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Title: Witchcraft and Devil Lore in the Channel Islands
Author: Pitts, John Linwood, 1836-1917
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Witchcraft and Devil Lore in the Channel Islands" ***

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_Membre de la Société des Antiquaires de Normandie._

_Editor of "The Patois Poems of the Channel Islands;" "The Sermon on
the Mount and the Parable of the Sower, in the Franco-Norman Dialects
of Guernsey and Sark," &c., &c._

     Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.

     --EXODUS xxii, 18.







[_All Rights Reserved._]










Is Dedicated


     _Venena magnum fas nefasque non valent Convertere humanam

     HORACE, Epod. V. 87-8.


In presenting to the public another little volume of the "Guille-Allès
Library Series," it affords me much pleasure to acknowledge various
kindnesses experienced during its preparation. From Edgar MacCulloch,
Esq., F.S.A., Bailiff of Guernsey, I have received several valuable
hints and suggestions bearing upon the subject; and also from F.J.
Jérémie, Esq., M.A., Jurat of the Royal Court. I am also particularly
indebted to James Gallienne, Esq., Her Majesty's Greffier, for his
uniform kindness and courtesy in allowing the fullest access at all
times to the Archives under his care, not only in respect to the
subject-matter of the present publication, but also in other
historical researches which I have wished to make. I am equally
obliged to Mr. E.M. Cohu and Mr. H.J.V. Torode, Deputy-Greffiers, and
to Mr. A. Isemonger, Bailiff's Clerk, for various information and much
ready help, which materially facilitated my investigations. All these
gentlemen have my cordial acknowledgments and best thanks.


Guernsey, December, 1885.

     NOTE.--The Seal represented on the title page is
     that of the Guernsey Bailiwick. It was first granted by
     Edward I. in the seventh year of his reign (1279), and bears
     the inscription: S. BALLIVIE INSULE DE GERNEREYE.



DEDICATION                                                     v.

FOREWORD                                                     vii.

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                           viii.

INTRODUCTION                                                    1

WITCHCRAFT IN GUERNSEY                                          1

      The Witches' Sabbath                                      2

      The Devil's Ointment                                      2

  Three Women burnt for Heresy in Guernsey                      3

WITCHCRAFT IN JERSEY                                            4

      Ordinance of the Royal Court                              4

      Women Hanged and Burnt                                   *4

      Mr. Philippe Le Geyt's Opinion                            5

      Later Superstitions                                       5

  The Pricking of Witches                                      *5

  _Sorcerots_, or Witches' Spells                               6

  Torture of Witches in Guernsey                               *6

    "          "        Scotland                                7

GENERAL PERSECUTION OF WITCHES                                 *7

      On the Continent                                         *7

      In America                                               *7

      In England                                                8

      In Scotland                                               8


      Collette Du Mont                                         11

      Marie Becquet                                            15

      Isabel Becquet                                           16

DEPOSITIONS AGAINST COLLAS BECQUET                             22

NOTE ON THE GUERNSEY RECORDS                                   27

WITCHCRAFT TRIALS IN GUERNSEY, 1563-1634                       28



The Witchcraft superstitions of the Channel Islands, sad as they were
in their characteristics and results--as is abundantly evidenced by
our judicial records--were but a part and parcel of that vast wave of
unreasoning credulity which swept across the civilised world during
the Middle Ages, and more or less affected every class of society, and
all sorts and conditions of men. From the lists given in the following
pages (pp. 28-32), it will be seen that in about seventy-one years,
during the reigns of Elizabeth, James I. and Charles I., no fewer than
seventy-eight persons--fifty-eight of them being women, and twenty of
them men--were brought to trial for Sorcery in Guernsey alone. Out of
these unfortunate victims, three women and one man appear to have been
burnt alive; twenty-four women and four men were hanged first and
burnt afterwards; one woman was hanged for returning to the island
after being banished; three women and one man were whipped and had
each an ear cut off; twenty-two women and five men were banished from
the island; while five women and three men had the good fortune to be
acquitted. Most of these accused persons were natives of Guernsey, but
mention is made of one woman from Jersey, of three men and a woman
from Sark, and of a man from Alderney.

With regard to the gatherings at the so-called Witches' Sabbaths,
there can be no doubt that--quite apart from the question of any
diabolic presence at such meetings--very questionable assemblies of
people did take place at intervals among the inhabitants of many
countries. Probably these gatherings first had their rise in the old
pagan times, and were subsequently continued from force of habit, long
after their real origin and significance had been forgotten. Now, it
would be very easy for these orgies to become associated--particularly
in the then superstitious condition of the popular mind--with the
actual bodily presence of the Devil as one of the participants; while
it is also not improbable that, in some cases at least, heartless and
evil-minded persons worked upon the prevailing credulity to further
their own nefarious purposes. Our esteemed Bailiff has offered a
suggestion or two of considerable value on this point with regard to
certain Guernsey phases of the superstition. He thinks it highly
probable that some of these deluded women were actually the dupes of
unprincipled and designing men, who arrayed themselves in various
disguises and then met their unfortunate victims by appointment. This
idea is, indeed, borne out to a great extent by some of the
particulars stated in the following confessions. For instance, some of
the women assert that when they met the Devil he was in the form of a
dog, _but rather larger_; he always stood upon his hind legs--probably
the man's feet; and, when he shook hands with them, his paw _felt like
a hand_--doubtless it _was_ a hand. Another suggestion of the
Bailiff's is also worth notice. It is that the black ointment so often
mentioned as being rubbed on the bodies of the so-called witches, had
a real existence, and may have been so compounded as to act as a
narcotic or intoxicant, and produce a kind of extatic condition, just
as the injection of certain drugs beneath the skin is known to do now.
These suggestions are certainly worth consideration as offering
reasonable solutions of at least two difficulties connected with those
strange and lamentable superstitions. In one way or other there must
have been some physical basis for beliefs so widely extended and so
terribly real. Imagination, of course, possesses a marvellous power of
modification and exaggeration, but still it requires some germs of
fact around which to crystallise. And it is to the discovery of the
nature of such germs that a careful and conscientious observer will
naturally turn his attention.

       *       *       *       *       *

While speaking of the burning of Witches in Guernsey, I may also
refer for a moment to the three women who, in Queen Mary's reign
suffered death by fire, for heresy, because the reason of their
condemnation and punishment has caused some controversy, and is often
associated in the popular mind with a charge of sorcery. Dr. Heylin in
his _Survey_ (page 323), says:--

     Katherine Gowches, a poor woman of St. Peter-Port, in
     Guernsey, was noted to be much absent from church, and her
     two daughters guilty of the same neglect. Upon this they
     were presented before James Amy, then dean of the island,
     who, finding in them that they held opinions contrary to
     those then allowed about the sacrament of the altar,
     pronounced them heretics, and condemned them to the fire.
     The poor women, on the other side, pleaded for themselves,
     that that doctrine had been taught them in the time of King
     Edward; but if the queen was otherwise disposed, they were
     content to be of her religion. This was fair but it would
     not serve; for by the dean they were delivered unto Helier
     Gosselin, then bailiff, and by him unto the fire, July 18,
     1556. One of these daughters, Perotine Massey, she was
     called, was at that time great with child; her husband, who
     was a minister, having in those dangerous times fled the
     island; in the middle of the flames and anguish of her
     torments, her belly broke in sunder, and her child, a goodly
     boy, fell down into the fire, but was presently snatched up
     by one W. House, one of the by-standers. Upon the noise of
     this strange incident, the cruel bailiff returned command
     that the poor infant must be cast again into the flames,
     which was accordingly performed; and so that pretty babe was
     born a martyr, and added to the number of the holy

Parsons, the English Jesuit, has asserted that the women were felons
and were executed for theft, while other apologists have described
them as prostitutes and generally infamous in character. The original
sentences, however, which still exist at the Guernsey _Greffe_, and
which I have examined, conclusively settle the question. Both the
ecclesiastical sentence, which is in Latin, and the civil sentence,
which is in French, distinctly describe the charge as one of _heresy_,
and make no mention whatever of any other crime as having aught to do
with the condemnation.

It has been questioned too whether a child could be born alive under
such circumstances. Mr. F.B. Tupper, in his _History of Guernsey_
(page 151), says: "We are assured by competent surgical authority that
the case is very possible"; and he further mentions that in a volume
entitled _Three Visits to Madagascar_, by the Rev. Wm. Ellis,
published in London, in 1858, a precisely similar case is stated to
have occurred in that island. A native woman was burnt for becoming a
convert to Christianity, and her infant, born in the flames, was
thrust into them again, and burnt also.

Lord Tennyson refers to this Guernsey martyrdom in his historical
drama of _Queen Mary_ (Act v. Scene iv.). It is night-time in London;
a light is burning in the Royal Palace; and he makes two "Voices of
the Night" say:--

_First_:--There's the Queen's light. I hear she cannot live.

_Second_:--God curse her and her Legate! Gardiner burns
Already; but to pay them full in kind,
The hottest hold in all the devil's den
Were but a sort of winter; Sir, in Guernsey,
I watch'd a woman burn; and in her agony
The mother came upon her--a child was born--
And, Sir, they hurl'd it back into the fire,
That, being thus baptised in fire, the babe
Might be in fire for ever. Ah, good neighbour,
There should be something fierier than fire
To yield them their deserts.

With regard to Witchcraft in Jersey, I have not had an opportunity of
personally examining the official records there. I find, however, some
information on the subject, given by M. De La Croix, in his _Ville de
St. Hélier_, and _Les Etats de Jersey_, upon which I have drawn. In
the way of legislation, the Guernsey Court does not appear to have
promulgated any penal statutes on the subject, being content to treat
the crime as one against the common law of the Island. In Jersey on
the contrary, Witchcraft was specially legislated against at least on
one occasion, for we find that on December 23rd, 1591, the Royal Court
of that island passed an Ordinance, of which the following is the

     Forasmuch as many persons have hitherto committed and
     perpetrated great and grievous faults, as well against the
     honour and express commandment of God as to the great
     scandal of the Christian faith, and of those who are charged
     with the administration of justice, by seeking assistance
     from Witches and Diviners in their ills and afflictions; and
     seeing that ignorance is no excuse for sin, and that no one
     can tell what vice and danger may ensue from such practices:
     This Act declares that for the time to come everyone shall
     turn away from such iniquitous and diabolical practices,
     against which the law of God decrees the same punishments as
     against Witches and Enchanters themselves; and also in
     order that the Divine Vengeance may be averted, which on
     account of the impunity with which these crimes have been
     committed, now threatens those who have the repression of
     them in their hands. It is, therefore, strictly forbidden to
     all the inhabitants of this island to receive any counsel or
     assistance in their adversities from any Witches or
     Diviners, or anyone suspected of practicing Sorcery, under
     pain of one month's imprisonment in the Castle, on bread and
     water; and on their liberation they shall declare to the
     Court the cause of such presumption, and according as this
     shall appear reasonable, shall be dealt with as the law of
     God directs.

In 1562 two women were executed in Jersey for witchcraft. One of them
named _Anne_, a native of St. Brelade's, was burnt at St. Helier's;
and the other, _Michelle La Blanche_, expiated her crime at the gibbet
of the Hurets, in the parish of St. Ouen, because criminals dwelling
on the Fief Haubert de St. Ouen, were, in accordance with custom,
required to be executed within the boundaries of the said Fief--seeing
that it possessed a gallows-right--and their goods and lands became
forfeited to the Seigneur.

In 1583 a rather curious point of law was raised in connection with a
pending witch-trial at St. Helier's. On the 15th of February in that
year, a suspected witch named _Marion Corbel_, who had been imprisoned
in the Castle awaiting her trial, suddenly died. Whereupon her
relatives came forward and claimed to be heirs to her goods and
chattles, seeing that she had not been convicted of the imputed crime,
and urging that her death put an end to further criminal proceedings.
The Queen's Procureur, however--it was in the reign of
Elizabeth--contended that death was no bar to the completion of the
indictment, although it had effectually removed the criminal from the
jurisdiction of the Court, as far as punishment was concerned. The
very reasonable claim of the deceased woman's relatives was therefore
set aside, and the defunct of course being found guilty, her
possessions reverted to the crown.

Again, forty years later, in 1623, an old woman of sixty, named _Marie
Filleul_, daughter of _Thomas Filleul_, of the parish of St.
Clement's, was tried before a jury of twenty-four of her countrymen,
and found guilty of the diabolical crime of Sorcery. She was therefore
hanged and burnt as a witch, and her goods were confiscated to the
King [James I.], and to the Seigneurs to whom they belonged.

It may be interesting to note here the opinion of Mr. Philippe Le
Geyt, the famous commentator on the constitution and laws of Jersey,
and one of the most enlightened men of his time, who for many years
was Lieutenant-Bailiff of that island. He was born in 1635 and died in
1715, in his eighty-first year. In Vol. I., page 42, of his works,
there occurs a passage of which the following is a translation:--

     As Holy Scripture forbids us to allow witches to live, many
     persons have made it a matter of conscience and of religion
     to be severe in respect to such a crime. This principle has
     without doubt made many persons credulous. How often have
     purely accidental associations been taken as convincing
     proofs? How many innocent people have perished in the flames
     on the asserted testimony of supernatural circumstances? I
     will not say that there are no witches; but ever since the
     difficulty of convicting them has been recognized in the
     island, they all seem to have disappeared, as though the
     evidence of the times gone by had been but an illusion. This
     shows the instability of all things here below.

Coming down now to within a century ago, we find an article in the
_Gazette de Jersey_, of Saturday, March 10th, 1787, complaining of the
great increase of wizards and witches in the island, as well as of
their supposed victims. The writer says that the scenes then taking
place were truly ridiculous, and he details a case that had just
occurred at St. Brelade's as corroborative of his assertion. It
appears that a worthy householder there, had dreamed that a certain
wizard appeared to him and ordered him to poison himself at a date
which was specified, enjoining him above all things not to mention the
incident to anyone. The poor silly fellow was dreadfully distressed,
for he felt convinced that he would have to carry out the disagreeable
command. At the same time he was quite unable to keep so momentous a
secret to himself, and so he divulged the approaching tragedy to his
wife. The good woman's despair was fully equal to his own, and after
much anxious domestic counsel they determined to seek the good offices
of a White Witch (_une Quéraude_), with the hope that her incantations
might overcome the evil spells of the Black Witch who was causing all
the mischief. This White Witch prescribed lengthened fasting and other
preparations for the great ordeal, and on a given night she and the
bewitched householder, together with his wife and four or five trusty
friends with drawn swords, shut themselves up in a room, and commenced
their mysterious ceremonial. There was the boiling of occult herbs;
the roasting of a beeve's heart stuck full of nails and pins; the
reading of certain passages from the family Bible; a mighty
gesticulating with the swords, which were first thrust up the chimney
to prevent the Black Witch from coming down, and anon were pointed
earthward to hinder him from rising up; and so the ridiculous game
went on. The only person who benefited was of course the imposter, who
was paid for her services; while we may perhaps charitably hope that
her dupes also were afterwards easier in their minds. The writer adds
that many other persons besides this man at St. Brelade's, had
latterly believed themselves bewitched, and had consulted wizards, who
were thus driving a profitable trade.

       *       *       *       *       *

Among the indications and symptoms of a witch, are reckoned various
bodily marks and spots, said to be insensible to pain (page 20),
inability to shed tears, &c. The pricking of witches was at one time a
lucrative profession both in England and Scotland, one of the most
noted prickers being a wretched imposter named Matthew Hopkins who was
sent for to all parts of the country to exercise his vile art. Ralph
Gardner, in his _England's Grievance Discovered_ (1655), speaks also
of two prickers, Thomas Shovel and Cuthbert Nicholson, who, in 1649
and 1650, were sent by the magistrates of Newcastle-on-Tyne, into
Scotland, there to confer with another very able man in that line and
bring him back to Newcastle. They were to have twenty shillings, but
the Scotchman three pounds, per head _of all they could convict_, and
a free passage there and back. When these wretches got to any
town--for they tried all the chief market-towns in the district--the
crier used to go round with his bell, desiring "all people that would
bring in any complaint against any woman for a witch, they should be
sent for and tried by the person appointed." As many as thirty women
were brought at once into the Newcastle town-hall, stripped and
pricked, and twenty-seven set aside as guilty. Gardner continues:--

     The said witch-finder acquainted Lieutenant-Colonel Hobson
     that he knew women whether they were witches or no by their
     looks; and when the said person was searching of a
     personable and good-like woman, the said colonel replied and
     said, 'Surely this woman is none, and need not be tried;'
     but the Scotchman said she was, for the town said she was,
     and therefore he would try her; and presently, in sight of
     all the people, laid her body naked to the waist, with her
     clothes over her head, by which fright and shame all her
     blood contracted into one part of her body, and then he ran
     a pin into her thigh, and then suddenly let her coats fall,
     and then demanded whether she had nothing of his in her
     body, but did not bleed? But she, being amazed, replied
     little. Then he put his hands up her coats and pulled out
     the pin, and set her aside as a guilty person and child of
     the devil, and fell to try others, whom he made guilty.
     Lieutenant-Colonel Hobson, perceiving the alteration of the
     aforesaid woman by her blood settling in her right parts,
     caused that woman to be brought again, and her clothes
     pulled up to her thigh, and required the Scot to run the pin
     into the same place, and then it gushed out of blood, and
     the said Scot cleared her, and said she was not a child of
     the devil.

If this precious wretch had not been stopped he would have declared
half the women in the north country to be witches. But the magistrates
and the people got tired of him at last, and his imposture being
discovered, he was hanged in Scotland. At the gallows he confessed
that he had been the death of 220 men and women in England and
Scotland, simply for the sake of the twenty shillings which he
generally received as blood-money.

       *       *       *       *       *

The belief in _Sorcerots_, or witches' spells of a peculiar kind,
mentioned in the _Depositions_ (pages 22, 23, &c.) receives curious
modern confirmation by a kindred superstition still current among the
emancipated negroes of the United States. It was described in a letter
on "Voudouism in Virginia" which appeared in the _New York Tribune_,
dated Richmond, September 17, 1875. Mr. Moncure D. Conway, in quoting
this and commenting on it in his _Demonology and Devil-Lore_ (Vol. I.
pages 68-69), says that it belongs to a class of superstitions
generally kept close from the whites, as he believes, because of their
purely African origin. Mr. Conway is, however, probably mistaken about
the origin, seeing that the same belief prevailed in Guernsey three
centuries ago. The extract from the letter is as follows:--

     If an ignorant negro is smitten with a disease which he
     cannot comprehend, he often imagines himself the victim of
     witchcraft, and having no faith in "white folks' physic" for
     such ailments, must apply to one of these quacks. A
     physician residing near the city [Richmond] was invited by
     such a one to witness his mode of procedure with a dropsical
     patient for whom the physician in question had occasionally
     charitably prescribed. Curiosity led him to attend the
     seance, having previously informed the quack that since the
     case was in such hands he relinquished all connection with
     it. On the coverlet of the bed on which the sick man lay,
     was spread a quantity of bones, feathers, and other trash.
     The charlatan went through with a series of so-called
     conjurations, burned feathers, hair, and tiny fragments of
     wood in a charcoal furnace, and mumbled gibberish past the
     physician's comprehension. He then proceeded to rip open the
     pillows and bolsters, and took from them some queer
     conglomerations of feathers. These he said had caused all
     the trouble. Sprinkling a whitish powder over them, he burnt
     them in his furnace. A black offensive smoke was produced,
     and he announced triumphantly that the evil influence was
     destroyed, and that the patient would surely get well. He
     died not many days later, believing, in common with his
     friends and relatives, that the conjurations of the "trick
     doctor" had failed to save him only because resorted to too

From the above it is evident that the natural tendency of wool and
feathers to felt and clog together, has been distorted, by widely
different peoples, into an outward and visible sign that occult and
malignant influences were at work.

       *       *       *       *       *

As to the manner in which wizards and witches were put to the question
in Guernsey--that is tortured until they confessed whatever was
required of them--Mr. Warburton, a herald and celebrated antiquary who
wrote in the reign of Charles II., has given a circumstancial account,
the correctness of which may be relied on. His _Treatise on the
History, Laws and Customs of the Island of Guernsey_, bears the date
of 1682, and at page 126 he says:--

     By the law approved (_Terrien_, Lib. xii. cap. 37), torture
     is to be used, though not upon slight presumption, yet where
     the presumptive proof is strong, and much more when the
     proof is positive, and there wants only the confession of
     the party accused. Yet this practice of torturing does not
     appear to have been used in the island for some ages, except
     in the case of witches, when it was too frequently applied,
     near a century since. The custom then was, when any person
     was supposed guilty of sorcery or witchcraft, they carried
     them to a place in the town called _La Tour Beauregard_, and
     there, tying their hands behind them by the two thumbs, drew
     them to a certain height with an engine made for that
     purpose, by which means sometimes their shoulders were
     turned round; and sometimes their thumbs torn off; but this
     fancy of witches has for some years been laid aside.

It will be noticed in the subsequent _Confessions_ of witches (page
11, &c.), that a number of colons (:) are inserted in the text where
they would not be required as ordinary marks of punctuation. These
correspond, however, to similar pauses in the original records, and
evidently indicate the successive stages by which the story was wrung
from the wretched victims. They are thus endowed with a sad and
ghastly significance, which must be borne in mind when the confessions
are read. It must also be remembered that these confessions were not
usually made in the connected form in which they stand recorded, but
were rather the result of leading questions put by the inquisitors,
such as: How old were you when the Devil first appeared to you? What
form did he assume? What parish were you in? What were you doing? &c.,

Melancholy and revolting as all this is, yet the tortures made use of
in Guernsey were far from possessing those refinements of cruelty and
that intensity of brutality which characterised the methods practiced
in some other countries. Let us take as a proof of this, the notable
case of Dr. Fian and his associates, who were tried at Edinburgh, in
the year 1591. The evidence was of the usual ridiculous kind, and a
confession--afterwards withdrawn--was extorted by the following
blood-curdling barbarities, as is quoted by Mr. C.K. Sharpe, in his
_Historical Account of the Belief in Witchcraft in Scotland_:--

     The said Doctor was taken and imprisoned, and used with the
     accustomed paine provided for those offences inflicted upon
     the rest, as is aforesaid. First, by thrawing of his head
     with a rope, whereat he would confesse nothing. Secondly, he
     was perswaded by faire meanes to confesse his follies; but
     that would prevaile as little. Lastly, hee was put to the
     most severe and cruell paine in the world, called the
     bootes, who, after he had received three strokes, being
     inquired if he would confesse his damnable actes and wicked
     life, his toong would not serve him to speak; in respect
     whereof, the rest of the witches willed to search his toong,
     under which was founde two pinnes thrust up into the heade,
     whereupon the witches did say, now is the charme stinted,
     and shewed that these charmed pins were the cause he could
     not confesse any thing; then was he immediately released of
     the bootes, brought before the King, his confession was
     taken, and his own hand willingly set thereunto.... But this
     Doctor, notwithstanding that his owne confession appeareth
     remaining in recorde under his owne hande-writing, and the
     same thereunto fixed in the presence of the King's majestie,
     and sundrie of his councell, yet did he utterly denie the
     same. Whereupon the Kinges majestie, perceiving his
     stubbourne wilfulnesse, conceived and imagined that in the
     time of his absence hee had entered into newe conference and
     league with the devill, his master, and that hee had beene
     agayne newly marked, for the which he was narrowly searched;
     but it coulde not in anie wice be founde; yet, for more
     tryall of him to make him confesse, hee was commaunded to
     have a most straunge torment, which was done in this manner
     following: His nailes upon all his fingers were riven and
     pulled off with an instrument called in Scottish a turkas,
     which in England wee call a payre of pincers, and under
     everie nayle there was thrust in two needles over, even up
     to the heads; at all which tormentes notwithstanding the
     Doctor never shronke anie whit, neither woulde he then
     confesse it the sooner for all the tortures inflicted upon
     him. Then was hee, with all convenient speed, by
     commandement, convaied againe to the torment of the bootes,
     wherein he continued a long time, and did abide so many
     blowes in them, that the legges were crusht and beaten
     together as small as might bee, and the bones and flesh so
     bruised that the blood and marrow spouted forth in great
     abundance, whereby they were made unserviceable for ever;
     and notwithstanding all those grievous paines and cruell
     torments, hee would not confess anie thing; so deeply had
     the devill entered into his heart, that hee utterly denied
     all that which he had before avouched, and would saie
     nothing thereunto but this, that what he had done and sayde
     before, was onely done and sayde for fear of paynes which he
     had endured. After this horrible treatment the wretched man
     was strangled and burnt.

The following list gives a few--and only a few--of the direful results
to which this widespread superstition led. The instances are chiefly
taken from Dr. Réville's _History of the Devil_, and Haydn's
well-known _Dictionary of Dates_:--

     At Toulouse a noble lady, fifty-six years of age, named
     Angela de Labarète, was the first who was burnt as a
     sorceress, in which special quality she formed part of the
     great _auto-da-fé_ which took place in that city in the year
     1275; at Carcasonne, from 1320 to 1350, more than four
     hundred executions for witchcraft are on record; in 1309
     many Templars were burnt at Paris for witchcraft; Joan of
     Arc was burnt as a witch at Rouen, May 30th, 1431; in 1484
     Pope Innocent VIII. issued a bull against witchcraft,
     causing persecutions to break out in all parts of
     Christendom; during three months of the year 1515, about
     five hundred witches were burnt at Geneva; in 1524 many
     persons were burnt for the same crime in the Diocese of
     Como; about the year 1520 a great number suffered in France,
     and one sorcercer confessed to having 1,200 associates; from
     1580 to 1595--a period of fifteen years--about nine hundred
     witches were burnt in Lorraine; between 1627 and 1629, no
     fewer than one hundred and fifty-seven persons, old and
     young, and of all ranks, were burnt at Wurtzburg, in
     Bavaria; in 1634 a clerk named Urbain Grandier, who was
     parish priest at Loudon, was burnt on a charge of having
     bewitched a whole convent of Ursuline nuns; in 1654 twenty
     poor women were put to death as witches in Brittany; in
     1648-9 serious disturbances on account of witchcraft took
     place in Massachusetts; and in 1683 dreadful persecutions
     raged in Pennsylvania from the same cause; in 1692, at
     Salem, in New England, nineteen persons were hanged by the
     Puritans for witchcraft, and eight more were condemned,
     while fifty others confessed themselves to be witches, and
     were pardoned; in 1657 the witch-judge Nicholas Remy boasted
     of having burnt nine hundred persons in fifteen years; in
     one German principality alone, at least two hundred and
     forty-two persons were burnt between 1646 and 1651,
     including many children from one to six years of age; in
     1749 Maria Renata was burnt at Wurtzburg for witchcraft; on
     January 17th, 1775, nine old women were burnt at Kalish, in
     Poland, on a charge of having bewitched and rendered
     unfruitful the lands belonging to the palatinate; at
     Landshut, in Bavaria, in 1756, a young girl of thirteen
     years was convicted of impure intercourse with the Devil and
     put to death. There were also executions for sorcery at
     Seville, in Spain, in 1781, and at Glarus, in Switzerland,
     in 1783; while even as late as December 15th, 1802, five
     women were condemned to death for sorcery at Patna, in the
     Bengal Presidency, by the Brahmins, and were all executed.

     IN ENGLAND the record of Witchcraft is also a
     melancholy chapter. A statute was enacted declaring all
     witchcraft and sorcery to be felony without benefit of
     clergy, 33 Henry VIII. 1541; and again 5 Elizabeth, 1562,
     and 1 James I. 1603. The 73rd Canon of the Church, 1603,
     prohibits the Clergy from casting out devils. Barrington
     estimates the judicial murders for witchcraft in England,
     during two hundred years, at 30,000; Matthew Hopkins, the
     "witch-finder," caused the judicial murder of about one
     hundred persons in Essex, Norfolk, and Suffolk, 1645-7; Sir
     Matthew Hale burnt two persons for witchcraft in 1664; about
     1676 seventeen or eighteen persons were burnt as witches at
     St. Osyths, in Essex; in 1705 two pretended witches were
     executed at Northampton, and five others seven years
     afterwards; in 1716, a Mrs. Hicks, and her daughter, a
     little girl of nine years old, are said to have been hanged
     as witches at Huntingdon, but of this there seems to be some
     doubt. The last really authentic trial in England for
     witchcraft took place in 1712, when the jury convicted an
     old woman named Jane Wenham, of Walkerne, a little village
     in the north of Hertfordshire, and she was sentenced to be
     hanged. The judge, however, quietly procured a reprieve for
     her, and a kind-hearted gentleman in the neighbourhood gave
     her a cottage to live in, where she ended her days in peace.
     With regard to the mobbing of reputed sorcerers, it is
     recorded that in the year 1628, Dr. Lamb, a so-called
     wizard, who had been under the protection of the Duke of
     Buckingham, was torn to pieces by a London mob. While even
     as late as April 22nd, 1751, a wild and tossing rabble of
     about 5,000 persons beset and broke into the work-house at
     Tring, in Hertfordshire, where seizing Luke Osborne and his
     wife, two inoffensive old people suspected of witchcraft,
     they ducked them in a pond till the old woman died. After
     which, her corpse was put to bed to her husband by the mob,
     of whom only one person--a chimney-sweeper named Colley, who
     was the ringleader--was brought to trial and hanged for the
     detestable outrage.

     The laws against witchcraft in England had lain dormant for
     many years, when an ignorant person attempted to revive them
     by filing a bill against a poor old woman in Surrey, accused
     as a witch; this led to the repeal of the laws by the
     statute 10 George II. 1736. Credulity in witchcraft,
     however, still lingers in some of the country districts of
     the United Kingdom. On September 4th, 1863, a poor old
     paralysed Frenchman died in consequence of having been
     ducked as a wizard at Castle Hedingham, in Essex, and
     similar cases have since occurred; while on September 17th,
     1875,--only ten years ago--an old woman named Ann Turner,
     was killed as a witch, by a half-insane man, at Long
     Compton, Warwickshire.

     IN SCOTLAND, thousands of persons were burnt for
     witchcraft within a period of about a hundred years, in the
     fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Among the victims were
     persons of the highest rank, while all orders of the state
     concurred. James I. even caused a whole assize to be
     prosecuted because of an acquittal; the king published his
     work on _Dæmonologie_, in Edinburgh, in 1597; the last
     sufferer for witchcraft in Scotland was at Dornoch, in 1722.


_LE 4 JUILLET 1617._

Devant AMICE DE CARTERET, Ecuyer, Baillif, présents, etc.


_Collette Du Mont_, veuve de _Jean Becquet_, _Marie_, sa fille, femme
de _Pierre Massy_, _Isbel Bequet_, femme de _Jean Le Moygne_, etant
par la coutume renommée et bruit des gens de longue main du bruit de
damnable art de Sorcellerie, et icelles sur ce saisies et apprehendées
par les Officiers de Sa Majesté, apres s'etre volontairement sumis et
sur l'enquete generale du pays, et apres avoir été plusieurs fois
conduites en Justice, ouïes, examinées et confrontées sur un grand
nombre de depositions faites et produites à l'encontre d'elles par les
dits Officiers, par lesquels est clair et evident qu'auraient, par
longeur d'années, le susdit diabolique art de Sorcellerie, par avoir
non seulement jété leur sort sur des choses insensible, mais aussi
tenu en langueur par maladies etranges plusieurs personnes et betes,
et aussi cruellement meurti grand nombre d'hommes, femmes, et enfans,
et fait mourir plusieurs animaux, recordés aux informations sur ce
faites, s'ensuit qu'elles sont plainement convaincues et atteintes
d'etre Sorcieres. Pour reparation duquel crime a eté dit par la Cour
que lesdites femmes seront presentement conduites la halte au col au
lieu de supplice accoutumé, et par l'Officier criminel attachées à un
poteau, pendues, etranglées, osciées, et brulées, jusqu'à ce que leur
chairs et ossements soient reduits en cendres, et leurs cendres
eparcées; et sont tous les biens, meubles, et heritages, si aucun en
ont acquit, à Sa Majesté. Pour leur faire confesser leurs complices,
qu'elles seront mises à la question en Justice avant que d'etre


Before AMICE DE CARTERET, Esq., Bailiff, and the Jurats.

_JULY 4th, 1617._


_Collette du Mont_, widow of _Jean Becquet_; _Marie_, her daughter,
wife of _Pierre Massy_; and _Isabel Becquet_, wife of _Jean Le
Moygne_, being by common rumour and report for a long time past
addicted to the damnable art of Witchcraft, and the same being
thereupon seized and apprehended by the Officers of His Majesty [James
I.], after voluntarily submitting themselves, both upon the general
inquest of the country, and after having been several times brought up
before the Court, heard, examined, and confronted, upon a great number
of depositions made and produced before the Court by the said
Officers; from which it is clear and evident that for many years past
the aforesaid women have practiced the diabolical art of Witchcraft,
by having not only cast their spells upon inanimate objects, but also
by having retained in languor through strange diseases, many persons
and beasts; and also cruelly hurt a great number of men, women, and
children, and caused the death of many animals, as recorded in the
informations thereupon laid, it follows that they are clearly
convicted and proved to be Witches. In expiation of which crime it has
been ordered by the Court that the said women shall be presently
conducted, with halters about their necks, to the usual place of
punishment, and shall there be fastened by the Executioner to a
gallows, and be hanged, strangled, killed, and burnt, until their
flesh and bones are reduced to ashes, and the ashes shall be
scattered; and all their goods, chattels, and estates, if any such
exist, shall be forfeited to His Majesty. In order to make them
disclose their accomplices, they shall be put to the question before
the Court, previous to being executed.

Sentence de mort ayant esté prononcée à l'encontre de _Collette Du
Mont_, veuve de _Jean Becquet_, _Marie_, sa fille, femme de _Pierre
Massy_, et _Isbel Becquet_, femme de _Jean Le Moygne_, auroyent
icelles confessé comme suit:--


Premier, la diste _Collette_ immediatement appres la dyte sentence
donnée, et avant que de sortir de l'auditoire, a librement recognu
qu'elle estoit Sorciere; toutesfois ne voulant particularizer les
crimes qu'auroit commis a esté conduite avec les autres en la Maison
de la Question, et la dite question luy estant applicquée, a confessé
qu'elle estoit encore jeune lors que le Diable en forme de chat:
s'aparut à elle: en la Paroisse de Torteval: lors qu'elle retournoit
de son bestiall, estant encore jour, et qu'il print occasion de la
seduire, par l'inciter à se venger d'un de ses voisins avec lequell
elle estoit pour lors en querelle pour quelque domage qu'elle auroit
receu par les bestes d'yceluy; que depuis lors qu'elle avoit eu
querelle avec quelcun, ill se representoit à elle en la susdite forme:
et quelquefois en forme de chien: l'induisant à se venger de ceux
contre lesquels elle estoit faschée: la persuadant de faire mourir des
personnes et bestes.

Que le Diable l'estant venue querir pour aller au Sabat, l'appelloit
sans qu'on s'en apperceust: et luy bailloit ung certain onguent noir,
duquel (appres s'etre despouillée) elle se frotoit le dos, ventre et
estomac: et s'estant revestuë, sortoit hors son huis, lors estoit
incontinent emportée par l'air d'une grande vitesse: et se trouvoit a
l'instant au lieu du Sabat, qui estoit quelquefois pres le cimetiere
de la paroisse: et quelques autres fois pres le rivage de la mer, aux
environs du Chateau de Rocquaine: là où estant arivée s'y rencontroit
souvent quinze ou saize Sorciers et Sorcieres avec les Diables, qu'y
estoient là en forme de chiens, chats, et lievres: lesquels Sorciers
et Sorcieres elle n'a peu recognoistre, parce qu'ils estoyent tous
noircis et deffigurés: bien est vray avoir ouy le Diable les evocquer
par leur noms, et se souvaient entre autres de la _Fallaise_, et de la
_Hardie_; dit confesse qu'a l'entrée du Sabath: le Diable les voulant
esvosquer commencoit par elle quelquefois. Que sa fille _Marie_, femme
de _Massy_, à present condamnée pour pareill crime, est Sorciere: et
qu'elle la menée par deux fois au Sabath avec elle: ne scait par où le
Diable la merchée: qu'au Sabath appres avoir adoré le Diable, lequell
se tenoit debout sur ses pieds de derriere, ils avoient copulation
avec luy en forme de chien; puis dansoyent dos a dos. Et appres avoir
dansé, beuvoyent du vin (ne scait de quelle couleur), que le Diable
versoit hors d'un pot en ung gobelet d'argent ou d'estrain; lequell
vin ne luy sembloit sy bon que celuy qu'on boit ordinarement;
mangeoist aussy du pain blanc quj leur presentoit--n'a jamais veu de
sell au Sabath.

Confesse que le Diable luy avoit donné charge d'appeler en passant
_Isebell le Moygne_: lors quelle viendroit au Sabath, ce qu'elle a
fait diverses fois. Qu'au partir du Sabath le Diable l'incitoit à
perpetrer plusieurs maux: et pour cest effect luy bailloit certaines
pouldres noires, qu'il lui commandoit de ietter sur telles personnes
et bestes qu'elle voudroit; avec laquelle pouldre elle a perpetré
plusieurs maux desquels ne se souvient: entres autres en ietta sur
_Mes. Dolbell_, ministre de la paroisse: et fut occasion de sa mort
par ce moyen. Par ceste mesme pouldre ensorcela la femme de _Jean
Maugues_: toutesfois nie qu'elle soit morte par son sort: qu'elle
toucha par le costé, et ietta de ceste pouldre sur la femme defuncte
de _Mr Perchard_, successeur ministre du dit _Dolbell_, en ycelle
paroisse, ycelle estant pour lors enceinte, tellement qu'elle la fist
mourir et son fruit--ne scait quelle occasion luy fut donnée par la
dite femme.

Que sur le refus que la femme de _Collas Tottevin_ luy fist de luy
donner du laict: elle fist assecher sa vache, en iettant sur ycelle de
ceste pouldre: laquelle vache elle regarit par appres en luy faisant
manger du son, et de l'herbe terrestre que le Diable lui bailla.

Sentence of Death having been pronounced against _Collette Du Mont_,
widow of _Jean Becquet_; _Marie_, her daughter, wife of _Pierre
Massy_; and _Isabel Becquet_, wife of _Jean Le Moygne_; the same have
confessed as follows:--


First, the said _Collette_ immediately after the said sentence was
pronounced, and before leaving the Court, freely admitted that she was
a Witch; at the same time, not wishing to specify the crimes which she
had committed, she was taken, along with the others, to the Torture
Chamber, and the said question being applied to her, she confessed
that she was quite young when the Devil, in the form of a cat:
appeared to her: in the Parish of Torteval: as she was returning from
her cattle, it being still daylight, and that he took occasion to lead
her astray by inciting her to avenge herself on one of her neighbours,
with whom she was then at enmity, on account of some damage which she
had suffered through the cattle of the latter; that since then when
she had a quarrel with anyone, he appeared to her in the aforesaid
form: and sometimes in the form of a dog: inducing her to take
vengence upon those who had angered her: persuading her to cause the
death of persons and cattle.

That the Devil having come to fetch her that she might go to the
Sabbath, called for her without anyone perceiving it: and gave her a
certain black ointment with which (after having stripped herself), she
rubbed her back, belly and stomach: and then having again put on her
clothes, she went out of her door, when she was immediately carried
through the air at a great speed: and she found herself in an instant
at the place of the Sabbath, which was sometimes near the parochial
burial-ground: and at other times near the seashore in the
neighbourhood of Rocquaine Castle: where, upon arrival, she met often
fifteen or sixteen Wizards and Witches with the Devils who were there
in the form of dogs, cats, and hares: which Wizards and Witches she
was unable to recognise, because they were all blackened and
disfigured: it was true, however, that she had heard the Devil summon
them by their names, and she remembered among others those of
_Fallaise_ and _Hardie_; confessed that on entering the Sabbath: the
Devil wishing to summon them commenced with her sometimes. Admitted
that her daughter _Marie_, wife of _Massy_, now condemned for a
similar crime, was a Witch: and that she took her twice to the Sabbath
with her: at the Sabbath, after having worshipped the Devil, who used
to stand up on his hind legs, they had connection with him under the
form of a dog; then they danced back to back. And after having danced,
they drank wine (she did not know what colour it was), which the Devil
poured out of a jug into a silver or pewter goblet; which wine did not
seem to her so good as that which was usually drunk; they also ate
white bread which he presented to them--she had never seen any salt at
the Sabbath.

Confessed that the Devil had charged her to call, as she passed, for
_Isabel le Moygne_: when she came to the Sabbath, which she had done
several times. On leaving the Sabbath the Devil incited her to commit
various evil deeds: and to that effect he gave her certain black
powders, which he ordered her to throw upon such persons and cattle as
she wished; with this powder she perpetrated several wicked acts which
she did not remember: among others she threw some upon _Mr Dolbell_,
parish minister: and was the occasion of his death by these means.
With this same powder she bewitched the wife of _Jean Maugues_: but
denied that the woman's death was caused by it: she also touched on
the side, and threw some of this powder over the deceased wife of _Mr
Perchard_, the minister who succeeded the said _Dolbell_ in the
parish, she being _enceinte_ at the time, and so caused the death of
her and her infant--she did not know that the deceased woman had given
her any cause for doing so.

Upon the refusal of the wife of _Collas Tottevin_ to give her some
milk: she caused her cow to dry up, by throwing upon it some of this
powder: which cow she afterwards cured again by making it eat some
bran, and some terrestrial herb that the Devil gave her.


_Marie_, femme de _Pierre Massy_, appres sentence de mort prononcée a
l'encontre d'elle, ayant esté mise a la question, a confessé qu'elle
est Sorciere; et qu'à la persuation du Diable, quj s'aparut à elle en
forme de chien: elle se donna à luy: que lors que se donna à luy ill
la print de sa patte par la main: qu'elle s'est oint du mesme onguent
que sa mere s'oignoit: et a esté au Sabath sur la banque pres du
Chateau de Rocquaine, avec luy, où n'y avoit que le Diable et elle, se
luy sembloit: en la susdite forme en laquelle elle la veu plusieurs
fois. A été aussi au Sabath une fois entre autres en la ruë, _Collas
Tottevin_; que toutes les fois qu'elle alloit au Sabath le Diable la
venant querir luy sembloit qu'il la transformait en chienne; dit que
sur le rivage, pres du dit Rocquaine: le Diable, en forme de chien,
ayant eu copulation avec elle, luy donnoit du pain et du vin, qu'elle
mangeoit et beuvoit.

Que le Diable luy bailloit certaines pouldres: lesquelles pouldres ill
luy mettoit dans la main, pour ietter sur ceux qu'il luy commanderoit:
qu'elle en a ietté par son commandement sur des personnes et bestes:
notament sur l'enfant _Pierre Brehaut_. Item, sur la femme _Jean
Bourgaize_ lors qu'estoit enciente. Item, sur l'enfant _Leonard le


_Marie_, wife of _Pierre Massy_, after sentence of death had been
pronounced against her, having been put to the question, confessed
that she was a Witch; and that at the persuasion of the Devil, who
appeared to her in the form of a dog: she gave herself to him: that
when she gave herself to him he took her by the hand with his paw:
that she used to anoint herself with the same ointment as her mother
used: and had been to the Sabbath upon the bank near Rocquaine Castle
with her, where there was no one but the Devil and her as it seemed:
in the aforesaid form in which she had seen him several times: She was
also at the Sabbath on one occasion among others in the road near
_Collas Tottevin's_; every time that she went to the Sabbath, the
Devil came to her, and it seemed as though he transformed her into a
female dog; she said that upon the shore, near the said Rocquaine: the
Devil, in the form of a dog, having had connection with her, gave her
bread and wine, which she ate and drank.

The Devil gave her certain powders: which powders he put into her
hand, for her to throw upon those whom he ordered her: she threw some
of them by his orders upon persons and cattle: notably upon the child
of _Pierre Brehaut_. Item, upon the wife of _Jean Bourgaize_, while
she was _enceinte_. Item, upon the child of _Leonard le Messurier_.


_Isebelle_, femme de _Jean de Moygne_, ayant esté mise a la question,
a tout aussytost confessé qu'elle est Sorciere: et que sur ce qu'elle
tomba en querelle avec la _Girarde_, sa belle-soeur: le Diable en
forme de lievre print occasion de la seduire: se representant à elle
en plain jour dans une ruë pres de sa maison: et la persuadant et
incitant de se donner à luy: et que l'aideroit à se venger de la dite
_Girarde_ et de tous aultres: à laquelle persuation n'ayant icelle à
l'instant voulu condescendre: aussy tout disparut: mais incontinent
luy vint derechef au devant en la mesme ruë, et poursuyvant sa
premiere pointe: l'exhortoit aux mesmes fins que dessus: cela fait,
ill la laissa et se retira, apres luy avoir, au prealable, mis une
pochée de pasnés; qu'elle portoit pour lors, une certaine pouldre
noire envelopée dans ung linge qu'il mist: laquelle pouldre elle
retint par devers soy. S'aparut à elle une autre fois en mesme forme
au territoire de la ville, l'incitant dereschef à se donner à luy, à
quoy ne voulant icelle condescendre luy fist adonc requeste de luy
donner une beste vive: lors de ce pas revint ches elle querir ung
poullet, qu'elle luy apporta au mesme lieu où l'avoit laissé, lequell
ill print: et appres l'avoir remerecie luy donna assignation de se
trouver le lendemain avant jour au Sabath, avec promesse qu'il
l'enverroit querir: suivant laquelle promesse, estant la nuittée
ensuivant, la vielle _Collette du Mont_ venant la querir, lui bailla
de l'onguent noir qu'elle avoit eu du Diable; duquell (apprès s'estre
despouillée) s'oignit le dos, et le ventre, puis s'estant revestuë,
sortit l'huis de sa maison: lors fut à l'instant enlevée: et
transportée au travers hayes et buissons, pres la banque sur le bord
de la mer, aux environs du Chasteau de Rocquaine, lieu ordinaire où le
Diable gardoit son Sabath; là où ne fut sytost arivée, que le Diable
ne vint la trouver en forme de chien avec deux grandes cornes dressées
en hault: et de l'une de ses pattes (qui lui sembloyent comme mains),
la print par la main: et l'appellant par son nom, luy dist qu'estoit
la bien venuë: lors aussytost le Diable la fist mettre sur ses genoux:
luy se tenant debout sur ses pieds de derrière; luy ayant fait
detester l'Esternelle en ses mots: _Je renie Dieu le Pere, Dieu le
Fils et Dieu le St. Esprit_; se fist adorer et invocquer en ses
termes: _Nostre Grand Maistre aide nous!_ avec paction expresse
d'adherer à luy; que cela fait, ill ont copulation avec elle en la
susdite forme de chien, ung peu plus grand: puis elle et les aultres
danserent avec luy dos à dos: qu'apres avoir dansé, le Diable versoit
hors d'un pot du vin noir, qu'il leur presentoit dans une escuelle de
bois, duquell elle beut, toutesfois ne luy sembloit sy bon que le vin
quj se boit ordinairement: qu'il y avoit du pain--mais n'en mangea
point: confesse qu'elle se donna lors à luy pour ung mois: ainsy
retournerent du Sabath comme y estoyent allés.

Que seconde fois fut au Sabath, apres que la vielle _Collette_ l'eut
esté querir et qu'elle se fist oindre d'onguent cy dessus;--declare
qu'à l'entree du Sabath eut dereschef copulation avec le Diable, et
dansa avec luy; appres avoir dansé, à sa solicitation de prolonger le
temps, se donna à luy pour trois ans; qu'au Sabath le Diable faisoit
evocation des Sorciers et Sorcieres par ordre (se souvient tresbien y
avoir ouy le Diable appeller la vielle _Collette_, la premiere, en ces
termes: _Madame la Vielle Becquette_); puis la _Fallaise_; appres la
_Hardie_. Item, _Marie_, femme de _Massy_, fille de la dite
_Collette_. Dit appres eux, elle mesme estoit evosquée par le Diable,
en ses termes: _La Petite Becquette_; qu'elle y a ouy aussy evosquer
_Collas Becquet_, fils de la dit vielle (lequell la tenoit par la main
en dansant, et une que ne cognoist la tenoit par l'autre main): qu'il
y en avoit viron six autres que ne cognoissoit: que la dite vielle
estoit tousjours proche du Diable: que quelque fois tandis que les uns
dansoyent les autres avoyent copulation avec les Diables en forme de
chien: et estoyent au Sabath viron trois ou quatre heures, non plus.

Qu'estant au Sabath le Diable la mercha en haut de la cuisse: laquelle
merche ayant esté reuisitée par les sage femmes, ont raporté avoir mis
dedans une petite espingue bien avant, qu'elle n'a point senty, et
n'en est sorty aulcuns sang; ne scait par ou le Diable a merche les
autres: que les premiers venues au lieu du Sabath attendoyent les
autres; et apparoissoyent tous les Sorciers et Sorcieres en leur
propre formes: toutesfois noircis et defficgurés, et ne les pouvoit en

Que le Diable apparoissoit quelque fois en forme de boucq au Sabath;
ne la veu en autres formes; qu'au departir, ill se faisoit baiser la
derriere, leur demandant quant reviendroyent: les exhortoit qu'eussent
à adherer tousiours a luy: et faire des maux, et pour cest effet leur
bailloit certaines pouldres noires envelopées dans ung drapeau, pour
en ietter sur ceux qu'ils vouloyent ensorcerer: qu'au departir du
Sabath le Diable s'en alloit d'un coste et eux de l'autre: appres les
avoir toutes prinses par la main: Qu'à l'instigation du Diable elle en
a jetté sur plusieurs personnes et bestes: notament sur _Jean Jehan_,
lors qu'il vint chez elle querir ung pourceau. Item, sur l'enfant
_James Gallienne_, et sur aultres: Item, sur les bestes de _Brouart_
et aultres.

Que c'estoit le Diable qui fut veu ches le susdit _Gallienne_, en
forme de rat et bellette, ycelle estant pour lors aux environs de la
maison du dit _Gallienne_, et s'estant venu rendre à elle en
resemblance d'homme, la frapa de plusieurs coups par le visage et
teste: dont estoit ainsy meurdie et deschirée lors que fut veüe le
lendemain par _Thomas Sohier_. Et croit que la cause de ce
maltraitement fut pour ce que ne voulut aller avec le Diable chez le
dit _Gallienne_.

Qu'elle n'alloit point au Sabath sinon lors que son mary estoit
demeuré la nuict en pescherie à la mer.

Que lors qu'elle vouloit ensorceler quelcun, sa poudre estant faillie,
le Diable s'aparoissoit à elle, luy disant qu'allast en querir en tell
endroit qu'il luy nommoit, ce qu'elle faisoit, et ne falloit d'y en


_Isabel_, wife of _Jean le Moygne_, having been put to the question,
at once confessed that she was a Witch: and that upon her getting into
a quarrel with the woman _Girarde_, who was her sister-in-law: the
Devil, in the form of a hare, took occasion to tempt her: appearing to
her in broad daylight in a road near her house: and persuading and
inciting her to give herself to him: and that he would help her to
avenge herself on the said _Girarde_, and everybody else: to which
persuasion she would not at the moment condescend to yield: so he at
once disappeared: but very soon he came again to her in the same road,
and pursuing his previous argument: exhorted her in the same terms as
above: that done, he left her and went away, after having previously
put her a sackful of parsnips; she then took a certain black powder
wrapped in a cloth which he placed; which powder she kept by her. He
appeared to her another time under the same form in the town district,
inciting her anew to give herself to him, but she not wishing to
comply, he next made a request to her to give him some living animal:
whereupon she returned to her dwelling and fetched a chicken, which
she carried to him to the same place where she had left him, and he
took it: and after having thanked her he made an appointment for her
to be present the next morning before daylight at the Sabbath,
promising that he would send for her: according to which promise,
during the ensuing night, the old woman _Collette du Mont_, came to
fetch her, and gave her some black ointment, which she had had from
the Devil; with this (after having stripped herself) she anointed her
back and belly, then having dressed herself again she went out of her
house door: when she was instantly caught up: and carried across
hedges and bushes to the bank on the sea shore, in the neighbourhood
of Rocquaine Castle, the usual place where the Devil kept his Sabbath;
no sooner had she arrived there than the Devil came to her in the
form of a dog, with two great horns sticking up: and with one of his
paws (which seemed to her like hands) took her by the hand: and
calling her by her name told her that she was welcome: then
immediately the Devil made her kneel down: while he himself stood up
on his hind legs; he then made her express detestation of the Eternal
in these words: _I renounce God the Father, God the Son, and God the
Holy Ghost_; and then caused her to worship and invoke himself in
these terms: _Our Great Master, help us!_ with a special compact to be
faithful to him; and when this was done he had connection with her in
the aforesaid form of a dog, but a little larger: then she and the
others danced with him back to back: after having danced, the Devil
poured out of a jug some black wine, which he presented to them in a
wooden bowl, from which she drank, but it did not seem to her so good
as the wine which is usually drunk: there was also bread--but she did
not eat any: confessed that she gave herself to him for a month: they
returned from the Sabbath in the same manner that they went there.

The second time she was at the Sabbath was after the old woman
_Collette_ had been to fetch her, and she anointed herself with the
ointment as above stated;--declared, that on entering the Sabbath, she
again had connection with the Devil and danced with him; after having
danced, and upon his solicitation to prolong the time, she gave
herself to him for three years; at the Sabbath the Devil used to
summon the Wizards and Witches in regular order (she remembered very
well having heard him call the old woman _Collette_ the first, in
these terms: _Madame the Old Woman Becquette_): then the woman
_Fallaise_; and afterwards the woman _Hardie_. Item, he also called
_Marie_, wife of _Massy_, and daughter of the said _Collette_. Said
that after them, she herself was called by the Devil: in these terms:
_The Little Becquette_: she also heard him call there _Collas
Becquet_, son of the said old woman (who [_Collas_] held her by the
hand in dancing, and someone [a woman] whom she did not know, held her
by the other hand): there were about six others there she did not
know: the said old woman was always the nearest to the Devil:
occasionally while some were dancing, others were having connection
with the Devils in the form of dogs; they remained at the Sabbath
about three or four hours, not more.

While at the Sabbath the Devil marked her at the upper part of the
thigh: which mark having been examined by the midwives, they reported
that they had stuck a small pin deeply into it, and that she had not
felt it, and that no blood had issued: she did not know in what part
the Devil had marked the others: those who came first to the place of
the Sabbath, waited for the others; and all the Wizards and Witches
appeared in their proper forms: but blackened and disfigured so that
they could not be recognised.

The Devil appeared sometimes in the form of a goat at the Sabbath;
never saw him in other forms: on their departure he made them kiss him
behind, and asked them when they would come again: he exhorted them
always to be true to him: and to do evil deeds, and to this end he
gave them certain black powders, wrapped in a cloth, for them to throw
upon those whom they wished to bewitch: on leaving the Sabbath, the
Devil went away in one direction and they in the other: after he had
taken them all by the hand: At the instigation of the Devil she threw
some of the powder over several persons and cattle: notably over
_Jean Jehan_, when he came to her house to look for a pig. Item, over
the child of _James Gallienne_, and over others. Item, over the cattle
of _Brouart_, and of others.

It was the Devil that was seen at the said _Gallienne's_ house in the
form of a rat and a weazle, she herself being then in the
neighbourhood of _Gallienne's_ house, and he [the Devil] came to her
in the form of a man, and struck her several blows on the face and
head: by which she was bruised and torn in the way that she was seen
the next day by _Thomas Sohier_. And she believed that the cause of
this maltreatment was because she would not go with the Devil to the
house of the said _Gallienne_.

She never went to the Sabbath except when her husband remained all
night fishing at sea.

Whenever she wanted to bewitch anyone and her powder happened to have
been all used up, the Devil appeared to her and told her to go to such
a place, which he named, for some more, and when she did so, she never
failed to find it there.


_Le xvij Mai 1617._

_Susanne Le Tellier_, veufve de _Pierre Rougier_, depose que son mary
estant decedé, trouva des sorcerots en son lict; et qu'en son djt lict
mortuaire, il se plaignoit esté ensorcelé par _Collas Becquet_, avec
lequel avoit eu dispute, sur laquelle dispute luy dyt que s'en
repentiroit; et la dessus fut prins de m...[A] duquel fut douze jours
malade; qu'ils trouverent quarante-quatre sorcerots en l'oreiller de
son enfant, que les uns estoyent fait comme herissons, les autres
comme pommes, et les autres plats comme la rouelle de la main; et du
fill de chanvre entortillé avec de plumes.

[Footnote A: Illegible in the record.]

_Susanne_, femme de _Jean Le Messurier_, depose que son mary et
_Collas Becquet_ plaiderent à jour passé ensemble; qu'allors ils
avoyent ung enfant ayant de viron six semaines, et comme elle le
despouilloit au soir, pour le coucher, il tomba sur l'estomac du djt
enfant une beste noire laquelle fondit si tost que fut tombée,
d'aultant qu'elle fist debvoir de la rechercher et ne peut jamais
apercevoir qu'elle devint; incontinent l'enfant fut prins de mal et ne
voulu teter, mais fut fort tormenté; que s'estant avisée de regarder
dans l'oreiller du djt enfant y trouverent des sorcerots cousus de
fil, et les ayant tirés et bien espluché la plume de l'oreiller, y
regarda sept jours appres et y entrouva derechef avec une febve noire
percée; dequoy, ayant le djt _Becquet_ ouy qu'il en estoit suspecté,
sa femme vint ches la deposante comme le djt _Becquet_ estoit à la
mer, et luy djt qu'à raison du bruit que la deposante avoit sucité sur
son mary, iceluy _Becquet_ fuetteroit le djt _Mesurier_, son mary, et
elle, et les tueroit; qu'apres cela la deposante fut ches eux leur
dire que ne les craignoit, ny luy ny elle, de ce qu'ils la menacoyent
de tuer son mary et elle; qu'ayant la deposante un jour six grands
poulets qui couroyent appres leur mere, ils sortirent de leur maison
et revinent au soir; et un à un se mirent a saulter en hault contre la
cheminée et manget la scie, qu'ils moururent tous un à un, à voy
...[B] comme ils sautoyent, jusques au dernier qui dura en vie jusqu'à
une heure devant le jour qu'il mourut; que depuis que l'eurent declare
à _Mr Deljsle_ et les eut menacés, il a amendé à son enfant et se
porte bien.

[Footnote B: Illegible in the record.]

_Collas Rougier_ depose que son frere _Piere Rougier_ en mourant
chargeoit _Collas Becquet_ de sa mort.

_Collas Hugues_ raport qu'estant en une nopsce y survint _Collas
Becquet_ jouet avec sa belle-fille, laquelle le rebouta; et des le
mesme soir elle fut frapée de telle facon qu'on pensoit qu'elle
mourust à chacune heure; qu'elle est demeurée mechaignée de coste, et
trouva un des sorcerots en son lict, qui pour lors furent monstrés à
Messrs de Justice qui estoyent à tenir des veues à St. Pierre; que
la djte fille tomboit quelque fois y terre toute aveuglée.

La femme du djt _Hugues_ depose tout de mesme que son mary.

_Jean De Garis_, fils _Guillaume_, depose qu'il y a viron deux ou
trois ans qu'ayant presté quelque argent sur un gage à _Collas
Becquet_, luy demandant son argent, ou qu'il feroit ventiller son
gage; luy repartit le djt _Becquet_ à feray donc ventiller autre
chose; qu'estant le djt _de Garis_ arivé en sa maison, trouva la fille
malade et affligée; qu'ils trouverent des sorcerots et aultres
brouilleries par plusieurs fois à l'oreiller de leur enfant; mais que
la mere du djt _Becquet_ estant venue en la maison du djt _de Garis_,
luy donna à boire de l'eau et la moitié d'un pain comme avoit esté
conseillé de faire; depuis ne trouverent plus rien à l'oreiller du djt
enfant; toutesfois pour eviter les djts sorcerots, ont toujours depuis
couché leur enfant sur la paille; croit que ce mal leur ariva par leur

_Mr Thomas de Ljsle_ depose que _Thomas Brouart_, qui demeure en sa
maison, ayant appellé le fils de _Collas Becquet_, sorcier, il arriva
qu'il fut un jour trouvé au lict du djt _Thomas_ grand nombre de vers,
et les ayant le djt _Sieur de Ljsle_ veus, les jugea comme une
formioniere, tant estoyent mouvans et espais, et à peine en peuvent
vuider le dit enfant, l'ayant mis en plusieurs endroits; qu'appres fut
le djt enfant accueillis de poulx de telle maniere que quoyque luy
changeassent des chemises et habits tous les jours ne l'en pouvoyent
franchir; et qu'ayant le djt _Thomas Brouart_ un corset tout neuf, fut
tellement couvert de poulx qu'on n'auroit peu cognoistre le drap, et
fut contraint le faire jetter parmy les choux; surquoy fait menacer
aultre _Massi_ de la batre si elle ne s'abstenoit d'ainsy traiter son
enfant; qu'estant revenu trouva le djt corset parmis les choux denue
de poulx, lesquels du depuis ont quitté le djt _Brouart_.

_Jacques le Mesurier_ depose qu'il y a viron deux ou trois ans qu'il
rencontra _Collas Becquet_ et _Perot Massi_, quj avoyent du poisson,
et d'aultant qu'ils lui debvoyent de l'argent, il voulut prendre de
leur poisson à rabatre, mais ne luy en voulant bailler, eurent quelque
dispute; sur quoy l'un des djts _Becquet_ ou _Massi_ le menacerent
qu'il s'en repentiroit; qu'au bout de deux ou trois jours il fut saisi
d'un mal que le brusloit, et quelques fois devenoit tout morfondu,
sans qu'on le peust eschauffer, et sans aulcune relache; qu'il fut en
ces tourments pres d'un mois. _Collas Becquet_ entendit que le
deposant le chargeoit d'estre causte de son mal, et menacoit qu'il
tueroit le djt deposant; mais bientost appres fut le djt deposant
guery; dit de cuider et de croire les djts _Becquet_ et _Massy_, ou un
d'iceux, fut cause de son mal.


_MAY 17, 1617._

_Susanne Le Tellier_, widow of _Pierre Rougier_, deposed that after
her husband was dead she found witches' spells in his bed; and that
while he was upon his said deathbed he complained of being bewitched
by _Collas Becquet_, with whom he had had a quarrel, and who during
the quarrel told him he would repent of it; whereupon he was taken
with ...[A], whereof he was ill for twelve days; they also found
forty-four witches' spells in her child's pillow, some of which were
made like hedgehogs, others round like apples, and others again flat
like the palm of the hand; and they were of hempen thread twisted with

[Footnote A: Illegible in the record.]

_Susanne_, wife of _Jean Le Messurier_, deposed that her husband and
_Collas Becquet_ had angry words together one day; they had an infant
about six weeks old, and as she was undressing it in the evening to
put it to bed, there fell upon the stomach of the said infant, a
black beast which melted away as soon as it fell, so that although she
carefully sought for it, she could never discover what had become of
it; immediately afterwards the infant was taken ill and would not
suck, but was much tormented; being advised to look into the said
infant's pillow, she found there several witches' spells sewn with
thread; these she took out and carefully dressed all the feathers in
the pillow; yet when she examined it again a week afterwards, she
found there a black bean with a hole in it; of which, the said
_Becquet_ hearing that he was suspected, his wife came to witness's
house while the said _Becquet_ was at sea, and told her that on
account of the rumour which witness had raised about her husband, he
the said _Becquet_ would thrash the said _Messurier_, her husband, and
herself, and would kill them; after that, witness went to their house
to say they were not afraid either of him or her, or of their threats
to kill her husband and her; witness had six big chickens which ran
after their mother, going out of the house in the morning and
returning at night; and one by one they began to jump up against the
chimney and eat the soot, so that they all died one after the other,
...[B] as they jumped, until the last one which remained alive up to
one hour of daybreak, when it died; after they had told this to _Mr.
de Lisle_, and he had threatened the people, her infant recovered and
remained well.

[Footnote B: Illegible in the record.]

_Collas Rougier_ deposed that his brother _Pierre Rougier_ when dying
charged _Collas Becquet_ with causing his death.

_Collas Hugues_ reported that being at a wedding, _Collas Becquet_
arrived there, and began to toy with his daughter-in-law, who repelled
his advances; the very same evening she was taken ill in such a manner
that they thought she would have died from one hour to another;
besides which she remained under the charm, and they found one of the
witches' spells in her bed, which was shown to the Members of the
Court, who were making an inspection at St. Peter's; the said girl
sometimes fell to the ground quite blinded.

The wife of the said _Hugues_ deposed to exactly the same as her

_Jean de Garis_, son of _William_, deposed that about two or three
years ago, having lent some money on pledge to _Collas Becquet_, he
asked him for the money, or else for a verification of his security;
when the said _Becquet_ replied that he would let him know what his
security was; the said _de Garis_ having then returned home, found his
daughter sick and afflicted; they found witches' spells and other
conjurations several times in their child's pillow; but the mother of
the said _Becquet_ having come to the said _de Garis's_ house, he gave
her a drink of water and half-a-loaf of bread, as he had been advised
to do; since which time they had found nothing more in the child's
pillow; however to avoid all risk of the said witches' spells they had
always since then let their child sleep upon straw; he fully believed
that this evil had come upon them by their means.

_Mr. Thomas de Lisle_ deposed that _Thomas Brouart_, who resided in
his house, having called the son of _Collas Becquet_ a wizard, it
happened that there was one day found in the said _Thomas's_ bed a
great number of maggots, which the said _Sieur de Lisle_ saw, and
compared to an ant-hill, so lively and thick were they, and they could
hardly clear the said child of them, although they put it in different
places; afterwards the said child gathered lice in such a manner that
although its shirts and clothes were changed every day they could not
free it; the said _Thomas Brouart_ also had a brand new vest, which
was so covered with lice that it was impossible to see the cloth, and
he was compelled to have it thrown among the cabbages; upon which he
went and threatened _Massi's_ wife that he would beat her if she did
not abstain from thus treating his child; and on returning he found
the said vest among the cabbages clear of lice, which had also since
then quitted the said _Brouart_.

_Jacques le Mesurier_ deposed that about two or three years ago he met
_Collas Becquet_ and _Perot Massi_, who had some fish and who moreover
owed him money; he wished to take some of their fish at a reduced
price, but they would not agree to it, and they quarrelled; whereupon
one of the two, either _Becquet_ or _Massi_, threatened him that he
would repent of it; and at the end of two or three days, he was seized
with a sickness in which he first burnt like fire and then was
benumbed with cold so that nothing would warm him, and this without
any cessation; he suffered in this way for nearly a month. _Collas
Becquet_ heard that witness charged him with being the cause of his
sickness, and he threatened that he would kill witness; but very soon
afterwards the said witness was cured; and he affirms and believes
that the said _Becquet_ and _Massy_, or one of them, was the cause of
his attack.

       *       *       *       *       *


The Records at the Guernsey _Greffe_, from which the foregoing
confessions and depositions have been transcribed, and whence the
following list of accusations is compiled, are of a very voluminous
character. In fact there is enough matter in them, connected with
Witchcraft alone, to fill at least a couple of thick octavo volumes.
There is, however, so much sameness in the different cases, and such a
common tradition running through the whole, that the present excerpts
give a very fair idea of the features which characterise the mass.
While some of these Records are tolerably complete, the greater part
of them unfortunately are fragmentary and imperfect. The books in
which they were originally written seem to have been formed of a few
sheets of paper stitched together. Then at some later period a number
of these separate sections--in a more or less tattered condition--were
gathered into volumes and bound together in vellum. It is evident,
however, that very little care was exercised in their arrangement in
chronological order. The consequence is that one portion of a trial
sometimes occurs in one part of a volume, and the rest in another
part; sometimes the depositions alone seem to have been preserved;
sometimes the confessions; while in many cases the sentences
pronounced are all that can now be discovered. Nevertheless these old
Records enshrine much that is interesting, and very well deserve a
more exhaustive analysis than they have ever yet received. There are
also in the margins of these volumes, scores of pen-and-ink sketches
of a most primitive description, depicting the carrying out of the
various rigours of the law. Rough and uncouth as these illustrations
are, they nevertheless possess a good deal of graphic significance,
and I hope to reproduce some of them in facsimile, in a future
publication. They represent, for instance, culprits hanging on the
gallows--sometimes two or three in a row--with a fire kindled
underneath; others attached to stakes in the midst of the flames;
others, again, racing away under the lash of the executioner, &c.,
&c., and thus form a most realistic comment on the judicial severities
recorded in the text.


From 1563 to 1634, a period of 71 years.

QUEEN ELIZABETH.--1558-1603.

HELIER GOSSELIN, Bailiff, 1550-1563.

_November 19th, 1563._

Gracyene Gousset,
Catherine Prays,
Collette Salmon, wife of Collas Dupont,

     Condemned to death and the Royal pardon refused.

_December 17th, 1563._

Françoise Regnouff,
Martin Tulouff,

     Condemned to death and the Royal pardon refused.

_December 22nd, 1563._

Collette Gascoing.

     This woman was found guilty, and the Royal pardon being
     refused, she was whipped, had one of her ears cut off, and
     was banished from the island.

THOMAS COMPTON, Bailiff, 1563-1572.

_July 30th, 1570._

Jeannette Du Mareesc,

     Was banished for seven years.

_October 27th, 1570._

Michelle Tourtell,

     Banished from the island.

_November 3rd, 1570._

Coliche Tourtell,
James de la Rue,

     Both banished from the island.

_November 10th, 1570._

Lorenche Faleze, wife of Henry Johan,

     Banished from the island.

_November 17th, 1570._

Thomasse Salmon.
Marie Gauvein, wife of Ozouet.

     Both these women were whipped, had each an ear cut off, and
     were banished from the island.

GUILLAUME BEAUVOIR, Bailiff, 1572-1581.

     No prosecutions for Witchcraft seem to have taken place
     during his tenure of office.

THOMAS WIGMORE, Bailiff, 1581-1588.


Collas de la Rue.

     The result of this trial is uncertain.

LOUIS DEVYCKE, Bailiff, 1588-1600.

     No Witchcraft prosecutions during his term of office.

KING JAMES I.--1603-1625.

AMICE DE CARTERET, Bailiff, 1601-1631.


Marie Rolland.

     The result of this trial is uncertain.

_June 11th, 1613._

Oliver Omont,
Cecille Vaultier, wife of Omont,
Guillemine, their daughter,

     Were all banished from the island.

_July 17th, 1613._

Laurence Leustace, wife of Thomas Le Compte,

     Banished from the island.

_July 4th, 1617._

Collette du Mont, widow of Jean Becquet.
Marie, her daughter, wife of Pierre Massy.
Isabel Becquet, wife of Jean Le Moygne.

     All three women, after being found guilty, confessed under
     torture, and were then hanged and burnt.

_August 8th, 1617._

Michelle Jervaise, widow Salmon.
Jeanne Guignon, wife of J. de Callais, and two of her

     These four persons were hanged and burnt, after being put to
     the question.

_October 17th, 1617._

Marie de Callais.
Philipine le Parmentier, widow of Nicolle, of Sark.

     These two women were hanged and burnt, after being
     previously put to the question.

_November 25th, 1617._

Thomasse de Calais, wife of Isaac le Patourel,

     Banished from the island.

_November 25th, 1617._

Christine Hamon, wife of Etienne Gobetell.

     This woman was banished from the island, but returned on May
     6th, 1626, when she was again arrested and sentenced to
     death. She was hanged July 21st, 1626.

_August 1st, 1618._

Jean de Callais, together with his son, and servants.

     All these were charged with practicing Witchcraft, and were
     sent out of the island.

_December, 1618._

Jean Nicolle, of Sark,

     Being found guilty, was whipped, had an ear cut off, and was
     banished from the island.

_May 1st, 1619._

Pierre Massi,

     Condemned to be hanged. He, however, contrived to get out of
     prison and drowned himself.

_August 7th, 1619._

Jeanne Behot,

     Banished from the island.

_April 22nd, 1620._

Girete Parmentier,
Jeanne Le Cornu, widow of Collas le Vallois.

     These two women were banished.

_May 8th, 1622._

Collette de l'Estac, wife of Thomas Tourgis.
Collette Robin.
Catherine Hallouris, widow Heaulme.

     These three women were hanged and burnt, after being put to
     the question.

_October 17th, 1622._

Thomas Tourgis, of the Forest.
Jeanne Tourgis, his daughter.
Michelle Chivret, wife of Pierre Omont.

     All three were burnt alive.

_October 19th, 1622._

Jean Le Moigne.
Guillemine la Bousse.

     This man and woman were set at liberty.

_November 30th, 1622._

Perine Marest, wife of Pierre Gauvin,

     Banished, together with her husband and children.

_October 3rd, 1623._

Etienne Le Compte,

     Hanged and burnt.

_May 28th, 1624._

Marguerite Tardif, wife of P. Ozanne,

     Set at liberty.

_June 4th, 1624._

Ester Henry, wife of Jean de France.

     This woman was burnt alive. The sentence states that her
     flesh and bones are to be reduced to ashes and scattered by
     the winds, as being unworthy of any sepulture.

_July 16th, 1624._

Collette la Gelée.

     This woman was hanged and burnt.

_October 22nd, 1624._

Jean Quaripel,

     Hanged and burnt.

KING CHARLES I.--1625-1649.

_July 23rd, 1625._

Elizabeth, wife of Pierre Duquemin,

     Banished for 7 years.

_August 11th, 1626._

Jeanne de Bertran, wife of Jean Thomas,

     Hanged and burnt.

_August 12th, 1626._

Marie Sohier, wife of J. de Garis,

     Hanged and burnt.

_November 10th, 1626._

Judith Alexander, of Jersey, wife of Pierre Jehan,

     Hanged and burnt.

_August 25th, 1627._

Job Nicolle, of Sark,

     Condemned to perpetual banishment.

_January 16th, 1629._

Anne Blampied, wife of Thomas Heaulme, of the Forest.
Thomas Heaulme, of the Forest.

     Both banished for seven years.

_May 1st, 1629._

Marguerite Picot (l'Aubaine),

     Hanged and burnt.

_August 7th, 1629._

Susanne Prudhome, wife of Guilbert, of the Castel,

     Put to the question, hanged, and burnt.

JEAN DE QUETTEVILLE, Bailiff, 1631-1644.

_July 1st, 1631._

Jehan Nicolle, of Sark,

     Set at liberty.

_July 15th, 1631._

Marie Mabile, wife of Pierre de Vauriouf.
Thomas Civret.

     Both were put to the question, hanged, and burnt.

_July 23rd, 1631._

Susanne Rouane, wife of Etienne Le Compte,
Judith Le Compte, }
Bertrane   "      } four daughters of the above.
Ester      "      }
Rachel     "      }

     The mother was condemned to perpetual banishment from the
     island, and the daughters were banished for fifteen years.

_October 1st, 1631._

Marie Mortimer, wife of François Chirret.
Also her son.

     Both were set at liberty.

_October 1st, 1631._

Vincente Canu, wife of André Odouère.
Marie de Callais.

     Both were set at liberty.

_December 10th, 1631._

Jehan Canivet.
Renette de Garis, wife of Martin Maugeur.
Elizabeth le Hardy, wife of Collas Deslandes.
Simeone Mollett.
Marie Clouet, wife of Pierre Beneste.

     All the above were condemned to perpetual banishment.

_January 28th, 1634._

Jacob Gaudion, of Alderney,

     Condemned to perpetual banishment.

_May 16th, 1634._

Marie Guillemotte, wife of Samuel Roland, known as
Marie Rolland, her daughter.

     The mother was hanged and burnt, and the daughter was
     condemned to perpetual banishment.






In concluding the editorial duties connected with the issue of this
fourth volume of the "Guille-Allès Library Series," it seems to me
that the time is an opportune one for adding some short account of the
origin and foundation of the noble Institution from which the "Series"
takes its name. The Guille-Allès Library is proving such an immense
boon to our little insular community, that very naturally, many
inquiries are from time to time made--especially by strangers--as to
how its existence came about.

In order to answer these questions we must go as far back as the year
1834. At that time Mr. Guille--who is a Guernseyman by birth--was but
a boy of sixteen, and had been two years in America. He was serving
his apprenticeship with a well-known firm in New York, and he enjoyed
the privilege of access to a very extensive library in that city,
founded by a wealthy corporation known as _The General Society of
Mechanics and Tradesmen_. The pleasure and profit which he derived
from this source were so great, and made such a deep impression upon
his mind that, young as he was, he formed the resolution that if his
future life proved prosperous, and his position enabled him to do so,
he would one day found a similar institution in his own little native
island of Guernsey. Throughout the whole of his future career this
intention was present with him; and commencing at once,--in spite of
his then very limited means--to purchase books which should form a
nucleus for the anticipated collection, he began to lay the foundation
of the literary treasures which crowd the shelves of the Guille-Allès
Library to-day. At the age of twenty, when out of his apprenticeship,
he found himself the possessor of several hundreds of volumes of
standard works, many of which are now in the Library, and upon which
he must naturally look with peculiar and very legitimate pleasure, as
being the corner stones of the subsequent splendid superstructure.

Business affairs prospered with Mr. Guille. As time rolled on he was
taken into partnership with the firm, as was also his friend and
fellow-countryman, Mr. F.M. Allès, and his increasing prosperity
enabled him to put his cherished project into more tangible shape.
While on a visit to Guernsey in 1851, he wrote a few articles in the
_Gazette Officielle_, with the view of drawing public attention to the
importance of forming district or parish libraries. These articles
attracted the notice of _The Farmers' Club_, an association of
intelligent country gentlemen who met at the Castel. Their secretary,
the late Mr. Nicholas Le Beir, wrote to Mr. Guille at the request of
the members, informing him of their appreciation of his views, and of
his having been elected an honorary member of their association, in
token of their esteem. They had previously elected in a similar way
the famous French poet Béranger, and also Guernsey's national bard,
the late Mr. George Métivier. Mr. Guille accepted the honour, and the
correspondence which ensued resulted in his offering his collection of
books--supplemented by a considerable sum of money--towards forming
the commencement of such libraries as he had been advocating. Nothing,
however, really definite was done until Mr. Guille's next visit to
Guernsey in 1855-6, when after consultation with that devoted friend
of education, the late Mr. Peter Roussel, a meeting of a few
friends--including Mr. Roussel and his venerable mother, Mr. Guille,
Judge Clucas, Mr. Le Beir, and Mr. Henry E. Marquand--who were known
to be favourable to the project was held, several handsome
subscriptions were promised, Mr. Guille renewed his offer previously
made to _The Farmers' Club_, and a workable scheme was matured.


for so the Committee decided to name the undertaking, consequently
commenced its useful career in 1856. The collection of books was
divided into five sections, which were placed in separate cases, and
located at convenient distances about the island--where they were
taken charge of by friends--the largest being reserved for the town.
The intention was to exchange these cases in rotation, and so
establish a circulating library in the most comprehensive sense of the
term. But this was, in reality, never carried out, for after the
volumes had been read in their respective stations, they were returned
to their places, and left to slumber unused, until Mr. Guille once
more came to the island in 1867, with the intention of remaining
permanently, and he then had them all brought to town and arranged in
one central _depôt_.

Mr. Guille also opened a branch Reading-room and Library at St.
Martin's, in the hope of being able thereby to draw the young men of
the parish from the degrading attractions of the public house. For
three years he kept this comfortable room open, while in winter and
summer neither rain nor storm prevented him from being present there
every evening to personally superintend the undertaking. Ultimately,
however, he found the strain too much for his health, and he
discontinued the branch so as to concentrate more attention upon the
central establishment in town.

For five-and-twenty years, from 1856 to 1881, Mr. Guille worked
steadily and unostentatiously at the benevolent enterprise which he
had inaugurated. Death removed several of his early coadjutors, and
for many years he bore all the financial burdens and toiled on
single-handed and alone. What was still more discouraging was that he
unfortunately had to encounter for a very long time an almost
incredible amount of mental supineness on the part of those whom he
was so disinterestedly seeking to benefit. It was not as though any
desire for knowledge existed among the mass of the Guernsey people,
and he only had to assume the pleasant duty of satisfying that desire.
Such a desire did not exist. Many of the people not only never had
read any books but they flatly declined to begin. Mr. Guille felt that
this deplorable attitude ought to be combatted, and he therefore
persevered in the thankless and difficult task of trying in the first
place to create the want, and in the second place to satisfy it. A
quarter-of-a-century's earnest effort in a good cause, however, cannot
fail to produce some fruit, and within the last three or four years
much brighter days have dawned. Mr. Guille's lifelong friend and
former business partner, Mr. F.M. Allès,--who had often previously
substantially assisted him,--has latterly thoroughly associated
himself with the work, and the result is that the rudimentary scheme
of 1856 has at length culminated in the splendid


which was thrown open to the public in the old Assembly Rooms, on the
2nd of January, 1882, and bears on its portal the appropriate motto:
_Ingredere ut proficias_--"Enter that thou mayst profit." How
admirably this fine Institution is fulfilling its mission is
well-known to all who frequent it. It already contains a collection of
over 35,000 volumes--to which constant additions are being made--of
valuable and standard works in all branches of science, literature and
art, both in the French and English languages, besides numerous works
in German, Italian, Greek, Latin, &c. It has a commodious
Reading-room, well supplied with journals and periodical publications;
while a Society of Natural Science has also been inaugurated and meets
in connection with it. The Guernsey Mechanics' Institution--after an
existence of just half-a-century--was absorbed into it at the close of
1881; and the Library of the _Société Guernesiaise_--founded in
1867--now finds a home on its shelves. The subscription for membership
is merely nominal, and Messrs. Guille and Allès have made arrangements
to endow the Institution with such ample funds as shall secure in
perpetuity the many benefits which it is conferring upon the island.


is therefore fully assured and its wants provided for. The spacious
new buildings which have been for many months in process of erection
are now (December, 1885) rapidly approaching completion. They comprise
a spacious and handsome Lecture Hall, capable of seating from 250 to
300 persons; a Book-room 63-ft. by 25-ft., exclusively for the lending
department, and which will accommodate on its shelves from 45,000 to
50,000 additional volumes--with a large anteroom for the convenience
of the subscribers. The present Reading-room will then be used for a
Reference Library and Students' Consulting and Reading-room. There are
also a General Reading-room, a Working Men's Reading-room, and
numerous apartments suitable for Class-rooms and Committee-rooms. The
roof of the original building has been reconstructed and raised so as
to form a suite of rooms 100-ft. long, 24-ft. wide, and 10-ft. high.
Lighted from the top these are specially adapted for the exhibition of
objects of interest, pictures, or for a local museum. A convenient
residence for the Librarian is arranged in a separate building, which
is extended so as to provide on the ground floor convenient rooms for
the reception and storing of books and for the special work of the

When the Library was first removed to the Assembly Rooms, the premises
were leased from the States, who had purchased them in 1870.
Subsequently, however, in December, 1883, Messrs. Guille and Allès
purchased the Rooms from the States for £900 British, and afterwards
bought from the Parish the plot of land behind the Rooms--which
belonged to the Rectory--and upon which they have now built the
spacious new premises above-mentioned. As soon as these extensions are
available, the founders purpose inaugurating comprehensive courses of
popular illustrated lectures on physical science, economic products,
natural history, microscopic science, literary subjects, &c., which
will appeal at once to the eye and the understanding, and impart a
large amount of very useful knowledge in an easy and agreeable way.
There will also be classes in various subjects, including the French,
German and Italian languages, drawing, music, &c., &c., all of which
will be open to girls as well as boys, women as well as men. In an
island like Guernsey, where from the smallness of the community many
of the young people necessarily have to go and seek their fortunes
abroad, the advantages for self-culture offered by an Institution like
this can scarcely be over-rated. The local facilities afforded for the
acquisition of French are particularly marked, while it cannot for a
moment be doubted that a young man or woman who can use both French
and English with fluency, is much better equipped for the battle of
life than is a person knowing only one of these languages. Whatever
intellectual needs may become apparent in the people, these the
Guille-Allès Library will set itself to supply. Its founders, indeed,
are especially anxious that there should be no hard and fast barriers
about its settlement, which might cramp its expansion or fetter its
usefulness. On the contrary they desire--while adhering, of course, to
certain main lines of intellectual activity--to imbue it with such
elasticity of adaptation as will enable it to successfully grapple
with the changing necessities of changing times. The chief wants of
to-day may not necessarily be the most pressing requisites of a
century hence. Therefore, one of the greatest essentials--and at the
same time one of the greatest difficulties--in a foundation like this,
is to provide for and combine within it such a fixity of principle and
such an adaptability of administration as shall enable it to keep pace
with the progress of the ages, and suit itself to the several
requirements of succeeding generations as they pass.


The cost of carrying out this great enterprise--including the erection
of buildings, purchase of books, fittings, &c.--has already amounted
to between £15,000 and £20,000, and the outlay shows no signs of
cessation. In addition to these expenses there is the Endowment Fund
already referred to, and for this the munificent donors intend to set
apart a sum to which the above amount bears but a small proportion. So
that altogether the community will be indebted to them for an
educational foundation worth a magnificent figure in money value
alone, while besides this, we must not forget the long years of
thoughtful care and of self-denying energy involved in maturing these
splendid projects, or the healthy mental and moral stimulus which the
conduct of these patriotic gentlemen has supplied.


A very pleasing ceremony took place on Wednesday, December 17th, 1884,
at St. Julian's Hall, when His Excellency Major-General Sarel, C.B.,
Lieut.-Governor, presented Messrs. Guille and Allès with their
portraits on behalf of a numerous body of subscribers resident in all
parts of the island, and also in Paris, New York, and Brooklyn. A
public meeting had been called on the 4th of February previous, when
an influential Committee was appointed; about £227 was speedily
raised, and then Mr. Frank Brooks was commissioned to paint two
life-size portraits in oil, which gave great satisfaction when
finished, and are now hung in the Library. Julius Carey, Esq., Chief
Constable (Mayor) of St. Peter-Port, as President of the Portrait
Committee, opened the proceedings, by briefly narrating the
circumstances which had called the meeting together.

His Excellency then, after a few preliminary remarks, said:--

     He must express the very great pleasure which he felt in
     being present on such an interesting occasion, when the
     whole community were testifying their appreciation of the
     noble Library which had been founded for their benefit.
     Indeed he felt it a great honour to have been asked to
     present these handsome portraits to Messrs. Guille and
     Allès. It would not be necessary for him to dwell at any
     length on the antecedents of these gentlemen, who were
     well-known in the island. Many years ago Mr. Guille went to
     the United States, and there he found the advantages which
     accrued from having access to a good library. He then
     conceived the idea of one day bestowing a similar boon upon
     his own native island, and this project he had been happily
     spared to carry out. During his exile the thought had
     remained ever with him; he had not allowed business to
     engross all his attention; and now that he had returned once
     more to settle down in the little rock-bound island-home of
     his youth, he was reducing to practice the beneficent plans
     of earlier years. He was not content to lead a life of ease
     with the produce of his industry, but he had founded an
     institution of incalculable value for the moral and
     intellectual welfare of the isle. Then there was another
     large-hearted Guernseyman, Mr. Allès, who determined that
     his old friend Mr. Guille should not be left to carry out
     his noble scheme alone. They had long been associated in
     business enterprises, and they were now linked in the higher
     bond of a common desire for the well-being of their
     fellow-citizens. All honour to them for it. The Library told
     its own story and needed no encomium. All it wanted was
     constant readers and plenty of them, and he could not too
     strongly impress upon the people--and especially upon the
     rising generation--the immense advantages they would derive
     from availing themselves of its literary treasures. In
     conclusion, it simply remained for him, on behalf of the
     Committee and the Subscribers, to ask Messrs. Guille and
     Allès to accept these paintings, which would show to future
     generations of Guernseymen the form and features of two
     public benefactors who had deserved so well of their country
     and their kind.

Mr. Guille, in response, gave a very interesting address in English,
and Mr. Allès followed with an equally appropriate and practical
speech in French, both gentlemen being received with prolonged
applause, and listened to by the numerous assembly with the most
interested attention.

Brief complimentary addresses were then delivered by Edgar MacCulloch,
Esq., F.S.A., Bailiff (Chief Magistrate) of Guernsey, and by F.J.
Jeremie, Esq., M.A., Jurat of the Royal Court, and the proceedings
terminated with a hearty vote of thanks to the Lieut.-Governor,
proposed by the Very Rev. Carey Brock, M.A., Dean of Guernsey.

A brass plate attached to Mr. Guille's portrait bears the following

Presented to THOMAS GUILLE, Esq.,
by his numerous friends, in recognition of the great
benefit he has conferred upon the inhabitants of his
native Island as one of the Founders of the
Guille-Allès Library.

Guernsey, 17 December, 1884.

A similar plate, bearing the name of Mr. Frederick Mansell Allès, is
attached to his portrait.

     Note.--The Assembly Rooms were built by private subscription
     in 1782, at a cost of about £2,500, and had therefore been
     in existence exactly a century when they passed into the
     hands of Messrs. Guille and Allès in 1882. During this long
     period they were the fashionable _foyer_ of the Island's
     festivity and gaiety, and formed the scene of many a
     brilliant gathering.

       *       *       *       *       *







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Classical and Mathematical School


The object Mr. Chamberlain has in view is to supply a thoroughly
liberal Education. The general School Course comprises Biblical
History, Ancient History, the History and Literature of our own
Country; the Greek, Latin and French Languages; Geometrical,
Isometrical, Architectural and Landscape Drawing; Euclid, Algebra and
Trigonometry; Navigation, Geography and Mapping; the use of the
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The classification of the School, and the System adopted, secure all
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given occasionally during the Winter Months on Electricity, Galvanism,
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ELECTRICITY.--Is shown and explained by the use of a large
Plate Glass Electrifying Machine, next in size smaller than the one at
the Royal Polytechnic, with all the apparatus required.

CHEMISTRY.--The Elucidation of Principles and the explanation
of Chemical Phenomena are made as clear and concise as possible, by
many experiments.

MAGNETISM.--This is so very instructive a branch of Science
that many experiments are well understood by the Pupils, both in the
use of the Natural Magnet and the Electro-Magnet.

GALVANISM.--There are several Galvanic Batteries in use, so
that the Boys accustomed to them can readily apply a particular sort
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TELEGRAPHY.--Communication is carried on at any distance
chosen, or from one part of the house to another.

PRINTING.--This is likewise thoroughly explained by the use
of a Press and all the apparatus attached, including several cases of

Mr. CHAMBERLAIN, having full command of the School of Science
Department, is enabled, without engaging the services of Professional
Men (who generally make a very high charge), to give suitable Lectures
without increasing the Fees as contained below.

Parents will thus see that the lectures _being both amusing and
instructive_ must be conducive to the _expansion of the mind_, at the
same time making an _agreeable change_ in the general School routine.


For Pupils above 10 years of age  8 Guineas per Annum.
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French   1 Guinea.   Painting          6 Guineas.
Drawing  4 Guineas.  Music and German  [Transcriber's Note: missing]


_Three Months' notice will be required previous to the Removal of a

       *       *       *       *       *


CRUCES AND CRITICISMS: an Examination of Certain Passages in Greek
and Latin Texts. By WILLIAM W. MARSHALL, M.A., B.C.L., F.R.S.L., of
the Inner Temple, formerly Scholar of Hertford College, Oxford. Demy
8vo., Cloth 2s. 6d., Paper Covers 2s. London: ELLIOT STOCK, 62,
Paternoster Row, E.C. 1886.


PLUTARCH'S LIVES OF THE GRACCHI, translated from the text of
Sintenis, with Introduction, Marginal Analysis, and Appendices. By
WILLIAM W. MARSHALL, B.A., of the Inner Temple, late Scholar
of Hertford College, Oxford. Crown 8vo., paper covers, 1s. 6d., or
cloth, 2s. Oxford, JAMES THORNTON. 1881.

     "Mr. MARSHALL has succeeded in cutting out of
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     and his inaccuracies, together with a summary sketch of the
     affairs of Rome when the Gracchi came into notice. The
     student of Roman history will be glad of this small, but
     carefully edited, account of the two brethren."--_School

"Liturgia" of Dean Durel, together with a Reprint and Translation of
the Catechism therein contained, with Collations, Annotations, and
Appendices, by the late Rev. CHARLES MARSHALL, M.A., Rector
of Harpurhey; and WILLIAM W. MARSHALL, B.A. Demy 8vo. Cloth.

     A few remaining copies may be obtained from THOMAS
     FARGIE, 21, St. Ann's Square, Manchester. Price, 7s.

The late Very Rev. J.S. HOWSON, D.D., Dean of Chester, writes
(July 9, 1883):--

     "I have much pleasure in stating that I regard the work of
     Mr. MARSHALL and his son upon the Latin Prayer Book
     of Charles II. as a publication of great importance. The
     volume has been of much use to me personally; and I believe
     its value will be felt by all who study it candidly and

     "A liturgical, historical, and theological work of great
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     Favourably reviewed also by _The British Quarterly Review_,
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       *       *       *       *       *





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_Wines exported with the greatest care, in parcels of not less than
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This Library was established in 1848, and it now contains upwards of
10,000 volumes. An examination of the contents of the Catalogue will
go far to shew that it may be compared favourably with any Provincial
Circulating Library in the Kingdom. The price of the Catalogue (300
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_December, 1885._

       *       *       *       *       *

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Norman-French Text, with Parallel English Translation, Historical
Introduction and Notes. Demy 8vo. In paper covers, or cloth gilt.

Norman-French Text, with Parallel English Translation, Philological
Introduction and Historic Notes. Demy 8vo. In paper covers, or cloth

the Franco-Norman Dialect of Guernsey, from the French of LE MAISTRE
DE SACY, by GEORGE MÉTIVIER; to which is added a Sark version of the
Parable of the Sower; with Parallel French and English Versions. Demy
16mo. Cloth gilt.

Translations of the Depositions and Confessions made in the most
celebrated of the local Trials for Witchcraft, as preserved in the
Official Records of the Guernsey Royal Court, with Historical
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ancient Norman-French Text, edited with Parallel English Translation,
Historical Introduction, Analysis, Glossary and Notes; engravings of
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Jersey, the famous Norman Trouvère and Chronicler, who flourished in
the Twelfth Century; with Parallel English Translation and Historic

THE DESCENT OF THE SARAGOUSAIS.--A reprint of the old Norman
Ballad--including the rare additional verses--with English Translation
and Historic Notes.

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