept near the glass in a
greenhouse. They flower in June. Height, 3 ft. P. Occidentalis is
a charming greenhouse climber. P. Capensis Alba is a greenhouse
evergreen shrub, flowering in November, and growing to a height of 2
ft. P. Larpentae is good for a sunny border, in light soil: it bears
terminal clusters of rich violet-purple flowers in September. Height,
1 ft. Plumbagoes require very little attention in winter.

Plums.--Almost any soil will grow this useful fruit. Young trees may
be planted at any time, when the ground is friable, from November to
March, but the earlier it is done the better. The situation should be
somewhat sheltered. In exposed positions protection may be afforded
by a row of damson trees. Many varieties are suitable for growing on
walls or sheds, where they are trained into fans, as cordons, and
other decorative designs; but it must not be overlooked that until the
trees are well established a great deal of fruit is necessarily lost
by the severe pruning and disbudding which is required to bring the
tree into shape. A pyramid-shaped tree is useful, and is easily
grown by training one straight, central shoot, which must be stopped
occasionally so that fresh side branches may be thrown out, which of
course must be kept at the desired length. A bush tree about 7 ft. in
height is undoubtedly the best form of growth, and needs but a minimum
amount of attention. In pruning wall trees the main object is to get
the side-shoots equally balanced, and to prevent the growth advancing
in the centre. The bush form merely require the removal of any dead
wood and of cross-growing branches. This should be done late in the
summer or in the autumn. The trees are frequently attacked by a small
moth, known as the Plum Fortrix, which eats its way into the fruit
and causes it to fall. In this case the fallen unripe fruit should be
gathered up and burned, and the trees washed in winter with caustic
potash and soda. For growing on walls the following kinds may be
recommended: Diamond, White Magnum Bonum, Pond's Seedling, and Belle
de Louvain for cooking; and Kirke, Coe's Golden Drop, and Jefferson
for dessert. For pyramids and bushes, Victoria, Early Prolific, Prince
Engelbert, Sultan, and Belgian Purple are good sorts. In orchards
Plums should stand 20 ft. apart.

Poa Trivalis.--A very pretty, dwarf-growing, variegated grass. Plant
in a moist situation in a rich, light, loamy soil. It is increased
either by seed or division.

Podocarpus.--_See_ "Cephalotaxus."

Podolepis.--Hardy annuals bearing yellow and red and white flowers. A
mixture of loam and peat is most suitable for their growth. They are
easily raised from seed sown in March, and bloom from June to August.
Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Podophyllum Peltatum (_Duck's Foot, or May Apple_).--Grown chiefly
for its foliage and berries, this hardy herbaceous perennial forms a
pleasing spectacle when planted in moist soil under trees; it likewise
makes a splendid pot-plant. A mixture of peat and chopped sphagnum is
what it likes. The pots are usually plunged in wet sand or ashes on
a northern border. It is propagated by cutting the roots into pieces
several inches in length, with a good bud or crown on each. During May
and June the plant produces small white Dog-rose-like flowers. Height,
1 ft.

Poinsettia Pulcherrima.--A stove evergreen shrub which produces lovely
crimson bracts in the winter. Plant in sandy loam, give plenty of
water to the roots, and syringe the leaves frequently. In early spring
cut down the branches to within three or four eyes of the old wood.
These cuttings, if laid aside for a day to dry and then planted under
glass, will form new plants. It flowers in April. Height, 2 ft.

Polemonium (_Jacob's Ladder_).--Hardy perennial border plants of an
ornamental character and of the easiest culture. Any soil suits them,
and they merely require sowing in the open either in spring or autumn.
P. Richardsoni is most commonly met with, its blue flowers being
produced in early autumn. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Polyanthus.--Sow the seed late in autumn in well-drained boxes of
light, rich mould; cover it very lightly, place under glass, and water
sparingly, but give enough to keep the plants moist. The seed requires
no artificial heat to germinate it. The roots should be divided each
year as soon as they have flowered, and fresh soil given. The single
varieties only are florists' flowers. The Polyanthus is a species of
primrose, grows best in a rather shady position in a loam and peat
compost, and produces its flowers in May. Height, 6 in.

Polygala Chamaesbuxus.--A hardy evergreen trailing plant requiring
a peat soil in which to grow. It may be increased from seed or by
division of the roots. May is the time at which it blooms. Height, 6
in.

Polygala Dalmaisiana.--This showy evergreen shrub needs a greenhouse
treatment. Soil--three parts peat, one part turfy loam, and a little
sand. It flowers in March. To increase it, top the shoots, which will
cause it to throw out new ones. Take the new growth off when it is 3
in. long, and place it under glass in a propagating house. Height, 1
ft.

The hardy annual varieties of Polygala are obtained by seed sown in
peat. These flower at midsummer. (_See also_ "Solomon's Seal.")

Polygonatum.--These pretty herbaceous plants are quite hardy. The
flowers, which are borne in May or June, are mostly white. Plants
succeed best in a rich soil. They may be raised from seed, or the
roots can be divided. Height, 1ft. to 3 ft.

Polygonum Brunonis (_Knotweed_).--This strong-growing creeping
perennial plant is not particular as to soil so long as it can enjoy
plenty of sunshine. The shoots root of themselves and must be kept in
check, else they will choke other things. It flowers in August, after
which the leaves assume beautiful autumnal tints. Height, 1 ft.

Pomegranate.--This requires a deep, loamy soil and a warm, airy
situation. May be propagated by cuttings of the shrubs or the root,
putting the cuttings into light, rich soil, or by layers. The double
kinds of Punica, or Pomegranate, should be grafted on to the single
ones. There is a dwarf kind, bearing scarlet flowers in August, which
requires heat.

Poppies.--_See_ "Papaver" _and_ "Stylophorum."

Portulaca.--The seeds of the hardy annual species of this genus may be
sown in a sheltered open spot in spring. The half-hardy annuals should
be sown thinly in boxes during March and placed in gentle heat. Harden
off and plant out in May, as soon as the weather permits, in a light,
dry soil where it can get a good amount of sunshine. Its brilliant
and striking colour admirably adapts it for small beds, edgings, or
rock-work; and it will succeed in dry, hot sandy positions where
scarcely any other plant would live. It flowers in June. Height, 6 in.

Potatoes.--Ground intended for Potatoes should be dug deeply in the
autumn, thoroughly drained, well manured and trenched, and left rough
on the surface during the winter. At the beginning of February stand
the tubers on end in shallow boxes, and expose them to the light to
induce the growth of short, hard, purple sprouts. Allow one sprout to
each tuber or set, rubbing off the rest. They may be planted at any
time from the end of February to the end of March in rows 1-1/2 to
2-1/2 ft. asunder, placing the sets 6 in. deep and from 6 to 9 in.
apart. As soon as growth appears keep the ground well stirred with the
hoe to prevent the growth of weeds, and when the tops are 4 to 6 in.
high ridge the earth up about them. Directly flower appears, pick it
off, as it retards the growth of the tubers. They should be taken up
and stored in October. If short of storage room dig up every other row
only, and give the remaining ridges an additional covering of earth.
They keep well this way.

Potentilla.--Handsome herbaceous plants with Strawberry-like foliage.
They will grow in any common soil, and may be increased by dividing
the roots or by seeds treated like other hardy perennials. The
shrubby kinds are well adapted for the fronts of shrubberies, and are
propagated by cuttings taken in autumn and planted in a sheltered
situation. They flower at midsummer. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Potting.--Great attention must be paid to this important gardening
operation. It is necessary that the pots used be perfectly clean, and,
if new, soaked in water for several hours previously, otherwise they
would absorb the moisture from the soil to the detriment of the roots.
At the bottom of the pots place a few layers of crocks, and on these
some rough mould so as to ensure perfect drainage. For all delicate,
hard-wooded plants one-third of each pot should be occupied with
drainage, but a depth of 1-1/2 in. is sufficient for others. Lift the
plant carefully so as not to break the ball of earth round the roots,
and fill in with mould round the sides. In order to supply water
readily the pots must not be filled up to the rim. Pot firmly, and in
the case of hard-wooded plants ram the earth down with a blunt-pointed
stick; soft-wooded ones may be left rather looser. Give shade till the
plants have recovered themselves. The soil used for potting should be
moist, but not clammy. A rather light, rich loam is most suitable for
strong-growing plants; peat for slow-growing, hard-wooded ones, like
Ericas, Camellias, etc.; and a mixture of light loam, one-third its
bulk of leaf-soil, and silver sand in sufficient quantity to make
the whole porous for quick-growing, soft-wooded plants, such as
Pelargoniums, Calceolarias, Fuchsias etc.

Pratia Repens (_Lobelia Pratiana_).--This pretty little creeping
perennial is very suitable for the front of rock-work. It requires
a well-drained vegetable soil and all the sun it can get. It is
self-propagating. Though pretty hardy, it is safer to pot it off in
autumn and place it in a cold frame throughout the winter. Flowers are
produced in June, and are succeeded till cut off by frost.

Primroses.--_See_ "Primulas," _and_ "Streptocarpus."

Primulas.--This genus embraces the Auricula, the Polyanthus, and the
Primrose. The greenhouse varieties are among the most useful of our
winter-flowering plants. The seed may be sown at any time from March
to July in a pot of two-year-old manure, leaf-mould, or fine, rich
mould, but not covering it with the soil. Tie a sheet of paper over
the pot and plunge it in a hotbed. Sufficient moisture will be
communicated to the seed by keeping the paper damp. When the plants
make their appearance remove the paper and place the pot in the shady
part of the greenhouse. When they are strong enough to handle, pot off
into 4-1/2 in. pots, and stand them near the glass. The roots may be
divided as soon as the plants have done flowering. The hardy kinds may
be sown in the open. It should be borne in mind that the seed must
be new, as it soon loses its germinating properties. These flower in
March or April. Height, 6 in.

Prince's Feather.--An ornamental hardy annual, producing tall
spikes of dark crimson flowers and purple-tinted foliage. It is not
particular as to soil, and merely requires sowing in the open in
spring to produce flowers in July. Height, 2 ft.

Privet.--_See_ "Ligustrum."

Prophet's Flower.--_See_ "Arnebia."

Prunella Grandiflora.--A pretty hardy perennial, suitable for a front
border or rock-work, bearing dense spikes of flowers from May to
August. It grows well in any ordinary soil, and is propagated by
division. Height, 6 in.

Pruning.--The main objects to bear in mind in Pruning any kind of bush
or tree are to prevent a congested growth of the branches, to remove
any shoots that cross each other, as well as all useless and dead
wood, and to obtain a well-balanced head. It may be done either in
August or in the winter when the sap is at rest, after the worst of
the frosts are over, the end of February being usually suitable;
but the former period is generally acknowledged to be the better,
especially for fruit-trees. The cuts should be clean and level, and
when a saw is used should be made smooth with a chisel and covered
with grafting wax. In all cases as little wound as possible should
be presented. Root-pruning has for its object the suppression of
over-vigorous growth and the restoration of old trees to a bearing
condition. It consists in taking off all the small fibres, shortening
the long roots to within 6 or 8 in. of the stem, and cutting away any
bruised or injured roots before the trees are first planted out. The
mode of procedure in the case of old or unproductive trees is to
open the earth in autumn 3 ft. from the stem of the tree, and to saw
through two-thirds of the strongest roots. The opening is then filled
in with fresh mould. Should the growth still be too vigorous, the soil
must be opened again the following season and the remaining roots cut
through, care being taken not to injure the young fibrous roots.

Prunus.--Beautiful early-flowering trees, which will grow in any soil,
and can be increased by seeds or suckers.

Ptelia Trifoliata (_Hop Tree_).--This is very suitable for planting on
the borders of still waters, where its long frond-like leaves, which
turn to a golden yellow in autumn, produce a fine effect. It blooms in
June, and is propagated by layers. Height, 10 ft.

Pulmonarias (_Lungworts_).--Hardy perennials that require but little
attention; may be grown in any common soil, and propagated by division
at any time. They flower in April and May. Height, 1 ft.

Pumilum.--_See_ "Heleniums."

Pumpkins.--Valuable for soups and pies in winter, and in summer the
young shoots are an excellent substitute for Asparagus. For their
cultivation, _see_ "Gourds."

Punica Granata Nana.--A greenhouse deciduous shrub which flowers in
August. The soil in which it is placed should be a light, rich loam.
It can be most freely multiplied by layers, and cuttings will strike
in sand under glass. Height, 4 ft.

Puschkinia (_Striped Squills_).--This charming bulbous plant may be
grown in any light, rich mould, provided it is drained well. The bulbs
may be separated when the clumps get overcrowded, late in summer,
after the tops have died down, being the most suitable time to do so.
If planted in a warm position it will begin to flower in March, and
continue in bloom till May. Height, 8 in.

Pyrethrum.--The greenhouse kinds grow in any rich soil, and young
cuttings planted under glass root readily. The hardy kinds are not
particular as to soil so long as it is not cold and wet, and are
increased by seeds sown in heat in February if wanted for early use,
or in the open during March and April for later growth. The crowns may
be divided either in autumn or spring: each eye or bud will make a
fresh plant. Young plants produced in this way in the autumn require
the protection of a frame during the winter. They flower in July.
Height varies from 6 in. to 3 ft.

Pyrola.--A handsome hardy plant, suitable for a moist, shady
situation. It is raised from seed, or will bear dividing, but is
rather hard to grow. Height, 6 in.

Pyrus Japonica.--_See_ "Cydonia."


Q


Quaking Grass.--_See_ "Briza."

Quercus Ilex.--A handsome evergreen Oak, delighting in a deep, loamy
soil. It is propagated by seed sown as soon as it is ripe.

Quinces.--Plant in autumn in a moist but well-drained soil. Cuttings
of stout stems 6 or 8 in. long, firmly and deeply planted in a shady
situation, mulched with leaf-mould, and kept watered in dry weather,
will take root; but the surest method of propagation is by layers,
pegged down in the soil and detached the following year. A good
watering with liquid manure will swell the fruit to a large size. Keep
the branches well thinned out and cut them regular, so as to let in
light and air and form nicely shaped trees. The pruning should be done
as soon as the leaves fall. In orchards they should stand 1 rod apart.


R


Radish.--For an early supply sow on a gentle hotbed under a frame in
January, February, and March. For succession sow thinly on a warm and
sheltered border early in March. Follow on with sowings in the open
till the middle of September. The Black Spanish and China Rose should
be sown during August and September for winter use. Lift in November,
and store in sand in a cool place. Radishes should be liberally
watered in dry weather, and the soil made rich and light some time
before sowing commences.

Ragged Robin.--_See_ "Lychnis."

Ragwort.--_See_ "Jacobaea."

Ramondia Pyrenaica.--A pretty dwarf perennial, suitable for moist
interstices of rock-work. It should be planted in a slanting position,
so that the roots, while absorbing plenty of moisture, will not rot
through being continually in stagnant water. Peat soil suits it best.
It may be increased by division in spring. If grown from seed it takes
two years before flowers are produced. During the height of summer it
is in full beauty.

Rampion.--The roots are used in cooking, and also for salads. For
winter use sow in April in rows 12 in. apart, covering the seeds
lightly with fine mould, and thin out to 4 in. apart. Sow at intervals
for a succession.

Ranunculus.--These prefer a good stiff, rather moist, but well-drained
loam, enriched with well-rotted cow-dung, and a sunny situation.
February is probably the best time for planting, though some prefer to
do it in October. Press the tubers (claws downwards) firmly into the
soil, placing them 2 or 3 in. deep and 4 or 5 in. apart. Cover them
with sand, and then with mould. Water freely in dry weather. Protect
during winter with a covering of dry litter, which should be removed
in spring before the foliage appears. They flower in May or June.
Seeds, selected from the best semi-double varieties, sown early in
October and kept growing during the winter, will flower the next
season. They may likewise be increased by off-sets and by dividing the
root. The claws may be lifted at the end of June and stored in dry
sand. The plants are poisonous. Height, 8 in. to 12 in.

Raphiolepis Ovata.--Beautiful evergreen shrubs, producing long spikes
of white flowers in June. A compost of loam, peat, and sand is their
delight. Cuttings will strike in sand under glass. Height, 4 ft.

Raspberries.--A rich, moist, loamy soil is most suitable for their
cultivation. Suckers are drawn by the hand from the old roots any time
between October and February, and set in groups of three in rows 6 ft.
apart. If taken in October, the young plants may be pruned early in
November. It is usual to cut one cane to the length of 3 ft., the
second one to 2 ft., and the third to within a few inches of the
ground. As soon as the year's crop is gathered, the old bearing shoots
are cut clean away, the young canes are drawn closer together, and at
the end of August the tops of the tall ones are pinched off. When the
leaves have fallen all the suckers are drawn out and the canes pruned
(about four being left to each root). The canes are then tied and
manure applied. About May they are, if necessary, thinned out again,
and the suckers that are exhausting both soil and plant removed. They
produce their fruit on one-year-old canes, which wood is of no further
use. The general way of training them is by tying the tops together,
or by training them in the shape of a fan on a south wall, but perhaps
the best way is to tic them about equal distances apart round hoops
supported by light sticks. Seed may be separated from the fruit,
dried, and sown early in February on a gentle hotbed. Prick off into
good rich mould, harden off by the middle of May, and plant in rich
soil. Train them and keep down suckers. When they are grown tall
pinch off the tops. Red Antwerp, Yellow Antwerp, Prince of Wales,
Northumberland Filbasket, Carter's Prolific, and White Magnum Bonum
are all good sorts.

Red-hot Poker.--_See_ "Tritoma."

Red Scale.--_See_ "Scale."

Red Spiders.--These troublesome pests which appear in the heat of
summer, may be got rid of by constantly syringing the plants attacked,
and by occasionally washing the walls, etc., with lime or sulphur.

Retinospora Filifera.--A large-growing, hardy evergreen shrub. It may
be grown in any light soil, and increased by seed, or by cuttings
planted under glass in the shade. It flowers in May.

Rhamnus (_Buckthorn_).--Fine evergreen shrubs, of hardy habit and
quick growth. They may be grown in any soil, but prefer a sheltered
situation, and are very suitable for planting near the sea. R.
Latifolius has handsome broad leaves. Some, such as R. Alaternus and
R. Catharticus, attain large proportions, the former reaching 30 ft.
and the latter 10 ft. in height. They may be propagated by layers or
by seed.

Rheum Palmatum.--This species of rhubarb makes an effective plant for
the back portion of a border. It does well in rich loam, flowering in
June, and is increased by dividing the root. Height, 5 ft.

Rhodanthe (_Swan River Everlasting_).--These beautiful everlasting
flowers are half-hardy annuals and are suitable for beds or ribbons,
and make most graceful plants for pot culture, placing four plants in
a 5-in. pot. They thrive best in fibrous peat or a rich, light soil,
and prefer a warm situation. Used largely for winter bouquets, and are
perfect gems for pot culture. A succession of bloom may be obtained
by sowings made in August, October, and March. The temperature of the
seed-pots should be kept at from 60 to 70 degrees, and the soil
kept constantly damp with water of the same heat. After potting the
seedlings remove them to a cooler house and keep them near the glass.
Those sown in March may be planted in the open in June, where they
will flower in autumn. Height, 1 ft.

Rhodochiton--This evergreen climber makes a fine plant for
trellis-work. It is more suitable for the greenhouse, though it may be
grown in the open in summer. A light, rich, well-drained soil is its
delight, and it may be propagated by seed or by cuttings under glass.
In the greenhouse it should not be placed near the pipes. July is its
time for flowering. Height, 10 ft.

Rhododendrons.--Plant in October in peat, or in a compost of sandy,
turfy loam, with a good proportion of decayed leaves and charred
refuse. The best position for them is a sheltered one where they can
get a moderate amount of sunshine to develop the flower-buds. They
like plenty of moisture, but the ground must be well drained. If it is
desired to shift their position spring is the best time, the next best
being October. They are propagated by layers or seeds, and the small
wooded kinds by slips torn off close to the stems, planted in sand,
and placed under glass in heat. The seed should be sown early in
spring in pans of peat soil, and covered very lightly. Place the pans
in a frame, and when the soil becomes dry stand the pans in water
nearly up to the rims until the surface is moist. Pot off when strong
enough to handle, and keep close in the frame till fresh roots are
produced, then harden off. Rhododendrons may, when desired, be
transplanted in spring, even after the flower-buds are well advanced,
if care be taken not to break the ball of earth round their roots.
They bloom at the end of May. Height, 4 ft.

Rhubarb.--Seed may be sown thinly during April in drills 1 ft. apart.
Thin out the plants 12 in. from each other, and let them grow on
till the following April, then plant them out 4 ft. apart in deeply
trenched ground into which a good quantity of well-rotted manure has
been worked. Large roots may be divided in autumn or early spring;
every portion of the root that has a crown will make a fresh plant.
When the last of the crop has been pulled, fork in a dressing of old
manure. It may be forced out of doors by covering the ground thickly
with stable manure, and placing large flower-pots over the plants to
bleach them; but if forced in a frame the light need not be excluded.
None but the earliest kinds should be selected for forcing.

Rhubarb, Chilian.--_See_ "Gunnera."

Rhus (_Sumach_).--Lovely shrubs, growing in any ordinary soil. The
young shoots of R. Cotinus are clothed with round leaves which
change to bright crimson and orange, surmounted with fluffy pink
seed-vessels, while R. Glabra Laciniata resembles a tree fern. They
may be propagated either by layers or cuttings. Height, 8 ft. to 10
ft.

Rhynchospermum (Trachelospermum) Jasminoides.--A pretty, evergreen,
woody climber for the conservatory, which succeeds best in a compost
of light loam and peat; is of easy culture, and readily increased by
cuttings. It is a fine plant for rafters or trellis, and produces in
July deliciously fragrant white flowers at the ends of the branches.
Height, 10 ft.

Ribes (_Flowering Currants_).--Well-known shrubs, growing in any soil,
and flowering early in spring. The colours vary from crimson to white.
They may be raised from cuttings either in autumn or early spring.
Height, 4 ft.

Richardia Aethiopica.--A fine herbaceous perennial with very bold
leaves. It needs a good supply of water, and on dry soils should be
planted in trenches. A light, rich mould is best for it, and it should
have sufficient sun to ripen the wood. Lift it in September and winter
in the greenhouse. It is increased from off-sets from the root, and
flowers in March. Height, 2 ft.

Ricinus, or Palma Christi (_Castor-oil Plant, etc._).--The foliage of
these half-hardy annuals is very ornamental. The plants like a rich
soil. Sow the seed early in spring in a slight heat, harden off
gradually, and put out at the end of May in a warm, sheltered spot.
They may also be propagated by cuttings. Height, 3 ft. to 6 ft.

Robinia.--All these shrubs have fine, Fern-like foliage which changes
colour in autumn. The Pea-shaped flowers vary in colour from cream to
purple, and while in bloom the plants are very handsome. They grow
in any soil, flower in May and onwards, and are increased by layers.
Height varies, the Rose Acacia _(Hispida)_ reaching 10 ft., while the
Locust Tree (_Pseudo-Acacia_) grows to the height of 40 ft.

Rock Cress.--_See_ "Arabis."

Rocket (_Hesperis_).--The hardy perennials like a light, rich soil,
and need to be frequently divided. The best time to divide them is
just after they have done flowering, when they should be potted off,
planting them out again in the spring. The annual and biennial kinds
merely require to be sown in the open border. Most of the Rockets give
forth greater fragrance towards evening. Their flowering season is
June. Height, 1 ft. to 1-1/2 ft.

Rock Rose.--_See_ "Cistus" _and_ "Helianthemum."

Rodgersia Podophylla.--A hardy perennial having immense bronze
foliage. It thrives best in a moist, peaty soil; flowers from May to
July, and may readily be increased either by seed or division. Height,
3 ft.

Rogiera Gratissima.--A pretty evergreen stove shrub, which is often
trained to a single stem so as to form a standard. It succeeds in
sandy loam and peat. It may be sunk in the flower-border during the
height of summer, but must be taken indoors before frost sets in.
Cuttings placed in sand under a hand-glass in heat will strike. It
flowers in June. Height, 3 ft.

Romneyi Coulteri.--This grand white-flowered Poppy Tree is quite
hardy, and will grow in any light, rich soil. It blooms in August and
September, and may be increased by seed or by division. Height, 4 ft.

Rose Campion.--A pretty hardy perennial which may be grown from seed
sown in autumn, choosing a sheltered site, or in March in a frame or
under a hand-glass, transplanting it in the autumn into a light, rich,
loamy soil. Height, 2 ft.

Rosemary (_Rosmarinus Officinalis_).--This hardy evergreen shrub
should occupy a dry and sheltered position. Its fragrant purple
flowers are produced in February. Cuttings of the ripened wood, if
planted in spring, will strike root freely. Height, 2 ft.

Roses.--A good, deep, loamy soil, well drained, but which retains a
certain amount of moisture, is the most suitable. The position should
be sheltered, yet open and exposed to the sun. The latter part of
October or November is the most favourable time for planting, but
it may be continued with safety until the commencement of March. A
fortnight before planting the holes should be dug out 1-1/2 or 2 ft.
deep, and plenty of old manure thrown in and trodden down. On this a
good layer of fine mould should be placed, so that the roots do not
come in contact with the manure. Great care must be taken not to
expose the roots to the cold air. When the ground is quite ready for
their reception dip the roots in a pail of water, then spread them out
carefully on top of the mould, fill in the earth, and tread it
firmly. If the plants are standards they require to be firmly staked.
Precaution is necessary not to plant too deeply, keeping them as near
as possible at the depth at which they were previously grown, in no
case exceeding 1 in. above the mark which the earth has left on the
stem. Three weeks after planting tread the earth again round the
roots. Pruning should be done in March, except in the case of those
planted in spring, when the beginning of April will be early enough.
Cut away all of the wood that is unripe, or exhausted and dead. Dwarf
growers should be cut back to within two or three buds of the previous
year's growth, but five or six eyes may be left on those of stronger
growth. The majority of climbing and pillar roses do not require to
be cut back, it being only necessary to take out the useless wood. In
pruning standards aim at producing an equally balanced head, which
object is furthered by cutting to buds pointing outwards. At the
first sign of frost the delicate Tea and Noisette Roses need to be
protected. In the case of standards a covering of bracken fern or
straw must be tied round the heads; dwarfs should have the soil drawn
up over the crowns, or they may be loosely covered by straw. Apply a
top-dressing of farm-yard manure to the beds before the frosts set in,
as this will both nourish and protect the roots. Fork it in carefully
in the spring. Cow manure is especially valuable for Tea Roses. After
the first year of planting most of the artificial manures may, if
preferred, be used; but nothing is better than farmyard stuff. If the
summer be dry, water freely in the evening. Roses may be propagated by
cuttings in the summer or autumn. The slips should be 5 or 6 in. long,
of the spring's growth, taken with 1 in. of the previous year's
wood attached. A little bottom-heat is beneficial. They may also be
increased by grafting or by separating the suckers. Keep a sharp
look-out for maggots in the spring, which will generally be
found where the leaves are curled up. These must be destroyed by
hand-picking. Green fly can be eradicated with tobacco wash. Mildew
may be cured by sprinkling the leaves with sulphur while dew is on
them.

Rose of Heaven.--_See_ "Viscaria Coeli Rosa."

Rose of Sharon.--_See_ "Hibiscus Syriacus."

Rubus.--_See_ "Blackberries."

Rudbeckia (_Cone Flower._)--Hardy annuals yielding yellow flowers in
July. They are readily grown from seed sown early in spring, and will
grow in any garden soil, but naturally succeed best in deeply-worked,
well-manured ground. They may be increased by division in October or
November, as well as in spring-time. Height, 3 ft.

Ruscus Aculeatus (_Butchers Broom_).--A hardy evergreen shrub which
thrives in any rich soil, and may be increased by division of the
root. Height, 1 ft.

Ruta Graveolens.--This hardy evergreen shrub is a species of Rue.
It enjoys a good, rich soil, in which it flowers freely in August.
Cuttings may be struck under a hand-glass. Height, 3 ft.

Ruta Patavina (_Rue of Padua_).--For rock-work this hardy perennial is
very useful. It likes a dry yet rich and light soil. At midsummer it
produces an abundance of greenish-yellow flowers. It can be raised
from seed, or cuttings may be struck under a hand-glass. Height, 6 in.


S


Saffron, Spring.--_See_ "Bulbocodium."

Sage.--This useful herb likes a rich, light soil, and is propagated by
division of the root, by cuttings, or by seed.

Saintpaulia Ionantha.--The leaves of this plant spread themselves
laterally just over the soil, forming a rosette, in the centre of
which spring up large violet-like flowers. It is a continuous bloomer.
A rather light, rich soil or vegetable mould suits it best. The seed,
which is very minute, should be sown early in spring, in gentle heat:
to prevent it being washed away, the pots may stand up to the rims in
water for a while when the ground wants moisture. Height, 1 ft.

St. John's Wort.--_See_ "Hypericum."

Salix Reticulata.--A dwarf creeping plant whose dark green leaves
eminently fit it for the rock-work or carpet bedding. It will grow in
any soil, but prefers a moist one, and produces unattractive brown
flowers in September. Propagated in spring by detaching rooted
portions from the parent plant and planting them in moist, sandy loam.
Height, 2 in.

Salpiglossis.--Very beautiful half-hardy annuals which are greatly
prized for cut bloom. A light but not over-rich soil suits them best.
The seed may be sown in the open border early in spring, or preferably
on a hotbed at the same period. For early flowering raise the plants
in the autumn, and winter them in a frame or greenhouse. Flowers are
produced in July and August. Height, 2 ft.

Salsafy (_Vegetable Oyster_).--Sow the seed in any good garden
soil--deep sandy loam is best--towards the end of April in drills 1
ft. apart, and thin the plants out to a distance of 6 in. from each
other. The roots may remain in the ground till required for use, or be
lifted in October and stored in the same way as Beet or Carrots. They
are prepared for table in the same manner as Parsnips, and are also
used for flavouring soups.

Salvia.--Very showy flowers, well worth cultivating, and easily grown
in a rich, light soil. The annuals and biennials may be sown in the
open early in spring. The herbaceous kinds are increased by dividing
the roots; the shrubby varieties by cuttings of the young wood planted
under glass in March; while the stove species require to be placed in
heat. They flower in August in the open. Heights vary, according to
the kinds, but S. Coccinea and S. Patens, which are most commonly met
with in gardens, grow to a height of 2 ft.

Sambucus (_The Elder_).--Useful deciduous shrubs. S. Nigra Aurea
has golden foliage, and is suitable for town gardens. The silvery
variegated variety (Variegata), is fine for contrasting with others.
They may all be propagated by cuttings or by division. Flower in June.

Sand Wort.--_See_ "Arenaria."

Sanguinaria Canadensis (_Bloodroot_).--A hardy perennial, curious
both in leaf and flower. It requires a light, sandy soil, shade, and
moisture; is propagated by seed sown in July, also by division of the
tuberous roots, and it blooms in March. The tubers should be planted 5
in. deep and 3 in. apart. Height, 6 in.

Santolina.--This hardy evergreen shrub grows freely in any soil. It
flowers in July, and is increased by cuttings. Height, 2 ft.

Sanvitalia.--Interesting, hardy annual trailers, which may be readily
raised from seed sown in March or April, and merely require ordinary
treatment. They produce their golden and brown and yellow flowers in
July. Height, 1 ft.

Saponaria.--These grow best in a mixture of sandy loam and peat or
decayed vegetable soil. The annuals may be sown either in autumn,
and wintered in a frame, or in the open in April. The perennials are
increased by seed or by division of the root, and young cuttings
of the branching species root freely if planted under glass. S.
Ocymoides, on account of its trailing nature, and S. Calabrica make
fine rock-work plants. The leaves of S. Officinalis, or Soap Plant, if
stirred in water form a lather strong enough to remove grease spots.
They bloom in June and July. Height, 6 in. to 2 ft.

Sarracenia.--Curious herbaceous plants, requiring to be grown in pots
of rough peat, filled up with sphagnum moss, in a moderately cool
house having a moist atmosphere. They flower in June, and are
increased by division. Height, from 9 in. to 1 ft.

Sauromatum Guttatum.--This makes a good window or cool greenhouse
plant. Pot the tuber in good loam and leaf-soil, and keep the mould
only just damp until the foliage, which follows the flowers, appears.
When the foliage fails, keep the tubers dry till spring. If grown out
of doors the tubers must be lifted before frost sets in.

Savoys.--Sow the seed in March or April, and when the plants are 2 in.
high remove them to a nursery-bed, selecting the strongest first. Let
them remain till they are about 6 in. high, then transplant them, 18
in. apart, in well-manured soil. Their flavour is greatly improved if
they are frozen before being cut for use.

Saxifrage.--These beautiful Alpine perennials delight in a light,
sandy soil, and are easily propagated by seed or division. It is most
convenient to grow the rare and tender kinds in pots, as they require
the protection of a frame in winter. Saxifraga Sibthorpii is very
suitable for the lower and damper parts of rock-work; it is hardy, and
sheds its seed freely. S. Umbrosa (London Pride) makes a neat border,
and is also useful for rock-work. S. Sarmentosa (Mother-of-Thousands)
is a fine hanging plant for greenhouse or window. They flower in
April. Height, mostly 4 in. to 6 in., but some grow as high as 1-1/2
ft.

Scabious.--Ornamental and floriferous hardy biennials, which grow
freely in common soil. The seed may be sown at any time between March
and midsummer; transplant in the autumn. They bloom in June. Height, 1
ft to 3 ft. (_See also_ "Cephalaria.")

Scale.--Red Scale may be easily overcome with a strong solution of
soft soap applied with a sponge. White Scale is harder to deal with.
Syringe frequently with strong soapsuds heated to 120 degrees. If the
plant is badly attacked it is best to destroy it.

Schizanthus.--Extremely beautiful and showy annuals. A rather poor,
light soil is most suitable for their growth. For early flowering sow
the seed in autumn, and keep the young plants in a frame or greenhouse
throughout the winter. For a succession of bloom sow in the open
border early in the spring. They flower in July and August. Height, 2
ft.

Schizopetalum.--This singular and delightfully fragrant annual
does best in a mixture of loam, peat, and sand, or sandy loam and
leaf-mould. Sow the seed in pots in the spring, place in a greenhouse,
and when large enough to handle, plant out in the open border, or it
may be kept in an airy part of the house, where it will bloom in June.
Height, 1 ft.

Schizostylis Coccinea (_Crimson Flag, or Kaffre Lily_).--A most lovely
autumn-blooming plant, producing abundant spikes of Izia-like flowers
about 2 ft. high. It is suitable for pot-culture or planting outdoors,
and is quite hardy. It requires a rich, light soil.

Scillas (_Squills_).--Very useful spring-flowering bulbs. They are
hardy, and do well in any position in light soil. When mixed with
Crocuses and Snowdrops they produce a very charming effect. To get
perfection of bloom they require deep planting. S. Siberica especially
looks well when grown in pots with Snowdrops. Scilla roots are
poisonous. General height, 1 ft.

Scorzonera.--Sow in March in light soil in rows 18 in. apart. Thin
the plants out to about 7 in. one from the other. They may perhaps be
ready for use in August, but to have large roots they should be left
till they are two years old. They may remain in the ground till wanted
for use, or they may be lifted in October and stored like Beet, etc.
This vegetable is scraped and thrown into cold water for a few hours,
then boiled in the same way as Carrots and Parsnips.

Scutellaria.--These plants will grow in any good soil. The hardy
perennials flower in July. The greenhouse varieties merely require
protecting in the winter. They all bear division of the root, and are
easily raised from seed. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Scyphanthus.--An elegant and curious trailer, which is best grown in
a loamy soil. It may be increased from seed sown in April, and it
flowers in August. Height, 2 ft.

Sea Cabbage.--_See_ "Crambe Cordifolia."

Seakale.--The readiest way of propagating this useful vegetable is by
off-sets, but it may be raised from seed sown in March or April in
rows 1 ft. apart. Thin out the young plants to 6 in. in the rows, and
transplant in February or March into well-trenched, deep, rich soil in
rows 2 ft. apart and the plants 15 in. asunder. Keep the plants to one
crown, or shoot, and remove all flower-shoots as they appear. In
dry weather give a liberal quantity of liquid manure. Cropping may
commence after the roots have been planted two years.

Sea Lavender.--_See_ "Statice."

Sea Milkweed.--_See_ "Glaux."

Sedum (_Stonecrop_).--This well-known hardy perennial is suitable for
pots or rock-work. It delights in a light, sandy soil, and is readily
increased by division or cuttings. It flowers in June or July. Height,
3 in.

Seed-Sowing.--Two of the most important points in the sowing of seed
are the proper condition of the ground and the regular and uniform
depth at which the seed is sown. Seeds require light, heat, air, and
moisture for their germination. The ground should be light, and in
such a condition that the young roots can easily penetrate it, and in
all cases should be freshly dug so as to communicate air and moisture:
it should be neither too wet nor too dry. The most favourable time for
seed-sowing is just before a gentle rain. If sown too early on cold,
wet ground, the seed is apt to rot; when sown too shallow in a dry
time, there may not be sufficient moisture to cause it to sprout. The
seed should be sown evenly. The size of a seed is a nearly safe guide
as to the depth at which it should be sown. For instance, Beans and
Peas of all kinds should be sown about a couple of inches deep, while
very small flower-seeds merely require to be just covered. As to the
time for sowing, _see_ "Annuals," "Biennials," and "Perennials."

Seeds, the Protection of.--In order to protect seeds against birds,
insects, and rodents, soak them in water containing 20 or 25 per cent,
of mineral oil. Vegetable seeds, such as Haricot Beans and Peas,
should be soaked for twelve hours, and the pips of Apples and Pears
for double that time. For soaking the finer seeds, bitter liquids,
such as that of Quassia and Gentian, should be used.

Sempervivum (_Houseleek_).--The hardy kinds are well known, and may
often be seen growing on the roofs of cottages and on walls. They make
good rock-work plants, and are easily increased by off-sets. The more
tender kinds are suitable for the greenhouse. These should be planted
in sandy loam and old brick rubbish. They require but very little
water; more may be given when they are in flower. Cuttings, after
being laid aside for a day or two to dry, will soon make root. Height,
6 in.

Senecio Pulcher (_Noble Crimson Groundsel_).--A warm position and a
deep, rich, well-drained soil are needed for this flower. It may be
propagated by cutting the roots into pieces 5 or 6 in. long, and
dibbling them into light soil. It is also increased by the rootlets,
which send up small growths in spring. Protect from damp and frost,
and keep a sharp look-out for slugs. The flowers are produced in
autumn. Height, 3 ft.

Senna, Bladder.--_See_ "Colutea."

Sensitive Plant.--_See_ "Mimosa."

Shallots.--Plant the bulbs in November, or in February or March, in
rows 9 in. apart, and the bulbs 6 in. one from the other. In July,
when the tops are dying down, lift the bulbs, lay them in the sunshine
to dry, then store them in a cool place.

Shamrock.--_See_ "Trifolium Repens."

Sheep Scabious.--_See_ "Jasione."

Shortia Galacifolia.--A hardy, creeping Alpine evergreen, having oval
leaves, slightly notched at the margins, which turn to a brilliant
crimson during the autumn and winter months. In April and May it
produces pearly-white flowers, somewhat Campanulate in form. It may be
planted in early autumn or spring. A light, rich soil suits it best,
and it delights in partial shade. It is a lovely plant for rock-work.
Height, 6 in.

Shrubs.--Deciduous shrubs may be transplanted at any time during late
autumn or winter when the ground is not too wet. Evergreen shrubs may
be moved either early in autumn or in April or May, damp, warm, but
not sunny weather being most suitable for the operation. They rejoice
in a clean, healthy soil, such as good loam; animal manure does not
agree with them, but wood ashes, or charcoal powder with a little
guano, may be used. Cuttings of shrubs or trees may be taken in
September, placed in a mixture of sandy loam and leaf-mould with 1/2
in. of sand on top, and covered with a hand-glass; 5 to 8 in. is a
good length for the cuttings, all of which, with the exception of
about 1 in., should be buried, and preferably with a heel of old wood.
Keep the soil just damp and give shade.

Shrubs for Lawns.--Monkey Puzzle (_Araucaria Imbricata_)--mix wood
ashes and burnt refuse with the soil; Thujopsis Delabrata, Thujopsis
Borealis (of taller growth), Irish Yews, Cupressus Lawsoniana Erecta
Viridis, Thujas Orientalis, Vervaeneana, Semperaurescens, Standard
Rhododendrons, Standard and Pyramid Hollies, Yucca Gloriosa (a perfect
picture), Yucca Recurva (the best hardy plant for vases). The Cercis
tree is also well adapted for lawns.

Sicyos.--This hardy annual somewhat resembles the Cucumber, but is
scarcely worth growing except as a curiosity. The seeds are sown on a
hotbed in spring, potted off when strong enough, and transferred to
the open border early in June. It is a climber, and flowers in August.
Height, 3 ft.

Sidalcea.--Very pretty hardy perennials, of easy culture. S. Candida
has pure white flowers closely arranged on the upper part of the
stems. S. Malvaeflora bears beautifully fringed, satiny pink flowers.
They will grow in any good soil from seed sown in autumn and protected
during the winter, or they may be increased by division of the roots.
Height, 3 ft.

Silene _(Catchfly_).--Elegant plants, delighting in a light, rich
soil. Sow the seeds of the annual varieties early in April where they
are intended to bloom. Silene Pendula, when sown in the autumn, makes
a pleasing show of pink flowers in the spring. The roots of the
herbaceous kinds may be divided in spring. The shrubby sorts are
increased by cuttings planted under a hand-glass. The dwarfs make fine
rock-work ornaments. Flowers are produced in June and July. Height, 2
in. to 1-1/2 ft.

Silphium Aurantiacum.--A good and hardy border perennial, which
produces during July and August large deep orange-yellow flowers
resembling a Sunflower. It is very useful for cutting, will grow
anywhere, and can be increased by dividing the root. Height, 4 ft.

Sisyrinchium Grandifolium(_Satin Flower, or Rush Lily_).--A light loam
suits this plant, which is moderately hardy. The soil should be moist,
but not wet. It does not like being disturbed, but when necessary the
crowns may be divided in autumn, taking care to spread the roots well
out. It blooms in April or May. Height, 1 ft.

Skimmia.--Neat-growing, dwarf evergreen shrubs having Laurel-like
leaves, and producing a profusion of scarlet berries in winter. They
succeed in any ordinary soil, but thrive best in peat and loam; and
are propagated by cuttings placed in heat under glass.

Slugs.--A sharp watch should be kept over all slugs, and constant
visits paid to the garden at daybreak for their destruction. If
fresh cabbage leaves are strewed about in the evening the slugs will
congregate under them, and in the morning they may be gathered up and
dropped into strong brine. The ground may also be dusted with fresh
lime, which is fatal to them, but in wet weather the lime soon loses
its power.

Smilax.--A greenhouse climbing plant that is admired for its foliage
rather than its bloom. A mixture of peat and loam or leaf-mould and
sandy loam suits it. Train the shoots up string, and freely water the
plant in summer; during the autumn and winter it does not need
much moisture. Keep the temperature of the house up to 60 degrees
throughout the winter. It is readily increased by cuttings. It flowers
in July. Fine for table decoration. Height, 4 ft.

Snails.--To prevent snails crawling up walls or fruit trees daub the
ground with a thick paste of soot and train oil. There is no remedy so
effectual for their destruction as hand-picking.

Snake's Head Lilies.--_See_ "Fritillarias."

Snapdragon.--_See_ "Antirrhinum."

Sneezewort.--_See_ "Achillea."

Snowball Tree.--_See_ "Viburnum."

Snowberry.--_See_ "Symphoricarpus."

Snowdrops _(Galanthus)._--These are most effective in clumps. They may
be planted at any time from September to December, and left alone for
three or four years, when they may be taken up and divided. They grow
best in a light, rich soil.

Snowdrop Tree.--_See_ "Halesia."

Snowflake.--_See_ "Leucojum."

Snow in Summer.--_See_ "Arabis."

Soil and its Treatment.--Loam is a mixture of clay and sand. When
the former predominates it is termed heavy loam, and when the latter
abounds it is called light.

Marl is a compound of chalk and clay, or chalk and loam. Though
suitable for certain fruit-trees and a few other things, few flowers
will grow in it.

Drainage is one of the most important considerations in the
cultivation of flowers. Should the soil be clayey, and hold water,
make V-shaped drains, 3 ft. below the surface, and let 2-in. pipes
lead to a deep hole made at the lowest part of the garden and filled
with brick rubbish, or other porous substances, through which the
water may drain; otherwise the cold, damp earth will rot the roots of
the plants.

Trenching is the process of digging deep, so as to loosen and expose
the soil as much as possible to the action of the air. If this is done
in the autumn or early winter to a new garden, it is best to dig it
deep, say about 2 ft, and leave it in large clods to the pulverising
action of the frost, after which it is easily raked level for spring
planting. If the clods are turned over the grass will rot and help to
improve the ground; new land thus treated will not require manuring
the first year. Should the ground be clayey, fine ashes or coarse sand
thrown over the rough clods after trenching will greatly improve it.

Digging should be done when the ground is fairly dry, and about one
spade deep. Avoid treading it down as much as possible.

Hoeing must be constantly attended to, both to prevent the soil
becoming exhausted of its nourishment by the rapid growth of weeds,
and because when the surface becomes hard and cracked the rain runs
through the deep fissures, leaving the surface soil dry and the roots
of the plants unnourished.

Mulching consists in spreading a layer of stable manure, about 3 in.
deep, over the roots of trees and plants in the autumn to keep them
warm and moist. The manure may be forked into the soil in the spring.

Watering the plants carefully is of great consequence. Evening or
early morning is the best time, and one copious application is far
better than little and often. Water may be given to the _roots_ at any
time, but should not be sprinkled over the leaves in a hot sun nor in
cold weather. Plants having a soft or woolly foliage should never be
wetted overhead, but those with hard and shiny leaves may be freely
syringed, especially when in full growth.

Solanum.--Showy greenhouse shrubs, some of which have ornamental
foliage. The soil in which they are grown should be light and rich.
Cuttings planted in sand under glass strike readily. The tender annual
varieties may be sown on a hotbed in spring, and placed in the border
at the end of May in a dry, sheltered situation, where they will
flower in June. Height, 1 ft. and upwards.

Soldanellas.--These small herbaceous perennials should find a place in
all Alpine collections. They grow best in sandy peat, or in leaf-mould
with a liberal addition of sand, and they require a moderate amount of
moisture. They may be increased by dividing the roots in April. They
flower from March to May. Height, 4 in. or 5 in.

Solidago (_Golden Rod_).--A useful hardy perennial for the back of
borders. Throughout late summer and autumn it produces masses of
golden flowers. It is not over-particular as to soil, and may be
increased by dividing the root in the spring. It increases very
rapidly. Height, 2 ft. to 6 ft.

Solomon's Seal (_Polygonatum Multiflorum_).--A graceful hardy plant
bearing white pendulent flowers on long curving stems. Plant freely
in light, rich soil, in a shady position or under trees. The plants
should not be disturbed, even by digging among the roots. Flowers in
May. Height, 2 ft.

Soot-Water.--For room and window plants soot-water has this advantage
over coarse animal manures, that while the latter are unhealthy and
apt to taint the air, the former is purifying and has no unpleasant
smell. It is easily made by tying a little soot in a coarse canvas bag
and immersing it in a pail of water. It should be applied in a clear,
thin state to plants in bud or in full growth during the summer
months.

Sorrel.--Sow in March or April in any garden soil, thin out to 1 ft.
apart. It is desirable to cut away the flower-stems and to divide the
roots every two or three years. The plants may be forced for winter
use.

Southernwood (_Artemisia Arborea_).--Any soil suits this odoriferous
bush, and it is readily increased by cuttings or by division.

Sparaxis.--Closely allied to the Ixias, equally beautiful and varied
in colour, but rather dwarfer and compact in growth. Invaluable for
pot-culture. For outdoor cultivation plant them early in September,
5 or 6 in. deep, on a sheltered border, in rich, well-drained, loamy
soil. Protect from frost and wet in the winter, but keep the roots
moist while they are growing. For indoor cultivation plant four to six
bulbs in a 5-in. pot, plunge in ashes in a cold frame, withholding
water till the plants appear. When making full growth remove them to
a sunny window or conservatory, and water them carefully. They will
bloom in March or April. Height, 3 ft.

Sparmannia Africana.--An exceedingly handsome and attractive
greenhouse evergreen shrub, thriving best in loam and peat. Cuttings
may be struck in sand under glass. May is its flowering season.
Height, 10 ft.

Spartium Junceum(_Yellow Broom_).--A hardy evergreen shrub which will
grow in any soil, and is propagated by seeds. It flowers in August.
Height, 6 ft.

Specularia Speculum.--_See_ "Venus's Looking-Glass."

Spergula Pilfera.--May be grown in any moist situation in sandy soil.
It is of little value.

Sphenogyne Speciosa.--An elegant hardy annual. Sow the seed early in
spring on a gentle hotbed in loam and peat, harden off, and transplant
at the end of May to a soil composed of loam and leaf-mould, if peat
cannot be obtained. The bloom is produced in July. Height, 1 ft.

Spider Wort.--_See_ "Commelina" _and_ "Tradescantia."

Spigelia Marilandica.--From August to October this hardy perennial
produces tubular crimson and yellow flowers. It finds a congenial home
in damp peat, shaded from the sun, and may be propagated by cuttings
in loam and peat under glass. Height, 1 ft.

Spinach.--For summer use sow the round-seeded kinds at intervals of
two or three weeks from February to the end of July in rows 1 ft.
apart, cover with the finest of soil, and thin out to a distance of 3
or 4 in. In dry weather give a liberal supply of manure water. Pull
before it runs to seed. For winter use sow the prickly-seeded variety
in August and September, and thin the plants out 9 in. apart. If the
ground is hot and dry, the seed should be soaked for twenty-four hours
before it is sown. New Zealand Spinach may be sown in the open during
May, choosing the warmest spot for its growth; but it is best to
sow it in heat in March, keeping the soil fairly moist, and, after
hardening it off, to plant it out in June, 3 ft. apart Sow Perpetual
Spinach or Spinach Beet in March in drills 1 ft. apart. Cut the leaves
frequently, when a fresh crop will be produced.

Spiraeas.--Placed in the open ground these make splendid plants, and
are not particular as to soil, though a moist, rich one is preferable.
For forcing, plant the clumps in 6-in. pots, and keep them in a cool
frame until they are well rooted. They may then be removed indoors
and forced rapidly, supplying them with an abundance of water.
Their elegant flower spikes are invaluable for bouquets and table
decoration. The shrubby kinds are increased by layers or cuttings of
the young wood, the herbaceous varieties by division of the roots
in autumn. Spiraea Aruncus, if potted early in the autumn, is very
valuable for winter decoration. Spiraeas bloom at different periods,
from May to August, and vary in height, 3 or 4 ft. being the general
growth.

Spruce Firs.--_See_ "Abies."

Stachys Coccinea.--This scarlet hardy annual is fine for bees. It may
be grown in any soil from seed sown in March or April. Height, 1 ft.

Stachys Lanata.--A hardy perennial which will grow in any soil, and
bears division. It flowers in July. Height, 2 ft.

Staphylea Colchica_(Mexican Bladder Nut)._--This beautiful
free-flowering shrub will grow in any garden soil, and produces
bunches of fragrant, delicate white flowers in June. It forces well,
and may be made to flower at Easter by potting it in rich, light soil,
placing it in a cold frame till the middle of January, keeping
the roots moist, then bringing it into the warm house. It may be
propagated by suckers from the roots, by layers, or by cuttings taken
in autumn.

Star Flower.--_See_ "Trientalis."

Star of Bethlehem.--_See_ "Ornithogalum."

Statice _(Sea Lavender)._--The greenhouse and frame varieties succeed
best in sandy loam and peat, and may be increased by cuttings placed
under a bell-glass or in a warm pit. The hardy herbaceous kinds are
very suitable for the front of flower borders, and may be freely
increased by seeds or division. The annuals, if sown in March, will
produce flowers in July. Statices require a good amount of water, but
thorough drainage must be ensured. If the flowers are dried they will
keep their colour for a considerable time. Height, 1 ft. to 1-1/2 ft.

Stauntonia Latifolia.--A greenhouse evergreen climbing plant, which
needs a peat and loam soil and plenty of room for its roots. It
flowers in April, and is increased by cuttings planted in sand under
glass, with a gentle heat. Height, 10 ft.

Stenactis (_Fleabane_).--Showy hardy perennials which make fine
bedding plants. They may be grown from seed, which is produced in
great quantities, and merely requires the same treatment as other
perennials, or they may be propagated by dividing the plants. They
bloom in July. Height, 2 ft.

Stephanotis.--This pretty evergreen twining plant is most suitable for
the greenhouse, and flourishes in a mixture of loam and leaf-mould. It
flowers in May, and is increased by cuttings struck in heat. Height,
10 ft.

Sternbergia Lutea.--A hardy perennial which produces bright yellow
flowers in August. It likes a rich soil, and is propagated by
off-sets. Height, 6 in.

Stipa Pennata (_Feather Grass_).--One of the most graceful of our
ornamental grasses, and most attractive in the border. The seed may be
sown early in March, keeping the ground moist until it has germinated,
and it is also increased by division. Height, 2 ft.

Stobæa Purpurea.--A hardy border plant with long spiny foliage, and
bearing from July to September large light blue flowers. It requires a
light, rich soil. Young cuttings may be struck in sand. Height, 1 ft.

Stocks--

_ANNUAL, OR TEN WEEKS' STOCKS_.--Sow the seeds in February, March,
April, and May for succession; those sown in May will continue to
flower till Christmas. The soil should be rich, and occasionally a
little manure-water may be given. Another sowing may be made in August
and September. When the plants have several leaves pot off singly in
vegetable loam and river sand. Height, 1 ft. to 1-1/2 ft.

_BROMPTON_.--Sow very thinly during the first week in May in a rich,
light, sandy border, with an eastern aspect. When 2 or 3 in. high,
thin out to 9 in. apart. Those taken out may be re-planted in the
flower border, 9 in. from each other. In transplanting reject those
plants having a long tap-root: they generally prove to be single. If
the following winter be severe they must be protected with mats. Any
desirable varieties may be propagated by cuttings, which root readily
under glass if kept shaded. Should it be desirable to transplant them
to another part of the garden, March or April will be found the best
time to remove them. Shade the plants till they are established, and
use liquid manure till they begin to flower.

_GREENHOUSE OR SHRUBBY_ species grow best in a mixture of light soil
and sand, and cuttings of these Stocks root readily under glass.

_NIGHT-SCENTED STOCKS_.--_See_ "Mathiola Bicornis." If Emperor,
Imperial, or Intermediate Stocks are sown in March or April, they will
flower in the autumn; if sown in June or July they will flower during
the following June, and throughout the summer and autumn.

Stokesia Cyanea.--A handsome herbaceous perennial which is quite
hardy, but owing to the late period at which it flowers its blooms are
liable to be cut off by frosts. It is therefore more suitable for a
cool house than the open air, unless the warmest and most sheltered
position be assigned to it. A rich, sandy soil is indispensable for
its growth. It may be increased by dividing the roots in spring. The
flowers are produced from October to December. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Stonecrop.--_See_ "Sedum."

Strawberries.--The soil most suitable for the growth of this fruit is
a rich, deep, adhesive loam. July or early in August is the best time
to make new beds, but if the ground be not then available runners from
the old plants may be planted in peat on a north border and lifted
with good balls of earth to their permanent bed in the spring. Set
them firmly in rows 2 ft. apart and 18 in. from plant to plant. Spread
out the roots and avoid deep planting. Remove from the old plants
all runners not required for new beds before they take root, as they
exhaust the crown. In dry seasons liquid manure is highly beneficial.
Some growers give supports to the fruit by means of forked-shaped
pegs, while others lay straw down to keep the fruit free from grit.
Keep a sharp look-out for snails and slugs. King of the Earlies,
Auguste Nicaise, Royal Sovereign, Vicomtesse Héricart de Thury, Gunton
Park, President, Sir Joseph Paxton, Lord Suffield, Noble, and Samuel
Bradley are excellent sorts. For Ornamental Strawberries, _see_
"Fragaria Indica."

Strawberry Tree.--_See_ "Arbutus."

Streptocarpus (_Cape Primrose_).--This plant is a greenhouse
perennial, showing great variety of colours, from white to violet
and crimson, and is of neat habit. A light and rather rich soil or
vegetable mould suits it best. Seed sown in February in slight heat
will produce plants for flowering in July; that sown in March or April
will flower in August and September. Grow slowly in small pots, and
in February put them in their flowering pots. Give plenty of air and
shade them from the sun. It may also be increased by division, or
leaf-cuttings may be taken under a bell-glass. The plants like plenty
of water, but need good drainage. Height, 9 in.

Streptosolen Jamesoni.--A good compost for this greenhouse evergreen
shrub is two parts sandy loam, one part leaf-mould, and a little
silver sand. During growth it needs a liberal supply of water and to
be kept near the glass; only a small amount of moisture should be
given in winter. In March cut it into shape, and re-pot it as soon as
new growth starts. During the summer syringe it frequently to keep off
red spider, and during winter maintain a temperature of 55 degrees.

Stylophorum _(Celandine Poppy, or Poppywort)._--During May and June
this hardy and handsome plant produces fine yellow flowers. It
accommodates itself to any soil, but prefers a rich, light one, and
can be increased by seed sown in autumn or early spring. Height, 1-1/2
ft.

Styrax.--Ornamental shrubs requiring a light soil for their
cultivation. S. Japonica has Snowdrop-like flowers, and S. Obasa
Lily-of-the-Valley-like scented flowers. They are best propagated by
layers. Height, 4 ft. to 10 ft.

Sunflower.--_See_ "Helianthus."

Swainsonia Galegifolia Alba.--A graceful and charming cool greenhouse
plant, with Fern-like evergreen foliage and pure white flowers, which
are borne from April to November. The soil most suitable for it is a
mixture of loam and sandy peat. Cuttings of the young growth planted
in sand under glass strike readily. Height, 2 ft.

Swallow Wort.--_See_ "Asclepias."

Swamp Lilies.--_See_ "Zephyranthes."

Swan River Daisy.--_See_ "Brachycome."

Sweet Alyssum.--_See_ "Alyssum."

Sweet Flag.--_See_ "Acorus."

Sweet Peas.--_See_ "Peas, Sweet."

Sweet Rocket.--_See_ "Rocket."

Sweet Scabious.--_See_ "Scabious."

Sweet Sultan.--Sweet-scented, Thistle-shaped hardy annual flowers,
which are very useful for cutting. They may be raised in any garden
soil from seed sown in March or April, and will flower in August.
Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Sweet William.--Well-known hardy perennials, and deservedly favourite
border plants, which may be grown in any good soil; but to have them
to perfection they should be placed in light, loamy ground mixed with
a little old manure and sand. They can be raised with little trouble
from seed sown thinly at any time between March and midsummer where
they are to bloom, and may also be increased by dividing the old
plants in spring. They produce their flowers in July. Height, 1-1/2
ft.

Symphoricarpus (_Snowberry_).--A handsome species of St. Peter's Wort.
The shrubs will grow in any ordinary soil, are hardy, and readily
propagated by suckers, which are produced abundantly; or cuttings may
be taken either in spring or autumn. They bloom in August. Height, 4
ft.

Symphytum Caucasicum.--Hardy perennials. They will grow in any soil
or situation, even thriving under the shade of trees, and may be
increased by division. June is the month in which they flower. Height,
3 ft.

Syringa (_Lilac_.)--There are many choice varieties of these favourite
shrubs, but any of them may be grown in a tolerably good soil. They
are propagated by layers or by suckers from the root. They bloom in
May or June. Height varies from 4 ft. to 12 ft.


T


Tacsonia.--A beautiful twining shrub belonging to the Passiflora
family. It should be provided with a rich soil, and, as the flowers
are produced upon the lateral shoots, it requires frequent stopping.
Syringe frequently in warm weather to induce a quick growth. It is
a quick grower, and, when properly treated, a profuse bloomer, the
flowers being produced in July, August, and September. Cuttings of
young shoots placed under glass in a sandy soil will strike. Height,
20 ft.

Tagetes (_French and African Marigolds_).--Half-hardy annuals, very
elegant when in flower, and deserve a place in the garden. The seed
should be sown on a hotbed in March or April, the plants gradually
hardened off, and placed in the open at the end of May in a rich,
light soil, when they will flower in August. Height, 1 ft. to 2-1/2
ft.

Tamarix.--Neat feathery plants, very suitable for banks and thriving
at the seaside, as is evidenced by its luxuriant growth along the
parades at Eastbourne. The hardy kinds will grow in any soil, and may
be propagated by cuttings planted in the open either in spring or
autumn. The greenhouse and stove varieties require a soil of loam and
peat. Cuttings of these should be placed in sand under glass. They
flower in June and July. Height, 8 ft. to 10 ft.

Tansy.--A feathery-foliaged hardy perennial, useful for mixing with
cut blooms. No special treatment is required. Height, 11 ft.

Taxus.--_See_ "Yew."

Tecoma.--Ornamental evergreen shrubs of a twining nature, needing a
greenhouse for their cultivation. They require a rich, loamy soil
mixed with a little sand, or loam and peat, and rejoice in shade and
moisture. T. Radicans will grow in the open against a wall, but a
warm situation is needed to make it flower. They may be propagated
by cuttings of the roots placed in sand under a hand-glass, and by
layers. Their flowers are produced in July and August. Height, 6 ft.
to 30 ft.

Telekia.--_See_ "Buphthalmum."

Tellima Grandiflora.--A hardy and very ornamental perennial with round
bronzy foliage and spikes of white flowers at midsummer. It succeeds
best in peat, but will grow in any rich, light soil. To increase it,
divide the roots. Height, 1 ft.

Tetratheca.--Pretty greenhouse evergreen shrubs which produce
pink flowers in July. They flourish in a soil consisting of equal
proportions of loam, peat, and sand. Cuttings of the young wood
planted under glass in a sandy soil will strike. Height, 1 ft.

Teucrium Scorodonia.--This hardy herbaceous plant will grow in any
ordinary garden soil. It flowers in July, and is easily raised from
seed or increased by division. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Thalictrum.--Hardy Fern-like perennials, suitable for the backs of
borders. They grow well in any light soil from seed sown in spring or
autumn, and may also be increased by division.

Thermopsis Montana_(Fabacea)._--This hardy perennial produces spikes
of yellow Lupin-like flowers from June to September. The soil should
be light and rich. As the plants suffer by division, it is best to
raise them by seed, which may be sown either in autumn or spring.
Height, 2 ft.

Thladianthe Dubia.--A fine climbing plant with handsome foliage and an
abundance of fine yellow flowers. Quite hardy. Sow on a hotbed early
in spring, and when sufficiently large and strong, pot off, place in a
cold frame to harden, and plant out at the end of May in rich soil.

Thrift.--_See_ "Armeria."

Thumbergia.--These slender, rapid-growing climbers are extremely
pretty when in bloom during June, but they are only half-hardy; they
therefore need greenhouse care, or to be planted in a warm situation.
They flourish best in a mixture of sandy loam and leaf-mould, and may
be grown from seed sown in heat (65 to 75 degrees) early in spring.
Cuttings strike readily. Height, 4 ft.

Thuya (_Arbor Vitae_).--Very decorative conifers, mostly of conical
shape, and indispensable to the shrubbery. They thrive in any soil,
but prefer a moist situation. For sheltered positions, where a
small dome-shaped bush is required, the Chinese Arbor Vitae _(Biota
Orientalis)_ is most desirable; it delights in a heavy soil. The Biota
Elegantissima is one of the most unique hardy shrubs cultivated, and
presents a bright golden appearance. Another effective yellow variety
is the Semperaurescens, which retains its colour throughout the
winter, and makes a fine pot-plant. One of the most beautiful of all
evergreens is the Thuyopsis Dolabrata; its flat, spray-like leaves are
bright green above and silvery below. The China varieties are somewhat
tender, and require protection from frost. They may all be propagated
from seed or by cuttings.

Thymus.--Effective little perennials for rock-work, growing best in
a light, dry, sandy soil. The hardy kinds like an exposed position;
rarer kinds should be grown in pots, as they need protection in
winter. They are easily increased by seed sown in spring, by cuttings
or division. Height, 3 in. to 6 in.

Tiarella.--These hardy herbaceous plants are very suitable for
rock-work or the front of a border. They are not particular as to
soil; they flower in April, and may be propagated by seed or division.
Height, 9 in. to 1 ft.

Tiarella Cordifolia (_Foam Flower_).--A hardy herbaceous perennial,
having fine foliage. It will grow in any good soil, but likes shade
and moisture. It may be increased by dividing the roots at the end of
the summer. The blooms are produced during May and June. Height, 1 ft.

Tigridia (_Ferraria; Mexican Tiger Flower, popularly called the Tiger
Iris_).--A gorgeous flower of exceptional beauty. Plant the bulbs in
the sunniest spot out of doors during March, April, or May, in a sandy
loam enriched with a liberal amount of leaf-mould, placing them 3 in.
deep and 6 in. apart, and putting a little silver sand round each bulb
before covering it with the soil. Shelter from cutting winds. The
blossoms appear in July or August. Each bloom lasts only one day, but
is succeeded on the next by fresh ones, so that a continuance of bloom
is maintained. Protect them in winter with a covering of dead leaves,
or, better still, take them up when they have done flowering, and keep
them dry and free from frost. For pot-culture plant the bulbs in sandy
loam and peat, plunge them in a cold frame, and withhold water until
the foliage appears. They may be increased by off-sets or seeds.
Height, 1 ft.

Tobacco Plants.--_See_ "Nicotiana."

Tobacco-Water.--Boil 2 oz. of shag, or other strong tobacco, in a pint
of water. Apply with a soft brush. This is a deadly poison to insects.

Tomatoes (_Love Apples_).--Those intended to be grown in the open
should be raised from seed sown the first week in March in pots of
very rich, light mould. Place them in a cucumber-house or other gentle
heat, and when the second leaf appears, pot them off singly, keeping
them near the glass and well watered. Towards the end of May remove
them to a cold frame to harden off, and plant out as soon as fear of
frost is over, in deeply-dug and moderately manured ground, against a
south wall fully exposed to the sun. Train to a single stem and remove
all lateral growths. When the plants are 3 or 4 ft. high pinch off
the tops to prevent further growth and throw strength into the fruit.
Watering should cease as soon as the blossom-buds appear, except in
periods of very severe drought. When grown under glass Tomatoes need
to be trained in much the same way as Grape Vines. Constant attention
must be given to removing all useless shoots and exposing the fruit
to air and light. An average temperature of 60 degrees should be
maintained, with a rather dry and buoyant atmosphere.

Toothwort.--_See_ "Dentaria."

Torch Lily.--_See_ "Tritoma."

Torenia.--These stove and greenhouse plants require a rich soil. They
may be increased by seed or division. They flower during June and
July. Height, 6 in. to 9 in.

Tournefort.--_See_ "Crambe Cordifolia."

Tradescantia Virginica (_Spider Wort_).--A hardy herbaceous plant. In
a light, rich soil it will flower in July. Height, 1 ft. There are
other varieties of Tradescantia; they all make good border plants,
thrive in any situation, and are continuous bloomers.

Transplanting.--Plants may be transplanted as soon as they are large
enough to handle. They must be lifted carefully with a small trowel,
or if they are very small, such as Golden Feather, with a still
smaller blunt article, disturbing the roots as little as possible. It
should be done when the ground is wet, and preferably in the evening.
In dry weather they should be well watered twelve hours before they
are disturbed. Shade them from sun for one or two days. Cabbages,
Lettuces, Cauliflowers, Broccoli, Kale, and other members of the
Brassica family _must_ be transplanted, or they will be a failure.
Root crops such as Carrots, Parsnips, Turnips, etc., must not be
transplanted, but thinned out. Celery may be transplanted in June or
July.

Traveller's Joy (_Clematis Viorna_).--This hardy climbing plant grows
best in a light soil, flowers in August, and is increased by layers of
the young shoots in summer. Height, 12 ft.

Trees, Plants that Flourish under.--Ivy, St. John's Wort (Hypericum
Calycinum), early-flowering White Aconite.

Tricyrtis.--These greenhouse herbaceous plants bloom in May. A rich,
light soil suits them. Height, 6 in.

Trientalis Europæa (_Star Flower_).--To grow this native perennial
to advantage, it should be planted in leaf-mould with which a large
proportion of sand has been mixed. Confine the roots to a narrow
compass by means of slates placed just beneath the surface of the
soil. Let the ground be kept moist, but well drained. The bloom is
produced during May and June, and it is propagated by runners. Height,
6 in. to 8 in.

Trifolium Repens Pentaphyllum.--A showy, hardy, deciduous perennial.
It thrives in ordinary soil, puts forth its white flowers in June, and
is propagated by seed or division. Height, 6 in.

Trillium Erectum (_Wood Lily_).--This tuberous perennial is quite
hardy, and flourishes in partial shade. The soil must be light and
rich, yet moist. The plant does not increase very fast, but the roots
of good-sized plants may be divided. It flowers in May and June.
Height, 6 in.

Tritelia.--A charming spring-flowering plant, bearing pretty white
star-like flowers on slender stalks. It is used largely for edgings.
It looks well in clumps on the front of borders. Plant in autumn, and
divide the bulbs every two or three years. Height, 6 in.

Tritoma (_Red-hot Poker, or Torch Lily_).--Requires a rich, sandy
soil, and to be protected in a frame from wet and frost in the winter.
Increase by division or by suckers from the root. The flower spikes
grow 18 to 27 in. long. The crown of the plant should not be more than
11/2 in. in the soil, which should be dug deeply and mixed with rotted
manure. In winter, if it is left in the ground, surround the plant
with 2 in. of sawdust, well trodden. Remove this in May, and water
liberally with liquid manure till it blooms. The best time to plant is
March or October. By many it is considered advisable not to disturb
the plant too often.

Tritonias.--These somewhat resemble miniature Gladioli, and are
among the most useful bulbs for pot-culture. Plant from September
to December, placing five or six bulbs in a 5-in. pot, and using a
compost of loam, leaf-mould, and silver sand. Plunge the pots in ashes
in a cold pit or frame, and keep them dry until the plants appear.
When in full growth they may be removed to the conservatory, placing
them near the glass, and giving careful attention to watering. For
outdoor cultivation choose a sunny, sheltered position, with a light,
rich, sandy soil. Give protection in frosty weather by covering with
dry litter.

Trollius Altaiense (_Globe Flower_).--A pretty, hardy herbaceous
plant, with very handsome foliage. It likes a light but moist soil,
may be increased by seed or by dividing the root, and flowers in May.
Height, 9 in. to 2 ft.

Trollius Asiaticus.--A very pretty herbaceous plant, suitable for the
border. It may be raised from seed sown in the autumn, and grown on in
light, moist soil. The plant is hardy and flowers in May. Height, 1
ft.

Tropæolums--

_JARRATTI_ (_scarlet, orange, and black_) are remarkable for a slender
and graceful growth. Well adapted for covering wire globes, trellises,
etc.

_LOBBIANUM_ (_various colours_).--Elegant dwarf climbers, suitable
either for the conservatory or for outdoor culture. They may also be
used for bedding if planted thinly and kept pegged down; or may be
grown in window-boxes. Height, 6 ft.

_PENTAPHYLLUM_ (_red_) is slender and graceful, and an elegant
climber.

_POLYPHYLLUM_ (_yellow_) succeeds best against a south wall. It is
hardy, has rich abundant glaucous foliage, and is a particularly fine
climber.

_SPECIOSUM_ (_scarlet_).--Of wild, graceful, luxuriant and slender
growth. Fine for covering walls and fences, festooning arches, etc.
Plant at the beginning of October in an eastern aspect or at the base
of a north wall, the soil and atmosphere being moderately moist. Bury
the roots 4 in. deep.

_TUBEROSUM_ (_yellow and red_) is quite hardy, and may be planted in
any situation.

Generally a light, rich soil is most suitable. The greenhouse
varieties may be increased by cuttings placed in sandy soil under
glass. The tuberous-rooted kinds should be taken up in winter and kept
in sand till spring, when they may be planted in a sheltered part
of the garden. The annuals merely require to be sown in the open in
spring. They flower in July, August, and September. Height, 1 ft. to
10 ft. (_See also_ "Canary Creeper.")

Trumpet Flower.--_See_ "Bignonia."

Tuberose.--Plant the bulbs in January in a mixture of sandy loam and
rotten dung, or leaf-mould, using a small pot for each bulb. Plunge
them in a hotbed, taking care that the temperature does not fall below
60 degrees, and withhold water until the foliage appears, when a
moderate amount should be given. When the pots are full of roots,
shift the plants into larger ones, and grow on in a house with a
uniform high temperature and moist atmosphere. For a succession of
bloom place the roots in a cold frame and cover with cocoanut fibre
until growth begins, then remove the fibre, water moderately, and
transfer the most forward plants to the conservatory. Bloom may be had
all the year round by planting in succession from September to June.

Tulips.--Drainage may be considered as the chief means of success in
the cultivation of these showy spring flowers. The soil they like best
is well-rotted turf cut from pasture land and mixed with a moderate
amount of sand, but they will thrive in any ground that is well
drained. The bulbs should be planted during October and November about
3 in. deep and 5 in. apart, either in lines or groups, and they retain
their bloom longest in a shady situation. As soon as the leaves begin
to decay the bulbs may be taken up, dried, and stored away, keeping
the colours separate. For pot-culture the single varieties are best.
Put three bulbs in a 5-in. pot and six in a 6-in. one, and treat in
the same manner as the Hyacinth. They may, if desired, be forced as
soon as the shoots appear. When required to fill vases, etc., it is
a good plan to grow them in shallow boxes, and transfer them when in
flower to the vases or baskets. By this method exactitude of height
and colouring is ensured. Tulips are divided into three classes: (1)
Roses, which have a white ground, with crimson, pink, or scarlet
marks; (2) Byblomens, having also a white ground, but with lilac,
purple, or black marks; and (3) Bizarres, with a yellow ground having
marks of any colour.

Tunica.--Same treatment as "Dianthus."

Turkey's Beard.--_See_ "Xerophyllum."

Turnips.--To obtain mild and delicately-flavoured Turnips a somewhat
light, sandy, but deep, rich soil is necessary. For a first crop sow
the Early White Dutch variety in February or the beginning of March on
a warm border. For succession sow Early Snowball at intervals of three
weeks until the middle of July. For winter use sow Golden Ball, or
other yellow-fleshed kinds, early in August. Thin each sowing out so
that the bulbs stand 9 in. apart. To ensure sound, crisp, fleshy roots
they require to be grown quickly, therefore moist soil and liberal
manuring is necessary, and the ground kept free from weeds. If fly
becomes troublesome, dust the plants with quicklime early in the day,
while the dew is on them, and repeat the operation as often as is
necessary.

Tussilago Fragrans (_Winter Heliotrope_).--A very fragrant hardy
perennial, flowering in January and February. It will grow in any good
garden soil and bears division. Height, 1 ft.

Twin Flower.--_See_ "Bravoa."


U


Ulex Europaeus Flore Pleno (_Double Furze_).--This elegant, hardy,
evergreen shrub likes a rich, sandy soil, and may be increased by
cuttings planted in a shady border and covered with a hand-glass.
Height, 5 ft.

Umbilicus Chrysanthus.--This little Alpine plant should occupy a warm,
sheltered, and dry situation, and be protected with an overhead screen
in wet seasons. The soil it most enjoys is a mixture of peat and
coarse sand. Its procumbent stalks emit roots. This new growth may be
transplanted in the spring or early summer months. Height, 6 in.

Uvularia.--Beautiful hardy perennials, producing drooping flowers from
May to July. They succeed best in a light, sandy soil, and may be
increased by dividing the roots. Height, 1 ft.


V


Vaccineum Myrtillus and V. Uliginosum.--Attractive deciduous shrubs.
They require to be grown in peat or very sandy loam. In April or May
they produce flowers. They can be increased by dividing the creeping
roots. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Vaccineum Vitis-Idæa (_Red Whortleberry_).--A neat native shrub
which, with its flowers and clusters of bright red berries, is very
attractive in autumn. A rich, light, sandy soil, moist but well
drained, is necessary, and the position should be sunny so as to ripen
the berries. It may be increased at any time by division. It flowers
from May to October. Height, 9 in.

Valeriana.--An ornamental hardy perennial. It will succeed in any
garden soil, and merely requires the same treatment as ordinary
perennials. It is readily increased by dividing the roots, and
produces its flowers in July. Height, 1 ft.

Vegetable Marrow.--Sow in pots during March or April, and place in a
cucumber frame or on a hotbed, and cover with a hand-glass. Harden
off, and plant out about the third week in May in ground previously
prepared with a heavy dressing of good stable or farmyard manure,
protecting the plants at night for the first week or so with a
handglass or large flower-pot. Do not allow the roots to feel the want
of water, and keep a sharp look-out for slugs. Seed may also be sown
in May in the open. The best way of proceeding in this case is to
dig a pit 2 ft. deep and the same in width, fill it with fermenting
manure, and put 1 ft. of light mould on top. Let it remain for a week
so that the soil may get warm, then sow the seed, and cover it with a
hand-glass. Train the shoots so that they may have plenty of room, and
pinch off the tops when the plant has attained its desired length.

Venidium.--Hardy annuals, which are best raised from seed sown early
in March on a slight hotbed, and grown in turfy loam, or loam and
peat. They bloom in May. Height, 1 ft.

Venus's Car.--_See_ "Dielytra."

Venus's Looking-Glass (_Specularia Speculum_).--A pretty hardy annual,
bearing a profusion of Campanula-like flowers in July. Suitable for
beds, pots, hanging baskets, or rock-work. It flourishes most in a
compost of sandy loam and peat. The seeds are best sown in autumn and
wintered in a greenhouse, but they may be raised on a hotbed early in
spring. Cuttings of the young wood planted under glass root freely.
Height, 9 in.

Venus's Navel Wort.--A charming hardy annual for rock-work. The seed
should be sown early in spring in good garden mould. Height, 6 in.

Veratum.--Handsome foliage plants. They are quite hardy, and delight
in a rich soil. July is the month in which they flower. They may be
raised from seed, or propagated by division. Height, 5 ft.

Verbascum.--A hardy annual, which produces a profusion of showy
flowers in July, and is very suitable for the backs of borders. It
will thrive in any soil, and is easily raised from seed sown early in
spring. Height, 3 ft.

Verbena.--This charming half-hardy perennial succeeds best in light,
loamy soil. It seeds freely, and roots rapidly by being pegged down.
It is usual to take the cuttings in February, as spring-struck plants
prove best both for growth and flowering. Place a score of cuttings in
a 48-sized pot containing 1/3 of drainage material, covered with 1 in.
of rough leaf-mould, then filled to within 1-1/2 in. of the rim with
equal parts of loam, leaf-mould, or peat and sand, with 1/3 in. of
sand on the top. Make the soil firm at the base of the cuttings, and
water level. It is, however, more easily obtained from seed raised
on a gentle hotbed, and the plants thus raised are more robust and
floriferous. It flowers in July. Height, 1 ft.

Verbena, Lemon-scented.--_See_ "Aloysia."

Veronica.--This graceful evergreen, commonly called Speedwell, bears
handsome spikes of autumn flowers, and makes a good conservatory or
sitting-room plant. It stands the winter out of doors in a sheltered
position with a dry sub-soil. The annual varieties may be sown in
autumn for spring flowering. Any light, rich, moist soil suits them.
The hardy perennial kinds are increased by dividing the roots, and
the greenhouse varieties by seeds or cuttings. The different species
flower from July to October. Height, 1 ft. to 10 ft.

Vesicaria Graeca.--A small hardy evergreen shrub, suitable for
rock-work or edgings. It likes a light, dry soil and an open
situation. It may be propagated by seeds, which are freely produced;
but the readiest way to increase it is by cuttings of the side-shoots,
taken as early as possible so as to become well rooted before cold
weather sets in. It flowers from April to June. Height, 6 in. to 8 in.

Viburnum Opulus(_Guelder Rose_, or _Snowball Tree_).--A very elegant
and hardy deciduous shrub, which will grow in any soil, and may be
increased by layers, or by cuttings planted in the shade under glass.
It blooms in June. Height, 12 ft.

Viburnum Tinus (_Laurestinus_).--This well-known and much-admired
evergreen shrub produces masses of white flowers through the winter
months, at which season it is especially ornamental. It is generally
propagated by layers, but where a number of the plants are required
they may be obtained from autumn cuttings planted in the shade and
covered with a hand-glass. Height, 5 ft.

Vicia Pyrenaica.--A hardy and good perennial for rock-work, having
compact tufts of green growth and producing deep crimson flowers in
May and June. It will grow in any soil, and is of easy culture. It is
increased by seed, also by division of the roots. Height, 1 ft.

Vinca (_Periwinkle_).--Many of these are variegated and very showy as
rock-work plants, and will grow in any moist soil, enjoying a shady
situation. They may be raised from seed sown early in spring in a warm
situation, or may be increased by runners, which strike root at the
joints like the Strawberry. They may be planted under the shade of
trees. Many choice greenhouse evergreens bearing fine circular flowers
and shining foliage are also included under the name of Vinca. Height,
2 ft.

Vines.--_See_ "Grapes."

Violas.--The hardy perennials are suitable for the front of flower
borders or rock-work, but the smaller species succeed best when grown
in pots in a mixture of loam, peat, and sand. The herbaceous kinds are
increased by seed or division of the roots, the shrubby varieties by
cuttings planted under glass, and the annuals by seed sown in the open
in spring. Height, 3 in. to 6 in.

Violets.--Plant the runners or off-sets in May in loam and leaf-mould,
choosing a damp, shady situation. Russian and Neapolitan Violets may
be made to flower throughout the winter and early spring by placing
them in a stove or warm pit. Dog-toothed Violets will grow in any
light soil. Autumn is the best time to plant them, and 1 in. of silver
sand round the roots prevents decay; they are hardy and early, but
will not bloom unless planted 9 in. deep. White Violets like a chalky
soil. One of the best manures for Violets is the ash from bonfires.
They may be multiplied to any extent by pegging down the side-shoots
in April. The common Violet flowers in March and April. Height, 6 in.

Virgilia.--For the most part greenhouse shrubs, requiring to be grown
in a compost of loam, peat, and sand. Young cuttings planted in sandy
loam and covered with glass will strike. The hardy kinds, such as V.
Lutea, grow in any light soil, and are increased by laying down shoots
in autumn or spring. July is the month in which they flower. Height,
from 2 ft. to 12 ft.

Virginian Creeper (_Ampelopsis Hederacea_).--May be propagated by
layers or cuttings, and will grow in any common garden soil. The
plant is also known as the Five-leaved Ivy, is a rapid grower, and a
favourite for covering unsightly walls.

Virginian Stock.--This pretty little hardy annual is readily raised
from seed sown on a border in autumn or spring. It is not particular
as to soil. Height, 9 in.

Virgin's Bower.--_See_ "Clematis."

Viscaria Coeli Rosa (_the Rose of Heaven_).--Sow in April, or on a
warm, dry, sheltered spot in September. Other varieties of Viscaria
are graceful and effective in beds, masses, or lines, and only require
the usual care bestowed upon hardy annuals. The flowers are produced
in June and July. Height, 1 ft.

Vitis Heterophylla.--These vines are hardy, and will grow in any
rich soil. They are propagated by cuttings, and also by layers. V.
Purpureus has purple leaves, which are very effective. V. Coignettae,
or the Chinese Vine, has very noble foliage.


W


Wahlenbergia.--The hardy perennial kinds thrive best in pots, the soil
in which should be kept moist. The annuals, which are raised on a
hotbed in March, may be planted out in May in a warm situation.

Waitzia.--Very beautiful half-hardy annuals, but more suitable for the
greenhouse than the open flower-bed. They require a sandy peat and
leaf-mould, and the pots to be well drained, as too much water is as
destructive to them as too little. They may be had in flower from May
to August by making two sowings, one in September and the other in
February, and keeping them in the greenhouse. When large enough to
handle, pot off into 3-in. pots, putting two plants in each pot close
to the sides, and shift them into larger ones when they have made
sufficient growth. Place them in a dry and airy situation and near the
glass. They are unable to stand the least frost, therefore, if they
are planted out, it should not be done before the beginning of June.
Height, 11/2 ft.

Waldsteina Fragarioides.--A hardy and pretty trailing rock plant, with
deep green foliage. From March to May it bears yellow Strawberry-like
flowers. Any soil suits it, and it may be increased by seed or
division. Height, 6 in.

Wall-flower (_Cheiranthus_).--These favourite hardy perennials prefer
a rich, light, sandy soil, and a dry situation. The seed may be sown
where it is intended for them to bloom either in autumn or spring.
Thin out to 2 ft. apart. They may also be increased by shoots torn
from the stems of old plants. As well as flowering early in spring,
they often bloom in the autumn. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Walnuts.--The Nuts for raising young trees may be planted at any time
between October and the end of February, 3 in. deep and 1-1/2 ft.
apart. Train to a single stem 8 to 10 ft. high, removing all the side
branches as soon as they make an appearance. The following year they
may be planted in their permanent position, which should be high,
yet sheltered from frost. Two of the best tall-growing varieties are
Thin-shelled and Noyer à Bijou. The Dwarf Prolific makes a good bush
tree.

Wand Plant.--_See_ "Galax."

Wasps.--To destroy Wasps rinse a large bottle with spirits of
turpentine, and thrust the neck into the principal entrance to their
nest, stopping up all the other holes to prevent their escape. In
a few days the nest may be dug up. The fumes of the spirit first
stupefies and eventually destroys the insects.

Water-cress.--Sow in prepared places, during spring, in sluggish
brooks and moist situations; or it may be grown on a shady border if
kept moist by frequent waterings. It may also be grown in a frame in
September from cuttings placed 6 in. apart, sprinkling them daily, but
keeping the frame closed for two or three weeks, then watering once a
week. Give all the air possible in fine weather, but cover the frame
with mats during frosts. It is best when grown quickly.

Watsonia.--Plant the bulbs during January in sandy loam with a little
peat. They flower in April. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Weeds in Paths.--These may be destroyed by strong brine, applied when
hot. Or mix 1/2 lb. of oil of vitriol with 6 gallons of water, and
apply, taking care not to get the vitriol on the hands or clothes.

Weigelia.--Free-flowering, hardy, deciduous shrubs, the flowers being
produced in profusion along the shoots in April, and varying in colour
from white to deep crimson. The plants will grow in any soil, and
require no special culture. All the varieties force well, and may be
increased by cuttings. Height, 6 ft.

White Scale.--_See_ "Scale."

Whitlavia.--A hardy annual, needing no special treatment. It may be
sown in autumn, and protected during winter in a frame, or it may be
raised in spring in the open ground, where it will bloom in June.
Height, 2 ft.

Whortleberry.--_See_ "Vaccineum."

Wigandia Caraccasana.--A stove deciduous shrub which thrives best in a
mixture of loam and peat. Cuttings in sand will strike if placed under
glass and in heat. It flowers in April. Height, 10 ft.

Windflowers.--_See_ "Anemones."

Winter Aconite (_Eranthis Hyemalis_).--This is one of the very first
of flowers to bloom, being in advance of the Snowdrop. In the bleakest
days of winter this little flower covers the ground with its gilt
spangles. Plant in early autumn. Any soil or situation suits it, but
it does best in a light mould and a moist, shady position, or under
trees. Most effective when planted in masses. The tubers may remain
permanently in the ground, or they may be lifted and divided in
summer, as soon as the foliage dies down. Flowers are produced from
December to February.

Winter Cherry.--_See_ "Physalis."

Winter Heliotrope.--_See_ "Tussilago."

Wire-worms.--Before using mould for potting purposes it is advisable
to examine it carefully and pick out any Wire-worms that are in it.
For the border the best traps are small potatoes with a hole cut in
them, buried at intervals just beneath the surface of the soil.

Wistaria.--This noble wall plant may be abundantly produced, as a long
layer will root at every joint. It will also grow from cuttings of the
plant and root. Though of slow growth at first, when well established
it is very free-growing and perfectly hardy. It may also be grown as a
small tree for the lawn or centres of large beds by keeping the long
twining shoots pinched in.

Witch Hazel.--_See_ "Hamamelis."

Withania Origanifolia (_Pampas Lily-of-the-Valley_).--A hardy climbing
plant, attaining a height of 20 or 30 ft. in a very short period. The
foliage is small, but very dense and of a dark green, the flowers
being white. It may be raised from seed, and when once established the
roots may remain undisturbed for any length of time, merely removing
the stems as soon as they are destroyed by frost.

Wolf's Bane.--_See_ "Aconite."

Wood, to Preserve.--In order to prevent wooden posts, piles, etc.,
from rotting, dip the parts to be sunk in the earth in the following
composition:--Fine, hard sand, three hundred parts; powdered chalk,
forty parts; resin, fifty parts; linseed oil, four parts. Heat these
together in a boiler, then add red lead, one part; sulphuric acid, one
part. Mix well together, and use while hot. If too thick, more linseed
oil may be added. This composition when dry attains the consistency of
varnish, and becomes extremely hard.

Wood Lily.--_See_ "Trillium."

Woodruff.--_See_ "Asperula."

Worms, to Destroy.--To each 5 lbs. of newly-slaked lime add 15 gallons
of water. Stir it well, let it settle, draw off the clear portion, and
with it water the surface of the lawn, etc. The Worms will come to the
top and may be swept up. Worms in pots may be brought to the top by
sprinkling a little dry mustard on the surface of the soil, and then
giving the plant a good watering.

Wulfenia Carinthiaca.--A pretty and hardy perennial from the
Corinthian Alps, suitable alike for rock-work or the border, throwing
up spikes of blue flowers from May to July. During winter place it in
a frame, as it is liable to rot in the open. It needs a light, rich,
sandy soil and plenty of moisture when in growth. Cuttings will strike
in sand; it may also be propagated by seeds or division. Height, 1 ft.


X


Xeranthemum.--These charming everlasting annuals retain, in a dried
state, their form and colour for several years. They are of the
easiest culture, merely requiring to be sown in spring in light, rich
soil to produce flowers in July. Height, 2 ft.

Xerophyllum Asphodeloides (_Turkey's Beard_).--A showy hardy perennial
with tufts of graceful, curving, slender foliage. From May to July,
when it bears spikes of white flowers, it is very handsome. It does
best in a peat border, and may be increased by well-ripened seed or by
division. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Xerotes.--Herbaceous plants, which thrive well in any light, rich
soil, and are readily increased by dividing the roots. They flower in
June. Height, 2 ft.


Y


Yew (_Taxus_).--For landscape gardening the old gold-striped (_Baccata
Aurea Variegata_) is most effective. The Japanese variety, T.
Adpressa, is a pleasing evergreen having dark green leaves and large
scarlet berries; it is very suitable for the front of large borders.
The Common Yew (_Baccata_) grows dense and bushy, and is excellent for
hedges. The dark green leaves of the Irish Yew (_Baccata Fastigiata_)
make a fine contrast with lighter foliage. Dovastonii is a fine
Weeping Yew with long dark green leaves and extra large red berries.
There are many other good sorts. The Yew likes shade and moisture,
but it is not very particular as to soil, loams and clays suiting it
admirably.

Yucca.--This plant, popularly known as Adam's Needle thrives best in
dry, sandy loam. It is quite hardy, and does well on rock-work, to
which it imparts a tropical aspect, Yucca Recurva has fine drooping
leaves, and is suitable for vases, etc. It bears a white flower.
Yuccas are mostly evergreen shrubs, are very beautiful, and have the
habit of palm-trees. A light, rich soil suits them all. They are
increased by suckers from the root. They make handsome plants for
lawns, terraces, ornamental vases, the centre of beds, or sub-tropical
gardens, and bloom in September. Height, 2 ft.


Z


Zauschneria.--A Californian half-hardy perennial plant which bears
a profusion of scarlet tube-shaped flowers from June to October. It
grows freely in a sunny position in any dry, light, gravelly, rich
soil, and is increased by division of roots or by cuttings. Height, 1
ft.

Zea (_Indian Corn_).--This is best raised in a hotbed early in spring,
but it will germinate in ordinary soil in May. It requires a sunny
situation. Height, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Zea Japonica Variegata (_Striped Japanese Maize_).--A fine half-hardy
annual ornamental grass, the foliage being striped green and white,
and growing to the height of 3 ft. The cultivation is the same as the
foregoing.

Zephyranthes (_Swamp Lilies_).--Plant on a warm border in a rather
sandy, well-drained soil. Give protection in severe weather, and
supply with water during the growing season. Take up and divide every
second or third year. The flowers are produced in July. Height, 9 in.

Zinnia.--A genus of very pretty annuals, well deserving of
cultivation. The seeds must be raised on a gentle hotbed in spring,
and planted out in June 1 ft. apart in the richest of loamy soil and
warmest and most sheltered position. Height 1 ft. to 11/2 ft.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Gardening for the Million" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home