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Title: A Practical Guide to Self-Hypnosis
Author: Powers, Melvin
Language: English
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A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO SELF-HYPNOSIS

by Melvin Powers



Published by

  Melvin Powers
  WILSHIRE BOOK COMPANY
  12015 Sherman Road
  No. Hollywood, California 91605

Telephone: (213) 875-1711



Copyright
1961


Wilshire Book Company



Printed by

  HAL LEIGHTON PRINTING COMPANY
  P.O. Box 3952
  North Hollywood, California 91605

Telephone: (213) 983-1105



All Rights Reserved


Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 61-10664

Printed in the United States of America


ISBN-0-87980-122-0



CONTENTS


CHAPTER                                                             PAGE

 1. WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT SELF-HYPNOSIS                          11

 2. WHAT ABOUT THE DANGERS OF HYPNOSIS?                               21

 3. IS HYPNOSIS THE ANSWER?                                           29

 4. HOW DOES SELF-HYPNOSIS WORK?                                      37

 5. HOW TO AROUSE YOURSELF FROM THE SELF-HYPNOTIC STATE               45

 6. HOW TO ATTAIN SELF-HYPNOSIS                                       49

 7. DEEPENING THE SELF-HYPNOTIC STATE                                 57

 8. WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT BECOMING AN EXCELLENT SUBJECT          67

 9. TECHNIQUES FOR REACHING THE SOMNAMBULISTIC STATE                  79

10. A NEW APPROACH TO SELF-HYPNOSIS WHEN ALL ELSE FAILS               91

11. PSYCHOLOGICAL AIDS AND THEIR FUNCTION                            103

12. THE NATURE OF HYPNOSIS                                           113

13. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF SELF-HYPNOSIS                          119



FOREWORD


All of us like to think that our actions and reactions are a result of
logical thought processes, but the fact is that suggestion influences
our thinking a great deal more than logic. Consciously or unconsciously,
our feelings about almost everything are largely molded by ready-made
opinions and attitudes fostered by our mass methods of communication. We
cannot buy a bar of soap or a filtered cigarette without paying tribute
to the impact of suggestion. Right or wrong, most of us place more
confidence in what "they" say than we do in our own powers of reason.
This is the basic reason why psychiatrists are in short supply. We
distrust our own mental processes and want an expert to tell us what to
think and feel.

Despite this tendency to adopt our attitudes from others, man has always
been dimly aware that he can influence his own destiny by directing his
thoughts and actions into constructive channels. He has always, to some
extent, known that his mind exerts a powerful influence on his body, and
that thoughts can have harmful or helpful effects on his emotional and
physical health. The ancient Egyptian sleep temples and the attempts by
early physicians to drive evil spirits out of the body were both
attempts to influence the body through the mind.

The unprecedented sale of _The Power of Positive Thinking_ by Norman
Vincent Peale and other inspirational literature proves that millions of
modern people recognize the efficacy of constructive thoughts. What most
of them do not recognize is that they are capable of implanting these
beneficial thoughts in their own minds without reference to any outside
agencies. This can be done through self-hypnosis.

In modern society we have many cults, religions and methodologies which
have mental discipline as their goal. The best example of a methodology
is psychosomatic medicine which deals with the interrelationship of the
mind and body in the production of mental or physical illness. The rapid
growth of hypnosis in the last few years is another example, and it is
gratifying to see that the emphasis in this field is now shifting from
hetero-hypnosis to self-hypnosis.

Self-hypnosis is a highly suggestible state wherein the individual can
direct suggestions to himself. It is a powerful tool in any therapeutic
process, and highly motivated subjects can parallel the success of
hetero-hypnosis through their own efforts. Self-hypnosis can be used as
a palliative agent and can even afford lasting results in many areas of
the organism. Self-hypnosis can alleviate distressing symptoms,
substitute strong responses for weak responses, help overcome bad
habits, create good habits and help one's power of concentration. The
total personality is eventually changed to the point where it can
function adequately in an increasingly difficult environment.

In learning self-hypnosis, the subject does not relinquish control of
himself as is commonly believed. Actually, more control is gained.
Self-sufficiency and self-confidence are inevitable results. It is well
to remember, however, that even good things may be overdone, and good
judgment is necessary for favorable results. Neither hypnosis nor
self-hypnosis should ever be used indiscriminately. The effectiveness of
self-hypnosis depends upon many factors. Strong motivation, intelligent
application of suggestions and diligence are prerequisites.

We are not suggesting that self-hypnosis can take the place of all forms
of psychotherapy. We do recommend it as an adjunct to therapy when
indicated. Used judiciously, it can contribute a great deal to the
individual's physical and emotional well-being and happiness.

As a professional hypnotist for many years, I have seen astounding and
apparently miraculous results by individuals using self-hypnosis. Many
of these cases seem unbelievable to those not familiar with hypnotic
phenomena. It should be remembered, though, that many individuals seek
hypnosis only when all other forms of therapy have failed. This is so
common that hypnosis has come to be known as a port of last call. Yet,
despite the seeming hopelessness of such cases, medical literature lists
thousands of remarkable recoveries.

There is nothing hit or miss about hypnosis. Used intelligently, the
results are the same for all those who are properly motivated. Nor are
the results singular to modern hypnotists alone. In reviewing the
literature going back more than 100 years, the same gratifying results
were obtained. The reader would do well to scan some out-of-print books
on hypnosis at the library to understand the point further.

This book is written in terms that are comprehensible to the layman. The
step-by-step instructions should afford the reader a means of acquiring
self-hypnosis. The necessary material is here. The reader need only
follow the instructions as they are given.

The author wishes to thank Robert S. Starrett, member of the American
Medical Writers' Association, for his valuable help in the editorial
preparation of this book.

It is the author's hope that you will, through the selective use of
self-hypnosis, arrive at a more rewarding, well-adjusted and fuller
life.

                                                           MELVIN POWERS


  12015 Sherman Road
  No. Hollywood, California 91605



Chapter 1

What You Should Know About Self-Hypnosis


Hypnosis has been defined as a state of heightened suggestibility in
which the subject is able to uncritically accept ideas for
self-improvement and act on them appropriately. When a hypnotist
hypnotizes his subject, it is known as hetero-hypnosis. When an
individual puts himself into a state of hypnosis, it is known as
self-hypnosis. In both cases, the subject has achieved a heightened
state of suggestibility. Even in hetero-hypnosis, the subject really
controls the response to suggestions. Actually, all hypnosis is really a
matter of self-hypnosis. The subject enters into the hypnotic state when
he is completely ready to do so. This may require from one to many
attempts before it is achieved. Even if the subject insists that he
wants to be hypnotized immediately, he may be resisting hypnosis
unconsciously.

In self-hypnosis the same thing usually takes place. The subject is
anxious to achieve self-hypnosis, but somehow the state eludes him.
What's wrong? It may be that he is unconsciously resisting it, hasn't
conditioned himself sufficiently, or has achieved the hypnotic state and
doesn't know he is in the state. This last statement may be surprising,
but we will examine it in detail a little later on.

Most experts agree that about 90 percent of the population can be
hypnotized. My own feeling is that probably 99 percent can be
hypnotized. Who among us is not influenced by suggestion? Aren't we all,
as we have seen, influenced by the suggestions of advertising? Don't we
all have a tendency to believe what we read in the paper, hear on the
radio or see on television? Aren't we all convinced that a name-brand
article is better than one that is not so well-known?

Suggestion plays a tremendously important role in our daily lives. It
begins from naming the baby with an appropriate name to securing a
suitable place for interment. I would like to call the reader's
attention to a fascinating book dealing with the unconscious reasons why
we do many of the things that we do. You will be intrigued with every
page of the book. It is called _The Hidden Persuaders_ by Vance Packard.

My contention is that we are all suggestible and, therefore, being
hypnotized or hypnotizing ourselves is just a matter of increasing the
suggestibility that we already possess. Doesn't the hypnotist begin by
suggesting relaxation? Doesn't he usually begin by requesting the
subject to fix his attention on a particular object? Next, he suggests
to the subject that his eyes are becoming heavy and tired. As soon as
the subject closes his eyes, he suggests that he will be in a deep
hypnotic state. I am sure that you are familiar with this procedure.
With each step, the hypnotist is guiding the subject along directed
lines to get him to accept further suggestions without question or
doubt. When the subject achieves the ultimate state in this procedure,
he has been hypnotized. He then accepts suggestions without
equivocation.

Let us continue with this same thought. Suppose I say to you, "I'm going
to stick you with this pin. It won't hurt." Would you let me stick you
with the pin? Obviously not. Let us suppose that you have been
hypnotized and I repeat the same suggestion. What happens then? You
readily accept the suggestion as being factual. Should I proceed to
stick you with the pin, you do not even flinch. In fact, you do not even
feel the pain. Does this sound incredible? Isn't this exactly the same
procedure that the dentist uses with his patient when he has hypnotized
him for the purpose of painless dentistry?

Achieving hypnosis, therefore, is a matter of directing this
suggestibility that we all possess into the channels that will finally
produce the hypnotic state. It can be much more complicated than this
explanation in many cases, but let us use this as a working premise.

Everyone can be hypnotized. The time required for achieving hypnosis
will vary from subject to subject. We will discuss some of the reasons
for this in a subsequent chapter, but for our discussion at this time we
need to understand this point. I have encountered numerous individuals
who were extremely disappointed because they did not respond to hypnosis
immediately or after several attempts. They wanted to know "what was
wrong." An explanation that nothing was wrong somehow did not satisfy
these individuals. "After all," they argued, "didn't I go to a hypnotist
especially to be hypnotized?" Some insinuated that perhaps the hypnotist
wasn't too good.

Let me explain that most subjects need to be conditioned for hypnosis,
and this conditioning is helped when the subject practices certain
conditioning exercises that I shall discuss in detail in chapter six,
titled "How To Attain Self-Hypnosis." In my teaching, I have found that
about one out of ten subjects responds to the first attempt at hypnosis.
One cannot make a definite statement as to the length of time necessary
to learn self-hypnosis, but it is my experience that this usually takes
about one month. I have had subjects learn self-hypnosis in about 30
minutes, but I must also relate that I have worked with subjects for one
year before they achieved it.

For the most part, the laws of learning apply to self-hypnosis as with
anything else that one would want to learn. It can be a relatively
simple procedure, or it can be very perplexing. The answer lies not so
much with the hypnotist as with the subject.

One question that arises is: "If I'm under hypnosis, how can I give
myself suggestions?" During the hypnotic state, it must be remembered,
the subject is always aware of what is going on. He hears what is said,
follows directions and terminates the state when told to do so. In the
self-hypnotic state, the subject is in full control. Therefore, he can
think, reason, act, criticize, suggest or do whatever he desires. He can
audibly give himself suggestions, or he can mentally give himself
suggestions. In either case, he does not rouse from the hypnotic state
until he gives himself specific suggestions to do so. Many feel if they
audibly give themselves suggestions, they will "awaken." In
hypno-analysis, the subject answers questions during the hypnotic state.
Having the subject talk does not terminate the state. You can keep the
talkative subject under hypnosis as long as you want. Furthermore, the
subject can be sitting erect with his eyes open and still be under
hypnosis. Carrying this further, the subject may not even be aware that
he is under hypnosis. He can be given a cue not to remember when the
therapist makes a certain motion or says a certain word that he will go
back into the hypnotic state but still keep his eyes open. Only an
experienced hypnotist could detect the change.

Another frequent question is: "How do I arouse myself from the
self-hypnotic state?" You merely say to yourself that upon counting to
five you will open your eyes and wake up feeling fine. Many times the
subject falls asleep while giving himself posthypnotic suggestions. This
is not undesirable since the suggestions will spill over into the
subconscious mind as he goes from consciousness to unconsciousness.

A popular opinion about hypnosis is that the subject surrenders his will
to the hypnotist in the process of being hypnotized. Furthermore, many
believe that once the subject is hypnotized, the hypnotist has complete
control of the subject and the subject is powerless to resist
suggestion. Both beliefs are erroneous. I believe the first
misconception comes from seeing techniques where the hypnotist requests
the subject to look into his eyes. The hypnotist suggests to the subject
that as he continues to look into his eyes he will fall into a deep
hypnotic state. This, then, becomes a matter of who can outstare whom.
The subject usually begins to blink his eyes and the hypnotist follows
this up with rapid suggestions that the subject's eyes are becoming
watery and heavy and that the subject will fall into a deep hypnotic
sleep just as soon as he (the subject) closes his eyes. This procedure
gives the impression to the observer that the subject is "willed" to go
under hypnosis. It appears that once the hypnotist concentrates or wills
sufficiently, the subject succumbs. Actually, the hypnotist in this
technique is not looking into the eyes of the subject. He fixes his
attention on the bridge of the nose of the subject.

The concept that the subject is a helpless automaton stems from the
weird movies where the "mad scientist" has hypnotized subjects into
behaving like zombies. Naturally, there is usually a beautiful girl in
the movie and she, too, has been hypnotized. Even though the audience is
sophisticated enough to realize that this science-fiction drama is
purely entertainment, the theme is repeated sufficiently in novels,
comics, and television to make an indelible impression on the
subconscious mind. It's the technique of telling the "big lie" so many
times that it becomes believable. We are all influenced by this
procedure. There is an excellent book explaining this very premise. It
is called _Battle For The Mind_ by William Sargent. It describes in
detail the technique by which evangelists, psychiatrists, politicians
and advertising men can change your beliefs and behavior.

Following the reasoning that the subconscious mind can be affected, you
can see that a problem could present itself even though the subject
consciously wishes to be hypnotized. Unconsciously, there may be a poor
interrelationship with the hypnotist which can create an unfavorable
climate for hypnosis. When this is the case, the subject doesn't respond
until such time that he relates well to the hypnotist. Even the most
calculated procedures will fail until a positive transference
relationship is established. I am sure that you sometimes have said,
"For some reason I don't like that person." If pressed for an answer,
you'll usually reply, "I can't explain it, but I just have a feeling
about him." Actually, your subconscious reactions are influencing your
thinking and you "feel" a certain way. The same thing takes place in
business transactions. You either like or dislike the proposition
presented to you. You may say, "I have a certain feeling about this
deal." You may not be conscious of the reasons, but your subconscious
has reacted automatically because of previous experience along similar
lines.

In giving you some insight into the hypnotic procedure, I am trying to
point out certain problems in regard to acquiring self-hypnosis. For the
most part, it is not a simple procedure that is accomplished
immediately. You can't just will it. It requires working toward a
specific goal and following definite procedures which eventually lead to
success.

The hypnotist is usually endowed by the subject with an omniscience and
infallibility which logically is unjustified. The subject is naturally
extremely disappointed if he doesn't respond immediately. If he loses
confidence in the hypnotist, he may never achieve hypnosis with this
particular hypnotist. I have hypnotized subjects who have been to
several other hypnotists without success, and I have had some of my
unsuccessful subjects hypnotized by other hypnotists. How and why does
it happen? I believe that some of the reasons are so intangible that it
would be impossible to explain all of them with any degree of
exactitude.

I once saw an individual about 12 times who wanted to learn
self-hypnosis and had been unsuccessful in every approach. I asked him
if he would volunteer as a subject for a class in techniques of hypnosis
that I was teaching for nurses. He readily volunteered and showed up at
the designated time. Much to my amazement as well as his own, he
responded within a relatively short time as one of the nurses hypnotized
him before the group. She had used a standard eye closure technique,
requesting him to look at a spinning hypnodisc that I had previously
used with him every time he was in the office. Her manner was extremely
affable, she had used the identical technique I had used unsuccessfully,
and the subject responded excellently to cap the climax. He was the
first subject the nurse had ever hypnotized, since this was only her
third lesson.

How would you account for it? Here was one of my students with two
weeks' experience hypnotizing a subject where I had failed while using
every procedure that I felt would work. Was it because she was a better
hypnotist? Perhaps! However, I'd like to recall at this time our
discussion about subconscious responses. I'm inclined to feel that being
hypnotized by a middle-aged female nurse created certain favorable
unconscious responses which accounted for his going under hypnosis at
that time. It created the initial break-through which was needed. I was
able to hypnotize him easily at his next appointment, and he acquired
self-hypnosis readily from that time on.

I have tried the same approach with other subjects who did not respond
favorably and have failed to attain the success that I did in the above
case. Why the impasse? It is one of the difficulties that we encounter
in hypnosis, and as yet it has not been resolved.

We know that the easiest way to achieve self-hypnosis is to be
hypnotized and given a posthypnotic suggestion that you will respond to
hypnosis by a key word, phrase or gesture. I have tried to point out
some problems that can arise. Needless to say, these problems do not
always arise, and the attainment of self-hypnosis can be a relatively
simple procedure. There is usually some way of reaching a subject who
does not respond in a reasonable length of time.

Now we come to the point where the subject wishes to hypnotize himself.
What happens in this situation? It would appear that the subject would
go under hypnosis immediately. After all, isn't he controlling the
hypnotic session? Of course, this does happen time and time again, and
the results seem miraculous. I receive mail constantly from readers of
several of my other books on hypnosis telling me how they were able to
achieve certain goals that they never dreamed possible. They write that
they have achieved self-confidence and complete self-mastery and have
been able to overcome problems that have plagued them for many years.
These problems not only include strictly psychological troubles but many
psychosomatic symptoms as well. Many have remarked at the ease in which
they were able to achieve self-hypnosis and the results they wanted. For
them it was as simple as following a do-it-yourself book.

Others write about the difficulty they encounter and ask what to do
about it. It is my hope that this book will shed some light for those
who have experienced difficulty in learning self-hypnosis. We shall
discuss many phases of hypnosis with the emphasis on self-hypnosis.
We'll discuss its many ramifications and try not to leave out anything
helpful in our discussion.

If you follow the instructions and exercises that I give you
assiduously, you should be able to achieve a depth of self-hypnosis
suitable for solving many of your personal problems.



Chapter 2

What About the Dangers of Hypnosis?


One of the objections that you hear to hypnosis is that it can be
dangerous in the hands of those not trained in the psychodynamics of
human behavior. Inasmuch as psychiatrists and clinical psychologists are
the only ones who are thoroughly trained in the analysis of human
behavior, this objection, if valid, could limit hypnosis to a
comparative handful of therapists. Fortunately, it is not valid. This
was proved several years ago when the "Bridey Murphy" craze gripped the
country. Despite the fact that thousands of amateur hypnotists were
practicing hypnosis, little or no harm resulted. I have personally
instructed several thousand medical and non-medical individuals and have
yet to hear of a single case where a crisis was precipitated or anything
of a dangerous or detrimental nature occurred as a result of hypnosis. I
have also taught several thousand persons self-hypnosis and can report
the same findings.

Many patients who seek treatment from competent psychiatrists,
psychoanalysts and psychologists do not always obtain satisfactory
results. This doesn't mean that everyone should stop seeking help from
these specialists. Even a specialist doesn't have a perfect record of
successful therapy.

What then is the objection to hypnosis? The theory that if you get rid
of one symptom another symptom will take its place really holds no truth
and is usually advanced by those who have had little or no experience in
the hypnosis field. However, a difference of opinion does exist even
with those practicing hypnosis in this area. Some hypnotists "trade
down" symptoms by replacing a serious symptom with a minor one, while
others just remove the symptom. The latter is what a doctor does when he
recommends aspirin for arthritis. He knows the aspirin will not cure the
arthritis, but he wants to alleviate the symptom. To say that another
symptom will replace the pain is unscientific--and untrue. The same is
true of hypnosis.

Lewis R. Wolberg, M.D., clinical professor of psychiatry, New York
Medical College, recently canvassed 30 experts in the field of hypnosis
and found a few who felt symptom removal was "irrational, temporary--or
outright dangerous." The large majority, however, "employed symptom
removal where indicated, and minimized or ridiculed any possible bad
effects."

A further objection to hypnosis is that the results are temporary as
well as symptomatic. It is well to remember that most medical therapy is
specifically directed to symptom removal. How permanent is most medical
treatment? Once you couple hetero-hypnosis with self-hypnosis, you
afford the patient the opportunity of utilizing suggestions for his own
benefit any time they are needed. This, of course, can make symptom
relief permanent. As an example, I would see no harm in teaching a
patient self-hypnosis for symptomatic relief from a problem of insomnia.
It would certainly be better than physically depressing the higher brain
centers with sleeping pills to produce unconsciousness every night. I
needn't tell you that millions of dollars are spent every year on
sleeping pills and patients become dependent upon them, needing more and
more pills in order to produce sleep. Many accidental suicides stem from
an overdose of sleeping pills. Yet, despite the inherent dangers of
sleeping pills which are glaringly apparent, they are prescribed by the
millions, to say nothing of those that reach the market through illegal
channels. Furthermore, how much effort is really made to get the patient
off the sleeping pills? There are also more voluntary suicides by
sleeping pills than by any other method. Perhaps if these drugs weren't
so readily available, many of these unfortunate individuals would be
with us today.

What about the often-quoted statement that "you might do some damage"?
Let's explore this area. I assume that the reader is somewhat familiar
with the work of Emile Coué or at least has heard of his famous
autosuggestion formula of "Day by day, in every way, I'm getting better
and better." During our time, thousands upon thousands of seemingly
helpless and hopeless cases have been cured by repeating this
affirmation over and over again, day after day, as the individual falls
asleep.

I think we should make it clear that whether we call it autosuggestion,
positive thinking, meditation, yoga, affirmations or self-hypnosis, we
are, in reality, talking about the same thing. All require certain basic
prerequisites before they will work effectively for the individual.
We'll discuss these prerequisites in the next chapter.

What should be remembered is that the suggestions are being filtered
into the subconscious mind which does not question, doubt, analyze or
dispute the efficacy of these beneficial thoughts. You can be sure that
the constant repetition will have its effect. Hasn't the mind, in the
past, accepted the individual's diagnosis when he said, "I'm sick," "I
have an inferiority complex," "I can't stop smoking," "I can't lose
weight," "I can't concentrate," "I can remember a person's face, but I
can't remember names," "I have a difficult time falling asleep," "I just
can't seem to relax." Isn't such an individual, in effect, using
self-hypnosis? And hasn't the person convinced himself of the validity
of his present state? This is truly dangerous. It is negative hypnosis.

The question that I raise is: "Why shouldn't the subconscious mind be
even more convinced and respond strongly to suggestions which are in
conformity with the natural desire to be of sound body and mind?" I have
never been able to find a logical answer.

I think this is what happens many times. A person seeks help with a
problem which, in reality, has nothing to do with hypnosis. His cure is
not contingent on being hypnotized or on suggestions he or the hypnotist
feel are indicated. You will read in nearly every book and article
dealing with hypnosis that "hypnotism is not a cure-all." No one has
suggested or implied that it should be used exclusively for all
emotional problems. You may read a newspaper article warning about the
"dangers" of hypnosis. It may tell of a person who rid himself of one
symptom and developed another in its place. You usually get a grossly
distorted picture of what happened, with many aspects of the case not
included. It's a matter of taking what you want to prove out of
context. Propagandists use this technique all the time to get across
their message. It's the old story of telling a half truth.

Honest criticism and a sincere difference of opinion are always welcome.
But criticism must be well-founded from a scientific point of view and
not stem from an emotional reaction. You have probably heard the remark,
"I won't let anyone hypnotize me." What are they really saying, and what
does hypnosis represent to such an individual? To them, hypnosis
represents some sort of "magic spell" which invokes a state of complete
helplessness and dependency upon the hypnotist. We previously discussed
how this erroneous conception can take place because of the manner in
which hypnosis is usually interwoven with bizarre fictional stories.

For many, the hypnotic state represents a period in which the conscious
guard is dropped. They feel they may compulsively reveal the darker side
of their nature, confess their hostility or relate information they
would never voluntarily divulge to anyone. This is the real danger they
see in hypnosis. To protect themselves from it, they attack it. It is
much like the fanatic vice crusader who militantly attacks sin in order
to alleviate his own feelings of guilt stemming from the fact that vice
actually attracts him.

Fear of hypnosis takes different forms, but basically it is the fear of
revealing one's true feelings. An employee, for instance, at a gathering
which included the employer he dislikes, would never volunteer as a
subject for hypnosis if the occasion arose. He would be afraid he would
do or say something which might endanger his position. Hypnosis for him
would be "dangerous" because he would be afraid to take the chance. The
truth is, however, that this individual would be taking no chance. The
hypnotic state is not a confessional period. The subject is aware at
all times of what he is saying. If the subject does not wish to pursue a
line of questioning, he tells the hypnotist. If the hypnotist persisted
further along this line, the subject would shake off the hypnotic state.

Another misconception about hypnosis is the widely held belief that the
subject is unconscious. This represents a threat to the security of the
individual. Actually, the hypnotic state is a period of extreme
awareness in which the subject is hyperacute. Furthermore, the subject
is not asleep, nor is he in a trance state in the correct meaning of
that term. He is in an altered state of awareness with his faculties and
reasoning ability intact. Inducing hypnosis merely creates a mood or
state in which the powers of suggestibility are heightened.

When the general public and the medical profession become familiar with
the true nature of hypnosis, we shall have a greater acceptance and
utilization of this power. It is a slow process but one which will
finally evolve. In the final analysis, I believe the only danger that
exists is in the mind of the individual who fears hypnosis because of
whatever subjective qualms he has about his own emotional involvement in
the hypnotic process.

Of course, all persons using hypnosis for the alleviation of pain should
consult their family physician. Pain is nature's way of indicating that
something is wrong with the organism. It would be foolish to suggest
that a pain in the stomach will disappear when this may be a sign of a
needed appendix operation. The same may be said of constant migraine
headaches. It must be determined that the headache is not a symptom of a
brain tumor or some other pathological condition. It may be of interest
to know that hypnosis is presently being used to relieve pain in
terminal cancer patients. There is an excellent article on this subject,
and I recommend it to doctors reading this book. It is called "The Use
of Hypnosis in the Case of the Cancer Patient" which appeared in the
January 1954 issue of _Cancer_.[1]

[1] At the same time, I would highly recommend the booklet,
    _Helping the Dying Patient and His Family_, published by the
    National Association of Social Workers, 2 Park Avenue, New York
    16, New York. Price: 75 cents.

There are at present several thousand dentists throughout the country
using hypnosis. They have formed their own society and publish a
quarterly journal, _The Journal of the American Society of Psychosomatic
Dentistry_. One of the best books in this field is called _Dental
Hypnosis Handbook_ by Jacob Stolzenberg, D.D.S.

An excellent article is "Danger! Hypnotherapist at Work" by M.
Abramson.[2] The author reviews briefly the pros and cons regarding the
medical use of hypnosis. He concludes: "It is the author's opinion,
based on an extensive personal experience of over 15 years, that the use
of hypnotherapy by a physician or dentist who has been properly trained
and who uses this technique strictly within his field of competence
carries with it no more (and probably less) 'danger' than the use of
many other techniques of treatment used in medicine today."

[2] Bull. Hennepin Co. Med. Soc., 1960, 31:101-106



Chapter 3

Is Hypnosis the Answer?


Dr. George Estabrooks, professor of psychology at Colgate University and
author of the book, _Hypnotism_, made the following two statements in a
paper called "The Future of Hypnosis" given as part of a program on "The
Nature of Hypnosis" at the annual meeting of the American Psychological
Association in 1959:

"It would be well to sound a word of caution against certain attitudes
which have become prevalent and which can be well illustrated in the
field of medicine. In this respect, direct suggestion is under the ban.
For example, a dictum, 'Never remove the symptom unless the cause is
understood,' is much emphasized. Its validity is greatly open to
question, since much of medical practice is direct symptom removal, as
only a little thought makes apparent.

"Another dictum generally followed is that the unconscious background of
symptom-complexes must necessarily be made conscious to effect a cure.
Reasonable and thoughtful consideration of the extensive role of the
unconscious in daily living and functioning renders this dictum much
less creditable."

I should like to discuss both of these statements in some detail as they
invariably arise in the mind of the individual seeking help through
hypnosis.

The first thought that comes to mind is that all the religious healings
cited in the Bible involve direct symptom removal. The cures that are
effected by religious devotees traveling to sacred shrines are also in
the realm of direct symptom removal. I have yet to hear a criticism of
this type of treatment directed at religious leaders or condemnation of
the religious shrines. These cures are accepted as evidence of the power
of faith or attributed to the super-natural. In these cases, nothing is
ever done to make the person cured understand the nature of the
unconscious mechanisms which contributed to his problem.

Religious healing cannot be dismissed by merely saying, "It isn't
scientific." A methodology is only scientific when it works. It is of no
value if it doesn't help the individual seeking help. We must face the
fact that not all people can be helped by the same psychological
treatment. We can readily see this in the following extreme example: An
aborigine suffering from a psychological problem certainly wouldn't be a
candidate for psychoanalysis as we know it. He could, no doubt, be
helped much more readily by a witch doctor. It also stands to reason
that the sophisticated Westerner would not be influenced by the
incantations of a tribal medicine man.

Going further, we find there are many schools of psychotherapy and many
approaches to solving man's emotional problems. The cure rate for all of
them, however, is approximately the same. I think we must accept the
fact that there is no _one_ sound, logical, scientific approach. I
believe that so long as the end result is achieved, the methodology was
scientific for that individual's needs. The goal of all therapies is to
help the patient free himself from whatever emotional problems beset
him.

This approach, to some readers, may seem an oversimplification of a very
complex problem, but I think it's time that we had a simple, workable
formula devoid of technical jargon. Too often, complex technical terms
and theories have been glibly used to explain away failures. I believe
we need more and more emphasis on measures to make the patient feel
better rather than spending most of the time trying to find out why he
doesn't feel well. This, of course, is symptom removal again.

I should like to point out an interesting fact pertaining to Biblical
healers. So long as the fame of the healer preceded his arrival in any
country, he was able to heal the sick. However, where his fame as a
healer was either unknown or discredited, he found no faith and
subsequently no cure. The earliest reference to hypnosis is in the
Bible, Genesis ii, 21. "And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall
upon Adam, and he slept ..."

Dr. William Malamud, 86th president of the American Psychiatric
Association, in an address delivered at the annual meeting in 1960,
stated the following in a paper called "Psychiatric Research: Setting
and Motivation":

"During the last few years we have witnessed a growing trend of
overemphasizing the value of 'exact' methodology and uniformity of
standards. This trend, which could be characterized as a 'cult of
objectivity,' has already had an important influence on psychiatric
research. It is true that in its emphasis on critical judgment and valid
criteria, it has helped to curb unrestrained flights of imagination and
sloppy methodology. But the overglorification of objectivity and the
insistence on rigidly single standards of acceptable methods have
resulted in a concentration on certain phases of the science of human
behavior at the expense of other very important ones."

I believe that most individuals have a fairly good understanding of how
they came to have the problem that they have. I have yet to encounter
the person who protests he has no idea why he doesn't function as he
would like to in a certain area. From a practical standpoint, not many
have the time nor money required to delve into the unconscious
background of the problem. The high cost of treatment is a very real
objection and cannot be discounted lightly. People suffering from
emotional problems usually suffer financial reverses as well. Who is to
help these people? There are very few places in the country where they
can receive competent psychiatric help at a reasonable fee. Is there
this type of help in your own community? It is only when the individual
is destitute that the state provides whatever help it can. However, at
this point it's a long hard struggle back to good emotional health.

The National Association for Mental Health and its affiliates issue
about 10 million copies of 200 different pamphlets on various aspects of
mental health. To assess the value of these pamphlets, 47 mental hygiene
experts held a conference at Cornell University. A report on this
outstanding conference has been published. It is called "Mental Health
Education: A Critique." A feature by Ernest Havemann in the August 8,
1960 issue of _Life_ contains a very worthwhile article on this
conference called "Who's Normal? Nobody, But We All Keep On Trying. In
Dissent From 'Mental Health' Approach, Experts Decry Futile Search For
An Unreal Goal." The following paragraph is taken from the _Life_
article:

"What about psychiatry and psychoanalysis? This is a different matter.
Many unhappy and problem-ridden people, though by no means all who have
tried it, have profited from psychotherapy. Indeed, all the mental
health pamphlets, as a postscript to the self-help methods they
advocate, wind up by advising the reader to seek professional care if
his problems are serious enough. But the skeptics at Cornell cited
statistics which to them show that psychiatric treatment is as remote
for the average person as a trip to the moon. Aside from the expense,
which most people would find prohibitive, there simply are not enough
therapists to go around. The U. S. has around 11,000 psychiatrists and
10,000 clinical psychologists--in all, about one for every 8,500
citizens. If everybody with emotional problems decided to see a
psychiatrist, the lines at the doctors' offices would stretch for
miles."

I assume that most readers of this book know that state hospitals are
understaffed and unable to provide proper care for the mentally ill.
Mike Gorman, executive director of the National Mental Health Committee,
has written a crusading report on this very theme called _Every Other
Bed_. In this book he tells us that every other hospital bed in the
United States is occupied by a mental case. Mental illness costs the
country two and a half billion dollars a year besides the more important
untold human suffering that can never be equated in dollars. The book is
a shocking story of how we have let this happen; are still letting it
happen; and of how little, for the most part, we, the general public as
well as the medical and psychological professions, are doing to correct
this deplorable situation.

It is time that we re-examined the dictums that say a symptom can never
be removed unless the cause is understood and the unconscious background
of symptom-complexes must be made conscious and understood before a
cure is effected.

There are many positive thinking groups functioning in the religious
field. Many of these religious groups are in existence primarily because
of the dynamic philosophy or psychology they offer for every day living.
Couple this with a strong faith in God, and you have a combination which
approaches infallibility. Recently we have had a series of best-selling
books which expound this very theme. Does it work? Of course it does
when used properly.

You can be sure that there has been criticism of this religious
psychology. The criticism is that the basic causes of the problem are
never dealt with and the unconscious conflict is not resolved. It's the
same argument over and over again. What about the people helped? They
seem to have made tremendous strides and are leading lives as well
adjusted as anyone else. Once imbued with this spirit or feeling of
well-being, it permeates every phase of their relationships in a
constructive manner. The only reason that there isn't more criticism is
that this type of psychotherapy is incorporated into the religious
tenets of these groups, and criticizing another man's religion makes the
detractor's entire philosophy unacceptable. I am strongly in favor of
these groups because I would prefer having a religion that keeps
pointing out the positive side of life and that "life can be beautiful"
if you put your faith in God and practice positive thinking. It is
certainly better than the cynical philosophy of its detractors or the
grim religions which stress punishment. Think of the guilt feelings
involved in the latter. No one can live up to such a formidable creed.

Of course, if you suggest to positive thinking, religious individuals
that they are using a form of self-hypnosis, they will emphatically
deny and debate the issue. Since we are primarily interested in mental
hygiene and not in winning a debate, it is well to leave the matter as
it stands. The point to keep in mind is that so long as a person feels
that this methodology is the answer to his needs and so long as no one
is being hurt by his belief, I feel he should cling to his conviction.
He should not allow it to be destroyed by those who are thinking in
different semantic terms.

I would like to bring up another common example pertaining to the two
basic concepts that we have been discussing. It is the example of the
many individuals who have taken public speaking courses to overcome
stage fright. In most cases, the person involved hasn't had too much
opportunity to be a public speaker. Because of this, he suddenly feels
he may not say the right thing or forget what he wants to say. This
anxiety can create the very situation or block that he fears. What is
the solution? Certainly not psychoanalysis to find out why he functions
the way he does. You could use this approach, but I don't think it's the
most constructive one. It is like asking, "What am I doing that's
wrong?" instead of "What can I do that's right?" The most constructive
approach is to take a course of instruction to get the actual practice
and experience in the techniques of public speaking.

Before proceeding further, I believe it is necessary to point out that I
am not just being critical of the convictions of other sincere and
dedicated individuals engaged in the field of mental hygiene. It is
always good to re-evaluate our present thinking on any subject, no
matter how sincere or convinced we may be that what we are doing is
correct. At times, we can become so immersed in our convictions that we
cannot take criticism and respond emotionally to ideas or
interpretations that do not coincide with logical thinking.

What, then, is the answer to mental health problems? There is no single
answer. It is a very complex situation. There are many promising drugs
and treatments which, if adequately developed and widely used, could do
a great deal toward promoting good mental health. Fundamentally, the
problem will always be that of trying to understand human behavior and
helping those in distress with an efficacious formula.

What is that formula? I believe hypnosis can contribute in part to the
answer. Needless to say, hypnosis is contraindicated in many emotional
problems because of the very nature of the problem itself. Some
emotional difficulties must first be worked out on a conscious level.
After this, hypnosis can be instrumental in achieving the final goal.

Dr. Frank S. Caprio, a prominent psychiatrist, in his book, _Helping
Yourself with Psychiatry_, states the following: "A whole new world of
self-confidence and positive living is open to every person, young and
old, through hypnosis, self-hypnosis and self-suggestion or
auto-hypnosis."



Chapter 4

How Does Self-Hypnosis Work?


There's an old Chinese proverb that states: "One picture is worth a
thousand words." In conveying suggestions to the subconscious, we have
found that picture images are more effective than the words that are
implanted. For example, it isn't sufficient to say, "I will be
confident." The words must be augmented by a picture of yourself as the
confident person you want to be. If you say, "I can't visualize myself
as a confident person because I have never been that way," you can
"borrow" those personality traits that you want for yourself. Imagine
yourself endowed with the characteristics of some confident person that
you know. The qualities that you seek may even be borrowed from a famous
person. If this isn't possible, make up a personality which is a
composite of all the things you want to be. See yourself walking,
talking and carrying on activities. Keep fortifying this image with the
mental suggestions that are needed. It won't be long before these mental
impressions give rise to the confident feelings that you seek. As you
keep implanting these images, they will become a natural part of your
conscious personality.

Dr. S. J. Van Pelt, president of the British Society of Medical
Hypnotists and editor of the _British Journal of Medical Hypnotism_,
writes about this technique in his book, _Secrets of Hypnotism_. He
calls it "'3-D' Technique in Medical Hypnotherapy." As you read the
following paragraph, it would be well to remember that it contains the
essence of making the self-hypnosis technique work once you have
achieved the hypnotic state, per se. Incidentally, the same procedure
can be used in attaining the hypnotic state itself. You see yourself
entering the state of hypnosis in your initial attempts. This, in turn,
sets up a conditioned response and a favorable emotional reaction which
is necessary.

"The writer has found (visualization) of the greatest value in the
re-education of the patient, which is an essential part of hypnotherapy.
In this method, after the cause of the trouble has been discovered and
as a part of his re-education, the patient is instructed while under
only light hypnosis to 'form a picture' in his mind. He is asked to
imagine a movie screen and to see himself 'just like an actor' on this
screen playing a part. He is told that the picture looks 'very
real'--'3-D' in fact--and that he can see himself acting and looking the
way he really wants to look and act. Various scenes are suggested such
as ... the patient will have to face in real life. In each he is
instructed to see himself--'as in real life'--always succeeding. For
instance, the stammerer might be asked to picture himself speaking
easily to people, and feeling perfectly at ease. The patient is also
instructed how to form these 'success pictures' for himself, and it is
stressed that he will only be able to see himself as he wants to
be--successful. Since the pictures give rise to the appropriate
feelings, it is not long before the patient begins to show the benefit
of his private '3-D' film shows."

After explaining this technique to students, many have inquired, "Is
that all there is to it? It seems so simple." Of course, there is more
to it in that the individual must follow through with the instruction.
This is one of the difficult aspects of this type of program. Let me
enumerate some of the problems I have encountered in teaching
self-hypnosis.

As mentioned, one of the difficulties is that the technique seems too
simple. Students become skeptical. They feel it should be more
complicated and involved in order to get results. I suppose people
better appreciate something that comes only after a hard struggle. This
procedure is devoid of this. Of course, I am not saying that once a
person begins to use this technique his problems will automatically
vanish and his life will be cheery forever after. We have been
conditioned to think that success in anything can only come after a
long, hard struggle. This is the basic theme of the American way of
life. We have been accustomed to believe that conflict and struggle are
part of life and large doses of it are necessary before we achieve
success in any field. I can only reiterate that the information
contained in this book is all you need to get results. It is necessary
that you follow through and not give up after you have tried the program
for a short while and have obtained no appreciable results. This brings
us to another point.

Many persons expect immediate results when they begin to use
self-hypnosis. If they don't get the results they anticipated
immediately, they want to know "what's wrong?" My answer is usually
that "nothing is wrong" and that they need only keep steadily applying
the instructions. Certainly, one doesn't become a proficient typist,
musician, actor or sportsman because he has mastered the basic
techniques. It takes time to acquire proficiency.

Let me assure you that anyone using and applying this technique can
benefit from it. One of the troubles in dealing with any problem is
routing defeatism and hopelessness. You can incorporate posthypnotic
corrective measures in the suggestions that you give yourself. However,
I believe that they must be dealt with on a conscious level as well. You
must believe that you can conquer your difficulties no matter how long
you have had them. If you are prepared to work with self-hypnosis in an
unremitting manner, you will achieve the self-help that you seek. Now
and then, you can anticipate a setback in your progress, but this
needn't discourage you from your overall task. Recount the progress
already made. If you have a "let-down" because you expected quicker and
more dramatic results, remember that this is a common feeling shared by
many with emotional problems. Remember, also, how long you have had the
problem.

No doubt, you have tried other methods and became discouraged because
you weren't making the progress you had anticipated. You dropped the
idea and landed back where you started. Make up your mind, consciously,
that you will work with untiring sincerity and a perseverance that will
not falter because your chosen goal is not achieved immediately. I know
of no therapy that leads straight to positive results without obstacles
and intermittent failure. Success comes in spite of intervening failures
because the ultimate direction has been clearly thought out and charted.
Self-hypnosis will finally work because you are constantly conditioning
your subconscious to react in a positive, constructive manner. The
program must, of necessity, become automatic in nature. When it does,
you will suddenly find yourself feeling the way you wanted to and doing
the things that you set out to do with the aid of self-hypnosis. You
actually cultivate those feelings that you want.

Hypnosis will not work with skeptics. Every so often such a person comes
to my office seeking help. He tells me that his family physician or his
spouse feels he should take my course in self-hypnosis. I inquire if he
feels he might benefit from the course. If his answer is not positive,
and if after talking to him at length about the benefits of hypnosis, I
still feel he is not ready for the course, I suggest another mode of
treatment for him. The reason for this is that unless the person is
optimistic and enthusiastic about self-hypnosis, it just isn't going to
work as effectively as it would otherwise. The very nature of a
skeptical attitude limits the constructive forces that we wish to
harness.

Occasionally, individuals want indisputable proof that hypnosis is going
to help them. It is impossible to give them the proof and unqualified
reassurance that they seek. Yet, these same people do not require proof
from their physicians. No one can guarantee success. However, I do point
out that the continued and intelligent use of self-hypnosis can be
instrumental in directing the healing, curative, constructive forces of
nature.

Many times, a metaphysical rather than a scientific approach is
required. It's a matter of trying to satisfy the patient's needs. At
times, it is helpful to allow the patient to attend a class in
self-hypnosis. Being able to communicate and identify with other
individuals seeking self-hypnosis often is enough to change his
attitude. This is especially true when one or more of the students
relates dramatic changes.

Self-hypnosis works because we are able to condition ourselves to
various stimuli. We condition ourselves consciously and unconsciously to
many activities. When we experience anxiety, it stems from a
conditioning process which could have been conscious or unconscious. In
self-hypnosis, the individual consciously works toward implementing and
strengthening his own inherent strength and resources. These objectives,
when attained, result in feelings of confidence, relaxation,
self-mastery and well-being.

Furthermore, hypnosis utilizes a natural mental process. We all know
that placebos work admirably in numerous cases. The dictionary defines
the word placebo as, "an inactive substance or preparation, administered
to please or gratify a patient, also used in controlled studies to
determine the efficiency of medicinal substances." Many controlled
experiments have shown that people achieve similar results whether they
take a placebo (which they think is the real medication) or real
medication that was prescribed. Several years ago many such tests were
carried out with antihistamines to prevent colds. The results were
always the same.

We are interested in what makes the placebo act as effectively as the
true medication. It stands to reason that a chain reaction is set up,
actually causing a physiological result from a psychological reaction.
The unsuspecting patient declares, "I've never felt so good in my life."
Yet, this would never have happened if he didn't think he was taking the
marvelous new medicine. A recent scientific study by one of the leading
pharmaceutical houses concluded that one third of the effectiveness of
any medication depends upon the faith and trust that the patient has in
the prescribing physician.

I am sure that the placebo results and the patient's faith in the
physician as contributing factors to the effectiveness of medications do
not come as a revelation. We are all aware of such information. Our
problem is how to harness this unconscious process for constructive
goals. The answer is through self-hypnosis.

Self-hypnosis, as we have explained it, uses a technique called
visual-imagery. This has been referred to by many different names, but
for our purposes we'll call it visual-imagery. Within this technique
lies one of the keys for achieving the goals that you want. There have
been many famous books written incorporating this technique as a basis
for achievement. Perhaps the most famous of all is called _Think and
Grow Rich_ by Napoleon Hill. In recent years, _The Magic of Believing_
by Claude M. Bristol and _The Power of Positive Thinking_, already
mentioned, have become well-known. The book which gives direction to
most of the books in this field is called _Self-Mastery Through
Conscious Auto-Suggestion_ by Dr. Emile Coué. I am sure the older
readers of this book have heard of his famous saying, which I will
repeat here for emphasis. "Day by day, in every way, I am getting better
and better." Invariably, in all these books, there is reference to the
Biblical quotation, "As a man thinketh in his heart, so is he."

As the reader can deduce, we are not theorizing about a startling new
discovery. The technique is as ancient as man himself and his dream of a
better tomorrow. All books using the visual-imagery technique tell you
to paint a vivid, mental picture of the material things you wish to
acquire, if it is a case of material wealth. For personal improvement,
they tell you to paint a vivid picture of the individual you want to
be. In most cases, you are told to do this in a relaxed or meditative
state with as few distractions as possible. The next two requirements
are constant repetition (conditioning) and a "burning desire"
(motivation) to achieve what you set out to do.

Aren't these books really talking about self-hypnosis? Aren't they
describing precisely the techniques of self-hypnosis? The terminology is
different, but the approach is the same. With these techniques there is
an aim to direct thinking, picturization, positive thinking, suggestions
and constructive thoughts or images to the "inner self" or "real self."
Aren't they once again really talking about the subconscious mind? I
have no argument with any workable approach to emotional maturity, but
in many cases we are actually becoming involved with the meaning of
words (semantics). The quickest way to the subconscious is through
self-hypnosis. In this self-hypnotic state, you are able to consciously
direct suggestions to your subconscious mind.



Chapter 5

How to Arouse Yourself from the Self-Hypnotic State


You will note that this chapter precedes instruction on how to attain
self-hypnosis. The reason for this is to alleviate whatever anxiety you
may have in regard to the question, "If I'm hypnotized, how do I awaken
myself?" It is important to understand that even though you are
hypnotized, you are in control, are aware of your surroundings, what is
going on about you, can think clearly and can arouse yourself very
easily. It is only necessary to say or think, "I shall now open my eyes
and wake up feeling fine." You could also give yourself a specific count
and say, "As I count to five, I'll open my eyes and wake up feeling
wonderfully well and refreshed. One ... two ... three ... four ...
five."

It should be remembered that while we sometimes use the word "sleep" to
describe the hypnotic state, we are not actually referring to true
sleep. This accounts for much of the confusion. The individual thinks,
"If I'm asleep, how can I awaken myself?" If the subject were asleep in
the true sense of the word, this would be impossible. Actually, the
subject is in a special or heightened state of awareness. In
self-hypnosis, he is extremely conscious although his general physical
appearance is one of passiveness. In the self-hypnotic state, the
individual consciously gives himself whatever suggestions he desires.
This proves he _is_ conscious and, therefore, can awaken himself with
the appropriate suggestions.

Occasionally, the subject falls asleep while giving himself suggestions
or while relaxing to get into the right psychological mood. Naturally,
in this case, the subject will awaken in due course. If the subject
practices hypnosis when he is normally set to fall asleep in bed, he
would awaken refreshed in the morning at his usual time.

Before beginning to give yourself therapeutic suggestions, you could
give yourself the following suggestions which give you a _specific
length of time_ that you will work with self-hypnosis:

"I shall work with self-hypnosis for 15 minutes. At the end of that
time, I shall open my eyes and wake up feeling wonderfully well, wide
awake, confident, cheerful and optimistic. The moment I open my eyes,
I'll feel refreshed. In case of any outside danger, I'll be able to
awaken immediately, be fully alert and act accordingly."

You will notice that these suggestions take into consideration the
possibility of something happening of danger to the individual, such as
fire, etc. These points arise in the minds of most individuals
attempting self-hypnosis and are well taken. You could also set an alarm
clock to awaken you at a designated time.

Let us assume to arouse yourself you gave yourself a suggestion to open
your eyes and be wide awake at the count of five. You count to five and
for some reason you are unable to open your eyes. First of all, DON'T
WORRY. Remain relaxed and give yourself the suggestions over again,
emphasizing to yourself that at the count of five you will absolutely,
positively be able to open your eyes very easily and will feel fine. You
then begin the count again reiterating between each number that you will
positively open your eyes at the count of five and be wide awake. This
should do it. Should this not do it, may I reassure you again, DON'T
BECOME ALARMED. Relax for a few minutes and try again. You'll be able to
open your eyes and wake up.

I hope I haven't frightened you with the prospect of not being able to
awaken. I bring this up only to acquaint you with the procedure to use.
Actually, the problem of dehypnotization is a rare one. I should point
out a very important fact. _I have never had a subject practicing or
using self-hypnosis tell me he had the least bit of difficulty in
awakening himself from the self-induced hypnotic state._

I have had persons tell me that they heard or read of a case where the
hypnotist could not bring the subject out of the hypnotic state, and, as
a result, the subject slept for so many days. Not one of the stories
could be documented. Years ago, for publicity purposes, stage hypnotists
would have a subject sleep in a store window for several days. This was
on a voluntary basis, though, and should not be confused with what we
are discussing.

In working with subjects, I have _very rarely_ had a subject who did not
awaken at a specific count, but I have had this experience. I have
usually found that the subject is so relaxed that he just didn't want to
awaken for fear of losing this pleasant sensation. When the subject
doesn't awaken, I merely ask him in a calm manner, "Why don't you wish
to wake up? You can answer me without awakening from the hypnotic
state." He usually replies he'd like to remain in this state for another
five minutes or so. I agree to this extended period while getting a firm
commitment from him that he will awaken after this period. This is
usually sufficient to bring the subject out of the hypnotic state.

Occasionally, the instructions to wake up are not clear to the subject.
If this is the case, clearer instructions should be given. You could
also deepen the hypnotic state and then give suggestions to awaken at a
specific count in a very authoritarian manner. Every so often, I have
found that the subject has fallen into a natural sleep and just hasn't
heard the instructions. In this case I raise my voice which is usually
sufficient or gently shake the subject awakening him as you would any
sleeping person.

I would like to relate a rather interesting experience that I had with a
male subject. I had worked with this particular subject six times
previous to this occasion. He was a good hypnotic subject, and he failed
to awaken in the usual manner. Since he had carried out several
posthypnotic suggestions, it was rather perplexing to analyze what had
happened. After about ten minutes, he finally agreed while he was under
hypnosis to awaken at a given count. I asked him what was the nature of
the difficulty. He replied, "I wanted to see how you would react."

In conclusion, having difficulty in dehypnotizing yourself is extremely
rare. Should it happen, _keep calm_, and repeat the suggestions with
emphasis. Even in hetero-hypnosis, where the hypnotist hypnotizes a
subject, it is extremely rare. There are explainable psychodynamic
factors for this. However, they can be met adequately while the subject
is under hypnosis.



Chapter 6

How to Attain Self-Hypnosis


Let us begin with the hypothesis that anyone can learn and practice, to
some degree, the science of self-hypnosis. We shall assume that you have
carefully thought out what you want to accomplish. You have, through
self-analysis, come up with reasonable goals of therapy and
self-improvement. The next step is the acquisition of the hypnotic
state, per se.

Before giving you the specific instructions, I would like to clarify a
question which invariably arises in teaching a student self-hypnosis. It
is: "Are the suggestions that I give myself as effective as the ones you
would give me in hetero-hypnosis?"

It is natural to assume that the suggestions of the hypnotist would be
more effective than those given by the subject himself, but both have
the same intrinsic value. It is well to remember that all hypnosis is
really self-hypnosis, and all hetero-suggestions are transposed into
self-suggestions. If the hypnotist firmly suggests, "From this moment,
you will feel very confident in all life situations," the subject
automatically and unconsciously rephrases the statement, "From this
moment, I will feel very confident in all life situations." The subject,
ordinarily, mentally or aloud, repeats all suggestions using the pronoun
"I" instead of "you".

The easiest and quickest way to learn self-hypnosis is to be hypnotized
and given a posthypnotic suggestion to the effect that you will be able
to put yourself into the hypnotic state at a given stimulus whenever you
desire to do so. The hypnotist need not be a professional. Anyone
understanding the rudiments of hypnosis can do this. However, let us
assume you want to learn self-hypnosis and cannot find help. If you
understand and consciously practice the instructions that I shall
outline, you will attain your goal.

Sit in an easy chair or recline on a sofa or bed. Next, choose a point
of eye fixation on the ceiling, preferably a spot behind you which would
normally cause eye fatigue or strain. Now, breathe very slowly and
deeply. As you do this, repeat, aloud or mentally, the word "sleep" as
you inhale and "deep sleep" as you exhale. Do this for several minutes
in a very monotonous manner until such time as you find yourself getting
drowsy. Next, suggest to yourself that your eyelids are becoming heavy
and tired. The goal is to acquire eye closure using this method. You
want to reach a state where it is uncomfortable to keep the eyes open.
Once you get your eyes closing, seemingly of their own volition, you
have reached the first step in achieving self-hypnosis.

You can repeat to yourself such suggestions as, "My eyelids are becoming
very heavy and tired ... My eyes are becoming very watery ... My eyelids
are blinking ... I just want to close my eyes ... The moment I close my
eyelids, I shall fall into a deep, sound, hypnotic sleep ... Even though
in a deep state of hypnosis, I shall be aware of my surroundings and be
able to direct posthypnotic suggestions to my subconscious mind."

When your eyelids actually become heavy or when your eyes actually begin
to water, you intensify these feelings by repeating affirmative
suggestions along these very lines. This is known as "the feed-back
technique" and helps to reinforce the actual condition that exists.
Proceeding in this way hastens the actual closing of the eyes and
attainment of the hypnotic state, per se.

Let us assume that you practice this procedure and seemingly nothing
happens. Continue to practice it again and again until such time as you
are able to achieve an eye closure. You will eventually be able to do
this within a relatively short period of time.

One of the best times to practice the technique just given is when you
are falling asleep at night. The lights are out and you are lying in
bed. Choose an imaginary spot above and behind your eye level so there
is some strain on the eye muscles. Now begin giving yourself suggestions
that your eyelids are becoming heavy, etc.

The reason this period is such an excellent time to practice
self-hypnosis is that the suggestions you give yourself spill over into
your subconscious as you drift from consciousness to unconsciousness.
It's like telling yourself to wake up at a certain time in the morning.
The suggestion reaches your subconscious and activates you consciously
to waken. Using this approach, you can give yourself dynamic,
constructive suggestions at this time as well as giving yourself the
posthypnotic suggestion that the next time you practice self-hypnosis,
you will fall into a deeper, sound, hypnotic state at the count of
three. You also emphasize that your eyelids will close involuntarily
whenever you relax for five minutes and afterwards count to three. This
conditioning process will be augmented by the use of the sleep period.
The suggestions will tend to work unconsciously during this period and
hasten your attainment of the constructive goals as well as the
self-hypnotic goal itself.

Once you have achieved eye closure, deepen the hypnotic state by the
following suggestions: "As I count to three, I shall go deeper and
deeper into a profound, hypnotic state. As I count to three, I shall
find myself becoming more and more relaxed. As I count to three, I shall
fall into a deep, hypnotic sleep." You repeat these suggestions many
times, actually trying on a conscious level to feel sleepier, more
relaxed, more at ease. In doing this, you take on the characteristics of
a deeply hypnotized subject.

Part of the difficulty in learning self-hypnosis is that the subject is
aiming at a state of mind in which he has no experience. If I say, "Act
happy" or "Act sad," there is an immediate reaction from your
experiential background, and you can react accordingly. If you have
never seen anyone hypnotized and I say, "Act as though you were
hypnotized," you must, of necessity, act in a manner that you would
assume approximated that of hypnosis. If you had actually seen someone
hypnotized, you would naturally take on the characteristics you had
observed. This would either be done consciously or unconsciously.

Some individuals describe the hypnotic state as a state of "complete
relaxation." Many get a feeling of "detachment;" others a feeling of
"disassociation," as though their entire being was only thought. Some
get a "floating" or "drifting" feeling, likening the experience to
lying on deep clouds. Others experience a heavy, pleasant, "sinking"
feeling. Still others get a feeling of "peace and serenity." Many
describe the hypnotic state as being akin to the state just prior to
falling asleep or like daydreaming, and they experience the same
reactions. Yet, there are some who do not feel a definite change. They
describe it by saying, "I just felt that I had my eyes closed. I heard
everything and was completely aware at all times." Since it is possible
to direct your feelings (reactions), I would suggest that you aim for a
completely relaxed, comfortable state.

You have now reached the point where your eyes are closed, and you have
given yourself further suggestions to deepen the state of hypnosis. This
has taken from about six to ten minutes. You are not sure, though, that
you are under hypnosis. There are many ways to test this, and I shall
outline one of these tests later in this chapter; however, for your
initial attempts, it isn't too important whether or not you are under
hypnosis. You are still to give yourself the posthypnotic suggestion
that the next time you attempt to hypnotize yourself you will fall into
a deeper and sounder state after you have relaxed for about five minutes
and counted to three.

In your initial attempts, you will be trying to establish a conditioned
response to the count of three which will subsequently cause your eyes
to close and put you under hypnosis. Eventually, you should react
instantly to the count of three or any other cue you may use to trigger
the response. The key words or stimulus become associated with the
action that you seek. Through repetition, just thinking about the
stimulus can bring on the response. This is known as ideomotor action
and is present in the waking as well as the hypnotic state. Pavlov's
famous experiments which induced dogs to salivate when a bell was rung
after previously having had food fed to them at the same time are
examples of this type of conditioning. Don't we generally become hungry
if someone tells us it's noon and time for lunch when, in fact, it's
only 11 o'clock?

I had a common experience recently that I am sure many readers have
shared. One of my neighbors, seeing my car was parked in front of my
house and knowing I was home, called to say he was dropping in to see
me. While working on the manuscript of this book, I thought I heard the
doorbell as I was typing. I went to the front door and no one was there.
I even walked around the house looking for him because I was so certain
I heard the bell. This is another example of an ideomotor action. I told
my friend about it when he arrived approximately 30 minutes later. He
looked at me rather whimsically, and we both shared a laugh. Haven't you
thought you heard the phone ring when you were waiting for a call?

In the chapter, "How Does Self-Hypnosis Work," stress was laid on the
importance of the visual-imagery technique. During every attempt to
achieve self-hypnosis, you attempt to visualize yourself going into the
hypnotic state. Once you have deepened the state, you begin the process
of visualizing yourself exactly the way you want to be. You may
experience difficulty at first, but as you keep at it, you will be able
to picture yourself the way you want. _You use the visual-imagery
technique whether you think you are under hypnosis or not._ These images
become clear as you constantly hammer home these suggestions. This is
the exact procedure necessary, and you needn't complicate it.

Let us suppose that you are getting your eyelids to close at the count
of three and have achieved a good state of relaxation. With these
prerequisites, you can anticipate going deeper into the hypnotic state.
Actually, being able to get the eyes to close at a specific count is the
first test in determining if the subject has gone under hypnosis. If you
have conditioned yourself this far, then you can go to the next step.
The next test is called the "swallowing" test. You mentally give
yourself suggestions that as you slowly, to yourself, count to 10, you
will get an irresistible urge to swallow one time. You further suggest
that this will happen even before you reach the count of 10. You then
begin the count. "One ... My throat is parched, and I feel an
irresistible urge to swallow one time. Two ... My lips are becoming very
dry, and I feel an irresistible urge to swallow. Three ... My throat
feels very dry, and I feel an irresistible urge to swallow one time.
Four ... Before I reach the count of 10, the urge to swallow one time
will become irresistible because my lips and throat are so dry. Five ...
Once I swallow, I shall no longer have the urge to swallow again, and as
I swallow one time, I shall fall into a deeper and sounder state of
hypnosis." Continue with similar suggestions, repeating and affirming
the suggestions about swallowing. Once you actually swallow, you
discontinue the suggestions and, instead, give yourself suggestions that
you are falling deeper and deeper into a sound hypnotic state and that
the constructive suggestions you now give yourself will work for you.
Once again you practice visual-imagery, seeing yourself the way you want
to be, while fortifying this image with forceful, positive suggestions.
You close by giving yourself suggestions that you will enter the
hypnotic state whenever you relax for five minutes and count to three.

The suggestions are just as effective whether given aloud or mentally.
Many subjects report that they are reluctant when it comes to giving
suggestions to themselves. I can only say that as you continue to work
with yourself, you will develop confidence in giving yourself
suggestions. In order for the suggestions to be effective, they cannot
be given in a reticent or hesitant manner. They must be given with
enthusiasm and anticipation. If you assiduously follow these
instructions, you will derive the benefits you seek in the shortest
possible time and witness the positive, tangible results of your
suggestions and efforts. In the next chapter, you'll learn how to deepen
the self-hypnotic state.



Chapter 7

Deepening the Self-Hypnotic State


For each progressive test, it is usually necessary to have accomplished
the preceding tests. However, this is not an absolute rule. Frequently,
a subject responds to tests at the beginning of the depth scale and then
to others at the end of the depth scale. Certain tests in between do not
work. I have had the following experience more than once while teaching
one of my classes in self-hypnosis. In testing the depth of hypnosis, I
run the gamut of all of the tests from light to deep. In this way, the
subject can ascertain how far he has progressed. One frequent test for
the deep state is to give the subject a posthypnotic suggestion to the
effect that the next cigarette he smokes will have a vile taste and it
will be absolutely impossible for him to take more than three puffs. It
is further suggested that after the third puff, the cigarette taste will
be so unbearable it will become necessary for him to extinguish the
cigarette.

We can expect an excellent hypnotic subject to comply with these
posthypnotic suggestions, but a subject who hasn't even passed the eye
closure test (test No. 1) or any other test may unexpectedly react
perfectly to the cigarette test which we know is a standard test for
determining if the subject has entered into a deep state of hypnosis.
How can you account for it? There is no simple or positive answer. If we
hadn't given him this particular test, he would have felt that he wasn't
making progress in his determination to become a good hypnotic subject.
Because of this, he might not have given himself therapeutic suggestions
because he would feel he hadn't reached a state of hypnosis which would
benefit him. Remember, follow the instructions of giving yourself
whatever therapeutic suggestions you want, regardless of the fact that
you feel that "nothing has happened." I have seen many subjects who were
bewildered because certain tests did not work, yet were pleased because
of very gratifying overall results from using self-hypnosis. They were
baffled because of their inability to pass certain tests which they felt
were a prerequisite to the success of constructive suggestions they gave
themselves.

It is commonly felt that the deeper the state of hypnosis, the better
the results. In actual practice, I have not found this to be so. I have
had excellent results in a relatively short period of time with subjects
who only achieved a light state, and it has been necessary to work with
others who achieved a deep state of hypnosis for a longer period before
lasting results were in evidence. Naturally, each individual presents a
different set of needs and even though the symptoms may be basically the
same, each will respond favorably when his requirements are met. This
happens on a conscious as well as unconscious level. For example, the
mere assurance by a physician that the patient is all right and has
nothing to worry about is often sufficient to bring about desirable
results. Another example is the mother who stops the sobbing of her hurt
child by a loving kiss. A logical approach, pointing out to the child
that he really didn't hurt himself, would never have worked. We have all
heard stories of primitive tribesmen who have died because they knew
they were the objects of "death wishes" by another member of the tribe.

The key to achieving a greater depth of self-hypnosis lies in the use of
the visual-imagery technique. You "see" yourself going into the hypnotic
state deeper and deeper. You even picture yourself, using this
technique, passing various progressive hypnotic tests. The second part
of the key lies in giving yourself a posthypnotic suggestion that each
succeeding attempt will put you into a deeper state as a result of a
given stimulus--such as the count of three.

The following instructions should not be attempted usually unless you
have been successful in achieving the two basic tests--the eye closure
as well as the uncontrollable urge to swallow followed by the physical
act of swallowing at a specific count. If the conditioning process works
for these two tests, you have achieved the lethargic state of hypnosis.
This is the first state of hypnosis and is generally referred to as the
"light" state. Therapeutic suggestions can work admirably in this state.
The next stage of hypnosis is known as the cataleptic state and is
referred to as the "medium" state. Generally, hypnosis is divided into
three states: the lethargic (light state); the cataleptic (medium
state); and the somnambulistic (deep state).

As you deepen the hypnotic state, you can accomplish the progressive
tests that I shall outline for you. I'll also number these tests for the
convenience of having a reference. Deepening the hypnotic state requires
the same type of practice or conditioning as the first two steps. Let
us call eye closure--No. 1, and swallowing--No. 2. We are now ready to
proceed to the "hand tingling" test--No. 3.

You have just completed tests No. 1 and 2; you are in a completely
relaxed state. Now give yourself the following suggestions: "As I count
to ten and even before I reach the count of ten, I shall feel a light
tingling or numb feeling in my right hand." As you slowly begin the
count of ten, you keep repeating suggestions to the effect that your
right hand is beginning to tingle. Once again, you practice the
technique of visual-imagery, tapping your experiential background for
this feeling. You can recall how it feels when your hand goes to sleep.
Once you get an initial feeling of lightness, tingling or numbness,
reinforce this feeling by the feed-back technique as you did with the
eye closure test. As you practice this procedure, it will work with
greater effectiveness. The following is a very important point to
remember. Be sure that you give yourself a posthypnotic suggestion that
the tingling, light or numb sensation will disappear as you continue to
count to 15. For example, "As I count to 15, the tingling feeling in my
right hand will disappear, and I shall experience only normal
sensations. Eleven ... The tingling feeling is leaving. Twelve ... Now
it is leaving faster. Thirteen ... I can feel my hand returning to
normal. Fourteen ... The tingling feeling has left. Fifteen ... My right
hand feels perfectly normal." You could try a variation of this test by
saying your nose or one of your toes will itch at a specific count. Once
this test is accomplished, you are ready for the "foot" test--No. 4.

You will remember that the key to achieving a greater depth of hypnosis
lies in visualizing yourself going deeper with each attempt and
accomplishing progressive hypnotic tests. Keep this in mind. For a
moment, let us go back to the hand tingling test--No. 3. Once you have
been successful in accomplishing this test, use the visual-imagery
technique to see yourself successfully responding to the foot test. When
you have actually accomplished test No. 4, you see yourself
accomplishing the "hand levitation" test--No. 5. In other words, you use
each step to enhance a greater receptivity for the following progressive
test. As you couple this approach with posthypnotic suggestions that you
will go deeper and deeper into the hypnotic state at a given stimulus,
you set into motion a conditioned response mechanism which must
ultimately guide you into a profound state of hypnosis.

The foot test can be accomplished while sitting or lying down. The idea
of this test is to imagine that your feet are stuck to the floor or that
your legs are so heavy that they are impossible to raise until you reach
a certain count. It is best to begin this test by trying to capture a
heavy, relaxed feeling in your legs. You give yourself specific
suggestions along these lines: "As I count to five, I shall notice a
very heavy, relaxed, pleasant feeling in both legs. It will be a very
comfortable feeling; a feeling of complete relaxation." You then begin
the count of ten, following out the idea of the other tests you have
successfully accomplished. You should remember that there is no time
limit and you take as much time as you need in order to get the relaxed,
heavy feeling. Once you get the relaxed, heavy feeling, you use the
visual-imagery technique to try to picture your legs stuck to the floor.
If you are lying down, imagine you are covered by a heavy blanket which
is tightly tucked under the mattress, making it impossible for you to
raise your legs. If sitting up, I tell the subject to imagine that his
shoes are stuck to the floor with "iron glue," and since his feet are in
the shoes, it is impossible to lift them until the specific count which
will enable him to do so.

Here are the suggestions you can use for the second part of this test.
"As I continue to count to ten, I shall find that it will be impossible
for me to raise my legs. I shall try at the count of ten, but it will be
absolutely impossible to raise my legs until I count to 15. At that
time, I shall be able to raise my legs easily, and the heavy feeling
will leave as well." You then continue with the count, giving yourself
appropriate suggestions. Once this test is accomplished, you use the
visual-imagery technique to see yourself accomplishing the hand
levitation test--No. 5. Be sure you give yourself the posthypnotic
suggestion that the next time you hypnotize yourself, you will fall into
a deeper and sounder state.

I'll assume that you have been able to get a relaxed, heavy feeling in
your legs. You have reached the count of five and are ready to proceed
further. Here are sample suggestions you can use: "Six ... My legs are
becoming extremely heavy. Seven ... I'll be unable to lift them until I
count to 15. Eight ... I feel very comfortable; my legs are becoming
heavier and heavier. Nine ... My entire body is completely relaxed, and
my legs are so heavy that they are impossible to lift. Ten ... I'm in a
very deep hypnotic state, and it is absolutely impossible for me to move
my legs until I count to 15." At this point, you actually try to raise
your legs. If you can't do it, you have reached the cataleptic stage.

Should you not be able to raise your legs, don't become frightened. All
you need to say is: "I can now move my legs." You could also say: "As I
count to three, I'll be able to move my legs." However, since we have
elected originally to be able to move the legs at the count of 15, it
would be best to follow out this pattern. You could at this time merely
continue to count to 15, at which time you would be able to move your
legs. I prefer giving suggestions between each count as follows: "Eleven
... The heavy feeling is leaving, and I shall be able to raise my legs
at the count of 15. Twelve ... I can feel the heavy, relaxed feeling
leaving. Thirteen ... I am beginning to move my legs. Fourteen ... I am
lifting my legs more and more. Fifteen ... I have perfect control over
my bodily functions and legs; I am lifting and moving my legs; the heavy
feeling is dissipating; I am in complete control; I can now give myself
posthypnotic suggestions that will be very effective and beneficial."
Give yourself whatever suggestions you want at this time.

Let us suppose that you tried the foot test for some time and were
unsuccessful. Perhaps this puzzles you, and you wonder why it didn't
work. Perhaps you were able to get a heavy feeling in the legs, but the
second part of the test didn't work. The following information will help
you to understand why you were unable to complete this cataleptic test.
Either you had not conditioned yourself sufficiently, or you weren't
really "letting go" enough to enter into a deeper state of hypnosis.
Most subjects need to test themselves and feel secure every step of the
way. They don't just plunge into the cataleptic or somnambulistic stages
immediately. In this connection, I believe it can be compared with the
bather who goes into the water one step at a time. Even the playful
splashing directed at him by friends does not compel him to duck under
the water. Instead, he continues to slowly go deeper and deeper until he
is completely submerged. Wouldn't it have been easier to duck under all
at once? Perhaps, but I'm sure you have either experienced the same
thing yourself or seen it happen.

The analogy should be clear. The subject is reluctant to do what he
considers as "giving up his control" when, in reality, he is really more
and more in control of himself as he penetrates the deeper levels of
hypnosis.

In reality, the subject who does not or cannot raise his feet really
could move in case of emergency, even without counting to 15. He has, in
effect, entered into a state in which it is too much bother to lift his
feet. A common example of this frame of mind is when you remain in bed
in the morning even though you know you will be late to work. You are
just too comfortable to move, and your initiative seems paralyzed.

Let us assume, at this point, that you have finally succeeded in getting
the foot test to work. You are now ready for the hand levitation
test--No. 5. In this test, the goal is to get your hand to slowly rise
and touch your chin. Once it touches your chin, you enter into a still
deeper state and lower your hand slowly to your side. This test is
actually combined with the hand tingling test--No. 3. Since you have
been successful with test No. 3, the rest is rather simple. This time as
you work test No. 3, aim for a light, pleasant feeling in your right
hand. Once you get this reaction, you give yourself suggestions that
your right hand will now rise and touch your chin. As soon as it does,
you will fall into a deeper state and lower your hand. Here are the
suggestions that you can use: "As I count to ten and even before I reach
the count of ten, I shall have an irresistible impulse to slowly raise
my hand to my chin. As I progress with the counting, my hand will slowly
rise, and the impulse will become stronger and stronger. As soon as my
hand touches my chin, the impulse will leave. I will then lower my hand
and fall into a very deep hypnotic state. I shall be fully aware of what
is happening, my surroundings, and will be able to give myself
beneficial posthypnotic suggestions."

At this point you start counting to ten, giving yourself suggestions
that your right hand which already has a light feeling will begin to
slowly rise to your chin. Time the counting to coincide with the actual
physical act of raising your hand. You are trying to feel an involuntary
urge to raise your hand. The movement itself should also be of an
unconscious rather than conscious nature. A conscious raising of your
hand to your chin is not what you are looking for in this test. Should
you experience difficulty in attaining the first movement of your hand,
you can give yourself assistance by consciously and slowly raising your
hand just to get it started. The rest of the movement, as mentioned,
must be automatic. Should you find it necessary to start your hand
rising, use the feed-back technique to continue the movement. You can
give yourself the following suggestions:

"One ... My right hand is beginning to rise. Two ... My right hand is
very, very light, and I am getting an irresistible urge to slowly raise
it. Three ... This feeling is getting stronger and stronger. Four ... My
right hand is rising more and more. Five ... My hand is rising toward my
chin. Six ... As soon as my hand touches my chin, I shall fall into a
deeper and sounder state of hypnosis. Seven ... My hand is rising closer
and closer toward my chin. Eight ... The feeling of lightness is
becoming stronger and stronger. Nine ... My right hand is about to touch
my chin; as soon as it does, I'll fall into a very deep hypnotic state.
Ten ... My right hand is touching my chin; I'm falling deeper and
deeper into a sound hypnotic state; I'll now slowly lower my hand and
continue falling into a deep, sound, pleasant state of hypnosis. The
light feeling has left my hand."

You should not attempt to memorize the exact phraseology for any of the
tests. You are to merely use the suggestions that have been written out
for you as a guide. The timing of the suggestions is the paramount
consideration in attaining successful results. Don't be impatient. Take
as much time as you need. Should you find yourself unsuccessful after
ten or fifteen minutes, drop the test and come back to it another day. I
haven't found that working at a specific test all day long accomplishes
the end result.

It is best to work for a specific period every day. In this way, the
conditioned response pattern is established for the success of the tests
as well as the success of the posthypnotic suggestions that you have
given yourself. You should bear in mind that if you have been successful
in achieving the first five tests, you have reached a medium state of
hypnosis, and posthypnotic suggestions will be extremely effective. In
the next chapter, you'll learn, psychologically, how to go even deeper
into hypnosis. You'll learn those psychological factors that are
important to know and that can contribute to your development into an
excellent hypnotic subject. Following this, the subsequent chapter will
give you further tests and instructions for developing into a
somnambulistic subject.



Chapter 8

What You Should Know About Becoming An Excellent Subject


Becoming an excellent subject follows the same general rules for
becoming proficient in any other endeavor. It depends upon your
motivation, persistence and willingness to devote time and study to the
subject. Let us agree that most individuals can learn to play a musical
instrument to some degree. This degree is usually sufficient for their
own needs. To become a virtuoso, however, it is necessary to study the
instrument and devote a great deal of energy and time to practice. The
same example could be given for most undertakings. Anyone can learn to
hit a golf ball, but being able to control the direction and distance
and become a skilled golfer is quite another matter.

If you have been successful in accomplishing the first five tests, you
can consider yourself a good hypnotic subject. Becoming an excellent
subject entails following the same procedure used in accomplishing the
first five tests. Some may proceed very easily into the somnambulistic
state, and others may have a difficult time reaching this deepest stage.
Understanding some of the psychology involved and assuming the right
psychological frame of mind for the attainment of the somnambulistic
state is more important than just working blindly in an attempt to get
the somnambulistic tests to work. Being irritable, disgusted and
despondent because of your inability to go further into hypnosis is not
the answer and will only lead to frustration and failure. The reader is
not to assume he will be a difficult subject. If you have come this far,
you'll be able to continue in the same manner. The topic under
discussion now is brought up to prepare readers for any contingency that
may arise. It's like having a life preserver on a boat. You hope you
never need it, but you should be prepared to use it in case of an
emergency.

It is natural to assume that if you are willing and trying to go into
the lethargic, cataleptic or somnambulistic state, you will be able to
do so in a relatively short period of time. Unfortunately, this is by no
means the case. Many of the principles of learning and conditioning can
be applied to hypnosis, but with many subjects these laws do not seem
applicable. Let us assume you wanted to learn to become an excellent
typist. This is a reasonable goal and all that is necessary is to
continue practicing until you have reached the proficiency you set out
to achieve. This proficiency would, as a rule, follow application of the
laws of learning and conditioning.

This isn't always so in a subject's attempt to become somnambulistic.
When the subject progresses from one stage to another in a classical
manner, the theory works admirably, but what happens when a subject
cannot seem to progress any further? He has reached a plateau and is
unable to climb higher. He seems to have reached a psychological
impasse or stalemate. It is easy to say that the subject is thwarted by
a subconscious block and let it go at that. This, however, doesn't help
him in his dilemma. It's like telling the stranded motorist that the
reason his car has stalled is because the motor isn't running. The
following information will be helpful to those who haven't been able to
reach the first stages of hypnosis, as well as those who apparently can
go only so far. Actually, the same principles are involved.

If the subject doesn't respond or responds to a limited degree, there
evidently is a cause or reason for this poor response. In order to
continue this discussion, it will be necessary for us to agree that the
resistance can be either conscious or unconscious. If the subject
insists that he is trying to "let go," has nothing to hide, is not
afraid of hypnosis, understands what is involved and has strong
motivation, we can only assume that the resistance must be unconscious.
Usually, it will be necessary to work through this unconscious
resistance before the subject responds. If the subject is conditioning
himself, this will involve a great deal of introspection, and even then
it is an extremely difficult job. One doesn't usually have proper
insight into one's own emotional make-up. The end result is that one can
only rationalize about his behavior.

Let us explore some interesting aspects of hypnosis with a view toward
helping you if you are having difficulty responding the way you desire.
I have had the following paradoxical situation happen many times. A
subject calls my office, requesting to be conditioned for self-hypnosis.
He further requests that he be allowed to bring along a member of his
family or a friend for the hypnotic session. These individuals usually
ask if I object to this procedure. I interpreted this request as a sign
of distrust during my early career as a professional hypnotist. I was
affronted by the idea of the unspoken insinuation verbalized by this
request. Didn't they trust me? Between trying to defend myself and
assuring them that there was no need for another person being present,
since my secretary could observe the procedure, I usually "won" the
argument but lost the client. As I developed understanding into the
needs of these persons, I began to realize that the request was not
directed at my integrity, but was a safeguard for their ego.

[Illustration]

Here is an interesting sidelight that has happened frequently in regard
to the foregoing situation. I would request the subject to sit near my
desk and tell the onlooker to sit in back and to the side of the
subject, away from the subject's view so as not to distract him. In this
situation, I invariably place the hypnodisc on a spinning, portable
phonograph turntable and turn it upright for the subject to look at. The
hypnodisc, which is made of stiff cardboard, looks like a 12-inch
phonograph record and has concentric heavy lines drawn on it. As it
spins, the subject feels he is being pulled toward the center. At the
same time, it causes his eyes to become very tired. I have included a
drawing of it on this page for those who are not familiar with this
hypnotic device. The revolving hypnodisc causes a physiological
reaction and must work with everyone. You feed back certain known
physiological responses for the successful attainment of hypnosis.

The onlooker has no choice but to look at the hypnodisc as well. As I
suggest to the subject that his eyes are becoming heavy and tired and
that soon he'll have an irresistible impulse to close them, the onlooker
is naturally hearing the same suggestion. Because this person feels
apart from the hypnotic situation, there can be no conscious resistance.
Since these defenses are not hampering the attainment of hypnosis, the
onlooker may readily fall under hypnosis. More than once, the onlooker
has confided to me that he was getting a better night's sleep, was
feeling wonderfully well or had derived other benefits since coming to
my office as an "observer." The exact situation happens when the stage
hypnotist is hypnotizing subjects on the stage. Many times a person in
the audience who had no intention of becoming hypnotized becomes
influenced in the same manner. Incidentally, these individuals make the
best subjects.

There are interesting theories as to why a subject responds or does not
respond to hypnosis. I think the reader would find some of these
theories interesting and perhaps gain some insight into his own hypnotic
behavior. These theories are based primarily on a psychoanalytical
approach to hypnosis.

The most prevalent theory is that the hypnotist represents either the
father image (paternal or fear hypnosis) or the mother image (maternal
or love hypnosis). The father usually represents an authoritarian
figure. The subject's identification can be on a conscious or
subconscious level. Let us suppose the subject has ambivalent feelings
toward his father. Because of this, he may not respond. Here is an
opportunity to frustrate the authoritative (father) figure. The only
trouble with this theory is that if there is an excellent relationship
between the father and subject, it doesn't necessarily mean that the
subject will respond easily. The stage hypnotist invariably uses a
strong, authoritative approach with a great deal of success, but this
approach generally does not work best in private practice.

I have found that for the majority of subjects the maternal approach
works best. Perhaps the process of hypnosis awakens early unconscious
memories of being put to sleep as a child. Some techniques that are used
in hypnosis are quite similar to this. The subject, who is lying down,
is told to close his eyes and is spoken to in a quiet, reassuring,
monotonous tone of voice. The hypnotist is seated near him. The
hypnotist even uses the same words that the subject has heard as a
child: "Sleep. Go to sleep. When you awaken, you'll feel wonderfully
well." In fact, I use some special music that I had recorded for
inducing hypnosis. The first musical selection is Brahms' "Lullaby."
Children's music boxes invariably contain this selection, and the melody
cannot help but activate a pleasant nostalgia. It is a memory associated
with love and tenderness. This brings us to the fact that hypnosis may
offer the subject a chance to escape from the reality of pressing
problems into a state of complete irresponsibility. In fact, one theory
of hypnosis equates the hypnotic state as a form of unconscious
regression and need for submission.

The male subject may have a strong, positive identification with his
mother rather than his father. It is part of the unresolved Oedipus
complex. He sees his mother as a kind, loving individual, always ready
to help. Even if the mother did something socially unacceptable, the
individual would defend her vehemently. The father who might do
something wrong would rarely be excused. Just the opposite is true with
the female subject. When asking the female child, "Whose girl are you?",
the answer is invariably, "Daddy's girl." When asking the male child,
"Whose boy are you?", the answer is invariably, "Momma's boy." We accept
this transference of identification as a normal process of growing up.
When it isn't normally resolved, it can account for severe personality
problems. One might assume, therefore, that a woman hypnotist could
better hypnotize a male subject, and a male hypnotist could better
hypnotize a female subject, but this is not true except for cases such
as we have just mentioned.

One school of thought feels that there is a strong submissive tendency
in all of us and hypnosis gratifies this wish. The individual's need for
dependence is also met. In this case, the hypnotist becomes omnipotent,
being able to alter feelings that ordinarily distress the individual.
Normally, adults, when confronted by a particularly upsetting
experience, might want to be held closely by an intimate friend or
member of the family. Don't we frequently put our arm around a friend in
grief trying to comfort him? The inner strength which is created by
hypnosis within the total personality structure of the subject lessens
dependency upon the hypnotist, much in the same fashion that we need the
doctor less as we start to recover from an illness. Self-hypnosis
further lessens dependency for no authoritarian figure is used.

The subject's attitude towards authority is important to know. It is
well-known that officers in the army are more difficult to hypnotize
than noncommissioned men. The enlisted man, by a process of
indoctrination and conditioning, is taught to obey and follow orders
without reasoning. The transference of authority to the hypnotist is
readily accomplished because of this conditioning process. The army
doctor, when treating patients psychologically, replaces his army jacket
with a regular white medical jacket to increase rapport.

One interesting theory is that the subject responds as he thinks the
hypnotist would like him to. This is termed "role playing." When asking
a subject under hypnosis his name, you usually get a very slow,
deliberate answer, as though the subject were in a trance. You tell him
that he can answer in a normal speaking voice and tempo and his further
replies are to be in the same manner as his waking state.

Another theory along these lines is that the subject acts as he believes
a hypnotized person would act. This, too, is role playing, but it does
not explain analgesia, such as when the dentist hypnotizes the patient
and proceeds to drill a tooth. No one (with the possible exception of a
highly neurotic psychic masochist) is going to endure excruciating pain
just to please the doctor.

One theory about hypnosis states that it allows the subject an
opportunity of identifying with the hypnotist, whom he sees as a
powerful figure. Through this identification, the subject is able to
gain inner strength. On the other hand, the subject might rebel against
the submissive nature of the hypnotic setting. This could easily create
anxiety which, in turn, could create hostility resulting in resistance
of various kinds. As a result of this, the subject might begin to
criticize the hypnotist, find fault with the way he (the subject) is
being handled, question the judgment of the hypnotist, or doubt the
effectiveness of the hypnotic procedure.

Many investigators assert that the "rapport," meaning the relationship
between the subject and hypnotist, is all important. This is true and
the relationship can and does have many ramifications. In psychotherapy,
the term "transference" is used to denote this relationship. The
relationship is further described as a good or bad transference. There
is also a countertransference which indicates the reaction of the
therapist to the patient. Naturally, in order for the subject to
respond, there must be good rapport.

I have tried to indicate that there are complexities that may arise in
the hypnotic setting. There are many conflicting theories as to why a
subject does or does not respond. There are no set rules to follow, and
one's intuition, experience and judgment help solve any problem that
arises.

Let me relate another frequent incident. I have had subjects come to me
after they were unable to be hypnotized by several other professional
hypnotists. They have complained that the hypnotists weren't "good
hypnotists" because they couldn't hypnotize them. After all, they ask,
hadn't they been willing subjects? My usual answer is that the fault, if
there is one, is not with the hypnotists and really not with the
subjects. It is a matter of exploring what has happened and then
deciding on a course of action to insure success.

I am firmly convinced that the subject responds when he is positively,
without equivocation, ready to do so. He keeps testing the response to
make sure he is in control. He fears a reduction in his voluntary level
of reality attachment and control. Unresponsiveness proves to him that
he has this control. As long as he does this, which is a natural
response, he never lets go sufficiently to attain hypnosis. Hypnosis,
as we know, is a very sensitive state. It requires complete faith and
trust in the hypnotist. If it is lacking, the subject never does
respond. The phenomenon of hypnosis is entirely subjective in nature,
and its success lies within the total personality structure of the
subject. If there is resistance to hypnosis itself or to deepening the
state, the subject by his own honest evaluation and verbalization of his
resistance can do much to become a better subject. Hypnosis must begin
with the acceptance by the subject of certain basic fundamentals that we
have already discussed rather than of the forcefulness of the hypnotist.
The deepening of the hypnotic state lies in the intensification of the
conditioned response mechanism once it has been initiated.

You should not expect to achieve immediate results although sometimes
this does happen. As you continue to work with perseverance,
intelligence and enthusiasm, you will definitely achieve the goals that
you have set for yourself. It is well to remember that you guide
yourself toward the somnambulistic state, depending upon your belief and
acceptance of those principles that have been outlined for you.

I have attempted to point out some of the salient points and theories to
keep in mind in your attempt to develop into an excellent hypnotic
subject. Some of these only pertain to the situations where the
hypnotist works with the subject. Many of the problems inherent in this
setting are not applicable to the situation where the subject is
hypnotizing himself. Both settings have their advantages and
disadvantages. As long as you proceed to follow the instructions given
you, you can feel assured that you will finally achieve self-hypnosis.

It should be emphasized that it is vital to adopt the right frame of
mind in your attempt to achieve self-hypnosis, particularly a deep
state. If you approach hypnosis with a "prove-it-to-me" attitude,
nothing is going to happen. Self-hypnosis requires practicing a set of
mental exercises or mental gymnastics. To acquire the ultimate from this
training requires systematic conditioning. The word "training" is used
quite extensively in hypnotic literature. The use of the word implies
that hypnosis can be attained by a training period. The literature
speaks frequently of a subject being trained to respond in a certain
way. Obviously, this means over a certain period of time. It also means
you train yourself to become a good hypnotic subject. It is a skill that
all can acquire.

There are four books dealing specifically with self-hypnosis that I
would recommend to you for further reading. They are: _What is Hypnosis_
by Andrew Salter, _Hypnosis and Self-Hypnosis_ by Bernard Hollander,
M.D., _Autogenic Training_ by Johannes H. Schultz, M.D., and
_Self-Hypnosis--Its Theory, Technique and Application_ by Melvin
Powers.



Chapter 9

Techniques for Reaching the Somnambulistic State


As indicated in the last chapter, the attainment of the somnambulistic
stage of hypnosis can represent an extremely intricate procedure.
Because of certain inherent characteristics of this stage, it is easier
to attain by hetero-hypnosis. However, this does not preclude the fact
that it can be reached without the aid of a hypnotist. More important
than the testing and deepening procedures that I shall outline for you
in this chapter are an _understanding_ and an _awareness_ of some of the
complexities involved, first in achieving the hypnotic state, then
deepening, and, finally, reaching somnambulism. There are no absolute or
final answers to many of the problems that can arise. You can become
entangled with rationalization so easily when you want the facts to fit
a particular theory. I point this out to the reader because, as the
subject goes deeper, the procedure can become more complicated.

There are many interesting phenomena which can be elicited in the
somnambulistic state. They are of interest for the most part, to
students of abnormal behavior and are pertinent from an academic
viewpoint. They do not fall within the province of this book or of
hypnosis for therapeutic purposes and might lead the reader astray.
Should readers be interested in further hypnotic phenomena, I refer them
to _Modern Hypnosis_ by Leslie Kuhn and Salvadore Russo, Ph.D.,
_Experimental Hypnosis_ by Leslie LeCron, _Time Distortion in Hypnosis_
by Milton Erickson, M.D. and Lynn F. Cooper, M.D., and _Hypnotism--An
Objective Study in Suggestibility_ by André M. Weitzenhoffer, Ph.D.

As discussed previously, some individuals experience difficulty in
attaining the deeper hypnotic states. My advice is to be patient and to
continue working with yourself. It is not imperative or vital to reach
the somnambulistic stage for therapeutic results. It is a misconception
on the part of many students that they must go into the deepest state
possible to obtain results. Dramatic changes can come about at all
levels of hypnosis. The somnambulistic state is necessary in
hypnotherapy when there is a need for the patient to relive some
traumatic episode. It is also useful when the patient is reluctant to
consciously discuss certain aspects of his problem. Many
hypnotherapeutic techniques such as amnesia, hypermnesia, progression,
paramnesia, automatic writing, dream induction, regression, production
of experimental conflicts and crystal or mirror gazing require a
somnambulistic state. For those of you interested in hypnotherapy, I can
recommend no finer book than _Hypnotherapy of War Neuroses_ by John G.
Watkins, Ph.D. In this book, the theory of hypnotherapy has been
diagramatically presented for easy comprehension and shown to be an
amalgamation of concepts and practices from various schools of thought.

Most students of hypnosis equate the phenomenon of amnesia with the
somnambulistic state. The mistake they make is in trying to achieve
amnesia. It's similar to the dog trying to catch his tail. It is
impossible for the subject to effectively suggest amnesia to himself. If
he remembers what he was supposed to forget, he has failed. If he truly
doesn't remember what he was supposed to forget, he doesn't even
remember the amnesia suggestion and can take no satisfaction from his
success because he is not aware that he has accomplished the
posthypnotic suggestion. Unless an elaborate set of posthypnotic
suggestions are worked out, it is an impossible test for self-hypnosis.

I know the reader is anxious to begin his conditioning for the
somnambulistic state, but there are still a few pertinent remarks which
should be remembered before proceeding further. The reader should not
memorize verbatim any of the tests involved in proving the
somnambulistic state. All that is necessary to remember is the general
form and the goal you seek. The goal is to increase your suggestibility
which, in turn, means deepening of the hypnotic state. After each step,
you are to give yourself suggestions that you will go still deeper the
next time. You should also designate a specific length of time to work
with self-hypnosis. The suggestions are as follows: "I shall work with
self-hypnosis for 15 minutes. At the end of that time, I shall open my
eyes and wake up feeling wonderfully well. I'll be wide awake and
refreshed. In case of any danger, I'll be able to awaken immediately and
act accordingly."

Some hypnotists tell their subjects to "make your mind a blank." I
suppose what they really mean is that you must try to think of only what
the hypnotist is saying. Have you ever tried to make your mind a blank?
Try it for a moment. It's an impossibility. Should the hypnotist
persist along these lines, he'll never be successful. It is the wrong
approach. The subject, because of his inability to comply with this
suggestion, is fighting a losing battle. It is also almost impossible
for the subject to concentrate only on what the hypnotist is saying. Any
word the hypnotist says can start a conscious as well as unconscious
train of thought. Therefore, in reality, this, too, is impossible.
However, it really isn't necessary that the subject keep his thoughts
concentrated solely on what is being said so long as they are kept in
the general area. At times, the more you try to concentrate, the more
your thoughts become scattered. Suppose I say to you, "Forget the
address 8721 Sunset Boulevard." What happens? The more you try to forget
it, the more you remember it. Therefore, don't be concerned if you
experience stray thoughts during the induction and deepening of
hypnosis. You are now ready to continue with further tests. The first
five tests should be mastered before continuing.

Test No. 6 is referred to as the "fly" test. In this test, once under
hypnosis, you picture that a fly is crawling on the back of your right
or left hand. Once you feel the fly, you know you are deeply hypnotized.
You might even get an urge to move your hand and flick the fly off your
hand. When this happens, you know, of course, that you are deeply
hypnotized. Here is a sample of the type of suggestions to give:

"As I count to ten and even before I reach the count of ten, I shall
feel a fly crawling on the back of my right hand. This illusion will
seem very real to me. One ... My right hand is completely relaxed. Two
... I feel completely at ease. Three ... I am beginning to feel a
pleasant tingling feeling on the back of my right hand. Four ... This
feeling is becoming strong. Five ... It feels as though a fly is moving
on the back of my hand. Six ... I have had this same feeling before.
Seven ... I can feel the fly. Eight ... The feeling is very definite.
Nine ... As I flick my hand the fly will disappear (If you have felt the
fly, move your hand). Ten ... It is gone."

Test No. 7 is known as the "cigarette" test and naturally is only for
those of you who smoke. In this test, you give yourself posthypnotic
suggestions during the hypnotic state, awaken yourself, and then note
the effects of the posthypnotic suggestions. If the cigarette tastes
bitter or has a repugnant taste or odor, and if you furthermore find it
impossible to smoke more than three puffs, necessitating your putting
out the cigarette, you know the posthypnotic suggestions are working
perfectly and that you are an excellent hypnotic subject. Here are the
suggestions to give yourself while you are under hypnosis:

"When I count to three, I shall open my eyes and wake up feeling
wonderfully well and shall have a strong desire to smoke a cigarette.
Upon lighting the cigarette, I shall notice that there is a very bitter,
strong and repugnant taste to the cigarette. As I continue to smoke the
cigarette, the distasteful effect will become stronger and stronger.
Even though I realize that I have given myself these posthypnotic
suggestions, they will exert a strong force outside of my conscious
control, and I shall find it necessary to extinguish the cigarette after
three puffs. As I now count to three, I shall open my eyes and wake up
feeling fine. One, two, three."

Test No. 8 is called the "sun" test. In this test, you picture yourself
in a bathing suit, shorts or playsuit at the beach or some other
familiar place taking a sunbath. You imagine that it is a beautiful
summer day. As you see yourself relaxed, you imagine that a cloud is
blocking out the sun, but as you count to three, the cloud will move
away and you will feel the warm, pleasant glow of the sun's rays on your
face and hands. Here are the suggestions you can use:

"As I count to three, I shall feel the warm, pleasant rays of the sun on
my face and hands. One ... The cloud is moving, and I can begin to feel
the warm, pleasant rays of the sun. Two ... The cloud is moving more and
more, exposing more and more of the sun. I can feel the warmth of the
sun's rays. Three ... The cloud has moved away from the sun, and I can
feel the full, warm strength of the sun. It is a pleasant feeling, but
as I continue to count to five, the warm feeling will dissipate. Four
... The warm feeling is leaving. Five ... The warm feeling has left, and
I feel perfectly normal in every respect."

A variation of this test is to see yourself lying comfortably in front
of a fireplace. In this instance, you imagine someone is adding wood to
the fire. As this is done, you feel the warm glow of the fire more and
more. Should you use the fireplace technique, try to incorporate the
sound of rain into the picture. If you "hear" rain you have created a
positive auditory hallucination and can consider yourself an excellent
subject.

You can also visualize a situation where you would be cold. This is not
as pleasant as the picture that one can conjure up about a fireplace and
thus creates a bit more resistance since no one wants to feel
uncomfortable.

Test No. 9 is the "breeze" test. It can be combined with the previous
test. After you attain the feeling of warmth, you give yourself a count
of three (or whatever number you want), suggesting that you will feel
the cool ocean breeze (if you are at the beach) on your face and hands.
You can even carry this step further, suggesting that you'll even smell
the odor of the salt water. This is known as an olfactory illusion and
should you be able to create this effect, you can be sure that you are a
somnambulistic subject. Here are suggestions you can use:

"As I count to three, I shall gradually feel the cool ocean breeze
coming over the waves. It will be a very pleasant feeling. One ... I am
beginning to feel the cool ocean breeze, especially on my face and
hands. Two ... The breeze is becoming stronger and stronger. Three ... I
can definitely feel the cool ocean breeze. As I continue to count to
five, I shall smell the pleasant, healthy aroma of the salt water. Four
... I am beginning to smell the salt water. Five ... I can definitely
smell the salt water."

Now you give yourself appropriate suggestions that the feeling
(illusion) will vanish as you awaken or at a specific count. It can be
as simple as this: "As I count to three, I shall open my eyes and awaken
feeling very refreshed. The feeling of the cool ocean breeze and smell
of the salt air will have vanished completely." At this point you count
to three and open your eyes.

Test No. 10 is the "handclasp" test. This is used frequently to test the
depth of hypnosis. You fold your hands with your fingers tightly
interlocked and place your palms together. You then give yourself a
hypnotic suggestion that at the count of three, it will be impossible
for you to unlock your hands. After you try and are unable to unlock
your hands, you continue counting to five, suggesting that you will be
able to do so when you reach the count of five. Incidentally, you should
remove any ring you may be wearing before trying this test. Here are the
suggestions you can follow:

"As I complete the count of three, I shall try to unlock my hands but
will be unable to do so until I count to five. One ... My hands are
locked tightly together. Two ... My fingers are locked tighter and
tighter. Three ... It is impossible for me to unlock my hands until I
count to five. Four ... As I reach the count of five, I shall be able to
unlock my hands very easily. Five ... I can now unlock my hands very
easily."

Test No. 11 is the "arm" test. Here is another test used frequently to
test the receptiveness to hypnosis. Make a tight fist and extend your
arm in front of you as far as possible. Visualize your arm as one solid
mass, as stiff and rigid as a bar of steel. After your arm is extended,
give yourself a hypnotic suggestion that you will be unable to bend your
arm when you complete the count of three. As you continue to count to
five, you will be able to bend your arm very easily. Here is a form of
suggestion you can use:

"As I reach the count of three, I shall try to bend my arm, but it will
be impossible to do so until I count to five. No matter how hard I try,
it will be absolutely impossible. One ... My arm is stiff and rigid as a
bar of steel. Two ... I can feel the rigidity in my arm. Three ... It is
impossible for me to bend my arm until I count to five. Four ... I can
feel the stiffness slowly leaving. Five ... I can now bend my arm easily
and it feels normal in every respect."

Test No. 12 is the "eye" test. This is probably the most widely used
test in hypnosis. Many subjects equate the inability to open the eyes
with hypnosis. Many assume that if they can open their eyes, they have
not been hypnotized. I must emphatically point out that this is not
true. The subject can fail the eye test and yet have been under
hypnosis. In the deep, somnambulistic state, the subject can open his
eyes without affecting the depth of the hypnotic state. In fact, this is
done many times in getting the subject to do automatic writing, crystal
gazing, mirror gazing, hypnodrama and revivification. In carrying out
posthypnotic suggestions in any state, the subject is frequently told
that he will open his eyes and carry out the suggestion.

I have found that there is more anxiety connected with the eye test than
with any other test. I feel that it is a normal reaction and one that
must be anticipated by the hypnotist as well as the subject.
Occasionally, while hypnotizing a new subject, he will open his eyes.
This can happen when the subject feels he is losing consciousness. His
ability to open his eyes proves to him that he is in control. One of the
main fears that the subject has is his belief that he will lose
voluntary control of himself. The fact that he can open his eyes lessens
his anxiety.

If there seems to be too much threat to the individual, I use a method
that you can follow. Instead of suggesting that the subject will be
unable to open his eyes at a specific count, I suggest that he will be
so relaxed that it will be too much effort to open his eyes until a
further count is given. Actually, what could take less effort? Here are
suggestions you can use:

"As I count to three, I shall try to open my eyes, but I shall be unable
to do so because I feel so relaxed. It will just take too much effort to
open my eyes until I reach the count of five or tell myself to awaken.
One ... My eyes are closed, and I am in a very deep state of hypnosis.
Two ... My eyelids are stuck tightly together. Three ... It is now
impossible for me to open my eyes. I shall be able to open them though
at the count of five. Four ... I shall be able to open my eyes very
easily at the count of five. Five ... I can now open my eyes and wake
up feeling alert and fully refreshed."

In accomplishing the eye test, you try to create a vivid picture of
yourself being completely and fully relaxed. If you really exerted a
great deal of effort, you could open your eyes, but because of the
pleasantness of the completely relaxed state, you prefer not to do so.
It can be likened to your enduring the cold winter air when you are half
asleep in bed instead of getting up to close the window which has been
left open too much. You can, of course, get up and close the window, but
it becomes a matter of expending too much energy. Instead, you choose to
endure the discomfort or suggest that your spouse close the window.

For the following three tests, you give yourself the suggestions as
outlined in the previous tests. It should be pointed out again that at
the conclusion of the test, you give yourself a suggestion that you will
feel normal in every respect.

Test No. 13 is the "music" test. This test involves creating an auditory
hallucination. Give yourself the suggestion that at a specific count you
will hear your favorite song. It will last for one minute and then fade
out.

Test No. 14 is the "dream" test. It is incorporated in a great deal of
hypnotherapy. The subject is told that as the hypnotist counts to three,
the subject will have a dream lasting for several minutes which he will
remember. This dream, furthermore, will call his attention to an
important incident that he has long forgotten, yet which will be
relevant to his problem. In self-hypnosis, you suggest to yourself that
at a specific count you will have a very pleasant dream lasting for
several minutes, at the end of which time you will awaken feeling
refreshed. For those readers further interested in producing dreams, I
can highly recommend a very fascinating book called _The Experimental
Production of Dreams During Hypnosis_ by Professor David Ballin Klein.

Test No. 15 is the "anesthesia" test. This is conducted by telling
yourself that you will not feel the pain associated with the act of
pinching yourself. You suggest that you will feel the pressure of your
fingers but will not feel the pain involved. _I urge the reader not to
stick pins in himself to test the anesthesia. This can be dangerous,
lead to infection and cause other harmful results._ You should also not
dig your nails into your skin to make sure that you don't feel pain.



Chapter 10

A New Approach to Self-Hypnosis When All Else Fails


Let us assume that you have tried diligently to learn self-hypnosis for
a month or more but have failed. You have worked faithfully following
the instructions outlined in this book and other books on self-hypnosis,
but somehow the state of hypnosis eludes you. Should you give up in
despair, or is there still hope for you? Let me assure you that you can
still become an excellent subject. Let us examine several areas of this
problem and a new approach that will help you achieve your ends.

You must, first of all, ask yourself if you are feeling better and
whether you have made strides in the direction you desire while giving
yourself suggestions in whatever stage of hypnosis you have achieved. If
your evaluation is affirmative to any degree, you can expect even
greater results. "But," you may say, "how can I expect greater results
when I haven't achieved self-hypnosis?" My answer is you may be
achieving self-hypnosis and not know it! The change to the self-hypnotic
state from the waking state can be imperceptible. Many times, prior to
testing subjects under hypnosis, I ask them if they think they are in
the hypnotic state. The answer is invariably no. When asking the
subjects for a cogent reason for this answer, they usually exclaim that
they are aware of what is going on and do not feel any different than
they did before I started working with them. They are amazed to find
that various tests work so perfectly.

Some subjects do not respond to hypnotic tests no matter how long you
work with them. For these persons, I usually de-emphasize the need for
passing the tests and concentrate on the therapeutic results which are
desired. This approach lessens anxiety and usually results in a
deepening of the hypnotic state. It is my feeling that many subjects
resist any tests as the implication is that once the tests work, the
subject is under complete control of the hypnotist. The subject may fear
this supposed subjection on one hand and yet want it on the other hand.
These forces can work unconsciously, and thus the attainment of hypnosis
becomes a very intricate, perplexing and trying procedure. Even though
this may be so, I can assure you that the problem and attainment of
hypnosis can be resolved. It is only a matter of motivation on the part
of the subject. This is the main ingredient necessary for successful
hypnosis.

Let me now explain a technique which has worked admirably for many who
have been frustrated because of their inability to achieve
self-hypnosis. It involves _pretending you are hypnotized_ and going
through the motions of the various tests _as though you were a perfect
subject_. You will recall that one theory of hypnosis is that the
subject behaves in a manner that he believes is in keeping with hypnotic
behavior. This role playing is the basis for our unique approach. As
the subject continues this procedure, he takes on the conditioned
response mechanism necessary for self-hypnosis. Let us look at the
following examples of role playing.

During the war, many soldiers who wanted to leave the army would pretend
something was wrong with them. They would convince the authorities of
the authenticity of their "illness," and since nothing seemed to make
them better, they eventually were separated from the service because of
the incapacitating disorder. But what happened to many of these
malingerers after they were released from the service? I'm sure you know
the rest of the story. The constant malingering was transformed by this
role playing into a conditioned response pattern, eventually bringing
about the very undesirable condition responsible for their leaving the
service. I saw some of these individuals and more than once they told me
that they had unwittingly hypnotized themselves into having the ailment.
They wanted me to dehypnotize them. They actually turned out to be very
easy subjects as they had become highly suggestible. Unfortunately,
their super-ego structure was weak, they had difficulty in identifying
strongly with anyone, and the relationship in hypnosis was superficial
and without depth.

I am going to relate another example which I hope will help you
understand the role-playing technique for self-hypnosis. I have had the
following experience many times in giving hypnotic demonstrations before
various organizations. For some reason, even though I carefully ask that
only those who desire to be hypnotized volunteer as subjects for the
hypnotic demonstrations, an individual who has no intention of
cooperating comes up on the stage to poke fun at the hypnotist. In
giving public demonstrations, I usually work with about ten subjects
and simultaneously give them the same suggestions and posthypnotic
suggestions. Once the subjects are hypnotized, I work with them with
their eyes open. Using this technique, with each subject carrying out a
posthypnotic suggestion, intensifies the responses of other subjects.
There is also competitiveness to become the best subject.

In the meantime, the individual who is really not under hypnosis has let
the audience know about it by winking or making a grimace when I was not
looking at him. Observing laughter and other audience reactions which
are not in keeping with what is happening at the precise moment during
my lecture is my cue that I have an egocentric person on stage. You
might ask, "Can't you tell when someone is faking?" It is extremely
difficult many times to do so. Once you are aware of it, however, you
give certain tests to the group. The exhibitionist doesn't know how to
respond each time and you soon pick him out.

Even when I know specifically who it is, I do not dismiss him.
Interestingly, it is invariably a man. I continue with the
lecture-demonstration; but I let the audience know that I am aware of
the situation. This is the interesting part of this example. The
bumptious subject, by giving himself autosuggestions to comply with
various posthypnotic suggestions, is actually engaging in our technique
of role playing. The inevitable happens. He finds himself hypnotized
despite his obvious intention not to be affected in any way. Any
hypnotist can recount similar incidents.

What can you learn by the example just presented? What if you purposely
set about doing the same thing in your attempt to achieve self-hypnosis?
The obvious answer is that the technique has a good chance of working,
and as a result you will achieve self-hypnosis. This method has worked
with many recalcitrant subjects. To follow this plan, go back to chapter
six, "How To Attain Self-Hypnosis," and use the role-playing technique.
You'll be pleasantly surprised at how this approach will act as a
catalyst. Remember, once you obtain the eye closure, give yourself
whatever therapeutic suggestion you desire plus the posthypnotic
suggestion that the next time you will fall into a deeper and sounder
state of hypnosis at the count of three or any other cue you desire.

I know you may protest using the role-playing technique with the
question, "If I'm not under hypnosis, why give myself therapeutic
posthypnotic suggestions to condition myself to go under hypnosis at a
specific count?" You may further protest that you are only fooling
yourself. My answer is, "What if you are?" What is lost by doing it? You
have everything to gain and nothing to lose. Are you not really
interested in the end result and not the means? The attainment of the
self-hypnotic state is not in itself the end result; it is a means to
help you achieve your goal.

Don't many people carry or wear good-luck charms of a religious or
nonreligious nature? Don't we accept these items in our society? The
four-leaf clover and rabbit's foot as symbols of good luck have been
part of our culture for a long time. We are all sophisticated enough to
know that they do not have an intrinsic value, but don't they do
something for our mental attitude? This same pattern is precisely what
you are to follow in using the role-playing technique. If you believe,
expect and imagine that you will be successful in this approach to
self-hypnosis, I can assure you that you will.

May I urge you not to reject this novel and unorthodox approach. Many
have had excellent results when other methods, even those of a
professional hypnotist, have failed. Some of you may recognize this
approach as another means of applying the visual-imagery technique.
Whatever you choose to call it, I reiterate you can expect good results.
It is only necessary that you follow the instructions and adopt the
right attitude. By the right attitude, I mean that you should adopt the
conviction that you are going to achieve self-hypnosis even though you
might have experienced difficulty up to now. Hypnosis is a conviction
phenomenon.

It is possible you may say you are not suggestible. Actually, your lack
of response proves your suggestibility. You have been influenced by
negative suggestions. Everyone is suggestible to some degree. You have
become extremely suggestible to conscious or unconscious stimuli which
are definitely affecting your ability to respond. You need only use this
latent suggestibility and make it work for you. What would you say about
the suggestibility of a person who doesn't want to talk about hypnosis?
This person has never read a book on hypnosis and absolutely doesn't
want you or anyone else to hypnotize him. Would you believe this person
is a potentially good hypnotic subject? I can tell you by practical
experience that once this person allows himself to be hypnotized, he
turns out to be a perfect subject. Responding to either end of the
suggestibility scale is indicative of success with hypnosis. It becomes
a matter of manipulating this suggestibility skillfully in order to
achieve results.

Let me give you another example which may help. Which one of the two
lines drawn on this page is longer? Line AB or line CD?

[Illustration]

What is your answer? Did you think both were the same? Take a ruler and
actually measure them. You'll find line AB longer than CD. "But," you
reply, "every other time both lines were the same." This is a familiar
optical illusion which is used many times in basic courses in
psychology. It is known as the Muller-Lyer illusion. My contention is
that if you said, "Both are the same size," you are potentially a good
subject. You respond perfectly to previous conditioning; thus, you are
responding as anticipated. If, on the other hand, you picked line AB,
you are normally suggestible. If you honestly picked line CD, you are
extremely cautious and respond best to "reverse psychology." Once again
you are highly suggestible, but toward one extreme.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

Here's another interesting experiment. Would you say that lines AB and
CD were perfectly straight? I'll let you figure out what your response
means to this test by yourself. You can take a ruler to determine if the
lines are straight.

We all respond unconsciously to stimuli of some sort. Word association
tests are based on this principle. Aren't your reactions automatic to
the following terms: democratic party, republican party, communist
party, mother, father, movie star? If I mention the name of a famous
person, city or country, the same immediate unconscious reaction takes
place. Let's try it. Theodore Roosevelt, Harry Truman, Dwight D.
Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, Albert Einstein, Albert Schweitzer, Eleanor
Roosevelt, Boston, New York City, Hollywood, Miami Beach, United States,
England, France, Italy, Israel, Africa, Russia, China, India and South
America. The response and image keep changing, don't they?

I am trying to point out that this reaction is automatic because of
previous conditioning. I could mention almost anything and the same
automatic reaction would take place. The reaction would always be the
same unless something had happened to change or alter your response. Let
us mention the word hypnosis. Some sort of reaction must take place.
This can either be positive, negative, or neutral for our purposes. You
really don't have to think about your response as it is automatic. The
point to remember is that a definite response has taken place which will
either help or hinder your attainment of hypnosis. If the response
should be negative, it can be changed by gaining knowledge and actual
experience in hypnosis. It is natural to have a bit of uneasiness when
first experiencing or thinking about being hypnotized. After all, you
haven't been exposed to hypnosis in a therapeutic setting and couldn't
have formed a favorable reaction. Your response is probably derived from
a fictionization of hypnosis. The initial task of the hypnotist is to
create, by educating the prospective subject, a favorable attitude so
that the subject allows himself to be hypnotized.

What does this mean specifically to you if you are having difficulty
learning self-hypnosis? It means that through repeated exposures, you
will finally respond. You will realize there is no need for anxiety in
regard to your response. This inner feeling will, in turn, have a
cumulative, favorable effect upon your unconscious which will result in
your finally responding to hypnosis.

Suppose you still maintain and insist that you are not suggestible and
wonder if you will ever respond to hypnosis. Furthermore, the assurance
I have given you up to this point doesn't seem to convince you. If you
have tried diligently to achieve self-hypnosis, you cannot be blamed,
but let's try an experiment to test your suggestibility. It is well to
ponder my statement that if you do not respond, it is a sign of being
suggestible, but in a negative sense. Lack of response is a
manifestation of this negative suggestibility. My contention is that you
are definitely suggestible. Let us see what happens to you in trying the
following classical experiment. It is called the Chevreul's Pendulum
test.

Draw a circle with about a six-inch diameter and mark it as shown in the
illustration.

[Illustration]

Next, take a ring and attach a string to it. If you have a locket, it
will do as well. The hypnotist uses a crystal ball and chain for this
experiment. Hold the end of the string or chain and keep the ring or
whatever object you are using about three inches above the center of the
circle.

Now, concentrate and fix your gaze on the ring, crystal ball, or locket.
Mentally suggest to yourself that the object will begin to revolve in a
circular manner following the numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4. Picture in your
mind's eye that this circular motion is becoming wider and wider. Work
at this image for several minutes. Did the object begin turning to the
right following the numbers? Did the circle become larger and larger? If
it did, you are absolutely suggestible, are influenced by your own
suggestions and, therefore, if you follow instructions, can learn
self-hypnosis. You can be trained to acquire this skill.

If the experience did not work, try it again. Concentrate harder and try
to visualize more intently the object revolving in a circular manner.
You are not to rotate the object consciously or help it in any way. The
action must stem from your subconscious. The thought of the crystal ball
or ring revolving in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction
invariably causes an involuntary muscular reflex action to take place.
This phenomenon is known as an ideomotor action. Usually, as the subject
concentrates more intensely, the reflex action becomes more profound,
causing greater unconscious movement of the hand which, in turn, is
transmitted to the object in the form of larger circles and greater
momentum. The time required for the successful accomplishment of this
test depends upon the degree of suggestibility of the subject. An
interesting action is to see the object revolve in an opposite direction
than suggested. It gives a clue to the personality structure of the
individual.

The Ouija board works on the same principle as the Chevreul's Pendulum
test. Many times the aspirant will remark, "I swear I didn't make it
move!" Mentalists find hidden objects in an audience using basically the
same approach, combined with clever techniques of distraction. The term
given for this is "muscle reading."

This is the point in question. If the crystal ball, ring or locket moves
without conscious direction, you have successfully influenced your
subconscious mind. Self-hypnosis involves the same procedure. The goal
is to consciously cause a subconscious reaction. If the experiment does
not work with your eyes open, try it with your eyes closed for about
five minutes. You will be pleasantly surprised with the results. Should
you want to prove to yourself that you are suggestible with your eyes
open, practice the technique every day for a week or two. The idea of
the practice sessions is to reinforce and increase the response of the
unconscious movement until you develop proficiency. It follows the laws
of the conditioned reflex theory expounded by Dr. Ivan P. Pavlov
(1849-1936), the famous Russian psychologist. If, after several weeks,
you should still not be successful, use the role-playing technique.
Consciously make the object revolve. After a while, it will move
automatically whenever you attempt the experiment.

When this happens you will have proof of your suggestibility. It is
highly improbable that you will not be successful. It would be a rare
occurrence. By the same systematic efforts, I can assure you that you
can achieve self-hypnosis. If you are still not affected favorably, you
might consider one of the psychological means of inducing hypnosis. The
next chapter will discuss this topic.

I would recommend Pavlov's book called _Conditioned Reflexes_. Pavlov's
book will further explain and clarify the concept of the conditioned
response mechanism. It covers necessary conditions for the development
of conditioned responses, their formation by means of conditioned and
direct stimuli, plus a tremendous amount of material which will help you
in your understanding of the significance of the role-playing technique
in relationship to learning self-hypnosis.



Chapter 11

Psychological Aids and Their Function


Psychological or mechanical aids are used to help put the subject in a
state of hypnosis. The use of the aids helps increase the suggestibility
of the subject toward hypnosis. The two most widely used hypnotic aids
are the crystal ball and chain and the 12-inch hypnodisc. One reason is
that these two items have no other use or function outside of the area
of hypnosis. Therefore, when the hypnotist proceeds to use one of these
hypnotic devices, it must follow that a certain mental set, readiness,
or receptivity must follow as a result of its introduction into the
hypnotic setting. If the subject is uneasy about the hypnotic setting or
his response, the introduction of the hypnotic aid can mobilize the
subject's defenses which may be on a conscious or unconscious level.
Generally, the mental set which follows helps augment whatever hypnotic
suggestions are given. Certainly the same mental set would not follow if
the hypnotist used a paper clip as a means of helping with the induction
of hypnosis. It would only start the subject wondering about the
relationship of the paper clip to hypnosis. It obviously isn't in
keeping with what the subject expects.

It is important to utilize the subject's expectation as to what he
believes takes place in the setting as long as this expectation does not
hinder the induction of hypnosis. The mere act of turning down the
lights or drawing the curtains before the hypnotist begins to work with
the subject is a non-verbal suggestion which can be considered as a
psychological aid. The subject knows that the hypnotist is ready to
begin at this point. Actually, it isn't necessary to darken the room at
any time to induce hypnosis. Doesn't the stage hypnotist work with
glaring lights? The room is darkened (and I might add that I use this
procedure myself) mainly for the psychological effect. If I feel that
this procedure might cause anxiety, I proceed with the room undarkened.

In discussing psychological aids, it is agreed that we are primarily
interested in seeing the subject feel better or achieve whatever goals
he seeks through the intelligent application of self-hypnosis. If a
hypnotic aid will help the subject achieve hypnosis, we can concur it is
justified. It is not to be considered a subterfuge. If the physician
administers a placebo to a patient with the remark, "Here is a new
medication that can help your condition" and if this technique does help
alleviate the patient's condition, it is considered good medicine.

You know beforehand that in using the 12-inch hypnodisc, the subject's
eyes must begin to water, his eyelids must get heavy, and eventually he
must close them. Even before you begin to use the hypnodisc, you suggest
that these conditions will take place. During the induction of hypnosis,
as these reactions are noted by the subject, a favorable, psychological
attitude automatically develops which, in turn, helps further
suggestions. If the subject reacts favorably to suggestions A, B, and C,
it follows that he is more prone to accept suggestions D, E, and F which
are therapeutic in nature. The subject can relate better to the latter
suggestions when he has seen proof of his initial suggestibility. This
approach works better than beginning immediately with the latter
suggestions. The build-up of suggestions convinces the subject he is in
a heightened state of suggestibility and can benefit from the
therapeutic suggestions of the hypnotist or his own. Perhaps this needed
assurance is so helpful because it eliminates the anxiety of the subject
concerning his suggestibility. He seeks and needs the satisfaction of
knowing he has attained the prerequisites necessary before any
therapeutic program can benefit him. The subject's prerequisites need
not be actually related to the hypnotic process, per se, but merely
match his preconceived ideas about what is necessary. Let me give you an
example.

Many subjects feel that they must experience amnesia before they can
benefit from hypnotic suggestions. This premise is inaccurate since
favorable and lasting results can be achieved in any degree of hypnosis,
depending, of course, on the nature of the problem. Let me relate
several interesting occurrences that take place every so often in my own
practice as a professional hypnotist. A subject who is responding well
to hypnosis, but not to the point of amnesia, insists that he will not
benefit until he is "knocked out" and doesn't remember what happened.
Trying to convince him otherwise proves fatal. He just refuses to accept
whatever explanation you give him. My own method is not to insist that
the subject is wrong, but somehow to use his misconception in a
constructive manner. After getting him into a cataleptic state, I
suggest that I am going to stop talking for five minutes, during which
time he is to mentally repeat "sleep" as he slowly and deeply inhales
and "deep sleep" as he slowly exhales. At the end of this time, he'll be
in a very deep hypnotic state. Instead of remaining quiet for five
minutes, I take ten minutes. I then begin to whisper suggestions to the
subject to determine if he is still under hypnosis or asleep. If he is
asleep, I let him remain asleep for a still longer period of time, after
which interval I awaken him. I ask him if he remembers what I said to
him during the time he was deeply hypnotized. If he says, "No," I
remark, "Very good." I further point out to him that he has now
experienced amnesia and will now make rapid strides. The subject, on the
other hand, is pleased to see that I now agree with him, and, in fact,
the interesting result is that he does make excellent progress because
his preconceived requirements have been met. It should be pointed out
that I keep working with the subject until such time that he falls
asleep. The transition from hypnosis to sleep is normal. It is easy for
the subject to fall asleep because he is so relaxed.

Let me tell you of a similar experience. Before telling you of this
psychological technique, it is only fair to point out that the
professional hypnotist varies his approach from subject to subject, not
only to suit the needs of the subject but to break the monotony of using
only a few successful procedures. His experimentation helps develop not
only new procedures, but new concepts relative to the general nature of
hypnosis and its many ramifications. I was interested to see what would
happen to a subject if he thought he was deeply hypnotized without ever
giving him verbal suggestions or reassurance that he would feel better
or overcome his problem. Of course, if the technique did not work
quickly, I would drop the procedure for a more orthodox approach.
Instead of trying to really hypnotize the subject, my aim is to get him
to sleep. Once he is asleep, I let him remain so for about 30 minutes.
Without having ever given him a therapeutic suggestion, I awaken him and
inquire if he remembered what happened. If the answer is, "No," I tell
him I'll "hypnotize" him again next week and this concludes the visit.
When he returns next week, I ask him, "How did you feel during the
week?" The answer is generally, "Much better." I keep repeating this
procedure until such time that the individual has attained the goals
that he seeks.

I know that the reader may be surprised that I would divulge such an
unconventional procedure. The principle is the same as the physician
using a placebo. I do so to illustrate the point that I made earlier in
this chapter that so long as certain of the subject's requirements are
met, whether valid or invalid, the subject's suggestibility is greatly
enhanced. Naturally, the unsuspecting subject equated the period of not
remembering, which was, as we know, true sleep, with the somnambulistic
state. Actually, he was helped by self-hypnosis because he felt he would
now make progress because he proved to be such an excellent subject. It
is true, he was not using self-hypnosis as has been outlined in this
book, but he had now achieved a heightened state of suggestibility
(hypnosis) and was using this state to further his own ends.

The attainment of self-hypnosis can be an intricate and elusive
procedure as I have already pointed out. The purpose of the entire book
is to instruct, point out and give you the necessary understanding and
knowledge required to achieve this end. Without this understanding, this
can become a very frustrating effort. It is hoped that by understanding
and being aware of some of the ramifications of hypnosis, you will be
able to achieve your goal in the quickest possible time. It should also
be pointed out that no two subjects react in the same way and that
different methods and requirements are necessary to suit the individual.
It is a mistake to try to make the subject adhere to a rigid
methodology. The greater flexibility of the hypnotic procedures, the
greater the chance for success. Let me, at this time, further discuss
some of the hypnotic aids that are used in the induction of hypnosis.

We have already discussed the use of the hypnodisc and crystal ball and
chain. The same principles are involved in any other object which is
used as a means of fixation or of tiring the eyes. Hypnotic phonograph
records and hypnotic tape recordings represent new devices that have
been instrumental in conditioning subjects for self-hypnosis. The
subject plays the record or tape on his phonograph or tape recorder and
is conditioned over a period of time to respond to hypnosis at a given
signal or phrase. He, in turn, can change this key phrase to one of his
own choosing. Should you own or have access to a tape recorder, I would
suggest recording an induction of hypnosis and playing it back to
yourself in this manner as though you were hypnotizing someone else.

I have produced three different hypnotic records and a 30-minute
hypnotic tape containing the three records which are sold commercially.
One record, called the Musical Hypnotic Record, has a very pleasant,
relaxing musical background as the voice of the hypnotist induces
hypnosis. The second record, called the Metronome Hypnotic Record,
incorporates the monotonous and lulling beat of an electric metronome in
the background. The subject is instructed to mentally repeat "sleep" as
he slowly inhales and "deep sleep" as he slowly exhales in rhythm with
the beat of the metronome. While the subject is concentrating on this
activity, the voice of the hypnotist induces hypnosis. The third record,
called Self-Hypnosis Record No. 3, contains only the voice of the
hypnotist inducing hypnosis. It features a unique approach and
technique.

I have had a great deal of correspondence with those who have used these
phonograph records and the hypnotic tape for conditioning themselves for
self-hypnosis. The results are quite interesting and run the range of
immediate results to no results. One person wrote that one of the
records hypnotized him at the first playing and conditioned him for
self-hypnosis, whereas he had failed to respond to hypnosis after many
visits to one of the country's foremost authorities. I have had similar
experiences after having failed to hypnotize a subject despite many
attempts. I can only speculate that the subjects in these cases
unconsciously resist the hypnotist because they feel a personal threat.
Since the record is impersonal, they are better able to relax and
subsequently be hypnotized. Interestingly, this occurred when the
subject was convinced that he was a very difficult subject. It would
seem that only then was the conditioned response pattern finally
established. The basic function of the hypnotic records and hypnotic
tape is to establish a conditioned response pattern to a given stimulus.
In time, most subjects are conditioned by the intelligent and systematic
use of these recordings.

Let me describe another varied approach to achieving self-hypnosis. One
of the chief assets of a good hypnotist is to be flexible in his
approach in hypnotizing his subjects. As I have already pointed out, it
is necessary many times to adopt a technique that is suitable to the
subject and not to make the subject adapt himself to the method of
induction.

We know that with somnambulistic subjects any procedure will put the
subject under hypnosis immediately. The hypnotist gains complete control
of his subject as the subject is able to put himself in the proper
psychological frame of mind for hypnosis. Unfortunately, most subjects
do not respond at the first session or sessions because of conscious or
subconscious fears that must be gradually eliminated. Once you get the
subject to relax, or "let go," he will naturally succumb to hypnosis.
This is the problem that confronts all hypnotists.

Merely suggesting to the subject to relax is not sufficient, as a rule,
to bring about this desired mental state. The subject, at this point,
cannot easily turn on or off his mental and physical feelings. Even if
we have the subject lie down, this does not assure the hypnotic state as
the subject can still be tense. Our main problem is to get the subject
relaxed. Our situation is similar to the physician telling his patient
to go home and forget about a certain problem. I'm sure you'll agree
that the advice is virtually impossible to follow.

One of the major stumbling blocks in hypnotizing a subject or in
self-hypnosis lies in the fact that although we use terms such as
"relax," "let yourself go," and others, the subject cannot readily put
the meaning of these words into effect. It is difficult for most people
to let go when we live in a society that beckons us to "look sharp," "be
sharp," "be alert," "be on the ball" and "make every minute count."
Emphasis on productivity does not lend to a society of relaxed
individuals.

In my long experience as a professional hypnotist, I have tried many
novel innovations for inducing hypnosis and teaching individuals
self-hypnosis. Some have met with a great deal of success and others
have failed. It is, furthermore, difficult to determine the causal
factors for success or failure. We can only theorize.

I have used the following unorthodox technique for about a period of 15
years. Exceptionally good results have been attained with it, although
it must be admitted that it is not infallible. It is suggested to you as
another good technique. In order to help the subject relax, I have been
using a phonograph record or tape that I recorded containing the
continuous sound of various degrees of rain. One side has a half hour of
very soft, light rainfall such as you have experienced in listening to
rain falling on grass, canvas or a tent top. The other side or track
contains a half hour of rain effects such as one would hear in a heavy
downfall with loud splatterings of water on the pavement. The record and
tape were originally designed to help insomnia sufferers and later
incorporated into the hypnotic procedure.

The subject is instructed to close his eyes and listen to the sound of
the rain while picturing himself relaxing near a warm, glowing
fireplace. As you can note, the subject again incorporates the
visual-imagery technique. The relaxing effect thus produced over a
period of time enhances his chances of success in attaining a deep,
hypnotic state.

There are many other interesting and unique devices and aids you can use
for inducing hypnosis. Rather than present them all in this book, I have
fully described them and their technique of operation in a 144-page
illustrated catalog. This catalog not only contains a list of hypnotic
aids, but a description and listing of over 450 hypnotism and self-help
books. Upon request, I shall be pleased to send it to you. Write to:
Melvin Powers, 12015 Sherman Road, No. Hollywood, California 91605 and
ask for Hypnotic Catalog No. 7. Should you have any questions on
self-hypnosis or hetero-hypnosis, I shall be pleased to answer you.



Chapter 12

The Nature of Hypnosis


Although the nature and phenomena of hypnosis are still incompletely
understood, there are a multitude of theories which attempt to explain
its mechanism and results. The most that can be done at this time is to
explore various views which are held by leading authorities at present.
It can be said, however, that a majority of authorities agree that
hypnosis ensues as a result of natural laws which have been incorporated
in the human organism since the beginning of man as he is today.

The older theories show almost as much disparity as today, but for the
purposes of history it is probably necessary to enumerate only the
"animal magnetism" of Frederick Anton Mesmer, and a mention of the
"hysteria syndrome" of Jean Martin Charcot. Both names loom large in the
history of hypnosis. Mesmer, an 18th century physician, believed that
hypnosis occurred as a result of "vital fluids" drawn from a magnet or
lodestone and which drew their unique qualities from the sun, moon and
stars. Charcot, as well as Pierre Janet and others, was convinced that
hypnosis was a form of hysteria and that only hysterics could be
hypnotized. The former (Mesmer) thought further that metal became imbued
by the solar qualities, and his system is also known as metalogy by
which he meant the proper application of metals. Naturally, these
theories have been largely abandoned today, although there are still a
few who think that hypnosis is a form of hysteria.

Some pioneers, notably Dr. William S. Kroger, a psychiatrically-oriented
obstetrician and gynecologist who limits his practice to hypnotherapy,
believe hypnosis is a conviction phenomenon which produces results that
parallel the phenomena produced at Lourdes and other religious healing
shrines. His formula is that faith, hope, belief and expectation, all
catalyzed by the imagination, lead inevitably to hypnosis. He, like
Emile Coué before him, is convinced that you cannot "will" yourself to
be hypnotized, and that whenever the will and the imagination come into
conflict, the imagination wins out. This fits in perfectly, of course,
with the author's already discussed visual-imagery technique which
requires a high degree of imagination. Dr. Kroger, like a few others,
has proved to his own satisfaction that all hypnotic phenomena can be
produced at a non-hypnotic level.

A large number of hypnotists, including the author, has come to believe
that hypnosis is a semantic problem in which words are the building
blocks to success. Not just any words, but words which "ring a bell" or
tap the experiential background of the subject. This is why "sleep"
continues to be in the lexicon of the hypnotist even though hypnosis is
the antithesis of sleep. The word is used because hypnosis superficially
resembles sleep inasmuch as the eyes usually are closed, the body in a
posture of complete relaxation. Actually, the mind is hyperacute.
Pavlov, however, believed that there was an analogy between sleep and
hypnosis in that each involved cerebral inhibition. Words, of course,
would be of little use without the added effect of his conditioned
reflexology.

Probably the most widely held theory is that hypnosis is a transference
phenomenon in which the prestige of the hypnotist and his relationship
to the subject plays an important role. This theory is bolstered by the
fact that all schools of psychotherapy yield approximately the same
results even though the methods differ. This would logically indicate
that the relationship between the therapist and the subject was the
determining factor. The only trouble with this theory is that it does
not explain self-hypnosis. On the other hand, we know that a strong
interpersonal relationship is necessary for hypnosis.

In the opening chapter of the book, I explained that hypnosis was a
state of heightened suggestion in which the subject adopted an
uncritical attitude, allowing him to accept suggestions and to take
appropriate action. This is excellent as far as it goes, but it does not
explain how suggestion works. This is the crux of the hypnotic dilemma
and the answer is far from solved. Hypnotists are much like those who
use electricity every day of their lives, but have no idea of the nature
of electricity. It is enough for them to know it has been harnessed for
their use.

If there is one thing virtually certain about hypnosis it is that some
parts of the brain are inhibited and other parts expanded by the
process. Pin-point concentration is given as the reason for this
selective procedure which narrows the horizon of the subject to what the
hypnotist (or he, himself) is saying, screening out all other stimuli.
But why is this high order of concentration so easy under hypnosis when
Asians, notably the Chinese, have been trying for centuries to
concentrate on one subject for as long as four or five seconds. We do
not know the mechanics of this metamorphosis of an ordinary brain into
an organ of concentrated power. According to Janet, this is accomplished
through the formation of a group of unconscious memories and activities
which takes over the usual stream-of-consciousness type of thinking. It
is implied that the process may be atavistic.

One of the newer theories--one held by Dr. Lewis R. Wolberg, a
psychoanalyst--is that hypnosis is a psychosomatic process in that it is
both physiological and psychological in character. Physiologically,
Wolberg believes that hypnosis represents an inhibition of the higher
cortical centers, and a limitation of sensory channels such as takes
place in sleep. He also believes that the psychological process operates
through transference. Others agree that it is a transference process,
but that it is more of an extension of the subject's own psychic
processes which is enlarged to include the voice of the hypnotist or his
own thoughts or voice. Incidentally, an excellent book along these
theoretical lines is _Hypnotism--An Objective Study in Suggestibility_
by André M. Weitzenhoffer, Ph.D.

The newest theory in the field is of particular interest to those
reading this book inasmuch as it postulates that all hypnosis is
self-hypnosis, that the patient always hypnotizes himself and that it is
a wise hypnotist who knows who is hypnotizing whom. This is a logical
conclusion and it disperses any ideas that hypnotic patients become
dependent on their therapists. Actually, hypnotists today always teach
their subjects self-hypnosis so that any chance of dependency is
obviated.

Milton V. Kline, professor of psychology at Long Island University,
postulates that hypnosis is primarily retrogressive. He has written that
the organism functions differently on various levels of behavior
(regression), and that the behavior breaks down into component parts.
The theory that regression can spotlight personality disorders found in
more infantile states is also widely held. He also is a proponent of the
idea that hypnosis is an abnormal manifestation of a normal process, an
opinion he shares with many.

Dr. Kline thinks that retrogression and regression alter perceptions and
feelings, and, in the case of the latter, causes us to go backward in
time to the point where re-education may be employed. This is a
legitimate use of regression although it is not used so much these days
to uncover past traumatic incidents. Actually, regression, by
duplicating the exact earlier age, manner of speech and thought, etc.,
makes us once more as little children, a condition to be desired for
certain forms of therapy.

An atavistic theory, held to some extent by Dr. Jerome M. Schneck,
clinical associate professor of psychiatry, State University of New York
College of Medicine, is that hypnosis should be equated with states of
immobilization on the basis of his observation that some subjects equate
hypnosis with "death." He suggests this is comparable to the
"death-feint" of animals to avoid danger. Others, primarily Europeans,
have pointed out the analogy between the hypnotic state of animals and
man.

Another widely-held theory is that hypnosis is a state of dissociation,
meaning that it constitutes a group of unconscious memories and
activities which may be dredged up to replace the stream of
consciousness. Automaticism, of course, is inherently part of this view,
and is presumed to negate volition. Activity of the cerebrum, which
controls the conscious and voluntary system, is rendered
non-operational.

My own thoughts on the matter are that hypnosis results from, first of
all, a good transference; secondly, from a conditioned reflex; thirdly,
from the person acting as a hypnotized person (role playing), and,
fourthly, from a suspension of the critical faculties. Along the
last-named line, I believe that hypnotic suggestions have an autonomy of
their own which supersede all else in the hypnotic situation. There are
many more theories I believe are partially correct, but the ones named
will do for the purposes of this volume. Incidentally, all the hypnosis
theories presented are equally applicable to self-hypnosis except where,
as in transference, it is obvious a therapist is needed.

In conclusion, the author would like to take issue with those who
believe that it is the monotonous intonations of the therapist that
cause the subject to lapse from the deeply relaxed state into true
sleep. I have observed many times, by comparing verbalization with
silence, that the former gives the subject's mind a focal point of
attention which prevents him from entering a sleep state where
hypnotherapy is impossible. Like the man who cannot sleep because of an
active mind, sleep and myriad thoughts and suggestions are incompatible,
and I believe, once a hypnotic state has been attained, that the subject
is kept awake (unless definite sleep suggestions are given) by the
therapist's series of suggestions. We have discussed the effect of the
experiential background at length, and surely nothing connotates sleep
more than closing one's eyes--test No. 1. And so, in my view, you are
doing two things when you talk to the subject; you are giving him
helpful suggestions, but you are also keeping him awake and hyperacute
so that these suggestions will sink in.



Chapter 13

Practical Applications of Self-Hypnosis


With hypnosis on the march, there is practically no limit to its uses in
the field of medicine, and new applications are being discovered every
day. It should not be necessary to add, however, that some of these uses
should remain as they are--in the hands of professionals with years of
experience in the area. One of the themes of this book has been that
laymen should use hypnosis discriminately and intelligently. No
responsible therapist would ever recommend masking or removing a symptom
which was indicative of organic disease. For that reason, the practical
uses of self-hypnosis will be limited to measures that can be taken
safely by the layman. The only possible exception to this will be
instructions on how to curb obesity, but even here it is suggested that
a physician be consulted before embarking on a weight-reducing program.

The foremost use of hypnosis has been for relaxation, and it becomes
more and more important as world tensions, anxiety and strain increase
daily and millions seek vainly to "get away from it all." Inasmuch as
all methods of hypnosis discussed in this book utilized relaxation as
the first step, it should not be necessary to go over this material.
Simply review the many induction techniques.

Lung cancer has become a very real threat to many people today, and the
professional hypnotist is besieged with men and women who wish to
curtail or quit smoking. This is easier said than done because smoking,
although there are no physical withdrawal symptoms when one stops, is a
strong, conditioned reflex and cannot (except in rare instances) be
accomplished by the will alone. The best way to stop smoking is to make
it an impossibility, and that is exactly what you do when you follow the
method touched on in an earlier chapter.

All of us have tasted or smelled certain foods or medicines that
nauseate us. The subject who wishes to quit smoking is asked to conjure
up the vision and the actual taste and smell of the substances which
upset his stomach and offend his nostrils, transferring its properties
to cigarettes. This, of course, must be done under hypnosis. The subject
then conditions himself in the following manner: One ... This cigarette
tastes and smells just like (mention name of repugnant substance). Two
... It is the most vile and repugnant taste I have ever encountered, and
I shall not be able to continue after the third puff. At the third puff,
I will develop a paroxysm of coughing. Three ... I cannot smoke the
cigarette any longer, and I will have to put it out.

This sounds like a simple procedure, and yet it has worked for
thousands. Some switch to chewing gum or candy, but the cure essentially
lies in substituting one conditioned reflex for another. This is
comparatively easy with hypnosis because, unlike narcotics, barbiturates
or alcohol, smoking is purely a psychological addiction. There is no
need for tapering off.

Stopping drinking, unlike smoking, doesn't involve merely the creation
of a physical aversion to the drug. The patient's entire personality
should be changed and more mature viewpoints substituted for the
unrealistic and infantile viewpoints which lead to the addiction in the
first place. The subject should give himself suggestions that he will be
able to "face up" to the problems of every day life without recourse to
the crutch of alcohol. It is a well-known fact that nothing is as bad as
we think it is going to be once we confront it.

One of the strange aspects of drinking is that it is actually a form of
self-hypnosis, and the cure lies in substituting a new viewpoint for the
old. This fact can be demonstrated by the fact that drinking is begun in
the first place so that the individual can be "one of the boys" or
because it is the thing to do. Those who do not drink, at least as a
social lubricant, according to this code, are "squares." Because of
this, self-hypnosis must be directed toward reorienting one's sense of
values. Sober reflection should convince anyone that the truly
intelligent person does not drink to excess.

Nail biting is an unsightly habit, one that may even hinder one's social
acceptance. The help lies in a therapeutic approach similar to that for
cigarettes.

It is not hard to predict that many of those reading these pages are
suffering from overweight. With 30 million Americans in this category,
it has become one of the nation's chief health problems, and it is the
predisposing factor in many other diseases such as heart trouble,
diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerosis. If you are overweight, it is
well to remember that (unless you are one in a million) you cannot
blame your glands. The plain truth is that you eat too much.

We know today that overeating for some is an emotional problem, stemming
from feelings of rejection and insecurity. Individuals who feel unloved,
whether this is truly the case or not, make up for this lack to
themselves by stuffing in large quantities of food. It would even appear
that these people are masochistic, making themselves even more unloved
by their gross gastronomical habits. A big factor in overweight in women
is "raiding the refrigerator" while doing their housework. Most of them
do this so unconsciously that they swear they eat less than most people.

There are a number of appetite-curbing drugs on the market today, but
they should not be necessary for anyone who has acquired self-hypnosis.
If you have learned to visualize yourself (visual-imagery) in different
situations, you will have no trouble in picturing yourself having a
slim, attractive figure, exactly as you were when you felt you looked
your best. Keep this figure ever in mind and use it along with
conditioning yourself against certain fatty and starchy foods. A trick
used by some hypnotherapists is to have the subject purchase a dress or
suit several sizes too small and then work toward being able to wear it.
This actually has worked in many cases because it adds the element of
competitiveness to the procedure.

Not all people overeat because of emotional problems. Some come from
families where "licking the platter clean" was the rule because food was
scarce. Others come from rich families where overeating by the parents
established a habit pattern in the children. Certain races and
nationalities look on fat as a badge of wealth and prestige, and
children in such an environment are likely to be deliberately overfed.
Regardless of the reason for overweight, however, the use of
self-hypnosis is one of the answers to the problem.

Simple headaches, arthritis, neuritis and other painful symptoms yield
readily to hypnotic suggestion. If physicians have given up on the
problem and placed a subject on a maintenance drug dosage for pain,
hypnosis can potentiate the drugs or even obviate them.

Two of the major uses of hypnosis are in childbirth and for intractable
pain of cancer or some other incurable diseases. Although patients
usually start with hetero-hypnosis, they are put on self-hypnosis as
soon as possible, and there are many cases of women waiting too long and
having their babies at home painlessly through self-hypnosis. The father
invariably is the only one excited in such cases. The mother knows that
she is an excellent subject and has been instructed in prenatal classes
about every contingency that could arise. Inasmuch as stopping the birth
pangs is similar to stopping other pain, the method should be learned so
that it can be accomplished in a minimum of time.

The best way to stop pain is to let your right arm slowly rise while you
are under hypnotic suggestion. Do not help it. If the suggestions are
strong enough, it will "float" up. As soon as the arm is straight
overhead, you should give yourself the suggestion that it is as rigid
and unbending as a bar of steel. Following this, a suggestion is given
that the hand is beginning to tingle and become numb. As soon as the
numbness has spread through the entire hand, it will be insensible to
pain. The hand is then placed against the part of the body where pain
exists, and you will feel the numbness flowing from the hand to the
affected area. This happens as a result of your suggestions and is the
method followed by most subjects. Only a deep somnambulistic subject is
able to remove pain by direct suggestion to the painful part.

There are many people today using self-hypnosis in the realm of sports,
and an entire book has been written on improving one's golf game with
this method. It is called _How You Can Play Better Golf Using
Self-Hypnosis_ by Jack Heise (Wilshire Book Company--Publishers).

Dr. Huber Grimm, team physician of the Seattle University basketball
team, recently related the results when Dave Mills, a six-foot five-inch
junior forward, asked for his help because he "froze" during
competition. He had been benched on the eve of the West Coast Athletic
Conference tournament in San Francisco. Spectators made Mills so fearful
that he was afraid he would make mistakes--and in this frame of mind, of
course, he did. Under hypnosis, Dr. Grimm suggested to Dave that he
would be unaware of the spectators, be completely relaxed and would play
exceedingly well. Dr. Grimm asked coach Vince Cazzeta to allow Dave to
play and the result was astounding. Mills scored 60 points and cleared
63 re-bounds, and his brilliant play led to his selection on the
all-tournament team.

"All I did was free his spirit," Dr. Grimm reported. "He was in need of
confidence, and I gave it to him through hypnosis." The Associated Press
told the story as follows: "Dave Mills, a vacuum cleaner off the
back-boards, led a fast-breaking Seattle University team to victory last
night. It was hard to recognize Mills as the same player who has been
with the Chieftains all year."

Dr. William S. Kroger, a pioneer in hypnosis, undertook to improve the
batting of a professional baseball player with equally sensational
results. The player had been "beaned," and his fear of a recurrence was
so strong that he became "plate shy." He had changed his batting stance
so that he always had "one foot in the bucket" so that he could back
away from the plate more quickly. He was given a posthypnotic suggestion
that such an event happening again was exceedingly remote, and this was
amplified by suggestions of confidence that he would immediately start
slugging as well as ever. His batting average soared immediately.

Dr. Michio Ikai, professor of physiology at Tokyo University, and Dr.
Arthur H. Steinhaus of the George Williams Laboratory of Physiologic
Research in Physical Education, Chicago, have proved that track men can
far surpass their best previous times under hypnosis. Their tests,
incidentally, proved that there is no danger of an athlete going beyond
his physiologic limit while bettering his former marks. They attribute
the superior performances to the removal of inhibitions, which
psychologically prevent an athlete from doing his best. This report was
made before the International Congress on Health and Fitness in the
Modern World held in Rome during the last Olympic games.

All reports, as a matter of fact, show that athletic performances are
improved by psychological, not physical, means, and that built-in
automatic reflexes protect the athlete against the danger of
overexertion at all levels of awareness--hypnotic or non-hypnotic.

Psychologists are using hypnosis more and more to facilitate
concentration and learning, and it is likely this use of the ancient
science will become even more popular than its medical applications. The
reason one learns so quickly under hypnosis is because of time
distortion which allows you to obtain the equivalent of many hours of
study in a relatively short length of time.

Undoubtedly, you have had experience with time distortion in your daily
life. Remember how slowly time goes when you are not interested in what
you are doing and how fast it speeds by when you are? And the drowning
man, who sees his whole life go by, is an excellent example of this.
Enough people have been saved to know that this actually happens. The
point is that the subconscious mind does not record the passage of time
the same way as the conscious mind.

The conscious mind records time physically, by means of a clock. It is
objective and tells you that a thought or movement requires a certain
number of seconds, minutes, hours or days.

Your subconscious mind has an entirely different concept of time that
has nothing to do with the physical world. It is called subjective
because your own sense of the passage of time is used.

Personal time varies according to the circumstances in which you find
yourself. Haven't you noticed that when you are happy or extremely
interested in something, time passes quickly? On the other hand, if you
are sad or anxious, time seems to drag.

This is called time distortion. When you continue in a happy state, time
is automatically shortened. When you are in a state of unhappiness, pain
or anxiety, time automatically lengthens. This explains why the drowning
man can review his entire life within seconds. Psychologists know this
is possible, because your subconscious mind contains a complete record
of everything that has happened to you since birth. Therefore, in
moments of extreme distress your subconscious has the ability to distort
and manipulate time.

If you have ever encountered danger or had a narrow escape, you probably
experienced time distortion. Everything about you went into slow motion,
and time seemed to stand still until the action was over. At that point,
objective time started up again and everything returned to normal.

Many of you no doubt read an Associated Press report from Chicago on
February 11, 1958, which reported how movie actress Linda Darnell had
used hypnosis to help her with her first stage role. She had been asked
to do the part on short notice and had no time for preparation. Miss
Darnell telephoned her California physician for aid. He flew to Chicago.

Overnight, through hypnosis, Miss Darnell learned her part and astounded
the cast by knowing everyone's lines. Not only did she learn the part,
but she was coached in the character of the artist she was portraying.
As a result, "Late Love" was a hit play. Miss Darnell was under the
impression she had been learning the part for a week although only about
48 hours were involved and these hours were not continuous. After her
first performance, she said: "I never felt so secure about playing a
role in my life. Hypnosis helped me feel the part completely."

Imagine how much more we are going to be able to learn when study under
hypnosis becomes widespread. And the best part of it is that the
learning is in your mind for a long time. Forgetting or mental blocks
that interfere with your recall of the information at any time, are
reduced to a minimum.

In conclusion, I should like to recommend the entire field of
self-hypnosis to everyone. It is a therapy which is positive, dynamic
and constructive. An excellent example of this is contained in the
autobiography, _Rachmaninoff's Recollections_. In this book, immortal
Rachmaninoff describes in detail his success in overcoming a severe case
of mental depression. He had stopped composing and kept to himself,
seldom leaving his room. After meeting with failure, using the available
therapeutic remedies available at that time, he was persuaded by his
relatives, the Satins, to seek the help of a hypnotist called Dr. Dahl.
With much reluctance, he agreed to see Dr. Dahl and be treated
specifically with hypnosis. Rachmaninoff's own words read as follows:
"Although it may sound incredible, hypnosis really helped me. Already at
the beginning of the summer I began again to compose. The material grew
in bulk, and new musical ideas began to stir within me--far more than I
needed for my concerto. I felt that Dr. Dahl's treatment had
strengthened my nervous system to a miraculous degree. Out of gratitude,
I dedicated my second concerto to him. As the piece had a great success
in Moscow, everyone began to wonder what possible connection it could
have with Dr. Dahl. The truth, however, was known to Dr. Dahl, the
Satins, and myself."

Does this story sound incredible? You have the word of one of the
world's greatest musical composers that hypnosis alleviated his severe
despondency. This is proof that the emotions of the individual can be
changed by the ideas he builds up about himself.

Dr. Leland E. Hinsie, professor of psychiatry, Columbia University,
writing in his book, _The Person in the Body_, (W. W. Norton & Co.)
states, "In some persons the fear of disease is often the only damaging
evidence of disease, yet it can be so strong as to disable the person in
all his daily activities." The entire field of psychosomatic medicine,
which deals with the interrelationship between body and mind, has as one
of its basic tenets that suggestion not only can cause psychological
personality disorders, but many physical disorders as well.

It is, therefore, logical to conclude that the systematic use of
positive mental attitudes in an organized, progressive, self-improvement
program can be a vital influence in helping you lead a healthier life,
both emotionally and physically.

Many people in need of help are at a loss as to where they can locate
reputable hypnotherapists in their area. You may consult your family
physician, county medical society or mental hygiene society. The
chairman of the psychology department at your nearest college or
university would usually have this information. I maintain a file of
over 4,000 doctors located all over the world who practice hypnosis and
would be pleased to refer you to doctors located in your locality.

The following national organizations maintain a specialized list:

  American Academy of Child Psychiatry
  335 S. Franklin St.
  Wilkes-Barre, Pa.

  American Academy of Psychoanalysis
  750 Park Avenue
  New York 21, N. Y.

  American Group Psychotherapy Association
  2 E. 103rd St.
  New York 29, N. Y.

  American Psychiatric Association
  1700 18th St., N. W.
  Washington 9, D. C.

  American Psychological Association
  1333 16th St., N. W.
  Washington, D. C.

  American Speech and Hearing Association
  10801 Rockville Pike
  Rockville, Maryland 20852

  National Association for Mental Health
  10 Columbus Circle
  New York 19, New York

  National Association for Retarded Children, Inc.
  99 University Place
  New York 3, New York

  National Council on Alcoholism, Inc.
  2 E. 103rd St.
  New York 29, N. Y.

  National Health Council
  1790 Broadway
  New York 19, N. Y.

  National Institute of Mental Health
  U. S. Public Health Service
  Bethesda 14, Maryland

  Veterans' Administration
  Psychiatry & Neurology Service
  Department of Medicine



THE POWERS HYPNOTIC EYES


[Illustration]

Here is an original technique that can be used very successfully in
inducing hypnosis. The technique consists of using two glass eyes with
eyelashes that close as you rotate the mechanism that holds the eyes in
place. This action is similar to closing your eyes when falling asleep.
You suggest to the subject as you hold these two eyes between your thumb
and first finger that his eyes will become extremely heavy and tired as
the eyes that you are holding begin to close. You then gradually begin
to rotate your hand which causes the eyes to partially close. The
subject, finding it extremely difficult to look at the eyes, begins to
close his own eyes in unison with those that you are holding. You
continue giving suggestions of hypnosis and before you know it the
subject is under hypnosis. The eyes are the size of human eyes and are
colored blue with brown eyelashes in order to give the exact effect of
looking into real eyes.

The advantage comes in the fact that the subject begins to blink his
eyes immediately and you suggest to him that this is the beginning of
the hypnosis. It is just about impossible to look into anyone's eyes
without blinking and this technique accomplishes this purpose. Using
this knowledge, you incorporate it into your technique and induce the
deep hypnosis accordingly. You can, of course, use this technique for
self-hypnosis as well.

The Powers Hypnotic Eyes (1 pair)                                     $1



HYPNOTIC CRYSTAL BALL & CHAIN


[Illustration]

I have had many requests for a hypnotic crystal ball and chain. I
finally have been able to secure these and am offering them now for the
first time. The crystal ball measures one inch in diameter and is
actually made of genuine methacrylate which is crystal clear. A ten inch
chain is secured to the crystal ball. You use this device the same as
the regular crystal ball but this time you incorporate the pendulum
effect which naturally causes the quick tiring of the eyes.

Professional Size--Hypnotic Crystal Ball & Chain                   $2.00



THE HAND HYPNODISC


[Illustration]

The hand hypnodisc is the size of the hypnodisc illustrated in this
circular. It is rigid with a special lens-like plastic surface. The
miniature hypnodisc is held between the first finger and thumb like the
crystal ball and is used incorporating the techniques of the large
hypnodisc as well as the crystal ball.

As you slowly revolve this hypnodisc, the lens-like surface causes a
series of optical illusions to appear before the eyes of the subject.
These moving illusions are ever present as you change the slightest
distance of the hypnodisc from the subject.

This remarkable effect is achieved by the use of countless plastic
linear lenses which separate the multiple images laminated behind them,
permitting a different picture to change continuously as you change the
angle of view or distance. Naturally this device is extremely helpful in
capturing the full attention of the conscious mind of the subject and
helps you to achieve the hypnotic state in the shortest possible time.

Send for
THE HAND HYPNODISC

Price                                                                 $1



POWERS HYPNOTIC CRYSTAL BALL


[Illustration]

The Powers hypnotic crystal ball is extremely useful as an aid in
inducing the hypnotic state. It is desirable to use it as an object of
concentration for your subject while he is being hypnotized.

The crystal ball lends an air of "mysticism" to the attainment of the
hypnotic sleep and for some of your subjects this is the best approach
in obtaining hypnotic control. There are individuals who will not react
to a strict scientific approach to hypnosis and it is with these
subjects that the use of such a device as the crystal ball is of
inestimable value.

The crystal ball is held between your thumb and first finger, about
twelve inches from the subject's eyes and slightly above eye level. The
hypnotic crystal ball can easily be carried with you at all times.

As you know, the employment of a crystal to induce the hypnotic sleep is
one of the oldest methods used in hypnosis. I personally favor this
device and my students as well as myself have always had excellent
results using this technique.

Send for POWERS HYPNOTIC CRYSTAL BALL

Price                                                                 $1



THE POWERS HYPNODISC


[Illustration]

Copyright 1951 by Melvin Powers

An effective yet inexpensive method of inducing hypnosis is with the aid
of the hypnodisc spiral. In my book, "Hypnotism Revealed," a picture of
the hypnodisc unit with the hypnodisc spiral attached is shown. Above is
a picture of my latest hypnodisc spiral. I am now offering the hypnodisc
spiral as a separate unit which can be used with your phonograph
turntable.

The spinning spiral will cause a series of optical illusions, causing
immediate eye strain and fatigue. The subject feels that he is being
drawn into a deep, dark revolving cone. By your suggestions of hypnotic
sleep, you can place your subject in the somnambulistic state very
easily. With some subjects, hypnosis will take place almost
instantaneously. This technique is often employed in stage hypnotism.

The use of the hypnodisc spiral is also an excellent method of achieving
self-hypnosis. As you concentrate on the revolving hypnodisc spiral, you
give yourself suggestions of hypnotic sleep. You will note the optical
illusions as they occur and the pleasant, relaxing feeling that
accompanies these illusions. Giving yourself further suggestions of
hypnotic sleep, you find that you are easily able to attain the desired
state of self-hypnosis. This method is one of the most successful and
popular techniques yet known for achieving hetero-hypnosis and
self-hypnosis. At the Wilshire School of Hypnotism, all students in the
self-hypnosis class are conditioned with the aid of the hypnodisc
spiral.

During my lectures, I place the entire hypnodisc unit on the platform
without having the spiral revolve. Continuing with the lecture, I note
individuals in the audience gazing intently at the hypnodisc spiral.
Invariably before the end of the lecture, many will have put themselves
into a deep hypnotic state. This group self-hypnosis was achieved
without my mentioning anything about the hypnodisc. These individuals
assumed that the unit is used to induce hypnosis and their looking at it
with that thought in mind produced the hypnotic state.

The hypnodisc spiral is printed on firm cardboard, measures twelve
inches in diameter, and has a hole in the center so you can place it on
your own phonograph turntable. It has the general appearance of a
twelve-inch phonograph record. I am sure that you will be pleased with
your purchase of the hypnodisc.

The hypnodisc is also available with four of the white spiraling areas
colored in four different shades. The coloring is extremely interesting,
fascinating, and very effective in inducing hypnosis as the hypnodisc
revolves. The COLORED HYPNODISC sells for $3.00.

Send for POWERS HYPNODISC

Price                                                              $2.00



CASSETTE TAPES


  ONE HOUR HYPNOTIC RECORDS ON CASSETTE TAPE                      $10.00
  ONE HOUR HYPNOTIC RAIN RECORD ON CASSETTE TAPE                    5.00
  TWO HOURS OF MENTAL POWER RECORDS ON CASSETTE TAPE               10.00


ONE HOUR HYPNOTIC RAIN TAPE (3¾ IPS)

One of the chief assets of a good hypnotist is to be flexible in his
approach in hypnotizing his subjects. As you know, it is necessary many
times to adapt a technique that is suitable to the subject, and not to
make the subject adapt himself to the method of induction.

We know that with somnambulistic subjects any procedure will put the
subject under hypnosis immediately. The hypnotist gains complete control
of his subject just as fast as he wants. Unfortunately, most subjects do
not respond at the first session because of conscious or subconscious
fears that must be gradually eliminated. Once you get the subject to
relax, or "let go," he will naturally succumb to hypnosis. This is the
problem that confronts all hypnotists.

Merely suggesting to the subject to relax or to "let go" is not
sufficient, as a rule, to bring about this desired state. The subject,
at this point, cannot turn on or off his mental and physical state of
being this easily. Even if we have the subject lie down, this does not
assure the hypnotic state, as the subject can still be tense. Our
problem is how to get the subject to relax. Our situation is similar to
the physician telling his patient to go home and forget about a certain
problem. I'm sure that you'll agree that the advice is virtually
impossible to follow.

One of the major stumbling blocks in hypnotizing a subject, or in
self-hypnosis, lies in the fact that although we use words such as:
"relax," "let yourself go," and other similar terminology, the subject
cannot readily put the meaning of these words into effect. It is
difficult for most people to "let go" when we live in a society that
beckons us to "look sharp," "be sharp," "be alert," "be on the ball" and
"make every minute count." Emphasis on productivity does not lend to a
society of relaxed individuals.

In my long experience as a professional hypnotist, I have tried many
novel innovations for inducing hypnosis. Some have met with a great deal
of success and others have failed. It is difficult to determine the
causative factors for success or failure. We can only theorize.

I have used, over the last ten years, a technique that I shall describe
now. Exceptionally good results have been attained with it; however, it
is not infallible. It is suggested to you as another good technique. In
order to help the subject relax, I have been using a one hour tape
recorder recording containing the continuous sound of various degrees of
rain. One half hour has a rain effect of very soft, light rainfall, as
on grass, canvas or tent top. The other side contains a half hour of a
rain effect such as one would hear in a heavy downfall with prominent
patter of water on pavement.

The subject is instructed to close his eyes and listen to the sound of
the rain while picturing himself relaxing near a warm, glowing
fireplace. The relaxing effect thus produced enhances our chances for
success in attaining a deep, hypnotic state.

The tape will play on all standard recorders and comes recorded at a
speed of 3¾ IPS. The tape alone is worth $2.50. You therefore only pay
$2.50 for the actual recording.

ONE HOUR HYPNOTIC RAIN TAPE                                           $5


HALF-HOUR HYPNOTIC RAIN RECORD (33-1/3 RPM)

[Illustration]

Should you not have a tape recorder we have a record (33-1/3 RPM)
containing the sound of 15 minutes of light rain on one side and 15
minutes of heavy rain on the other side. The record sells for $5.

HALF-HOUR HYPNOTIC RAIN RECORD                                        $5



A PERSONAL WORD FROM MELVIN POWERS

PUBLISHER, WILSHIRE BOOK COMPANY


    Dear Friend:

    My goal is to publish interesting, informative, and
    inspirational books. You can help me accomplish this by
    answering the following questions, either by phone or by mail.
    Or, if convenient for you, I would welcome the opportunity to
    visit with you in my office and hear your comments in person.

    Did you enjoy reading this book? Why?

    Would you enjoy reading another similar book?

    What idea in the book impressed you the most?

    If applicable to your situation, have you incorporated this
    idea in your daily life?

    Is there a chapter that could serve as a theme for an entire
    book? Please explain.

    If you have an idea for a book, I would welcome discussing it
    with you. If you already have one in progress, write or call me
    concerning possible publication. I can be reached at (213)
    875-1711 or (213) 983-1105.

                                                   Sincerely yours,
                                                   MELVIN POWERS
    12015 Sherman Road
    North Hollywood, California 91605



MELVIN POWERS SELF-IMPROVEMENT LIBRARY


ASTROLOGY

  ASTROLOGY: HOW TO CHART YOUR HOROSCOPE _Max Heindel_              3.00
  ASTROLOGY: YOUR PERSONAL SUN-SIGN GUIDE _Beatrice Ryder_          3.00
  ASTROLOGY FOR EVERYDAY LIVING _Janet Harris_                      2.00
  ASTROLOGY MADE EASY _Astarte_                                     3.00
  ASTROLOGY MADE PRACTICAL _Alexandra Kayhle_                       3.00
  ASTROLOGY, ROMANCE, YOU AND THE STARS _Anthony Norvell_           4.00
  MY WORLD OF ASTROLOGY _Sydney Omarr_                              5.00
  THOUGHT DIAL _Sydney Omarr_                                       3.00
  WHAT THE STARS REVEAL ABOUT THE MEN IN YOUR LIFE _Thelma White_   3.00
  ZODIAC REVEALED _Rupert Gleadow_                                  2.00


BRIDGE

  BRIDGE BIDDING MADE EASY _Edwin B. Kantar_                        5.00
  BRIDGE CONVENTIONS _Edwin B. Kantar_                              5.00
  BRIDGE HUMOR _Edwin B. Kantar_                                    3.00
  COMPETITIVE BIDDING IN MODERN BRIDGE _Edgar Kaplan_               4.00
  DEFENSIVE BRIDGE PLAY COMPLETE _Edwin B. Kantar_                 10.00
  HOW TO IMPROVE YOUR BRIDGE _Alfred Sheinwold_                     2.00
  INTRODUCTION TO DEFENDER'S PLAY _Edwin B. Kantar_                 3.00
  SHORT CUT TO WINNING BRIDGE _Alfred Sheinwold_                    3.00
  TEST YOUR BRIDGE PLAY _Edwin B. Kantar_                           3.00
  WINNING DECLARER PLAY _Dorothy Hayden Truscott_                   4.00


BUSINESS, STUDY & REFERENCE

  CONVERSATION MADE EASY _Elliot Russell_                           2.00
  EXAM SECRET _Dennis B. Jackson_                                   2.00
  FIX-IT BOOK _Arthur Symons_                                       2.00
  HOW TO DEVELOP A BETTER SPEAKING VOICE _M. Hellier_               2.00
  HOW TO MAKE A FORTUNE IN REAL ESTATE _Albert Winnikoff_           3.00
  INCREASE YOUR LEARNING POWER _Geoffrey A. Dudley_                 2.00
  MAGIC OF NUMBERS _Robert Tocquet_                                 2.00
  PRACTICAL GUIDE TO BETTER CONCENTRATION _Melvin Powers_           2.00
  PRACTICAL GUIDE TO PUBLIC SPEAKING _Maurice Forley_               3.00
  7 DAYS TO FASTER READING _William S. Schaill_                     3.00
  SONGWRITERS RHYMING DICTIONARY _Jane Shaw Whitfield_              5.00
  SPELLING MADE EASY _Lester D. Basch & Dr. Milton Finkelstein_     2.00
  STUDENT'S GUIDE TO BETTER GRADES _J. A. Rickard_                  2.00
  TEST YOURSELF--Find Your Hidden Talent _Jack Shafer_              2.00
  WORLD WIDE MAIL ORDER SHOPPER'S GUIDE _Eugene V. Moller_          5.00
  YOUR WILL & WHAT TO DO ABOUT IT _Attorney Samuel G. Kling_        3.00


CALLIGRAPHY

  ADVANCED CALLIGRAPHY _Katherine Jeffares_                         6.00
  CALLIGRAPHY--The Art of Beautiful Writing _Katherine Jeffares_    5.00


CHESS & CHECKERS

  BEGINNER'S GUIDE TO WINNING CHESS _Fred Reinfeld_                 3.00
  BETTER CHESS--How to Play _Fred Reinfeld_                         2.00
  CHECKERS MADE EASY _Tom Wiswell_                                  2.00
  CHESS IN TEN EASY LESSONS _Larry Evans_                           3.00
  CHESS MADE EASY _Milton L. Hanauer_                               3.00
  CHESS MASTERY--A New Approach _Fred Reinfeld_                     2.00
  CHESS PROBLEMS FOR BEGINNERS _edited by Fred Reinfeld_            2.00
  CHESS SECRETS REVEALED _Fred Reinfeld_                            2.00
  CHESS STRATEGY--An Expert's Guide _Fred Reinfeld_                 2.00
  CHESS TACTICS FOR BEGINNERS _edited by Fred Reinfeld_             3.00
  CHESS THEORY & PRACTICE _Morry & Mitchell_                        2.00
  HOW TO WIN AT CHECKERS _Fred Reinfeld_                            2.00
  1001 BRILLIANT WAYS TO CHECKMATE _Fred Reinfeld_                  3.00
  1001 WINNING CHESS SACRIFICES & COMBINATIONS _Fred Reinfeld_      3.00
  SOVIET CHESS _Edited by R. G. Wade_                               3.00


COOKERY & HERBS

  CULPEPER'S HERBAL REMEDIES _Dr. Nicholas Culpeper_                2.00
  FAST GOURMET COOKBOOK _Poppy Cannon_                              2.50
  GINSENG The Myth & The Truth _Joseph P. Hou_                      3.00
  HEALING POWER OF HERBS _May Bethel_                               3.00
  HEALING POWER OF NATURAL FOODS _May Bethel_                       3.00
  HERB HANDBOOK _Dawn MacLeod_                                      3.00
  HERBS FOR COOKING AND HEALING _Dr. Donald Law_                    2.00
  HERBS FOR HEALTH--How to Grow & Use Them _Louise Evans Doole_     3.00
  HOME GARDEN COOKBOOK--Delicious Natural Food Recipes _Ken Kraft_  3.00
  MEDICAL HERBALIST _edited by Dr. J. R. Yemm_                      3.00
  NATURAL FOOD COOKBOOK _Dr. Harry C. Bond_                         3.00
  NATURE'S MEDICINES _Richard Lucas_                                3.00
  VEGETABLE GARDENING FOR BEGINNERS _Hugh Wiberg_                   2.00
  VEGETABLES FOR TODAY'S GARDENS _R. Milton Carleton_               2.00
  VEGETARIAN COOKERY _Janet Walker_                                 3.00
  VEGETARIAN COOKING MADE EASY & DELECTABLE _Veronica Vezza_        2.00
  VEGETARIAN DELIGHTS--A Happy Cookbook for Health _K. R. Mehta_    2.00
  VEGETARIAN GOURMET COOKBOOK _Joyce McKinnel_                      3.00


GAMBLING & POKER

  ADVANCED POKER STRATEGY & WINNING PLAY _A. D. Livingston_         3.00
  HOW NOT TO LOSE AT POKER _Jeffrey Lloyd Castle_                   3.00
  HOW TO WIN AT DICE GAMES _Skip Frey_                              3.00
  HOW TO WIN AT POKER _Terence Reese & Anthony T. Watkins_          2.00
  SECRETS OF WINNING POKER _George S. Coffin_                       3.00
  WINNING AT CRAPS _Dr. Lloyd T. Commins_                           3.00
  WINNING AT GIN _Chester Wander & Cy Rice_                         3.00
  WINNING AT POKER--An Expert's Guide _John Archer_                 3.00
  WINNING AT 21--An Expert's Guide _John Archer_                    3.00
  WINNING POKER SYSTEMS _Norman Zadeh_                              3.00


HEALTH

  DR. LINDNER'S SPECIAL WEIGHT CONTROL METHOD _P. G. Lindner, M.D._ 1.50
  HELP YOURSELF TO BETTER SIGHT _Margaret Darst Corbett_            3.00
  HOW TO IMPROVE YOUR VISION _Dr. Robert A. Kraskin_                3.00
  HOW YOU CAN STOP SMOKING PERMANENTLY _Ernest Caldwell_            3.00
  MIND OVER PLATTER _Peter G. Lindner, M.D._                        3.00
  NATURE'S WAY TO NUTRITION & VIBRANT HEALTH _Robert J. Scrutton_   3.00
  NEW CARBOHYDRATE DIET COUNTER _Patti Lopez-Pereira_               1.50
  PSYCHEDELIC ECSTASY _William Marshall & Gilbert W. Taylor_        2.00
  REFLEXOLOGY _Dr. Maybelle Segal_                                  2.00
  YOU CAN LEARN TO RELAX _Dr. Samuel Gutwirth_                      2.00
  YOUR ALLERGY--What To Do About It _Allan Knight, M.D._            3.00


HOBBIES

  BEACHCOMBING FOR BEGINNERS _Norman Hickin_                        2.00
  BLACKSTONE'S MODERN CARD TRICKS _Harry Blackstone_                3.00
  BLACKSTONE'S SECRETS OF MAGIC _Harry Blackstone_                  2.00
  BUTTERFLIES                                                       2.50
  COIN COLLECTING FOR BEGINNERS _Burton Hobson & Fred Reinfeld_     2.00
  ENTERTAINING WITH ESP _Tony 'Doc' Shiels_                         2.00
  400 FASCINATING MAGIC TRICKS YOU CAN DO _Howard Thurston_         3.00
  HOW I TURN JUNK INTO FUN AND PROFIT _Sari_                        3.00
  HOW TO WRITE A HIT SONG & SELL IT _Tommy Boyce_                   7.00
  JUGGLING MADE EASY _Rudolf Dittrich_                              2.00
  MAGIC MADE EASY _Byron Wels_                                      2.00
  STAMP COLLECTING FOR BEGINNERS _Burton Hobson_                    2.00
  STAMP COLLECTING FOR FUN & PROFIT _Frank Cetin_                   2.00


HORSE PLAYERS' WINNING GUIDES

  BETTING HORSES TO WIN _Les Conklin_                               3.00
  ELIMINATE THE LOSERS _Bob McKnight_                               3.00
  HOW TO PICK WINNING HORSES _Bob McKnight_                         3.00
  HOW TO WIN AT THE RACES _Sam (The Genius) Lewin_                  3.00
  HOW YOU CAN BEAT THE RACES _Jack Kavanagh_                        3.00
  MAKING MONEY AT THE RACES _David Barr_                            3.00
  PAYDAY AT THE RACES _Les Conklin_                                 3.00
  SMART HANDICAPPING MADE EASY _William Bauman_                     3.00
  SUCCESS AT THE HARNESS RACES _Barry Meadow_                       3.00
  WINNING AT THE HARNESS RACES--An Expert's Guide _Nick Cammarano_  3.00


HUMOR

  HOW TO BE A COMEDIAN FOR FUN & PROFIT _King & Laufer_             2.00
  HOW TO FLATTEN YOUR TUSH _Coach Marge Reardon_                    2.00
  JOKE TELLER'S HANDBOOK _Bob Orben_                                3.00
  JOKES FOR ALL OCCASIONS _Al Schock_                               3.00


HYPNOTISM

  ADVANCED TECHNIQUES OF HYPNOSIS _Melvin Powers_                   2.00
  BRAINWASHING AND THE CULTS _Paul A. Verdier, Ph.D._               3.00
  CHILDBIRTH WITH HYPNOSIS _William S. Kroger, M.D._                3.00
  HOW TO SOLVE Your Sex Problems with Self-Hypnosis
    _Frank S. Caprio, M.D._                                         3.00
  HOW TO STOP SMOKING THRU SELF-HYPNOSIS _Leslie M. LeCron_         3.00
  HOW TO USE AUTO-SUGGESTION EFFECTIVELY _John Duckworth_           3.00
  HOW YOU CAN BOWL BETTER USING SELF-HYPNOSIS _Jack Heise_          3.00
  HOW YOU CAN PLAY BETTER GOLF USING SELF-HYPNOSIS _Jack Heise_     2.00
  HYPNOSIS AND SELF-HYPNOSIS _Bernard Hollander, M.D._              3.00
  HYPNOTISM (Originally published in 1893) _Carl Sextus_            3.00
  HYPNOTISM & PSYCHIC PHENOMENA _Simeon Edmunds_                    3.00
  HYPNOTISM MADE EASY _Dr. Ralph Winn_                              3.00
  HYPNOTISM MADE PRACTICAL _Louis Orton_                            3.00
  HYPNOTISM REVEALED _Melvin Powers_                                2.00
  HYPNOTISM TODAY _Leslie LeCron and Jean Bordeaux, Ph.D._          4.00
  MODERN HYPNOSIS _Lesley Kuhn & Salvatore Russo, Ph.D._            5.00
  NEW CONCEPTS OF HYPNOSIS _Bernard C. Gindes, M.D._                4.00
  NEW SELF-HYPNOSIS _Paul Adams_                                    3.00
  POST-HYPNOTIC INSTRUCTIONS--Suggestions for Therapy
    _Arnold Furst_                                                  3.00
  PRACTICAL GUIDE TO SELF-HYPNOSIS _Melvin Powers_                  3.00
  PRACTICAL HYPNOTISM _Philip Magonet, M.D._                        2.00
  SECRETS OF HYPNOTISM _S. J. Van Pelt, M.D._                       3.00
  SELF-HYPNOSIS Its Theory, Technique & Application _Melvin Powers_ 2.00
  SELF-HYPNOSIS A Conditioned-Response Technique _Laurence Sparks_  4.00
  THERAPY THROUGH HYPNOSIS _edited by Raphael H. Rhodes_            4.00


JUDAICA

  HOW TO LIVE A RICHER & FULLER LIFE _Rabbi Edgar F. Magnin_        2.00
  MODERN ISRAEL _Lily Edelman_                                      2.00
  ROMANCE OF HASSIDISM _Jacob S. Minkin_                            2.50
  SERVICE OF THE HEART _Evelyn Garfiel, Ph.D._                      4.00
  STORY OF ISRAEL IN COINS _Jean & Maurice Gould_                   2.00
  STORY OF ISRAEL IN STAMPS _Maxim & Gabriel Shamir_                1.00
  TONGUE OF THE PROPHETS _Robert St. John_                          3.00
  TREASURY OF COMFORT _edited by Rabbi Sidney Greenberg_            4.00


JUST FOR WOMEN

  COSMOPOLITAN'S GUIDE TO MARVELOUS MEN
    Fwd. by _Helen Gurley Brown_                                    3.00
  COSMOPOLITAN'S HANG-UP HANDBOOK Foreword by _Helen Gurley Brown_  4.00
  COSMOPOLITAN'S LOVE BOOK--A Guide to Ecstasy in Bed               3.00
  COSMOPOLITAN'S NEW ETIQUETTE GUIDE Fwd. by _Helen Gurley Brown_   4.00
  I AM A COMPLEAT WOMAN _Doris Hagopian & Karen O'Connor Sweeney_   3.00
  JUST FOR WOMEN--A Guide to the Female Body
    _Richard E. Sand, M.D._                                         4.00
  NEW APPROACHES TO SEX IN MARRIAGE _John E. Eichenlaub, M.D._      3.00
  SEXUALLY ADEQUATE FEMALE _Frank S. Caprio, M.D._                  3.00
  YOUR FIRST YEAR OF MARRIAGE _Dr. Tom McGinnis_                    3.00


MARRIAGE, SEX & PARENTHOOD

  ABILITY TO LOVE _Dr. Allan Fromme_                                5.00
  ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MODERN SEX & LOVE TECHNIQUES _Macandrew_          4.00
  GUIDE TO SUCCESSFUL MARRIAGE _Drs. Albert Ellis & Robert Harper_  4.00
  HOW TO RAISE AN EMOTIONALLY HEALTHY, HAPPY CHILD _A. Ellis_       3.00
  IMPOTENCE & FRIGIDITY _Edwin W. Hirsch, M.D._                     3.00
  SEX WITHOUT GUILT _Albert Ellis, Ph.D._                           3.00
  SEXUALLY ADEQUATE MALE _Frank S. Caprio, M.D._                    3.00


METAPHYSICS & OCCULT

  BOOK OF TALISMANS, AMULETS & ZODIACAL GEMS _William Pavitt_       4.00
  CONCENTRATION--A Guide to Mental Mastery _Mouni Sadhu_            3.00
  CRITIQUES OF GOD _Edited by Peter Angeles_                        7.00
  DREAMS & OMENS REVEALED _Fred Gettings_                           3.00
  EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION _Simeon Edmunds_                          2.00
  EXTRA-TERRESTRIAL INTELLIGENCE--The First Encounter               6.00
  FORTUNE TELLING WITH CARDS _P. Foli_                              2.00
  HANDWRITING ANALYSIS MADE EASY _John Marley_                      3.00
  HANDWRITING TELLS _Nadya Olyanova_                                5.00
  HOW TO UNDERSTAND YOUR DREAMS _Geoffrey A. Dudley_                2.00
  ILLUSTRATED YOGA _William Zorn_                                   3.00
  IN DAYS OF GREAT PEACE _Mouni Sadhu_                              3.00
  KING SOLOMON'S TEMPLE IN THE MASONIC TRADITION _Alex Horne_       5.00
  LSD--THE AGE OF MIND _Bernard Roseman_                            2.00
  MAGICIAN--His training and work _W. E. Butler_                    3.00
  MEDITATION _Mouni Sadhu_                                          4.00
  MODERN NUMEROLOGY _Morris C. Goodman_                             3.00
  NUMEROLOGY--ITS FACTS AND SECRETS _Ariel Yvon Taylor_             3.00
  NUMEROLOGY MADE EASY _W. Mykian_                                  3.00
  PALMISTRY MADE EASY _Fred Gettings_                               3.00
  PALMISTRY MADE PRACTICAL _Elizabeth Daniels Squire_               3.00
  PALMISTRY SECRETS REVEALED _Henry Frith_                          3.00
  PRACTICAL YOGA _Ernest Wood_                                      3.00
  PROPHECY IN OUR TIME _Martin Ebon_                                2.50
  PSYCHOLOGY OF HANDWRITING _Nadya Olyanova_                        3.00
  SUPERSTITION--Are you superstitious? _Eric Maple_                 2.00
  TAROT _Mouni Sadhu_                                               5.00
  TAROT OF THE BOHEMIANS _Papus_                                    5.00
  TEST YOUR ESP _Martin Ebon_                                       2.00
  WAYS TO SELF-REALIZATION _Mouni Sadhu_                            3.00
  WHAT YOUR HANDWRITING REVEALS _Albert E. Hughes_                  2.00
  WITCHCRAFT, MAGIC & OCCULTISM--A Fascinating History _W. B. Crow_ 5.00
  WITCHCRAFT--THE SIXTH SENSE _Justine Glass_                       3.00
  WORLD OF PSYCHIC RESEARCH _Hereward Carrington_                   2.00
  YOU CAN ANALYZE HANDWRITING _Robert Holder_                       2.00


SELF-HELP & INSPIRATIONAL

  CYBERNETICS WITHIN US _Y. Saparina_                               3.00
  DAILY POWER FOR JOYFUL LIVING _Dr. Donald Curtis_                 3.00
  DOCTOR PSYCHO-CYBERNETICS _Maxwell Maltz, M.D._                   3.00
  DYNAMIC THINKING _Melvin Powers_                                  2.00
  EXUBERANCE--Your Guide to Happiness & Fulfillment
    _Dr. Paul Kurtz_                                                3.00
  GREATEST POWER IN THE UNIVERSE _U. S. Andersen_                   4.00
  GROW RICH WHILE YOU SLEEP _Ben Sweetland_                         3.00
  GROWTH THROUGH REASON _Albert Ellis, Ph.D._                       4.00
  GUIDE TO DEVELOPING YOUR POTENTIAL _Herbert A. Otto, Ph.D._       3.00
  GUIDE TO LIVING IN BALANCE _Frank S. Caprio, M.D._                2.00
  HELPING YOURSELF WITH APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY _R. Henderson_           2.00
  HELPING YOURSELF WITH PSYCHIATRY _Frank S. Caprio, M.D._          2.00
  HOW TO ATTRACT GOOD LUCK _A. H. Z. Carr_                          3.00
  HOW TO CONTROL YOUR DESTINY _Norvell_                             3.00
  HOW TO DEVELOP A WINNING PERSONALITY _Martin Panzer_              3.00
  HOW TO DEVELOP AN EXCEPTIONAL MEMORY _Young & Gibson_             4.00
  HOW TO OVERCOME YOUR FEARS _M. P. Leahy, M.D._                    3.00
  HOW YOU CAN HAVE CONFIDENCE AND POWER _Les Giblin_                3.00
  HUMAN PROBLEMS & HOW TO SOLVE THEM _Dr. Donald Curtis_            3.00
  I CAN _Ben Sweetland_                                             4.00
  I WILL _Ben Sweetland_                                            3.00
  LEFT-HANDED PEOPLE _Michael Barsley_                              3.00
  MAGIC IN YOUR MIND _U. S. Andersen_                               4.00
  MAGIC OF THINKING BIG _Dr. David J. Schwartz_                     3.00
  MAGIC POWER OF YOUR MIND _Walter M. Germain_                      4.00
  MENTAL POWER THROUGH SLEEP SUGGESTION _Melvin Powers_             2.00
  NEW GUIDE TO RATIONAL LIVING
    _Albert Ellis, Ph.D. & R. Harper, Ph.D._                        3.00
  OUR TROUBLED SELVES _Dr. Allan Fromme_                            3.00
  PSYCHO-CYBERNETICS _Maxwell Maltz, M.D._                          2.00
  SCIENCE OF MIND IN DAILY LIVING _Dr. Donald Curtis_               3.00
  SECRET OF SECRETS _U. S. Andersen_                                4.00
  SECRET POWER OF THE PYRAMIDS _U. S. Andersen_                     4.00
  STUTTERING AND WHAT YOU CAN DO ABOUT IT _W. Johnson, Ph.D._       2.50
  SUCCESS-CYBERNETICS _U. S. Andersen_                              4.00
  10 DAYS TO A GREAT NEW LIFE _William E. Edwards_                  3.00
  THINK AND GROW RICH _Napoleon Hill_                               3.00
  THREE MAGIC WORDS _U. S. Andersen_                                4.00
  TREASURY OF THE ART OF LIVING _Sidney S. Greenberg_               5.00
  YOU ARE NOT THE TARGET _Laura Huxley_                             3.00
  YOUR SUBCONSCIOUS POWER _Charles M. Simmons_                      4.00
  YOUR THOUGHTS CAN CHANGE YOUR LIFE _Dr. Donald Curtis_            3.00


SPORTS

  ARCHERY--An Expert's Guide _Dan Stamp_                            2.00
  BICYCLING FOR FUN AND GOOD HEALTH _Kenneth E. Luther_             2.00
  BILLIARDS--Pocket · Carom · Three Cushion _Clive Cottingham, Jr._ 3.00
  CAMPING-OUT 101 Ideas & Activities _Bruno Knobel_                 2.00
  COMPLETE GUIDE TO FISHING _Vlad Evanoff_                          2.00
  HOW TO IMPROVE YOUR RACQUETBALL _Lubarsky, Kaufman, & Scagnetti_  3.00
  HOW TO WIN AT POCKET BILLIARDS _Edward D. Knuchell_               3.00
  JOY OF WALKING _Jack Scagnetti_                                   3.00
  LEARNING & TEACHING SOCCER SKILLS _Eric Worthington_              3.00
  MOTORCYCLING FOR BEGINNERS _I. G. Edmonds_                        2.00
  RACQUETBALL MADE EASY
    _Steve Lubarsky, Rod Delson & Jack Scagnetti_                   3.00
  SECRET OF BOWLING STRIKES _Dawson Taylor_                         3.00
  SECRET OF PERFECT PUTTING _Horton Smith & Dawson Taylor_          3.00
  SOCCER--The game & how to play it _Gary Rosenthal_                3.00
  STARTING SOCCER _Edward F. Dolan, Jr._                            2.00
  TABLE TENNIS MADE EASY _Johnny Leach_                             2.00


TENNIS LOVERS' LIBRARY

  BEGINNER'S GUIDE TO WINNING TENNIS _Helen Hull Jacobs_            2.00
  HOW TO BEAT BETTER TENNIS PLAYERS _Loring Fiske_                  4.00
  HOW TO IMPROVE YOUR TENNIS--Style, Strategy & Analysis
    _C. Wilson_                                                     2.00
  INSIDE TENNIS--Techniques of Winning _Jim Leighton_               3.00
  PLAY TENNIS WITH ROSEWALL _Ken Rosewall_                          2.00
  PSYCH YOURSELF TO BETTER TENNIS _Dr. Walter A. Luszki_            2.00
  SUCCESSFUL TENNIS _Neale Fraser_                                  2.00
  TENNIS FOR BEGINNERS _Dr. H. A. Murray_                           2.00
  TENNIS MADE EASY _Joel Brecheen_                                  2.00
  WEEKEND TENNIS--How to have fun & win at the same time
    _Bill Talbert_                                                  3.00
  WINNING WITH PERCENTAGE TENNIS--Smart Strategy _Jack Lowe_        2.00


WILSHIRE PET LIBRARY

  DOG OBEDIENCE TRAINING _Gust Kessopulos_                          3.00
  DOG TRAINING MADE EASY & FUN _John W. Kellogg_                    3.00
  HOW TO BRING UP YOUR PET DOG _Kurt Unkelbach_                     2.00
  HOW TO RAISE & TRAIN YOUR PUPPY _Jeff Griffen_                    2.00
  PIGEONS: HOW TO RAISE & TRAIN THEM _William H. Allen, Jr._        2.00


_The books listed above can be obtained from your book dealer or
directly from Melvin Powers. When ordering, please remit 50¢ per book
postage & handling. Send for our free illustrated catalog of
self-improvement books._

  Melvin Powers
  12015 Sherman Road, No. Hollywood, California 91605


WILSHIRE HORSE LOVERS' LIBRARY

  AMATEUR HORSE BREEDER _A. C. Leighton Hardman_                    3.00
  AMERICAN QUARTER HORSE IN PICTURES _Margaret Cabell Self_         3.00
  APPALOOSA HORSE _Donna & Bill Richardson_                         3.00
  ARABIAN HORSE _Reginald S. Summerhays_                            2.00
  ART OF WESTERN RIDING _Suzanne Norton Jones_                      3.00
  AT THE HORSE SHOW _Margaret Cabell Self_                          3.00
  BACK-YARD FOAL _Peggy Jett Pittinger_                             3.00
  BACK-YARD HORSE _Peggy Jett Pittinger_                            3.00
  BASIC DRESSAGE _Jean Froissard_                                   2.00
  BEGINNER'S GUIDE TO HORSEBACK RIDING _Sheila Wall_                2.00
  BEGINNER'S GUIDE TO THE WESTERN HORSE _Natlee Kenoyer_            2.00
  BITS--THEIR HISTORY, USE AND MISUSE _Louis Taylor_                3.00
  BREAKING & TRAINING THE DRIVING HORSE _Doris Ganton_              2.00
  BREAKING YOUR HORSE'S BAD HABITS _W. Dayton Sumner_               3.00
  CAVALRY MANUAL OF HORSEMANSHIP _Gordon Wright_                    3.00
  COMPLETE TRAINING OF HORSE AND RIDER _Colonel Alois Podhaisky_    4.00
  DISORDERS OF THE HORSE & WHAT TO DO ABOUT THEM _E. Hanauer_       3.00
  DRESSAGE--A Study of the Finer Points in Riding _Henry Wynmalen_  4.00
  DRIVING HORSES _Sallie Walrond_                                   3.00
  ENDURANCE RIDING _Ann Hyland_                                     2.00
  EQUITATION _Jean Froissard_                                       4.00
  FIRST AID FOR HORSES _Dr. Charles H. Denning, Jr._                2.00
  FUN OF RAISING A COLT _Rubye & Frank Griffith_                    3.00
  FUN ON HORSEBACK _Margaret Cabell Self_                           4.00
  GYMKHANA GAMES _Natlee Kenoyer_                                   2.00
  HORSE DISEASES--Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
    _Dr. H. G. Belschner_                                           3.00
  HORSE OWNER'S CONCISE GUIDE _Elsie V. Hanauer_                    2.00
  HORSE SELECTION & CARE FOR BEGINNERS _George H. Conn_             3.00
  HORSE SENSE--A complete guide to riding and care _Alan Deacon_    4.00
  HORSEBACK RIDING FOR BEGINNERS _Louis Taylor_                     4.00
  HORSEBACK RIDING MADE EASY & FUN _Sue Henderson Coen_             3.00
  HORSES--Their Selection, Care & Handling _Margaret Cabell Self_   3.00
  HOW TO BUY A BETTER HORSE & SELL THE HORSE YOU OWN                3.00
  HOW TO ENJOY YOUR QUARTER HORSE _Williard H. Porter_              3.00
  HUNTER IN PICTURES _Margaret Cabell Self_                         2.00
  ILLUSTRATED BOOK OF THE HORSE _S. Sidney_ (8½" × 11")            10.00
  ILLUSTRATED HORSE MANAGEMENT--400 Illustrations _Dr. E. Mayhew_   6.00
  ILLUSTRATED HORSE TRAINING _Captain M. H. Hayes_                  5.00
  ILLUSTRATED HORSEBACK RIDING FOR BEGINNERS _Jeanne Mellin_        2.00
  JUMPING--Learning & Teaching _Jean Froissard_                     3.00
  KNOW ALL ABOUT HORSES _Harry Disston_                             3.00
  LAME HORSE--Causes, Symptoms & Treatment _Dr. James R. Rooney_    3.00
  LAW & YOUR HORSE _Edward H. Greene_                               3.00
  LIPIZZANERS & THE SPANISH RIDING SCHOOL _W. Reuter_ (4¼" × 6")    2.50
  MANUAL OF HORSEMANSHIP _Harold Black_                             5.00
  MORGAN HORSE IN PICTURES _Margaret Cabell Self_                   2.00
  MOVIE HORSES--The Fascinating Techniques of Training
    _Anthony Amaral_                                                2.00
  POLICE HORSES _Judith Campbell_                                   2.00
  PRACTICAL GUIDE TO HORSESHOEING                                   3.00
  PRACTICAL GUIDE TO OWNING YOUR OWN HORSE _Steven D. Price_        2.00
  PRACTICAL HORSE PSYCHOLOGY _Moyra Williams_                       3.00
  PROBLEM HORSES Guide for Curing Serious Behavior Habits
    _Summerhays_                                                    2.00
  REINSMAN OF THE WEST--BRIDLES & BITS _Ed Connell_                 4.00
  RESCHOOLING THE THOROUGHBRED _Peggy Jett Pittinger_               3.00
  RIDE WESTERN _Louis Taylor_                                       3.00
  SCHOOLING YOUR YOUNG HORSE _George Wheatley_                      2.00
  STABLE MANAGEMENT FOR THE OWNER-GROOM _George Wheatley_           4.00
  STALLION MANAGEMENT--A Guide for Stud Owners _A. C. Hardman_      3.00
  TEACHING YOUR HORSE TO JUMP _W. J. Froud_                         2.00
  TRAIL HORSES & TRAIL RIDING _Anne & Perry Westbrook_              2.00
  TRAINING YOUR HORSE TO SHOW _Neale Haley_                         3.00
  TREATING COMMON DISEASES OF YOUR HORSE _Dr. George H. Conn_       3.00
  TREATING HORSE AILMENTS _G. W. Serth_                             2.00
  WESTERN HORSEBACK RIDING _Glen Balch_                             3.00
  YOU AND YOUR PONY _Pepper Mainwaring Healey_ (8½" × 11")          6.00
  YOUR FIRST HORSE _George C. Saunders, M.D._                       3.00
  YOUR PONY BOOK _Hermann Wiederhold_                               2.00
  YOUR WESTERN HORSE _Nelson C. Nye_                                2.00


_The books listed above can be obtained from your book dealer or
directly from Melvin Powers. When ordering, please remit 50¢ per book
postage & handling. Send for our free illustrated catalog of self
improvement books._

Melvin Powers
12015 Sherman Road, No. Hollywood, California 91605



[Transcriber's notes:
The heading "Chapter 13" was missing in the original and has been added.

In the same chapter there is a list of addresses for organisations. The
addresses for the American Group Psychotherapy Association and the
National Council on Alcoholism are the same in the original; it is
unclear whether this is intentional.]





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