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Title: A booke called the Foundacion of Rhetorike - because all other partes of Rhetorike are grounded - thereupon, euery parte sette forthe in an Oracion vpon - questions, verie profitable to bee knowen and redde
Author: Rainolde, Richard, -1606
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Transcriber's Notes:

About this book: _A booke called the Foundacion of Rhetorike_ was
published in 1563. Only five copies of the original are known to
exist. This e-book was transcribed from microfiche scans of the
original in the Bodleian Library at Oxford University. The scans can
be viewed at the Bibliothèque nationale de France website at
http://gallica.bnf.fr.

Typography: The original line and paragraph breaks, hyphenation, spelling, capitalization, punctuation, inconsistent use of an acute accent over "ee", the use of u for v and vice versa, and the use of i for j and vice versa, have been preserved. All apparent printer errors have also been preserved, and are listed at the end of this document. The following alterations have been made: 1. Long-s has been regularized as s. 2. The paragraph symbol, resembling a C in the original, is rendered as ¶. 3. Missing punctuation, hyphens, and paragraph symbols have been added in brackets, e.g. [-]. 4. A decorative capital followed by a capital letter is represented here as two capital letters, e.g. NAture. 5. Except for the dedication, which is in modern italics, the majority of the original book is in blackletter font, with some words in a modern non-italic font. All modern-font passages are marked by underscores. 6. Sidenotes have been placed in-line, approximately where they appear in the original. 7. Incorrect page numbers have been corrected, but are included in the list of printer errors at the end of this e-book. 8. Abbreviations and contractions represented as special characters in the original have been expanded as noted in the table below. A "macron" means a horizontal line over a letter. "Supralinear" means directly over a letter; "sublinear" means directly under a letter. The "y" referred to below is an Early Modern English form of the Anglo-Saxon thorn character, representing "th," but identical in appearance to the letter "y." Original Expansion vowel with macron vowel[m] or vowel[n] y with supralinear e y^e (i.e., the) accented q with semicolon q[ue] w with supralinear curve w[ith] e with sublinear hook [ae] Pagination: This book was paginated using folio numbers in a recto-verso scheme. The front of each folio is the recto page (the right-hand page); the back of each folio is the verso page (the left-hand page in a book). In the original, folio numbers (beginning after the table of contents) are printed only on the recto side of each leaf. For the reader's convenience, all folio pages in this e-book, including the verso pages, have been numbered in brackets according to the original format, with the addition of "r" for recto and "v" for verso, e.g., [Fol. x.r] is Folio 10 recto, [Fol. x.v] is Folio 10 verso. Sources consulted: The uneven quality of the microfiche scans, as well as the blackletter font and some ink bleed-through in the original, made the scans difficult to read in some places. To ensure accuracy, the transcriber has consulted the facsimile reprint edited by Francis R. Johnson (Scholars' Facsimiles and Reprints, New York, 1945). The facsimile reprint was prepared primarily from the Bodleian copy, with several pages reproduced from the copy in the Chapin Library at Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts, where the Bodleian copy was unclear.] ¶ A booke cal- _led the Foundacion of Rhetorike, be-_ cause all other partes of _Rhetorike_ are grounded thereupon, euery parte sette forthe in an Oracion vpon questions, verie profitable to bee knowen and redde: Made by Ri- chard Rainolde Maister of Arte, of the Uniuersitie of Cambridge. 1563. _Mens. Marcij. vj._ _¶ Imprinted at London, by Ihon Kingston._ THE EPISTLE DEDICATORIE ¶ _To the right honorable and my singuler good Lorde,_ my Lorde Robert Dudley, Maister of the Queenes Maiesties horse, one of her highes pri- uie Counsaile, and knight of the moste honou- rable order of the Garter: Richard Rai- nolde wisheth longe life, with increase of honour. _ARISTOTLE the famous Phi- losopher, writing a boke to king Alexa[n]der, the great and migh- tie conquerour, began the Epi- stle of his Booke in these woor- des. Twoo thynges moued me chieflie, O King, to betake to thy Maiesties handes, this worke of my trauile and labour, thy nobilitie and vertue, of the whiche thy nobilitie encouraged me, thy greate and singuler vertue, indued with all humanitie, forced and draue me thereto. The same twoo in your good Lordshippe, Nobilitie and Vertue, as twoo migh- tie Pillers staied me, in this bolde enterprise, to make your good Lordshippe, beyng a Pere of honour, indued with all nobilitie and vertue: a patrone and possessoure of this my booke. In the whiche although copious and aboundaunte eloquence wanteth, to adorne and beau- tifie thesame, yet I doubte not for the profite, that is in this my trauaile conteined, your honour indued with all singuler humanitie, will vouchsaufe to accepte my willyng harte, my profitable purpose herein. Many fa- mous menne and greate learned, haue in the Greke tongue and otherwise trauailed, to profite all tymes their countrie and common wealthe. This also was my ende and purpose, to plante a worke profitable to all ty- mes, my countrie and common wealthe._ _And because your Lordshippe studieth all singula- ritie to vertue, and wholie is incensed thereto: I haue compiled this woorke, and dedicated it to your Lorde- shippe, as vnto who[m] moste noble and vertuous. Wher- in are set forthe soche Oracions, as are right profitable to bee redde, for knowledge also necessarie. The duetie of a subiecte, the worthie state of nobilitie, the prehe- minent dignitie and Maiestie of a Prince, the office of counsailours, worthie chiefe veneracion, the office of a Iudge or Magestrate are here set foorthe. In moste for- tunate state is the kyngdome and Common wealthe, where the Nobles and Peres, not onelie daiely doe stu- die to vertue, for that is the wisedome, that all the graue and wise Philophers searched to attaine to. For the ende of all artes and sciences, and of all noble actes and enterprises is vertue, but also to fauour and vphold the studentes of learnyng, whiche also is a greate ver- tue. Whoso is adorned with nobilitie and vertue, of necessitie nobilitie and vertue, will moue and allure the[m] to fauour and support vertue in any other, yea, as Tul- lie the moste famous Oratour dooeth saie, euen to loue those who[m] we neuer sawe, but by good fame and brute beutified to vs. For the encrease of vertue, God dooeth nobilitate with honour worthie menne, to be aboue other in dignitie and state, thereupon vertue doeth encrease your Lordshipps honor, beyng a louer of vertue and worthie no- bilitie._ Your lordshippes humble ser- uaunt Richard Rainolde. _To the Reader._ APHTHONIVS a famous man, wrote in Greke of soche declamacions, to en- structe the studentes thereof, with all fa- cilitée to grounde in them, a moste plenti- ous and riche vein of eloquence. No man is able to inuente a more profitable waie and order, to instructe any one in the ex- quisite and absolute perfeccion, of wisedome and eloquence, then _Aphthonius Quintilianus_ and _Hermogenes_. Tullie al- so as a moste excellente Orator, in the like sorte trauailed, whose Eloquence and vertue all tymes extolled, and the of- spryng of all ages worthilie aduaunceth. And because as yet the verie grounde of Rhetorike, is not heretofore intreated of, as concernyng these exercises, though in fewe yeres past, a learned woorke of Rhetorike is compiled and made in the Englishe toungue, of one, who floweth in all excellencie of arte, who in iudgement is profounde, in wisedome and elo- quence moste famous. In these therefore my diligence is em- ploied, to profite many, although not with like Eloquence, beutified and adorned, as the matter requireth. I haue cho- sen out in these Oracions soche questions, as are right ne- cessarie to be knowen and redde of all those, whose cogitacio[n] pondereth vertue and Godlines. I doubte not, but seyng my trauaile toucheth vertuous preceptes, and vttereth to light, many famous Histories, the order of arte obserued also, but that herein the matter it self, shall defende my purpose aga- inste the enuious, whiche seketh to depraue any good enter- prise, begon of any one persone. The enuious manne though learned, readeth to depraue that, which he readeth, the ignoraunt is no worthie Iudge, the learned and godlie pondereth vp- rightly & sincerely, that which he iudgeth, the order of these Oracions followeth afterward, and the names of the[m]. ¶ _The contentes of_ this Booke. AN Oracion made, vpon the Fable of the Shepher- des and the Wolues, the Wolues requestyng the Bandogges: wherein is set forthe the state of eue- ry subiecte, the dignitie of a Prince, the honoura- ble office of counsailours. An Oracion vpon the Fable of the Ante and the Gres- hopper, teachyng prouidence. An Oracion Historicall, howe Semiramis came to bee Quéene of Babilon. An Oracion Historicall, vpon Kyng Richard the thirde sometyme Duke of Glocester. An Oracion Historicall, of the commyng of Iulius Ce- ser into Englande. An Oracion Ciuill or Iudiciall, vpon Themistocles, of the walle buildyng at Athenes. An Oracion Poeticall vpon a redde Rose. A profitable Oracion, shewyng the decaie of kingdomes and nobilitie. An Oracion vpon a Sentence, preferryng a Monarchie, conteinyng all other states of common wealthe. The confutacion of the battaile of Troie. A confirmacion of the noble facte of Zopyrus. An Oracion called a Common place against Theues. The praise of Epaminundas Duke of Thebes, wherein the grounde of nobilitée is placed. The dispraise of Domicius Nero Emperour of Roome. A comparison betwene Demosthenes and Tullie. A lamentable Oracion of Hecuba Queene of Troie. A descripcion vpon Xerxes kyng of Persia. An Oracion called _Thesis_, as concerning the goodly state of Mariage. An Oracion confutyng a certaine lawe of Solon. [Fol. j.r] _The foundacion of_ Rhetorike. NAture hath indued euery man, with a certain eloquence, and also subtili- [Sidenote: Rhetorike and Logike giuen of na- ture.] tée to reason and discusse, of any que- stion or proposicion propounded, as _Aristotle_ the Philosopher, in his Booke of _Rhetorike_ dooeth shewe. These giftes of nature, singuler doe flowe and abounde in vs, accordyng to the greate and ample indumente and plentuousnes of witte and wisedome, lodged in vs, there- fore Nature it self beyng well framed, and afterward by arte [Sidenote: Arte furthe- reth nature.] and order of science, instructed and adorned, must be singular- lie furthered, helped, and aided to all excellencie, to exquisite [Sidenote: Logike.] inuencion, and profounde knowledge, bothe in _Logike_ and [Sidenote: Rhetorike.] _Rhetorike_. In the one, as a Oratour to pleate with all facili- tee, and copiouslie to dilate any matter or sentence: in the other to grounde profunde and subtill argument, to fortifie & make stronge our assercion or sentence, to proue and defende, by the [Sidenote: Logike.] force and power of arte, thinges passyng the compasse & reach of our capacitée and witte. Nothyng can bee more excellently [Sidenote: Eloquence.] giuen of nature then Eloquence, by the which the florishyng state of commonweales doe consiste: kyngdomes vniuersally are gouerned, the state of euery one priuatelie is maintained. The commonwealth also should be maimed, and debilitated, [Sidenote: Zeno.] except the other parte be associate to it. _Zeno_ the Philosopher comparing _Rhetorike_ and _Logike_, doeth assimilate and liken [Sidenote: Logike.] them to the hand of man. _Logike_ is like faith he to the fiste, for euen as the fiste closeth and shutteth into one, the iointes and partes of the hande, & with mightie force and strength, wrap- [Sidenote: Similitude[.] Logike.] peth and closeth in thynges apprehended: So _Logike_ for the deepe and profounde knowlege, that is reposed and buried in it, in soche sort of municion and strength fortified, in few wor- des taketh soche force and might by argumente, that excepte [Fol. j.v] like equalitée in like art and knowledge doe mate it, in vain the disputacion shalbe, and the repulse of thaduersarie readie. [Sidenote: Rhetorike like to the hande.] _Rhetorike_ is like to the hand set at large, wherein euery part and ioint is manifeste, and euery vaine as braunches of trées [Sidenote: Rhetorike.] sette at scope and libertee. So of like sorte, _Rhetorike_ in moste ample and large maner, dilateth and setteth out small thyn- ges or woordes, in soche sorte, with soche aboundaunce and plentuousnes, bothe of woordes and wittie inuencion, with soche goodlie disposicion, in soche a infinite sorte, with soche pleasauntnes of Oracion, that the moste stonie and hard har- tes, can not but bee incensed, inflamed, and moued thereto. [Sidenote: Logike and Rhetorike absolute in fewe.] These twoo singuler giftes of nature, are absolute and perfect in fewe: for many therebe, whiche are exquisite and profound in argument, by art to reason and discusse, of any question or proposicion propounded, who by nature are disabled, & smal- lie adorned to speake eloquently, in whom neuertheles more aboundaunt knowlege doeth somtymes remaine then in the other, if the cause shalbe in controuersie ioined, and examined to trie a manifeste truthe. But to whom nature hath giuen soche abilitée, and absolute excellencie, as that thei can bothe [Sidenote: The vertue of eloquence.] copiouslie dilate any matter or sentence, by pleasauntnes and swetenes of their wittie and ingenious oracion, to drawe vn- to theim the hartes of a multitude, to plucke doune and extir- pate affeccio[n]s and perturbacions of people, to moue pitee and compassion, to speake before Princes and rulers, and to per- swade theim in good causes and enterprises, to animate and incense them, to godlie affaires and busines, to alter the cou[n]- saill of kynges, by their wisedome and eloquence, to a better state, and also to be exquisite in thother, is a thing of all most [Sidenote: Demosthe- nes. Tisias. Gorgias. Eschines[.] Tullie. Cato.] noble and excellent. The eloquence of Demosthenes, Isocra- tes, Tisias, Gorgias, Eschines, were a great bulwarke and staie to Athens and all Grece, Rome also by the like vertue of Eloquence, in famous and wise orators vpholded: the wise and eloquente Oracions of Tullie againste Catiline. The graue and sentencious oracions of Cato in the Senate, haue [Fol. ij.r] [Sidenote: The Empe- rors of Rome famous in Eloquence.] been onelie the meane to vpholde the mightie state of Rome, in his strength and auncient fame and glorie. Also the Chro- nicles of auncient time doe shewe vnto vs, the state of Rome could by no meanes haue growen so meruailous mightie, but that God had indued the whole line of Cesars, with sin- guler vertues, with aboundaunt knowlege & singuler Elo- quence. Thusidides the famous Historiographer sheweth, [Sidenote: Thusidides.] how moche Eloquence auailed the citees of Grece, fallyng to [Sidenote: Corcurians.] dissencio[n]. How did the Corcurians saue them selues from the [Sidenote: Pelopone- sians.] inuasio[n] and might, of the Poloponesians, their cause pleated before the Athenians, so moche their eloquence in a truthe [Sidenote: Corinthians[.]] preuailed. The Ambassadours of Corinth, wanted not their copious, wittie, and ingenious Oracions, but thei pleated before mightie, wise, and graue Senators, whose cause, ac- cordyng to iudgeme[n]t, truthe, and integritée was ended. The [Sidenote: Lacedemo- nians. Vitulenia[n]s. Athenians.] eloque[n]t Embassages of the Corinthia[n]s, the Lacedemonia[n]s, & the Vituleneans, the Athenians, who so readeth, shall sone sée that of necessitee, a common wealth or kyngdome must be fortefied, with famous, graue, and wise counsailours. How [Sidenote: Demosthe- nes.] often did Demosthenes saue the co[m]mon wealthes of Athens, how moche also did that large dominion prospere and florish [Sidenote: Socrates. Cato. Crassus. Antonius. Catulus. Cesar.] by Isocrates. Tullie also by his Eloque[n]t please, Cato, Cras- sus, Antonius, Catulus Cesar, with many other, did support and vphold the state of that mightie kyngdo[m]. No doubte, but that Demosthenes made a wittie, copious, and ingenious o- racions, when the Athenians were minded to giue and be- [Sidenote: Philippe the kyng of the Macidonia[n]s[.]] take to the handes of Philip kyng of the Macedonians, their pestiferous enemie moste vile and subtell, the Orators of A- thens. This Philip forseyng the discorde of Grece, as he by subtill meanes compassed his enterprices, promised by the faithe of a Prince, to be at league with the Athenians, if so be thei would betake to his handes, the eloquente Oratours of [Sidenote: The saiyng of Philippe.] Athens, for as long saith he, as your Oratours are with you declaryng, so longe your heddes and counsaill are moued to variaunce and dissencion, this voice ones seased emong you, [Fol. ij.v] [Sidenote: Demosthe- nes.] in tranquilitée you shalbee gouerned. Demosthenes beyng eloquente and wise, foresawe the daungers and the mischie- uous intent of him, wherevpon he framed a goodly Oracion vpon a Fable, whereby he altered their counsaile, and repul- sed the enemie. This fable is afterward set forth in an Ora- cion, after the order of these exercises, profitable to _Rhetorike_. ¶ A Fable. [Sidenote: The ground of al learning[.]] FIrste it is good that the learner doe vnderstand what is a fable, for in all matters of learnyng, it is the firste grounde, as Tullie doeth saie, to knowe what the thing is, that we may the bet- [Sidenote: What is a fable.] ter perceiue whervpo[n] we doe intreate. A fable is a forged tale, co[n]taining in it by the colour of a lie, a matter [Sidenote: Morall.] of truthe. The moralle is called that, out of the whiche some godlie precepte, or admonicion to vertue is giuen, to frame and instruct our maners. Now that we knowe what a fable is, it is good to learne also, how manifolde or diuers thei be, [Sidenote: Three sortes of fables. i. A fable of reason.] I doe finde three maner of fables to be. The first of theim is, wherein a man being a creature of God indued with reason, is onely intreated of, as the Fable of the father and his chil- dren, he willing the[m] to concorde, and this is called _Rationalis fabula_, whiche is asmoche to saie, as a Fable of men indued [Sidenote: ii. Morall.] with reason, or women. The second is called a morall fable, but I sée no cause whie it is so called, but rather as the other is called a fable of reasonable creatures, so this is contrarilie named a fable of beastes, or of other thinges wanting reason or life, wanting reason as of the Ante and the Greshopper, or of this the beame caste doun, and the Frogges chosyng their [Sidenote: iii. Mixt.] king. The thirde is a mixt Fable so called, bicause in it bothe man hauyng reason, and a beaste wantyng reason, or any o- ther thing wanting life, is ioyned with it, as for the example, of the fable of the woodes and the housebandman, of whom [Sidenote: Poetes in- uentours of fables.] he desired a helue for his hatchet. Aucthours doe write, that Poetes firste inuented fables, the whiche Oratours also doe [Fol. iij.r] vse in their perswasions, and not without greate cause, both [Sidenote: Oratours vse fables.] Poetes and Oratours doe applie theim to their vse. For, fa- [Sidenote: Good doctrin in fables.] bles dooe conteine goodlie admonicion, vertuous preceptes [Sidenote: Hesiodus.] of life. Hesiodus the Poete, intreatyng of the iniurious dea- lyng of Princes and gouernours, against their subiectes, ad- monished them by the fable of the Goshauke, and the Nigh- [Sidenote: Ouide.] tyngale in his clause. Ouid also the Poete intreated of di- uers fables, wherein he giueth admonicion, and godly coun- [Sidenote: Demosthe- nes vsed fa- bles.] saile. Demosthenes the famous Oratour of Athens, vsed the fable of the Shepeherdes, and Wolues: how the Wol- ues on a tyme, instauntlie required of the Shepeherdes their bande dogges, and then thei would haue peace and concorde with theim, the Shepeherdes gaue ouer their Dogges, their Dogges deliuered and murdered, the shepe were immediat- ly deuoured: So saieth he, if ye shall ones deliuer to Philip, the king of the Macedonians your Oratours, by whose lear- nyng, knowlege and wisedome, the whole bodie of your do- minions is saued, for thei as Bandogges, doe repell all mis- cheuous enterprises and chaunses, no doubte, but that raue- nyng Wolfe Philip, will eate and consume your people, by this Fable he made an Oracion, he altered their counsailes and heddes of the Athenians, from so foolishe an enterprise. Also thesame Demosthenes, seyng the people careles, sloth- full, and lothsome to heare the Oratours, and all for the flo- rishing state of the kingdome: he ascended to the place or pul- pet, where the Oracions were made, and began with this fa- [Sidenote: The fable of Demosthe- nes, of the Asse and the shadowe.] ble. Ye men of Athens, saied he, it happened on a tyme, that a certaine man hired an Asse, and did take his iourney from Athens to Megara, as we would saie, fro[m] London to Yorke, the owner also of the Asse, did associate hymself in his iour- ney, to brynge backe the Asse againe, in the voyage the weather was extreame burning hotte, and the waie tedious the place also for barenes and sterilitée of trees, wanted sha- dowe in this long broyle of heate: he that satte one the Asse, lighted and tooke shadowe vnder the bellie of the Asse, and [Fol. iij.v] because the shadowe would not suffice bothe, the Asse beyng small, the owner saied, he muste haue the shadowe, because the Asse was his, I deny that saieth the other, the shadowe is myne, because I hired the Asse, thus thei were at greate con- tencion, the fable beyng recited, Demosthenes descended fro[m] his place, the whole multitude were inquisitiue, to knowe [Sidenote: The conten- cion vpon the shadowe and the Asse.] the ende about the shadowe, Demosthenes notyng their fol- lie, ascended to his place, and saied, O ye foolishe Athenians, whiles I and other, gaue to you counsaill and admonicio[n], of graue and profitable matters, your eares wer deafe, and your mindes slombred, but now I tell of a small trifeling matter, you throng to heare the reste of me. By this Fable he nipped their follie, and trapped them manifestlie, in their owne dol- tishenes. Herevpon I doe somwhat long, make copie of wor- [Sidenote: Fables well applied bee singuler.] des, to shewe the singularitee of fables well applied. In the tyme of Kyng Richard the thirde, Doctour Mourton, beyng Bishop of Elie, and prisoner in the Duke of Buckynghams house in Wales, was often tymes moued of the Duke, to speake his minde frelie, if king Richard wer lawfully king, and said to him of his fidelitée, to kepe close and secret his sen- tence: but the Bishop beyng a godlie man, and no lesse wise, waied the greate frendship, whiche was sometyme betwene the Duke & King Richard, aunswered in effect nothyng, but beyng daily troubled with his mocions & instigacions, spake a fable of Esope: My lorde saied he, I will aunswere you, by [Sidenote: The fable of the Bisshop of Elie, to the duke of Buc- kyngham.] a Fable of Esope. The Lion on a tyme gaue a commaunde- ment, that all horned beastes should flie from the woode, and none to remain there but vnhorned beastes. The Hare hea- ring of this commaundement, departed with the horned bea- stes from the woodde: The wilie Foxe metyng the Hare, de- maunded the cause of his haste, forthwith the Hare aunswe- red, a commaundemente is come from the Lion, that all hor- ned beastes should bee exiled, vpon paine of death, from the woode: why saied the Foxe, this commaundement toucheth not any sorte of beast as ye are, for thou haste no hornes but [Fol. iiij.r] knubbes: yea, but said the Hare, what, if thei saie I haue hor- nes, that is an other matter, my lorde I saie no more: what he ment, is euident to all men. In the time of king He[n]ry theight (a prince of famous me- morie) at what time as the small houses of religio[n], wer giuen ouer to the kinges hand, by the Parliament house: the bishop of Rochester, Doctour Fisher by name stepped forthe, beyng greued with the graunt, recited before them, a fable of Esope to shewe what discommoditee would followe in the Clergie. [Sidenote: The fable of the Bisshop of Rochester, againste the graunt of the Chauntries.] My lordes and maisters saieth he, Esope recited a fable: how that on a tyme, a housebande manne desired of the woodes, a small helue for his hatchet, all the woodes consented thereto waiyng the graunt to be small, and the thyng lesse, therevpo[n] the woodes consented, in fine the housbande man cut doune a small peece of woodde to make a helue, he framyng a helue to the hatchette, without leaue and graunt, he cut doune the mightie Okes and Cedars, and destroyed the whole woodd, then the woodes repented them to late. So saith he, the gift of these small houses, ar but a small graunt into the kinges ha[n]- des: but this small graunt, will bee a waie and meane to pull doune the greate mightie fatte Abbees, & so it happened. But there is repentau[n]ce to late: & no profite ensued of the graunte. ¶ An Oracion made by a fable, to the first exer- cise to declame by, the other, bee these, { A Fable, a Narracion. _Chria_, } { Sentence. Confutacion, } An Oracion { Confirmacion. Common place. } made by a { The praise. The dispraise. } { The Comparison, _Ethopeia_. } { A Discripcion. _Thesis, Legislatio_ } OF euery one of these, a goodlie Oracio[n] maie be made these excercises are called of the Grekes _Progimnas- mata_, of the Latines, profitable introduccions, or fore exercises, to attain greater arte and knowlege in _Rhetorike_, [Fol. iiij.v] and bicause, for the easie capacitée and facilitée of the learner, to attain greater knowledge in _Rhetorike_, thei are right pro- fitable and necessarie: Therefore I title this booke, to bee the foundacio[n] of _Rhetorike_, the exercises being _Progimnasmata_. I haue chosen out the fable of the Shepeherdes, and the Wolues, vpon the whiche fable, Demosthenes made an elo- quente, copious, and wittie Oracion before the Athenians, whiche fable was so well applied, that the citée and common wealth of Athens was saued. [Sidenote: The firste exercise.] ¶ A fable. These notes must be obserued, to make an Oracion by a Fable. ¶ Praise. 1. Firste, ye shall recite the fable, as the aucthour telleth it. 2. There in the seconde place, you shall praise the aucthoure who made the fable, whiche praise maie sone bee gotte of any studious scholer, if he reade the aucthours life and actes ther- in, or the Godlie preceptes in his fables, shall giue abundant praise. 3. Then thirdlie place the morall, whiche is the interpreta- cion annexed to the Fable, for the fable was inuented for the moralles sake. 4. Then orderlie in the fowerth place, declare the nature of thynges, conteined in the Fable, either of man, fishe, foule, beaste, plante, trées, stones, or whatsoeuer it be. There is no man of witte so dulle, or of so grosse capacitée, but either by his naturall witte, or by reading, or sences, he is hable to saie somwhat in the nature of any thyng. 5. In the fifte place, sette forthe the thynges, reasonyng one with an other, as the Ant with the Greshopper, or the Cocke with the precious stone. 6. The[n] in the vj. place, make a similitude of the like matter. 7. Then in the seuenth place, induce an exa[m]ple for thesame matter to bée proued by. 8. Laste of all make the _Epilogus_, whiche is called the con- clusion, and herein marke the notes folowyng, how to make [Fol. v.r] an Oracion thereby. ¶ An Oracion made vpon the fable of the Shepeherdes and the wolues. ¶ The fable. THe Wolues on a tyme perswaded the Shepeher- des, that thei would ioyne amitée, and make a league of concord and vnitee: the demaunde plea- sed the Shepeherdes, foorthwith the Wolues re- quested to haue custodie of the bande Dogges, because els thei would be as thei are alwaies, an occasion to breake their league and peace, the Dogges beyng giuen ouer, thei were one by one murthered, and then the Shepe were wearied. ¶ The praise of the aucthour. THe posteritee of tymes and ages, muste needes praise the wisedome and industrie, of all soche as haue lefte in monumentes of writyng, thynges worthie fame, [Sidenote: Inuentours of al excellent artes and sci- ences, com- mended to the posteritee.] what can bee more excellently set foorthe: or what deserueth chiefer fame and glorie, then the knowledge of artes and sci- ences, inuented by our learned, wise, and graue au[n]cestours: and so moche the more thei deserue honour, and perpetuall commendacions, because thei haue been the firste aucthours, and beginners to soche excellencies. The posteritée praiseth [Sidenote: Apelles. Parthesius. Polucletus.] and setteth forth the wittie and ingenious workes of Apelles, Parthesius, and Polucletus, and all soche as haue artificial- ly set forth their excellent giftes of nature. But if their praise for fame florishe perpetuallie, and increaseth for the wor- thines of theim, yet these thynges though moste excellent, are [Sidenote: The ende of all artes, is to godlie life.] inferiour to vertue: for the ende of artes and sciences, is ver- tue and godlines. Neither yet these thynges dissonaunt from vertue, and not associate, are commendable onely for vertues sake: and to the ende of vertue, the wittes of our auncestours were incensed to inuent these thynges. But herein Polucle- tus, Apelles, and Perthesius maie giue place, when greater [Sidenote: Esope wor- thie moche commendacio[n][.]] vertues come in place, then this my aucthour Esope, for his godly preceptes, wise counsaill and admonicion, is chiefly to [Fol. v.v] bée praised: For, our life maie learne all goodnes, all vertue, [Sidenote: Philophie in fables.] of his preceptes. The Philosophers did neuer so liuely sette forthe and teache in their scholes and audience, what vertue [Sidenote: Realmes maie learne concorde out of Esopes fables.] and godlie life were, as Esope did in his Fables, Citees, and common wealthes, maie learne out of his fables, godlie con- corde and vnitee, by the whiche meanes, common wealthes florisheth, and kingdoms are saued. Herein ample matter ri- seth to Princes, and gouernours, to rule their subiectes in all [Sidenote: Preceptes to Kynges and Subiectes. Preceptes to parentes and children.] godlie lawes, in faithfull obedience: the subiectes also to loue and serue their prince, in al his affaires and busines. The fa- ther maie learne to bring vp, and instructe his childe thereby. The child also to loue and obeie his parentes. The huge and monsterous vices, are by his vertuous doctrine defaced and extirpated: his Fables in effect contain the mightie volumes and bookes of all Philosophers, in morall preceptes, & the in- [Sidenote: The content of al Lawes.] finite monume[n]tes of lawes stablished. If I should not speake of his commendacion, the fruictes of his vertue would shewe his commendacions: but that praise surmounteth all fame of [Sidenote: A true praise comme[n]ded by fame it self.] glory, that commendeth by fame itself, the fruictes of fame in this one Fable, riseth to my aucthour, whiche he wrote of the Shepeherd, and the Wolues. ¶ The Morall. WHerein Esope wittely admonisheth all menne to be- ware and take heede, of cloked and fained frendship, of the wicked and vngodlie, whiche vnder a pretence and offer of frendship or of benefite, seeke the ruin, dammage, miserie or destruccion of man, toune, citée, region, or countree. ¶ The nature of the thyng. OF all beastes to the quantitée of his bodie, the [Sidenote: The Wolue moste raue- ning & cruell.] Wolue passeth in crueltee and desire of bloode, alwaies vnsaciable of deuouryng, neuer conten- ted with his pray. The Wolfe deuoureth and ea- teth of his praie all in feare, and therefore oftentymes he ca- steth his looke, to be safe from perill and daunger. And herein [Fol. vj.r] his nature is straunge fro[m] all beastes: the iyes of the Wolfe, tourned from his praie immediatlie, the praie prostrate vnder [Sidenote: The Wolues of all beastes, moste obliui- ous.] his foote is forgotten, and forthwith he seeketh a newe praie, so greate obliuion and debilitée of memorie, is giuen to that beaste, who chieflie seketh to deuoure his praie by night. The [Sidenote: The Wolue inferiour to the bandogge[.]] Wolues are moche inferior to the banddogges in strength, bi- cause nature hath framed the[m] in the hinder parts, moche more weaker, and as it were maimed, and therefore the bandogge dooeth ouermatche theim, and ouercome them in fight. The Wolues are not all so mightie of bodie as the Bandogges, of diuers colours, of fight more sharpe, of lesse heddes: but in [Sidenote: The Dogge passeth all creatures in smellyng.] smellyng, the nature of a Dogge passeth all beastes and creatures, whiche the historie of Plinie dooe shewe, and Ari- stotle in his booke of the historie of beastes, therein you shall knowe their excellente nature. The housholde wanteth not faithfull and trustie watche nor resistaunce, in the cause of the [Sidenote: Plinie.] maister, the Bandogge not wantyng. Plinie sheweth out of his historie, how Bandogges haue saued their Maister, by their resistaunce. The Dogge of all beastes sheweth moste loue, and neuer leaueth his maister: the worthines of the ba[n]- dogge is soche, that by the lawe in a certaine case, he is coun- ted accessarie of Felonie, who stealeth a Bandogge from his maister, a robberie immediatly folowing in thesame family. [Sidenote: The worthi- nes of Shepe[.]] As concernyng the Shepe, for their profite and wealthe, that riseth of theim, are for worthines, waiyng their smalle quantitie of bodie, aboue all beastes. Their fleshe nourisheth purely, beyng swete and pleasaunt: their skinne also serueth [Sidenote: The wolle of Shepe, riche and commo- dious.] to diuers vses, their Wolles in so large and ample maner, commmodious, seruyng all partes of common wealthes. No state or degrée of persone is, but that thei maie goe cladde and adorned with their wolles. So GOD in his creatures, hath [Sidenote: Man a chief creature.] created and made man, beyng a chief creatour, and moste ex- cellent of all other, all thinges to serue him: and therefore the [Sidenote: Stoike Phi- losophers.] Stoicke Philosophers doe herein shewe thexcellencie of man to be greate, when all thinges vpon the yearth, and from the [Fol. vj.v] yearth, doe serue the vse of man, yet emong men there is a di- uersitee of states, and a difference of persones, in office and co[n]- [Sidenote: The office of the shepeher- des, are pro- fitable and necessarie.] dicion of life. As concernyng the Shepherde, he is in his state and condicion of life, thoughe meane, he is a righte profi- table and necessarie member, to serue all states in the commo[n] wealthe, not onely to his maister whom he serueth: for by his diligence, and warie keping of the[m], not onely from rauenyng beastes, but otherwise he is a right profitable member, to all [Sidenote: Wealth, pro- fit, and riches riseth of the Wolles of Shepe.] partes of the common wealth. For, dailie wée féele the co[m]mo- ditie, wealth and riches, that riseth of theim, but the losse wée féele not, except flockes perishe. In the body of man God hath created & made diuerse partes, to make vp a whole and abso- lute man, whiche partes in office, qualitée and worthinesse, are moche differing. The bodie of man it self, for the excellent workemanship of God therein, & meruailous giftes of nature [Sidenote: Man called of the Philo- sophers, a lit- tle worlde.] and vertues, lodged and bestowed in thesame bodie, is called of the Philosophers _Microcosmos_, a little worlde. The body of man in all partes at co[n]cord, euery part executing his func- cion & office, florisheth, and in strength prospereth, otherwise [Sidenote: The bodie of man without concord of the partes, peri- sheth.] thesame bodie in partes disseuered, is feeble and weake, and thereby falleth to ruin, and perisheth. The singuler Fable of Esope, of the belie and handes, manifestlie sheweth thesame [Sidenote: The common wealthe like to the bodie of manne.] and herein a florishing kingdom or common wealth, is com- pared to the body, euery part vsing his pure vertue, stre[n]gth & [Sidenote: Menenius.] operacion. Menenius Agrippa, at what time as the Romai- were at diuision against the Senate, he vsed the Fable of E- sope, wherewith thei were perswaded to a concorde, and vni- [Sidenote: The baseste parte of the bodie moste necessarie.] tée. The vilest parte of the bodie, and baseste is so necessarie, that the whole bodie faileth and perisheth, thesame wantyng although nature remoueth them from our sight, and shame fastnes also hideth theim: take awaie the moste vilest parte of the bodie, either in substaunce, in operacion or function, and forthwith the principall faileth. So likewise in a kyngdome, or common wealth, the moste meane and basest state of man taken awaie, the more principall thereby ceaseth: So God to [Fol. vij.r] [Sidenote: The amiable parte of the body doe con- siste, by the baseste and moste defor- meste.] a mutuall concorde, frendship, and perpetuall societie of life, hath framed his creatures, that the moste principall faileth, it not vnited with partes more base and inferiour, so moche the might and force of thynges excellente, doe consiste by the moste inferiour, other partes of the bodie more amiable and pleasaunt to sight, doe remain by the force, vse and integritée of the simpliest. The Prince and chief peres doe decaie, and al the whole multitude dooe perishe: the baseste kinde of menne [Sidenote: The Shepe- herdes state necessarie.] wantyng. Remoue the Shepeherdes state, what good follo- weth, yea, what lacke and famine increaseth not: to all states [Sidenote: The state of the husbande manne, moste necessarie.] the belie ill fedde, our backes worse clad. The toilyng house- bandman is so necessarie, that his office ceasyng vniuersallie the whole bodie perisheth, where eche laboureth to further and aide one an other, this a common wealth, there is pro- sperous state of life. The wisest Prince, the richest, the migh- tiest and moste valianntes, had nede alwaies of the foolishe, the weake, the base and simplest, to vpholde his kingdomes, not onely in the affaires of his kyngdomes, but in his dome- sticall thinges, for prouisio[n] of victuall, as bread, drinke, meat[,] clothyng, and in all soche other thynges. Therefore, no office or state of life, be it neuer so méete, seruyng in any part of the [Sidenote: No meane state, to be contempned.] common wealthe, muste bée contemned, mocked, or skorned at, for thei are so necessarie, that the whole frame of the com- mon wealth faileth without theim: some are for their wicked behauiour so detestable, that a common wealthe muste séeke [Sidenote: Rotten mem[-] bers of the co[m][-] mon wealth.] meanes to deface and extirpate theim as wéedes, and rotten members of the bodie. These are thefes, murtherers, and ad- ulterers, and many other mischiuous persones. These godly Lawes, vpright and sincere Magistrates, will extirpate and cutte of, soche the commo wealth lacketh not, but rather ab- horreth as an infectiue plague and Pestilence, who in thende through their owne wickednesse, are brought to mischief. [Sidenote: Plato.] Read Plato in his booke, intiteled of the common wealth who sheweth the state of the Prince, and whole Realme, to stande and consiste by the vnitee of partes, all states of the co[m]- [Fol. vij.v] [Sidenote: A common wealth doe consiste by vnitie of all states.] mon wealth, in office diuers, for dignitée and worthines, bea- ring not equalitée in one consociatée and knit, doe raise a per- fite frame, and bodie of kingdome or common wealthe. [Sidenote: Aristotle. What is a co[m]- mon wealth.] Aristotle the Philosopher doeth saie, that a co[m]mon welth is a multitude gathered together in one Citée, or Region, in state and condicion of life differing, poore and riche, high and low, wise and foolishe, in inequalitee of minde and bodies dif- feryng, for els it can not bée a common wealthe. There must be nobles and peres, kyng and subiect: a multitude inferiour and more populous, in office, maners, worthines alteryng. [Sidenote: A liuely exa[m]- ple of commo[n] wealthe.] Manne needeth no better example, or paterne of a common wealthe, to frame hymself, to serue in his state and callyng, then to ponder his owne bodie. There is but one hedde, and many partes, handes, feete, fingers, toes, ioyntes, veines, si- newes, belie, and so forthe: and so likewise in a co[m]mon welth there muste be a diuersitee of states. ¶ The reasonyng of the thynges conteined in this Fable. THus might the Wolues reason with them sel- ues, of their Embassage: The Wolues dailie molested and wearied, with the fearce ragyng Masties, and ouercome in fight, of their power and might: one emong the reste, more politike and wise then the other, called an assemble and counsaill of [Sidenote: The counsail of Wolues.] Wolues, and thus he beganne his oracion. My felowes and compaignions, sithe nature hath from the beginnyng, made vs vnsaciable, cruell, liuyng alwaies by praies murthered, and bloodie spoiles, yet enemies wée haue, that séeke to kepe vnder, and tame our Woluishe natures, by greate mightie Bandogges, and Shepeherdes Curres. But nature at the firste, did so depely frame and set this his peruerse, cruell, and bloodie moulde in vs, that will thei, nill thei, our nature wil bruste out, and run to his owne course. I muse moche, wai- yng the line of our firste progenitour, from whence we came [Fol. viij.r] firste: for of a man wee came, yet men as a pestiferous poison doe exile vs, and abandon vs, and by Dogges and other sub- [Sidenote: Lycaon.] till meanes doe dailie destroie vs. Lycaon, as the Poetes doe faine, excedyng in all crueltées and murthers horrible, by the murther of straungers, that had accesse to his land: for he was king and gouernor ouer the Molossians, and in this we maie worthilie glorie of our firste blood and long auncientrée, that [Sidenote: The firste progenie of Wolues.] he was not onelie a man, but a kyng, a chief pere and gouer- nour: by his chaunge and transubstanciacion of bodie, wée loste by him the honour and dignitee due to him, but his ver- tues wée kepe, and daily practise to followe them. The fame [Sidenote: The inuen- cion of the Poet Ouide to compare a wicked man, to a Wolue.] of Lycaons horrible life, ascended before Iupiter, Iupiter the mightie God, moued with so horrible a facte, left his heauen- lie palace, came doune like an other mortall man, and passed doune by the high mountaine Minalus, by twilighte, and so to Licaons house, our firste auncestoure, to proue, if this [Sidenote: Lycaon.] thing was true. Lycaon receiued this straunger, as it semed doubtyng whether he were a God, or a manne, forthwith he feasted him with mannes fleshe baked, Iupiter as he can doe [Sidenote: Lycaon chau[n]- ged into a Wolue.] what he will, brought a ruine on his house, and transubstan- ciated hym, into this our shape & figure, wherein we are, and so sens that time, Wolues were firste generated, and that of manne, by the chaunge of Lycaon, although our shape is chaunged from the figure of other men, and men knoweth [Sidenote: Wolue. Manne.] vs not well, yet thesame maners that made Wolues, remai- neth vntill this daie, and perpetuallie in men: for thei robbe, thei steale, and liue by iniurious catching, we also robbe, al- so wée steale, and catche to our praie, what wee maie with murther come to. Thei murther, and wee also murther, and so in all poinctes like vnto wicked menne, doe we imitate the like fashion of life, and rather thei in shape of men, are Wol- ues, and wee in the shape of Wolues menne: Of all these thynges hauyng consideracion, I haue inuented a pollicie, whereby we maie woorke a slauter, and perpetuall ruine on the Shepe, by the murther of the Bandogges. And so wée [Fol. viij.v] shall haue free accesse to our bloodie praie, thus we will doe, wee will sende a Embassage to the Shepeherdes for peace, [Sidenote: The counsail of Wolues.] saiyng, that wee minde to ceasse of all bloodie spoile, so that thei will giue ouer to vs, the custodie of the Bandogges, for otherwise the Embassage sent, is in vaine: for their Dogges being in our handes, and murthered one by one, the daunger and enemie taken awaie, we maie the better obtain and en- ioye our bloodie life. This counsaill pleased well the assem- ble of the Wolues, and the pollicie moche liked theim, and with one voice thei houled thus, thus. Immediatlie co[m]muni- cacion was had with the Shepeherdes of peace, and of the gi- uyng ouer of their Bandogges, this offer pleased theim, thei co[n]cluded the peace, and gaue ouer their Bandogges, as pled- ges of thesame. The dogges one by one murthered, thei dis- solued the peace, and wearied the Shepe, then the Shepeher- des repented them of their rashe graunt, and foly committed: [Sidenote: The counsail of wicked me[n] to mischief.] So of like sorte it alwaies chaunceth, tyrauntes and bloodie menne, dooe seke alwaies a meane, and practise pollicies to destroye all soche as are godlie affected, and by wisedome and godlie life, doe seke to subuerte and destroie, the mischeuous [Sidenote: The cogita- cions of wic- ked men, and their kyngdo[m] bloodie.] enterprise of the wicked. For, by crueltie their Woluishe na- tures are knowen, their glorie, strength, kyngdome and re- nowne, cometh of blood, of murthers, and beastlie dealynges and by might so violent, it continueth not: for by violence and blooddie dealyng, their kyngdome at the last falleth by blood and bloodilie perisheth. The noble, wise, graue, and goodlie counsailes, are with all fidelitée, humblenes and sincere har- [Sidenote: The state of counsailours worthie chief honour and veneracion.] tes to be obeied, in worthines of their state and wisedome, to be embraced in chief honour and veneracion to bee taken, by whose industrie, knowledge and experience, the whole bodie of the common wealth and kyngdome, is supported and sa- ued. The state of euery one vniuersallie would come to par- dicion, if the inuasion of foraine Princes, by the wisedom and pollicie of counsailers, were not repelled. The horrible actes of wicked men would burste out, and a confusion ensue in al [Fol. ix.r] states, if the wisedom of politike gouernors, if good lawes if the power and sword of the magistrate, could uot take place. The peres and nobles, with the chief gouernour, standeth as [Sidenote: Plato.] Shepherds ouer the people: for so Plato alledgeth that name well and properlie giuen, to Princes and Gouernours, the [Sidenote: Homere.] which Homere the Poete attributeth, to Agamemnon king of Grece: to Menelaus, Ulisses, Nestor, Achillas, Diomedes, [Sidenote: The Shepe- herdes name giue[n] to the of- fice of kyngs.] Aiax, and al other. For, bothe the name and care of that state of office, can be titeled by no better name in all pointes, for di- ligent kepyng, for aide, succoryng, and with all equitie tem- peryng the multitude: thei are as Shepeherdes els the selie poore multitude, would by an oppression of pestiferous men. The commonaltee or base multitude, liueth more quietlie [Sidenote: The state or good counsai- lers, trou- blous.] then the state of soche as daily seke, to vpholde and maintaine the common wealthe, by counsaill and politike deliberacion, how troublous hath their state alwaies been: how vnquiete from time to time, whose heddes in verie deede, doeth seke for a publike wealth. Therefore, though their honor bée greater, and state aboue the reste, yet what care, what pensiuenesse of minde are thei driuen vnto, on whose heddes aucthoritée and regiment, the sauegard of innumerable people doeth depend. [Sidenote: A comparison from a lesse, to a greater.] If in our domesticall businesse, of matters pertainyng to our housholde, euery man by nature, for hym and his, is pensiue, moche more in so vaste, and infinite a bodie of co[m]mon wealth, greater must the care be, and more daungerous deliberacion. We desire peace, we reioyce of a tranquilitée, and quietnesse to ensue, we wishe, to consist in a hauen of securitée: our hou- ses not to be spoiled, our wiues and children, not to bee mur- [Sidenote: The worthie state of Prin- ces and coun- sailours.] thered. This the Prince and counsailours, by wisedome fore- sée, to kéepe of, all these calamitées, daungers, miseries, the whole multitude, and bodie of the Common wealthe, is without them maimed, weake and feable, a readie confusion to the enemie. Therefore, the state of peeres and nobles, is with all humilitée to be obaied, serued and honored, not with- out greate cause, the Athenians were drawen backe, by the [Fol. ix.v] wisedome of Demosthenes, when thei sawe the[m] selues a slau- ter and praie, to the enemie. ¶ A comparson of thynges. WHat can bée more rashly and foolishly doen, then the Shepeherdes, to giue ouer their Dogges, by whose might and strength, the Shepe were saued: on the o- ther side, what can be more subtlie doen and craftely, then the Wolues, vnder a colour of frendship and amitee, to séeke the [Sidenote: The amitie of wicked menne.] blood of the shepe, as all pestiferous men, vnder a fained pro- fer of amitée, profered to seeke their owne profite, commoditee and wealthe, though it be with ruine, calamitie, miserie, de- struccion of one, or many, toune, or citée, region and countree, whiche sort of men, are moste detestable and execrable. ¶ The contrarie. AS to moche simplicitie & lacke of discrecion, is a fur- theraunce to perill and daunger: so ofte[n]times, he ta- [Sidenote: To beleue lightly, afur- theraunce to perill.] steth of smarte and woe, who lightly beleueth: so con- trariwise, disimulacio[n] in mischeuous practises begon w[ith] fre[n]d- ly wordes, in the conclusion doeth frame & ende pernisiouslie. ¶ The _Epilogus_. THerefore fained offers of frendship, are to bee taken heede of, and the acte of euery man to bee examined, proued, and tried, for true frendship is a rare thyng, when as Tullie doth saie: in many ages there are fewe cou- ples of friendes to be found, Aristotle also co[n]cludeth thesame. ¶ The Fable of the Ante, and Greshopper. ¶ The praise of the aucthour. [Sidenote: The praise of Esope.] ESope who wrote these Fables, hath chief fame of all learned aucthours, for his Philosophie, and giuyng wisedome in preceptes: his Fables dooe shewe vnto all states moste wholsome doctrine of vertuous life. He who- ly extolleth vertue, and depresseth vice: he correcteth all states and setteth out preceptes to amende them. Although he was deformed and ill shaped, yet Nature wrought in hym soche [Fol. x.r] vertue, that he was in minde moste beautifull: and seing that the giftes of the body, are not equall in dignitie, with the ver- tue of the mynde, then in that Esope chiefly excelled, ha- uyng the moste excellente vertue of the minde. The wisedom [Sidenote: Cresus.] and witte of Esope semed singuler: for at what tyme as Cre- sus, the kyng of the Lidians, made warre against the Sami- ans, he with his wisedome and pollicie, so pacified the minde of Cresus, that all warre ceased, and the daunger of the coun- [Sidenote: Samians.] tree was taken awaie, the Samia[n]s deliuered of this destruc- cion and warre, receiued Esope at his retourne with many honours. After that Esope departyng from the Isle Samus, wandered to straunge regions, at the laste his wisedome be- [Sidenote: Licerus.] yng knowen: Licerus the kyng of that countrée, had hym in soche reuerence and honor, that he caused an Image of gold to be set vp in the honour of Esope. After that, he wanderyng [Sidenote: Delphos.] ouer Grece, to the citée of Delphos, of whom he beyng mur- thered, a greate plague and Pestilence fell vpon the citee, that reuenged his death: As in all his Fables, he is moche to bee commended, so in this Fable he is moche to be praised, which he wrote of the Ante and the Greshopper. ¶ The Fable. IN a hotte Sommer, the Grashoppers gaue them sel- ues to pleasaunt melodie, whose Musicke and melo- die, was harde from the pleasaunt Busshes: but the Ante in all this pleasaunt tyme, laboured with pain and tra- uaile, she scraped her liuyng, and with fore witte and wise- [Sidenote: Winter.] dome, preuented the barande and scarce tyme of Winter: for when Winter time aprocheth, the ground ceasseth fro[m] fruict, [Sidenote: The Ante.] then the Ante by his labour, doeth take the fruicte & enioyeth it: but hunger and miserie fell vpon the Greshoppers, who in the pleasaunt tyme of Sommer, when fruictes were aboun- dauute, ceassed by labour to put of necessitée, with the whiche the long colde and stormie tyme, killed them vp, wantyng al sustinaunce. [Fol. x.v] ¶ The Morall. HEre in example, all menne maie take to frame their owne life, and also to bryng vp in godlie educacion their children: that while age is tender and young, thei maie learne by example of the Ante, to prouide in their grene and lustie youth, some meane of art and science, wher- by thei maie staie their age and necessitée of life, al soche as do flie labour, and paine in youth, and seeke no waie of Arte and science, in age thei shall fall in extreme miserie and pouertée. ¶ The nature of the thyng. NOt without a cause, the Philosophers searchyng the nature and qualitee of euery beaste, dooe moche com- [Sidenote: The Ante.] mende the Ante, for prouidence and diligence, in that not oneie by nature thei excell in forewisedome to the[m] selues, [Sidenote: Manne.] but also thei be a example, and mirrour to all menne, in that thei iustlie followe the instincte of Nature: and moche more, where as men indued with reason, and all singulare vertues and excellent qualitées of the minde and body. Yet thei doe so moche leaue reason, vertue, & integritée of minde, as that thei had been framed without reason, indued with no vertue, nor adorned with any excellent qualitée. All creatures as nature hath wrought in them, doe applie them selues to followe na- ture their guide: the Ante is alwaies diligent in his busines, and prouident, and also fore séeth in Sommer, the sharpe sea- son of Winter: thei keepe order, and haue a kyng and a com- mon wealthe as it were, as nature hath taught them. And so haue all other creatures, as nature hath wrought in the[m] their giftes, man onelie leaueth reason, and neclecteth the chief or- namentes of the minde: and beyng as a God aboue all crea- tures, dooeth leese the excellent giftes. A beaste will not take excesse in feedyng, but man often tymes is without reason, and hauyng a pure mynde and soule giuen of God, and a face to beholde the heauens, yet he doeth abase hymself to yearth- [Sidenote: Greshopper.] lie thynges, as concernyng the Greshopper: as the Philoso- phers doe saie, is made altogether of dewe, and sone perisheth[.] [Fol. xj.r] The Greshopper maie well resemble, slothfull and sluggishe persones, who seke onely after a present pleasure, hauyng no fore witte and wisedom, to foresée tymes and ceasons: for it is [Sidenote: A poincte of wisedome.] the poinct of wisedo[m], to iudge thinges present, by thinges past and to take a co[n]iecture of thinges to come, by thinges present. ¶ The reasonyng of the twoo thynges. THus might the Ante reason with her self, althoughe the seasons of the yere doe seme now very hotte, plea- [Sidenote: A wise cogi- tacion.] saunt and fruictfull: yet so I do not trust time, as that like pleasure should alwaies remaine, or that fruictes should alwaies of like sorte abounde. Nature moueth me to worke, and wisedome herein sheweth me to prouide: for what hur- teth plentie, or aboundaunce of store, though greate plentie commeth thereon, for better it is to bee oppressed with plen- tie, and aboundaunce, then to bee vexed with lacke. For, to whom wealthe and plentie riseth, at their handes many bee releued, and helped, all soche as bee oppressed with necessi- tie and miserie, beyng caste from all helpe, reason and proui- dence maimed in theim: All arte and Science, and meane of life cutte of, to enlarge and maintain better state of life, their [Sidenote: Pouertie.] miserie, necessitie, and pouertie, shall continuallie encrease, who hopeth at other mennes handes, to craue relief, is decei- ued. Pouertie is so odious a thing, in al places & states reiected for where lacke is, there fanour, frendship, and acquaintance [Sidenote: Wisedome.] decreaseth, as in all states it is wisedome: so with my self I waie discritlie, to take tyme while tyme is, for this tyme as a [Sidenote: Housebande menne.] floure will sone fade awaie. The housebande manne, hath he not times diuers, to encrease his wealth, and to fill his barne, at one tyme and ceason: the housebande man doeth not bothe plante, plowe, and gather the fruicte of his labour, but in one tyme and season he ploweth, an other tyme serueth to sowe, and the laste to gather the fruictes of his labour. So then, I must forsee time and seasons, wherin I maie be able to beare of necessitie: for foolishly he hopeth, who of no wealth and no abundaunt store, trusteth to maintain his own state. For, no- [Fol. xj.v] [Sidenote: Frendship.] thyng soner faileth, then frendship, and the soner it faileth, as [Sidenote: Homere.] fortune is impouerished. Seyng that, as Homere doeth saie, a slothfull man, giuen to no arte or science, to helpe hymself, or an other, is an vnprofitable burdein to the yearth, and God dooeth sore plague, punishe, and ouerthrowe Citees, kyng- domes, and common wealthes, grounded in soche vices: that the wisedome of man maie well iudge, hym to be vnworthie of all helpe, and sustinaunce. He is worse then a beast, that is not able to liue to hymself & other: no man is of witte so vn- [Sidenote: Nature.] descrite, or of nature so dulle, but that in hym, nature alwa- yes coueteth some enterprise, or worke to frame relife, or help [Sidenote: The cause of our bearth.] to hymself, for all wée are not borne, onelie to our selues, but many waies to be profitable, as to our owne countrie, and all partes thereof. Especiallie to soche as by sickenes, or infirmi- tie of bodie are oppressed, that arte and Science can not take place to help the[m]. Soche as do folowe the life of the Greshop- per, are worthie of their miserie, who haue no witte to foresée seasons and tymes, but doe suffer tyme vndescretly to passe, [Sidenote: Ianus.] whiche fadeth as a floure, thold Romaines do picture Ianus with two faces, a face behind, & an other before, which resem- ble a wiseman, who alwaies ought to knowe thinges paste, thynges presente, and also to be experte, by the experience of many ages and tymes, and knowledge of thynges to come. ¶ The comparison betwene the twoo thynges. WHat can be more descritlie doen, then the Ante to be so prouident and politike: as that all daunger of life, & necessitie is excluded, the stormie times of Winter ceaseth of might, & honger battereth not his walles, hauyng [Sidenote: Prouidence.] soche plentie of foode, for vnlooked bitter stormes and seasons, happeneth in life, whiche when thei happen, neither wisedo[m] nor pollicie, is not able to kepe backe. Wisedome therefore, it is so to stande, that these thynges hurte not, the miserable ende of the Greshopper sheweth vnto vs, whiche maie be an example to all menne, of what degree, so euer thei bee, to flie [Fol. xij.r] slothe and idelnesse, to be wise and discrite. ¶ Of contraries. [Sidenote: Diligence.] AS diligence, prouidence, and discrete life is a singu- lare gift, whiche increaseth all vertues, a pillar, staie and a foundacion of all artes and science, of common wealthes, and kyngdomes. So contrarily sloth and sluggish- nesse, in all states and causes, defaseth, destroyeth, and pul- leth doune all vertue, all science and godlines. For, by it, the mightie kyngdome of the Lidia[n]s, was destroied, as it semeth [Sidenote: Idelnes.] no small vice, when the Lawes of Draco, dooe punishe with death idelnesse. ¶ The ende. [Sidenote: The Ante.] THerefore, the diligence of the Ante in this Fable, not onelie is moche to be commended, but also her example is to bee followed in life. Therefore, the wiseman doeth admonishe vs, to go vnto the Ant and learne prouidence: and also by the Greshopper, lette vs learne to auoide idelnes, leste the like miserie and calamitie fall vpon vs. ¶ Narratio. THis place followyng, is placed of Tullie, after the exordium or beginnyng of Oracion, as the seconde parte: whiche parte of _Rhetorike_, is as it were the light of all the Oracion folowing: conteining the cause, mat- ter, persone, tyme, with all breuitie, bothe of wordes, and in- uencion of matter. ¶ A Narracion. A Narracion is an exposicion, or declaracion of any thyng dooen in deede, or els a settyng forthe, for- ged of any thyng, but so declaimed and declared, as though it were doen. A narracion is of three sortes, either it is a narracion hi- storicall, of any thyng contained, in any aunciente storie, or true Chronicle. [Fol. xij.v] Or Poeticall, whiche is a exposicion fained, set forthe by inuencion of Poetes, or other. Or ciuill, otherwise called Iudiciall, whiche is a matter of controuersie in iudgement, to be dooen, or not dooen well or euill. In euery Narracion, ye must obserue sixe notes. 1. Firste, the persone, or doer of the thing, whereof you intreate. 2. The facte doen. 3. The place wherein it was doen. 4. The tyme in the whiche it was doen. 5. The maner must be shewed, how it was doen. 6. The cause wherevpon it was doen. There be in this Narracion, iiij. other properties belo[n]ging[.] 1. First, it must be plain and euident to the hearer, not obscure, 2. short and in as fewe wordes as it maie be, for soche amatter. 3. Probable, as not vnlike to be true. 4. In wordes fine and elegante. ¶ A narracion historicall, vpon Semiramis Queene of Babilon how and after what sort she obtained the gouernment thereof. [Sidenote: Tyme. Persone.] AFter the death of Ninus, somtime kyng of Ba- bilon, his soonne Ninus also by name, was left to succede hym, in all the Assirian Monarchie, Semiramis wife to Ninus the firste, feared the tender age of her sonne, wherupon she thought [Sidenote: The cause. The facte.] that those mightie nacions and kyngdomes, would not obaie so young and weake a Prince. Wherfore, she kept her sonne from the gouernmente: and moste of all she feared, that thei [Sidenote: The waie how.] would not obaie a woman, forthwith she fained her self, to be the soonne of Ninus, and bicause she would not be knowen to bee a woman, this Quene inuented a newe kinde of tire, the whiche all the Babilonians that were men, vsed by her commaundement. By this straunge disguised tire and appa- rell, she not knowen to bee a woman, ruled as a man, for the [Sidenote: The facte. The place.] space of twoo and fourtie yeres: she did marueilous actes, for she enlarged the mightie kyngdome of Babilon, and builded [Fol. xiij.r] thesame citée. Many other regions subdued, and valiauntlie ouerthrowen, she entered India, to the whiche neuer Prince came, sauing Alexander the greate: she passed not onely men in vertue, counsaill, and valiaunt stomacke, but also the fa- mous counsailours of Assiria, might not contende with her in Maiestie, pollicie, and roialnes. For, at what tyme as thei knewe her a woman, thei enuied not her state, but maruei- led at her wisedome, pollicie, and moderacion of life, at the laste she desiryng the vnnaturall lust, and loue of her soonne Ninus, was murthered of hym. ¶ A narracion historicall vpon kyng Ri- chard the third, the cruell tiraunt[.] [Sidenote: The persone[.]] RIchard duke of Glocester, after the death of Ed- ward the fowerth his brother king of England, vsurped the croune, moste traiterouslie and wic- kedlie: this kyng Richard was small of stature, deformed, and ill shaped, his shoulders beared not equalitee, a pulyng face, yet of countenaunce and looke cruell, malicious, deceiptfull, bityng and chawing his nether lippe: of minde vnquiet, pregnaunt of witte, quicke and liue- ly, a worde and a blowe, wilie, deceiptfull, proude, arrogant [Sidenote: The tyme. The place.] in life and cogitacion bloodie. The fowerth daie of Iulie, he entered the tower of London, with Anne his wife, doughter to Richard Erle of Warwick: and there in created Edward his onely soonne, a child of ten yeres of age, Prince of Wa- les. At thesame tyme, in thesame place, he created many no- ble peres, to high prefermente of honour and estate, and im- mediatly with feare and faint harte, bothe in himself, and his [Sidenote: The horrible murther of king Richard[.]] nobles and commons, was created king, alwaies a vnfortu- nate and vnluckie creacion, the harts of the nobles and com- mons thereto lackyng or faintyng, and no maruaile, he was a cruell murtherer, a wretched caitiffe, a moste tragicall ty- raunt, and blood succour, bothe of his nephewes, and brother George Duke of Clarence, whom he caused to bee drouned in a Butte of Malmsie, the staires sodainlie remoued, wher- [Fol. xiij.v] [Sidenote: The facte.] on he stepped, the death of the lorde Riuers, with many other nobles, compassed and wrought at the young Princes com- myng out of Wales, the .xix. daie of Iuly, in the yere of our lorde .1483. openly he toke vpon him to be king, who sekyng hastely to clime, fell according to his desart, sodainly and in- gloriously, whose Embassage for peace, Lewes the Frenche king, for his mischeuous & bloodie slaughter, so moche abhor- red, that he would neither sée the Embassador, nor heare the Embassage: for he murthered his .ij. nephues, by the handes [Sidenote: The tyme. The maner how.] of one Iames Tirrell, & .ij. vilaines more associate with him the Lieutenaunt refusyng so horrible a fact. This was doen he takyng his waie & progresse to Glocester, whereof he was before tymes Duke: the murther perpetrated, he doubed the good squire knight. Yet to kepe close this horrible murther, he caused a fame and rumour to be spread abrode, in all par- tes of the realme, that these twoo childre[n] died sodainly, there- [Sidenote: The cause.] by thinkyng the hartes of all people, to bee quietlie setteled, no heire male lefte a liue of kyng Edwardes children. His mischief was soche, that God shortened his vsurped raigne: he was al together in feare and dread, for he being feared and dreaded of other, did also feare & dread, neuer quiete of minde faint harted, his bloodie conscience by outward signes, conde[m]- pned hym: his iyes in euery place whirlyng and caste about, [Sidenote: The state of a wicked ma[n].] his hand moche on his Dagger, the infernall furies tormen- ted him by night, visions and horrible dreames, drawed him from his bedde, his vnquiet life shewed the state of his consci- ence, his close murther was vttered, fro[m] the hartes of the sub- iectes: thei called hym openlie, with horrible titles and na- mes, a horrible murtherer, and excecrable tiraunt. The peo- [Sidenote: A dolefull state of a quene.] ple sorowed the death of these twoo babes, the Queene, kyng Edwardes wife, beeyng in Sanctuarie, was bestraught of witte and sences, sounyng and falling doune to the grounde as dedde, the Quéene after reuiued, knéeled doune, and cal- led on God, to take vengaunce on this murtherer. The con- science of the people was so wounded, of the tolleracion of the [Fol. xiiij.r] [Sidenote: The wicked facte of kyng Richard, a horror and dread to the commons.] facte, that when any blustryng winde, or perilous thonder, or dreadfull tempest happened: with one voice thei cried out and quaked, least God would take vengauce of them, for it is al- waies séen the horrible life of wicked gouernors, bringeth to ruin their kyngdom and people, & also wicked people, the like daungers to the kyngdome and Prince: well he and his sup- porters with the Duke of Buckyngham, died shamefullie. [Sidenote: God permit meanes, to pull doune tyrauntes.] The knotte of mariage promised, betwene Henrie Erle of Richemonde, and Elizabeth doughter to kyng Edward the fowerth: caused diuerse nobles to aide and associate this erle, fledde out of this lande with all power, to the attainmente of the kyngdome by his wife. At Nottyngham newes came to kyng Richard, that the Erle of Richmonde, with a small co[m]- paignie of nobles and other, was arriued in Wales, forthe- with exploratours and spies were sent, who shewed the Erle [Sidenote: Lichefelde. Leicester.] to be encamped, at the toune of Litchfield, forthwith all pre- paracion of warre, was set forthe to Leicester on euery side, the Nobles and commons shranke from kyng Richarde, his [Sidenote: Bosworthe[.]] power more and more weakened. By a village called Bos- worthe, in a greate plaine, méete for twoo battailes: by Lei- cester this field was pitched, wherin king Richard manfully fightyng hande to hande, with the Erle of Richmonde, was [Sidenote: Kyng Ri- chard killed in Bosworth fielde.] slaine, his bodie caried shamefullie, to the toune of Leicester naked, without honor, as he deserued, trussed on a horse, be- hinde a Purseuaunte of Armes, like a hogge or a Calfe, his hedde and his armes hangyng on the one side, and his legges on the other side: caried through mire and durte, to the graie Friers churche, to all men a spectacle, and oprobrie of tiran- nie this was the cruell tirauntes ende. ¶ A narracion historicall, of the commyng of Iulius Cesar into Britaine. [Sidenote: The tyme. The persone.] WHen Iulius Cesar had ended his mightie and huge battailes, about the flood Rhene, he marched into the regio[n] of Fraunce: at thesame time repairing with a freshe multitude, his Legio[n]s, but the chief cause of his warre [Fol. xiiij.v] in Fraunce was, that of long time, he was moued in minde, [Sidenote: The cause. The fame and glorie of Britaine.] to see this noble Islande of Britain, whose fame for nobilitée was knowen and bruted, not onelie in Rome, but also in the vttermoste la[n]des. Iulius Cesar was wroth with the[m], because in his warre sturred in Fraunce, the fearce Britaines aided the Fenche men, and did mightilie encounter battaill with the Romaines: whose prowes and valiaunt fight, slaked the proude and loftie stomackes of the Romaines, and droue the[m] [Sidenote: The prowes of Iulius Cesar.] to diuerse hasardes of battaill. But Cesar as a noble warrier preferryng nobilitee, and worthinesse of fame, before money or cowardly quietnes: ceased not to enter on y^e fearce Britai- nes, and thereto prepared his Shippes, the Winter tyme fo- lowyng, that assone as oportunitee of the yere serued, to passe [Sidenote: The maner how. Cesars com- municacion with the mar[-] chauntes, as concernyng the lande of Britaine.] with all power against them. In the meane tyme, Cesar in- quired of the Marchauntes, who with marchaundise had ac- cesse to the Islande: as concernyng the qua[n]titée and bignes of it, the fashion and maner of the people, their lawes, their or- der, and kinde of gouernmente. As these thynges were in all poinctes, vnknowen to Cesar, so also the Marchau[n]tes knewe [Sidenote: The ware & politike go- uernement of y^e Britaines. Aliaunce in tyme traite- rous.] no more tha[n] the places bordring on the sea side. For, the Bri- taines fearing the traiterous and dissembled hartes of aliau[n]- ces, politikelie repelled them: for, no straunger was suffered to enter from his Shippe, on the lande, but their marchaun- dice were sold at the sea side. All nacions sought to this land, the felicitee of it was so greate, whereupon the Grekes kno- wyng and tastyng the commoditée of this Islande, called it by [Sidenote: Britain som- tyme called of the Grekes Olbion, not Albion.] a Greke name _Olbion_, whiche signifieth a happie and fortu- nate countrie, though of some called _Albion_, tyme chaunged the firste letter, as at this daie, London is called for the toune of kyng Lud. Cesar thereupon before he would marche with [Sidenote: Caius Uo- lusenus, Em[-] bassadour to Britaine.] his armie, to the people of Britain, he sent Caius Uolusenus a noble man of Rome, a valiaunte and hardie Capitaine, as Embassadour to the Britaines, who as he thoughte by his Embassage, should knowe the fashion of the Island, the ma- ner of the people, their gouernemente. But as it seemeth, the [Fol. xv.r] Embassadour was not welcome. For, he durste not enter fro[m] his Ship, to dooe his maisters Embassage, Cesar knewe no- [Sidenote: Comas A- trebas, seco[n]de Embassador from Cesar.] thing by him. Yet Cesar was not so contented, but sent an o- ther Embassadour, a man of more power, stomack, and more hardie, Comas Atrebas by name, who would enter as an Embassadour, to accomplish the will & expectacion of Cesar, Comas Atrebas was so welcome, that the Britains cast him in prison: Embassages was not common emong theim, nor the curteous vsage of Embassadours knowen. Al these thin- ges, made Cesar more wrothe, to assaie the vncourtous Bris[-] [Sidenote: Cassibelane king of Lon- don, at the a- riue of Cesar[.] Cassibelane a worthie Prince.] taines. In those daies Cassibelan was kyng of London, this Cassibelan was a prince of high wisedom, of manly stomacke and valiaunt in fight: and for power and valiauntnesse, was chosen of the Britaines, chief gouernour and kyng. Dissen- cion and cruell warre was emong the[m], through the diuersitie of diuers kinges in the lande. The Troinouau[n]tes enuied the [Sidenote: Imanue[n]cius[.]] state of Cassibelan, bicause Immanuencius, who was kyng of London, before Cassibelan, was put to death, by the coun- sail of Cassibelan. The sonne of Immanuencius, hearing of the commyng of Cesar, did flie traiterouslie to Cesar: The Troinouauntes fauoured Immanue[n]cius part, & thereupon [Sidenote: The Troy- nouauntes by treason let in Cesar.] promised, as moste vile traitours to their countrie, an ente- ryng to Cesar, seruice and homage, who through a self will, and priuate fauour of one, sought the ruine of their countrie, and in the ende, their own destruccion. But Cassibelan gaue many ouerthrowes to Cesar, and so mightelie encountred with hym, so inuincible was the parte of Cassibelane: but by treason of the Troinouauntes, not by manhod of Cesars po- wer, enteryng was giuen. What house can stande, where- [Sidenote: Treason a confusion to the mightiest dominions.] in discord broile? What small power, is not able to enter the mightiest dominions or regions: to ouercome the strongeste fortresse, treason open the gate, treason giuyng passage. Al- though Cesar by treason entered, so Cesar writeth. Yet the fame of Cesar was more commended, for his enterprise into Britain, and victorie: then of all his Conquest, either against [Fol. xv.v] [Sidenote: A sente[n]ce gra[-] uen of Bri- taine, in the commendaci- on of Cesar.] Pompey, or with any other nacion. For in a Piller at Rome this sentence was engrauen: Of all the dominions, Citees, and Regions, subdued by Cesar, his warre atte[m]pted against the fearce Britaines, passeth all other. After this sort Cesar entred our Islande of Britaine by treason. ¶ A narracion iudiciall, out of Theusidides, vpon the facte of Themistocles. THe Athenians brought vnder the thraldome of the Lacedemonians, soughte meanes to growe mightie, and to pull them from the yoke, vnder the Lacedemonians. Lacedemonia was a citee enuironed with walles. Athenes at thesame tyme without walles: whereby their state was more feeble, and power weakened. Themistocles a noble Sage, and a worthie pere of Athens: gaue the Athenia[n]s counsaile to wall their citée stro[n]gly, and so forthwith to be lordes and rulers by them selues, after their owne facion gouerning. In finishing this enterprise, in all poinctes, policie, and wittie conuei- aunce wanted not. The Lacedemonians harde of the pur- pose of the Athenians, & sent Embassadours, to knowe their doynges, and so to hinder them. Themistocles gaue counsaill to the Athenians, to kepe in safe custodie, the Embassadours of Lacedemonia, vntill soche tyme, as he from the Embas- sage was retourned fro[m] Lacedemonia. The Lacedemonians hearyng of the commyng of Themistocles, thought little of the walle buildyng at Athens. Themistocles was long loo- ked for of the[m], because Themistocles lingered in his Embas- sage, that or the matter were throughly knowen: the walle of Athens should be builded. The slowe commyng of The- mistocles, was blamed of the Lacedemonians: but Themi- stocles excused hymself, partly infirmitie of bodie, lettyng his commyng, and the expectacion of other, accompaignied with hym in this Embassage. The walle ended, necessitie not artificiall workemanship finishing it, with al hast it was ended: then Themistocles entered the Senate of Lacedemo- [Fol. xvj.r] nia, and saied: the walle whom ye sought to let, is builded at Athens, ye Lacedemonians, that wee maie be more strong. Then the Lacedemonians could saie nothyng to it, though thei enuied the Athenians state, the walle was builded, and leste thei should shewe violence or crueltie on Themistocles, their Embassabours were at Athens in custodie, whereby Themistocles came safe from his Embassage, and the Athe- nians made strong by their walle: this was politikely dooen of Themistocles. ¶ A narracion Poeticall vpon a Rose. WHo so doeth maruaile at the beautée and good- ly colour of the redde Rose, he must consider the blood, that came out of Uenus the Goddes foot. The Goddes Uenus, as foolishe Poetes dooe feigne, beyng the aucthour of Loue: loued Ado- nis the soonne of Cynara kyng of Cypres. But Mars called the God of battaile, loued Uenus, beyng nothyng loued of Uenus: but Mars loued Uenus as feruently, as Uenus lo- ued Adonis. Mars beyng a God, loued Uenus a goddes, but Uenus onely was inflamed with the loue of Adonis, a mor- tall man. Their loue was feruent, and exremely set on fire in bothe, but their kinde and nature were contrary, wherev- pon Mars beyng in gelousie, sought meanes to destroie, faire amiable, and beautifull Adonis, thinkyng by his death, the loue of Uenus to be slaked: Adonis and Mars fell to fighting Uenus as a louer, ranne to helpe Adonis her louer, and by chaunce she fell into a Rose bushe, and pricked with it her foote, the blood then ran out of her tender foote, did colour the Rose redde: wherevpon the Rose beyng white before, is v- pon that cause chaunged into redde. [¶] _Chria._ _CHria_, this profitable exercise of _Rhetorike_, is for the porfite of it so called: it is a rehersall in fewe wordes, of any ones fact, or of the saiyng of any man, vpo[n] the [Fol. xvj.v] whiche an oracion maie be made. As for example, Isocrates did say, that the roote of learnng was bitter, but the fruictes pleasaunt: and vpon this one sentence, you maie dilate a am- ple and great oracion, obseruyng these notes folowyng. The saiyng dooeth containe so greate matter, and minister soche plentie of argumente. Aucthors intreatyng of this exercise, doe note three sortes to bee of theim, one of theim a _Chria verball_, that is to saie, a profitable exercise, vpon the saiyng of any man, onely con- teinyng the wordes of the aucthour, as the sentence before. The seconde is, conteinyng the facte or deede of the per- sone: As Diogines beyng asked of Alexander the Greate, if he lacked any thyng, that he was able to giue hym, thinkyng his demau[n]de vnder his power, for Diogenes was at thesame tyme warmyng hymself in the beames of the Sunne: Dio- genes aunswered, ye take awaie that, that ye are not able to giue, meanyng that Alexander by his bodie, shadowed hym, and tooke awaie that, whiche was not in his power to giue, Alexander tourned hymself to his men, and saied, if I were not Alexander, I would be Diogenes. The thirde is a _Chria_ mixt, bothe _verball_ and notyng the facte, as Diogenes seyng a boie wanton & dissolute, did strike his teacher with a staffe, vtteryng these woordes: why dooest thou teache thy scholer so dissolutlie. You shall learne to make this exercise, obseruyng these notes. Firste, you shall praise the aucthour, who wrote the sen- tence, waighing his life, if his life be vnknowen, and not easie to finde his sentence or sentences: for godlie preceptes will minister matter of praise, as if these saiynges bee recited, thei are sufficient of them selues, to praise the aucthour. Then in the seconde place, expounde the meanyng of the aucthour in that saiyng. Then shewe the cause, why he spake this sentence. Then compare the matter, by a contrary. [Fol. xvij.r] Then frame a similitude of thesame. Shewe the like example of some, that spake the like, or did the like. Then gather the testimonies of more writers of thesame[.] Then knit the conclusion. ¶ An Oracion. ISocrates did saie, that the roote of learnyng is was bit- ter, but the fruictes were pleasaunt. ¶ The praise. THis Oratour Isocrates, was an Athenian borne, [Sidenote: Lusimachus[.]] who florished in the time of Lusimachus the chief gouernor of Athens: this Isocrates was brought vp in all excelle[n]cie of learning, with the moste fa- [Sidenote: Prodicus. Gorgias Le- ontinus.] mous and excellent Oratour Prodicus, Gorgias Leontinus indued him with all singularitie of learnyng and eloquence. The eloque[n]ce of Isocrates was so famous, that Aristotle the [Sidenote: Demosthe- nes learned eloquence of Isocrates.] chief Pholosopher, enuied his vertue & praise therin: Demo- sthenes also, who emong the Grecians chieflie excelled, lear- ned his eloquence, of the Oracions whiche Isocrates wrote, to many mightie and puisaunt princes and kinges, do shewe his wisedome, & copious eloque[n]ce, as to Demonicus the king to Nicocles, Euagoras, against Philip the king of the Mace- donia[n]s, by his wisedome and counsaill, the Senate and vni- uersal state of Athens was ruled, & the commons and multi- tude thereby in euery part florished: chieflie what counsaill, what wisedome, what learnyng might bee required, in any man of high fame and excellencie: that fame was aboundant[-] ly in Isocrates, as in all his Oratio[n]s he is to be praised, so in this sentence, his fame importeth like commendacion. ¶ The exposicion. IN that he saieth, the roote of learnyng is bitter, and the fruictes pleasaunt: he signifieth no excellent qua- [Sidenote: All excellen- cie with labor is attained.] litie or gift, vertue, arte or science can bee attained, except paine, labour, diligence, doe plant and sette thesame: [Fol. xvij.v] but when that noble gift, either learnyng, or any excellente qualitee, is lodged and reposed in vs, then we gather by pain- full labours, greate profite, comforte, delectable pleasures, wealth, glorie, riches, whiche be the fruictes of it. ¶ The cause. AND seyng that of our owne nature, all men are en- clined from their tender yeres and infancie, to the ex- tirpacion of vertue, folowyng with all earnest studie and gréedie, the free passage to vice, and specially children, whose iudgementes and reason, are not of that strengthe, to rule their weake mindes and bodies, therefore, in them chief- lie, the roote of learning is bitter, because not onely many ye- res thei runne their race, in studie of arte and science. With care and paine also, with greuous chastisment and correccio[n], thei are compelled by their teachers and Maisters, to appre- hende thesame: the parentes no lesse dreaded, in the educacio[n] of their children, in chastisement and correction, so that by all [Sidenote: The roote of learnyng bit- ter.] meanes, the foundacion and roote of all learnyng, in what sort so euer it is, is at the firste vnpleasaunte, sower, and vn- sauerie. To folowe the times and seasons, appoincted for the same, is moste painfull, and in these painfull yeres: other greate pleasures, as the frailtie of youth, and the imbecilitie of nature iudgeth, dooeth passe by, but in miserable state is [Sidenote: Who is a vn- fortunate childe.] that childe, and vnfortunate, that passeth the flower of his youth and tender yeres, instructed with no arte or Science, whiche in tyme to come, shalbe the onelie staie, helpe, the pil- ler to beare of the sore brent, necessitie, and calamities of life. [Sidenote: Good educa- cion the foun- dacion of the Romaine Empire.] Herein the noble Romaines, laied the sure foundacion of their mightie dominion, in the descrite prouidente, and poli- tike educacion of children: to whom the Grecians gaue, that necessarie bulwarke and faundacion, to set vp all vertue, all arte and science. In Grece no man was knowen, to liue in that common wealth, but that his arte and science, gaue ma- nifest probacion and testimonie, how and after what sorte he liued. The Romaines in like sorte, the sworde and aucthori- [Fol. xviij.r] tie of the Magistrate, executyng thesame, did put forthe, and draw to the attainment of learnyng, art or science, all youth hauyng maturitie and ripenesse to it, and why, because that in a common wealth, where the parentes are vndescrete and foolishe, as in all common wealthes, there are not a fewe, but many, thei not ponderyng the state of the tyme to come, bringing vp their children without all ciuilitie, vnframed to vertue, ignoraunt of all arte and science: the children of their owne nature, vnbrideled, vntaught, wilfull, and heddie, doe run with free passage to all wickednes, thei fall into al kinde of follie, oppressed with all kinde of calamitie, miserie, and [Sidenote: Euill educa- cion bringeth to ruine migh[-] tie kingdoms[.]] vnfortunate chaunces, whiche happen in this life. Nothyng doeth soner pulle doune a kyngdome, or common wealthe, then the euill and leude educacion of youth, to whom neither substaunce, wealth, riches, nor possessions doe descende, from their auncestours and parentes, who also of them selues wa[n]t all art, science and meanes, to maintain them to liue, who of them selues are not able to get relief, for onely by this mea- nes, life is maintained, wealth and riches ar possessed to ma- ny greate siegniories, landes, and ample possessions, left by their parentes, and line of auncetours, haue by lacke of ver- tuous educacion, been brought to naught, thei fell into ex- treme miserie, pouertie, and wantyng learnyng, or wealth, to maintaine their state and delicate life, thei haue robbed, spoiled, murthered, to liue at their owne will. But then as rotten, dedde, and putride members fro[m] the common wealth thei are cutte of by the sworde, and aucthoritie of the Magi- strate. What kyngdome was more mightie and strong, then [Sidenote: Lydia.] the kyngdome of Lidia, whiche by no other meanes was brought to ruine and destruccion, but by idlenes: in that thei were kepte from all vertuous exercise, from the studie of ar- tes and sciences, so longe as thei meditated and liued in the schoole of vertuous life: no nacion was hable to ouerthrowe them, of them selues thei were prone and readie, to practise all [Sidenote: Cyrus.] excellencie. But Cyrus the kyng of Persians, by no other [Fol. xviij.v] meanes was able to bring them weaker. He toke from the[m] al furtherance to artes, destroied all occupacio[n]s of vertue wher- vpon by commaundeme[n]t aud terrour, wer driuen to practise [Sidenote: The decay of a kyngdome.] the vaine and pestiferous practise, of Cardes and Dice. Har- lottes then schooled them, and all vnhoneste pastyme nurte- red them, Tauernes an quaffyng houses, was their accusto- med and moste frequented vse of occupacion: by this meanes their nobilitie and strengthe was decaied, and kyngdome made thrall. Ill educacion or idlenes, is no small vice or euill when so mightie a prince, hauyng so large dominions, who[m] all the Easte serued and obaied. Whose regimente and go- uernemente was so infinite, that as Zenophon saieth, tyme [Sidenote: The mightie dominions of Cyrus.] would rather want, then matter to speake of his mightie and large gouernement, how many nacions, how diuerse people and valiaunte nacions were in subieccion to hym. If this mightie Prince, with all his power and populous nacions, was not hable to giue the ouerthrowe, to the kyngdome of [Sidenote: Euill educa- cion.] Lidia, but by ill educacion, not by marciall atte[m]ptes, sworde or battaill: but by giuyng them scope and libertie, to dooe as he would. No doubt but that Cyrus sawe, by the like exam- ple of other kyngdomes, this onelie pollicie to bee a ruine [Sidenote: Pithagoras.] of that kyngdome. Pythagoras the famous and godlie Phi- losopher, saued the kyngdome and people of Crotona, thei leauyng all studie of arte, vertue and science. This people of [Sidenote: Catona.] Crotona, was ouercome of the people of Locrus, thei left all exercise of vertue, neclectyng the feates of chiualrie, whervpo[n] Pythagoras hauyng the profitable and godlie lawes of Ly- curgus, which he brought from Lacedemonia: and the lawes of Minos kyng of Creta, came to the people of Crotona, and by his godlie teachyng and Philosophie, reuoked & brought backe the people, giuen ouer to the neglectyng of all vertue, declaryng to them the nobilitie and excellencie thereof, he li- uely set foorthe the beastlinesse of vice. Pithagoras recited to them, the fall and ruine of many regions, and mightie king- domes, whiche tooke after those vices. Idlenes beyng forsa- [Fol. xix.r] ken, vertue embrased, and good occupacions practised, the kyngdome and people grewe mightie. [Sidenote: Lycurgus.] Emong the godlie lawes of Lycurgus, Lycurgus omit- ted not to ordaine Lawes, for the educacion of youthe: in the whiche he cutte of all pamperyng of them, because in tender yeres, in whose bodies pleasure harboreth, their vertue, sci- ence, cunnyng rooteth not: labour, diligence, and industrie [Sidenote: Uertue. Uice.] onelie rooteth vertue, and excellencie. Uices as vnprofitable weedes, without labour, diligence and industrie growe vp, and thereby infecteth the minde and bodie, poisoneth all the mocions, incensed to vertue and singularitie. Who euer at- tained cunnyng, in any excellent arte or science, where idle- nes or pleasure helde the swaie. Philosophie sheweth, plea- [Sidenote: Pleasure. Idlenes. Ignoraunce.] sure to bée vnmete for any man of singularitie, for pleasure, idlenes, and ignoraunce, are so linked together, that the pos- session of the one, induceth the other. So many godlie monu- me[n]tes of learning, had not remained to this posteritie of ours and of all ages: if famous men in those ages and tymes, had hu[n]ted after immoderate pleasure. Thindustrie of soche, who left to the posteritie of all ages, the knowlege of Astronomie is knowen: the monumentes of all learnyng of lawes, and of all other woorkes of antiquitie, by vertue, noble, by indu- strie, labour, and moderacion of life in studie, not by plea- sure and wantones, was celebraied to all ages. The migh- tie volumes of Philosophers, bothe in morall preceptes, and in naturall causes, knewe not the delicate and dissolute life of these our daies. Palingenius enueighyng against the pa[m]- pered, and lasciuious life of man, vttereth a singulare sente[n]ce _Qui facere et qui nosce, cupit quam plurima et altum, In terris virtute aliqua sibi querere nomen: Hunc vigilare opus est, nam non preclara geruntur, Stertendo, et molles detrectat gloria plumas._ Who so coueteth to purchase fame by actes, or whose minde hunteth for aboundaunte knowledge, or by vertue in this life, to purchause good fame. He had not nede to slugge [Fol. xix.v] and slepe in his doynges: for good fame is not vpholded by gaie Pecockes feathers. Of this, Demosthenes the famous Oratour of Athens, vttereth a worthie saiyng to the Athe- nians in his Epistle: if any will iudge Alexander the greate, to be famous and happie, in that he had successe in all his do- [Sidenote: Alexander the great, co[m]- mended for diligence.] ynges, let this be his cogitacion, that Alexander the greate, alwaies did inure hymself to doe thynges, and manfullie to assaie that he enterprised. The felicitie of his successe came to hym not slepyng, or not cogitatyng thereof: Alexander the greate now dedde, Fortune seketh with whom she maie ac- companie, and associate her self. Thusidides comparyng the Lacedemonians, and the A- thenians together, shewed a rare moderacion, and tempera- ture of life, to be in the Athenians: wherupon thei are moste commended, and celebrated to the posteritie. ¶ The contrarie. EUen as idlenes and a sluggishe life, is moste pleasant to all soche, as neglecte vertuous exercises, and god- lie life. So paine, labour, and studie, bestowed and emploied, in the sekyng out of vertue, arte, or science is moste pleasaunt to well affected mindes: for no godlie thyng can be attained to, without diligence and labour. ¶ The similitude. EUen as housbandmen, with labour and trauaile, dooe labour in plantyng and tillyng the grounde, before thei receiue any fruicte of thesame. Euen so no vertue, arte, or science, or any other thyng of ex- cellencie is attained, without diligence and labour bestowed thereto. ¶ The example. LEt Demosthenes, the famous Oratour of Athenes, bee an example of diligence to vs, who to auoide all let from studie, vsed a meanes to kepe hymself ther- to: preuentyng also the industrie of artificers. Thesame De- [Fol. xx.r] mosthenes, wrote seuen tymes out the storie of Thusidides, to learne thereby his eloquence and wisedome. ¶ The testimonie. PLinie, Plato, and Aristotle, with many other mo, are like examples for diligence to vs: who wrote vpon vertue and learnyng like sentences. ¶ The conclusion. THerefore, Isocrates dooeth pronounce worthelie, the roote of learning and vertue to be bitter, and the fru- tes pleasaunte. ¶ A Sentence. THe Oracion, whiche must be made by a sente[n]ce is in al partes like to _Chria_, the profitable exer- cise, onelie that the Oracion made vpon a sen- tence, as aucthours do saie: hath not alwaie the name of the aucthour prefixed in the praise, a small matter of difference, who so can make the one, is ex- pert and exquisite in the other, aucthours doe define a sente[n]ce in this maner. A sentence is an Oracion, in fewe woordes, shewyng a godlie precept of life, exhorting or diswadyng: the [Sidenote: _Gnome._] Grekes dooe call godly preceptes, by the name of _Gnome_, or _Gnomon_, whiche is asmoche to saie, a rule or square, to direct any thyng by, for by them, the life of manne is framed to all singularitie. Thei are diuers sortes of sentences, one exhor- teth, an other diswadeth, some onely sheweth: there is a sen- tence simple, compounde, profitable, true, & soche like. Frame your Oracion vpon a sentence, as in the Oracion before. { 1. The praise of the aucthour. { 2. The exposicion of the sentence. { 3. A confirmacion in the strength of the cause. { 4. A conference, of the contrarie. { 5. A similitude. { 6. The example. { 7. The testimonie of aucthors, shewing y^e like. { 8. Then adde the conclusion. [Fol. xx.v] ¶ An Oracion vpon a sentence. ¶ The sentence. In a common wealthe or kyngdome, many kynges to beare rule, is verie euill, let there be but one kyng. ¶ The praise of the aucthour. HOmere, who of all the Poetes chiefly excelled, spake this sentence in the persone of Ulisses, vpon the king Agamemnon, kyng of Grece. This Homere intrea- ting of all princely affaires, and greate enterprices of the Grecians: and of the mightie warre againste the Troians, emong whom soche discorde rose, that not onely the warre, for lacke of vnitie and concorde, continued the space of tenne yeres. But also moche blood shed, hauocke, and destruccion, came vpon the Grecians, vttered this sente[n]ce. This Homere for his learnyng and wisedome remaineth, intteled in many monumentes of learnyng: with greate fame and commen- [Sidenote: The praise of Homere.] dacion to all ages. What Region, Isle, or nacion is not, by his inuencion set foorthe: who although he were blinde, his minde sawe all wisedome, the states of all good kyngdomes [Sidenote: The content of Homers bookes.] and common wealthes. The verie liuely Image of a Prince or gouernour, the faithfull and humble obedie[n]ce of a subiect, toward the prince, the state of a capitaine, the vertue and no- ble qualities, that are requisite, in soche a personage, be there set forthe. The perfite state of a wiseman, and politike, is in- treated of by hym. The Iustice, and equitie of a Prince, the strength of the bodie, all heroicall vertues: also are set forthe his eloquence and verse, floweth in soche sorte, with soche pleasauntnes: so copious, so aboundaunt, so graue and sen- tencious, that his singularitie therein excelleth, and passeth. [Sidenote: Alexander.] The mightie prince Alexander, in all his marciall enter- prices, and great conquestes, did continually night by night, [Sidenote: The Ilias of Homere, mete for prin- ces to looke vpon.] reade somewhat of the Ilias of the Poete Homere, before he slepte, and askyng for the booke, saied: giue me my pillowe. Alexander as it semeth, learned many heroical vertues, poli- cie, wisedome, & counsaill thereof, els he occupied in so migh- [Fol. xxj.r] tie and greate warres, would not emploied studie therein. Iulius Cesar the Emperour, commendeth this Poete, for his singularitie, his commendacion giueth, ample argu- ment, in this singulare sentence, whiche preferreth a Monar- chie aboue all states of common wealthes or kyngdome. ¶ The exposicion. HOmere the Poete, signified by this one sentence, no kyngdome or common wealthe can prospere, or flo- rishe to continue, where many holde gouernement as kynges. For, the mindes of many rulers and princes, doe moste affecte a priuate wealthe, commoditie and glorie: and where, many doe beare soche swaie and dominion, the com- mon wealth can not be good. For, thei priuatly to theim sel- ues, doe beare that regiment, and alwaie with the slaughter of many, do seke to attain and clime, to the whole gouerme[n]t[.] ¶ The cause. [Sidenote: The state of many kinges in one lande.] MAny occasions dooe rise, whereby many princes, and gouernours in a common wealth, be diuerslie affec- ted, so that the gouernme[n]t of many, can not prosper. For, bothe in quiete state, their counsailes must bee diuerse, and vncertaine: and where thei so differ, the kyngdome stan- deth in great ieopardy and daunger. Isocrates intreatyng of [Sidenote: Athenes.] a Monarchie, sheweth that the common wealth of Athenes, whiche detested and refused, that forme and state, after the ruine and fall of their citee: beyng vnder the thraldome of the Lacedemonia[n]s, bothe in their externall chiualrie and feates, bothe by sea and by lande, and also in regimente otherwise, their citee grewe mightie, and state stedfast. [Sidenote: Carthage in a monarchie.] The Carthagineans also, gouerned by one, had their go- uernment stedfaste, and kyngdome roiall: who in puisaunte actes, might compare with the noble Romaines. As the obe- dience to one ruler and chief gouernour, sekyng a common wealth, is in the hartes of the subiectes: feruent and maruei- lous with loue embraced, so the Maiestie of hym is dreade, [Fol. xxj.v] with loue serued, and with sincere harte, and fidelitie obeied, [Sidenote: The state of many kinges in one lande.] his maners folowed, his lawes imitated. Many gouernours bearyng regiment, as their maners be diuers, and fashion of life: euen so the people bee like affected, to the diuersitie of di- uers princes. And if we weigh the reuolucion of the heauens and the marueiles of God therein, the maker of thesame, who [Sidenote: A monarchie in heauen.] beyng one God, ruleth heauen and yearth, and all thynges co[n]tained in thesame. The heauen also adorned with many a [Sidenote: One Sunne[.]] starre, and cleare light, haue but one Sunne to gouerne the[m]: who being of a singulare vertue aboue the rest, by his vertue and power, giueth vertue to the reste. Also in small thynges [Sidenote: The Ante. The Bee.] the Ante and the Bee, who for prouidence and wisedome, ar moche commended: haue as it were a common wealth, and a king to gouerne the[m], so in all thinges as a confusion, the state of many kings is abhorred in gouernme[n]t. After the death of [Sidenote: Constancius[.] Licinius[.] Marabodius[.]] Constantinus the greate, Constancius his sonne was made Emperour, and Licinius with him, partaker in felowship of the Empire. But forthwith, what blood was shed in Italie, with all crueltie, vntill Constancius had slaine Licinius, partaker of the Empire, and Marabodius was slaine also, whom Licinius did associate with hym in the gouernment. So moche princes and chief gouernours, doe hate equalitie, [Sidenote: Pompey. Cesar. Marius. Silla.] or felowship in kingdomes. After thesame sort, in this migh- tie Monarchie of Rome, diuerse haue attempted at one and sondrie tymes, to beare the scepter and regiment therein, but that mightie Monarchie, could not suffer but one gouernor. The kyngdome of Thebes, was in miserable state, the twoo sonnes of Oedipus, Eteocles, and Polunices: striuing bothe [Sidenote: Assiria the first monar- chie.] to be Monarche, and onely kyng. The kyngdome of Assiria, whiche was the golden kyngdome, and the first Monarchie: hauyng .36. kynges by succession, continued .1239. yeres, this kyngdome for all nobilitie and roialnes excelled, and all in a Monarchie. The kyngdome of the Medes, in a Monarchie florished in wealthe and glorie and all felicitie: who in domi- nion had gouernmente .300. lackyng .8. yeres. After that, the [Fol. xxij.r] [Sidenote: The monar- chie of the Medes. The Persia[n]. Macedonia.] monarchie of the Medes ceased, the Persia[n] people rose migh- tie, bothe in people and Princes, and continued in that state 236 and 7 monethes. Macedonia rose from a base and meane people, to beare the whole regiment, and power ouer all king[-] domes. So God disposeth the state and seate of princes, ouer- throwyng often tymes mightier kyngdomes at his will: the continuaunce of this Monarchie was .157. and eight mone- [Sidenote: Asia[.] Siria[.]] thes, ten kynges linealie descendyng. Asia and Siria, was gouerned by one succedyng in a sole gouernement. Nicanor gouerned Siria .32. yeres. In the other Antigonus raigned, Demetrius Poliorchetes one yere, Antiochus Soter also, the scepter of gouernment, left to the succession of an other, then Antiochus Soter, ruled all Asia and Siria, hauyng .16. kin- [Sidenote: Egipte in a Monarchie[.]] ges whiche in a monarchie, co[n]tinued 189 yeres. The Egipci- ans, had famous, wise, and noble princes, whose kyngdome and large dominion, in all felicitée prospered: whiche was in the tyme of Ninus, the first king of the Assiria[n]s, who hauing 10. princes, one by one succedyng, Cleopatra their Quéene, gouerning, stoode in a monarchie .288. This one thyng she- weth, that kinde of gouernmente to bee roiall, and moste fa- mous, not onely for the felicitée and glory therof: but also for the permanent and stedfast state thereof. Aristotle and Plato setteth forthe, thother formes of gouernme[n]t. But in all those, no long co[n]tinuaunce of felicitee, nor of happy state can appere [Sidenote: Tirannis[.] Nero[.] Domicianus[.] Caligula.] in them, as for the contrarie to a Monarchie, is tirannis, pe- stiferous, and to be detested, where one man gouerneth to his priuate gaine, pillyng and polyng his subiectes, murderyng with all crueltie, neither Lawe nor reason, leadyng thereto: but will bearyng regiment ouer lawe, Iustice and equitee, whiche princes often tymes see not. How the wilfull rashe- nes, or tirannicall minde doeth abase them, and make them, though in vtter porte thesame princes, yet in verie déede, thei [Sidenote: What doeth beautifie the throne of a Prince[.]] bee thrall and slaue to beastlie affeccion. Nothyng dooeth so moche adorne and beautifie, the seate and throne of a prince, as not onely to beare dominion, ouer mightie people and re- [Fol. xxij.v] [Sidenote: Aristocratia.] gions, then to be lorde ouer hymself. The state of a fewe pée- res or nobles, to holde the chief and whole gouernment, who bothe in vertue, learnyng, and experience dooe excelle, is a goodlie state of common wealth. But the profe of that com- mon wealthe and ende sheweth, and the maner of Princes: who, although thei be, of life godlie, wise, graue, expert and politike. For, these vertues or ornamentes, ought to be repo- sed in soche noble personages, thei doe marueilously chaunge and alter: So honour and preeminente state, puffeth theim vp, and blindeth theim, that euery one in the ende, seeketh to climbe ouer all, as hed and gouernour. Shewe me one kinde of this state, and forme of gouernmente, whiche either longe prospered, or without bloodshed, and destruccion of the rest of the nobles and peres, haue not caught the whole regimente. Seyng that in all common wealthes and kingdomes, equa- litée or felowshippe, will not be suffred in gouernmente: for, it can not bee, that this forme of common wealthe maie bée [Sidenote: The ende of Aristocratia.] good, as Aristotle and Plato sheweth: The ende of this go- uernemente, fell euer to one, with a ruine of the kingdome [Sidenote: Politcia.] and people. The multitude to beare dominion, and though a publike wealth bée sought for a tyme, moche lesse thei conti- nue in any good state: for in the ende, their rule and gouerne- ment, will be without rule, order, reason, modestie, and their lawe must bee will. The other three states, are the refuse of good common wealthes, not to bée tollerated in any region. [Sidenote: Tirannis.] The one of them is a tyraunte, to bée gouernour onely to his owne glorie, with crueltie tormented his subiectes, onelie to [Sidenote: Oligarthia.] haue his will and lust, ouer all lawe, order, and reason. The nobilitée rulyng to them selues, euery one for his owne time[.] [Sidenote: Democratia.] The third, the base and rude multitude, euery one for hym- self, and at his will. This troublous state, all Regions and common wealthes, haue felte in open sedicions and tumul- tes, raised by theim, it is a plagued and pestiferous kinde of gouernemente. The example of a good Monarchie, is of greate force, to confounde the state of al other common weal- [Fol. xxiij.r] thes, and formes of Regimente. [Sidenote: A monarchie preferred of the Persians[.]] The nobilitée of Persia hauyng no kyng, linially des- cendyng, to rule that mightie dominion of Persia, Cambises beyng dedde, the vsurper murthered, thei tooke counsaill in their assemble, what state of gouernment was beste, thei ha- uyng the profe of a Monarchie: in their longe counsaill, thei knewe the felicitie of that state, thei knewe as it seemed, the perilous state of the other gouernmentes. If these noble and peres had been ambicious, and that eche of them would haue had felowshippe, or participacion in kyngdomes: thei would not haue preferred a Monarchie aboue the reste. The anti- quitie of that tyme sheweth, their personages, wisedome, grauitie, and maiestie was soche, that eche one of theim was mete for his vertues, to haue a whole kyngdome. If Aristo- cratia would haue contented them, then was tyme and occa- sion offered, no kyng remainyng to haue preferred that state. [Sidenote: The duetie of al noble peres[.]] But thei as vpright nobles, sincere and faithfull, hauyng al- together respecte to a publique wealthe: to a permanent state and felicitie of kingdome, sought no participacion by priuate wealthe, to dissolue this Monarchie. But thei beyng moste godlie, eche were content to proue, whose chaunce might be, to set vp againe that Monarchie. The kyngdome at the laste [Sidenote: Darius.] came to the handes of Darius, who was after kyng of the Persians. This is a goodly example, to shewe the worthines of a Monarchie, the Persian kingdome after many yeres de- clinyng, from his power and state, not for any faulte of go- [Sidenote: Kyngdomes rise and fall.] uernment, but God as he seeth tyme, raiseth vp kyngdomes and plucketh them doune. Afterward Darius the kyng, not able to make his parte good with Alexander the Greate: of- fered to hym the greatest parte of his kyngdome, euen to the flood of Euphrates, and offred his daughter to wife: Alexan- der was content to take the offer of Darius, so that he would bee seconde to hym, and not equall with hym in kyngdome. [Sidenote: The answer of Alexander to Darius, as co[n]cernyng a monarchie.] For, Alexander saied, that as the worlde can not bee gouer- ned with twoo Sunnes, neither the worlde can suffer twoo [Fol. xxiij.v] mightie kingdomes: wherupon it is manifest, that no king- dome will suffer equalitie or felowship, but that if the will & minde of Princes might brust out, the state of all the worlde, would bee in one mightie gouernours handes. For, alwaies [Sidenote: Alexa[n]der the great prefar- red a Mo- narchie.] Princes dooe seke to a sole regimente. Alexander the greate co[n]querour also, preferring for worthines a Monarchie, at the tyme of his death, demaunded who[m] he would haue to succede him in his mightie dominio[n]s, he by one signifiyng a Monar- chie, saiyng: _Dignissimus_, that is to saie, the worthiest. After [Sidenote: Alexanders monarchie fel by many kin- ges. Antipater. Crates. Meliagrus. Perdiccas. Ptolomeus. Learcus. Cassander. Menander. Leonatus. Lusimacus. Eumenes[.] Seleucus.] the death of Alexander, Antipater caught the gouernmente of Macedonia and Grece, and Crates was Treasurer. Me- leagrus and Perdiccas caught other of his dominions, then Ptolemeus possessed Egipte, Africa and a parte of Arabia, Learcus, Cassander, Mena[n]der, Leonatus, Lusimachus, Eu- menes, Seleucus and manie other, who were for their wor- thines in honor and estimacion with Alexander, caught in- to their handes other partes of his dominions, euerie one se- kyng for his time, his owne priuate glorie, dignitie, and ad- uauncemente, but not a publike wealthe, and so in fine, am- bicion broiled in their loftie stomackes, eche to attaine to o- thers honor. Whereupon bloodshed, destruction of the peo- ple and countries, the fall of these Princes ensued. So moche kingdomes hate equalitie or felowship: let vs laie before our [Sidenote: Fraunce. Spaine. Germanie. Britaine.] iyes, the kyngdomes nere at hand. Fraunce, from the tymes of Faramundus vntill this daie haue stoode, and did florishe in a Monarchie. The state of Spaine, from the tyme of the firste kyng, vntill this daie, hath florished continually in a Monarchie. The great seigniories of Germanie, by one suc- cedyng in gouernment, haue been permanent in that good- lie state. Our noble Isle of Britain from Brutus, hath stoode by a Monarchie: onely in those daies, the state of gouernme[n]t chaunged, at the commyng of Iulius Cesar, Emperour of Rome. The lande beyng at diuision, and discorde, through the diuersitie of diuerse kynges: so moche the state of diuerse kynges in one lande, is to be expelled, or the gouernment of [Fol. xxiiij.r] the base multitude, to haue vniuersally power of dominion, or the state of peres, to bee chief in regiment, no kyng lefte to commaunde ouer the people, and nobles, or els there can not be but discorde in thende, whiche pulleth doune moste migh- tie Regions and dominions, so that the beste state, the moste stedfaste and fortunate, is in all tymes, in all ages, in all la- wes, and common wealthes, where one king sekyng the ad- uauncement, wealthe, glorie, of hym and his people. ¶ The contrarie. THat housholde or familie, can not be well gouerned, where many and diuerse beareth gouernment, nec- lectyng the state prosperous vniuersallie: for where obedience is drawen to diuers and many, there can not bee good gouernment, nor faithfull obedience. And so in a king- dome where one chiefly gouerneth, and to a common wealth there the hartes of the subiectes, be moste knitte to obaie. ¶ The similitude. EUen as thei, whiche serue one maister, shall soneste with labour please, and with fidelitie, accomplishe his will and pleasure. For, the maners of many me[n] be diuerse, and variable, so in a Monarchie, the state of one is sone obaied, the minde and lawe of one Prince sone folowed, his Maiestie dreaded and loued. ¶ The example. LET the fower chief Monarchies of the Assirian, the Persian, Grecian, and the Romaine, whiche haue continued from the beginnyng mightie, moste hap- pie, bee an example herein. If that state of gouernement, had not been chiefe of all other, those mightie kyngdomes would not haue preferred, that kinde of gouernment. ¶ The testimonie of auncient writers. THerefore, Aristotle, Plato, and all the chief Philoso- phers, intreatyng of the administracion of a common wealthe: doe preferre before all states of gouernment [Fol. xxiiij.v] a Monarchie, bothe for the felicitie of it, and stedfaste state. ¶ The conclusion. HOmere therefore deserueth greate commendacion, for this one sentence, whiche preferreth a Monarchie before all states. ¶ The destruccion. THis exercise of _Rhetotike_, is called destruccion, or subuersion, because it is in a oracion, a certain re- prehension of any thyng declaimed, or dilated, in the whiche by order of art, the declaimer shall pro- cede to caste doune by force, and strengthe of reason, the con- trarie induced. In this exercise of _Rhetorike_, those proposicions are to be subuerted, whiche are not manifeste true, neither it so repu- gnaunt from reason, as that there can appere no holde, to in- duce a probable reason to confounde thesame. But soche pro- posicions are meete for this parte, as are probable in both si- des, to induce probabilitie of argument, to reason therupon. 1. It shall behoue you firste, for the entryng of this matter, to adde a reprehension there against those, whiche haue con- firmed as a truthe, that, whiche you will confute. 2. In thesame place, adde the exposion, and meanyng of his sentence. 3. Thirdly, shew the matter to be obsure, that is vncertain[.] 4. Incrediblie. 5. Impossible. 6. Not agreyng to any likelihode of truthe. 7. Uncomlie to be talked of. 8. Unprofitable. This exercise of _Rhetorike_ doeth contain in it al strength of arte, as who should saie, all partes of _Rhetorike_, maie co- piouslie be handled in this parte, called confutacion, so am- ple a matter Tullie doeth note this parte to be. ¶ The theme or proposicion of this Oracion. [Fol. xxv.r] It is not like to be true, that is said of the battaill of Troie. ¶ The reprehension of the auc- thor, and of all Poetes. NOt without a cause, the vanities of Poetes are to bee reproued, and their forged inuencions to bee reiected: in whose writynges, so manifestlie are set forthe as a truthe, and Chronicled to the posteritie of ages and times, soche forged mat- [Sidenote: The vanities of Poetes.] ters of their Poeticall and vain wittes. Who hath not heard of their monsterous lies against God, thei inuentyng a gene- alogie of many Goddes procreated, where as there is but one God. This vanitie also thei haue set forthe, in their mo- numentes and woorkes. How a conspiracie was sometyme emong the Goddes and Goddes, to binde the great God Iu- piter. How impudentlie doe thei set forthe the Goddes, to bee louers of women, and their adulterous luste: and how thei haue transformed theim selues, into diuers shapes of beastes and foules, to followe after beastly luste. The malice and en- uie of the Goddes, one to an other: The feigne also the heaue[n] to haue one God, the sea an other, helle an other, whiche are mere vanities, and false imaginacio[n]s of their Poeticall wit- tes. The like forged inuencion haue thei wrote, of the migh- [Sidenote: The battaill of Troie .x. yeres for a herlotte.] tie and terrible battaill bruted of Troie, for a beautifull har- lot susteined ten yeres. In the whiche, not onely men and no- ble péeres, gaue the combate of battaile, but the Goddes toke partes against Goddes, and men wounded Goddes: as their [Sidenote: The vain in- uention of Poetes.] lies exceade all nomber, because thei bee infinite, so also thei passe all truthe, reason, and iudgemente. These fewe exam- ples of their vanities and lies, doe shewe the feigned ground and aucthoritie of the reste. Accordyng to the folie and super- sticiousnes of those tymes, thei inuented and forged folie vp- pon folie, lye vpon lye, as in the battaill of Troie, thei aggra- uate the dolour of the battaill, by pitifull and lamentable in- [Sidenote: Plato reie- cteth Poetes from the com[-] mon wealth.] uencion. As for the Poetes them selues, Plato in his booke, made vpon the administracion of a common wealth, maketh [Fol. xxv.v] theim in the nomber of those, whiche are to bee banished out of all common wealthes. ¶ The exposicion. HOmere dooeth saie, and many other Poetes, that the warres of the Grecians against the Troians, was for beautifull Helena, and continued tenne yeres. The Goddes and Goddis toke partes, and all the people of Grece, aided Menelaus, and the kyng Aga- memnon, to bryng home again Helena, neclecting their own countrie, their wife and chidre[n], for one woma[n]. The Grekes inuentyng a huge and mightie horse made of Firre trée, and couered with brasse, as huge as a mou[n]tain, out of the whiche the Grecians by treason issuyng, brought Troie to ruine. ¶ The obscuritie of the matter. IT semeth a matter of folie, that so many people, so mightie nacions should bee bewitched, to raise so mightie a armie, hassardyng their liues, leauyng their countrie, their wiues, their children, for one [Sidenote: Helena.] woman: Be it so, that Helena passed all creatures, and that Nature with beautie had indued her with all vertue, and sin- gularitie: yet the Grecians would not be so foolishe, that vni- uersallie thei would seke to caste doune their owne wealthe, and moche more the common wealthe of Grece, and kyng- dome to stande in perill. Neither is it to be thought, the Gre- cians, sekyng to aduau[n]ce the beautie of Helena: would leaue [Sidenote: The cause of the forged in- uencion.] their owne state. But it is like, the wittes of Poetes did im- magine so forged a Chronicle, that the posteritie of ages fol- lowyng, should rather wounder at their forged inuencion, then to beleue any soche warre truly mencioned. There was no soche cause, seyng that the kyngdome of Grece, fell by no title of succession to Helena, for them to moue warre, for, the bringyng backe of that beutifull harlotte Helena. Neither in Helena was there vertue, or honestie of life, to moue and ex- asperate the Grecians, to spende so greate treasures, to raise [Fol. xxvj.r] [Sidenote: No commen- dacion in vp- holdyng and maintainyng of harlottes.] so mightie an armie on euery side. What comme[n]dacion had the Troians to aduaunce Helena, and with all roialnesse to entreate her, she beyng a harlotte: the folie of the Grecians and the Troians, is so on euery side so greate, that it can not be thought, soche a warre truely chronicled. If violence and power, had taken Helena from her housebande, and not her [Sidenote: Helena follo- wed Paris.] owne will and luste, caught with the adulterous loue of Pa- ris, beyng a straunger. If her moderacion of life had been so rare, as that the like facte for her chastitie, had not been in a- ny age or common wealthe, her vertues would haue giuen occasion: The Princes and nobles of Grece to stomacke the matter. The example of the facte, would with all praise and [Sidenote: Uertuous life, worthie commendaci- on in al ages. Lucrecia. Tarquinius the kyng ba- nished for ra- uishyng Lu- crecia, and all of his name banished.] commendacion be mencioned, and celebrated to al ages. Lu- cretia for her chastite, is perpetuallie to be aduanunced, wher- vpon the Romaines banished Tarquinius their kyng, his stocke and name from Rome. The rare chastite of Penelope, is remainyng as a example herein: So many snares laied to caste doune her vertuous loue towarde her housebande U- lisses. But Ulisses made hauocke by murder, on these gaie and gallante Ruffins, who in his absence sought to alienate [Sidenote: Penelopes chastitie.] and withdrawe, the chaste harte of Penelope, consumyng his substance. A greater example remaineth in no age, of the like chastite. As for the battaile of Troie, raised for Helena, could wise men, and the moste famous nobles of Grece: So occupie their heddes, and in thesame, bothe to hasarde their liues for a beautifull strumpet or harlot. The sage and wise [Sidenote: Nestor. Ulisses.] Nestor, whom Agamemnon for wisedome preferred, before the moste of the péeres of Grece, neither it Ulisses wanted at thesame tyme, hauyng a politike and subtill hedde, to with- drawe theim from so leude and foolishe a enterprise. Grece [Sidenote: Grece the lande of faire women.] wanted not beautifull creatures, Nature in other had besto- wed amiable faces, personage, and comelie behauiour. For, at those daies, Grece thei called _Achaida calligunaica_, that is, Grece the lande of faire women. The dolorous lamentacion of the Ladies and Matrons in Grece, would haue hindered [Fol. xxvj.v] soche a foolishe enterprise, seyng their owne beautie neclec- ted, their honestie of life caste vp to perilles, one harlot of in- [Sidenote: Uncomelie.] numerable people followed and hunted after, in whom neither honestie, vertue, nor chastite was harbored. ¶ Uncredible. ALthough the folie of men is greate, and the will of princes and gouernours beastlie and rashe, yet by no meanes it can be so many yeres, so greate folie to take roote in their hartes, and that the wisedom [Sidenote: Beautie without ver- tue, nothyng of valour.] of the Grecia[n]s, should not rather caste of as naught, the beau- tie of Helena: rather then the whole multitude, the state of the Prince, the welfare of the subiecte, to stande in perill for [Sidenote: Beautie a poison, in a adulterous mynde.] the beautie of one. What is beautie, when a beastlie and ad- ulterous minde is possessed: Beautie without chastitie, har- boreth a monsterous rabelmente of vices, a snare and baite, [Sidenote: Beautie sone fadeth.] to poison other. Beautie in fewe yeres, is not onely blemi- shed, but decaied, and wholie extinguished: it is vncredible, that the Grecians would seeke to bryng home Helena, who had loste the chaste loue toward her housband, beyng caught [Sidenote: Paris Hele- nas louer. Phrigia.] with the adulterous loue of Paris, soonne to Priamus kyng of Troie. The lande of Phrigia was a mightie Region, the people noble, puissaunte in warre: the kyng for nobilitie of actes famous. The Citee of Troie, wherein the kyng helde his Scepter of gouernement, was riche, mightie, and popu- lous: ruled and gouerned, by the wisedome and policie of fa- mous counsailours, so that by all meanes it is vncredible, [Sidenote: Uncomelie.] without any possibilitie. Thei neclectyng their owne state and kyngdo[m], so to preferre the beautie of one, that the whole multitude of Grece thereby to perishe. It is a matter vncre- [Sidenote: Grece the fountain of al learnyng.] dible in all Grece, whiche for the fame of wisedome, is moste celebrated emong all nacions, not one wiseman at thesame tyme to be therein: whose cou[n]saile and politike heddes, might ponder a better purpose. Grece, whiche was the mother and fountaine of all artes and sciences, all Eloquence, Philoso- phie, wisedome flowyng from theim, and yet wisedome to [Fol. xxvij.r] want in their breastes. Reason can not make any perswasion that any probabilitie can rise, of any soche matter enterpri- sed, what could the intent be of the Grecians, as concerning [Sidenote: Menelaus housbande to Helena.] Menelaus. In Menelaus there was no wisedom, to seke and hunte after Helena, or by any meanes to possesse her, she be- yng a harlotte, her loue alienated, her hart possessed with the loue of an other manne: foolishlie he hopeth to possesse loue, [Sidenote: Harlottes loue dissem- bled.] that seeketh to enioye the cloked, poisoned, and dissembled harte of a harlotte, Grece was well ridde of a harlotte, Troie [Sidenote: Troians.] harbouryng Helena. In the Troians it is not to be thought, that either the kyng, or nobles, for a harlotte, would see the the people murthered, their owne state, the king to be in dan- [Sidenote: Grecians.] ger of ruine. In the Grecians there was neither wisedome, neither commendacion, to pursue with a maine hoste, with a greate Nauie of Shippes, to bryng backe againe a harlotte, whose enterprise rather might better bee borne, to banishe & exile soche a beastlie disposed persone. The Troians mighte [Sidenote: Absurditie.] well scorne the Grecians, if that the possession of a beautifull moste amiable, and minsyng harlotte, was of soche valour, estimacion, and price with theim, not onely the beautie of all other to bee reiected. But moste of all the vertuous life, and chastitie of all their matrons and honourable Ladies, to bee caste of as naught. Grece that had the name of all wisedome, [Sidenote: The defence of Helena.] of all learnyng and singularitie, might rather worthelie bee called, a harbouryng place of harlottes: a Stewe and vphol- der of whoredome, and all vncleanes. Wherefore, these ab- surdities ought to bee remoued, from the minde and cogita- cion of all menne, that should worthelie ponder the state of [Sidenote: Troie a king[-] dome of whor[-] dome.] Grece. Troie of like sorte to bee a kyngdome and common wealthe of all vice: whoredome in soche price with the kyng, and people, that moste fortunate should the harlotte bee, and the adulterour in soche a common wealthe, that for adulte- rous loue, putteth rather all their state to hasarde and perill, for the maintenaunce of beastlie loue, brutishe societie moste in price with soche a nacion, chastitie, and moderaciou of life, [Fol. xxvij.v] abandoned and caste of. ¶ Unpossible, and not agreyng. [Sidenote: Nature ab- horreth the warre of the Grecians.] IF wee weigh naturall affeccion, it can not bee, that the Grecians so moche abhorring fro[m] nature, should cast of the naturall loue of their wifes, their children and countrie, to bryng home againe, by slaughter of infinite people: soche an one as had left honestie, and chaste loue of her housbande. For, what praise can redounde to the Greci- [Sidenote: Helena.] ans by warre, to bryng home Helena, though she of all crea- tures was moste beautifull, beyng a harlotte: followyng the bridell and will of an other man. Maie shame or commenda- cion rise to the Troians, can wisedome, counsaile, or grauitie, [Sidenote: Priamus.] defende the adulterous luste of Priamus soonne, yea, could Priamus so loue Helena, for Paris his sonnes sake, as that he had rather venter the ruine and destruccion of his citée, and the falle of his people, the murder and ruine of his children, and wife for the beautie of one. For what is beautie, where honestie and vertue lacketh, it is an vncomly matter, though the Poetes so faigne it, not onely that in heauen, a contencio[n] should fall emong the Goddises of their beautie, or that Iu- piter of whom thei make an ignoraunt God, to chuse Paris the kynges sonne of Troie, chief arbitratour & Iudge of that matter, to who[m] he should giue the golde[n] Apell to her beautie, as chief of al other, was ascribed these thynges, are vndecent to thinke of the Goddeses, and moste of all, to thinke there is more Goddes then one. And euen as these are vanities, and forged imaginacions of the Goddes, so of the battaile. ¶ Uncomelie and vnprofitable. THE daunger of many people doeth shewe, that no soche thyng should happen, either of the Grecians or of the Troians: for, it is a matter dissonaunt fro[m] all truthe, that thei should so moche neclecte the quiete state, and prosperous renoume of their kyngdome, in all tymes and ages, since the firste constitucion of all Monar- [Fol. xxviij.r] chies and kyngdomes. Who euer harde soche a forged mat- ter to be Chronicled, and set forthe. Or who can giue credite to soche warre, to be enterprised of so small a matter: to leaue the state of waightier thynges for one woman. All the wo- men of that countrie to stande in perill, the slaughter of their deare housbandes, the violent murder of their children to in- sue. Therefore, the wilfulnesse of people and princes, are the cause of the falle and destruccion, of many mightie kyngdo- mes, and Empires. The fall of Grece ensued, when the chief [Sidenote: Ambicion. Cesar fell by ambicion.] citées, Athenes and Lacedemonie tooke partes, and did con- federate diuers citees to them, to assiste theim, and aide theim in battaile onely: ambicion and desire of glorie, moued bothe [Sidenote: Discorde.] the Athenians and Lacedemonians, fro[m] concorde and vnitie by whiche meanes, the power, glory, and stre[n]gth of all king- [Sidenote: Pompey.] domes falleth. Ambicion was the cause that mightie Pom- pey fell, and died violently. Cesar likewise caught with am- bicion, not bearyng the equalitée, or superioritie of Pompei, was tourned of violentlie fro[m] Fortunes whéele. Many prin- ces of like sorte and kingdomes. By ambicion onely, had the cause of their ruine. The glorie of the Assirian Monarchie grewe moste mightie, by the ambicion of Ninus kyng of Babilon: the ofspring of Ninus, whiche were kynges line- allie descendyng to the firste kyngdome of the Medes, bothe inlarged their kyngdomes, and also had the decaie of theim by ambicion. Let the Medes also associate them selues to the[m], from Arbactus the first kyng, vnto Astiages the laste: the be- ginnyng and falle of the Persian Monarchie. The mightie [Sidenote: Romulus kil[-] led Remus by ambicion.] state of Grece, the seate Imperiall of Rome, by ambicio[n] first extolled theim selues: and also by it, their glorie, scepter, and kyngdome was translated, but the falle of Troie came not, by ambicion, that the Grecians sought. But as the Poetes doe faigne, the beautie of one woman so wounded their har- tes, that the Grecians did hasarde, the perilles of their coun- trie. The Troians so moche estemed, the beautie of Helena, as that the state of all their kyngdome perished. It was no [Fol. xxviij.v] glorie nor honour to the Grecians, to resiste by armour, and to defende the violente takyng awaie of Helena, from her housbande: nor it was no honour, the Grecians to pursue by armour, the takynge awaie of Helena, beyng a harlotte. So that by no meanes it can followe, these thynges to bee true, of the battaile of Troie. ¶ Confirmacion. The other part, contrary to destruccion or subuersion, is called confirmacion. Confirmacion, hath in it so greate force of argumente, to stablishe and vpholde the cause or proposicion: as destruccion hath in castyng doune the sentence or proposicion. Confirmacion is a certain oracion, whiche with a certain reprehension of the persone or facte, by order and waie of art, casteth doune, the contrary propounded. As in the other parte called destruccion, those proposici- ons are to bee subuerted, whiche are not manyfestlie true, with all other notes before specified: so in contrariwise, this oracion by contrary notes is declaimed by, as for example. 1. It shall behoue you first, for the entring of the oracion, to induce a reprehension againste those, whiche haue confuted as a truthe, that whiche you will confirme. 2. In the seconde parte, place the exposicion and meanyng of the aucthours sentence. 3. Shewe the matter to be manifest. 4. Credible. 5. Prossible. 6. Agreyng to the truthe. 7. Shewe the facte comelie. 8. Profitable. This exercise of _Rhetotike_, doeth contain in it all stre[n]gth of arte, as who should saie, all partes of _Rhetorike_ maie co- piouslie bee handled in this parte, called confirmacion. You maie as matter riseth, ioigne twoo notes together, as the reason of the argumente cometh in place, whiche Apthonius [Fol. xxix.r] a Greke aucthour herein vseth. As manifest and credible, pos- sible and agreyng to truthe, comelie and profitable, but in al these, as in all the reste: the theme or proposicion by it self, is to bee placed, the reprehension of the aucthour by it self, the exposicion of the theme by it self. ¶ The theme or proposicion. IT is true that is saied of Zopyrus, the noble Per- sian, who ve[n]tered his life: & did cause the deformi- tie of his bodie, for the sauegarde of this countrie. ¶ The praise. [Sidenote: Iustinus.] IUstinus the Historiographer, for worthinesse of fame and wisedome, deserueth in the poste- ritie of all tymes, immortall fame, by whom the famous actes of Princes, and other noble [Sidenote: Chronicles moste neces- sary to be red.] men, doe remaine Chronicled. Giuyng exam- ples of all valiauntnesse and vertue: for, bothe the actes and worthie feactes of Princes, would passe as vnknowen in all ages, excepte the worthinesse of them, were in monumentes of writyng Chronicled. For, by the fame of their worthines, and vertues, co[m]mon wealthes and kyngdomes, doe stablishe and make Lawes, the hartes of people are incensed, and in- flamed, to the like nobilitie of actes, and famous enter- [Sidenote: The worthi- nesse of histo- ries.] prices, Histories of auncient tymes, bee vnto vs witnesses of all tymes and ages, of kyngdomes and common wealthes, a liuely example. A light to all truthe and knowlege, a schole- [Sidenote: What is a hi- storie.] maister: of maners a memorie of life, for, by it we se the wise- dom of all ages, the forme of the beste and florishing common wealthes. We learne by the vertues of Princes and gouer- nours, to followe like steppe of vertue: to flie and auoide vi- ces, and all soche thynges, as are to the destruccion and de- [Sidenote: An ignorant life, a brutish life.] caie, of realme and countrie. How brutishe wer our life, if we knewe no more then we se presently, in the state of our com- mon wealthe and kyngdome. The kyngdomes of all Prin- ces and common wealthes that now florisheth, doe stande by [Fol. xxix.v] the longe experience, wisedome, pollicy, counsaile, and god- lie lawes of Princes of auncient times, no smal praise and [Sidenote: The know- lege of Histo- ries maketh vs as it were liuyng in all ages. Historiogri- phers.] commendation can be attributed, to all suche as doe trauell in the serching out the veritie of auncient Histories, for bi the knoledge of them, we are as it were liuyng in all ages, the fall of all kyngdomes is manifeste to vs, the death of Prin- ces, the subuersions of kingdomes and common wealthes, who knoweth not the first risyng & ende of the Assiriane mo- narchie, the glorie of the Persians, and the ruynge of the same, the mightie Empire of the Grekes, risyng & fallyng, the Romane state after what sorte florishyng and decaiyng, so that no state of common wealthe or kyngdome is vnkno- wen to vs, therefore Iustine, and all suche as doe leue to the posteritie, the state of al things chronicled, deserue immortal commendacions. ¶ The exposicion. [Sidenote: The treason of the Assy- rians.] IN the time of Darius kyng of the Persians, the Assyria[n]s who ware subiects to him, sence the time of Cirus the firste kynge of the Persians, rebel- led, inuaded and toke the myghtie Citie of Babi- lon, whiche beyng possessed, with much difficultie, and not [Sidenote: Darius.] withoute greate daungers coulde bee attained. Darius the kynge hearyng of the treason of the Assyrians and that the [Sidenote: Babilon ta- ken of the As- syrians.] mightie Citie of Babilon was taken, was very wroth wai- ynge with him selfe, that there by, the ruyne of the Persian kyngdome mighte happen. Zopyrus one of the .vij. noble Peres of Persia, seing the daunger of the countrie, the state of the Prince, and the welfare of the subiectes to decaie, in the safegarde of his countrie, leuyng all priuate commoditie, for the behoufe and felicitie of the Persian kyngdome, did ven- [Sidenote: The fact of Zopyrus.] ter his owne life, commaunded his seruauntes at home to teare and re[n]te his bodie with whippes, to cut of his nose, his lippes and his eares, these thinges being vnknowen to Da- rius the kynge. As sone as Darius sawe Zopyrus so torne [Fol. xxx.r] [Sidenote: Zopyrus cau[-] sed the defor- mitie of his bodie, for the good state of his countrie.] and deformed, bewailed his state being astonished, at so hor- rible a faict: but Zopyrus shewed to the kynge his hole in- tente and purpose that he mynded to go to Babylon, whiche the Assyrians dyd traitorouslie possesse, & complained as that these things had ben don by the tyrannie and crueltie of Da- rius, he we[n]t to Babilon, and there complained of the cruel- tie of his kyng, whereby purchasyng the fauor and loue of the Assyrians, he shewed them how Darius came to be kyng not by worthines, not by vertue, not by the common consent of men, but by the neynge of a horse. Zopyrus therefore ad- monished them, that they should trust more to their armour, [Sidenote: The pollicie of Zopyrus.] then to their walles, he willed them to proclame ope[n] warre, forthwith they encountred with the Persians, and for a time victorie fel on the Babilonians side, suche was the pollice of Zopyrus. The Assyrians reioised of the successe and felicitie of their warres, the king of the Babilonians gaue to Zopy- rus, the chiefe power & office, to leede a mightie armie, of the whiche beynge Lieutenaunt, he betraied the Babilonians and their Citie. ¶ Manifeste. [Sidenote: Trogus Po[m][-] peius.] NOt onlie Trogus Pompeius the famous Historio- grapher, and Iustine which tooke the Story of him, but also the Greke writers doe sette forthe, as matter of truthe, the valiaunte enterprises of Zopyrus: so that the straunge and mightie facte of him can not seme vncredible, [Sidenote: Zopyrus.] hauyng testimonie of it in all ages. Zopyrus hauing not re- spect to his owne life, to his owne priuate wealthe or glorie, did thereby put of the daunger that insued to the Persiane kyngdome: It maie seme a greate matter, to a mynde not well affected towarde his countrie, to destroie or deforme his [Sidenote: The saiyng of Tullie.] owne bodie, for the sauegarde of countrie or common welth. But if we waie the State of oure bearth, oure countrie cha- lengeth more at oure handes then frindes or parentes, so [Sidenote: Plato. Aristotel.] muche price Plato the Philosopher, and Aristotle doe attri- bute vnto our countrie, the volumes of all lawes and bokes [Fol. xxx.v] doe prefare oure naturall countrie before the priuate state of [Sidenote: The state of a publike wealthe, is to bee preferred before a pri- uate wealth. Pericles.] owne manne, wealthe, glorie, honor, dignitie, and riches of one or fewe, the Statutes of all Princes, sekyng the glorie of their countrie, doe prefare a vniuersal welthe, before a pri- uate and particulare commoditie. Pericles the noble Athe- nian in his oration made to the Athenians, sheweth that the glorie and welthe of one man or manie, cannot plante suche glorie, and renowne to their countrie, as that in all partes thereby to be beautified and decorated, but whe[n] glorie a hap- pie and florishyng state redoundeth to the kyngdome, the subiectes, the nobelles and hye peres, the gouuernour stan- deth happie and fortunate. Who so hopeth in sparing costes and charges, monie or ornaments, to the behouf and imploi- ment of his countrie and not by all meanes to his power and strength aydeth and defendeth his naturall countrie, from [Sidenote: A good sub- iecte is redie to liue and die for his countrie.] the daunger and inuasion of his enemie, what state inioyeth he, or what wealth remaineth priuatlie, when the trone and scepter of his kyng faileth, the enemie wasteth, spoileth and destroieth all partes of his state, with the reste his life pe- risheth, so that no daunger, coste, is to bee refused, to serue the kingdom and prince, by whose scepter, iustice, lawes, and equitie we are gouuerned, there is no subiect well affected, but that he onlie liueth to proffite his countrie, to liue & dye therein. ¶ Probabell. IF only Zopyrus had enterprised this valiaunt act, and that no memorie were remainyng in anie age of the noble acts of other men, it may seme not true- lie chronacled, but from time to time, in all ages & co[m]mon wealthes, famous men for their acts & nobilitie haue ben, whiche with like courrage and magnanimitie haue sa- [Sidenote: Horacius Co[-] cles.] ued their countrie, by the losse of their owne liues. Horatius Cocles is bothe a witnesse and a light to the same, by whose aduenture the mightie and stronge Citie Rome was saued: For at what time as the Hetruscians entred on the citie, and [Fol. xxxj.r] were on the bridge, Horatius cocles defendid the ende of the same, baryng of the brunte, and stroke of the enemie, vntill the Romans, for the sauegarde of the cytie, had broken doun the bridge, as sone as Horatius Cocles sawe the Cytie thus deliuered, and the repulse of the enemie, he lepte with his ar- mours into the flud Tibar, it semed he had not regard to his life, that beyng burdened with the waighte and grauitie of his armour, durst venter his life to so main and depe a water. [Sidenote: Marcus Attilius.] Marcus Attilius in the defence of his Prince, his right hand being cut of, the which he laide on the ship of the Massilians, forthwith he apprehended with the lefte hand, and ceased not [Sidenote: Cynegerus.] vntill he hadde soouncke thesame ship. Cynegerus the Athe- nian lineth by fame and like nobilitie of actes, ve[n]teryng his life for his countrie. The mightie cytie of Athenes, brought [Sidenote: Hismenias. Thrasibulus[.]] vnder the dominions of the Lacedemonians. Thrasibulus, Hismenias and Lisias bi their aduenture, and noble atchiue reduced Athenes to his felicitie so moche loue, soo faithefull hartes they hadde towardes theire countreie. Leonides the King of the Lacedemonians, defendyng the narow straights of the cytie Thermopolie with fower thousand men against the mightie and huge armie of Xerxes, for Xerxes contemned [Sidenote: Leonides kyng of the Lacedemo- nians.] theire smalle number and armie: Leonides the kyng hearde that the place and hill of the battell was preue[n]tid of .xx. thou- sande enemies, he exorted his souldiours parte of them to de- parte vntill a better time might be locked for, and onlie with the Lacedemonians he proued the conflicte and the combate, although the campe of Xerxes was mightier & more in num- ber: yet Leonides the kyng thought it good for the sauegarde of his contrie, for saieth he, I must rather saue it, then to haue respecte to my life, although the oracle of Delphos had fore- shewed, that euen Leonides muste die in the fielde or battell of the enemie, and therefore Leonides entred battail, & com- fortid his men for their countrie sake, as to die therein, there- fore he preuented the narrowe straightes of the countrie, and the dangerous places, where the force of the enemie mought [Fol. xxxj.v] bruste in, he lingered not, leste the enemie mighte compasse him in, but in the quiet season of the nighte, he set vppon his enemie vnloked for, and they beynge but sixe hundred men [Sidenote: Leonides.] with the kyng Leonides, brust into the ca[m]pe of their enemies beyng sixe hundred thousand menne, their valiauntnes was suche, and the ouerthowe of their enemies so great, and Xer- xes the kyng hauyng two woundes, retired with shame and [Sidenote: Agesilaus. Conon.] loste the honor. Agesilaus and Conon valiaunte in actes, and excellynge in all nobilitie, what great and mightie dan- gers haue thei atchiued and venterid for their countrie sake, howe moche haue thei neglectid their owne wealth, riches, life and glorie, for the aduauncement and honor of their cou[n]- [Sidenote: Lisander.] trie. Lisander also the Lacedemonian, was indued with like nobilitie with faithfull and syncéer harte towarde his coun- [Sidenote: Archidamus[.] Codrus.] try. Archidamus also lieth not in obliuio[n], whose fame death buried not the famous aduenture of Codrus kyng of the A- thenians is maruelous and almoste incredible, but that the Histores, truelie set forth, and declare a manifest truthe ther- [Sidenote: Epamniun- das.] of, who is more famous then Epaminundas, bothe for vir- tue, nobilitie and marciall feates among the Thebans, the [Sidenote: Grecians.] mightie armie of the Grecians, at the longe sege of Troie, what valiaunte Capitains hadde thei, whiche in the defence [Sidenote: Troians.] of their countrie hasarde their life: the Troians also wanted not for proues valiauntnes and al nobilitie, their péeres and [Sidenote: Romans.] nobles: amonge the Romans, what a greate number was of noble peres, whose studie alwaies was to liue and dye in the glorie, aide and defence of their countrie, for he liueth not by whose cowardlines fainted harte and courage, the contrie [Sidenote: Who liueth in shame.] or kyngdome standeth in perrill, he liueth in shame, that re- fuseth daunger, coste or charge, in the defence or procuryng, better state to his countrie. The worthie saiyng of Epami- nundas declareth, who liueth to his countrie, who diyng va- liauntlie in the felde, beyng thrust thorow with the speare of his enemie, asked those questions of these that stoede by him at the poincte of deathe, is my speare manfullie broken, and [Fol. xxxij.r] my enemies chassed awaie, the whiche things his co[m]panions [Sidenote: Epameunn- das a most no[-] ble and vali- aunt pere.] in warre affirmed, then saide he: nowe your Capitaine Epa- minundas beginneth to liue in that he dieth valiauntlie for his countrie, and in the proffite & aduauncement of the same, a worthie man, noble and valiaunte, his sentence also was worthie to be knowen, and followed of all suche as bee well affected and Godlie mynded to their countrie. Marcus Mar- cellus of like sorte, and Titus Manlius Torquatus, & Sci- pio Aemilianus, Marcus Attilius shewed in what hye price our naturall countrée ought to bee had, by their valiaunt at- chifes, and enterprises: I might passe by in sile[n]ce Scipio Ca- to, and Publius Scipio Nasica, but that thei by like fame, honour and glorie liue immortall to their countrie, the same also of Uibeus, Ualerius Flaccus, and Pedanius Centurio giueth ampell and large matter to all menne, endued with nobilitie and valiaunt proues, for the defence of their coun- trie with Quintus Coccius, Marcus Sceua and Sceuola. ¶ Possibilitie. THere nedeth no doute to rise of possibilitie, seinge that examples doe remain of famous men, of god- lie and well affected persones, whiche haue with like magnanimitie putte in daunger their life, to [Sidenote: The order of Athenes.] saue their Prince, kyngdome, and countrie. Greate honour was giuen of the Athenians, to soche noble and valiaunte men, whiche ventered their liues for their common wealthe, to maintaine the florishyng state thereof. The eloquente and [Sidenote: Thusidides.] copious oracion of Thusidides, the true, faithfull, and elo- quente Historiographer doeth shewe: what honour and im- mortall fame was attributed, to all soche as did venter their liues, in the florishyng state of their countrie, in supportyng, mainteinyng, and defendyng thesame. Who, although thei loste their liues, whiche by death should bee dissolued, their fame neuer buried, liueth with the soule to immortalitie, the losse of their Priuate wealthe, glorie, riches, substaunce, or dignitie, hath purchased and obtained fame, that withereth [Fol. xxxij.v] not, and glorie that faileth not. ¶ Agreyng and comelie. BOthe the true Histories, doe leaue in commenda- cion, the facte of Zopyrus, and the noble and wor- thie enterprises of other: whiche haue giuen the like assaie, and their fame is celebrated and titeled with immortall commendacion and glorie, to the posteritie [Sidenote: The duetie of all good subiectes.] of all ages followyng. What harte can bee so stonie, or bru- tishly affected, that wil not venter his life, goodes, landes, or possessions: if with the daunger of one, that is of hymself, the whole bodie and state of his countrie, is thereby supported, and saued. What securitie and quietnesse remained, what wealth, honour, or fame to Zopyrus: if not onely Zopyrus had perished, but the kyng & people vniuersally had been de- stroied. Therevpon Zopyrus weighing and co[n]sideryng, the [Sidenote: The cause of our birthe.] state of his birthe, that his countrie chalenged his life, rather then the dissolucion of the whole kyngdome, the decaie of the Prince, the takyng awaie of the scepter, the slaughter of in- finite people to ensue. He was borne to be a profitable mem- ber to his countrie, a glorie and staie to thesame: and not spa- ryng his life, or shunnyng the greate deformitie of his bo- die, to bee a ruine of thesame. Was it not better that one pe- rished, then by the securitie of one, a whole lande ouer run- ned, as partes thereby spoiled: it was the duetie of Zopirus, to take vpon hym that greate and famous enterprise. It was also comelie, the kyngdome standyng in perill, a sage and descrite persone to preuente and putte of, soche a daunger at [Sidenote: The facte of Zopyrus.] hande: The faicte altogether sheweth all vertue and greate singularitie, and a rare moderacion of minde, to cast of all re- spectes and excuses, forsakyng presentlie honour, quietnesse and obiecting himself to perill, he sawe if he onelie died, or by ieopardie saued his countrie, many thereby liued, the kyng- dome & people florished, where otherwise, he with his Prince and kyngdome might haue perished. ¶ Proffitable. [Fol. xxxiij.r] [Sidenote: The fact of Zopyrus.] AL the power of the Babilonians, was by his pol- icie throwen doune, the Citee taken, the enemie brought to confusion: on the other side, the Persi- ans rose mightie, soche a mightie enemie put vn- derfoote. The fame of Zopyrus and glorie of the facte, will neuer be obliterated, or put out of memorie, if this were not profitable to the kyngdome of Persia: if this were not a re- noume to the prince and people, and immortall glory to Zo- [Sidenote: Zopyrus de- formed, a beautie of his countree.] pryus iudge ye. Zopyrus therfore, beautified his countrée, by the deformitie of his bodie. Better it wer to haue many soche deformed bodies, then the whole state of the realme destroied or brought to naught: if we weigh the magnanimitie of that man, and his enterprise, there is so moche honour in the fact, that his fame shall neuer cease. ¶ A common place. [Sidenote: Why it is cal- led a common place.] A Common place is a Oracion, dilatyng and ampli- fiyng good or euill, whiche is incidente or lodged in any man. This Oracion is called a common place, because the matter conteined in it, doeth agree vniuersally to all menne, whiche are partakers of it, and giltie of thesame[.] A Oracion framed againste a certaine Thefe, Extorcio- ner, Murderer, or Traitor, is for the matter conteined in it, metelie and aptlie compiled, against all soche as are giltie of theft, murder, treason, or spotted with any other wickednes. This oracion of a common place, is like to the laste argu- ment or _Epilogus_ of any oracion, whiche the Grekes doe call _Deuterologian_, whiche is as moche to saie, as a rehearsall of that whiche is spoken of before. Wherefore, a common place hath no _exhordium_, or be- ginnyng, yet neuerthelesse, for the profite and exercise of the learner, you maie place soche a _proemium_, or beginnyng of the oracion, as maie be easie to induce the learner. This parte of _Rhetorike_ is large to intreate vpon, for the aboundaunce of matter. This part of _Rhetorike_ is large to intreate vpon, for the [Fol. xxxiij.v] aboundaunce of matter. The common place, whiche Aphthonius intreateth of, is to be aplied against any man, for the declaimor to inuade, ei- ther against vices, or to extoll and amplifie his vertues. This oracion of a common place, serueth bothe for the ac- cuser and the defender. For the accuser, to exasperate and moue the Iudges or hearers, against the offender, or accused. For the defendour to replie, and with all force & strength of matter, to mollifie and appease the perturbacions of the Iudges and hearers, to pulle doune and deface the contrarie alledged. There is greate force in this oracion, on bothe the sides. Properlie this kinde of _Rhetorike_, is called a common place, though it semeth to be made againste this man, or that man: because the matter of thesame shall properly pertain to all, giltie of thesame matter. [Sidenote: Pristianus.] Pristianus sheweth, that this parte of _Rhetorike_, is as it were a certaine exaggeracion of reason, to induce a manifest probacion of any thyng committed. As for example, a Theife taken in a robberie, in whom neither shamefastnesse, nor sparcle of grace appereth against soche a one: this oracion maie be made, to exasperate the Iud- ges from all fauour or affeccion of pitie, to be shewed. ¶ The order of the Oracion followeth with these notes to be made by. ¶ The firste Proheme. DEmosthenes the famous Orator of Athenes in his oracio[n] made against Aristogito[n] doeth saie, [Sidenote: What are Lawes.] that Lawes wherewith a common wealthe, ci- tie or Region is gouerned, are the gifte of God, a profitable Discipline among men, a restraint to with holde and kepe backe, the wilfull, rashe, and beastilie [Sidenote: Aristotle. Plato.] life of man, and therupo[n] Aristotle and Plato doe shewe, that through the wicked behauour of men, good lawes were first [Fol. xxxiiij.r] ordained, for, of ill maners, saie thei, rose good lawes, where [Sidenote: Order.] lawes doe cease, and good order faileth, there the life of man will growe, rude, wild and beestlie: Man beyng a chiefe crea- [Sidenote: Man borne by nature to societee.] ture or God, indued with manie singuler vertues, is framed of nature to a mutuall and Godlie societie of life, without the whiche moste horrible wolde the life bee, for not onlie by concorde and agremente, the life of man dothe consiste but al things on the earth haue therin their being: the heauens and lightes conteined in the same, haue a perpetuall harmonie & concente in finishyng their appointed race. The elementes [Sidenote: All thinges beyng on the yearth, dooe consiste by a harmonie or concorde.] of the worlde, where with the nature and substaunce of all thinges, doe consiste onlie by a harmonie and temperature of eche parte, haue their abidyng increase & prosperous beyng, otherwise their substaunce, perisheth and nature in all partes decaieth: Kyngdomes and common wealthes doe consiste in a harmonie, so long as vertue and all singularitie tempereth their state and gouernemente, and eche member thereof obe- ieth his function, office and callynge, and as partes of the- same bodie, euerie one as nature hath ordained theim occu- piyng, their roume and place, the vse of euerie parte, all to the vse and preseruacion of the hole bodie, and as in the bodie so in the common wealthe, the like concorde of life oughte to be in euery part, the moste principall parte accordyng to his di- gnitie of office, as moste principall to gouerne thother inferi- or partes: and it thei as partes moste principal of thesame bo- die with all moderacion and equabilitie te[m]peryng their state, [Sidenote: Order con- serueth com- mon wealth.] office and calling. The meanest parte accordyng to his lowe state, appliyng hym selfe to obeie and serue the moste prin- cipall: wherein the perfecte and absolute, frame of common wealthe or kyngdome is erected. And seyng that as the Phi- losophers doe saie, of ill maners came good lawes, that is to saie, the wicked and beastlie life of man, their iniurius beha- uiour, sekyng to frame themselues from men to beastes mo- [Sidenote: Euil maners was the occa- sion of good Lawes.] ued the wise and Godlie, elders to ordaine certaine meanes, to rote discipline, whereby the wickedlie disposed personne [Fol. xxxiiij.v] should bee compelled to liue in order, to obeie Godlie lawes, to the vpholdyng of societie. Therefore, all suche as dissolue lawes, caste doune good order, and state of common wealth, out as putride and vnprofitable weedes, to be extirpated and plucked vp from Citie and Common wealthe, from societie, who by mischeuous attemptes seke, to extinguishe societie, amitie, and concord in life. Princes & gouernors with al other magistrates ought in their gouernment to imitate the prac- tise of the Phisician, the nature of man, wekedned and made feble with to moche abundaunce of yll humors, or ouermoch with ill bloode replenished, to purge and euacuate that, and all to the preseruacion and healthe of the whole bodie: for so was the meanyng of the Philosopher, intreatyng of the po- litike, gouernment of kingdome and commonwealth, when [Sidenote: Theiues not mete to be in any societie.] thei compared a kingdome to the bodie of man: the thefe and robber as a euill and vnprofitable member, and all other as without all right, order, lawe, equitie and iustice, doe breake societie of life, bothe against lawe and nature: possessing the goodes of a other man, are to bee cutte of, as no partes, méete to remaine in any societie. ¶ The seconde Proheme. [Sidenote: Why theiues and wicked men, are cut of by lawe.] THe chifest cause that moued gouernours and ma- gistrates, to cutte of the race of theues, and viole[n]te robbers, and of all other mischeuous persons, was that by them a confusion would ensue in al states. What Citee could stande in prosperous state, yea, or what house priuatlie inhabited, where lawes and aucthoritee were exiled: where violence, will, luste, and appetite of pestiferous men, might without terrour bee practised. If the labour and industrie of the godlie, should be alwaie a praie to y^e wicked, and eche mannes violence and iniurious dealyng, his owne lawe, the beaste in his state, would bee lesse brutishe and in- iurious. Who so seketh to caste doune this societée, he is not méete to be of any societée, whiche he dissolueth. Who so rob- beth or stealeth, to liue by the gooddes of an other manne, as [Fol. xxxv.r] his possession, is by violence and againste Nature: so by vio- [Sidenote: A due rewar[-] des for thie- ues and mur- therers.] lence and against nature, their pestiferous doinges do frame their confusion: their execrable & destetable purpose, do make theim a outcaste from all good people, and as no members thereof, cut of from all societée, their euill life rooteth perpetu- al ignomie and shame. And thus is the tragicall ende of their enterprise. ¶ The contrarie. [Sidenote: Democratia.] HErein the lose and dissolute state of gouernmente called of the Grekes Democratia, haue conten- ted the wilfull heddes of pestiferous men: where- in euery man must bee a ruler. Their owne will is their Lawe: there luste setteth order, no Magistrate, but euery one to hymself a Magistrate. All thynges in common, as long as that state doeth remain emong the wicked, a most happie state coumpted, a wished state to idell persones, but it [Sidenote: The thiefe. The mur- therer.] continueth not. Herein the murtherer, the thiefe were meete to be placed. The greater thiefe, the better manne: the moste execrable murtherer, a moste mete persone, for soche state of gouernemente. There is no nacion vnder the Sunne, but that one tyme or other, this troublous state hath molested theim: and many haue sought to sette vp soche a monsterous state of regiment, a plagued common wealthe, and to be de- tested. Soche was the order of men, when thei liued without lawes. When the whole multitude were scattered, no citee, Toune, or house builded or inhabited, but through beastlie maners, beastlie dispersed, liued wilde and beastlie. But the wise, sage, and politike heddes reduced by wisedome, into [Sidenote: Houses. Families. Tounes. Citees.] a societie of life, nature leadyng thereto: Houses and habita- cions, were then for necessitie made, families multiplied, vil- lages and Tounes populouslie increased, and Citees raised emong so infinite people. Nature by God inuented and sta- blished Lawe, and the sage and wise persones, pronounced and gaue sentence vpon Lawes. Whereupon, by the obedi- ence of lawes, and preeminente aucthoritie of Magistrates: [Fol. xxxv.v] The state of mightie Kyngdomes and Common wealthes, haue growen to soche a roialnesse and loftie state, many fa- mous kingdomes haue been on the face of the yearth: many noble Princes from tyme to tyme succedyng, whiche with- [Sidenote: Obedience of Lawes did stablishe the mightie mo- narchies.] out a order of godlie lawes, could not haue continued. What was the cause that the mightie Monarchies, continued many hundred yeres: did the losse of dissolute life of subiectes and Princes, cause thesame but good lawes, and obedience to or- ders. Therefore, where Magistrates, bothe in life and office, [Sidenote: The life of the Magi- strate, a lawe[.]] liue in the obedience of Lawes: the multitude inferiour, by example of the Magistrates singularitie, incensed dooe place before them, their example of life, as a strong lawe. [Sidenote: The Epistle of Theodosi- uus Empe- ror of Rome[.]] Theodosius Emperor of Rome, writyng to Uolusianus his chief Pretor, as concernyng his office, in these woordes, saieth: _Digna vox est maiestate regnantis legibus alligatum se principem profiteri. Adeo de autoritate Iuris nostra pendet autoritas et reuera maius imperio est submittere legibus prin[-] cipatum & oraculo presentis edicti quod nobis licere non pa- timur alijs indicamus._ It is a worthie saiyng, and meete for the Maiestie of a Prince, to acknowledge hymself vnder his lawe. For, our aucthoritie, power, and sworde, doeth depende vpon the force, might, and aucthoritie of Lawes, and it pas- seth all power and aucthoritie, his gouernemente and kyng- dome to be tempered by lawe, as a moste inuiolable Oracle and decrée, so to doe as we prouulgate to other. Whereupon it is manifeste, what force godlie lawes gaue to the Prince, what aucthoritie. Take lawes awaie, all order of states fai- [Sidenote: Princes Lawe.] leth, the Prince by Lawe, is a terrour to the malefactour: his Maiestie is with all humblenesse serued, feared, and obeied. By lawes, his state maketh hym as a God, emong menne, at whose handes the preseruacion of eche one, of house, citee and countrie is sought. Seing bothe lawes and the Prince, hane that honour and strength, that without them, a _Chaos_ a con- fusion would followe, in the bodie of all common wealthes and kyngdomes. Let them by aucthoritie and lawe bee con- [Fol. xxxvj.r] founded, that practise to subuerte aucthoritie, to neclecte the Prince, and his godlie lawes. ¶ The exposicion. [Sidenote: Theiues and all iniurious persones.] THe theife, or any other iniurious persone, doeth seke to bée aboue all lawes, exempted from all order, vn- der no obedience, their pestiferous dealyng, dooe vt- [Sidenote: Demosthe- nes in Ari- stogiton.] ter thesame: For, as Demosthenes the famous Orator of A- thenes doeth saie. If that wicked men cease not their viole[n]ce if that good men in all quietnes and securitie, can not enioye their owne goddes, while lawe and aucthoritie of the magi- strate, seuerelie and sharply vseth his aucthoritie and sword. If dailie the heddes of wicked men, cease not to subuerte la- wes, orders, and decrees godlie appoincted. Whiles that in all Citees and common wealthes, the Princes and gouer- [Sidenote: The force of lawes.] nours, are by lawes a terror to them. Lawes then ceasyng, the dreadfull sente[n]ce of the Iudge and Magistrate wanting. The sworde vndrawen, all order confounded, what a con- fusion would followe: yea, what an open passage would bee lefte open to all wickednesse. The terrour of Lawes, the sworde and aucthoritie of the Magestrate, depresseth and put[-] teth doune, the bloodie cogitacions of the wicked, and so hin- dereth and cutteth of, many horrible and bloodie enterprises. Els there would bee neither Prince, Lawe, nor subiecte, no hedde or Magistrate: but euery manne his owne hedde, his owne lawe and Magistrate, oppression and violence should bee lawe, and reason, and wilfull luste would bee in place of reason, might, force, and power, should ende the case. Where- fore, soche as no lawe, no order, nor reason, will driue lo liue as members in a common wealthe, to serue in their functio[n]. [Sidenote: Wicked men burdeins of the yearth.] Thei are as Homere calleth the:m, burdeins to the yearth, for thei are of no societie linked with Nature, who through wickednesse are disseuered, abhorryng concorde of life, socie- tie and felowship. Whom sinister and bitter stormes of for- tune, doe daiely vexe and moleste, who in the defence of their [Fol. xxxvj.v] [Sidenote: Maimed sol- diours muste be prouided for.] countrie are maimed, and thereby their arte and science, for, imbecilitie not practised, all art otherwise wantyng, extreme pouertee fallyng on them, reason muste moue, and induce all hartes, to pitée chieflie their state: who in defence and main- teinaunce of our Countrie, Prince, and to the vpholdyng of our priuate wealthe at home, are become debilitated, defor- med and maimed, els their miseries will driue them to soche hedlesse aduentures, that it maie bee saied, as it was saied to [Sidenote: The saiyng of a souldiour to Alexander the greate.] Alexander the Greate. Thy warres, O Prince, maketh ma- ny theues, and peace will one daie hang them vp. Wherein the Grecians, as Thusidides noteth, had a carefull proui- dence, for all soche as in the defence of their Countrie were maimed, yea, euen for their wiues, and children of all soche, as died in warre, to be mainteined of the commo[n] charge and threasure of Grece. Reade his Oracion in the seconde booke, made vpon the funerall of the dedde soldiours. ¶ A comparison of vices. [Sidenote: The dru[n]kard[.] The proude persone. The prodigal[.] The couei- teous. The robber.] THe dronkarde in his state is beastlie, the proude and arrogante persone odious, the riotous and prodigall persone to be contempned, the couei- tous and nigardlie manne to bee reiected. But who so by violence, taketh awaie the goodes of an other man, or by any subtill meanes, iniustlie possesseth thesame, is detestable, with all seueritée to be punished. The [Sidenote: The adul- terer. The harlot.] adulterer and the harlotte, who by brutishe behauiour, leude affection, not godlines leadyng thereto: who by their vnchast behauior, and wanton life doe pollute, and co[n]taminate their bodie, in whom a pure minde ought to be reposed. Who tho- rowe beastly affeccion, are by euill maners transformed to beastes: and as moche as in theim lieth, multipliyng a bru- [Sidenote: The homi- cide.] tishe societie. The homicide in his state more horrible, accor- dyng to his outragious and bloodie life, is to bee tormented, in like sort all other vices, accordyng to their mischiues, rea- son, Lawe and Iustice, must temper and aggrauate due re- [Fol. xxxvij.r] ward, and sentence to them. ¶ The sentence. [Sidenote: Thefte horri[-] ble amo[n]g the Scitheans.] NO vice was more greuous, and horrible emong the Scithians then thefte, for this was their sai- yng: _Quid saluum esse poterit si licet furari_, what can be safe, if thefte bee lefull or tolerated. Herein [Sidenote: A sentence a- genst thefte.] the vniuersalle societée of life is caste doune, hereby a confu- sion groweth, and a subuersion in all states immediatlie fol- loweth, equitee, iustice, and all sincere dealyng is abaundo- ned, violence extirpateth vertue, and aucthoritie is cutte of. ¶ The digression. THE facte in other maie be with more facilitée to- lerated, in that to theim selues, the facte and con- uersacion of life is moste pernicious, and hurtfull, but by soche kinde of menne, whole kyngdomes and common wealthes would bee ouerthrowen. And for a prosperous state and common wealthe, a common woe and [Sidenote: Horrible vi- ces.] calamitée would fall on them, tumultes and vprores main- tained, right and lawe exiled: neither in field quietnes, welth or riches, houses spoiled, families extinguished, in all places sedicion, warre for peace, violence for right, will and lust for [Sidenote: Userers.] lawe, a hedlesse order in all states. And as concernyng Usu- rers, though their gaines be neuer so ample, and plentifull, to enriche them, whereby thei growe to be lordes, ouer many thousandes of poundes: yet the wealthe gotten by it, is so in- iurious, that thei are a greate plague, to all partes of the co[m]- mon wealthe: so many daungers and mischiues, riseth of the[m][.] Cato the noble and wise Senator of Rome, being demaun- ded diuers questions, what was firste to bee sought, in a fa- milie or housholde, the aunsweres not likyng the demaun- [Sidenote: The sentence of Cato a- gainst vsu- rers. Usure is mur[-] ther.] der: this question was asked, O Cato, what sente[n]ce giue you of Usurie, that is a goodlie matter to bee enriched by. Then Cato aunswered in fewe woordes. _Quid hominem occidere._ What saie you to be a murderer? Soche a thyng saieth he, is [Fol. xxxvij.v] Usurie. A brief sentence againste Usurers, but wittely pro- nounced from the mouth of a godlie, sage, noble, and descrite persone, whiche sentence let the Usurer, ioigne to his Usury retourned, and repeate at the retourne thereof, this sentence [Sidenote: The sentence of Cato a dis- comfort to v- surers.] of Cato, I haue murthered. This one sentence will discou- rage any Usurer, knowyng hymself a murtherer. Though moche more maie be spoken against it, this shalbe sufficient. The Hebrues calleth Usurie, by the name of _Shecke_, that is a bityng gaine, of the whiche many haue been so bitten, that whole families haue been deuoured, & beggerie haue been their gaine. And as Palingenius noteth. _Debitor aufugiens portat cum fænore sortem._ The debtour often tymes saieth he, runneth awaie, and carieth with hym, the debte and gaines of the Usurie. The Grekes calleth Usurie _Tokos_, that is properlie the trauaile of women of their childe: soche is their Usurie, a daungerous gettyng. Demosthenes likeneth their state as thus, as if ter- restriall thynges should be aboue the starres: and the heaue[n]s [Sidenote: Usure a dan- gerous gaue.] and celestialle bodies, gouerned by the base and lowe terre- striall matters, whiche by no meanes, can conserue the ex- cellencie of them, for, of them onely, is their matter, substau[n]ce and nature conserued. ¶ Exclusion of mercie. WHerefore, to whom regimente and gouerne- mente is committed, on whose administracion, the frame of the co[m]mon wealth doe staie it self: thei ought with al wisedome and moderacion, to procede in soche causes, whose office in wor- [Sidenote: Princes and magistrates be as Gods on the earth.] thinesse of state, and dignitée, maketh the[m] as Goddes on the yearth, at whose mouthes for wisedome, counsaill, and for- tunate state, infinite people doe depende. It is no smal thing in that their sword & aucthoritée, doeth sette or determine all thinges, that tendereth a prosperous state, whereupon with all integritée and equitée, thei ought to temper the affeccions of their mynde: and accordyng to the horrible facte, and mis- [Fol. xxxviij.r] chiues of the wicked, to exasperate & agrauate their terrible iudgemente, and to extirpate from the yearth, soche as be of [Sidenote: The homicide. The Theue. The Adulte- rer.] no societie in life. The bloodie homicide, the thief, the adul- terer, for by these all vertue is rooted out, all godlie societie extinguished, citees, realmes, and countrées, prostrate & pla- gued for the toleracion of their factes, against soch frendship in iudgemente muste cease, and accordyng to the state of the cause, equitee to retaine frendship, money muste not blinde, nor rewardes to force and temper Iudgementes: but accor- dyng to the veritee of the cause, to adde a conclusion. Wor- [Sidenote: Whey the pi- ctures of ma- gistrates bee picturid with- oute handes.] thelie the pictures of Princes, Gouernours and Magistrates in auncient tymes doe shewe this, where the antiquitée ma- keth theim without handes, therein it sheweth their office, and iudgemente to proceade with equitée, rewardes not to blind, or suppresse the sinceritée of the cause. Magistrates not to bee bounde to giftes, nor rewardes to rule their sentence. _Alciatus_ in his boke called _Emblemata, in senatu[m] sancti prin- cipis_. [Sidenote: Princes and magistrates graue & con- stante.] _Effigies manibus trunc[ae] ante altaria diuum Hic resident, quarum lumine capta prior Signa potestatis summ[ae], sanctiq[ue] senatus, Thebanis fuerant ista reperta viris. Cur resident? Quia mente graues decet esse quieta Iuridicos, animo nec variare leui. Cur sine sunt manibus? Capiant ne xenia, nec se Pollicitis flecti muneribus ve sinant. Cecus est princeps quod solis auribus, absq[ue] Affectu constans iussa senatus agit._ Where vertue and integritée sheweth it self, in the persone and cause, to vpholde and maintein thesame. Roote out hor- rible vices from common wealthe, that the more surer and stronge foundacion of vertue maie be laied: for, that onelie cause, the scepter of kinges, the office of magistrates was left to the posteritée of all ages. ¶ Lawfull and iuste. [Fol. xxxviij.v] ¶ Lawfull and iust. [Sidenote: Lawes giue equitie to all states.] SEyng that lawes bee godlie, and vniuersally thei temper equitée to all states, and giue according to iustice, euery man his owne: he violateth vertue, that dispossesseth an other manne of his own, and [Sidenote: What driueth y^e magistrate to horrible sentence a- gainst wicked persons.] wholie extinguisheth Iustice. And thereupon his beastly life by merite forceth and driueth, lawe and Magistrate, to terri- ble iudgement. For, who so against right, without order, or lawe, violateth an other man, soche a one, lawes of iustice, muste punishe violentlie, and extirpate from societée, beyng a dissoluer of societee. ¶ Profitable. IF soche wicked persones be restrained, and seuerelie punished, horrible vices will be rooted out: all artes[,] sciences, and godlie occupacions mainteined, vphol- ded and kept. Then there must bée a securitée in all states, to [Sidenote: Magistrate. Subiect.] practise godlines, a mutuall concorde. The Magistrate with equitée, the subiecte with faithful and humble obedience, ac- complishyng his state, office, and callyng. Whereupon by good Magistrates, and good subiectes, the common wealthe and kyngdom is in happie state stablished. For, in these twoo [Sidenote: Plato.] poinctes, as Plato doeth saie, there is vertuous rule, and like obedience. ¶ Easie and possible. [Sidenote: The begyn- nyng of vice is to be cut af.] AL this maie easely be doen, when wickednes is cutte of, in his firste groweth, when the magistrate driueth continually, by sworde and aucthoritée, all menne to obedience, bothe of lawes and gouernuurs. Then in al good common wealthes, vices are neuer tolerated to take roote: be- cause the beginnyng and increase of vices, is sone pulled vp, his monsterous kyngdome thereby ouerthrowen. ¶ The conclusion. SO doyng, happie shall the kyng be, happie kyngdome, and moste fortunate people. [Fol. xxxix.r] ¶ The parte of Rhetorike, called praise. His Oracion, which is titeled praise, is a declamacio[n] of the vertuous or good qualitées, propertees belon- gyng to any thyng, whiche doeth procede by certaine notes of arte. All thynges that maie be seen, with the iye of man, tou- ched, or with any other sence apprehended: that maie be prai- sed, or dispraised. { Manne. Citees. } { Fisshe. Floodes. } { Foule. Castles. } { Beaste. Toures. } As { Orchardes. Gardeins. } { Stones. Stones. } { Trees. Artes. } { Plantes. Sciences. } { Mettals. } Any vertue maie be praised, as wisedome, rightuousnes[,] fortitude, magnanimitée, temperaunce, liberalitée, with all other. These are to be celebrated with praise. The persone, as Iulius Cesar, Octauius Augustus, Hieremie, Tullie, Cato, Demosthenes. Thynges, as rightuousnes, temperaunce. Tymes, as the Spryng tyme of the yere, Sommer, Har- uest, Winter. Places, as Hauens, Orchardes, Gardeins, Toures, Castles, Temples, Islandes. Beastes wantyng reason, as Horse, Shepe, Oxen[,] Pla[n]- ntes, as Uines, Oliues. In the praise of vertue, this maie be saied. THe excellencies of it, the antiquitee and originalle be- ginnyng thereof, the profite that riseth to any region by it, as no kyngdome can consiste without vertue, [Fol. xxxix.v] and to extoll the same, in makyng a comparison, with other giftes of nature, or with other giftes of fortune, more infe- riour or base. [Sidenote: Wherein the praise of a ci- tie consisteth[.]] Upon a citée, praise maie be recited, consideryng the good- lie situacion of it, as of Paris, Uenice, London, Yorke: con- sideryng the fertilitie of the lande, the wealthe and aboun- daunce, the noble and famous goueruours, whiche haue go- uerned thesame. The first aucthors and builders of thesame, the politike lawes, and godlie statutes therein mainteined: The felicitée of the people, their maners, their valeaunt pro- wes and hardines. The buildyng and ornatures of thesame, with Castles, Toures, Hauens, Floodes, Temples: as if a manne would celebrate with praise. The olde, famous, and [Sidenote: The praise of London. Brutus buil[-] ded Londo[n] in the .x. yeare of his raine.] aunciente Citée of London, shewyng the auncient buildyng of thesame: the commyng of Brutus, who was the firste au- cthor and erector of thesame. As Romulus was of the migh- tie Citée Rome, what kyngs haue fro[m] tyme to tyme, lineal- ly descended, and succeded, bearing croune and scepter there- in: the valiauntnes of the people, what terror thei haue been to all forraine nacions. What victories thei haue in battaile obteined, how diuers nacions haue sought their amitée and [Sidenote: Fraunce and Scotlande vpholded by y^e gouernors of this lande.] league. The false Scottes, and Frenche menne truce brea- kers: many and sonderie tymes, losyng their honour in the field, and yet thei, through the puissaunt harte of the kynges of this lande, vpholdyd and saued, from the mighte and force [Sidenote: Cambridge. Oxforde.] of other enemies inuadyng theim. The twoo famous Uni- uersitées of this lande, from the whiche, no small nomber of greate learned men and famous, haue in the co[m]mon wealthe sprong, with all other thynges to it. The praise of a Kyng, Prince, Duke, Erle, Lorde, Ba- ron, Squire, or of any other man be maie declaimed of obser[-] uing the order of this parte of _Rhetorike_. This parte of _Rhetorike_ called praise, is either a particu- ler praise of one, as of kyng Henry the fifte, Plato, Tullie, Demosthenes, Cyrus, Darius, Alexander the greate. [Fol. xl.r] Or a generalle and vniuersalle praise, as the praise of all the Britaines: or of all the citezeins of London. ¶ The order to make this Oracion, is thus declared. Firste, for the enteryng of the matter, you shall place a _exordium_, or beginnyng. The seconde place, you shall bryng to his praise, _Genus eius_, that is to saie: Of what kinde he came of, whiche dooeth consiste in fower poinctes. { Of what nacion. } { Of what countrée. } { Of what auncetours. } { Of what parentes. } After that you shall declare, his educacion: the educacion is conteined in thrée poinctes. { Institucion. } In { Arte. } { Lawes. } Then put there to that, whiche is the chief grounde of al praise: his actes doen, whiche doe procede out of the giftes, and excellencies of the minde, as the fortitude of the mynde, wisedome, and magnanimitée. Of the bodie, as a beautifull face, amiable countenaunce[,] swiftnesse, the might and strength of thesame. The excellencies of fortune, as his dignitée, power, au- cthoritee, riches, substaunce, frendes. In the fifte place vse a comparison, wherein that whiche you praise, maie be aduaunced to the vttermoste. Laste of all, vse the _Epilogus_, or conclusion. ¶ The example of the Oracion. ¶ The praise of Epaminundas. IN whom nature hath powred singuler giftes, in whom vertue, & singularitée, in famous en- terprises aboundeth: whose glorie & renoume, rooteth to the posteritée, immortall commen- dacion. In the graue, their vertues and godlie [Fol. xl.v] [Sidenote: Obliuion.] life, tasteth not of Obliuion, whiche at the length ouerthro- weth all creatures, Citées, and regions. Thei liue onelie in all ages, whose vertues spreadeth fame and noble enterpri- [Sidenote: Who liue in all ages.] ses, by vertue rooteth immortalitée. Who so liueth, as that his good fame after death ceaseth not, nor death with the bo- die cutteth of their memorie of life: Soche not onely in life, but also in death are moste fortunate. In death all honor, di- [Sidenote: Good fame chieflie rou- teth after death.] gnitée, glorie, wealthe, riches, are taken from vs: The fame and glorie of singulare life is then, chieflie takyng his holde and roote, wise men and godlie, in life, knowen famous, af- ter death, remain moste worthie & glorious. Who knoweth [Sidenote: Tullie. Demosthe- nes. Iulius Ce- sar. Octauius Augustus. Uespasianus[.] Theodosius. Traianns. Adrianus.] not of Tullie, the famous Oratour of Rome. Doeth De- mosthenes lieth hidden, that noble Oratour of Athenes. Is not y^e fame of Iulius Cesar, Octauius Augustus remainyng of Uespasianus: of Theodosius, of Traianus, of Adrianus, who by praise minded, be left to the ende of al ages. Soche a one was this Epaminundas, the famous Duke of Thebe, whose vertues gaue hym honour in life, and famous enter- prises, immortalitée of fame after death. What can bee saied more, in the praise and commendacion, of any peere of estate, then was saied in the praise of Epaminundas, for his ver- tues were so singulare, that it was doubted, he beyng so good a manne, and so good a Magistrate, whether he were better manne, or better Magistrate: whose vertues were so vnited, that vertue alwaies tempered his enterprises, his loftie state as fortune oftentymes blindeth, did not make hym vnmind- full of his state. No doubt, but that in all common wealthes, famous gouernours haue been, but in all those, the moste parte haue not been soche, that all so good men, and so good magistrates: that it is doubted, whether thei were better me[n], [Sidenote: Good man, good magi- strate, boothe a good man and a good magistrate.] or better magistrates. It is a rare thyng to be a good manne, but a more difficult matter, to bee a good Magistrate: and moste of all, to be bothe a good man, and a good Magistrate. Honour and preeminent state, doeth sometyme induce obli- uion, whereupon thei ought the more vigilantlie to wade: [Fol. xlj.r] in all causes, and with all moderacion, to temper their pree- [Sidenote: The saiynge of the Philo- sophers.] minent state. The Philosophers ponderyng the brickle and slippere state of fortune, did pronounce this sentence: _Diffici- lius est res aduersas pati, quam fortunam eflantem ferre_, it is more easie to beare sharpe and extreme pouertie, then to rule and moderate fortune, because that the wisest menne of all [Sidenote: Obliuion.] haue as Chronicles doe shewe, felte this obliuion, that their maners haue been so chaunged, as that natures molde in the[m] had ben altered or nuelie framed, in the life of Epaminu[n]das moderacion and vertue, so gouerned his state, that he was a honor and renowne to his state, nothing can be more ample in his praise, then that which is lefte Chronicled of him. [¶] Of his countrie. EPaminundas was borne in Thebe a famous citie in [Sidenote: Cadmus. Amphion. Hercules.] Beotia, the which Cadmus the sone of Agenor buil- ded, whiche Amphion did close & enuiron with wal- les, in the whiche the mightie and valiaunt Hercules was borne, & manie noble Princes helde therin scepter, the which Citie is tituled famous to the posterity by the noble gouern- ment of Epaminundas. ¶ Of his auncetours. EPaminundas came not of anie highe nobilitie or blood, but his parentes were honeste and verteous who as it semed were verie well affected to vertue, instructyng their soonne in all singulare and good qualities, for by good and vertuous life and famous enter- prises from a meane state, manie haue bene extolled to beare scepter, or to attaine greate honour, for as there is a begyn- [Sidenote: Nobility rose by vertue.] nyng of nobilitie, so there is an ende, by vertue and famous actes towarde the common wealthe, nobilite first rose. The [Sidenote: Cesar. Scipio.] stock of Cesar and Cesars was exalted from a meaner state, by vertue onelie to nobilitie. Scipios stocke was not alwais noble, but his vertues graffed nobilitie to the posteritie of his line and ofspryng followynge. And euen so as their fa- [Fol. xlj.v] mous enterprices excelled, nobilite in theim also increased. [Sidenote: Catilina.] Catilina wicked, was of a noble house, but he degenerated from the nobilitie of his auncestours, the vertues that graf- fed nobilitie in his auncestors, were first extinguished in Ca- [Sidenote: Marcus Antonius.] iline. Marcus Antonius was a noble Emperour, a Prince indued with all wisedome and Godlie gouernme[n]t, who was of a noble pare[n]tage, it what a wicked sonne succeded him, the [Sidenote: Commodus.] father was not so godlie, wise, and vertuous, as Commo- dus was wickedlie disposed and pestiferous. There was no vertue or excellence, méete for suche a personage, but that Marcus attained to. Who for wisedome was called Marcus Philosophus, in his sonne what vice was the[m] that he practi- sed not, belie chier, druncknes and harlottes, was his delite, his crueltie and bluddie life was suche that he murthered all the godlie and wise Senatours, had in price with Marcus [Sidenote: Seuerus.] his father. Seuerus in like maner, was a noble and famous Emperor, in the Senate moste graue, politike, and in his [Sidenote: Marcus Antonius Caracalla.] warres moste fortunate, but in his sonne Marcus Antoni- nus Caracalla, what wickednes wanted, whose beastlie life is rather to be put in silence, then spoken of. In the assemble of the Grecians, gathered to consulte vpon the contencion of [Sidenote: Aiax. Ulisses.] Achilles armour, Aiax gloriouslie aduaunceth hymself of his auncestrie, from many kinges descended, whom Ulisses his aduersarie aunswered: makyng a long and eloquente Ora- cion, before the noble péeres of Grece, concernyng Aiax his auncetours. These are his woordes. _Nam genus et proauos et que non fecimus ipsi, Vix ea nostra voco, sed enim quia retulit Aiax, esse Iouis pronepos._ As for our parentage, and line of auncetours, long before vs, and noble actes of theirs: as we our selues haue not doen the like, how can we call, and title their actes to be ours. Let them therefore, whiche haue descended from noble blood, and famous auncetours: bee like affected to all nobilitée of their auncetours, what can thei glory in the nobilitée of their aun- [Fol. xlij.r] cetours. Well, their auncetours haue laied the foundacion, [Sidenote: Nobilitee.] and renoume of nobilitee to their ofspryng. What nobilitee is founde in them, when thei builde nothyng, to their aunce- tours woorke of nobilitée. Euen as their auncetours, noblie endeuoured them selues, to purchase and obtain, by famous actes their nobilitée) for, nobilitée and vertue, descendeth al- waies to the like) so thei contrary retire and giue backe, fro[m] all the nobiliée of their auncestours, where as thei ought, [Sidenote: A beginnyng of nobilitee.] with like nobilitée to imitate them. Many haue been, whiche through their wisedome, and famous enterprises, in the af- faires of their Prince, worthelie to honour haue been extol- led and aduaunced: who also were the firste aucthours and founders of nobiliée, to their name and ofspring. Whose of- spring indued with like nobilitée of vertues, and noble actes haue increased their auncestors glorie: the childre[n] or ofspring lineally descendyng, hauyng no part of the auncestours glo- rie, how can thei vaunte them selues of nobiliée, whiche thei lacke, and dooe nothyng possesse thereof, Euen from lowe [Sidenote: Galerius a Shepherds sonne Empe- ror of Rome. Probus a Gardeiners sonne, Em- perour.] birthe and degrée. Galerius Armentarius was aduaunced, euen from a Shepherdes sonne, to sit in the Imperiall seat of Roome. Galerius Maximinus whom all the Easte obaied, his vertues and noble acts huffed hym to beare scepter in the Empire of Roome. Probus a Gardiners soonne, to the like throne and glorie asce[n]ded, so God disposeth the state of euery man, placyng and bestowing dignitée, where it pleaseth him as he setteth vp, so he pulleth doune, his prouidence & might is bounde to no state, stocke, or kindred. ¶ Of his educacion. EPaminu[n]das beyng borne of soche parentes, was brought vp in all excellente learnyng, for, vnder hym Philippe the kyng of the Macedonians, the soonne of Amintas, was brought vp. This Epa- minundas, the Histories note hym to be a chief Philosopher, and a capitaine moste valiaunte. In Musike, in plaiyng, and [Fol. xlij.v] singyng finelie to his Instrumente, notable and famous, no kinde of learnyng, arte, or science, wanted in his breaste: So greate and aboundante were his vertues, that aboue all go- uernours, whiche haue been in Thebe, his name and fame is chieflie aduaunced. ¶ The praise of his actes. [Sidenote: The dutie of good gouer- nors.] EPaminundas beyng moste valiaunte and no- ble, leauing all priuate commoditée, glory, and riches a side: sought the renoume of his coun- tree, as all rulers and gouernours ought to do. [Sidenote: Howe a king[-] dome riseth to all felicitie.] For, a kyngdome or common wealth, can not rise to any high nobilitée or Roialnesse, where gouernours, rulers, and magistrates, neclecting the vniuersall, and whole body of the common wealthe, doe cogitate and vigilantly en- deuour them selues, to stablish to them and theirs, a priuate, peculiar, and domesticall profite, glorie, or renoume. Couei- teousnes, whiche is in all ambicious Magistrates the poison, plague, destruccion, and ruine of the beste and florishing co[m]- mon wealthes, of al wickednes and mischief the roote: a vice, [Sidenote: Couetousnes a great euill.] whereupon all vice is grounded, from whom all mischiefe floweth, all execrable purposes issueth. That wanted in Epaminundas, for in the ende of his life, his coffers were so thin and poore, that euen to his Funerall, money wanted to solempnise thesame. Priuate glorie nor excesse, was hunted after of hym, yet his vertues were of soche excellencie, that honour, dignitée, and preeminent state, was offered and gi- uen to hym vnwillinglie. This Epaminundas was in go- uernement so famous, and so vertuouslie and politikelie ru- led thesame, that he was a glorie, renoume, honour, and fe- licitée to his kingdome, by his state. Before the time of Epa- [Sidenote: Beotia. Thebes.] minundas, the countree of Beotia was nothyng so famous in their enterprises: neither the citee of Thebe so roiall, puis- saunt or noble, the antiquitee of that tyme sheweth, that E- paminundas wantyng the power of Thebes, their glorie, strength, and felicitee fell and decaied. The learning of Epa- [Fol. xliij.r] minundas and knowlege, was so aboundant and profounde bothe in Philosophie, and in all other artes and sciences, that it was wounderfull. In chiualrie and in feates of warre, no péere was more couragious and bolde, or hardie, neither in that, whiche he enterprised, any could be of greater counsaile in hedde more pollitike, of minde more sage and wittie: his gouernement so good, that beyng so good a Magistrate, it is doubted, whether he be better man, or better Magistrate, E- paminundas died in the defence of his countrée. The Athe- nians were enemies to the Thebanes, and many greate bat- tailes were assaied of theim and foughten: and often tymes the Athenians felt many bitter stormes, and fortune loured of them, he beyng so valiaunt a capitain. Epaminundas be- yng dedde, the Athenians ceased to practise, any one parte of chiualrie, their prowesse and dexteritée decaied: thei hauyng no aliaunte, and forraine enemie to moleste theim, or whom [Sidenote: A valiant ca- pitain, to his countrie a pil[-] lar[,] to his ene[-] mie, a occasio[n] to dexteritie.] thei feared. So that a famous, wise, pollitike, and valiaunte capitaine, is not onely a staie, a pillar and strong bulwarke to his countrée. But also forraine nacions, hauyng one, who[m] for his valiauntnes thei dreade, doe practise and inure them selues, to all dexteritee, counsaile, wisedome, and pollicie: soche a one was Epaminundas, to his enemies and cou[n]trée. ¶ The comparison. [Sidenote: Hector. Achilles. Numa Pom[-] peius. Adrianus.] NEither Hector of Troie, nor Achilles of Grece, might bee compared with Epaminundas, Numa Pompili- us was not more godlie, Adriane the Emperour of Roome, no better learned, nor Galba the Emperour more valiaunte, Nerua no more temperate, nor Traianus more noble, neither Cocles nor Decius, Scipio nor Marcus Regu[-] lus, did more valianntly in the defence of their countrie, soche a one was this Epaminundas. ¶ The conclusion. OF many thynges, these fewe are recited, but if his whole life and vertues, wer worthely handeled: fewe would beleue, soche a rare gouernour, so vertuous a [Fol. xliij.v] Prince, so hardie and valiaunte a capitaine, to haue remai- ned in no age. ¶ The parte of Rhetorike, called dispraise. THis parte of _Rhetorike_, which is called dispraise, is a in- uectiue Oracion, made againste the life of any man. This part of _Rhetorike_, is contrary to that, whiche is be- fore set, called _laus_, that is to saie, praise: and by contrary no- tes procedeth, for the Oratour or declaimer to entreate vpo[n]. This parte of _Rhetorike_, is called of the Grekes _Psogos_. In praise, we extoll the persone: First by his countrée. Then by his auncestours and parentes. In the third place, by his educacion and institucion. Then in the fowerth place, of his actes in life. In the fifte place vse a comparison, comparyng the per- sone with other, whiche are more inferiour. Then the conclusion. Now in dispraise, contrarily we doe procede. Firste, in the dispraise of his countrée. Of his auncetours and parentes. His educacion is dispraised. Then his actes and deedes of life. Also in your comparison with other, dispraise hym. Then in the laste place, adde the conclusion. All thynges that maie be praised, maie be dispraised. ¶ The dispraise of Nero. [Sidenote: Uertue.] AS vertue meriteth commendacion and immor- tall renoume, for the nobilitée and excellencie reposed in it: so ougle vices for the deformitée of them, are in mynd to be abhorred and detested, and with all diligence, counsaile, and wisedome [Sidenote: Uice.] auoided. As pestiferous poison extinguisheth with his cor- rupcion and nautinesse, the good and absolute nature of all thinges: so vice for his pestiferous nature putteth out vertue and rooteth out with his force all singularitée. For, vice and [Fol. xliiij.r] vertue are so of nature contrary, as fire and water, the vio- lence of the one expelleth the other: for, in the mansion of ver- tue, vice at one tyme harboreth not, neither vertue with vice [Sidenote: What is ver- tue.] can be consociate or vnited, for, vertue is a singuler meane, or Mediocrite in any good enterprise or facte, with order and reason finished. Whose acte in life, doeth repugne order and reason, disseuered from all Mediocrite, soche do leaue iustice, equitée, wisedome, temperaunce, fortitude, magnanimitée, and al other vertues, bothe of minde and body: onely by ver- tues life men shewe theim selues, as chief creatures of God, with reason, as a moste principall gifte, beautified and deco- rated: In other giftes, man is farre inferiour to beastes, both in strength of bodie, in celeritée and swiftnesse of foote, in la- bour, in industrie, in sense, nothyng to bee compared to bea- stes, with beastes as a peculier and proper thyng, wee haue our bodie of the yearth: but our minde, whiche for his diuini- tée, passeth all thynges immortall, maketh vs as gods emo[n]g other creatures. The bodie therefore, as a aliaunt and forain enemie, beyng made of a moste base, moste vile and corrup- tible nature, repugneth the mynde. This is the cause, that wickednesse taketh soche a hedde, and that the horrible facte and enterprise of the wicked burste out, in that, reason exiled and remoued from the minde, the ougle perturbacions of the minde, haue their regiment, power, and dominio[n]: and where soche state of gouernemente is in any one bodie, in priuate and domesticalle causes, in forraine and publike affaires, in kyngdome and co[m]mon wealthe. Uertue fadeth and decaieth, and vice onely beareth the swaie. Lawe is ordered by luste, and their order is will, soche was the tyme and gouernment of this wicked Nero. ¶ Of his countree. NEro was a Romaine borne, though in gouerne- ment he was wicked, yet his cou[n]trée was famous, and noble: for, the Romaines wer lordes and hed- des ouer all the worlde. The vttermoste Indians, [Fol. xliiij.v] the Ethiopes, the Persians, feared the maiestie and auctho- [Sidenote: Rome.] ritée of the Romaines. From Romulus, who was the firste founder, and builder of that Citee: the Romaines bothe had their name of hym, and grew afterward to marueilous pui- saunt roialnes. There was no nacion vnder the Sunne, but it dreaded their Maiestie, or felte their inuincible handes: there hath been many mightie kyngdomes, on the face of the yearth, but no kyngdome was able, with like successe and fe- licitée in their enterprise, or for like famous gouernors, and continuance of their state, to compare with them. This was, and is, the laste mightée Monarchie in the worlde. Roome a olde aunciente citée, inhabited firste of the Aborigines, which [Sidenote: Carthage.] came from Troie. The prouidence of God, so disposeth the tymes and ages of the world, the state of kyngdomes, by the fall of mightier kyngdomes, meaner grewe to power and glorie. The Carthagineans, contended by prowes, and ma- gnanimitee, to be lordes ouer the Romaines. Carthage was a greate, mightie, olde, auncient & famous citée, in the whiche valiaunte, wise, and pollitike gouernours, helde therein re- giment, long warres was susteined betwene the Romaines and Carthagineans, emong whom infinite people, and ma- ny noble péeres fell in the duste. Fortune and happie successe fell to the Romaines: the people of Carthage va[n]quished, and prostrate to the grounde. Scipio the noble Consull, beyng at the destruccion of it, seeyng with his iye, Carthage by fire brunte to ashes, saied: _Talis exitus aliquando erit Rome_: eue[n] [Sidenote: Destruction of Rome to ashes in time.] as of Carthage, like shall the destruccion of Rome bee, as for continuaunce of the Romaine state, of their glorie, power, and worthie successe, no nacion vnder the Sunne, can com- pare with theim: soche was the state of Rome, wherein wic- ked Nero raigned. ¶ Of his anncestours. DOmitianus Nero, the sonne of Domitius Enobar- bus, Agrippina was his mothers name: this Agrip- pina, was Empresse of Rome, wife to Claudius Ti- [Fol. xlv.r] [Sidenote: Agrippina.] berius, the daughter of his brother Germanicus. This A- grippina, the Chronicle noteth her, to be indued with al mis- chief and crueltée: For, Tiberius her housbande, hauyng by his firste wife children, thei were murthered by her, because she might, thei beyng murthered, with more facilitée, fur- ther the Empire, to her soonnes handes, many treasons con- spired against them oftentimes, Agrippina poisoned her hus- bande, then Nero succeded. ¶ Of his educacion. [Sidenote: Seneca schol maister to Nero.] SEneca the famous Poete & Philosopher, was schole- maister to Nero, who brought hym vp in all nobili- tie of learnyng, mete for his state: though that Nero was wickedlie of nature disposed, as his beastlie gouerne- ment sheweth, yet wickednes in him, was by the seueritie of Seneca, and his castigacion depressed: for Traianus Empe- rour of Rome, would saie, as concernyng Nero, for the space of fiue yeres, no Prince was like to hym, for good gouerne- ment, after fiue yeres, losely and dissolutly he gouerned. ¶ Of his actes. [Sidenote: The dreame of Agrippina mother to Nero, in his concepcion.] THis Nero, at what tyme as his mother was con- ceiued of him, she dreamed that she was conceiued of a Uiper: for, the young Uiper alwaies killeth his dame. He was not onely a Uiper to his mo- ther whom he killed, but also to his kyngdome and common wealthe a destroier, whiche afterward shalbe shewed, what [Sidenote: Nero a viper[.]] a tyraunte and bloodie gouernour he was. This Nero made in the Citee of Rome, the rounde seates and scaffoldes, to be- holde spectacles and sightes, and also the bathes. He subdued [Sidenote: Pontus. Colchis. Cappadocia. Armenia.] Pontus a greate countrée, whiche ioineth to the sea Pontus: whiche countrée containeth these realmes, Colchis, Cappa- docia, Armenia, and many other countrées, and made it as a Prouince, by the suffraunce of Polemon Regulus, by whose name it was called Pontus Polemoniacus. He ouer came the Alpes, of the king Cotteius, Cottius the king being dedde[.] [Fol. xlv.v] [Sidenote: Nero vnwor[-] thie to be chron[-] icled. Seneca.] The life followyng of Nero was so abhominable, that the shame of his life, will make any man a fraied, to leaue any memorie of hym. This Domitius Nero, caused his Schole- maister Seneca to be put to death, Seneca chosing his owne death, his veines beyng cutte in a hotte bathe died, bicause he corrected wicked Nero, to traine hym to vertue. He was out- ragious wicked, that he had co[n]sideracion, neither to his own honestie, nor to other, but in continuaunce, he tired hymself as virgines doe when thei marie, callyng a Senate, the dou- rie assigned, and as the maner of that solemnitée is, many re- sortyng and frequentyng, in maidens tire and apparell. He [Sidenote: The shamful life of Nero.] went beyng a man, to be maried as a woman: beside this, at other tymes he cladde hymself with the skin of a wilde beast, and beastlie did handle that, whiche Nature remoueth from the sight. He defiled hymself with his owne mother, whom he killed immediatlie. He maried twoo wiues, Octauia, and Sabina, otherwise called Poppea, firste murtheryng their [Sidenote: Galba. Caius Iu- lius.] housbandes. In that tyme Galba vsurped the Empire, and Caius Iulius: as sone as Nero heard that Galba came nere towardes Rome, euen then the Senate of Rome had deter- mined, that Nero should bee whipped to death with roddes, accordyng to the old vsage of their auncestours, his necke yo- ked with a forke. This wicked Nero, seyng himself forsaken of all his friendes, at midnight he departed out of the Citée, Ephaon, and Epaphroditus waityng on hym, Neophitus and Sporus his Eunuche: whiche Sporus before tyme, had [Sidenote: The death of Nero.] Nero assaied to frame and fashion out of kinde. In the ende, Nero thruste himself through, with the poinct of his sworde, his wicked man Sporus, thrustyng foreward his trembling hande: this wicked Nero before that, hauyng none to mur- ther hym, he made a exclamacion, in these woordes. Is there neither friende nor enemie to kill me, shamefullie haue I li- ued, and with more shame shall I die, in the .xxxij. yere of his age he died. The Persians so entirely loued hym, that after his death thei sente Ambassadours, desiryng licence to erecte [Fol. xlvj.r] to hym a monumente, all countrées and Prouinces, and the whole Citée of Rome, did so moche reioyce of his death, that thei all wearyng the Toppintant hattes, whiche bonde men doe vse to ware, when thei bée sette at libertie, and so thei tri- umphed of his death, deliuered from so cruell a tyraunte. ¶ A comparison. [Sidenote: Nero. Caligula. Domitianus[.] Antoninus.] AS for wicked gouernement, Nero doeth make Ca- ligula like to Comodus, Domitianus, Antoninus Caracalla, thei were all so wicked, that the Senate of Rome thought it méete, to obliterate their name, from all memorie and Chronicle, because of their wickednesse. ¶ The conclusion. MOche more the life and gouernement of wicked Ne- ro, might be intreated of, but this shall be sufficient: to shewe how tyrannically and beastly, he gouerned vnmete of that throne. ¶ A comparison. A Comparison, is a certain Oracion, shewyng by a collacion the worthines, or excelle[n]cie of any thing: or the naughtines of thesame, compared with any other thyng or thynges, either equalle, or more in- feriour. In a comparison good thynges, are compared with good as one vertue with an other: as wisedome & strength, whiche of them moste auaileth in peace and warre. Euill thynges maie bee compared with good, as Iustice, with iniustice, wisedome with foolishnes. Euill thynges maie be compared, with euill thynges, as wicked Nero, compared to Domitianus, or Caligula to Co[m]- modus, theft to homicide, drunkenes with adulterie. Small thynges maie be compared with greate: the king with his subiect, the Elephant or Camell to the Flie, a Cro- codile to the Scarabe. In a comparison, where argumente is supputated on [Fol. xlvj.v] bothe the sides, worthelie to praise, or dispraise. Where a comparison is made, betwene a thyng excel- lente, and a thyng more inferiour: the comparison shall pro- cede with like facilitee. All thynges that maie bee celebrated with praise, or that meriteth dispraise: al soche thynges maie be in a comparison. The persone, as Cato being a wise man, maie be compa- red with Nestor, the sage péere of Grece: Pompei with Ce- sar, as Lucane compareth them, and so of all other men. Thynges maie bee compared, as golde with siluer: one mettall with an other. Tymes maie be compared, as the Spryng with Som- mer: Harueste with Winter. Places maie be compared, as London with Yorke, Ox- forde with Cambridge. Beastes without reason, as the Bée with the Ante, the Oxe with the Shepe. Plantes, as the Uine, and the Oliue. First, make a _proemium_ or beginnyng to your co[m]parison[.] Then compare them of their countrée. Of their parentes. Of their auncestours. Of their educacion. Of their actes. Of their death. Then adde the conclusion. ¶ A comparison betwene De- mosthenes and Tullie. TO speake moche in the praise of famous men, no argument can wante, nor plentie of matter to make of them, a copious and excellent Ora- cion. Their actes in life through nobilitée, will craue worthelie more, then the witte and penne of the learned, can by Eloquence expresse. Who can worthelie expresse and sette foorthe, the noble Philosopher [Fol. xlvij.r] [Sidenote: Plato. Aristotle.] Plato, or Aristotle, as matter worthelie forceth to commend, when as of them, all learnyng, and singularitée of artes hath flowen. All ages hath by their monuments of learning, par- ticipated of their wisedome. Grece hath fostered many noble wittes, from whom all light of knowlege, hath been deriued by whose excellencie Rome in tyme florishyng, did seeke by nobilitée of learnyng, to mate the noble Grecians. So moche Italie was adorned, and beautified with the cunnyng of the Grecians. Emong the Romaines many famous Oratours and other noble men hath spronge vp, who for their worthi- nesse, might haue contended with any nacion: either for their [Sidenote: Tullie.] glorie of learnyng, or noble regiment. Emong whom Tul- lie by learning, aboue the rest, rose to high fame, that he was a renoume to his countree: to learnyng a light, of all singuler Eloquence a fountaine. Whom Demosthenes the famous Oratour of Athenes, as a worthie mate is compared with, whom not onely the nobilitée, and renoume of their Coun- trée shall decorate, but the[m] selues their owne worthines & no- bilitée of fame. No age hath had twoo more famous for lear- nyng, no common wealthe hath tasted, twoo more profitable to their countrée, and common wealthe: for grauitée and cou[n]- saile, nor the posteritée of ages, twoo more worthie celebra- [Sidenote: Thusidides.] cion. Thusidides speakyng, in the commendacion of famous men sheweth: as concernyng the fame of noble men, whose [Sidenote: The enuious manne.] vertue farre surmounteth the[m], and passeth al other. Thenui- ous man seketh to depraue, the worthinesse of fame in other, [Sidenote: The igno- raunte.] his bragging nature with fame of praise, not decorated. The ignoraunte and simple nature, accordyng to his knowlege, iudgeth all singularitée, and tempereth by his owne actes the praise of other. But the fame of these twoo Oratours, nei- ther the enuious nature can diminishe their praise, nor the ignoraunt be of them a arbitrator or iudge, so worthely hath all ages raised fame, and commendacion of their vertues. ¶ Of their countree. [Fol. xlvij.v] IN Grece Demosthenes, the famous Oratour of A- thenes was borne, whose Countrée or Citee, lacketh no co[m]mendacion: either for the nobilitée of the lande, or glorie of the people. What nacion vnder the Sunne, hath not heard of that mightie Monarchie of Grece: of their migh- tie citees, and pollitike gouernaunce. What famous Poetes how many noble Philosophers and Oratours, hath Grece brede. What science and arte, hath not flowne from Grece, so that for the worthinesse of it, it maie bee called the mother of all learnyng. Roome also, in whom Tullie was brought vp, maie contende in all nobilitée, whose power and puisant glorie, by nobilitée of actes, rose to that mightie hed. In bothe soche excellencie is founde, as that no nacion might better contende, of their singularitée and honour of countrée, then Grece and Rome: yet first from the Grekes, the light of Phi- losophie, and the aboundant knowledge of all artes, sprange to the Romaines, from the Grecians. The Godlie Lawes, wherewith the Romaine Empire was decorated and gouer- ned, was brought from the Grecians. If the citee maie bee a honour and glorie, to these twoo Oratours, or their Citees a singuler commendacion, there wanteth in bothe, neither ho- nour, or nobilitée. ¶ Of their auncestours, and parentes. BOthe Demosthenes and Tullie were borne, of ve- rie meane parentes and auncestours: yet thei tho- rowe their learnyng and vertues, became famous, ascendyng to all nobilitée. Of their vertues and learnyng, not of their auncestours, nobilitée rose to them. ¶ Of the educacion. THE singuler vertues of theim bothe, appered euen in their tender youth: wherupon thei being brought vp, in all godlie learnyng and noble Sciences, thei became moste noble Oratours, and by their copious Elo- quence, counsaile, and wisedom, aspired to nobilitée & honor. ¶ Of their scholyng. [Fol. xlviij.r] BOthe were taught of the mouthe of the best learned, Demosthenes of Iseus, a man moste Eloquent: Ci- cero of Philo and Milo, famous in wisedome and Eloquence. ¶ Of their exercise. CIcero did exercise hymself verie moche, to declaime, bothe in Greke and Latine, with Marcus Piso, and with Quintus Pampeius. Demosthenes wanted not industrie and labour, to attain to that singularitée, whi- che he had, bothe in Eloquence, and pronounciacion. ¶ Of the giftes of their minde. IN bothe, integritee, humanitee, magnanimitee, and all vertue flowed: at what time as Demosthe- nes was commaunded of the Athenians, to frame a accusacion, againste a certaine man, Demosthe- nes refused the acte. But when the people, and the whole multitude, were wrothe with hym, and made a exclamacion against hym, as their maner was. Then Demosthenes rose, and saied: O ye men of Athenes, againste my will, you haue me a counsailer, or pleater of causes before you: but as for a accuser, & calumniator, no, not although ye would. Of this sorte Tullie was affected, excepte it were onely in the saue- gard of his conutrée: as against Catiline, bothe were of god- lie, and of vpright conuersacion, altogether in Mediocrite, and a newe leadyng their life. ¶ Of their actes. DEmosthenes and Tullie bothe, gaue them selues to trauail, in the causes and affaires of their com- mon wealthe, to the preseruacion of it. How ve- hemently did Demosthenes pleate, and ingeni- ouslie handle the cause of all his countrée, against Philip, for the defence of their libertee: whereupon he gatte fame, and greate glory. Whereby not onely, he was coumpted a great wise counsailour: but one of a valiaunte stomacke, at whose [Fol. xlviij.v] [Sidenote: Darius. Philip. Demosthe- nes.] wisedome, all Grece stode in admiracion. The kyng of Per- sia, laboured to enter fauour with him. Philip the king of the Macedonians, would saie often tymes, he had to doe against a famous man, notyng Demosthenes. Tullie also by his E- loquence and wisedome, saued Roome and all partes of that dominion, from greate daungers. ¶ Of their aucthoritee. THeir aucthoritee and dignitee was equalle, in the common wealthe: For, at their twoo mouthes, Roome and Athenes was vpholed. Demosthenes was chief in fauour with Caretes, Diophetes, Le[-] ostines, Cicero with Pompei: Iulius Cesar, ascending to the chief seate and dignitée of the Consulship. ¶ Of a like fall that happened to them, before their death. YOu can not finde soche twoo Orators, who borne of meane & poore parentes, that attained so greate honour, who also did obiecte themselues to tyran- tes a like, thei had losse of their children a like, bothe were out of their countree banished men, their returne was with honour, bothe also fliyng, happened into the han- des of their enemies. ¶ Of their death. [Sidenote: Antipater. Demosthe- nes. Archias. Marcus Antonius. Tullie.] BOthe a like, Demosthenes and Tully wer put to death, Demosthenes died, Antipater gouernyng by the handes of Archias. Cicero died by the com- maundement of Marcus Antonius: by Herenius his hedde was cutte of, and sette in Marcus Antonius halle. His handes also were cutte of, with the whiche he wrote the vehement Oracions against Marcus Antonius. ¶ The conclusion. TO speake as moche as maie bee saied, in the praise of theim: their praise would rise to a mightie volume, but this is sufficiente. [Fol. xlix.r] ¶ _Ethopoeia._ _Ethopoeia_ is a certaine Oracion made by voice, and la- mentable imitacion, vpon the state of any one. This imitacion is in { _Eidolopoeia._ } iij. sortes, either it is. { _Prosopopoeia._ } { _Ethopoeia._ } That parte, whiche is called _Ethopoeia_ is that, whiche hath the persone knowne: but onely it doeth faigne the ma- ners of thesame, and imitate in a Oracion thesame. _Ethopoeia_ is called of Priscianus, a certaine talkyng to of any one, or a imitacio[n] of talke referred to the maners, apt- ly of any certaine knowen persone. Quintilianus saieth, that _Ethopoeia_ is a imitacion of o- ther meane maners: whom the Grekes dooe calle, not onelie _Ethopoeia_, but _mimesis_, & this is in the maners, and the fact. This parte is as it were, a liuely expression of the maner and affeccion of any thyng, whereupon it hath his name. The _Ethopoeia_ is in three sortes. The firste, a imitacion passiue, whiche expresseth the af- fection, to whom it parteineth: whiche altogether expresseth the mocion of the mynde, as what patheticall and dolefull o- racion, Hecuba the quene made, the citee of Troie destroied, her housbande, her children slaine. The second is called a morall imitacio[n], the whiche doeth set forthe onely, the maners of any one. The thirde is a mixt, the whiche setteth forthe, bothe the maners and the affection, as how, and after what sorte, A- chilles spake vpon Patroclus, he beyng dedde, when for his sake, he determined to fight: the determinacion of hym she- weth the maner. The frende slaine, the affection. In the makyng of _Ethopoeia_, lette it be plaine, and with- out any large circumstaunce. [Fol. xlix.v] In the makyng of it, ye shall diuide it thus, to make the Oracion more plaine, into three tymes. { A presente tyme. } { A tyme paste. } { A tyme to come. } _Eidolopoeia_ is that part of this Oracion, whiche maketh a persone knowne though dedde, and not able to speake. [Sidenote: _Eidolopoeia_[.]] _Eidolopoeia_ is called of Priscianus, a imitacion of talke of any one, vpon a dedde manne, it is then called _Eidolopoeia_, when a dedde man talketh, or communicacion made vpon a dedde manne. _Eidolopoeia_, when a dedde manne talketh, is set forthe of Euripides, vpon the persone of Polidorus dedde, whose spi- rite entereth at the Prologue of the tragedie. Hector slain, speaketh to Eneas in _Eidolopoeia_. O Eneas thou goddes sonne, flie and saue thy self, from this ruine and fire: the enemies hath taken the walles, and loftie Troie is prostrate to the grounde. I would haue thought, I had died valiantlie inough to my countrée, and my father Priamus, if with this my right hande, Troie had bee defended. Polidorus beyng dedde, in _Eidolopoeia_ talketh to Eneas whiche Uirgil sheweth in his thirde booke of Eneados. Iulia the wife of Pompei beyng dedde, spake to Pompe, preparyng his arme against Cesar, _Eidolopoeia_. Reade Lu- cane, in the beginnyng of his thirde booke. Tullie vseth _Eidolopoeia_, when he maketh talke vpon Hiero beyng dedde. If that kyng Hiero were reduced fro[m] his death, who was a aduauncer of the Romaine Empire, with what counte- naunce, either Siracusa or Rome, might be shewed to hym, whom he maie beholde with his iyes. His countree brought to ruin, & spoiled, if that kyng Hiero should but enter Rome, euen in the firste entryng, he should beholde the spoile of his countree. Tullie also vseth the like _Eidolopoeia_, as thus, vpon Lu- [Fol. l.r] cius Brutus dedde. [Sidenote: Lucius Brutus.] If it so wer, that Lucius Brutus, that noble and famous manne were on liue, and before your presence: would he not vse this oracion: I Brutus, somtyme did banishe and cast out for crueltee, the state and office of kinges, by the horrible fact of Tarquinius, againste Lucretia, and all that name bani- shed, but you haue brought in tyrauntes. I Brutus did re- duce the Romain Empire, to a fredome and libertée: but you foolishly can not vphold and maintein, thesame giuen to you. I Brutus, with the daunger of my life, haue saued my coun[-] tree of Roome, but you without all daunger, lose it. ¶ _Prosopopoeia._ AS co[n]cerning _Prosopopoeia_, it is as Pristianus saith, when to any one againste nature, speache is feigned to bee giuen. Tullie vseth for a like example this, when he maketh Roome to talke againste Cateline. ¶ _Prosopopoeia_ of Roome. [Sidenote: Catiline.] NO mischief hath been perpetrated, this many yeres, but by thee Catiline, no pestiferous acte enterprised, without thee: thou a lone, for thy horrible murther perpetrated vpon the citee of Rome, for the spoile and robbe- ries of their gooddes art vnpunished. Thou onelie haste been of that force and power, to caste doune all lawes and aucthori- tee. Although these thinges were not to be borne, yet I haue borne them: but now thy horrible factes are come to soche an issue, that I feare thy mischiues. Wherfore leaue of Cateline and deminishe this feare from me, that I maie be in securitée[.] Lucane the Poete, intreating of mightie and fearce war- res, againste Pompei and Cesar, maketh Roome to vse this _Prosopopoeia_ againste Cesar. _Quo tenditis vltra quo fertis mea signa viri, Si iure venitis si aues hucusq[ue] licet._ _Prosopopoeia_ is properlie, when all thinges are faigned bothe the maners, the persone, as of Roome in this place. [Fol. l.v] ¶ What lamentable Oracion Hecuba Quene of Troie might make, Troie being destroied. [Sidenote: Kyngdomes.] WHat kyngdome can alwaies assure his state, or glory? What strength can alwaies last? What [Sidenote: Okes. Cedars.] power maie alwaies stande? The mightie O- kes are somtyme caste from roote, the Ceadars high by tempestes falle, so bitter stormes dooe force their strength. Soft waters pearseth Rockes, and ruste the massie Iron doeth bryng to naught. So nothyng can by stre[n]gth so stande, but strength maie ones decaie: yea, mightie kingdoms in time decaie haue felt. Kingdomes weake haue rose to might, and mightie kyngdomes fallen, no counsaile can preuaile, no power, no strength, or might in lande. God disposeth Princes seates, their kyngdome there with stan- des. I knewe before the brickell state, how kyngdomes ruine caught, my iye the chaunge of fortune sawe, as Priamus did aduaunce his throne, by fauour Fortune gat, on other For- tune then did froune, whose kingdom did decaie. Well, now [Sidenote: Fortune hath no staie.] I knowe the brickle state, that fortune hath no staie, all rashe her giftes, Fortune blind doeth kepe no state, her stone doth roule, as floodes now flowe, floodes also ebbe. So glory doth remaine, sometyme my state on high, was sette in Princelie throne, my porte and traine ful roiall was, a kyng my father also was, my housband scepter held. Troie and Phrigia ser- ued his becke, many kynges his power did dreade, his wille their power did serue. The fame of Troie and Brute, his glorie and renoume, what landes knoweth not? But now his falle, all toungues can speake, so greate as glorie was, though kyngdomes stronge was sette, loftie Troie in duste prostrate doeth lye, in blood their glorie, people, kyng are fal- len, no Quene more dolefull cause hath felte. The sorowes depe doe passe my ioyes, as Phebus light with stormes caste [Sidenote: Hector.] doune. Hectors death did wounde my hart, by Hectors might Troie stiffe did stande, my comforte Hector was, Priamus ioye, of Troie all the[m] life, the strength, and power, his death [Fol. lj.r] did wound me for to die, but alas my dolefull and cruell fate to greater woe reserueth my life, loftie Troie before me felle, sworde, and fire hath seate and throne doune caste. The dedde on heapes doeth lye, the tender babes as Lions praies [Sidenote: Priamus.] are caught in bloode, before my sight, Priamus deare mur- dered was, my children also slain, who roiall were, and prin- ces mates. No Queene more ioye hath tasted, yet woe my io- yes hath quite defaced. My state alwaie in bondage thrall, to serue my enemies wille, as enemie wille, I liue or dye. No cruell force will ridde my life, onely in graue the yearth shal close my woes, the wormes shall gnawe my dolefull hart in graue. My hedde shall ponder nought, when death hath sence doune caste, in life I sought no ioye, as death I craue, no glorie was so wished as death I seeke, with death no sence. In prison depe who dolefull lieth, whom Fetters sore dooeth greue. Their dolefull state moste wisheth death, in dongion deepe of care my harte moste pensiue is, vnhappie state that wisheth death, with ioye long life, eche wight doeth craue, in life who wanteth smart? Who doeth not féele, or beare som- time, a bitter storme, to doleful tune, mirth full oft chaunged is, the meaner state, more quiet rest, on high, who climes more deper care, more dolefull harte doeth presse, moste tempestes hie trees, hilles, & moutaines beare, valleis lowe rough stor- mes doeth passe, the bendyng trees doeth giue place to might by force of might, Okes mightie fall, and Ceders high ar re[n]t from the roote. The state full meane in hauen hath Ancre caste, in surgyng seas, full ofte in vaine to saue the maste, the shippe Ancre casteth. ¶ The descripcion. THis exercise profitable to _Rhetorike_, is an Ora- cio[n] that collecteth and representeth to the iye, that which he sheweth, so Priscianus defineth it: some are of that opinion, that descripcion is not to bee placed emo[n]g these exercises, profitable to _Rhetorike_. Because [Fol. lj.v] that bothe in euery Oracion, made vpon a Fable, all thyn- ges therein conteined, are liuely described. And also in euery Narracion, the cause, the place, the persone, the time, the fact, the maner how, ar therin liuely described. But most famous and Eloquente men, doe place descripcion, in the nomber of these exercises. Descripcio[n] serueth to these things, the person, as the Poete Lucane describeth Pompei & Cesar: the person is described, thynges or actes, tymes, places, brute beastes. _Nec coiere pares, alter vergentibus annis In senium longo que toge, tranquilior vsu. Dedidicit. &c._ Homer describeth the persone of Thersites, in the second booke of his Ilias. Homer setteth out Helena, describing the persone of Me- nalaus and Ulisses, in the fowerth booke of Ilias. Thynges are described, as the warres attempted by sea and lande, of Xerxes. Lucan describeth the war of the Massilia[n]s against Cesar[.] Thusidides setteth forthe in a descripcion, the warres on the sea, betwene the Corcurians, and the Corinthians. Tymes are described, as the Spryng tyme, Sommer, Winter, Harueste, Daie, Night. Places are described, as Citees, Mountaines, Regions, Floodes, Hauens, Gardeines, Temples: whiche thynges are sette out by their commoditees, for Thusidides often ty- mes setteth forthe Hauens and Citees. Lucane also describeth at large, the places, by the whiche the armie of Cesar and Pompei passed. The descripcion of a- ny man, in all partes is to bee described, in mynde and bodie, what he was. The acttes are to bee described, farre passed, by the pre- sente state thereof, and also by the tyme to come. As if the warre of Troie, should be set forthe in a descrip- cion, it must bée described, what happened before the Greci- ans arriued at Troie, and how, and after what sorte it was [Fol. lij.r] ouerthrowne, & what thing chaunced, Troie being destroid. So likewise of Carthage, destroied by the Romaines. Of Hierusalem, destroied by Titus Uespasianus, what ad- monicion thei had before: of what monsterous thynges hap- pened also in that ceason: Of a Comete or blasyng Starre, and after that what followed. Lucane also setteth forthe the warres of Pompe and Ce- sar, what straunge and marueilous thynges fell of it. ¶ A descripcion vpon Xerxes. WHen Darius was dedde, Xerxes his soonne did succede hym, who also tooke vpon him to finishe the warres, bego[n] by his father Darius, against Grece. For the whiche warres, preperacion was made, for the space of fiue yeres, after that [Sidenote: The armie of Xerxes.] Xerxes entered Grece, with seuen hundred thousande Persi- ans, and thrée hundred thousande of forrain power aided him that not without cause, Chronicles of aunciente tyme dooe shewe, mightie floodes to be dried vp of his armie. The migh[-] tie dominions of Grece, was not hable to receiue his houge, and mightie power, bothe by sea and lande: he was no small Prince, whom so many nacions, so mightie people followed hym, his Nauie of Shippes was in nomber tenne hundred [Sidenote: Xerxes a cowarde.] thousande, Xerxes had a mightie power, but Xerxes was a cowarde, in harte a childe, all in feare the stroke of battaile moued. In so mightie an armie it was marueile, the chiefe Prince and Capitaine to be a cowarde, there wanted neither men, nor treasure, if ye haue respecte to the kyng hymself, for cowardlinesse ye will dispraise the kyng, but his threasures beeyng so infinite, ye will maruaile at the plentie thereof, whose armie and infinite hoste, though mightie floodes and streames, were not able to suffice for drinke, yet his richesse [Sidenote: Xerxes laste in battaile, and first to runne awaie.] semed not spente nor tasted of. Xerxes hymself would be laste in battaile to fight, and the firste to retire, and runne awaie. In daungers he was fearfull, and when daunger was paste, [Fol. lij.v] he was stoute, mightie, glorious, and wonderfull crakyng, [Sidenote: The pride of Xerxes.] before this hassarde of battaile attempted. He thought hym self a God ouer nature, all landes and Seas to giue place to hym, and puffed with pride, he forgatte hymself: his power was terrible, his harte fainte, whereupon his enteryng into Grece was not so dreaded, as his flight fro[m] thence was sham[-] full, mocked and scorned at, for all his power he was driuen backe from the lande, by Leonides king of the Lacedemoni- ans, he hauing but a small nomber of men, before his second battaile fought on the Sea: he sente fower thousande armed men, to spoile the riche and sumpteous temple of Apollo, at Delphos, from the whiche place, not one man escaped. After that Xerxes entered Thespia, Platea, and Athenes, in the whiche not one man remained, those he burned, woorkyng his anger vpon the houses: for these citees were admonished to proue the maisterie in wodden walles, whiche was ment to bee Shippes, the power of Grece, brought into one place [Sidenote: Themi- stocles.] Themistocles, fauoryng their part, although Xerxes thought otherwise of Themistocles, then Themistocles perswaded Xerxes to assaie the Grecians. Artemisia the Quene of Hali- carnasis aided Xerxes in his battaile: Artemisia fought man[-] fullie, Xerxes cowardly shronke, so that vnnaturally there was in the one a manlie stomacke, in the other a cowardlie harte. The men of Ionia, that fought vnder Xerxes banner, by the treason of Themistocles, shra[n]ke from Xerxes, he was not so greate a terrour or dreade, by his maine hoste, as now smally regarded & least feared. What is power, men, or mo- ney, when God chaungeth and pulleth doune, bothe the suc- cesse, and kyngdome of a Prince. He was in all his glorie, a vnmanlie, and a cowardly prince, yet for a time happie state fell on his side, now his might and power is not feared. He flieth awaie in a Fisher boate, whom all the worlde dreaded and obaied, whom all Grece was not able to receiue, a small boate lodgeth and harboureth. His owne people contemned hym at home, his glorie fell, and life ingloriously ended, who[m] [Fol. liij.r] whom God setteth vp, neither treason nor malice, power nor money can pull doune. Worthelie it is to be pondered of all Princes, the saiyng of Uespasianus Emperour of Rome, at a certain time a treason wrought and conspired against him, the conspiratours taken, Uespasianus satte doune betwene [Sidenote: The saiyng of Uespasi- anus.] theim, commaunded a sworde to be giuen to either of theim, and saied to them: _Nonne videtis fato potestatem dari._ Dooe you not see? Power, aucthoritée, and regimente, by the ordi- [Sidenote: A sentence comfortable to al princes.] naunce of God, is lefte and giuen to princes: A singuler sen- tence, to comforte all good Princes in their gouernemente, not to feare the poisoned hartes of men, or the traiterous har- tes of pestiferous men. No man can pull doune, where God exalteth, neither power can set vp and extoll, where God dis- plaseth or putteth doune: Soche is the state of Princes, and their kyngdomes. ¶ _Thesis._ _THesis_, is a certain question in consultacion had, to bée declaimed vpon vncertaine, notyng no certaine per- sone or thyng. As for example. Whether are riches chieflie to be sought for, in this life, as of all good thynges, the chief good. Whether is vertue the moste excellente good thynge in this life. Whether dooe the giftes of the mynde, passe and excelle the giftes and vertues of Fortune, and the bodie. Whether doeth pollicie more auaile in war, then stre[n]gth of menne. Who so will reason of any question of these, he hath nede with reason, and wittie consultacion to discourse, and to de- claime vpon thesame. The Greke Oratours doe call this exercise _Thesis_, that is to saie, a proposicion in question, a question vncertain, in- cluded with no certaintée, to any perticuler thyng. [Fol. liij.v] The Latine men doeth call it a question infinite, or vni- uersall: Tullie in his booke of places called Topickes, doeth call _Thesis_, _Propositum_, that is to saie, a question, in deter- minacion. Priscianus calleth it _positionem_, a proposicion in question on ether parte to be disputed vpon. As for example. Whether is it best to marie a wife? Whether is frendship aboue all thynges to be regarded. Is warre to be moued vpon a iuste cause? Is the Greke tongue mete, and necessarie to be learned? There is an other kinde of question called _hypothesis_, _hy[-] pothesis_ is called _questio finita_, that is to saie, a question cer- taine notyng a certaine persone, or thyng, a certaine place, tyme, and so forthe. As for example. Is it mete for Cesar to moue warre against Pompei? Is not there a certain persone? Is the Greke tongue to be learned of a Diuine? Is the Greke tongue meete for a Phisicion? In this kinde of exercises, famous men of auncient time did exercise youth, to attain bothe wisedome and Eloquence therby, to make a discourse vpo[n] any matter, by art of lerning[.] Aristotle the famous Philosopher, did traine vp youthe, to be perfite in the arte of eloquence, that thei might with all copiousnes and ingenious inuencion handle any cause. Nothing doeth so moche sharpe and acuate the witte and capacitée of any one, as this kinde of exercise. It is a goodly vertue in any one man, at a sodain, to vtter wittely and ingeniouslie, the secrete and hid wisedome of his mynde: it is a greate maime to a profounde learned man, to wante abilitée, to vtter his exquisite and profounde knowe- ledge of his mynde. ¶ _Thesis._ THis question _Thesis_, which is a question, noting no cer- taine persone or thyng: is moche like to that Oracion, [Fol. liiij.r] intreated of before, called a Common place. ¶ A Common place. BUt a Common place, is a certaine exaggeracion of matter, induced against any persone, conuicted of a- ny crime, or worthie defence. ¶ _Thesis._ _Thesis_ is a reasonyng by question, vpon a matter vncer- taine. _Thesis_, that is to saie, a questio[n] generall is in two sortes. { Ciuill. A question { { Contemplatiue. QUestions Ciuill are those, that dooe pertaine to the state of a common wealth: and are daily practised in the common wealthe. As for example. Is it good to marie a wife. Is Usurie lefull in a citee, or common wealthe. Is a Monarchie the beste state of gouernement. Is good educacion the grounde and roote, of a florishyng common wealthe. ¶ A contemplatiue question. THe other _Thesis_ is a question contemplatiue, which the Grekes dooe call _Theoricas_, because the matter of them is comprehended in the minde, and in the in[-] telligence of man. The example. Is the soule immortall? Had the worlde a beginnyng? Is the heauen greater then the yearth? { Simple. A question is either { { Compounde. Is it good for a man to exercise hymself in wrastlyng, or [Fol. liiij.v] Is it profitable to declaime. [¶] A compounde. Is vertue of more value then gold, to the coueitous man[?] Doeth wisedome more auaile, then strength in battaile? Doe olde men or young men, better gouerne a common wealthe? Is Phisicke more honourable then the Lawe? A Oracion made vpon _Thesis_, is after this sorte made. Use a _exordium_, or beginnyng. Unto the whiche you maie adde a Narracion, whiche is a exposicion of the thyng doen. Then shewe it lawfull. Iuste. Profitable. And possible. Then the conclucion. To this in some parte of the Oracion, you maie putte in certaine obieccions, as thus. Upon this question: Is it good to marie a wife? In Mariage is greate care, and pensiuenesse of minde, by losse of children, or wife, whom thou loueste. There is also trouble of dissolute seruauntes. There is also greate sorowe if thy children proue wicked and dissolute. The aunswere to this obiection, will minister matter to declaime vpon. ¶ Is it good to Marie. SInce the tyme of all ages, and the creacio[n] of the worlde, GOD hath so blessed his creacion, and meruailous workemanship in manne: as in all his other creatures, that not onelie his omnipo- teucie, is therby set forthe. But also from tyme to tyme, the posteritee of men, in their ofspring and procrea- [Sidenote: Kyngdomes continue by mariage and co[m]mon welth[.]] cion, doe aboundantlie commonstrate thesame. The state of all kyngdomes and common wealthes: by procreacion deri- ued, haue onelie continued on the face of the yearth, thereby [Fol. lv.r] many hundred yeres. How sone would the whole worlde be dissolued, and in perpetuall ruine, if that God from tymes and ages, had not by godlie procreacion, blessed this infinite [Sidenote: The dignitee of man, she- weth the worthines of mariage.] issue of mankinde. The dignitée of man in his creacion, she- weth the worthie succession, maintained by procreation. In vaine were the creacion of the worlde, if there were not as manne so excellente a creature, to beholde the creatour, and his meruailous creacion. To what vse were the Elementes and Heauens, the Starres and Planettes, all Beastes and Foules, Fisshe, Plantes, Herbes and trees, if men wer not, for mannes vse and necessitée, all thinges in the yearth were made and procreated. Wherein the Stoike Philosophers do note the excellencie of man to be greate: for saie thei, _Que in terris gignuntur omnia ad vsum hominum creari_. To what vse then were all thynges, if man were not, for whose cause, vse, & necessitée these thynges were made. If a continuaunce of Gods procreacion were not, immediatlie a ruine and ende would ensue of thinges. What age remaineth aboue a hun- dred yeres? If after a hu[n]dred yeres, no issue wer to be, on the [Sidenote: Godlie pro- creacion.] face of the yearth, how sone wer kyngdoms dissolued, where as procreacion rooteth, a newe generacion, issue and ofspring, and as it were a newe soule and bodie. A continuaunce of la- wes, a permanente state of common wealthe dooeth ensue. Though the life of manne be fraile, and sone cutte of, yet by Mariage, man by his ofspryng, is as it were newe framed, his bodie by death dissolued, yet by issue reuiued. Euen as Plantes, by the bitter season of Winter, from their flowers fadyng and witheryng: yet the seede of them and roote, vegi- table and liuyng, dooe roote yerelie a newe ofspryng or flo- [Sidenote: A similitude.] wer in them. So Mariage by godlie procreacion blessed, doth perpetually increase a newe bodie, and therby a vaste world, and infinite nacions or people. Xerxes the mightie kyng of Persia, vewing and beholding his maine and infinite hoste, wéeped: who beyng demaunded, why he so did. _Doleo inquit post centum annos, neminem ex hijs superesse._ It is a pitée- [Fol. lv.v] fulle and dolefull case, that after a hundred yeres, not one of these noble capitaines, and valiant soldiers to be left. ¶ The obieccion. But you will saie parauenture, mariage is a greate bon- dage, alwaies to liue with one. ¶ The solucion. To followe pleasure, and the beastlie mocions of the mynde: what libertée call you that, to liue in a godly, meane, [Sidenote: The libertie in mariage.] and Mediocritée of life, with thy spoused wife. There is no greater ioye, libertée, or felicitée, who so practiseth a dissolute life: whose loue and luste is kindeled, and sette on fire with a [Sidenote: A brutishe societie with harlottes.] harlotte, he followeth a brutishe societée. What difference is there, betwene them and beastes? The beaste as nature lea- deth, he obaieth nature. Reason wanteth in beastes, manne then indued with reason, whiche is a guide to all excellencie how is it that he is not ruled by reason. Whom GOD hath clothed and beautified, with all vertue and all singularitée: If a godly conuersacion of life, moueth thée to passe thy daies without mariage, then must the mocions of thy minde, be ta- [Sidenote: Chastitee in mariage.] med and kepte vnder. Other wise, execrable is thy purpose, and determinacio[n] of the life. If thou hopest of loue of a harlot though thou enioye her otherwise, thou art deceiued. Bac- chis the harlot, whom Terence maketh mencion of, in the persone of her self, sheweth the maners of all harlots to An- tiphila, saiyng. _Quippe forma impulsi nostra nos amatores colunt: Hec vbi immutata est, illi suum animum alio conferunt. Nisi prospectu[m] est interea aliquid nobis, deserte viuimus._ For saieth she, the louer anamoured with our loue, and sette on fire therewith, it is for our beautie and fauour: but when beautie is ones faded, he conuerteth his loue to an o- ther, whom he better liketh. But that we prouide for our sel- ues in the meane season, wée should in the ende liue vtterlie forsaked. But your loue incensed with one, whose maners and life contenteth you: so you bothe are linked together, [Fol. lvj.r] [Sidenote: The loue of a harlotte.] that no calamitée can separate you: who so hopeth loue of a harlotte, or profite, he maie hope as for the fructe of a withe- red tree, gaine is all their loue, vice their ioye and delite. In vertue is libertée, in vertue is felicitee, the state of mariage is vertuous, there can be no greater bo[n]dage, then to obaie ma- ny beastly affections, to the whiche whoredome forceth hym vnto, Loue is fained, cloked amitée, a harte dissembled, ma- ny a mightie person and wise, hath been ouerthrowen by the deceiptes of harlottes: many a Citee plagued, many a region ouerthrowen for that mischief, to obaie many affections is a greate bondage. Who so serueth the beastlie affections of his [Sidenote: Hercules. Omphala.] mynde to that purpose, he must also as Hercules to Ompha- la bee slaue, not onely to his owne will and affection: but to the maners, will, and exspectacion of the harlotte. So serued Thraso, and Phedria Thais, that Gorgious harlot, Antony and Iulius Cesar, Cleopatra, this is a bondage, to liue slaue from reason and all all integritee, to a monsterous rableme[n]t [Sidenote: The harlot- tes lesson, to her louers.] of vices, who so serueth a harlot, thei must learne this lesson. _Da mihi & affer_, giue and bryng. The women of Scithia, abhorryng the godly conuersa- cion of mariage, with their housbandes, lefte theim, who in tyme ware so mightie, that thei repelled theim by force: thei called mariage not Matrimonie, but bondage. For, the chro- nicles doe testifie, thei became conquerours ouer many kyn- ges, all Asia obaied them: thei did builde many a great citee, and for theire successe, thei might compare with many prin- [Sidenote: The life of the Amazo- nes.] ces. These women were called Amazones afterwarde, the order of their life was this, ones in the yere thei would en- ioye the compainie of a man: if it so were that thei had a man childe, the father to haue it, if a daughter, then thei possessed her, and foorthwith burned her right pappe: for thei were all Archers, and wonderfully excelled therein, but in the ende, [Sidenote: Thalestris.] thei came all to ruine. One of them, Thalestris their Quene in the tyme of Alexander the Greate, came to Alexander, thinkyng that he had been, some monstrous man of stature: [Fol. lvj.v] [Sidenote: The offer of a woman to Alexander.] whom, when she did beholde (for Alexander was of no migh- tie stature) did contemne hym, and offered him hand to hande [Sidenote: The answer of Alexander to the offer.] to fight with hym. But Alexander like a wise Prince, saied to his men, if I should ouercome her, that were no victorie, nor manhoode againste a woman: and being ouercome, that were greater shame, then commendacion in all my victories and conquestes, but afterwarde, there was a greate familia- ritée betwene them. The adulterer and the adulteris, neuer prospereth, for many mischiues are reserued, to that wicked and beastly loue. Sincere loue is not rooted, frendship colou- red: the sober and demure countenaunce, is moche to be com- mended in a chaste woman, whose breaste pondereth a chaste [Sidenote: The facte of the matrones of Rome.] life. The facte of the matrones of Rome, semeth straunge to be tolde, of Papirius a Senators soonne, beyng taken to the Senate house, of his father: the childe beyng indued with a singuler wit, harde many causes in the assemble, talked and consulted vpo[n], at his retourne home, his mother was inqui- sitiue of their consultacion, to heare somewhat. The childe was commaunded by his father, to vtter no secrete that he heard, wherevpon of a long tyme, he refused his mothers de- maunde: but at the laste subtelie, he satisfied his mothers re- [Sidenote: Papirius.] quest. Truth it is, my father willed me, to vtter no secret, you keping my counsaill, I will shewe you, it is concluded by the Senate house, that euery man shall haue twoo wiues, that is a straunge matter, saieth the mother: foorthwith she had communicacion with all the matrones of Roome, that could doe somewhat in this matter, thei also full willyngly assem- bled themselues, to let this purpose, to the Senate house, thei went to vtter, their swollen griues. The Senators were a- mased at their commyng, but in this matter bolde thei were, [Sidenote: The Oracio[n] of a matrone, to the Sena- tours.] to enterprise that, whiche thei wer greued at. A Dame more eloquente then all the reste, and of stomacke more hardie, be- gan in these woordes. Otherwise then right, we are iniuri- ously handled, and that in this assemble, that now we should be caste of and neclected: that whereas it is concluded in this [Fol. lvij.r] counsaile, that euery manne should haue twoo wiues, more meter it were, that one woman should haue twoo housban- des. Straunge it was in the Senators eares soche a request, whereupon a proofe made how that rumour rose, Papirius was found the aucthor, who tolde before the Senate, his mo- ther alwaies inquisitiue to knowe that, whiche he should not tell, and thereupon he faigned that, whiche he might better tell. It is to be supposed the Senators mused thereat, and the matrones of Rome went home ashamed: but their secrete co- gitacion of minde was manifest, what willingly in hart thei wished. What greater felicitee can there bee, then in a vnitée of life, the housebande to liue with his wife. The beastes in their kinde, doe condemne mannes brutishe affections here- in: there is no facte that sheweth a man or woman, more like to beastes, then whoredome. ¶ The obieccion. But you will saie, many calamitées happeneth in mariage? ¶ The solucion. Fortunne herein is to bee blamed, and not mariage, if a- ny misfortune happeneth to manne therein, the felicitée and [Sidenote: Eleccion in Mariage.] quiet state that any man enioieth thereby. The discrete elec- cion is therein approued, in the state it self, nothyng can bee founde worthie reprehension, if a man will impute the bit- ter stormes of life to mariage: whatseouer happeneth, our owne reason maie iudge contrary. Place before thy iyes all the affaires, and occupacions of this life, bee all tymes plea- saunte to the housebande man, many a colde storme perceth his bodie, and many a mightie tempeste, dooeth molest hym and greue hym. Sommer is not the tyme, to caste his seede in the grounde, or implowyng to occupie hymself: shall he ther- fore leaue his housebandrie, or doeth he rather neclecte it, his diligence therein is the more, and labour more industrious. From whence commeth the tempeste, the stormes and bitter seasons? From his house, from his wife, from his art and oc- cupacion, all those thynges by violence are expelled from the [Fol. lvij.v] aire. No state of life is able to giue riches, healthe, or securitée [Sidenote: Emperours.] to his state. There hath been princes and Emperours, nedie, full of infirmitées and sickenes, in daungerous state, oppres- sed with many calamitées: was their dignitie and office, the cause of their calamitées? No, God tempreth the state of eue- ry one, how, and after what sorte to possesse thesame. Some [Sidenote: Mariage.] are fulle fortunate in Mariage, if Mariage were of necessitée the cause, then all should be onely fortunate, or onely vnfor- tunate: then in mariage is not the cause, if in marige the ma- ners doe disagrée, and loue is extinguished, blame thyn own [Sidenote: The Mari- ners.] maners, thy choise, and thy eleccion. The Mariner that pas- seth the daungerous Seas, and by dreadfull tempestes, and huffyng waues is alwaies in perille, and many often tymes [Sidenote: The Mar- chauntes.] drouned. The Marchaunt lesyng his marchaundise by ship- wrack, shall thei impute the daunger and losse, to their wife at home? Or doe the Mariners leaue for all these tempestes, their arte of Nauigacion? Or the owner breake his shippe? Or the Marchaunt proue no aduentures, because of his losse, and many haue been of this sort drouned. No. But more ear- [Sidenote: Warre.] nestlie thei dooe assaie theim selues thereto. Because warre spoileth many a man of his life, doe Princes therefore, leaue to moue armour againste the enemie, but because, who so in the defence of his countrée, dieth manfullie, is worthelie ad- uaunced, and in perpetuall memorie, no daunger is refused, because euill thynges happeneth in life, is the state of good thynges to be auoided and eschued. Were it not vnsemelie, if housebande men, for no storme or tempeste, doe leaue their state, their laborious and rough co[n]dicion of life, nor the ship- man his arte of Nauigacion, because he seeth many drouned venteryng thesame, and he hymself often tymes in daunger, nor the soldiour or capitain, their perilous condicion of life, doe leaue for daunger. Should Mariage bée lesse sette by, be- cause alwaies riches and quietnes happeneth not. ¶ The obieccion. The losse of a good wife and children, is a greate grefe to [Fol. lviij.r] any man, and a cause to blame mariage. ¶ The aunswere. [Sidenote: The lawe of Nature.] You your self are borne to dye, thei also by death obaye likewise Nature, this is the Lawe of Nature ones to dye, whiche you séeme to blame. Then the death of thy wife and childre[n], is not the blame in Mariage. What is the cause that you dye? Natures imbecillitée and weakenes, then in theim[.] Mariage is not the cause: Nature in her firste molde hath so framed all, wherefore doe you ascribe that to mariage, that is founde faultée in Nature. Thei die that marie not, what infirmitie, daunger or peril happeneth to any in mariage, as sharpe and perilous, doe molest and torment the other. If any manne by death, leaseth a right honeste wife, clothed with all chastitée, demurenesse, sobrietée, and also with all singulari- tée of vertue adorned: he hath loste a rare treasure, a iewell of [Sidenote: A chaste wo- man.] price, not in all to bee founde. Did you loue your wife, that was so goodlie, so honeste and vertuous: there was greate cause saie you, for her vertuous sake, God hath chosen her fro[m] a mortall creature, to immortalitée, with her it can not bée better. There is no cause why you should blame mariage, for the losse of her, or of thy children, or for the losse of thee, she to blame mariage. If for thy owne sake, this sorowe bee, _Est seipsum amantis non amici_, it is then of a self loue, to thy self, not for her cause: for I muste aunswere as Lelius did to Affricanus, _Cum ea optime esseactu[m] quis neget, quid est quod no[n] assecuta est immortalitatem_. Who can deny saieth he, but that with her it can not bee better? What is it that she hath not attained. Immortalitée. She was vertuous, chaiste, so- ber, descrete, of behauiour womanlie: for her vertues belo- ued. Well, now she hath immortalitee and blesse, are you so- rie thereat, that were enuious. Did you loue her liuyng, loue her also departed, her vertuous shewed vnto vs, her immor- talitée. ¶ The obieccion. There is a care for the wife and children, if the housband [Fol. lviij.v] dye before theim. ¶ The aunswere. [Sidenote: A wretched executour.] If thou leaue them riches, hope not that thy riches shalbe a staie to theim, though thei bee innumerable: a wretched, a miserable executour, wasteth and destroieth oftentymes, the fruictes of thy trauaile, who reioyseth more of thy death, then of thy life. Or thy childrens father in Lawe, shall spoile and spende with a merie harte, that whiche thou haste long tera- [Sidenote: Gods pro- uidence.] uailed for. Staie thy self and thyne vpon Gods prouidence, for it hath been seen, many a riche widowe, with infinite treasure lefte, to her children also like porcions descendyng: afterwarde bothe wife and children, haue been brought to miserie and beggerlie state. Otherwise, poore children com- mitted to the prouidence of God, and vertuouslie brought vp, and the wife in like state, yet thei haue so passed their daies, that thei haue rose to a goodlie state. See that thy richesse bée not iniuriouslie gotten by falshode, by liyng, by Usurie, if it so be, then _Male parta male dilabuntnr_. That is this, gooddes euill gotte, euill spente, soche riches neuer giue déepe roote to their ofspryng. That is an euill care, by a iniurious care, to purchase thynges and gooddes wickedlie. Also mariage taketh awaie widowhed, and doeth repare with a newe freshe mariage, the lacke and priuacion of the [Sidenote: Death. Mariage.] other. She that was by death left a widowe, mariage again hath coupled her to a newe housbande: and doeth restore that whiche death tooke awaie. That that death dissolueth and destroieth, mariage increaseth, augme[n]teth, and multiplieth. Bee it so, but mariage is a painfull life, it forceth euery one to trauaile, to vpholde and maintaine his state, I commende not the idell life, neither a life occupied to no vertuous ende. Nature moueth euery manne to loue hymself and his, so thy care and paine be to a godlie purpose. It is commendable. It is the duetie of euery man, as his power, witte, and industrie is able, to emploie thereto his cogitacion. To laboure for thy wife, whom thou loueste, and deare children, thy laboure is [Fol. lix.r] pleasure, the ioye easeth thy labour. To behold thy self in thy children, thei beyng vertuouslie broughte vp, it is a goodlie [Sidenote: The mariage of a chaste woman.] comfort, to liue with a chaste woman, sober and continente, her vertues be a continuall pleasure, a passyng ioye. In ma- riage ought to be greate deliberacion, whom thou chosest to thy continuall compainie or felowshippe, her life paste well knowen, her parentes and kindrede how honeste and vertu- ous, her maners, her fame, how commendable, her counti- [Sidenote: The choise of a wife.] naunce sober, a constaunt iye, and with shamefastnes beau- tified, a mouthe vttering fewe woordes discretlie. She is not to be liked, who[m] no vertuous qualitées in her educacio[n], beu- tifieth and adorneth, the goodlie qualitees sheweth, the well framed and nurtured mynde. These thynges maie be suffi- ciente, to shewe what excellencie is in mariage and how ne- cessarie it is, to the procreacion and preseruacio[n] of mankind. ¶ _Legislacio._ ¶ A Oracion either in the defence of a Lawe, or againste a Lawe. MAny learned menne are in this opinion, that vpon a Lawe alledged, a Oracion maie bee made in the defence of it: or matter maie be suppeditated, to in- uaigh by force of argument againste it. Although the lawe alleged be in maner the whole cause, bicause it doeth co[n]tain al the matter included in the oracion. In this Oracion, the persone is induced to be spoken vp- pon, vnknowne, vncertaine: wherefore it is to be placed, ra- ther in the state and forme of consultacion, and to bée exami- ned with iudgement. The induccion of a Lawe, is in twoo sortes. A confirmacion of any olde Lawe, or a confutacion. As for example. The Ciuill Lawe doeth well commende, bondmen to be manumised, that is, to be made free. The lawe is herein to be praised, that willeth the cou[n]sail of the parentes & frendes, to be knowne before the contracte. [Fol. lix.v] Upon a Lawe alledged, worthelie matter maie rise, waigh- yng the godlie ende, whereunto the Lawe was firste inuen- ted, decreed and stablished, what profite thereof ensueth and foloweth. What it is to vertue a mainteiner, otherwise if it be not profitable? What moued any one to frame and ordain soche a Lawe, as was to a common wealthe vnprofitable, to vertue no aider, if it were a profitable Lawe and godlie, it is as Demosthenes saieth, of God inuented, though by famous [Sidenote: Lawe.] wise, and godlie menne, stablished and decréed. Good Lawes tempereth to all states equitee and iustice, without fauour or frendship, no more to the one then the other. The order to make an Oracion by a lawe, is in this sort. First, make a prohemiu[m] or beginning to enter your matter. In the seconde place, adde a contrary to that, whiche you will entreate vpon. Then shewe it lawful. Iuste. Profitable. Possible. You maie as in _Thesis_, whiche was the Oracion before, vse a contradiction or obiection: and to that make an answere or solucion. ¶ A confutacion of that Lawe, whiche suffered adultrie to bee punished with death, no iudgement giuen thereupon. [Sidenote: The moste rigorous and moste cruell lawe of Solo[n][.]] SOlon, who was a famous Philosopher, in the time of Cresus king of Lidia, and a lawe giuer to the Athenians: by whose Lawes and godlie meanes, the Athenians were long and prospe- rouslie gouerned. Emong many of his lawes, this Solon set forthe againste adulterers. _Fas esse deprehen- denti mæchum in ipso adulterio interficere_: it shalbee lawfull saieth he, who so taketh an adulterer in his beastlie facte, to kill hym. Solon beyng a wise man, was more rigorous and cruell, in this one Lawe, then he ought to be. A meruailous [Fol. lx.r] matter, and almoste vncredible, so wise, so noble and worthy a Lawe giuer, to bruste out with soche a cruell and bloodie lawe, that without iudgement or sentence giuen, the matter neither proued nor examined, adulterie to be death. Where- fore, reason forceth euery manne, to Iudge and ponder with [Sidenote: Adulterie a horrible vice.] hymself, that either adulterie is a moste horrible vice, moste beastlie & pestiferous, and not mete to tary vpon the censure, and sentence of a Iudge: or Solon was not so wise, discrete, and a politike persone, but a rashe and fonde lawe giuer, that in soche a terrible voice, he should burste out, as adulterie so horrible, as not worthie to be pondered, examined and boul- ted of in Iudgemente. The Athenians receiued that Lawe, thei did also obaie his other lawes. Their dominions there- by in felicitée was gouerned: there was no populous nom- ber of adulterers, to let that Lawe, thei liued moste godlie, a straunge worlde, a rare moderacion of that age and people. [Sidenote: Plato aga- inste adultrie made a lawe.] Plato the godlie Philosopher, who lefte in his woorkes, and monumentes of learnyng, greate wisedome and also godlie Lawes in his bookes: intiteled vpon Lawes, and gouerne- ment of a common wealth, did not passe by in silence, to giue and ordain a Lawe against adulterie. Who also as it semed Iudged adulterie as moste horrible and detestable, in his .ix. booke _de Legibus_. This is the Lawe. _Adulteram deprehen- sam impune occidi a viro posse._ The adultrous woman saith he, taken in the crime, her housbande maie without daunger of death, or feare of punishement slea her. A straunge matter twoo so noble, so famous for wisedome, to make adulterie present death, no Iudgement or sentence of Magistrate, pro- cedyng to examine and iudge, vpon the state of the cause. A man maie saie, O goodlie age, and tyme in vertue tempered, eche state as seemeth brideled and kepte vnder, and farre fro[m] voluptuousnes remoued. There was no stewes or Baudes houses, where soche Lawes and Lawmakers were. Sobrie- tée was in maides, and chastitée harboured in matrones and wedded wiues, a harte inuiolable to honeste conuersacion. [Fol. lx.v] Where adulterie is cutte of, there many detestable vices, [Sidenote: Catos sen- tence vpon adulterie.] and execrable purposes are remoued. Cato the sage Peere of Rome, indued with like seueritée, did fauour that lawe and highlie extolled it. Although adulterie bee a detestable vice horrible, yea, although it be worthie death, better it were by iudgemente, and the sentence of the Magistrate, the faute to [Sidenote: Lawe.] bee determined: then at the will of euery manne, as a Lawe by death to bee ended, the common wealthe shalbee in more quiet state, when the horrible factes of wicked menne, by the [Sidenote: The Iudge, a liuely lawe.] Lawe made worthie of deathe: are neuerthelesse by a liuelie Lawe, whiche is the Iudge, pronounced and condemned, ac- cordyng to the Lawe. Els many mischiues might rise in all kyngdomes and common wealthes, vnder a colour of lawe, many a honeste persone murthered: and many a murtherer, by cloke of a Lawe, from daunger saued. In Rome somtime a Lawe there was ordained againste adulterie, whiche was called _Lex Iulia_, this Lawe Octauius Augustus set foorthe. The Lawe was thus, _Gladio iussit animaduerti in adulteros_[.] The lawe commaunded adulterers to be hedded. The chro- nicles of aunciente tymes herein doe shew, and the decrées of auncient elders also, how horrible a thing adulterie is, when thei punishe it with death. Who knoweth not emo[n]g the Is- raelites, and in the olde lawe thei wer stoned to death. Well as Magistrates are in common wealthes remoued, or as ti- mes chaunge, lawes also are chaunged and dissolued: and as the Prouerbe is, _Lex vt Regio_, the Lawes are accordyng to the Region. Afterwarde Ualerius Publicola, a man ascen- dyng to high nobilitée of honour, and fame emong, the Ro- maines gaue this Lawe. _Qua neminem licebat indicta causa necare._ By this lawe it was not lefull, any manne to be put [Sidenote: A godly law.] to death, their cause not examined in Iudgemente, this was a goodlie Lawe. Then afterwarde, Lawe giuers rose in the common wealth, that with more facilitee tolerated that vice, then wickednesse flowed, adulterie not punished by death. And sence that, the Romaine Empire, wrapped and snared [Fol. lxj.r] with soche mischiues hath decaied, in fame, nobilitée and ver- tue. Many a parte of their dominion plagued, deuoured, and [Sidenote: The good manne.] destroied. The good and godlie menne, nede not to feare any Lawe godlie, their life beyng in vertue and godlines nurtu- red. The terrible sentence of a lawe, forceth the good and god- lie, to perseuere and continue in godlines. The terrible sen- [Sidenote: Lawe.] tence of a Lawe, cutteth of the wicked enterprises of pestife- rous menne. Uice where lawe is not to correcte, will inure it [Sidenote: Uice as a lawe by cu- stome.] self by custome as a Lawe, or borne and tolerated againste a [Sidenote: Adulterie.] Lawe. Therefore as adulterie without Iudgemente, to bee punished worthie of death is vngodlie: so it ought not to bee passed ouer, or tolerated in any Region or common wealth, as no lawe seuerely to punishe thesame. ¶ The contrarie. AL other lawes doe differ, from that rigorous lawe of Solon and Plato herein, yea, and though thei be vices horrible, yet thei ar not determined, with out the sente[n]ce of the Magistrate and Iudge. But this cruell Lawe of Solon, doeth repugne all lawes, stabli- [Sidenote: The lawe v- niuersall and equall to all menne.] shed in all Citees and common wealthes. And sithe the lawe is of hymself vniuersall, with equitée, giuing and tempering to all states. Fonde muste that Lawe bee of Solon, whiche rashely, without consideracion of iudgement doeth procede, no man ought in his own cause, to be his own iudge or Ma- gistrate. This is argument sufficient to confounde the lawe of Solon. All Lawes are repugnaunte to that, because with Iudgement thei procede against vices moste pestiferous. In [Sidenote: Thefte.] common wealthes Theft is by lawe, pronounced worthie of death, whereupon also the Magistrate and Iudge, determi- neth the matter, and heareth of bothe the action of the case, before he condempneth, so in all other mischiues. But you maie saie, many mischiues riseth of adulterie. Although it so be, the Iudge determineth vpon Murder, whiche is in like sort horrible, soche also as dooe séeke to caste into perill their countrée, and by treason to destroie thesame, [Fol. lxj.v] Iudgemente proceadeth by determinacion of the Lawe and Iudge. And so in all other wicked factes, and mischiuous en- terprises, the Iudgement in euery cause procedeth, as Lawe [Sidenote: The Iudge a liuely lawe.] and right willeth, from the mouthe of the Iudge, he beyng a liuelie Lawe, to the Lawe written. The cruell Lawe of So- lon, is like to the phantasie and wille of a tyraunte, who, as phantasie and will leadeth, murdereth at his pleasure, whose will is alwaies a sufficient Lawe to hymself, as who should [Sidenote: The will of a tyraunte his owne lawe.] saie, so I wille, so I commaunde, my wille shall stande for a Lawe: but godlie lawes doe iustlie, accordyng to reason and vertue, tempereth the cause of euery man. No godlie Lawe, maketh the accuser his owne Iudge. ¶ Lawfull. [Sidenote: Lawes were made for two causes.] WHo so by Lawe is iudged, and the offence proued, there is no excuse in the malefactour, nor suspicion seing that, accordyng to lawe, the fact is punished, and as Demosthenes saieth, twoo thynges moued the wise Elders to make Lawes, that the wicked should bee hindered, and cutte of from their purpose, and that good men seyng by a lawe, the actes of pestiferous men kepte vnder, by the terrour of them, are afraied to commit the like facte. This was euen accordyng to lawe. The terrible sentence of a law executed, vpon moste wicked persones, doe kepe vnder many a mischiuous enterprise, whiche through the dolefull and la- mentable ende of the wicked, doe driue and force all other to all godlines. ¶ Iuste. THe accuser by Lawe and Iudge, is able to defende hymself, whe[n] his cause is ended accordyng to law. Uertue thereby vpholded, when by order of lawe, vice is condempned. The malifactour hath no ex- cuse, all staie and colour remoued, the accuser by iuste Lawe pleateth, when the law is thereby supported and saued. And herein a greate parte of Iustice is placed, when the fauour of the Iudge or frendship, is onely on the cause, the persone nec- [Fol. lxij.r] lected, that is Iustice, to giue to euery one his owne. ¶ Profitable. IT must be profitable to the whole bodie of the com- mon wealthe, when by the Iustice of godlie lawes, vertue is in high price aduaunced, vice by the open sentence, and manifeste profe conuicted, the malefa- ctour shall be knowen, the sincere and godlie deliuered, and from tyme to tyme maintained. Lawes as thei be vniuersall so thei openlie ought to giue sentence. ¶ Possible. THen without lawe to procede, and iudgemente of the Magistrate, as Solon did in this lawe, it were not possible, any common wealthe to florishe ther- by. Therefore in Iudgemente ought the cause of euery one to be pleated and examined, that thereby all suspi- cion, & greuous enormitées, maie be put of. Uice is not there- fore tolerated, because for a tyme, Iudgemente ceaseth, but hereupon vices are more depely rooted out, all people know- yng the determinacion of the lawe, and the manifest sente[n]ce of the Iudge heard. A terrour ensueth to al malefactours and pestiferous men, good men are incensed to all godlines, whe[n] vice by Lawe is condempned, cutte of, and destroied. Good menne by Lawe and aucthoritée, vpholded and maintained. [Sidenote: The state of good lawes.] This is the state of good lawes, by order to procede, the cause in Iudgemente examined, the facte proued, vertue in any persone vpholded, vice in all caste doune and defaced, so there is good Lawe, as Demosthenes saieth, sincere Iudge, and sentence inuiola- ble. * * * * * [Transcriber's Note: The following is a list of printer errors in the original.] Page Original Correct Fol. j.r faith he faith be Fol. ij.r Poloponesians Peloponesians Fol. ij.r oracions, when oracion, when Fol. v.r Perthesius Parthesius Fol. vj.v Romai- Romains [or Romaines] Fol. vij.r valianntes valiauntes Fol. vij.r commo wealth commo[n] wealth Fol. ix.r uot not Fol. ix.r state or state of Fol. ix.v comparson comparison Fol. x.r aboundauute aboundaunte Fol. x.v oneie onelie Fol. xj.r fanour fauour Fol. xiiij.r vengauce vengau[n]ce Fol. xiiij.v Fenche Frenche Fol. xv.r Bristaines Britaines Fol. xvj.r porfite profite Fol. xvj.v learnng learning [or learnyng] Fol. xvij.r is was was Fol. xvij.r Pholosopher Philosopher Fol. xvij.v faundacion foundacion Fol. xviij.v aud and Fol. xviij.v Catona Crotona Fol. xix.r celebraied celebrated Fol. xx.v intteled intiteled Fol. xxj.r gouerme[n]t gouernme[n]t Fol. xxij.v Politcia Politia Fol. xxiiij.v Rhetotike Rhetorike Fol. xxiiij.v exposion exposicion Fol. xxiiij.v Incrediblie Incredible Fol. xxv.r The feigne Thei feigne Fol. xxvij.r the the the Fol. xxvij.r moderaciou moderacion Fol. xxviij.v Prossible Possible Fol. xxviij.v Rhetotike Rhetorike Fol. xxix.r Fol. xxxj. Fol. xxix. Fol. xxix.v Historiogriphers Historiographers Fol. xxxj.r Fol. xxxiij. Fol. xxxj. Fol. xxxj.r lineth liueth Fol. xxxj.v ouerthowe ouerthrowe Fol. xxxj.v Epamniundas Epaminundas Fol. xxxij.r Epameunndas Epaminundas Fol. xxxiij.r Zopryus Zopyrus Fol. xxxiiij.r or God of God Fol. xxxiiij.r wekedned wekened Fol. xxxv.r destetable detestable Fol. xxxv.v Theodosiuus Theodosius Fol. xxxv.v prouulgate promulgate Fol. xxxv.v hane haue Fol. xxxvj.r goddes goodes [or gooddes] Fol. xxxvj.r lo liue to liue Fol. xxxvj.r the:m theim Fol. xxxvij.r Fol. xxxix. Fol. xxxvij. Fol. xxxvij.v dangerous gaue dangerous game Fol. xxxviij.v cut af cut of Fol. xxxviij.v gouernuurs gouernours Fol. xxxix.r Fol. xxxvij. Fol. xxxix. Fol. xxxix.r His Oracion THis Oracion Fol. xxxix.v goueruours gouernours Fol. xl.v Traianns Traianus Fol. xlij.r nobilitée) for nobilitée (for Fol. xliij.r valianntly valiauntly Fol. xliiij.v anncestours auncestours Fol. xlviij.r conutrée countrée Fol. liiij.v omnipoteucie omnipotencie Fol. lvj.r all all all Fol. lvij.r whatseouer whatsoeuer Fol. lviij.v terauailed trauailed Fol. lviij.v dilabuntnr dilabuntur The original contains the following additional printer errors: Fol. j.r Decorative capital "N" reversed Fol. xxxiij.r Last sentence repeated Fol. xxxviij.v Section heading repeated Fol. liij.r First word repeats last word on previous page Fol. liiij.r Remainder of last sentence missing? The following do not appear to be printer errors, as they are consistently used in the original: "thesame" for "the same"; "shalbe" for "shall be"; the use of "a" instead of "an" before a noun beginning with a vowel; the combination of "the" and a word beginning with "e" into a single word, as in "theight" for "the eight." *** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A booke called the Foundacion of Rhetorike - because all other partes of Rhetorike are grounded - thereupon, euery parte sette forthe in an Oracion vpon - questions, verie profitable to bee knowen and redde" *** Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials. Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians. This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 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