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Title: A Handbook of Some South Indian Grasses
Author: Rangachari, K., Tadulinga Mudaliyar, C.
Language: English
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A HANDBOOK
OF
SOME SOUTH INDIAN GRASSES


BY
RAI BAHADUR K. RANGA ACHARIYAR, M.A., L.T.,
_Indian Agricultural Service, Agricultural College, Coimbatore, and
Fellow of the Madras University_


ASSISTED BY
C. TADULINGA MUDALIYAR, F.L.S.,
_Agricultural College, Coimbatore._


MADRAS:
PRINTED BY THE SUPERINTENDENT, GOVERNMENT PRESS.
1921

Price, 4 _rupees_ 8 _annas_



PREFACE


This book is intended to serve as a guide to the study of grasses of the
plains of South India. For the past few years I have been receiving
grasses for identification, almost every week, from the officers of the
Agricultural and Forest Departments and others interested in grasses.
The requirements of these men and the absence of a suitable book induced
me to write this book.

I have included in this book about one hundred grasses of wide
distribution in the plains of South India. Many of them occur also in
other parts of India. The rarer grasses of the plains and those growing
on the hills are omitted, with a view to deal with them separately.

The value of grasses can be realized from the fact that man can supply
all his needs from them alone, and their importance in agriculture is
very great, as the welfare of the cattle is dependent upon grasses.
Farmers, as a rule, take no interest in them, although profitable
agriculture is impossible without grasses. Very few of them can give the
names of at least half a dozen grasses growing on their land. They
neglect grasses, because they are common and are found everywhere. They
cannot discriminate between them. To a farmer "grass is grass" and that
is all he cares to trouble himself about. About grasses Robinson writes
"Grass is King. It rules and governs the world. It is the very
foundation of all commerce: without it the earth would be a barren
waste, and cotton, gold, and commerce all dead."

In the early days when the population was very much limited and when
land not brought under cultivation was extensive plenty of green grasses
was upon it and pastures were numerous. So the farmer paid no attention
to the grasses, and it did not matter much. But now, population has
increased, unoccupied land has decreased very much and the cattle have
increased in number. Consequently he has to pay more attention to
grasses.

On account of the scarcity of fodder, people interested in agriculture
and cattle rearing have very often imported foreign grasses and fodder
plants into this country, but so far no one has succeeded in
establishing any one of them on any large scale. Usually a great amount
of labour and much money is spent in these attempts. If the same amount
of attention is bestowed on indigenous grasses, better results can be
obtained with less labour and money. There are many indigenous grasses
that will yield plenty of stuff, if they are given a chance to grow. The
present deterioration of grasses is mainly due to overgrazing and
trampling by men and cattle.

To prove the beneficial effects which result from preventing overgrazing
and trampling, Mr. G. R. Hilson, Deputy Director of Agriculture (now
Cotton Expert), selected some portion of the waste land in the
neighbourhood of the Farm at Hagari and closed it for men and cattle. As
a result of this measure, in two years, a number of grasses and other
plants were found growing on the enclosed area very well, and all of
them seeded well. Of course the unenclosed areas were bare as usual.

In the preparation of this book I received considerable help from
M.R.Ry. C. Tadulinga Mudaliyar Avargal, F.L.S., Assistant Lecturing and
Systematic Botanist, in the description of species and I am indebted to
M.R.Ry. P.S. Jivanna Rao, M.A., Teaching Assistant, for assistance in
proofreading.

I have to express my deep obligation to Mr. G. A. D. Stuart, I.C.S.,
Director of Agriculture, for encouragement to undertake this work and to
the Madras Government for ordering its publication.

For the excellence in the get up of the book I am indebted to Mr. F. L.
Gilbert, Superintendent, Government Press.

K. RANGACHARI.

AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE,
LAWLEY ROAD, COIMBATORE,
_2nd June 1921._



CONTENTS

                                                                    PAGE
PREFACE                                                              iii
CHAPTER    I--Introduction                                             1
          II--The vegetative organs                                    5
         III--The inflorescence and flower                            13
          IV--Histology of the vegetative organs                      19
           V--Classification                                          43
          VI--Panicaceæ                                               45
         VII--Oryzeæ and Zoysieæ                                     123
        VIII--Andropogoneæ                                           138
          IX--Agrostideæ and Chlorideæ                               220
           X--Festucaceæ and Hordeæ                                  283
GLOSSARY                                                             311
INDEX                                                                315



A HANDBOOK OF SOME COMMON SOUTH
INDIAN GRASSES.



CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.


Grasses occupy wide tracts of land and they are evenly distributed in
all parts of the world. They occur in every soil, in all kinds of
situations and under all climatic conditions. In certain places grasses
form a leading feature of the flora. As grasses do not like shade, they
are not usually abundant within the forests either as regards the number
of individuals, or of species. But in open places they do very well and
sometimes whole tracts become grass-lands. Then a very great portion of
the actual vegetation would consist of grasses.

On account of their almost universal distribution and their great
economic value grasses are of great importance to man. And yet very few
people appreciate the worth of grasses. Although several families of
plants supply the wants of man, the grass family exceeds all the others
in the amount and the value of its products. The grasses growing in
pasture land and the cereals grown all over the world are of more value
to man and his domestic animals than all the other plants taken
together.

To the popular mind grasses are only herbaceous plants with narrow
leaves such as the hariali, ginger grass and the kolakattai grass. But
in the grass family or Gramineæ the cereals, sugarcane and bamboos are
also included.

Grasses are rather interesting in that they are usually successful in
occupying large tracts of land to the exclusion of other plants. If we
take into consideration the number of individuals of any species of
grass, they will be found to out-number those of any species of any
other family. Even as regards the number of species this family ranks
fifth, the first four places being occupied respectively by Compositæ,
Leguminosæ, Orchideæ and Rubiaceæ.

As grasses form an exceedingly natural family it is very difficult for
beginners to readily distinguish them from one another.

The leaves and branches of grasses are very much alike and the flowers
are so small that they are liable to be passed by unnoticed. The
recognition of even our common grasses is quite a task for a botanist.

To understand the general structure of grasses and to become familiar
with them it is necessary to study closely some common grasses. We shall
begin our study by selecting as a type one of the species of the genus
Panicum.

_Panicum javanicum_ is an annual herb with stems radiating in all
directions from a centre. The plant is fixed to the soil by a tuft of
fibrous roots all springing from the bases of the stems. In addition to
this crown of fibrous roots, there may be roots at the nodes of some of
the prostrate branches. The stems and branches are short at first, and
leaves arise on them one after the other in rapid succession. After the
appearance of a fair number of leaves the stem elongates gradually and
it finally ends in an inflorescence.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.--Panicum javanicum. (Full plant.)]

The stem consists of =nodes= and =internodes=. The internodes are
cylindrical and somewhat flattened on the side towards the axillary bud.
When young they are completely covered by the leaves and the older ones
have only their lower portions covered by the leaf-sheaths. Usually they
complete their growth in length very soon, but the lower portion of the
internode, just above the node and enclosed by the sheath, retains its
power of growth for some time.

The leaf consists of the two parts, the =leaf-sheath= and the
=leaf-blade=. At the junction of these two parts there is a very thin
narrow membrane with fine hairs on its free margin. This is called the
=ligule=. (See fig. 2.)

The leaf-sheath is attached at its base to the node and it is slightly
swollen just above the place of insertion. It covers the internode, one
margin being inside and the other outside. The surface of the sheath is
sparsely covered with long hairs springing from small tubercles. The
outer margin of the sheath bears fine hairs all along its length. (See
fig. 2.)

The leaf-blade is broadly lanceolate, with a tip finely drawn out. Its
base is rounded and the margin wavy, especially so towards the base. On
the margin towards the base long hairs are seen, and some of these arise
from small tubercles. The margin has a hyaline border which is very
minutely serrate. There is a distinct midrib and, on holding the leaf
against the light, four or five small veins come in to view. In the
spaces between these veins lie many fine veins. All the veins run
parallel from the base to the apex. At the base of the blade the veins
get into the leaf-sheath and therefore the sheath becomes striated. Just
above the ligule and at the base of the leaf-blade there is a colourless
narrow zone. This is called the =collar=.

[Illustration: Fig. 2.--Leaf of Panicum javanicum.

A. Full leaf; B. a portion of the leaf showing 1. the ligule and 2. the
collar.]

As already stated the inflorescences appear at the free ends of
branches. Every branch sooner or later terminates in an inflorescence
which is a compound raceme. There are usually five or six racemes in the
inflorescence. Each raceme has an axis, called the =rachis=, which bears
unilaterally two rows of bud-like bodies. These bud-like bodies are the
units of the inflorescence and they are called =spikelets=. (See fig.
3.)

[Illustration: Fig. 3.--The inflorescence of Panicum javanicum.

1. Inflorescence; 2 and 3. the front and the back view of a raceme.]

The spikelets are softly hairy and are shortly stalked. The pedicels of
spikelets are hairy and sometimes one or two long hairs are also found
on them. Each of these spikelets consists of four green membranous
structures called =glumes=. The first two glumes are unequal, the first
being very small. The second and the third glumes are broadly
ovate-oblong with acute tips. Both are of the same height and texture,
but the second is 7-nerved and the third 5-nerved. The fourth glume is
membranous when young, but later on it becomes thick, coriaceous and
rugose at the surface. Just opposite to the fourth glume there is a flat
structure with two nerves, similar to the glume in texture. This is
called the =palea=. The fourth glume and its palea adhere together by
their margins. Inside the fourth glume and between it and the palea
there are three stamens and an ovary with two styles ending in feathery
stigmas. Just in front of the ovary and outside the stamens two very
small scale-like bodies are found. These are the =lodicules=. They are
fleshy and well developed in flowers that are about to open. In the
spikelet there is only one full flower. The third glume contains no
flower in it, but occasionally there may be in its axil three stamens.
The first two glumes are always empty and so they are called empty
glumes. (See fig. 4.) In mature spikelets the grain which is free is
enclosed by the fourth glume and its palea.

[Illustration: Fig. 4.--Parts of the spikelets of Panicum javanicum.

A. A spikelet; 1, 2, 3 and 4. the first, second, third and the fourth
glume, respectively; 3a. palea of the third glume; 4a. palea of the
fourth glume; 5. lodicules; 6. stamens; 7. ovary; 8. stigmas.]



CHAPTER II.

THE VEGETATIVE ORGANS.


Grasses vary very much in their habit. Some grasses grow erect forming
tufts and others form cushions with the branches creeping along the
ground. (See figs. 5 and 6.) We usually find all intermediate stages
from the erect to the prostrate habit. Underground stems such as stolons
and rhizomes occur in some grasses. Grasses of one particular species
generally retain the same habit but this does not always hold good. For
example _Tragus racemosus_ grows with all its branches quite prostrate
in a poor, dry, open soil. If, on the other hand, this happens to grow
in rich soils, or amidst other plants or grasses, it assumes an erect,
somewhat tufted habit. _Andropogon contortus_ and _Andropogon pertusus_
are other grasses with a tendency for variation in habit. Plants that
are usually small often attain large dimensions under favourable
conditions of growth. Ordinarily the grass _Panicum javanicum_ grows
only to 1 or 2 feet. (See fig. 1.) The same plant in a good rich soil
grew to about 6 feet in four months. (See fig. 7.)

[Illustration: Fig. 5.--Eleusine ægyptiaca.]

Some grasses are annual while others are perennial. It is often
difficult to determine whether a certain grass is annual or perennial.
But by examining the shoot-system this can be ascertained easily. In an
annual all the stems and branches usually end in inflorescences and they
will all be of the same year. If, on the other hand, both young leafy
branches and old branches ending in inflorescences are found mixed, it
must be a perennial grass. The presence of the remains of old leaves,
underground stolons and rhizomes is also evidence showing the perennial
character of the plant.

Grasses are eminently adapted to occupy completely large areas of land.
They are also capable of very rapid extension over large areas, on
account of the production of stolons, rhizomes and the formation of
adventitious roots.

=The root-system.=--The root-system of grasses is very striking in its
character. In most grasses, especially in erect ones, several roots all
of about the same diameter arise in a dense tuft from nearly the same
level and from the lower-most nodes of the stems. The roots are all thin
and fibrous in the vast majority of these plants, and they are tough and
wiry only in a few cases such as in the case of the roots of _Pennisetum
cenchroides_, _P. Alopecuros_, _Ischæmum pilosum_ and _Andropogon
Schoenanthus_.

On a close examination it will become evident that all the roots of a
grass plant are adventitious. Inasmuch as the growth of the primary root
is soon overtaken by other roots growing from the stem, all the roots
happen to be of the same size. Roots arise from the nodes just above the
insertion of the leaf, and they grow piercing the leaf-sheath.

[Illustration: Fig. 6.--Panicum Crus-galli.]

Grasses in which stolons and prostrate branches occur have, in addition
to the usual radiating crown of roots at the base, aerial roots growing
out of the upper nodes of the branches and fixing them to the soil. Such
roots become supporting or prop roots and are particularly conspicuous
in several stout tall grasses such as _Andropogon Sorghum_, _Zea Mays_
and _Pennisetum typhoideum_. (See figs. 8 and 9.)

All the roots bear branch-roots which originate from the inner portion
of the mother roots in the usual manner. The character and the extent of
the development of the root-system is to a large extent dependent upon
the nature of the soil and its moisture content. In light dry soils
roots remain generally stunted and in well drained rich soils they
attain their maximum development. In clayey soils roots penetrate only
to short distances. When the soil is rich and sandy roots go deeper and
extend in all directions. The root-systems of most grasses are
superficial and so are best adapted for surface-feeding.

[Illustration: Fig. 7.--Panicum javanicum.]

=The shoot-system.=--The shoot-system varies with the duration of the
life of the plant. In annual grasses stems are in most cases erect and
even if they are not entirely so they become erect at the time of
flowering. They are attached to the soil by a tuft of fibrous roots
arising from the base of the stems. But in perennials in addition to
erect branches, creeping branches, stolons and rhizomes may occur.

[Illustration: Fig. 8.--Prop roots of Andropogon Sorghum.]

[Illustration: Fig. 9.--Aerial roots of Ischæmum ciliare.]

The stem is either cylindrical or compressed and consists of nodes and
internodes. In most grasses the internodes are usually hollow, the
cavity being lined by the remains of the original pith cells. However,
there are also grasses in which the stems remain solid throughout. In
many grasses the basal portions of stems are more leafy and the
internodes are short, but in the upper portions the internodes become
longer separating the leaves one from the other.

In young shoots the leaves grow much faster than the internodes and
consequently internodes remain small, and leaves become very
conspicuous. The youngest portions of the shoots are by this means
always well protected by the surrounding leaf-sheaths. As soon as leaves
have grown fully, the internodes begin to elongate rapidly separating
the leaves. At first growth in length takes place throughout its length
in the internode and when it gets older this elongation ceases. But,
however, the lower portion of the internode close to the node and which
is enclosed by the leaf-sheath retains its power of growth for a
considerable time.

Branches arise from the axils of leaves and when a considerable number
of the axillary buds, especially from the lower nodes, develop into
branches the plant becomes tufted in habit. In most grasses branches
grow upwards through the sheath and emerge at its mouth as aerial
branches. Such branches are called =intravaginal= branches or stems. But
in some grasses axillary buds, instead of growing straight up through
the sheath, pierce the leaf-sheath, come out and then they grow out as
branches. This may be seen in the underground stolons of _Panicum
repens_ and in the ordinary aerial branches of _Arundo Donax_. Branches
that pierce through the sheaths are called =extravaginal= branches. (See
fig. 10.)

[Illustration: Fig. 10.--Extravaginal shoots of 1. Panicum repens and 2.
Arundo Donax.]

[Illustration: Fig. 11.--Nodes.

1. Glabrous node; 2. bearded node; 3. node cut longitudinally.]

The nodes are in most cases very conspicuous and they are often found
swollen. However, it must be remembered that the enlargement at the node
is not due to the increase in size of the actual node, but due to growth
in thickness of the base of the leaf-sheath. (See fig. 11-3.) Nodes may
be pale or coloured, glabrous, hairy or bearded with long hairs. When
the stem is erect the nodes are short and of uniform size all round.
But, if the stem is bent down or tipped over by accident, the nodes
begin to grow longer on the lower side until a curvature sufficient to
bring the stem to the erect position is formed and then it ceases to
grow.

As already noted some perennial grasses have creeping stems and stolons,
while others may have rhizomes. The grass _Cynodon dactylon_ develops
several underground stolons which are covered with white scale leaves
and whose terminal buds are hard and sharp so that they may be able to
make their way through the soil. The rhizomes when continuous and
elongated are usually sympodia formed by the lower portions of the
aerial shoots. The aerial shoot comes into the air and its lower portion
is continued by a branch arising from a lower leaf axil beneath the
soil.

=The leaf.=--Leaves are two-ranked and alternate, and very often they
become crowded at the lower portions of the shoots so as to form basal
tufts, though they are farther apart in the upper portions of these
shoots. Three distinct kinds of leaves are met with in grasses. First,
we have the fully formed foliage leaves so characteristic of grasses.
These are most conspicuous and are formed in large numbers.

The other two kinds of leaves are neither so conspicuous nor so numerous
as the foliage leaves. At the base of shoots occur abortive leaves which
are really rudimentary sheaths. These are called =scales=. The third
kind of leaf is a modified structure called the =prophyll= or
=prophyllum=. (See fig. 12.) It is the first leaf occurring in every
branch on the side next to the main shoot and it is a two-keeled
membranous structure resembling somewhat the palea found in the
spikelets of grasses. The portion of the prophyll between the keels is
concave due to the pressure of the main stem, while the sides beyond the
keels bend forward clasping the stem.

[Illustration: Fig. 12.--Prophylla.

A. A branch with its prophyllum; B. prophyllum; C. section of the
prophyllum.]

The ordinary foliage leaves of grasses consist of the two parts, the
flat expanded upper portion called the =blade= and the lower part called
the =sheath= that encircles the stem above the node from which it
arises. The leaf-sheaths usually fit close to the stem, but they may
also be loose or even inflated. Though the leaf-sheath surrounds the
internode like a tube, it is not a closed tube. It is really a flat
structure rolled firmly round the stem with one edge overlapping the
other. In most cases it is cylindrical and it may be compressed in a few
cases. Occasionally it may have a prominent ridge or keel down its back.
The sheath may be glabrous or hairy, smooth or striate externally, and
the outer margin is often ciliate. In a few grasses the sheaths become
coloured especially below or on the side exposed to the sun.

[Illustration: Fig. 13.--Ligules of 1. Oryza sativa; 2. Panicum
javanicum; 3. Andropogon Schoenanthus; 4. A. contortus.]

[Illustration: Fig. 14.--Shapes of leaf-blades.

1, 7 and 8. Lanceolate; 3 and 6. lanceolate-linear; 2 and 5. linear; and
4. ovate.]

The =ligule= is a structure peculiar to grasses and it varies very much.
In some grasses it is a distinct membrane narrow or broad, with an even,
truncate or erose margin, or finely ciliate. Very often it is only a
line or fringe of hairs, whilst in some it may be entirely absent as in
the leaves of _Panicum colonum_. When it is a membrane it may be broad
and oblong, ovate and obtuse, or lanceolate and acute. (See fig. 13.)
The function of the ligule is probably to facilitate the shedding of
water which may run down the leaf, and thus lessen the danger of rotting
of the stem which is sure to follow, if the water were to find its way
into the interior of the sheath. Sometimes, in addition to the ligule,
other appendages may be present in grass leaves as in _Oryza sativa_.
Such outgrowths are called =auricles= or =auricular outgrowths=. (See
fig. 13.)

The leaf-blade is well developed in the foliage leaves and in most cases
it follows directly on the sheath. But in bamboos and some species of
Ischæmum there occurs a short petiole or stalk between the leaf-blade
and the sheath. The sheath corresponds morphologically to the leaf base
of a leaf of other flowering plants.

[Illustration: Fig. 15.--Margins of leaves.

1 and 2. Finely serrate; 3. glandular; 4 and 5. very minutely serrate;
6. very minutely serrate and ciliate.]

In grasses the leaf-blades usually grow more in length than in any other
direction and there is no limit to the length they may attain. Some
grasses have very short leaves, others very long ones. The leaf-blade in
most grasses is more or less of some elongated form, such as linear,
linear-lanceolate, lanceolate, etc. (See fig. 14.) In a few grasses the
leaf-blade is ovate, but this is a rare condition. Therefore, in noting
the general shape of the leaf-blade the relation of the length to the
breadth, the amount of tapering towards the apex and base and the nature
of the apex should be considered.

The veins in the leaf-blade can usually be seen on holding the leaf up
to the light. All the veins run parallel. In most cases the midrib is
prominent and in some cases there may be also a distinct keel. Amongst
the veins running through the leaf-blade some are large and prominent,
while others are small and not conspicuous. On account of this
disparity, very often, ridges and furrows become prominent on the upper
or lower, or on both the surfaces of the leaf-blades. Generally the two
surfaces of the leaf-blade are distinct, and they may be glabrous or
hairy. In most grasses the surfaces are rough or scabrid to the touch
owing to the presence of regular rows of exceedingly fine sharp pointed
minute hairs.

The apex of the blade is generally sharp and pointed, acute or
acuminate, or sometimes it may be drawn to a very fine point by gradual
tapering. Blunt or obtuse tips are not altogether absent, but it is not
a common feature. The leaf-blades in _Panicum colonum_ and in some
species of Andropogon are rounded or obtuse at the apex.

The margins of the leaf-blade are somewhat hyaline and they may be
perfectly even or cut into serrations of fine teeth in various ways.
(See fig. 15.) In addition to these minute teeth, there may be long or
short cilia. Sometimes the margins are glandular as in _Eragrostis
Willdenoviana_ and _Eragrostis major_.

The base of the leaf may be narrower, broader than, or about the same as
the breadth of the leaf-sheath. It may be rounded, amplexicaul or
narrowed. At the base and just above the ligular region there will
always be a white distinct zone in the lamina of all grasses called the
collar. This collar varies in length and breadth according to the
species of grass.

[Illustration: Fig. 16.--Transverse section of leaf-buds.

A. Conduplicate; 1, 2 and 3. leaf-sheaths; 4 and 5. leaf-blades. B.
Convolute; 1 and 2, leaf-sheaths; 3 and 4. leaf-blades.]

In young shoots all the leaf-blades are usually found folded at the
terminal portions. In most cases the leaf-blade is rolled up inwards
from one end to the other so that one margin is inside and the other
outside. This folding is termed =convolute=. This is the kind of folding
that is found in most grasses. However, there are some grasses such as
_Eleusine ægyptiaca_ and _Chloris barbata_, in which the folding is
different. In these grasses the laminas are folded flat on their midribs
so that each half of the blade is folded flat on the other, the inner
surfaces being in contact. The leaves are said to be =conduplicate= in
this case. When the leaves are conduplicate the shoots are more or less
compressed. (See fig. 16.)



CHAPTER III.

THE INFLORESCENCE AND FLOWER.


The flowers of grasses are reduced to their essential organs, the
stamens and the pistil. The flowers are aggregated together on distinct
shoots constituting the inflorescence of grasses. Sooner or later all
the branches of a grass-plant terminate in inflorescences which usually
stand far above the foliage leaves. As in other flowering plants, in
grasses also different forms of inflorescence are met with. But in
grasses the unit of the inflorescence is the =spikelet= and not the
flower.

The forms of inflorescence usually met with are the spike, raceme and
panicle. When the spikelets are sessile or borne directly along an
elongated axis as in _Enteropogon melicoides_ the inflorescence is a
=spike=. If the spikelets borne by the axis are all stalked, however
short the pedicels may be, it is a =raceme=. It must, however, be
remembered that true spikes are very rare. An inflorescence may appear
to be a spike, but on a close examination it will be seen to consist of
spikelets more or less pedicelled. Such an inflorescence, strictly
speaking, is a =spiciform raceme=. The branches of the inflorescence in
_Paspalum scrobiculatum_ or _Panicum javanicum_ are racemes and the
whole inflorescence is a compound raceme. The inflorescence is a
=panicle= when the spikelets are borne on secondary, tertiary or further
subdivided branches. Panicles differ very much in appearance according
to the relative length and stoutness of the branches. In _Eragrostis
tremula_ the panicle is very diffuse, in _Eragrostis Willdenoviana_ less
so. The panicle in _Sporobolus coromandelianus_ is pyramidal and the
branches are all verticillate, the lower being longer than the upper.
The branches of a panicle are usually loose, spreading or drooping in
most grasses. But in some species of grasses such as _Pennisetum
Alopecuros_ and _Setaria glauca_, the paniculate inflorescences become
so contracted that the pedicels and the short branches are hidden and
the inflorescence appears to be a spike. Such inflorescences as these
are called =spiciform panicles=. The inflorescences in several species
of Andropogon consist of racemes so much modified as to appear exactly
like a spike. What looks like a spike in these cases consists of a
jointed axis and each joint bears a pair of spikelets, one sessile and
the other pedicelled.

The name =rachis= is given to the axis of the spike, raceme and panicle,
whether the axis is the main one or of the branch. The rachis of the
inflorescence is usually cylindrical. In some grasses it is zigzag as in
_Pennisetum cenchroides_. It is very much flattened in _Paspalum
scrobiculatum_, but somewhat trigonous in _Digitaria sanguinalis_. In
very many grasses the rachis is continuous, but in a few cases it
consists of internodes or joints which disarticulate at maturity. Many
species of Andropogon have such jointed rachises. Sometimes the joints
become greatly thickened and the surface hollowed out, the spikelets
fitting in the cavities as in Rottboellia and Manisuris.

In panicles, especially when they are diffuse, the primary branches may
be disposed irregularly or in verticils on the main axis. For example in
the panicle of _Eragrostis Willdenoviana_, the branches are irregularly
disposed, whereas in _Sporobolus coromandelianus_ the branches are
verticillate. In both these grasses fleshy cushions are developed in the
axils of the branches. These swellings help to spread out the branches
especially at the time of anthesis. The branches at the top spread out
earlier than those below.

Sometimes at the base of the rachises, main or secondary, glandular
streaks are seen as in the rachises of _Sporobolus coromandelianus_.
These glands secrete a viscid juice at the time of anthesis.

[Illustration: Fig. 17.--The Spikelet of Dinebra arabica.

1 and 2. Empty glumes; 3, 4, 5, and 6. flowering glumes with flowers.]

The =spikelet= may be considered as a specialised branch consisting of a
short axis, the =rachilla= bearing a series of modified bracts, the
=glumes=, the lower pair being empty but the others bearing flowers in
their axils. The glumes are two-ranked and imbricating. As a type for
the spikelet that of an Eragrostis or Dinebra may be chosen. (See fig.
17.) In this spikelet the rachilla bears a number of glumes alternating
and imbricating. The first two glumes at the base of the spikelet do not
bear any flowers and so these two glumes are usually called empty
glumes. This is the case in almost all the species of grasses. The third
and the subsequent glumes are regularly arranged on the slender rachilla
alternately in two rows. In the axils of each of these glumes there is a
flower, except perhaps in the topmost glume. The flower is usually
enclosed by the glume and another structure found opposite the glume and
differing very much from the glume. This is the =palea=. It is attached
to the axis of the flower and its back is towards the rachilla.
Generally there are two nerves in a palea and its margins are enclosed
within those of the glume. The palea is homologous with the prophyllum
which it very much resembles. The prophyllum is usually found in the
branches of grasses, but it is not confined to grasses alone. It occurs
in the branches of some species of Commelina.

The spikelets vary very much in their structure. The spikelets in
grasses of several genera consist of only four glumes. As usual the
first two glumes are empty and the remaining two are flower-bearing
glumes. Both these glumes may have perfect flowers as in Isachne or the
terminal one may contain a perfect flower, the lower having either a
staminate flower or only a palea. Very often the spikelets are unisexual
and the male and female spikelets may be on the same plant as in _Coix
Lachryma-Jobi_ and _Polytoca barbata_, or they may be on different
plants as in _Spinifex squarrosus_.

The glumes of a spikelet are really modified bracts and some
differentiate the flowering glumes from the empty ones, by giving them
different names. The first two empty glumes are called glumes by all
agrostologists. Some in Europe call the flowering glume lower palea to
distinguish it from the real palea which they call the upper palea. Some
American Authors have recently adopted for the flowering glume the term
=lemma= introduced by Piper.

Considerable variation is met with in the case of the empty glumes.
Generally they are unequal, the first being smaller. Very often the
first glume becomes very small and it may be altogether absent. In some
species of Panicum the first glume is very small, in Digitaria it is
very minute and in Paspalum and Eriochloa it is entirely suppressed. The
flowering glumes are generally uniform when there are many. In the
spikelet having only four glumes the fourth glume differs from the
others mainly in texture. Instead of being thin and herbaceous it
becomes rigid and hard, smooth or rugose externally as in Panicum.
Flowering glumes instead of being like empty glumes, become very thin,
shorter and hyaline in Andropogon. Sometimes the flowering glumes are
awned. All of them may be awned as in Chloris or only the fourth glume
as in Andropogon.

The palea is fairly uniform in its structure in many grasses, but it is
also subject to variation. It becomes shorter in some and is absent in
others. Instead of having two nerves, it may have one and rarely more
than two. The palea can easily be distinguished from the glume, because
its insertion in the spikelet is different from that of the glume.

[Illustration: Fig. 18.--Flower of Chloris.

1. lodicules; 2. stamens; 3. ovary.]

The =lodicules= are small organs and they are the vestiges of the
perianth. In most grasses there are only two, but in Ochlandra and other
bamboos we meet with three lodicules. There are also some species with
many lodicules. In shape they are mostly of some form referable to the
cuneate form. They are of somewhat elongated form in Aristida and
Chloris. The function of the lodicules seems to be to separate the glume
and its palea so as to enable the stamens to come out and hang freely at
the time of anthesis. So it is only at the time of the opening of the
flowers that the lodicules are at their best. Then they are fairly
large, fleshy and thick and conspicuous. In the bud stage they are
usually small and after the opening of the flower they shrivel up and
are inconspicuous. There are also species of grasses in which the
lodicules are not found.

The =stamens= are three in number in the majority of grasses and six are
met with in Leersia, Hygrorhiza and Bamboos. Each stamen consists of a
very delicate long filament and an anther basifixed to the filament. But
as the anthers are long and the connective is reduced to its minimum,
they appear as if versatile when the stamens are out. When there are
three stamens one stands in front of the flowering glumes and the other
two in front of the palea, one opposite each edge of the palea. The
relative positions of the parts of the floret are shown in the floral
diagrams. (See figs. 18 and 19.)

[Illustration: Fig. 19.--Floral diagrams.

The first is that of Chloris, second of Panicum and the third of Oryza.]

The =pistil= consists of an ovary and two styles ending in plumose
stigmas. The ovary is 1-celled and 1-ovuled. It is one carpelled
according to the views of Hackel and his followers and there are also
some who consider it as 3-carpelled because of the occurrence of three
styles in the pistil of some bamboos.

The =rachilla= is usually well developed and elongated in many-flowered
spikelets, while in 1-flowered spikelets it remains very small so that
the flower appears to be terminal. It often extends beyond the insertion
of the terminal flower and its glume, and then lies hidden appressed to
the palea. This may be seen in the spikelets of the species of Cynodon.
This prolonged rachilla sometimes bears a minute glume, which is of
course rudimentary. Usually the glumes are rather close together on the
rachilla so that the internodes are very short; but in some grasses, as
in _Dinebra arabica_, the glumes are rather distant and so the
internodes are somewhat longer and conspicuous. In some species of
Panicum the rachilla is jointed to the pedicel below the empty glumes,
whereas it is articulated just above these glumes in _Chloris barbata_.
Sometimes the rachilla is articulated between the flowers. This is the
case in the spikelet of _Dinebra arabica_.

Pollination in most grasses is brought about by wind, though in a few
cases self-pollination occurs. The terminal position of the
inflorescence, its protrusion far above the level of the foliage leaves,
the swinging and dangling anthers, the abundance of non-sticking pollen
and the plumose stigmas are all intended to facilitate pollination by
wind. Furthermore the stamens and the stigmas do not mature at the same
time. In some grasses the stamens mature earlier, (=protandry=) while in
others the stigmas protrude long before the stamens (=protogyny=). As
the result of the pollination the ovary developes into a dry 1-seeded
indehiscent fruit. The seed fills the cavity fully and the pericarp
fuses with the seed-coat and so they are inseparable. Such a fruit is
termed a =caryopsis= or =grain=. Though in the vast majority of grasses
the pericarp is inseparable, in a few cases it is free from the
seed-coat as in _Sporobolus indicus_ and _Eleusine indica_.

[Illustration: Fig. 20.--Longitudinal section of a portion of the grain
of Andropogon Sorghum. × 280 P. Pericarp; Sc. seed-coat; A. aleurone
layer; E. endosperm; S. scutellum; Rs. root-sheath; Rc. root-cap; R.
radicle; Pl. plumule; G. growing point.]

[Illustration: Fig. 21.--A portion of the section of the grain of
Andropogon Sorghum. × 500 P. pericarp; I. seed-coat; A. aleurone layer;
S. starch.]

The caryopsis consists of an embryo on one side at the base and the
endosperm occupies the remaining portion. The embryo can be made out on
the side of the grain facing the glume, as it is outlined as an oval
area. On the other face of the grain which is towards the palea, the
hilum is seen at the base. The grain varies in shape considerably. It
may be rounded, oval, ellipsoidal, narrow and cylindrical, oblong terete
or furrowed. There is considerable variation as regards the colour also.

The =embryo= consists of an =axis= and a =scutellum=. The axis, which is
differentiated into the plumule directed upward and the radicle
downward, is small and straight and it is covered more or less by the
edges of the scutellum. The scutellum is attached to the axis at about
its middle and its outer surface is in contact with the endosperm. This
is an important organ as its function is to absorb nourishment from the
endosperm during germination. The scutellum is considered to represent
the first leaf or cotyledon. The endosperm consists mostly of starch.
Just outside the endosperm and within the epidermis lies a layer of
cells containing much proteid substance. This layer is called the
=aleurone layer=. (See fig. 21.) As an illustration of the caryopsis,
the grain of Andropogon Sorghum may be studied. All the structural
details are shown in fig. 20 which is a longitudinal section of the
grain.

The primary axis of the embryo is enclosed by a closed sheath both above
and below. The sheath which envelopes the radicle is called =coleorhiza=
and that of the plumule, =pileole= or =germ-sheath=.



CHAPTER IV.

HISTOLOGY OF THE VEGETATIVE ORGANS.


The shoots and roots of grasses conform in their internal structure to
the monocotyledonous type. In all grasses numerous threads are found
running longitudinally within the stem and some of these pass into the
leaves, at the nodes, and run as nerves in the blades of the leaves.
These threads are the vascular bundles. The rest of the tissue of the
stem and leaves consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells of
different sorts.

The general structure of these bundles is more or less the same in all
grasses. A vascular bundle consists of only xylem and phloëm, without
the cambium, and so no secondary thickening can take place in the stems
of grasses. Such bundles as these are called =closed vascular bundles=
to distinguish them from the dicotyledonous type of vascular bundles
which are called =open vascular bundles= on account of the existence of
the cambium.

[Illustration: Fig. 22.--Transverse section of a vascular bundle. × 250

1. Annular vessel; 2. spiral vessel; 3. pitted vessel; 4. phloëm or
sieve tubes; 5. sclerenchyma.]

The component parts and elements of which the vascular bundles in
grasses are composed may be learnt by studying the transverse and
longitudinal sections of these bundles in any grass. The cross and
longitudinal sections of a vascular bundle of the stem of _Pennisetum
cenchroides_, are shown in figs. 22 and 23. In the figure of the
transverse section the two large cavities indicated by the number 3 and
the two small circular cavities with thick walls lying between the
larger ones and indicated by the numbers 1 and 2 are the chief elements
of the xylem.

By looking at the longitudinal section it is obvious that these elements
are really vessels, the larger being pitted and the smaller annular and
spiral vessels. These vessels together with the numerous small
thick-walled cells lying between the pitted vessels constitute the
xylem. Just above the xylem there is a group of large and small
thin-walled cells. This is the phloëm and it consists of sieve tubes and
thin-walled cells. All round the xylem and the phloëm there are many
thick-walled cells. These are really fibres forming the =bundle-sheath=.
On account of this bundle-sheath the bundles are called =fibro-vascular
bundles=.

[Illustration: Fig. 23.--Longitudinal section of a vascular bundle. ×
250

1. Annular vessel; 2. spiral vessel; 3. pitted vessel; 4. sieve tubes or
phloëm; 5. sclerenchyma.]

[Illustration: Fig. 24.--Transverse section of a portion of the stem of
Rottboellia exaltata. × 70

1. Epidermis; 2. sclerenchyma; 3. vascular bundle.]

=Structure of the stem.=--The stem of a grass consists of a mass of
parenchymatous cells with a number of fibro-vascular bundles imbedded in
it, and it is covered externally by a protective layer of cells, the
epidermis. The stem is usually solid in all grasses in the young stage,
but as it matures the internodes become hollow in many grasses and they
remain solid in a few. In the internodes the fibro-vascular bundles run
longitudinally and are parallel, but in the nodes they run in all
directions and form a net work from which emerge a few bundles to enter
the leaves. So far as the broad general features are concerned, the
stems of many grasses are more or less similar in structure. However,
when we take into consideration the arrangement of bundles, the
development and arrangement of sclerenchyma, every species of grass has
its own special characteristics. And these are so striking and constant
that it may be possible to identify the species from these characters
alone.

We may take as a type the stem of _Rottboellia exaltata_. This stem is
somewhat semi-circular in transverse section and it is almost straight
and flat in the front (the side towards the axillary bud). The
peripheral portion of the stem becomes somewhat rigid and thick due to
the aggregation of vascular bundles, some small and others large. The
outermost series of bundles consisting of small and larger bundles are
in contact with the layers of the cells lying just beneath the epidermis
and these cells are also thick-walled. A few are away from these being
separated by three or four layers of cells from the peripheral bundles.
In all these vascular bundles the bundle-sheath is very strongly
developed all round and is very much developed especially at the sides.
It is this great development of sclerenchyma that makes the outer
portion of the cortex hard. Within the ground tissue are found a number
of vascular bundles scattered more or less uniformly. These bundles have
no continuous bundle-sheaths but have instead groups of fibres at the
sides and in front of the phloëm. The cavities near the annular vessels
are somewhat larger and conspicuous in these bundles.

[Illustration: Fig. 25.--Transverse section of the stem of Pennisetum
cenchroides. × 20]

The epidermal cells are all thickened very much and the outer layer is
cutinized and impregnated with silica. This is the case in the epidermis
of the stems and leaves of most grasses. (See fig. 24.)

In order to give a general idea of the variations in the structure of
the stem in grasses a few examples are chosen and the details of the
structure of the stems of these grasses are dealt with here.

[Illustration: Fig. 26.--Transverse section of a portion of the stem of
Pennisetum cenchroides. × 70

1. Epidermis; 2. sclerenchyma; 3. vascular bundle.]

The stem of _Pennisetum cenchroides_ is somewhat round in outline in the
transverse section with a slight curvature in the front. The vascular
bundles are rather numerous and irregularly scattered all over the
ground tissue. The peripheral bundles are not so close to the periphery
of the stem as in _Rottboellia exaltata_. These are separated from the
epidermis by several layers of parenchymatous cells. Further, these
peripheral bundles are all imbedded in a continuous sclerenchymatous
band which runs round the stem in the form of a ring. The epidermal
cells as well as the layer of cells in immediate contact with it are
thick-walled. In the vascular bundles of the ground tissue the
bundle-sheath is rather prominent and the phloëm portion is well
developed. (See figs. 25 and 26.)

[Illustration: Fig. 27.--Transverse section of the stem of Eriochloa
polystachya. × 25]

In the stem of _Eriochloa polystachya_, all the vascular bundles are
more or less peripheral in position leaving a wide area of
parenchymatous cells in the centre. The outline of the stem in cross
section is rotund or ovate-rotund with the front side somewhat flattened
and straight. The epidermal cells alone are thickened. A well developed
continuous ring of sclerenchyma is present and this is connected with
the epidermal layer at short intervals by means of short
sclerenchymatous bands. So the parenchymatous cells of the cortex lying
outside the sclerenchymatous ring are divided into small isolated areas.
There are three series of vascular bundles.

[Illustration: Fig. 28.--Transverse section of a portion of the stem of
Eriochloa polystachya. × 70

1. Epidermis; 2. sclerenchyma; 3. vascular bundle.]

One series consists of small bundles lying inside the sclerenchyma ring
at the base of each of the connecting bands. The second series is made
up of large vascular bundles imbedded in the ring so as to bulge out
inside the ring. The vascular bundles of the third series are found just
away from the ring and separated from it by a few layers of
parenchymatous cells. (See figs. 27 and 28.)

[Illustration: Fig. 29.--Transverse section of the stem of Setaria
glauca. × 15]

[Illustration: Fig. 30.--Transverse section of a portion of the stem of
Setaria glauca. × 50

1. Epidermis; 2. sclerenchyma; 3. vascular bundle.]

Another stem in which the vascular bundles are more or less peripheral
in position and enclosing a wide parenchyma is that of _Setaria glauca_.
In the transverse section of the stem the outline is ovate, laterally
compressed, obtusely keeled at the back and somewhat concave in the
front. The sclerenchymatous band is narrow and continuous and very close
to the epidermis, being separated from it only by two or three layers of
thin-walled cells. The epidermal cells alone are thickened. As to the
vascular bundles there are three sets. One set of bundles lying just
outside the sclerenchymatous ring consists of small ones connecting the
ring with the epidermis. Just inside the sclerenchymatous ring lies a
series of bundles which are connected with it. Still inside, at some
distance from the sclerenchymatous band, are seen vascular bundles
forming a row and enclosing a large space of the ground tissue
consisting of only parenchyma. (See figs. 29 and 30.)

[Illustration: Fig. 31.--Transverse section of the stem of Panicum
ramosum × 24]

[Illustration: Fig. 32.--Transverse section of a portion of the stem of
Panicum ramosum. × 75

1. Epidermis; 2. sclerenchyma; 3. vascular bundle.]

[Illustration: Fig. 33.--Transverse section of the stem of Andropogon
caricosus. × 25]

The stem of _Panicum ramosum_ is semi-circular and somewhat flat on one
side. The epidermal cells alone are thickened. There is a broad well
developed continuous band of sclerenchyma, which is connected at regular
intervals with the epidermis by small vascular bundles. Another row of
vascular bundles lies just inside the sclerenchymatous ring and each of
these bundles is in contact with the band. Away from the ring lie a
number of bundles forming a series disposed in two irregular rings
around a broad portion of the ground tissue. (See figs. 31 and 32.)

[Illustration: Fig. 34.--Transverse section of a portion of the stem of
Andropogon caricosus. × 75

1. Epidermis; 2. sclerenchyma; 3. vascular bundle.]

[Illustration: Fig. 35.--Transverse section of a portion of the stem of
Panicum Isachne. × 100

1. Epidermis; 2. sclerenchyma; 3. vascular bundle.]

The stem of the grass _Andropogon caricosus_ is oval in outline, the
front being flat. The epidermal cells and those below and in contact
with them are thick-walled. The sclerenchymatous ring though present is
very narrow and not very conspicuous. It consists of one or two layers
of cells connecting a few vascular bundles forming the outermost set.
There is a series of vascular bundles inside the ring which surrounds a
large area of the ground tissue. Two isolated bundles, one in front and
another at the back of the ground tissue, are found. The cells of the
ground tissue lying just inside the vascular bundles are all very much
thickened. (See figs. 33 and 34.)

[Illustration: Fig. 36.--Transverse section of the stem of Eragrostis
interrupta. × 25]

[Illustration: Fig. 37.--Transverse section of the stem of Panicum
flavidum. × 15]

[Illustration: Fig. 38.--Transverse section of a portion of the stem of
Panicum flavidum. × 70

1. Epidermis; 2. sclerenchyma; 3. vascular bundle.]

The stems of _Panicum Isachne_ and _Eragrostis interrupta_ are hollow.
The stem of the former is circular in outline in cross section, though
wavy. There is a sclerenchymatous ring close to the epidermis but
separated from it by a few layers of parenchyma. One set of bundles is
imbedded in the band, and another set just touches the inner border of
it. A third series is disposed around a fairly large amount of ground
tissue, which may or may not have a cavity in the centre. The stem of
_Eragrostis_ _interrupta_ has more or less the same structure, but the
cortex has air spaces here and there. Other minor differences may be
seen on referring to figs. 35 and 36.

[Illustration: Fig. 39.--Transverse section of a portion of the stem of
Panicum colonum. × 70

1. Epidermis; 2. sclerenchyma; 3. vascular bundle.]

The stems of grasses growing in wet or marshy situations differ in
structure from those detailed above. As examples the stems of _Panicum
flavidum_, _Panicum colonum_, _Panicum Crus-galli_ and _Panicum
fluitans_ may be considered. The stem of _Panicum flavidum_ is broadly
ovate in cross section with a flat front and is more or less solid,
though occasionally the parenchymatous cells in the centre get broken.
Two rows of vascular bundles surround a fairly large amount of
parenchymatous cells of the ground tissue. There is a continuous ring of
sclerenchyma separated from the epidermis by a fairly broad cortex. The
cortex has a number of fairly large air-cavities separated by bands of
parenchymatous cells. Within the sclerenchymatous band lie small
vascular bundles at regular intervals just towards the cortex. A few
isolated bundles are in contact with the inner border. (See figs. 37 and
38.)

The stems of _Panicum colonum_, _Panicum stagninum_ and _Panicum
Crus-galli_ have in their centre in the ground tissue stellate cells
with air-cavities. This part is surrounded by a fairly broad portion of
parenchymatous cells in which are imbedded two rows of bundles. Outside
these bundles runs round the stem a narrow sclerenchymatous band with a
few bundles in it of which some touch it inside and others outside. Two
bundles are found by themselves in the tissue of stellate cells. In
_Panicum Crus-galli_ three or four bundles are met with amidst the
stellate cells.

[Illustration: Fig. 40.--Transverse section of a portion of the stem of
Panicum Crus-galli. × 70

1. Epidermis; 2. sclerenchyma; 3. vascular bundle.]

[Illustration: Fig. 41.--Transverse section of the stem of Panicum
stagninum. × 10]

The cortex outside the band of sclerenchyma is full of air-cavities,
small and large. In _Panicum colonum_ the outline of the stem is
ellipsoidal with the front quite flat, and the cortex is narrow at the
sides and very broad in front and at the back. The sclerenchymatous ring
is circular in outline. The stem of _Panicum Crus-galli_ is broadly
ovoid and the cortex is uniformly broad. The epidermal cells as well as
the lower cells are thickened in the stems of _Panicum fluitans_ and
_Panicum Crus-galli_, but in the stems of _Panicum colonum_ and _Panicum
flavidum_ the epidermis alone is thickened. In the cortical portion
outside the sclerenchymatous band, small vascular bundles occur in the
stems of _Panicum colonum_, _Panicum Crus-galli_ and _Panicum fluitans_.
(See figs. 39, 40, 42 and 43.)

[Illustration: Fig. 42.--Transverse section of the stem of Panicum
fluitans. × 15]

[Illustration: Fig. 43.--Transverse section of a portion of the stem of
Panicum fluitans. × 60

1. Epidermis; 2. sclerenchyma; 3. vascular bundle; 4. air-cavity; 5.
diaphragm.]

The stem of _Panicum fluitans_ is round in outline in the transverse
section and has a large cavity. Just close to the cavity and separated
from it by only one or two parenchymatous cells are found vascular
bundles forming a series. Outside this series of bundles lies a
sclerenchymatous band which is wavy, following the lower edges of the
large air-cavities. One series of bundles is connected with this
sclerenchymatous ring. The air-cavities are large and uniform and are
separated by bands of parenchymatous cells. In each of these bands lies
a vascular bundle on the upper side near the periphery. Sometimes we
find, especially in young stages, diaphragms of stellulate cells
stretched across the air-cavities. Later as the stem matures these
disappear and the cavities become conspicuous. (See figs. 42 and 43.)

=Structure of the root.=--As already stated, the roots of grasses
conform to the monocotyledonous type, but the variations met with in
their structure are not so great as in the case of the stem. The
root-tips are protected by root-caps, and the actual tip of the root is
very distinct in the roots of all grasses and it can be seen very
clearly in a longitudinal section of the root. The actual tip of the
root is sharply distinct from the root-cap as there are two distinct
sets of cells, one giving rise to the root-tip and the other to the
root-cap.

The young root-tips are always free from root-hairs, and they are
confined to the portions behind the root-tips. The extent of the
root-hair region will vary according to the vigour and development of
the roots and the nature of the soil. The root-hairs are mere
protrusions of the cells of the outermost layer of the cortex of the
root and this layer is called the =piliferous layer=.

[Illustration: Fig. 44.--Transverse section of a part of the root of
Pennisetum cenchroides. × 100

1. Root-hair; 2. piliferous layer; 3. cortex; 4. endodermis; 5.
pericycle; 6. xylem; 7. phloëm.]

To learn the structure of the roots of grasses we may select as types
the roots of _Pennisetum cenchroides_ and _Andropogon Sorghum_ and
consider their structural details. In the transverse sections of these
roots we find a fairly broad cortex consisting of thin-walled
parenchymatous cells more or less regularly arranged. (See figs. 44 and
45.) Just below the piliferous layer two or three layers of thick-walled
cells are seen. In the roots of _Andropogon Sorghum_ these thick-walled
cells are very conspicuous as they consist of several layers. These
layers of thick-walled cells constitute the =exodermis=. (See fig. 46.)
The innermost layer of cells of the cortex is called the =endodermis=
and it becomes conspicuous on account of the thickening in the lateral
and inner walls of the cells of this layer. (See figs. 44 and 47.)

[Illustration: Fig. 45.--Transverse section of the entire root of
Andropogon Sorghum. × 25]

[Illustration: Fig. 46.--Transverse section of the cortical portion of
the root of Andropogon Sorghum. × 150

r.h. Root-hair; p.l. piliferous layer; ex. exodermis; co. cortex.]

The rest of the root forming the central core is the stele and at its
periphery there is a single layer of cells called the =pericycle=. The
arrangement of the xylem and the phloëm is different from that of the
stem. They lie side by side on different radii, and not one behind the
other on the same radius as in the stem. The number of xylem groups is
fairly large and the development of the xylem is from the pericycle
towards the centre of the stele. (See figs. 44 and 45.) The
parenchymatous cells in the centre of the stele become thick-walled in
older roots.

=Structure of the leaf.=--The structure of the leaf of grasses is quite
characteristic of the family. In every leaf a number of vascular
bundles, some small and others large, pass from the base to the apex.
Externally the leaf is covered on both the sides by the epidermis. The
spaces existing between the vascular bundles and the epidermis are
filled with parenchymatous cells. The larger vascular bundles consist of
xylem and phloëm surrounded by a bundle sheath of a single layer of
cells. In the smaller bundles the xylem is very much reduced. Around
every vascular bundle there is a single row of somewhat large cells
densely packed with large chloroplasts, the =chlorophyllous layer=. The
vascular bundles are strengthened by fibres, on both the sides in the
case of larger bundles and on only one side in small bundles.

[Illustration: Fig. 47.--Transverse section of the stele portion of the
root of Andropogon Sorghum. × 150

Co. Cortex; en. endodermis; pe. pericycle; ph. phloëm; pr. protoxylem;
xy. xylem vessel.]

[Illustration: Fig. 48.--A portion of the transverse section of the leaf
of Panicum javanicum. × 100

Ep. c. An ordinary epidermal cell; st. stomata; sc. sclerenchyma; ph.
phloëm; chl c. chlorenchyma; m. motor cells; xy. xylem.]

For a detailed study of the structure of the leaves of grasses the leaf
of the grass _Panicum javanicum_ may be chosen. In a transverse section
of this leaf, the vascular bundles are very conspicuous. The larger
bundles are normal in every way, while in the smaller ones the xylem
elements are considerably reduced. Around every one of the vascular
bundles there is a single row of large cells containing large
chlorophyll grains (the chlorophyllous layer). In a well developed large
vascular bundle the chlorophyllous layer is open below just close to the
sclerenchymatous band. On both sides of the larger vascular bundle there
are bands of sclerenchyma. In the case of smaller bundles some are
strengthened by sclerenchyma on the lower side and others have none. The
spaces between the bundles are occupied by thin-walled parenchymatous
cells containing small chlorophyll grains.

[Illustration: Fig. 49.--Upper epidermis of the leaf of Panicum
javanicum. × 300]

[Illustration: Fig. 50.--Lower epidermis of the leaf of Panicum
javanicum. × 300]

The lower epidermis of the leaf in the transverse section is even and
consists of small and large round cells. The upper epidermis is slightly
wavy and it is made up of some small round cells alternating with groups
of larger cells. The epidermal cells lying over sclerenchyma and the
smaller vascular bundles are small and round, while those lying over the
furrows between the vascular bundles are large and are called =motor= or
=bulliform cells=. The presence of motor cells is a characteristic
feature of the leaves of many grasses.

The continuity of both the upper and the lower epidermis is interrupted
by the stomata. Air-cavities are seen below these stomata. The
arrangement of the stomata, the shape of the guard cells and the
characteristics of the epidermal cells become clear on examining a piece
of epidermis. (See figs. 49 and 50.)

The structure of the leaf of _Panicum javanicum_ may be taken as typical
of the structure of the leaves of most grasses. The leaves of _Eriochloa
polystachya_, Cynodon and Paspalums are very much like the leaves of
_Panicum javanicum_ in their internal structure.

Considerable amount of variation, however, occurs in the leaves of
grasses especially as regards the arrangement of fibres and motor cells.

[Illustration: Fig. 51.--A portion of the transverse section of the leaf
of Eriochloa polystachya × 120

1. Motor cell; 2. stomata; 3. sclerenchyma; 4. chlorophyllous layer.]

Every large primary vascular bundle in the leaves of many grasses
possesses sclerenchymatous bands both above and below. The other
vascular bundles may have bands of sclerenchyma on both sides or on one
side only or none. For example, in the leaves of _Panicum repens_ both
the primary and secondary bundles are provided with sclerenchyma on both
the sides, while those of the third order may have it on one side or
not. The hyaline margin of this leaf and of the leaves of other grasses
consists entirely of sclerenchyma. (See fig. 53.)

[Illustration: Fig. 52.--Transverse section of a portion of the leaf of
Panicum repens. × 120

1. Motor cells; 2. stomata; 3. sclerenchyma; 4. chlorophyllous layer.]

All the vascular bundles in the leaves of _Aristida setacea_ have broad
sclerenchymatous bands on both the sides. Besides these bands arranged
like a girder above and below each bundle, there are on the lower side
bands of sclerenchyma. So the sclerenchyma becomes almost continuous on
the lower side.

[Illustration: Fig. 53.--Transverse section of the leaf margin of
Panicum repens. × 180

1. Sclerenchyma; 2. stomata; 3. chlorophyllous layer.]

[Illustration: Fig. 54.--Transverse section of a part of the leaf of
Aristida setacea. × 30.

1. Vascular bundle; 2. sclerenchyma; 3. motor cells.]

[Illustration: Fig. 55.--Transverse section of a portion of the leaf of
Aristida setacea. × 120

1. Motor cells; 2. stomata; 3. sclerenchyma; 4. epidermis; 5. cutin
layer.]

The sclerenchyma lying on the lower side of the primary bundles are
contiguous with the bundle, while those above are separated from the
bundle by the chlorophyllous layer. (See fig. 55.) In the case of
secondary and tertiary bundles the sclerenchymatous bands lying on the
lower side are in contact with the chlorophyllous layer, whereas the
upper bands are either in contact with this layer or separated from it
by a few parenchymatous cells.

All the vascular bundles in the leaves of _Eragrostis Willdenoviana_ are
provided with sclerenchyma on both the sides. The lower band of the
primary vascular bundles is continuous with the vascular bundle, the
chlorophyllous layer being open below. The upper bands of the primary
and the lower bands of the secondary vascular bundles just touch the
chlorophyllous layer. In the secondary bundles the sclerenchyma band
above is separated from the chlorophyllous layer by two layers of
parenchyma. In the case of the leaves of _Panicum flavidum_, _P.
colonum_, _P. fluitans_ and _Pennisetum cenchroides_ the sclerenchyma is
separated from the chlorophyllous layer by layers of parenchyma.

[Illustration: Fig. 56.--Transverse section of a part of the leaf of
Eragrostis Willdenoviana. × 30

1. Vascular bundle; 2. sclerenchyma; 3. motor cells.]

[Illustration: Fig. 57.--Transverse section of a portion of the leaf of
Eragrostis Willdenoviana. × 150

1. Motor cells; 2. stomata; 3. sclerenchyma; 4. chlorophyllous layer; 5.
vascular strand cut through; 6. hair.]

[Illustration: Fig. 58.--Transverse section of a part of the leaf of
Panicum colonum. × 30

1. Vascular bundle; 2. sclerenchyma; 3. motor cells.]

Even from the few examples dealt with above, it is obvious that the
range of variation of sclerenchyma in leaves is very great. In the
leaves of _Aristida setacea_ there is a considerable amount of
sclerenchyma whilst in some leaves such as those of _Panicum_ _colonum_,
_P. flavidum_ and _Panicum fluitans_ the sclerenchyma is reduced to its
minimum.

[Illustration: Fig. 59.--Transverse section of a part of the leaf of
Panicum fluitans. × 30

1. Vascular bundle; 2. sclerenchyma.]

In the leaves of grasses growing in dry situations the development of
sclerenchyma is generally very considerable. The grass _Aristida
setacea_ is a good example of a xerophytic grass. The sea-shore grass
_Spinifex squarrosus_ is another example of the same kind. But in the
leaves of this grass, the development of sclerenchyma is not very
considerable, but there is a great development of parenchymatous cells
free from chlorophyll within the leaf, the chlorophyll bearing cells
being confined to the upper and the lower surfaces of the leaves.

[Illustration: Fig. 60.--Transverse section of a leaf of Spinifex
squarrosus. × 10

1. Vascular bundle; 2. sclerenchyma.]

[Illustration: Fig. 61.--A portion of the transverse section of the leaf
of Spinifex squarrosus. × 60

1. Sclerenchyma; 2. vascular bundle; 3. epidermis; 4. stomata.]

The upper and the lower surfaces of the leaves of many grasses are more
or less even, but in the case of a few grasses the upper surface
consists of ridges and furrows, instead of being even. In the leaves of
_Panicum repens_ and _Eragrostis Willdenoviana_ the upper surface is
wavy and consists of shallow furrows and slightly raised ridges. But in
the leaves of _Aristida setacea_ and _Panicum fluitans_ the furrows are
deeper and the ridges are more prominent. In _Aristida setacea_ the
ridges are flat-topped and they are rounded with broad furrows in
_Panicum fluitans_.

[Illustration: Fig. 62.--Upper epidermis of the leaf Panicum Isachne. ×
200

1. Cells overlying the veins; 2. cells overlying the furrows; 3.
stomata.]

[Illustration: Fig. 63.--Lower epidermis of the leaf Panicum Isachne. ×
200

1. Cells overlying the veins; 2. cells overlying the furrows; 3.
stomata.]

The epidermis covering the leaves consists of elongated cells with plane
or sinuous walls, various kinds of short cells intercalated between the
ends of long cells, motor-cells and stomata. Hairs of different sorts
occur as outgrowths of the epidermis. The roughness of the surface of
the leaves of grasses is due to the presence of very minute short hairs
borne by the epidermis. In most cases these short hairs are found in
regular rows. Although the epidermis is more or less even in the leaves
of several grasses such as _Panicum repens_, _P. flavidum_ and
_Eriochloa polystachya_, it is wavy or undulating in the leaves of a few
grasses. For example, the upper epidermis in the leaves of _Panicum
fluitans_ is undulating as it follows the contour of the ridges and
furrows.

The epidermal cells have even surfaces in the leaves of most grasses but
in some they bulge out. In the leaves of _Panicum flavidum_ the cells of
the lower epidermis are quite even, whilst those of the upper epidermis
bulge out. The cells of both the upper and the lower epidermis are
distinctly bulging out in the leaves of _Panicum colonum_. In _Panicum
fluitans_ the cells of the upper epidermis bulge out so much as to form
distinct papillæ.

The free surface of the epidermis is more or less cutinised in the
leaves of all grasses. In some leaves the cuticle is very thick and even
papillate as in the leaves of _Aristida setacea_ and _Panicum repens_
whilst in others it is very thin, as in the leaves of _Panicum colonum_
and _P. fluitans_. Cutinisation is rather prominent in the leaves of
grasses growing under dry conditions and it is less pronounced in
mesophytic grasses.

[Illustration: Fig. 64.--Transverse section of a portion of the leaf of
Panicum colonum. × 120

1. Motor cells; 2. stomata; 3. sclerenchyma; 4. chlorophyllous layer.]

[Illustration: Fig. 65.--Transverse section of a portion of the leaf of
Panicum fluitans. × 120

1. Motor cells; 2. stomata; 3. sclerenchyma; 4. chlorophyllous layer.]

As regards size, the epidermal cells overlying the sclerenchyma are
small and those lying over parenchyma are larger. Amongst the larger
cells some may be motor-cells. The stomata occur in regular rows between
the vascular bundles and they are quite characteristic of grasses. They
are more or less similar in structure in all grasses. In the leaves of
many grasses stomata are found in both the upper and the lower epidermis
and they are confined to the lower epidermis in a few grasses only.

The motor-cells vary very much both as regards their shape and position.
In some leaves as in the leaves of the grass _Panicum flavidum_ the
motor-cells are confined to the midrib on the upper surface.

The epidermal cells of this leaf are large and uniformly round. (See
figs. 66 and 67.)

[Illustration: Fig. 66.--Transverse section of a leaf of Panicum
flavidum. × 20

1. Vascular bundle; 2. sclerenchyma; 3. motor-cells.]

[Illustration: Fig. 67.--Transverse section of the leaf of Panicum
flavidum. × 150

1. Motor-cells; 2. stomata; 3. sclerenchyma; 4. chlorophyllous layer.]

In the case of most grasses the motor-cells are found in groups of
three, four or five between the vascular bundles. The central motor-cell
is usually the largest and it is somewhat obovate in shape in a
transverse section of the leaf. In the leaves of _Panicum javanicum_ and
_Eriochloa polystachya_ there are three or four motor cells in the group
and the group consists of four, five or rarely six motor cells in the
leaves of _Eragrostis Willdenoviana_. When there are distinct furrows
between ridges these cells lie in the furrows and they are many in
number. In the leaves of _Panicum repens_ there are five to seven
motor-cells in the furrows and the single row of cells stretched between
the motor-cells and the lower epidermis in the furrow consists of more
or less clear cells with sparsely scattered small chlorophyll grains.
(See fig. 52.) The motor-cells occupying the furrows in the leaves of
_Aristida setacea_ are more in number than in _Panicum repens_ and are
of a different shape. All the cells lying in the furrow between the
motor-cells and the sclerenchyma are clear cells free from chlorophyll
grains.

Although the motor-cells differ in shape from the ordinary epidermal
cells in most grasses, there are, however, a few grasses in which the
motor-cells do not differ very much from the epidermal cells except in
size. For example, in the leaves of _Panicum colonum_ the motor-cells
are just like the ordinary epidermal cells in shape but are larger. (See
fig. 64.)

Motor-cells are usually confined to the upper epidermis, but they may
also be found in the lower epidermis. In the leaves of _Pennisetum
cenchroides_ motor-cells are found in both the upper and the lower
epidermis, the group in the upper epidermis alternating with that in the
lower.

[Illustration: Fig. 68.--Transverse section of a portion of the leaf of
Pennisetum cenchroides. × 100

1. Motor-cells; 2. stomata; 3. sclerenchyma; 4. chlorophyllous layer.]



CHAPTER V.

CLASSIFICATION.


The family Gramineæ is usually divided into two series taking into
consideration the presence or absence of a joint in the pedicel or
rachis, the number of flowers in the spikelet and the position of the
fertile flower. All the species in which there is a joint just below the
spikelet, in the pedicel, in the rachis, or at the base of a cluster of
spikelets come under one series =Panicaceæ=. The spikelets of the
grasses coming under this series, when mature, fall away singly by
themselves, or with their pedicels, or in groups with portions of the
rachis. The spikelets are all similar and consist of usually four
glumes. Each spikelet contains a single perfect flower and sometimes in
addition a staminate flower just below the perfect flower. In this
series the tendency for imperfection is always confined to the lower
flowers, the terminal flower alone being perfect. For inclusion under
this series the grass plant should have both the characters,
articulation and position of the flower as mentioned above.

The second series =Poaceæ= includes those grasses in which the spikelets
are one to many-flowered and continuous with their pedicels. But the
rachilla of the spikelet may be jointed just above the empty glumes or
between the flowering glumes. The complete flower is the lowest and the
tendency for imperfection is in the upper flowers.

Of the two series the Panicaceæ appears to be more highly developed than
the Poaceæ.

KEY TO TRIBES.

Series I.--Panicaceæ.

  A. Rachis of inflorescence not jointed.

    Spikelets 2-flowered; upper flower
    bisexual and lower male or neuter;
    the first glume the smallest                  I. Paniceæ.

    Spikelets 1-flowered;

      Spikelets articulate on their
      pedicels and falling away from
      them; flowers bisexual and
      usually with six stamens                   II. Oryzeæ.

      Spikelets falling away with their
      pedicels; flowers bisexual or
      rarely imperfect                          III. Zoysieæ.

  B. Rachis of inflorescence usually
  jointed.

    Spikelets usually binate (3-nate at
    the top), pairs of spikelets alike
    or dissimilar; empty glumes
    larger and the flowering glumes
    smaller, hyaline, the fourth glume
    awned or reduced to an awn                   IV. Andropogoneæ.

Series II.--Poaceæ.

  A. Rachilla produced or not beyond the
  flowering glume.

    Spikelets 1-flowered, with three
    glumes; first and second empty,
    third flowering and awned;
    rachilla jointed                              V. Agrostideæ.

    Spikelets 1- or more-flowered,
    biseriate and secund on an
    inarticulate spike or on the
    spiciform branches of a slender
    panicle; flowers all or the
    lower only bisexual                          VI. Chlorideæ.

  B. Rachilla produced beyond the uppermost
  flowering glume and articulate.

    Spikelets 2- or more-flowered,
    pedicelled, rarely sessile, in
    effuse, contracted or rarely
    spiciform panicles                          VII. Festucaceæ.

    Spikelets 1- or more-flowered,
    sessile, 1- to 2- or more-seriate on
    the rachis of a simple spike, or
    partially sunk in cavities of the
    same. Glumes awned or not,
    first and second glumes are
    opposite or subcollateral,
    persistent or separately deciduous;
    first glume minute or absent               VIII. Hordeæ.



CHAPTER VI.

Series I--Panicaceæ.

TRIBE I--PANICEÆ.


This is a fairly large and important tribe flourishing mostly in the
warm regions and the tropics. It is very well represented in South India
and fifteen genera are met with.

The inflorescence varies very much within this tribe and consists of
spikes, racemes and panicles. The spikelets are usually four-glumed and
contain one terminal perfect flower and a staminate or neutral flower
below. But in the genus Isachne both the flowers are perfect. In some
grasses the spikelets contain only staminate or pistillate flowers. In
Coix and Polytoca the plant bears both male and female spikelets in the
same inflorescence, but in Zea on the same plant they occur as distinct
inflorescences. The littoral grass Spinifex is dioecious.

The first glume of the spikelet is the smallest. In Panicum it is nearly
two-thirds or less than the third glume. It is very small in Digitaria
and entirely suppressed in Paspalum. In Eriochloa it is reduced to a
minute ridge lying just close to the swollen ring-like joint of the
rachilla. The second and the third glumes are more or less equal and
similar in texture. The fourth glume becomes firm and rigid along with
its palea and usually encloses the grain.

The pedicel is jointed in some genera and in others it is continuous
with the spikelet and not jointed. When mature the spikelets fall away
either by themselves, singly with their pedicels or in groups with
portions of rachis, according to the position of the joint. Bristles
(branchlets) are often found on the pedicels. In Setaria a few are borne
by the pedicels. The bristles form a regular involucre at the base of a
group of spikelets in Pennisetum, and in Cenchrus these become united at
the base into a mass forming a kind of burr around the spikelets.

KEY TO THE GENERA.

  A. Spikelets articulate on their pedicels.

    B. Spikelets without involucels.

      C. Spikelets dorsally flattened, awnless.

	Inflorescence racemed; glumes
	three; nerves of second glume
	five or less, side nerves curved            1. Paspalum.

	Inflorescence digitate; glumes
	three with a minute glume;
	nerves of second glume five to
	seven, straight and prominent               2. Digitaria.

	Inflorescence panicled; glumes
	three with a thickening at the
	base of the spikelet                        3. Eriochloa.

	Inflorescence racemed or paniculate;
	glumes four, first two glumes
	unequal                                     4. Panicum.

	Inflorescence panicled, branches of
	panicle produced beyond the
	uppermost spikelet; glumes four,
	the first being minute and hyaline          5. Chamæraphis.

	Spikelets unisexual and dioecious           6. Spinifex.

      CC. Spikelets awned.

	Glumes four, second glume broadly
	fimbriate with hairs; palea of
	the third glume short and deeply
	cleft, fourth glume awned                   7. Axonopus.

    BB. Spikelets involucellate                     8. Setaria.

  AA. Spikelets not jointed but continuous.

	Spikelets in involucelled deciduous
	fascicles.

          Involucre of bristles free                9. Pennisetum.

          Involucre of bristles united             10. Cenchrus.



1. Paspalum, _L._

These are annuals or perennials. The spikelets are plano-convex,
orbicular to oblong, obtuse, secund, 2-ranked on the flattened or
triquetrous rachis of the spike-like branches of a raceme, one-flowered
and falling off entire from the very short or obscure pedicels. There
are three glumes, all more or less equal and similar. The first and the
second glumes are membranous, alike and as long as the third, the second
glume is usually epaleate and occasionally with a minute palea. The
third glume is chartaceous to sub-coriaceous and paleate. Lodicules are
two and small. Stamens are three. The styles are slender and distinct
with plumose stigmas exserted at the top of the spikelet. Grain is
tightly enclosed in the third glume and its palea.

[Illustration: Fig. 69.--Paspalum scrobiculatum.]


=Paspalum scrobiculatum, _L._=

This is an annual grass, with stems tufted on very short rhizomes, erect
or very shortly bent at base, glabrous, bifariously leafy and varying in
height from 1 to 3 feet or more.

_Leaf-sheaths_ are compressed, glabrous, loose, keeled, mouth hairy or
not. The _ligule_ is a short thin membrane. The _nodes_ are glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear-lanceolate, finely acuminate, keeled with a
distinct midrib, and with very minutely serrulate margins, 6 to 18
inches by 1/12 to 1/3 inch.

The _inflorescence_ consists of 2 to 5 sessile alternate spikes, usually
distant and spreading and varying in length from 1 to 8 inches; the
rachis is flattened and winged.

The _spikelets_ are either orbicular or ovate-oblong, as broad as the
rachis, glabrous, closely imbricating in two rows (rarely in three or
four rows), sessile or rarely geminate on a common pedicel.

There are three glumes. The _first glume_ is concave, 3- to 5-nerved
(rarely 3- to 7-nerved). The _second glume_ is flat, 5-nerved, with two
strong sub-marginal nerves, sometimes with shallow transverse pits along
the margins. The _third glume_ is thickly coriaceous, brownish, shining,
minutely striolate, margins roundly incurved throughout its length,
paleate; the _palea_ is similar to the glume in structure and colour,
margins strongly inflexed and with two broad membranous auricles almost
overlapping just below the middle. There are three _stamens_. The
_stigmas_ are white both when young and while fading. The style branches
are diverging widely and then straight. There are two oblong cuneate
fleshy _lodicules_.

[Illustration: Fig. 70.--Paspalum scrobiculatum.

1 and 2. Front and back view of a portion of spike; 3, 4 and 5.
spikelets; 6, 7 and 8. the first, second, and the third glume,
respectively; 9. palea of the third glume; 10. the ovary, stamens and
the lodicules.]

This grass flourishes all over the Presidency in moist places, such as,
bunds of wet lands, edges of ponds and lakes and in marshy land. There
are two forms of this grass, one with round and another with ovate
oblong spikelets. They also vary in the size of the spikelets--some
forms have small spikelets and others large. Sometimes the spikelets
show variation in the number of glumes.

This grass is also cultivated for its grain. In cultivated forms the
spikelets are larger and the whole plant grows bigger. It is grown both
in wet and dry land.

_Distribution._--Throughout India (wild and also cultivated).



2. Digitaria, _Rich._

Annuals or perennials. The spikelets are lanceolate, 2- to 3-nate, in
digitate or racemose spikes, jointed on the pedicels but not thickened
at the base, 1-flowered. There are usually four dissimilar glumes in the
spikelet. The first glume is hyaline very minute, sometimes absent in
the same species. The second glume is membranous, 1- to 5-nerved or
nerveless. The third glume is membranous, almost equal to the fourth,
usually 7- to 9-nerved, the nerves being straight, close, parallel and
prominent, with a minute palea or without a palea. The fourth glume is
chartaceous or sub-chartaceous, usually 3-nerved and paleate; palea is
equal to and similar to the fourth glume, 2-nerved. Lodicules are two,
small, broadly cuneate. Stamens are three. Styles are distinct with
plumose stigmas exserted laterally near the apex of the spikelet. Grain
is enclosed in the fourth glume and its palea.

KEY TO THE SPECIES.

  Spikelets 1/10 inch or more.

      Spikes usually few, spikelets
      bearded                          1. D. sanguinalis. Var. ciliaris.

      Spikelets not bearded            2. Do. Var. extensum.

      Spikes usually many; spikelets
      spreading                        3. Do. Var. Griffithii.

  Spikelets less than 1/10 inch.

      Spikes narrowly winged;
      spikelets subsilky with
      slender (not clavellate)
      hairs                            4. D. longiflora.

[Illustration: Fig. 71.--Digitaria sanguinalis, _Var. ciliaris_.]


=Digitaria sanguinalis, _Scop._=

_Var. ciliaris._

This is an annual grass either with erect tall stems or long prostrate
stems, varying in length from 1 to 3 feet or more.

The _leaf-sheath_ is herbaceous, loose and glabrous. The _ligule_ is a
distinct membrane. The _nodes_ are glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear-lanceolate or linear, flat, glabrous or very
sparsely hairy, varying in length from 2 to 5 or 6 inches and in breadth
from 1/6 to 1/3 inch.

The _spikes_ are usually few, 2 to 6, 3 to 6 inches long, with a
triquetrous, narrowly winged rachis.

The _spikelets_ are oblong, acute, binate, one pedicel being shorter
than the other, usually appressed to the rachis and not spreading.

[Illustration: Fig. 72.--Digitaria sanguinalis. _Var. ciliaris_.

1. A portion of the spike showing the binate spikelets; 2. a spikelet;
3. the minute scale-like first glume; 4, 5 and 6. the second, third and
the fourth glume, respectively; 7. the palea of the fourth glume.]

There are four _glumes_ including the minute glume. The _first glume_ is
a very minute scale. The _second glume_ is about half as long as the
third glume, membranous, usually 3-nerved and sometimes 3- to 5-nerved,
distinctly ciliate. The _third glume_ is oblong-lanceolate, acute,
membranous, 3- to 5-nerved, sparingly hairy in the lower spikelet and
densely bearded with soft spreading hairs in the upper spikelet. The
_fourth glume_ is lanceolate, or oblong-lanceolate, acute, somewhat
chartaceous, paleate; _palea_ is like the glume in texture. _Anthers_
are pale yellow. _Stigmas_ are white. There are two small cuneate
_lodicules_.

This is an excellent fodder grass. It grows well in all kinds of soils,
rich or poor, and is very common in dry fields brought under
cultivation.

_Distribution._--Throughout India.


=Digitaria sanguinalis, _Scop._=

_Var. Griffithii._

This is an annual with stems ascending from a prostrate or geniculate
base, glabrous and varying in length from 1 to 3 feet.

The _leaf-sheath_ is glabrous, thinly herbaceous and loose. The _ligule_
is a distinct membrane and the _nodes_ are glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear or linear-lanceolate, flat, acuminate,
varying in length from 2 inches to 12 inches and in breadth 1/6 to 1/3
inch.

The _inflorescence_ is of several slender spikes, usually drooping, 2 to
4 inches; the rachis is filiform and trigonous.

The _spikelets_ are linear-lanceolate, solitary or in distant pairs,
glabrous or ciliate, pedicelled and when binate the upper pedicel often
longer than the spikelets, usually spreading and not appressed to the
rachis.

[Illustration: Fig. 73.--Digitaria sanguinalis, _Var. Griffithii_.

1. Inflorescence; 2. a portion of the spike; 3 and 4. sessile and
pedicelled spikelets front and back view, respectively; 5. the
scale-like first glume; 6, 7 and 8. the second, third and the fourth
glume, respectively; 9. palea of the fourth glume; 10. the lodicules,
stamens and the ovary.]

There are four _glumes_. The _first glume_ is a minute scale. The
_second glume_ is shorter than the third and narrower, 5-nerved,
ciliate, acute or sometimes with two fine teeth. The _third glume_ is
oblong-lanceolate, acute, 5-nerved (rarely 3-nerved), ciliate on the
nerves. The _fourth glume_ is lanceolate, acute, sub-chartaceous,
paleate; _palea_ is like the glume in texture. _Anthers_ are yellow and
_stigmas_ are white. _Lodicules_ are two and small.

This seems to be a good fodder grass. It grows in all kinds of soils. It
is not so common in the plains as on the hills, though it occurs in the
plains at the base of the hills.

_Distribution._--Throughout India.

[Illustration: Fig. 74.--Digitaria sanguinalis, _Var. extensum_.]


=Digitaria sanguinalis, _Scop._=

_Var. extensum._

This grass is an annual with stems ascending from a prostrate or
geniculate, rooting branched base, greenish or purplish, glabrous and
varying in length from 1 to 2-1/2 feet.

The _leaf-sheath_ is thin, herbaceous, rather loose, keeled and
glabrous. The _ligule_ is a distinct membrane, truncate, rarely
irregularly toothed. The _nodes_ are glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear-lanceolate, acuminate, flat when mature and
convolute when young, glabrous, 1 to 12 inches long and 1/6 to 1/3 inch
broad, the margin is very closely and finely serrate, the midrib is
prominent with three or four main veins on each side.

The _inflorescence_ consists of a few or many spikes, corymbosely
arranged on a short angular slightly rough axis, erect or spreading,
1-1/2 to 4 inches long, the lowest ones in whorls of two to four; the
rachis is nearly triquetrous, laterally winged, base thickened and with
a few long white hairs; the peduncle is cylindric, smooth, 6 to 12
inches long.

[Illustration: Fig. 75.--Digitaria sanguinalis, _Var. extensum_.

1. A portion of spike; 2, 3 and 3a. the back and front views of a
spikelet; 4, 5 and 6 the first, second and the third glume,
respectively; 7. palea of the third glume; 8. anthers, lodicules and the
ovary.]

The _spikelets_ are oblong-lanceolate, acute, about 1/10 inch long,
binate, one pedicelled and the other subsessile, the pedicel is angular,
about 1/2 to 2/3 the length of the spikelet.

There are three _glumes_ in the spikelet corresponding to the second,
third and fourth glumes of a Panicum, the first glume being obsolete.
The _first glume_ is membranous, ovate-lanceolate, acute, about 1/3 the
length of the spikelet or very much less, 3-nerved, densely ciliate
along the margins and silkily hairy between the nerves. The _second
glume_ is greenish, oblong lanceolate, acute, ciliate along the margins
and with fine appressed silky hairs between the lateral nerves,
5-nerved, palea is very minute or absent. The _third glume_ is oblong,
sub-acuminate, a little shorter than the second glume, 3-nerved,
sub-chartaceous, paleate; _palea_ is similar to the glume in texture.
_Anthers_ are pale yellow with a tinge of purple. _Stigmas_ are white.
_Lodicules_ are two, minute and cuneate.

This is an excellent fodder grass and is very much liked by cattle. It
grows very rapidly and is found in cultivated fields and in somewhat
rich loamy soils.

_Distribution._--Throughout the Presidency in the plains and low hills.

[Illustration: Fig. 76.--Digitaria longiflora.]


=Digitaria longiflora, _Pers._=

This is a perennial grass with short underground branches covered with
scales. Stems are many, tufted, slender, creeping and rooting, or
ascending and suberect, simple or branched, 6 to 20 inches long and
leafy and leaves bifarious and divaricate.

_Leaf-sheaths_ are hairy or glabrous, compressed, keeled. The _ligule_
is a short membrane. _Nodes_ are glabrous.

_Leaf-blades_ are broadly lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, acute,
spreading, flat, or in short-leaved forms, stiff and pungent, 1 to 2
inches long (rarely also 5 inches long), glabrous above and below,
ciliate at the margins towards the base, and with a very minutely
serrate hyaline margin.

The _inflorescence_ consists of two to four terminal spikes with a
slender, long, hairy or glabrous peduncle. The spikes are slender, erect
or spreading with fine winged glabrous rachis.

The _spikelets_ are small, 1/20 to 1/14 inch, geminate, one short and
the other long pedicelled, appressed to the rachis, elliptic, silky with
slender crisped hairs, pale green or purplish.

[Illustration: Fig. 77.--Digitaria longiflora.

1. A portion of the spike; 2. the first glume; 3 and 4. the second and
third glumes; 5 and 6. the fourth glume and its palea; 7. lodicules,
ovary and stamens.]

There are three _glumes_ with a rudimentary first glume. The _first
glume_ is very minute and hyaline. The _second glume_ is as long as the
third, membranous, 5-nerved (rarely 3- to 7-nerved), silkily hairy. The
_third glume_ is similar to the second and usually 7-nerved (rarely 3-
to 5-nerved). The _fourth glume_ is sub-chartaceous, ovate-oblong,
paleate, slightly shorter than the third glume, pale brown, smooth.
There are two small _lodicules_. Styles are long and purple.

This grass grows in cultivated dry fields. It seems to like a sandy
loamy soil.

_Distribution._--Throughout India.



3. Eriochloa, _H. B. & K._

These are annuals or perennials. Leaves are flat. The inflorescence is a
raceme or a panicle. Spikelets are one-flowered, borne unilaterally on
the branches, and the base is thickened and jointed on the top of a
short pedicel. The spikelet has three glumes. The first and the second
glumes are subequal, membranous. The third glume is apiculate, hardened
in fruit. The lodicules are small and truncate. There are three stamens
with linear anthers. Styles are two free, with plumose stigmas. The
grain is oblong, free within the hardened glume and its palea.

[Illustration: Fig. 78.--Eriochloa polystachya.]


=Eriochloa polystachya, _H. B. & K._=

This grass is a densely tufted perennial, varying in height from 2 to 3
feet, with a short creeping root-stock. Stems are slender, or stout,
simple and branching, ascending from a short creeping and rooting base,
glabrous, slightly channelled on one side.

The _leaf-sheath_ is glabrous, green or partly purplish, striate, loose,
mouth and margins above sometimes pubescent. The _ligule_ is a short
villous ridge. _Nodes_ are perfectly glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is flat, linear or linear-lanceolate, acuminate,
glabrous on both sides, with a slender or prominent midrib, veins more
or less uniform, 2 to 10 inches long and 1/6 to 1/3 inch wide, convolute
when young. Sometimes the blade is purplish below.

The _inflorescence_ is a panicle on a long or short glabrous stalk,
striate, 2 to 7 inches long, with four to fifteen erect or spreading,
lax branches, the main rachis is glabrous, angular and deeply grooved.
Spikes or branches are slender, alternate, 1 to 2-1/2 inches, becoming
shorter upwards, thickened and puberulous at the base, and the secondary
rachis is flexuous, grooved, angular, and obscurely pubescent.

[Illustration: Fig. 79.--Eriochloa polystachya.

1. A portion of the branch; 2, 3 and 4. the first, second and the third
glume, respectively; 4a. back view of the third glume; 5. palea of the
third glume; 6. lodicules, stamens and the ovary; 7. grain.]

The _spikelets_ are green or purplish, ovate, lanceolate, acuminate 1/8
to 1/6 inch long, softly hairy, stalked, solitary above and binate below
and then one with a long and the other with a short pedicel rising from
a common short branchlet, loosely imbricate, distichous and shortly
stipitate and the stipe with a purple thickening; pedicel is short, 1/24
to 1/12 inch with sometimes long deciduous hairs and the tip somewhat
thickened.

There are three _glumes_ in the spikelet. The _first glume_ is
membranous, covered densely with silky hairs, ovate-lanceolate,
acuminate, tip very minutely 3-toothed with three to five fine nerves.
The _second glume_ is similar to the first glume but with a more pointed
tip, faintly 3- to 5-nerved; _palea_ is not present and if present it is
very small, hyaline and empty. The _third glume_ is shorter than the
first and the second glumes, thinly coriaceous, punctate, oblong,
obtuse, pale, faintly 3- to 5-nerved with a short scaberulous awn,
paleate; _palea_ is oblong, similar to the glume in texture, margin
infolded. _Anthers_ are three, linear, pale yellow. _Stigmas_ are
feathery, white when young and purple later. _Lodicules_ are two and
distinct.

This is a common succulent grass growing in large or small tufts in
moist situations such as sides of water channels, rivulets and bunds of
paddy fields. It is very much liked by cattle. This grass is easily
recognized by the silky lanceolate spikelets which have a purple
thickening at the base.

_Distribution._--Plains of India and Ceylon and in all hot countries.



4. Panicum, _L._

The grasses of this genus are annual or perennial and of various habits.
Inflorescence is either a raceme of spikes or, a lax or contracted
panicle. Spikelets are small, solitary or two to four, rarely more
ranked, 1- to 2-flowered, ovoid or oblong, rounded, or dorsally or
laterally compressed, falling entire with the pedicels. There are four
glumes in a spikelet. The first two glumes are empty and the first glume
is small (sometimes minute) and fewest nerved. The second glume is equal
or very nearly equal to the third glume, oblong-ovate or lanceolate, 5-
to many-nerved. The third glume is similar to the second, male or
neuter, paleate or not, 3- to 9-nerved. The fourth glume is chartaceous,
sometimes shortly stalked, ovate-oblong or lanceolate, hardened in the
fruit, smooth or rough, bisexual, paleate; the palea is as long and of
the same texture as the glume. Lodicules are cuneate or quadrate and two
in number. There are three stamens and an ovary with two style branches
ending in feathery stigmas. Grain is free and enclosed by the hardened
fourth glume and its palea.

KEY TO THE SPECIES.

  A. Inflorescence racemose of simple (rarely
  branched) spikes bearing secund spikelets.

    I. Rachis of spikes broad and flattened.

      (a) Spikelets biseriate.

            Spikelets villous.                   1. P. Isachne.

          Spikelets glabrous.

            Spikes shorter than the internodes.  2. P. flavidum.

            Spikes longer than the internodes.   3. P. fluitans.

      (b) Spikelets 3- to 5-seriate.

              Third glume awned.

            Stems stout, erect.                  4. P. Crus-galli.

            Stems stout, prostrate at base.      5. P. stagninum.

              Third glume cuspidate.

            Stems slender.                       6. P. colonum.

    II. Rachis of spikes narrow, filiform,
    terete or angular.

	First glume shorter than the third.

          First glume semilunate, about 1/4
          of the third glume.                    7. P. prostratum.

          First glume 1/2 of or less than
          1/2 of third glume, 5-nerved.          8. P. ramosum.

	Leaf base broad or cordate.

          Fourth glume shortly awned.            9. P. javanicum.

          Fourth glume muticous.                10. P. distachyum.

  B. Inflorescence a contracted or open panicle.

    I. Panicle contracted and spike-like.

          Spikelets lanceolate and first glume
          minute.                               11. P. interruptum.

    II. Panicle effuse.

          Annuals; first glume nearly 3/4 of
          the third glume.                      12. P. trypheron.

          Perennials; first glume less than
          1/3 of the third glume.               13. P. repens.

[Illustration: Fig. 80.--Panicum Isachne.]


=Panicum Isachne, _Roth._=

This is an annual grass usually growing in tufts with fine fibrous roots
and many slender spreading branches, all of them at first creeping and
horizontal, rooting at the nodes and then becoming erect and varying in
length from 1 to 2 feet.

Stems are very slender, glabrous or covered with scattered hairs,
purplish or pale green, and branching freely towards the base.

The _leaf-sheath_ is shorter than the internodes, green or purplish,
striate, externally hairy with scattered bulbous-based hairs, varying in
length from 1/2 to 3 inches, the outer margin of the sheath is ciliate
with long hairs and at the mouths sometimes long hairs are present,
especially when the leaves are young. The _ligule_ is merely a dense
fringe of long hairs. _Nodes_ are tumid, purplish, covered with long
hairs.

The _leaf-blade_ is flat but convolute when young, lanceolate or
linear-lanceolate, acuminate, base rounded and margin with minute
serrations. It is glabrous or occasionally hairy with scattered,
tubercle-based, deciduous hairs, and varying in length from 1 to 3
inches generally (sometimes in well-grown plants it is 5 inches) and in
breadth from 1/8 to 1/4 inch. The midrib is prominent though slender at
the base and four veins are present on each side with five or six
smaller ones between them.

[Illustration: Fig. 81.--Panicum Isachne.

1 and 1a. Front and back view of a spike; 2 and 2a. back and front views
of a spikelet; 3 and 4. the first and the second glume, respectively; 5
and 5a. the third glume and its palea; 6 and 6a. the fourth glume and
its palea; 7. lodicules, anthers and ovary; 8. grain.]

The _inflorescence_ is an erect, narrow panicle consisting of spikes
varying in number from 5 to 12 and in length from 2 to 3 inches. The
_spikes_ are erect, pressed to the very slender rachis, longer than the
internodes of the main rachis, stalked or sessile, mostly simple but
sometimes the lower dividing into two or three branches, 1/2 to 1 inch
long. The rachis of the spike is very slender, angular, flexuous,
narrower than the spikelets, scaberulous with a few long cilia at the
angles.

The _spikelets_ are very small, 1/16 inch long, turned all to one side
and closely packed in two rows, oblong or oval-oblong, obtuse or
subacute, softly hairy, pale green or purplish, with very short pedicels
which are pubescent with a few long hairs towards the thickened cupular
tips.

There are four _glumes_ in the spikelet. The _first glume_ is very
small, membranous, glabrous, broader than long, cordate or triangular,
broadly but shallowly emarginate, nerveless or very obscurely 1- to
2-nerved. The _second glume_ is pale or purplish, 5-nerved, hairy, as
long as the third glume, membranous, oblong and obtuse. The _third
glume_ is pale, nearly equal to the second glume with a longitudinal
depression at the back, less hairy than the second glume, 3-nerved
(rarely 5-nerved also); _palea_ is present, and it is hyaline, shorter
than the glume, truncate or shallowly retuse, usually barren but
occasionally with three stamens. The _fourth glume_ is oblong, rounded,
coriaceous, smooth, shining, dorsally flattened, 3- or indistinctly
5-nerved; _palea_ is similar to the glume in texture and with folded
margins. There are three _stamens_ with yellow anthers. _Lodicules_ are
two, very small and distinct. _Ovary_ has two styles with feathery
_stigmas_ white at first, but turning deep purple while withering.

This delicate and small grass occurs here and there as mere tufts
especially in sheltered situations. It usually flourishes in black
cotton soils amidst cholam (_Andropogon Sorghum_), although it thrives
equally well in other rich soils. This is considered to be a very good
fodder grass.

_Distribution._--It is fairly common all over the Madras Presidency, and
goes up to 3,000 or 4,000 feet. It occurs in Africa, America and Italy.

[Illustration: Fig. 82.--Panicum flavidum.]


=Panicum flavidum, _Retz._=

This plant is a tufted annual. It branches freely from the base;
branches are tufted, decumbent at first but soon becoming erect,
slender, glabrous, compressed and leafy, varying in length from 1 to 3
feet.

Leaves are somewhat distichous. The _leaf-sheath_ is compressed,
glabrous, sometimes with a tinge of purple, the lower ones swollen at
the base and the mouth is hairy. The _ligule_ is a fringe of hairs.
Nodes are glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is flat, thinly coriaceous, linear-lanceolate and
acuminate, or ligulate with a rounded tip, 3 to 5 inches in length, 3/16
to 5/16 inch wide, glabrous or very thinly scaberulous, base rounded or
slightly cordate with long white ciliate hairs on the small basal lobes.

[Illustration: Fig. 83.--Panicum flavidum.

1 and 2. Front and back view of a portion of spike; 1a and 2a. the front
and back view of a spikelet; 3 and 4. the first and the second glume,
respectively; 5 and 5a. the third glume and its palea; 6 and 6a. the
fourth glume and its palea; 7. anthers and ovary; 8. grain.]

The _inflorescence_ is a raceme of spikes, 5 to 10 inches long, erect or
inclined on a short or long, glabrous, strongly channelled peduncle; the
main rachis is grooved, angled and scaberulous. _Spikes_ are few or
many, 1/4 to 1 inch long, erect, pressing on the rachis of the
inflorescence along the groove, distant and sessile; the lower spikes
are very much shorter than the internodes, but the upper equal to or
longer than the internodes; the rachis of the spike is angular,
flattened below, erect or slightly recurved.

The _spikelets_ are white, in two rows on a flattened rachis, obliquely
ovoid or gibbously globose, glabrous, sessile, 1/8 inch in length.

There are four _glumes_. The _first glume_ is suborbicular, about half
the length of the third glume, usually 3-nerved. The _second glume_ is
broadly ovate, obtuse, concave, larger than the first glume and nearly
equal to or shorter than the fourth glume, 7-nerved, rarely 7- to
9-nerved, nerves are anastomosing, tip rounded. The _third glume_ is
broadly ovate or oblong, equal to or longer than the fourth glume,
obtuse, 3- to 5-nerved, paleate, mostly with and rarely without stamens.
The _anthers_ are yellow and they do not open until the stigmas and
anthers of the fourth glume are thrown out. _Lodicules_ are two and
conspicuous. _Palea_ is hyaline with infolded margins. The _fourth
glume_ is coriaceous, broadly ovate, tip acutely pointed and almost
cuspidate or acute, mucronate, white or brownish, reticulately minutely
pitted. _Anthers_ are three and yellow. _Stigmas_ are purplish.
_Lodicules_ are small but conspicuous.

This grass is very common throughout the plains and grows in the bunds
of paddy fields and in wet situations, and goes up to moderate
elevations on the hills. Cattle eat this grass greedily and seem to like
it. It is considered to be an excellent fodder.

_Distribution._--In wet situations all over India ascending to 6,000
feet. Occurs also in Ceylon, Africa, Tropical Asia and Australia.

[Illustration: Fig. 84.--Panicum fluitans.]


=Panicum fluitans, _Retz._=

This is a perennial grass with prostrate branches which afterwards
become erect towards the free ends. The young branches are covered with
scale-leaves. Stems are stout, glabrous, smooth and hollow, rooting at
the lower nodes.

The _leaf-sheath_ is loose, glabrous, striate, margins not ciliate. The
_ligule_ is a ridge with a row of erect long hairs. _Nodes_ are
glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is firm, linear, finely acuminate, base rounded, rather
narrower than the sheath at the white band, very thinly scaberulous
above and glabrous below, veins prominent above, 3 to 9 inches long, 1/4
to 7/16 inch broad; margins are slightly incurved and the midrib is
conspicuous only at the lower portion of the blade. The scale-leaves
persist at the base of the stems.

[Illustration: Fig. 85.--Panicum fluitans.

1 and 2. Front and back view of a spike; 1a. and 2a. front and back view
of a spikelet; 3, 4 and 5. first, second and third glume respectively;
5a. palea of the third glume and stamens in it; 6 and 6a. fourth glume
and its palea; 7. stamens and ovary.]

The _inflorescence_ is a compound spike varying in length from 4 to 10
inches, erect; the main rachis is triquetrous, dorsally rounded,
glabrous and very thinly scaberulous at the edges. _Spikes_ are many
(fifteen and more), sessile, secund, generally longer than the
internodes, and appressed to the rachis, 1/4 to 1-1/2 inches long; the
rachis of the spike is angular, edges scaberulous and with very fine
short hairs.

The _spikelets_ are pale, ovoid, acute, biseriate, imbricate, very
shortly pedicellate, glabrous, 1/16 to 1/8 inch, pedicels are hairy with
a few long hairs towards the base.

There are four _glumes_. The _first glume_ is white, thin, membranous,
truncate and wavy at the apex, nerveless or sometimes with one to three
short nerves, less than one-third of the third glume, broader than long
and clasping at the base. The _second glume_ is ovate, obtuse or
subacute, concave, submembranous, slightly shorter than the fourth
glume, 5-nerved but occasionally 6- or 7-nerved. The _third glume_ is a
little longer than the second and the fourth, usually 5-nerved, broadly
ovate, acute, paleate, always with three stamens which come out only
after the fading of the stigmas and enlargement of the ovary in the
fourth glume. _Lodicules_ are distinct and conspicuous; _palea_ is broad
with incurved broad margins and hyaline. The _fourth glume_ is thinly
coriaceous, shining, striolate, broadly ovate, mucronate, compressed,
faintly and thinly 5-nerved and _palea_ with infolded margins. _Anthers_
are yellow. _Stigmas_ are white when young. _Lodicules_ are distinct.

It is a common grass of the wet lands met with in many parts of the
Presidency and often confused and united with _Panicum punctatum_, Burm.

_Distribution._--Throughout India and Ceylon. It is also found in
Arabia, Afghanistan, Africa and Tropical America.

[Illustration: Fig. 86.--Panicum Crus-galli.]


=Panicum Crus-galli, _L._=

It is a tufted annual with many erect branches growing to a height
varying from 2 to 3 or 4 feet and the whole plant is glabrous. Stem is
stout or slender, simple or branched.

The _leaf-sheath_ is smooth, glabrous and loose, varying in length from
2 to 6 inches, keeled. The _ligule_ is only a smooth semilunar line
without hairs. _Nodes_ are glabrous and the lower nodes bear
adventitious roots.

The _leaf-blade_ is narrowly linear-lanceolate, flat, finely acuminate,
glabrous or very minutely scabrid with a stout midrib; margin is
minutely serrate and with tubercle-based hairs near the base. The blades
of the lower leaves are longer than those in the upper and at the
junction with the sheath the blade is narrow, just as broad or less than
the sheath, and becomes broader about the middle; the length varies from
6 to 10 inches generally, also to 14 inches, and breadth at base 1/4
inch and at the middle 5/16 inch; the upper leaf-blade is generally
shorter, varying from 5 to 10 inches and very broad at the base near the
sheath, about 7/16 inch and gets gradually narrow upwards. It is
convolute when young.

The _inflorescence_ is a compound spike varying in length from 4 to 8
inches, contracted and pyramidal and always erect; the main rachis is
stout, angled with very minute hairs on the ridges and with a tuft of
bristly hairs and also tubercle-based hairs at the place of insertion of
the spikes. _Spikes_ are many (up to 16 or rarely more), simple or
branched, the lower ones longer, but getting gradually shorter upwards,
and varying in length from 1/2 to 2 inches. The rachis of the spike is
angular, with scattered tubercle-based bristly hairs.

[Illustration: Fig. 87.--Panicum Crus-galli.

1 and 2. Front and back views of spike; 3. spikelet; 4 and 5. first and
second glumes; 6 and 7. third glume and its palea; 8. fourth glume,
front and back view; 9. ovary, anthers and lodicules.]

The _spikelets_ are turgid, densely packed on one side of the rachis in
three to five rows, sessile or subsessile, sub-globose or ovoid, with
unequal tubercle-based bristly hairs on the nerves of the glumes and
with short minute hairs on the outer surface of the glumes, 1/12 to 1/8
inch; awn 1/4 inch to 5/16 inch.

There are four _glumes_. The _first glume_ is 1/3 to 1/2 of the third
glume, suborbicular, abruptly acuminate or rarely mucronate and 5-nerved
(very rarely 5- to 7-nerved), clasping at base and margins thinly
ciliolate. The _second glume_ is ovate oblong, short, awned and
5-nerved; sometimes with partial nerves at the apex between the central
and the lateral nerves, and then 5- to 7- or 5- to 9-nerved, hispidly
hairy on the nerves, margins ciliolate. The _third glume_ is as long as
the second, ovate-oblong and the apex abruptly ending in a stout scabrid
nerved awn, varying in length from 1/4 to 3/8 inch, rarely 1 inch; 5- to
7-nerved (two partial at tip), paleate and sometimes with three stamens;
_palea_ is hyaline, ovate-oblong with infolded margins. The _fourth
glume_ is smooth, shining, broadly oblong, faintly 5-nerved, apex
rounded or cuspidate with a few cilia; paleate with a single bisexual
flower; _palea_ is similar to the glume in structure. _Anthers_ are
orange yellow, and _lodicules_ are very small. _Stigmas_ are white.
Grain is smooth and ovoid.

This grass grows in paddy fields and wet places generally. It is
considered to be a very good fodder grass in Australia and America. This
is the "Barn-yard" grass of the Americans, highly valued as a fodder
grass.

_Distribution._--Throughout India in wet places and in paddy fields.


=Panicum stagninum, _Retz._=

It is an annual. The stems are glabrous, creeping and somewhat prostrate
at the base, and the upper portion is erect, 3 to 4 feet long, and
rooting at the nodes in the geniculate portion of the stem.

The _leaf-sheath_ is smooth, striate, glabrous, sometimes pubescent
about the lower nodes, varying in length from 1-1/2 to 4-1/2 inches. The
_ligule_ is distinct, consisting of a fringe of stiff hairs.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear-lanceolate, acuminate or acute, base rounded,
glabrous, smooth below, especially in the lower part, and scabrid above
and in the upper part, 6 to 12 inches long, by 1/4 to 3/8 inch; the
lower leaves have their blades somewhat narrower at the base than in the
middle, but the blades in the upper part of the stem and in the middle
are of the same breadth; margins are very minutely serrate.

[Illustration: Fig. 88.--Panicum stagninum.

1. Front view of a portion of spike; 2. back view of the same; 3 and 4.
front and back views of a spikelet; 5, 6 and 7. the first, second and
the third glume, respectively; 8. palea of the third glume with its
anthers; 9. front and back view of fourth glume; 10. the ovary, stamens
and lodicules.]

The _inflorescence_ is 4 to 8 inches long; the main _rachis_ is angular,
grooved, scabrid on the ridges. The _spikes_ are 7 to 10 inches,
alternate, pale green or purplish, rather distant, spreading or suberect
(never erect) 1/2 to 1-1/2 inches long, sessile and with a tuft of
bristly hairs at the base; the rachis of the spike is angular, grooved
with scattered bulbous-based bristles on the ridges.

The _spikelets_ are four ranked, ovoid-lanceolate, 1/8 to 1/6 inch long
without the awn, somewhat flattened on one side and gibbous on the
other, pale green or purplish, with equal bulbous-based bristly hairs on
the nerves.

There are four _glumes_. The _first glume_ is half of the third glume,
thin, membranous, hairy, broadly ovate, abruptly cuspidate at the apex,
and acuminate, 5-nerved (rarely 3-nerved). The _second glume_ is broadly
ovate-lanceolate, concave, acuminate, short awned, 5-nerved with two
partial nerves one on each side of the central nerve (7- to 9-nerved at
the tip), hairs on nerves, a few tubercled. The _third glume_ is similar
to the second, broadly ovate-lanceolate, awned, awn 1/8 to 1/4 inch,
paleate with usually three stamens, occasionally neuter. _Lodicules_ are
present. The _fourth glume_ is chartaceous, shining, smooth
ovate-oblong, apex cuspidate, with a few hairs on the edges at the apex,
faintly 5-nerved. The _anthers_ within this glume come out before those
of the third glume. _Anthers_ are three, yellowish and _lodicules_ are
conspicuous though small.

In this grass very often, purple streaks or bands occur across the leaf
blades and the sheath and the spikelets become purple on one side as is
met with in P. colonum. This grass is occasionally found in the paddy
fields either alone, or along with _Panicum Crus-galli_.

_Distribution._--Throughout the Madras and the Bombay Presidencies and
in Ceylon in wet places especially in cultivated ground and in ditches.
Occurs more or less throughout India.

[Illustration: Fig. 89.--Panicum colonum.]


=Panicum colonum, _L._=

This is a slender annual growing to a height of 2 feet. The stems are
creeping below, erect above, and with roots in the lower internodes of
the decumbent part of the stem, smooth, dull green or partly purplish.

The _leaf-sheath_ is glabrous and sharply keeled. The _nodes_ are
glabrous or obscurely pubescent. There is no _ligule_.

The _leaf-blade_ is narrow, lanceolate, acuminate, glabrous but
sometimes tubercle-based hairs occur just on the margin at the base of
the leaf-blade close to the white band, varying in length from 1 to 6
inches and in breadth 3/16 to 5/16 inch; the margin is minutely and
distantly serrate, midrib is quite distinct and there are three main
veins on each side and three or four smaller between main ones. The
blades of the lower leaves are narrow at the base and broader at about
the middle but those of the upper are equally broad at the base, as well
as at the middle.

[Illustration: Fig. 90.--Panicum colonum.

1 and 2. The front and back view of the spikes; 1a and 2a. the back and
the front view of the spikelet; 3, 4 and 5. the first, second and the
third glume, respectively; 6. palea of the third glume; 7 and 8. the
fourth glume and its palea; 9. ovary anther and lodicules.]

The _inflorescence_ is a contracted panicle, 3 to 5 inches long.
_Spikes_ are from 8 to 20, suberect, usually distant, 1/4 to 1 inch long
and getting shorter upwards; the rachis of the spike is stout, angular,
scaberulous on the angles with a few long hairs towards the base.

The _spikelets_ are small green or partly purplish 1/12 to 1/10 inch
long, globosely ovoid, acute, pubescent with minute hairs on the outer
surface of the glumes and bristly hairs on the nerves, all on one side,
sessile or very shortly pedicelled, two or three from a node, one or two
barren, 3- to 5-seriate.

There are four _glumes_ in the spikelet. The _first glume_ is about half
of the third glume, broadly ovate or suborbicular, acute, generally
3-nerved, rarely 5-nerved, pubescent between and hispidly hairy on the
nerves. The _second glume_ is as long as the third, broadly ovate,
cuspidate, 5-nerved sometimes with two partial nerves added one on each
side of the central vein, pubescent between the veins and hispid on the
veins. The _third glume_ is similar to the second, 5-nerved, tip with a
few cilia, paleate; _palea_ is empty oblong-orbicular, subacute. The
_fourth glume_ is coriaceous, shining, turgid, broadly ovate, acute,
paleate. Sometimes the tip possesses a few cilia. _Anthers_ are three,
pale yellow and _stigmas_ dark purple. _Lodicules_ are small but
conspicuous.

This grass is common in water-logged situations, in paddy fields and in
irrigated dry lands. Sometimes on the blades of this grass purple bands
are present and the internodes and the spikes also become purplish.

It is really a weed of cultivation met with generally on rich soils.
This grass is considered to be one of the best fodder grasses in India.
All kinds of cattle eat it greedily.

_Distribution._--It is found throughout India up to 6,000 feet and also
in all warm countries.

[Illustration: Fig. 91.--Panicum prostratum.]


=Panicum prostratum, _Lamk._=

The plant is a slender annual and it consists of several branches,
prostrate and creeping, with adventitious roots at the nodes below,
branching or ascending above, all green or sometimes purple above and
green below, 4 to 18 inches long.

The _leaf-sheath_ is striate, 1 to 2 inches long, glabrous or very
sparsely hairy, purplish above and green below or all green, keeled,
margins ciliate on one side only throughout its length. The _ligule_ is
a fringe of white hairs. The _nodes_ are glabrous or pubescent.

The _leaf-blade_ is short or long, varying from 1/2 to 2-1/2 inches in
length and 3/16 to 5/16 inch in breadth, convolute when young,
lanceolate to broadly ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, upper
surface glabrous, and the lower glabrous or with a few scattered
tubercle-based hairs; margins are very minutely serrate; base is
cordate, amplexicaul with a few long slender hairs (sometimes
tubercle-based), just close to the white patch on both sides on the
margin of the blade about the ligule. The midrib is distinct.

The _inflorescence_ consists of five to fifteen or twenty spikes
spreading in all directions, distant or crowded; peduncle varies from 1
to 4 inches. _Spikes_ are 1/2 to 1-3/8 inches, sessile or shortly
stalked; the _rachis_ of the spike is slender, trigonous and
scaberulous.

[Illustration: Fig. 92.--Panicum prostratum.

A. Front and back view of spike; B. front and back view of a spikelet;
1, 2, 3 and 4, the first, second, third and the fourth glume,
respectively; 3a and 4a. the palea of the third and the fourth glumes;
5. anthers, ovary and lodicules.]

The _spikelets_ are crowded all on one side, 2- to 3-seriate,
ellipsoidal, 1/20 to 1/16 inch long, glabrous or pubescent, pale green
or purple on one side, in pairs on pedicels, one with a slightly longer
pedicel than the other; fine long hairs, varying in number from one to
eight and longer than the spikelets, are found on the pedicels at their
tips in some plants and not in others.

There are four _glumes_ in the spikelet. The _first glume_ is very short
about 1/4 of the third or less, semilunar, membranous, hyaline,
subtruncate, obtuse or acute, generally nerveless, but rarely, obscurely
1- to 3-nerved. The _second glume_ is membranous, ovate, acute, glabrous
or pubescent and 7-nerved. The _third glume_ is of about the same length
as the second, 5-nerved, always paleate, with or without stamens;
_palea_ is broad, margins infolded, 2-nerved, obtuse and hyaline; when
stamens are present the _lodicules_ are very conspicuous. The _fourth
glume_ is slightly shorter than the third, oblong or elliptic,
apiculate, minutely rugulose, thinly coriaceous, with bisexual flower;
_palea_ is similar to the glume in texture and markings. _Stamens_ are
three with yellowish anthers. _Lodicules_ are small and fleshy.

This plant occurs widely as a weed of cultivation in black cotton as
well as other kinds of soil and shows variation in its leaves and
spikelets. In some plants growing in somewhat dry places the leaves are
shorter and broader, and those in favourable situations have longer
narrower leaves. The spikelets are either perfectly glabrous or
pubescent and long hairs may or may not be present on the pedicels. As
regards colour the whole plant is green or the exposed portions of stems
and spikelets are purplish. This grass is liked by cattle and is one of
the most nutritious of Indian fodder grasses.

_Distribution._--Throughout India and Ceylon in the plains. Common in
the Tropics.

[Illustration: Fig. 93.--Panicum javanicum]


=Panicum javanicum, _Poir._=

This is an annual and it branches freely and the branches are decumbent
and rooting at the nodes at the base, and erect to some extent at the
free end, 1 to 2 feet long; the internodes are glabrous, thinly striate,
shallowly channelled on one side.

The _leaf-sheath_ is somewhat compressed and loose, covered with
scattered long hairs, some of them being tubercle-based; the margin is
ciliate on one side only. The _nodes_ are pubescent with long hairs. The
_ligule_ is a distinct fringe of hairs.

The _leaf-blade_ is broadly lanceolate, cordate at base, amplexicaul,
acuminate or acute, with scattered long hairs both above and below, and
some of the hairs of the under surface are tubercle-based, convolute
when young; margin of the leaf is wavy, minutely serrate, and ciliated
with distant hairs towards the lower half of the leaf when young; the
midrib is prominent below.

[Illustration: Fig. 94.--Panicum javanicum.

1 and 2. Front and back view of a spike; 3, 4, 5 and 6. the first,
second, third and the fourth glume, respectively; 5a and 6a. the palea
of third and fourth glumes; 7. the ovary and the stamens.]

The _inflorescence_ is a panicle of spikes on a short or long erect
slender peduncle. _Spikes_ vary from two to ten in number and in length
from 1/2 to 2 inches, distant and spreading; the rachis of the spike is
zigzag, somewhat flattened with a wavy ridge, scaberulous or glabrous,
swollen towards the base and the swollen part is pubescent.

The _spikelets_ are biseriate, loosely imbricate, ovate, acute,
pubescent or villous (sometimes quite glabrous), sessile or shortly
pedicelled; the pedicels have one or two (rarely more) long hairs.

There are four _glumes_. The _first glume_ is small, membranous, less
than 1/2 of the third glume, ovate, acute or obtuse, 3- to 5-nerved. The
_second glume_ is nearly equal to the third, ovate acute, generally
7-nerved and sometimes 7- to 13-nerved. The _third glume_ is similar to
the second in shape, generally 5-nerved and occasionally 7-nerved,
paleate with three stamens or empty; _palea_ 2-nerved, ovate or oblong,
margins infolded. The _fourth glume_ is ovate or oblong, rugulose,
chartaceous, apex with a distinct mucro concealed in the second and
third glumes; _palea_ same as the glume in texture, etc. _Anthers_ are
yellowish; _stigmas_ are feathery and purple in colour; _lodicules_ are
small and fleshy.

This is an excellent fodder grass. Though it is an annual it grows
rapidly under favourable conditions. A single plant found growing in the
compound of the Agricultural College, Coimbatore, weighed 15 lb. and
occupied 15 square feet of the ground. It flourishes in cultivated dry
fields and in rich loamy soils. (See fig. 7.)

_Distribution._--Plains of India and Ceylon and in Tropical countries
generally.

[Illustration: Fig. 95.--Panicum ramosum.]


=Panicum ramosum, _L._=

This is an annual with stems erect or ascending from a creeping base,
rooting at the lower nodes, 1 to 2 feet long. The stem is slender or
stout, usually glabrous though occasionally glabrescent or pubescent,
channelled on one side, branched from base upwards, and leafy.

The _leaf-sheath_ is finely striate, keeled, thinly pubescent with the
margins ciliate near the ligule. The _ligule_ is only a fringe of short
hairs. _Nodes_ are softly hairy.

The _leaf-blade_ is flat, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, softly pubescent
or glabrescent on both the surfaces, with rounded or subcordate base and
margins minutely serrate and ciliate, 2 to 6 inches long 1/6 to 1/2 inch
broad; the midrib is distinct though slender with four to six main veins
on each side.

The _inflorescence_ is a pyramidal panicle 2 to 6 inches long,
consisting of usually five to ten (rarely also up to twenty) erect or
spreading spikes. _Spikes_ are distant, alternate and in some the lower
ones are opposite, 1/2 to 2-1/2 inches long or shorter. The _rachis_ of
the spike is thin, angular and scaberulous.

The _spikelets_ are usually pubescent, ovoid or obovoid, acute, turgid,
1/8 inch, pale green and some occasionally purplish on one side,
alternate close or distant, in pairs lower down and then one with a
somewhat longer pedicel, solitary in the upper portions, pedicels with
hairs, some of them especially those near the apex being longer.

[Illustration: Fig. 96.--Panicum ramosum.

1 and 2. Back and front view of spike; 3 and 4. front and back view of a
spikelet; 5 and 6. first and second glumes; 7 and 8. third glume and its
palea; 9 and 10. fourth glume and its palea; 11. ovary, anthers and
lodicules.]

There are four _glumes_. The _first glume_ is nearly half the length of
the third glume, broadly ovate, subacute, margin overlapping at the
base, and usually 5-nerved. The _second glume_ is broadly ovate acute,
rather cuspidate, usually 5-nerved (rarely 7-nerved). The _third glume_
is similar to the second glume, 5-nerved, paleate, empty; _palea_ is
hyaline oblong, acute. The _fourth glume_ is ovoid-oblong, acute,
coriaceous, rugulose, with short broadened stipes, and three faint
nerves; _palea_ similar to the glume in texture and markings. _Anthers_
are orange-yellow; _style_ branches are purple. _Lodicules_ are small
and fleshy.

This grass is a common weed found in dry cultivated fields and open
waste places and is one of the best fodder grasses available.

_Distribution._--Plains throughout India and in Afghanistan.

[Illustration: Fig. 97.--Panicum distachyum.]


=Panicum distachyum, _L._=

This grass is an annual. Stems are slender, rarely stout, creeping and
rooting at the nodes, pale green or purplish, with erect or ascending
slender branches, varying in length from 10 to 15 inches, glabrous or
pubescent, channelled near the nodes.

The _leaf-sheath_ is glabrous or glabrescent and sometimes hirsute;
margin is ciliate. The _ligule_ is a fringe of short hairs. _Nodes_ are
glabrous or pubescent.

The _leaf-blade_ is lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate, base cordate and
subamplexicaul, glabrous or rarely sparsely hairy on both sides; margins
are wavy here and there, finely serrate with tubercle-based hairs
towards the base, the midrib is slender, not prominent and veins not
distinct. There is considerable variation in leaves especially in the
length. In the ordinary form it varies from 1/2 to 3 inches and even up
to 6 or 7 inches sometimes in length and the breadth from 1/8 to 1/4
inch. In one form which is separated as a variety (var. _brevifolium_,
Wight and Arnott,) the leaves are always short and broad,
ovate-lanceolate never exceeding 1 inch in length.

The _inflorescence_ consists of two or three, very rarely four erect or
spreading distant spikes on a somewhat slender very hairy peduncle.
_Spikes_ are from 1/2 to 2 inches; _rachis_ is slender, flexuous,
flattened, scaberulous, with a few long hairs scattered singly along the
margins or without these hairs.

[Illustration: Fig. 98.--Panicum distachyum.

1 and 2. Front and back view of a portion of a spike; 3, 4, 5, and 6.
the first, second, third and the fourth glume, respectively; 5a and 6a.
palea of the third and the fourth glume, respectively; 7. anthers and
ovary.]

The _spikelets_ are glabrous, ovate-oblong, acute, 1/8 inch, 1- or
2-seriate, subsessile, pale green, occasionally purplish on one side.

There are four _glumes_. The _first glume_ is membranous, broadly ovate,
obtuse with margins overlapping at the base, hardly half the length of
the third glume, usually 5-nerved but occasionally 7-nerved. The
attachment of the first glume is not close to that of the second glume
but is far lower. The _second glume_ is ovate-acute, 7-nerved. The
_third glume_ is equal to the second, 5-nerved, paleate, empty; the
_palea_ is narrow, hyaline, acute. The _fourth glume_ is ellipsoidal,
obtuse, chartaceous, minutely and obscurely rugulose, faintly 3-nerved,
with the base somewhat thickened. _Palea_ is similar to the glume in
texture. _Anthers_ are orange-yellow. _Lodicules_ are minute and fleshy.
Style branches are purple.

This grass is fairly common in open and loamy and sandy soils. The form
(var. _brevifolium_, Wight & Arnott) is fairly common in Coimbatore
District.

_Distribution._--Plains of India and Ceylon. Not recorded from the
Bombay Presidency. It occurs in China, Malaya and Australia.

[Illustration: Fig. 99.--Panicum interruptum.]


=Panicum interruptum, _Willd._=

This is a large perennial grass with stems reaching 5 to 6 feet in
length, flourishing in marshes and in the edges of ponds and tanks.

The stems are long, stout and spongy below, ascending from a creeping
and rooting or floating root-stock; the lower internodes are often 1/2
inch or more in thickness, with nodes bearing in fascicles long stout
roots clothed with fine lateral roots; and the upper internodes are long
and slender.

The _leaf-sheath_ is glabrous, striate. The _ligule_ is a short broad
membrane.

The _leaf-blade_ is soft, flat, many-nerved, linear, finely acuminate,
margins smooth, base rounded or subcordate, glabrous, 6 to 12 inches
long, 1/4 to 1/2 inch broad.

The _inflorescence_ is a strict spike-like panicle, 6 to 12 inches long
by 1/4 to 1/3 inch broad, cylindric, interrupted below; the rachis
terete, stout, channelled.

The _spikelets_ are glabrous, green, herbaceous, densely packed in small
fascicles, ovoid lanceolate, 1/6 to 1/5 inch long; many spikelets are
imperfect.

[Illustration: Fig. 100.--Panicum interruptum.

1 and 2. Front and back view of a spikelet; 3. first glume; 4. second
glume; 5. third glume; 6. palea of third glume; 7 and 8. the fourth
glume and its palea; 9. ovary, lodicules and stamens.]

There are four _glumes_. The _first glume_ is hyaline, membranous, about
1/3 the length of the third glume, broadly ovate or orbicular, obtuse,
5-nerved. The _second glume_ is membranous, ovate-oblong, obtuse,
prominently 9-nerved. The _third glume_ is as long as the second but
broader, ovate-oblong, 9-nerved, paleate; _palea_ is small with three
stamens or without them. The _fourth glume_ is shorter than the third
glume, lanceolate, subacute, thinly coriaceous white, polished, dorsally
convex; the _palea_ is as long as the glume and thinly coriaceous. There
are two small _lodicules_.

This is a rank marsh grass growing abundantly in permanent marshes and
edges of tanks and ponds. Cattle eat this along with other grasses, when
young and not covered with algæ.

_Distribution._--In swampy situations throughout India and Ceylon.


=Panicum trypheron, _Schult._=

The plant is a tufted annual leafy at the base, with branches spreading
a little at the base and then erect, varying in length from 1/2 to 3
feet. Stems are stout or slender, cylindric or slightly compressed
towards the base.

The _leaf-sheath_ is striated, green or purple tinged, shorter than the
internodes, the upper portion hairy (sometimes tubercle-based) and the
lower glabrous, with sometimes ciliate margin. The _ligule_ is a short
membrane with a fringe of slender hair-like processes. _Nodes_ are
glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is flat, convolute when young, linear-lanceolate, acute
or narrow linear-lanceolate, acuminate, hairy on both sides (hairs
indistinctly bulbous-based); margin is very minutely serrate and often
ciliate with tubercle-based hairs; base is narrowed, slightly rounded or
cordate; midrib is conspicuous though narrow and keeled; length 1 to 7
inches and breadth 1/8 to 3/8 inch.

The _inflorescence_ is a diffuse panicle 4 to 14 inches long with
filiform, divaricate, scaberulous, angled branches; the main _rachis_ is
angular, smooth below and scaberulous above; peduncle is cylindric,
striate, 2 to 12 inches long. Branches are irregularly distantly
alternate, solitary or rarely two, swollen at base, dividing into
slender filiform spreading branchlets; the lower branches from 3 to 7
inches in length and getting shorter upwards. Branchlets are 1/2 to 3
inches, capillary, angular and further dividing.

[Illustration: Fig. 101.--Panicum trypheron.

1 and 2. Front and back view of the spikelet; 3, 4 and 5. the first,
second and the third glume, respectively; 6. palea of the third glume; 7
and 8. the fourth glume and its palea; 9. stamens, ovary and lodicules.]

The _spikelets_ are ovate, acuminate, binate (sometimes solitary or
three) on a common finely filiform stalk, one long and the other short
pedicelled, pale or yellowish green, or purple; pedicels are angular,
scabrid or scaberulous, slightly swollen at the top and sometimes with
setose hairs also.

There are four _glumes_. The _first glume_ is green or purple, broadly
ovate, acuminate, clasping at the base, about two-thirds of the third
glume, membranous, nerves five, the lateral two stout and anastomosing
halfway, finely scaberulous especially on the nerves and more so on the
central one. The _second glume_ is slightly longer than the third, green
or purple, ovate, acuminate, generally 7-nerved and sometimes also with
two more indistinct marginal nerves, i.e., 9-nerved, scaberulous on the
nerves. The _third glume_ is pale green or yellow, ovate-oblong, acute
or subacute, obscurely scaberulous, 9-nerved (two of the nerves in the
middle sometimes not running to the base), paleate, empty. _Palea_ is
hyaline, smaller than the glume, oblong, obtuse, minutely two-lobed or
two-toothed at the apex; margins broadly infolded. The _fourth glume_ is
elliptic obtuse, shorter than the third, smooth, shining, coriaceous,
dorsally convex, with a prominent short, broad stipe at the base which
is persistent with the glume, 5-nerved, sometimes with seven nerves
especially when young (two marginal ones being indistinct). _Palea_ is
similar to the glume in texture. _Anthers_ are three, linear, orange
yellow. _Lodicules_ are two and prominent though small. _Stigmas_
feathery and white.

_P. tenellum_, Roxb. Fl. Indica I. 306 is probably not this plant though
quoted as a synonym, for it is described as having culms prostrate and
rooting at the nodes.

This grass is of wide distribution in the Presidency, but it is nowhere
abundant. It is fairly common in cultivated dry fields. Cattle like this
grass.

[Illustration: Fig. 102.--Panicum repens.

1. Full plant; 2. a portion of the leaf and ligule.]


=Panicum repens, _L._=

This is a perennial glaucous grass with stoloniferous and rhizomiferous
stems bearing ordinary erect leafy branches, and the branches come out
piercing through the leaf-sheath (extravaginal).

Stems are numerous, stiff and erect, 1/2 to 3 feet in length, glabrous,
covered below by brownish or whitish scale-leaves, and above with
densely distichous leaves.

The _leaf-sheath_ is firm, distinctly striate, glabrous, margins ciliate
on both sides up to the point of overlapping and then the outer margin
alone ciliate. The _ligule_ is a short thin membrane with very short
cilia on the free margin. The _nodes_ are glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is glaucous, narrow, lanceolate, thinly coriaceous,
acuminate with a hardened tip, 1 to 7 or 9 inches long, 1/2 to 1/4 inch
broad, flat or involute when slightly faded, with a few distantly
scattered hairs above, especially towards the lower portion of the blade
when young, and becoming glabrous later, glabrous on the lower surface,
margin is finely serrate and with a few cilia towards the base, some
hairs being tubercle-based; base of the blade is rounded or cordate,
midrib is prominent and keeled.

[Illustration: Fig. 103.--Panicum repens.

1. Spike; 2 and 3. front and back view of a spikelet; 4, 5 and 6. first,
second and third glumes; 7. palea of the third glume; 8 and 9. fourth
glume and its palea; 10. lodicules, stamens and ovary; 11. leaf showing
ligule.]

The _inflorescence_ is a panicle, contracted and not much exserted from
the topmost leaf-sheath, 3 to 8 inches long, branches are usually many,
erect, the lower being 2 to 5 inches long, slender, angular and
scaberulous.

The _spikelets_ are glabrous, erect, pale or pale green, sometimes
purplish also on one side, ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, acute, 1/8
inch, pedicels are long with cupular tips.

There are four _glumes_ in the spikelet. The _first glume_ is hyaline,
broadly ovate, rounded and shortly acute or subacute, indistinctly 3- to
5-nerved or nerveless, less than one-third of the height of the third
glume. The _second glume_ is membranous, ovate-lanceolate acute, 7- to
9-nerved. The _third glume_ is equal to and broader than the second,
always paleate and with three stamens and 9-nerved; _palea_ is hyaline,
oblong, obtuse or subacute, margins folded. The fourth _glume_ is white,
coriaceous, smooth and shining, oblong, acute, shortly and broadly
stipitate, with the margins folded inwards exposing only a third of the
palea; _palea_ is similar to the glume in texture and marking. _Anthers_
are deep orange in colour. _Lodicules_ are distinct though small.
_Stigmas_ are deep purple when mature, and pale when young.

This grass flourishes in moist situations such as the bunds of paddy
fields, tank beds and edges of marshes and is an excellent binder of the
soil. When once established it is very difficult to get rid of it, on
account of its rhizomes. Owing to the resemblance of the rhizomes to
ginger, some call this grass Ginger-rooted grass. Cattle are fond of
this grass.

_Distribution._--Throughout India, but not so common on the West and not
recorded from Bombay. It is said to occur in South Europe, Australia,
North Africa and Brazil.



5. Chamæraphis, _Br._

These are glabrous marsh or aquatic grasses. Leaves are linear or
lanceolate. The inflorescence is a panicle. The spikelets are one-to
two-flowered, subsessile and subsecund on the branches which are
produced as awn-like bristles beyond the ultimate spikelet, obscurely
jointed and persistent on their obconic short pedicels, narrowly
lanceolate and terete. The spikelet consists of four glumes. The first
glume is very small, hyaline, suborbicular, nerveless and truncate. The
second glume is the longest, green, membranous, narrowly lanceolate,
acuminate or narrowed into a rigid awn, 7- to 11-nerved. The third glume
is lanceolate, acute, or aristately acuminate, 7-nerved, paleate, male
or neuter, the palea is smaller than the glume and hyaline. The fourth
glume is much smaller than the third, stipitate, bisexual or female,
oblong or ovate-oblong, acute, flat, thinly coriaceous, nerveless and
paleate; the palea is hyaline, as broad as the glume, acute and
nerveless. The lodicules are cuneate. Stamens are three. Stigmas are
laterally exserted. Grain is oblong, compressed.


=Chamæraphis spinescens, _Poir._=

A glabrous aquatic or marsh grass, with much branched floating stems.
Stems are leafy, elongate, ascending, varying in length from 1 to 3
feet.

The _leaf-sheaths_ are long, smooth, loose, with naked margins. The
_ligule_ is a ridge of hairs. The _nodes_ are glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is flat, narrowly linear-lanceolate, smooth or scabrid,
acuminate, base narrowed, 1 to 3-1/2 inches long and 1/16 to 1/8 inch
wide.

The _inflorescence_ is a pyramidal panicle, contracted or diffuse, with
a leaf very near its base; peduncle is short; branches of the panicle,
filiform, angular, flexuous, bearing one or more spikelets and produced
as a bristle beyond the last spikelet.

The _spikelets_ are 1/6 to 1/4 rarely 1/3 inch long including the awn,
subsessile and somewhat on one side on the branches, obscurely
articulate but persistent on the pedicels, pale or green, lanceolate.

There are four glumes in the spikelet. The _first glume_ is hyaline,
suborbicular, rounded at the tip and nerveless, 1/30 inch or less. The
_second glume_ is membranous, lanceolate, smooth or setosely scabrid on
the sides, 9- to 11-nerved, with a long scabrid awn which is sometimes
as long as the body of the glume. The _third glume_ is shorter than the
second, finely acuminate, or awned, 7-nerved, membranous, paleate and
with three _stamens_ and two _lodicules_; the _palea_ is shorter than
the glume, linear-oblong, subacute. The _fourth glume_ is
ovate-lanceolate, nerveless, acute, paleate with three _stamens_,
_ovary_ and two _lodicules_; _palea_ is hyaline, narrow, quarter the
length of the third glume. Grain is obovate oblong.

[Illustration: Fig. 104.--Chamæraphis spinescens.

1. Terminal portion of a spike showing the bristle; 2, 3, 4 and 6. the
first, second, third and the fourth glume, respectively; 5. palea of
third glume with its anthers and lodicules; 7. palea of the fourth
glume; 8. ovary; 9. lodicules.]

_Distribution._--This plant is found at the edges in ponds, tanks and
marshes all over the Presidency.



6. Spinifex, _L._

This is a stout, rigid, much branched, gregarious and dioecious grass,
flourishing in sand on the sea coast. Leaves are long, narrow rigid,
involute, spreading and recurved and thickly coriaceous. Male spikelets
are 1- to 2-flowered, subsessile, distichous, jointed on rigid peduncled
spikes, which are collected in umbels and surrounded by spathaceous
leafy bracts. The spikelets have four glumes. The first two glumes are
empty. The third and the fourth paleate and triandrous and sometimes the
former is empty. Female spikelets are collected in large globose heads
of stellately spreading very long rigid rod-like processes surrounded by
shorter subulate bracts. Each spikelet is solitary, and articulate at
the very base of a rachis, lanceolate, 1-flowered. There are four
glumes. The first three glumes are as in the male spikelets, but larger.
The third is paleate, empty. The fourth glume has a female flower. The
lodicules are large and nerved. Styles are long, free, with short,
feathery stigmas. Grain free within the hardened glumes.


=Spinifex squarrosus, _L._=

A perennial littoral dioecious grass forming bushes. Stems are glaucous,
smooth, solid, woody, thick below, freely branching, 5 to 10 feet long
or more.

The _leaf-sheath_ is smooth, imbricating, 1/2 to 1-1/2 inches long. The
_ligule_ is a row of stiff long hairs.

The _leaf-blade_ is narrow, rigid, thickly coriaceous, concavo-convex
tapering from the base to the tip, spreading and recurved, 4 to 6 inches
long.

The _male inflorescence_ consists of several spikes, 1 to 3 inches long,
forming umbels, with membranous leafy spathaceous bracts which are
shorter than the spikes.

The _spikelets_ are usually 2-flowered, smooth, articulate on short
peduncles, distichous, 1/3 to 1/2 inch long.

There are four _glumes_. The _first glume_ is shorter than the second,
ovate, obtuse, 7- to 9-nerved. The _second glume_ is similar to the
first, but longer. The _third_ and the _fourth glumes_ are longer than
the second glume, 5- to 7-nerved, paleate and triandrous; _palea_ of
both are lanceolate with ciliate keels.

[Illustration: Fig. 105.--Spinifex squarrosus.

Male plant--1. A branch with the male inflorescence; 2. a spike; 3. a
spikelet; 4, 5, 6 and 7. the first, second, third and the fourth glume,
respectively; 6a. palea of the third glume; 6b. extra palea like
structure found occasionally in the palea of the third glume; 7a. palea
and lodicules of the fourth glume.]

The _female inflorescence_ is a large globose head consisting of short
spikelets articulate at the very base of the rachis, short bracts and
very long, spreading, rigid rod-like rachises. The _spikelets_ are
solitary with four glumes and 2-flowered. The _first glume_ is
oblong-lanceolate, many-nerved, longer than the other glumes. The
_second glume_ is shorter, 7-nerved. The _third glume_ is empty,
5-nerved. The _fourth glume_ is ovate-lanceolate and abruptly narrowed
above the middle, 5-nerved and paleate, palea is shorter than the glume
but broader, 2-nerved and acute. _Lodicules_ are two, large, cuneate at
base and strongly nerved. _Stigmas_ are oblong. Grain is clavate and
tipped by the style base.

This grass grows luxuriantly in the sands near the sea on both the
coasts of the Madras Presidency.

[Illustration: Fig. 106.--Spinifex squarrosus.

Female plant--1. A branch with female inflorescence; 2, 3, 4 and 5. the
first, second, third and the fourth glume, respectively; 6. palea of the
fourth glume; 7. ovary and the lodicules.]

_Distribution._--Throughout the sandy coasts of India and Ceylon.



7. Axonopus, _Beauv._

These are annual or perennial grasses. Inflorescence is a panicle
consisting of digitate or whorled, slender or stout spike-like racemes.
Spikelets are solitary, binate or fasciculate, 2-flowered, jointed on
the pedicel and awned. There are four glumes. The first glume is the
shortest, ovate, acuminate, aristate or cuspidate, hyaline, glabrous and
3-nerved. The second glume is ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acuminate or
awned, 5-nerved, lateral nerves being marginal and hairy. The third
glume is oblong or oblong ovate, acute, 5-nerved, paleate, male; palea
is very short and small, bipartite. The fourth glume is as long as the
third and the second, oblong or ovate, coriaceous, narrowed into a
straight terminal awn, paleate and bisexual; palea is oblong, coriaceous
and 2-nerved. Lodicules are cuneate. Stamens are three with linear
anthers. Stigmas are linear, laterally exserted. Grain is oblong, free
within the hardened glume and its palea.

[Illustration: Fig. 107.--Axonopus cimicinus.]


=Axonopus cimicinus, _Beauv._=

It is a perennial grass. Stems are tufted, erect or slightly decumbent
at the base, 1 to 2 feet long.

The _leaf-sheath_ is distinctly striate, covered with scattered long
tubercle-based hairs, very rarely glabrous, keeled. The _ligule_
consists of a row of hairs. The _nodes_ are hairy.

The _leaf-blade_ is flat, ovate-lanceolate, broad and cordate at base,
subacute or obtuse, with a distinct midrib and three main veins on each
side of it, glabrous on both sides, but usually with tubercle-based
hairs on the two sides of the midrib, on the lower side, the margins are
distinctly ciliate with tubercle-based long stiff hairs and very finely
serrate; the blade varies in length from 3/4 to 3 inches and in breadth
from 3/4 to 1/2 inch.

The _inflorescence_ consists of three to ten spikes springing from the
top of a slender glabrous peduncle 2 to 6 inches long. The _spikes_ are
whorled, about 3 inches or so in length, naked towards the base to about
one-fourth of its length, the rachis is fine, filiform, scabrid.

The _spikelets_ are solitary or binate, dorsally compressed, pale green
or reddish, very shortly pedicelled, 1/4 to 5/16 inch long inclusive of
the short awn, pedicel is cupular at the tip.

There are four _glumes_ in the spikelet. The _first glume_ is somewhat
narrow ovate-lanceolate, hyaline, acuminate and 3-nerved. The _second
glume_ is membranous, ovate-lanceolate, twice as long as the _first
glume_, cuspidately acuminate, 5-nerved; the two marginal nerves are
provided with long reddish bristly hairs. The _third glume_ is oblong
lanceolate, obtuse, 5-nerved, a little shorter than the second glume,
paleate and with stamens; _palea_ is short. The _fourth glume_ is
coriaceous, ovate-lanceolate, nearly as long as the second glume, awned
at the apex, paleate, with three stamens and an ovary; the _palea_ is as
long as the glume, elliptic oblong, obtuse. _Lodicules_ are small,
cuneate.

[Illustration: Fig. 108.--Axonopus cimicinus.

1. A portion of the spike showing spikelets; 2, 3, 4 and 5. the first,
second, third and the fourth glume, respectively; 4a and 5a. the palea
of the third and the fourth glume, respectively; 6. lodicules, stamens
and the ovary.]

This is a common grass growing in the plains and lower hills in waste
places.

_Distribution._--Occurs all over India.



8. Setaria, _Beauv._

These are usually annuals. Inflorescence is usually a spike-like
panicle. Spikelets are 1- to 2-flowered, jointed on very short pedicels
which bear persistent scabrid or barbed bristles (modified branchlets).
There are four glumes. The first glume is the shortest, equal to about
half the length of the third, membranous, 3- to 5-nerved. The second
glume is equal to or shorter than the fourth, 5- to 7-nerved. The third
glume more or less exceeding and resembling the second glume, neuter,
rarely paleate and male. The fourth glume is coriaceous or crustaceous,
plano-convex, bisexual, 5-nerved and paleate; palea is as long as the
glume. Lodicules are broadly cuneate. Stamens are three. Stigmas are
laterally exserted. Grain is tightly enclosed by the hardened glume and
its palea and is oblong or ellipsoid.

KEY TO THE SPECIES.

  Bristles with spreading or erect barbs.

    Inflorescence cylindric, continuous
    and not interrupted, with six to
    twelve bristles in the involucel         1. S. glauca.

    Inflorescence interrupted, with three
    to six bristles in the involucel         2. S. intermedia.

  Bristles with reversed barbs               3. S. verticillata.


=Setaria glauca, _Beauv._=

This is a tufted annual grass. Stems are slender, simple or branched,
erect or ascending.

The _leaf-sheaths_ are glabrous. _Nodes_ are glabrous and sometimes the
lower are rooting. The _ligule_ is a fringe of long hairs.

The _leaf-blades_ are lanceolate-linear, flat, finely acuminate, with a
rounded base and very finely and minutely serrate margin, glabrous on
both the surfaces or occasionally sparsely hairy on the upper surface
and varying in length from 4 to 12 inches or more, and in breadth from
1/4 to 1/3 inch.

The _inflorescence_ is a cylindric, densely flowered, spike-like raceme,
1 to 4 inches long, usually yellow, rarely purplish or pale green, the
bristles of involucels vary from six to twelve and are pale or reddish
brown, 1/6 to 1/3 inch long with fine erect or spreading barbs.

The _spikelets_ are numerous and are very closely set along the rachis
of the inflorescence, 1/8 inch long, glabrous and ellipsoidal.

There are four _glumes_ in the spikelet. The _first glume_ is less than
half the length of the third glume, broadly ovate, hyaline, 3-nerved.
The _second glume_ is a little longer than the first but shorter than
the third, broadly ovate or suborbicular, hyaline, 5-nerved. The _third
glume_ is longer than the second, as long as the fourth, membranous and
5-nerved, paleate, empty or with stamens. The _fourth glume_ is
coriaceous, broadly elliptic, obtuse, dorsally convex, transversely
rugose, pale. The _anthers_ are orange and the _styles_ purple.

[Illustration: Fig. 109.--Setaria glauca.

A and B. spikelets; C. a bristle; 1, 2 and 3. The first, second and the
third glume, respectively; 4. palea of the third glume; 5. the fourth
glume; 6. palea of the fourth glume; 7. ovary, anthers and lodicules.]

This is a fairly common grass especially in cultivated ground all over
the Presidency, but not very widely distributed. Cattle are fond of this
grass.

_Distribution._--Throughout India.


=Setaria intermedia, _R. & S._=

This is an annual with straggling, slender, erect or ascending stems, 2
to 3 feet long.

The _leaf-sheath_ is glabrous, keeled, with the margins ciliate with
long hairs. The _ligule_ is a fringe of close set long hairs. The
_nodes_ are glabrous and the lower rooting.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear-lanceolate, narrowed towards the base, finely
acuminate, with fine hairs scattered on both the surfaces and with
numerous long hairs at the mouth and with very finely serrate margins,
varying in length from 2 to 8 inches or more, 1/8 to 3/4 inch in
breadth.

The _inflorescence_ is a narrowly pyramidal spike-like panicle, 4 to 6
inches long, the main rachis is glabrous and grooved, branches are
short, crowded above, scattered and distant below, with close and
densely set spikelets; the bristles of involucels are 1/4 inch long,
slender, flexuous with erect barbs varying in number from three to six.

The _spikelets_ are ovoid.

There are four _glumes_ in the spikelet. The _first glume_ is orbicular,
oblong or ovate, about one-third the length of the third glume, hyaline,
3-nerved. The _second glume_ is half as long as the third, broadly
ovate, hyaline, 5-nerved. The _third glume_ is as long as the fourth,
broadly ovate, thinly membranous, 5-nerved, paleate, empty. The _fourth
glume_ is broadly ovate, or suborbicular, very concave, coriaceous,
transversely rugulose, yellowish brown. _Anthers_ are orange or yellow
and _styles_ purplish. _Lodicules_ are very small.

[Illustration: Fig. 110.--Setaria intermedia.

1. A branch with spikelets; 2 and 2a. spikelets; 3, 4 and 5. the first,
second and the third glume, respectively; 5a. the palea of the third
glume; 6. the fourth glume; 6a. the fourth glume and its palea; 6b.
palea of the fourth glume; 7. ovary, anthers and lodicules.]

Fairly common in rich soils in sheltered places. Cattle are very fond of
this grass as the leaves are flaccid and tender.

_Distribution._--Probably all over India.

[Illustration: Fig. 111.--Setaria verticillata.]


=Setaria verticillata, _Beauv._=

This is an annual grass, with erect, ascending, stout or slender, leafy
stems, more or less branched and varying in length from 1 to 5 feet.

The _leaf-sheaths_ are smooth, glabrous. The _ligule_ is a fringe of
hairs. _Nodes_ are glabrous.

The _leaf-blades_ are thin, flat, glabrous, sparsely hairy and
scaberulous, linear or linear-lanceolate, tapering to a fine point, base
usually narrowed, 4 to 10 inches long and 1/4 to 3/4 inch broad.

The _inflorescence_ is a spike-like or subpyramidal panicle, cylindric
or oblong, coarsely bristly, 2 to 7 inches long, bristles one or few,
studded with conspicuously reversed barbs or teeth, 1/6 to 1/3 inch
long.

The _spikelets_ are ellipsoidal, obtuse, glabrous, 1/12 inch long.

There are four _glumes_. The _first glume_ is very small, broadly ovate,
acute, hyaline, faintly 3-nerved. The _second glume_ is as long as the
spikelet or a little shorter, ovate, subacute, thinly membranous and
5-nerved. The _third glume_ is equal to the second or a little longer,
membranous and 5-nerved, paleate or empty, palea when present, is small
and hyaline. The _fourth glume_ is elliptic-oblong, plano-convex,
subobtuse, smooth or shining, though faintly striate, coriaceous with
incurved margins; _palea_ is coriaceous, as long as the glume, elliptic,
faintly striate. _Stamens_ are three. _Lodicules_ are small.

[Illustration: Fig. 112.--Setaria verticillata.

1 and 2. Spikelets with bristles; 3, 4 and 5. the first, second and the
third glume, respectively; 6. palea of the third glume; 7 and 8. the
fourth glume and its palea; 9. ovary, stamens and lodicules; 10. a bit
of the bristle showing the reversed barbs.]

This grass grows in shady places in very rich soils generally and is
abundant in shady nooks and corners where there are rubbish heaps.

_Distribution._--Throughout India and Ceylon.



9. Pennisetum, _Pers._

These are annual or perennial grasses. Leaves are usually narrow. The
inflorescence is a spike-like raceme consisting of involucellate
clusters of shortly pedicellate spikelets, involucels consist of
unequal, simple or branched bristles. Spikelets are obovoid or
lanceolate, 1- to 2-flowered, persistent on their stalks, one to three
in an involucel. There are usually four glumes in a spikelet. The first
glume is minute or absent. The second glume is shorter than the third,
membranous, 3- to 5-nerved, rarely wanting. The third glume is as long
as the fourth, lanceolate, paleate or not, male or empty. The fourth
glume is coriaceous, lanceolate, bisexual or female. There are three
stamens with linear anthers. Styles long. Lodicules are small if
present. Grain is oblong, free within the hardened fourth glume and its
palea.

KEY TO THE SPECIES

Bristles of the involucel slender and not  1. P. Alopecuros.
 dilated at the base, and free; leaves
 very long.

Bristles of the involucel dilated below    2. P. cenchroides.
 and connate at base.

[Illustration: Fig. 113.--Pennisetum Alopecuros]


=Pennisetum Alopecuros, _Steud._=

This is a perennial grass, densely tufted and growing to a height of 2
to 3-1/2 feet. Stems are stout, erect and much branched above.

The _leaf-sheaths_ are distichous, compressed, glabrous or rarely hairy.

The _leaf-blades_ are convolute, narrow, linear, coriaceous, strongly
keeled, glabrous but with tufts of soft hairs at the base, 12 to 18
inches long, 1/10 to 1/6 inch broad. The _ligule_ is a ring of hairs.

The _inflorescence_ is a spike-like raceme, varying in length from 5 to
7 inches. The involucels are shortly stalked, with a few unequal
bristles which are free down to the base and two to three times as long
as the spikelet.

_Spikelets_ are lanceolate, acute, solitary, 3/8 inch long.

[Illustration: Fig. 114.--Pennisetum Alopecuros.

A and B. Spikelets front and back view; 1, 2, 3 and 4. the first,
second, third and the fourth glume, respectively; 5. palea of the fourth
glume; 6. the ovary, stamens and lodicules.]

The _first glume_ is very small, almost orbicular, hyaline and
nerveless. The _second glume_ is about 1/3 the length of the third
glume, lanceolate, acuminate, 3-nerved. The _third glume_ is about 1/3
inch long, lanceolate, acuminate, 7- to 11-nerved, epaleate and with
infolded margins. The _fourth glume_ is a little longer than the third,
lanceolate, acuminate, with infolded margins 5- or 6-nerved, paleate and
enclosing a complete flower. The _palea_ is lanceolate, acuminate, as
long as the glume. There are three _stamens_ with long, narrow, yellow
anthers. _Stigmas_ are feathery. _Lodicules_ are either absent or very
minute.

This is a very coarse grass usually growing in stiff soils especially
near wet places.

_Distribution._--Occurs all over Southern India both on the plains and
on low hills.

[Illustration: Fig. 115.--Pennisetum cenchroides.]


=Pennisetum cenchroides, _Rich._=

This grass is a perennial. It consists of aerial branches and
underground rhizomiferous stems, bearing thick fibrous roots and
numerous buds covered by scarious sheaths. The aerial branches are
tufted, erect or decumbent and geniculately ascending when in flower,
much branched from the base, 6 to 24 inches long (under favourable
conditions may reach even 3 to 4 feet in length).

The _leaf-sheath_ is slightly compressed, keeled, with scattered long
hairs outside, shorter than the internodes. The _ligule_ is a short thin
membrane fringed with hairs.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear, tapering to a very fine point 1-1/2 to 6
inches (sometimes 18 to 20 inches) by 1/8 to 1/4 inch scaberulous with
fine long tubercle-based deciduous hairs scattered above, and the lower
surface glabrous or with a few distantly scattered fine long hairs,
broad at the base and constricted at the point of junction with the
sheath.

The _inflorescence_ is a raceme of spikes, varying from 1-1/2 to 3-1/2
inches, with the spikes mostly densely arranged, though occasionally
distant and not close-set, on a long; slender, puberulous or scaberulous
peduncle; _rachis_ is flexuous, flattened, grooved and scaberulous. The
_spikes_ have involucels, consisting of two series of bristles, the
outer bristles are horizontal or reflexed, numerous, fine, filiform,
scabrid and purple above, shorter or longer than the spikelets; the
inner bristles are two to three times longer than the spikelets,
flattened and thickened at the base with a strong green nerve, ciliated
with long tubercle-based hairs; one of the bristles is longer than the
others and the bases of the bristles are connate at the very base into a
ring; the upper portion of the bristles are filiform, scabrid and
purple, the lower flattened portion being pale.

[Illustration: Fig. 116.--Pennisetum cenchroides.

1. A portion of a spike; 2 and 3. spikelets with their involucels; 4. a
bristle; 5, 6, 7 and 8. the first, second, third and the fourth glume,
respectively; 7a and 8a. palea of the third and the fourth glume,
respectively; 9. ovary and stamens.]

_Spikelets_ are about 1/5 inch long oblong-lanceolate, one to three in a
spike and sessile.

There are four _glumes_ in a spikelet. The _first glume_ is small,
hyaline, ovate-lanceolate, acute, nerveless or sometimes 1-nerved. The
_second glume_ is a little longer than the first, ovate, acute, about
half of the third glume, hyaline, 1 to 3-nerved. The _third glume_ is
ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, generally 5- to 7-nerved, paleate, usually
male; _palea_ is lanceolate, equal to or slightly shorter than the
glume. The _fourth glume_ is as long as the third with a broad hyaline
margin, 5-nerved paleate; palea as long as the glume. _Anthers_ are
three, yellow, _stigmas_ white, feathery and the styles shortly united
at the base. _Lodicules_ are not present.

This is the famous Kolakattai grass (Tamil) of the Coimbatore District
and it grows in all kinds of soil and is capable of growing even when
the soil is dry. It is readily eaten by cattle, sheep, goat and when
once established is not easily killed out even by prolonged droughts. It
is in flower in June, November and December.

_Distribution._--Fairly common in South India and Western India. Said to
occur in Tropical Africa also.

There is a variety of this grass named _echinoides_. This differs from
the type in the following respects--the inner bristles are united very
much above the base and much thickened and stiffer than in the type.
(See fig. 116-3)



10. Cenchrus, _L._

The inflorescences are spike-like racemes, consisting of involucellate
clusters of shortly pedicelled spikelets jointed on a simple rachis. The
involucel consists of hardened spike-like bristles connate at the base
into a short coriaceous cup, which is surrounded by erect or squarrose
bristles. Spikelets one to three in each involucel, persistent, 1- to
2-flowered, with three or four glumes. The first glume is very small or
absent. The second and the third glumes are subequal 5- to 7-nerved. The
third glume is longer than the second with male flower or not, paleate.
The fourth glume is coriaceous, with a bisexual or female flower.
Lodicules are two. Stamens are three. Styles are long, free or connate
below. Grain is broad, oblong and compressed.

KEY TO THE SPECIES

  Base of involucel rounded; inner bristles
  shorter, erect, not ciliate                  1. C. biflorus.

  Base of involucel turbinate, inner bristles
  longer, spreading and spinescent, ciliate
  at base                                      2. C. catharticus.


=Cenchrus biflorus, _Roxb._=

This is an annual with erect simple stems, 6 to 24 inches long.

The _leaf-sheath_ is glabrous or nearly so, with hairs at the mouth.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear-lanceolate, finely acuminate, glabrous or
hairy, 3 to 10 inches long and 1/8 to 3/8 inch broad.

The _inflorescence_ is a solitary cylindric raceme of involucels, 2 to 4
inches long, enclosed in the uppermost leaf-sheath; the _rachis_ is
flexuous, angular and smooth. _Involucels_ usually with two, rarely
three spikelets, loosely imbricate, rounded at the base; the inner
bristles are erect, dorsally flat, subulate-lanceolate, puberulous and
with thickened margins, about 1/8 inch long. The outer are shorter than
the inner, glabrous, erect or subsquarrose and as long as the sessile
spikelets.

The _spikelets_ are about 1/6 inch long, sub-globose, with four
_glumes_. The _first glume_ is about 1/10 inch long, ovate-acuminate,
very thin, hyaline, nerveless or rarely 1-nerved. The _second glume_ is
broadly ovate, 1/6 inch long, hyaline, acute, 1-nerved. The _third
glume_ is slightly longer than the second, oblong-ovate, apiculate,
5-nerved and paleate; _palea_ 1/8 inch obtuse. The _fourth glume_ is as
long as the third, ovate, obtuse, paleate. _Anthers_ are three. _Styles_
free almost to the base. The grain is 1/12 by 1/16 inch orbicular
oblong, compressed, smooth and pale brown.

[Illustration: Fig. 117.--Cenchrus biflorus.

1. A portion of the raceme; 2. an involucel; 3, 4, 5 and 7. the first,
second, third and the fourth glume respectively; 6 and 8. palea of the
third and the fourth glumes; 9. the ovary and stamens; 10 grain.]

This grass is not so widely distributed as _Cenchrus catharticus_. It is
confined to some East Coast districts.

_Distribution._--The Punjab, Gangetic plain, Concan, Sind and
Coromandel. Also said to occur in Africa and Arabia.


=Cenchrus catharticus, _Delile._=

A tufted annual grass with geniculately ascending stems, branching at
the base.

The _leaf-sheath_ is glabrous and somewhat inflated. The _ligule_ is a
fringe of hairs. _Nodes_ are glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear-lanceolate, finely acuminate, 1 to 4 inches
long and 1/8 to 1/4 inch broad.

The _inflorescence_ is usually enclosed in the leaf-sheath, 1 to 6
inches long; the _rachis_ is flexuous, angular and glabrous. The
involucels are 1/4 to 1/2 inch across, turbinate or truncate at base
with an outer, shorter and inner longer series of hard, sharp, pungent
spines; the inner subulate, dorsally deeply grooved, very much longer
than the spikelets; margins ciliate to about half the distance from the
base, and the upper half covered with very short, sharp and stiff,
reflexed hairs; the outer are shorter than the spikelets, spreading or
erect, glabrous or nearly so and covered with reflexed hairs.

The _spikelets_ are usually one to two and rarely three in an involucel
and each one has four _glumes_. The _first glume_ is lanceolate and
nerveless or ovate-lanceolate and 1-nerved, half as long as the third
glume, hyaline and acute. The _second glume_ is about 1/6 inch long,
ovate, acute, membranous, 5-nerved. The _third glume_ is similar to the
second, paleate; _palea_ is lanceolate and short. The _fourth glume_ is
as long as the third, cuspidately acuminate, membranous, 5-nerved and
paleate; _palea_ is ovate, as long as the glume. _Stamens_ are three.
_Styles_ are free and long with plumose stigmas. The grain is
ovoid-oblong, brown and compressed.

[Illustration: Fig. 118.--Cenchrus catharticus.

1. A portion of the spike; 2. an involucel with two spikelets; 3, 4, 5
and 7. the first, second, third and the fourth glume respectively; 6 and
8. palea of the third and the fourth glume respectively; 9. the ovary
and stamens; 10. grain.]

This grass is more common than _C. biflorus_ and is found on the East
Coast districts in open sandy places.

_Distribution._--Nellore, Bellary, the Punjab and the Gangetic Plains.



CHAPTER VII.

TRIBES II AND III--ORYZEÆ AND ZOYSIEÆ.


=Oryzeæ= is a very small tribe with a few genera, which usually flourish
in marshes. The spikelets are in panicles, 1-flowered and the flower is
usually perfect. In Oryza there are three glumes, the first two being
very minute, and there is only a single glume in Leersia and Hygrorhiza.
There are usually six stamens. The palea becomes firm in texture like
the glume instead of remaining hyaline, and so it is often mistaken for
a glume. The spikelets are jointed on their pedicels and fall away from
them.

  Not floating; spikelet not awned       11. Leersia.

  Floating; spikelets awned              12. Hygrorhiza.

=Zoysieæ= is another small tribe with half a dozen genera. The
inflorescence is either a spike-like raceme or a spiciform panicle. The
spikelets are solitary in Perotis, binate in Tragus and grouped in
Trachys. There is usually a complete flower in a spikelet and the glumes
are membranous. Mature spikelets are deciduous with their pedicels
singly in Perotis and in clusters in others.

  Spikelets fascicled unilaterally on a
  broad rachis, 4-glumed, glumes not
  echinate                               13. Trachys.

  Spikelets binate and all round the
  rachis, 3-glumed, glumes echinate      14. Tragus.

  Spikelets single, awned and 3-glumed   15. Perotis.



11. Leersia, _Sw._

These are tall perennial marsh grasses. The inflorescence is usually a
more or less contracted panicle with very slender branches. The
spikelets are compressed and consist of only one glume bearing a perfect
flower. The solitary flowering glume is chartaceous, awnless, 3- to
5-nerved, the lateral nerves forming the thickened margin of the glume.
The palea is narrow, linear-lanceolate, as long as the glume, 3-nerved,
rigid, dorsally ciliate, and with hyaline margins. Lodicules are two.
Stamens are usually six in number. Styles are short, with plumose
stigmas and laterally exserted. Grain is ovoid or oblong, compressed,
free within the glume and its palea.


=Leersia hexandra, _Sw._=

This is a slender perennial marsh-grass with stems rooting in the mud
and with flexuous floating branches, sending up erect or ascending, weak
and slender leafy branches, 2 to 4 feet high.

[Illustration: Fig. 119.--Leersia hexandra.

1. Erect branch; 2 and 3. bits of leaves with ligules; 4 and 5.
spikelets; 6. ovary and lodicules.]

The _leaf-sheath_ is smooth, glabrous, with eciliate margins. The
_ligule_ is a short obliquely truncate or two-lobed membrane. _Nodes_
are hairy with deflexed hairs.

The _leaf-blade_ is flat, narrow, linear, tapering to a fine point,
suberect and rather rigid, glabrous and with a narrow base, varying in
length from 3 to 10 inches and 1/8 to 1/3 inch in breadth.

The _inflorescence_ is an oblong laxly branched, narrow pedunculate
panicle, 2 to 4 inches long.

The _spikelets_ are all 1-flowered and 1-glumed, articulate on the
pedicels above the rudimentary glumes, strongly laterally compressed.
The _glume_ is about 1/6 inch long, ovate-oblong, somewhat boat-shaped,
acute and shortly mucronate, strongly keeled, ciliate on the keel and
margins, 5-nerved, the lateral nerves forming a thickened margin;
_palea_ is as long as the glume, linear-lanceolate, subacute, rigid with
membranous margins. _Stamens_ are six and there are two small
_lodicules_. The first two glumes are reduced to an obscure hyaline rim.

This marsh-grass is found in marshy places such as ditches and channels
in paddy fields, ponds and tanks.

_Distribution._--It is found all over India and Ceylon; also in Africa,
America and Australia.



12. Hygrorhiza, _Nees._

These are floating glabrous grasses with stems diffusely branching and
profusely rooting at the nodes. The inflorescence is a panicle. The
spikelets are 1-flowered, with a solitary flowering glume only. The
flowering glume is awned, strongly 5-nerved, nerves scabrid and ciliate,
the lateral nerves being marginal. Palea is 3-nerved, narrow acuminate
with a ciliate keel. Lodicules are suborbicular. There are six stamens
with long slender anthers. Styles are free with plumose stigmas,
laterally exserted. Grain is oblong, narrowed at the base, obtuse, free
within the glume and its palea.


=Hygrorhiza aristata, _Nees._=

This is a floating aquatic grass. Stems are spongy, branching diffusely,
1 foot long, with feathery whorled roots in dense masses at the nodes;
branches are short, erect and leafy.

The _leaf-sheath_ is smooth, inflated, compressed, with ciliate margins.
The _ligule_ is a narrow membrane. _Nodes_ have whorls of roots.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear or ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, glabrous,
glaucous beneath, base rounded or subcordate, 1 to 3 inches long and 1/2
to 3/4 inch broad.

The _inflorescence_ is a panicle, 2 inches long and broad, somewhat
triangular in outline; the _rachis_ and the branches are stiff, slender
and smooth, the lower branches are a little deflexed.

[Illustration: Fig. 120.--Hygrorhiza aristata.

1. Branch; 2. part of a leaf with ligule; 3. spikelet; 4 and 5. glume
and its palea; 6. lodicules and ovary.]

The _spikelets_ are very narrow, sessile or pedicellate, articulated on
the pedicel, 1-flowered and 1-glumed. The _glume_ is about 3/8 inch long
(excluding the awn) and the awn is as long as the glume or slightly
longer, lanceolate, with five strong nerves and the lateral ones forming
thickened margins; the palea is as long as the glume. _Stamens_ are six
and _lodicules_ two.

Found in ponds and tanks.

_Distribution._--All over India and Ceylon.



13. Trachys, _Pers._

These are softly, villous, diffuse annual grasses. The inflorescence
consists of usually two (rarely three) divaricating spikes on a long
peduncle. The rachis is herbaceous, broad flexuous, jointed and bearing
at each joint a solitary globose cluster of two or three perfect
1-flowered glabrous spikelets surrounded by many short spinescent glumes
of imperfect ones. The perfect spikelets are 4-glumed and the glumes are
very unequal. The first glume is minute, tooth-like, nerveless. The
second glume is long, linear-lanceolate, membranous, very acute,
strongly 3- to 5-nerved. The third glume is the largest, obliquely
ovate, or obovate-oblong, cuspidately acuminate, rigidly coriaceous, 9-
to many-nerved, paleate or not, empty. The fourth glume is shorter and
narrower than the lower one, linear-oblong, acuminate, chartaceous,
smooth, dorsally convex, with incurved margins, bearing a bisexual
flower, paleate, palea is hyaline as long as the glume, and the margins
are inflexed below the middle. Lodicules are very minute or wanting.
There are three stamens. The styles are very long with slender stigmas,
exserted at the top of the glume. The grain is oblong, compressed, free
within the glume and its palea.


=Trachys mucronata, _Pers._=

This is a diffusely branching, softly villous annual grass. The stems
are many from the root, 16 to 18 inches long, ascending or decumbent and
prostrate, leafy, glabrous, rooting freely at the lower nodes,
especially when procumbent.

The _leaf-sheaths_ are loose, inflated, hairy or rarely glabrous. The
_ligule_ is a thin membrane, or a ridge of fine closely set hairs.
_Nodes_ are villous.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear-lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate acuminate,
flaccid, softly villous on both the surfaces, margins often crisped,
base rounded, 2 to 6 inches by 1/4 to 1/2 inch.

The _inflorescence_ consists of a long or short, slender, shining
peduncle bearing two or three rigid, flattened, flexuous, jointed
spikes, the rachis is broad, herbaceous, with a flat, broad, closely
nerved wing on both the sides and with a distinct flat midrib and
jointed, each joint bears on the under surface at the articulation, a
solitary, globose cluster of two to three perfect 1-flowered glabrous
spikelets surrounded by many short spinescent glumes of imperfect ones.
The spikes vary in length from 1 to 2 inches and in breadth from 1/10 to
1/6 inch and are glabrous.

The clusters of _spikelets_ are about 1/4 inch in diameter, often
partially sunk, in a concavity of the rachis; the perfect spikelets are
1/5 to 1/4 inch long and the imperfect are shorter.

[Illustration: Fig. 121.--Trachys mucronata.

A and B. The spikelets; 1, 2 and 3. the first, second and the third
glume, respectively; 4. palea of the third glume; 5 and 6. the fourth
glume and its palea; 7. lodicules, ovary and stamens.]

In the perfect spikelet there are four very unequal glumes. The _first
glume_ is minute, tooth-like, triangular or lanceolate, acute,
nerveless, 1/16 to 1/12 inch long. The _second glume_ is elongate,
linear-lanceolate, acute, sometimes ciliate below the middle,
membranous, narrower than the third glume, hyaline, strongly 3-nerved,
1/16 by 1/6 inch. The _third glume_ is 1/5 by 1/8 inch the largest in
the spikelet, broadly and obliquely ovate or obovate, cuspidately acute,
with nine to many green nerves, paleate; the _palea_ is very small,
about 1/20 inch long, oblong, hyaline and rigidly coriaceous. The
_fourth glume_ is much narrower and shorter than the third glume, linear
oblong, acuminate, chartaceous, smooth, dorsally convex, with incurved
margins, bisexual and paleate; the palea is as long as the glume,
acuminate, hyaline, the margins inflexed below the middle, ovate, acute.
_Lodicules_ are minute or absent. _Stamens_ are three with linear
anthers. _Styles_ are very long with slender stigmas. The grain is
oblong, compressed.

This grass grows abundantly in cultivated dry fields and in the sand
near the sea-shore and it is easily recognized by the clusters of
spikelets in the spike.

_Distribution._--The Deccan Peninsula--both in the interior and on the
sea coast.



14. Tragus, _Haller._

These are annual or perennial grasses, with erect or prostrate stems.
Inflorescence is a spiciform raceme, bearing the spikelets in clusters
of 2 to 4. The spikelets are 1-flowered and usually with two glumes.
Sometimes a very minute hyaline lower glume is present. The first glume
is thickly coriaceous, 5-ribbed, oblong-lanceolate, and ribs with long
recurved spines. The second glume is oblong or oblong-lanceolate,
apiculate, chartaceous, 3-nerved and with a perfect flower; palea is as
long as the glume, 2-nerved. Lodicules are broad, cuneate and fleshy.
There are three stamens. Styles are slender and distinct, with narrow
stigmas exserted from the top of the glume. Grain is oblong to
ellipsoidal free within the glume and its palea.

[Illustration: Fig. 122.--Tragus racemosus.]


=Tragus Racemosus, _Scop._=

This plant is a perennial with tufted prostrate or erect stems, rooting
at the nodes freely and densely leafy. The flowering branches are erect
or geniculately ascending and varies from a few inches to about a foot.

The _leaf-sheath_ is short, pale, glabrous, somewhat compressed,
striate, equitant below and upper are longer, terete and green. The
_ligule_ is only a ridge of short, fine hairs. _Nodes_ are glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is convolute when young, ovate or ovate-lanceolate,
variable from 1/4 to 2 inches long and 1/10 to 1/6 inch wide, acuminate,
flat or somewhat wavy, glabrous on both the surfaces, rigidly pungent,
densely crowded and distichously imbricate in the lower part of the
stem, base is amplexicaul, and the margin is distantly serrate and
rigidly ciliate.

The _inflorescence_ is a spike-like terminal panicle varying in length
from 3/4 to 2 inches; the _rachis_ is wavy, slender, angular or grooved,
pubescent, the peduncle is striate, pubescent and enclosed by the
leaf-sheath.

The _spikelets_ are arranged in groups of two, facing each other and
appearing like a single spikelet with two equal echinate glumes,
sessile, or obscurely pedicelled on very short, tumid, pubescent
branches.

[Illustration: Fig. 123.--Tragus racemosus.

1. A pair of spikelets; 2, 3 and 4. the first, second and the third
glume, respectively; 5. palea of the third glume; 6. ovary, anthers and
lodicules.]

There are two (rarely three) _glumes_ in the spikelet. The _first glume_
is very minute, hyaline, obtuse and it is very often not present. The
_second glume_ is about 1/8 inch, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, strongly
3-ribbed with rows of stout, spreading hooked spines along the ribs and
encloses a single floret. The margins of this glume are membranous and
somewhat scaberulous. The _third glume_ is about 1/12 inch, oblong
lanceolate, membranous minutely hairy, 3-nerved and finely pointed at
the apex; the _palea_ is as long as the glume, hyaline, 2-nerved,
lanceolate, subacute and irregularly toothed at the apex. _Stamens_ are
three, with slender filaments, anthers are short, broad and pale yellow.
The style branches are pale and feathery. _Lodicules_ are two, fleshy
and cuneate or subquadrate. The grain is free inside the glume and the
palea, linear oblong, slightly compressed and pale brown, the embryo
occupies about 1/3 the length of the grain.

This is one of the commonest grasses growing everywhere in tufts with
usually prostrate branches. In some situations the branches are erect.

_Distribution._--Plains of India throughout and Ceylon. It is found in
all the warm regions of the world.



15. Perotis, _Ait._

These are slender annual or perennial grasses with short broad leaves.
Inflorescence is a spike or spiciform raceme. The spikelets are
1-flowered, sessile or shortly pedicelled and jointed. There are three
glumes in the spikelet. The first and the second glumes are empty,
subequal, narrowly linear with a strong midrib which is produced into a
long capillary awn. The third glume is very small, hyaline, lanceolate,
acute, 1-nerved and with a perfect flower; palea is small, narrow,
hyaline and nerveless. Stamens are three with short anthers. Styles are
short and united at the base with very short stigmas. The grain is long
and narrow, longer than the flowering glume.

[Illustration: Fig. 124.--Perotis latifolia.]


=Perotis latifolia, _Ait._=

This grass is an annual with slender leafy stems, branching at the base,
prostrate at first and then geniculately ascending, terminating in
inflorescences and varying in length from 3 to 15 inches.

The _leaf-sheaths_ are glabrous, usually all short except the one next
to the inflorescence which is two or three times as long as the lower
sheaths. The _nodes_ are purple and glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is short, 1 to 1-1/4 inches long, ovate or lanceolate,
cordate at base, acute and glabrous on both the surfaces; the margin is
minutely serrate, rigidly ciliate and with a very narrow hyaline border.

The _inflorescence_ is a slender, crinite, spike-like raceme, 1 to 8
inches long, with a finely scabrid main _rachis_.

The _spikelets_ are narrow linear 1/12 to 1/8 inch or longer, purple,
shortly pedicelled and 1-flowered, pedicels are short with a hyaline
swelling on the upper side at the base.

[Illustration: Fig. 125.--Perotis latifolia.

1 and 2. Spikelets; 3, 4 and 5, the first, second and the third glume,
respectively; 6. ovary, stamens and lodicules.]

There are three _glumes_. The _first_ and the _second glumes_ are empty,
narrow-linear, purple, scabrid, 1-nerved and awned; awns are capillary,
varying in length from 1/3 to 1/2 inch. The _third glume_ is very minute
with very small palea. There are three _stamens_ and two small
_lodicules_. _Styles_ are somewhat shorter. The grain is long and
cylindric.

This grass grows in open waste places and in dry fields all over the
Presidency.

_Distribution._--Throughout India.



CHAPTER VIII.

TRIBE IV--ANDROPOGONEÆ.


Andropogoneæ is a very large tribe with about thirty genera. It is very
well represented in South India and some genera are of very wide
distribution.

The spikelets are usually arranged in pairs at each joint, one sessile
and the other stalked. The spikelets may all be similar as in Imperata
or they may be different as in Ischæmum and Andropogon. There may be
only one flower in the spikelet as in Eremochloa and Saccharum or two as
in Ischæmum and Apocopis. In the genera Polytoca and Coix the spikelets
are unisexual and the male and female spikelets are found in the same
inflorescence, the female being below and the male being continuous with
it. The spikelet nearly always consists of four glumes, the first or the
first and the second being firmer and coriaceous or chartaceous. The
flowering glumes are always shorter than the empty glumes, and are
hyaline. The fourth glume is often awned or reduced to an awn.

The main rachis of the inflorescence is usually jointed at the base. In
addition to this the rachis may be jointed all along its length, so as
to become separated into distinct joints when mature as in Rottboellia,
Saccharum and Andropogon, or it may be continuous as in Imperata. The
pedicels of spikelets and the lower portions of the rachilla of the
spikelets may have long hairs.

Sub. Tribe 1. =Maydeæ.=

  The spikelets are all unisexual, spicate, the male
  and female spikelets are dissimilar, and are on the
  same or on different spikes.

    Fruiting spikelets enclosed in a stony nut-like
    polished bract                                     16. Coix.

    Fruiting spikelets with the first glume
    forming a crustaceous nut-like envelope
    to other glumes and grain                          17. Polytoca.

Sub. Tribe 2. =Sacchareæ.=

  The spikelets are all similar, in compound racemes
  or panicles; the first glume not sunk in the
  hollow of the rachis. Spikelets are 1-flowered.

    Rachis not fragile; spikelets in cylindrical
    silvery thyrsus                                    18. Imperata.

    Rachis fragile; spikelets in open very much
    branched silky panicles                            19. Saccharum.

Sub. Tribe 3. =Ischemeæ.=

  Spikelets many, dissimilar, in solitary, digitate
  or fascicled racemes or spikes; first glume not
  sunk in the hollow of the rachis.

  Margins of the first glume of the sessile spikelet
  inflexed.

    Spikes rarely solitary; spikelets binate,
    2-flowered and awned                               20. Ischæmum.

    Spikes solitary; spikelets 1-flowered; first
    glume of the sessile spikelet pectinate            21. Eremochloa.

  Margins of the first glume of the sessile spikelet
  not inflexed.

    Spikes solitary or binate; spikelets 1- to
    2-flowered, diandrous; first glume broad
    and truncate                                       22. Apocopis.

    Spikes 2 or more; spikelets binate, upper
    alone awned                                        23. Lophopogon.

Sub. Tribe 4. =Apludeæ.=

    Spikelets three on an inarticulate rachis          24. Apluda.

Sub. Tribe 5. =Rottboellieæ.=

  Spikelets similar or dissimilar, 1- to 2-flowered,
  solitary, 2- or rarely 3-nate on the internodes of
  an articulated spike or raceme, not awned; the
  first glume is not keeled, sunk in a cavity of
  joints of the rachis; sessile spikelets 4-glumed.

    Sessile spikelets single; first glume flat         25. Rottboellia.

    Sessile spikelets geminate in all except
    the uppermost joints                               26. Mnesithea.

    Sessile spikelets binate; first glume globose,
    pitted                                             27. Manisuris.

Sub. Tribe 6. =Eu-Andropogoneæ.=

  Spikelets are dissimilar, 1-flowered, 2-(rarely)
  3-nate on the whorled articulate branches of
  simple or compound racemes or panicles; glumes
  four, first glume not keeled, fourth glume usually
  awned.

    Spikelets binate below and 3-nate at
    the top on a spicate or panicled inflorescence     28. Andropogon.

  Spikelets in two superposed series. Upper series of
  one or more sessile bisexual or female spikelets
  with one terminal pedicelled male spikelet.

    Rachis jointed above the involucral spikelets      29. Anthistiria.

    Rachis jointed below the involucral spikelets      30. Iseilema.



16. Coix, _L._

These are tall monoecious annual or perennial grasses. The
inflorescences are terminal or axillary spiciform racemes. The
lowest-spikelet in the raceme is female and this is enclosed in a bract
which at length becomes hardened, polished and nut-like and the other
spikelets above it are male. The male spikelets are 2- to 3-nate at each
node of the rachis, 1 sessile and 1 or 2 pedicelled, lanceolate and
4-glumed. The first and the second glumes are subequal and empty, and
the first glume is winged along the inflated margins. The third and the
fourth glumes are hyaline, with three stamens or empty. The female
spikelet is ovoid acuminate and has four glumes. The first glume is
chartaceous and the others are thin and gradually smaller. The grain is
orbicular, ventrally furrowed and enclosed by the polished hard bract.


=Coix lachryma-jobi, _L._=

This is a tall monoecious leafy annual (rarely perennial) grass with
stout, smooth, polished, freely branching stems rooting at the lower
nodes and varying in length from 3 to 5 feet or more.

The _leaf-sheath_ is long, usually smooth but occasionally with
scattered tubercle-based hairs. The _ligule_ is a narrow membrane. The
_nodes_ are glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is long, flat, narrow or broad, acuminate, cordate at
base, with a stout midrib and many slender veins on both sides, usually
glabrous on both sides though occasionally with scattered hairs, and
with spinulosely serrate margins, varying from 4 to 18 inches in length
and 1/3 to 2 inches in breadth.

The _inflorescence_ consists of nodding or drooping spiciform racemes, 1
to 1-1/2 inches long, terminating the branches. The racemes consist of
many male spikelets with one (rarely two) female spikelets at the base;
the rachis is stout above, and the part within the bract enclosing the
female spikelet is slender.

The _male spikelets_ are imbricating, 2 or 3 at a node of the rachis,
one sessile and one or two pedicelled, dorsally compressed, articulate
at the base and persistent, very variable in size, 3/8 to 3/4 inch.
There are four _glumes_ in the spikelet. The _first glume_ is
oblong-lanceolate, chartaceous, 3/5 inch long, acute, many-nerved,
concave with inflexed margins bearing narrow green many-veined wings.
The _second glume_ is similar to the first, but thinner and without the
wings, 5- to 9- or rarely 11-nerved. The _third glume_ is
oblong-lanceolate, hyaline, faintly 3- to 5-nerved, paleate and with
three stamens. The _fourth glume_ is similar to the third, paleate with
or without stamens.

[Illustration: Fig. 126.--Coix Lachryma-Jobi.]

1. Inflorescence; 2. the female spikelet; 3. male spikelets; 4, 5, 6 and
8. the first, second, third and the fourth glume, respectively, of a
male spikelet; 7 and 9. palea of the third and the fourth glumes,
respectively.]

The _female spikelet_ is enclosed by a closed bract which finally
becomes hardened, and there are four _glumes_ in the spikelet. The
_first_ and the _second glumes_ are chartaceous. The _third_ and the
_fourth_ are hyaline, the former being empty and the latter with an
ovary. _Lodicules_ are not present. The _ovary_ is ovoid with very long
capillary styles. The grain is orbicular, compressed, channelled at the
back and enclosed within the stony, hardened and polished bract.

This grass usually grows in paddy fields. There are two distinct
varieties--one a fairly tall one annual and the other a very tall (5 to
10 feet) perennial one. The racemes of the latter are longer and
drooping, the male spikelets are in threes and the wings of the first
glume are usually broader than in the other form. This species is easily
recognized by the polished bract enclosing the female spikelet.

_Distribution._--Throughout India.



17. Polytoca, _Br._

These are tall monoecious annual or perennial grasses. Inflorescences
consist of spiciform racemes with spathaceous bracts; rachis is jointed.
Racemes may all be male or with one or two female spikelets at the base.
Male spikelets are geminate, one sessile and one pedicelled, 2-flowered
or imperfect, and with four glumes, which are subequal. The first glume
is membranous, many-nerved, shallowly concave and with a narrow
membranous margin. The second glume is narrower, ovate, acute, 5- to
9-nerved. The third glume is membranous, oblong, acute, 3- to 5-nerved,
paleate and with three stamens. The fourth glume is very slender,
hyaline, linear, paleate with three stamens or empty. Female spikelets
are broadly oblong, 1-flowered and with four glumes. The first glume is
thick, coriaceous and closely embraces the rachis of the spike by its
involute margin and the other glumes are within. The second glume is
oblong, many-nerved. The third is narrowly oblong, 3- to 5-nerved,
empty. The fourth glume is very narrow, truncate, 3-nerved, paleate.
Styles are very long with slender stigmas. Grain is small, fusiform,
terete and enclosed in the nut-like polished and hardened first glume.


=Polytoca barbata, _Stapf._=

This is an erect, tall, stout, freely branching, leafy, monoecious
perennial grass. The stems are terete, 3 to 6 feet high.

The _leaf-sheaths_ are long, glabrous, or with scattered tubercle-based
bristly hairs. The _ligule_ is a narrow membrane. The _nodes_ have a
ring of soft long hairs.

The _leaf-blades_ are long, flat, linear, acuminate, with a stout midrib
and thickened serrate margins, scabrid above and sometimes with a few
tubercle-based hairs, 10 inches to 2 feet long and 1/4 to 3/4 inch
broad.

The _inflorescence_ consists of paniculate spike-like racemes
terminating the branches and at first enclosed in spathiform bracts, the
lower and outer spathiform bracts are one inch or more in length with a
long awn at the tip, and the inner proper sheaths are oblong, awned and
about 1/2 inch long. The raceme consists of one or more female spikelets
at the base and a number of male spikelets above, appearing as if
sessile on the top of the female spikelet, but really articulate with
the internode below it which is enclosed by the first glume of the
female spikelet.

[Illustration: Fig. 127.--Polytoca barbata.

1. Inflorescence; 2, 3, 4 and 5. the first, second, third and the fourth
glume, respectively, of the male spikelet; 4a and 5a. palea of the third
and the fourth glume, respectively; 6. the first glume of the sessile
spikelet; 7. female spikelet; 8, 9 and 10. the second, third and the
fourth glume, respectively; 11. palea of the fourth glume; 12. ovary.]

The _male spikelets_ are solitary, or binate and then one sessile and
one pedicelled, 2-flowered, reaching 3/8 inch in length and consist of
four _glumes_ each. The _first glume_ is concave, ovate, acute,
pubescent, herbaceous, many-nerved and with a narrow membranous margin
on one side only in the pedicelled and solitary spikelets and on both
sides in the sessile spikelets. The _second glume_ is narrower, dorsally
compressed, ovate, acuminate, 5- to 9-nerved, laterally compressed and
with a narrow wing to the keel near the apex in sessile spikelets and
dorsally compressed without the keel in the pedicelled and solitary
spikelets. The _third glume_ is membranous, oblong, acuminate, 3- to
5-nerved, with three stamens and paleate; the _palea_ is hyaline,
broadly linear. The _fourth glume_ is very slender, linear, hyaline,
with or without stamens, paleate; _palea_ is flat, narrowly linear.
_Lodicules_ are present and they are small. The _anthers_ in the third
glume are larger than those in the fourth glume.

The _female spikelet_ is oblong, 1/6 inch long, 1-flowered and with four
_glumes_. The _first glume_ is thickly coriaceous, white, shining,
closely embracing the rachis and the other glumes entire at the tip. The
_second glume_ is quadrately oblong, many-nerved. The _third glume_ is
oblong, narrower than the second, 3- to 5-nerved paleate, empty. The
_palea_ of the third glume is narrow, truncate. The _fourth glume_ is
narrow, truncate, 3-nerved, paleate; the _palea_ is truncate and wrapped
round the ovary. _Styles_ are long and stigmas slender. _Lodicules_ are
not present. The grain is fusiform, terete and within the nut-like
polished hardened glume.

_Distribution._--In damp situations all over India.



18. Imperata, _Cyril._

These are erect perennial grasses. The inflorescence is a spike-like
panicle, with very short filiform inarticulate branches and rachises.
Spikelets are binate, 1-flowered, all alike, both pedicelled, articulate
at the base and hidden by the very long silky hairs arising from a small
callus and from the glumes. There are four glumes. The first two glumes
are membranous, lanceolate, and subequal. The third glume is shorter and
smaller, hyaline. The fourth glume is still smaller and hyaline. Stamens
are two, rarely one. Lodicules are not found. Styles connate below, with
stigmas very long, narrow and exserted at the top of the spikelets.
Grain is small and oblong.


=Imperata arundinacea, _Cyril._=

This is an erect perennial grass with creeping, stoloniferous
root-stocks, with aerial stems varying from 6 inches to 3 feet.

The _leaf-sheath_ is loose and glabrous. The _ligule_ consists of long
soft hairs. The _nodes_ are naked or bearded.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear, flat, tapering from about the middle towards
the top, finely acuminate, and also narrowing towards the base into the
stout midrib, margins with fine long hairs at the base, 6 to 18 inches
by 1/10 to 1/3 inch, scabrous above and smooth beneath.

The _panicle_ is narrow, spike-like, silvery, 3 to 8 inches; branches
are short and appressed and the internodes of spikes are short with the
tips dilated.

The _spikelets_ are 1/8 to 1/6 inch concealed by long silvery hairs of
the callus and the glumes, articulate at the base; callus hairs are
about twice as long as the spikelet or longer.

There are four _glumes_ in the spikelet. The _first glume_ is
ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, with ciliate tips and long hairs at the back
below the middle, rather thickened towards the base, dorsally hairy, 3-
to 7-nerved, nerves not reaching the tip. The _second glume_ is as long
as the first, with membranous margins and with long hairs at the back,
3- to 7-nerved. The _third glume_ is hyaline, less than half as long as
the first and second glumes, oblong, obtuse or irregularly toothed,
nerveless or 1-nerved. The _fourth glume_ is slightly shorter and
narrower than the third, ovate, acute, obtuse or toothed, ciliate,
nerveless or faintly 1-nerved, paleate; _palea_ is about half as long as
the glume, quadrate, toothed or retuse, nerveless, glabrous. There are
only two stamens with orange anthers. Styles are slender, long, with
purple _stigmas_. _Lodicules_ are absent. Grain is small and oblong.

[Illustration: Fig. 128.--Imperata arundinacea.

1. A spikelet; 2, 3, 4, and 5. the first, second, third and the fourth
glume, respectively; 6. palea of the fourth glume; 7. two stamens and
the ovary.]

This is fairly abundant in moist stiff soils. On account of the
underground stolons this grass cannot be eradicated easily.

_Distribution._--Throughout India.



19. Saccharum, _L._

These are tall perennial grasses. Inflorescence is a much branched open
panicle, branches spreading or erect, capillary and fragile. Spikelets
are small, 1-flowered, binate, one sessile and the other pedicelled, the
sessile spikelet is bisexual and the pedicelled is female and rarely
bisexual; sessile spikelets are deciduous with the contiguous joint of
the rachis and the pedicel. There are four glumes. The first glume is
chartaceous, equal in length to the second, oblong or lanceolate. The
second glume is concave. The third glume is hyaline, empty. The fourth
glume is very small or absent. Lodicules are present. There are three
stamens. Stigmas are laterally exserted. Grain is oblong or sub-globose.


=Saccharum spontaneum, _L._=

This is a tall perennial grass with a creeping root-stock bearing erect
stems and occasionally decumbent or prostrate stolons. Stems vary in
length from 5 to 20 feet. Branches and axillary buds grow out piercing
the sheaths near the nodes.

The _leaf-sheath_ is glabrous, but woolly at the mouth. The _ligule_ is
a distinct ovate membrane. The _nodes_ are glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is very long, narrow linear, acuminate and narrowing
downwards into the stout midrib, coriaceous, glabrous and 1-1/2 to 2
feet by 1/8 to 1/4 inch.

The _panicle_ is lanceolate, 8 to 24 inches, silky and the peduncle just
below the panicle is softly silky, branches are whorled, three to five
at a level, 2 to 4 inches long, rachis of the branches almost capillary,
jointed and fragile, joints with long cilia at the back.

The _spikelets_ are binate, one sessile and another pedicelled, both
bisexual and alike, lanceolate, 1/8 to 1/6 inch long, callus is minute
and bearded with spreading silky hairs 1/2 inch long.

[Illustration: Fig. 129.--Saccharum spontaneum.

1. Two spikelets; 2, 3, 4 and 5. the first, second, third and the fourth
glume, respectively; 6. ovary, stamens and lodicules.]

There are four _glumes_. The _first glume_ is lanceolate, subulate,
acuminate, 2-nerved, flattened dorsally, coriaceous at the base and
hyaline above it, and with smooth incurved margins. The second _glume_
is about equal to or slightly shorter than the first, lanceolate,
acuminate, 1-nerved, keeled with an opaque base; margins and keel are
ciliate with fine long hairs. The _third glume_ is hyaline,
ovate-lanceolate, nerveless, acute, ciliate. The _fourth glume_ is very
slender, ciliate, acuminate, paleate; _palea_ is minute, very variable.
_Stamens_ are three. _Lodicules_ are cuneate or quadrate. The grain is
very small, oblong.

_Distribution._--This occurs all over India along the sides of the
river.



20. Ischæmum, _L._

The grasses of this genus are either annuals or perennials. The
inflorescence consists of spikes, solitary, digitate or fascicled,
articulate and fragile; the joints of the floral axis and the pedicels
of the pedicelled spikelets are trigonous and hollowed ventrally.
Spikelets are binate, one sessile and one pedicelled; the pedicelled
spikelets are dissimilar from the sessile and both usually 2-flowered.
The sessile spikelets have four glumes. The first glume is coriaceous,
oblong or lanceolate, convex more or less, marginally winged above the
middle, truncate or two-cuspidate at the apex and awnless. The second
glume is as long as the first, coriaceous, concave, acute or obtuse,
awned or not. The third glume is hyaline, deeply cleft into two lobes
with an awn in the cleft, and 3-nerved, paleate; palea is
linear-lanceolate enclosing either stamens and ovary or ovary alone.
Lodicules are cuneate or quadrate.

KEY TO SPECIES.

  Racemes two or three; the first glume of the
  sessile spikelet dorsally flat, not
  channelled or depressed along the middle line.

    Margin of the first glume of the sessile
    spikelet incurved narrowly from the base to
    the apex.

      First glume of sessile spikelets with
      nodulose margins.                           1. I. aristatum.

      First glume of sessile spikelets closely
      transversely ribbed.                        2. I. rugosum.

      First glume of the sessile spikelet
      translucent, bicuspidate at the tip and
      with smooth margins.                        3. I. pilosum.

    Margin of the first glume of the sessile
    spikelet broadly incurved from below the
    middle.

      First glume of the sessile spikelet with
      smooth margins, callus bearded.             4. I. ciliare.

  Raceme solitary; the first glume of the sessile
  spikelet deeply grooved at the back along the
  middle line.                                    5. I. laxum.


=Ischæmum aristatum, _L._=

This is a perennial grass, with fairly stout, erect or somewhat
decumbent, simple or branched, glabrous, leafy stems, 1 to 4 feet high.

The _leaf-sheath_ is loose, glabrous and auricled. The _ligule_ is a
distinct membrane, broad or narrow. _Nodes_ are glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear-lanceolate, flat, acuminate, narrowed towards
the base which may be acute, subcordate or rarely even petiolate,
glabrous or sparsely hairy above and glaucous beneath, 4 to 10 inches
long and 1/4 to 1 inch broad.

The _inflorescence_ consists of one or two, erect, stout or slender,
fragile racemes, 1 to 5 inches long.

[Illustration: Fig. 130.--Ischæmum aristatum.

1. A portion of the raceme showing the joints, sessile and pedicelled
spikelets; 2, 3, 4 and 6. the first, second, third and the fourth glume,
respectively, of the sessile spikelet; 5 and 7. palea of the third and
the fourth glumes, respectively; 8. ovary, stamens and lodicules; 9.
first glume of the pedicelled spikelet.]

The _spikelets_ are 1/6 to 1/3 inch long, the sessile and the pedicelled
closely pressed together, glabrous or hairy; the callus of the sessile
spikelet broad and thick, with or without hairs. The _sessile spikelet_
is awned and consists of four glumes. The _first glume_ is 1/5 inch long
or less, oblong or linear-oblong, cartilaginous below the middle, with
two to four (or rarely up to six) marginal nodules on each edge,
sometimes these are connected by shallow ridges, thinner above the
middle, with green anastomosing veins, tip obtuse or 2-toothed, and
margins narrowly incurved. The _second glume_ is chartaceous,
lanceolate, acuminate, 1-nerved and with a smooth rounded keel. The
_third glume_ is ovate-lanceolate, membranous, 1-nerved, acuminate, male
or bisexual with an oblong palea. The _fourth glume_ is cleft to or
below the middle into lanceolate acute lobes, with a brownish red awn
1/2 inch or more long at the sinus twisted at the lower portion and
straight above, paleate, usually female; _palea_ is linear oblong. The
_pedicelled spikelet_ is as long as the sessile, inarticulate on the
very thick, short pedicel which is densely or sparsely hairy at the
base. The _first glume_ is scimitar-shaped, coriaceous, acute, with a
somewhat semi-circular wing. The other _glumes_ are as in sessile
spikelets, but the fourth glume has no awn and may have a mucro.

This grass is a variable one. There is much variation in the breadth of
the leaves and in the markings and hairiness of the spikelets. The
spikelets may be glabrous or hairy and the marking in the first glume of
the sessile spikelets varies in the matter of marginal nodules--it may
have mere shallow notches or deep well-formed nodules and there may be
transverse ridges or they may be absent. This grass is abundant on the
West Coast and rare in the East Coast.

_Distribution._--Throughout the plains and lower hills of India and
Ceylon.

[Illustration: Fig. 131.--Ischæmum aristatum.

A. A portion of the raceme showing the joints; B. a sessile and a
pedicelled spikelet. 1, 2, 3 and 6. the first, second, third and the
fourth glume, respectively; 4 and 5. palea of the third and the fourth
glume; 7. ovary and lodicules; 8. first glume of the pedicelled
spikelets.]


=Ischæmum rugosum, _Salisb._=

This is an erect annual grass with tufted, leafy, compressed stems
varying in length from 10 inches to 2 feet.

The _leaf-sheath_ is glabrous, loose and compressed, with a membranous
auricle confluent with the truncate _ligule_. _Nodes_ usually glabrous
but sometimes also puberulous.

The _leaf-blade_ is narrow, linear-lanceolate, flat, base contracted,
flaccid, acuminate, rounded at the base, glabrous or sparsely hairy on
both the surfaces; the topmost leaf is often reduced to an inflated
sheath enclosing the inflorescence partially.

[Illustration: Fig. 132.--Ischæmum rugosum.

1. A part of the raceme showing sessile spikelets with reduced
pedicelled spikelets; 2. a sessile spikelet and a well developed
pedicelled spikelet; 3. a reduced pedicelled spikelet; 4, 5, 6 and 8.
the first, second, third and the fourth glume of the sessile spikelet; 7
and 9. palea of the third and fourth glumes of the sessile spikelet; 10.
ovary.]

The racemes are usually two, erect, fragile, 1 to 3 inches long with a
slight thickening of the peduncle below the inflorescence; the joints
are 1/3 to 2/3 as long as the sessile spikelets; trigonous and
subclavate, and with long hairs on one side. The _spikelets_ are
linear-oblong, glabrous or villous, 1/8 to 1/4 inch long, sessile and
stalked spikelets close together; the pedicel of the stalked spikelet is
thick about 1/3 or less than the length of the sessile spikelet, ciliate
on one side, confluent with the thick callus of the sessile spikelet,
which is sparsely bristly. The _sessile spikelet_ consists of four
glumes and is awned. The _first glume_ is concave, pale yellow, shining
and cartilaginous to about 2/3 its length from the base, and the upper
third is membranous, dimidiately ovate; at the back in the cartilaginous
portion, there are three to six deep convex smooth ridges running across
the glume; the membranous tip is thin and with anastomosing green veins;
the margins of this glume are thick, narrowly incurved, ciliolate, and
with a narrow wing on the outer margin. The _second glume_ is
oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate, coriaceous, acuminate, scaberulous,
keeled and laterally compressed and on the keel just below the tip there
is a narrow ciliate wing. The _third glume_ is ovate-lanceolate,
hyaline, acuminate 1- to 3-veined, male or empty, with a narrow hyaline
palea. The _fourth glume_ is shorter than the third, deeply cleft into
two lanceolate acute lobes, 3-veined at the base; awn up to about 2/3
inch long; _palea_ is linear lanceolate. Stamens are three and
_lodicules_ are small and cuneate.

The pedicelled spikelet is very variable. It is shorter than the
sessile, with obscure transverse ridges and may consist of four glumes,
but without an awn to the fourth glume; sometimes this spikelet is
reduced to a single glume.

The grain is broadly oblong, brownish and compressed.

_Distribution._--Throughout India and Ceylon.

[Illustration: Fig. 133.--Ischæmum pilosum.

A and B. Ligules.]


=Ischæmum pilosum, _Hack._=

It is a tall, robust, perennial grass with rhizomes producing numerous
creeping stolons densely covered with scaly-sheaths. The aerial stems
are erect, freely branching at the base, slender, 2 to 3 feet long,
glabrous.

The _leaf-sheath_ is glabrous. The _ligule_ is a distinct glabrous
membrane, 1/8 inch long, rounded. _Nodes_ are glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear, finely acuminate, glabrous but bearded at
the base, 6 to 12 inches long and 1/8 to 1/3 inch broad.

The _inflorescence_ consists of two to six softly hairy spikes which are
yellow or brown 1 to 4 inches long. Joints and pedicels are slender,
sparsely ciliate.

[Illustration: Fig. 134.--Ischæmum pilosum.

1. A sessile and a pedicelled spikelet; 2, 3, 4 and 6. the first,
second, third and the fourth glume, respectively, of the sessile
spikelets; 5. palea of the third glume, 7. palea of the fourth glume; 8.
ovary; 9, 10, 11 and 12. first, second, third and the fourth glume,
respectively, of the pedicelled spikelets; 13. palea of the fourth
glume.]

The _sessile spikelets_ are narrowly lanceolate, 3/4 inch long, with
long hairs at the base. The _first glume_ is dorsally hairy, or
glabrous, narrowed from the middle upwards, chartaceous, with incurved
margins and six or seven anastomosing nerves. The _second glume_ is
longer than the first, laterally compressed, ovate-lanceolate,
acuminate, chartaceous, glabrous but often with long hairs on the keel
towards the upper half, 5-nerved, the lateral nerves anastomosing. The
_third glume_ is a little shorter than the second, linear-oblong or
lanceolate, paleate; _palea_ is membranous, nerveless, and encloses
three stamens. The _fourth glume_ is equal to the third glume in length,
membranous, hyaline and divided almost to the middle into two acute
lobes with an awn 1/4 to 3/8 inch long, paleate; _palea_ is lanceolate,
nerveless and encloses three stamens and the ovary and sometimes only
the ovary. The _pedicelled_ _spikelets_ are shorter than the sessile but
with a shorter awn. The _glumes_ are similar to those of the sessile
spikelet; sometimes these spikelets are imperfect or even reduced to a
single glume.

This grass grows well in black cotton soils and sometimes it gets very
well established and then it is very difficult to eradicate it. Cattle
seem to like this grass.

_Distribution._--In black cotton soils all over the presidency, but most
abundant in the Ceded districts.

[Illustration: Fig. 135.--Ischæmum ciliare.]


=Ischæmum ciliare, _Retz._=

It is a tufted perennial grass, erect or creeping. Stems are erect or
ascending, sometimes decumbent at base, and rooting at the nodes, stout
or slender, 6 inches to 2 feet long.

The _leaf-sheath_ is compressed, loose, glabrous or hairy. The _ligule_
is a short, ciliate membrane. _Nodes_ are glabrous or hairy.

The _leaf-blade_ is flat, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, narrowed towards
the acute or rounded base, glabrous or hairy, 2 to 6 inches long and 1/6
to 1/2 inch wide.

The _inflorescence_ consists of two spikes, 1-1/2 to 2 inches long;
joints and pedicels of the pedicelled spikelets equal, hairy at the back
and at the angles.

The _sessile spikelets_ are 1/8 to 1/5 inch long, oblong, bearded at the
base. The _first glume_ is coriaceous, convex, polished, smooth or
pitted, hairy below, flat and veined above the middle, with broad or
narrow ciliate equal wings and with margins narrowly inflexed above and
broadly so below. The _second glume_ is coriaceous, equal to or longer
than the first, lanceolate, acuminate, or shortly awned, 3- to 5-nerved,
keel narrowly winged towards the apex, dorsally ciliate or not. The
_third glume_ is ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, ciliate towards the apex,
1- to 3-nerved, paleate; the _palea_ has a coriaceous lanceolate centre,
with broad hyaline ciliate wings and encloses three stamens. The _fourth
glume_ is hyaline, deeply lobed into two oblong obtuse glabrous or
ciliate lobes, with an awn twice as long as the spikelet in the cleft,
and paleate; _palea_ is lanceolate, acuminate, 2-nerved. _Styles_ and
_stigmas_ are short.

[Illustration: Fig. 136.--Ischæmum ciliare.

1. Spikelets; 2, 3, 4 and 6. the first, second, third and the fourth
glume, respectively, of the sessile spikelet; 5 and 7. palea of the
third and the fourth glumes, respectively; 8. lodicules, stamens and the
ovary; 9 and 10. the first and the second glumes of the pedicelled
spikelet.]

The _pedicelled spikelets_ resemble the sessile ones in the structure of
their glumes and palea.

This grass is very variable in its habit and in the structure of its
spikelets. It grows mostly in wet situations, such as the bunds of paddy
fields and tanks. Cattle eat the grass eagerly.

_Distribution._--All over India and Ceylon.


=Ischæmum laxum, _L._=

This is a perennial grass with numerous stiff, thick and wiry roots.

Stems are erect, slender, rising in tufts from a short root-stock,
glabrous, leafy towards the base, varying in length from 2 to 3 feet.

The _leaf-sheaths_ are shorter than the internodes usually glabrous, but
occasionally with scattered hairs. At the mouth tufts of hairs are
present or not. The _ligule_ is a ridge of silky hairs. The _nodes_ are
glabrous.

The _leaf-blades_ are erect, flat, slightly glaucous, linear, narrowed
to long capillary tips, 5 to 12 inches long and 1/10 to 1/6 inch broad,
with prominent nerves and scabrid margins.

The _inflorescence_ is a solitary spike, 2 to 5 inches long, erect and
fragile; the joints and pedicels are compressed, somewhat 2-angled,
ciliate with long hairs, and about half as long as the spikelets.

[Illustration: Fig. 137.--Ischæmum laxum.

1. A sessile and a pedicelled spikelet; 2. first glume of a sessile
spikelet; 3. second glume of a sessile spikelet; 4 and 5. third and
fourth glumes of sessile spikelets; 4a and 5a. are palea of third and
fourth glumes; 6. ovary; 7, 8, 9 and 10. glumes of pedicelled spikelets;
9a and 10a. palea of third and fourth glumes.]

The _spikelets_ are in pairs, one-sessile and one-pedicelled. The
_sessile spikelets_ are pale-green, linear-oblong, acuminate with a
shortly bearded callus, 1/4 to 3/8 of an inch long. There are four
glumes in a spikelet. The _first glume_ is chartaceous,
oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, 2-toothed with the teeth ending in two
short awns, densely ciliated at the apex on one side, conspicuously 6-
(rarely) 7-nerved, the two lateral being very strong and running into
the apical teeth and the intermediate four nerves being shorter and not
running up to the apex, and on the dorsal surface there is a depression,
where it is membranous and the nerves on its sides sometimes
anastomosing at the upper third of the glume. The _second_ _glume_ is
shorter than the first, chartaceous to a certain extent,
ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, concave, terminating in a fine scabrid awn,
1/2 inch long, with margins ciliate from above the middle to the apex,
and with a narrow ciliated wing on the keel at the apex running up to
the base of the awn, 3-nerved. The _third glume_ is lanceolate,
acuminate, hyaline, nerveless, ciliate, with a linear obtuse _palea_
enclosing three stamens and two _lodicules_. The _fourth glume_ is
hyaline, membranous, deeply split at the apex into two prominent lobes
and with an awn in the depression 1/2 inch long, the _palea_ is linear
oblong and contains either the ovary alone or both the _stamens_ and the
_ovary_.

The _pedicelled spikelets_ are also as long as the sessile, more
conspicuous than the sessile and consist of four glumes, but are not
awned. The _first glume_ is lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate,
chartaceous, with seven strong nerves, very prominent at the back and
the mid nerve being most conspicuous, with scabrid keels and closely
finely ciliated and folded margins, finely biaristate at the apex. The
_second glume_ is lanceolate, finely acuminate, sub-chartaceous, with
the margins ciliate from about two-third its length from the apex,
3-nerved, the mid nerve alone being prominent. The _third glume_ is
hyaline, nerveless, lanceolate, ciliate in the margin, paleate with 3
stamens or empty. The _fourth glume_ is shorter than the third, hyaline,
narrow lanceolate, not awned, ciliate or not at the margin, paleate and
with three stamens and two _lodicules_.

This grass produces a large amount of leaves in good soils and it is
liked very much by cattle. It is capable of standing a long spell of dry
weather, and is valuable in this respect because it can be depended upon
when other grasses fail. It is worth conserving with other grasses. It
grows both in rich and poor soils, in open places and also in thickets.

_Distribution._--Throughout India and Ceylon.



21. Eremochloa, _Buse._

These are tufted perennial grasses with rigid equitant leaves at the
base. The inflorescence consists of a solitary, glabrous, and compressed
spike, with a somewhat fragile rachis; the joints are compressed, hollow
and clavate. The spikelets are solitary, usually 2-flowered (rarely
1-flowered), secund, closely imbricating, sessile with a short,
pedicelled, reduced upper spikelet, and deciduous with the joint. There
are four glumes. The first glume is oblong or ovate, flat, smooth,
coriaceous, pectinately margined with upcurved spines. The second glume
is oblong-lanceolate, acute and 3-nerved. The third glume is hyaline,
obtuse, paleate and male. The fourth glume is smaller, hyaline, oblong,
obtuse, 1-nerved, paleate, bisexual or female. Lodicules are truncate
and slightly oblique. Stamens are three with long anthers. Styles are
two with feathery stigmas. The grain is oval, plano-convex.


=Eremochloa muricata, _Hack._=

This is a perennial tufted grass with a woody creeping root-stock. Stems
are erect or ascending, slender, strongly compressed, lower parts
completely covered by rigid equitant leaves, 6 to 18 inches long or
more.

The _leaf-sheath_ is broad, flat, much compressed, glabrous and keeled.
The _ligule_ is a short membrane. _Nodes_ are glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear, glabrous on both sides, 2 to 6 inches long
and 3/16 to 1/4 inch broad, with a rounded tip and two unequal lobes.

The _spike_ is solitary, up to 6 inches (or more) in length, joints of
the rachis 1/3 to 1/2 the length of the spikelets. _Spikelets_ are
solitary, sessile, compressed, secund. The _sessile spikelets_ are 3/16
to 1/6 inch, and consist of four spikelets. The _first glume_ is
oblong-lanceolate, dorsally slightly convex, smooth, coriaceous, 7- to
9-nerved, and with pectinate margins consisting of long, spreading,
upcurved spines and at the top with subquadrate wings on each side
reaching beyond the acute tip. The _second glume_ is chartaceous,
oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, usually 5-nerved (and occasionally
3-nerved), the mid-nerve keeled with a narrow wing from below the middle
to the base and with hyaline margins. The _third glume_ is
oblong-obovate, hyaline, thin, paleate with three yellow _anthers_ and
two oblong-cuneate _lodicules_; _palea_ is narrow, oblong, obtuse. The
_fourth glume_ is thin, hyaline, oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, paleate, and
bisexual; _palea_ lanceolate, narrow, two-toothed at the apex, with deep
purple _anthers_ and _stigmas_ of the same colour. The _lodicules_ are
obliquely truncate. _Ovary_ has a reddish spot between the style
branches and just at the apex in the fresh state in the bud and in the
open flower.

[Illustration: Fig. 138.--Eremochloa muricata.

A. Sessile spikelet; B. sessile and a pedicelled spikelet; 1, 2, 3 and
4. the first, second, third and the fourth glume of the sessile
spikelet; 3a and 4a. palea of the third and fourth glumes of the sessile
spikelet; 5. ovary, anthers and lodicules.]

The _pedicelled spikelet_ is reduced to an inflated body, as long as the
sessile spikelet. It is pointed towards both ends, green with
anastomosing veins on the outside and membranous, white and nerveless on
the other side. The part of the pedicelled spikelet corresponding to the
spikelet looks as if the margins of the first and second glumes are
confluent all round.

_Distribution._--South India and Ceylon.



22. Apocopis, _Nees._

These are annual or perennial grasses with slender stems. The spikes are
compressed, 2- to 3-nate, or solitary at the ends of slender branches,
with a rachis not jointed; joints are short, slender and villous.
Spikelets are closely imbricating in two series, sessile, solitary, the
upper reduced to a small pedicel 1- to 2-flowered, the lowest few on the
spike, imperfect, male or neuter. There are four glumes. The first glume
is large, broadly obovate or obcordate, cuneate, villous with brown
hairs, 7- to 9-nerved. The second glume is as long as the first, but
narrower, thinner, oblong to ovate, spikelet truncate and 3-nerved. The
third glume is hyaline, narrow, paleate, male or empty. The fourth glume
is hyaline, linear, entire or 2-fid, awned, bisexual with a very short
palea. Lodicules are absent. Stamens are two or three with linear
anthers. Styles are short and stigmas slender and exserted. The grain is
small, oblong and narrow.

[Illustration: Fig. 139.--Apocopis Wightii.]


=Apocopis Wightii, _Nees ex Steud._=

This is a low and densely tufted or tall erect annual grass. Stems are
leafy, branching freely, 3 to 8 inches long.

The _leaf-sheath_ is loose, usually hairy, rarely also glabrous and
hairy at the mouth. The _ligule_ is a small lacerate membrane.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear-lanceolate, acuminate, hairy on both sides
and with tubercle-based hairs, rarely glabrous, 3/4 to 3 inches by 1/12
to 1/8 inch.

The _inflorescence_ consists of two racemes, closely appressed together
on a very slender peduncle; the joints are shorter than the spikelets
and with long brown hairs.

The _spikelets_ are oblong, 1/8 to 1/5 inch long, the callus is short,
hairy with long brown hairs. The _first glume_ is cuneately obovate or
obcordate, yellowish with red brown tips or dark brown with yellow tips,
chartaceous below, membranous, hyaline and ciliate at the truncate,
emarginate or retuse apex, 7- to 9-nerved, the nerves abruptly ceasing
towards the apex. The _second glume_ is as long as the first, broadly
oblong, sides sharply folded inwards, 3-nerved, rarely nerveless, with
long hairs at the back towards the base and with short cilia at the
apex. The _third glume_ is as long as the first, hyaline, thin,
linear-oblong, nerveless, ciliate at the apex, paleate, usually with two
stamens or empty; _palea_ as long as the glume, hyaline and nerveless.
The _fourth glume_ is slightly longer than the other glumes or equal,
very narrowly oblong or linear, membranous, awned and paleate; _awn_ is
2 to 6 times the length of the glume, 7/8 to 1-1/4 inch long; _palea_ is
hyaline, thin, nerveless, convolute, broadly oblong to almost quadrate
oblong, apex with very short cilia. Grain is minute and oblong.

[Illustration: Fig. 140.--Apocopis Wightii.

1. Spike; 2. a spikelet; 3, 4, 5 and 7. the first, second, third and the
fourth glume, respectively; 6 and 8. palea of the third and the fourth
glume; 9. ovary.]

This grass varies very much in its spikelets. In one form they are
smaller and hairy and in the other they are larger and glabrous except
for a few stray hairs here and there. The former one is more widely
distributed and the latter seems to be confined to certain localities in
the south of the Presidency.

_Distribution._--Throughout the Deccan Peninsula, Behar, Central India,
Burma and Ceylon.



23. Lophopogon, _Hack._

These are small densely tufted perennial grasses, with very narrow
leaves. The spikes are very short at the ends of very fine branches,
solitary, binate or fascicled, with very fragile rachis; joints are very
short, slender with cupular tips. The spikelets are binate one sessile
and the other shortly pedicelled, with the callus villous. There are
four glumes. The first glume (of both the sessile and the pedicelled
spikelets) is oblong, truncate, irregularly 3- to 4-toothed, 5- to
7-nerved and dorsally convex. The second glume is narrow lanceolate,
longer than the first, 3- to 5-nerved, hispidly villous dorsally below
the middle and on the sides, aristate or awned. The third glume is
oblong lanceolate, hyaline, acute or aristate, 1-nerved, male or neuter,
with a linear palea. The fourth glume is hyaline, as long as the third,
entire or 2-fid and awned in the pedicelled and not awned in sessile
spikelets, paleate with female or bisexual flowers. Lodicules are not
present. Stamens are two. Stigmas are long.


=Lophopogon tridentatus, _Hack._=

This is a small annual grass with slender, tufted, erect stems varying
in height from 4 to 12 inches.

_Leaf-sheaths_ are glabrous or with scattered hairs. The _ligule_ is a
fringe of close-set long hairs. _Nodes_ are covered with long hairs
below, but nodes nearer the inflorescence are glabrous.

_Leaf-blades_ are very finely linear, acuminate, rigid, erect, glabrous
below, with long hairs on the upper surface to about quarter the length
of the blade and densely hairy near the mouth, and varying in length
from 2 to 6 inches.

The _inflorescence_ consists of usually two closely appressed spikes,
though appearing as one, 1/2 to 3/4 inch long, pilose with ferrugineous
hairs; the peduncle is capillary and enclosed by the upper leaf-sheath.

[Illustration: Fig. 141.--Lophopogon tridentatus.

1. Awnless lower spikelet; 2. a lower sessile and an upper pedicelled
spikelet; 3. the first glume of an awnless lower spikelet; 4. the first
glume of a lower spikelet that is awned; 5. the first, glume of the
upper or pedicelled spikelets; 6, 7 and 9. the second, third and the
fourth glume, respectively, of the upper pedicelled spikelets; 8 and 10.
palea of the third and the fourth glumes; 11. ovary and anthers.]

The _spikelets_ are densely imbricate, binate at each joint, the upper
being shortly pedicelled and the lower sessile or subsessile. The _lower
spikelets_ are 1/5 inch long with a tuft of brownish hairs at the tip of
the callus. The _lower spikelets_ at the very base of the inflorescence
are awnless and contain only two male flowers, whereas those above in
the inflorescence are awned and contain one male flower and one
hermaphrodite or female flower.

There are four _glumes_ in the spikelet. The _first glume_ in the
awnless spikelets is coriaceous, oblong, cuneate, very sparsely hairy or
glabrous, shorter than the second glume, 7-nerved, 5-toothed at the
apex, two teeth being broader and shorter and three sharper and longer.
The _second glume_ is longer than the first, 1/5 inch long,
sub-chartaceous, lanceolate, 3-nerved, 2-fid at the tip and awned or
aristate, margin hyaline and with long brownish hairs on the marginal
nerves. The _third glume_ is hyaline, a little shorter than the second,
lanceolate-linear, tip bifid or irregularly toothed, paleate with two
stamens or rarely empty; the _palea_ is linear, about as long as the
glume, tip irregularly toothed. The _fourth glume_ is hyaline, as long
as the third glume, 2-fid at the tip, awnless with a very minute arista
in the cleft or not, paleate with two stamens; _palea_ narrow and
hyaline. The _first glume_ of the lower spikelets above is somewhat
narrower, 5- or 3-toothed with long hairs at the margins and with tufts
of hairs at the back about the middle. The pedicelled or upper spikelets
also have four _glumes_ and bear one male flower and one bisexual
flower. The _first glume_ is shorter than the second glume, narrow,
oblong, cuneate, 3-toothed with marginal hairs and tufts of hairs at
about the middle at the back, 7-nerved all nerves running straight. The
_second glume_ is longer than the first, 1/5 inch long, sub-chartaceous,
lanceolate, 2-fid at the tip, awned with hyaline margins, 3- to
7-nerved, marginal nerves with long brown hairs, and also with two tufts
of hairs at about the middle or without it. The _third glume_ is
hyaline, nerveless, linear-lanceolate, shorter than the second glume,
tip irregularly toothed or unequally bifid, paleate with two stamens;
_palea_ is linear about as long as the glume. The _fourth glume_ is
hyaline, about 1/6 inch long, lanceolate, 2-fid at the tip, awned in the
cleft, lobes are hairy; _awn_ is 3/4 inch long, paleate, usually
bisexual, rarely female; _palea_ is two-thirds of the glume in height,
broadly ovate or quadrate, lobulate at the apex. _Styles_ are very long,
purple, _anthers_ long, yellow. Grain narrow ellipsoidal or cylindric as
long as the palea.

This grass is found in Chingleput, Nellore and Chittoor districts in
open waste places in loamy soils.

_Distribution._--The Konkan, Kanara and Central Provinces.



24. Apluda, _L._

These are tall leafy slender perennial grasses, with branching stems
erect or geniculately ascending from a creeping or decumbent base. The
inflorescence is a leafy panicle of many small spikes enclosed in
spathiform bracts. Spikes are of one linear joint gibbously bulbous at
the base, and jointed on the peduncle at the base of the spathe by a
minute curved pedicel. Spikelets are three, a sessile, 2-flowered
bisexual one in front, and two pedicelled ones behind, one of which is
imperfect and reduced to a glume and the other perfect male or rarely
bisexual. The two pedicels are flat, prolonged from one side of the
rounded rachis, oblong linear, truncate with a few long hairs along the
margin. Sessile spikelets have four glumes. The first glume is
chartaceous, linear oblong, many-nerved, shortly bifid at the apex,
longer than the other glumes. The second glume is thinner, dorsally
gibbous, keeled, 5- to 9-nerved, beaked and minutely bifid. The third
glume is hyaline, oblong, acute, 3-nerved, paleate and male. The fourth
glume is hyaline, deeply bifid, awned in the sinus, bisexual with a
minute palea. The pedicelled spikelet has also four glumes. The first
and the second glumes are nearly equal, rather chartaceous.
linear-oblong, acute or acuminate, many-nerved. The third glume is
hyaline, oblong-lanceolate, 3-nerved, paleate and male. The fourth glume
is hyaline, bifid, paleate, 1-nerved, female or bisexual. Lodicules are
two. Stamens are three. Grain is oblong.


=Apluda varia, _Hack._=

This is a tall leafy perennial grass with wiry roots. Stems are densely
tufted, branched, geniculately ascending, erect or the branches
scandent, solid, smooth and polished, 1 to 7 feet.

The _leaf-sheath_ is glabrous or slightly hairy, the upper ones being
shorter and dilated into spathes with subulate tips. The _ligule_ is a
short stiff slightly lacerate membrane.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear-lanceolate, finely acuminate, base narrowed
into a petiole, scaberulous on both the surfaces.

The _inflorescence_ consists of simple spikes, each in a spathiform
bract, and forming clusters terminating the stem and the branches. The
_spikes_ have their bases rounded and swollen and each spike consists of
a sessile bisexual spikelet and two flat linear, truncate, parallel
pedicels, one terminated by a spikelet, and the other by a solitary
minute glume. Spathes are 1/8 to 1/3 inch long, sessile or pedicellate,
green, cymbiform, with subulate tips.

[Illustration: Fig. 142.--Apluda varia.

A. A cluster of spikes containing five spikes with their spathes; B and
C. spikes.]

The _sessile_ as well as the _pedicelled spikelets_ have four _glumes_.
The _sessile spikelets_ are 1/8 to 1/5 inch long. The _first glume_ is
spreading or erect, chartaceous, many-nerved, two-toothed at the apex
and with narrow hyaline margins from about the middle to the apex. The
_second glume_ is compressed, dorsally gibbous, keeled, 7-nerved. The
_third glume_ is hyaline, oblong-lanceolate, 3-nerved, paleate with
three stamens; _palea_ is narrow. The _fourth glume_ is shorter than the
third, deeply 2-fid and awned in the cleft, bisexual or female, 3- to
5-nerved below the cleft, the lateral nerves arching and meeting the
mid-nerve just at the cleft, with a small ovate palea. There are two
_lodicules_. The _pedicelled spikelets_ are dorsally compressed. The
_first glume_ is lanceolate, oblong, subacute, many-nerved, coriaceous
and glabrous. The _second glume_ is as long as the first, many-nerved,
lanceolate-oblong, coriaceous and glabrous. The _third glume_ is
hyaline, shorter than the second, 3-nerved, paleate and with three
stamens. The _fourth glume_ is shorter than or equal to the third,
hyaline, 1-nerved rarely with two short lateral nerves, female or
imperfect. _Lodicules_ are two.

A very common grass occurring in the plains and lower hills, all over
the Presidency and grows well in all kinds of soil.

_Distribution._--All over India.

[Illustration: Fig. 143.--Apluda varia.

1, 2, 3 and 4. The first, second, third and the fourth glume,
respectively, of the sessile spikelet; 3a and 4a. are the palea of the
third and the fourth glume, respectively; 5. stamens, ovary and
lodicules; 6, 7, 8 and 10. the first, second, third and the fourth
glume, respectively, of the pedicelled spikelet; 9 and 11. palea of the
third and the fourth glumes.]



25. Rottboellia, _Linn. f._

These are tall, annual or perennial grasses, with leafy stems and narrow
leaves. The spikes are few or many, solitary or panicled, with a jointed
usually fragile rachis; the joints are rounded or compressed, hollowed
on one side and excavated at the tip. The spikelets are usually binate,
one-sessile closing or sunk in the cavity of the joint and the other
pedicelled, smaller than the sessile or rudimentary with the pedicel
usually adnate to the joints and equal to or shorter than it. The
sessile spikelets are bisexual, 1- to 2-flowered, equal to or shorter
than the joint and four-glumed. The first glume is coriaceous dorsally
flattened, obtuse, margins narrowly incurved. The second glume is
thinner than the first, broadly ovate, acute and gibbously convex. The
third glume is hyaline, ovate, acute, male or neuter, with a membranous
palea. The fourth glume is hyaline, bisexual, broadly ovate, acute with
a hyaline, ovate-lanceolate palea. There are three stamens with linear
anthers. There are two cuneate lodicules. Styles are two with laterally
exserted stigmas. The grain is broadly oblong. The pedicelled spikelets
are smaller than the sessile, male or neuter, with four glumes. The
first glume is herbaceous, many-nerved, ovate-acute, minutely bifid at
the apex. The second, third and the fourth are more or less similar to
those of the sessile spikelet.

KEY TO THE SPECIES.

  Spike solitary, the first glume of the sessile
  spikelet broadly winged.                           R. Myurus.

  Spikes fascicled, the first glume of the sessile
  spikelet narrowly winged.                          R. exaltata.


=Rottboellia Myurus, _Benth._=

This is a tufted perennial with creeping stems which branch freely into
ascending compressed branches, 10 inches to 2 feet high.

The _leaf-sheath_ is quite glabrous and compressed. The _ligule_ is a
short ciliate membrane. _Nodes_ are glabrous.

_The leaf-blade_ is flat, linear, acute, glabrous, 2 to 6 inches long.

The _inflorescence_ consists of a solitary terminal or axillary _raceme_
1 to 2 inches long; joints are shorter than the spikelets, excavate on
one side and with a pore which is hidden by the sessile spikelet. The
_sessile spikelet_ consists of _four glumes_. The _first glume_ is
somewhat fiddle-shaped, dilated above the middle into an orbicular wing,
and towards the base into two auricles joined by a transverse ridge,
scaberulous, 5-nerved. The _second glume_ is somewhat membranous, ovate,
acute and 3-nerved. The _third glume_ is hyaline, thin, oblong, obtuse
and nerveless. The _fourth glume_ is lanceolate, nerveless and without a
palea, bisexual. There are two cuneate _lodicules_. The _pedicelled
spikelets_ also have four glumes and the pedicels usually free, but also
sometimes adnate. The _first glume_ is oblong, obtuse, winged on one
side only, 5-nerved. The _second glume_ is boat-shaped, chartaceous,
3-nerved crested with a semi-circular wing at the apex. The _third
glume_ is hyaline, broadly oblong, obtuse, 3-nerved with a lanceolate
hyaline palea. The _fourth glume_ is oblong, obtuse, male.

[Illustration: Fig. 144.--Rottboellia Myurus.]

1. A portion of the raceme showing front view; 2. a portion of the
raceme showing the back view; 3. a sessile and a pedicelled spikelet
showing the front side; 4. the same showing the back side; 5, 6, 7 and
8. the first, second, third and the fourth glume of the sessile
spikelet, respectively; 9 ovary and lodicules; 10, 11, 12 and 14. the
first, second, third and the fourth glume, respectively, of the
pedicelled spikelet; 13 and 15. palea of the third and fourth glumes of
the sessile spikelet.

This is very common in dry somewhat sandy places in the East Coast
districts.

_Distribution._--Common in Deccan peninsula.


=Rottboellia exaltata, _L.f._=

This grass is usually annual and rarely perennial. Stems are stout,
erect, hispid, branching from the base, varying in height from 3 to 10
feet.

The _leaf-sheaths_ are loose, hispid with tubercle-based hairs, or
glabrous, with mouth contracted. The _ligule_ is short and ciliate.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear-lanceolate, setaceously-acuminate with a
stout midrib prominent beneath, hispid or scabrid above, smooth or
sometimes scaberulous and glaucous beneath, spinulosely scabrid at the
margin, 5 to 24 inches by 1/4 to 1 inch.

[Illustration: Fig. 145.--Rottboellia exaltata.

1 and 2. A portion of the spike, back and front view; 3, 4, 5 and 7. the
first, second, third and the fourth glume, respectively, of the sessile
spikelet; 6 and 8. palea of the third and the fourth glumes of the
sessile spikelet; 9. ovary; 10, 11, 12 and 14. the first, second, third
and the fourth glume of the pedicelled spikelet; 13 and 15. palea of the
third and the fourth glume of the pedicelled spikelet.]

The _racemes_ are stout, cylindrical below and very narrow and with
imperfect spikelets above, joints are smooth and rounded dorsally. The
_sessile spikelets_ are as long as the joint or slightly shorter and has
four glumes. The _first glume_ is ovate-oblong, thickly coriaceous,
smooth at the back with a truncate base and a transverse ridge at the
base inside, many-nerved, with very narrow inflexed margins and very
narrow wings at the top, the apex is obtuse or emarginate. The _second
glume_ is equal to the first glume in height, chartaceous, gibbously
convex, broadly ovate, acute, 9- to 11-nerved, and with a short wing to
the keel at the apex. The _third glume_ is oblong or elliptic-oblong,
rigid with a hyaline centre and coriaceous at the sides, 3-nerved,
paleate and with three stamens; _palea_ is as long as the glume,
coriaceous with inflexed hyaline margins. _Lodicules_ are cuneate, with
toothed edge. The _fourth glume_ is a little shorter than the third,
ovate from a broad base, hyaline and acute, 1-nerved, paleate and
usually with an ovary and two _lodicules_: _palea_ is hyaline, as long
as the glume. but narrower, nerveless. _Lodicules_ are quadrate; grain
somewhat large oblong and compressed. The _pedicelled spikelets_ are
usually imperfect.

This grass occurs all over the Presidency in cultivated dry fields.

_Distribution._--Throughout the lower hills and plains of India and in
Australia and Africa.



26. Mnesithea, _Kunth._

These are erect slender perennial grasses with narrow leaves. The spikes
are solitary and slender, with a fragile, articulated rachis; the joints
are terete, ribbed, all but a few upper with two equal and similar
sessile spikelets, sunk in sub-opposite oblong cavities, separated by a
hyaline septum, and with sometimes a minute glume representing a third
spikelet (the pedicelled) on the upper margin of the joint. The sessile
spikelets are one-flowered, nearly as long as the internode. There are
four glumes in the spikelet. The first glume closing the mouth of the
cavity in the joint is obliquely oblong, obtuse, smooth with narrowly
incurved margins. The second and the third glumes are as long as the
first, obtuse and hyaline. The third glume is empty, paleate or not. The
fourth glume is rather small, oblong, obtuse, bisexual and palea shorter
than the glume. The lodicules are not present. The stamens are three.
Ovary is very small with stigmas not exserted. The grain is narrowly
oblong compressed. The pedicelled spikelets are confined to the upper
1-flowered joints of the spike and their pedicels are confluent with the
walls of the joints and their margins are marked by two ribs. The first
glume is very minute and the other glumes are absent.


=Mnesithea lævis, _Kunth._=

This is an erect slender perennial grass with smooth simple or branched
stems varying in height from 2 to 4 feet.

The _leaf-sheath_ is terete, tight, glabrous. The _ligule_ is a short
toothed membrane. _Nodes_ are glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is flat, linear from a narrow base, glabrous or base
hairy; apices of upper leaves acuminate, and those of the lower obtuse,
with finely serrate margins and a midrib prominent below, 6 to 12 inches
long and 1/10 to 1/6 inch wide.

_Racemes_ are short, exserted from the uppermost sheath, erect, 4 to 8
inches long; joints are 1/5 inch long, contracted in the middle, with
two equal and similar spikelets, sunk in the opposite oblong cavities
separated by a thin hyaline septum and sometimes with a minute glume of
the third spikelet on the upper margin of the joint.

[Illustration: Fig. 146.--Mnesithea lævis.

1 and 2. Portions of a spike; 3, 4, 5 and 6. the first, second, third
and the fourth glume, respectively; 7. palea of the fourth glume; 8.
ovary; 9 and 10. a part of the spike at the terminal portion.]

The _sessile spikelets_ are 1-flowered, as long as the joint and varying
in length from 1/7 to 1/5 inch and have four _glumes_. The _first glume_
is obliquely oblong, coriaceous, smooth, obtuse, margins narrowly
incurved, truncate and pitted at the base, 5- to 7-nerved. The _second
glume_ is as long as the first hyaline, oblong and obtuse. The _third
glume_ is like the second but thinner and slightly broader, paleate or
not, empty. The _fourth glume_ is rather smaller than the third, oblong,
obtuse, bisexual and paleate; the _palea_ is shorter than the glume.
_Lodicules_ are not present.

This grass is usually found in dry fields all over the presidency but it
is nowhere abundant.

_Distribution._--Throughout India and Ceylon.



27. Manisuris, _Sw._

These are erect leafy much branched annual grasses. Leaves are
amplexicaul and cordate at the base. The inflorescence consists of
small, terete, axillary and terminal spikes with peduncles often
confluent in a leafy spiciform panicle; the rachis is fragile with short
broad joints, deeply excavate opposite the sessile spikelets and the
tips with two pits. Spikelets are in dissimilar pairs, one globose,
sessile and bisexual and the other ovate, pedicelled, neuter with the
pedicels adnate to, or closely appressed to the joint of the rachis. The
sessile spikelet has four glumes. The first glume is globose, hard,
coarsely pitted, with an oblong ventral opening opposite the cavity in
the joint of the rachis. The second glume is chartaceous, minute,
oblong, 1-nerved immersed in the cavity of the first glume and closing
the opening. The third and the fourth glumes are hyaline and minute. The
lodicules are broadly cuneate. Anthers are minute. The styles are free
and stigmas are short exserted from the opening in the first glume.
Grain is sub-globose.


=Manisuris granularis, _L.f._=

This is a freely branching annual with stems leafy to the top and
varying in length from 1 to 2-1/2 feet.

The _leaf-sheath_ is inflated, covered with scattered tubercle-based
hairs. The _ligule_ is a short membrane with ciliate margin. _Nodes_ are
with long hairs.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear, cordate and amplexicaul at base, acute,
flat, flaccid, with scattered tubercle-based hairs on both the surfaces,
4 to 10 inches by 1/4 to 1/2 inch.

The _spikes_ are solitary, axillary and terminal and 1/4 to 1 inch, the
peduncles of the spikes are often confluent in a leafy spathiform
panicle; the rachis is fragile with short joints deeply excavate on one
side.

[Illustration: Fig. 147.--Manisuris granularis.

1 and 2. The front and back view of a bit of a spike; 3, 4, 5 and 6. the
first, second, third and the fourth glume, respectively, of the sessile
spikelet; 7. ovary anthers and lodicules; 8, 9, 10 and 12. the first,
second, third and the fourth glume, respectively, of the pedicelled
spikelet; 11 and 13. palea of the third and fourth glumes.]

The _spikelets_ are 1- to 2-flowered in dissimilar pairs, one globose,
sessile and bisexual and the other ovate, pedicelled, neuter; the
pedicel is adnate to the joint of the rachis.

The _sessile spikelet_ has four _glumes_. The _first glume_ is hard,
globose, foveolate, with an oblong opening, faintly nerved. The _second
glume_ is chartaceous, immersed in the cavity of the joint, and filling
the opening. The _third glume_ is small hyaline and empty. The _fourth
glume_ is hyaline, small and paleate. The grain is sub-globose.
_Lodicules_ are broadly cuneate.

The _pedicelled spikelets_ also have four _glumes_. The _first glume_ is
ovate, sub-chartaceous, winged on one side with a broad hyaline ciliate
wing, 5- to 7-veined. The _second glume_ is cymbiform, compressed
laterally, with a dorsal hyaline ciliate wing to the keel, 5- to
7-veined. The _third glume_ is hyaline, membranous, oblong, 2-nerved and
paleate or not, and with or without stamens. The _fourth glume_ is
similar to the third, but slightly smaller, paleate and with three
stamens.

This grass occurs in open loamy soils and in cultivated dry fields.

_Distribution._--Throughout India and Ceylon and also in most of the
tropical countries.



28. Andropogon, _L._

The grasses of this genus are either perennial or annual and vary very
much in habit. The inflorescence consists of solitary, binate, digitate,
or panicled racemes. The rachis is usually jointed and fragile.
Spikelets are binate, a sessile female or bisexual and a pedicelled male
or neuter. The sessile spikelet is 1-flowered and has usually four
glumes. The first glume is coriaceous or chartaceous, dorsally
compressed, with incurved margins, usually 2-keeled. The second glume is
as long as the first, thinner, with a median keel, laterally compressed,
awned or not. The third glume is hyaline, empty, nerveless and without a
palea. The fourth glume is hyaline, narrow or broad, 2-fid and awned, or
reduced to an awn more or less dilated at the base, paleate or not.
There are two lodicules and three stamens. Stigmas are feathery. Grain
is free. The pedicelled spikelets are usually smaller than the sessile
and have three or four glumes and are awnless.

KEY TO THE SPECIES.

  A. Sessile spikelets all similar.

    B. Racemes of many spikelets.

      C. Peduncle of racemes enclosed in
      spathiform leaf-sheaths.

	D. Joints of rachis and pedicels of upper
	spikelets slender and tips obliquely
	truncate.

          Racemes solitary, pedicelled spikelets
          similar to the sessile, glume
          1 of sessile spikelets pitted.            1. A. foveolatus.

	DD. Joints of rachis and pedicels of upper
	spikelets clavate or trumpet-shaped and
	tips cupular with toothed margins.

          Racemes binate, pedicelled spikelets
          differing from the sessile, glume I
          of the sessile spikelets deeply
          channelled.                               2. A. pumilus

      CC. Peduncle of racemes not enclosed in
      spathiform leaf-sheath.

          Racemes many, fascicled or panicled,
          glume I of sessile spikelets
          glabrous and pitted.                      3. A. pertusus.

          Racemes many and whorled in the
          panicle; glume I of sessile spikelets
          muricate on the margins.                  4. A. squarrosus.

    BB. Racemes of 3 spikelets on the capillary
    whorled branches of an erect panicle.

          Pedicels of upper spikelets half as long
          as the sessile spikelets or longer.

            Leaves broad.

              Leaf-sheaths covered densely with
              bristly hairs.                        5. A. asper.

              Leaf-sheaths covered with soft hairs. 6. A. Wightianus

          Pedicels of upper spikelets not half as
          long as the sessile spikelet.

            Leaves glabrous and narrow              7. A. monticola.

  AA. The lowest one or more sessile spikelets in
  all racemes, or at least in one or two, differing
  from all those above.

    Racemes digitate, rarely solitary, spikelets
    all alike in form but differing in sex.

      Pedicel 1/3 as long as the sessile
      spikelets; nodes usually glabrous;
      ligule usually short and membranous.          8. A. caricosus.

      Pedicel 1/2 as long as the sessile
      spikelets; nodes bearded; ligule
      large and membranous.                         9. A. annulatus.

    Racemes solitary; lower sessile spikelets very
    unlike the pedicelled or upper spikelets which
    are cylindric.

      Margin of glume 1 of the pedicelled
      spikelet unequally winged; ligule
      is a broad truncate membrane.                10. A. contortus.

    Racemes two, both sessile, or one sessile and
    the other pedicelled on a peduncle which is
    more or less sheathed by a proper spathe,
    divaricate or deflexed.

	Leaf base broad and cordate                11. A. Schoenanthus.

    _N.B._--This genus is now split into several separate genera,
    each subgenus being raised to the rank of a genus. But in this
    book the nomenclature adopted in Hooker's Flora of British
    India is followed.

[Illustration: Fig. 148.--Andropogon foveolatus.]


=Andropogon foveolatus, _Del._=

The stems are slender at first, slightly decumbent at the base and then
erect, covered at base with silkily villous sheaths, branches freely
above before flowering, the lower portion of stems alone being leafy.

The _leaf-sheath_ is somewhat scaberulous, partly green and partly
purplish, always shorter than the internode. The _ligule_ is short,
truncate, hyaline and ciliate. _Nodes_ are tumid and purplish with a
ring of hairs.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear, narrow, sometimes even filiform, acuminate
slightly cordate at the base, scabrid throughout with a few scattered
long bulbous-based hairs near the base to a distance of less than 1/2
inch about it and varies from 2 to 4 inches in length.

[Illustration: Fig. 149.--Andropogon foveolatus.

1 and 2. Sessile and pedicelled spikelets; 3, 4, 5 and 6. the first,
second, third and the fourth glume, respectively, of the sessile
spikelet; 7. lodicules, anthers and ovary; 8, 9 and 10. the two glumes
and the palea of the pedicelled spikelet.]

The _spikes_ are solitary, 1 to 1-3/4 inch long exserted far above the
small spathiform leaf-sheaths, peduncles are capillary and scaberulous,
pedicels and joints are somewhat flattened, and have along both the
narrow margins long, white, ascending hairs; callus is short with a ring
of short white hairs.

There are two kinds of _spikelets,_ sessile and pedicelled, and both are
oblong-lanceolate and equal. The _sessile spikelet_ consists of _four_
_glumes_. The _first glume_ is lanceolate, flat and smooth, keels
scabrid with usually a deep dorsal pit, 4-nerved. The _second glume_ is
lanceolate, acute, as long as the first, 3-nerved. The _third glume_ is
small, membranous, linear-lanceolate, nerveless. The _fourth glume_ is
the dilated base of the awn, awn is about 3/4 inch twisted to half its
length, scabrid, the lower twisted part dark and the upper pale. There
are three _stamens_ and two _lodicules_. _Ovary_ has two feathery
_stigmas_. The _pedicelled spikelets_ have only two glumes and contain
three stamens. The _first glume_ is oblong-lanceolate, 5-nerved, pitted
above the middle, with recurved margins and scabrid keels and nerves.
The _second glume_ is lanceolate, membranous, hairy at the top, 3-nerved
with margins infolded; _palea_ is oblanceolate, thinly membranous,
nerveless and ciliated at the top; there are three _stamens_ and two
_lodicules_.

This is a fairly common grass occurring all over the Presidency much
liked by cattle and yields plenty of foliage if properly looked after.
It grows on all kinds of soils, even laterite.

_Distribution._--Throughout India.

[Illustration: Fig. 150.--Andropogon pumilus.]


=Andropogon pumilus, _Roxb._=

It is a tufted annual with numerous radiating branches, growing on all
directions, bent below and erect above; they vary in length from 6
inches to 18 inches, but sometimes when growing under favourable
conditions attain the length of 2-1/2 feet. The stem is slender, green,
or pale reddish in the exposed portions and pale in parts covered by
sheaths slightly flattened, smooth.

The _leaf-sheaths_ are smooth, compressed, distinctly keeled. The
_ligule_ is a short, truncate, white, glabrous membrane. The _nodes_ are
glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear, finely acuminate, glabrous, but sometimes
somewhat scabrid along the nerves and with scattered long delicate hairs
above especially when young, varying in length from 1 to 7 inches and
1/10 to 1/8 inch in breadth.

The _inflorescence_ consists of paired spikes with very slender
peduncles arising from flattened, glabrous, acuminate spathes, varying
in length from 1/2 to 1-1/4 inches. The _spikes_ are spreading and one
of them always slightly longer than the other, reddish or pale green,
1/2 to 1 inch long; the _rachis_ consists of five to eight flat joints
broadened at the top and ending in a cup, densely ciliate on both the
margins, but hairs on one margin are shorter than those on the other.
Each joint bears a sessile and a pedicelled spikelet.

[Illustration: Fig. 151.--Andropogon pumilus.

1. A portion of the spike to show the arrangement of the spikelets; 1.
the first glume of the sessile spikelet; 2. second glume of the sessile
spikelet; 3 and 4. third and fourth glumes of the sessile spikelet; 5.
anthers, lodicules and the ovary; A, B and C. the three glumes of the
pedicelled spikelets.]

The _sessile spikelet_ is about 3/16 inch with an awn 7/16 inch long.
There are four _glumes_ in the spikelet. The _first glume_ is narrow,
linear, membranous, grooved, finely bicuspidate at the apex, with
incurved margins and two nerves ending in tubercles below. The _second
glume_ is a little longer than the first, narrow, lanceolate,
boat-shaped, thinly coriaceous with membranous margins, 1-nerved and
shortly awned. The _third glume_ is about 2/3 of the second glume in
length, and shorter than the first glume, linear-lanceolate, hyaline,
nerveless or sometimes very obscurely 2-nerved. The _fourth glume_ is
narrow linear, hyaline with two very fine lobes at the apex with an awn
between, 7/16 inch long. _Palea_ is hyaline and very small. _Stamens_
are three, _ovary_ with two long reddish feathery _stigmas_. _Lodicules_
small and cuneate. Grain is long and narrow.

The _pedicelled spikelets_ have only three glumes, and are slightly
shorter than the sessile ones, pedicel is similar to the joint. The
_first glume_ is ovate-lanceolate, thinly coriaceous, distinctly
many-nerved, acuminate, margins infolded and membranous. The _second
glume_ is ovate-lanceolate, membranous, glabrous and 3-nerved. The
_third glume_ is short, oblong-lanceolate, nerveless or faintly
2-nerved. There are three stamens.

This grass is variable in its size. In dry soils such as laterite soils,
it is a very small plant not exceeding 9 or 10 inches across its spread.
But in good soil and under favourable conditions the plant measures
across 5 or 6 feet. Cattle eat the grass before it flowers and do not
relish it so much when in flower.

A common grass flourishing all over the Presidency.

_Distribution._--Occurs in drier parts throughout India.

[Illustration: Fig. 152.--Andropogon pertusus.]


=Andropogon pertusus, _Willd._=

This grass is perennial. Stems are tufted, very slender, widely creeping
on all sides, purplish, but the flowering branches are erect or
ascending from a geniculate base, leafy at base, the nodes of the
creeping branches rooting and bearing tufts of branches which finally
become independent plants at each node, the creeping branches vary in
length from 1 to 3 feet and the erect ones from 10 to 18 inches or more.

The _leaf-sheaths_ are terete or somewhat compressed, glabrous,
sometimes ciliated near the node and shorter than the internode. The
_ligule_ is a truncate membrane, slightly ciliate or not. _Nodes_ are
bearded.

The _leaf-blades_ in the prostrate branches are crowded, short
linear-lanceolate, finely acuminate, soft, shortly hairy along the
nerves, sparsely ciliate near the rounded base, varying in length from 1
to 2 inches and in breadth 1/8 to 1/4 inch; but on the flowering
branches the leaves are longer, sometimes as long as twelve inches with
bigger sheaths.

[Illustration: Fig. 153.--Andropogon pertusus.

1. A portion of a spike; 2. a pair of spikelets; a. sessile and b.
pedicelled; a-1. first glume; a-2. second glume; a-3. third glume; a-4.
fourth glume and awn; a-5. ovary and stamens; a-6. grain; b-1. first
glume of pedicelled spikelet front and back; b-2. second glume front and
back; b-3. third glume.]

The _inflorescence_ consists of three to nine, slender, flexuous, erect,
purplish spikes, 1 to 2 inches long, alternately arranged on a thin,
long, slender, smooth peduncle of about six inches; _rachis_ is slender
and the joints and pedicels are densely silky with long hairs.

The _spikelets_ are in pairs, one sessile and one-pedicelled, both are
equal, purplish or pale. The _sessile spikelet_ consists of four glumes
and contains a complete flower and the callus is short and bearded with
long hairs. The _first glume_ is coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate, acute,
truncate or emarginate, slightly hairy, or glabrous with a deep pit
above the middle (sometimes with two or three pits also) 7- to 9-nerved
with a few long hairs below the middle and with margins infolded and
shortly ciliate. The _second glume_ is lanceolate-acuminate and finely
pointed at the tip and the point projecting slightly beyond the first
glume, 3-nerved or 3- to 5-nerved, membranous, slightly hairy or
glabrous, obscurely keeled. The _third glume_ is thin, membranous,
shorter than the second glume, linear-oblong, subobtuse or acute at the
tip and nerveless. The _fourth glume_ is the base of the awn and the
_awn_ is not twisted, bent at about the middle, 1/2 to 2/3 inch long;
there is no palea. _Anthers_ are three and yellow; _stigmas_ purple. The
grain is oblong-obovate, slightly transparent.

The _pedicelled spikelets_ are slightly narrower than the sessile,
generally not pitted (though pitted in some plants), and not awned, and
each one consists of three glumes only; the pedicel is more than half as
long as the sessile spikelets. The _first glume_ is slightly hairy,
oblong-lanceolate, acute or obtuse, ciliate at the margins, 7- to 9-, or
13-nerved, generally without pits, but occasionally with one, two or
three pits; the keels are ciliolate throughout the length. The _second
glume_ is membranous, ovate-lanceolate, acute, with incurved margins,
5-nerved. The _third glume_ is hyaline, linear-oblong, glabrous and
thinly ciliate at the tip or not with or without stamens.

This is an excellent fodder grass and it grows quickly and stands
cutting very well. Cattle eat this grass very well.

_Distribution._--This grass is found all over India in the plains or
lower elevations of hills.


=Andropogon squarrosus, _L.f._=

(_Vetiveria zizanioides._)

This is a densely tufted perennial grass with branching root-stocks and
spongy aromatic roots.

The stems are leafy, with equitant, hard, leaf-sheaths at the base,
smooth and polished, solid, 2 to 3-1/2 feet high.

The _leaf-sheaths_ are smooth, coriaceous, glabrous, keeled and
compressed. The _ligule_ is a very short membrane.

_Leaf-blades_ are narrowly linear, erect, strongly keeled and flat,
acuminate, glabrous both above and below, very much narrower than the
sheath at the base, 1 to 2 feet by 1/3 to 3/4 inch.

The _panicle_ is conical, erect with branches, fascicled, varying in
length from 4 to 12 inches. The _spikes_ consist of both sessile and
pedicelled spikelets, that are either grey, green, or purplish.

[Illustration: Fig 154.--Andropogon squarrosus.

1. A portion of a branch; 2. a sessile and a pedicelled spikelet; 3, 4,
5 and 6. the first, second, third and the fourth glume, respectively, of
the sessile spikelet; 7. palea of the fourth glume; 8. lodicules,
stamens and the ovary; 9, 10, 11 and 12. glumes of the pedicelled
spikelet; 13. palea of the fourth glume.]

The _sessile spikelets_ are about 1/6 inch long, lanceolate and with a
shortly bearded callus. The _first glume_ is ovate-oblong, thickly
coriaceous, obscurely 2- to 4-nerved (occasionally 5- to 7-nerved),
acute, dorsally flat, with incurved margins and with two rows of
tubercle-based minute prickles or mere excrescences at the sides. The
_second glume_ is as long as the first, oblong, coriaceous, keeled, with
hyaline and ciliolate margins, 1-nerved (sometimes 3-nerved, marginal
faint), and with minute prickles on the keel. The _third glume_ is
broadly oblong, hyaline, nerveless or rarely with two obscure veins
ciliolate at the margins and acute or acuminate. The _fourth glume_ is
shorter than the third, linear-oblong, mucronate or very shortly awned
at the apex, paleate; _palea_ about two-thirds the length of the glume,
lanceolate. _Lodicules_ are two, quadrate and conspicuous though small.
_Styles_ and _stigmas_ short. _Stamens_ are three with yellow anthers.
_Stigmas_ are purple.

The _pedicelled spikelets_ are similar to the sessile ones, but are
slightly smaller and the prickles are less prominent. The _fourth glume_
has no mucro or awn and has three stamens.

This grass is fairly abundant in moist situations, in the margins of
tanks and in tankbeds in the Coromandel districts, but in other inland
districts it is not so common. In some places it seems to be cultivated.
This is the _khus-khus_ grass.

_Distribution._--Throughout the plains and lower hills of India, Burma
and Ceylon, also said to occur in Java and Tropical Africa.


=Andropogon asper, _Heyne._=

(_Chrysopogon asper_, Heyne.)

This is a tufted perennial grass. Stems are stout below with distichous
leaves and very slender above, 2 to 3-1/2 feet long.

The _leaf-sheaths_ are distichous and towards the base of the stem are
1/2 inch broad, compressed, keeled and with scattered tubercle-based
hairs. The _ligule_ is a short membrane fringed with close set hairs.

[Illustration: Fig. 155.--Andropogon asper.

Leafy shoot, a bit of the stem with leaf-sheaths and a bit of the leaf.]

The _leaf-blades_ are broad, distinctly linear, acute or acuminate,
coriaceous, glabrous or softly hairy on both the surfaces, with a
slender midrib which bears short stiff tubercle-based hairs all along,
and margins with similar hairs, but a few leaves towards the base are
longer, and varying in length from 12 to 18 inches and in breadth from
1/2 to 3/4 inch.

The _panicle_ is somewhat narrow, 7 to 8 inches long, branches are very
slender, whorled, usually with only one spike consisting of a sessile
and two pedicelled spikelets.

The _sessile spikelets_ are 1/4 inch long, laterally compressed, with a
long callus villous all round, and bisexual. The _first glume_ is
coriaceous, linear-oblong, strongly compressed above and with a few
stiff short bristles beneath the tip. The _second glume_ is linear,
oblong, coriaceous, with an awn as long as itself or shorter, keeled and
with short stiff bristles on the keel and on the sides above the middle.
The _third glume_ is hyaline, narrow, obtuse, shorter than the second,
2-nerved, ciliate. The _fourth glume_ is the linear, hyaline, 3-nerved
base of the awn; the _awn_ is 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 inches and bent at about
the middle.

The _pedicelled spikelets_ are about 1/3 inch, narrowly lanceolate, male
or neuter and with short rusty hairs on both the margins of the pedicel
and a semi-circular tip. The _first glume_ is thin, 2-toothed or not at
the tip, awned, _awn_ being as long as itself or longer, 7-nerved,
ciliate at the sides from base to tip; the nerves are either equidistant
or the lateral nerves nearer the margin. The _second glume_ is
lanceolate-acuminate, not awned, 3-nerved, margins hyaline, and
ciliolate. The _third glume_ is hyaline, linear-oblong, 2-nerved,
ciliolate. The _fourth glume_ is linear or linear-lanceolate, hyaline,
nerveless or 1-nerved.

[Illustration: Fig. 156.--Andropogon asper.

1. Spike; 2, 3, 4 and 5. the first, second, third and the fourth glume,
respectively, of the sessile spikelet; 6. the ovary, lodicules and
stamens; 7, 8, 9 and 10. the first, second, third and the fourth glume,
respectively, of the pedicelled spikelet; 11. callus of the spike.]

This grass grows abundantly on the sides of the Kambakkam Drug,
Chingleput district, and in Penchalkonda, Nellore district, and seems to
be an endemic species. It is usually confined to the hill sides and not
found in the plains. This grass is very closely allied to _Andropogon
Wightianus_ and it differs from it only in the general habit of the
plant and in having bristles on the leaf-sheaths. On the whole this is a
coarser and larger plant than _A. Wightianus_.

_Distribution._--Kambakkam Drug in the Chingleput district and
Penchalkonda in Nellore district.


=Andropogon Wightianus, _Steud._=

(_Chrysopogon Wightianus_, Nees.)

This is a perennial. Stems are erect or ascending from a creeping
root-stock, varying in height from 2 to 3 feet.

The _leaf-sheath_ is flattened, softly hairy or glabrous, often ciliated
near the mouth. The _ligule_ is a fringe of very short hairs.

The _leaf-blade_ is narrowly or rarely broadly linear, obtuse or acute
and abruptly mucronate, or narrowly drawn into a point glabrous or
pubescent, margins shortly ciliate.

The _panicle_ is narrow, 3 to 6 inches long, peduncle smooth below but
thinly pubescent above, lower branches long, few in a whorl; rachis is
very slender, angular, glabrous or hairy. The _spikes_ are solitary and
each one consists of one sessile and two pedicelled spikelets. The
callus is long and densely bearded with brown hairs.

[Illustration: Fig. 157.--Andropogon Wightianus.

1. A spike; 2, 3, 4 and 5. the first, second, third and the fourth
glume, respectively, of the sessile spikelet; 6. lodicules, stamens and
the ovary; 7, 8, 9 and 10. the first, second, third and the fourth
glume, respectively, of the pedicelled spikelet.]

_Sessile spikelets_ are bisexual, sub-cylindric about 1/4 inch long.
There are four _glumes_. The _first glume_ is chartaceous, laterally
compressed, obscurely 4-nerved, glabrous below, hispid near the apex,
minutely 2-toothed or not at the apex, not awned or rarely with a short
awn. The _second glume_ is chartaceous, distinctly awned, the _awn_
being as long as the glume or longer, hispid above and at the sides
also. The _third glume_ is hyaline, linear-oblong, 2-nerved ciliate. The
_fourth glume_ is narrow with hyaline margins, with an _awn_ 2 to 3
inches long; _awn_ is hispid below, twisted and geniculate at and less
hairy above the middle. Stamens are three. Styles are two and feathery.
Lodicules are very small.

_Pedicelled spikelets_ are male or neuter, flattened, hairy, rarely
glabrous. The pedicels are half as long or slightly longer than the
sessile spikelet, truncate or semi-circular at the top, and with brown
villous hairs along the margin. There are four _glumes_. The _first
glume_ is about 3/8 inch, ciliate, along the inflexed margin, 7-nerved,
awned; _awn_ equal to or longer than the glume. The _second glume_ is as
long as the first, shortly awned or acuminate, 3-nerved, ciliate. The
_third glume_ is hyaline, oblong, 2-nerved, sparsely ciliate. The
_fourth glume_ is narrow, ciliate, nerveless or rarely 1-nerved, erose
or bifid at the top. _Anthers_ three or more.

This grass grows on the plains as well as on the hills. It is very
closely allied to _Andropogon asper, Heyne_, and it is very difficult to
distinguish them. _Andropogon Wightianus_ is somewhat smaller compared
with _Andropogon asper_, and the tubercle-based bristles on the
leaf-sheaths, so characteristic of _A. asper_, is absent.

_Distribution._--Madras, Chingleput district, Kodaikanal and the
Nilgiris.


=Andropogon monticola, _Schult._=

(_Chrysopogon monticola._)

This is a perennial grass.

The stems are usually slender, densely tufted, erect, simple, or
branched, leafy especially at the base, varying in height from 1 to 3
feet.

The _leaf-sheaths_ are sparsely hairy or glabrous, the lower somewhat
compressed and the upper terete. The _ligule_ is a short, ciliated
membrane. The _nodes_ are glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is narrow, linear, acute, rigid, flat, glaucous, smooth
or scaberulous, with margins scabrid and ciliated with tubercle-based
hairs especially towards the base, and varying in length from 2 to 15
inches.

The _inflorescence_ is an open panicle, ovate or oblong, varying in
length from 2 to 5 inches; the _rachis_ is slender, smooth or
scaberulous, the branches are capillary, whorled and spreading, tip
oblique, bearded and bearing a single sessile and two pedicellate
spikelets.

[Illustration: Fig. 158.--Andropogon monticola.

1. Sessile and pedicellate spikelets; 2, 3, 4 and 5. the first, second,
third and the fourth glume, respectively, of the sessile spikelet; 6.
anthers, ovary and lodicules; A-1, A-2, A-3 and A-4. the glumes of the
pedicelled spikelet; A-5. lodicules of the pedicelled spikelet.]

The _sessile spikelets_ are bisexual, about 1/4 inch or less, with a
long callus bearded on one side with long rusty hairs. There are four
_glumes_ in the spikelet. The _first glume_ is chartaceous, linear,
complicate, 2-toothed at the tip and with short bristles towards the
apex, 4-veined. The _second glume_ is chartaceous, ovate-lanceolate,
much broader than the first, ciliate with long rufous bristles on the
keel, shortly toothed at the apex with an _awn_ about 1/3 of an inch and
with broadly hyaline margins. The _third glume_ is hyaline,
narrow-oblong, ciliate and obtuse. The _fourth glume_ is narrow, oblong,
hyaline with an _awn_ nearly an inch long. There are three _stamens_ and
two _lodicules_. The _stigmas_ are long and feathery.

The _pedicelled spikelets_ are as long as the sessile and the pedicels
are flattened and with long rufous hairs on both the margins. There are
four _glumes_. The _first glume_ is lanceolate, acute and awned between
two teeth, 7-nerved and scaberulous. The _second glume_ is lanceolate,
acuminate, with thinly ciliate hyaline margins, 3-nerved. The _third
glume_ is shorter than the second, narrow, hyaline, ciliate at the
margins, 2-nerved. The _fourth glume_ also is small, hyaline, ciliate,
and 1-nerved. There are three _stamens_ and two _lodicules_.

This grass is found growing all over the Presidency on the plains and
even on low hills. It grows into a tall plant in rich soils and remains
stunted in poor, dry and rocky soils. Cattle eat this grass.

_Distribution._--Throughout India and Ceylon and in Africa.


=Andropogon caricosus, _L._=

This is a perennial grass more or less tufted in habit and closely
allied to _Andropogon annulatus_, Forsk.

Stems are erect or decumbent below or ascending from a creeping base,
rooting at the nodes, smooth, glabrous and much branched, varying in
height, from 1 to 2 feet; branches are short, slender and sometimes even
capillary, with _nodes_ bearded or not in branches ending in solitary
spikes, and completely glabrous when they end in binate spikes.

_The leaf-sheaths_ are glabrous, rather compressed, striate, shorter
than the internodes. _Ligule_ is membranous, short, very finely
ciliolate or not.

_The leaf-blade_ is linear, finely acuminate, sparsely hairy, sometimes
with tubercle-based hairs, becoming glabrous when old with scaberulous
margins 2 to 8 inches by 1/10 to 1/6 inch, base rounded mostly with a
few long hairs.

[Illustration: Fig. 159.--Andropogon caricosus.

1 and 2. Front and back view of a bit of spike; 3. a sessile and a
pedicelled spikelet; 4, 5 and 6. the first, second and the third glume,
respectively, of the sessile spikelet; 7. awn representing the fourth
glume; 8. stamens, lodicules and the ovary; 9. the first glume of the
pedicelled spikelet.]

_The spikes_ are either binate or solitary varying in length from 1 to 2
inches, joints and pedicels about 1/3 as long as the sessile spikelets,
slightly angular or flat, ciliate along one side with white hairs;
peduncle is slender, pale or purple, pubescent or glabrous just below
the spike.

_The spikelets_ are about 1/8 inch, imbricate, a sessile and a stalked
one from the top of each joint, greenish or purple. The _sessile
spikelet_ contains a bisexual flower and consists of four glumes. The
callus is short, and shortly hairy below. The _first glume_ is somewhat
chartaceous, obovate-oblong, obtuse or truncate, 7- to 11-nerved, margin
slightly folded, keel shortly rigidly ciliate towards the apex, and
thinly ciliate below, dorsal surfaces sparsely hairy below the middle.
The _second glume_ is chartaceous, ovate-lanceolate, acute, equal to or
slightly longer than the first glume but narrower, 3-nerved, margin
infolded, thinly shortly ciliate, dorsally glabrous, shining. The _third
glume_ is hyaline, ovate-oblong, acute, nerveless, margins sparsely
ciliate or not. The _fourth glume_ is the base of the awn, 3/4 to 1
inch, scaberulous. _Stamens_ are three with yellow or purple tinged
anthers, _ovary_ oblong with two feathery _stigmas_. _Lodicules_ are
two, cuneate.

The _pedicelled spikelets_ are either male or neuter and consist of four
_glumes_. The _first glume_ is chartaceous, obovate-oblong, obtuse,
many-nerved (thirteen or more), thinly ciliate with long hairs and with
a few rigid short hairs towards the apex; margins are slightly infolded,
dorsally sparsely hairy without. The _second glume_ is membranous,
ovate-lanceolate, acute, 3-nerved (occasionally 4-nerved), margins are
thinly ciliate and infolded. The _third glume_ is hyaline, nerveless and
ciliate. The _fourth glume_ is hyaline, nerveless, linear and oblong,
glabrous, small, the apex is narrowed and deeply bifid. There are three
_stamens_ and two _lodicules_.

This is a common grass flourishing on the bunds of paddy fields and in
sheltered places where there is sufficient moisture in the soil. But
this is less common than _A. annulatus_, Forsk. In black cotton soil at
Bantanahal in Bellary district it grows to a height of 4 or 5 feet.

_Distribution._--Plains and low hills throughout India and Ceylon.

[Illustration: Fig. 160.--Andropogon annulatus.

1. Full plant; 2. base of the leaf and ligule.]


=Andropogon annulatus, _Forsk._=

This is a densely tufted perennial grass.

The main stem is underground, rhizomiferous, and covered with scale
leaves; branches are many arising in tufts, leafy, procumbent at base
and afterwards geniculately ascending and ending in inflorescence,
occasionally rooting at the nodes and varying in length from 2 to 3
feet. The internodes vary from 1-1/2 to 4 inches, pale or purplish,
slightly flattened, smooth and glabrous.

The _leaf-sheath_ is terete, glabrous, shining, green or purplish,
closed, with margins where separate ciliated and profusely so at the tip
especially the outer or both. The _ligule_ is membranous truncate,
glabrous, about 1/16 inch in height. _Nodes_ are purple and softly
villous.

[Illustration: Fig. 161.--Andropogon annulatus.

1. Front and back views of a portion of the spike; 2. a sessile and a
pedicelled spikelet; 3, 4, 5 and 6. the first, second, third and the
fourth glume, respectively, of the sessile spikelet; 7. the ovary,
stamens and lodicules; 8, 9 and 10. the glumes of the pedicelled
spikelet.]

The _leaf-blade_ is linear-lanceolate, acuminate, scabrid, sparsely
hairy, becoming glabrous except at the base and with tubercle-based
hairs on the upper surface.

_The spikes_ vary in number from two to nine, erect or slightly
spreading, subdigitately fascicled, pale when young and pinkish or brown
when old, varying in length from 1 to 2-1/2 inches. The stalk of the
whole inflorescence is long, slender, smooth and glabrous. The
_peduncle_ of the spikes is from 1/8 to 1/6 of an inch long, thin,
slender, glabrous with swollen bases and with a ring of hairs at the
node. _Joints_ of the _rachis_ and the _pedicels_ are slightly
flattened, ciliated along the narrow edges; the _pedicels_ of the
stalked spikelets are half as long as the sessile spikelets. The
spikelets are one sessile and one pedicelled and imbricating on the
rachis.

The _sessile spikelet_ is as long as the stalked or a little less, with
a thick callus, shortly bearded at the base or sometimes glabrous and
consists of four _glumes_. The _first glume_ is elliptic-oblong or
oblong, obtuse or truncate, irregularly 2- or 3-toothed, 5- to 9-nerved,
sparsely villous with long hairs and margins slightly infolded. The
_second glume_ is smaller than the first glume, acute, membranous,
3-nerved and keeled, the margins are ciliate and infolded. The _third
glume_ is hyaline, linear, acute, or obtuse, nerveless sparsely hairy at
the tip, very much shorter than the second glume. The _fourth glume_ is
an _awn_ with a linear hyaline base, erect, about an inch long.
_Stamens_ are three, _ovary_ is oblong with two feathery, dark purple
_stigmas_. _Lodicules_ are two, cuneate.

The _pedicelled spikelets_ are male and consist of only three glumes.
The _first glume_ is elliptic, oblong, irregularly obtuse, about
11-nerved, margins slightly infolded with long pilose hairs throughout,
more along the margin. The _second glume_ is a little smaller, 3-nerved,
sparsely hairy only along the marginal nerves, folded inwards, and
slightly keeled. The _third glume_ is shorter than the second, hyaline,
nerveless, narrow-lanceolate, acute; _stamens_ are three, with green
anthers, purple-dotted. _Lodicules_ are two, broad and cuneate.

This grass is found flourishing all over India and grows in cultivated
fields and gardens and likes sheltered places. This yields a
considerable amount of fodder and stands cutting well.

_Distribution._ Throughout India in the hills and the plains.

[Illustration: Fig. 162.--Andropogon contortus.]


=Andropogon contortus, _L._=

(_Heteropogon contortus_, Beauv.)

This is a tufted perennial.

The stems are erect or slightly decumbent below, slender, rather
compressed towards the base, leafy at the base, simple or branched,
densely tufted and varying in length from 1 to 3 or 4 feet.

[Illustration: Fig. 163.--Andropogon contortus.

1. Lower pair of sessile and pedicelled spikelets; 2. upper pair of
sessile and pedicelled spikelets; 3, 4, 5 and 6. the first, second,
third and the fourth glume, respectively, of pedicelled spikelets; 7, 8,
9 and 10. the first, second, third and the fourth glume, respectively,
of the sessile spikelet; 11. ovary.]

The _leaf-sheath_ is smooth or sparsely hairy, compressed and shortly
auricled or not at the mouth. The _ligule_ is short, truncate and
ciliolate.

The _leaf-blades_ are linear, acute or abruptly acuminate, flat, rigid,
sparingly ciliate above, with tubercle-based hairs towards the base,
scaberulous throughout, and 2 to 12 inches long or more, 1/10 to 1/5
inch broad.

The _inflorescence_ consists of a solitary spike with closely
imbricating spikelets.

The _spikelets_ are all on one side, and the lower two to six pairs of
pedicelled and sessile spikelets are all males. The _sessile spikelets_
are all female and awned, except the few lower which are male and
awnless, 1/4 inch long. The _callus_ is long, acute, bearded with
reddish-brown hairs. There are four _glumes_ in the spikelet. The _first
glume_ is narrow, linear-oblong, truncate or rounded, somewhat brown,
many-nerved, hispid, with incurved margins and membranous tip. The
_second glume_ is linear, obtuse, coriaceous, dark-brown, hispidulous,
3-nerved with incurved margins. The _third glume_ is oblong, hyaline,
thin, nerveless, short and truncate. The _fourth glume_ is reduced to an
awn, 3 inches or more in length. The _ovary_ is linear with two long
_stigmas_.

The _pedicelled spikelets_ are somewhat longer than the sessile 1/3 to
1/2 inch, with very short pedicels. The _first glume_ is lanceolate,
obliquely twisted, hispid at the back with long bulbous-based hairs,
margins more or less unequally winged. The _second glume_ is oblong
lanceolate, acuminate, 5-nerved, thinly ciliate with hyaline margins.
The _third glume_ is oblong, hyaline, 1-nerved and ciliate. The _fourth
glume_ is obovate-oblong or oblong, hyaline, ciliate, nerveless. There
are three _stamens_.

This grass though coarse forms very good hay if cut before it flowers.
The only objection against this grass is the presence of the troublesome
awns which get twisted together like the strands of a rope. This is the
_spear grass_ of the Anglo-Indians. It grows all over the Presidency and
is a troublesome weed when in flower.

_Distribution._--All over the Presidency and India. Common in all
tropical countries.


=Andropogon Schoenanthus, _L. Var. cæsius._=

(_Cymbopogon cæsius_, Stapf.)

This is a perennial grass with stout or slender, erect stems rising from
a woody base, leafy upward, simple or branched.

The _leaf-sheath_ is smooth and glabrous. The _ligule_ is an
oblong-ovate membrane. _Nodes_ are glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is long, narrow or broad, narrowly linear-lanceolate,
finely acuminate, glaucous especially beneath, thinly coriaceous,
glabrous on both the surfaces, base rounded or cordate and amplexicaul,
6 to 10 inches by 1/6 to 1/3 inch.

The _panicle_ is elongate, leafy, narrow, dense or interrupted, compound
or decompound, 1 to 2 feet long; bracts are lanceolate, spathiform,
finely acuminate, glabrous, varying in length from 1 to 1-1/2 inches,
and with hyaline margins; the proper bracts are as long as the spikes or
longer.

[Illustration: Fig. 164.--Andropogon Schoenanthus.

1. A sessile and two pedicelled spikelets; 2, 3, 4 and 5. the first,
second, third and fourth glume of the sessile spikelet, respectively; 6.
ovary; 7, 8 and 9. the glumes of the pedicelled spikelets in order.]

The _spikes_ are unequal, 1/2 to 2/3 inch long, one 3- to 4-jointed and
the other 4- to 6-jointed; the joints and pedicels are narrowly clavate,
half as long as the sessile spikelets, tips dilated and toothed, margins
villously ciliate, with long hairs.

The _spikelets_ are binate, one sessile and the other pedicelled.

The _sessile spikelets_ in the upper part of the spike are bisexual,
lanceolate, 1/6 inch long and those in the lower part of the spike are
shorter, obtuse, male. The callus is short and bearded. There are four
_glumes_. The _first glume_ is ovate or obovate-oblong, dorsally flat or
nearly so, with a deep narrow-longitudinal median furrow usually below
the middle and answering to a ridge on the ventral face, obtuse or
2-toothed at the apex, margined above the middle, with a hyaline,
narrow, finely denticulate wing, 2-nerved or nerveless. The _second
glume_ is lanceolate, cymbiform, acute or acuminate, 3-nerved, margins
hyaline, ciliate, as long as the first chartaceous and the keel with a
serrulate wing above the middle. The _third glume_ is linear oblong,
hyaline, obtuse, ciliate, nerveless. The _fourth glume_ is the narrowly
winged 2-lobed base of the awn, lobes are lanceolate erect and _palea_
of the fourth glume is minute. _Lodicules_ are cuneate. _Stamens_ are
three.

The _pedicelled spikelets_ are oblong-lanceolate, acute or obtuse,
glabrous and male. There are three _glumes_. The _first glume_ is
glabrous or rarely puberulous, margins incurved, obtuse, 9- to
11-nerved. The _second glume_ is ovate, acute, 3-nerved. The _third
glume_ is oblong or linear-oblong, hyaline, apex rounded, ciliate and
faintly 2-nerved.

This grass grows all over the Presidency in open dry situations and is
very widely distributed.

_Distribution._--Throughout India--westward to tropical Africa.



29. Anthistiria, _L. f._

(_Themeda_, Forsk.)

These are tall grasses, annual or perennial. Leaves are usually long and
narrow. The inflorescence consists of racemes or panicles of fascicled
spikes in the axils of spathiform bracts. The spikelets vary in number
from six to eleven in a cluster, the four lowest being male or neuter,
and forming an involucre with whorled or superposed pairs round either
1-sessile bisexual spikelet with two pedicelled spikelets or two
superposed bisexual, the lower with one pedicelled, the upper with two.

The involucral spikelets are male or neuter, the largest, and consist of
three glumes. The first glume is oblong, lanceolate, dorsally flattened,
many-nerved, margins narrowly incurved and keels narrowly winged. The
second glume is membranous, lanceolate, acute, 3-nerved, with ciliate
margins. The third glume is hyaline, smaller than the second, 1-nerved
or this glume may be absent, stamens have large anthers. The pedicelled
spikelets are similar to the involucral in every respect but smaller,
male or neuter, but the first glume is not winged on the keels. The
bisexual (or female) spikelets are smaller than the involucrant
spikelets, linear-oblong, subterete, obtuse with a rigidly bearded
callus. There are four glumes in the spikelet. The first glume is
terete, or dorsally compressed or channelled, coriaceous and at length
hardened, margins incurved, dark brown to almost black when old. The
second glume is as long as the first, linear, dorsally chartaceous, with
broadly incurved membranous margins, 3-nerved. The third glume is very
small, hyaline, 1-nerved, epaleate. The fourth glume is the flattened
base of the awn, epaleate. The lodicules are two, cuneate. Anthers are
rather small. Styles are laterally or terminally exserted. Grain is
narrow, obovoid, biconvex, with two grooves on the anterior side and
with a long embryo.


=Anthistiria tremula, _Nees_=.

This is an annual or perennial. Stems are stout or slender, erect or
ascending from a creeping root-stock, simple or branched, 1 to 4 feet.

The _leaf-sheath_ is smooth, compressed. The _ligule_ is a narrow
membrane.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear-lanceolate, rigid, erect, acuminate with a
setaceous tip, nearly smooth, varying in length from 6 to 20 inches and
in breadth from 1/6 to 2/3 inch.

The _inflorescence_ is an elongate panicle, 1 to 2 feet long, consisting
of rather distant fascicles of spikes and bracts on capillary, flexuous
peduncles; the spikes are sub-flabelliform or sub-globose, 1/2 to 1-1/2
inches broad, sometimes reduced to a few spikelets and bracts; the outer
bracts are longer than the fascicles, 1 to 1-1/2 inches long, glabrous
or hairy with ordinary or tubercle-based hairs; proper bracts are
lanceolate, acute, compressed, glabrous or hairy with membranous
margins.

[Illustration: Fig. 165.--Anthistiria tremula.

1. Fascicles of three spikes with the outer bracts and proper bracts; 2.
a spike without its proper bract; 3. the pedicelled and the bisexual
spikelets without the involucral spikelets; 4, the first glume of the
involucral spikelet with one wing only; 4a. the first glume of the
involucral spikelet with wings to both the keels; 5 and 6. the second
and the third glume of the involucral spikelet; 7, 8 and 9. the glumes
of the bisexual spikelet; 10, 11, 12 and 13. glumes of the bisexual
spikelet; 14. ovary.]

The _involucral spikelets_ are the longest, in contiguous superposed
pairs, about 1/2 inch long, and the rachis of the spike is produced
beyond these spikelets. There are three _glumes_. The _first glume_ is
linear-lanceolate, acute, covered with long, often tubercle-based hairs,
many-nerved, margins narrowly incurved, and with narrow wings, on both
the keels in one of each of the pairs of spikelets and on one keel only
in the other of each of these pairs. The _second glume_ is
oblong-lanceolate, acute, margins thin and membranous, inflexed, ciliate
above the middle, 3-nerved. The _third glume_ is as long as the second,
hyaline, very narrowly linear, 1-nerved. _Stamens_ are three and the
_lodicules_ are cuneate.

The _pedicelled spikelets_ are usually smaller than the involucral
spikelets and similar to them. The _first glume_ is winged on one side
in the lowest spikelet and without wings in the others.

The _bisexual or (female) spikelets_ are linear-oblong, obtuse, and the
callus with reddish hairs. The _first glume_ is scabrid, deeply
channelled at the back, nerveless, narrowly truncate at the tip, and
hispid near the apex. The _second glume_ is as long as the first,
linear, hyaline, 3-nerved, chartaceous at the back with the sides
membranous and incurved. The _third glume_ is small, hyaline, 1-nerved
and epaleate. The _fourth glume_ is the narrowed base of the awn which
is 1/2 inch long.

This grass is very common in marshes and in wet low-lying places on the
hills and occurs also in the plains in Malabar and South Kanara.

_Distribution._--The Deccan Peninsula, from the Konkan and Central
Provinces southward, and Ceylon.



30. Iseilema, _Hack._

These grasses are either annual or perennial, with slender freely
branching stems. The inflorescence is a panicle consisting of groups of
dissimilar spikelets with compressed, boat-shaped spathes on peduncles.
Spikelets are of two kinds, sessile and pedicelled. Each peduncle bears
4-pedicelled male or neuter spikelets in a regular whorl forming an
involucel around 1 or 2 sessile bisexual spikelets and 2- or
3-pedicelled male spikelets. Involucral spikelets have 3 or 2 glumes,
the first two glumes are somewhat similar, the first 3- to 5-nerved and
the second 3-nerved, the third glume is one nerved and hyaline.
Lodicules are cuneate and retuse. Anthers yellow dotted or tinged
violet. Pedicelled spikelets inside the involucral similar to those of
the involucral. Sessile spikelets are bisexual or sometimes female,
4-glumed and awned.

KEY TO THE SPECIES.

  Panicle slender, lax; involucral spikelets
  1/6 inch; pedicel slender, terete               1. I. laxum.

  Panicle crowded, leafy; involucral spikelets
  1/6 inch or more, very strongly nerved;
  pedicel harder, firmer and flattened            2. I. anthephoroides.

[Illustration: Fig. 166.--Iseilema laxum.]


=Iseilema laxum, _Hack._=

It is a tufted perennial grass with a stout, short, creeping root-stock.
Stems are slender, branched, ascending, 6 to 24 inches long.

The _leaf-sheaths_ are somewhat loose, glabrous. The _ligule_ is a
shortly ciliate membrane.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear, obtuse, glabrous and ciliate near the base,
2 to 6 inches long. The leaf-blades in the upper portions of the
branches are smaller.

[Illustration: Fig. 167.--Iseilema laxum.

1. A cluster of spikelets with spathes. 2. a cluster consisting of the
involucral spikelets and three inner spikelets; 3. the inner spikelets
consisting of one sessile female or bisexual and 2-pedicelled male
spikelets; 4, 5 and 6. the first, second and the third glume,
respectively, of the involucral spikelet.]

The _inflorescence_ is a narrow long panicle bearing clusters of
spikelets with spathes on slender peduncles, the outer spathes are
narrow-lanceolate, glabrous or with a few hairs near the margin, 1/4 to
1 inch long; inner spathes are lanceolate, smaller with membranous
margins. Each cluster consists of an involucel of 4 pedicelled spikelets
forming a true whorl around 2 pedicelled and 1 sessile spikelets or 3
pedicelled and 2 sessile spikelets. The involucral spikelets are male,
oblong-lanceolate, acute, with short flattened pedicels, bearded at the
base, and have three glumes. The _first glume_ is oblong-lanceolate,
acute, 5- to 7-nerved and ciliate. The _second glume_ is
oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, equal or slightly shorter than the first,
glabrous, 3-nerved and with infolded margins. The _third glume_ is
hyaline, linear, short, irregularly toothed at the apex. The inner
pedicelled spikelets are similar to the involucral spikelets, but the
third glume is very narrow, linear. The sessile spikelets are female,
rarely bisexual, narrowly lanceolate, 1/5 inch long, glabrous and have
four glumes. The _first glume_ is lanceolate, chartaceous, truncate or
2-fid at the apex, faintly 5-nerved, with a few long hairs or glabrous,
and with margins scaberulous towards the tip to about one-third the
length of the glume. The _second glume_ is lanceolate, acuminate,
glabrous, sub-chartaceous, 3-nerved. The _third glume_ is hyaline,
nerveless, apex irregularly cut, short; sometimes this glume is wanting.
The _fourth glume_ is a very slender awn of about 1/2 inch.

[Illustration: Fig. 168.--Iseilema laxum.

1. Inner spikelets consisting of 2-pedicelled male and two female or
bisexual spikelets; 2, 3, 4 and 5. the first, second, third and the
fourth glume, respectively, of the sessile spikelets; 6. ovary; 7, 8 and
9. the first, second and the third glume, respectively, of the inner
pedicelled spikelet.]

This is a widely spread common grass growing in somewhat moist
situations. This is the well-known Chengali gaddi of the Telugu
districts.

_Distribution._--All over Madras and Bombay presidencies.

[Illustration: Fig. 169.--Iseilema anthephoroides.]


=Iseilema anthephoroides, _Hack._=

This is a perennial grass closely resembling _Iseilema laxum_ in its
habit, but shorter, stouter and branching more freely. The leaf is
similar to that of _I. laxum_ in all its parts.

[Illustration: Fig. 170.--Iseilema anthephoroides.

1. A cluster of spikelets with spathes; 2. the involucral and the inner
spikelets; 3. the inner spikelets; 4 and 5. the glumes of the involucral
spikelets; 6, 7, 8 and 9. the four glumes, respectively, of the sessile
spikelet; 10. ovary; 11 and 12. glumes of the inner pedicelled
spikelets.]

The _pedicelled spikelets_ of the involucel have firmer harder, shorter
and broader pedicels, thickly bearded and consist of two glumes only.
The _first glume_ is very strongly 5-nerved, coriaceous,
oblong-lanceolate; with scaberulous infolded margins, with long cilia.
The _second glume_ is lanceolate, thin, 3-nerved, glabrous. The inner
_pedicelled spikelets_ are similar to the pedicelled spikelets of the
involucel. The _sessile spikelet_ has four glumes. The _first glume_ is
elliptic-lanceolate, apex drawn into a long narrow strip ending in two
teeth or truncate, sparsely ciliate at the margins about the middle,
faintly 3-nerved. The _second glume_ is shorter than the first,
lanceolate, drawn out into an acuminate point at the apex, hairy at the
back. The _third glume_ is hyaline, short, oblong, apex broad and
irregularly toothed, nerveless. The _fourth glume_ is an awn.

This is very common in the Deccan districts and grows on all kinds of
soils. This is a good fodder grass.

_Distribution._--Very common in the Ceded districts and Nellore.



CHAPTER IX.

Series II--Poaceæ.

TRIBES V AND VI--AGROSTIDEÆ AND CHLORIDEÆ.


The tribe =Agrostideæ= is a very small one. It is represented in South
India only by a few genera. The spikelets are usually 1-flowered and the
rachilla is jointed at the base just above the empty glumes and it is
not produced beyond the flowering glume. There are only three glumes in
the spikelet.

Sub. Tribe 1. =Stipeæ=.--The spikelets are narrow and long, panicles and
the flowering glumes are rigid or hard, and awned.

  The third glume is narrow, long, awn 3-fid          31. Aristida.

Sub. Tribe 2. =Euagrosteæ=.--The spikelets are very small, in open or
contracted panicles.

  The third glume is thin and membranous, awnless.    32. Sporobolus.

=Chlorideæ= is also a small tribe with about ten genera, most of them
being very common in Southern India. The spikelets are unilaterally
biseriate on the rachis which is not jointed at the base. There are one
or more flowers in the spikelet, all or only the lowest being bisexual.
The rachilla is jointed just above the empty glumes and it is produced
or not beyond the flowering glumes. The inflorescence consists of
spikes, or spiciform racemes, solitary or digitate, and in some it is
paniculate.

  Rachilla produced beyond the flowering glume.

    Spikes usually solitary.

      Spikelets 1- to 2-flowered, pedicelled and
      in deciduous clusters, awned.                     33. Gracilea.

      Spikelets 1- to 2-flowered, not clustered
      awned.                                            34. Enteropogon.

    Spikes or spiciform racemes digitate or whorled.

      Spikelets 1-flowered and with three
      glumes, awnless.                                  35. Cynodon.

  Rachilla not produced beyond the flowering glumes.

      Spikelets 2- or more-flowered, glumes
      five or more, awned, upper flowers
      imperfect.                                        36. Chloris.

      Spikelets 3- to 6-flowered, densely crowded,
      awnless.                                          37. Eleusine.

      Spikes or spiciform spikes racemed,
      spikelets 2- to 3-flowered, 4- to 5-glumed,
      awned.                                            38. Dinebra.

      Spikes panicled, filiform, spikelets very
      minute one-or more-flowered, glumes
      awnless.                                          39. Leptochloa.



31. Aristida, _L._

These are tufted, annual or perennial grasses. Spikelets are panicled,
1-flowered, laterally compressed, with the rachilla jointed above the
empty glumes, 3-glumed. The first and the second glumes are narrow,
keeled, 1-nerved, awned or not and persistent. The third glume is very
narrow, cylindric, coriaceous, convolute, acuminate, 3-nerved, tip
produced into a long 3-partite, naked or hairy awn twisted below the
branches, with a minute palea which is convolute round the ovary.
Lodicules are two, linear or oblong-linear and hyaline. Stamens are
three. Styles are distinct. Grain is long, narrow and cylindrical.

KEY TO THE SPECIES.

  Awn tripartite from the base and not articulate
  with the top of the glume, persistent and
  glabrous.

    Annual.

      Glumes I and II not awned.

	Awn without any column and branched
	from the base.                            1. A. Adscenscionis.

	Awn with a short column and with
	shorter branches.                         4. A. mutabilis.

    Perennial.

	Panicle cylindric, glumes I and II
	awned; callus with white silky hairs.     2. A. setacea.

	Panicle effuse, glumes I and II awned
	or not; callus naked.                     3. A. Hystrix.

  Awn with a long column, tripartite at the top.

	Annual; panicle lax, narrow; glumes I
	and II awned.                             5. A. funiculata.

[Illustration: Fig. 171.--Aristida Adscenscionis.]


=Aristida Adscenscionis, _L._=

This grass is usually an annual becoming a perennial under favourable
conditions. Stems are slender, sometimes even filiform, erect, or
ascending, simple or branched, varying in length from 9 inches to 3
feet.

The _leaf-sheath_ is glabrous, thinly striate. The _ligule_ is a row of
fine short hairs. _Nodes_ are glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is narrow, linear, tapering to a fine point, convolute
in bud, scabrid above and smooth below, with a minutely serrate, very
narrow, hyaline margin, 1 to 10 inches long and 1/12 inch broad.

The _inflorescence_ is a lax, narrow, subsecund panicle, varying in
length from 3 to 12 inches, and with a slender glabrous peduncle; the
main rachis is filiform and glabrous; branches are either solitary or
binate, unequal; branched either from the middle or the base; _pedicels_
are short and capillary.

[Illustration: Fig. 172.--Aristida Adscenscionis.

1. A spikelet; 2. first and second glumes; 3. palea; 4. lodicules,
stamens and ovary; 5. third glume with awns; 6. grain.]

The _spikelets_ are narrow, erect, green, occasionally also purplish,
1/4 to 1/3 inch long exclusive of the awn. There are three _glumes_. The
_first glume_ is linear-lanceolate, acute, membranous, 1-nerved with a
scaberulous keel, 1/16 to 3/16 inch long. The _second glume_ is longer
than the first, linear-lanceolate, acute, occasionally 2-toothed and
apiculate, 1-veined about 1/4 inch long and with a smooth keel. The
_third glume_ is as long as the second or slightly longer, laterally
compressed, 3-nerved, smooth but scaberulous along the keel, awned;
there are three scabrid _awns_, varying in length from 1/2 to 3/4 inch,
continuous with the glume without a column, not jointed, and the middle
awn is longer than the lateral ones; the callus is long, pointed and
villous. There is a minute _palea. Lodicules_ are two, similar to the
palea in size, linear oblong. _Anthers_ are yellow dotted with purple.
The _ovary_ is oblong linear with two white feathery _stigmas_.

Grain is long and linear.

This when young is eaten by cattle, but they do not like it when in
flower.

_Distribution._--Occurs all over the Presidency in the plains and the
low hills.


=Aristida setacea, _Retz._=

This is a tall coarse perennial grass with hard, smooth and polished,
stout, erect simple or branched stems, 3 to 4 feet. Roots are stout and
wiry.

The _leaf-sheath_ is glabrous, cylindrical. The _ligule_ is a row of
short hairs. The _nodes_ are glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear, coriaceous, convolute, glabrous, strongly
nerved, 6 to 12 inches long.

The _inflorescence_ is a contracted _panicle_ varying from 6 to 18
inches with short, erect or subsecund branches.

[Illustration: Fig. 173.--Aristida setacea.

1. The spikelet; 2 and 3. the first and the second glume; 4. the lower
portion of the third glume, anther, ovary and the lodicules; 5. palea of
the third glume.]

The _spikelets_ vary from 1/2 to 2/3 inch excluding the awn. There are
three _glumes_. The _first glume_ is about 3/8 inch long,
lanceolate-linear, narrowed into a short awn. The _second glume_ is
longer than the first, 1-nerved and minutely 2-toothed or notched at the
base of the awn. The _third glume_ is 5/8 inch long, 3-nerved, nearly
smooth. The callus of the third glume is long, densely silkily hairy
with three awns not jointed at the base with the glume; _awns_ about 1
inch or more. _Lodicules_ are ovate-lanceolate, fairly large. Grain is
narrow, cylindrical.

This grass grows in open dry situations in many parts of the Presidency.

_Distribution._--All over India.


=Aristida Hystrix, _Linn. f._=

This is a diffuse perennial grass with a creeping root-stock, with
fairly stout sometimes proliferous freely branching stems; branches are
stiff, erect, inclined or prostrate, varying in length from 6 inches to
2 feet.

The _leaf-sheath_ is glabrous and cylindric. The _ligule_ is a ridge of
close-set hairs. _Nodes_ are glabrous.

The _leaf-blades_ are quite flat, narrowly lanceolate-linear very finely
acuminate, glabrous on both the surfaces but with tufts of hairs on both
sides at the base where the blade joins the sheath, prominently nerved;
margin is even and without any hyaline border, the blade varies in
length from 2 to 9 inches.

[Illustration: Fig. 174.--Aristida Hystrix.

1. A spikelet; 2, 3 and 4. the first, second and the third glume,
respectively; 4a. the third glume and its awns; 5. palea of the third
glume; 6. lodicules, anthers and the ovary.]

The _inflorescence_ is an effuse panicle, as long as broad, varying in
length from 4 to 10 inches; the main rachis is stout, finely scabrid,
with stiff slender, horizontally spreading or reclining branches that
arise in pairs from the nodes, the branches have swollen bases at the
nodes and they are covered by long hairs.

The _spikelets_ are 3/8 inch long excluding the awn. There are three
_glumes_. The _first glume_ is chartaceous, lanceolate, acuminate and
terminating in an awn, 1-nerved, 3/8 to 1/2 inch including the awn, with
the keel very finely scabrous. The _second glume_ is longer than the
first, chartaceous, lanceolate, terminating in an awn, 1/2 to 3/4 inch
long including the awn, with a smooth keel. The callus of the third
glume is short, pointed and villous. The _third glume_ is chartaceous
finely scabrid 1/4 to 3/8 inch long excluding the awn, 3-nerved, 3-lobed
at the apex and the lobes becoming awns; _awns_ are 1 inch long, the
middle one being a little longer. The outer margin of the glume is
broader than the inner margin and is rounded at the apex at the base of
the awn. There are three _stamens_ and the anthers are pale or purplish.
The style branches are purplish. The _lodicules_ are 1/8 inch long
obliquely lanceolate.

This grass is fairly common in all open dry situations throughout this
Presidency.

_Distribution._--Deccan Peninsula and Ceylon.

[Illustration: Fig. 175.--Aristida mutabilis.]


=Aristida mutabilis, _Trin. & Rup._=

This is a small tufted annual grass with simple or branched slender
stems spreading at the base, and sometimes geniculately ascending and
rooting at the lower nodes, 6 to 12 inches long. The _nodes_ have dark
purple rings when dry.

The _leaf-sheath_ is glabrous, with membranous margins and long hairs at
the mouth. The _ligule_ is a row of short dense hairs.

The _leaf-blade_ is slender, convolute, rigid, curved, and the tip
ending in a sharp point, 1 to 3 inches long.

The _inflorescence_ is a narrow panicle, cylindric, with short crowded
branches, some of them remote lower down, peduncle is smooth, and rachis
smooth or scaberulous; branches and pedicels are scaberulous.

[Illustration: Fig. 176.--Aristida mutabilis.

1. A spikelet; 2, 3 and 4. the first, second and the third glume,
respectively; 5. grain.]

The _spikelets_ are shortly pedicellate, pale-green about 1/4 inch long
exclusive of the awn. There are three glumes. The _first glume_ is
membranous, oblong-lanceolate, shortly awned, 1-nerved, keeled and
scaberulous on the keel and the sides. The _second glume_ is narrower
and longer than the first, shortly awned 1-nerved, 2-toothed, obscurely
scaberulous and encircling the third glume. The _third glume_ is narrow,
convolute, scaberulous, 3-nerved awned with a shortly bearded callus,
the awn is three branched articulate to the short column at the base
about 3/4 inch long with the middle branch slightly longer than the
other two; _palea_ is minute. _Lodicules_ are two and narrow. The grain
is narrow as long as the glume and grooved.

This resembles in general habit and appearance _Aristida Adscenscionis_,
but it is not so widely distributed. So far this has been noticed only
in Tinnevelly and Nellore districts.

_Distribution._--Southern India, the Punjab and Rajputana, also in
Arabia and tropical Africa.


=Aristida funiculata, _Trin. & Rup._=

This is a slender annual grass with geniculately ascending stems,
radiating on all sides. The stems vary in length from 10 to 20 inches.

The _leaf-sheath_ is glabrous and cylindrical. The _ligule_ is a short
membrane ciliate at the margin, or a close set fringe of hairs.

The _leaf-blade_ is flat or convolute, narrowly linear-acuminate, with
long scattered hairs on the upper surface and tufts of long hairs at the
mouth, and varying in length from 2 to 6 inches and in breadth from 1/20
to 1/12 inch.

The _inflorescence_ is a narrow, lax panicle with short, erect,
capillary branches. The spikelets vary in length from 1/2 to 7/8 inch.

There are three _glumes_. The _first glume_ is linear-lanceolate, acute
and terminating in an awn, 1-nerved and varying in length from 3/4 to
7/8 inch. The _second glume_ is similar to the first, but narrower and
shorter, 1/2 inch or longer. The _third glume_ is very short, and is
prolonged towards the apex as a narrow firmly convolute strap forming a
twisted column of about an inch jointed at the base, and this ends in
three slender scabrid awns of about 1-1/4 inch, the middle one being
longer. The glume just below the joint is finely scabrid to a little
distance. The _palea_ is short. _Anthers_ are small, purple. The _style_
branches are also purple. _Lodicules_ are oblong, obliquely truncate at
the apex and about 1/10 inch long. The grain is cylindric.

[Illustration: Fig. 177.--Aristida funiculata.

1. A spikelet; 2, 3 and 4. the first, second and the third glume,
respectively; 5. a portion of the column at the top and the basal
portions of the awns; 6. the ovary, lodicules and the stamens; 7. palea
of the third glume.]

Found in open dry situation in several places, but not widely
distributed.

_Distribution._--From the Punjab to Concan and Madras Presidency,
Arabia, Baluchistan and Tropical Africa.



32. Sporobolus, _Br._

These are perennial or annual grasses with varied habit. Inflorescence
is an open or contracted or spiciform panicle. Spikelets are small
consisting of three membranous glumes, 1-nerved or nerveless. The first
and the second glumes are unequal, persistent or separately caducous.
The third glume is ovate or oblong, acute or obtuse, longer or shorter
than the second, 1-nerved, paleate; palea is as long as the glume and of
the same texture of the glume dorsally narrowly inflexed along the
middle line and splitting into two halves. Lodicules are very minute or
absent. Stamens one to three. Styles are with short stigmas. Grain
oblong, obovoid or round.

KEY TO THE SPECIES.

  Glumes I and II both shorter than III.

    Panicle rather narrow with short
    capillary branches; glumes I
    and II nerveless.                       1. S. diander.

  Glume I shorter than II and III and II
  nearly or quite as long as III.

    Panicle contracted, narrow
    and spiciform; glume I 1-nerved.        2. S. tremulus.

    Panicle open and effuse.

      Branches with spikelets and
      pedicels appressed.                   3. S. coromandelianus.

      Panicle short; leaves glabrous.
      Branches with pedicel and
      spikelets drooping and
      not appressed.                        4. S. commutatus.

      Panicle large; leaves with
      long hairs.                           5. S. scabrifolius.


=Sporobolus diander, _Beauv._=

This is a tufted annual or perennial grass. Stems are slender with
leaves tufted at the base, 1 to 3 feet high.

The _leaf-sheath_ is glabrous and smooth, ribbed, the lower short and
the upper very long. _Nodes_ are glabrous. The _ligule_ consists of a
fringe of minute hairs.

The _leaf-blades_ are usually flat, glabrous, strongly nerved, with
filiform tips, 3 to 10 inches by 1/25 to 1/16 inch.

The _inflorescence_ is an erect narrow pyramidal panicle, varying in
length from 4 to 10 inches and about 2 inches in breadth. The branches
are very fine, spreading and in scattered fascicles, 1/2 to 2 inches
long, with many very small spikelets arranged racemosely along the axis.
_Spikelets_ are small 1/18 to 1/20 inch long, with very short pedicels.
The _first glume_ is very short less than 1/5 inch, broadly oblong,
nerveless, hyaline, broadly truncate and erose at the apex. The _second
glume_ is a little longer than the first, but shorter than the third,
hyaline, broadly elliptic-oblong, nerveless or obscurely 1-nerved. The
_third glume_ is broadly ovate-oblong, subacute, 1-nerved, paleate; the
_palea_ is plicate in the median line. Stamens are usually two. The
grain is obovoid, truncate at the apex, and with a small white swelling
in the centre at the apex, rugulose, red-brown.

[Illustration: Fig. 178.--Sporobolus diander.

1. A portion of a branch; 2. a spikelet; 3, 4 and 5. the first, second
and the third glume, respectively; 6. palea of the third glume; 7.
anthers and the ovary.]

This grass grows usually gregariously in somewhat sheltered situations
all over the Presidency on the plains and low hills. This is an
excellent fodder grass. It forms fairly large tufts with plenty of green
leaves on rich moist soils. When the leaves are young cattle eat this
grass very eagerly, but do not seem to care for it when the leaves
become old. However by frequent grazing it can be made to produce young
leaves in succession. This grass is also an excellent soil binder, as
its roots form a perfect matting in any kind of moist soil soon after
planting. This is very difficult to eradicate when once established.

_Distribution._--Throughout India and Burma.

[Illustration: Fig. 179.--Sporobolus tremulus.]


=Sporobolus tremulus, _Kunth._=

A small tufted perennial grass.

The plant consists of prostrate stems and stolons, filiform and wiry.
Stems vary in length from 2 to 18 inches, prostrate or erect, rooting at
the lower nodes; flowering branches always ascending.

The _leaf-sheath_ is glabrous, finely striate, shorter than the
internode. The _ligule_ is a very short ciliated membrane.

The _leaf-blade_ is narrow linear, pungent, somewhat rigid, flat,
distichous, base rounded with or without a few long hairs and varies in
length from 1/4 to 1 inch and in breadth from 1/20 to 1/16 inch, but in
plants growing in rich moist soils the leaves become longer reaching
3-1/2 inches in length.

The _inflorescence_ is a narrow spiciform panicle with appressed
branches and spikelets, sometimes interrupted, varying in length from
3/4 to 1-1/4 inch; both the peduncle and the main rachis are glabrous,
and the latter wavy.

[Illustration: Fig. 180.--Sporobolus tremulus.

1. Spike; 2. spikelet; 3 and 4. first and second glumes; 5 and 6. third
glume and its palea; 7. ovary and anthers.]

The _spikelets_ are 1/16 inch long, oblong-lanceolate, pale, crowded,
glabrous, shortly pedicelled on thinly scaberulous filiform short
branches. There are three glumes in the spikelet, and all the glumes are
membranous and thin. The _first glume_ is a little shorter than the
second and about two-third the length of the third glume and 1-nerved.
The _second glume_ is a little shorter than the third or equal to but
not longer, oblong-lanceolate, subacute or obtuse, 1-nerved and
obscurely scaberulous at the back along the nerve. The _third glume_ is
broadly oblong, subacute or obtuse, 1-nerved, glabrous, with a palea as
long as the glume; the _palea_ is 2-nerved, oblong and truncate at the
apex. _Stamens_ are three and anthers are pale greenish yellow.
_Stigmas_ are pale. _Lodicules_ are two, small.

This grass is an excellent one for binding the soil and may also prove
successful as a fodder grass. It usually flourishes in moist situations,
in sandy loams and rich heavy soils.

_Distribution._--Plains throughout India and Ceylon.

[Illustration: Fig. 181.--Sporobolus coromandelianus.]


=Sporobolus coromandelianus, _L._=

The plant is a densely tufted annual varying in size with the nature of
the soil, small and stunted in hard dry soils and large and spreading in
rich loose and moist soils.

The stems are closely spreading on the ground, rooting sometimes at the
lower nodes, branching freely, profusely leafy at the base, covered by a
few scale leaves, and 2 to 12 inches long.

The _leaf-sheath_ is glabrous, faintly and finely striate, distichously
imbricate, compressed, somewhat keeled, outer margin ciliate, and
bearded at the mouth. The _ligule_ is a thin short membranous ridge with
a fringe of dense fine hairs. The leaf-sheath enclosing the base of the
peduncle is rather long, glabrous with a tuft of short hairs at the
mouth.

The _leaf-blade_ is green without any glaucousness about it, 1/2 to 6
inches long, 3/16 to 1/4 inch broad, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate,
flat, acuminate, slightly coriaceous, many-nerved with a prominent
midrib, scaberulous throughout, with a few long scattered deciduous,
tubercle-based hairs towards the base, base subcordate, margin
cartilaginous, scabrid and finely serrulate.

[Illustration: Fig. 182.--Sporobolus coromandelianus.

1. Portion of a spike showing the verticillate arrangement of the
branches and the glands; 2. spikelet; 3. first glume; 4 and 5. second
and third glumes; 6. palea of the third glume; 7. anthers and ovary; 8.
grain.]

The _inflorescence_ is a pyramidal panicle 1-1/2 to 4 inches long, erect
on a terete glabrous peduncle 1-1/2 to 6 inches long, the main rachis is
slender, erect, striate, glabrous and has glandular streaks just above
the insertion of the branches of the lowest verticil. Branches are
capillary, stiff and spreading, horizontally verticillate or
subverticillate, the lowest whorl consisting of five to sixteen or
seventeen branches and the others from three to nine, shining, swollen
at the point of insertion and provided with a glandular scar a little
above the point of insertion; branchlets are very close, appressed to
the rachis of the branch never drooping or spreading, each bearing two
to five spikelets.

The _spikelets_ are small, 1/20 to 1/16 inch subsessile or pedicelled,
always appressed to the rachis solitary in the upper portions of the
branches, and two to five on the branchlets in the lower portion, pale,
green or rarely copper coloured, oblong or lanceolate, acute or
acuminate, caducous or glumes one and two persistent.

There are three _glumes_. The _first glume_ is very small, hyaline,
ovate, obtuse, occasionally truncate or acute, about one-fifth of the
third glume or less. The _second glume_ is membranous, ovate or
oblong-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, thinly scaberulous and 1-nerved.
The _third glume_ is as long as or a little shorter than the second
glume, 1-nerved and paleate. The _palea_ is as long as the glume,
oblong, 2-nerved, splitting in two portions between the nerves as soon
as the grain is formed. _Stamens_ are three with reddish purple anthers;
_stigmas_ are white at first, but turning brown while withering.
_Lodicules_ are two, minute. The grain is oblong, pale, brown and obtuse
at both ends, embryo about 1/3 of the grain.

This grass flourishes in all kinds of soils all over the Presidency.

_Distribution._--Throughout the plains of India and Ceylon. Also in
Afghanistan and South Africa.

[Illustration: Fig. 183.--Sporobolus commutatus.]


=Sporobolus commutatus, _Kunth._=

This is an annual and usually grows in loose tufts. Stems are slender,
always erect or ascending, leafy and branching, 2 to 15 inches long.

The _leaf-sheath_ is shorter than the internode, slightly compressed,
finely striate, glabrous and occasionally with a few scattered
tubercle-based hairs, margin ciliate; the uppermost sheath is cylindric
somewhat long and embraces the greater portion of the peduncle and has a
bunch of short hairs at the top.

The _leaf-blade_ is narrow linear-lanceolate, acuminate scaberulous
throughout, with long tubercle-based hairs scattered all over, but more
of them near the base; margins spinulosely distantly serrulate or
scabrid, base rounded or subcordate, 1/2 to 4-1/2 inches long and 1/16
to 3/16 inch wide.

[Illustration: Fig. 184.--Sporobolus commutatus.

1. A portion of a branch; 2. spikelet; 3, 4 and 5. first, second and the
third glume; 6. palea of the third glume; 7. ovary and anthers; 8 and 9.
grain.]

The _inflorescence_ is diffuse, pyramidal, 1 to 3 inches by 3/4 to 2
inches, on a slender glabrous peduncle 1 to 6 inches long, main rachis
is slender and angled, with a glandular streak or without it. Branches
are effuse, fine, capillary (more so than in S. coromandelianus),
obliquely ascending, never stiff and horizontal, verticillate or
irregularly subverticillate, the lowest whorl of five to twelve and the
others three to seven branches; the rachis of the branches is obscurely
scaberulous, slightly swollen at the point of insertion; branchlets are
never appressed to the branch, always drooping and spreading on all
sides, and bearing two to four spikelets.

The _spikelets_ are about 1/16 inch long, ovate-lanceolate, acute or
acuminate dark or pale green, sometimes purplish, solitary or two to
four on long slender pedicels, drooping, never appressed, and with
glandular streaks. There are three _glumes_. The _first glume_ is
minute, hyaline, ovate, obtuse or acute, nerveless. The _second glume_
is five or six times as long as the first, ovate lanceolate, 1-nerved,
acuminate. The _third glume_ is equal to or a little shorter than the
second, ovate-lanceolate, acute, 1-nerved paleate; _palea_ is equal to
the third glume, 2-nerved splitting into two halves between the nerves.
_Anthers_ are three and purple in colour. _Stigmas_ are white and
feathery. Grain as in _S. coromandelianus_.

In Flora of British India, this plant is included under Sporobolus
coromandelianus. These two plants (_S. coromandelianus_ and _S.
commutatus_) are quite distinct and grow side by side. As the
differences are not easily seen in herbarium specimens the two plants
are put together under the one species _S. coromandelianus_. The
branches are tufted and are usually decumbent at base, leaves quite
green and somewhat broad in _S. coromandelianus_; and in _S.
commutatus_, branches are usually not decumbent at base, generally erect
from the base and leaves are green glaucous and somewhat narrow. The
most striking difference, however, is in the panicle. The branches of
the panicle are always stiff and horizontal in S. coromandelianus and
the spikelets are appressed to the branches and never spreading or
drooping, whereas in _S. commutatus_ the branches are never stiff and
horizontal, always obliquely ascending and the spikelets are spreading
and drooping. Judging from living plants these two are undoubtedly
distinct and so this plant is treated as a distinct species retaining
Kunth's name _Sporobolus commutatus_. Enumeratio Plantarum, Pl. I, 214.

_Distribution._--This occurs in Coimbatore, Madras and Bellary
Districts; but it is not so common nor so widely distributed as S.
coromandelianus, _L._

[Illustration: Fig. 185.--Sporobolus scabrifolius.]


=Sporobolus scabrifolius, _Bhide._=

The plant is a very pretty one, especially when in flower. It is a
loosely tufted annual varying in height from 5 to 30 inches. Stems are
slender, terete, 6 to 30 inches long, bent at the base, then
geniculately ascending and finally becoming erect, glabrous, pale green
or purplish.

The _leaf-sheath_ is shorter than the internode, slightly compressed,
obscurely keeled, glabrous and striate, margin is thinly ciliate on one
side, especially towards the mouth which is bearded. The leaf-sheath
embracing the peduncle is longer than the lower sheaths. The _ligule_ is
a fringe of close-set hairs on an inconspicuous ridge. The _nodes_ are
glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is glaucous green, 1 to 5 inches long, 1/8 to 3/8 inch
broad, linear-lanceolate or lanceolate, acuminate, flat, rounded or
subcordate, and amplexicaul at base, scaberulous throughout, with
tubercle-based deciduous hairs on both the surfaces, and bearded at the
base above the ligule; the margin is thickened, serrulate, ciliate with
bulbous-based deciduous hairs.

[Illustration: Fig. 186.--Sporobolus scabrifolius.

1. Portion of a branch; 2. spikelet; 3, 4 and 5. the first, second and
third glumes; 6. palea; 7. anthers and ovary; 8. grain.]

The _inflorescence_ is an effuse panicle, 2-1/2 to 7 inches long and 1
to 4-1/2 inches broad, pyramidal or elliptic on a slender peduncle 1 to
7 inches long; _rachis_ is striolate, cylindric, glabrous and partly
green and partly purplish. Branches are capillary, 1/2 to 2-1/2 inches
long, those in the middle of the panicle are often the longest pale
green at first but turning purple later, whorled regularly or
irregularly, with often a solitary or twin branches intervening,
spreading, horizontal, reflexed, rarely one or two erect, dividing into
still finer branchlets below, ending in a few solitary spikelets above,
swollen at the base near the place of insertion and naked to a short
length, scabrid. The lowest whorl consists of five to ten branches and
in others they vary from three to eight; the branchlets are spreading
and drooping bearing from two to seven spikelets. There are glandular
streaks at the base of the branches above the point of insertion in the
naked portion and also on the pedicels of the spikelets.

_The spikelets_ are 1/20 to 1/16 inch long, lanceolate, acuminate, on
finely capillary pedicels long or short, pale at first and becoming
purplish when old. There are three _glumes_, the first two being empty.
All the glumes are 1-nerved and membranous. The _first glume_ is
membranous, about two-thirds of the second, sometimes less,
ovate-lanceolate, acuminate slightly scaberulous on the keel. The
_second glume_ is a little longer than the third, ovate-lanceolate,
acuminate, scaberulous on the keel. The _third glume_ is oblong-ovate,
glabrous, flower bearing, paleate; the _palea_ is shorter than the
glume, 2-nerved, splitting into two between the nerves. _Anthers_ are
three, small, pale yellow at first but becoming purple when old,
_stigmas_ are pale. _Lodicules_ are two and minute. Grain is rounded,
slightly compressed, oblique at the base, nearly as long as broad.

_Distribution._--In black cotton soils in Coimbatore and Bellary
districts.



33. Gracilea, _Koen._

These are small tufted grasses. The inflorescence is a spike bearing
unilaterally turbinate clusters of spikelets which are 2-flowered. The
spikelets have usually four, and rarely six glumes and very often the
rachilla is produced beyond the fourth glume. The first and the second
glumes are narrow (the first being the narrowest), rigid, ciliate with
long hairs and awned. The third glume is bisexual, chartaceous, broadly
ovate, 3-nerved, shortly awned. The fourth glume is similar to the third
but smaller and male. The fifth and sixth glumes when present are small
and empty. Lodicules are two and small. Grain linear oblong.

KEY TO THE SPECIES.

  Stems stout; leaves not filiform; tip of
  glume III entire                          1. G. nutans.

  Stems slender, leaves filiform; tip of
  glume III toothed                         2. G. Royleana.


=Gracilea nutans, _Koen._=

This grass is a perennial with stout fibrous roots. Stems are stout,
leafy and creeping below, ascending later; naked and slender above, 4 to
10 inches long.

The _leaf-sheath_ is glabrous, shorter than the blade, coriaceous and
open above. The _ligule_ is a ridge of hairs.

The _leaf-blade_ is lanceolate, narrowed from the rounded or subcordate
base to the acute tip, coriaceous, 3/4 to 1 inch long; margins are
ciliate with tubercle-based cilia; the surfaces with or without a few
scattered long tubercle-based hairs.

The _inflorescence_ is 1 to 3 inches long, consisting of distant sessile
fascicles of four to six spikelets; the _rachis_ of the spike is
flexuous; the _rachis_ of the fascicles ends in three subulate empty
glumes.

[Illustration: Fig. 187.--Gracilea nutans.

1. A portion of the inflorescence with three fascicles of spikelets; 2.
a spikelet without the first glume; 3, 4, 5 and 8. the first, second,
third and the fourth glume, respectively; 6 and 10. palea of the third
and the fourth glume, respectively; 7. lodicules, stamens and the ovary;
9. the rachilla produced beyond the fourth glume.]

The _spikelets_ are closely appressed and each one has four _glumes_.
The _first_ and the _second glumes_ are empty, 2/5 inch long, rigidly
coriaceous, gradually narrowed from a villous base into an erect,
scabrid awn, 1-nerved. The _second glume_ has broad hyaline margins
towards the base. The _third glume_ is about 1/10 inch, ovate, with a
short scabrid awn at the tip, scaberulous at the back just above the
middle, 3-nerved, paleate and with both stamens and ovary; _palea_ is
narrow, lanceolate, as long as the glume and 2-toothed at the tip. The
grain is oblong, brownish. The _fourth glume_ is about half as long as
the third glume, with a short, stout, smooth rachilla, ovate-lanceolate,
terminated at the tip by two teeth and a short awn, scabrid above the
middle at the back, paleate and male; _palea_ is shorter than the glume;
the rachilla is produced beyond the fourth glume and terminates in a
thickening.

This grass grows in open somewhat dry loamy and laterite soils in the
East Coast districts.

_Distribution._--Mysore and the Carnatic and Ceylon.


=Gracilea Royleana, _Hook. f._=

This is a slender annual grass. Stems are very slender, densely tufted,
geniculately ascending or erect, 3 to 8 inches long.

The _leaf-sheath_ is either covered with scattered tubercle-based hairs
or glabrous. The _ligule_ is a hairy ridge. The _nodes_ are glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is filiform, linear-lanceolate, acutely pointed,
glabrous or nearly so, margins distantly ciliate, 1 to 2 inches long by
1/16 inch or less.

The _inflorescence_ is 1/2 to 3 inches long and consists of fascicles of
spikelets; the rachis is trigonous, smooth, and flexuous.

[Illustration: Fig. 188.--Gracilea Royleana.

1. A fascicle of spikelets; 2. the spikelet without the first and the
second glumes; 3,4, 5 and 8. the first, second, third and the fourth
glume, respectively; 6. palea of third glume; 7. grain; 9. palea of the
fourth glume; 10. rachilla.]

The _spikelets_ consist of four _glumes_. The _first glume_ is rigidly
coriaceous, gradually narrowed from a villous base to an erect scabrid
awn, 1-nerved. The _second glume_ is also coriaceous, narrowed to an awn
but has broad hyaline margins towards the base. The _third glume_ is
ovate-lanceolate, scabrid all over the back and with two teeth, one on
each side of the awn, paleate; the _palea_ is 2-toothed at the apex and
as long as the glume and contains three stamens and the ovary. The grain
is oblong brownish. The _fourth glume_ is stalked, shorter than the
third glume, distinctly 3-toothed at the apex, scabrid at the back above
the middle, paleate and male; the _palea_ is smaller than the glume and
2-toothed at the apex. The _rachilla_ is produced behind the palea and
it ends in two small teeth, one being slightly larger than the other.

This grass is a very slender one and it is closely allied to _Gracilea
nutans_. It differs from _G. nutans_ in being an annual and in having
filiform leaves, bicuspidate third glume which is scabrid all over the
back and a fourth glume distinctly tricuspidate at the apex. This does
not occur so widely as _Gracilea nutans_.

_Distribution._--Bellary and Chingleput districts, the Punjab,
Rajputana, Concan and Kanara.



34. Enteropogon, _Nees._

Tall slender grasses with very long narrow leaves. Spikelets are
2-flowered, narrow, biseriate, unilateral, imbricate on the rachis of a
solitary spike; the rachilla is elongate between the flowering glumes
and produced beyond them and terminates in a rudimentary awned glume.
There are four glumes. The first two glumes are hyaline, unequal-nerved
and persistent. The third and the fourth glumes are chartaceous,
narrowly lanceolate, 3-nerved, bicuspidate and awned below the tip; awns
are capillary, straight; the callus is bearded and articulate at the
base. The third glume bears a bisexual or female flower and the fourth
bisexual or male. Lodicules are two. Stamens are three with long
anthers. Styles short diverging from the base, with short stigmas
laterally exserted.


=Enteropogon melicoides, _Nees._=

This is a tall perennial grass with stout roots. Stems are densely
tufted on a short woody root-stock, erect, leafy, 1 to 3 feet long.

_Leaf-sheaths_ are compressed and distichous below, glabrous or
sometimes with a few hairs close to the margin. Ligule is a ridge with
long hairs.

The _leaf-blade_ is very long 1/6 to 1/4 inch broad, auricled at the
base, narrowed into very finely acuminate or capillary tips midrib
prominent; scaberulous on both the surfaces and with long hairs on the
auricles.

The _spikes_ usually solitary, but occasionally binate, 6 to 10 inches
long; rachis is quite smooth and dorsally rounded.

[Illustration: Fig. 189.--Enteropogon melicoides.

1. A portion of the spike; 2 and 3. the first and the second glumes; 4.
the spikelet with its callus, flowering glumes and the rachilla; 5 and
8. the third and the fourth glume; 7. the fourth glume and the rachilla;
6 and 9. palea of the third and the fourth glume; 10. ovary, stamens and
lodicules; 11. grain front and back view.]

The _spikelets_ are about 1/4 inch long, erecto-patent. There are four
_glumes_. The _first glume_ is lanceolate, 1-nerved, and persistent. The
_second glume_ is twice as long as the first, linear-lanceolate, with a
very short awn and 2-toothed at the tip, 1-nerved, persistent. The
_third glume_ is rigid, lanceolate-linear, 3-nerved, scaberulous all
over; paleate and awned; awn is nearly as long as the glume, rigid. The
_fourth glume_ is similar to the third glume in all respects but
shorter. The rachilla is produced beyond the fourth glume and it
terminates in an awned rudimentary glume. The third glume as well as the
fourth glume contains a perfect flower and the grain is developed always
in the third and mostly in the fourth also. The grain is oblong,
brownish, dorsally concave and ventrally raised and convex. The grain in
the fourth glume is usually much smaller than that found in the third
glume.

This usually grows amidst thickets and occurs all over this Presidency.

_Distribution._--Mysore, Burma, Ceylon and Seychelle Islands.



35. Cynodon, _Pers._

These are perennial grasses with stems creeping and rooting at the
nodes, and producing tufts of barren branches and flowering stems at the
nodes. The inflorescence consists of two to six spikes in terminal
umbels. The spikelets are small, 1-flowered, laterally compressed,
sessile, alternately 2-seriate and imbricate on one side of the rachis.
The spikelet has three glumes. The first two glumes are empty, thin,
keeled, and acute or mucronate. The third glume is the largest,
boat-shaped, 3-nerved, with ciliate keels, palea is 2-keeled, somewhat
shorter than the glume. Lodicules are two. The anthers are somewhat
large. Grain is oblong, free.

KEY TO THE SPECIES.

  Glumes I and II shorter than III.

    Underground stems present.

      Hairs on the margins and keels of
      glume III pointed and not clavate.       1. C. dactylon.

    Underground stems absent.

      Hairs on the margins and keels of
      glume III clavellate and pointed at
      the apex.                                2. C. intermedius.

  Glume I shorter than II but II equal to or
  longer than III--

      Hairs on the margins and keels of
      glume III clavellate and rounded at
      the apex. Underground stems
      absent.                                  3. C. Barberi.

[Illustration: Fig. 190.--Cynodon dactylon.]


=Cynodon dactylon, _Pers._=

This is a perennial grass with creeping branches and also with numerous
deeply penetrating underground stems covered with white scale-leaves.
Stems are prostrate, widely creeping and rooting at the nodes and
forming matted tufts with slender, erect or ascending flowering
branches, 3 to 12 inches high.

The _leaf-sheath_ is somewhat tight, glabrous, membranous at the mouth
which is villous. The _ligule_ is a fine ciliate rim.

The _leaf-blade_ is soft, narrowly linear, finely acute, acuminate or
pungent, somewhat glaucous, conspicuously distichous at the base of the
stem and, in non-flowering branches, scabrid along the margins.

The _inflorescence_ consists of two to eight smooth, digitate, green or
purplish spikes, 1 to 3 inches long; _rachis_ is slender, compressed or
angular, scaberulous.

[Illustration: Fig. 191.--Cynodon dactylon.

1. A portion of spike, front view; 2. back view of a bit of spike; 3.
spikelet; 4. first glume; 5. second glume; 6. third glume; 7. palea of
third glume and rachilla; 8. lodicules, ovary and anthers; 9. hairs on
the margin and keel of third glume.]

_Spikelets_ are laterally compressed, sessile, imbricate, arranged
alternately in two series along one side of the rachis; _rachilla_
produced beyond the first two glumes and hidden at the back of the palea
between the two keels, small, slender and blunt when old and with a
membranous imperfect glume when young, less than half the length of the
spikelet. There are three _glumes_. The _first_ and _second glumes_ are
shorter than the third, empty, ovate-lanceolate, acute, membranous with
one thick green nerve in the middle, keeled, upper margin and keel
scaberulous. The _second glume_ is usually a little longer than the
first, but occasionally also slightly shorter than the first. The _third
glume_ is longer than both the first and second glumes, obliquely oblong
to ovate, subacute, membranous, boat-shaped, smooth, keeled, 3-nerved,
one central along the keel and two marginal, keel scabrid below with
stiff pointed hairs above, tip and lower margins scabrid or pilose,
_palea_ linear oblong, a little less than the third glume, obtuse,
2-nerved and with two scabrid keels. _Stamens_ are three with pale
purple anthers. _Lodicules_ are two. Stigmas are purplish. Grain is
oblong, slightly flattened, dorsally rounded, dull reddish-brown.

This is the common Hariali grass. It is also called "Devil's grass."

_Distribution._--It is cosmopolitan.

[Illustration: Fig. 192.--Cynodon intermedius.]


=Cynodon intermedius, _Rang. & Tad._=

This grass is a widely creeping perennial.

The stems are slender, glabrous, creeping superficially and rooting at
the nodes, but never rhizomiferous, leafy with slender erect or
geniculately ascending flowering branches, and varying in length from 12
to 18 inches. _Nodes_ are slightly swollen, glabrous, green or purplish.

The _leaf-sheath_ is smooth, glabrous, slightly compressed, sparsely
bearded at the mouth, shorter than the internode, except the one
enclosing the peduncle which is usually long. The _ligule_ is a shortly
ciliated rim.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear, flat, finely acuminate, scaberulous above
and along the margins, smooth below except in some portions of the
midrib, 1/2 to 7 inches in length and 3/16 to 1/4 inch in breadth.

[Illustration: Fig. 193.--Cynodon intermedius.

1 and 2. Front and back view of a portion of a spike; 3. a spikelet; 4.
first glume; 5. second glume; 6. third glume; 7. palea with the rachilla
at its back; 8. lodicules, stamens and the ovary; 9. clavellate and
pointed hairs of the margins and keel of the third glume (very much
enlarged); 10. grain.]

The _inflorescence_ consists of four to eight long, thin, slender,
slightly drooping, digitately arranged spikes, 2 to 4 inches long on a
long smooth peduncle; the rachis is tumid and pubescent at its base,
slender, somewhat compressed and scaberulous.

The _spikelets_ are rather small, narrow, greenish or purplish, 1/15
inch long or less, the rachilla is slender, produced to about half the
length of the spikelet behind the palea. There are three _glumes_. The
_first_ and the _second glumes_ are lanceolate acute or acuminate,
1-nerved, keeled, keel obscurely scabrid, very unequal, the first glume
being always shorter than the second glume. The _third glume_ is
obliquely ovate-oblong, chartaceous, longer than the second glume,
obtuse or subacute and 3-nerved; the margins and keel with close set
clavellate hairs pointed at the apex; _palea_ is chartaceous, 2-keeled,
keels obscurely scaberulous and without hairs. There are three _stamens_
with somewhat small purple anthers. _Ovary_ with purple stigmas and two
small _lodicules_. Grain is oblong reddish brown, with a faint dorsal
groove.

This species is closely allied to the cosmopolitan species _Cynodon
dactylon_, Pers. and to another new species _Cynodon Barberi_, Rang. &
Tad. described in the "Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society,"
Volume 24, part IV, page 846, and it is therefore named _Cynodon
intermedius_. (See Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, Volume
26, part I, pages 304 and 305.) This grass differs from _Cynodon
dactylon_, Pers. (1) in not having underground stems and having only
stems creeping and rooting along the surface of the ground, (2) in
having less rigid leaves, (3) by having longer, slenderer, somewhat
drooping spikes and narrower spikelets, (4) by having the first two
glumes always unequal, the second being longer, (5) by having clavellate
pointed hairs on the margins and keels of the third glume and (6) by
having smaller anthers. Compared with _Cynodon Barberi_, this plant is
more extensively creeping with longer slender branches and the leaves
are usually very much longer, and the third glume is longer than the
second.

_Distribution._--So far, this was collected at Gokavaram in
Godavari district No. 8262, in Chingleput No. 11488, in Tinnevelly
district Nos. 13129 and 13259, and at Kallar on the Nilgiris No. 13988.

[Illustration: Fig. 194.--Cynodon Barberi.]

=Cynodon Barberi, _Rang. & Tad._=

This grass is perennial with slender, creeping stems, 12 to 24 inches
long, rooting at the nodes and invariably with two or three rarely more
branches from each node; flowering branches are slender, erect or
ascending, 1 to 6 inches long.

The _leaf-sheath_ is short, smooth, compressed with scattered long hairs
at the mouth. The _ligule_ is a narrow membrane with the edge cut into
narrow lobes.

The _leaf-blade_ is flat, linear, acute or subacute, scaberulous, 1/3 to
3-1/2 inches long, 1/8 to 3/16 inch broad.

[Illustration: Fig. 195.--Cynodon Barberi.

1. Front and back view of a portion of spike; 2. a single spikelet; 3. a
spikelet with the flower out; 4. the third glume, its palea and the
produced rachilla with a minute glume; 5. clavellate hairs; 6. ovary; 7.
lodicules; 8. grain.]

The _inflorescence_ consists of three to five digitate spikes, 3/4 to
1-1/2 inches long, erect or spreading, pale green or purplish. The
_spikelets_ are compressed laterally, sessile or obscurely pedicelled,
imbricate, alternately biseriate on the ventral side of the rachis,
1-flowered; the _rachilla_ is produced into a bristle behind the palea,
with or without a minute glume. There are three _glumes_. The _first
glume_ is lanceolate, acute, shorter than the second, with a keel which
is scabrid. The _second glume_ is lanceolate, acuminate, equal to or a
little longer than the third glume with a scabrid keel. The _third
glume_ is obliquely oblong to ovate, subacute, truncate or 2-toothed,
boat-shaped, sub-chartaceous, 3-nerved, paleate and distinctly keeled;
the keel and the margins of the glume are densely covered with
distinctly clavellate hairs; _palea_ is firmly membranous, equal to or
slightly smaller than the glume, linear-oblong, 2-keeled, densely hairy
with clavellate hairs along the keels, and 2-nerved. There are two
_lodicules_ and three _stamens_. The _ovary_ is ovoid with two style
branches. Grain is free within the glume, oblong, smooth, transparent,
and the embryo is about one-third the length of the grain.

This species is closely allied to _Cynodon dactylon_, Pers., but differs
from it in the following respects:--The absence of stoloniferous
underground branches, leaves short and not finely pointed; spikes not
exceeding five; the _second glume_ is always equal to or longer than the
_third glume_; presence of clavellate hairs on the keels and margins of
the third glume and on the keels of the palea.

_Distribution._--So far collected in Coimbatore, Salem, Tinnevelly,
Chingleput and Godavari districts.



36. Chloris, _Sw._

These are annual or perennial grasses. Spikes are solitary or many in
terminal umbels or short racemes, erect or spreading. Spikelets are
unilateral, sessile, crowded, biseriate on a slender rachis with four to
six glumes and 1 to 3-flowered; the rachilla is produced and
disarticulating above the empty glumes. The first two glumes are
unequal, narrow, keeled, membranous, 1-nerved, persistent, acute,
mucronate and the second glume awned shortly. Floral glumes narrow or
broad, acute, obtuse or minutely 2-toothed and awned, paleate; sterile
glumes are small, without palea. There are two lodicules and anthers are
rather small. Grain is narrow and free.

KEY TO THE SPECIES.

Spikelets 1-flowered.

  Perennial.

    Rachilla produced beyond the flowering glumes
    and bearing awns with rudimentary glumes.

      Spikes 4 to 10, long, whorled; spikelets
      narrow fusiform; glume III oblong
      lanceolate.                                  1. C. incompleta.

    Rachilla produced beyond the flowering glume
    and bearing 1 to 3 reduced glumes.

      Spikes free at the base, digitate.

        Spikes 6 to 9; spikelets 2-awned;
        glume III ovate, bearded with long
        hairs above the middle.                    3. C. virgata.

        Spikes 4 to 20; spikelets 3-awned;
        glume III broadly ovate, densely
        bearded dorsally and on the margins
        above the middle.                          4. C. barbata.

      Spikes connate at the base, erect and not
      spreading.

        Spikes 2 to 6; spikelets narrow 4-awned,
        glume III ovate-lanceolate,
        bearded only on the margins
        and not at the back.                       6. C. montana.

  Annual.

    Spike solitary, spikelets broadly cuneiform,
    3-awned, glume III broadly cuneate,
    upper margins naked and keel villous.          2. C. tenella.

Spikelets 1- to 3-flowered.

  Perennial.

    Spikes 5-9, spikelets broadly cuneate 3 to
    5-awned, glume III bearded all through
    the margin and dorsally.                       5. C. Bournei.


=Chloris incompleta, _Roth._=

This is a perennial grass. Stems are procumbent when growing in open
places, but erect if growing amidst bushes, often branched, ending in
long naked peduncles, varying in length from 1-1/2 to 4 feet. In some
cases prostrate stems produce roots at the nodes.

The _leaf-sheaths_ are long, glabrous, the mouth being generally hairy.
The _ligule_ consists of long hairs. _Nodes_ are glabrous.

The _leaf-blades_ are linear, flat, finely acuminate and narrowed into
very long points at the apex; glabrous or slightly hairy at the base and
contracted, 4 to 10 inches long and 1/6 to 1/4 inch broad.

The _inflorescence_ consists of two to five rarely six, very slender
spikes, 3 to 8 inches long, forming a terminal whorl. The rachis is fine
and scabrid.

[Illustration: Fig. 196.--Chloris incompleta.

1. A portion of the rachis with two spikelets; 2. the third glume and
its palea with the rudimentary fourth glume; 3 and 4. the first and the
second glumes; 5 and 6. the third glume and its palea; 7. the ovary,
anthers and lodicules.]

_Spikelets_ are narrowly lanceolate, closely appressed and imbricate,
1/6 inch long excluding the awn and very variable. There are four
_glumes_ in the spikelet. The _first glume_ is very small
linear-lanceolate, acute, about 1/10 inch or less. The _second glume_ is
lanceolate, membranous, three times the length of the first glume,
2-toothed at the apex and the mid-nerve produced into a very short awn.
The _third glume_ is oblong-lanceolate as long as the second glume or
longer, 2-toothed at the apex, awned, the awn being about 3/8 inch long;
the callus is bearded at the base. The palea is as long as the glume,
2-toothed or not at the apex. The _fourth glume_ is very minute, awned
and is borne by a rachilla produced to half the length of the third
glume.

This grass is fairly common and grows in all situations and in all sorts
of soils.

_Distribution._--This occurs all over the Presidency in the plains.


=Chloris tenella, _Roxb._=

This grass is a very slender annual with weak stems, branched from the
base, 10 to 18 inches long.

The _leaf-sheath_ is glabrous, compressed and keeled. The _ligule_ is a
truncate membrane. The _nodes_ are glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear to linear-lanceolate, flaccid, finely
acuminate with the margin more or less ciliate towards the base, 3 to 8
inches long and 1/8 to 1/4 inch wide.

The _spikes_ are solitary, erect. 1 to 2-1/2 inches long.

[Illustration: Fig. 197.--Chloris tenella.

1. A portion of the spike; 2. a spikelet; 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10.
the glumes in regular order beginning with the first; 5a, 6a, 7a, 8a and
9b. are the palea of the third, fourth, fifth, sixth and the seventh
glumes, respectively; 5b. grain.]

The _spikelets_ are large about 1/4 inch long cuneate and bifarious.
There are usually five to six _glumes_ (and rarely up to eight). The
_first glume_ is ovate-lanceolate, acute and hyaline, 1-nerved. The
_second glume_ is a little longer and broader than the first glume,
1-nerved and this mid-nerve produced into a very short awn. The _third
glume_ is as long as the second or longer, coriaceous, obovate and
truncate at the top, 3-nerved and the marginal nerves distant from the
margin, keel and the lateral nerves villous to about three-fourths their
length, scabrid at the apex close to the truncate margin, paleate;
_palea_ is elliptic, with ciliate margins, callus is densely villous.
The _fourth glume_ is nearly half or a little more than half of the
third glume, narrower, paleate; _palea_ is elliptic. The succeeding
glumes _fifth_ to the _eighth_ are similar to the fourth in shape but
they get smaller and smaller and the last glume is epaleate. The third
glume is usually grain bearing, but rarely the fourth also may contain a
grain, the remaining glumes being sterile. Grain is oblong, lenticular,
brownish.

This grass is widely spread in the Ceded districts and appears to be a
good fodder grass.

_Distribution._--Southern India, Rajputana, Scind and Khandeish.


=Chloris virgata, _Sw._=

This grass seems to be a perennial. The stems are somewhat flattened,
erect, tufted, leafy at the base and occasionally with creeping stems
rooting at the lower nodes varying in length from 10 to 21 inches.

The _leaf-sheaths_ are glabrous, compressed, upper sheaths somewhat
inflated; mouth of the sheath is bearded with long hairs in the leaves
of young branches and quite glabrous when old and in flower-bearing
branches, margins are thin and membranous. The ligule is a thin narrow
membranous ridge.

The _leaf-blades_ are rather narrow, linear, flat, acute, glabrous when
old, and with scattered long hairs in the leaves of young branches,
varying in length from 2 to 9 and sometimes even 15 inches and in
breadth about 1/8 inch or less.

[Illustration: Fig. 198.--Chloris virgata.

1. Spikelet; 2 and 3, the first and second glumes; 4 and 5. the third
glume and its palea; 6. lodicules, stamens and the ovary; 7. the fourth
glume; 8. grain.]

The _inflorescence_ consists of from four to nine spikes digitately
arranged on a long peduncle and the leaf-sheath enclosing the
inflorescence is somewhat large and inflated. Spikes are 1 to 1-1/2
inches long with fine, angular rachis, scaberulous in the edges.

_Spikelets_ are about 1/10 inch, 2-awned, shortly stalked and consist of
only four _glumes_. The _first glume_ is small lanceolate, glabrous,
with the keel scaberulous, 1-nerved. The _second glume_ is about one and
a half times the first, oblong-lanceolate, 2-fid at the apex, glabrous,
but the keel scaberulous and nerve produced between the lobes into a
short scaberulous awn. The _third glume_ is oblong-ovate, lanceolate,
2-fid at the apex, and awned in the sinus, awn being about 1/4 inch long
bearded at the base, the margins are slightly ciliate up to about the
middle and then closely ciliate with long hairs almost to the tip, but
not to the tip; on the two sides of the dorsal nerve there are two
shallow grooves one on each side, with short scattered appressed hairs;
the palea is narrow oblanceolate, minutely 2-fid at the tip, with
margins folded inward and embracing the _stamens_, _ovary_ and the
_lodicules_. Grain is narrow, trigonous, oblong, translucent and
shining. The _fourth glume_ is borne by a short rachilla which is about
1/3 the length of the third glume or less, shorter than the third,
cuneiform, empty and awned.

This grass grows well and produces a fair amount of foliage.

_Distribution._--This is not very common. So far collected only from
Hosur in Salem district and Bellary district although its distribution
is said to be Central and Southern India. It was found growing
abundantly on old walls of houses in Poona city in 1920 and 1921.

[Illustration: Fig. 199.--Chloris barbata (perennial plant).]

[Illustration: Fig. 200.--Chloris barbata.]


=Chloris barbata, _Sw._=

This is a very common perennial grass.

Stems are stout, tufted, geniculately ascending and erect when in
flower, and some creeping and rooting at the nodes; leafy at the base
and branching upwards, 1 to 3 feet; the lower internodes are 2 to 3
inches long and the upper still longer, glabrous.

The _leaf-sheaths_ are glabrous, compressed laterally, open at the base
and closed above, with a few scattered long hairs at the mouth, the
margins thinly membranous. The _ligule_ is a very narrow membrane. The
_nodes_ are glabrous mostly bearing tufts of leaves with compressed
equitant sheaths.

The _leaf-blade_ is narrow linear, flat or folded, acuminate, with long
hairs on the margin towards the base, varying in length from 2 to 18
inches.

[Illustration: Fig. 201.--Chloris barbata.

1 to 5. the first, second, third, fourth and the fifth glume of a
spikelet; 3a and 3b. the third glume and its palea; 3c. ovary, stamens
and lodicules; 4a and 5a. the fourth and fifth glumes; 6. grain.]

The _inflorescence_ consists of five to fourteen or fifteen sessile,
digitately arranged spikes, varying in length from 1-1/2 to 3 inches, on
a slender peduncle; the rachis is slender minutely hairy swollen at the
base.

The _spikelets_ are green or purplish, 3-awned, unilaterally biseriate
on the outside of the rachis, 1/10 inch excluding the awn; the
_rachilla_ is bearded at the base, but is shorter than the third glume
and bears two barren glumes. There are five _glumes_. The _first_ and
the _second glumes_ are lanceolate, acute, membranous, pale and
1-nerved, but the first glume is shorter than the second. The _third
glume_ is broadly elliptic or ovate, concave, awned, 3-nerved, with
margins densely bearded above the middle and sparsely bearded dorsally
on both the sides of the mid-nerve; the _palea_ is oblanceolate, as long
as the glume, folded inside along the margins and outside along the
middle, enclosing three _stamens_ and _ovary_. The _fourth glume_ is
cuneiform, 3-nerved, awned, shortly ciliate above the middle, empty. The
_fifth glume_ is awned, 3-nerved, glabrous, and globose.

This grass is very widely distributed and it grows in all kinds of
soils. Cattle eat it when young, but avoid it when the inflorescence is
mature.

_Distribution._--Throughout the plains in India, Burma and Ceylon.

[Illustration: Fig. 202.--Chloris Bournei.

1. Full plant; 2. leaf showing ligule.]


=Chloris Bournei, _Rang. & Tad._=

This grass appears to be perennial. The stems are somewhat stout,
tufted, erect or ascending geniculately from a creeping and rooting
base, varying in length from 1 to 3 feet and with internodes to 6 inches
becoming longer upwards.

The _leaf-sheaths_ are equal to or longer than the internodes at the
base, but shorter above, glabrous, compressed, distichous, bearded
towards the mouth and with membranous margins. The _ligule_ is a narrow
membranous ridge. _Nodes_ are thickened, deeply purple ringed, glabrous
and the lower nodes always with a fan-like tuft of flattened
leaf-sheaths and leaves.

The _leaf-blades_ are linear, finely acuminate, slightly broadened and
rounded at the base, keeled, the upper surface scaberulous and with a
few scattered long hairs especially towards the base, smooth or slightly
scaberulous below, 1 to 9 inches by 1/12 to 1/4 inch.

The _inflorescence_ consists of digitately arranged spikes 1-1/2 to 4
inches long on a peduncle which is sometimes 15 inches long. _Spikes_
are stout, purple-tinged, three to seven and even nine in some
specimens, shortly stalked, the base of the stalk being slightly swollen
and villous at the base, the rachis is slender, somewhat villous towards
the base.

[Illustration: Fig. 203.--Chloris Bournei.

1 to 5. The glumes in order; 3a and 3b. the third glume and its palea;
3c. flower; 4a and 4b. the fourth glume and its palea; 5a. fifth glume;
6. a spikelet with four awned glumes; 7. grain.]

The _spikelets_ are about 1/8 inch excluding the awn, very shortly
pedicelled, biseriate, unilateral, disarticulating above the first two
glumes which are persistent, purplish or pale, 1- to 3-flowered, usually
3- to 4-awned and sometimes 5-awned; _awns_ are purplish 3/16 to 5/16
inch long, finely scabrid. There are five or seven _glumes_ in a
spikelet. The _first glume_ is hyaline, purplish or pale, about 1/10
inch long, lanceolate, sub-acuminate, 1-nerved with a scaberulous keel.
The _second glume_ is hyaline, about one and half times as long as the
first, oblong elliptic, minutely 2-lobed at the apex, with a minute
mucro between, 1-nerved with a scabrid keel. The _third glume_ is as
long as the second, awned, pale or purple, ovate or obovate, narrowed at
the base and clasping the rachilla at its base, apex shortly 2-fid with
a purple dorsal awn, 3-nerved paleate; the two marginal nerves are
densely bearded with long white or purple tinged hairs from near the
base to almost the apex and the mid-nerve also similarly bearded with
long hairs on both sides, and the base with a tuft of long hairs; the
palea is as long as the glume, coriaceous obovately-cuneate, obtuse,
minutely bifid, purple-tipped, with folded hyaline margins, 2-keeled;
keels shortly ciliate. _Stamens_ three with yellow or purple anthers,
_ovary_ with two feathery _stigmas_ and two _lodicules_. Grain is oblong
shining light reddish brown, narrowed at both ends and somewhat
trigonous. The remaining glumes _fourth_ to _seventh_ are borne by the
rachilla, thinly chartaceous, broadly obcordate or obovate, gradually
diminishing in size, purple-tinged, 3- to 5-nerved, scaberulous. The
fourth and fifth glumes are empty and epaleate when the spikelets are
five glumed. If there are six glumes, the _fourth_ bears stamens and the
ovary, the _fifth_ and _sixth glumes_ are empty, and in spikelets of
seven glumes, the third, fourth, and the fifth glumes are flower-bearing
and contain grains, and the remaining two glumes are empty.

This species is a tall robust one resembling _Chloris barbata_ in its
inflorescence, but with larger spikelets--as large as those of _Chloris
tenella_. No doubt it is closely allied to _Chloris barbata_, but
differs from it by having larger spikelets that are 3- to 5-awned and 1-
to 3-flowered, and the nerves being bearded throughout their length with
long hairs.

Specimens of this grass were sent to Kew and Calcutta herbariums for
identification and they were named _C. montana_, with which I could not
agree.

So again I sent these specimens along with specimens of what I
considered _C. montana_ to Dr. Stapf at Kew through Mr. Gamble and Dr.
Stapf wrote about these thus:--"We have not been able to match it with
any of the described species of _Chloris_ and Mr. Ranga Acharya will be
fully justified in describing it as a new species. We have had it apart
from Wight's specimen from the following collections:--(1) Sattur,
November 19, 1795, sub-Andropogon barbata, Var.? Herb Rottler. (2)
Ahmednagar-Miss Shattock (U.S. Dept. Agri.--received 1914).
(3)Tornagallu, Bellary district, 11th August 1901 (Ex herb Ranga Acharya
in Herb, Bourne No. 3594)."

_Distribution._--This grass was found growing in abundance in the fields
Nos. 13, 37 and 62 of the Agricultural College and in the grounds around
the Forest College, Coimbatore, and was also collected in Hagari and
Samalkota.

This grass grows well and is likely to prove useful, as cattle seem to
like it.

[Illustration: Fig. 204.--Chloris montana.]


=Chloris montana, _Roxb._=

This is a perennial grass usually met with on dry soils. The stems are
erect, tufted, geniculately ascending from a creeping base rooting at
the nodes, quite glabrous, varying in length from 4 inches to 4 feet.

The _leaf-sheaths_ are shorter than the internodes, flat, compressed,
glabrous, with a few hairs or not at the mouth and with membranous
margins; the uppermost sheath is spathiform enclosing the inflorescence
when young. The _ligule_ consists of only a thin ridge of short hairs
densely arranged. _Nodes_ are glabrous and dark-ringed, and with
fan-like spreading equitant leaf-sheaths and leaves more especially when
rooting.

The _leaf-blades_ are narrow linear, finely acuminate, rounded at the
base, glabrous throughout, folded flat inwards, 1/2 to 8 inches long,
1/16 to 1/8 inch broad.

The _inflorescence_ consists of three to six (very rarely up to nine)
spikes, 1 to 3 inches long, connate at the base, erect and never
spreading, the peduncle is slender, long, glabrous and copiously
pubescent just below the base of the connate spikes; _rachis_ is
angular, slender and scabrid.

[Illustration: Fig. 205.--Chloris montana.

1. A portion of the spike; 2. a spikelet; 3 and 4. first and second
glumes; 5 and 5a. third glume and its palea; 6, 7, 8 and 9. fourth,
fifth, sixth and seventh glumes; 10. lodicules, ovary and stamens; 11.
grain.]

The _spikelets_ are about 1/8 inch excluding the awns, shortly
pedicelled, unilateral, biseriate, thin and slender, 1-flowered, pale or
purple tinged, disarticulating above the two lower empty glumes, which
persist on the rachis, generally 4-awned, very rarely 3 or 5; _awns_ are
pale or purple, 1/8 to 5/16 inch; pedicel is short, angular, scaberulous
with a few pilose hairs; _rachilla_ is produced but is shorter than the
flowering glume. There are usually six _glumes_ in a spikelet and very
rarely five or seven glumes; of these the first two _glumes_ are
hyaline, empty, awnless; the third is flower-bearing and the rest empty,
thinly coriaceous and awned. The _first glume_ is white or lightly
purplish, small, about 1/16 inch long, lanceolate, finely acuminate,
1-nerved, and with scabrid keel. The _second glume_ is twice the first
glume in length, oblong-lanceolate, finely acuminate, 1-nerved. The
_third glume_ is broadly oblong, chartaceous, 3-nerved, bearded with
long hairs along the margins from a little above the base, and with a
tuft of hairs at the base and an awn at the apex; the palea is oblong, a
little smaller than the glume, folded along the margins. There are three
_stamens_ with pale yellow anthers. The _styles_ are white with purple
_stigmas_. _Lodicules_ are narrowly cuneate. The _fourth_ and the _fifth
glumes_ are small, epaleate, empty, oblong, cuneate, 3-nerved, awned.
The _sixth glume_ is very small, cuneate, awned.

_Distribution._--In the districts forming the Coromandel Coast and also
Gangetic plains and Ceylon.



37. Eleusine, _Gaertn._

These are annual or perennial grasses. Leaves are long or short. The
spikelets are sessile, 3 to 12 flowered, 2 to 3-seriate, secund,
laterally compressed and forming digitate whorled or capitate spikes,
not joined at the base; rachilla continuous between the flowering
glumes. The glumes in a spikelet are few to many, keeled. The first two
glumes are subequal or unequal, persistent; the first glume is 1-nerved
and the second glume is 1- to 7-nerved. The flowering glumes are
3-nerved, paleate; palea is complicate; keels are strong, scabrid or
ciliate. Lodicules are two, cuneate. Anthers are short. Styles distinct
and short. Grain is free, rugose, and the pericarp is hyaline and loose.

KEY TO THE SPECIES.

  Spikelets pointing upward at an acute angle with the rachis of the
  spike.

    Spikes 1 to 5 inches long, digitate,
    erect.                                   1. E. indica.

    Spikes 1/6 to 1/4 inch or a little
    more, capitate, spreading.               2. E. brevifolia.

  Spikelets spreading at right angles with
  the rachis of the spike, spreading or
  erect.                                     3. E. ægyptiaca.


=Eleusine indica, _Gaertn._=

This is a tufted annual grass with short, erect, somewhat compressed,
glabrous stems, 1 to 2 feet high.

The _leaf-sheaths_ are compressed, distichous, ciliate. The _ligule_ is
a ridge of hairs.

The _leaf-blades_ are narrow-linear, as long as the stem, glabrous or
with a few scattered hairs near the mouth, acuminate, base not
contracted, 12 to 20 inches long and 1/8 to 1/6 inch broad.

The _spikes_ are elongate, digitate, 2 to 7, 2 to 5 inches long, all in
a terminal whorl and sometimes with one or two lower down, and with the
axils glandular and hairy; the _rachis_ is slender and dorsally
flattened.

[Illustration: Fig. 206.--Eleusine indica.

1. A portion of the spike; 2. a spikelet; 3. flowering glumes and their
palea with the rachis; 4 and 5. the first two glumes; 6 and 7. flowering
glume and its palea; 8. the ovary, stamens and the lodicules; 9 and 10.
grain.]

The _spikelets_ are variable in size, 1/12 to 1/6 inch, 3 to 5, rarely
6-flowered, quite glabrous, biseriate, pointing upward at an acute angle
with the rachis. All the glumes are more or less membranous. The _first
glume_ is small, oblong-ovate or oblong, 1-nerved with a scabrid keel.
The _second glume_ is twice the size of the first, ovate-oblong,
3-nerved, rarely 3- to 7-nerved, glabrous, shortly mucronate at the
acute apex. The _third glume_ and the succeeding flowering glumes are
larger than the second, ovate-oblong, subacute, 3-nerved and paleate;
_palea_ is shorter than the glume, glabrous. _Stamens_ are three.
_Lodicules_ are small and cuneate. The grain is oblong, obtusely
trigonous, broadly and shallowly grooved dorsally with concentric minute
tubercled ridges covered with a loose pericarp.

This grass is fairly common in somewhat wet places in the plains and low
hills.

_Distribution._--Throughout India and Ceylon.


=Eleusine brevifolia, _Br._=

This is an annual grass. Stems are creeping and spreading from the root,
and ascending from a decumbent base, generally slender and small, but
sometimes large and proliferously branched, leafy, 3 to 7 inches long.

The _leaf-sheath_ is compressed and glabrous. The _ligule_ is a very
short membrane, ciliate at the margin or obsolete.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear, acute, with a subcordate or rounded base 1/2
to 2 inches long and 1/8 to 1/6 inch broad.

The _spikes_ are usually many, sessile and crowded in globose heads,
varying in diameter from 1/3 to 2/3 inch.

[Illustration: Fig. 207.--Eleusine brevifolia.

1. A spikelet; 2 and 3. the first and the second glumes; 4 and 5. the
third glume and its palea 6. lodicules, ovary and stamens.]

_Spikelets_ are sessile, biseriate, ovate-oblong, 1/8 to 1/6 inch long,
4- to 10-flowered. The _first two glumes_ are membranous, ovate-oblong,
glabrous, acuminate and shortly awned, the _first glume_ is shorter than
the second, 1- to 3-nerved, the _second glume_ is longer than the first,
3- to 5-nerved, and the nerves are very close to the middle one in the
keel. The _third_ and the succeeding _glumes_ are ovate, cuspidately
acuminate, 3-nerved, nerves villous below the middle and paleate;
_palea_ is oblong, lanceolate, truncate and minutely 2-toothed, keels
villous below the middle. _Anthers_ are small. _Lodicules_ are also
small and cuneate. _Styles_ are long and slender. Grain is orbicular to
ovate, concavo-convex, red-brown, and transversely rugose.

This grass is usually found in somewhat damp situations all over the
Presidency, though somewhat local in its distribution.

_Distribution._--Sandy shores of the Coromandel and Carnatic coasts.

[Illustration: Fig. 208.--Eleusine ægyptiaca.]


=Eleusine ægyptiaca, _Desf._=

This grass is an annual with erect or creeping branches. Stems are erect
or prostrate, compressed, smooth, spreading and rooting at the nodes, 6
to 18 inches long. Nodes are thickened and sometimes proliferous.

The _leaf-sheath_ is compressed and glabrous. The _ligule_ is short and
membranous.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear, tapering to a fine point, flat, glaucous,
glabrous or hairy, 1 to 6 inches long and 1/12 to 1/6 inch, wide.

[Illustration: Fig. 209.--Eleusine ægyptiaca.

1. Front and back views of a portion of spike; 2. a spikelet; 3 and 4.
the first and the second glumes; 5 and 6. flowering glume and its palea;
7. ovary and anthers.]

_Spikes_ are digitate, 2 to 6, 1/2 to 1-1/2 inches long. _Spikelets_ are
flat, densely crowded on one side of the floral axis, spreading at right
angles, 3- to 5-flowered, _glumes_ five to seven. The _first glume_ is
ovate acute. The _second glume_ is equal to the first or slightly
longer, broadly ovate, awned. The flowering _glumes_ are ovate,
mucronate or awned, paleate; _palea_ is shorter than the glume,
ovate-oblong, obtuse or 2-fid. _Anthers_ are small. Grain is reddish,
rugose and sub-globose.

This is a very common grass occurring as a weed in cultivated fields and
in open places. It is a well-known fodder grass.

_Distribution._--Throughout the plains in India and Ceylon.



38. Dinebra, _Jacq._

These are leafy annual grasses. The inflorescence is a narrow pyramidal
raceme of slender, spreading or deflexed spikes. Spikelets are small,
biseriate and crowded on one side of the spike and not jointed at the
base; rachilla is slender, jointed and produced beyond the flowering
glumes and bearing an imperfect glume. There are four to five glumes.
The first two glumes are the longest, lanceolate, 1-nerved, keeled and
awned. The second glume is slightly longer than the first. The third and
the fourth glumes are very small, hyaline, broadly ovate, 1-nerved.
Lodicules are present. Stamens are three and anthers didymous and small.
Grain is narrowly ovoid and trigonous.

[Illustration: Fig. 210.--Dinebra arabica.

1. Full plant; 2. leaf showing the ligule.]


=Dinebra arabica, _Jacq._=

This grass is an annual with stems erect or with a geniculate base,
tufted, slender or stout; some of the lower nodes of the geniculate part
of the stems bear roots; the internodes are green or purple tinged and
glabrous.

The _leaf-sheath_ is thin, somewhat loose, usually glabrous, rarely
sparsely hairy. The _ligule_ is a short membrane irregularly cut at the
top. The _nodes_ are glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear, very finely acuminate, rough on both the
surfaces, thinly and very sparsely hairy; the base of the blade is
contracted and purple tinged towards the margin, midrib is prominent
with three or four main veins on each side; the margins are very finely,
closely serrate.

[Illustration: Fig. 211.--Dinebra arabica.

1 and 2. The front and back view of a portion of a spike; 3. spikelet;
4, 5 and 6. the first, second and third glumes; 7. palea of the third
glume; 8. lodicules, ovary and stamens.]

The _inflorescence_ is a long erect narrow pyramidal panicle varying in
length from 2 to 16 inches; the lower branches sometimes bear several
spikes and attain 6 inches in length; the _peduncles_ are short or long,
purple tinged and the main _rachis_ is smooth except at the top, angular
and grooved. The _spikes_ are numerous, greenish or purple tinged,
slender, erect or spreading or sometimes deflexed, opposite, alternate
or in fascicles of two to four varying in length from 1/4 to 2-1/2
inches; the _rachis_ of the spike is trigonous, flattened out ventrally
and with a ridge on the ventral side and the margins are scabrid.

The _spikelets_ are few to many in a spike, alternate, closely
imbricating, sessile, about 1/6 inch long including the awns, usually
three flowered, rarely less or four flowered; the _rachilla_ is very
slender, jointed at the base, produced and jointed between the flowering
glumes.

There are usually five _glumes_ in a spikelet and in some four or six.
The _first_ and the _second glumes_ are lanceolate narrowed into short
stiff awns, equal or the second a little longer, hyaline glabrous,
strongly keeled about 1/6 inch long or a little less. The _succeeding
glumes_ third, fourth and fifth are very much shorter than the first two
glumes, about 1/10 inch or less, ovate-oblong, subacute, white,
membranous with a strong greenish nerve along the keel and two short
ones close to the margin, paleate; _palea_ is shorter than the glume,
membranous, oblong-obtuse, minutely 2-toothed, 2-nerved and 2-keeled.
_Stamens_ are three with small anthers. _Stigmas_ are white when young
and purple when mature. _Lodicules_ are very minute. The grain is pale,
brownish yellow, ellipsoidal-oblong, subacute, trigonous, rough and
never smooth, with a shallow groove on the dorsal side; the embryo is
about one-third the length of the grain.

This grass grows abundantly in cultivated dry fields all over the
Presidency. The spikes when mature become very rough and give an acid
taste. Cattle greedily eat this grass when young, but when old and in
full flower some cattle do not like it so much.

_Distribution._--Throughout the Presidency in the plains. Also occurs in
Afghanistan and westward to Senegal.



39. Leptochloa, _Beauv._

These are tall slender annual grasses. Spikelets are very small,
compressed, 1- to 6-flowered, sessile or shortly pedicelled, alternate
and unilateral on the branches of a panicle; the rachilla is produced
between the flowering glumes, jointed at the base. There are 3 to 8
glumes. The first two glumes are unequal, oblong or lanceolate,
1-nerved. The third and the succeeding ones are broadly ovate, 3-nerved,
paleate. Lodicules are two. Stamens are three. Grain is sub-globose,
oblong or trigonous, closely invested by the glume and its palea.


=Leptochloa chinensis, _Nees._=

This is a tall annual grass. Stems are erect or geniculately ascending
from a creeping root-stock, varying in length from 2 to 4 feet.

The _leaf-sheath_ is smooth, loose, the lower often broad and open. The
_ligule_ is a short hyaline lacerated membrane.

The _leaf-blade_ is narrowly linear, finely acuminate, somewhat
coriaceous, glabrous, 6 to 18 inches long and 1/6 to 1/4 inch broad.

The _inflorescence_ is a contracted panicle, 6 to 18 inches long with
spreading or suberect, alternate or opposite spikes which are capillary
and vary from 2 to 4 inches in length.

[Illustration: Fig. 212.--Leptochloa chinensis.

1. A portion of the spike; 2 and 3. the first and the second glume; 4
and 5 the flowering glume and its palea; 6. the stamens and the ovary.]

The _spikelets_ are small, shortly stalked, 4- to 8-flowered, 1/10 to
1/6 inch with the _rachilla_ produced between the flowering glumes. The
_first glume_ is small, oblong, obtuse or apiculate. The _second glume_
is similar to the first but twice as long as the first glume. The _third
glume_ and the succeeding flowering glumes are ovate-oblong, obtuse or
apiculate, with sub-marginal lateral veins; _palea_ are broadly oblong
with silkily ciliate keels. _Anthers_ are usually very small. Grain is
oblong, obtusely trigonous, or concavo-convex, red-brown and rugulose on
the ventral side.

This grass is very common amidst paddy in wet lands and in wet
situations.

_Distribution._--Throughout India and Ceylon in wet places. Also in
China, Japan and Australia.



CHAPTER X.

TRIBES VII AND VIII--FESTUCACEÆ AND HORDEÆ.


=Festucaceæ= is of minor importance as it is not well represented in the
South India. Only about half a dozen genera occur and most of them on
the hills. The spikelets are usually 2- or more-flowered, pedicelled and
in panicles, open or contracted. The rachilla is produced beyond the
flowering glumes and articulate at the base just above the empty glumes.

  Inflorescence a raceme, spikelets 2- to
  3-flowered, turbinate; glumes single-awned.     40. Pommereulla.

  Inflorescence paniculate, spikelets few
  or many-flowered, glumes many-nerved
  and many-awned.                                 41. Pappophorum.

  Inflorescence various, spikelets 2- to
  many-flowered, flowering glumes 1-
  to 3-nerved entire, empty glumes
  shorter than the lowest flowering
  glume, grain very minute.                       42. Eragrostis.

=Hordeæ= is also a minor tribe and is represented by only one genus in
South India.

The spikelets are one-or more-flowered, sessile, 1- or 2-seriate on the
rachis, and somewhat sunk in cavities; the rachilla is jointed at the
base and is produced beyond the flowering glumes, glumes awned or not.

  Spikelets 1- to 3-flowered, first glume very
  minute or wanting, second as long as the
  hyaline, third spike compressed, solitary.      43. Oropetium.



40. Pommereulla, _Linn. f._

This is a short, stout, creeping perennial grass. Spikelets are 2- to
3-flowered, distichously racemed, narrowly turbinate, villous. Glumes
are 5 to 7 in a spikelet. The first two glumes are narrow, membranous,
persistent, the first glume being 1-nerved and shorter than the second
which is 3- to 5-nerved. The third and the fourth glumes embracing the
fifth and the sixth are empty, flabelliform, 4-lobed, and dorsally
shortly awned. The fifth, sixth and the seventh are cuneate, obovate and
3-lobed, palea ovate, acute, and pubescent. Lodicules are two and
membranous. Stamens are two to three with small anthers. Grain is
oblong, compressed and free.

[Illustration: Fig. 213.--Pommereulla Cornucopiæ.]


=Pommereulla Cornucopiæ, _Linn. f._=

This is a short, stout perennial grass with stems rooting at the nodes;
branches are flat, short, densely leafy, 2 to 6 inches long.

The _leaf-sheaths_ are smooth, equitant with thinly membranous margins.
The _ligule_ is a ciliated ridge.

The _leaf-blade_ is flat, linear, distichous, coriaceous, rounded at the
tip, margins sparsely ciliate, 1 to 2-1/2 inches long.

The _inflorescence_ is a terminal raceme, 1/2 to 2 inches long, half
hidden by the uppermost leaf-sheath, the peduncle is flattened and 1 to
2-1/2 inches long; rachis is also flattened with a tuft of long silky
hairs at the base.

[Illustration: Fig. 214.-Pommereulla Cornucopiæ.

1. A leaf; 2. inflorescence; 3. spikelet; 4 and 5. the second and the
first glume; 6 and 7. the third and the fourth glume; 8 and 9. the fifth
flowering glume and its palea; 10 and 11. grain.]

The _spikelets_ are shortly pedicelled or sessile, dorsally compressed,
cuneiform, about 1/3 inch, glistening, villous, not articulate at the
base, 2- to 3-flowered, rachilla is narrowed downwards, resembling a
callus and villous, jointed at the acute base above the empty glumes,
and crowned with broad obconic empty awned glumes. The spikelets have
usually seven, rarely eight glumes. The _first_ and the _second glumes_
are narrow, membranous, glistening, empty and persistent and the others
are coriaceous with membranous margins. The _first glume_ is linear or
linear-lanceolate, acuminate, 1-nerved, scaberulous along the nerve. The
_second glume_ is longer than the first, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate,
narrowed towards the base, inserted much above the first glume and
embracing the rachilla, 3-nerved, scaberulous along the mid-nerve at the
base only. The _third_ and _fourth glumes_ are half-amplexicaul, empty,
epaleate, flabelliform, 4-lobed, 7-nerved, shortly awned at the back,
villous; the side lobes are acuminate or aristate and the central lobes
are shortly awned. The _fifth_, _sixth_ and _seventh glumes_ are
obovate-cuneate, 7- to 9-nerved, paleate, flower-bearing and 3-lobed,
the side lobes are acuminate and the central lobe is bifid and dorsally
awned; palea is ovate-acute, 2-nerved and ciliolate. The _eighth glume_,
if present, is neuter and imperfect, 3-lobed and shortly awned.
_Lodicules_ are minute. _Stamens_ are two or three with small anthers.
Grain is oblong, compressed, reddish brown.

This grass generally grows in gravelly and somewhat alkaline soils. So
far this has been noticed and collected in Chingleput and Nellore
districts.

_Distribution._--Mysore and the Carnatic, and Ceylon.



41. Pappophorum, _Nees._

This is a perennial grass. Spikelets are contracted spiciform panicles,
1- to 3-flowered, rachilla is jointed at the base. There are 5 to 7
glumes in the spikelet. The _first_ and the _second glumes_ are
membranous, keeled 3- to many-nerved, persistent. The _third_ and the
fourth glumes are much shorter (excluding the awns) than the first two,
coriaceous, orbicular, concave, obscurely many-nerved, cleft into nine
or more equal or alternately longer long-ciliate erect awns. The fourth
and the subsequent glumes are imperfect and they get gradually smaller
and smaller, the last glume being represented only by a rudimentary
glume with three awns. Lodicules are dolabriform and two. Stamens are
three. Styles are free. Grain is obovoid or oblong, free.

[Illustration: Fig. 215.--Pappophorum elegans.]


=Pappophorum elegans, _Nees._=

This grass is perennial with wiry roots. Stems are erect ascending from
a swollen woody base, thinly hairy and rarely glabrous, pale green and
sometimes with red blotches, wiry, varying in length from 1 to 3 feet.

The _leaf-sheath_ is thinly pubescent, some hairs being minutely
gland-tipped.

The _leaf-blade_ is narrow, linear-lanceolate, sharply acuminate,
covered both above and below with hairs, many of which being minutely
gland-tipped, convolute when young. The _ligule_ is a ridge of hairs.
Nodes are pubescent.

The _inflorescence_ is a panicle with short branches, 1 to 3 inches
long, rachis is pubescent; peduncle is 2 to 4 inches long, pubescent.
The _spikelets_ are pale green, sometimes purple tinged and appearing
white when mature, softly pubescent, about 1/4 inch long including the
awn; the rachilla is produced and disarticulates above the two lower
glumes.

[Illustration: Fig. 216.--Pappophorum elegans.

1 and 2. The first and second glumes; 3. the third glume and its palea;
4. palea of the third glume; 5. lodicules, stamens and ovary; 6 and 7.
fourth glume and its palea; 8 and 9. fifth glume and its palea; 10 and
11. sixth and seventh glumes.]

There are 6 or 7 glumes in the spikelet. The _first glume_ is
lanceolate, acute, softly hairy, usually 9-nerved, or varying from 7 to
12 (some nerves do not reach the apex), about 1/4 inch long. The _second
glume_ is similar to the first but a little longer and both the glumes
have broad hyaline margins. The _third glume_ is broadly orbicular,
concave, sub-chartaceous, 9-nerved, densely villous and with a tuft of
hairs at the base where it joins the rachilla, cleft into 9 awn-like
lobes, bisexual and paleate; the awns are alternately long and short,
subulate, plumose in the lower half and scabrid above, the palea is
oblong-ovate, sub-chartaceous, with two pubescent keels, bifid at the
apex, and with 3 purple anthers. The _ovary_ is ovoid or ovoid-oblong,
with two white stigmas. _Lodicules_ are two, small cuneate or quadrate.
Grain ovoid or ovoid-oblong. The _fourth_ _glume_ is similar to the
third glume but smaller, paleate with rudimentary anthers and two fleshy
lodicules. The _fifth_, _sixth_ and _seventh glumes_ are imperfect and
gradually decreasing in size, and with awns varying in number from 5 to
8, 3 to 5, and 1 to 3, respectively, minutely paleate or not.

This grass grows well in black cotton and rich loamy soils and is a
hardy one. Cattle seem to eat this grass.

_Distribution._--Fairly common in the plains in the Deccan districts and
in the Coromandel coast districts.



42. Eragrostis, _Beauv._

These are slender, glabrous, annual or perennial grasses. Stems are
usually erect or geniculately ascending, very rarely prostrate. Leaves
are narrow. Inflorescences are open or contracted panicles, rarely
spikes. Spikelets are usually strongly laterally compressed, 2, to
many-flowered and not articulate at the base; rachilla is tough and
persistent, jointed above the empty glumes and in some also between the
flowering glumes, not produced beyond the last glume. Glumes are many,
broad, obtuse, acute or mucronate, never awned, dorsally rounded and
keeled; the first and the second glumes are much shorter than the
spikelet, equal or unequal, empty, persistent or separately deciduous,
1-nerved or the second 3-nerved, usually membranous. Flowering glumes
are imbricating, at length deciduous from the rachilla, 3-nerved, all
bisexual or the uppermost and rarely the lowest imperfect, ovate to
lanceolate, membranous to chartaceous, usually glabrous, the lateral
nerves short not reaching the mid nerve; palea are broad, membranous,
deciduous with its glume or persistent on the rachilla with two ciliate
smooth or scabrid keels. Stamens are three rarely two. Ovary is glabrous
with two styles ending in plumose stigmas. Grain is minute, globose,
obgloboid or obovoid, free in the glume and the palea.

KEY TO THE SPECIES.

  A. Spikelets panicled.

    B. Rachilla of spikelets more or
    less jointed and breaking up from
    above downwards.

      Panicle more or less contracted
      and margin of flowering
      glumes not ciliate.

	Spikelets 1/20 to 1/6 inch
	long; grain obovoid;
	stamens 2; panicle narrow
	interrupted, 6 to 18 inches
	long                              1. E. interrupta.

    BB. Rachilla of spikelets tough, persistent;
    flowering glumes falling
    away from base upwards.

      C. Spikelets pedicellate.

	Spikelets flat, ovate-elliptic
	or oblong, lateral nerves of
	flowering glumes very prominent
	and straight, almost
	percurrent; palea deciduous
	with their glumes                 2. E. amabilis.

	Spikelets less compressed,
	linear or linear-oblong;
	lateral nerves less prominent;
	not fascicled, long
	pedicellate and divaricate
	when ripe.

          Leaf margins without
          glands. Spikelets versatile,
          narrow, linear 1
          inch or more long,
          branches of panicle
          solitary                        3. E. tremula.

          Leaf margins glandular.

            First glume 1-nerved and
            second glume 3-nerved         4. E. major.

            First glume and second
            glume 1-nerved                5. E. Willdenoviana.

            Spikelets small, 1/4 inch or
            less, branches of panicle
            whorled                       6. E. pilosa.

      CC. Spikelets sessile and
      jointed on the very short
      densely crowded branchlets
      of a tall, narrow raceme
      like panicle, deciduous,
      acute, much compressed,
      imbricate and secund                7. E. cynosuroides.

  AA. Spikelets in a long terminal spike.
      Spikelets distichously spreading,
      secund, keels of palea winged       8. E. bifaria.


=Eragrostis interrupta, _Beauv._=

(_Var. Koenigii_, Stapf.)

This is a tall grass, annual or perennial, with erect stems 1 to 3 feet
or more.

The _leaf-sheath_ is glabrous and close. The _ligule_ is a short,
fimbriate membrane. _Nodes_ are glabrous.

The _leaf-blade_ is narrow, flat, acuminate, glabrous on both sides, 3
to 10 inches long.

The _panicle_ is erect, narrow, contracted, with branches in
pseudo-whorls and varying in length from 6 to 18 inches, branches are
slender, filiform, two or more arising from the same level, 1 to 3
inches long.

The _spikelets_ are small, pedicellate, smooth, usually 6 to
14-flowered, pale but often tinged with red, the rachilla is jointed
between the flowering glumes, and breaks away from above downwards. The
empty _glumes_ are very small, subequal, ovate-oblong, hyaline, obtuse
and 1-nerved. Floral _glumes_ also are small but slightly longer than
the empty ones, ovate-oblong, obtuse and paleate, palea is linear-oblong
with smooth or scabrid keels. _Stamens_ are two with small anthers.
Grain is obovoid.

[Illustration: Fig. 217.--Eragrostis interrupta. Var. Koenigii.

1. Two spikelets; 2 and 3. empty glumes; 4. empty glumes with two
flowering glumes and their palea; 5. flowering glumes and palea; 6.
ovary and two stamens; 7. grain.]

This grass is a very variable plant and has a few varieties. The one
described above is Var. _Koenigii_ Stapf., and this is the one that
occurs very widely. The other two varieties which occur very rarely are
(1) _diarrhena_ Stapf. and (2) _tenuissima_ Stapf. The former is a tall
plant with very narrow panicle and spikelets and the latter either tall
or short and with a panicle bearing very slender divaricate branches.

This grass usually occurs in clayey soils especially on the bunds and in
the paddy fields.

_Distribution._--Throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Also in tropical
Asia and Africa.


=Eragrostis amabilis, _W. & A._=

This is an annual tufted grass with slender, glabrous, erect or
geniculately ascending stems, 6 to 18 inches, leafy chiefly at the base.

The _leaf-sheath_ is glabrous and smooth. The _ligule_ is absent or very
obscure.

The _leaf-blade_ is lanceolate-linear or linear, narrowed from a broad
subcordate base to an acute tip, smooth and flat.

The _panicle_ is ovoid-oblong or oblong, open or contracted, sparingly
branched; branches are filiform, solitary, ramifying from near the base;
rachis and nodes are glabrous.

[Illustration: Fig. 218.--Eragrostis amabilis.

1. A portion of a branch with spikelets; 2. a single spikelet; 3 and 4.
empty glumes; 5. and 6. a flowering glume and its palea; 7. lodicules,
stamens and ovary; 8. grain.]

The _spikelets_ are ovate-oblong or linear-oblong, pale or purplish 1/6
to 1/2 inch, up to 50-flowered, rachilla is tough with very short
internodes. The glumes are very closely and distichously imbricating
(and hence spikelets are pretty); the _empty glumes_ are subequal,
ovate-lanceolate, acute or cuspidately acuminate, 1-nerved, 1/25 to 1/16
inch long. _Flowering glumes_ are broadly ovate or suborbicular,
mucronulate, punctulate, with the lateral nerves equidistant from the
margins and the median nerve, and produced far up towards the median
nerve; palea is broad, shorter than its glume, deciduous with it, and
with winged and scabrid keels. _Stamens_ are three. Grain is
obovoid-ellipsoid, smooth, laterally compressed, reddish-brown.

This grass is abundant in wet places on the hills and fairly common in
the plains though not abundant.

_Distribution._--Throughout India and Ceylon.

[Illustration: Fig. 219.--Eragrostis tremula.]


=Eragrostis tremula, _Hochst._=

This is an elegant annual grass. Stems are tufted erect or sometimes
geniculately ascending, branching freely, 6 inches to 3 feet.

The _leaf-sheath_ is smooth, glabrous, shorter than the internodes,
becoming purplish when dry. The _ligule_ is a ridge of short hairs.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear-lanceolate, tapering to a fine point, rigid,
glabrous or sparsely hairy, but with prominent white hairs near the
mouth of the sheath at the base, 1 to 10 inches long and 1/12 to 3/16
inch broad, the base is rounded and the margin eglandular and very
finely serrate.

The _inflorescence_ is a large, effuse, nodding, pyramidal or oblong
panicle, much branched, the peduncle being as long as the rest of the
plant; branches are slender, solitary, suberect, drooping, rather
angled, scaberulous, 3 to 7 inches long with very fine capillary
branchlets; all the axils of the branches and branchlets have long white
hairs.

[Illustration: Fig. 220.--Eragrostis tremula.

1. Spikelet; 2 and 3. the first and the second glume; 4 and 5. flowering
glume and its palea; 6. stamens, ovary and lodicules.]

The _spikelets_ are linear, narrowed upwards, glabrous, flattened pale
green or purple tinged, few to 70-flowered; pedicels are slender and
capillary, longer or shorter than the spikelets; rachilla is zigzag and
glabrous. The _first two glumes_ are subequal, ovate, acute, one-nerved,
keel obscurely scaberulous, membranous. The _third_ and the succeeding
_flowering glumes_ are ovate, obtuse, as long as the second glume or
slightly longer, sub-chartaceous, glabrous, three-nerved; palea is
shorter than the glume, curved obovate oblong and persistent on the
rachilla. _Stamens_ are three with small anthers. Style branches are
two. _Lodicules_ are minute. Grain is nearly globose, compressed on one
side, obscurely rugulose.

This grass is not very widely distributed although it occurs in some
parts of the Presidency. It is common on the West Coast in sandy places.

_Distribution._--From the Punjab to Bengal and Burma and Southward to
Carnatic. Also said to occur in Afghanistan and Tropical Africa.

[Illustration: Fig. 221.--Eragrostis major.]


=Eragrostis major, _Host._=

This is an annual tufted grass. Stems are erect or geniculately
ascending, usually short, leafy and branched below, glabrous and
shining, 1/2 to 2 feet long.

The _leaf-sheath_ is glabrous, striate, shorter than the internodes,
keeled with tubercles or glands on the keel and also on some of the
smaller nerves on the sides, and bearded with long white hairs
externally at the mouth. The nodes are glabrous purple, shining and with
a glandular ring below. The _ligule_ is a ridge of long hairs.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear-lanceolate or linear, tapering to a fine
point, glabrous, flaccid, margins finely serrulate and glandular, base
rounded, varying in length from 1/2 to 10 inches and in breadth 3/16 to
7/16 inch; the midrib is prominent and with a row of glands beneath and
there are 3 to 5 lateral nerves on each side of the mid-nerve.

[Illustration: Fig. 222.--Eragrostis major.

1. A branch with spikelets; 2 and 3. empty glumes; 4 and 5. flowering
glume and its palea; 6. grain.]

The _panicle_ is ovate or ovate-oblong, on a short, smooth peduncle,
usually open and stiff; branches are usually many, sub-solitary or
fascicled, spreading or suberect, capillary, stiff, again branching from
near the base and about 3 inches long; _rachis_ is angular, with glands
and tufts of sparse white hairs at the angles of branches and
branchlets.

_Spikelets_ are linear to ovate-oblong, compressed, pale or green,
sometimes purple tinged at the base, few to 40-flowered and occasionally
up to 70-flowers, 1/8 to 1 inch.

The _empty glumes_ are subequal or the first is a little shorter, ovate,
acute, membranous, keeled, and sometimes the keels with glands; the
_first glume_ is usually one-nerved (rarely obscurely one- to
three-nerved) and the _second glume_ is three-nerved.

The _flowering glumes_ are broadly ovate, oblique, obtuse, sometimes
with a minute mucro, sub-chartaceous, punctulate, strongly three-nerved,
paleate, about 1/12 inch long; palea is shorter than the glume, curved,
obovate-oblong, keels ciliolate and persistent. _Stamens_ are three with
very small pale yellow anthers. Stigmas are two and white. _Lodicules_
are very small. Grain is globose reddish brown, minutely and obscurely
lineolate.

This grass is a very common weed occurring in cultivated dry fields all
over this Presidency.

_Distribution._--Throughout India and Ceylon in the plains and low
hills. Occurs also in tropical and sub-tropical parts of Asia and
Africa.

[Illustration: Fig. 223.--Eragrostis Willdenoviana.]


=Eragrostis Willdenoviana, _Nees._=

This is a tufted annual. Stems are leafy at the base, erect or
geniculately ascending, slender but rigid, varying in length from 4 to
18 inches.

The _leaf-sheath_ is smooth, cylindric, glabrous, outer margin ciliate;
tufts of long hairs are present at the sides of the margin of the
sheath, just outside close to the hyaline patch. The _ligule_ is a
fringe of short white hairs. The _nodes_ are greenish or with a tinge of
purple, glabrous and with a glandular ring below.

The _leaf-blade_ is lanceolate-linear, pointed, flat, rigid, the margin
is very minutely serrulate, glandular and occasionally also with fine
long hairs; the upper surface is somewhat rough, the lower smooth and
both with fine long scattered hairs or glabrous.

[Illustration: Fig. 224.--Eragrostis Willdenoviana.

1. Spikelets; 1_a._ 1st glume; 2 and 2_a._ the second glume; 3 and 3a.
the flowering glume; 4. palea of the flowering glume; 5. lodicules,
stamens and the ovary; 6. grain.]

The _inflorescence_ is a stiff open panicle, ovate to oblong, 2 to 4-1/2
inches long on a slender, terete, glabrous peduncle; the main _rachis_
is angular, slender with glandular scars, a little below the attachment
of the branches; the branches are capillary, grooved stiff and spreading
with small glandular scars just above the node. The _spikelets_ are
elliptic-oblong to linear, 1/8 to 3/4 inch by about 1/20 inch, greenish
or tinged with purple, few to about 25 (or sometimes even up to 42)
glumed, pedicellate; pedicel is capillary, grooved and angular, with a
glandular ring about the middle, spreading sometimes at right angles,
rachilla is persistent.

Empty _glumes_ are unequal. The first _glume_ is hyaline very small,
nerveless or one-nerved, subacute or subobtuse; the second _glume_ is
much longer than the first glume, ovate-oblong subacute, keeled,
membranous and one-nerved. _Flowering glumes_ vary from about 12 to 30
and in some well grown plants as many as 42, broadly ovate, obtuse or
subacute, rigidly membranous, three-nerved (one median and two marginal)
glabrous, keeled and keels are scaberulous near the apex; palea is
oblong linear, a little curved, persistent, a little smaller than the
glume, two-keeled; there are three _stamens_ with small purplish anthers
and two small _lodicules_. The grain is oblong truncate at both ends,
reddish brown, with a prominent groove on the dorsal side; embryo
occupying nearly half the length of the grain.

This grass grows abundantly in somewhat rich soils all over the
Presidency and cattle eat it. It grows quickly and bears a fair amount
of foliage.

_Distribution._--Madras Presidency in the plains; also occurs in Ceylon.


=Eragrostis pilosa, _Beauv._=

This is a densely tufted annual grass. Stems are usually erect, slender
and simple, flaccid, 3 inches to 3 feet.

The _leaf-sheath_ is compressed, glabrous and bearded with long hairs
close to the mouth. The _ligule_ is a ridge of hairs.

The _leaf-blade_ is short, narrow, finely acuminate, 1-1/2 to 4 inches.

The _panicle_ is oblong to pyramidal, flaccid, open or contracted erect
or inclined, 2 to 8 inches; rachis is hairy or glabrous; branches are
very fine filiform or capillary, more or less whorled, lower six inches
long; branchlets are still finer and capillary.

[Illustration: Fig. 225.--Eragrostis pilosa.

1. A portion of a branch with spikelets; 2 and 3. empty glumes; 4.
flowering glumes; 5. palea; 6. grain.]

_Spikelets_ are linear, grey tipped with purple, or often purplish,
scattered, 1/8 to 1/5 by 1/30 to 1/20 inch, with pedicels shorter or
longer than the spikelets. The _empty glumes_ are hyaline, very unequal,
nerveless or the second which is ovate-lanceolate and larger than the
first faintly 1-nerved. The _flowering glumes_ are ovate acute, paleate,
1/10 to 1/8 inch; palea is sub-persistent and keels of palea
scaberulous. _Stamens_ are three with small violet anthers. Grain is
ellipsoid laterally pointed at the base.

This grass occurs in wet places or close to the margins of ponds, marshy
situations all over the Presidency.

_Distribution._--All over India and also in South Europe and most warm
countries.


=Eragrostis cynosuroides, _Beauv._=

This is a tall perennial grass freely branching from the base and with
stout stolons covered with shining sheaths. The root-stock is stout and
creeping. The stems are tufted, smooth, erect, with fascicles of leaves
at the base 1 to 3 feet high.

The _leaf-sheath_ is glabrous, slightly compressed, distinctly keeled,
as broad or slightly broader than the blade at the mouth. _Ligule_ is a
line of short hairs.

The _leaf-blade_ is linear, rigid, glabrous, acuminate with filiform
tips, and finely serrulate margins, varying in length from 2 to 10
inches and the basal leaves sometimes reaching 20 inches.

The _panicle_ is strict, erect, narrowly pyramidal, often interrupted,
varying in length from 6 to 18 inches and breadth from 1/2 to 2 inches.
Branches are many, short, crowded, densely clothed from the base with
sessile, imbricating, much compressed deflexed spikelets.

[Illustration: Fig. 226.--Eragrostis cynosuroides.

1. A branch with spikelets; 2. flowering glumes with their palea; 3 and
4. empty glumes; 5 and 6. flowering glume and its palea.]

The _spikelets_ are secund, biseriate, shining, pale brown, 1/2 inch
long, up to 30-flowered. The _empty glumes_ are unequal, the second
being the larger. The _flowering glumes_ are coriaceous, ovate, acute as
long as the second or slightly longer, paleate, palea is sub-coriaceous
and shorter than the glume. _Stamens_ are three. Grain is obliquely
ovoid, laterally compressed.

This grass grows usually in moist sandy loams, sand dunes, and is very
common on the Coromandel coast and in the Deccan Districts.

_Distribution._--Throughout in the plains of India.


=Eragrostis bifaria, _Wight Ex Steud._=

This is a densely tufted perennial grass. Stems are simple, erect,
glabrous, somewhat compressed, 1 to 3 feet high, and the base clothed
with the old remains of the leaf-sheaths.

The _leaf-sheath_ is scaberulous, keeled. The _ligule_ is a line of fine
hairs.

The _leaf-blade_ is wiry, narrow, linear, flexuous, rigid, acute,
smooth, flat or complicate, keeled, 2 to 3 inches long and up to 1/6
inch wide.

The _spikes_ are solitary, 10 to 12 inches long bearing spikelets
unilaterally.

[Illustration: Fig. 227.--Eragrostis bifaria.

1 and 1_a._ Spikelets; 2. and 3. empty glumes; 4 and 5. the flowering
glume and its palea; 6. the ovary, stamens and the lodicules.]

The _spikelets_ are ovate or ovoid to oblong, much compressed, usually
15- to 20-flowered and up to 40 and then linear, 1/4 to 2/3 inch long,
spreading, green or olive grey. The _empty glumes_ are one-nerved and
keeled. The _first glume_ is longer than the second glume, very acute or
acuminate. The _second glume_ is smaller than the first, with stout
rounded keel. The _flowering glumes_ are as long or slightly shorter
than the first glume, broadly ovate, sub-acuminate, with faint nerves
and paleate; _palea_ is shorter than its glume and with ciliate wings to
the keel. _Stamens_ are three. Grain is free.

This grass is very common in the plains in somewhat wet situations all
over the Presidency.

_Distribution._--Deccan Peninsula in India and also in Tropical Africa.



43. Oropetium, _Trin._

A very small densely tufted erect annual. Leaves are filiform. The
inflorescence is a simple slender curved spike. Spikelets are very
minute, one-flowered, half immersed in the alternating distichous
cavities of the rachis of the spike; rachilla is bearded. There are
three glumes in the spikelet. The first glume is very minute, empty,
hyaline and persistent. The second glume is linear-lanceolate, rigid,
empty, persistent recurved when old, tip obtuse or emarginate. The third
glume is shorter broader, hyaline, one-nerved, obtuse or truncate,
_palea_ is narrow with smooth keel. Lodicules are not found. Stamens are
three. Grain is oblong terete and free.


=Oropetium Thomæum, _Trin._=

This is a very small densely tufted annual grass, never exceeding 3
inches in height and with compressed slender, tough stems.

The _leaf-sheath_ is compressed, membranous, short and open. The
_ligule_ is an erect lacerate membrane.

The _leaf-blade_ is filiform, shorter or longer than the stem, erect or
curved, coriaceous with the margins sparsely ciliate with long strict
hairs, 1/2 to 1 inch long.

The _spikes_ are solitary or fascicled curved on very short branches 1
to 1-1/2 inches long; rachis is green, undulating, tetragonous, with a
broad central nerve on the flat faces.

[Illustration: Fig. 228.--Oropetium Thomæum.

1. Spike; 2. spikelet; 3 and 4. empty glumes; 5. flowering glume; 6 and
7. flowering glume and its palea; 8. the ovary, stamens and lodicules.]

The _spikelets_ are very small, one-flowered, half immersed in the
alternating distichous cavities of the rachis. There are three _glumes_
in the spikelet. The _first glume_ is very minute, hyaline and sunk in
the hollow of the rachis. The _second glume_ is the longest,
linear-lanceolate, rigid, tip obtuse or emarginate, slightly convex with
a broad thickened centre and recurved in fruit. The _third glume_ is
shorter than the second, hyaline, broader obtuse, semi-circular in
profile, excessively membranous, with the callus bearded and paleate;
_palea_ is smaller than the glume. There are three stamens. Grain is
oblong, terete, free.

This small grass is very common all over the Presidency in the plains in
moist places.

_Distribution._--Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon.



GLOSSARY.


A

Acuminate       applied to the apex of a leaf having a gradually
                diminishing point, 49.

Acute           applied to the apex of a leaf distinctly and sharply
                pointed but not drawn out, 53.

Adventitious    roots which do not arise from the radicle or its
roots           subdivisions, but from parts other than these, 7.

Aleurone layer  a special peripheral layer in the grain of grasses,
                consisting of cells filled with proteid granules, 18.

Amplexicaul     applied to the base of the leaf when it embraces the
                stem, 12.

Apiculate       said of the apex when it has a sharp, short point.

Appressed       lying flat for the whole length of the part or organ,
                59.

Articulate      jointed, 45.

Auricle         outgrowth at the sides close to the ligular region,
                11.

Awned           having an _awn_, that is, a bristle-like appendage,
                especially on the glumes of grasses.


B


Bifarious       disposed in two rows or ranks on the two sides, 49.

Binate          in pairs, 53.

Blade           the expanded portion of a leaf, 2, 10.

Bristles        stiff hairs, 45.

Bulbous based   having an inflated base, 66.

Bulliform cells thin walled cells occurring, at intervals, on the
                epidermis of some grasses, 35.

Bundle sheath   sclerenchymatous cells or fibres found round the
                vascular bundles of the monocotyledonous type, such as
                those of grasses, 20.


C


Callus          the projecting part or an extension of the flowering
                glume below its point of insertion, 168.

Caryopsis       a one-celled, one-seeded, superior fruit in which the
                pericarp has fused with the seed-coat.

Chartaceous     papery, i.e., thin and somewhat rough, 47.

Ciliate         fringed with hairs, 54.

Ciliolate       very sparsely fringed with hairs, 70.

Clavate         club-shaped, 104.

Clavellate      thickened towards the apex, 252.

Coleorhiza      the sheath of a monocotyledonous embryo which is
                pierced by the radicle during germination, 18.

Collar          the white or colourless band at the base of the blade
                of a grass leaf just where it joins the sheath, 3.


Conduplicate    folded together lengthwise, 12.

Convolute       rolled round from one margin to the other, so that one
                margin is inside and the other outside, 12.

Coriaceous      leathery, 49.

Corymbosely     arranged in corymbs, i.e., flat-topped flower
                clusters, 56.

Crinite         bearded with weak, long hairs, 137.

Crisped         curled, 59.

Cuneate         wedge-shaped or triangular, 49.

Cuspidate       tipped with a small triangular piece at the apex, 70.


D

Decumbent       reclining but with the upper part ascending, 80.

Digitate        lingered, arranged at the end of the stalk, 51.

Dioecious       having the sexes separated on two distinct
                individuals, 45.

Distichous      two-ranked or two-rowed, 19.


E

Embryo          young plant contained in the seed, 18.

Endodermis      the innermost layer of the cortex abutting on and
                forming a sheathing layer round the stele, 32.

Exodermis       the layer or layers of thickened cells beneath the
                piliferous layer of roots, 32.

Extra vaginal   applied to shoots or branches that come out piercing
                the leaf sheath in grasses, 9.


F

Fascicle        a cluster or bundle, 95.

Filiform        thread shaped, slender and thin, 54.

Flexuous        bent alternately in opposite directions, 62.

Foveolate       marked with small pits, 180.


G

Geniculately    bent abruptly so as to resemble a knee-joint, 118.

Geminate        in pairs, 59.

Germ-sheath     a sheath enclosing the bud or the plumule in a grain,
                18.

Gibbous         convex or rounded, 77.

Glabrescent     slightly hairy but becoming glabrous, 89.

Glabrous        quite smooth without hairs, 89.

Glaucous        covered with a bloom, 160.

Glume           the chaffy two-ranked members found in the
                inflorescence of grasses.
H

Hirsute         covered with fairly long distinct hairs, 90.

Hyaline         colourless or translucent, 51.


I

Imbricate       overlapping, 49.

Internode       portion of a stem between two nodes, 2.

Intravaginal    growing out from inside the sheath.

Involucel       a ring of bracts surrounding several spikelets, 120.


K

Keeled          having a ridge along the length, 59.


L

Lemma           the flowering glume of a grass, 15.

Ligule          the thin, scarious projection found at the top of the
                leaf sheath where it joins the blade in grasses, 3.

Lodicule        a small scale outside the stamens in the flower of
                grasses.


M

Membranous      thin and semi-transparent, 51.

Monoecious      stamens and pistils on separate flowers, but on the
                same individual, 144.

Motor cells     large thin-walled cells occurring in the epidermis of
                the leaves of some grasses, 35.

Mucronate       possessing a short and a straight point, 70.


N

Node            the part of the stem which has a leaf, or the knot in
                the grass stem, 2.


P

Palea           the inner glume in the spikelet of grasses, 4.

Pectinate       pinnatifid with narrow segments which are set close
                like the teeth of a comb, 162.

Pericycle       the outermost zone of cells of the stele immediately
                within the endodermis, 32.

Phloëm          the portion of the vascular bundle towards the cortex,
                19.

Pileole         another name for germ-sheath, or the sheath covering
                the plumule in the grain, 18.

Piliferous      bearing hairs, 31.

Pistil          the female organ of a flower, consisting of the ovary,
                style and stigma, 16.

Plumose         feathered, 51.

Prophyllum      the first scale-like leaf of a branch found where it
                joins the main stem, 10.

Protandry       anthers ripening before the pistil in the same flower,
(proterandry).  16.

Protogyny       pistil ripening before the anthers in the same flower,
(proterogyny).  16.

Puberulous      slightly hairy, 62.

Pubescent       clothed with soft hair, 62.

Punctate        marked with dots, pits or glands, 63.

Pungent         ending in a rigid and sharp point, 59.


R

Raceme          a centrifugal or indeterminate inflorescence with
                stalked flowers, 13.

Rachilla        a secondary axis in the inflorescence of the grasses,
                the axis of the spikelet, 13.

Rachis          axis of an inflorescence, 13.

Retuse          with a shallow notch at the apex, 67.

Rhizome         root-stock or under ground stem prostrate on the
                ground, 5.

Rugulose        somewhat wrinkled, 90.


S

Scaberulous     slightly rough due to the presence of short hairs, 69.

Scabrid         somewhat rough, 75.

Scale           a reduced leaf, 10.

Sclerenchyma    elongated cells with pointed ends and much thickened
                cell-wall.

Scutellum       the single cotyledon found in connexion with the
                embryo in grass grains, 18.

Secund          directed to one side only, 47.

Serrate         beset with small teeth on the margin, 83.

Setose          beset with bristles, 102.

Sheath          the tubular lower part of a leaf in grasses, 2.

Spathaceous     having a large bract enclosing a flower cluster, 104.

Spiciform       spike-like, 13.

Spike           an inflorescence with sessile flowers on an elongated
                axis, the older flowers being lower down and the
                younger towards the top, 13.

Squarrose       rough with outstanding processes, 120.

Stipe           a short stalk of a gynæcium, 90.

Stipitate       having a short stalk, 62.

Stolon          any basal branch which is disposed to root, 5.

Striolate       marked with very fine longitudinal parallel lines, 49.

Sub-coriaceous  somewhat leathery, 47.

Subulate        finely pointed, 121.


T

Triquetrous     three-sided or edged, 47.

Truncate        as if cut off at the end, 60.

Tumid           swollen, 66.

Turbinate       cone-shaped or top shaped, 120.


X

Xylem           the wood elements of the vascular bundle lying next to
                the phloëm, 19.



INDEX

(Small i denotes Figure Numbers.)


A

Aerial roots, 6, 8i, 9i

Agrostideæ, 44, 220

Aleurone layer, 18

Andropogoneæ, 44, 138

Andropogon, 15, 182
  inflorescence, 13
  annulatus, 204, 160i, 161i
  asper, 195, 155i, 156i
  caricosus, 201, 159i
    section of stem, 26, 33i, 34i
  contortus, 5, 207, 162i, 163i
    ligule, 13i
  foveolatus, 185, 148i, 149i
  monticola, 199, 158i
  pertusus, 5, 191, 152i, 153i
  pumilus, 188, 150i, 151i
  Schoenanthus var. cæsius, 209, 164i
  Schoenanthus, ligule, 13i
  Sorghum, 6, 67, 8i
    section of grain, 20i, 21i
  Sorghum, section of root, 32, 45i, 46i, 47i
  squarrosus, 193, 154i
  Wightianus, 197, 157i

Anthistiria, 211
  tremula, 212, 165i

Apludeæ, 139

Apluda, 170
  varia, 171, 142i, 143i

Apocopis, 164
  Wightii, 166, 139i, 140i

Aristida, 221
  Adscenscionis, 223, 171i, 172i
  funiculata, 229, 177i
  Hystrix, 226, 174i
  lodicules, 15
  mutabilis, 228, 175i, 176i
  setacea, 225, 173i
    leaf structure, 36, 37, 38, 39, 54i, 55i

Arundo Donax, 9, 10i

Auricles, 11, 13i

Axonopus, 46, 106
  cimicinus, 108, 107i, 108i


B

Bamboo, 11

Bearded node, 9, 11i

Blade of leaf, 10

Bristles, 45

Bundle sheath, 20, 21


C

Cambium, 19

Caryopsis, 17

Cenchrus, 46, 120
  biflorus, 121, 117i
  catharticus, 122, 118i

Chamæraphis, 46, 101
  spinescens, 102, 104i

Chlorideæ, 44, 220

Chloris, 15, 257
  barbata, 264, 199i, 200i, 201i
    leaf-folding, 12, 16i
    rachilla, 16
  Bournei, 267, 202i, 203i
  incompleta, 258, 196i
  lodicules, 15
  montana, 270, 204i, 205i
  tenella, 259, 197i
  virgata, 260, 198i

Closed vascular bundle, 19

Chlorophyllous layer, 33

Coix, 45, 140
  Lachryma-Jobi, 141, 126i
  unisexual spikelets, 15

Coleorhiza, 18

Collar, 3, 12

Commelina, 14

Conduplicate, 12, 16i

Convolute, 12, 16i

Cynodon, 248
  Barberi, 255, 194i, 195i
  dactylon, 9, 250, 190i, 191i
  intermedius, 252, 192i, 193i
  rachilla, 16


D

Diaphragm, 31

Digitaria, 15, 45, 51
  longiflora, 59, 76i, 77i
  sanguinalis, rachis, 13
  sanguinalis var. ciliaris, 51, 53, 71i, 72i
  sanguinalis var. extensum, 56, 74i, 75i
  sanguinalis var. Griffithii, 54, 73i

Dinebra, 277
  arabica, 279, 210i, 211i
    rachilla, 16
    spikelet, 14, 17i


E

Eleusine, 272
  ægyptiaca, 5i, 276, 208i, 209i
    leaf folding, 12, 16i
  brevifolia, 274, 207i
  indica, 273, 206i

Embryo, 18

Endodermis, 32

Enteropogon, 246
  melicoides, 247, 189i
    inflorescence, 13

Epidermis, 21
  of leaf, 34, 49i, 50i

Eragrostis, 292
  amabilis, 295, 218i
  bifaria, 307, 227i
  cynosuroides, 306, 226i
  interrupta var. Koenigii, 294, 217i
    Tr. section of stem, 27, 36i
  major, 12, 300, 221i, 222i
  pilosa, 305, 225i
  tremula, 297, 219i, 220i
    panicle, 13
  Willdenoviana, 303, 223i, 224i
    leaf margin, 12
    leaf structure, 37, 39, 56i, 57i
    panicle, 13, 14

Eremochloa, 162
  muricata, 163, 138i

Eriochloa, 15, 45, 60
  polystachya, 62, 78i, 79i
    structure of leaf, 35, 51i
    Tr. section of stem, 22, 27i, 28i

Euandropogoneæ, 139

Exodermis, 32, 46i

Extravaginal branch or shoot, 9, 10i


F

Festucaceæ, 44, 283

Fibro-vascular bundle, 20

Floral diagram, 16, 19i


G

Germ sheath, 18

Glabrous node, 9, 11i

Glumes, 4, 14

Grain, 17

Gracilea, 243
  nutans, 244, 187i
  Royleana, 245, 188i

Ground tissue, 21


H

Hackel, 16

Heteropogon contortus, 207, 163i

Hordeæ 44, 283

Hygrorhiza, 123, 126
  aristata, 127, 120i
  stamens, 15


I

Imperata, 146
  arundinacea, 147, 128i

Internodes, 2, 21

Intravaginal branches, 8

Ischaemeæ, 138

Ischæmum, 11, 150
  aristatum, 151, 130i, 131i
  ciliare, 159, 9i, 135i, 136i
  laxum, 160, 137i
  pilosum, 6, 156, 133i, 134i
  rugosum, 153, 132i

Iseilema, 214
  anthephoroides, 219, 169i, 170i
  laxum, 216, 166i, 167i, 168i


L

Lanceolate, 11, 14i

Leaf, 9

Leaf-blade, 2, 3

Leaf-sheath, 2, 3

Leaves, forms of, 11, 14i
  margins, 12, 15i

Leersia, 123, 124
  hexandra, 125, 119i
  stamens, 15

Lemma, 15

Leptochloa, 281
  chinensis, 282, 212i

Ligule, 3

Linear, 11, 14i

Linear-lanceolate, 11, 14i

Lodicules, 4, 15, 4i

Lophopogon, 167
  tridentatus, 168, 141i


M

Manisuris, 179
  granularis, 180, 147i
  rachis, 14

Maydeæ, 138

Mnesithea, 177
  lævis, 178, 146i

Motor-cells, 35, 51i, 52i, 55i, 57i, 67i, 68i


N

Nodes, 2, 9, 11i
  bearded, 11i


O

Ochlandra, 15

Open vascular bundles, 19

Oropetium, 308

Oropetium Thomæum, 309, 228i

Oryza, 19i
  sativa, 10, 11, 13i

Oryzeæ, 43, 123


P

Palea, 4, 14

Panicaceæ, 43, 45

Paniceæ, 43

Panicle, 13, 14

Panicum, 15, 16, 45, 46, 64

Panicum colonum, 11, 28, 30, 80, 89i, 90i
    leaf-apex, 12
    leaf-structure, 37, 38, 40, 58i, 64i
    section of stem, 28, 29
  crus-galli, 28, 29, 30, 75, 78, 6i, 40i, 86i, 87i
  distachyum, 92, 97i, 98i
  flavidum, 28, 30, 69, 82i, 83i
    T. section of stem, 37i, 38i
    leaf-structure, 38, 39, 40, 66i, 67i
  fluitans, 28, 31, 72, 84i, 85i
    section of stem, 30, 42i, 43i
    leaf-structure, 38, 39, 40, 59i, 65i
  interruptum, 95, 99i, 100i
  isachne, 66, 80i, 81i
    leaf epidermis, 39, 62i, 63i
    section of stem, 27, 35i
  javanicum, 1, 5, 86, 1i, 7i, 93i, 94i
    epidermis of leaf, 34, 49i, 50i
    inflorescence, 3, 13, 3i
    leaf sheath, 3, 2i
      structure, 33, 48i
    ligule, 13i
    spikelets, 3, 4, 4i
  prostratum, 83, 91i, 92i
  punctatum, 73
  ramosum, 89, 95i, 96i
    section of stem, 25, 31i, 32i
  repens, 99, 102i, 103i
    extravaginal shoots, 9, 10i
    structure of leaf margins, 35, 53i
    structure of leaf, 35, 39, 52i
  stagninum, 28, 77, 88i
    section of stem, 28, 41i
  tenellum, 97
  trypheron, 96, 101i

Pappophorum, 288
  elegans, 290, 215i, 216i

Parenchymatous cells, 20

Paspalum, 15, 45, 47
  scrobiculatum, 49, 69i, 70i
    inflorescence, 13
    rachis, 13

Pennisetum, 46, 114
  Alopecuros, 6, 116, 113i, 114i
    inflorescence, 13

Pennisetum cenchroides, 6, 118, 115i, 116i
    rachis, 13
    section of root, 31, 44i
    root, 32
    section of stem, 22, 25i, 26i
    section of vascular bundle, 19, 20, 22i, 23i
  typhoideum, 6

Pericycle, 32, 47i

Perotis, 123, 135
  latifolia, 137, 124i, 125i

Phloëm, 19, 20

Pileole, 18

Piliferous layer, 31, 44i

Piper. _Piper_

Pistil, 16

Pitted vessels, 20

Plumule, 18

Poaceæ, 43, 220

Polytoca, 45, 143
  barbata, 144, 127i
    unisexual spikelets, 15

Pommereulla, 284
  Cornucopiæ, 286, 213i, 214i

Primary axis, 18

Prophyllum, 10, 12i

Protandry, 16

Protogyny, 16


R

Raceme, 13

Rachilla, 14, 16

Rachis, 3, 13

Radicle, 18

Rhizome, 9

Root-hairs, 31, 44i

Root-system, 6

Rottboellia, 14, 139, 173
  exaltata, 175, 145i
    section of stem, 20, 21, 24i
  Myurus, 174, 144i

Rottboellieæ, 139


S

Sacchareæ, 138

Saccharum, 138, 148
  spontaneum, 149, 129i

Scales, 10

Sclerenchyma, 21

Scutellum, 18

Setaria, 45, 46, 109
  glauca, 110, 109i
    inflorescence, 13
    section of stem, 23, 24, 29i, 30i
  intermedia, 111, 110i
  verticillata, 113, 111i, 112i

Sheath of leaf, 10

Shoot-system, 7

Spiciform panicle, 13
  raceme, 13

Spike, 13

Spikelet, 3, 13, 14

Spinifex, 45, 46, 103
  squarrosus, 104, 105i, 106i
    leaf structure, 38, 60i, 61i
    unisexual spikelets, 15

Sporobolus, 230
  commutatus, 238, 183i, 184i
  coromandelianus, 235, 181i, 182i
    panicle, 13, 14
  diander, 231, 178i
  scabrifolius, 241, 185i, 186i
  tremulus, 233, 179i, 180i

Stamens, 15

Stele, 32

Stellate cells, 28, 31

Structure of leaf, 32
  of root, 31

Sympodia, 9

T

Trachys, 123, 128
  mucronata, 129, 121i

Tragus, 123, 131
  racemosus, 5, 133, 122i, 123i


V

Vascular bundle, 19
  closed, 19
  open, 19

Vascular bundle, longitudinal section, 20, 23i
  transverse section, 19, 22i

Vetiveria zizanioides, 193, 154i


X

Xylem, 19, 20


Z

Zea Mays, 6

Zoysieæ, 43, 123



Transcriber's Notes:

Fig. 46.--Transverse section of the cortica portion
Changed cortica to cortical.

Fig. 48. ...
Ep. c. An ordinary epidermal cell; st. stomata; sc. sclerenchyma;
ph. phloen;
Changed phloen to phloëm.

Fig. 51.--A portion of the transverse section
of the leaf of Eriochloa polystachy
Changed polystachy to polystachya.

Page 138:
in Imperata or they may be different as in Isachaemum and
Changed to Ischaemum to match other occurrences.

Page 193: (_Vetiveria zizanioides._)
Changed Veteveria to Vetiveria to match other occurrences.

Page 211:
spikelets are smaller than the involucrant spikelets, linear-oblong,
'involucrant' may be equivalent to 'involucral'. Unchanged.

Page 288:
41. Pappophorum, _Nees._
Changed from Pap pophorum to Pappophorum to match other occurrences.

Page 301:
with a minute mucro, sub-chartaceous, puncticulate, strongly
Changed puncticulate to punctulate.

Index: Changed asterisks to small i's to denote illustration numbers.





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