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Title: The Stamps of Canada
Author: Poole, Bertram William Henry, 1880-1957
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Stamps of Canada" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



Philatelic Digital Library Project at http://www.tpdlp.net
Libraries)



National Archives  Archives Nationales
of Canada          du Canada



[Illustration]

THE
STAMPS
OF
CANADA

By BERTRAM W. H. POOLE

PUBLISHED BY
SEVERN-WYLIE-JEWETT CO.
Publishers of _Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News_
BOSTON, MASS.


       *       *       *       *       *


Beautiful 1912 Salvador Set

1c, 2c, 5c, 6c, 12c, 17c, 19c, 29c, 50c and 1 col, =Each in 2 Colors=,
used, fine, Cat. $1.41. Price =50c=

No. 354, 10c on 6c rose and black, o.g., =Rare= =10c=

1914 Oficial set. Nos. 950 to 957, unused, Cat. $1.30. Price =30c=

=NICARAGUA=, Set 1909, Nos. 237 to 248, =used=, Cat. 59c. Special at .15

=MEXICO, Sets and Singles, New=

1910, 1c, 2c, 3c, 5c, 15c, 20c, 50c, 1 peso, o.g., fine .55

1910, 5 pesos, o. g. .75

1914, Gob. $ Con. on 1910 issue, 1c, 2c, 3c, 5c, 10c, 15c, 20c & 50c .24

1914, 5 pesos Gob. $ Con., Rare 2.25

1915, G. C. M. 2c, 3c & 5c. 3 for .03

Oficial No. 675, o.g., 5p. =Rare on No. 303= 2.98

Above 5p not priced in Scott's (Foreign Cats. $7.50.)

Oficial, 1911, Set 1c to 1 peso complete, Scott's Nos. 676 to 685 1.48

Nos. 810 to 814 Postage Due, Gob. $ .75

Nos. 815 to 819 Postage Due, Carranza .75

Nos. 820 to 824 Postage Due, Villa 1.50


=RARE SINGLE STAMPS=

U. S. No. 330, 10c on bluish, mint perf'n 6.75

Canal Zone No. 42A, 2c mint perfection, =center inverted, rare= 11.75

Above worth full catalogue =in fine condition.=

=Wanted to Exchange= rare for rare, U. S. for U. S., Foreign for
Foreign. Send selections against any of above or against other
selections. =Even Trade.=

C. E. HUSSMAN, Pres.
COLUMBIA SUPPLY CO.,
ST. LOUIS, MO.

References, Jefferson Bank or Publishers.

       *       *       *       *       *

NEW

UNITED STATES LOOSE LEAF ALBUM

This Album is the only practical and feasible Loose Leaf Book on the
market today.

We have put this Album up in five sections so a collector is able to
purchase such branches as he desires at a comparatively low cost. It is
9 inches long and 7-1/2 inches wide, very handy; there is but one set of
stamps to a page artistically laid out. Spaces have been provided for
imperforate and part perforate pairs and the beauty of all; it is right
up to the minute. What is more we will add new leaves each year with
spaces for the latest stamps and if you are an owner of one of our
Albums, latest sheets will be promptly sent you when issued.

After you have transferred your stamps into this Album you cannot help
realizing the great advantage in a practical up-to-date Album.

Specimen pages and complete Prospectus cheerfully mailed on request.
Postfree

=Section 1.= All Postage to date. 112 pps. =$1.10=

=Section 2.= Departments, Special Delivery, Registration Postage, Dues,
Newspapers, Postal Savings, 60pp =.65=

=Section 3.= Revenues, complete to date, 76 pages =.75=

=Section 4.= Confederate States. 24 pages =.25=

=Section 5.= Colonies, Cuba, Guam, Porto Rico, Phil. Isl. (4 pages per
month with "Herald") =.50=

Special =Spring Back Binder=, cloth & gilt =1.25=

Special =Marquette Prong Binder=, black cloth and gilt =2.50=

Special =Marquette Prong Binder=, black Morocco Leather and full gilt
=5.00=

Special =Transparent Sheets=, per doz., 15c; per 100 =.75=

Special =Blank Leaves=, per doz., 15c; per 100 =.75=

UNITED STAMP CO.,
1151 Marquette Bldg., CHICAGO.

       *       *       *       *       *

=B. N. A. PROOFS=

A splendid assortment, neatly arranged in booklets of =Die= and =Plate
Proofs=, several hundred varieties of =Canada=, =New Brunswick=, =Nova
Scotia= and =Newfoundland=, also some =Essays.= Many unique items in
color proofs. Also the scarce =Reprints= of New Brunswick first issue.


=Selections of Canada=

including shades, blocks, etc. (4 books), U. S. (100 different books) or
any other country. Our free PINK LIST describes fully 400 selections
ready to be submitted on approval to responsible collectors.

This ad is good for 5 years or more.

J. M. BARTELS CO.
99 Nassau Street, NEW YORK

       *       *       *       *       *

EUGENE KLEIN

Counterfeit Detector of the American Philatelic Society.

Member of the Juries of the Chicago 1911 and New York 1913 International
Philatelic Exhibitions.

Honorary Member of the New York Stamp Society.

Life Member of the Societe Francaise de Timbrologie, Paris, and the
Junior Philatelic Society, London.

I am prepared to examine stamps and give expert opinion for the
following charges:

Unsurcharged stamps 10c each.

Overprints, stamps requiring plating and cancellations, 30c each.

Minimum charge 50 cents.

Postage and registration extra.

EUGENE KLEIN
1318 Chestnut St., Philadelphia



THE
POSTAGE STAMPS
OF
CANADA

By BERTRAM W. H. POOLE

Author of Various Philatelic Books

[Illustration]

SEVERN-WYLIE-JEWETT CO.

HANDBOOK No. 20

Price 25 Cents

PUBLISHED BY

SEVERN-WYLIE-JEWETT CO.

Publishers _Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News_

BOSTON, MASS.



INDEX

                                                       Page

Introduction                                              3

Chapter I--Its Postal History                             5

Chapter II--A Postmaster's Provisional                    8

Chapter III--The First Issue                              9

Chapter IV--The Second Issue                             18

Chapter V--The Perforated Pence Stamps                   21

Chapter VI--The First "Cents" Issue                      24

Chapter VII--The First Dominion Issue                    28

Chapter VIII--The 1c Orange of 1869                      34

Chapter IX--The Large 5c Stamp                           34

Chapter X--The Small "Cents" Stamps                      35

Chapter XI--The 20c and 50c Stamps of 1893               40

Chapter XII--The 8c Stamp of 1893                        41

Chapter XIII--The Diamond Jubilee Issue                  43

Chapter XIV--The "Maple Leaf" Issue of 1897              48

Chapter XV--The "Numeral" Issue of 1898                  50

Chapter XVI--The "Map" Stamp of 1898                     52

Chapter XVII--The "2 Cents" Provisionals                 54

Chapter XVIII--The Bi-sected Provisionals                56

Chapter XIX--The 2c Carmine                              57

Chapter XX--The 20c Value of 1900                        58

Chapter XXI--The Queen Victoria Seven Cents              58

Chapter XXII--The King Edward Issue                      59

Chapter XXIII--The Quebec Tercentenary Issue             63

Chapter XXIV--King George Stamps                         67

Chapter XXV--The War Tax Stamps                          69

Chapter XXVI--A Proposed Commemorative Series            70

Chapter XXVII--Official Stamps                           71

Chapter XXVIII--The Special Delivery Stamp               72

Chapter XXIX--The Registration Stamps                    74

Chapter XXX--The Postage Due Stamps                      77

Chapter XXXI--The "Officially Sealed" Labels             78



THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF CANADA.

By BERTRAM W. H. POOLE.



INTRODUCTION.


Canada was originally the French colony of New France, which comprised
the range of territory as far west as the Mississippi, including the
Great Lakes. After the war of independence it was confined to what are
now the provinces of Quebec and Ontario--then known as Upper and Lower
Canada. At the confederation (1867) it included only these two
provinces, with New Brunswick and Nova Scotia; and since then it has
been extended by purchase (1870), by accession of other provinces
(British Columbia in 1871 and Prince Edward Island in 1873), and by
imperial order in council (1880), until it includes all the north
American continent north of United States territory, with the exception
of Alaska and a strip of the Labrador coast administered by
Newfoundland, which still remains outside the Dominion of Canada. On the
Atlantic the chief indentations which break its shores are the Bay of
Fundy (remarkable for its tides), the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and Hudson
Bay (a huge expanse of water with an area of about 350,000 square
miles); and the Pacific coast, which is small relatively, is remarkably
broken up by fjord-like indentations. Off the coast are many islands,
some of them of considerable magnitude,--Prince Edward Is., Cape Breton
Is., and Anticosti being the most considerable on the Atlantic side,
Vancouver and Queen Charlotte Is. on the Pacific; and in the extreme
north is the immense Arctic archipelago, bound in perpetual ice.

The surface of the country east of the great lakes is diversified, but
characterised by no outstanding features. Two ranges of hills skirt the
St. Lawrence--that on the north, the Laurentians, stretching 3,500 miles
from Lake Superior to the Atlantic, while the southern range culminates
in the bold capes and cliffs of Gaspé. The St. Lawrence and its
tributaries form the dominating physical feature in this section, the
other rivers being the St. John, the Miramichi, and the Restigouche in
New Brunswick. Eastern Canada is practically the Canadian part of the
St. Lawrence valley, (330,000 square miles), and the great physical
feature is the system of lakes with an area of 90,000 square miles. In
addition to the tributaries of the St. Lawrence already mentioned, the
Dominion boasts the Fraser, the Thompson, and the greater part of the
Columbia River in British Columbia; the Athabasca and Peace Rivers,
which flow into Lake Athabasca, and out of it as the Slave River, which
in its turn issues from the Great Slave Lake and flows into the Arctic
Ocean as the Mackenzie River (total length 2,800 miles); the Albany and
the Churchill, flowing into Hudson Bay, and the Nelson, which discharges
from Lake Winnipeg into Hudson Bay the united waters of the Assiniboine,
the Saskatchewan, the Red River and the Winnipeg.

West of the Great Lakes the scenery is less varied. From the lakes to
the Rockies stretches a vast level plain of a prairie character, slowly
rising from 800 feet at the east end to 3,000 feet at the foothills of
the Rockies.

The eastern and western portions of the Dominion are heavily wooded, and
comparatively little inroad has been made on the forest wealth of the
country. It is estimated that there are 1,200,000 square miles of
woodland and forest, chiefly spruce and pine, including about a hundred
varieties; consequently the industries connected with the forest are of
great importance, especially since the development of the pulp industry.
The central prairie plain is almost devoid of forest. Agriculture is the
dominant industry in Canada, not only in the great fertile plains of the
centre, but also on the lands which have been cleared of forest and
settled in other parts of the Dominion.

The Canadian climate is cold in winter and warm in summer, but healthy
all the year round. With all its extremes of cold it permits of the
cultivation in the open air of grapes, peaches, tobacco, tomatoes, and
corn. The snow is an essential condition of the prosperity of the timber
industry, the means of transport in winter, the protector of the soil
from frost, and the source of endless enjoyment in outdoor sports.

The French Canadians are almost exclusively the descendants of the
French in Canada in 1763, there being practically no immigration from
France. The French language is by statute, not by treaty, an official
language in the Dominion Parliament and in Quebec, but not now in any
other province, though documents, etc., may for convenience be published
in it. English is understood almost everywhere except in the rural parts
of Quebec, where the _habitants_ speak a patois which has preserved many
of the characteristics of 17th century French.

The Indian people, numbering a little over 108,000 in 1902, are
scattered throughout the Dominion. They are usually located on reserves,
where efforts, not very successful, are made to interest them in
agriculture and industry. Many of them still follow their ancestral
occupations of hunting and fishing, and they are much sought after as
guides in the sporting centres. The Dominion government exercises a good
deal of parental care over them and for them; but the race is
stationary, if not declining.

The constitution of Canada is of a federal character, midway between the
British and United States constitutions. The federated provinces retain
their local legislatures. The Federal Parliament closely follows the
British model, and the cabinet is responsible to the House of Commons.
The members of the Senate are appointed by the governor-general in
council, and retain their seats for life, and each group of provinces is
entitled to so many senators. The numbers of the commons vary according
to the population. The local legislatures generally consist of one
house, though Quebec and Nova Scotia still retain their upper houses.
The Federal Parliament is quinquennial, the local legislatures
quadrennial. The lieutenant-governors of the provinces are appointed by
the governor-general in council. The governor-general (appointed by the
King, though paid by Canada) has a right to disallow or reserve bills
for imperial consent; but the veto is seldom exercised, though the
imperial authorities practically disallowed temporarily the preferential
clauses of 1897. The Constitution of Canada can be altered only by
Imperial Parliament, but for all practical purposes Canada has complete
self-government.

In 1534, Jacques Cartier landed on the Gaspé coast of Quebec, of which
he took possession in the name of Francis I, King of France. But nothing
was done towards permanent occupation and settlement until 1608, when
Samuel de Champlain, who had visited the country in 1603 and 1604,
founded the city of Quebec. Meantime French settlements were made in
what is now the maritime provinces, but known to the French as Acadia.
France claimed, as a result of this settlement, exclusive control of the
whole immense region from Acadia west to Lake Superior, and down the
Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico. But the control of this region was
not uncontested. England claimed it by right of prior discovery, based
mainly on the discovery of Newfoundland in 1497 by John Cabot.

In the north the charter granted in 1670 by Charles II to Prince Rupert
to found the Hudson's Bay Company, with exclusive rights of trading in
the Hudson Bay basin, was maintained till 1869, when, on a payment of
$1,500,000, their territory was transferred to the newly created
Dominion of Canada. A long struggle was carried on between England and
France for the dominion of the North American continent, which ended in
the cession of Acadia by the treaty of Utrecht in 1713, and the cession
of Canada by the treaty of Paris in 1763. Of all its Canadian dependency
France retained only the Islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon, off the
coast of Newfoundland, and the vexatious French-shore rights.

During the war of American Independence Canada was invaded by the
Americans, and the end of the war saw a great influx of loyalists from
the United States, and the formation of two new colonies--New Brunswick
and Upper Canada (now Ontario). The treaty of peace in 1783 took away
from Canada territory now included within Minnesota, Michigan, Ohio,
Indiana, Illinois and Wisconsin. In 1791, owing to differences of race,
Upper Canada was separated from Lower Canada; but discontent resulted in
rebellion in 1837-8 which occasioned Lord Durham's mission and report.
The results of that were the granting of responsible government to the
colonists, and in 1840 the reunion of the two provinces. But the
different elements, British and French Canadians, worked no better
together than they had done while separated; and in 1867, as an escape
from the deadlocks which occurred, confederation was consummated. After
the War of Independence the history of Canada is chiefly concerned with
the gradual removal of the commercial preferences she had enjoyed in the
English market, and the gradual concession of complete powers of
self-government.

The half-breeds of the north-west broke out in rebellion in 1869-70, but
it collapsed as soon as the forces led by Colonel Wolseley reached Fort
Garry on Winnipeg. Riel, the leader, escaped, to return later and foment
another outbreak in 1885. This proved more dangerous but was eventually
suppressed and Riel executed. The chief events since have been the
Halifax award (1888), which justified the Canadian contention against
the United States interference with fisheries. The Behring Sea award
(1897) settled the sealing difficulty; and a joint commission met at
Quebec in 1898 to determine all outstanding questions between Canada and
the United States. In 1903 these reached a final solution in the Alaskan
Boundary Commission's settlement of the frontier line between British
Columbia and Alaska.



CHAPTER I.--_Its Postal History._


The _Stamp Collector's Magazine_ for August, 1868, contained an
interesting article on the history of the Canadian Post-office, largely
compiled from information given in the "Canadian Postal Guide," which we
cannot do better than quote in full.

The earliest records of the administration of the post-office in Canada,
are dated 1750, at which period the celebrated Benjamin Franklin was
Deputy Postmaster-General of North America. At the time of his
appointment, the revenue of the department was insufficient to defray
his salary of $1500 per annum, but under his judicious management, not
only was the postal accommodation in the provinces considerably
extended, but the revenue so greatly increased, that ere long the profit
for one year, which he remitted to the British Treasury, amounted to
$15,000.

In the evidence given by Franklin before the House of Commons in the
year 1766, in regard to the extent of the post-office accommodation in
North America, he made the following statement:--

     The posts generally travel along the sea coasts, and only in a few
     cases do they go back into the country. Between Quebec and Montreal
     there is only one post per month. The inhabitants live so scattered
     and remote from each other in that vast country, that the posts
     cannot be supported amongst them. The English colonies, too, along
     the frontier, are very thinly settled.

In 1774, Franklin was recalled, and the following year the War of
Independence broke out, and the office was filled by Mr. Hugh Finlay,
who had, under his predecessor, been postmaster at Quebec.

Canada is divided into Upper and Lower. From a Quebec almanack of 1796,
we glean that there were seven offices in the former and five in the
latter. Mr. Finlay is designated as "Deputy Postmaster-General of His
Majesty's Province of Canada."

At that time mails were dispatched monthly to England, and semi-weekly
between Quebec and Montreal, or Halifax. At Baie des Chaleurs the visits
of the postman must, we conclude, have been few and far between, as they
were only favored with a mail "as occasion offered".

In 1800, Mr. George Heriot succeeded Mr. Finlay. At this time Prince
Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, were all under the
authority of the Canadian administration.

The following is taken from the advertising column of the _Upper Quebec
Gazette_, printed in 1807:--

     The mail for Upper Canada will be dispatched from the post-office
     at Montreal, on the following days, to wit:

     Monday, 14th January.
     Monday, 12th February.
     Monday, 12th March.
     Monday, 7th April--the last trip.

     A courier from Kingston may be looked for here in 14 or 15 days
     from the above periods, where he will remain 2 or 3 days, and then
     return to Kingston.

     Another courier will proceed from this with the Niagara mail, via
     Messrs. Hatts', where the Sandwich (co. Essex) letters will be
     left, both from Niagara and this 'till the courier comes from there
     to return with them.

     Letters put into the post-office will be forwarded any time by

     W. ALLAN,
     Acting Deputy Postmaster.

Mr. Heriot resigned in 1816, and was succeeded by Mr. D. Sutherland,
who, on his accession to office, found Nova Scotia and Prince Edward
Island wholly withdrawn from the Canada charge. New Brunswick, however,
continued to be included in it. This appears also to have been withdrawn
in 1824, so that from that date until just lately, we have to do with
Canada proper.

In 1827 there were 101 post-offices, and 2,368 miles of established
post-route. The number of miles of mail-travel was 455,000. The letters
that year were estimated at 340,000, and newspapers, 400,000. From the
Canadian Postmaster-General's report for 1865, now lying before us, we
find the number of letters had increased to 12,000,000; the miles of
annual mail-travel was 6,350,000, the mails being carried regularly over
1,931 miles of railway route.

The following extract from the _Quebec Mercury_, published on July 18,
1829, conveys some idea of the postal communication with England at that
period:

     No later advices have been received from Europe since our last.
     Some further extracts from the London papers, to 31st May,
     inclusive, brought to New York by the _Corinthian_, will be found
     in another part of this number.

In the _Montreal Courant_, dated September 2nd, 1829, was the following
paragraph, showing the improvement which had been effected in the
communication between Prescott and that city:--

     EXPEDITIOUS TRAVELLING.--On Saturday last, the Upper Canada line of
     stages performed the journey from Prescott to this city in about 17
     hours, leaving the former place at a little before 3 a. m., and
     arriving here a few minutes before 8 in the evening. Not many years
     ago this journey occupied two, and sometimes three days, but owing
     to the great improvements made by Mr. Dickinson, the enterprising
     proprietor, by putting steamboats on the lakes St. Francis and St.
     Louis, and keeping his horses in excellent condition, it is now
     performed in little more than one-third of the time.

Even so late as 1833, newspaper proprietors found it (particularly in
the Upper Province) better to employ their own couriers. As a proof of
this we transcribe from the _Queenston_ (Niagara) _Colonial Advocate_,
of that year the following advertisement:--

     POST-RIDER WANTED IMMEDIATELY.

     The proprietor of this newspaper wishes to contract with a steady
     man (who can find and uphold his own horse) to deliver it to the
     subscribers once a week during the winter, on the route between
     York and Niagara, _via_ Ancaster.

Mr. Thomas A. Stayner was postmaster in 1841, and through his
recommendation a uniform rate of 1s 2d sterling, per half ounce, was
adopted between any place in Canada and the mother country. About this
time regular steam communication across the Atlantic was established.

The transfer of the Canadian post-office from the control of the
imperial authorities to the Colonial government, was effected April 6th,
1851. Mr. Stayner then resigned, and the office was filled by the Hon.
James Morris, who was the first Postmaster-General. This may be termed
the red-letter year of the Canadian post-office. In the first place, the
postage, which had hitherto been according to distance and had averaged
15 cents on each letter, was reduced to a uniform rate of 5 cents per
half ounce. The newspaper charge was also considerably reduced. Within a
year after, the number of letters transmitted through the post had
increased 75 per cent. The operation of the department was greatly
extended, and last, but most decidedly not least, was the introduction
of postage stamps. In February, 1855, the money-order system was first
begun, and has within the last few years been greatly extended. Letters
seem to have been first registered in 1856. In October of that year the
Grand Trunk Railway was completed as far as Toronto so that, in
connection with the Great Western, an unbroken line of postal
communication was established between Quebec in the east and Windsor in
the west.

The decimal system of coinage was introduced in 1859; this, of course,
as is well known, necessitated a new issue of postal labels.

We now arrive at the issue of labels for the new Dominion. The
post-office act was passed on the 21st of December, 1867, and came into
operation the 1st of April last. The internal rate is reduced from 5
cents to 3 cents the half ounce; but the postage to this country remains
unchanged.

The following is the order for the issue of the new labels:--

     POSTAGE STAMPS.

     To enable the public to prepay conveniently by postage stamp the
     foregoing rates, the following denominations of postage stamps for
     use throughout the Dominion, have been prepared, and will be
     supplied to postmasters for sale:--

     Half-cent stamps, one-cent ditto, two-cent ditto, three-cent ditto,
     six-cent ditto, twelve-and-a-half-cent ditto, fifteen-cent ditto,
     all bearing as a device the effigy of Her Majesty.

     The postage stamps now in use in the several provinces may be
     accepted, as at present, in prepayment of letters, etc., for a
     reasonable time after the 1st of April; but from and after that
     date all issues and sales to the public will be of the new
     denomination.

Continuing the postal history from where the article in the _Stamp
Collector's Magazine_ concludes we find that in 1869 the color of the 1c
value was changed to yellow as it was found that the brown-red color was
too easily confused with the red of the 3c. Early in the following year
the 3c denomination appeared in a reduced size to be followed about
April by the 1c and it was, naturally, presumed that the whole set would
appear in this form. Two years elapsed, however, before further
additions were made for it was not until 1872 that the 2c and 6c values
appeared.

In 1874, an entirely new value--10 cents--was issued and in 1875 a 5c
stamp made its appearance in the large size of the 1868 series. Mr. C.
A. Howes, in his admirable monograph on the stamps of Canada, explains
the belated appearance of this label as follows:--"The die of this large
5 cent stamp had been engraved in 1867 with the other values of the
first Dominion series, but as there were no rates requiring such a
denomination in the set, it was not issued. When in 1875 the need for a
5 cent value arose, the unused die was employed to make a plate for
temporary use, until a new die conforming in size and design with the
small stamps could be prepared." This large 5 cent stamp had a short
life of about four months when it was superseded by the 5c value in the
same size as the other denominations of 1869-73.

In 1882, the 1/2c value was reduced in size so that this stamp, as in
the case of its predecessor of 1868, was smaller than the other
denominations. From that date until 1892 no further changes were made so
far as new designs or values were concerned though some striking
alterations in shade took place, notably in the case of the 6c and 10c
values.

In 1892, 20c and 50c stamps were issued for use on heavy packages. These
not only differed in design from the other stamps of the series then
current but were also very much larger. In 1893 an 8c stamp was issued
which was used for prepayment of postage and the registration fee and
upon its advent the special registration stamps ceased to be printed
though existing stocks were, presumably, used up. In 1897, the Diamond
Jubilee of Queen Victoria was celebrated by the issue of a special
series of stamps comprising no less than sixteen values ranging all the
way from 1/2c to $5. As to the utility, to say nothing of the necessity,
of some of the higher denominations perhaps the less said the better for
before and since Canada has managed to get along very well with a
highest regular denomination of 50c.

In the latter months of the same year, and early in 1898 a new set was
issued in a uniform design showing the jubilee portrait of the Queen.
This is known as the maple leaf issue from the fact that the lower
angles are ornamented with maple leaves and in contradistinction to a
modified design which almost immediately replaced it which had numerals
in the lower corners.

The Christmas of 1898 was marked by the issuance of the celebrated 2c
map stamp with its proud motto "We hold a vaster Empire than has been".
This stamp was issued to mark the introduction of Imperial Penny
Postage, and one consequence of the reduction in the postal rate was so
to reduce the demand for the 3c value that in order to use up existing
supplies more quickly they were overprinted "2 cents".

In 1899, the color of the 2c stamp was changed from purple to carmine,
thus conforming to Postal Union regulations, in December, 1900, a 20c
stamp of the type of 1898 was issued on the final exhaustion of the
stock of the 1893 type; and in 1902 a 7c value was issued in place of
the 8c for combined use in payment of registration and postage.

In 1903, 1c, 2c, 5c, 7c, and 10c values were issued bearing King
Edward's portrait, a year later the 20c value in the same type was
placed on sale, and in 1908, the stock of the old 50c stamps of 1893
having at last been used up, a King Edward stamp of that value was
issued. In the same year the three hundredth anniversary of the founding
of Quebec by Champlain was celebrated by the issue of a special set of
stamps these being of the same large size as the Jubilee series of 1897,
but with a different design for each denomination, while in 1912 a new
series bearing the portrait of King George V made its bow and this
completes Canada's postal history to date.



CHAPTER II.--_A Postmaster's Provisional._


Postage stamps were first placed on sale to the public in Canada on
April 23rd, 1851, as we shall show later, but, according to an
interesting article which appeared in the _London Philatelist_ for June,
1904, it seems possible that at least one postmaster anticipated events
slightly by issuing a stamped envelope of his own shortly before the
regular governmental stamps were ready. It will perhaps simplify matters
to reproduce the article in its original form, viz.:--

     CANADA: HAND-STAMPED 3D ENVELOPE OF 1851.

     We are indebted to Mr. E. B. Greenshields, of Montreal, for the
     following very interesting information:--

     The following facts may be of interest to collectors of the stamps
     of British North America. Some time ago a cover was offered to me,
     which seemed to me to be absolutely genuine, yet I had never, up to
     that time, heard of such envelopes being in existence. This letter
     was posted in New Carlisle, Gaspé, Lower Canada, on April 7th,
     1851, and was stamped "Three Pence" in two lines, inside a square,
     with a black border of neat design around the sides. Across this
     was written, "Letter R. W. Kelly Apl. 1851". The letter was
     addressed to Toronto, C. W., and on the other side was stamped the
     date the letter was received, "Apl. 16 1851". I sent the envelope
     to Mr. Donald A. King, of Halifax, and received the following reply
     from him:--

     HALIFAX, N. S., February 22nd, 1904.

     "Dear Sir,--I have yours of 19th inst. with cover, and am much
     obliged for your kindness in permitting me to have a look at it. It
     is new to me. I have no doubt it is absolutely genuine, and
     probably was made by the Postmaster at New Carlisle to save trouble
     in stamping the letter '3d' as was then the custom. It is just
     possible that the writer (whose name appears to be endorsed on the
     envelope) was the Postmaster there. A reference to the
     Postmaster-General's report for that year would give his name. As
     far as my memory serves me, the Canadian stamps were not then in
     issue, though an advance circular may have been sent out. I have
     shown the cover to a friend of mine who is an expert in typography,
     and he assures me that the printing is as old as dated, and that
     such type and border could not be procured now at any cost. The
     only thing that I have seen that resembles it in any way was a
     cover from Prince Edward Island, prepaid with a square of white
     paper stamped 3d and cancelled. This was an adhesive, and used some
     years after stamps were in use. As in your case, it had been
     recognised as paying postage. As to the value of your cover, it is
     impossible for me to say, but very considerable to any collector of
     British North America.

     "Yours faithfully,

     "DONALD A. KING."

Following up the clue given to me by Mr. King, I wrote to the Post
Office Department at Ottawa, and received the following courteous
answer:--

     OTTAWA, 2nd March, 1904.

     "Sir,--I am directed to acknowledge receipt of your communication
     of the 26th ultimo, inquiring whether R. W. Kelly was Postmaster of
     New Carlisle, Co. Gaspé, Quebec, in 1851, and in reply am directed
     to inform you that R. W. Kelly, doubtless the same man, was
     Postmaster of New Carlisle in 1851. Owing to the incompleteness of
     the early records of the department, which was then under the
     direction of the British Office, the date of Mr. Kelly's
     appointment cannot be ascertained. He appears to have been
     Postmaster from 1851, however, until his resignation on the 9th
     April, 1855.

     "As regards your inquiry as to whether postage stamps were used on
     the 7th April, 1851, and your statement that you have an envelope
     sent on that date from New Carlisle to Toronto with 'Three Pence'
     printed on it, inside a fancy border, I have to say that postage
     stamps were issued to the public for the first time on the 23rd
     April, 1851, and that stamped envelopes were not issued until some
     years later. The stamped envelope to which you refer may have been
     an envelope so stamped on the prepayment in the New Carlisle Post
     Office, of three pence, the required charge for postage.

     "I am, sir, your obedient servant,

     "WILLIAM SMITH, Secretary."

It will be noted from the conclusion of this letter that, according to
the department at Ottawa, one might infer that the use of such a stamp
would not be irregular. This is confirmed by the following extract from
a reply to a letter a friend of mine wrote to Ottawa at my request:--

     OTTAWA, March 2nd, 1904.

     "I took those questions of Mr. Greenshields over to Mr. ---- of the
     Post Office Department. He tells me that before the first issue of
     stamps, which took place on the 23rd of April, 1851, each
     Postmaster had a steel stamp which he used to mark the amount
     prepaid on the letter. These stamps were of different patterns, and
     it is probably the impression of one of them that appears on Mr.
     Greenshield's envelope. In some of the smaller post-offices they
     continued to use these stamps as late as 1875.

     "It is rather a singular coincidence that if the inquiry had been,
     regarding the position of Postmaster, more than one day earlier,
     the Canadian records would not have shown whether the man named had
     held office or not, the reason being that it was on the 6th of
     April, 1851, that the Post Office Department was transferred from
     the Imperial Government, and all records prior to that date are in
     the possession of the Imperial authorities."

     It seems strange that more of these covers have not been found.
     Such well-known authorities on the stamps of British North America
     as Mr. Lachlan Gibb and Mr. William Patterson, of Montreal, and Mr.
     Donald A. King, of Halifax, had not seen any until I consulted them
     about this one. I think it is very interesting to hear of a stamped
     envelope like this being used by the Post Office just before the
     issue of postage stamps.

So far as we have been able to find out the above constitutes all that
has been published regarding this envelope. We can find no further
mention of it in the columns of the _London Philatelist_ or of any other
journal published since 1904 nor does Mr. Howes so much as refer to it
in his recently published monograph on Canada's postal issues. Yet, on
the face of it, the matter seems one worthy of extended investigation by
some Canada specialist or other. Its history, as given above, is similar
in many respects to the history of many of the much sought after
Postmaster's provisional stamps of the United States and there is a
possibility that this envelope may represent a legitimate postmaster's
provisional.



CHAPTER III.--_The First Issue._


In common with the other Colonies of British North America Canada was
granted the privilege of administrating its own postal service in 1850,
and in the same year an Act was passed providing for the change. It is
hardly necessary to quote this Act in full though the following extracts
are of interest:--

     CAP. VII.

     An Act to provide for the transfer of the management of the Inland
     Posts to the Provincial Government, and for the Regulation of the
     said department.

     II.--And be it enacted, that the Inland Posts and Post
     Communications in this Province shall, so far as may be consistent
     with the Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom in force in
     this Province, be exclusively under Provincial management and
     control; the revenues arising from the duties and postage dues
     receivable by the officers employed in managing such Posts and Post
     Communications shall form part of the Provincial Revenue, unless
     such monies belong of right to the United Kingdom, or to some other
     Colony, or to some Foreign State, and the expenses of management
     shall be defrayed out of Provincial Funds, and that the Act passed
     in the Eighth year of Her Majesty's Reign, and entitled An Act to
     provide for the management of the Customs, and of matter relative
     to the collection of the Provincial Revenue, shall apply to the
     said Posts and Post Communications, and to the officers and persons
     employed in managing the same, or in collecting or accounting for
     the duties and dues aforesaid, except in so far as any provision of
     the said Act may be insusceptible of such application, or may be
     inconsistent with any provision of this Act.

     VIII.--And in conformity to the agreement made as aforesaid between
     the Local Governments of the several Colonies of British North
     America, be it enacted that the Provincial Postage on letters and
     packets not being newspapers, printed pamphlets, magazines or
     books, entitled to pass at a lower rate, shall not exceed
     Threepence currency per half-ounce, for any distance whatsoever
     within this Province, any fraction of a half-ounce being chargeable
     as a half-ounce; that no transit postage shall be charged on any
     letter or packet passing through this Province, or any part
     thereof, to any other Colony in British North America, unless it be
     posted in this Province, and the sender choose to prepay it; nor on
     any letter or packet from any such Colony, if prepaid there; that
     Twopence sterling the half-ounce shall remain as the rate in
     operation as regards letter by British mails, to be extended to
     countries having Postal Conventions with the United Kingdom, unless
     Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom shall see fit to
     allow this rate to be changed to Threepence currency; that the
     prepayment of Provincial Postage shall be optional.

     That all Provincial Postage received within the Province shall be
     retained as belonging to it, and that all Provincial Postage
     received within any other Colony of the British North American
     Colonies may be retained, as belonging to such Colony. That no
     privilege of franking shall be allowed as regards the Provincial
     Postage. That Provincial Stamps for the prepayment of postage may
     be prepared under the orders of the Governor in Council, which
     stamps shall be evidence of the prepayment of Provincial Postage to
     the amount mentioned on such stamps; and that such stamps, prepared
     under the direction of the proper authorities in the other British
     North American Colonies, shall be allowed in this Province as
     evidence of the prepayment of Provincial Postage in such other
     Colonies respectively, on the letters or packets to which they are
     affixed and which have been mailed there.

The passage of the above Act and its approval by the Imperial government
was followed by a notice to postmasters which gave the date at which the
transfer of the postal system from Imperial to Provincial authority was
to take effect, gave more explicit instructions with regard to rates of
postage, and stated that postage stamps were being prepared. Mr. Howes
gives the chief provisions of this Notice as follows:--

     NOTICE TO POSTMASTERS.

     GENERAL POST OFFICE.
     MONTREAL, _14th March, 1851._

     Sir:--

     I am commanded by His Excellency the Governor General, to
     communicate to you the following instructions, for your guidance in
     the performance of your duties, under the New Post Office Law of
     the 13th and 14th Vict., chap. 17, passed at the last Session of
     the Provincial Parliament, which will take effect, and supersede
     the Imperial Post Office Acts, hitherto in force in Canada, on and
     from the 6th day of April next:

     1.--From the above date, all Letters transmitted by the Post in
     Canada, with the exception of Packet Letters to and from the United
     Kingdom, will be liable to a uniform rate of _Three Pence_,
     currency, per half-ounce for whatever distance conveyed: prepayment
     will be optional: the charge increasing according to the weight of
     the Letter, one single rate for every additional half-ounce,
     counting the fraction of a half-ounce as a full rate, thus:

     A Letter, weighing not exceeding 1/2 ounce, will be liable to 3d
     postage.

     A Letter, weighing more than 1/2 ounce, and not exceeding 1 ounce,
     will be liable to 6d Postage.

     A Letter, weighing more than 1 ounce, and not exceeding 1-1/2
     ounces will be liable to 9d Postage, and so on.

     It will be observed that the above scale differs from that now
     followed, in advancing one rate for each half-ounce after the first
     ounce.

     2.--The single Packet rate for Letters by the Atlantic Steam Packet
     Mails to and from England, via the United States, of 1s 2d
     sterling, if _unpaid_, and 1s 4d currency, if _prepaid_, as also
     the rate on Letters, by those mails, via Halifax, of 1s sterling,
     if _unpaid_, and 1s 1-1/2d currency, if _prepaid_, remain
     unaltered, and the present scale of weights is to remain in force
     as regards such Letters.

     Post Masters must be very careful to observe this distinction when
     taxing letters, weighing over one-ounce, intended for the English
     Mails.

     3.--The regulations now in force with regard to Letters to and from
     Soldiers and Sailors in Her Majesty's Service, by which under
     certain conditions such Letters pass through the Post on prepayment
     of a penny only, remain unaltered.

     5.--Letters addressed to New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince
     Edward's Island, or Newfoundland, are to be rated with the uniform
     rate of 3d per half-ounce.

     6.--Letters to and from the United States will be liable to the
     uniform rate of 3d per half-ounce, between the Frontier line and
     the place of posting or place of destination in Canada; and until
     further arrangements can be made, this charge on Letters from
     Canada to the United States must be prepaid at the time of Posting.

     9.--The charge on Letters posted at an office for delivery in the
     same City, Town, or Place, and any additional charge made on
     Letters delivered at the residence of parties to whom they are
     addressed, are to remain as at present, until further instructions.

     10.--No Franking Privilege is allowed under the New Act, except
     with regard to Letters and Packets on the business of the Post
     Office, addressed to or transmitted by the Post Master General.

     13.--Stamps for the prepayment of Postage are being prepared and
     will be distributed for the use of the public at an early date.

     T. A. STAYNER.
     _Deputy Post Master General._

Shortly afterwards a Notice, or Department Order, dated April 2nd, 1851,
was issued to postmasters regarding the rates of postage between Canada
and the United States, California and Oregon. It is hardly necessary to
reproduce this in its entirety and it will suffice to state that the
rate on single letters to the United States was sixpence currency,
equivalent to ten cents in United States money, while to California and
Oregon the rate was nine pence currency per half-ounce. On newspapers,
pamphlets, etc., the rates were the same as those for Canada itself with
the stipulation that all such mail must be prepaid. Certain offices were
named for handling the mail between Canada and the United States, viz:
Post Sarnia, Windsor, Fort Erie, Queenston (the channel of communication
with the United States for the country west of Toronto), Niagara,
Toronto, Cobourg (a communication during summer only, by steamer to
Rochester), Kingston, Brockville, Prescott, Montreal, St. John's,
Dundee, and Stanstead.

On the 21st of April, 1851, an Order was issued from the Post Office
Department referring to the issue of stamps. The most interesting
paragraphs from this order are:--

     Postage Stamps are about to be issued, one representing the Beaver,
     of the denomination of Three pence; the second representing the
     head of Prince Albert, of the denomination of Six pence; and the
     third, representing the head of Her Majesty, of the denomination of
     One shilling; which will shortly be transmitted to the Post Masters
     at important points, for sale.

     Any Letter or Packet, with one or more Stamps affixed, equal in
     amount to the Postage properly chargeable thereon, may be mailed
     and forwarded from any office as a prepaid Letter or Packet; but if
     the Stamps affixed be not adequate to the proper Postage, the Post
     Master receiving the Letter or Packet for transmission will rate it
     with the amount deficient in addition. This Regulation concerning
     Letters short paid has reference only to Letters passing within the
     Province.

     Stamps so affixed are to be immediately _cancelled_ in the office
     in which the Letter or Packet may be deposited, with an instrument
     to be furnished for that purpose. In Post Offices not so furnished,
     the stamps must be cancelled by making a cross (X) on each with a
     pen. If the cancelling has been omitted on the mailing of the
     Letter, the Post Master delivering it will cancel the stamp in the
     manner directed, and immediately report the Post Master who may
     have been delinquent, to the Department. Bear in mind that Stamps
     must invariably be cancelled before mailing the Letters to which
     they are affixed.

It is rather interesting to note that the series comprised only three
values, though the postal rates, as shown in the Notice quoted above,
and further amplified in a lengthy set of "Regulations and Instructions"
called for numerous rates of 1/2d and 1d as well as 7-1/2d so that it
certainly seems strange that no provision was made for stamps by means
of which such rates could be prepaid.

The beaver is typical of Canada, for the prosperity of the Colony is
largely founded on this animal, whose skin has been a valuable article
of commerce since the days of the early trappers in the land of the
maple tree. The choice of a beaver as the central theme of the design of
Canada's first stamp--the 3d value--is, therefore, particularly
appropriate. The stamp is rectangular in shape and the centrepiece is
enclosed within a transverse oval band inscribed "CANADA POSTAGE" at the
top, and "THREE PENCE" below. Above the beaver is an Imperial crown
which breaks into the oval band and divides the words "CANADA" and
"POSTAGE." This crown rests on a rose, shamrock, and thistle (emblematic
of the United Kingdom) and on either side are the letters "V R"
(_Victoria Regina_, i.e. Queen Victoria). In each of the angles is a
large uncolored numeral "3". Mr. Howes tells us that this stamp was
designed by Sir Stanford Fleming, a civil engineer and draughtsman.

[Illustration]

The beaver, depicted on this stamp, rejoices in the scientific name of
_Castor fiber_. It is a rodent of social habits and was at one time
widely distributed over Europe and North America. It is now practically
extinct except in Canada and even there it is said to be in great danger
of extermination. Full-grown animals vary in length from thirty to
thirty-six inches. They are covered with short, thick fur, which is of
considerable value and their structural peculiarities are well worth
noting. The beaver is furnished with powerful incisor teeth, with which
it is able to bite through fairly large trees, and its fore paws are
very strong. Its hind feet are webbed, so that it is a powerful swimmer,
and its tail is flattened, and serves as an excellent rudder. Its ears
are small and when laid back prevent any water entering them. Beavers
generally live in colonies, and show remarkable intelligence and
ingenuity in the construction of their homes or "lodges" and in the
building of dams, where water in the vicinity of their dwellings has
become too shallow to suit their tastes. These dwellings are often
constructed on the banks of rivers, but the Canadian beaver is
particularly fond of building lodges in the centre of large expanses of
fairly shallow water. These are made of turf, tree-trunks, and other
materials, and are often used as store houses for food reserves, as well
as for living in.

The 6d stamp follows the usual upright rectangular form and its central
design consists of the portrait of Prince Albert, the Royal Consort. The
portrait is enclosed within an upright oval inscribed in a similar
manner to the 3d but with, of course, "SIXPENCE" on its lower portion.
The numeral "6" is shown in each of the four angles. Albert Francis
Charles Augustus Emanuel the younger of the two sons of Ernest, Duke of
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, was born in 1819. He was carefully educated at
Brussels and Bonn (1836-8), where he showed himself an ardent student,
acquired many accomplishments, and developed a taste for music and the
fine arts. King Leopold and Baron Stockmar had long contemplated an
alliance between Prince Albert and Princess Victoria, and the pair were
brought together in 1836. When the succession of Victoria was assured
the betrothal took place, and on February 19th, 1840, the marriage,
which was one of real affection on both sides, was solemnized in the
Chapel Royal, St. James Palace. The Prince Consort's position as the
husband of a constitutional sovereign was difficult, and in the early
years of his married life his interference in matters of state was
resented. Ultimately he became "a sort of minister, without portfolio,
of art and education", and in this capacity won much esteem and
popularity. He also interested himself in agriculture and in social and
industrial reform. To him was due the Great Exhibition of 1851, which
resulted in a balance of a million dollars available for the
encouragement of science and art. His personal character was very high,
and he exercised great influence on his children. He was an ideal
consort, and entirely worthy of the title "Albert, the Good". On
December 14th, 1861, he succumbed to an attack of fever, and was buried
in St. George's Chapel, Windsor. His remains were afterwards removed to
the mausoleum at Frogmore.

[Illustration]

The 12d stamp is very similar in design to the 6d denomination but bears
the portrait of Queen Victoria. The life and reign of Queen Victoria are
matters of such general knowledge that biographical details are hardly
necessary. A few words, however, regarding the source of this handsome
portrait, which was used to adorn so many of the earlier British
Colonial stamps, will not be amiss. Mr. Howes tells us that this
portrait "was taken from the full length painting by Alfred Edward
Chalon, R. A., which was ordered by the Queen for her mother, the
Duchess of Kent, as a souvenir of Her Majesty's first visit to the House
of Lords. The occasion was the prorogation of Parliament, on July 17th,
1837, and the Queen is portrayed in her robes of state, because of which
fact the painting is sometimes described as 'in Coronation Robes', but
this is erroneous."

The 12d requires a few words in explanation of the manner in which the
value was expressed for "One Shilling" would appear to be a more natural
form for this amount rather than "Twelve Pence". Mr. Donald A. King
says:--"This was undoubtedly done intentionally, as though it was
intended for a one shilling stamp, yet it could not be called that, as
there were a number of _shillings_ of different values in circulation in
the Colony. If the stamp had been lettered 'One Shilling', the Post
Office was liable to have tendered for it 6-1/2d, 7-1/2d, 10d or 12d,
according to locality".

Mr. Howes gives a fuller explanation which we cannot do better than
quote in his own words:--

     "A glance back at the rates of postage we have already quoted will
     show that it was generally necessary to give them in two forms,
     'currency' and 'sterling'. The somewhat depreciated Canadian
     currency required fifteen pence, as will be noted, to equal the
     shilling sterling--a point brought out on the two stamps issued
     subsequently for the British Packet rates. Add to this fact that in
     New England the 'shilling' was a current expression for 16-2/3
     cents (10 pence currency), while in New York it represented 12-1/2
     cents (7-1/2 pence currency) and we can readily see that in
     Canadian territory contiguous to these sections the number of pence
     to a 'shilling' might often be a debatable quantity. As a matter of
     fact the French Canadians of Lower Canada made general use of the
     'shilling' as reckoned at 10 pence (20 cents) in the old currency,
     while the 'York shilling' was extensively used in Upper Canada.
     'Twelve Pence' was without doubt wholly intentional, therefore, as
     the designation of the stamp, and was happy solution of any
     ambiguity in its use, even if it has proved a stumbling block to
     the understanding of latter day collectors."

The three values forming this first issue were manufactured by Messrs.
Rawdon, Wright, Hatch and Edson, of New York, who are, perhaps, better
known to fame as the engravers of the 1847, 5c and 10c stamps for the
United States government. All three stamps were printed from plates
engraved in _taille douce_ the plates consisting of one hundred
impressions arranged in ten horizontal rows of ten each. The
manufacturer's imprint--"Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Edson, New York"--was
engraved twice on each of the four sides quite close to the stamps. The
imprints were so placed that the bottoms of the letters are always next
to the stamps with the consequence that on the printed sheets of stamps
the imprints read upwards at the left, downwards at the right, and
upside down on the bottom margins.

A variety of the 3d denomination is catalogued with "double transfer".
This is, of course, a plate variety caused like all similar ones by a
faulty or incorrect rocking of the roller impression on the plate and a
correction on top of this impression which did not always entirely
obliterate the first impression. Mr. Howes says this variety "is
recognized by the letters EE PEN being 'doubled' at the top, making it
appear as if a line had been drawn through the words and giving it the
name occasionally used of the 'line through threepence' variety." There
are at least two other similar varieties of "double transfers" known on
this value for in the _Philatelic World_ for December, 1908, Mr. A. J.
Sefi described and illustrated three different ones. One of these is a
variety mentioned by Mr. Howes, another shows a distinct doubling of
parts of the details of the two left-hand corners, while the third
variety shows a doubling of the upper right hand corner. It is quite
possible a close study of these stamps would reveal others and also
similar varieties in the 6d and 12d. "Double strikes" are not uncommon
on stamps produced by the line-engraved process though they are not
often so striking as the first of these Canadian varieties and those
found on the United States 10c stamp of 1847.

According to a valuable summary from official records published in the
_Metropolitan Philatelist_ we learn that the first delivery of stamps
from the manufacturers took place on April 5th, 1851, when 100,000 of
the 3d denomination were delivered to the Canadian Government. On April
20th, a second supply of the same value comprising 150,200 stamps
arrived in Canada. On May 2nd 100,400 of the 6d were received followed
two days later by 51,400 of the 12d this latter being the only
consignment of the highest value ever received from the printers. We
have already pointed out that the 3d was placed on sale on April 23rd,
1851. The date of issue of the 6d is not known for certain as there are
no official records relating to this though, as a supply was received on
May 2nd, they were doubtless issued some time during the same month. The
12d was issued on June 14th as we shall show later.

The three values of this series, as well as other denominations in pence
issued later, were withdrawn from use on July 1st, 1859, when decimal
currency was introduced. By means of much diligent search through Post
Office Reports and other records Mr. Howes has determined that a total
of 3,528,700 3d stamps were issued and a total of 402,900 of the 6d
value. Some of both these values were issued with perforation late in
1857 or early in 1858. Unfortunately there is no means of separating
these from the imperforate ones as shown by the official figures but if
we use the somewhat rough-and-ready means of reckoning afforded by
catalogue quotations it would seem that of the above totals about three
million of the 3d and 325,000 of the 6d were imperforate.

The 12d value, as every collector knows, is a very rare stamp. Even had
the full supply of 51,000 stamps, received in the first and only
consignment from the manufacturers on May 4th, 1851, been issued, it
would have been a rare variety, but as a matter of fact, the greater
portion of the consignment was destroyed and only 1510 were actually
issued. An interesting article published in the _Metropolitan
Philatelist_ in 1902 shows that this denomination was first issued on
June 14th, 1851, and supplies were made to various post offices as
follows:--

                                                No. Stamps

June 14th, 1851,   Hamilton,                        300
Oct. 17th, 1851,   Chippewa,                        100
Nov. 13th, 1851,   Thorold,                          20
Nov. 25th, 1851,   Toronto,                         200
Mar. 8th, 1852,    Montreal,                        200
Sept. 14th, 1852,  Ingersoll,                       100
Apr. 5th, 1853,    Ottawa (then known as Bytown),   100
Oct. 20th, 1853,   Sherbrooke,                       15
Jan. 13th, 1854,   Smith's Falls,                    50
Jan. 20th, 1854,   Ottawa,                          100
Feb. 8th, 1854,    L'Islet,                          15
Feb. 27th, 1854,   Ingersoll,                        20
Mar. 22nd, 1854,   Sault S. Marie,                   25
May 15th, 1854,    Port. du Fort,                    15
Oct. 21st, 1854,   Rowan Mills,                      50
Oct. 26th, 1854,   Melbourne,                        50
Oct. 27th, 1854,   Montreal,                        100
Dec. 4th, 1854,    Smith's Falls,                    50

                   Total stamps,                  1,510

The consignment sent to Smith's Falls on December 4th, 1854, was the
last distributed. While we can trace no official notice referring to the
discontinuance of this denomination, or the actual date at which it
ceased to be used, the writer of the article referred to above says that
the balance of 49,490 stamps were destroyed on May 1st, 1857, "in
accordance with the practice of the Department in cases of the
discontinuance of stamps" though as this was the first Canadian stamp to
be discontinued, a precedent could hardly have been established.

The following interesting excerpt from the _Stamp Collectors' Magazine_
for April, 1870, states that the 12d value was discontinued in 1855 and
it also lays considerable stress on the scarcity of used specimens of
this stamp, viz:--

     One of our readers observing from a reply we made to a
     correspondent in the last October number, that we were in doubt as
     to whether the 12d was ever actually used, has been good enough to
     write the Deputy Postmaster-General on the subject and has obtained
     from him the following reply:--

     "OTTAWA, 28th October, 1869.

     "DEAR SIR:--In reply to your note of the 26th inst., let me say
     that the twelve penny postage stamps were issued to the public in
     1851, but did not find favor, and so few were sold--only a few
     hundred altogether in three or four years--that they ceased to be
     issued in 1855.

     "I am, dear Sir, yours very faithfully,

     "W. A. SMYTH."

This is satisfactorily conclusive as to the emission of the stamp in
question; but if even only a few hundreds were used, we are surprised
that no used copies turn up. Were they used otherwise than for postage?
Mr. Philbrick informs us that no unused copy of the stamp was ever seen
by him, nor does he know of its existence. Plenty of proofs on India
paper, etc., exist, but the paper of the stamp was laid and thin, of a
hard texture.

An extract from the _Stamp Collectors' Monthly Gazette_, published at
St. John, New Brunswick, in September, 1869, shows that the rarity of
the 12d was already recognised as witnessed by the fact that "even $5"
could be obtained for a specimen. We give the paragraph in full:--

     This stamp, as some of our readers are aware, was in use but a
     short time, so short, that many persons even those residing in
     Canada, knew nothing about it. One gentleman living in Quebec, to
     whom we had written on the subject some time ago, informed us that
     we must have been laboring under some mistake, when we asked him
     for some particulars about it. He told us that no such stamp was
     ever issued; but a subsequent letter from him told a totally
     different tale (as was expected)--he gave us a few facts, and that
     was all we wanted. It was first intended for postage to England,
     and was actually used for a time. The postage was afterwards
     reduced and the 10d stamp took the place of the 12d. The latter is
     now (the genuine) one of the rarest in existence, and very readily
     obtains such prices as $4.00 and even $5.00 for one specimen.
     Proofs are often offered for sale on India paper, with the word
     'specimen' written on one side. Amateur collections must content
     themselves with this last, for it is utterly impossible to obtain
     the real Simon Pure article for less than the sums we name, and
     even then, it is doubtful whether it can be had at the price or
     not. The color of the genuine stamp is black, it is an adhesive,
     and contains a portrait of Queen Victoria in an inscribed oval,
     with figures 12 at corners.

All three values of this first set were issued imperforate and while the
3d, of which at least three millions were issued, varies but little in
shade, the 6d, printed in comparatively small quantities, provides a
number of striking tints. In his check-list, Mr. Howes gives
"black-violet, deep-violet, slate-violet, brown-violet, dull purple,
slate, black brown, brownish black, and greenish black", and we have no
doubt the list could be considerably amplified, though the above should
be sufficient for the most exacting of specialists.

The catalogue gives two distinct sorts of paper--laid and wove--for all
three values, with a sub-variety of the latter, designated "thin", for
the 3d and 6d denominations. But specialists are not satisfied with this
meagre classification and recognise numerous other varieties such as
thick white laid, soft white wove, thin and thick grayish, thick hard,
thick soft, ribbed, etc. Mr. D. A. King, in his article in the _Monthly
Journal_, says, "There are fourteen varieties that we are able to
distinguish", and he gives a general classification of their
characteristics as follows:--

     Series I, II, IV and V.--The texture of these papers is virtually
     the same, and it is indeed often difficult, particularly in the
     case of the 6d, to distinguish between the _laid_ and _wove_
     papers. The lines in the _laid_ paper are of a most peculiar
     character, and cannot, as a rule, be brought fairly out by holding
     the stamp between one's eyes and the light. The best way to test
     these two papers is to lay the stamps, face down, on a black
     surface, and let the light strike them at about an angle of fifteen
     degrees, when the _laid_ lines are brought most plainly into view.
     It is necessary, however, to place the specimens so that the light
     will strike them parallel to their length, as the _laid_ lines run
     horizontally in the 3d, and vertically in the 6d and 12d.

     Series III.--This is an entirely different paper to those mentioned
     above. The _laid_ lines are most distinct, while the paper is of a
     different texture and color from the regular gray shade.

     Series VI.--The paper of this series is almost as thick as that
     employed for series XII. There is a vast difference, however, in
     its appearance, as the paper of series VI. is much harder than that
     of series XII. It feels greasy when rubbed between the thumb and
     finger, and the color of the paper is distinctly different from
     that shown by series XII.

     Series VII, VIII and IX.--We are able to divide the thin-ribbed
     papers into three varieties, which the description plainly
     indicates. They are very distinct, and can be distinguished by a
     moment's inspection without hesitation.

     Series X.--This is a very peculiar sort of paper, which is quite
     fragile, and will not bear much handling. It is quite as soft as
     that of series VII.

     Series XI.--This paper is also of a peculiar texture; the surface
     presents a sort of hairy appearance, and the quality is better than
     Series X, although not as tough as series XII.

     Series XII and XIII.--This paper presents, even when looking at the
     face of the specimens, so entirely different an appearance to that
     employed in any of the other series, that a reference to the back
     is hardly necessary. It is found in two thicknesses, which have the
     same appearance, and seems to have been employed for all the values
     except the 12d.

     Series XIV.--We are surprised that this variety has hitherto
     escaped notice. It is so distinct, both in paper and color, from
     any of the other 6d stamps. It has only been found in shades of a
     peculiarly _brownish purple_ which is a color entirely different
     from that presented by specimens on any other of the papers
     employed. It is an exceedingly rare variety.

It would indeed be a task for the most intrepid of specialists to try
and complete his Canadian stamps on such ambitious lines, to say nothing
of acquiring the ingenuity necessary to differentiate between them.
Their philatelic importance is, in our humble opinion, not a matter of
very great consequence. At that period, hand-made paper was still being
used to a very large extent and even machine-made paper was not
manufactured with the nicety of standardisation that is possible with
the improved machinery of today. Consequently, the sheets of paper, even
in such a small commercial quantity as a ream, would generally show
considerable variation in texture. Thin and thick sheets were frequently
mixed to obtain the necessary weight per ream specified in any
particular grade of paper. No particular quality of paper was,
apparently, specified for the manufacture of these stamps, and so long
as it looked much about the same it is very obvious the printers made no
particular effort to maintain an exact standard. It is even questionable
that the wove and laid varieties mark distinct consignments or printings
of the stamps. Indeed, so far as the 12d is concerned at any rate, both
varieties must have been included in the same consignment. But, more
serious still, from the point of view of those collectors who consider
the wove and laid papers should be treated as major varieties, Mr. King
admits that "the lines in the laid paper are of a most peculiar
character" and that "it is often difficult to distinguish between the
laid and the wove papers", while Mr. Howes states, "It happens sometimes
that it is quite difficult to distinguish the laid paper, a very careful
scrutiny or even the extreme resort to the benzine cup being necessary
to bring out the watermarked lines, and perhaps then only in a half
suspicious way." Writing in the _Canada Stamp Sheet_ (Vol. IV, page
142), concerning the 12d value, Mr. John N. Luff stated, "It is my
opinion that both the wove and laid papers are quite genuine and I think
it is possible that both varieties might occur though there was only one
lot sent out by the printers. It does not, of course, follow that the
entire batch was printed on the same day or that two varieties of paper
may not have been used. The early printers were not always very
particular about their paper, provided it was somewhat alike in a
general way. Some collectors claim that laid paper is often of such
nature that the lines do not show in some parts of the sheet, and I
believe there is evidence to support this theory."

It is quite within the bounds of possibility that the paper generally
used for these stamps was intended to be what is known as "wove" to the
trade, and that the "laid lines" originated in a purely accidental
manner and are rather on the order of the "laid paper" varieties found
in connection with the first 8c and 12c stamps of Sarawak. In short, it
is probable that in some sheets at any rate the laid lines showed only
in part. At best, therefore, it would appear that the "wove" is but a
minor variety of the "laid" or vice versa, and while both varieties, as
well as other varieties easily distinguished, such as the very thin and
very thick, are of interest to specialists, they throw no light
whatsoever on the history of the stamps, and do not, from all the
available facts, represent separate printings, so that their
_philatelic_ importance (aside from comparative rarity as minor
varieties, with its accompanying variation in monetary worth) is not of
a particularly high order.

One peculiarity resulting from the use of papers of such varying quality
is an apparent difference in the size of stamps of the same
denomination. For instance, the stamps on the thinner kinds of paper
generally measure 22 x 18 mm., while those on thicker paper measure
22-3/4 x 17-1/2 mm. and papers of other thicknesses provide still other
measurements. These differences in size (fairly considerable in relation
to the comparatively small area of a postage stamp) proved very puzzling
to collectors of twenty years or so ago for, though it was felt that the
stamps came from the same plates, it was at the same time found
impossible to account for such varieties, except on the hypothesis that
all the impressions of the plate were not all applied alike or that the
hardening of the plates before printing resulted in contraction in parts
with a consequent variation in the size of different impressions. The
same sorts of varieties have been noticed in many other stamps printed
by the line engraved process, notably in such stamps as the "pence"
Ceylons, and proper investigation finally proved beyond a shadow of
doubt that these differences in size were due to nothing more than
uneven contraction of the paper after printing. It must be understood
that in printing stamps by the line-engraved method the paper usually
has to be slightly wetted (this was an invariable rule at the time these
early Canada stamps were printed) and it can be easily seen that the
wetting would have quite different results on different qualities of
paper. Some would be more absorbent than others and would stretch while
damp and contract again when drying. The amount of wetting administered
would, also, result in differences even in the same qualify of paper.
These variations in the size of the design, therefore, while interesting
in themselves as examples of paper vagaries, are of little, if any,
philatelic importance.

Bi-sected stamps were not used in Canada to anything like the same
extent that similar varieties were used in the other British North
American provinces. The 6d is catalogued as having been divided
diagonally and the halves used as 3d stamps, though there can have been
no real necessity for such bi-section. A bi-sected stamp of quite
another character was mentioned in the _Monthly Journal_ for April,
1898, as follows:--

     The _Post Office_ describes a so-called "split provisional" of the
     early 3d stamp, which is described as consisting of one and a half
     of the unperforated 3d on wove, upon an entire envelope postmarked
     "Port Hope, July 16th, 1855, Canada, Paid 10c." Our contemporary
     does not appear to perceive that the postmark plainly indicates
     that the supposed half stamp is really only a badly cut copy; the
     3d of Canada passed for 5 cents, and as this letter is plainly
     marked "Paid 10c", the stamps upon it evidently passed as two 3d,
     not as one and a half, which would have corresponded to no rate of
     postage.

The same journal, two months later, made more extended reference to this
variety and while its bona-fides as a "split" is established its use as
a half stamp is as much a mystery as ever. We cannot do better than give
the paragraph in full:--

     In the New Issues column of our number for April, we called in
     question the character of a supposed "split" _three pence_ stamp of
     Canada, which had been chronicled in the _Post Office_, New York.
     In reply to our criticism, Messrs. Morgenthau & Co., the publishers
     of that magazine, have most kindly forwarded to us the letter
     bearing the divided stamp, and have requested our opinion upon it.
     The specimen is such a curious one and presents, we think, such a
     puzzle for philatelists, that we have taken the liberty--which we
     hope its owner will pardon--of having a photographic block made
     from it, and we give a full size illustration, showing both the
     stamps and the postmarks, herewith. As our readers may perceive, we
     were quite wrong in suggesting that the "split" stamp was merely a
     badly cut copy, as it appears to have been carefully bi-sected
     diagonally and to have been intended to pass as a half stamp,
     making up, with the entire stamp to which it is attached, a rate of
     4-1/2d. If this were all, though the specimen would be a great
     rarity--indeed, we believe it to be unique--it would not be
     necessarily a great puzzle to us. It is true that we do not know of
     any 4-1/2d rate in Canada, and there never was a 4-1/2d stamp in
     use there; but still, such a rate might have existed, although
     there was no possible means of making it up except by the use of at
     least three 1/2d stamps; but the puzzling part about this letter is
     that it is addressed from Port Hope in Canada to New York, the
     single rate from Canada to the United States was 10 cents; the
     letter is marked "CANADA--_PAID 10 Cts_." by the side of the
     stamps, and that rate was sixpence in Canadian currency. The whole
     document appears to us to be perfectly genuine and _bona-fide_; we
     have examined it with a skeptical mind and a powerful magnifying
     glass, and we can only say that if it is a "fake" it is wonderfully
     well done. On the other hand, if it is genuine, the half stamp must
     have done duty as a whole one, because it certainly took two 3d
     stamps to make up the 10 cents rate. The puzzle remains a puzzle to
     us, but we are grateful to Messrs. Morgenthau for their courteous
     reply to what may have appeared a captious criticism.

_Reference List._

1851.  Engraved and printed by Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Edson,
       New York, on laid or wove paper. Imperforate.

  1.   3d  vermilion, Scott's No. 1 or No. 4.
  2.   6d  violet, Scott's No. 2 or No. 5.
  3.  12d  black, Scott's No. 3 or No. 6.

The third report of the Postmaster-General for Canada, dated March 31st,
1854, refers to a change in the rates of postage on single letters sent
abroad and also mentions the possibility of additions to the meagre set
of three values then current, viz.:--

     In March, 1854, the charge on packet letters between Canada and the
     United Kingdom and most foreign countries was reduced by the
     Imperial Government from 1s 2d sterling to 8d sterling the 1/2 oz.,
     when sent in the closed mails through the United States, and from
     1s sterling to 6d when sent from a provincial port--Quebec and
     Halifax. Should no further changes be likely soon to take place in
     the charges on the correspondence with England, it would promote
     the public convenience to procure postage stamps of the value of
     10d and 7-1/2d respectively, to correspond with the present packet
     charges.

In the Postmaster-General's fourth annual report, issued in the
following year, the above recommendation was adopted so far as the 10d
value was concerned, for we read:--

     To promote the general convenience of the public in prepaying
     letters to the United Kingdom at the new rate, postage stamps of
     the value of 10d currency, equal to 8d sterling, were procured, and
     issued to the public.

[Illustration]

According to documentary evidence unearthed by Messrs. King and Howes
the plate for this value was made, and the first stamps were printed
from it during the last quarter of 1854, for in the Post Office accounts
for that period the item, "Rawdon, Wright & Co., Making Stamps,
£42-18-6," appears. According to another list compiled from official
sources the stamps did not reach Canada until January 2nd, 1855, and
though we know of no official document bearing on the actual date of
issue, or of any very early dated cover, in view of the fact that the
stamps represented a denomination for which there was an urgent demand,
it is only reasonable to suppose that this 10d value was placed on sale
some time during the month of January, 1855.

Mr. King states that this value was printed in sheets of 100 stamps,
arranged in ten horizontal rows of ten, and with the manufacturers'
imprint shown eight times on the margins, as in the case of the three
stamps previously issued. Mr. Howes, however, is of the opinion that
these 10d stamps were printed in sheets of 120, 10 rows of twelve each,
like the 7-1/2d value issued later, and in support of his theory points
out that the quantities delivered in the first supply (100,080) and
second supply (72,120) are exactly divisible by 120 into 834 and 601
full sheets respectively, whereas neither of these numbers is divisible
by 100 into an even number of complete sheets. In view of the absence of
positive evidence in the shape of an entire sheet or full horizontal row
of stamps, it must be admitted that there is much to be said in favor of
Mr. Howes' theory. It will be noted the stamps have the values expressed
in English currency, and the almost universal rule for stamps printed
with values in shillings or pence, has been sheets of 60, 120, or 240
owing to the fact that with such an arrangement reckoning in this
currency is greatly simplified.

The design corresponds in its general appearance to the 6d and 12d of
1851 though the portrait in the central oval is of Jacques Cartier, the
discoverer of Canada. In the 'eighties there was some little discussion
regarding the portrait on this 10d stamp some claiming it was not
intended to represent Cartier, but Sebastian Cabot. A writer on the
_Halifax Philatelist_ for 1888 says: "It is identically the same as all
the existing portraits of Jacques Cartier, and totally unlike those
existing of Sebastian Cabot. The style of dress and the way the beard is
worn is that of the sixteenth century, instead of the fifteenth. There
is a very rare and old print of Sebastian Cabot, taken from the original
painting in the possession of Charles Jost Harford, Esq., in the
Legislative Library at Halifax, and anything more dissimilar to the face
on the 10 pence stamp cannot be imagined." The official notice
announcing the issue of the stamp, to which we have already referred,
makes no mention of the design at all but the portrait is undoubtedly
that of Cartier and Mr. Howes tells us that the original is a
"three-quarter length portrait in the Hotel de Ville at St. Malo,
France, the birthplace of Cartier."

Jacques Cartier was born at St. Malo, as stated above, in 1491. In 1534
he sailed with two small vessels on a voyage of discovery, touching at
Newfoundland, and discovering New Brunswick. In a second voyage (1535-6)
he explored the St. Lawrence, and took possession of the land he
discovered in the name of Francis I of France. He made a third voyage in
1541 and died in 1557.

The words CANADA POSTAGE and TENPENCE on the inscribed oval frame are
separated by a small beaver at the right and three maple leaves at the
left. In the lower corners are the numerals "10" followed by "cy" for
currency, while in each of the upper angles is "8d stg", representing
the equivalent value in sterling.

Only the two supplies of this value, mentioned previously, were printed
making a total of 172,200 stamps. When the decimal currency was
introduced there was a balance on hand of 31,200, which were afterwards
destroyed so that the total quantity of 10d stamps issued was 141,000.

A double-transfer variety of this denomination is described by Mr. Howes
as follows:--

     In this case we find the letters A D A and S of "Canada Postage",
     and P E N of "Pence"' showing a distinct doubling at the bottom,
     the transfer roller having been set a little too high at first and
     a very slight impression made on the plate. The stamp has not been
     seen in a pair to prove its character absolutely, but it bears all
     the ear-marks of being a proper plate variety and not due to a
     careless impression when printing.

The Postmaster General's report dated Sept. 30th, 1857, refers to the
many benefits accruing to both the Department and the public by the
increased use of postage stamps in the prepayment of postal charges and
also mentions the issue of two new denominations, viz:--

     There is a very material economy of labor to the Department in
     dealing with letters prepaid by stamp as compared with letters on
     which the postage is collected in money, as well as a manifest gain
     to the public, in the increased facilities which prepayment by
     stamp enables the Post Office to afford for posting and delivering
     letters so prepaid.

     It is gratifying, therefore, to observe that the use of stamps is
     gradually gaining ground, encouraging as it does the hope that it
     may be found practicable and expedient ere long to make prepayment
     by stamp the prevailing rule in Canada, as it has for sometime been
     in, the United Kingdom, in France, and in the United States.

     A reduction in the charge of Book Post Packets when not exceeding 4
     oz. in weight, between Canada and the United Kingdom of one-half
     the former rate has been made.

     To facilitate the prepayment of letters passing from Canada to
     England by the Canadian steamers, a new stamp bearing value of 6
     pence sterling, or 7-1/2 pence currency, being the Canadian Packet
     rate, has been secured and put in circulation.

     A new stamp has also been introduced of the value of one halfpenny
     to serve as the medium for prepaying transient Newspapers.

     Moreover, the Department has been led, by the increasing use of
     Postage Stamps, to take measures for obtaining the Canadian Postage
     Stamps in sheets perforated in the dividing lines, in the manner
     adopted in England, to facilitate the separation of a single stamp
     from the others on a sheet when required for use.

It will thus be seen that the 7-1/2d value, which was recommended three
years earlier (at the time the 10d was issued), materialised at last,
though there appears to be no official record bearing on the date the
new value was placed on sale to the public. The volume dealing with the
postage stamps of British North America, published by the Royal
Philatelic Society some twenty years ago, gives the date of issue as
June 2nd, 1857, though no authority for this statement is given.

[Illustration]

The design was adapted from that of the discarded 12d of 1851, the same
portrait of Queen Victoria adorning the central oval. The inscribed
band around this contains the words CANADA PACKET POSTAGE at the top,
and SIX PENCE STERLING at the bottom, the two inscriptions occupying so
much space that there was no room for dividing ornaments of any kind. In
the upper and lower left hand corners is "6d stg." and in the right hand
corners "7-1/2d cy." is shown. A word of explanation regarding the use
of the word PACKET in the inscription is necessary. This does not refer
to any parcel post (indeed, there was no parcel post at that period) as
has sometimes been erroneously asserted, but refers to the fast mail
steamers of the day which were then known as "packets". This
denomination, as shown by the extract from the Postmaster-General's
report printed above, was intended for use on single letters sent to
England via the Canadian packets.

This 7-1/2d stamp was, according to Mr. Howes, printed in sheets of 120
arranged in ten horizontal rows of twelve each, each sheet showing the
imprint of the manufacturers eight times on the margins as in the case
of the values issued previous to 1857. Only one consignment, consisting
of 834 sheets (100,800 stamps) was received, and as 17,670 of these were
still on hand when the decimal currency was introduced in 1859, a simple
calculation will show that the total quantity issued was 82,410 stamps.

Although there had been a real need for a halfpenny value since the
first adhesives made their appearance in Canada--as shown by several
rates it was impossible to prepay in stamps without them--it was not
until 1857 that a stamp of this denomination was placed in use. The
following circular announced their impending issue:--

     POSTAGE ON NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS.

     POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT.

     TORONTO. _18th July, 1857._

     Under the Post Office Law of last Session taking effect from 1st
     August, 1857, Newspapers printed and published in Canada, and
     mailed direct from Office of Publication, will pass free of
     Canadian Postage.

     Periodicals so printed, published, and mailed when specially
     devoted to Religious and to General Education, to Agriculture, or
     Temperance, or to any branch of Science, will pass free from any
     one Post-Office to another within the Province.

     Transient and re-mailed Papers and Periodicals will pass by Post if
     prepaid by Postage stamp--one halfpenny if not exceeding 3 oz. in
     weight, and 2d if over 3 oz.

     Postage Stamps of the value of one halfpenny each will be sold to
     the public at all the principal Post Offices (including all Money
     Order Offices), with a discount of 5 per cent. upon purchases of
     not less than twenty stamps and will be available in prepayment of
     Newspapers and Periodicals, and of Drop and Town Letters.

     R. SPENCE, Postmaster-General.

The Royal Philatelic Society's book gives the date of the above
notice--July 18th, 1857--as the date of issue of the new stamp but, as
Mr. Howes observes "it is more likely that the stamp was issued on 1st
August, the day the new rates took effect."

Although this stamp is generally conceded to be the last of the "pence"
values to be issued, until more definite information regarding the date
of issue of the 7-1/2d can be procured, this supposition can rest on no
more substantial basis than that of mere conjecture.

[Illustration]

The design is quite unlike that of any of the other values expressed in
pence and consists of the conventional profile portrait of the Queen
shown on so many of the stamps of the British Empire, within an oval
band inscribed CANADA POSTAGE, at the top, and ONE HALF PENNY, at the
bottom. There are no numerals or inscriptions in the corners but merely
a plain pattern of diagonally crossed lines. Mr. Howes states "the stamp
was printed in sheets of 100, ten rows of ten, with the right marginal
imprints as described for the series of 1851."

From the Postmaster-General's report we gather that 1,341,600 halfpenny
stamps were received prior to October 1st, 1857, though whether these
were all in one consignment or not is not quite clear. At any rate
judging from the statement in the same report that "the Department has
been led to take measures for obtaining ... sheets perforated" it would
appear that the above quantity comprised all the imperforate stamps of
this denomination. On the other hand the total number of halfpenny
stamps issued was 3,389,960 and catalogue quotations for the imperforate
and the perforated varieties hardly bear out the supposition that only
the first lot were issued without perforation.

While the 10d value is found on several sorts of paper no such extreme
variation is provided as in the case of the stamps of 1851. The 7-1/2d
and 1/2d values, printed at a later date, provide still fewer varieties,
which would seem to indicate that as time progressed the manufacturers
exercised a nicer discrimination in their choice of paper. Most of the
stamps seem to have been printed on a hard wove paper, varying a little
in thickness; the 10d is found on a very thin paper; and the 1/2d is
recorded on ribbed paper, though whether this is a true "ribbed" variety
or merely the result of some peculiarity in printing is open to
discussion. As the ribbed lines are anything but distinct, though the
paper showing this peculiarity is a little softer than that generally
used, it is more than likely that the ribbing was purely accidental.

Owing to the differing qualities of paper used the same idiosyncrasies
of measurement in the size of the designs may be noted, especially in
the case of the 10d as was referred to in a previous chapter. But as all
variations of this character in stamps printed from line-engraved plates
were long ago conclusively proved to be due to nothing more exciting
than paper shrinkage it is hardly worth while wearying our readers with
a resurrection of all that has been written on the subject leading up to
the proof. While examples showing the extremes of size are of interest
in a specialised collection little can be said in favor of their
philatelic value.


_Reference List._

1855-57.  Engraved and printed by Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Edson,
          New York, on wove paper. Imperforate.

  4.      1/2d    pink, Scott's No. 8.
  5.      7-1/2d  green, Scott's No. 9.
  6.      10d     blue, Scott's No. 7.



CHAPTER V.--_The Perforated Pence Stamps._


In the Report of the Postmaster-General for September 30th, 1857, to
which we have already made reference, we read:--

     Moreover, the Department has been led, by the increasing use of
     Postage Stamps, to take measures for obtaining the Canadian Postage
     Stamps in sheets perforated in the dividing lines, in the manner
     adopted in England, to facilitate the separation of a single stamp
     from the others on a sheet when required for use.

From the above statement, one would naturally infer that such a useful
innovation would be adopted at once, especially so when it is considered
that the utility and convenience of perforation had already been amply
tested and had proved eminently satisfactory in England. Unfortunately,
no further mention of perforation is made in the Reports of succeeding
years, and this absence of direct official evidence combined with the
existence of certain facts has given rise to much theorising as to the
actual date of issue of the perforated varieties, and as to whether the
perforation was applied by the manufacturers of the stamps, by the
Canadian Government, or by private parties in Canada.

Mr. Donald A. King in his article in the _Monthly Journal_ says:--

     It is an open question whether these stamps were delivered to the
     Canadian Post Office Department in a perforated condition or not.
     The manufacturers are wholly unable to throw any light on the
     subject; and while there is much to be said in favor of their
     having perforated the stamps, there are points against it almost as
     strong.

     In favor of it there is the fact that, at the date that these
     stamps were issued, it was more than probable that a firm like the
     manufacturers would have perforating machines. The normal gauge of
     the perforated set is 12, that being the only size ever used by the
     manufacturers, or their successors, the American Bank Note Company;
     indeed, they call 12 their standard and only gauge.

     On the other hand, we find that there are perforated stamps of the
     first series issued, viz., the 6d on _laid_ paper; also, that there
     exist two different varieties of perforation that were never used
     by the makers, viz., one gauging 14, and another that is described
     in the _American Journal of Philately_ for January, 1891, as
     follows:--

     "CANADA.--In a large lot of pence issues, purchased by us lately,
     we have found two copies of the 3d. on greyish wove paper,
     perforated 13, with oblique parallel cuts. This seems to confirm
     the theory that the pence issues of Canada were not perforated by
     the manufacturers, but either by the Canadian Government, or by
     some persons authorized by them, who most likely experimented with
     different perforating machines, finally selecting the one
     perforating 12."

     Considering these facts, it may be that the stamps were sent to
     Canada in an imperforate condition, and that the Post Office
     Department had them perforated there, either buying a perforating
     machine, or entrusting them to some manufacturers of stationery.
     Perforations gauging 13 and 14 may have been experimental, as
     specimens of these varieties are rare; perforation 12 being adopted
     as giving the best results, the other sizes not being at all
     clearly cut, as the 12 generally is. All the stock of 1/2d, 3d and
     6d on hand would, in this case, have been perforated, which might
     account for the copy of the 6d on laid paper that is known in this
     condition. There always remains the query why the 7-1/2d and 10d
     were not treated in the same manner, and to this no answer can be
     given. Probably the safest theory to advance, and the one that I
     think is correct, is that the 12 gauge was the official one used by
     the manufacturers, and that the 13 and 14 were the result of
     private enterprise by people using large quantities of stamps, and
     they may possibly antedate the regularly perforated issue. This
     point can only be settled by copies being found on the original
     covers.

In commenting on the above it will save undue confusion if we state that
the copy of the perforated 6d on laid paper to which Mr. King refers was
proved to be a forgery as shown by the following extract from the
_American Journal of Philately_ for 1891:--

     There is no longer any mystery in regard to the origin of that
     _great rarity!_ the perforated 6 pence on laid paper, these stamps
     having been perforated for four or five years in the shop of
     Messrs. Benjamin, Sarpy & Co., Cullum street, London, who openly
     boast of having manufactured and sold those in the collection of
     the late Hon. T. K. Tapling and other prominent collectors.

With regard to the varieties perforated 13 and 14--while these are
undoubtedly rare, all the evidence strongly points to the fact that they
are unofficial varieties, a statement, we believe, which has never been
seriously combated by students of the early Canadian stamps.

Thus, most of the "contrary" evidence adduced by Mr. King carries no
weight with it at all. The most interesting point he raises is the fact
that, though the 7-1/2d and 10d denominations were current at the same
time as the 1/2d, 3d and 6d, these values were not perforated. So far as
the 10d is concerned this seems all the more strange when it is
considered that one supply of this value was certainly printed after
September, 1857, the date of the Report mentioning the adoption of
perforation.

Mr. Howes has made diligent search through official records and
carefully scanned itemised reports of more or less petty expenditures,
and he was unable to find any reference whatsoever to a disbursement
such as would have been necessary had the Government purchased a
perforating machine or had the stamps perforated by some private
concern. It is, therefore, unquestionable that the natural course--i.
e., that the manufacturers should perforate the stamps--was the one
followed.

The real root cause of all the problems surrounding these perforated
stamps seems to lie in the general acceptance of the assumption that
they were issued in 1857 or early in 1858--an assumption that appears to
be entirely devoid of the support of tangible facts when the matter is
scrutinised thoroughly. Mr. Howes has delved into the subject with his
usual thoroughness and his deductions are so well founded that we
imagine no unbiased student will venture to do other than agree that his
findings are fully borne out by the history of the stamps so far as we
know it. We, therefore, make no apology for reproducing his arguments in
full:--

     The date usually assigned to the appearance of the perforated
     stamps is January, 1858. The London Society gave simply "1857,"
     which is apparently set down merely because they have just quoted
     the announcement from the Postmaster General's Report for that
     year. Evans and Moens, in their catalogues, both name the date as
     November, 1858. Unfortunately, no more authoritative statement has
     been found, except that in Messrs. Corwin and King's article they
     say "Mr. Hooper positively states that it took place in January,
     1858." Mr. John R. Hooper was at that time (1890) connected with
     the Canadian Post Office Department at Ottawa and took pains to
     look up much information for the above-mentioned gentlemen. His
     reasons for the "positive statement" are not given, and inasmuch as
     he is quoted elsewhere as saying that "the records of the Post
     Office Department are silent as to where this perforation was
     performed and by whom," and also seems a little uncertain in some
     other details, we feel that further confirmation is needed.

In our table above we have given the supplies received after the 30th
September, 1857, and deducted the remainders so as to have the actual
number issued. The 10d has already proved a stumbling block, for it was
not perforated at all! Next we find the 6d to the number of 150,000,
when the total issue, including the laid paper, was but 400,000; yet the
catalogue value of the imperforates is some $6 for each variety, and of
the perforated stamp at least $30! Can anyone doubt that all these
150,000 6d stamps were _not_ perforated? In the case of the 3d we have
one and a third millions to compare with a total issue of three and a
half millions--about a third in the supposed perforated class. Yet the
catalogue value of the latter is $2.50 against 36 cents for the wove
paper imperforate alone. With the 1/2d stamp there are two millions
against a total of three and a third millions, or about two to one in
favor of the supposed perforated stamps, yet the latter are double the
catalogue price of the former! The only conclusion to be drawn from
these regularly appearing inconsistencies in each value is that all the
supplies after 30th September, 1857, were _not_ perforated, as the 10d
stamp very glaringly intimates!

If this be so, is it not possible that the order to perforate the new
supplies was given to the manufacturers much later than has hitherto
been thought to be the case? It hardly seems likely that this
improvement would be ordered for a few supplies and then dropped, only
to re-appear a year and a half later as a permanent feature of the new
set. Once adopted it was more than likely to be retained.

Let us see, then, just for curiosity's sake, what the supplies of the
last six months of issue yield us for data. For the 1/2d we find 850,000
roughly, with 60,000 remainders. Call it 800,000 issued which, if
perforated, would be a quarter of the total issue of 1/2d stamps, or a
ratio to the imperforates of one to three. This is not so far away from
the catalogue ratio of two to one (inversely, of course,) in the value
of the perforated stamps. With the 3d stamp we have 450,000 roughly,
with 20,000 remainders, say 430,000 issued. Of a total issue of
3,500,000 this represents one-eighth, or a ratio of one to seven. The
inverse ratio of seven to one for catalogue value comes pretty close
when we compare $2.50 with 36 cents! In the case of the 6d there are
70,000, less 17,500 remainders, or 52,500. This is approximately
one-eighth the total issue of 400,000, or again a ratio of one in seven.
The inverse ratio of seven to one for a catalogue value would make the
perforated stamp list $42 with the imperforate at $6. But both laid and
wove paper 6d stamps list at approximately $6, whereas, if all had been
issued on but one variety of paper, we might find, perhaps, a single
list price of, say $4. With this as a basis, the catalogue value of $30
for the perforated 6d is in as close agreement with our supposition as
are the others. And, best of all, the second supply of the 10d stamp is
disposed of without any difficulty whatever under this hypothesis!

It may be argued that reasoning thus from catalogue prices is too
uncertain to prove of value. Granted in many cases. But here is an issue
from fifty to sixty years old; the stamps were regularly used in
increasing numbers during their years of issue; they have always been
popular and eagerly collected, so that the stock in existence has been
pretty well handled and pretty well distributed. Under these conditions
the catalogue prices should by this time reflect fairly accurately the
_relative_ rarity of the main varieties of each stamp at least; and it
is this relative rarity that we are after in order to approximate the
original supplies of the main varieties. The result is certainly of more
than mere interest, the agreement being such that we are tempted to lay
down the following propositions in regard to the perforated stamps for
further proof or disproof:--

     _First._ The regular perforation (gauge 12) was done by the
     manufacturers and applied to the last requisitions previous to the
     change to decimal stamps.

     _Second._ The date of the supposed issue of the perforated stamps
     should be changed from January, 1858, to November, 1858, or
     January, 1859.

     _Third._ The quantities of perforated stamps issued are placed
     approximately at:--1/2d, 789,440; 3d, 428,200; 6d. 52,422. In
     further support of the above postulates, we must say that every
     cover bearing any one of the three perforated stamps which we have
     been able to get a satisfactory date from has been postmarked in
     _1859!_ Not one has yet been seen which bore a date in 1858 even,
     and one 6d from the Seybold collection, which was dated at
     Brantford, December 29, 1857, turned out to be bad. Of course,
     perforated stamps are hard to find on original covers, but it is
     curious that so far not one has upset the theory we have laid down.

These three perforated stamps do not provide much variation in the
quality of the paper. Most of the stamps are found on a hard wove paper,
varying slightly in thickness, and though the 1/2d and 3d are listed on
ribbed paper, we venture to doubt that this is a true ribbed paper for
the reasons set forth in our last chapter.

Mr. King records the 6d bi-sected diagonally and the halves used as 3d
stamps, but, as in the case of the similar variety in the imperforate
issues, there could have been no real need for such bi-section.


_Reference List._

1858-9.  Stamps of preceding issues perforated 12.

  7.     1/2d  pink, Scott's No. 11.
  8.     3d    red, Scott's No. 12.
  9.     6d    violet, Scott's No. 13.



CHAPTER VI.--_The First "Cents" Issue._


While the somewhat cumbrous English currency of pounds, shillings and
pence has presented little or no difficulty in those parts of the Empire
where it has always been on the same basis as in the Mother country, the
fact that in Canada it had two valuations--"currency" and
"sterling"--made it an inevitable conclusion that a change would have to
be made sooner or later. The close proximity of Canada to the United
States gave it a very practical illustration of the advantages of a
decimal system of money; the American currency of dollars and cents was
legalised in the Province of Canada in 1853; and it is, therefore, small
matter for wonder that ultimately a decimal system of currency similar
to that in vogue in the United States was adopted. This change took
place in 1859 and the Postmaster-General's Report for that year alluded
to the necessary changes in the postage stamps as follows:

     The Law of last Session directing the conversion of all postage
     rates into decimals, and the collection of postage in the new
     decimal currency, was put in operation on the 1st July. Decimal
     stamps of the value of 1 cent, 5 cents, and 10 cents for ordinary
     correspondence, and of 12-1/2 cents for Canadian, and of 17 cents
     for British Packet Postage Rates were obtained in readiness for the
     commencement of the Decimal Postage Law in July, 1859, and have
     from that date been issued in lieu of the stamps previously in use.

The Law referred to on the above mentioned Report was assented to on May
4th, 1859, and as some of the provisions are of philatelic interest we
reproduce them as follows:--

     1.--There shall be payable on all Newspapers sent by Post in
     Canada, except "Exchange Papers" addressed to Editors and
     Publishers of Newspapers, such rate of Postage, not exceeding one
     cent on each such Newspaper, as the Governor in Council shall from
     time to time direct by regulation and such rate shall be payable on
     all such Newspapers, posted on or after the first day of July next.

     2.--So much of any Act as provides that Newspapers posted within
     this Province shall pass free of postage, in cases other than those
     in which they will be free under this Act is hereby repealed.

     3.--In order to adapt the operations of the Post Office to the
     Decimal Currency, the internal letter postage rate shall be changed
     from three pence to its equivalent of five cents, per half
     ounce--the charge for advertising a dead letter from three
     farthings to two cents--the charge for returning a dead letter to
     the writer, from one penny to three cents; and in all cases where a
     one halfpenny or penny rate of Postage is chargeable, these rates
     shall be changed to one cent and two cents respectively.

     4.--To promote simplicity and economy in the business of the Post
     Office, all letters posted in Canada for any place within the
     Province, and not prepaid, shall be charged seven instead of five
     cents per half ounce on delivery; and on letters posted for the
     British Mails, for the other British North American Provinces, or
     for the United States, when not prepaid, there shall be charged
     such addition to the ordinary rate, not in any case exceeding a
     double rate, as the Post Master General may agree upon with the
     Post Office Authorities of those Countries, for the purpose of
     enforcing prepayment.

     5.--The Post Master General may establish a Parcel Post and parcels
     other than letters and not containing letters, may be sent by such
     Parcel Post, and when so sent shall be liable to such charges for
     conveyance and to such regulations as the Governor in Council shall
     from time to time see fit to make.

It will be noted that the above Act, aside from showing the rates in the
new currency as compared with the old, provides for a greater limitation
of the privilege of free transmission of newspapers, and also provides
for the establishment of a Parcel Post.

No further reference seems to have been made to the parcel post until
the Postmaster-General's Report for June 30th, 1864, where it is
stated:--

     By means of the Parcel Post a parcel may be sent within the
     Province to or from any place, however remote from the ordinary
     lines of traffic conveyance, on prepayment of a postage rate of 25
     cents per lb., provided that the weight or size of the parcel does
     not exceed the carrying capacity of an ordinary mail bag; and
     provided that the contents of the parcel are not of a character to
     injure the rest of the mail.

Later the parcel post system was extended so that it embraced the sister
Provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, the rate remaining at 25c
per lb. Apparently the weight and size of a parcel acceptable by the
postal authorities still remained delightfully vague and indefinite and
was simply limited by "the carrying capacity of an ordinary mail bag."

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

As we have seen from the Postmaster-General's Report for 1859 the first
"cents" stamps were placed in use on July 1st of that year. The series
comprised the values 1c, 5c, 10c, 12-1/2c and 17c these corresponding to
the 1/2d, 3d, 6d, 7-1/2d and 10d denominations previously in use. The
designs of the new stamps were adapted from those of the corresponding
values of the old issue as a comparison of the two series will amply
demonstrate. The 1c differs from the 1/2d only in the words denoting the
value below the portrait. The 5c differs from the 3d not only as regards
the new inscription of value but has small ornaments on the oval band
dividing CANADA POSTAGE from FIVE CENTS. In the corners the numerals
"5," replacing "3," are placed in an oblique position on a ground of
crossed lines. The 10c differs from the 6d in having the corner numerals
(represented by the Roman "X") placed obliquely on a cross hatched
ground instead of upright on a ground of foliate ornamentation, while
TEN CENTS replaces SIX PENCE under the portrait. The 12-1/2c differs
from the 7-1/2d only as regards the corners where "12-1/2c" replaces the
former values of "6d. stg" and "7-1/2d cy". On the new 17c the words of
value required so much more room than the TEN PENCE on the old
denomination that the emblems between the upper and lower inscriptions
on the oval were retired in favor of small elliptical ornaments. The
upper corners were unaltered but in the lower ones "10cy" was removed
and "17" substituted.

[Illustration]

It is obvious that the original dies were made use of in each case, the
central portions being retained and new orders engraved.

The stamps were manufactured by the American Bank Note Company, of New
York, which firm had succeeded to the business established by Messrs.
Rawdon, Wright, Hatch and Edson. The new firm name came into effect on
May 1st, 1858.

The stamps were printed in sheets of 100 by the line-engraved process
the manufacturers' imprint, "American Bank Note Co., New York" appearing
twice in each margin in very small letters. For some reason or other no
imprint was applied to the plate for the 17c value.

In the Law relating to the adoption of decimal currency, reproduced
above, we read in section 3 that "in all cases where a one-half penny or
penny rate of Postage is chargeable, these rates shall be changed to one
cent and two cents respectively." Yet, though a 1c stamp was included in
the series in 1859 no 2c made its appearance until 1864. This new value
was issued on August 1st, 1864, according to the Postmaster-General's
Report for that year while the Report for the following year states that
"A provision has been made for the transmission and delivery of Canadian
periodicals, addressed to the United Kingdom, at the reduced rate of two
cents each" and it is probably due to the increased demand for the 2c
denomination under this new rate that the stamp made its appearance.

[Illustration]

The design was evidently copied from the 1c though the addition of
numerals in each of the lower corners gives it a strikingly different
appearance from that of the lower value. Curiously enough the 2c was
printed in almost the same color as the 1c and in commenting on this
fact the _Stamp Collectors' Magazine_ for October 1st, 1864, stated:--

     We are surprised that a different hue was not chosen for the 2
     cents, and should imagine its great similarity to the 1 cent,
     should the latter not be withdrawn from circulation, would tend to
     create confusion.

This new denomination was printed in sheets of 100 like the others of
the series, and also had eight imprints in the margins.

A close study of these stamps should reveal many points of interest. For
many years a double transfer of the 5c, of a similar character to that
found on its predecessor the 3d has been known. This is recorded in
Scott's catalogue as a "double transfer" while Gibbons notes it as a
variety "with extra line in outer oval at left". This variety, which is
simply the most prominent of many double transfers found in connection
with this 5c stamp, shows the outer line of the oval at left distinctly
doubled, and the frame lines above are also double. Other varieties
which, though not so prominent, are of equal philatelic importance are
found. We have seen the following and have no doubt many others exist:--

(1) There are distinct traces of doubling in the letters ADA and POST of
CANADA POSTAGE, in the numerals in the upper angles, and of the lines of
the oval band.

(2) There is a faint doubling of the outer frame lines at the top right
hand corner.

(3) There is a similar doubling of the outer frame lines affecting the
lower right hand corner.

(4) The lines of the oval band are faintly doubled at the lower left.

(5) The letters POST of POSTAGE, the "5" above, and the lines of oval
and frame all show distinct signs of double transferring.

(6) This double transfer affects the lines, numeral, and letters NADA of
CANADA at the upper left corner and while not so distinct as No. 5 is
nevertheless a true plate variety.

We have found no traces of double transfers in the other denominations
except a slight one on the 12-1/2c. This shows a slight doubling of the
frame lines in the top left corner, as well as traces of colored lines
in the adjacent "12-1/2c". It is quite probable that any collector
having sufficient material would find "doubles" in all of these values.

In laying down the impressions on the plate or plates for the 5c value a
guide dot was applied to the transfer roll. This occupied such a
position that as each succeeding impression was applied to the plate it
fell so that the guide dot would fall about the centre of the C of
CENTS. Consequently, the vast majority of these stamps show a
conspicuous dot of color in the position indicated. The stamps without
the colored dot are, usually, those from the extreme left vertical row
of the sheet. On this same value--the 5c--we have seen specimens with
colored dots outside and slightly to the left of the lower left corner.
These are possibly plate dots marked to indicate where each row should
commence. Varieties with broken frame lines are not uncommon and these
may be due in part to defective transfers and in part to wear. Extreme
wear is also shown, in some instances, by the numerals appearing on an
almost plain ground.

Whether guide dots were used for the other denominations or not we
cannot say. At any rate if they were used they were applied in such a
position as to be completely hidden by some part or other of the
designs. A small peculiarity in the 10c is worth noting. On the majority
of specimens there is a slight defect or break in the outer line of the
oval band above and to the right of the O of POSTAGE. This is probably
due to a minute defect on the transfer-roll impression. Many specimens
of the 12-1/2c value show the tongue of the E of POSTAGE the same length
as the upper and lower arms though the end is generally covered with a
colored smudge. We are at a loss to account for the cause of this
variety but that it is a "constant" one we have satisfied ourselves by
the examination of a number of identical specimens. The 17c also
exhibits a small peculiarity of engraving. A colored line projects
upwards into the uncolored oval band above the space between OS of
POSTAGE. This was evidently caused by an accidental touch of the
engraver's tool on the die for it is quite distinct on every specimen we
have examined.

The paper upon which the stamps of this series were printed does not
provide so much variation as that of the earlier emissions. Mr. D. A.
King in his article in the _Monthly Journal_ says:

     The papers upon which these stamps are printed may be divided into
     five classes:

     I.--Ordinary, coarse, white wove paper.

     II.--Similar paper, of a yellowish tint, and slightly ribbed.

     III.--A hard greyish paper, very slightly ribbed.

     IV.--White wove paper, very slightly ribbed.

     V.--A white paper, very hard and closely ribbed.

In addition we are told that all the above varieties come in at least
two thicknesses. Scott's catalogue is content with a classification of
"wove" paper with a sub-variety of "ribbed" for the 1c and 5c
denominations. Mr. Howes extends the "ribbed" variety to all values but,
as we have pointed out in earlier chapters, it is extremely unlikely
that any such variety as a real ribbed paper was used, the ribbed lines
being simply due to some idiosyncrasy of manufacture. To again quote Mr.
King:

     The best way to distinguish this paper from the others that have
     the appearance of ribbing, is to hold the stamp before a strong
     light, when the ribbing will appear like fine horizontal laid lines
     on the 5c, and vertical laid lines in the other values. Looking
     through the paper is the only sure test, as many of the stamps on
     the other papers have the appearance of being ribbed.

To differentiate between stamps on ribbed paper and those having the
"appearance" of being ribbed is surely getting very close to the
ridiculous.

With the exception of the 10c the stamps of this issue provide but
little variation in shade but the 10c more than makes up for this lack
in the others for it exists in almost every conceivable tint from bright
red-lilac through shades of violet and brown to a brown so intense as to
be catalogued as a distinct variety described as "black-brown".

All the stamps of this series were normally perforated 12 by single line
machines. All values are known entirely imperforate and it would seem
that these, or most of them, are perfectly legitimate errors. The
_Philatelic Record_ for October, 1882, says:--"We have seen a used
_imperforate_ copy of the 5 cents, 1859, which is beyond challenge". Mr.
King states:--"The imperforate varieties are all legitimate, and
undoubtedly genuine, having been seen in pairs, or in single copies with
margins beyond cavil". Mr. Charles L. Pack writing in the _London
Philatelist_ regarding these varieties says:--

     I have the 1c and 5c postmarked in 1860 and 1861 at Toronto and
     Prescott, Canada West. I also believe that these varieties were on
     sale at Kingston, Canada West, at about that time. I have also the
     2c and 10c in undoubtedly early used condition.

Bi-sected varieties of the 5c and 10c of this issue are known though, as
Mr. Howes states of these varieties, they "were never authorised and
seldom used". The _Philatelic Record_ for October, 1888, mentions a part
of a cover with a 10c and half of a 5c side by side which were evidently
used in prepayment of the 12-1/2c rate, while Mr. Howes records the
existence of a pair of the 5c used with a half stamp of the same
denomination to make up the 12-1/2c packet rate. The same writer records
a diagonal half of the 10c used as a 5c stamp from Bowmanville, Upper
Canada, on February 15th, 1860. Whether these "splits" were the work of
private parties or were made by postal officials to fill a temporary
shortage of certain values will probably never be known.


_Reference List._

1859-64.  Engraved and Printed by the American Bank Note Co.,
          New York, on white wove paper. Perforated 12.

 10.      1c       pink, Scott's No. 14.
 11.      2c       rose, Scott's No. 18.
 12.      5c       vermilion, Scott's No. 15.
 13.      10c      lilac, Scott's No. 16.
 14.      12-1/2c  green, Scott's No. 19.
 15.      17c      blue, Scott's No. 20.



CHAPTER VII.--_The First Dominion Issue._


The steady growth of Upper Canada, chiefly due to immigration, until it
had twice the population of its sister Province, Lower Canada, aroused
cries for a readjusted representation, which threatened the French with
a hopeless minority in Parliament and the country with another impasse.
The federation of all the provinces under something like the American
system was the only solution; and with, for the most part, the cordial
coöperation of the maritime provinces, the great scheme was carried
through, and the new dominion launched in 1867. Each province retained
its local autonomy and separate legislature under a lieutenant-governor,
always a Canadian, nominated by the federal executive. To the latter was
reserved all great affairs, such as defense, customs, Crown lands,
Indians, and the organisation of the vast western territories then just
beginning to open up.

The famous Sir John Macdonald, the most illustrious of Canadian
statesmen, was prominent in the federal movement, as also was Sir
Charles Tupper. A final meeting was held in London, and early in 1867
the British North America Act was passed through the Imperial
Parliament. The new capital was fixed at Bytown, a small town up the
Ottawa well removed from the frontier, fairly central to all the
provinces, and felicitously rechristened Ottawa. Here were erected the
stately houses of parliament for senate, commons, and the entire
government staff, familiar to all travellers, and there, too, the
governor-general of all British North America took up his residence,
Lord Monck being the first to hold this high office, and Sir John
Macdonald the first premier.

The British North America Act, referred to above, provided for the
division of the Dominion of Canada into four provinces named Ontario,
Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick and also made provision for the
admission of Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, British Columbia, etc.,
when such admission should be deemed advisable. The Act went into force
on July 1st, 1867, and as a mark of the importance of this event the
first day of July is now a national holiday known as "Dominion Day".

It only remains to say that Prince Edward Island, British Columbia and
Manitoba (not then organised) came into the federation shortly
afterwards.

One of the chief duties of the first Parliament, which met at Ottawa on
November 6th, 1867, was the revision and consolidation of the laws of
the various provinces now federated, and amongst these were, of course,
the laws relating to the Post Office. The Act passed for the regulation
of the postal service is a lengthy one and the only provisions of
special interest to us as philatelists, those relating to the rates of
postage,--are more clearly and definitely tabulated in a Department
Order issued from Ottawa on March 1st, 1868, to which we shall make
reference later. Before doing so, however, we make a short extract from
the Post Office Act insofar as it relates to definitions of various
terms and expressions, viz.:--

     The term "Letter" includes Packets of Letters;

     The term "Postage" means the duty or sum chargeable for the
     conveyance of Post Letters, Packets and other things by Post;

     The term "Foreign Country" means any country not included in the
     dominions of Her Majesty;

     The term "Foreign Postage" means the postage on the conveyance of
     Letters, Packets or other things, within any Foreign Country or
     payable to any Foreign Government;

     The term "Canada Postage" means the postage on the conveyance of
     Letters, Packets and other things by Post within the Dominion of
     Canada or by Canada Mail Packet;

     The term "Mail" includes every conveyance by which Post Letters are
     carried, whether it be by land or water;

     The term "British Packet Postage" means the postage due on the
     conveyance of letters by British Packet Boats, between the United
     Kingdom and British North America:--And the term "British Postage"
     includes all Postage not being Foreign, Colonial or Canadian;

     The term "Post Letter" means any letter transmitted or deposited in
     any Post Office to be transmitted by Post:--And a letter shall be
     deemed a Post Letter from the time of its being deposited or
     delivered at a Post Office, to the time of its being delivered to
     the party to whom it is addressed.

The Department Order addressed to "All Postmasters, and Other Persons
Employed in the Postal Service of Canada" dealt chiefly with the rates
of postage and as these are important we feel it is necessary to
reproduce most of this rather lengthy document _in extenso:_--

     PRINCIPAL RATES OF POSTAGE.

     LETTERS.

     5.--On letters passing between any two places within the Dominion
     of Canada, a uniform rate (irrespective of distance), of three
     cents per 1/2 oz., if prepaid; and five cents per 1/2 oz. if
     unpaid.

     6.--On letters between any place in the Dominion and any place in
     the United States, 6 cents per 1/2 oz., if prepaid; and ten cents
     per 1/2 oz. if unpaid.

     7.--On letters to or from the United Kingdom, in Mails by Canada
     Packets, to or from Quebec in summer, or Portland in winter; or by
     Mail Packet to or from Halifax, 12-1/2c per 1/2 oz.

     On do. in Mails via New York Packet, 15 cents per 1/2 oz.

     On letters to Prince Edward Island, if prepaid, 3 cents per 1/2
     oz.; if posted unpaid, 5 cents per 1/2 oz.

     On letters to Newfoundland, to be in all cases prepaid, 12-1/2c per
     1/2 oz.

     On letters to British Columbia and Vancouver Island, in all cases
     to be prepaid, 10 cents per 1/2 oz.

     On letters to Red River, to be in all cases prepaid, 6 cents per
     1/2 oz.


     NEWSPAPER RATES.

     8.--Newspapers printed and published in Canada may be sent by Post
     from the office of publication to any place in Canada at the
     following rates, if paid quarterly in advance, either by the
     Publisher, at the Post Office where the papers are posted, or by
     the subscriber, at the Post Office where the papers are
     delivered:--

     For a paper published once a week, 5 cents per quarter of a year.

     For a paper published twice a week, 10 cents per quarter.

     For a paper published three times, 15 cents per quarter.

     For a paper published six times, 30 cents per quarter.

     If the above rates are prepaid by the Publisher, the Postmaster
     receiving payment must be careful to have the papers so prepaid
     separately put up, and marked, distinctly, as prepaid.

     When the above rates are not prepaid in advance, by either the
     Publisher at the office of posting or by the subscriber at the
     office of delivery, the papers are to be charged one cent each on
     delivery.

     9.--Canadian Newspapers, addressed from the Office of publication
     to subscribers in the United Kingdom, the United States, Prince
     Edward Island and Newfoundland, may be forwarded, on prepayment at
     the Office in Canada where posted, at the above commuted rates,
     applicable to such papers within the Dominion.

     10.--Exchange Papers passing between publishers in Canada, between
     publishers in Canada and publishers in the United States, Prince
     Edward Island and Newfoundland, are to pass free--one copy of each
     paper to each publisher.

     11.--Transient Newspapers include all Newspapers posted in Canada,
     other than Canadian Newspapers sent from the Office of publication,
     and when addressed to any place within the Dominion, to the United
     Kingdom, to the United States, Prince Edward Island or
     Newfoundland, must be prepaid two cents each by postage stamp.

     12.--Newspapers coming into Canada will be subject to the following
     charges on delivery:--

     If from the United Kingdom, by mail packet to Quebec, Halifax or
     Portland--Free on delivery.

     By mails via the United States (New York), two cents each.

     If from the United States, two cents each, to be rated at the
     Canada Frontier, or exchange office receiving mails from the United
     States.

     If from Prince Edward Island or Newfoundland, when received by
     regular subscribers in Canada from the Office of publication, the
     ordinary commuted rates applicable to Canada Newspapers.

     Transient Papers--two cents each.

     13.--The Canada Postage rates on Newspapers coming or going to the
     United Kingdom and the United States, will thus be the same as
     those charged in the United Kingdom and the United States on
     Newspapers there received from or sent to Canada.

     14.--Canada News Agents may post to regular subscribers in Canada,
     British Newspapers free, and United States Newspapers unpaid, such
     papers in the latter case, must be duly rated two cents each for
     collection on delivery.


     PRINTED PAPERS, CIRCULARS, PRICES CURRENT, HAND BILLS, BOOKS,
     PAMPHLETS.

     15.--The rate on printed matter of this description posted in
     Canada, and addressed to any place in Canada, Prince Edward Island,
     Newfoundland or the United States, will be one cent per ounce, to
     be prepaid by Postage Stamp; and a like rate will be payable on
     delivery, when received from the United States, Prince Edward
     Island or Newfoundland.


     PERIODICAL PUBLICATIONS.

     16.--When posted in Canada, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland or
     the United States, the rate will be one cent per four ounces.

     17.--A like rate will be payable on delivery in Canada, when
     received for the United States, Prince Edward Island or
     Newfoundland.

     18.--Periodicals weighing less than one ounce per number, when
     posted in Canada for any place within the Dominion, Prince Edward
     Island, Newfoundland or the United States may, when put up singly,
     pass for one-half cent per number, to be prepaid by Postage Stamp.

     19.--As the Postage Rates on Periodicals, other than Newspapers,
     will be payable in advance, and as certain classes of such
     periodicals, printed and published in Canada, and sent from the
     office of publication to regular subscribers, have for some time
     past been exempted from postage when exclusively devoted to the
     education of youth, to temperance, agriculture and science, or for
     other reasons, it is ordered, that with respect to periodicals
     which do now enjoy this privilege or exemption, the exemption shall
     continue until the expiration of the current year--that is, until
     the 31st December, 1868, and that from the 1st January, 1869, all
     such special exemptions and privileges shall cease.


     PARCEL POST.

     20.--The rate on Parcels, by Parcel Post, will be 12-1/2 cents per
     8 ounces, that is to say:--

     On a parcel not exceeding 8 oz., 12-1/2 cents.

     Over 8 oz., and not exceeding 1 lb., 25 cents.

     Over 1 lb. and not exceeding 24 oz., 37-1/2 cents.

     And so on, to the limit of three lbs.


     BOOK AND NEWSPAPER MANUSCRIPT, AND OTHER MISCELLANEOUS MATTER.

     21. On Book and Newspaper Manuscript (meaning written articles
     intended for insertion in a newspaper or periodical, and addressed
     to the Editor or Publisher thereof, for insertion), Printers' Proof
     Sheets, whether corrected or not, Maps, Prints, Drawings,
     Engravings, Music, whether printed or written, packages of Seeds,
     Cuttings, Roots, Scions or Grafts, and Botanical Specimens, the
     rate will be 1 cent per ounce, when posted for any place in Canada
     or the United States, and prepaid by Postage Stamp.


     POSTAGE STAMPS.

     22.--To enable the Public to prepay conveniently by Postage Stamps
     the foregoing rates, the following denominations of Postage Stamps
     for use throughout the Dominion, have been prepared, and will be
     supplied to Postmasters for sale:--

          Half cent             Stamps  }
          One cent                do.   }
          Two cent                do.   }  All bearing,
          Three cent              do.   }  as a device,
          Six cent                do.   }  the effigy
          Twelve and a half cent  do.   }  of Her Majesty.
          Fifteen cent            do.   }

     23.--The Postage Stamps now in use in the several Provinces may be
     accepted, as at present, in prepayment of letters, etc., for a
     reasonable time after the 1st. of April; but from and after that
     date all issues and sales to the public will be of the new
     denomination.

The section regarding "Franking and Free Matter" provides that only
letters sent to or by the Governor-General, the Speaker or Chief Clerk
of the Senate or of the House of Commons, Parliamentary papers, and
legislative documents, such as petitions, addresses, and votes, shall be
carried free of postage.

The most important change effected by the above quoted regulations was
the reduction of domestic postage from five cents to three cents. It
will be noted there are now no prepaid 5c or 17c rates and but one at
10c (on letters sent to British Columbia and Vancouver Island)
consequently these denominations were dropped from the new series. On
the other hand the 1/2c rate on transient newspapers, which had to be
prepaid, the regular 3c letter rate, the 6c rate to the United States,
and 15c for the new British Packet rate made necessary the issue of
these four values in addition to the 1c, 2c, and 12-1/2c denominations,
which were retained. All these stamps were printed by the line-engraved
process, as in the case of the earlier issues, the sheets consisting of
one hundred specimens arranged in ten horizontal rows of ten each. A new
firm--the British American Bank Note Company, of Montreal and
Ottawa--were entrusted with the manufacture of these stamps and, like
their predecessors, they applied their imprint to the plates, so that it
is shown four times on the margins of the sheets of the printed stamps.
Mr. Howes describes the imprint as follows:--

     The imprint appears in colorless capitals on a narrow strip of
     color with bossed ends, and reads BRITISH AMERICAN BANK NOTE CO.,
     MONTREAL & OTTAWA. This strip is framed by a very thin parallel
     line, its entire width being but one millimeter, while its length
     is about 51 mm. It occurs but once on a side, being placed against
     the middle two stamps (numbers 5 and 6) of each row at a distance
     of about 3 mm. The inscription reads up on the left and down on the
     right, as before, but the bottom one is now upright, instead of
     being reversed.

     In the case of the half cent stamp at least, we find an additional
     marginal imprint over the second and third stamps of the top row.
     This consists of the words HALF CENT, in shaded Roman capitals 4
     mm. high, the whole being about 40 mm. long. Presumably the same
     thing, varied for each denomination, occurs on other values of the
     series, as we find it does on the succeeding issue; but a strip
     from the top of a sheet of the 15 cent stamps proves that it was
     lacking on that value at least.

The new stamps came into use on April 1st, 1868, and are all much alike
in design. All values show a profile portrait of Queen Victoria, with
head to right, on a background of horizontal lines within a circle, but
the ornamentation and disposition of the inscriptions and numerals of
value in the surrounding frame is different on each. The _Stamp
Collector's Magazine_ for May, 1868, in announcing the issue, gives a
good description which we cannot forbear quoting, viz:--

     We are now in possession of, as we presume, the entire series of
     stamps for the Dominion of Canada, consisting of seven values--1/2
     cent, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12-1/2, and 15 cents. It would be indeed odious
     to compare them with the issues for another confederation lately
     formed. They are the work of a newly-formed colonial company, and
     are worthy to take rank beside any which have been manufactured by
     the rival companies of New York. The design, as we stated last
     month in noticing the 15c--the first of the set to appear--bears a
     resemblance to that of the lower values of Nova Scotia, but shows
     the Queen's head turned to the right. The new "British American
     Bank Note Company, of Montreal and Ottawa", has done well to copy
     so good a device, and certainly has not spoilt it, as the English
     engravers did in the four penny South Australian. Moreover, whilst
     retaining the central figure, by enclosing it in a
     differently-patterned frame for each value, they have given greater
     variety to the series. In all, care has been taken to make the
     numerals distinct; and it is as well that this has been done, as
     two of the values assimilate considerably in shade. The half cent
     is distinguished from the rest by its smallness--it is quite
     one-third less in size, but the device is the same. The stamps are
     all printed on substantial paper, are perforated, and of the
     following colors:

          1/2     cent   black
           1        "    dull red
           2        "    green
           3      cents  vermilion
           6        "    brown
          12-1/2    "    deep-blue
          15      cents  mauve

     The two lowest values are for newspapers, and are far from being
     acceptable, notwithstanding their beauty of design, to the
     journalists. It had been expected that newspapers would be sent
     throughout the Canadian provinces free of charge; and there has
     been in consequence, a loud but ineffectual outcry against the
     general imposition of even a reduced rate of postage, and more
     especially at the enactment, that the charge must be paid by
     senders. "Proprietors of journals," says the _Quebec Chronicle_,
     "find it hard enough at present to collect the simple subscription,
     without demanding postage in advance. People who writhe at present
     under the payment of their bare paper account, will find forwarding
     postage, in advance, an excruciating sacrifice." The 2 cents is no
     doubt primarily intended for soldiers' letters. The 3 cents pays
     the new single rate for postage; the 6 cents the charge on letters
     to the United States. The 12-1/2c represents the postage to
     England; and the 15c the rate for letters sent via New York.
     Possibly a 10c will yet be added to the series, but the old 17c
     will find no substitute in it. The new rates came into operation on
     the 1st April, and we suppose on that date all the pre-existing
     stamps of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were withdrawn.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

The stamps of this series provide quite an extensive range of shades,
especially as regards the 2c, 6c, and 15c. In the case of the latter
value the range of tints is so great that it is difficult to know what
was its originally intended color. The first shade was evidently mauve,
as given in the _Stamp Collector's Magazine_ chronicle, but, as is so
frequently the case with mauves, lilacs and violets, tint variations
were soon noticed. Shades varying from deep red lilac to grey and
blue-grey are known. It is difficult to draw the line, in some
instances, between true shades and "fades" but the grey would appear to
be undoubtedly a true color variety and one that should be recognised as
a provisional, if wholly unintentional, color change. Scott, in fact,
lists it as a separate issue under the date 1875-77, but this is an
arbitrary classification which has, apparently, no foundation in fact,
and the best plan is to include the variety in its logical place with
the rest of the 1868 series.

The paper used for this set of stamps is what is generally known as
"wove" and it varies, as Mr. Howes states, "from a very thin, almost
pelure quality to a quite hard and thick variety." Mr. King, who was
evidently untiring in his efforts to discover varieties of paper, says,
"This series is of a most interesting nature, having a very large number
of varieties of paper, all quite distinct, and specimens of some are of
considerable rarity." Mr. King then lets himself go and describes some
_seventeen_ varieties of paper but, with the exception of two well
marked varieties to which we shall make extended reference shortly, they
all seem to resolve themselves into minute variations of the wove paper
such as can be found in connection with most stamps of the 'sixties and
'seventies with the aid of a micrometer and a well trained imagination!
We doubt whether any specialist, however willing and enthusiastic, could
follow Mr. King through his intricate listing.

Scott's catalogue lists a sub-variety of all values except the 1/2c on
"watermarked" paper. The watermarked letters found in these stamps were
known at least as early as 1870 and much speculation was rife as to
their meaning. Mr. John N. Luff finally solved the problem by assembling
a large number of the watermarked stamps so that he was able to
reconstruct the complete watermark, viz:--

E. & C. BOTHWELL
CLUTHA MILLS

The letters are large double lined capitals 12-1/2 mm. high with the
exception of the initial letters E, C and B of the upper line, which
are 13 mm. high. The "watermark" is, of course, the trademark of the
paper manufacturer and, like other watermarks of a similar nature, it is
not of very great philatelic importance. It is very generally presumed
that the paper watermarked in this manner was used provisionally--an
opinion with which Mr. Howes seems to concur by his statement that "the
watermarked paper must therefore have been used sometime during the
course of the year 1868, probably the middle, when supplies of all
values except the 1/2c were printed." But we fail to find from any
evidence so far adduced that this watermarked paper was in use only
during some well defined period. The fact that it is not found in
connection with the 1/2c proves nothing for this value was of a
different size from the others and doubtless paper of a different size,
but the same quality was used so as to prevent unnecessary waste in
cutting into sheets for printing. At best, as we have already stated, it
is but a papermaker's trade mark, and it is difficult to understand on
what grounds it is included in the catalogue as a variety to the
exclusion of similar and well known examples in the stamps of other
countries. We must confess that more importance seems to be attached to
the variety than is warranted by its philatelic status and we commend to
our readers' attention Major E. B. Evans' pertinent comments regarding
it, viz:--

     We feel bound to state that, unless the paper itself is of a
     different nature from the plain wove, this watermark seems to us to
     possess no interest whatever. It is evidently entirely unofficial,
     and it is quite possible that it only occurred in one sheet out of
     several of identically the same paper.

The other variety of paper which calls for special mention is a "laid"
paper found in connection with the 1c and 3c values. It is obviously a
true "laid" paper, the laid lines being very distinct, fairly wide and
quite evenly spaced. While the use of this paper was, no doubt, quite
unintentional, it is a distinct variation from the normal wove which
cannot be ignored by specialists, though we hardly think it is entitled
to rank as a "major" variety as shown by the classification followed in
Scott's catalogue. The 3c was discovered first and was mentioned in the
_Philatelic Record_ for March, 1882, as follows:--"Mr. Tapling informs
us that he possesses the 3 cents red, issue of 1868, on laid paper." A
few months later Mr. Corwin discovered a copy of the 1c which he
described in the _National Philatelist_ for January, 1883, as follows:--

     Some time since I saw noted in the _Philatelic Record_ the
     existence of a 3 cent Canada stamp, emission of 1868, on laid
     paper. In looking through my Canadian varieties, after reading this
     note, I discovered also a copy of the one cent red, same emission,
     on laid paper.

This laid paper was evidently used during the printing of the early
supplies of the 1c and 3c denominations. Scott's catalogue lists the
varieties under the date "1870" but we can find no evidence of any kind
in support of this classification. Messrs. Corwin and King record a copy
of the 1c postmarked November 27th, 1868, and the 3c is known dated
August 31st, 1868, all of which points to the early use of this laid
paper. The 15c on "thin paper, horizontally laid" was mentioned in the
_American Journal of Philately_ for October, 1892, on the authority of
Mr. F. de Coppet but as the variety is not now catalogued and no copy
seems to be known we presume its authenticity is a debatable question.
The 1c, orange, was at one time listed on laid paper but this has been
satisfactorily proved to be simply a "figment of the imagination".

In his article in the _London Philatelist_ Mr. C. L. Pack describes the
15c as existing on "distinctly soft ribbed paper". Mr. King gives
"ribbed" varieties for all values on both thin and thick soft paper but,
as in the case of the earlier Canadian stamps found on ribbed paper, we
think a lot of proof is yet necessary before these varieties can be
accepted as anything better than accidental vagaries of printing.

The perforation used for the stamps of this series had a gauge of 12, as
with the stamps of the preceding issue, and was the work of single line
or guillotine machines. That is, each line of perforation, both
horizontally and vertically, represented a separate stroke on the
machine. The _Monthly Journal_ for February, 1899, lists a minor variety
of perforation in the 2c, 3c, 6c, 12-1/2c and 15c denominations in which
the measurement is 11-1/2 x 12. Whether a machine with a gauge of 11-1/2
was in temporary use at some time or other is uncertain but if such was
the case it seems strange that no copies are known perf. 11-1/2 all
round or perf. 12 x 11-1/2. Even if it were due to a slight error in the
placing of the perforating needles in some part of the full row it is
strange that specimens gauging 12 x 11-1/2 are not known. We have been
unable to find any further references to these varieties other than that
stated above so that, until more information is forthcoming on the
subject, they should be accepted with reserve.

The 15c of this series is known entirely imperforate and Mr. Howes
records the 1/2c as existing in a horizontal pair, imperforate between.

The only "split" found in connection with this series occurs in the case
of the 6c denomination, diagonal halves of which are known to have done
postal duty as 3c. These appear to have been entirely unauthorized
though, as they undoubtedly passed through the mail, they have an
interest to collectors of stamps on cover.


_Reference List._

1868.  Engraved and Printed by the British American Bank Note
       Company, at Ottawa. Wove paper. Perf. 12.

 16.   1/2c     black. Scott's No. 21.
 17.   1c       brown red. Scott's No. 22.
 18.   2c       green, Scott's No. 23.
 19.   3c       red, Scott's No. 24.
 20.   6c       brown, Scott's No. 25.
 21.   12-1/2c  blue, Scott's No. 26.
 22.   15c      lilac, Scott's No. 27.
 23.   15c      gray, Scott's No. 39.



CHAPTER VIII.--_The 1c Orange of 1869._


The 1c and 3c stamps of 1868 were so alike in color that it was soon
found that confusion was easily possible between the two values. Early
in 1869, therefore, the color of the 1c was changed to orange to prevent
further mistakes. The exact date at which this change took place is not
known, but in the _Stamp Collector's Magazine_ for March 1st, 1869, we
read:--

     We have just received copies of the one cent printed in brilliant
     orange. No doubt this colour has been adopted in order better to
     distinguish it from the 3 cents, which it has hitherto too nearly
     approached.

From the above extract it would seem that the orange colored stamps were
in use at least as early as February and though it has been asserted
that the change took place on January 1st, 1869, we believe there are no
official documents or early dated specimens in existence that would
substantiate this statement.

These 1c stamps may be found in both orange and yellow shades as well as
a combination of both. So far as is known they were printed from the
same plate or plates as the earlier brown-red stamps.

The paper is the same as that used for the other denominations, _i.e._
wove, and the fact that this variety is not known with the watermark of
the papermaker's trade mark is generally adduced as the strongest
evidence in support of the theory that this watermarked paper was only
of a provisional nature and was used some time during 1868.

The perforation is the usual 12 and specimens are known entirely
imperforate.


_Reference List._

1869.  Change of color. Wove Paper. Perf. 12.

 24.   1c  orange, Scott's No. 31.



CHAPTER IX.--_The Large 5c Stamp._


Although it somewhat interrupts the chronological sequence of our
narrative, before dealing with the small "cents" stamps, first appearing
in 1870, it will be as well to give the history of the large 5c stamp
which, though not issued until 1875, really belongs by virtue of its
type and general appearance to the series of 1868.

It is known that the die for this 5c stamp was engraved in 1867 at the
same time the dies for the 1/2, 1c, 2c, 3c, 6c, 12-1/2c and 15c values
were prepared for, in the _American Journal of Philately_ for June,
1868, it is stated:--

     The Canadian Government have had a 5 cent stamp prepared, engraved
     of the same type as the present set, the most noticeable difference
     being the circle round the head which is corded. The specimen sent
     us is printed in brown on India paper, bearing the Company's
     imprint underneath.

Though the die was all ready, as amply proved by the above extract,
no plate was made as there was then no postal rate which required
such a denomination. In 1875, however, the single letter rate between
Canada and Great Britain was reduced to 5c as stated in the
Postmaster-General's Report for 1875, viz.:--

     A treaty for the formation of a General Postal Union, and for the
     adoption of uniform postal rates and regulations for International
     correspondence, was arranged and signed at Berne, Switzerland, in
     October, 1874, by the representatives of the Post Offices of the
     chief Nations of the world. This agreement took effect between all
     the countries which were directly parties to the Treaty in July
     last. The Treaty did not include the British Possessions beyond the
     sea, but Canada has, with the concurrence of the Imperial
     Government, applied for admission as a member of this Postal Union.
     Meanwhile the letter rate of postage between Canada and the United
     Kingdom has, by arrangement with the Imperial Post Office, been
     reduced to the International rate of 2-1/2 pence sterling--5 cents
     currency--established by the Union Regulations; and this reduction
     has also been made applicable to correspondence passing by way of
     New York, making the rate between Canada and the United Kingdom
     uniform at 5 cents by whatever route conveyed.

Although the Report alluded to above is dated June 30th, it must have
been published at a later date as the "July last" mentioned refers to
July, 1875, and when the 5 cent rate came into operation stamps to fit
this new rate were wanted in such a hurry that, as a temporary
expedient, a plate was made from the die engraved in 1867 pending the
preparation of a die conforming to the small sized stamps then in
general use. There was only one printing and the total number issued is
believed to have been about one million. Mr. Howes says it was issued on
October 1st, 1875.

In 1877 the 5c single letter rate was, by treaty, extended to embrace
the German states of Prussia, Baden, Bavaria, Hanover, Saxony and
Wurtemberg and in the same year the rate on a single letter to
Newfoundland was reduced from 6c to 5c. At this time, of course, the
small sized 5c stamps were in use but it will better preserve the
continuity of our study of the postal rates to make one more extract
from the Postmaster-General's Reports--that for 1878,--viz.:

     At the meeting of the International Postal Congress, which, under
     the provisions of the Postal Treaty of Berne, concluded in October,
     1874, took place at Paris in May, 1878, Canada was admitted to be a
     member of the General Postal Union from the 1st July, 1878, and in
     consequence the rate of letter postage between Canada and all
     Europe became one uniform charge of 5 cents per half ounce.
     Newspapers and other printed matter, and samples and patterns of
     merchandise also became subject to uniform postage rates and
     regulations for all destinations in Europe.

The 5c rate was, thus, now well established, and Canada had obtained
membership in the Universal Postal Union, for which she had been
striving since 1875.

This large 5c stamp was printed by the line-engraved process, like the
other denominations of similar designs. The portrait forming the
centrepiece is like that on the values of 1868 though the medallion is
enclosed within a "corded" circle instead of an ordinary plain line.
"CANADA POSTAGE" is curved above the portrait, as usual, while below is
"FIVE CENTS". The numerals, shown in the lower corners, are somewhat
smaller than those on the other denominations of this type.

The stamps were printed in sheets of 100, in ten rows of ten, and with
regard to the marginal imprints Mr. Howes tells us that "The sheet bore
four marginal imprints, arranged as before, but of a slightly different
type for the 1868 issue. This new imprint is in capitals and lower case
letters on a colored strip 56 mm. long and 2-1/2 mm. wide, with a border
of pearls, and reads: 'British American Bank Note Co. Montreal'.
Doubtless the words FIVE CENTS in shaded Roman capitals would be found
over the second and third stamps of the top row if one were fortunate
enough to possess this portion of a sheet."

The stamps were printed on the wove paper then in use and perforated 12
in the usual manner.


_Reference List._

1875.  Engraved and Printed by the British American Bank Note
       Co., Montreal. Wove paper. Perf. 12.

 25.   5c  olive green, Scott's No. 37.



CHAPTER X.--_The Small "Cents" Stamps._


In the _American Journal of Philately_ for August, 1869, we read "Canada
is shortly to have a new set of stamps. Taking lessons in economy from
our own country, it seems they are about altering their stamps to make
them smaller, so as to save paper. The head will still remain exactly
the same as now, but the frame and the margin around the head will be
considerably less. We cannot see how this can be done without spoiling
the beauty of the stamp. As to whether they are to retain the same
colors we are unable to say." The 1869 issue of the United States was in
use at that time and though this series is now generally popular it was
regarded with very mixed feelings then as may be imagined from the
_Stamp Collector's Magazine_ comments on the above statement, viz.:--"We
trust this intelligence is incorrect; that the example of the new United
States stamps can have any attractive influence on the Canadian
authorities is hardly possible."

The new issues do not seem to have formed the subject of any special
official document or notice, nor does the reduction in the size of the
labels seem to have been considered worthy of special mention in any of
the Reports issued by the Postmaster-General.

These smaller sized stamps were issued as the stocks of the earlier
issues became exhausted or, in some cases, presumably as the old plates
were discarded owing to wear, but it appears very probable that the dies
for the 1c, 2c, 3c, 6c and 10c denominations were all engraved at the
same period and, as regards the 2c, 6c and 10c, it is very possible that
supplies were printed and held in stock long before it became necessary
to issue them to the public.

The 3c was the first value to appear and was probably on sale some time
in January, 1870. The _Stamp Collector's Magazine_ for March 1st of that
year chronicled this new stamp as follows:--

     It appears that the reduction in the size of the Dominion postage
     stamps, to which reference was made some months ago, is really to
     be carried out, and as an earnest of the execution of the project,
     we receive the three cents red, cut down to the size of the half
     cent, and with the design made to resemble that of the latter. The
     numerals in the upper corners are absent; the inscription, CANADA
     POSTAGE, is in almost microscopic lettering, and in lieu of the
     full denomination--THREE CENTS--in the lower margin, the word CENTS
     alone appears, flanked by the figure on each side. The cause of the
     change is not to be sought in any desire to economise paper; it
     lies in the simple fact that the smaller size is found the more
     convenient. The design certainly is not improved by it, and we
     might call upon these little stamps to "hide their diminished
     heads," were it not that the head, and that alone, remains as large
     as ever. The stamps, though in a fair way to become small by
     degrees as the Canadian idea of convenience increases, are not
     likely to become "_beautifully_ less." A new value, however, made
     up from the parings of the old ones--an 8 cents--is said to be in
     preparation, and will help to make up in quantity, for any
     deterioration in the quality.

The next value to appear was the 1 cent, which was recorded in the
journal referred to above in its issue for April 1st, so that it was no
doubt on sale some time in March, 1869. In design it is similar to the
3c, the main difference being in the inscription at base. The
denomination is given in full--ONE CENT--and this follows the curve of
the medallion instead of curving in the reverse direction as CENTS does
on the 3c.

[Illustration]

Evidently there were large stocks on hand of some of the values of the
1868 issue for two years elapsed before any more of the small stamps
appeared. Then in the _Stamp Collector's Magazine_ for February, 1872,
we read:--"We have received by the last mail specimens of a new 6 cents
brown of the small size. It is printed of a warm tint, and is as
effective as its congeners." The design follows that of the 3c very
closely with, of course, the numerals "6" instead of "3" in the lower
angles.

In the following month the 2c was chronicled, its color being given as
"a delicate chrome-green." The design differs from the 3c and 6c chiefly
in the direction of the curve of the word CENTS, which is reversed, as
compared with those denominations, and much less pronounced.

The 10c was the next value to appear and it was not on sale until quite
late in 1874, probably about November 1st. The design follows the
general effect of the 2c but at the same time illustrates a new
departure, inasmuch as the numerals of value are repeated in the upper
corners in a smaller form. For what particular purpose this value was
intended is not clear for there was, apparently, no regular rate at that
time which required such a denomination.

The next value placed on sale was the 5c, which was issued in February,
1876, and superseded the large 5c design after it had been in use for
only about four months. Though the portrait is the same as that on the
other values the frame is of a distinctly different style and CENTS is
in much larger letters than before, showing that the previous values,
following as they do a general pattern, were engraved much about the
same time though many years elapsed before all were actually in use.

[Illustration]

Finally in July, 1882, the 1/2c value appeared and was recorded in the
_Philatelic Record_ for July of that year in the following words:--

     That "history repeats itself" is a proverb that is curiously
     illustrated by the latest issue of this colony. We all remember
     that in 1868 a 1/2c stamp of smaller size than the other values of
     the series was emitted. A few years later, some say for economical
     reasons, the other values were reduced to the smaller size.
     Recently it seems to have struck the Canadian authorities that
     their idea of fourteen years ago was a happy one, and the 1/2c has
     been proportionately cut down. The general arrangements of the
     design remain the same, but the ornamentation is simpler. The head
     and circle containing it are miniatures of the former, and the
     result is what the ladies would call "a dear little stamp," about
     the size of our lately defunct "Halfpenny," but an upright instead
     of an oblong rectangle. We trust the price of paper will not again
     cause a general reduction; for if the Canadian stamps go on growing
     "small by degrees, and beautifully less," they will in time become
     too microscopic to be collectible.

After the issue of the 1/2c value the only denominations of the 1868
series not provided with successors in the issue under notice were the
12-1/2c and 15c. Regarding the former value the _Stamp Collector's
Magazine_ for May, 1872, says, on the authority of a Canadian
journal:--"It is unlikely that the 12-1/2c small size will be issued, as
the large ones are very little used, and can now be bought at the
post-office for 12 cents." But some three years later the _American
Journal of Philately_ asserted that "Canada will shortly issue the
12-1/2c and 15c values of postals in small size, to correspond with the
others of the series." These stamps, however, never materialised though
that dies and plates were made and stamps printed from them is evident
from the existence of perforated essays of these two values. The
portrait is exactly like that of the other denominations, and the
borders are, on general lines, so like the 1c, 2c, 3c, 6c and 10c as to
give considerable support to the belief that these unissued varieties
were prepared for use at quite an early date.

The stamps of this series were all produced by the line-engraved process
and all values, with the exception of the 1/2c, were at first printed in
sheets of 100, arranged in ten horizontal rows of ten. The 1/2c was
printed in sheets of 200, arranged in two panes of 100 each, placed side
by side. A space of about 11 mm. separated the two panels and these
large sheets were cut into halves before leaving the printing
establishment, thus making "post-office" sheets of 100 stamps. In the
later months of 1892 or early in 1893 the 1c, 2c and 3c values--the ones
in most general demand--were printed in large sheets of 200 arranged in
ten horizontal rows of twenty stamps each.

A close study of a large quantity of these stamps would probably result
in the discovery of many interesting varieties in the way of double
transfers. In the few stamps at our disposal we have found but one of
any prominence. This occurs on the 3c denomination the top portion of
the design having plainly been applied to the plate twice, the doubling
being especially noticeable in the inscription CANADA POSTAGE.

As these stamps were in use for a fairly lengthy period--nearly thirty
years in the case of the 3c--it is obvious that a large number of plates
must have been made, especially for those denominations which were
generally used. At different times different marginal imprints or
arrangements of the imprints were used, and given sufficient material a
study of these marginal varieties should reveal much of interest. Mr.
Howes has paid particular attention to these varieties and the following
notes are chiefly based on his investigations.

The earliest plates of the 1c, 2c, 3c, 5c and 6c, and probably the 10c
as well (as this value was in use before the 5c), had the denomination
in words above the second and third stamps on the top row of each sheet.
These inscriptions, "ONE CENT", etc., were in large shaded Roman
capitals 4 mm. high. In the centre of each of the four margins is the
manufacturer's imprint, BRITISH AMERICAN BANK NOTE CO. MONTREAL &
OTTAWA, in colorless Roman capitals on a narrow strip of color 1 mm.
wide and 51 mm. long; this imprint being, in fact, exactly like that
found on the sheets of the 1868 issue. These remarks apply to the 1c,
2c, 3c and 6c (and probably to the 10c also), but not to the 5c.

The 5c, which was not issued until 1876, has the denomination shown in
the upper margin in large shaded Roman capitals, as in the case of the
others, but the imprint is different, being like that found on the
sheets of the large 5c stamp, _i.e._ "British American Bank Note Co.
Montreal", in capitals and lower case letters on a strip of solid color
56 mm. long by 2-1/2 mm. wide, with a pearled border. This imprint was
shown on each of the four margins.

About this time new plates made for the other denominations also had
this new style of imprint. Sheets of the 1c and 3c show the imprint on
top and bottom margins only, but whether other plates were used for
these denominations with imprints on all four sides is not known for
certain, though this is highly probable. The 6c and 10c values of this
series have large numerals, "6" or "10" as the case may be, above the
second stamp in the top row, while above the ninth stamp of the same row
is "SIX" or "TEN" in shaded Roman capitals. The numerals are very thick
and 6 mm. in height, while the letters are 4 mm. high as on the earlier
plates, though the word "CENTS" has now been dispensed with. This
arrangement has not been noted on other denominations as yet, though
there is no reason why it should not be found in connection with the 1c,
2c and 3c.

A sheet of the 3c value, with two marginal imprints, is noted with
"THREE" in shaded Roman capitals above the first two stamps of the top
row, while the 1c is recorded without any marginal designation of value
and with but two of the "Montreal" imprints.

The printing establishment of the British American Bank Note Company was
removed from Montreal to Ottawa in 1888 and plates made after that date
show a new style of imprint viz:--"BRITISH AMERICAN BANK NOTE CO.
OTTAWA", in white Roman capitals on a strip of solid color measuring 40
mm. long by 1-1/2 mm. wide. This, it will be noted, is like the first
type of imprint but with the words "MONTREAL &" removed. On the 2c this
is known 49 mm. long and nearly 2 mm. wide, this being from a sheet in
the 100 arrangement. The smaller style of imprint seems to have been
characteristic of the sheets printed in the 200 size, and writing with
regard to these Mr. Howes says:--

     The "Ottawa" imprint appears three times, once in the middle of the
     top margin, over stamps 10 and 11, and twice in the bottom margin,
     beneath stamps 5 and 6, and again beneath stamps 15 and 16. There
     are no imprints at the sides. The denomination appears in the top
     margin at both right and left and in a new style of lettering on
     these larger plates. Thus we find ONE CENT or TWO CENT over stamps
     2 and 3 as well as 18 and 19, or THREE CENT over the first four and
     last four stamps in plain Egyptian capitals.

[Illustration]

The 1/2c value, which we have left until last on account of its
different sheet arrangement, had the "Montreal" imprint, described in
connection with the other values, arranged six times on the
margins--above and below each pane, at the right of the right hand pane,
and at the left of the left hand pane--so that there were three imprints
on each of the "post-office" sheets of 100 stamps. In addition, to quote
Mr. Howes, "over the top inscription of the right pane is the reversed
figure 1, 4 mm. high, and in the same position on the left pane the
corresponding figure 2, evidently to designate the panes."

This series provides a number of shade varieties, as is only natural in
a set having such long currency, and their proper treatment is a matter
involving some little perplexity. It was evidently the original
intention of the printers to keep the colors of the small stamps as
nearly like those of the large ones they superseded as possible, and
while many shades match the colors of the earlier stamps to a nicety
others show a divergence that at times almost approaches a "color
change." As early as May, 1873, the _Stamp Collector's Magazine_ noted a
change in the shade of the 3c viz.:--

     By the courtesy of a Montreal correspondent we are in possession of
     specimens of the current three cents, printed in bright
     orange-vermilion. A supply in this color has just been issued.

The _Philatelic Record_ for March, 1888, says "The 10c is now in
carmine-red", and again in May that "the 5 cents has changed its color
from bronze-green to greenish grey." More than a year later (July, 1889)
the same journal says "the 2 cents stamp is now blue-green;" in
December, 1890, the 6c is recorded in "chestnut-brown"; while in April,
1892, the 5c is chronicled as having been issued in "grey-black."

Similar color changes in most values were recorded in other journals but
as there is an almost total lack of agreement as regards the names
chosen to designate the different shades these chronicles are of little
value in determining the chronological order of issue of even the most
striking of the tints. It is also more than probable that after a change
had been made the original or earlier tints were reverted to later on.
The catalogues are equally at variance in their choice of color names
and while Gibbons' gives four shades for each of the 1c and 3c values,
Scott gives but two for the 1c and of the four given for the 3c not one
agrees with any of the names given by Gibbons'. The only point on which
both catalogues agree is that a general change of colors took place
during the period of 1888-90, _i.e._, after the printers had moved
their establishment from Montreal to Ottawa. But though the later
printings of the 6c and 10c do, undoubtedly, differ very materially from
the earlier colors--almost enough so, in fact, to be classed as distinct
colors--such varieties seem to have been purely accidental and to
classify them as separate issues hardly seems correct. In this
connection it is interesting to quote Mr. Howes' remarks:--

     That the above changes were hardly of a character to warrant
     dignifying them as a "new issue," which is frequently done, is
     shown by a moment's consideration. The 1/2c and 1c stamps showed no
     appreciable difference in coloring and therefore caused no comment.
     The 2 cent did not retain its blue green shade unaltered, and the 3
     cent soon reverted to its former brilliant red hue, as the
     _Philatelic Journal of America_ for May, 1889, says that "the
     carmine color recently adopted has been dropped, and the stamps are
     printed in colors similar to the ones in use before the change was
     made." The 5, 6, and 10 cent stamps, however, made permanent
     changes, but only such as might readily be traceable to a new
     mixing of the inks in the case of the first two. The 10 cent can
     hardly be so easily disposed of, as lake and brown-red are of quite
     different composition from a rose-lilac. But there can have been no
     official intention of altering the shades or colors or more
     definite and permanent changes would certainly have been made
     throughout the set. It remains, therefore, to classify them simply
     as shade varieties of the original set.

Mr. Donald A. King, in his article in the _Monthly Journal_, gives no
less than eight varieties of paper for the stamps of this issue, though
all resolve themselves into slight, and in many cases probably
imperceptible, variations in quality and thickness of the usual "wove"
paper. Mr. Howes gives a thick and thin wove and "a closely ribbed
paper." This latter like the ribbed varieties in the earlier issues, is
evidently due to nothing more than some eccentricity of printing and is,
consequently, of doubtful philatelic importance. The classification of
the series into thick and thin papers seems to have more to be said in
its favor if the statement made in Gibbons' catalogue is to be relied
on. According to a foot note the stamps printed prior to 1888 (that is,
in Montreal), are on a thinner paper than was used for subsequent
printings. The _Philatelic Record_ for October, 1893, mentions the 10c
as being found on "fine laid paper" but this was evidently the variety
more generally classified as "ribbed."

The perforation used for the stamps of this series was the usual 12--the
work of single-line or guillotine machines. All values are reported to
exist perforated 11-1/2 by 12, as mentioned in connection with the
issues of 1868, but this statement requires verification before it can
be accepted as authoritative. All values are known entirely imperforate,
the 3c in this condition being first recorded in the _Philatelic Record_
for December, 1882. Writing in the _London Philatelist_ in 1907 Mr. M.
H. Horsley says with regard to these varieties:--"Imperforated copies of
various values were sold over the Post-office counter in Montreal about
the years 1891-3 at their face value, and have been good for postage
whenever people cared to use them." Writing a little later on the same
subject Mr. C. L. Pack also vouches for them, viz.:--"I quite agree with
Mr. Horsley in regard to the various imperforate copies of the issues of
1882 to 1895. There are a good many specimens of these stamps
imperforate, and they were on sale at a Canadian Post Office." Curiously
enough Gibbons' catalogue entirely ignores these imperforate stamps
though Mr. Howes is able to adduce documentary evidence in support of
the statements made by philatelists of such undoubted authority as
Messrs. Horsley and Pack.

Scott's catalogue records the 1/2c as existing in a horizontal pair
imperforate between.

The same work records the 2c bi-sected diagonally or vertically and the
halves used for 1c stamps, while Mr. Howes adds the 6c, cut vertically
and used for 3c. But as the "Canadian Postal Guide" declares that "a
mutilated stamp, or a stamp cut in half, is not recognised in payment of
postage" such freaks can only have passed through the mails by
carelessness or favor and their philatelic interest is negligible.

In 1875 an Act of Parliament was passed making the prepayment of letters
by postage stamp obligatory and imposing a fine of double the deficiency
on all insufficiently prepaid letters. At the same time local or drop
letters (accepted for 1c) were restricted to 1/2 oz. in weight.

The Postmaster-General's Report for 1879 says:--

     A reduction has been made, from the 1st September last, in the
     postage rate on closed parcels sent by post within the Dominion,
     from 12-1/2 cents per 8 oz. of weight to 6 cents per 4 oz. Under
     this change small parcels not exceeding 4 ounces in weight are
     admitted to pass for 6 cents instead of 12-1/2 cents as before.

It will thus be seen that this change did away with the chief use of the
12-1/2c value and made it practically useless. Hence the reason it was
never included among the series of small "cents" stamps.

In 1889 another Post Office Act increased the limit of weight of single
letters from 1/2 oz. to 1 oz., and at the same time increased the postal
rate on local or drop letters from 1c to 2c, though a weight of 1 oz.
was allowed under the new schedule. An official notice recording these
changes was published as follows:--

     NOTICE TO THE PUBLIC

     CHANGES IN POSTAGE RATES UNDER AUTHORITY OF POST OFFICE ACT 1889.

     The rate of postage upon Letters posted in Canada, addressed to
     places within the Dominion or in the United States, will be 3 cents
     per ounce instead of 3 cents per half ounce as heretofore. Upon
     Drop Letters posted at an Office from which letters are delivered
     by Letter Carrier, the postage rate will be 2 cents per ounce,
     instead of 1 cent per half ounce. The rate of postage upon Drop
     Letters, except in the Cities where free delivery by Letter Carrier
     has been established, will be 1 cent per ounce.

     The fee for the Registration of a letter or other article of mail
     matter, will be five cents upon all classes of correspondence
     passing within the Dominion. For the present and until further
     instructed, the registration fee may be prepaid by using the 2 cent
     Registration Stamps and Postage Stamps to make up the amount.

     Letters insufficiently prepaid will be charged double the
     deficiency as heretofore, provided at least a partial payment has
     been made. Letters posted wholly unpaid will be sent to the Dead
     Letter Office for return to the writer.

     JOHN G. HAGGART,
     _Postmaster-General._

     Post Office Department,
     OTTAWA, 8th May, 1889.


_Reference List._

1870-82.  Engraved and Printed by the British American Bank
          Note Co. of Montreal and Ottawa. Wove paper. Perf. 12.

 26.      1/2c  black, Scott's No. 40.
 27.      1c    orange, Scott's No. 32.
 28.      2c    green. Scott's No. 33 or 41.
 29.      3c    red. Scott's No. 34 or 42.
 30.      5c    grey, Scott's No. 38 or 43.
 31.      6c    brown, Scott's No. 35 or 44.
 32.      10c   magenta or brown red, Scott's No. 36 or 45.



CHAPTER XI.--_The 20c and 50c Stamps of 1893._


The Postmaster-General's Report for 1892 states that "Postage stamps of
the value of 20 cents and 50 cents are about to be issued. These will be
useful in prepayment of parcel post." These high values were, of course,
intended to be used in making up relatively large amounts of postage.
They were not issued to be used in prepayment of any specific rates
though a study of the postal rates of the period show that the postage
on a parcel weighing up to one pound sent to the United Kingdom would
require a 20c stamp, while a 2 lb. parcel sent to Japan would take the
50c denomination. The same rates show that the postage on 1 lb. parcels
sent to Newfoundland was 15c, though no stamp of this value had been
issued subsequent to the series of 1868 nor has one ever since been
included in the regular series.

[Illustration]

These new 20c and 50c labels were issued on February 17th, 1893, and
while alike in design, except as regards the denotation of value, they
are quite dissimilar from any of the previously issued postage stamps of
the Dominion both as regards size and design. The portrait shows Queen
Victoria in her widow's weeds and is similar to that shown on the Bill
stamps which were first issued in 1868. Above the portrait CANADA
POSTAGE is curved, and on straight labels at the foot is the value in
words, while between this inscription and the lower part of the
medallion are figures of value.

The stamps were, as usual, produced by the line-engraved process, and
they were printed in sheets of 100 at the Ottawa establishment of the
British American Bank Note Company. The manufacturer's imprint was shown
twice on each sheet--in the centre of the upper and lower margins. This
imprint consisted of the words "British American Bank Note Co. Ottawa,"
on a strip of solid color measuring 38 mm. in length and 2-1/2 mm. in
height. This colored strip has square ends and is enclosed within a
pearled border.

Both values were printed on the wove paper used for the other
denominations then current and the perforation was the usual 12 made by
single-line machines.

Evidently these values were but sparingly used, for Mr. Howes tells
us:--

     Both were ordered to the number of half a million copies in 1893,
     and in 1895 25,000 more of the 20 cent and 30,000 more of the 50
     cent were delivered, with a final 200 copies in 1896. These
     quantities were sufficient to last until the 20 cent was superseded
     by the newer type in 1901, and the 50 cent by the King's head stamp
     in 1908. Some 1500 of the 20 cent were returned for destruction and
     about 10,000 of the 50 cent.

It seems hardly possible that but 200 copies of each were supplied in
1896--_i.e._ two sheets of each value--if they were the normal
perforated stamps. Possibly this small supply consisted of the
imperforates--both values being known in this condition--and if so they
may have been printed to fill a special requisition. The imperforate 20c
is on the normal shade but the 50c is, as Mr. Howes observes, in a
"peculiar black blue" shade. There are no marked varieties in shade as
can easily be understood from the few printings which took place.


_Reference List._

1893.  Engraved and Printed by the British American Bank Note
       Co. of Ottawa. Wove paper. Perf. 12.

 33.   20c  vermilion, Scott's No. 46.
 34.   50c  deep blue, Scott's No. 47.



CHAPTER XII.--_The 8c Stamp of 1893._


Until 1889 the registration fee had to be prepaid by means of the
special stamps issued for the purpose. When, in 1889, a uniform
registration fee of 5c was adopted the public were given permission to
use the ordinary postage stamps in making up the difference between the
old rate of 2c and the new one. This was done largely to enable the old
2c labels to be used up. In 1893 it was decided to discontinue the use
of special registration stamps altogether and to permit the payment of
the registry fee by means of the regular postage stamps. As the rate of
domestic postage was 3c at that time and the registration fee was 5c, a
new stamp, by means of which both postage and registration could be paid
together, it was decided, would be useful. Consequently an 8c
denomination was issued, this being recorded in the _Philatelic Record_
for October, 1893, though, judging from the following extract from the
WEEKLY for August 10th, 1893, it would appear that the new value was in
general circulation at least as early as August 1st:--

     The following orders were posted up in all Canadian post-offices on
     August 1st:

     A new postage stamp of the value of 8c is now being put into
     circulation. This stamp will be available for the prepayment either
     of registration fee and postage combined, or of postage only. The
     5c registration stamp, when the present supply is exhausted, will
     be withdrawn.

[Illustration]

The new denomination, as stated in the _Philatelic Record_, "resembles
in design the 3 cents of the current series; but the head of the Queen
has been turned the other way, and is now to the left."

This stamp was of similar size to the other values of the set then
current (excepting the 20c and 50c, of course) and it was printed from
steel plates in sheets of 200 arranged in ten horizontal rows of twenty
stamps each. According to Mr. Howes, there were no marginal imprints of
any kind. This denomination was printed on wove paper and perforated 12
like the others. The variety with gauge of 11-1/2 x 12 is reported in
connection with this value but, like the similar varieties of the
earlier issues which we have already mentioned, the statement requires
verification before it can be definitely accepted.

The 8c is known entirely imperforate in the blue-grey shade, which was
one of the earliest if not the first shade for this stamp. The
_Philatelic Record_ calls it "slate-grey" but evidently the tint now
generally classified as "blue-grey" was meant.

This stamp provides a large number of very distinct shade varieties.
Just 13 months after it was first chronicled the _Philatelic Record_
says:--"Whether by accident or intention does not appear to be quite
clear, but copies of the present 8 cents are found in much darker color
than we have hitherto seen. Messrs. A. Smith & Son have shown us copies
that are slate-black of the darkest kind."

A writer in the _Canada Stamp Sheet_ for October, 1900, says:--

     There are three varieties of this stamp, the slate, the lilac-grey
     and the purple. The first and second tints are comparatively
     common, but the purple is not found in every dealer's stock nor has
     it a place in many stamp collections. In fact, it is a variety but
     little known to the average collector, from the fact that it is
     seldom offered, either on approval sheets or on the counter of the
     dealer. There ought to be no difficulty in distinguishing this
     stamp from its mates of the same denomination, for while the backs
     of the rest present a white surface, in this case the back or paper
     is of a decidedly purplish hue. In my opinion this stamp is a good
     one to pick up now, as its present value is far below its intrinsic
     worth.

Later still, a German paper referred to three main printings for this
stamp a translation of the article appearing in _Gibbons Stamp Weekly_
for June 13th, 1908, as follows:--

     The last stamp issued showing a portrait of the late Queen Victoria
     as a young girl was the 8 cents, Canada, issued in July, 1893. The
     stamp was intended for a combined postage and registration stamp;
     3c for postage (inland) 5c registration fee.

     There were three distinct printings of this stamp; they may be
     easily distinguished from each other by differences of shade.

          July,     1893, blue-grey.
          October,  1895, slate-grey.
             ?      1897, purple-black.

     The total number issued of these stamps was 5,885,000, but
     unfortunately there are no records of the quantities of each of the
     three printings.

     It will be noticed that there is no 8 cents in the King Edward VII
     issue, for the simple reason that the inland rate had been reduced
     to 2 cents; therefore the present combined postage and registration
     stamp is a 7 cents.

The above extract, it will be noted, is very explicit as regards the
actual number issued as well as the dates of issue of the three most
distinctive shades. On what authority these statements are based we
cannot say, but Mr. Howes shows from official records that many more
than the quantity stated were printed, viz.:--

     The first delivery of these stamps, and of course the first
     printing, was of 100,000, as recorded in the stamp accounts for
     1893. As these accounts were made up to 30th June, and there is no
     record of any "issue to postmasters," the stamps were doubtless
     delivered just before the accounts were closed, so that opportunity
     had not been given to distribute the new value. For the next few
     fiscal years the amount received from the manufacturers averaged
     over a million and a half annually, so that by the time it was
     superseded it had been printed to the number of at least 7-1/2
     millions.


_Reference List._

     1893. Engraved and Printed by the British American Bank Note Co.
     Ottawa. Wove Paper. Perf. 12.

     35. 8c grey, Scott's No. 48. 48a, 49 or 49a.



CHAPTER XIII.--_The Diamond Jubilee Issue._


The year 1897 was an eventful one in the history of the British Empire,
for on June 20th the greatly revered Queen Victoria celebrated the
sixtieth anniversary of her accession to the throne. Naturally such an
epochal event was marked in one way or another in even the most remote
corners of the Empire. In some cases there were public celebrations and
rejoicings with, perhaps the erection of memorials, while some of the
colonies marked the event by the issue of special series of postage
stamps. The Dominion of Canada commemorated the "Diamond Jubilee" by the
issue of a highly ornate set of stamps comprising no less than sixteen
different denominations, and the inclusion of what were widely termed
"unnecessary" high values and the unbusinesslike and somewhat
discreditable manner in which they were placed on sale by the Post
Office Department cast a slur on Canada's postal history which took many
years to live down.

Early in 1897 the idea of issuing a special series of stamps was mooted
as witness the following extract from the _Weekly Philatelic Era_ for
January 30th:

     Many suggestions are being made and many plans laid for the fitting
     celebration of the sixtieth year of Her Majesty's reign. In Canada
     ... a proposal has been made and an agitation started for the issue
     of a commemorative set of postage stamps by the Dominion
     government.... It has been suggested that the new stamps be made a
     trifle larger than the present ones, that a somewhat recent picture
     of Her Majesty replace the present one, and that the figures and
     colors be made more pronounced.... The agitation for a new issue is
     quite pronounced and is by no means confined to philatelists. There
     appears to be a general desire on the part of the people to have a
     change.

At first the intention seems to have been to issue only a 3 cent stamp
but, alas, this original intention was stifled like many other good
ideas and the Departmental officials, giving their enthusiasm free rein,
finally decided on a set to consist of sixteen denominations ranging all
the way from 1/2c to five dollars. The announcement of the forthcoming
issue of the stamps aroused so much general interest that the series
formed the subject of a question in Parliament and according to the
_Canadian Hansard_--the official and verbatim record of Parliamentary
proceedings--the Postmaster-General (Mr. Mulock) replied to his
interrogator as follows:--

     It is the intention of the Government to issue a set of Jubilee
     postage stamps. Such stamps will be put into public use by being
     delivered to postmasters throughout Canada for sale to the public
     in the same manner as ordinary postage stamps are sold. There will
     be a limit to the quantity to be issued. The denominations of
     Jubilee stamps, and the total number of such Jubilee stamps to be
     issued, are set forth in the following schedule:

     _Number to be issued._           _Denomination._
        150,000                       1/2c     stamps.
      8,000,000                       1c        "
      2,500,000                       2c        "
     20,000,000                       3c        "
        750,000                       5c        "
         75,000                       6c        "
        200,000                       8c        "
        150,000                      10c        "
        100,000                      15c        "
        100,000                      20c        "
        100,000                      50c        "
         25,000                      $1         "
         25,000                      $2         "
         25,000                      $3         "
         25,000                      $4         "
         25,000                      $5         "
      7,000,000                      1c     postcards.

     Total value of one stamp of each kind $16.21-1/2.

     As soon as the total number of stamps mentioned in said schedule is
     issued the plates from which they will have been engraved will be
     destroyed in the presence of the head and two officers of the
     department. On the 10th of June the Post Office Department will
     proceed to supply Jubilee postage stamps to the principal
     post-offices in Canada, and through them minor post offices will
     obtain their supply until the issue is exhausted. If this Jubilee
     issue were to wholly displace the ordinary postage stamps it would
     supply the ordinary wants of the country for between two and three
     months, but as the use of the ordinary postage stamps will proceed
     concurrently with that of the Jubilee stamps, it is expected that
     the Jubilee stamps will last beyond the three months. Inasmuch as
     the department is already receiving applications for the purchase
     of Jubilee stamps, it may be stated that the department will adhere
     to the established practice of supplying them only to postmasters,
     and through them to the public, who may purchase them on and after
     the 19th June, 1897.

It will be noted that the Post-Office Department made no pretense about
the matter but stated quite candidly that the issue would be limited and
before very long, by means of different official notices and
communications it was made quite plain that the issue was intended to
_sell_ and that restrictions would be placed on the scale of the more
desirable values, which were issued in but small quantities. With the
first supply of these stamps sent to postmasters the following circular
was sent:--

     N. B.--Requisitions for _full sets_ of the Jubilee stamps will be
     filled until the issue is exhausted.--E. P. S.

     POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, CANADA,
     POSTAGE STAMP BRANCH,
     OTTAWA, _June, 1897._

     Sir:--I am directed by the Postmaster-General to send you herewith
     a supply of the Jubilee stamps and 1c post card, equal to one
     month's ordinary requirements of your office. Should this quantity
     prove insufficient it will, on your requisition addressed to this
     branch, be supplemented; but as the Jubilee issue is limited, it
     would be necessary for you to apply early in order to secure
     further supplies of the same.

     I am also to instruct you not to sell any of the accompanying
     stamps or postcards before the opening of your office at the
     regular office hours on the 19th June instant--the eve of the
     anniversary they are intended to commemorate.

     These stamps and cards are, of course, like the ordinary issues, to
     be sold at face value.

     I am, Sir, Your Obedient Servant
     E. P. STANTON, _Superintendent._

     P. S.--As there appears to be a somewhat general desire on the part
     of many persons to purchase, for souvenir purposes, complete sets
     of the Jubilee stamps, it is hoped that you will so manage the sale
     of such stamps that persons applying to purchase full sets may be
     able to get them.--E. P. S.

The stamps were placed on sale throughout the Dominion on the morning of
Saturday, the 19th of June the eve of Jubilee day proper. Naturally
there was a big rush on the part of the public to obtain specimens of
the much heralded stamps and in the larger centres the post offices were
literally besieged. Speculators tried to corner the 1/2c and 6c
denominations, which advance particulars had shown to be the most
desirable of the lower values, but the stamps were doled out carefully
and large orders were promptly and firmly refused. But though care was
exercised the department was convinced, from the result of the first
day's sale, that steps would have to be taken to further restrict the
sale of the desirable denominations. The demand for the stamps at the
chief office was so great that a circular letter was prepared to be
despatched to applicants, this reading as follows:--

     POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, CANADA,
     POSTAGE STAMP BRANCH, OTTAWA,
     _26th June, 1897._

     Sir,--With reference to the numerous demands upon this office for
     the 1/2c and 6c Jubilee stamps, I am directed to explain that the
     respective quantities of Jubilee stamps ordered bear, relatively,
     the same proportions to the actual requirements of the Postal
     Service, but the tendency to exhaust the HALVES and SIXES has
     increased to such a degree, that it has become necessary to
     restrict their sale to the purchasers of full sets. Hence I am to
     express the Postmaster-General's regret that he is unable, having
     regard to the limited character of the Jubilee issue, to comply
     with any requests for the 1/2c or 6c denomination, apart from those
     for full sets. These sets may be obtained as long as the series of
     Jubilee stamps last, but as the demands upon it are unusually
     heavy, it would be advisable to apply for full sets at the earliest
     possible moment.

     When Postmasters obtain such sets to fill orders actual or
     prospective at their respective offices, they must not, in any
     case, break the sets.

     I am, Sir, Your Obedient Servant,
     E. P. STANTON, _Superintendent._

     P. S.--Under no circumstances will there be any issue of Jubilee
     stamps, beyond the limits mentioned in the accompanying extract
     from Hansard, containing the Postmaster-General's statement on the
     subject.

At the same time instructions were issued to postmasters that they were
not to sell the 1/2c, 6c, 8c and dollar denominations except in the
complete sets of sixteen values.

Later this ruling was modified and sets to 50c and $1 inclusive were
allowed to be sold resulting in the issue of another circular to
postmasters worded as follows:--

     POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, CANADA,
     POSTAGE STAMP BRANCH, OTTAWA,
     _August, 1897._

     Sir,--I am directed to transmit to you the accompanying partial
     sets of Jubilee stamps. These sets consist of two kinds: one from a
     1/2c to $1 (value $2.20-1/2), the other from 1/2c to 50c (value
     $1.20-1/2). You are instructed to sell these stamps as sets, and as
     sets only, representations having been made to the department that
     in various parts of the Dominion there is a desire to obtain such
     sets for souvenir purposes. You must not, under any circumstances,
     break a set; for, besides the disappointment that such a course
     would cause, you would render yourself liable to loss, the
     department having decided not to allow credit for any broken sets
     returned to it by a postmaster who, notwithstanding the
     instructions herein given, sells any denominations of the stamps
     making up a set apart from the rest.

     I am also to ask you to use your best judgment in the sale of these
     sets, checking, as far as possible, any attempt on the part of
     speculators to monopolise them, and thus securing as general
     distribution of such sets in your vicinity as the circumstances may
     permit. To enable you to make change in connection with the sale of
     the enclosed sets I include a sufficient quantity of ordinary 1/2c
     postage stamps.

     I may add that the accompanying supply has been based strictly upon
     the annual revenue of your office, and, having regard to the total
     number of sets available and the extent of their distribution,
     represents that proportion to which you are entitled.

     I am, Sir, Your Obedient Servant,
     E. P. STANTON, _Superintendent._

So anxious did the department show itself in its efforts to
circumnavigate the speculator, and so obvious was the fact that the
Jubilee stamps were issued, like our own Columbian stamps, for the
pecuniary profit the Government would derive from their sale, that it is
small wonder that the series was condemned and discredited by the
philatelic press almost universally. The following extract from the
_Monthly Journal_ for June, 1897, is typical of many:--

     We are indebted to various correspondents for papers and cuttings
     with reference to the Jubilee issue of this Colony which will have
     taken place by the time this is in print. While acknowledging that
     the design of the stamps appears to be a very handsome and
     appropriate one, we feel bound to add that the affair possesses no
     other redeeming feature whatever. The Canadian Government has made
     a new contract for the supply of stamps, etc., with an American
     firm, which will apparently involve a new issue of stamps within a
     short time. If the occasion had been taken for the issue of a
     permanent series appropriate to the Jubilee year, nothing could
     have been more agreeable to philatelists throughout the British
     Empire; but to bring out a set of labels, including unnecessarily
     high values and printed in limited numbers, to be issued
     concurrently with the present stamps, is to reproduce all the most
     objectionable features of the unnecessary and speculative
     emissions, which we all desire to put an end to. We cannot expect
     that on such an occasion as this loyal British subjects will be
     able to abstain altogether from purchasing Jubilee mementoes of
     this description, but we would most strongly recommend them to be
     satisfied with copies of one or two of the lower values. Outside
     the British Empire we trust that this discreditable issue will fall
     as flat as it deserves.

To add to the unsavory tale we have only to say that there was much
scandal on account of the openly expressed statements that the desirable
values were, in many instances, cornered by postal employes who had, of
course, "first option" on the supplies reaching their respective
offices. Thus, in the _Philatelic Messenger_ of New Brunswick, we read:

     But now that the stamps have been issued in certain given numbers
     and in the Postmaster-General's peculiar way, _where are they?_
     That is what a great many want to know and that is a question which
     must be answered. I know where some of them are. I had a letter
     from a postmaster's son at a small office in Quebec, asking me what
     I would give for 45 8c Jubilee stamps. I had a letter from an
     office in P. E. Island, asking my prices for 1/2, 6, and 8c Jubilee
     stamps. Collectors in the principal cities of the Dominion have
     seen whole sheets of 1/2c stamps in the possession of post-office
     employees. These little incidents may give one some idea where the
     stamps are. I also have a pretty good idea where the stamps are
     not. A prominent Toronto dealer laid $100 on the stamp counter the
     first day of sale, and was tendered two specimens of the 1/2c and
     6c stamps. At Montreal, Toronto, St. Johns, Halifax, and all the
     principal cities, not more than two specimens of the 1/2, 6, 8, 10,
     15, 20 and 50c stamps were sold to the same person, that is, of
     course, outside the post-office staff. I have it on good authority
     that there is not a stamp dealer in Canada who has 100 of the 1/2c
     value unless he happens to be a post-office employé also. The
     stamps are not in the dealers' stock books then, for they have not
     been able to get them. I wrote to Fredericton the other day for a
     few 10, 15, 20 and 50c stamps and the postmaster returned the money
     and said they could be supplied only in complete sets. One meets
     with the same reception at nearly every post office. What were the
     stamps made for if not to be sold to the public as the public wants
     them? What would be thought of a furniture store where one could
     not purchase a table or a chair but must take a whole set? The
     thing is ridiculous.

While the idea of issuing special stamps to commemorate the Diamond
Jubilee was laudable enough, the restrictions applied to their sale and
the inclusion of unnecessary high values was, to put it mildly, an
official _faux pas._ It has been asserted that the values from $2 to $5
inclusive were quite unnecessary as it was not possible to use either of
these denominations in prepayment of any legitimate postal charges. But
it was also pointed out that as there was no limit to the weight of a
package sent by first class mail a heavy letter could easily call for
more postage than $5. Indeed, in his article in the _Monthly Journal_,
Mr. Donald A. King stated:--

     At a post office with which I am somewhat familiar the posting of
     letters and parcels for the United Kingdom and other Postal Union
     countries that called for postage from $1.00 upwards was, at
     certain periods, a matter of daily, often hourly, occurrence, so
     much so that the only comment it excited was from the clerk
     cancelling, who would audibly wish that there were higher values in
     the permanent issue than 50c and thus save time cancelling the
     entire length of a large envelope.

     Within my own experience there has been more than one case where a
     letter has been mailed on which there was not space to place the
     stamps; an entire sheet (100) of 15 cents stamps was pasted on,
     obliterated, and then another with some odd values completed the
     prepayment; and the case can be recalled of a letter on which
     $40.00 postage was prepaid. While the Jubilee set was in everyday
     use the sight of the higher values was quite common on any mail for
     the United Kingdom and Europe, shipping and commercial houses
     prepaying their mail with the "dollar" values simply as a matter of
     convenience.

But though there may have been isolated instances in which high values
could be used with convenience their very limited use is obvious from
the fact that the Canadian government has always, both before and since
the emission of the Jubilee set, found a 50c value high enough for all
practical purposes. Had postal requirements called for such constant use
of high values as Mr. King's remarks lead us to infer it is hardly
likely that, when the remainders were finally withdrawn and destroyed in
1905, out of a comparatively small total issue of 25,000 of each of the
dollar stamps 94 of the $1, 66 of the $2, 1,835 of the $3, 2,013 of the
$4, and 1,240 of the $5 would be returned and destroyed.

[Illustration]

The design is the same for all denominations and, as we have already
stated, is a very handsome one. The stamps are of extra large size and
show two portraits of Queen Victoria. That on the left, with the date
"1837" below it, is identical with the portrait shown on the old 12d and
7-1/2d stamps, while the one on the right, with date "1897" below, is
from a full length portrait painted in 1886 by Professor von Angelo of
Vienna. This shows the Queen in her robes of state as she appeared on
the assumption of the title "Empress of India." Above the portraits is
CANADA POSTAGE and between these words is the so-called Tudor Crown of
Great Britain with the letters "V. R. I." below--these latter, of
course, standing for Victoria Regina Imperatrix, (Victoria, Queen and
Empress). At the base the value is shown on a straight tablet and in the
angles, and between the two dates, are maple leaf ornaments. These
Jubilee stamps were printed by the American Bank Note Company, who had
recently secured the contract for the printing of stamps, bank notes,
etc., for the Dominion. In the _Montreal Herald_ for January, 1897, the
following particulars are given with regard to the change of printers:--

     The contract for the Government engraving, for which tenders were
     called two months ago, has been awarded to the American Bank Note
     Company, of New York, for a period of five and a quarter years. The
     contract is worth $600,000, and may be renewed for a similar
     period. The work consists of engraving the Dominion bank notes,
     revenue and postage stamps, postal cards, etc. At present the
     British American Bank Note Company, better known as Burland and
     Company, formerly of Montreal, have the contract. They tendered
     this time, but the New York company was the lowest. The New York
     company is one of the largest and best known in the world. The firm
     engraves notes for some of the banks in Canada, including the
     Canadian Bank of Commerce. Under the terms of the new contract, the
     Company will require to establish a place in Ottawa to do the work,
     where the Government can have supervision of it. As compared with
     the prices paid under the Burland contract, the Government will
     effect a saving of $120,000 by the new contract.

The stamps were, like all Canadian stamps, produced by the line-engraved
process, the values from 1/2c to 5c inclusive being printed in sheets of
100 in ten horizontal rows of ten, and the other denominations in sheets
of 50 in ten horizontal rows of five stamps each. The only marginal
inscription consists of the name OTTAWA followed by the number of the
plate. This inscription appears at the top of the sheets only--above the
centre of the fifth and sixth stamps in the case of the 1/2, 1, 2, 3 and
5c values and above the third stamp on the values from 6c to $5. The
name is in thin Roman capitals, 2-1/2 mm. high, the total length of the
inscriptions being about 40 mm. The following are the numbers of the
plates used:--

1/2  cent,   plate 9.
  1  cent,   plates 5, 6, 15, 16.
  2  cents,  plate 7, 8.
  3  cents,  plates 1, 2, 3, 4, 11, 12, 13, 14, 28, 29, 30, 31.
  5  cents,  plate 10.
  6  cents,  plate 17.
  8  cents,  plate 20.
 10  cents,  plate 19.
 15  cents,  plate 18.
 20  cents,  plate 21.
 50  cents,  plate 23.
 $1,         plate 27.
 $2,         plate 26.
 $3,         plate 24.
 $4,         plate 22.
 $5,         plate 25.

The paper was the usual wove variety and the perforation gauged 12--the
production of single-line or guillotine machines. Even in the case of
values of which large quantities were printed, like the 3c, variations
in shade are remarkably slight. The 1c is known split diagonally and the
halves used as 1/2c and while this practice was disproved of by the Post
Office Department the half stamps undoubtedly filled a local need as
shown by an extract from a Canadian newspaper printed in the _Weekly
Philatelic Era_, viz.:--

     The _Railway News_ last week on account of not receiving permission
     from the Post-Master General to allow papers to go through the
     mails free, was compelled to pay postage. No half cent stamps being
     available, the post office department allowed one cent stamps to be
     cut in halves for postage. This is the first time on record we
     believe where such was allowed and the stamps have been eagerly
     sought after, one dollar being paid for a single stamp with the
     post office stamp on it. The _News_ will pay twenty-five cents each
     for the one cent Jubilee stamps cut in halves bearing the
     post-office stamp of November 5th, 6th, or 8th, which was allowed
     to pass through the mails on that date owing to there being no
     regular half cent stamps available.

One set of Jubilee stamps--said to be the first one printed, though of
course this statement cannot be taken literally as meaning the stamps
were printed one at a time:--was mounted in a specially designed
portfolio and presented to the Duke of York, now His Most Gracious
Majesty King George V. An account of this presentation set, taken from
an old issue of the WEEKLY, is worthy of reproduction:

     A very unique and handsome piece of work is the postal portfolio
     which is to be presented to His Royal Highness, the Duke of York,
     by the Dominion Government, and which is on exhibition in the
     window of Kyrie Brothers, Jewelers, Toronto. The portfolio is in
     the form of an album, the cover of which is of royal blue morocco
     leather, handsomely decorated in gold. In the centre of the front
     cover is a raised shield in white on which are the words in gold
     letters, "Dominion of Canada, Diamond Jubilee Postage Stamps, 22nd
     June, 1897." The corners of the portfolio are decorated with guards
     of Canadian gold made from British Columbia and Raney district ore.
     The right hand upper corner decoration is a design of maple leaves,
     and the lower corner of English oak leaves and acorns. The
     portfolio is fastened with a clasp of Canadian gold in the form of
     oak leaves, while the bracket on the front holding the clasps in
     position, is entwined with maple leaves with the monogram of H. R.
     H. the Duke of York--G. F. E. A.--George Frederick Ernest Albert.
     On the third page is the inscription, "This collection of postage
     stamps issued at Ottawa by the Dominion of Canada in commemoration
     of the Diamond Jubilee of Her Most Gracious Majesty Queen Victoria
     is presented to H. R. H. the Duke of York, K. G., by the Government
     of Canada, 1897." The last page of this unique stamp album will
     contain the certificate of the destruction of the dies and plates
     in the presence of Hon. Wm. Mulock, postmaster-general of
     Canada.... This is probably the dearest stamp album in the world,
     and contains only a single specimen of each denomination of the
     Jubilee issue.

And now we conclude our history of this Jubilee issue by another extract
from the WEEKLY giving an account of the destruction of the dies and
plates from which the stamps were made:--

     On Friday afternoon, September 10th, I presented myself at the
     Post-Office Department and joined a party who were just leaving the
     building to go over to the American Bank Note Co.'s building, a
     couple of blocks away. Arriving, we were conducted to the top floor
     by the manager. The plates, dies, etc., were brought out by those
     in charge, and the seventeen original dies after inspection by
     those present were placed one by one under a press and an
     obliterating roller passed over them several times; proofs were
     then pulled which faintly showed the outlines of the ovals, etc.,
     but the words showing the values could not even be made out. Next,
     the rolls for transferring the impression from the dies to the
     plates came in for their share of attention. There were nineteen of
     them, and a few burns from an emery wheel quickly put each one "out
     of sight." The plates, 31 in number, were subjected to the same
     treatment as the dies, and the total time occupied in the
     destruction of the various parts occupied almost two hours.


_Reference List._

1897.  Engraved and printed by the American Bank Note Co.,
       Ottawa, on wove paper. Perf. 12.

 36.   1/2c  black, Scott's No. 50.
 37.   1c    orange, Scott's No. 51.
 38.   2c    green, Scott's No. 52.
 39.   3c    rose, Scott's No. 53.
 40.   5c    deep blue, Scott's No. 54.
 41.   6c    yellow brown, Scott's No. 55.
 42.   8c    dark violet, Scott's No. 56.
 43.   10c   brown violet, Scott's No. 57.
 44.   15c   steel blue, Scott's No. 58.
 45.   20c   vermilion, Scott's No. 59.
 46.   50c   ultramarine, Scott's No. 60.
 47.   $1    lake, Scott's No. 61.
 48.   $2    dark purple, Scott's No. 62.
 49.   $3    yellow bistre, Scott's No. 63.
 50.   $4    purple, Scott's No. 64.
 51.   $5    olive green, Scott's No. 65.



CHAPTER XIV.--_The "Maple Leaf" Issue of 1897._


Soon after the printing contract was awarded to the American Bank Note
Company it was rumoured that a new series of stamps would be issued, but
for a time public expectations of the new stamps were overshadowed by
the appearance of the Diamond Jubilee issue. A cutting from an Ottawa
paper dated September 28th, 1897, shows, however, that preparations for
a new set were well in hand, viz.:--

     The design for a new postage stamp has been approved by the
     Postmaster-General. There is a portrait of Her Majesty as she
     appeared at the coronation, except that a coronet is substituted
     for a crown. The portrait has been engraved from a photo procured
     during the Jubilee ceremonies, and upon which was the Queen's own
     autograph, so that it is authentic. The corners of the stamp will
     be decorated with maple leaves, which were pulled from maple trees
     on Parliament Hill and engraved directly from them. Everything
     indeed is correct and up to date, and the new issue will reflect
     credit on Mr. Mulock's good taste. The engravers will take care to
     make this permanent and ordinary issue a tribute to their skill.
     The present stock of stamps it will take some months to exhaust,
     and not till they are done will the new stamps be issued. It may be
     about November of this year.

About a month later a circular was addressed to postmasters announcing
the issue of the new stamps as follows:

     _Circular to Postmaster._
     NEW ISSUE OF POSTAGE STAMPS, ETC.

     The Postmaster-General has made arrangements for a new issue of
     postage stamps, letter cards, stamped envelopes, post cards, and
     post bands. These will be supplied to postmasters in the usual way.
     Postmasters are, however, instructed not to sell the stamps of any
     denomination of the new issue until the stamps of the corresponding
     denomination of the present issue are disposed of. The filling of
     requisitions by the Postage Stamp Branch will be regulated by the
     same principle--that is to say, no item of the proposed issue will
     be sent out until the corresponding item of the present issue has
     been exhausted.

     To conform to the requirements of the International Postal Union
     the color of the new 1c stamp will be green and that of the 5c
     stamp a deep blue.

     R. M. COULTER,
     Deputy Postmaster-General.
     Post-Office Department, Canada.
     OTTAWA, 25th October, 1897.

The Postmaster-General's Report for 1897, issued after the stamps had
made their appearance, also refers to the new issue and to add
completeness to our history we extract the following:--

     Owing to the change of contract for the manufacture and supply of
     postage stamps, a new series of stamps became necessary at the
     beginning of the present fiscal year. New stamps ranging in value
     from the 1/2c to the 10c denomination (inclusive) were printed, and
     the first supplies thereof sent out to postmasters as the
     corresponding denominations of the old stamps became exhausted. A
     considerable quantity of the higher values of that series (15
     cents, 20 cents and 50 cents) remaining over from the late
     contract, these three stamps continued to be issued, so that the
     department, previous to the introduction of the same denominations
     in the new series, might, in accordance with the universal
     practice, dispose of the old stamps in each case, before issuing
     any of the new. The design of the new stamps is of a uniform
     character, and consists of an engraved copy (reduced) of an
     authorized photograph of Her Majesty taken during the Diamond
     Jubilee year. This, placed within an oval bearing the usual
     inscriptions, is enclosed within a rectangular frame, a maple leaf
     on a lined ground occupying each of the triangular spaces between
     the two frames. To conform to the regulations of the Universal
     Postal Union, the color of the new 1 cent stamp is green, and that
     of the 5 cents a deep blue. This necessitated corresponding changes
     in the colors of the other stamps of the new series; for example,
     purple instead of green being selected for the 2 cent denomination,
     and orange instead of slate for the 8 cent.

The first denomination of the new series--the 1/2 cent--was placed on
sale on November 9th, 1897. About the end of the same month the 6c made
its appearance, and this was quickly followed by the 1c, 2c, 5c and 8c
in December. The 3c and 10c were issued early in January, 1898, so that
official instructions that the new stamps were not to be issued until
the supplies of the old issue were exhausted were fully carried out,
though all values were on sale within the space of about three months.

[Illustration]

The design of the new stamps is at once simple and effective. In the
central oval is a three-quarter face portrait of Her Majesty, with head
to left, which was copied from a photograph taken by W. & D. Downey, of
London, at the time of the Diamond Jubilee celebrations. Around the oval
is a band of solid color containing the words CANADA POSTAGE above and
the value in words below, all being in Egyptian capitals. The spandrels
are filled with a ground of horizontal lines on which maple leaves rest.
While, as Mr. Howes observes, "much criticism was engendered by the fact
that the portrait was too large for its frame, making the design appear
cramped," public verdict, as a whole, expressed unqualified approval of
the new design.

The stamps, like those of the preceding issues, were printed from
line-engraved plates and, with one exception, these plates contained one
hundred impressions arranged in ten horizontal rows of ten each. The
exception referred to occurred in the 1/2c, the first plate for which
contained 200 stamps, arranged in ten rows of twenty stamps each. This
is mentioned in the _Weekly Philatelic Era_ as follows:--

     By some misunderstanding the contractors, the American Bank Note
     Co., set the sheet up with 200 stamps, and the first five hundred
     sheets were so printed. The sheets were afterwards cut in two
     through the imprint, and we have these half sheets with a close
     imperforated margin on either the left or right edge. Afterwards
     sheets of 100 stamps were issued, all the stamps perforated on all
     four sides. Plate number collectors will find the earliest sheets
     difficult to obtain. Both sheets bear the plate number 1.

The imprint on the sheets followed the plan originated with the Jubilee
series, "OTTAWA--No--1," etc., being placed in the centre of the top
margin. Each value began with No. 1 and apparently for the 5c, 6c, 8c,
and 10c the one plate sufficed. For the 1/2c, as we have already shown,
there were two plates, both numbered "1"; while for the 1c there were
two plates, for the 2c, three plates, and for the 3c, six plates.

The stamps were printed on stout white wove paper, similar to that used
for the Jubilee stamps and at some time or other a slightly thinner and
more brittle paper seems to have been used. The paper for the 5c is of a
distinctly bluish color--this being the first occasion on which colored
paper was used for any of the postage stamps of the Dominion.

The perforation was the regulation gauge of 12, which has been in
continuous use since 1858, and, as the _Philatelic Record_ stated when
first chronicling the issue, "many of the stamp are badly centered, a
characteristic defect of the American Bank Note Company's work." The 5c
is known entirely imperforate.


_Reference List._

1897.  Engraved and Printed by the American Bank Note Co.,
       Ottawa, on wove paper. Perf. 12.

 52.   1/2c  black, Scott's No. 66.
 53.   1c    green, Scott's No. 67.
 54.   2c    purple, Scott's No. 68.
 55.   3c    carmine, Scott's No. 69.
 56.   5c    dark blue on bluish, Scott's No. 70.
 57.   6c    brown, Scott's No. 71.
 58.   8c    orange, Scott's No. 72.
 59.  10c    brown-violet, Scott's No. 73.



CHAPTER XV.--_The "Numeral" Issue of 1898._


The "maple-leaf" issue had not been long in use before complaints were
made that owing to the lack of plain numerals it was a difficult matter
to distinguish the various denominations. In its issue for April 2nd,
1898, the _Metropolitan Philatelist_ stated another ground for complaint
and also referred to a forthcoming change, viz.:--

     Much dissatisfaction is expressed by the French speaking
     inhabitants of the rural parts at the lack of figures of value on
     the stamps, the denomination in all cases being printed in English
     which they are unable to understand. It has, therefore, been
     decided to alter the new stamps by removing the maple leaves from
     the lower corners and inserting large numerals of value in their
     place. The space occupied by the head will also be somewhat
     enlarged and the value will be placed on a straight band below.

A few months later the redrawn stamps made their appearance, for the
_Monthly Journal_ for July 30th, 1898, records the issue of the 1c and
3c denominations as follows:--

     The design is certainly improved, the oval being enlarged so that
     its outer line covers the outer line of the rectangle at each side
     and at top and bottom. The band being the same width as before,
     this allows a larger space for the head, which no longer appears so
     closely "cribbed, cabined and confined." The inscriptions remain
     unchanged, but in each of the lower corners is a plain rectangular
     block, containing a colored numeral.

Mr. Howes states that these two values were issued on June 21st, 1898,
and, following its usual custom, the Canadian Post-office did not place
the other denominations on sale until the corresponding values of the
old series were all used up. Thus, the 1/2c, 2c and 6c did not appear
until early in September, the 8c was placed on sale in the first few
days of October, the 10c was issued in the early part of November, while
the 5c, which was the laggard of the series, was not on sale until July
3rd, 1899.

[Illustration]

Although the design was entirely redrawn and the wider oval gave the
portrait a less cramped effect, it did not satisfy all the
critics--though, so far as this fact is concerned, it is doubtful if any
stamp issued anywhere at any time has met with universal approbation!

The stamps were produced by the usual method of steel engraved plates
and they were printed in sheets of 100, in ten rows of ten, as had now
become the regular custom. The imprint is like that on the sheets of the
"maple leaf" issue and, again as with that series, the numbering of the
plates started with "1" for each denomination. So little interest seems
to have been taken in these marginal varieties that no authoritative
record of the several plates employed has been kept. Mr. Howes gives but
one plate for the 1/2c, 6c, 8c and 10c values, three for the 5c, four
each for the 2c and 3c, and six for the 1c but it seems highly probable
there were many more especially for such values as the 1c and 2c which
were used in very large quantities.

In 1901 there were rumours that some of the stamps of this type had been
re-engraved, the foundation for the canard being the following paragraph
from the WEEKLY:--

     Mr. H. A. Chapman has sent me a specimen of a re-engraved 1c Canada
     numeral, in which the differences from the first issue demand
     recognition. The re-engraved type is shorter and wider than the one
     preceding it. I note also that the 2c is said to exist in the same
     condition.

In reprinting this statement the _Philatelic Record_ observed "Can this
be true; or is it only another case of a slight difference caused by the
shrinkage after wetting the sheets for printing purposes?"

The _Monthly Journal_ for September. 1901, soon set the matter at rest
as shown by the following extract:--

     Miss A. L. Swift very kindly informs us that a friend of hers made
     enquiries at headquarters in Ottawa, and was assured that no
     re-engraving whatever has taken place, and that any differences
     that exist must be due to shrinkage or expansion of the paper
     during the process of printing. Our correspondent, who is a
     well-known American writer upon philatelic subjects and a careful
     philatelist, tells us that the 1/2c, 1c and 2c of the numeral type
     and several values of the Maple Leaf type, show these variations,
     and adds that in the case of the 1/2c of both issues one size is
     found in grey-black only, and the other in deep black only. It is
     possible that the amount or thickness of the ink employed may have
     some effect upon the varying shrinkage of the paper.

The same journal refers to the matter again in the following month,
viz.:--

     In reference to the question of the variations in the size of the
     stamps of the last two issues of this Colony, a correspondent tells
     us that he has been studying these stamps, and has come to the
     conclusion, no doubt correctly, that the variations are due to
     differences in the quality and thickness of the paper. As in the
     old case of the Ceylon stamps the longer copies are on thicker
     paper than the short ones. All stamps that are printed on damp
     paper, and especially those from plates engraved in _taille-douce_,
     are liable to vary in this way.

The above seems to be the most reasonable explanation of the differences
for the measurements of the so-called long and short stamps are
practically constant, which one would naturally expect to find if two
sorts of paper, differing slightly in thickness and quality, were used.


_Reference List._

1898-9.  Engraved and printed by the American Bank Note Co.,
         Ottawa, on white wove paper. Perf. 12.

 60.     1/2c  black, Scott's No. 74.
 61.     1c    green, Scott's No. 75.
 62.     2c    purple, Scott's No. 76.
 63.     3c    carmine, Scott's No. 77.
 64.     5c    dark blue on bluish, Scott's No. 78.
 65.     6c    brown, Scott's No. 79.
 66.     8c    orange, Scott's No. 80.
 67.     10c   brown-violet, Scott's No. 81.



CHAPTER XVI.--_The "Map" Stamp of 1898._


Shortly after Great Britain adopted penny postage for internal use in
1840 postal reformers began to dream of Ocean Penny Postage, and
although universal penny postage is not yet an accomplished fact it is
within reasonable distance of being so. A great step in this direction
was made in 1898 when at an Imperial Convention on Postal Rates held in
London the mother country and various colonies agreed to adopt the rate
of one penny per half ounce on letters sent to or from Britain or one
another. The following extract from the London _Standard_ for July 13th
shows in an interesting manner how far the movement had then
progressed:--

     We are authorised by the Postmaster-General to state that, as the
     result of the Imperial Conference on Postal Rates, it has been
     agreed, on the proposal of the Representative of the Dominion of
     Canada, that letter postage of one penny per half-ounce should be
     established between the United Kingdom, Canada, Newfoundland, the
     Cape Colony, Natal, and such of the Crown Colonies as may, after
     communication with, and approval of, Her Majesty's Government, be
     willing to adopt it. The date on which the reduction will come into
     effect will be announced later on. The question of a uniform
     reduced rate for the whole Empire was carefully considered; but it
     was not found possible to fix upon a rate acceptable to all the
     Governments concerned. A resolution was therefore adopted, leaving
     it to those parts of the Empire which were prepared for penny
     postage to make the necessary arrangements among themselves.

Since then other portions of the British Empire have fallen into line
and the ties binding the English speaking peoples have been further
strengthened by the adoption of penny postage between the United States
and Great Britain as well as with many of her Colonies.

Elihu Burritt, the "learned blacksmith" of New Britain, Connecticut, was
one of the earliest advocates of Ocean Penny Postage and late in 1848 he
issued a pamphlet setting forth his views on the subject. Exactly fifty
years later Imperial Penny Postage was inaugurated though it was on a
much broader and more liberal basis than Burritt had dared to hope in
his fondest imaginings.

Canada, as will be noted from the preceding extract, was the leader in
the movement for Imperial Penny Postage and marked the culmination of
its ambitious plans by issuing a special two cents stamp. Mr. Mulock,
the then Postmaster-General of the Dominion, was responsible for the
idea of issuing a special stamp as well as the sponsor for its design.
The new stamp was first mentioned by the Ottawa correspondent of the
_Outlook_ as follows:--

     Mr. Mulock, the Postmaster-General, has chosen the new inaugurating
     stamp. It is in the form of a miniature map of the world
     distinguishing British possessions and illustrating the relative
     vastness of the Empire, in which Canada, of course, plays a
     prominent part.

In commenting on this paragraph the _Philatelic Record_, for December,
1898, stated "A poster stamp even of the large plaster type, which
'distinguishes British possessions and illustrates the vastness of the
Empire', will indeed be a _multum in parvo_, and probably the less said
the better in anticipation of the realisation of such an apparently
absurd idea for a design on such a small engraving as a postage stamp
needs to be."

The _Ottawa Evening Journal_ gave further particulars about the
forthcoming stamp, viz.:--

     The new Imperial Penny Postage Stamp, to be used between Great
     Britain and a number of her colonies after Christmas Day next, has
     been designed by the Postmaster-General and ready to be issued. It
     is not to be a special issue, but will take its place among the
     regular issues. When Mr. Mulock was in Britain he was surprised to
     notice that the great mass of the people did not appreciate the
     value or the greatness of the British possessions abroad. This was
     especially true of Canada. The idea, therefore, suggested itself to
     him when he was considering a new stamp, to prepare something that
     would show the dimensions of Greater Britain compared with all
     other countries. Mr. Mulock asked for some designs from a few
     artists when he came back to Canada, but they did not meet with his
     views, and he roughly sketched out something himself and passed it
     over to an artist to have it touched up.

     The feature of the new stamp is a neatly executed map in miniature
     of the world, showing the British possessions as compared with all
     other countries. The empire is distinguished from the possessions
     of the other powers by being in red. Surmounting this map is a
     representation of the crown, underneath which is a bunch of oak and
     maple leaves, symbolizing the unity of the Mother Country and
     Canada. At the upper edge of the stamp are the words "Canada
     Postage" in a neat letter. Underneath the map is placed "Xmas,
     1898", so that the date of the inauguration of Imperial Penny
     Postage shall be a matter of record. On the lower corners are the
     figures "2," indicating the denomination of the stamp, and at the
     lower edge is this suggestive passage taken from the works of one
     of our patriotic poets: "We hold a vaster Empire than has been."
     Mr. Mulock will be able to claim the credit of giving the public
     the cheapest map of the world ever issued. The size of the stamp is
     about the same as the Jubilee issue.

The printing of the new stamps began on December 1st, both the
Governor-General and Postmaster-General being present while the first
sheets were run off the presses. Although it was originally intended to
issue the stamp on Christmas Day it was actually placed on sale quite
early in the month as explained in the following extract from the
WEEKLY:

     _Ottawa_, Dec. 5th.--It having been stated in some newspapers that
     the new two-cent Imperial stamp would not become available until
     Christmas Day, inquiry made at the Post Office Department today to
     ascertain the truth of this statement elicits the fact that,
     although it was the original intention of the department that the
     new stamp should not come into use until the 25th inst., the demand
     from the public for it has become so pressing that the department
     has decided to issue it at once, and permit its immediate use to
     the extent of its face value for all postage purposes. In other
     words, as soon as it reaches the public it may, if preferred by the
     purchaser, be used instead of the ordinary two-cent stamp. The
     two-cent inter-Imperial rate does not, of course, come into effect
     until Christmas Day.

Under date of December 7th the Canadian correspondent of the _Weekly
Philatelic Era_ refers to the actual issue of the stamp, viz.:--

     The new Imperial stamps referred to in past numbers of the _Era_
     were issued this morning, and although the new Imperial rate does
     not come into effect until Xmas-day, and they bear that
     inscription, they are receivable for ordinary postage now.

     The general design has already been described, but it may be well
     to say that the stamps are printed in three colors. The frame is in
     black with white letters, the seas are in a pale blue, or rather a
     lavender, and the British possessions are in a bright red. The map
     of the world is on Mercator's projection, which magnifies high
     latitudes; consequently the Dominion of Canada, which occupies the
     middle of the upper part of the stamp, looks bigger than all the
     other British possessions put together. The border of the stamp is
     of cable pattern and measures 32 mm. in width by 22-1/2 in height.
     The stamp is printed on medium, machine-wove, white paper, similar
     to that used for the Jubilee and subsequent Canadian issues, and is
     perforated 12.

[Illustration]

The design is well-known to all our readers and as it has already been
extensively dissected in the above quotations, further comment is hardly
necessary. The new stamps naturally caused lots of criticism on account
of their somewhat bombastic legend "We hold a vaster Empire than has
been". This was taken from the jubilee ode written by Sir Lewis Morris
on the occasion of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee, the last stanza of
which reads as follows:--

    We love not war, but only peace,
    Yet never shall our England's power decrease!
    Whoever guides our helm of state,
    Let all men know it, England shall be great!
    We hold a vaster empire than has been!
    Nigh half the race of man is subject to our Queen!
    Nigh half the wide, wide earth is ours in fee!
    And where her rule comes all are free.
    And therefore 'tis, O Queen, than we,
    Knit fast in bonds of temperate liberty,
    Rejoice today, and make our solemn jubilee!

The stamps were printed in the usual sheet arrangement of one hundred,
arranged in ten horizontal rows of ten. The black portion was printed
from line-engraved plates but the colored portions were, apparently,
printed by lithography. Consequently, three operations were necessary
before the stamps were completed and, as may readily be understood, a
three color process in such a small compass made exact register a matter
of difficulty. Thus on many stamps portions of the Empire are found much
out of place, sometimes wandering into the sea and sometimes encroaching
in an altogether too familiar manner on their neighbours. The new stamps
came in for much criticism, of which the following extract from the
_Monthly Journal_ for January, 1899, is a fair sample:--

     It is not quite an occasion for captious criticism, and when we get
     a beautiful colored map of the world for a penny perhaps we ought
     not to criticise; but we cannot think that the design is a very
     appropriate one for a postage stamp. The blobs of red are not
     always quite correctly placed; we have even heard of cases in which
     a little irregularity of "register" has resulted in the annexation
     of the greater part of the United States, while England invaded
     France, and the Cape of Good Hope went out to sea!

     The Canadian newspapers are not quite happy about it, but that is
     natural, as they are to pay extra postage in future to make up any
     deficiency in the budget caused by the reduction in the Imperial
     rate; we hear that even a Ministerial organ at Ontario complains
     that the new stamp is too large to lick and too small for wall
     paper! Some people are never satisfied.

The color chosen for the sea portion of the map was lavender at first,
but as this was not considered altogether appropriate it was soon
afterwards changed to sea-green. In addition to these two tints it also
comes in a very pronounced blue.

The line-engraved plates from which the black portion of the design was
printed have four marginal imprints consisting of AMERICAN BANK NOTE CO.
OTTAWA in Roman capitals 1/2 mm. high, the whole inscription being 29
mm. long. These are placed above the third and eighth stamps of the top
row and below the corresponding stamps of the bottom row. In addition a
plate number, in hair-line figures about 4 mm. high, is shown above the
division between the two central stamps of the top row, these figures
being placed higher on the margin than the imprints. Mr. Howes tells us
that plates 1, 2, 3, and 5 are known but that plate 4 does not seem to
have been recorded though, presumably, it exists. All four plates are
known with the lavender sea and this is known to indicate the first
printings, it would appear that all the plates were at press together.

The late Mr. H. L. Ewen wrote an exhaustive article on the numerous
varieties of this stamp but as most of these were simply due to errors
of register their philatelic importance is slight. One variety, however,
which is constant is worthy of note. In this two small dots representing
two islands in mid-pacific are shown side by side instead of one above
the other as on the normal stamps. Mr. Ewen also referred to a slight
retouching of one of the plates, viz.:--

     Readers will have noted that the stamps are each surrounded by what
     appears to be a rope. On the sheet of plate 3 before us, the outer
     edge of this rope on the stamps at the end of each row (right hand
     side of each sheet) has worn away and has been replaced by a
     straight line engraved on the plate, except on stamp No. 80, which
     still shows the very defective nature of the rope.

Mr. Howes states that the stamp, with all three colors for the sea, is
known imperforate.

How many were issued is not known for certain as these Imperial stamps
were reckoned together with the ordinary 2c in the postal accounts but
according to the _London Philatelist_ the total issue was about sixteen
millions. In concluding this chapter we have only to add that the cost
of manufacturing the stamps, on account of the three processes
necessary, was the relatively high one of 45 cents per thousand.


_Reference List._

Xmas, 1898.  Engraved and Printed by the American Bank Note Co.,
             Ottawa. Unwatermarked.  Perf. 12.

 68.         2c  black, lavender and red, Scott's No. 82
 69.         2c  black, green and red.
 70.         2c  black, blue and red, Scott's No. 83.



CHAPTER XVII.--_The "2 Cents" Provisionals._


One result of the Imperial Conference on Postal Rates held in London, in
addition to the inauguration of Imperial Penny Postage, was to revive
the agitation for the reduction of the domestic rate on postage in
Canada from 3c to 2c on letters weighing one ounce or less. Indeed just
prior to this Convention a bill in amendment of the Post Office Act had
been assented to by Parliament under which it was agreed the reduced
rate of postage should prevail, but no immediate steps were taken to
enforce the reduction, it being left to the Governor General to name a
date when the change should take effect. The establishment of Imperial
Penny Postage, however, brought matters to a head, for it was a
ridiculous state of affairs under which a charge of 3c had to be levied
in carrying a letter from one town to another in Canada while 2c would
carry a similar letter (if under half an ounce in weight) to any point
in the British Isles. Consequently the Governor General named New Year's
Day as the date when the reduced rate of domestic postage should come
into force as shown by the following "Order in Council":--

     POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT.

     By Proclamation dated the 29th day of December, 1898, in virtue of
     the Act further to amend the Post Office Act (61 Victoria, Chapter
     20) and of an Order in Council in accordance therewith, it was
     declared that the postage rate payable on all letters originating
     in and transmitted by post for any distance in Canada for delivery
     in Canada, should be one uniform rate of two cents per ounce
     weight, from the 1st January, 1899.

The immediate effect of this change of rates was a vast increase in the
demand for 2c stamps and a corresponding decrease in the use of the 3c.
Also, to fall in line with Postal Union requirements a change of color
was necessary, but this did not take place at once, the postal
authorities preferring to follow their usual precedent of using up the
old stamps first.

The 3c, which had been printed in large quantities, moved so slowly that
the Post-Office Department decided that the only way the stock could be
used up within a reasonable time would be to reduce the stamps to the
value of 2c by means of a surcharge. This intention, as well as a change
in the color of the regular 2c stamps, was set forth in a circular
issued on July 1st, 1899, from which we extract the following:--

     Owing to the reduction in the Domestic letter rate of postage, the
     issue of the 3c letter-card, the 3c stamped envelope, and the 3c
     postage stamp from the Department has ceased. Any unused 3c
     letter-cards, 3c stamped envelopes or 3c stamps, still extant,
     will, however, continue available for postal purposes, or may be
     exchanged at any Post Office, at their full face value, for postage
     stamps of other denominations.

     The color of the Domestic-rate postage stamp, as prescribed by the
     Universal Postal Union, is red, and it is intended to discontinue
     the issue of the ordinary two-cents purple colored stamps as soon
     as the present supply on hand is exhausted. This will be about the
     20th July, 1899. Thereafter the Department will issue two cents
     stamps in red, first, however, surcharging down to two cents the
     unissued remnant of the three cents stamps in red, now in the
     possession of the Department, and as soon as the supply of such
     surcharged _threes_ is exhausted, the issue of two cents stamps in
     red will begin. The surcharged stamps will be issued to Postmasters
     as 2c postage stamps and be recognised as postage stamps of that
     denomination.

The official estimate of the time the then existing stock of 2c purple
stamps would last was not far wrong for on July 20th the first of the
surcharged labels were issued. The surcharge follows a somewhat peculiar
arrangement the numeral "2" and "S" of CENTS being larger than the rest
of the inscription, which is flat at the bottom and concave at the top.
This distinctive type is said to have been adopted to make
counterfeiting difficult, though it is hardly likely anyone would have
reduced a 3c stamp to the value of 2c with the idea of defrauding the
Government! Evidently the inscription was specially engraved and from it
a plate was constructed so that a sheet of one hundred stamps could be
overprinted at one operation. Some little variation will be found in the
thickness of the type of the surcharge though whether this is due to the
use of more than one plate or simply to overinking or wear is a doubtful
matter. The normal position of the surcharge is horizontally across the
bottom of the stamps but owing to poor register it is sometimes found
much out of position, and specimens with the overprint across the centre
of the labels have been recorded.

The surcharge was, at first, applied only to the 3c stamps of the
numeral type but it was soon decided to also use up the unissued
remainders of the 3c "maple-leaf" design by surcharging them in the same
manner. These stamps were first issued on August 8th. Both varieties are
known with inverted surcharge. How many of each of these three cent
stamps were surcharged is not known for certain as the official figures
dealing with the issue of stamps makes no distinction between the two
varieties. It is stated that altogether 4,120,000 were surcharged and as
the varieties are equally plentiful it is only reasonable to suppose
that approximately equal numbers of both types were used up.


_Reference List._

Stamps of 1897 and 1898 surcharged "2 CENTS" in black.

  71.  2c on 3c  carmine "maple leaf", Scott's No. 84
  72.  2c on 3c  carmine "numeral", Scott's No. 85.



CHAPTER XVIII.--_The Bi-sected Provisionals._


The somewhat sudden reduction of the domestic postal rate from 3c to 2c
on single letters led to the production of a few provisional stamps of
peculiar character at Port Hood, N. S., the postmaster of that town
dividing some of his 3c stamps into two unequal portions and using the
smaller parts as 1c and the larger ones as 2c. In the _Monthly Journal_
for January, 1899, they are referred to as follows:--

     In some offices 1c and 2c stamps ran short, and their places were
     supplied by one-third and two-thirds portions of 3c stamps divided
     vertically. In some places our correspondent says, these divided
     stamps were employed without further alteration, but in others we
     regret to hear that they were surcharged with a figure "2" in
     purple, upon the figure "3" of the larger portion or the word "one"
     in green, upon the smaller part; or, to further complicate matters,
     when thirds of two adjoining stamps were used for 2c each part was
     impressed with a figure "2." Our informant's letter is franked in
     part by 2/3 of a 3c stamp surcharged "2" so we fear that this
     horrible tale is founded on fact.

In the same journal for March further reference is made to these
provisionals, viz.:--

     The surcharged fractions appear to have been used only at Port
     Hood, N. S., where the Postmaster apparently did not consider it
     safe to use divided stamps without some distinguishing mark. We
     have seen other copies since, and find that a figure "1" was struck
     upon the smaller portion; not the word "one" as previously stated.

Again in the April number of the same paper these split stamps are
referred to:--

     In reference to the cut and surcharged 3c stamps, a correspondent
     sends us the following extract from a letter from the postmaster of
     Port Hood:--"When the change in Canadian postage was made--of which
     we got notice by wire--I had only a very few two cent stamps in
     stock, so that before I got my supply from Ottawa I ran completely
     out of them, and, to keep my account straight, I was compelled to
     cut threes. This was for one day only, and not over 300 stamps were
     cut. I would say about 200 '2' and 100 '1' were used. About 100 '2'
     and probably nearly as many '1' were marked with the figures '2'
     and '1' as you describe, and were placed on letters for delivery in
     towns throughout the Dominion. Those were the only provisional
     stamps used by this office."

Once more, in June, the _Monthly Journal_ refers to the philatelically
notorious Port Hood office:--

     A correspondent tells us that the surcharged provisionals were not
     the first instances of the use of the scissors at Port Hood, an
     envelope emanating from that office and bearing the half of the 2c
     stamp, divided diagonally, having been found with the date July
     27th, 1898. We do not know what the regulations are in Canada on
     the subject of receiving postage in cash, but we should suppose
     that if a postmaster runs out of 1c stamps, receives postage on
     certain letters, in cash, and then, to save an entry in his
     accounts, cuts 2c stamps in half and affixes the halves to the
     letters, it would not be considered a very heinous offence, and it
     would account for curiosities of this kind occasionally turning up.

But Port Hood does not seem to have been the only office in which the
scissors were used, for the following letter from the _Montreal
Philatelist_ shows that stamps were bi-sected at at least one other
office. In this instance the postmaster divided 5c stamps as well as the
3c though, apparently, he did not apply any surcharge to the
fractions:--

     CROSS ROAD, COUNTRY HARBOR,
     April 17th, 1900.

     Dear Sir,--Your enquiry re stamps to hand. At the time you mention
     the 2c postage was given us so suddenly that I was about out and
     all my neighbour P. M. was also out and as I could only charge the
     public 2c I could not afford to put on a 3c stamp so cut 3c and 5c
     to about even the thing up and sent them along. Three or four days'
     letters were mailed in this way, but I do not know where they went
     to.

     Yours very truly,
     E. S. SWEET, Postmaster.

The same journal in referring to the Port Hood provisionals makes some
interesting comments which are worth reproduction, viz.:--

     This postmaster must be a relic of the anti-confederation regime,
     when such mutilations were allowed, as even an entire absence of
     the required values would not warrant, under present regulations,
     this antiquated process. In such cases the postmaster should
     forward the money to the office on which his mail is forwarded with
     a request to affix the necessary stamps; he can handstamp or write
     the amount paid on each letter if desired, but that is not
     necessary. As these fractional provisionals of the Port Hood P. O.
     were never issued to the public, but were affixed by the postmaster
     and the amount paid stamped on them, they are no more deserving of
     collection as postage stamps than the hand stamp or pen mark on an
     envelope would be if no stamp or portion of a stamp had been
     affixed. If it is asked "Why cut up and affix the stamps then?" the
     answer is the postmaster knew no better and wanted to make his cash
     account correspond with the total of stamps sold and on hand. He
     tried to simplify his book-keeping--nothing more--but went about it
     in an antiquated and unlawful way.

While genuine copies of these splits on original covers are interesting
curiosities their philatelic value is not of the greatest importance,
for they were, seemingly, never sold to the public but simply affixed by
the postmaster after he had received payment in cash, to simplify his
accounts. They were certainly not authorised and if they had been
detected at the larger offices they would not have passed as valid for
postage.

In concluding our notes with regard to these cut stamps we reproduce a
letter from the Post Office Department in reply to a collector who had
made enquiry about the validity of the splits:

     P. O. Dept., OTTAWA,
     _March 30th, 1904._

     In reply to your letter of the 24th March, _re_ stamps '1' in blue,
     on 1/3 of 3, and '2' in violet on 2/3 of 3 cents, I beg to say that
     the Superintendent of the Stamp Branch assures me that no such
     stamps were ever issued or recognised by this Department, and if
     affixed to letters would be treated as ordinary mutilated stamps of
     no value. It appears that the Postmaster of Port Hood, N. S., at
     the time of the change of rate found himself short of 2 cents
     stamps, and, acting on the advice of some stamp fiend apparently,
     cut up a sheet or so of stamps to make twos and ones. He nearly
     lost his job over it, but the Department never got hold of any of
     the mutilated stamps. Anybody could make similar stamps by cutting
     up and marking old threes. Hoping this may be satisfactory to you,

     Yours, etc.,
     W. H. HARRINGTON.


_Reference List._

     The 3c stamp of 1898 divided vertically and each portion
     surcharged with a new value.

73.  1(c)  in blue on one-third of 3c carmine, Scott's No. 85A.
74.  2(c)  in violet on two-thirds of 3c carmine. Scott's No. 85B.



CHAPTER XIX.--_The 2c Carmine._


According to the Post Office circular quoted in our last chapter the
issue of the 2c stamp in carmine--or red, as the color was officially
termed--was to begin when the supply of surcharged 3c stamps was
exhausted. The new 2c stamp was eventually placed on sale on August
20th, 1899, and it is, of course, exactly like the same value previously
issued in purple in all respects except that of color. The same plates
were used and later many new ones were put to press. No accurate record
of the different plates used for this denomination has been kept but, in
addition to plates 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 listed by Mr. Howes, there were
probably many others.

In 1900 Canada followed the lead of many other countries by issuing the
2c value in convenient booklet form. The Postmaster-General's Report
for 1900 refers to these booklets as follows:--

     In the month of June, 1900, the department commenced the issue to
     Postmasters, of a small book of 2 cent postage stamps, containing
     12 stamps, disposed on two sheets of 6 stamps each, and interleaved
     with wax paper to prevent adhesion of the sheets. The size of the
     book is such as to make it convenient to be carried in the pocket
     or pocket-book. Printed on the cover is postal information
     calculated to be of interest to the public. The price at which the
     book is issued is 25 cents, one cent over the face value of the
     stamps being charged to cover the cost of binding, etc.

These stamp books were first placed on sale on June 11th and they
rapidly came into public favor as is evidenced by the increasing sales
every year since. Mr. Howes tells us that "the books are about two by
three inches in size, with stiff cardboard covers which are bound
together by red cloth. The coat-of-arms of Canada with the words CANADA
POSTAGE beneath are engraved in red on the front cover, while inside are
four pages of postal information and the two sheets of six stamps
each--three horizontal pairs--backed by leaves of paraffined tissue
paper."


_Reference List._

Aug. 20th, 1899.  Engraved and printed by the American Bank
                  Note Co., Ottawa. No Wmk. Perf. 12.

 75.              2c  carmine, Scott's No. 86.



CHAPTER XX.--_The 20c Value of 1900._


On the 29th of December, 1900, a 20c value was added to the numeral
series, its advent being quite unannounced. The large 20c stamps of 1893
had been finally used up and the new label not only conformed to the
others of the series in design but also took on a new color--olive-green
in place of scarlet.

It was printed from the usual style of line-engraved plate with the
usual sheet arrangement of 100 stamps arranged in ten horizontal rows of
ten each, with the imprint and plate number in the centre of the top
margin. Only one plate--numbered "1"--seems to have been used and Mr.
Howes tells us that "an examination of the stamp accounts during its
term of life make it appear probable that approximately 500,000 were
issued."


_Reference List._

Dec. 29th, 1900.  Engraved and printed by the American Bank Note
                  Co., Ottawa. No Wmk. Perf. 12.

 76.              20c  olive-green, Scott's No. 87.



CHAPTER XXI.--_The Queen Victoria Seven Cents._


Although the reduction in the domestic rate of postage from 3c to 2c in
1899 made the 8c stamp--which was primarily intended for the combined
payment of postage and the registration fee--of little use it was not
until December, 1902, that this value was replaced by a seven cents
denomination. The new stamp was first announced as being in preparation
in a newspaper despatch dated Ottawa, Dec. 18th, 1902, viz.:--

     The Post Office Department announces that on the 24th instant it
     will be in a position to supply a seven cent postage stamp to
     accounting post-offices throughout Canada. This stamp, which is of
     yellow color, will be especially convenient for postage and
     registration fee on single rate letters, while it may also be used
     for other postage purposes to the extent of its face value.
     Non-accounting offices can obtain their supply through the city
     post offices. This new stamp will bear the Queen's head, the
     department not having yet decided on the design of the King's head
     issue.

This posthumous Queen's head stamp was of similar design to the other
values of the numeral series and had the same sheet arrangement and
marginal inscriptions. There was but one plate--numbered "1"--from which
Mr. Howes estimates about one million stamps were printed.

This stamp was issued on December 23rd, 1902, according to a statement
in the official Report.


_Reference List._

Dec. 23rd, 1902.  Engraved and printed by the American Bank
                  Note Co., Ottawa. No Wmk. Perf. 12.

 77.              7c  olive-yellow, Scott's No. 88.



CHAPTER XXII.--_The King Edward Issue._


King Edward VII ascended the throne on January 22nd, 1901, but it was
not until nearly two and a half years later that the Dominion of Canada
issued new stamps bearing the portrait of the new sovereign. In the
meantime there was much comment and speculation as to when the new
stamps would appear and as to what form they would take, though the Post
Office Department for reasons best known to itself, exercised a discreet
silence on the matter. Early in 1903 it was reported in the newspapers
that designs had been submitted and that the Postmaster-General had
chosen one "bearing an excellent likeness of His Majesty." But the
earliest detailed information concerning the expected stamps appeared in
the _Metropolitan Philatelist_ for April 18th, 1903, viz:--

     The King's head series of Canadian stamps will probably shortly
     make its appearance. The die has been received by the Post Office
     Department and approved of. The stamp will be very similar to the
     present stamp except that the maple leaf in each of the upper
     corners will be replaced by a crown. The figures of value will
     appear in the lower corners as at present and the value will be
     spelled out as at present in the oval frame which surrounds the
     portrait. This frame will be as in the present stamp. The portrait
     of the King shows him three-quarters to the right, head and
     shoulders, as the Queen is in the present stamp, but there is no
     crown on his head. The portrait is an exceptionally nice one and it
     is understood that Royalty has had something to do with its
     selection. The die was made in England, although the American Bank
     Note Co. are contractors for the government work.

These details all proved correct and shortly afterwards postmasters were
given definite information with regard to the forthcoming stamps by
means of an official circular, dated June 10th, and worded as follows:--

     Postmasters are hereby informed that a new issue of postage stamps,
     bearing the portrait of His Majesty, King Edward VII., and
     comprising five denominations (1c, 2c, 5c, 7c and 10c), is about to
     be supplied to Postmasters for sale in the usual way, but none of
     these stamps are to be sold until the first of July, 1903. The
     colors of the forthcoming series will be the same respectively as
     those now used for the denominations specified, except that the
     shade of the 7c will be slightly deeper.

     Postmasters will please bear in mind that, notwithstanding the new
     issue, they are not to return to the Department any of the old
     stamps on hand, but will sell them in the ordinary way. At first,
     the public may prefer getting new stamps, and if so, there is no
     objection to this wish being acceded to, but it is also desirable
     to work off in due course all remnants of old stamps. A change in
     the design of the stamp of the present series of postcards,
     post-bands and stamped envelopes, to correspond with that above
     referred to, will be made as soon as the present stock of these
     items shall have been exhausted.

[Illustration]

The new King Edward 1c, 2c, 5c, 7c and 10c stamps were accordingly
issued to the public on Dominion Day (July 1st), 1903.

It will be noted in one of the extracts quoted above that the die for
the new stamps was engraved in London, and shortly after the appearance
of the stamps the _London Philatelist_ published the following article
which is of such interest as to merit its reproduction in full:--

     Although for a long time past we have been aware of the
     circumstances attending the preparation of the new postage stamps
     for Canada, and in a position to illustrate the approved design, we
     have refrained from publishing the facts in compliance with the
     desire of the authorities that no details should be made public
     until the stamps have been completed and were ready to be put into
     circulation. We believe that the delay which has taken place in
     bringing out the new issue has been due to questions arising out of
     the existing contract under which the postage stamps of the
     Dominion are produced, and that even after the approval of the
     design and the receipt of the die some difficulties were
     experienced in connection with the preparation of the plates by the
     contractors.

     These have happily been surmounted, and now that the issue is an
     accomplished fact it is with much gratification that we illustrate
     the design of the new stamp, our illustration, prepared some time
     back, being taken from a proof from the steel die engraved by
     Messrs. Perkins, Bacon & Co., of London, and used in the
     manufacture of the plates of the several values issued by the
     Canadian postal authorities on the 1st instant By comparing our
     illustration with the stamp as issued it will be seen that the
     contractors or the postal authorities have made some alterations in
     the design, which, in our judgment, are by no means improvements.
     The leaves in the lower corners have been redrawn on a smaller
     scale, and hardly impinge upon the frame; their drawing is vastly
     inferior, and the graceful effect of the broken circle is lost. The
     numerals of value are in color on a white ground reversing the
     original design, the labels being larger and the figures taller and
     thinner, this also detracting materially from the charming
     homogeneity of the stamp as first proposed. The greatest
     alteration, and the worst, is the substitution of heavy diagonal
     lines for horizontal ones in the background. The latter were finely
     drawn and delicately shaded, leaving the King's Head in clear
     outline, and _framed_ by the dark oval band containing the
     inscriptions. The background and frame no longer present this
     artistic effect, and the whole design materially suffers thereby.

     The circumstances connected with the inception of the issue are as
     gratifying as they are novel, and will be hailed with acclamation
     by the Philatelists of the British Empire.

     The Postmaster of Canada, Sir William Mulock, being one of the many
     distinguished visitors to this country during the Coronation
     festivities, took the opportunity afforded by his visit of
     approaching the Prince of Wales, and of meeting His Royal
     Highness's suggestions and advice in the preparation of a new die
     for the Canadian stamps. The Prince, with his characteristic energy
     and courtesy, cheerfully undertook the task, and it will be seen
     from our illustration with absolute and conspicuous success. H. R.
     H. wisely decided, in the first instance, that it is advisable to
     have some continuity of design in succeeding issues, and therefore
     adopted the frame and groundwork of the then current stamps as a
     basis. In selecting a portrait of His Majesty the Prince decided to
     rely upon a photograph giving a true likeness of the King as we
     know him, in lieu of an idealised representation by an artist. The
     photograph eventually chosen, with the full approval of His
     Majesty, was one taken shortly before the Coronation.

     The likeness is undoubtedly what is termed a speaking one, and with
     the addition of the Coronation robes represents as faithful and as
     pleasing a picture of the King, at the time of his accession to the
     throne, as it is possible to find. The introduction of the Tudor
     crowns in the upper angles, which was another of the Prince's
     innovations, obviates the difficulty that has so often made "the
     head that wears a crown" lie "uneasy" on a postage stamp. These
     emblems of sovereignty, taken in conjunction with the Canadian
     maple leaves in the lower angles, completes a design that for
     harmony, boldness and simplicity has assuredly not been excelled by
     any hitherto issued stamps of the British Empire. It is palpable,
     on analysing the stamp, (1) that the attractiveness of the design
     has in no way been allowed to militate against its utility, for the
     country of origin and denomination are clearly expressed; (2) that
     the boldness of the design has not been detracted from (as is so
     often the case) by superfluous ornamentation, and that the design
     has been artistically balanced by the introduction of the
     _right-sized portrait_ and the proper treatment of light and shade.

These stamps were, of course, printed from line-engraved plates like
those of the preceding issues, and the same sheet arrangement of 100
stamps in ten rows of ten each was followed. The marginal imprint shown
on the top margin of each sheet is like that shown on the Queen's head
sheets and the plates for each value were numbered from 1 upwards. Mr.
Howes records the following plates as having been used up to December,
1910:--

1 cent--Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
        13, 14, 18, 19, 22, 24, 25, 34, 47, 48,
        51, 52, 55, 58.

2 cents--Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
        11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
        21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
        35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 47, 53, 54, 55,
        56, 57, 58, 59, 62, 63, 67, 68, 69, 70,
        71, 72, 73, 74, 78.

5 cents--Nos. 1, 2.

7 cents--No. 1.

10 cents--Nos. 1, 2.

It is very possible other plates were used for most denominations before
the King George stamps were issued in 1912. The colors were very similar
to those employed for the corresponding values of the Queen's head
series except as regards the 7c, which was printed in a darker and more
pleasing shade.

Nearly fifteen months elapsed before any other King Edward stamps were
issued when, on September 27th, 1904, the 20c denomination made its
appearance. This is of similar design to the others, was printed from
the usual sized plate of 100, and bore imprint and plate number in the
top margin as before. Only one plate has been recorded and as the use of
this denomination did not average over 400,000 a year, it is quite
probable that only this one plate was made. This value was issued in the
olive-green shade adopted for its predecessor.

More than four years elapsed before the next and last value of the King
Edward series appeared. This was the 50c denomination, which was placed
on sale on November 19th, 1908, after the supply of the old blue stamps
first issued in 1893 was finally used up. In design, sheet arrangement,
etc., it conforms with the others of the series. One plate--numbered
1--was used.

The 2c value of this series is known entirely imperforate and the
history of the variety, which is now quite common, is of considerable
interest. The imperforate stamps were first mentioned in the WEEKLY for
October 10th, 1908, in the following editorial:--

     We are enabled to report the existence of the two-cent Canada,
     current issue, imperforate, a reader having shown us a sheet of one
     hundred of these varieties bearing the plate number 18. This is a
     discovery of momentous interest which must attract much attention
     not alone from specialists but from collectors, as we may say for
     the sake of distinction, as well. The fact that the pane bears so
     early a plate number removes it from any inclusion in the theory
     that the Canadian authorities propose to issue stamps in
     imperforate sheets in the manner that has been employed by the
     United States. Without doubt, the sheet under notice was regularly
     prepared for issue in the accepted way, and it is the belief from
     information at hand that a sheet of four hundred of the stamps was
     printed and reached the public.

This announcement excited much interest among collectors of Canadian
stamps and enquiry regarding the seeming irregularity was made of the
postal authorities at Ottawa. The Post Office Department were convinced
that no irregularity could have occurred, but finally made an enquiry,
and were, of course, compelled to believe the evidence of the existence
of imperforate specimens. In the issue of the WEEKLY for February 20th,
1909, a more complete story of the find is related, viz.:--

     The sheet as found was not of 400 stamps, but of over 200 stamps,
     as the right-hand half of the sheet on which our report was based
     and which was not before us when we wrote, contained a pane of 100
     stamps, plate number 14 and an irregularly torn part of plate
     number 13, showing about fifteen whole stamps and parts of others.
     Assuming that the lower pane in the left half was torn
     approximately in the manner of the right lower pane, or plate
     number 13, the find consisted originally of 230 stamps, more or
     less. This reckoning agrees, we believe, with the recollection of
     the person who rescued the imperforates from oblivion, in a
     philatelic sense. The plate numbers on the sheet that gave
     authority for the chronicling of the stamps by the WEEKLY are 13
     and 14, and not 18, as first printed.

     A. N. Lemieux of Chicago is the man who found the stamps. While in
     Ottawa five years ago or so (this was later corrected to June,
     1906), when he was in business in that city, he saw the stamps just
     within the iron fence that has been described as surrounding the
     establishment of the bank note company that prints the Canadian
     stamps. The day was a rainy one and the sheet had evidently been
     blown out of the window. Mr. Lemieux apparently attached no value
     to the sheet of over 200 stamps, which was in a wet, crumpled
     condition, and without gum. Mr. Lemieux was under the impression,
     no doubt, that gum had been on the sheet but had been washed off by
     the rain.

Mr. Severn ultimately acquired what was left of this imperforate sheet,
and later submitted the stamps to the officials at Ottawa, who
pronounced them but "printer's waste". Mr. Severn, in adding to the
history of these imperforates, says:--

     They seemingly had been trampled upon and subjected to the usage
     that would be given such castoff material. Further, it was said
     that they had been blown or thrown out of a window, no doubt. It
     was suggested that the stamps be returned to Ottawa and that there
     were moral grounds for such a course on the part of the holders.
     The description of "printer's waste" seems to be correct and the
     inference is that the stamps never had been gummed. They belong to
     that class of curiosities that appeal strongly to the specialist,
     but which the ordinary collector regards as something apart from
     his collecting policy.

The stamps did not go back to Ottawa, and the postal authorities there
annoyed, doubtless righteously, that such things should escape from
their well regulated printing establishment went to considerable trouble
to make the imperforates of small monetary value. The following
paragraph, written by a correspondent of the WEEKLY, was the first
inkling collectors had that the department had thought any more of the
matter:--

     It may be of interest to know that the last supplement to the
     Canadian Post Office Guide contains the following: "In view of
     representations which have been made to the Department, it has been
     decided to permit the sale of the 2-cent denomination of Canadian
     postage stamps of the current issue, in sheets of 100, _without the
     usual perforation._" I at once asked for a sheet of the 2-cent, and
     incidentally said I would take a sheet of the other denominations
     if available. A reply came today informing me that only the 2-cent
     would be available, and then not for some time, as the department
     intends to make a separate printing of these stamps, to supply
     whatever demand may occur.

It was stipulated that applications for these imperforate stamps should
be made to the Postmaster at Ottawa. When the sheets of these stamps
came into collectors' hands it was found they had been printed from
plates 13 and 14--the same as those from which the originally chronicled
"errors" were printed. It is obvious that the Department issued these
stamps simply to "get back" at the holder of the sheet so unfortunately
blown or thrown out of the printing-office window in 1906. That they
were not intended for use in mailing machines seems amply proved from
the fact that none of the 2c stamps of the present issue have been
issued in imperforate sheets.

No 1/2c value was issued in the King Edward design although the Queen's
head stamp of that denomination continued in use until 1909. This value
was primarily intended for use in prepaying the postage on transient
newspapers, but for many years the number sold to the public was out of
all proportion to those which could have been required for its
legitimate use. There is no doubt that large quantities were purchased
by stamp dealers for wholesaling to packet makers and dealers in the
cheap approval sheet business and, undoubtedly, stamp collectors in
Canada usually preferred to use four 1/2c stamps on their letters rather
than an ordinary 2c one. This excessive demand for the 1/2c resulted in
the Post Office Department issuing the following circular to Postmasters
in 1902:--

     The attention of postmasters is drawn to the fact that the postal
     necessity for the 1/2c stamp, as such, is now confined to one
     purpose--prepayment of newspapers and periodicals posted singly,
     and weighing not more than one ounce each. As publications of the
     kind referred to must, in the nature of things, be few, and as in
     the case of their being mailed to subscribers by the office of
     publication, the bulk rate of postage would be far cheaper and more
     convenient for the publisher, the demand for the 1/2c stamp
     throughout the Dominion must be appreciably diminished as a result
     of this restriction of its use. While, of course, any number of
     1/2c stamps on an article of correspondence will be recognized to
     the full extent of their aggregate face value, it is not the wish
     of the Department to supply them except for the sole specific
     purpose above mentioned, and an intimation to that effect should be
     given by postmasters to patrons of their office who are in the
     habit of buying 1/2-cent stamps for other postal purposes.

This circular had quite an effect on the use of 1/2c stamps, for only
about one-third as many were used in the year following the publication
of the circular. Finally, on May 19th, 1909, the Post Office Act was
amended so that the special rate on newspapers was repealed and the
minimum postage on any single piece of mail became 1c. This did away for
the necessity of 1/2c stamps and, of course, discounted any further
possibility of the value being included in the King's head series.


_Reference List._

1903-8.  Die engraved by Perkins, Bacon & Co., London. Plates
         prepared and stamps printed by the American Bank Note
         Co., Ottawa. No wmk. Perf. 12.

 78.      1c  green, Scott's No. 89.
 79.      2c  carmine, Scott's No. 90.
 80.      5c  blue on blue, Scott's No. 91.
 81.      7c  olive-bistre, Scott's No. 92
 82.     10c  brown lilac. Scott's No. 93.
 83.     20c  olive-green. No. 94.
 84.     50c  purple. No. 95.



CHAPTER XXIII.--_The Quebec Tercentenary Issue._


The year 1908 marked the three hundredth anniversary of the first
permanent settlement in Canada, made by Champlain at Quebec in 1608, and
plans were formed to celebrate the event in a fitting manner by means of
fêtes, historical pageants, etc. In fact, the occasion was considered of
such importance that the then Prince and Princess of Wales (now King
George V of England and his Royal Consort) were invited to be present at
the festivities, and they made a special journey in one of Britain's
most formidable battleships.

Quite early it was rumoured that the Post Office Department would mark
the event, as in Diamond Jubilee year, by the issue of a series of
special stamps, and though in March the Hon. Rudolphe Lemieux, who was
then Postmaster-General, announced that such an issue would assuredly be
made, the Department exercised the greatest reticence as to what values
would be included in the series, and what subjects would form the
designs. Naturally the Department was inundated with all sorts of
suggestions, more or less appropriate to the occasion, but, apparently,
the "powers that be" had their plans already made and it was not until a
few days before the stamps were ready for use that any information was
made public regarding the series. The _Toronto Globe_ for July 4th
printed the following despatch from its Ottawa correspondent:--

     Postmaster-General Lemieux has given instructions to issue a series
     of postage stamps commemorating the tercentenary. They are eight in
     number. Four of them bear portraits of persons dear to Canada, or
     whose names recall great events. The first represents the Prince
     and Princess of Wales; the second the King and Queen. Next come
     Cartier and Champlain, and then, in connection with the
     battlefields park scheme, Wolfe and Montcalm. The second part of
     the issue represents Cartier's arrival before Quebec. On the calm
     waters of the mighty St. Lawrence stand in bold relief three ships
     of the discoverer of Canada, flying the fleur-de-lys.

     As a sequel to the above is a very picturesque tableau. In
     Champlain's narrative of his third voyage to Canada is found the
     following passage:--

     "With our canoes laden with provisions, our arms and some
     merchandise to be given as presents to the Indians, I started on
     Monday, May 27, from the isle of Sainte Helaine, accompanied by
     four Frenchmen and one Indian. A salute was given in my honour from
     some small pieces of artillery."

     The artist, under the inspiration of these few lines, has depicted
     Champlain's departure for the west. There stand two canoes. In one
     Champlain's companions have already taken their places, paddle in
     hand, whilst the great explorer is still on shore, bidding good-bye
     to a few friends. The picture is full of life. The legend
     underneath reads as follows: "Partement de Champlain pour L'ouest."
     The word "partement", now obsolete, is the one used by Champlain
     for the modern one "depart".

     The same note of old France is used in connection with a view of
     the first house in Quebec, indeed in Canada, Champlain's
     habitation, which is called in his narrative "l'abitation de
     Quebécq". This stamp is a clear reproduction of a cut from
     Champlain's work. Quebec as it was in 1700 is the next view, copied
     from Bacqueville de la Potherie's "Histoire de la Nouvelle France".
     It is a quaint picture of the old city, showing steeples here and
     there, the fort on the river front and in faint lines the
     Laurentide Mountains in the background.

     All stamps bear with the words "CANADA POSTAGE" the line "IIIe
     centénaire de Quebec".

     The postmaster-general has given special attention to the selection
     of portraits and historical scenes to be represented. His choice
     has been an excellent one.

     The carrying out of the engraving part of the plan has been
     entrusted to Mr. Machado, of the American Bank Note Co., who, with
     keen artistic sense, has performed his part of the work with great
     success.

In the same newspaper of the same date appears another despatch giving
particulars of the designs alloted to each denomination and the chosen
colors viz:--

The special postage stamps to be issued in commemoration of the
tercentenary celebration at Quebec are now ready, and will be
placed on sale next week. The stamps are of most artistic design,
and are larger than the ordinary size, to allow of adequate
representation of historic scenes, portraits, etc. The description
of each denomination is as follows:--

Half-cent, grey, picture of the Prince and Princess of Wales.

One-cent, green, portraits of Champlain and Cartier.

Two-cent, red, King Edward and Queen Alexandria.

Five-cent, blue, representation of L'Habitation de Quebec.

Seven-cent, yellow, pictures of Montcalm and Wolfe.

Ten-cent, mauve, picture of Quebec in 1700.

Fifteen-cent, orange, picture of the Parliament of the West in the
  old regime.

Twenty-cent, green, picture of a courier du sois with Indians.

The stamps were placed on sale on July 16th and, as will be noted from
our illustrations, they are as described above except that the 15c does
not have Champlain's name on it as stated in the first quotation, and
that the 15c and 20c are incorrectly described in the second despatch.
The stamps are of similar shape to the special series issued in Diamond
Jubilee year though they are a trifle larger--1 mm. taller and nearly 3
mm. longer. The Postmaster-General's Report for 1909 referred to this
issue as follows:--

     To meet what appeared to be a general wish a special series of
     postage stamps, which has come to be known as the Tercentenary
     Series, was introduced as a feature of the celebration in July,
     1908, of the three hundredth anniversary of the founding of Quebec
     by Champlain. The first supply of these stamps was sent out to
     Postmasters about the middle of that month, and was on sale to the
     public by the time His Royal Highness, the Prince of Wales, reached
     Quebec for the celebration. The demand for the new stamps was
     extraordinary, and for the better part of a month was steadily kept
     up. The interest taken in them was, in no small measure, due to the
     historic associations with which in design they were so happily
     linked, the subjects depicted in the several denominations of the
     series being in variety and appropriateness admirably adapted to
     the end in view,--popular recognition of an epoch-making event.

Except as regards the Postal Union denominations of 1c, 2c and 5c the
colors chosen for the stamps of this series do not correspond with those
of the regular set. The stamps were produced by the line-engraved
process, which has long been the standard method of production for
Canada's stamps, and as usual they were issued in sheets of one hundred
in ten rows of ten. It seems probable that the plates for the 2c, and
possibly for the 1c also, consisted of two panes of 100 stamps each
placed one above the other. This seems to be proved from the fact that,
whereas on most sheets the imprint "OTTAWA" followed by the plate
number, appears in the centre of the top margin, sheets of the 2c are
known with the imprint in the centre of the bottom margin, and in the
case of plates 3 and 4 both imprint and number are inverted. The
inversion on these particular plates was, probably, purely accidental.
But though these large plates were used the stamps were always issued in
the usual sheet size of 100. The following plates are known to have been
used:--

     1/2c  dark brown. No. 1.
       1c  blue-green, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4.
       2c  carmine, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4.
       5c  dark blue, Nos. 1, 2.
       7c  olive-green, No. 1.
      10c  dark violet, No. 1.
      15c  red-orange, No. 1.
      20c  yellow brown. No. 1.

The stamps were all printed on the usual white wove paper and were
perforated 12, though specimens of the 2c are known entirely
imperforate. Fairly well marked shades may be found in connection with
the 1c and 2c denominations but the other values show but very slight
differences.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

The royal portraits on the 1/2c and 2c values call for little comment,
though it is interesting to note that the portrait of the Princess of
Wales (now Queen Mary) is exactly similar to that shown on the 4c stamp
of Newfoundland which was first issued in 1901. The picture of the
Prince of Wales (now His Majesty King George V) was from a photograph by
W. & D. Downey, of London, taken just prior to his journey to India in
1906.

[Illustration]

The portrait of Jacques Cartier on the 1c is precisely like that which
appears on Canada's first 10d stamp. In _Gibbons' Stamp Weekly_ for
January 16th, 1909, the following interesting account of Cartier's
voyage appears:--

     In the year 1533 Jacques Cartier was empowered by Philipp Cabot,
     "the Admiral of France," to fit out ships "to explore new
     territories, to gain them, by robbery or otherwise, for France, and
     at the same time to endeavour to find a north-west passage to
     Cathay". As long before as 1506 the Florentine explorer, Giovanni
     Verozzani, had seized the territories of North America lying to the
     north of the St. Lawrence River in the name of the King of France,
     but the seizure had never been enforced, and remained a seizure
     only in name.

     On this, his first voyage, Cartier discovered Newfoundland, and,
     sailing on, anchored off the northerly coast of the Gaspé
     Peninsula, by which the River St. Lawrence sweeps into the gulf of
     the same name. The season was very late, however, and bad weather
     was to be expected, so Cartier was obliged to set sail for France
     without delay. He took with him to France two sons of an Indian
     chief, and they caused great excitement in Paris.

     King Francis I was so pleased with this exploit that on October 31,
     1534, he nominated Captain Jacques Cartier to be "Royal Pilot"
     (_Pilote Royale_), and had three more ships prepared for him to
     make a second voyage to Newfoundland. Preparations for the
     departure were hurried on at St. Malo, Cartier's birthplace, and at
     the beginning of May all was ready for the departure.

     Three ships took part in the voyage, viz.: _La Grande Hermione_,
     _La Petite Hermione_, and _La Hermionette._ The first two were
     vessels rated at 120 and 80 tons respectively, and the last was a
     galleon of 40 tons. On the after part of the first two vessels
     there were no less than three decks as superstructure, while
     forward there was only one deck. They were provided with the full
     naval armament of the sixteenth century; on the gunwale were
     mounted small cannon, and also a battery of mortars or similar
     weapons.

     The galleon was a long slender ship of extremely low freeboard,
     rakish rigged as a single-master, both sails and oars being used as
     a means of propulsion; two small cannon were mounted forward, and a
     round dozen arquebuses were also carried. The total company and
     passengers of the three ships were only 110 all told.

     On the morning of May 19th, 1535, the little flotilla set forth on
     its long voyage of exploration after having saluted the town with
     every gun on board.

     On September 14th of the same year Cartier sighted land, which
     spread itself out on either side of the ships as far as the eye
     could reach, and found signs of a village; the place was called
     Canada by the natives, the meaning of the word in the native
     language being "The Town". This village was the seat of
     "government", and was occupied by an Indian chief called Donnacona;
     it was situate right on the shore of the bay formed by the junction
     of the rivers St. Charles and St. Lawrence. The village seemed to
     consist of huts built irregularly on the steep sides of a mountain,
     the spot later being the position of the southerly and easterly
     quarters of Quebec.

[Illustration]

The historical moment of the arrival of Cartier's brave little "fleet"
is interestingly depicted on the 20c value of the tercentenary series.
Samuel de Champlain, whose portrait is also shown on the 1c
denomination, was born in 1570 and died in 1635. Again we are indebted
to the article in _Gibbons' Stamp Weekly_ for the following
particulars:--

     In 1603 he was commissioned by King Henry IV of France to found a
     settlement in Canada. On his first voyage he sailed up the St.
     Lawrence, and established friendly relations with the various
     native chiefs of the tribes inhabiting the country through which
     the river flowed. On his second voyage he was accompanied by only
     thirty people, and on July 3rd, 1608, he landed at the village of
     Canada, which was mentioned above. His first thought was to find a
     site suitable for the erection of an "_abitation_" where he might
     pass the winter that was coming on. "I could find no more
     comfortable or better spot than the land around Quebec, where
     countless nut trees were to be seen," wrote Champlain. That was
     exactly the same place where Cartier had built his fort sixty years
     before.

     Thanks to extreme industry, winter quarters were rapidly erected.
     The habitation consisted of three principal buildings, each two
     stories high. Two of these buildings measured 18 ft. long by 9 ft.
     wide, and the third, used as a storehouse, was 36 ft. long by 18
     ft. wide and had a large cellar. In the first building Champlain
     lived with a few of the workmen in the lower story; in the other
     the remaining workpeople lived, and had with them the arms and
     ammunition of the whole party. An annexe was attached to one of the
     buildings, and it was used as a smithy; a few of the people also
     slept there. The whole of the buildings were enclosed by a trench
     or moat 15 ft. wide and 9 ft. deep, to protect the settlers from
     the ravages of wild beasts.

     Champlain had earthworks thrown up on the inner side of the moat,
     on which cannons were mounted. Between the encampment and the river
     there remained a strip only 24 ft. wide; and behind, on the side of
     the mountain, there was a plot of arable land a little more than
     100 ft. long and 60 ft. wide, where Champlain had corn sown and
     vines planted.

[Illustration]

This "abitation" is shown on the 5c value of the series, while on the
10c is shown the city of Quebec as it had grown by 1700 from such small
and modest beginnings.

[Illustration]

In the following May Champlain decided to explore the river and his
departure on this momentous journey is depicted on the 15c stamp.

[Illustration]

On the 7c denomination are portraits of the two famous generals,
Montcalm and Wolfe, both of whom were killed fighting each other on the
heights of Quebec. Again, to quote from the article in _Gibbons' Stamp
Weekly:_--

[Illustration]

     So early as 1628 Quebec was captured by the English, in spite of
     Champlain's brave defence; but Canada was restored to France by one
     of the terms of the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, which was
     concluded in 1632. Richelieu at once sent Champlain back to Quebec
     as Governor-General of Canada.

     Twice more, in 1690 and 1711, the English besieged Quebec, but they
     were not able to capture the town. But in 1759 General James Wolfe
     was ordered by Pitt to clear the French right out of Canada. The
     French troops were under the command of Marquis Ludwig Joseph
     Montcalm, of Saint-Veran. Although the latter was in command of
     only a small force, he was able to claim several victories, but
     finally he was besieged in Quebec by General Wolfe, at the head of
     30,000 men. He was obliged to give battle under unequal conditions,
     and on September 13th was mortally wounded at the battle of the
     Heights of Abraham and died two days later. The victorious English
     general was also killed in the same battle.

     The names of both these leaders, enemies though they were, have
     graven themselves inseparably on the memories of the inhabitants of
     Quebec. In 1827 the Governor of Canada, Lord Dalhousie, erected a
     marble monument to their memory, on which is a Latin inscription,
     which may be rendered freely thus:--

    "Their courage caused their death.
    History praises them both.
    Posterity erects this monument to
    their honour."

No advance information was published as to the numbers printed of the
several values in the series, as in the case of the Jubilee set, so that
little attempt at cornering any particular values was made by
speculators. True, large quantities of the 1/2c value were bought up by
people who imagined it would be as rare as the corresponding value of
the Jubilee stamps, but as there were two million of these they did not
turn out to be the gold-mine it was fondly imagined they would. By
September, 1908, all values except the 10c, 15c and 20c had been
exhausted and by the end of October these three values were sold out as
well. The numbers issued were later given out by the Postmaster-General
in answer to two questions propounded to him in the House of Commons by
Mr. Perley, a member. The Canadian _Hansard_ gives this data as
follows:--

     1.--What was the total amount received by the Post Office
     Department from the sale of the special Tercentenary stamps?
     2.--What part of this sum would probably have been received as
     ordinary revenue if there had been no special issue of stamps?

     To these questions the Hon. Rudolphe Lemieux, Postmaster-General,
     responded: The following was the issue to Postmasters of the
     Tercentenary postage stamps:

     _Denominations._         _Quantities._           _Value._
        1/2 cent                2,000,000              $10,000
          1 cent               22,530,000             $225,300
          2 cent               35,100,000             $702,000
          5 cent                1,200,000              $60,000
          7 cent                  700,000              $49,000
         10 cent                  500,000              $50,000
         15 cent                  300,000              $45,000
         20 cent                  304,200              $60,840
                               ----------            ---------
        Totals,                62,634,200           $1,202,140

     The department has no knowledge whether the stamps in question have
     all been sold, as during their issue the ordinary postage stamps
     were also on sale, both issues being in use as preferred by the
     public. The proceeds derived from the sale of stamps of the two
     issues were not kept separately, but treated as arising from a
     common source. It is, therefore, impossible to state to what extent
     the issue of the Tercentenary postage stamps may have affected the
     ordinary revenue.

The fact that the Prince of Wales was an ardent stamp collector resulted
in the presentation to him of a specially mounted set as shown by the
following paragraph from the WEEKLY:--

     As the Prince of Wales is an enthusiastic collector of stamps, His
     Royal Highness will no doubt be very pleased to receive the set of
     the special tercentenary stamps which will be presented to him at
     Quebec. The stamps will be held in small gold boxes, enclosed in a
     handsome large box of Morocco leather. A second set accompanies the
     gift in a special gold box, on the cover of the large box is the
     Prince's crest and a gold plate inscribed as follows: "Set of
     Canadian postage stamps issued upon the occasion of the Quebec
     tercentenary, 1908. Presented to His Royal Highness the Prince of
     Wales by Hon. Rudolphe Lemieux, Postmaster-General of Canada." Sets
     of these stamps, in boxes with appropriate crests and monograms,
     will be presented to Earl Grey, Sir Wilfred Laurier and Hon.
     Rudolphe Lemieux.


_Reference List._

1908.  Engraved and printed by the American Bank Note Co.,
       Ottawa. No wmk. Perf. 12.

 85.   1/2c  dark brown, Scott's No. 96.
 86.     1c  blue green, Scott's No. 97.
 87.     2c  carmine, Scott's No. 98.
 88.     5c  dark blue, Scott's No. 99.
 89.     7c  olive green, Scott's No. 100.
 90.    10c  dark violet, Scott's No. 101.
 91.    15c  red orange, Scott's No. 102.
 92.    20c  yellow brown, Scott's No. 103.



CHAPTER XXIV.

_The King George Stamps._


On May 6th, 1910, King George V succeeded to the throne but the Dominion
of Canada did not take steps towards issuing a series of stamps bearing
the portrait of the new monarch until some time later. The 1c and 2c
denominations were recorded in the _Monthly Journal_ for January, 1912,
so they were doubtless on sale on the 1st day of that month. The other
values--5c, 7c, 10c, 20c and 50c--were placed on sale very soon
afterwards and we believe the full series was in circulation before the
end of January.

[Illustration]

The new stamps form a highly attractive set and they are without
question the handsomest set of "George" stamps issued by any of the
British Colonies. The portrait, which shows His Majesty in an admiral's
uniform, three-quarter face to left, is, as the _Monthly Journal_ states
"the best portrait of King George that has yet appeared on stamps." The
portrait is contained within an oval above which the words CANADA
POSTAGE are curved in bold sans-serif capitals. Below is the value ONE
CENT, etc., in words while in each of the lower angles the value is
shown in figures on a plain square as in the case of the King Edward
stamps. In the upper corners are crowns, again like the King Edward
labels, but the treatment of the stamp as a whole is widely dissimilar.
The portrait oval is smaller than before so that in place of the almost
microscopical maple leaves shown on the King Edward stamps we now find a
spray of these leaves, beautifully drawn, in each of the lower
spandrels.

The stamps were printed in sheets of 100 as before with the usual
arrangement of marginal imprint and plate numbers. No record seems to
have been made of the plates but that a very large number of the 2c at
any rate were used is obvious from the high numbers found.

The 1c and 2c values show a number of prominent shades. Just a month
after the stamps were first chronicled the _Monthly Journal_ noted that
the 1c existed in two distinct shades--"yellow-green and blue-green". In
October, 1912, the same journal mentioned the receipt of the 5c "in a
very markedly altered shade, deep ultramarine instead of the previous
deep indigo", while in January, 1913, we read of two very pronounced
shades of the 2c--bright carmine and dull rose-red--in addition to the
usual rose-carmine tint. In November, 1913, this denomination was noted
in still another striking shade described as "almost carmine-lake".

In the February, 1913, issue of the _Philatelic Gazette_ reference is
made to these shades and other varieties as follows:--

Collectors of shades should not fail to secure before it is too
late, the interesting series of such varieties in the current King
George series of Canada. In the 1 cent stamp four distinct shades
are noted and in the 2 cent value no less than ten distinct shades
from a pale carmine rose to deep carmine and from a real brick red
to a reddish-brown or sienna red.

Several "errors" or "freaks of printing" have appeared, mostly in
the early impressions, caused probably by the rush and push of the
printers in trying to meet the large demand. I have noted the
following and believe they will be of interest to collectors:

1 Cent.--An accent between CANADA and POSTAGE; also accents
  between N and D of CANADA.

2 Cent.--The same varieties may be found on the 2 cent stamp
  printed from plate one.

2 Cent.--On plate two there appeared on the 97th stamp on the plate
  a marked accent on the C of CENTS.

2 Cent.--In February, 1912, some few sheets were issued, having the
red horizontal guide lines running across the stamps. These were
printed from unfinished plates from which the guide lines had not
been removed. They are easily distinguished, having the lines about
2 millimeters apart running across every stamp on the sheet. The
lines are very plain where they run through the figures of
value.--C. L. P.

The variety last described is a very interesting one which may also be
found in connection with the 1c denomination. To term them guide-lines
and prints from "unfinished plates" is, however, quite incorrect. Such
guide-lines as are marked on a plate are only placed vertically or
horizontally to correspond with the top or bottom or one of the sides of
the stamp design. The lines, which we are now considering, appear
comparatively close together though they are not equi-distant, as the
above description would lead us to imagine, nor are they always parallel
or straight. They are undoubtedly due to some inherent defects in the
plates. Possibly, in the rush to finish sufficient plates to cope with
the demand for the new stamps some of them were hardened too quickly
with the result that the surfaces cracked. These defective plates were
certainly among the earliest ones used and judging by the scarcity of
the stamps showing these peculiarities they were not in use long before
they were discarded.

The 1c and 2c values of this series were issued in coil form for use in
automatic vending machines. These were first issued in November, 1912,
perf. 8 vertically and imperforate at top and bottom. In October, 1913,
the 1c was issued perf. 8 horizontally and imperforate at the sides and
shortly afterwards the 2c appeared in the same way. These coil stamps
show quite a number of distinct shades. The 1c in coil form was also
issued with the 12 perforation at top and bottom and imperforate at the
sides.


_Reference List._

    Engraved and Printed by the American Bank Note Co., Ottawa.
    No wmk. Perf. 12.

93.   1c  green, Scott's No. 104.
     (a)  Perf. 8 vertically. Scott's No. 104c.
     (b)  Perf. 8 horizontally, Scott's No. 104b.
     (c)  Perf. 12 horizontally, Scott's No. 104a.
94.   2c  carmine. Scott's No. 105.
     (a)  Perf. 8 vertically, Scott's No. 105a.
     (b)  Perf. 8 horizontally, Scott's No. 105b.
95.   5c  deep blue. Scott's No. 106.
96.   7c  olive-yellow, Scott's No. 107.
97.  10c  dull purple, Scott's No. 108.
98.  20c  olive-green, Scott's No. 109.
99.  50c  sepia, Scott's No. 110.



CHAPTER XXV.

_The War Tax Stamps._


One result of the European war was that Canada, in common with many
other countries, had to impose special taxes. The Hon. W. T. White,
Minister of Finance, outlined the various tariff changes and special
taxes in the House of Commons, Ottawa, on February 11th, 1915, and a
resume of the chief items in the new "budget" was published in the
WEEKLY for Feb. 7th as follows:--

     The tariff changes went into effect at the time of the
     announcement. The special tax on wine and champagne goes into
     effect at once. The other special taxes take effect at a date to be
     yet fixed. The stamp tax on letters means that the old 3 cent
     postage rate is restored, and a city letter costs 2 cents.

     There is to be no income tax.

     The following are some of the items of taxation:--

     One cent on telegraph and cable messages.

     Five cents for every five dollars on railroad and steamboat
     tickets.

     Ten cents on sleeping car and five cents on parlor car tickets.

     One to three dollars per passenger from steamboat companies
     carrying to ports other than in Canada, Newfoundland, the United
     States of America, and British West Indies.

     Two cents on all bank checks, receipts and bills of exchange,
     express and post-office orders.

     One cent on postal notes.

     One cent (war stamp) on each letter and postcard.

     Five cents per quart on non-sparkling wines sold in Canada, and
     twenty-five cents per pint on champagne and sparkling wines.

     One cent on each twenty-five cents retail price of proprietary
     articles.

The only tax that has interest to us as philatelists is the one cent
impost on all letters and postcards. This came into effect on April
15th, 1915, and special stamps were issued for the purpose. These are
the regular 1c postage stamps of the King George series with the words
"WAR TAX", in two lines, in large colorless block capitals between the
portrait and the value. As this stamp collected a tax on letters and
postcards it will undoubtedly be considered collectible by the most
advanced of the philatelic purists. A 2c value was also issued in this
type and while this was primarily intended for use on money orders,
checks, etc., it was also quite frequently used for postage. In fact
there seems to have been no necessity for these special stamps, for so
long as a letter had 3c postage on it (or 2c in the case of drop
letters) the law was fully complied with.

That both the 1c and 2c values were good for postage is proved by the
following letter addressed to Mr. Gladstone Perry in answer to an
enquiry by him:--

     POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, CANADA,
       OTTAWA, _22nd April, 1915._

     Dear Sir:--

     I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your favour of the 19th
     inst. on the subject of War Tax Stamps.

     In so far as the Post Office Department is concerned, the War Tax
     Stamps have only been issued in two denominations, namely:--the one
     cent and two cent.

     The Two Cent War Tax Stamp may be used on money orders, cheques,
     notes and wherever else the tax on that amount is applicable.

     I would also add that ordinary postage stamps may also be used to
     pay the War Tax and that Post Office War Tax Stamps are available
     for postage purposes.

     Very sincerely yours,
     E. J. LEMAIRE, Superintendent,
     _Postage Stamp Branch._

It was considered, however, that a stamp which would pay both postage
and tax would be a great convenience to the public and in December,
1915, a stamp of this sort was issued. The official announcement
regarding these was as follows:--

     POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, CANADA,
       OTTAWA _December 30th, 1915._

     Sir:--I have the honor to enclose three specimens of a stamp which
     this Department is issuing for postage and War Tax purposes, having
     a value of three cents. This is an ordinary two cent postage stamp
     surcharged as follows: 1 T c (one cent tax). This has been issued
     in response to the demand of the public for a stamp having the
     value of three cents so that postage and War Tax might be paid by
     affixing one stamp. This stamp is of permanent validity.

     I have the honor to be, Sir,
     Your obedient servant,
     R. M. COULTER,
     _Deputy Postmaster-General._

The new stamps were printed from engraved plates as usual from a special
die adapted from the ordinary 2 cent stamp. Upon the King's coat,
immediately below the portrait but within the portrait oval, is engraved
a capital "T" beneath the left branch of which is the numeral "1", and
beneath the right branch the letter "c" for cent. These presumably came
into general use on January 1st, 1916.

Sometime in July or August, 1916, this special 3c stamp was reported as
existing with a perforation of 12 at top and bottom and 8 at the sides.
It was generally presumed these were stamps from sheets which had been
originally intended for coil use and this was confirmed in a letter sent
to a correspondent from the Superintendent of the Postage Stamp Branch
at Ottawa, viz.:--

     The explanation of this lies in the simple fact that owing to quick
     deliveries of this stamp being required by the Department, the
     manufacturers were obliged to use part of stock which had been
     prepared for roll postage and perforated sidewise with the wide
     perforation. These sheets were then perforated endwise with the
     regular perforation and issued.

It is said that 50,000 of these stamps were supplied to the Montreal
Post-office but whether this represents the total quantity issued or not
we cannot say.

As this 3c tax stamp was in the same color as the ordinary 2c label much
confusion resulted and the advantage of issuing the stamp in a
distinctive color was ultimately considered by the Post Office
Department. Rumours that the color would be changed began to circulate
early in September, 1916, and shortly afterwards the stamp made its
appearance in an attractive brown color. The new stamp was apparently
distributed late in August and postmasters were instructed not to issue
it until all stocks of the old 3c in carmine had been sold. The circular
dealing with this matter is worded as follows:--

     POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, CANADA,
       OTTAWA, _28th August, 1916._

     TWO-CENT SURCHARGED POSTAGE AND WAR TAX STAMP.

     The Postmaster will please observe that the 2c Surcharged Postage
     and War Tax stamps, herewith enclosed, are printed in BROWN instead
     of in RED, as formerly. In future these stamps will be issued in
     the colour mentioned so as to overcome the difficulty experienced
     owing to the similarity in colour to the ordinary 2c stamp.

     Before offering to the public any of the new stamps it is very
     desirable that the old stock he entirely sold.

     R. M. COULTER,
     Deputy Postmaster-General.


_Reference List._

1915-16.  Engraved and printed by the American Bank Note Co.,
          Ottawa. No wmk. Perf. 12.

100.      1c     green, Scott's No. 201.
101.      2c+1c  carmine, Scott's No. 202.
          (a)    Perf. 12 x 8.
102.      2c+1c  brown.



CHAPTER XXVI.

_A Proposed Commemorative Series._


Before concluding our notes regarding the postage stamps proper of
Canada it will be as well to make brief reference to a proposed
commemorative series which, fortunately or unfortunately as one views
these special sets, never eventuated. Early in 1914 proposals were on
foot to celebrate the one hundredth anniversary of the birth of Sir
George Etienne Cartier by the issue of a series of stamps of distinctive
designs. Cartier was a famous Canadian premier who was born in Lower
Canada in 1814. Becoming attorney-general for Lower Canada in 1856, he
was called to form the Cartier-Macdonald ministry in 1858. After the
fall of his ministry he again became attorney-general in 1864. A
fearless and upright leader, and a good orator, he did much for the
moulding of a united Canada. He is also famed as a writer of French
lyrics, which were published in 1875, two years after his death. Whether
the stamps ever got beyond the proposal stage is a moot point but at any
rate a list of chosen subjects was published, viz.:--

1 cent, Portraits of King George and Queen Mary.

2 cents, The Cartier Monument.

5 cents, Cartier's birthplace.

7 cents, Portrait of the Prince of Wales.

10 cents, Victoria Bridge, inaugurated by Cartier.

20 cents, Canadian Pacific Railway train inscribed "All Aboard for the
West."

50 cents, Cartier's Coat-of-Arms; motto, "Franc et sans dol";
inscription. "O Canada, mon pays, mes amours".

It was at one time definitely announced that the stamps would be placed
on sale on June 15th but a correspondent making enquiry at headquarters
was informed that "the Department is not yet decided to sell the Cartier
stamps."

As the stamps still failed to make an appearance a firm of English stamp
dealers wrote to the Canadian Post-Office department for information and
received the following reply:--

     POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, CANADA.
          _Office of the Superintendent
           of the Postage Stamp Branch._
             OTTAWA, _29th June, 1914_.

     Dear Sirs:--I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your favor
     addressed to the late Mr. Stanton, and in which you ask information
     with reference to the proposed issue of stamps to commemorate the
     centenary of Sir George Etienne Cartier. The information which you
     have received from outside sources is not only premature, but
     inaccurate in several details, and I can only say that although it
     is possible that these stamps may be issued during the course of
     the next few months the whole question is still under the
     consideration of the Department.

     Yours very sincerely,
     E. J. LEMAIRE, _Superintendent_.

Finally, owing very probably to the war, it was decided not to issue
this special series of stamps.



CHAPTER XXVII.

_Official Stamps._


Canada has never issued special postage stamps for use on departmental
correspondence but in November, 1884, a German paper,--_Der
Philatelist_--on the advice of a correspondent, chronicled a series for
official use. These were said to consist of the ordinary adhesives, two
envelopes and a post card surcharged with the word OFFICIAL in black. To
quote from the _Philatelic Record:_--"It is alleged that they were
prepared and issued in 1877, but after a short time were called in
again. The surcharges are in some cases oblique, and in others
perpendicular. It is at least strange that, considering our intercourse
with Canada, our first knowledge of the issue of official stamps so far
back as 1877 should reach us from Temesvar, wherever that may be".

Doubts were, naturally, expressed on all sides with regard to the
authenticity of these labels and a letter addressed to Ottawa on the
subject resulted in the following reply:--

     POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, CANADA,
     OTTAWA, _18th May, 1885_.

     Sir:--I am directed by the Postmaster-General to acknowledge
     receipt of your letter of the 29th ult., enquiring whether postage
     stamps bearing the word "_Official_" on their face are in
     circulation in the Dominion of Canada, and beg, in reply, to say
     that no such stamp, card, newspaper wrapper, or envelope has _ever_
     been issued by this Department. I am, sir, your obedient servant,

     (Signed) WM. WHITE, _Secretary_.

Two years later, in April, 1887, after this canard had been
satisfactorily disposed of another set of alleged official stamps was
referred to in the _Philatelic Record_ as follows:--

     Mr. Hechler sent to the Transvaal correspondent of Major Evans a
     set of Canadian stamps surcharged SERVICE, and he certainly
     vouched for the authenticity of the Royal arms and supporters, with
     the word SERVICE on some Canadian envelopes, which he declared had
     been issued to the troops that were sent out in the Indian
     rebellion in 1885, and with whom Mr. Hechler was serving. This
     rebellion did not break out until April of that year, and yet we
     find these envelopes described in the _Timbre-Poste_ of February of
     the same year, on the authority of _Der Philatelist_ of the
     previous January. This all seems to be very remarkable, especially
     as no one but Mr. Hechler appears ever to have had any of them.

A little delving into the history of these stamps and envelopes soon
showed that they were nothing more than a private speculation on the
part of their sponsor, Mr. Hechler. It appears that Hechler was a
captain in a Volunteer regiment which was despatched to assist in
putting down the rebellion. He had the words SERVICE printed on a number
of envelopes, postcards, and probably stamps as well, which were used in
sending notices of drill, etc., to his company. But they were never
issued or recognised by the Government of Canada.



CHAPTER XXVIII.

_The Special Delivery Stamp._


In March, 1884, the _Philatelic Record_ contained the following
paragraph:--

     We are informed that there is likely to be issued shortly "a new
     ten cent stamp of special design, which, when attached to a letter,
     will ensure its immediate delivery to its address at any free
     delivery office, between the hours of 7 a. m. and 12 midnight." A
     similar system has, we believe, been in use for some years in
     Belgium, where the extra charge is paid in telegraph stamps.

This was certainly a case of intelligent anticipation for it was not
until fourteen years later that a stamp of this character was issued by
the Dominion of Canada. The Postmaster-General's Report for 1898
referred to the introduction of the new stamp as follows:--

     The calendar year has witnessed the introduction of the special
     delivery stamp, whereby on the payment of a delivery fee of 10
     cents in addition to the ordinary postage, a letter immediately
     upon its arrival at the office of destination is sent by special
     messenger for delivery to the addressee.

     A special-delivery stamp of the face-value of 10 cents was
     prepared, and the first supplies thereof were sent out sufficiently
     early to Postmasters to permit of the inauguration of the special
     delivery service on the 1st July, 1898. The object of the service
     is to secure special and prompt delivery of a letter on which a
     special-delivery stamp, in addition to the ordinary postage, has
     been affixed.

The new system was dealt with at some length in a circular issued to
postmasters under date June 7th, 1898, and as this is of considerable
interest we reproduce it below:--

     The Postmaster-General has approved of arrangements whereby, on and
     from the first of July proximo, the senders of letters posted at
     any Post Office in Canada and addressed to a City Post Office now
     having Free Delivery by Letter Carriers shall, on prepayment by
     Special Delivery stamps of the face-value of ten cents, affixed one
     to each letter, in addition to the ordinary postage to which the
     same are liable, secure their special delivery to the persons to
     whom they are addressed within the limits of Letter Carrier
     Delivery at any one of the following Post Offices in Cities,
     viz.:--Halifax, St. John, N. B., Fredericton, Quebec, Montreal,
     Ottawa, Kingston, Toronto, Brantford, Hamilton, London, Winnipeg,
     Victoria, and Vancouver. The hours of delivery to be within 7 a. m.
     and 11 p. m. daily, except Sunday. These hours are subject to
     change as dictated by local circumstances. Drop-letters posted for
     local delivery, and bearing Special Delivery stamps, in addition to
     the postage, will also be entitled to special delivery in the same
     manner as letters received at the Post Office by mail.

     Registered letters may likewise come under the operations of this
     scheme of Special Delivery, in the same way as ordinary letters,
     provided they bear Special Delivery stamps, in addition to the full
     postage and the registration fee fixed by law, and the regulations
     respecting the record and receipting of registered matter are
     observed. In despatching registered letters that bear Special
     Delivery stamps, the Postmaster should write prominently across the
     registered-package envelope the words "For Special Delivery." When
     Special Delivery letters (unregistered) number five or more for any
     one office the Postmaster should make a separate package of them,
     marking it "For Special Delivery"; if such letters are fewer than
     five, he should place them immediately under the "facing-slip" of
     the letter-package which he makes up, either directly or
     indirectly, for the Special Delivery office for which they are
     intended, so that the most prompt attention may be secured
     therefor.

     Special Delivery stamps will be sold at all Money Order Post
     Offices in Canada, (which may secure a supply of such stamps in the
     same way as ordinary stamps are obtained), for which the
     Postmasters will have to account as they do for ordinary stamps and
     on the sales of which a total commission of ten per cent. shall be
     allowed to Postmasters, except to Postmasters having fixed
     salaries. For the present Postmasters will use the existing forms
     of requisition in applying for Special Delivery stamps. (The usual
     discount may be allowed to a licensed stamp vendor at the time that
     he purchases Special Delivery stamps from the Postmaster). Special
     Delivery stamps are to be cancelled as postage stamps are
     cancelled. Stamps intended for Special Delivery are not available
     for any other purpose, and the article upon which one is affixed
     must have, besides, the ordinary postage prepaid by postage stamps.
     Under no circumstances will Special Delivery stamps be recognised
     in payment of postage or of registration fee, nor can any other
     stamp be used to secure Special Delivery, except the Special
     Delivery stamp. Special Delivery stamps are not redeemable.

     Letters intended for Special Delivery at any one of the City Post
     Offices above mentioned, and prepaid as directed, may be mailed at
     any Post Office in Canada.

     The regulations relating to First Class Matter (Inland Post) apply
     also and equally to Special Delivery letters, the only difference
     being the special treatment which the latter receive with a view to
     accelerating their delivery.

     The object sought by the establishment of Special
     Delivery,--namely, the special delivery of letters transmitted
     thereunder,--will be much promoted if the senders of all such
     letters are careful to address them plainly and fully, giving, if
     possible, the street and number in each case. Such care will serve
     not only to prevent mistakes, but also to facilitate delivery. All
     employees of the Post Office are enjoined to expedite, in every way
     in their power, the posting, transmission and delivery of letters
     intended for Special Delivery.

[Illustration]

These special delivery stamps are distinctly different in design from
the ordinary postage stamps, the reason for this being, of course, that
letters intended for special delivery may be at once identified and
their handling facilitated. The stamps are oblong in shape, measuring
about 31 mm. by 23 mm. high. The centre consists of an engine turned
oval, in the middle of which is the word TEN in uncolored block letters
on a solid disc of color. Around this is an oval filled with lathe-work
and then comes an oval band inscribed "SPECIAL DELIVERY WITHIN CITY
LIMITS" in similar lettering to that of the word of value. This, in
turn, is enclosed within another oval of lathe-work. The frame shows
"CANADA POST OFFICE" in a straight label across the top, while the lower
and side borders are filled with lathe-work intercepted at the bottom by
a straight label containing "TEN CENTS", and at each side by a small
circle containing the numerals "10." The spandrels are filled with
conventional foliate ornaments. The value and special use of the stamp
is thus plainly depicted and letters bearing them are easily sorted from
the ordinary mail.

The stamps were, like all other Canadian stamps, printed from
line-engraved plates. They were printed in sheets of fifty arranged in
ten horizontal rows of five each. The imprint and plate number
"OTTAWA----No.----1" are shown in the upper margin above the central
stamp. Apparently this original plate is still in use, for no other
plate number has yet been recorded.

At first the stamps were printed in deep green, but in January, 1906,
the _Philatelic Record_ mentioned a new shade, described as blue-green,
and recent printings have been in a very deep shade of blue-green.

The use of these special delivery stamps, though somewhat restricted at
first, soon grew steadily in volume, showing that the public appreciated
the special service. The Postmaster-General in referring to this matter
in his Report for 1899 says:--"The 10 cent Special Delivery stamps, to
which reference was made in the last report, came into use at the
beginning of the current fiscal year, simultaneously with the
commencement of the Special Delivery Service, and of this stamp 52,940
were issued to meet the demands, which would go to show that the service
is being availed of to a considerable extent throughout the country."

Later Reports simply indicate the extension of the service to other
offices, though the one for 1908 also concedes that the use of a Special
Delivery stamp is not compulsory to secure this service so long as the
extra fee of ten cents is prepaid. We read that:--

     The regulations respecting special delivery have been so modified
     that it is no longer necessary for a person despatching a letter
     which he desires to have delivered immediately, to provide himself
     with the "special delivery" stamp issued by the department. He may
     now place upon his letter ordinary postage stamps to the value of
     ten cents in addition to the stamps required for the prepayment of
     postage and write across the corner of the envelope the words
     "special delivery". This will ensure the special delivery of the
     letter as provided for in the regulations.


_Reference List._

1898.  Engraved and printed by the American Bank Note Co.,
       Ottawa. No wmk. Perf. 12.

103.   10c  deep green, Scott's No. 160.



CHAPTER XXIX.

_The Registration Stamps._


The convenience of the registry system was adopted in Canada in May,
1855, at which time the fee was the remarkably low one of one penny. In
1856 the system was extended to cover letters sent to the United States
by mutual agreement between the post office departments of both
countries, and while the domestic rate remained at one penny the fee for
the registration of letters to the United States was three pence. Mr.
Howes has discovered an interesting notice in the Canadian Directory for
1857-8 which gives further details as follows:--

     Persons transmitting letters, which they desire should pass through
     the post as "registered letters", must observe that no record is
     taken of any letter unless specially handed in for registration at
     the time of the posting. Upon all such letters, with the exception
     of those addressed to the United States, one penny must be prepaid
     as a registration charge. If addressed to the United States, the
     ordinary postage rate on the letters to that country _must be
     prepaid_, and in addition a registration charge of 3d per letter.
     The registry thus effected in Canada will be carried on by the
     United States Post Office until the letter arrives at its
     destination.

     In like manner, letters addressed to Canada may be registered at
     the place of posting in the United States, and the registry made
     there will accompany the letter to the place of delivery in Canada.

     A certificate of registration will be given by the postmaster if
     required.

     The registration system can be applied to the letter portion of the
     mail only.

The registration system at that time made no provision for compensation
in case of the loss of letters, the small extra fee charged simply
indicating that extra care would be taken to secure proper delivery.
Evidently at that time the fee was paid in money, and the letters then
marked with a handstamp of some sort, for in the Postmaster-General's
Report for 1858 we read, "It is also considered that it would be an
improvement on the system if the charge for registration were made
pre-payable by a stamp, instead of by money as at present." It is
probable that shortly after this the prepayment of the registry fee was
indicated by the affixing of stamps of the required value. The report
for 1860 refers to the system as follows:--

     A rate of charge for Registration so low as, in no probable degree,
     to operate as a motive, with persons posting letters of value, to
     deny themselves the advantage of securing from the Post Office an
     acknowledgment of the receipt of the specific letter, has always
     been considered to be a cardinal point in the Canadian
     Registration System.

     The Registration fee, or charge, has, therefore, under the
     influence of this consideration, been maintained at 2 cents, though
     it is doubtful whether such a rate of charge covers the actual cost
     of the process; the address of the Registered Letter having, in the
     course of transmission, to be entered on an average not less than
     six times, and forms of certificate or receipt, and Books in which
     to preserve permanent records at each Post Office, to be supplied.

The postal officials were evidently strong believers in the Registration
system and lost no opportunity of dwelling on its merits. In his Report
for 1864 the Postmaster-General tells of its manifold advantages as
follows:--

     When a letter is registered, that is to say, marked and recorded in
     the Post Office so as to individualise it from the bulk of ordinary
     letter correspondence, its presence in the Post Office can be
     identified and its course of transmission traced, and a registered
     letter is thus secured from the chance of abstraction by an
     unfaithful messenger employed to post it (as it is always open to
     proof whether the letter was posted for registration or not), from
     risk of loss by accidental mis-direction on the part of the sender,
     and from mistakes in the Post Office--such as mis-sending or
     delivery to a wrong party. Against actual dishonesty on the part of
     the Post Office employes, a registered letter is incomparably more
     secure than an unregistered one, for an unregistered money-letter
     and the nature of its contents are, to any person accustomed to
     handle letters, as manifest as though the letter had been singled
     out and marked by the registered stamp. Moreover, the safety of an
     unregistered letter is dependent on the integrity of a Post Office
     Clerk during the whole time that it remains in his custody,
     frequently for hours, or even days; whilst a registered letter will
     almost invariably have to be acknowledged at the moment of its
     passing into an officer's hands, and cannot thereafter be
     suppressed without leaving him individually accountable for its
     disposal.

At what date the registry system was extended to letters sent to other
countries than the United States is not clear but Mr. Howes has
succeeded in unearthing a document which shows the rates prevailing in
1865-6:--

     The charge for Registration, in addition to the Postage, is as
     follows, viz.:--

     On Letters to any other place in Canada or British North America, 2
     cents

     On Letters for the United States, 5 cents

     On Letters for the United Kingdom, 12-1/2 cents

     On Letters for British Colonies or Possession sent _via_ England,
     25 cents

     On Letters for France and other Foreign Countries _via_ England, an
     equal amount to the postage rate.

     Both the postage charge and registration fee must in all cases be
     prepaid.

It was not until 1872 that the idea of issuing special stamps for the
prepayment of the registration fee was mooted but in the
Postmaster-General's Report for that year we read:--

     It seems expedient to adopt some distinctive postage stamp to be
     used only in prepayment of the Registration charge, both to make it
     clear that this charge has been duly paid and accounted for in
     every case, and to diminish the risk which is occasionally felt at
     points of distribution of omitting to carry on the Registration in
     cases where the ordinary Registration postmark is not as distinct
     and calculated to arrest attention as it should be.

     It has always been the policy of the Canadian Post Office to admit
     letters to Registration at a low rate of charge for the additional
     security thus given, so as to leave no adequate motive, on the
     score of cost, for sending valuable letters through the mails
     unregistered, and, doubtless, the very large proportion of such
     letters offered for registration demonstrates a gratifying measure
     of success in attaining the desired object.

In spite of this recommendation it was not until three years later that
special stamps for Registration purposes made their appearance. They
were finally placed on sale on November 15th, 1875, and were referred to
by the Postmaster-General in his Report for that year as follows:--

     Registration stamps have been issued, to be used by the public in
     prepaying the registration charges on letters passing within the
     Dominion, or to the United Kingdom or United States, each
     destination being distinguished by a different color in the stamp,
     as well as by a variation in the amount of registration charge and
     corresponding value of the stamp.

     There is a red stamp of the value of two cents for the prepayment
     of the registration charges on letters within the Dominion.

     There is a green stamp of five cents value for registered letters
     addressed to the United States.

     There is a blue stamp of eight cents value for registered letters
     addressed to the United Kingdom.

     These stamps are to apply exclusively to the registration charges
     and the postage rates on registered letters are to be prepaid by
     the ordinary postage stamps.

     It is believed that the use of these distinctive stamps for the
     registration charges will tend to give registered letters
     additional security against the risk which is sometimes felt of the
     registration escaping observation, when such letters are dealt with
     hurriedly or handled at night, whilst passing through the post.

[Illustration]

These registration stamps were not only of distinctive design but also
of distinctive shape so that they were readily recognised from ordinary
postage stamps. They are long, narrow labels and the design is the same
for each. On an engine-turned background the word "REGISTERED" in large
uncolored Roman capitals is curved prominently across the centre. Below
is "LETTER STAMP", also curved but in smaller letters, while above is
"CANADA" on a straight label in still smaller lettering. At each end are
tables containing the value in words reading up at the left and down at
the right, and in the upper corners are large uncolored numerals plainly
denoting the value. Like all other Canadian stamps they were printed
from line-engraved plates on unwatermarked paper. They were at first
printed in sheets of fifty in ten horizontal rows of five stamps each.
Mr. Howes describes the marginal details as follows:--

     The imprint was the same as the second type employed for the small
     "cents" issue--"British American Bank Note Co. Montreal" in a
     pearled frame--and likewise appeared four times on the sheet, as
     already fully described in the chapter dealing with that issue. The
     denomination of the stamp was also expressed as TWO CENTS, in the
     shaded Roman capitals which we found in the case of the postage
     stamps, over the first stamp in the top row of that value, but with
     the 5 cent the word FIVE alone appears. The 8 cent we have not
     seen. On the 2 cent there is also a large numeral 2, 7-1/2 mm.
     high, over the last stamp in the top row (number 5) but the 5 cent
     has none.

The stamps were ordinarily perforated 12, like the then current postage
stamps, but the 2c in orange and the 5c in dark green are both known
entirely imperforate.

The Postmaster-General's Report for 1877 stated that "the registration
charge on registered letters between the United Kingdom and Canada has
been reduced from 8 cents to 5 cents". This, naturally, largely reduced
the demand for the 8 cents stamp though it is probable that the 8c rate
still applied to foreign countries. Shortly afterwards (the exact date
has not been traced) the registration fee on letters to all foreign
countries was reduced to 5 cents so that the use of the 8c denomination
was entirely abolished. The stamps in the hands of postmasters were
called in and destroyed and by examining the official figures relating
to the numbers originally issued and those destroyed Mr. Howes estimates
that about 40,000 of these 8c registration stamps were used.

In 1889 a general revision of postal rates took place, as already
explained in Chapter X, and one of these changes affected the
registration fee. The domestic fee was raised from 2c to 5c so that the
registration charge was uniform and was 5c on letters sent anywhere.
This, of course, did away with the usefulness of the 2c registration
stamps but, as indicated in the official circular, "for the present, and
until further instructed, the registration fee maybe prepaid by using
the 2 cent Registration stamps and postage stamps to make up the
amount."

The Postmaster-General's Report for 1889, in referring to the advance in
the registration charge, says:--

     The charge for the registration of a letter, parcel, book or other
     articles of mail matter was also made uniform, and fixed at 5 cents
     for all classes of matter. The frequent delay consequent upon the
     prepayment of a wrong registration fee will no longer take place.

The removal of the printing establishment of the British American Bank
Note Company from Montreal to Ottawa resulted in some marked changes in
the shades of the then current postage stamps as we have already shown
in a previous chapter. The registration stamps were also affected in
some degree the 2 cents value, in particular, appearing in a number of
new and brighter tints. The 5c appeared in blue-green--a distinct
contrast from the green and yellow-green shades previously current.

In 1892 some of the postage stamps, it will be remembered, appeared in
sheets of 200 instead of 100 as formerly. About the same period new
plates were made for the 5c registration stamp, these containing one
hundred impressions in ten rows of ten, instead of fifty as before.

On August 1st, 1893, a regular postage stamp of the denomination of 8c
was issued for the purpose of paying the postage and registration charge
and the appearance of this sounded the death knell of the special
registration stamps. The supplies in the hands of postmasters were used
up and when exhausted no more were printed.

Much has been written regarding the 2c registration stamp printed in
brown. These were originally found at the Miscou Light House Post Office
in New Brunswick and though the stamps were in an unmistakably dark
brown shade it has since been satisfactorily proved that the change was
quite accidental and that immersion in peroxide would restore them to
their original color. Although the Postmaster of the above named office
is said to have stated that the stamps were in brown when he received
them there is little doubt he must have been mistaken. Much the same
thing happened in connection with the current six cents United States
stamps at an office on the Pacific Coast (San Pedro). Some of these
stamps were found in a distinct brown shade almost exactly matching that
of the 4c value and though some local collectors had dreams of a rare
error of color it was easily proved that they were simply oxidised.


_Reference List._

1875-89.  Engraved and printed by the British American Bank
          Note Co., Montreal or Ottawa. No wmk. Perf. 12.

104.      2c  vermilion, Scott's Nos. 151 or 152.
105.      5c  green, Scott's No. 153.
106.      8c  blue, Scott's No. 154.



CHAPTER XXX.

_The Postage Due Stamps._


Like most other countries Canada managed to collect the postage due on
insufficiently prepaid mail matter for many years without the use of
special stamps for the purpose. About 1906 it dawned on the Post Office
Department that the use of special stamps would simplify matters and
place the collection of monies due on a more systematic basis.
Consequently a circular was issued to postmasters, under date of June
1st, 1906, advising them that postage due stamps would be issued and
must, for the future, be used in collecting insufficient postage. The
salient points from this circular are given by Mr. Howes as follows:--

     Commencing on the 1st July, 1906, the present system of collecting
     unpaid postage will be discontinued and thereafter the following
     arrangements will supersede the regulations now in force:--

     (1) The Department will issue a special stamp which will be known
     as the "POSTAGE DUE" stamp and on delivery of any article of mail
     matter on which unpaid or additional postage is to be collected the
     Postmaster will affix and cancel as ordinary stamps are cancelled,
     postage due stamps to the amount of the extra postage charged on
     such article.

     (2) The short paid postage must be collected from the addressee
     before postage due stamps are affixed; otherwise the Postmaster is
     liable to lose the amount of such postage.

     (3) Postmasters will obtain postage due stamps on requisition to
     the Department but the initial supply will be furnished without
     requisition, so that the new system may go into operation on the
     date above mentioned. When a new form is ordered "postage due"
     stamps will be included in the printed list, but it is proposed to
     use the stock on hand at present which would otherwise have to be
     destroyed. The denominations of the new stamps will be 1, 2 and 5
     cents.

In his Report for 1906 the Postmaster-General refers to the new
innovation as follows:--

     A system of accounting for short paid postage collected by
     Postmasters, by means of special stamps known as "Postage Due"
     stamps, has been adopted by the Department. These stamps are to be
     affixed to shortpaid mail matter and cancelled by Postmasters when
     such matter is delivered to the addressee, and are not to be used
     for any other purpose. They cannot be used for the payment of
     ordinary postage, nor are they to be sold to the public.

[Illustration]

These stamps are of special design and though of the same size as the
regular postage stamps the design is printed the longer way so that in
general appearance they are greatly different. The design has, as its
centerpiece, a large uncolored numeral on an eight-sided tablet. Above
is CANADA and below is the word CENT while at the sides are elaborate
scroll ornaments. Across the base the words POSTAGE DUE are shown in
bold uncolored capitals while the balance of the design consists of an
engine-turned groundwork.

They are printed from line-engraved plates in sheets of one hundred, as
usual. In the centre of the top margin is the imprint, "OTTAWA",
followed by the plate number. Mr. Howes states that plate 1 is known for
all three values and plate 2 for the 2 cent only.


_Reference List._

1906.  Engraved and printed by the American Bank Note Co.,
       Ottawa. No wmk. Perf. 12.

107.   1c  dull violet. Scott's No. 126.
108.   2c  dull violet. Scott's No. 127.
109.   5c  dull violet. Scott's No. 128.



CHAPTER XXXI.

_The "Officially Sealed" Labels._


Although "officially sealed" labels cannot by any stretch of the
imagination be considered as postage stamps or, indeed, of having any
philatelic significance yet they are collected by many, in common with
adhesive registered labels, as having an interest owing to the fact that
they are visible evidence of one phase of the working of the post
office. The "officially sealed" labels used by the Canadian Post Office
seem to have been first recorded in the latter part of 1879. The first
type consists of a rectangular label, measuring about 25-1/2 by 38 mm.
on which the words "OFFICIALLY SEALED" are shown straight across the
centre. Above this, in a curve, is the inscription "POST OFFICE CANADA",
while below, in a similar curve, is "DEAD LETTER OFFICE". The border
consists of a handsome piece of engine-turned engraving. These labels
were normally perforated 12 but they are also known entirely
imperforate. Much misconception existed as to the use of these labels
until Major E. B. Evans, when visiting Canada in 1889, took the
opportunity of finding out exactly for what they were used. The results
of his investigations were published in the _Philatelic Record_ for
November, 1889, and as the article is full of interest we need make no
apology for reproducing it _in extenso:_--

     When I was in Canada last July I made special enquiries about these
     labels, as there appeared to be some mystery about their use.
     Everyone agreed that they were not placed upon _all_ letters opened
     at the Dead Letter Office and returned to their senders, and no two
     persons seemed to have quite the same theory as to the rules for
     their employment or non-employment in any particular case. Even
     gentlemen connected with the Post Office at Halifax, such as Mr.
     King and others, could give me no definite information. I therefore
     determined to see what I could do at headquarters in Ottawa.

     Fortunately, I was able, through a collector in an official
     position, to obtain an introduction to the Deputy
     Postmaster-General, who most kindly gave me the following
     particulars, which show that the employment of the _officially
     sealed_ labels is very restricted, thus accounting for their
     rarity.

     Letters in Canada, as in the United States, very frequently have on
     the outside the well-known notice containing the address of the
     sender, and a request that the letter may be returned if not
     delivered within a certain time. These, of course, are not opened
     at the Dead Letter Office, and in fact, I think, are ordered not to
     be sent there, but are returned direct from the office to which
     they were originally addressed or from the head office of the
     district. On the other hand, those that have no indication of the
     address of the sender on the outside are sent to the Dead Letter
     Office, and there necessarily opened; but neither of these classes
     thus properly dealt with is considered to require the
     _officially-sealed label._ It is only if one of the former class,
     having the sender's name and address on the outside, is sent to the
     Dead Letter Office and there opened in _error_ that the
     _officially-sealed_ label is applied, to show that such letter has
     been opened officially, and not by any unauthorized person. Whether
     these pieces of gummed paper ever had a more extended use or not I
     cannot say, but I was assured that the above was the substance of
     the regulations as to their employment.

     The Deputy Postmaster-General further stated that there had been so
     many requests for specimens of these labels that the Department had
     been obliged to make it a rule to turn a deaf ear to all of them.
     In any case they are not _postage stamps_, properly speaking, at
     all. They indicate neither postage paid nor postage due, but simply
     that the letters to which they are attached have been opened by
     proper authority, and they at the same time afford a means of
     reclosing them.

About 1905 a label of new design was introduced, this, of course, being
the work of the American Bank Note Company. These are larger than their
predecessors and are very handsome labels. In the centre is an excellent
portrait of Queen Victoria, adapted from the "Law Stamps" of 1897, with
"CANADA" in heavy uncolored Roman capitals curved above, and, at the
top, the words "OFFICIALLY SEALED" in letters so graded that the tops
form a straight line, while the bottoms follow the curve of "CANADA".
Under the portrait the words "DEAD LETTER" are shown on a straight label
which extends right across the stamp, while below this is the word
"OFFICE" on a curved tablet. The spaces at the sides and the bottom are
filled with elaborate foliate ornaments and engine-turned work. These
labels are also perforated 12 and exist on two kinds of paper. Until
about 1907 the paper was of a pale blue color while subsequent printings
have been on ordinary white paper.


_Reference List._

1879.    Engraved and printed by the British American Bank Note Co.

         (No value) deep brown.

1905-7.  Engraved and printed by the American Bank Note Co.

         (No value) black on blue paper.
         (No value) black on white paper.

THE END.

[Illustration]



MY SPECIALTY IS

20th Century English Colonials United States

AND

New Issues


LARGE STOCK OF

King Edward Heads
King George Heads
New Issues

Always On Hand

SEND YOUR WANT LISTS

FRANK M. MASON

Box 1462, PROVIDENCE, R. I.



POPULAR HANDBOOKS


=CANAL ZONE=--A specialized study of these stamps by Wm. Evans. M. D.
Illus. Pr. 20c.

=DEALER AND HIS STOCK=--By Bill Bloss. A useful book for any stamp
dealer. Pr. 10c.

=OAXACA=--By Roderick Enfield. Handsomely illustrated and printed. Price
10c.

=RANGE TALES=--By E. B. Hill. Seventeen complete sketches of Arizona
life into which philately is woven by the hand of an artist. Illus.
Price 15c. A work of art.

=3 CENT GREEN 1870-87=--By H. L. Wiley. A very fine study. Profusely
illus. Pr. 12c.

=STAMPS OF OLD GERMAN STATES=--By Poole, freely illustrated. Price 35c.

=GERMANY AND ITS COLONIES=--By Poole. Freely illus. 70 pps. Price 25c.

=U. S. PARCEL POST, STAMP BOOKLETS and POSTAL SAVING STAMPS=--Three
books in one by H. L. Wiley. Price 25c.

=U. S. STAMPED ENVELOPES=--By Louis G. Barrett and J. M. Bartels.
1853-1913 fully illustrated. 22 cuts. Price 10c.

=THE STAMPS OF COOK ISLANDS=--By Poole. The only handbook published on
these stamps. Illustrated. Price 15c.

=STAMP COLLECTORS' GUIDE=--By Poole. Absolutely necessary to every
collector. Every chapter full of merit. Price 25c.

=HOW TO DEAL IN STAMPS=--A three part book by Grant, Wylie and Smith,
all experienced at the business. Price 10c.

=SPECIALIZED STUDY OF U. S. STAMPS=--By F. E. Goodwin. All adhesives
fully covered. A book of great merit. Price 50c.

=GAMBIA=--By Dalwick. Illus. Price 10c.

=HAWAII=--A fine book by Luff, Howes and Richards. Two colors and illus.
Price 10c.

=EGYPT=--By Dalwick. Illus. Price 12c.

=U. S. DEPT. STAMPS=--By Goodwin. All U. S. collectors need it. Price
10c.

=U. S. GRILLS 1867 to 1872=--By W. L. Stevenson. Illus. Blank pages for
notes. Pr. 10c.

=VIRGIN IDS.=--By Dalwick. Price 10c.

=SEVERN-WYLIE-JEWETT CO., BOSTON, MASS.=



C. G. DIETRICH

212 Broadway, New York, N. Y.

Entrance Fulton Street


Member A. P. S., Dresden Philatelic Society, Berlin and Vienna Dealers'
Association, offers his superb stock of medium and rare stamps of all
countries. Moderate Prices--Fine copies only.


SPECIALTIES

British, British Colonials
  Used and Unused
    19th and 20th Century

SEND WANT LISTS

Approval selections sent to responsible collectors



B. N. A.


This is my specialty, and I can supply good, clean copies of most
varieties at reasonable prices. I have also other British Colonials and
many nice foreign. Give me good reference and I will be pleased to send
you a selection on approval.


W. W. WALSH

Roy Building

HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA



CANADA

                                     Unused.   Used
1852,                  3py           $4.50    $ .38
                       6py  fair       ..      4.50
1857,                1/2py  fair      6.50     2.50
                     1/2py  perf.      ..      4.50
1859,                  1c              .60      .12
                       5c              .50      .05
                      10c   shades    3.75      .60
1859-64,               2c   fair       ..       .65
                  12-1/2c             2.50      .50
                  12-1/2c   No. 19a   2.50      .60
1868,                1/2c              .25      .20
                       1c              .90      .30
                       2c             1.25      .25
                       3c             1.10      .08
                       6c   shades    3.00      .38
                  12-1/2c   shades    2.00      .40
                      15c              .60      .25
                      15c   No. 27a   3.00      .35
1869,                  1c             2.00      .50
                       1c   No. 31a   2.75      .65
1869-72,               1c   orange    1.75      .15
1872-73,               6c              .70      .05
                      10c   shades    2.00      .40
1875,                  5c             2.00      .85
                      15c              .60      .18
1882-90,               3c   No. 42a    .60      .06
                       6c              .50      .07
                      10c   shades    1.00      .18
1892-93,              20c              .40      .08
                      50c              .80      .10
                       8c   shades     .75      .04
1897, Jubilee        1/2c              .25      .25
                       6c              .60      .60
                       8c              .30      .18
                      10c              .35      .20
                      15c              .35      .35
                      20c              .45      .40
                      50c              .75      .30
              Set 1/2-50c             3.00     2.40
            Complete Set             17.50    12.00
1897,                  6c              .18      .10
                       8c              .18      .05
                      10c              .28      .22
1898,                  6c              .25      .20
                       8c   shades     .22      .15
                      10c              .22      .06
                       7c   No. 8      .15      .07
                      20c   No. 87     .60      .15
              Map-shades               .05      .02
1903-08                2c   No. 90a    .05      .04
                      20c              .30      .04
                      50c              .75      .15
            Complete Set              1.40      .28
              Set Quebec              1.10      .90
           Set King Geo.              1.25      .20
                Set dues               .15      .03
            Special Del.               .18      .06
    40 var. Postage only                        .60
    50 var. Postage only                       1.00
    60 var. Postage only                       1.50
         10 var. War Tax                        .30

A complete line of Canada Revenues in stock. If you collect these
interesting stamps write us for a selection.

All the cheaper varieties in stock at low prices. Send for complete
list.



NEWFOUNDLAND

                                   Unused.   Used
1857,                  1py          $1.35   $3.00
                       5py           1.75    4.00
                       5py  No. 5a   3.50    4.50
1866,                  2c             .75     .65
                       5c   fair     5.50    3.50
                      10c            2.15    1.25
                      12c             .60     .55
                      13c            1.00     .85
                      24c             .70     .65
1867-73                1c   No. 30   1.25    1.00
                       1c   No. 30a  1.50    1.25
                       3c   No. 31   2.60    1.75
                       3c   No. 32   2.00     .50
                       6c             .15     .15
1876,                  1c            1.75    1.25
                       2c            1.00     .70
                       3c            1.75     .50
                       5c            1.25     .35
1880,                  1c   shades    .20     .13
                       2c             .35     .25
                       5c            1.00     .20
1887,         1/2c to 10c            1.85     .90
1890-95,               5c             .18     .13
                       6c             .30     .32
            Re-Issue Set             1.60    1.50
             Jubilee Set             3.75    3.25
                  1 on 3c   No. 75    .55     .50
1897,                  1c   rose      .04     .04
                       2c   orange    .08     .07
1898,                set              .20     .10
1901,                  4c             .07     .06
                   Guy 4c             .11     .07
                  Guy 10c             .60     .50
                  Eng. 6c             .40     .30
                  Eng. 8c             .80     .60
                 Eng. 10c             .80     .65
                 Eng. 15c             .70     .60
1911 Coronation complete             3.00    2.00

Other varieties in stock. Ask for our B. N. A. list--It's free on
request.

Terms:--Cash with order only. 10% discount on orders over $5.00. Postage
extra on orders under $1.00. Registration 5c extra. Stamps returnable
where condition is unsatisfactory.

       *       *       *       *       *

STAMPS ON APPROVAL

Our books are arranged in five different grades, which will suit all
classes of collectors from the Beginner to the Specialist. All sorts of
stamps; all kinds of prices; but only one result to you--SATISFACTION.
Ask for circular describing our Selections or send commercial reference
for a trial selection.

       *       *       *       *       *

MARKS STAMP CO.

The House of Stamp Bargains

TORONTO              CANADA



Approval Department


¶ Special attention is paid to the Approval Department of my business,
which is under my personal supervision.

¶ The most satisfactory manner in which to purchase stamps is from
approval books when the collector has the opportunity of inspecting the
specimens at his leisure. My stamps are all arranged in books by
countries, mounted and arranged according to the latest edition of
Scott's catalogue. Above each stamp the catalogue number and price is
plainly shown and below my net selling price is marked.

¶ These books contain unused and used stamps, several copies of the same
variety being included wherever possible so that the collector has ample
choice. All minor varieties of shades, watermarks, perforation, etc.,
are included as well as occasional pairs and blocks of four. Prices are
most reasonable and average about half catalogue. As most of these books
are of considerable value they can only be sent to collectors well known
to me or to those supplying first class references.


Specialists

¶ A cordial invitation is extended to all advanced collectors and
specialists to acquaint me of their special countries. I continually
have rare and out-of-the-way items in stock and shall be glad to send
particulars of these to interested clients.

B. W. H. POOLE

312 Washington Building,      LOS ANGELES, CAL.





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