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Title: Illustration Of The Method Of Recording Indian Languages - From the First Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution
Author: Riggs, Stephen Return, 1812-1883, Gatschet, Albert Samuel, 1832-1907, Dorsey, James Owen, 1848-1895
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Illustration Of The Method Of Recording Indian Languages - From the First Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

Transcriber's note: The following symbols are used to represent
special characters:
  [K] = turned (inverted) "K"
  [T] = turned "T"

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Egi¢e  |mactciñ'ge| aká |  i ʞaⁿ'   | ¢iñké |ená-qtci|ʇig¢e| júgig¢á-biamá.
It came|  rabbit  | the |   his     |the st.|  only  |dwelt|with his| they
to pass|          | sub.|grandmother|  ob.  |        |     |    own,| say.

 Kĭ |haⁿ'egaⁿtcĕ'-qtci-hnaⁿ'|`ábae  | ahí-biamá. |Haⁿegaⁿtcĕ'-qtci| a¢á-bi
And |  morning   very habit-|hunting|went thither|  morning   very|went, they
    |                 ually |       | they say.  |                |      say

 ctĕwaⁿ'|níkaciⁿga|wiⁿ'| sí |snedĕ'-qti-hnaⁿ|síg¢e|a¢á-bitéamá.|Kĭ |íbahaⁿ     3
notwith-| person  |one |foot| long very as a|trail| had gone,  |And|to know
standing                                rule        they say.         him

gaⁿ¢á-biamá.|Níaciⁿga| ¢iⁿ'  |ĭⁿ'taⁿ|wítaⁿ¢iⁿ|b¢é | tá |miñke,| e¢égaⁿ-biamá.
   wished   | Person |the mv.| now  | I-first|I go|will|I who,|thought they say.
  they say.             ob.

Haⁿ'egaⁿcĕ'-qtci|páhaⁿ-bi| egaⁿ'|a¢á-biamá.| Cĭ  | égi¢e  |níkaciⁿga| amá
  Morning   very| arose  |having|went they |Again|   it   |  person |the mv.
                 they say           say.          happened            sub.

síg¢e|a¢á-bitéamá.| Égi¢e | akí-biamá. |   Gá-biamá:    |ʞaⁿhá,|wítaⁿ¢iⁿ|b¢é   6
trail|  had gone, |It came| he reached |Said as follows,|grand-|I-first |I go
        they say.  to pass|home they say.   they say:    mother,

 a ʞídaxe | ctĕwaⁿ'|níkaciⁿga|wíⁿ'| aⁿ'aqai |a¢aí te aⁿ'.|[K]aⁿhá,|u ʞíaⁿ¢e
 I make   |in spite| person  |one | getting |he has gone.|Grand-  | snare
for myself  of it                 ahead of me             mother

dáxe| tá |minke,|kĭ |b¢íze | tá |miñke|hă.|Átaⁿ| jaⁿ'|tadaⁿ',|á-biamá
 I  |will|I who,|and|I take|will|I who| . | Why| you |should?| said,
make|                 him                       do it         they say

wa`újiñga|aka.|Níaciⁿga| i¢át'ab¢é|hă,|á-biamá.| Kĭ|mactciñ'ge|a¢á-    9
old woman|the | Person |I hate him| . | said,  |And|  rabbit  |went
          sub.                         they say.

biamá.| A¢á-bi  | ʞĭ | cĭ  |síg¢e| ¢étéamá.|[K]ĭ| haⁿ'| tĕ| i¢ápe |jaⁿ'-biamá.
 they |Went they|when|again|trail|had gone.| And|night|the|waiting|lay they
 say.       say                                              for      say.

Man'dĕ-ʞaⁿ|¢aⁿ|ukínacke|gaxá-biamá,| kĭ|síg¢e| ¢é-hnaⁿ | tĕ| ĕ'di|i¢aⁿ'¢a-
bow string|the| noose  |he made it |and|trail|  went   |the|there|he put it
            ob.           they say,            habitually

biamá.| Égi¢e |haⁿ'+egaⁿ-tcĕ'-qtci|u ʞíaⁿ¢e|¢aⁿ|giʇaⁿ'be|ahí-biamá.| Égi¢e    12
 they |It came|   morning     very| snare  |the| to see | arrived  |It came
 say.  to pass                              ob. his own  they say.  to pass

miⁿ'| ¢aⁿ   |¢izé | akáma. |Taⁿ'¢iⁿ-qtci|u¢á | ag¢á-biamá.  |[K]aⁿhá|ĭndádaⁿ
 sun|the cv.|taken| he had,|Running very| to |went homeward,| Grand-|  what
       ob.         they say.             tell    they say.   mother.

 éiⁿte| b¢íze|édegaⁿ| aⁿ'baaze-hnaⁿ'  |hă,| á-biamá.|[K]aⁿhá,|man'de- ʞaⁿ|¢aⁿ
it may|I took|  but |me it  habitually| . |said they| Grand- |bow string |the
  be                 scared                    say.   mother,             ob.

ag¢íze| kaⁿbdédegaⁿ |aⁿ'baaze-hnaⁿ'i |hă,| á-biamá.|Máhiⁿ|a¢iⁿ'-bi|egaⁿ'   15
I took|I wished, but|me it habitually| . |said they|Knife|had they|having
my own                scared                   say.           say

 ĕ'di|a¢á-biamá.| Kĭ|ecaⁿ'-qtci|ahí-biamá.|Píäjĭ|ckáxe.|Eátaⁿ|égaⁿ
there|went, they|And|near  very| arrived  | Bad | you  | Why | so
            say.                 they say.        did.

ckáxe|ă.| ĕ'di |gí-adaⁿ'|   iⁿ¢ická-gă  |hă,| á-biamá  |miⁿ'|aká.|Mactciñ'ge
 you | ?|Hither|come and|for me untie it| , |said, they| sun|the |  Rabbit
 did                                               say       sub.

aká| ĕ'di|a¢á-bi | ctĕwaⁿ'|naⁿ'pa-bi|egaⁿ'| hébe | íhe  |a¢é-hnaⁿ'-biamá.| Kĭ  3
the|there| went  |notwith-| feared  | hav-|partly|passed|went habitually |And
sub.     they say standing they say   ing           by       they say.

 ʞu`ĕ'| a¢á-bi | egaⁿ'| mása-biamá  |man'dĕ- ʞaⁿ|¢aⁿ'.|Gañ'ki|miⁿ'| ¢aⁿ |maⁿ'-
rushed|  went  |having|cut with they| bow string| the | And  | sun| the | on
       they say         a knife say               ob.             cv. ob.

ciáha|áiá¢a-biamá.| Kĭ|mactciñ'ge|aká |   ábá ʞu   | hiⁿ'|¢aⁿ|názi-biamá
high |had    they |And|  Rabbit  |the | space bet. | hair|the|burnt  they
      gone,   say.                sub. the shoulders      ob. yellow  say

  ánakadá-bi | egaⁿ'.|(Mactciñ'ge|  amá  | akí-biamá.) | ĭtcitci+,|ʞaⁿhá,    6
it was hot on|having.|  (Rabbit  |the mv.|reached home,|Itcitci+!!|grand-
it, they say                       sub.     they say.)             mother,

  ná¢iñgĕ-qti-maⁿ'|hă,|  á-biamá.|[T]úcpa¢aⁿ+,|  iⁿ'na¢iñgĕ'-qti-maⁿ'|eskaⁿ'+,
burnt to very I am| --|said, they|Grandchild!!| burnt to    very I am|I think,
nothing                    say.               nothing for me

   á-biamá.    |Cetaⁿ'.
said, they say.| So far.


581, 1. Mactciñge, the Rabbit, or Si¢e-makaⁿ (meaning uncertain), is
the hero of numerous myths of several tribes. He is the deliverer of
mankind from different tyrants. One of his opponents is Ictinike, the
maker of this world, according to the Iowas. The Rabbit's grandmother
is Mother Earth, who calls mankind her children.

581, 7. a¢ai te aⁿ. The conclusion of this sentence seems odd to the
collector, but its translation given with this myth is that furnished
by the Indian informant.

581, 12. haⁿ+egaⁿtcĕ-qtci, "ve--ry early in the morning." The
prolongation of the first syllable adds to the force of the adverb
"qtci," _very_.

582, 3. hebe ihe a¢e-hnaⁿ-biama. The Rabbit tried to obey the Sun;
but each time that he attempted it, he was so much afraid of him that
he passed by a little to one side. He could not go directly to him.

582, 4. 5. maⁿciaha aia¢a-biama. When the Rabbit rushed forward with
bowed head, and cut the bow-string, the Sun's departure was so rapid
that "he had _already_ gone on high."


  cv.    curvilinear.
  mv.    moving.
  st.    sitting.
  sub.   subject.
  ob.    object.


Once upon a time the Rabbit dwelt in a lodge with no one but his
grandmother. And it was his custom to go hunting very early in the
morning. No matter how early in the morning he went, a person with
very long feet had been along, leaving a trail. And he (the Rabbit),
wished to know him. "Now," thought he, "I will go in advance of the
person." Having arisen very early in the morning, he departed. Again
it happened that the person had been along, leaving a trail. Then he
(the Rabbit) went home. Said he, "Grandmother, though I arrange for
myself to go first, a person anticipates me (every time). Grandmother,
I will make a snare and catch him." "Why should you do it?" said she.
"I hate the person," he said. And the Rabbit departed. When he went,
the foot-prints had been along again. And he lay waiting for night (to
come). And he made a noose of a bow-string, putting it in the place
where the foot-prints used to be seen. And he reached there very early
in the morning for the purpose of looking at his trap. And it happened
that he had caught the Sun. Running very fast, he went homeward to
tell it. "Grandmother, I have caught something or other, but it
scares me. Grandmother, I wished to take my bow-string, but I was
scared every time," said he. He went thither with a knife. And he got
very near it. "You have done wrong; why have you done so? Come hither
and untie me," said the Sun. The Rabbit, although he went thither, was
afraid, and kept on passing partly by him (or, continued going by a
little to one side). And making a rush, with his head bent down (and
his arm stretched out), he cut the bow-string with the knife. And the
Sun had already gone on high. And the Rabbit had the hair between his
shoulders scorched yellow, it having been hot upon him (as he stooped
to cut the bow-string). (And the Rabbit arrived at home.) "Itcitci+!!
O grandmother, the heat has left nothing of me," said he. She said,
"Oh! my grandchild! I think that the heat has left nothing of him for
me." (From that time the rabbit has had a singed spot on his back,
between the shoulders.)

       *       *       *       *       *



Indians|in call-|  the   | not| enter |  his   | into lodge,| they
          ing    conjurer                                    halloo

sha'hmóknok; | kíush toks |wán| kiukáyank |mû'luash|m’na| kaníta| pî'sh.
to call (him)|the conjurer|red|hanging out| as sign|  his |outside|"of him."
   out;                    fox  on a pole

 Kukíaks |tchû'tanish| gátp’nank |wigáta| tchélχa| mā'shipksh.|Lútatkish    3
Conjurers|when treat-|approaching| close|sit down|the patient.|  The
             ing                    by                         expounder

 wigáta | kíukshĕsh  |tcha’hlánshna.|Shuyéga |   kíuks,    |wéwanuish
close to|the conjurer|  sits down.  | Starts |the conjurer,| females

tchīk|winóta |liukiámnank| nadshā'shak  |tchûtchtníshash.| Hánshna
 then|join in| crowding  |simultaneously|while he treats |He sucks
      singing  around him                  (the sick).

mā'shish|hû'nk|hishuákshash,| tátktish  | î'shkuk,  | hantchípka |tcī'k
diseased| that|    man,     |the disease|to extract,|he sucks out| then

kukuága,|wishinkága,|mû'lkaga,|ḵáḵo|gî'ntak,| káhaktok |nánuktua
a small |  small    |  small  |bone| after- |whatsoever|anything
 frog,     snake,     insect,        wards,

nshendshkáne.|Ts’û'ks|toks|ké-usht| tchékĕle| ítkal; |lúlp|toks|mā'-    3
   small.    | A leg |    | being |the (bad)|  he    |eyes|but |be-
                          fractured  blood   extracts;

 shisht |tchékĕlitat|lgû'm|shû'kĕlank| ḵî'tua  |lû'lpat,|kû'tash|tchish
ing sore| into blood| coal|  mixing  | he pours|into the|a louse| too

  kshéwa  | lúlpat | pû'klash|tuiχámpgatk|ltúiχaktgi gíug.
introduces|into the|the white|protruding | for eating out.
             eye      of eye


583, 1. shuákia does not mean to "_call on somebody_" generally, but
only "_to call on the conjurer_ or medicine man".

583, 2. wán stands for wánam nī'l: the fur or skin of a red
or silver fox; kaníta pî'sh stands for kanítana látchash m'nálam:
"outside of his lodge or cabin". The meaning of the sentence is: they
raise their voices to call him out. Conjurers are in the habit of
fastening a fox-skin outside of their lodges, as a business sign, and
to let it dangle from a rod stuck out in an oblique direction.

583, 3. tchélχa. During the treatment of a patient, who stays in
a winter house, the lodge is often shut up at the top, and the people
sit in a circle inside in utter darkness.

583, 5. liukiámnank. The women and all who take a part in the chorus
usually sit in a circle around the conjurer and his assistant; the
suffix -mna indicates close proximity. Nadshā'shak qualifies the
verb winóta.

583, 5. tchûtchtníshash. The distributive form of tchû't’na refers
to each of the _various_ manipulations performed by the conjurer on
the patient.

584, 1. mā'shish, shortened from māshípkash, mā'shipksh, like
ḵ'lä'ksh from k’läkápkash.

584, 2. 3. There is a stylistic incongruity in using the distributive
form, only in kukuàga (kúe, _frog_), káhaktok, and in nshendshkáne
(nshekáni, npshékani, tsékani, tchékĕni, _small_), while inserting
the absolute form in wishinkága (wíshink, _garter-snake_) and in
ḵáḵo; mû'lkaga is more of a generic term and its distributive
form is therefore not in use.

583, 2. káhaktok for ká-akt ak; ká-akt being the transposed
distributive form kákat, of kát, which, what (pron. relat.).

584, 4. lgû'm. The application of remedial _drugs_ is very unfrequent
in this tribe; and this is one of the reasons why the term "conjurer"
or "shaman" will prove to be a better name for the medicine man than
that of "Indian doctor".

584, 4. kû'tash etc. The conjurer introduces a louse into the eye to
make it eat up the protruding white portion of the sore eye.




 Hä | náyäns|hissuáksas| mā'shitk| kálak, |tsúi| kíuks  |nä'-ulakta|tchu-
When|another|    man   |fell sick|   as   |then|  the   | concludes| to
                                  relapsed,     conjurer

tánuapkuk.|Tchúi|tchúta;|tchúi|yá-uks|huk |shläá|kálak a gēk.| Tchi
 treat    | And |  he   | and |remedy|this|finds|(that) relapsed| Thus
 (him).          treats;                    out       he.

huk|shuî'sh|sápa.|Tsúi|nā'sh|shuī'sh|sáyuaks|hû'mtcha kálak,|tchúi    3
the| song- |indi-| And| one | song- |having | (that) of the | then
    remedy  cates.           remedy  found   kind of relapsed
                                      out    relapsed (he is),

nánuk| hûk | shuī'sh| tpä'wa |hû'nksht|kaltchitchíkshash|heshuampĕlítki
 all |those|remedies|indicate| (that) |  the spider     |     would
                                 him     (-remedy)

gíug. |Tchúi|hû'k|káltchitchiks|yá-uka;|  ubá-us  |hûk|káltchitchiksam
cure. | Then| the|   spider    | treats|a piece of|   | of the spider
                                  him;   deer-skin

   tchutĕnō'tkish.   |Tsúi|húkantka|ubá-ustka|tchutá;|tätáktak | huk      6
(is) the curing-tool.|Then|by means|deer-skin|  he   |just the |that
                            of that           treats |size of
                                              (him);  the spot

 kálak | mā'sha,| gä'tak| ubá-ush|ktû'shka| tä'tak |huk| mā'sha. |Tsúi|hûk
relapse|   is   |so much|of deer-| he cuts|as where| he|  is     |Then|
        infected,          skin      out                suffering.

káltchitchiks| siunóta  |nä'dsḵank|hû'nk| ubá-nsh.  |Tchû'yuk|p'laíta
the "spider" |is started|  while | that|skin piece.| And he |over it
   song                  applying

 nétatka | skútash, |tsúi | sha|hû'nk|udû'pka| hänä'shishtka,|tsúi|hû'k     9
   he    |a blanket,| and |they| it  | strike|with conjurer's|then| it
stretches                                         arrows,

gutä'ga|tsulä'kshtat;|gä'tsa| lû'pí |kiatéga,|tsúi| tsulē'ks| ḵ'läká,|tchúi
enters |  into the   |a par-|firstly| enters,|then|(it) body|becomes,| and
           body;      ticle

at |pushpúshuk| shlē'sh  | hûk|ubá-ush.|Tsúi| mā'ns| tánkĕni ak |waítash
now| dark it  |to look at|that| skin-  |Then| after|after so and| days
                                piece.       a while  so many

hû'k|pûshpúshli at|mā'ns=gîtk|tsulä'ks=sitk|shlä'sh.| Tsí|ní|sáyuakta;    12
that|black (thing)|  at last | (is) flesh- |to look |Thus|I |  am
                                     like      at.           informed;

túmi |hû'nk|sháyuakta|hû'masht=gîsht| tchutī'sht; |tsúyuk|tsúshni
many |     |  know   |  (that) in   |were effected|and he|always
 men                    this manner       cures;    then

was well again.


585, 1. náyäns hissuáksas: another man than the conjurers of the
tribe. The objective case shows that mā'shitk has to be regarded
here as the participle of an impersonal verb: mā'sha nûsh, and
mā'sha nû, it ails me, I am sick.

585, 2. yá-uks is remedy in general, spiritual as well as material.
Here a tamánuash song is meant by it, which, when sung by the
conjurer, will furnish him the certainty if his patient is a relapse
or not. There are several of these medicine-songs, but all of them
(nánuk hû'k shuī'sh) when consulted point out the spider-medicine
as the one to apply in this case. The spider's curing-instrument is
that small piece of buckskin (ubá-ush) which has to be inserted under
the patient's skin. It is called the spider's medicine because the
spider-song is sung during its application.

585, 10. gutä'ga. The whole operation is concealed from the eyes of
spectators by a skin or blanket stretched over the patient and the
hands of the operator.

585, 10. kiatéga. The buckskin piece has an oblong or longitudinal
shape in most instances, and it is passed under the skin sideways and
very gradually.

585, 11. tánkĕni ak waítash. Dave Hill gave as an approximate limit
five days' time.

       *       *       *       *       *



É-ukshkni| lápa |spû'klish|gítko.|   Ḵúḵiuk   | ḵĕlekapkash|spû'klishla
The lake | two  | sweat-  |have. |To weep over|the deceased| they build
 people   (kinds  lodges                                    sweat-lodges

 yépank|  käíla;   |stutílantko| spû'klish, |käíla|waltchátko.|Spû'klish a
digging|the ground;| are roofed| (these)    | with| covered.  | (Another)
  up                            sweat-lodges earth             sweat-lodge

sha |shû'ta| kué-utch, |kítchikan’sh|stinága=shítko;|skû'tash a|wáldsha    3
they| build|of willows,|  a little  | cabin looking | blankets | they
                                          like                  spread

 spû'klishtat |tataták sĕ|spukliá.|Tátataks a hû'nk|  wéas  |lúla,|tatátaks
  over the    |when in it| sweat. |   Whenever     |children|died,| or when
sweating-lodge|    they

a híshuaksh|tchímĕna,|snáwedsh|wénuitk,|ḵû'ḵi|ḵĕlekátko,|spû'klitcha
 a husband | became  |(or) the| (is)   |they |for cause|go sweating
             widower,   wife  |widowed,|weep |of death

túmi |shashámoks=lólatko;|túnepni|waítash|tchík| sa |hû'uk|spû'klia.     6
many | relatives who     | five  | days  | then|they|     | sweat.
         have lost

Shiúlakiank a| sha| ktái |  húyuka   |skoilakuápkuk;|hútoks| ktái |ḵá-i tatá
 Gathering   |they|stones|  (they)   | to heap them | those|stones|  never
                          heat (them) up (after use);

spukliû't’huīsh.|Spúklish| lúpĭa  | húyuka; |ḵélpka a| át, |   ílhiat   |átui,
having been used| Sweat  |in front|they heat| heated |when,| they bring | at
  for sweating    lodge      of     (them);   (being)      (them) inside|once,

ḵídshna ai| î  | ámbu,|kliulála.|Spû'kli|a sha| túmĕni|"hours";|ḵélpkuk     9
  pour    | on |water,|sprinkle.| Sweat | then|several| hours; |being quite
           them                           they                   warmed up

géka |shualkóltchuk |péniak| ḵō'ḵs|pépe-udshak|éwagatat,|ḵóḵetat,|é-ush
they |(and) to cool |with- |dress|only to go |  in a   | river,| lake
leave|themselves off| out          bathing     spring,

wigáta.|Spukli-uápka|mā'ntch.|  Shpótuok   | i-akéwa |   kápka,  |skû'tawia
close  | They will  |for long|To make them-|they bend|young pine-|(they) tie
 by.       sweat      hours.  selves strong   down       trees     together

sha | wéwakag | knû'kstga.| Ndshiétchatka  | knû'ks a|sha |shúshata.     12
they|  small  |with ropes.|Of (willow-)bark|the ropes|they|  make.

Gátpampĕlank |shkoshkî'lχa|ktáktiag| hû'shkankok  |ḵĕlekápkash,| ktá-i
On going home|they heap up| small  |in remembrance|of the dead,|stones
              into cairns   stones

shúshuankaptcha |  î'hiank.
 of equal size  | selecting.


No Klamath or Modoc sweat-lodge can be properly called a
sweat-_house_, as is the custom throughout the West. One kind of these
lodges, intended for the use of mourners only, are solid structures,
almost underground; three of them are now in existence, all believed
to be the gift of the principal national deity. Sudatories of the
other kind are found near every Indian lodge, and consist of a few
willow-rods stuck into the ground, both ends being bent over. The
process gone through while sweating is the same in both kinds of
lodges, with the only difference as to time. The ceremonies mentioned
4-13. all refer to sweating in the mourners' sweat-lodges. The
sudatories of the Oregonians have no analogy with the _estufas_ of
the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico, as far as their construction is

586, 1. lápa spû'klish, two sweat-lodges, stands for two _kinds_ of

586, 5. shashámoks=lólatko forms _one_ compound word: one who, or:
those who have lost relatives by death; cf. ptísh=lûlsh, pgísh=lûlsh;
hishuákga ptísh=lúlatk, male orphan whose father has died. In the
same manner, ḵĕlekátko stands here as a participle referring
simultaneously to híshuaksh and to snáwedsh wénuitk, and can be
rendered by "_bereaved_". Shashámoks, distr. form of shá-amoks,
is often pronounced sheshámaks. Túmi etc. means, that many others
accompany to the sweat-lodge, into which about six persons can crowd
themselves, bereaved husbands, wives or parents, because the deceased
were related to them.

586, 7. Shiúlakiank etc. For developing steam the natives collect
only such stones for heating as are neither too large nor too small;
a medium size seeming most appropriate for concentrating the largest
amount of heat. The old sweat-lodges are surrounded with large
accumulations of stones which, to judge from their blackened exterior,
have served the purpose of generating steam; they weigh not over 3 to
5 pounds in the average, and in the vicinity travelers discover many
small cairns, not over four feet high, and others lying in ruins.
The shrubbery around the sudatory is in many localities tied up with
willow wisps and ropes.

586, 11. Spukli-uápka mā'ntch means that the sweating-process is
repeated many times during the five days of observance; they sweat at
least twice a day.

       *       *       *       *       *



Śuŋka|waŋ;| ḳa| wakaŋka |waŋ|waḳiŋ|waŋ|taŋka| hnaka.   |Uŋkan
 Dog | a; |and|old-woman| a | pack| a |large|laid away.| And

śuŋka|ḳoŋ| he |sdonya.|Uŋkaŋ|waŋna|haŋyetu,|uŋkaŋ| wakaŋka
 dog |the|that| knew. | And | now | night, | and |old-woman

iśtinman| kećiŋ | ḳa| en  | ya: |tuka|wakaŋka|kiŋ|sdonkiye|ć̣a|kiktahaŋ   3
 asleep |   he  |and|there|went:| but|  old  |the|  knew  |and| awake
         thought                       woman

waŋke,|ć̣a| ite|hdakiŋyaŋ| ape  |ć̣a|kićakse,|ć̣a|nina|  po,   | keyapi.
 lay, |and|face| across  |struck|and| gashed,|and|much|swelled,|they say.

Uŋkaŋ|haŋḣaŋna|hehaŋ|śuŋka| tokeća|waŋ| en  | hi, |ḳa |  okiya     | ya.
 And | morning| then| dog |another| a |there|came,|and|to-talk-with|went.

Tuka|pamahdedaŋ| ite| mahen| inina|yaŋka.|Uŋkaŋ|taku| ićante |niśića
 But| head-down|face|within|silent| was. | And |what|of-heart|you-bad

heciŋhaŋ|omakiyaka wo,|  eya.  |Uŋkaŋ,|Inina|yaŋka wo,|wakaŋka     3
   if   |  me-tell,   |he-said.| And, |still| be-you, |old-woman

waŋ|teḣiya|omakiḣaŋ do,|  eya,  | keyapi.|Uŋkaŋ,|Tokeŋ|nićiḣaŋ he,|  eya.
 a |hardly| me-dealt-  |he-said,| they   | And, | How | to-thee-  |he-said.
              with,               say.                   did-she,

Uŋkaŋ,|Waḳin|waŋ|taŋka| hnaka e |waŋmdake|ć̣a | heoŋ |  otpa   | awape:
 And, | Pack| a |large|she-laid-| I-saw  |and|there-|to-go-for|I waited:
                        away                   fore

 k̇a|waŋna| haŋ |tehaŋ|k̇ehan,|iśtiŋbe| seća e | en  | mde| ć̣a| pa |timaheŋ    6
and| now |night| far | then,|  she- |probably|there| I  |and|head|house-in
                              asleep                went

yewaya, |uŋkaŋ|kiktahaŋ|waŋke|  śta   | hećamoŋ:  | k̇a,| Śi, | de |tukten
I-poked,| and | awake  | lay |although|this-I-did:|and,|shoo,|this| where

yau he,|eye,| ć̣a| itohna| amape,  | ć̣a|dećen|iyemayaŋ ce,| eye| ć̣a|kipazo.
 you-  |she-|and|face-on|smote-me,|and| thus|she-me-left |he- |and|showed
 come,  said                                              said      him.

Uŋkaŋ,| Huŋhuŋhe! |teḣiya| ećanićoŋ do,  | ihomeća |waḳiŋ|kiŋ|uŋtapi     9
 And, |Alas! alas!|hardly|she-did-to-you,|therefore| pack|the|we-eat

kta ce,|eye | ć̣a,|Mnićiya wo,|eya, |keyapi.|Ito,|Minibozaŋna|kićo wo,
 will, |he- |and,| Assemble, | he- | they  |Now,| Water-mist| call,
        said                  said,  say.

ka,|Yaksa| taŋiŋ śni  |kico wo,|Tahu|waśaka|kico wo,| k̇a,| Taisaŋpena
and| Bite|not manifest| call,  |Neck|strong| invite,|and,|His-knife-sharp

kico wo,| eya,| keyapi. |Uŋkaŋ|owasiŋ|wićakićo:| ḳa|waŋna|owasiŋ| en     12
 call,  | he- |they-say.| And |  all | them-he-|and| now |  all |there
         said,                          called:

hipi|hehaŋ|    heya,    | keyapi: | Ihopo, | wakaŋka | de |teḣiya|ećakićoŋ će;
came| then|this-he-said,|they-say:|Come-on,|old-woman|this|hardly|dealt-with;

 minihei ć̣iyapo, |haŋyetu|hepiya| waćonića |wakiŋ|waŋ| teḣiŋda  | ḳa| on
bestir-yourselves,| night |during|dried-meat| pack| a |she-forbid|and|for

teḣiya|   ećakićoŋ   |tuka,| ehaeś|untapi|kta će,|  eya,  | keyapi.      15
hardly|dealt-with-him| but,|indeed|we eat| will  |he-said,|they say.

Uŋkaŋ|Minibozaŋna|ećiyapi|ḳoŋ| he |waŋna|maġaźukiye|ć̣a,|aŋpetu
 Then| Water-mist| called|the|that| now |rain-made,|and,| day

    oṡaŋ   |maġaźu| ećen|otpaza;| ḳa|wakeya|owasiŋ|nina|spaya,|wihutipaspe
all-through|rained|until| dark; |and| tent | all  |very| wet, | tent-pin

olidoka|owasiŋ|taŋyaŋ| ḣpan. |Uŋkaŋ|hehaŋ|  Yaksa taŋiŋ śni    | wihuti-     18
 holes | all  | well |soaked.| And | then|Bite-off-manifest-not|tent-fast-

paspe |kiŋ|owasiŋ| yakse, |tuka|taŋiŋśni yaŋ| yakse | nakaeś|wakaŋka
enings|the| all  |bit-off,| but|   slyly    |bit-off|so that|old-woman

kiŋ|sdonkiye|śni.|Uŋkaŋ| Tahuwaśaka|he|waḳiŋ|ḳoŋ| yape  |ć̣a|maniŋ-
the|  knew  |not.| And |Neck-strong|he| pack|the|seized,|and| away

kiya| yapa iyeya, | ḳa|tehaŋ| eḣpeya. |Hećen|Taisaŋpena|waḳiŋ|ḳoŋ    21
 off| holding-in- |and| far |threw-it.| So  |His-knife-| pack|the
     mouth-carried                             sharp

 ćokaya  |kiyaksa-iyeya.|Hećeŋ|waḳiŋ|ḳoŋ|haŋyetu|hepiyana| temya-
in-middle| tore-it-open.|Hence| pack|the| night | during |they-ate-

iyeyapi,| keyapi.
all-up, | they say.

 Hećen |tuwe|wamanoŋ|  keś,   |saŋpa|iwaḣaŋi ć̣ida|wamanoŋ|waŋ| hduze,     24
So that| who| steals|although,| more|   haughty  | thief | a |marries,

  eyapi | eće;  | de |huŋkakaŋpi do.
they-say|always;|this| they-fable.


588, 24. This word "hduze" means _to take_ or _hold one's own;_
and is most commonly applied to a man's taking a wife, or a woman
a husband. Here it may mean either that one who starts in a wicked
course consorts with others "more wicked than himself," or that he
himself grows in the bad and takes hold of the greater forms of
evil--_marries_ himself to the wicked one.

It will be noted from this specimen of Dakota that there are
some particles in the language which cannot be represented in a
translation. The "do" used at the end of phrases or sentences is
only for emphasis and to round up a period. It belongs mainly to the
language of young men. "Wo" and "po" are the signs of the imperative.


There was a dog; and there was an old woman who had a pack of dried
meat laid away. This the dog knew; and, when he supposed the old woman
was asleep, he went there at night. But the old woman was aware of his
coming and so kept watch, and, as the dog thrust his head under the
tent, she struck him across the face and made a great gash, which
swelled greatly.

The next morning a companion dog came and attempted to talk with him.
But the dog was sullen and silent. The visitor said: "Tell me what
makes you so heart-sick." To which he replied: "Be still, an old woman
has treated me badly." "What did she do to you?" He answered: "An old
woman had a pack of dried meat; this I saw and went for it; and when
it was now far in the night, and I supposed she was asleep, I went
there and poked my head under the tent. But she was lying awake and
cried out: 'Shoo! what are you doing here?' and struck me on the head
and wounded me as you see."

Whereupon the other dog said: "Alas! Alas! she has treated you
badly, verily we will eat up her pack of meat. Call an assembly:
call _Water-mist_ (i.e., rain); call _Bite-off-silently_; call
_Strong-neck_; call _Sharp-knife_." So he invited them all. And when
they had all arrived, he said: "Come on! an old woman has treated this
friend badly; bestir yourselves; before the night is past, the pack of
dried meat which she prizes so much, and on account of which she has
thus dealt with our friend, that we will eat all up".

Then the one who is called _Rain-mist_ caused it to rain, and it
rained all the day through until dark; and the tent was all drenched,
and the holes of the tent-pins were thoroughly softened. Then
_Bite-off-silently_ bit off all the lower tent-fastenings, but
he did it so quietly that the old woman knew nothing of it. Then
_Strong-neck_ came and seized the pack with his mouth, and carried it
far away. Whereupon _Sharp-knife_ came and ripped the pack through the
middle; and so, while it was yet night, they ate up the old woman's
pack of dried meat.

_Moral_.--A common thief becomes worse and worse by attaching himself
to more daring companions. This is the myth.


  Conjurers' practice 583
  Dog's revenge, a Dakota fable 587
  Omaha myth 581
  Revenge, A dog's; a Dakota fable 587
  Sweat lodges 586

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