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Title: A Study Of American Beers and Ales
Author: Riley, James Garfield, 1881-, Tolman, L. M., 1875-
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

                            BULLETIN No. 493

                Contribution from the Bureau of Chemistry

                         CARL L. ALSBERG, Chief

        Washington, D. C.    PROFESSIONAL PAPER    March 21, 1917



                   A STUDY OF AMERICAN BEERS AND ALES.

By L. M. TOLMAN, Chief, Central Inspection District, and J. GARFIELD RILEY,
  Assistant Chemist, Food and Drug Inspection Laboratory, New York, N. Y.


                   *       *       *       *       *



CONTENTS.

                                                                     Page.

Introduction                                                             1

Method of undertaking the investigation                                  2

Methods of analysis                                                      3

Results of analysis                                                      3

Effect of raw materials used upon composition of the finished brew      11

Conclusions                                                             23

                   *       *       *       *       *



INTRODUCTION.


The investigation, the results of which are reported in this bulletin,
was undertaken for the purpose of securing information in regard to the
composition of brewery products made in this country. The main object of
this investigation was to find, if possible, a means of distinguishing
beers and ales made entirely from malt from those made from malt
together with other cereal products, such as rice, corn, and cerealin.

It was concluded, after looking into the literature, that in order to
accomplish this purpose it would be necessary to collect a series of
samples made from the various raw materials ordinarily used and make a
study of the effect of these raw materials upon the composition of the
finished product.

The investigation seemed desirable for the reason that practically all
of the existing data related to foreign beers, in the preparation of
which a type of malt was used entirely different from that ordinarily
used in the production of American beers. Furthermore, very few of the
existing data relating either to foreign or domestic beers were based
upon samples concerning which exact information was available in regard
to the raw materials used in the wort.


METHOD OF UNDERTAKING THE INVESTIGATION.

It was felt that it would be wholly unsatisfactory to make this
investigation by means of laboratory brewings on a small scale, as the
results thus obtained would not show the true conditions, because it is
not possible in the laboratory to duplicate exactly the mashing or
fermenting processes actually used in a commercial way. It was decided,
therefore, to attempt, with the cooperation of several breweries, to
make this study under the exact conditions prevailing in commercial
plants. Access was secured to several breweries making different types
of products from various kinds of raw materials, under such conditions
that it was possible to obtain a complete history of the beer through
its various stages to the finished product. One of the writers (Riley)
watched the method of manufacture during its whole process and obtained
samples of the product at the various stages of manufacture. Thus, it
was possible to procure finished samples with practically the same
degree of certainty, as regards knowledge of composition and history, as
would have been the case had they been prepared in the laboratory.

In three different breweries manufacturing a wide range of products
samples of the wort and beer were obtained in this manner, the entire
process of manufacture being studied in detail. A record showing the
kind and amount of raw materials placed in the mash and in the cooker
was made of the samples collected from these three breweries. A record
also was kept of the time and temperature of each operation until the
mash was ready to run into the kettle. The filtering and sparging[1] of
the mash, the time of boiling in the kettle, the amount of hops added
and the point at which they were added, and the break[2] of the wort
were all noted. After the wort had been pumped from the kettle its
course was followed through the hop jack[3] over the coolers to the
settling tank. The specific gravity or Balling[4] of the original wort,
the temperature at which the product was pitched,[5] the aeration of the
wort, the kind and amount of yeast added, as well as the time and
maximum temperature of the primary fermentation, also were noted. The
course of the beer through the storage vats, chip casks, and filters to
the racks was watched, and samples of the wort and of the beer in its
various stages of production were collected and examined.

[Footnote 1: Washing the grains with hot water to remove the extract or
valuable constituents as completely as possible.]

[Footnote 2: Precipitation and uniting, in the form of flakes, of the
coagulable albuminoids, leaving the liquid clear.]

[Footnote 3: A filtering tank.]

[Footnote 4: Percentage of solids in the liquor according to the Balling
hydrometer.]

[Footnote 5: Pitching is the operation of adding the yeast to the wort.]


METHODS OF ANALYSIS.

The methods of analysis used were those given in Bulletin 107, revised
(U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Chem.), pages 90-94, with the exception that the
determination of phosphoric acid was made by the method used in
fertilizer analysis (ibid., pp. 2-5), destroying the organic material in
the beer by digestion with strong sulphuric acid and nitric acid and
determining the phosphoric acid finally by the optional volumetric
method (ibid., p. 4). The uranium acetate method given for beers was not
used, for the reason that it was found to be exceedingly difficult to
obtain accurate results on dark-colored beers.[1]

[Footnote 1: Riley, in his report to the Association of Official
Agricultural Chemists for the year 1913, stated that the method giving
the most uniform results was that of ashing the beer with an excess of
standard calcium acetate, and that while the moist combustion method in
the hands of those familiar with it gave satisfactory results, the
various collaborators working with the method did not get as uniform
results as with the method of ashing with calcium acetate. J. Assoc.
Off. Agr. Chemists 1 (1915), 138-143.]

It was found in the estimation of dextrin by the Sachsse-Allihn method
(ibid., p. 91) that there is an error in the method of calculation of
the amount of dextrose formed from the amount of maltose in the original
beer. Instead of multiplying the amount of maltose in the original beer
by the factor 0.9, it should be multiplied by the factor 1.053, as 1
gram of anhydrous maltose yields, on hydrolysis, 1.053 grams of
dextrose. The product is the quantity which should be subtracted from
the total amount of dextrose found after hydrolysis. The extract in the
beer was determined by use of the tables of Schultz and Ostermann
(ibid., pp. 209-213). The same methods were used in the analyses of the
worts as were used in the examination of the beers.


RESULTS OF ANALYSIS.

Tables I to IV contain the results of the analyses of the worts and
finished fermented products obtained at the various breweries where this
investigation was conducted, arranged so as to show readily the changes
which took place during fermentation and, in a few cases, the changes
which took place during storage. The results are all given in terms of
grams per 100 cc, so that a direct comparison of the quantities of any
particular ingredient in a definite volume of material may be made. The
comparison of the grams per 100 cc of an ingredient in the wort, with
the grams per 100 cc in the finished fermented product, is based on the
assumption that there is no appreciable change in the volume of the wort
during fermentation.

In Table I are given the results of the analyses of 7 malt worts and the
beers produced from them. Table II contains the results of the analyses
of 2 malt-and-rice worts and 2 malt-and-corn worts, and the beers
produced from them. In Table III are given the results of the analyses
of 4 porter worts and the finished porters produced from them. The
results of the analyses of 9 ale worts and the finished ales are shown
in Table IV. In these four tables the extract in the original wort has
been calculated by multiplying the alcohol (expressed in terms of grams
per 100 cc) by 2, and adding to the product the extract of the beer,
porter, or ale (expressed in terms of grams per 100 cc). In the porter
and ale worts a percentage of dextrose had been added as brewer's sugar.
Since dextrose reduces more copper than does maltose in the
determination of the sugars, in order to obtain the true percentage of
total sugars it was necessary to calculate the amount of copper reduced
by the known amount of dextrose present, and then to calculate the
amount of maltose. The results thus obtained are given in Tables III and
IV under the heading "Reducing sugars as anhydrous maltose."


TABLE I.--_Analyses of all-malt worts and of the beers made from them._

Column Key:
A: Sample No.
B: Product.
C: Date of Taking Sample.
D: Specific Gravity at 15.6°C./15.6°C.
E: Alcohol.
F: Extract.
G: Extract in original wort (calculated).
H: Degree of fermentation.
I: Total acids as lactic.
J: Volatile acids as acetic.
K: Reducing sugars as anhydrous maltose.
L: Dextrin.
M: Protein (N × 6.25)
N: Ash.
O: Phosphoric acid (as P_{2}O_{5}).
P: Undetermined.
Q: Color (Lovibond) in 1/4-inch cell.

+--------+------+--------+-------+------+------+------+-----+------+
|        |      |        |       |      |      |      |     |      |
|   A    |  B   |   C    |  D    |  E   |   F  |   G  |  H  |   I  |
+--------+------+--------+-------+------+------+------+-----+------+
|        |      |        |       | Grams| Grams| Grams|     | Grams|
|        |      |        |       |  per |  per |  per |     |  per |
|        |      |        |       |  100 |  100 |  100 |     |  100 |
|        |      |  1911  |       |  cc. |  cc. |  cc. |     |  cc. |
|22013-D | Wort |July 5  |1.0518 |  ... |13.75 |  ... | ... |0.198 |
|22017-D | Beer |July 12 |1.0125 | 3.85 | 5.16 |12.86 |59.88| .216 |
|        |      |        |       |      |      |      |     |      |
|22014-D | Wort |July 6  |1.0517 |  ... |13.71 |  ... | ... | .198 |
|22018-D | Beer |July 13 |1.0124 | 3.91 | 5.16 |12.98 |60.25| .225 |
|        |      |        |       |      |      |      |     |      |
|  ...   | Wort |July 7  |1.0517 |  ... |13.71 |  ... | ... | .207 |
|22019-D | Beer |July 14 |1.0135 | 3.83 | 5.44 |13.10 |58.47| .234 |
|        |      |        |       |      |      |      |     |      |
|22015-D | Wort |July 8  |1.0517 |  ... |13.70 |  ... | ... | .198 |
|22020-D | Beer |July 15 |1.0130 | 3.72 | 5.22 |12.66 |58.77| .236 |
|        |      |        |       |      |      |      |     |      |
|22016-D | Wort |July 10 |1.0515 |  ... |13.68 |  ... | ... | .225 |
|22021-D | Beer |July 17 |1.0147 | 3.66 | 5.66 |12.98 |56.39| .221 |
|        |      |        |       |      |      |      |     |      |
|        |      |  1912  |       |      |      |      |     |      |
|16289-C | Wort |Feb. 29 |1.0455 |  ... |12.05 |  ... | ... | .216 |
|16289-C | Beer |Mar. 7  |1.0171 | 3.02 | 6.01 |12.11 |49.88| .230 |
|20714-D |  Do  |Apr. 18 |1.0167 | 3.12 | 5.90 |12.14 |51.40| .243 |
|        |      |        |       |      |      |      |     |      |
|16299-C | Wort |Mar. 1  |1.0454 |  ... |12.02 |  ... | ... | .180 |
|16299-C | Beer |Mar. 18 |1.0180 | 2.87 | 6.16 |11.94 |48.07| .234 |
+--------+------+--------+-------+------+------+------+-----+------+

+--------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+----------+
|        |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |          |
|   A    |   J  |  K   |  L   |  M   |  N   |  O   |  P   |    Q     |
+--------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+----------+
|        | Grams| Grams| Grams| Grams| Grams| Grams| Grams| Degrees, |
|        |  per |  per |  per |  per |  per |  per |  per | brewer's |
|        |  100 |  100 |  100 |  100 |  100 |  100 |  100 | scale.   |
|        |  cc. |  cc. |  cc. |  cc. |  cc. |  cc. |  cc. |          |
|22013-D |0.001 | 9.79 |  ... |0.862 |0.231 |0.098 |  ... |  13.0    |
|22017-D | .001 | 1.34 | 2.33 | .611 | .209 | .080 | 0.67 |  12.0    |
|        |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |          |
|22014-D | .001 | 9.79 |  ... | .876 | .228 | .095 |  ... |  13.0    |
|22018-D | .002 | 1.36 | 2.06 | .614 | .201 | .078 |  .93 |  13.0    |
|        |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |          |
|  ...   | .001 |10.04 |  ... | .852 | .252 | .099 |  ... |  13.0    |
|22019-D | .002 | 1.55 |  ... | .610 | .215 | .082 |  ... |   9.0    |
|        |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |          |
|22015-D | .001 | 9.86 |  ... | .841 | .240 | .097 |  ... |  13.0    |
|22020-D | .002 | 1.59 | 2.23 | .639 | .206 | .081 |  .55 |  11.0    |
|        |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |          |
|22016-D | .001 | 9.84 |  ... | .845 | .245 | .097 |  ... |  13.0    |
|22021-D | .001 | 1.85 | 2.18 | .635 | .208 | .082 |  .78 |  10.0    |
|        |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |          |
|        |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |          |
|16289-C | .001 | 7.40 |  ... | .917 | .232 | .095 |  ... |   4.0    |
|16289-C | .003 | 1.35 | 2.73 | .757 | .246 | .082 |  .83 |   3.0    |
|20714-D | .012 | 1.47 | 2.68 | .732 | .229 | .090 |  .79 |   3.0    |
|        |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |          |
|16299-C | .001 | 7.41 |  ... | .874 | .238 | .101 |  ... |   2.0    |
|16299-C | .012 | 1.40 | 2.82 | .737 | .240 | .090 |  .96 |   2.0    |
+--------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+----------+


TABLE II.--_Analyses of malt-and-rice and malt-and-corn worts and of the
beers made from them._

Column Key:
A: Sample No.
B: Raw Materials.
C: Product.
D: Date of taking Sample.
E: Specific gravity at 15.6°C./15.6°C.
F: Alcohol.
G: Extract.
H: Extract in original wort (calculated).
I: Degree of fermentation.
J: Total acids as lactic.
K: Volatile acids as acetic.
L: Reducing sugars as anhydrous maltose.
M: Dextrin.
N: Protein (N × 6.25)
O: Ash.
P: Phosphoric acid (as P_{2}O_{5}).
Q: Undetermined.
R: Color (Lovibond) in 1/4-inch cell.

+--------+----------------+------+--------+-------+------+------+------+-----+
|        |                |      |        |       |      |      |      |     |
|   A    |       B        |  C   |   D    |   E   |   F  |   G  |   H  |  I  |
+--------+----------------+------+--------+-------+------+------+------+-----+
|        |                |      |        |       | Grams| Grams| Grams|     |
|        |                |      |        |       |  per |  per |  per |     |
|        |                |      |        |       |  100 |  100 |  100 |     |
|        |                |      |  1911  |       |  cc. |  cc. |  cc. |     |
|22026-D |80 per cent     |      |        |       |      |      |      |     |
|        |  malt and 20   |      |        |       |      |      |      |     |
|        |  per cent rice.| Wort |July 24 |1.0459 |  ... |12.15 |  ... | ... |
|22032-D |    Do          | Beer |July 31 |1.0121 | 3.31 | 4.80 |11.42 |57.97|
|22036-D |    Do          | Wort |Aug. 9  |1.0464 |  ... |12.30 |  ... | ... |
|22042-D |    Do          | Beer |Aug. 16 |1.0139 | 3.18 | 5.23 |11.59 |54.87|
|16269-C |60 per cent     |      |        |       |      |      |      |     |
|        |  malt and 40   |      |        |       |      |      |      |     |
|        |  per cent corn.| Wort |Dec. 5  |1.0489 |  ... |12.95 |  ... | ... |
|16271-C |    Do          | Beer |Dec. 12 |1.0149 | 3.45 | 5.68 |12.58 |54.85|
|        |                |      |        |       |      |      |      |     |
|        |                |      |  1912  |       |      |      |      |     |
|16287-C |    Do          | do   |Mar. 12 |1.0159 | 3.33 | 5.76 |12.42 |53.62|
|        |                |      |        |       |      |      |      |     |
|        |                |      |  1911  |       |      |      |      |     |
|16270-C |    Do          | Wort |Dec. 6  |1.0496 |  ... |  ... |13.14 | ... |
|16272-C |    Do          | Beer |Dec. 13 |1.0152 | 3.41 | 5.61 |12.43 |54.87|
|        |                |      |        |       |      |      |      |     |
|        |                |      |  1912  |       |      |      |      |     |
|16286-C |    Do          | do   |Mar. 12 |1.0157 | 3.29 | 5.68 |12.26 |53.67|
+--------+----------------+------+--------+-------+------+------+------+-----+

+--------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+----------+
|        |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |          |
|  A     |  J   |  K   |  L   |  M   |  N   |  O   |  P   |  Q   |  R       |
+--------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+----------+
|        | Grams| Grams| Grams| Grams| Grams| Grams| Grams| Grams| Degrees, |
|        |  per |  per |  per |  per |  per |  per |  per |  per | brewer's |
|        |  100 |  100 |  100 |  100 |  100 |  100 |  100 |  100 | scale.   |
|        |  cc. |  cc. |  cc. |  cc. |  cc. |  cc. |  cc. |  cc. |          |
|22026-D | 0.124|0.001 | 8.64 |  ... | .714 |0.193 |0.069 |  ... |   2.0    |
|22032-D |  .275| .003 | 1.18 | 2.47 | .519 | .150 | .055 | 0.48 |   2.0    |
|22036-D |  .126| .001 | 8.70 |  ... | .624 | .204 | .072 |  ... |   2.0    |
|22042-D |  .243| .003 | 1.57 | 2.41 | .400 | .156 | .057 |  .69 |   2.0    |
|16269-C |  .144| .003 | 9.05 |  ... | .461 | .229 | .066 |  ... |   ...    |
|16271-C |  .171| .013 | 1.63 | 2.49 | .308 | .213 | .056 | 1.04 |   ...    |
|16287-C |  .180| .014 | 1.87 | 2.36 | .327 | .208 | .056 |  .99 |   ...    |
|16270-C |  .144| .003 | 9.32 |  ... | .498 | .216 | .067 |  ... |   ...    |
|16272-C |  .171| .013 | 1.59 | 2.58 | .314 | .203 | .050 |  .93 |   ...    |
|16286-C |  .175| .014 | 1.88 | 2.58 | .314 | .222 | .058 |  .69 |   ...    |
+--------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+----------+


TABLE III.--_Analyses of porter worts made from malt, cerealin, and
brewer's sugar, and of the porters made from these worts._

Key:
A: Sample No.
B: Product.
C: Date of taking sample.
D: Specific gravity at 15.6° C./15.6° C.
E: Alcohol.
F: Extract.
G: Extract in original wort (calculated).
H: Degree of fermentation.
I: Total acids as lactic.
J: Volatile acids as acetic.
K: Reducing sugars as anhydrous maltose.
L: Dextrin.
M: Protein (N × 6.25)
N: Ash.
O: Phosphoric acid (as P_{2}O_{5}).
P: Undetermined.
Q: Color (Lovibond) in 1/4-inch cell.

+-------+-------+-------+------+------+------+------+-----+------+
|       |       |       |      |      |      |      |     |      |
|   A   |   B   |   C   |   D  |   E  |   F  |   G  |  H  |   I  |
+-------+-------+-------+------+------+------+------+-----+------+
|       |       |       |      | Grams| Grams| Grams|     | Grams|
|       |       |       |      |  per |  per |  per |     |  per |
|       |       |       |      |  100 |  100 |  100 |     |  100 |
|       |       | 1911  |      |  cc. |  cc. |  cc. |     |  cc. |
|22023-D|Wort   |July 20|1.0572|  ... | 15.25|  ... | ... | 0.270|
|22028-D|Porter |July 26|1.0151|  4.30|  6.02| 14.62|58.82|  .324|
|22046-D|  do   |Aug. 21|1.0135|  4.48|  5.70| 14.66|61.12|  .380|
|       |       |       |      |      |      |      |     |      |
|22038-D|Wort   |Aug. 11|1.0625|  ... | 16.66|  ... | ... |  .234|
|22044-D|Porter |Aug. 18|1.0165|  4.75|  6.60| 16.10|59.01|  .342|
|       |       |       |      |      |      |      |     |      |
|22045-D|Wort   |Aug. 18|1.0623|  ... | 16.62|  ... | ... |  .234|
|29501-B|Porter |Aug. 25|1.0170|  4.72|  6.72| 16.16|58.42|  .288|
|       |       |       |      |      |      |      |     |      |
|22025-D|Wort   |July 21|1.0633|  ... | 16.87|  ... | ... |  .234|
|22031-D|Porter |July 28|1.0178|  4.70|  6.96| 16.36|57.46|  .378|
|22049-D|  do   |Aug. 24|1.0162|  4.82|  6.54| 16.18|59.58|  .306|
+-------+-------+-------+------+------+------+------+-----+------+

+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+--------+
|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |        |
|  A   |   J  |   K  |   L  |   M  |   N  |   O  |   P  |    Q   |
+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+--------+
|      | Grams| Grams| Grams| Grams| Grams| Grams| Grams|        |
|      |  per |  per |  per |  per |  per |  per |  per |Degrees,|
|      |  100 |  100 |  100 |  100 |  100 |  100 |  100 |brewer's|
|      |  cc. |  cc. |  cc. |  cc. |  cc. |  cc. |  cc. |scale.  |
|2023-D| 0.002|  8.67|  ... | 0.696| 0.227| 0.069|  ... |  58.0  |
|2028-D|  .003|  1.07|  3.34|  .482|  .208|  .052|  0.92|  59.0  |
|2046-D|  .002|  1.07|  3.19|  .482|  .182|  .051|   .78|  60.0  |
|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |        |
|2038-D|  .002|  9.74|  ... |  .685|  .232|  .072|  ... |  65.0  |
|2044-D|  .002|  1.42|  3.48|  .477|  .196|  .053|  1.02|  60.0  |
|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |        |
|2045-D|  .002|  9.68|  ... |  .667|  .224|  .069|  ... |  55.0  |
|9501-B|  .002|  1.41|  3.62|  .482|  .201|  .058|  1.01|  55.0  |
|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |        |
|2025-D|  .004| 10.25|  ... |  .721|  .214|  .073|  ... |  70.0  |
|2031-D|  .002|  1.40|  3.68|  .476|  .194|  .055|  1.21|  60.0  |
|2049-D|  .003|  1.44|  3.44|  .479|  .189|  .053|   .99|  60.0  |
+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+--------+


TABLE IV.--_Analyses of ale worts and of the ales made from them._

KEY:
A: Sample No.
B: Raw materials.
C: Product.
D: Date of taking sample.
E: Specific gravity at 15.6°C./15.6° C.
F: Alcohol.
G: Extract.
H: Extract in original wort (calculated).
I: Degree of fermentation.
J: Total acids as lactic.
K: Volatile acids as acetic.
L: Reducing sugars as anhydrous maltose.
M: Dextrin.
N: Protein (N × 6.25).
O: Ash.
P: Phosphoric acid (as P_{2}O_{5}).
Q: Undetermined
R: Color (Lovibond) in 1/4-inch cell.

+-------+--------------------+---------+-------+------+-----+-----+-----+
|       |                    |         |       |      |     |     |     |
|   A   |         B          |    C    |   D   |  E   |  F  |  G  |  H  |
+-------+--------------------+---------+-------+------+-----+-----+-----+
|       |                    |         |       |Grams |Grams|Grams|     |
|       |                    |         |       | per  | per | per |     |
|       |                    |         |       | 100  | 100 | 100 |     |
|       |                    |         |  1911 | cc.  | cc. | cc. |     |
|22024-D|Malt, cerealin, and |         |       |      |     |     |     |
|       |  brewer's sugar    |Wort     |July 21|1.0608|  ...|16.24| ... |
|22030-D|    do              |Ale      |July 27|1.0139| 4.82| 5.93|15.57|
|22047-D|    do              |Ale after|       |      |     |     |     |
|       |                    | storage.|Aug. 22|1.0124| 4.97| 5.62|15.56|
|22034-D|    do              |Wort     |Aug. 7 |1.0610|  ...|16.30| ... |
|22039-D|    do              |Ale      |Aug. 14|1.0123| 5.11| 5.67|15.89|
|29504-B|    do              |Ale after|       |      |     |     |     |
|       |                    | storage |Oct. 6 |1.0106| 5.26| 5.28|15.80|
|22037-D|    do              |Wort     |Aug. 10|1.0611| ... |16.32| ... |
|22043-D|    do              |Ale      |Aug. 17|1.0124| 4.93| 5.62|15.48|
|22022-D|Malt and cerealin   |Wort     |July 19|1.0642| ... |17.10| ... |
|22027-D|    do              |Ale      |July 26|1.0133| 5.17| 5.95|16.29|
|22035-D|    do              |Wort     |Aug.  8|1.0668| ... |17.80| ... |
|22040-D|    do              |Ale      |Aug. 15|1.0145| 5.34| 6.30|16.98|
|16267-C|    do              |Ale after|       |      |     |     |     |
|       |                    | storage |Nov. 15|1.0134| 5.52| 6.11|17.15|
|29506-B|    do              |Wort     |Oct. 10|1.0760| ... |20.23| ... |
|29512-B|    do              |Ale      |Oct. 17|1.0253| 5.43| 9.19|20.05|
|       |                    |         |       |      |     |     |     |
|       |                    |         |  1912 |      |     |     |     |
|13922-D|    do              |Ale after|       |      |     |     |     |
|       |                    | storage |Jan. 3 |1.0208| 5.80| 8.18|19.78|
|       |                    |         |       |      |     |     |     |
|       |                    |         |  1911.|      |     |     |     |
|29507-B|    do              |Wort     |Oct. 11|1.0767| ... |20.40| ... |
|29514-B|    do              |Ale      |Oct. 18|1.0228| 5.67| 8.52|19.86|
|29513-B|    do              |Wort     |Oct. 18|1.0781| ... |20.75| ... |
|29519-B|    do              |Ale      |Oct. 24|1.0244| 5.53| 9.00|20.06|
|       |                    |         |  1912 |      |     |     |     |
|13923-D|    do              |Ale after|       |      |     |     |     |
|       |                    | storage | Jan. 2|1.0210| 5.67| 8.18|19.52|
|       |                    |         |       |      |     |     |     |
|       |                    |         |  1911 |      |     |     |     |
|22050-D|    do              |Wort     |Aug. 23|1.0793| ... |21.05| ... |
|29503-B|    do              |Stout    |Aug. 30|1.0242| 5.69| 9.02|20.40|
+-------+--------------------+---------+-------+------+-----+-----+-----+

+-------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+--------+
|       |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |        |
|   A   |  I  |  J  |  K  |  L  |  M  |  N  |  O  |  P  |  Q  |   R    |
+-------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+--------+
|       |Grams|Grams|Grams|Grams|Grams|Grams|Grams|Grams|Grams|        |
|       | per | per | per | per | per | per | per | per | per |Degrees,|
|       | 100 | 100 | 100 | 100 | 100 | 100 | 100 | 100 | 100 |brewer's|
|       | cc. | cc. | cc. | cc. | cc. | cc. | cc. | cc. | cc. |scale.  |
|22024-D| ... |0.153|0.001|10.00| ... |0.788|0.230|0.059| ... |   4.0  |
|       |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |        |
|22030-D|61.91| .225| .003| 1.16| 3.23| .425| .194| .039| 0.92|   5.0  |
|22047-D|63.88| .270| .003| 1.43| 2.69| .441| .180| .038|  .88|   5.0  |
|       |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |        |
|22034-D| ... | .153| .003|10.24|  ...| .771| .214| .060| ... |  5.0   |
|22039-D|64.32| .225| .003| 1.26| 2.85| .471| .186| .043|  .90|   5.0  |
|29504-B|66.58| .225| .003| 1.10| 2.60| .462| .189| .041|  .93|   5.0  |
|       |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |        |
|22037-D| ... | .149| .002|10.60| ... | .763| .209| .057| ... |   4.0  |
|22043-D|63.69| .216| .003| 1.40| 2.82| .441| .172| .043|  .79|   4.0  |
|22022-D| ... | .180| .002|10.19| ... | .776| .212| .072| ... |   3.0  |
|22027-D|63.47| .207| .004| 1.25| 3.28| .500| .192| .055|  .73|   3.0  |
|22035-D| ... | .189| .002|10.99| ... | .776| .212| .072| ... |   3.0  |
|22040-D|62.90| .293| .004| 1.42| 3.31| .541| .192| .051|  .84|   4.0  |
|16267-C|64.37| .234| .004| 1.65| 2.76| .506| .213| .053|  .98|   3.0  |
|       |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |        |
|29506-B| ... | .198| .001|11.19| 6.81| .959| .294| .077|  .98|   3.0  |
|29512-B|54.16| .369| .008| 2.69| 4.39| .671| .273| .058| 1.17|   3.0  |
|       |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |        |
|       |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |        |
|13922-D|58.64| .360| .008| 2.54| 3.42| .622| .275| .057| 1.32|   4.0  |
|       |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |        |
|       |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |        |
|       |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |        |
|29507-B| ... | .198| .001|12.14| 5.59| .965| .282| .078| 1.42|   3.0  |
|29514-B|57.10| .360| .005| 2.51| 4.08| .664| .256| .057| 1.01|   2.0  |
|29513-B|  ...| .198| .002|11.73| 5.95| .936| .300| .075| 1.83|   2.0  |
|29519-B|55.13| .281| .006| 2.62| 4.31| .671| .255| .057| 1.14|   2.0  |
|       |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |        |
|13923-D|58.09| .360| .013| 2.54| 3.61| .603| .282| .064| 1.15|   4.0  |
|       |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |        |
|       |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |        |
|       |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |        |
|22050-D| ... | .270| .003|11.41| 6.34| .864| .326| .091| 2.11|  75.0  |
|29503-B|55.78| .558| .003| 2.03| 4.54| .735| .286| .071| 1.42|  69.0  |
+-------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+--------+


A study of these tables shows very clearly that during fermentation
marked changes are brought about other than the mere conversion of sugar
into alcohol. While it is well known that these changes take place it
seems worth while to consider them here, because no similar study
relating to American brewery products has been published. Further since
we have the exact analysis of the wort and of the beer which was made
from it, we have a special opportunity to examine quantitatively some of
these changes, such as the production of alcohol, the fermentation of
dextrin, the development of acids, and the losses of protein, ash, and
phosphoric acid during fermentation.

In order to study the question of the yield of alcohol, to test the
present factor used for the calculation of the solids in the original
wort, and to show the approximate amount of dextrin, calculations were
made, the results of which are presented in Table V.


TABLE V.--_Changes taking place in the conversion of worts into beers and
ales._

+------------------------------+-------+-------+--------+--------+----------+
|                              |       |       |        |Loss in |Difference|
|                              |Loss in|Loss in|        | solids |between   |
|           Product.           |solids.|sugar. |Alcohol.|divided |loss in   |
|                              |       |       |        |   by   |solids    |
|                              |       |       |        |alcohol.|and loss  |
|                              |       |       |        |        |in sugar. |
+------------------------------+-------+-------+--------+--------+----------+
|                              | Grams | Grams |  Grams |  Grams |  Grams   |
|                              |  per  |  per  |   per  |   per  |   per    |
|                              |  100  |  100  |   100  |   100  |   100    |
|                              |  cc.  |  cc.  |   cc.  |   cc.  |   cc.    |
+------------------------------+-------+-------+--------+--------+----------+
|Beer (all-malt)               |  8.59 |  8.45 |  3.85  |  2.23  |   0.14   |
|    Do                        |  8.55 |  8.43 |  3.91  |  2.18  |    .12   |
|    Do                        |  8.27 |  8.49 |  3.83  |  2.13  |    .22   |
|    Do                        |  8.48 |  8.27 |  3.72  |  2.27  |    .21   |
|    Do                        |  8.02 |  7.99 |  3.66  |  2.19  |    .03   |
|Beer (60 per cent malt and    |       |       |        |        |          |
|  40 per cent corn)           |  7.27 |  7.42 |  3.45  |  2.10  |    .15   |
|    Do                        |  7.53 |  7.73 |  3.33  |  2.00  |    .20   |
|Beer (80 per cent malt and    |       |       |        |        |          |
|  20 per cent rice)           |  7.35 |  7.46 |  3.31  |  2.22  |    .11   |
|    Do                        |  7.07 |  7.13 |  3.18  |  2.22  |    .06   |
|Beer (all-malt)               |  6.04 |  6.05 |  3.02  |  2.00  |    .01   |
|    Do                        |  5.86 |  6.01 |  2.87  |  2.04  |    .15   |
|                              |-------+-------+--------+--------+----------+
|Average for beers             |       |       |        |  2.14  |    .04   |
|                              |=======+=======+========+========+==========+
|Porter (small)                |  9.23 |  7.60 |  4.30  |  2.14  |   1.63   |
|Porter (large)                |  9.91 |  8.32 |  4.70  |  2.10  |   1.59   |
|    Do                        | 10.06 |  8.27 |  4.75  |  2.11  |   1.79   |
|    Do                        |  9.90 |  7.82 |  4.72  |  2.09  |   2.08   |
|Ale                           | 10.31 |  8.84 |  4.82  |  2.13  |   1.47   |
|    Do                        | 10.63 |  8.98 |  5.11  |  2.08  |   1.65   |
|    Do                        | 10.70 |  9.20 |  4.93  |  2.17  |   1.50   |
|    Do                        | 11.15 |  8.94 |  5.16  |  2.15  |   2.21   |
|    Do                        | 11.50 |  9.57 |  5.34  |  2.15  |   1.93   |
|    Do                        | 11.62 |  9.06 |  5.35  |  2.17  |   2.56   |
|Pale ale                      | 11.04 |  9.50 |  5.43  |  2.03  |   1.54   |
|    Do                        | 11.88 |  9.63 |  5.67  |  2.09  |   2.25   |
|    Do                        | 11.75 |  9.11 |  5.53  |  2.12  |   2.64   |
|Brown stout                   | 12.03 |  9.38 |  5.69  |  2.11  |   2.65   |
|                              |-------+-------+--------+--------+----------+
|    Average for ales          |       |       |        |  2.12  |   1.96   |
|    Average for beers and ales|       |       |        |  2.13  |          |
+------------------------------+-------+-------+--------+--------+----------+


In Table V have been collected results (calculated from Tables I-IV)
which show the loss in solids between the wort and the finished
fermented product, the loss in sugar, the yield of alcohol, the loss in
solids divided by the alcohol, and the difference between the loss in
solids and the loss in sugar. By dividing alcohol into loss in solids
there was secured a factor which makes possible the estimation of the
solids in the original wort, provided that alcohol and extract are
known. This factor also shows the yield of alcohol for a given amount of
solids disappearing during fermentation. It has been found in the case
of the beers that this factor averages 2.14, while in the case of the
ales it averages 2.12, making an average for all of the products of
2.13. This clearly shows that in the yield of alcohol for a given amount
of fermentable solids there is no appreciable difference between top
fermentation products, such as ales, and bottom fermentation products,
such as beers.

A marked difference in loss in solids is shown, however, when we compare
the beers with the ales. In the case of the beers we find there is
practically no difference between the loss in solids and the loss in
sugar, while in the case of the porters and ales there is a very
appreciable difference. The difference between the loss in solids and
the loss in sugar is only 0.04 per cent for all of the beers; while in
the case of the porters and ales the difference varies from 1.47 per
cent to 2.65 per cent, with an average of 1.96 per cent. These figures
clearly show that in the case of the porters and ales there has been
some material other than sugar fermented. Unfortunately, the
determination of dextrin was not made in all of the worts, so that the
actual decrease in dextrin can be shown only in a few cases. But in
those cases where we have the actual results the difference between loss
in solids and the loss in sugar compares very closely with the actual
amount of dextrin disappearing during fermentation.


DEVELOPMENT OF ACIDS DURING FERMENTATION.

A comparison of the amounts of volatile and fixed acids in the worts and
in the finished beers shows that normally there is no appreciable
development of volatile acid during fermentation and only a slight
increase in the fixed acid. This increase in fixed acid averages in the
case of the beers 0.049 per cent, while in the case of the ales the
increase averages 0.103 per cent.


DECREASE IN PROTEIN, ASH, AND PHOSPHORIC ACID.

A general study of the preceding tables will show that there is an
appreciable loss of protein, ash, and phosphoric acid during the
fermentation. Table VI has been prepared to show the average loss during
fermentation of the various classes of worts with respect to their
protein, ash, and phosphoric acid contents.


TABLE VI.--_Average loss during fermentation._

+---------------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
|                           | Protein. |   Ash.   |Phosphoric |
|       Kind of wort.       |          |          |   acid.   |
+---------------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
|                           | Grams per| Grams per| Grams per |
|                           |  100 cc. |  100 cc. |  100 cc.  |
+---------------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
|Beer worts (all-malt)      |  0.209   |  0.017   |  0.015    |
|Beer worts (malt and rice) |   .210   |   .045   |   .014    |
|Beer worts (malt and corn) |   .168   |   .014   |   .013    |
|Porter worts               |   .213   |   .031   |   .017    |
|Ale worts                  |   .275   |   .029   |   .019    |
+---------------------------+----------+----------+-----------+


The results given in Table VI show a great similarity in the changes in
all of the products, as there is about the same amount of loss of
protein, ash, and phosphoric acid in the beer, ale, and porter worts.
There does not appear to be any appreciable loss, however, of either
protein or phosphoric acid during the storage or aging period as is
shown by the few samples which we have analyzed after storage. This is
practically in agreement with the experiment of Bertschinger,[1] whose
results show only a very slight increase in alcohol and loss of sugar
during the storage period.

[Footnote 1: Z. angew. Chem. (1890), p. 670.]


EFFECT OF RAW MATERIALS USED UPON COMPOSITION OF THE FINISHED BREW.

In order to show the effects on the finished beers or ales of the use of
corn, rice, cerealin, and brewer's sugar as substitutes for malt in the
worts, Table VII has been prepared, giving the results of analyses of a
number of brews made in different breweries and from varying kinds and
amounts of raw materials.


TABLE VII.--_Analyses of beers and ales from various breweries._

Column Headings:
A: Sample No.
B: Raw materials.
C: Product.
D: Alcohol.
E: Extract (Schultz and Ostermann).
F: Extract in original wort (calculated).
G: Degree of fermentation.
H: Total acid as lactic.
I: Volatile acid as acetic.
J: Reducing sugars as anhydrous maltose.
K: Dextrin.
L: Protein (N × 6.25).
M: Ash.
N: Phosphoric acid (as P_{2}O_{5}.)
O: Undetermined.
P: Polarimeter.
Q: Color (Lovibond) in 1/4-inch cell.
R: Calculated to basis of wort with 15 per cent solids.
S: Protein (N × 6.25).
T: Ash.
U: Phosphoric acid (as P_{2}O_{5}.)

+-------+----------------------+----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
|       |                      |    |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |                      |    |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|   A   |         B            |  C |  D  |  E  |  F  |  G  |  H  |  I  |
+-------+----------------------+----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
|       |                      |    |P.ct.|     |     |     |     |     |
|       |                      |    | by  |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |   Brewery No. 1.     |    |wght.|P.ct.|P.ct.|     |P.ct.|P.ct.|
|14004-H|Malt                  |Beer| 3.07| 5.55|11.69|52.54|0.223|0.013|
|14005-H|65 per cent malt and  |    |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  35 per cent cerealin| do | 2.42| 6.19|11.03|43.88| .142| .013|
|14006-H|60 per cent malt and  |    |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  40 per cent corn    | do | 2.16| 5.28| 9.60|45.00| .178| .007|
|       |   Brewery No. 2.     |    |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|22017-D|Malt                  |Beer| 3.83| 5.06|12.72|60.22| .214| .001|
|22018-D|    do                | do | 3.90| 5.06|12.86|60.65| .223| .002|
|22020-D|    do                | do | 3.69| 5.12|12.50|59.04| .234| .002|
|22021-D|    do                | do | 3.63| 5.54|12.80|56.72| .219| .001|
|22042-D|80 per cent malt and  |    |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  20 per cent rice    | do | 3.16| 5.13|11.45|55.20| .241| .003|
|       |   Brewery No. 3.     |    |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|29517-B|80 per cent malt and  |    |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  20 per cent cerealin|Ale | 6.33| 6.77|19.43|65.15| .357| .005|
|22027-D|78 per cent malt and  |    |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  22 per cent cerealin| do | 5.14| 5.82|16.10|63.85| .205| .004|
|22040-D|    do                | do | 5.31| 6.17|16.79|63.25| .291| .004|
|22048-D|    do                | do | 5.33| 6.15|16.81|63.42| .232| .002|
|29512-B|75 per cent malt and  |    |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  25 per cent cerealin| do | 5.32| 8.88|19.52|54.51| .366| .008|
|29514-B|    do                | do | 5.43| 8.25|19.11|56.83| .357| .005|
|29519-B|    do                | do | 5.43| 8.70|19.56|55.52| .278| .006|
|22030-D|65 per cent malt, 28  |    |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  per cent cerealin,  |    |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  and 7 per cent      |    |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  brewer's sugar      | do | 4.79| 5.80|15.38|62.29| .223| .003|
|22039-D|    do                | do | 5.10| 5.55|15.75|64.64| .223| .003|
|22043-D|    do                | do | 4.91| 5.50|15.32|63.27| .214| .003|
+-------+----------------------+----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+

+-------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----------------+
|       |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |        R        |
|       |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |-----+-----+-----+
|   A   |  J  |  K  |  L  |  M  |  N  |  O  |  P  |  Q  |  S  |  T  |  U  |
+-------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
|       |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |     |     |     |     |     |     |Degs.|Degs.|     |     |     |
|       |P.ct.|P.ct.|P.ct.|P.ct.|P.ct.|P.ct.| V.  | [1] |P.ct.|P.ct.|P.ct.|
|14004-H| 1.59| 2.64|0.615|0.207|0.072| 0.49|+58.0|   5 |0.789|0.266|0.092|
|14005-H|     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       | 1.81| 3.15| .355| .141| .042|  .73|+50.8|   3 | .483| .192| .057|
|14006-H|     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       | 1.52| 2.96| .260| .124| .039|  .42|+44.0|   4 | .407| .194| .061|
|       |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|22017-D| 1.32| 2.30| .603| .206| .079|  .63| ... |  12 | .712| .243| .093|
|22018-D| 1.34| 2.03| .606| .199| .077|  .88| ... |  13 | .701| .230| .090|
|22020-D| 1.57| 2.20| .630| .203| .080|  .52| ... |  11 | .756| .244| .096|
|22021-D| 1.82| 2.15| .626| .205| .081|  .74| ... |  10 | .734| .240| .095|
|22042-D|     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       | 1.55| 2.48| .395| .154| .056|  .55|+37.2|   2 | .517| .202| .073|
|       |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|29517-B|     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       | 1.42| 3.26| .622| .279| .066|  .75|+40.4| ... | .480| .215| .051|
|22027-D|     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       | 1.23| 3.27| .488| .189| .054|  .64|+41.2|   3 | .455| .176| .050|
|22040-D| 1.40| 3.29| .533| .189| .050|  .76|+38.6|   4 | .476| .169| .045|
|22048-D| 1.51| 3.29| .563| .203| .045|  .58|+40.4|   4 | .502| .181| .040|
|29512-B|     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       | 2.62| 4.28| .650| .266| .057| 1.06|+65.2|   3 | .499| .204| .044|
|29514-B| 2.45| 3.99| .650| .250| .056|  .91|+59.8|   2 | .509| .196| .044|
|29519-B| 2.56| 4.21| .655| .249| .056| 1.02|+64.0|   2 | .502| .191| .043|
|22030-D|     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       | 1.14| 3.20| .419| .190| .038|  .85|+40.0|   5 | .409| .185| .037|
|22039-D| 1.24| 2.84| .465| .184| .042|  .37|+37.6|   5 | .443| .175| .040|
|22043-D| 1.38| 2.81| .436| .170| .042|  .70|+38.0|   4 | .427| .166| .041|
+-------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+

[Footnote 1: Brewer's scale.]


In the results given under brewery No. 1, a beer made entirely from malt
is compared with a beer made from 65 per cent of malt and 35 per cent of
cerealin, and with a beer made from 60 per cent of malt and 40 per cent
of corn, in all of which the same quality of malt was used.

In the case of brewery No. 2, a beer made entirely from malt and a beer
made from 80 per cent of malt and 20 per cent of rice are given, in both
of which the same quality of malt was used.

Under brewery No. 3 are given determinations for ales prepared from 80
per cent of malt and 20 per cent of cerealin; 78 per cent of malt and 22
per cent of cerealin; 75 per cent of malt and 25 per cent of cerealin;
and 65 per cent of malt, 28 per cent of cerealin, and 7 per cent of
brewer's sugar. The same quality of malt was used in all of these brews,
but the brews were of different strengths.

Table VII is given practically in two parts, the first part showing the
actual results obtained by the analysis of the finished beer or ale and
the second part showing protein, ash, and phosphoric acid calculated to
the basis of a uniform wort containing 15 per cent of solids.

Taking into consideration the actual results obtained upon the beers and
ales, it will be seen in the case of brewery No. 1 that the three beers
vary in composition to a considerable degree. Especially is this
variation marked in regard to the protein, ash, and phosphoric acid
contents, which exhibit a marked decrease approximately in direct
proportion to the amount of cerealin or corn substituted for malt. The
same condition is apparent in the case of the products made in brewery
No. 2, the beer made from 80 per cent of malt and 20 per cent of rice
showing a material reduction in protein, ash, and phosphoric acid. In
brewery No. 3, however, a somewhat different condition is noted.
Unfortunately, there is no all-malt product of this brewery to compare
with the brews made from a portion of cerealin or from cerealin and
brewer's sugar. It will be noted, however, that when the actual results
obtained on the finished products of this brewery are compared with
those of the all-malt brews of breweries Nos. 1 and 2, they do not
clearly show a reduction of protein and ash as might be expected. For
example, in the case of one of the samples of the ale made with 25 per
cent of cerealin and 75 per cent of malt (sample No. 29512-B), the
percentage of protein is 0.65 and of the ash 0.266. The percentages of
protein and ash for the three samples of this ale represented by Nos.
29512-B, 29514-B, and 29519-B are higher than were found in any of the
all-malt products of the first two breweries under consideration. This,
however, can be readily explained when it is considered that in the case
of brewery No. 2 in the all-malt beers (sample No. 22017-D) only 58
pounds of malt were used in the preparation of a barrel of beer
containing 31 gallons; while in the case of sample No. 29512-B there
were used, in preparing a barrel of similar capacity, 68 pounds of malt
and 23 pounds of cerealin. That is, in the second product there is, in
the same volume of liquid, the extractive material from 68 pounds of
malt and 23 pounds of cerealin, while in the first product there is
present the extractive material from only 58 pounds of malt. Since the
analysis is made upon the finished liquid it is evident that the
percentage composition of any particular ingredient should be very much
larger in the second product because of the very much larger amount of
material used in its preparation. It is apparent, therefore, that no
direct comparison can be made between the percentage composition of
these different brews in order to determine the effects of the raw
materials upon their composition.

The most satisfactory way to have tested this question of the effect of
raw materials on the finished product would have been to make a series
of worts with exactly the same percentage of solids, some of pure malt
and others of mixtures of pure malt and corn, rice, and cerealin; then a
direct comparison between the results would have shown the effects of
these various materials. This method was impracticable because it was
necessary to take the brews as actually made under varying commercial
conditions. The object sought can be accomplished, however, by
calculating the results of these analyses either to the basis of dry
material in the original wort or by calculating them to the basis of a
wort with constant water content. It was decided to calculate all of the
results to the basis of a wort containing 15 per cent of solids, as this
would give a uniform basis for comparison and would be approximately an
average wort. The method employed in calculating the various beers and
ales to this uniform basis was as follows:

The percentage of solids in the original wort was calculated by
multiplying the percentage by weight of alcohol by 2 and adding the
percentage by weight of extract. The result for an ordinary beer would
be about 12 per cent, while in the case of a very heavy ale it might be
as high as 18 or 20 per cent. The actual percentages of protein, ash,
and phosphoric acid found by analysis were then calculated to the basis
of a uniform wort containing 15 per cent of solids. This was the method
used for preparing the second part of this table. A study of this
portion of the table shows the actual effects of the various substitutes
used for malt on the composition of the fermented product. For instance,
the first of the all-malt beers from brewery No. 2 (22017-D) showed in
the analysis of the original product a protein percentage of 0.603, an
ash percentage of 0.206, and a phosphoric acid percentage of 0.079. When
calculated to the basis of a wort containing 15 per cent of solids
instead of 12.72 per cent (the actual percentage of solids in the wort
from which it was made), it gave the following percentages: Protein,
0.712; ash, 0.243; and phosphoric acid, 0.093. In the case of brewery
No. 3, sample No. 29512-B, where the original analysis of the product
showed 0.650 per cent of protein, 0.266 of ash, and 0.057 of phosphoric
acid, it will be found that when this product is calculated to the basis
of a wort of 15 per cent of solids instead of a wort of 19.52 (the
actual percentage of solids in the wort in this case) the percentage of
ash is 0.204, of protein 0.499, and of phosphoric acid 0.044. A
comparison of these results shows that in the protein, ash, and
phosphoric acid there has been a material reduction below the figures
found upon the all-malt beer, due to the presence of the 25 per cent of
cerealin. A study of these results, calculated to the basis of 15 per
cent of solids in the wort, shows very clearly that the general effect
of the substitution of cerealin, brewer's sugar, rice, and corn is to
reduce the content of ash, protein, and phosphoric acid.

It is evident from the results here given that the most important things
to be considered in judging the nature of the raw materials used in the
preparation of a beer are the quantities of protein, phosphoric acid,
and ash; as the other constituents present in the finished beer are more
or less variable, the quantities present depending upon the methods of
mashing and fermentation.

Table VIII contains a summary of results giving the ash, protein, and
phosphoric acid in all of the finished products of known composition
which were examined, calculated to the basis of a uniform wort of 15 per
cent of solids.


TABLE VIII.--_Summary of the results of analyses (showing ash, protein,
and phosphoric acid determinations) in all finished products of known
composition, calculated to the basis of a uniform wort containing 15 per
cent of solids._

+-----------------------------+----------+-----+-----------+------------+
|Raw materials.               |Products. |Ash. | Protein   |    Phos-   |
|                             |          |     |(N × 6.25).|   phoric   |
|                             |          |     |           |  Acid (as  |
|                             |          |     |           |P_{2}O_{5}).|
+-----------------------------+----------+-----+-----------+------------+
|Malt                         |Beers: 21 |Per  |   Per     |   Per      |
|                             |  samples |cent.|   cent.   |   cent.    |
|                             |  Maximum |0.336|   1.079   |   0.143    |
|                             |  Minimum | .230|    .701   |    .087    |
|                             |  Average | .275|    .870   |    .109    |
+-----------------------------+----------+=====+===========+============+
|                             |          |     |           |            |
|80 per cent malt             |          |     |           |            |
|  and 20 per cent rice       |Beer      | .202|    .517   |    .073    |
|66 per cent malt             |          |     |           |            |
|  and 34 per cent rice       |  do      | .198|    .555   |    .084    |
|62 per cent malt             |          |     |           |            |
|  and 38 per cent rice       |  do      | .205|    .488   |    .061    |
|55 per cent malt             |          |     |           |            |
|  and 45 per cent rice       |  do      | .148|    .380   |    .077    |
|50 per cent malt             |          |     |           |            |
|  and 50 per cent rice       |  do      | .167|    .351   |    .056    |
|                             +----------+-----+-----------+------------+
|                             |  Maximum | .205|    .555   |    .084    |
|                             +----------+=====+===========+============+
|70 per cent malt             |          |     |           |            |
|  and 30 per cent corn       |Beer      | .199|    .343   |    .057    |
|    Do                       |  do      | .188|    .367   |    .065    |
|68 per cent malt             |          |     |           |            |
|  and 32 per cent corn       |  do      | .150|    .461   |    .057    |
|    Do                       |  do      | .181|    .466   |    .062    |
|    Do                       |  do      | .164|    .459   |    .056    |
|60 per cent malt             |          |     |           |            |
|  and 40 per cent corn       |  do      | .215|    .563   |    .074    |
|    Do                       |  do      | .188|    .593   |    .076    |
|    Do                       |  do      | .223|    .597   |    .074    |
|45 per cent malt             |          |     |           |            |
|  and 55 per cent corn       |  do      | .145|    .347   |    .057    |
|                             +----------+-----+-----------+------------+
|                             |  Maximum | .223|    .597   |    .076    |
|                             +----------+=====+===========+============+
|65 per cent malt             |          |     |           |            |
|  and 35 per cent cerealin   |Beer      | .192|    .483   |    .057    |
|80 per cent malt             |          |     |           |            |
|  and 20 per cent cerealin   |Ale       | .215|    .480   |    .051    |
|78 per cent malt             |          |     |           |            |
|  and 22 per cent cerealin   |  do      | .176|    .455   |    .050    |
|    Do                       |  do      | .169|    .476   |    .045    |
|    Do                       |  do      | .181|    .502   |    .040    |
|75 per cent malt             |          |     |           |            |
|  and 25 per cent cerealin   |  do      | .204|    .499   |    .044    |
|    Do                       |  do      | .196|    .509   |    .044    |
|    Do                       |  do      | .191|    .502   |    .043    |
|65 per cent malt,            |          |     |           |            |
|  7 per cent brewer's sugar, |          |     |           |            |
|  and 28 per cent cerealin   |  do      | .185|    .409   |    .037    |
|    Do                       |  do      | .175|    .443   |    .040    |
|    Do                       |  do      | .166|    .427   |    .041    |
+-----------------------------+----------+-----+-----------+------------+
|                             |  Maximum | .213|    .509   |    .051    |
+-----------------------------+----------+-----+-----------+------------+


A study of the results given in Table VIII shows that in the case of
American beers the all-malt beers are higher in ash, protein, and
phosphoric acid than are any of the beers made from a mixed mash of malt
and other cereals. The difference is sufficiently marked to make it
possible to draw a rather sharp line between the all-malt beers and the
beers made from the present commercial mixtures. Take, for instance, the
beers made from mixtures of malt and rice in which the proportion of
rice varies from 20 to 50 per cent. It will be seen that in none of
these samples is the ash, phosphoric acid, or protein so high as the
minimum found in the all-malt beers. The same will be seen in the case
of the malt-and-corn beers. In none of the malt-and-corn beers is the
ash, protein, or phosphoric acid so high as the minimum found in the
all-malt beers, and the same is true of the mixtures of malt and
cerealin and of malt, brewer's sugar, and cerealin. This shows clearly
that the commercial beers made in this country from malt and malt
substitutes can be distinguished readily from all-malt beers.

When the average composition of the 21 all-malt beers examined is taken
into consideration it will be seen that there is a very sharp line of
demarcation between the all-malt and the malt, rice, and corn products.
From the figures which were obtained upon American beers it would seem
that protein as a rule is more sharply reduced by the addition of malt
substitutes than is the ash or the phosphoric acid, although where corn
or cerealin is used there is a very marked reduction in the amount of
phosphoric acid. It would appear, therefore, from the results of this
investigation that in the consideration of American beers it will be
comparatively easy to draw a line between beers made solely from malt
and those made from mixtures of malt with rice, corn, and other
substitutes.

This conclusion is not entirely in agreement with the results which have
been obtained by others upon foreign beers, in the preparation of which
low protein barleys have been used. Joseph Race[1] has reported some
interesting results of an investigation carried on for the same purpose
as that for which this particular investigation was undertaken; that is,
to distinguish between all-malt beers and those made from substitutes.
His results do not show as sharp a reduction of the protein, but he
found in his all-malt beers a very much lower percentage of total
protein than was found in the malt beers of this country. He did
observe, however, a material reduction of the phosphoric acid due to the
use of substitutes. Unfortunately, he made his determination of
phosphoric acid in the ash, and while he reports a marked difference
between the phosphoric acid content of the malt beers and those made
from substitutes, his total figures for phosphoric acid are much lower
than those reported in this bulletin. For this reason the figures for
total phosphoric acid given by him are not at all comparable with those
determined by the moist combustion method, by the uranium acetate
method, or by the method of ashing with calcium acetate.[2]

[Footnote 1: J. Soc. Chem. Ind., 27 (1908), 544-547.]

[Footnote 2: Riley, in his report to the Association of Official
Agricultural Chemists for the year 1913, showed that a large proportion
of the phosphoric acid was ordinarily lost when the beer was directly
ashed (J. Assoc. Off. Agr. Chemists, 1 (1915), 138-143). For this
reason, in comparing the amount of phosphoric acid given in the
literature on beers, it is very essential to know the method used for
determining the phosphoric acid.]


The same fact observed by Race, namely, that foreign beers are of low
protein content, is shown very clearly in the published literature on
European beers in general. König[3] gives the following results of
analyses made by himself and H. Weigmann of two all-malt beers,
calculated to the basis of a wort containing 15 per cont of solids:

+-----------------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
|Beer and percentage of wort. |  Protein. |    Ash.   |Phosphoric |
|                             |           |           |   acid.   |
+-----------------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
|                             | Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. |
|Pure malt beer:              |           |           |           |
|   12 percent wort           |   0.548   |   0.259   |   0.098   |
|   14 percent wort           |    .457   |    .214   |    .076   |
+-----------------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+


From these results of König it will be seen that the protein content of
these beers is considerably less than that of the beers examined by the
writers. As the phosphoric acid and ash results, however, are
practically the same as in American beers, it might be expected that the
use of substitutes in place of the low-protein malt would not show so
sharp a reduction of the protein as was found by the authors, although
one would expect a reduction in phosphoric acid and ash similar to that
found in American beers. This is confirmed by the results obtained by
Race.

Robert Wahl[4] made parallel brewings of a high-protein barley and a
low-protein barley, and from these obtained two beers which, when
calculated to a uniform wort with 15 per cent of solids, showed a total
protein in the beer made from the low-protein malt of 0.734 per cent,
and in the beer made from the high-protein malt 1.041 per cent. This
clearly indicates that where a beer is made from high-protein barley, as
is the case with practically all of the beers made in this country,[5]
the reduction in protein by the use of substitutes will be a valuable
index to the true nature of the product. This, when taken in connection
with the reduction of phosphoric acid brought about by the use of
substitutes, gives two factors of value in judging American beers, to
determine whether or not substitutes have been used; while in the case
of beers made from low-protein barley there is practically only one
factor, namely, the reduction of phosphoric acid.

[Footnote 3: König, F. J., Chemie der Menschlichen Nahrungs- und Genussmittel,
4th ed., v. 1, p. 1154. Berlin, 1903.]

[Footnote 4: Am. Brewers' Rev., 18 (1904), 339.]

[Footnote 5: Wahl, Robert. _In_ Am. Brewers' Rev., 29 (1915), 316-317.]


After this rather extensive study had been made at the three breweries,
the investigation was extended to include breweries in various sections
of the country where different types of raw materials were used. A
special effort was made to obtain authentic samples of practically all
of the malt beers made in this country and also a large series of
malt-and-rice and malt-and-corn beers. In Table IX have been tabulated
the results obtained on all-malt beers. All of these results show
practically the same condition noted in the other samples of malt beer;
that is, a comparatively high protein and phosphoric acid content as
compared with beers made in part from rice or corn. These malt beers
show figures considerably higher in protein than those given in the
literature for all-malt beers made from the low-protein malt of Europe.


TABLE IX.--_Analyses of all-malt American beers._

Column Headings:

A: Sample No.
B: Alcohol.
C: Extract (Schultz and Ostermann).
D: Extract in original wort (calculated).
E: Degree of fermentation.
F: Total acid as lactic.
G: Volatile acid as acetic.
H: Reducing sugars as anhydrous maltose.
I: Dextrin.
J: Protein (N × 6.25).
K: Ash.
L: Phosphoric acid (as P_{2}O_{5}).
M: Undetermined.
N: Polarimeter.
O: Color (Lovibond) in 1/4-inch cell.
P: Calculated to basis of wort with 15 per cent of solids.
Q: Protein (N × 6.25).
R: Ash.
S: Phosphoric acid (as P_{2}O_{5}).

+-------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
|       |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|   A   |  B   |  C  |  D  |  E  |  F  |  G  |  H  |  I  |  J  |
+-------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
|       |  Per |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       | cent.|     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  by  | Per | Per |     | Per | Per | Per | Per | Per |
|       |weight|cent.|cent.|     |cent.|cent.|cent.|cent.|cent.|
|22017-D| 3.83 | 5.06|12.72|60.22|0.214|0.001| 1.32| 2.30|0.603|
|22018-D| 3.90 | 5.06|12.86|60.65| .223| .002| 1.34| 2.03| .606|
|22020-D| 3.69 | 5.12|12.50|59.04| .234| .002| 1.57| 2.20| .630|
|22021-D| 3.63 | 5.54|12.80|56.72| .219| .001| 1.82| 2.15| .626|
|16289-C| 3.00 | 5.88|11.88|50.50| .228| .003| 1.33| 2.68| .752|
|16299-C| 2.84 | 6.02|11.70|48.55| .232| .012| 1.38| 2.77| .724|
|20714-D| 3.07 | 5.80|11.94|51.42| .241| .012| 1.45| 2.64| .721|
|20715-D| 2.95 | 5.77|11.67|50.56| .228| .009| 1.43| 2.67| .725|
|23571-E| 3.68 | 4.44|11.80|62.45| .232| .010| 1.06| 1.67| .653|
|23585-E| 3.60 | 5.04|12.24|58.82| .277| .005| 1.36| 1.81| .811|
|23528-E| 3.28 | 6.36|12.92|50.80| .384| .016| 1.62| 2.74| .905|
|23533-E| 3.41 | 5.48|12.30|55.45| .232| .008| 1.48| 2.44| .612|
|23537-E| 3.80 | 7.26|14.86|51.35| .250| .012| 2.51| 2.95| .802|
|23588-E| 3.16 | 6.11|12.43|50.84| .250| .008| 1.93| 2.41| .797|
|23538-E| 3.13 | 6.61|12.77|48.24| .250| .009| 2.13| 2.82| .612|
|23589-E| 3.35 | 6.21|12.91|51.90| .178| .017| 1.78| 2.87| .627|
|23539-E| 3.22 | 6.63|13.27|48.53| .312| .017| 2.18| 2.58| .778|
|23540-E| 3.93 | 6.77|14.63|53.73| .348| .007| 2.64| 1.87|1.010|
|23590-E| 3.48 | 5.45|12.41|56.09| .375| .010| 2.21| 1.48| .892|
|23541-E| 3.12 | 5.06|11.30|55.22| .259| .004| 1.69| 1.27| .777|
|14004-H| 3.07 | 5.55|11.69|52.54| .223| .013| 1.59| 2.64| .615|
+-------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+

+-------+-----+-----+-----+-------+-------+-----------------+
|       |     |     |     |       |       |        P        |
|       |     |     |     |       |       |-----+-----+-----+
|   A   |  K  |  L  |  M  |   N   |   O   |  Q  |  R  |  S  |
+-------+-----+-----+-----+-------+-------+-----+-----+-----+
|       |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |
|       |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |
|       | Per | Per | Per |Degrees|Degrees| Per | Per | Per |
|       |cent.|cent.|cent.|   V.  |  [1]  |cent.|cent.|cent.|
|22017-D|0.206|0.079| 0.63|  ...  |   12  |0.712|0.243|0.093|
|22018-D| .199| .077|  .88|  ...  |   13  | .701| .230| .090|
|22020-D| .203| .080|  .52|  ...  |   11  | .756| .244| .096|
|22021-D| .205| .081|  .74|  ...  |   10  | .734| .240| .095|
|16289-C| .242| .081|  .88| +36.8 |  ...  | .950| .306| .102|
|16299-C| .237| .088|  .91| +40.0 |  ...  | .932| .304| .113|
|20714-D| .225| .089|  .76| +36.4 |    3  | .906| .283| .112|
|20715-D| .213| .088|  .73| +36.0 |    4  | .932| .274| .113|
|23571-E| .229| .096|  .83| +21.6 |  ...  | .830| .291| .122|
|23585-E| .257| .102|  .80| +23.2 |    6  | .994| .315| .124|
|23528-E| .239| .123|  .86| +37.2 |   13  |1.051| .277| .143|
|23533-E| .200| .086|  .75| +33.6 |    3  | .747| .244| .105|
|23537-E| .228| .098|  .77| +44.0 |   14  | .809| .230| .099|
|23588-E| .208| .086|  .76| +37.2 |    4  | .952| .251| .104|
|23538-E| .225| .087|  .82| +43.6 |    9  | .719| .264| .102|
|23589-E| .204| .075|  .73| +40.0 |    7  | .729| .237| .087|
|23539-E| .248| .097|  .84| +38.8 |   22  | .879| .280| .109|
|23540-E| .324| .129|  .93| +34.0 |   18  |1.035| .332| .132|
|23590-E| .264| .109|  .60| +25.6 |    7  |1.079| .319| .132|
|23541-E| .253| .087| 1.07| +20.0 |    4  |1.031| .336| .115|
|14004-H| .207| .072|  .49|  ...  |    5  | .789| .266| .092|
+-------+-----+-----+-----+-------+-------+-----+-----+-----+

[Footnote 1: Brewer's scale.]


In Tables X and XI are given the results for beers made from malt and
rice and from malt and corn. A study of these tables shows the same
condition as was noted in the other tables giving malt-and-rice and
malt-and-corn beers; that is, the beers have a lower protein and
phosphoric acid content than those made entirely from malt.


TABLE X.--_Analyses of malt-and-rice American beers._

Column Headings:
A: Sample No.
B: Raw materials.
C: Alcohol.
D: Extract (Schultz and Ostermann).
E: Extract in original wort (calculated).
F: Degree of fermentation.
G: Total acid as lactic.
H: Volatile acid as acetic.
I: Reducing sugars as anhydrous maltose.
J: Dextrin.
K: Protein (N × 6.25).
L: Ash.
M: Phosphoric acid (as P_{2}O_{5}).
N: Undetermined.
O: Polarimeter.
P: Color (Lovibond) in 1/4-inch cell.
Q: Calculated to basis of wort with 15 per cent of solids.
R: Protein (N × 6.25).
S: Ash.
T: Phosphoric acid (as P_{2}O_{5}).

+-------+--------------------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
|   A   |          B         |  C   |  D  |  E  |  F  |  G  |  H  |  I  |  J  |
+-------+--------------------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
|       |                    |  Per |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |                    |ct. by| Per | Per | Per | Per | Per | Per | Per |
|       |                    |weight| ct. | ct. | ct. | ct. | ct. | ct. | ct. |
|22042-D|80 per cent malt and|      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  20 per cent rice  | 3.16 | 5.13|11.45|55.20|0.241|0.003| 1.55| 2.41|
|23527-E|66 per cent malt and|      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  34 per cent rice  | 3.32 | 5.50|12.14|54.70| .196| .008| 1.46| 2.74|
|23581-E|62 per cent malt and|      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  38 per cent rice  | 2.86 | 6.16|11.88|48.16| .178| .014| 1.77| 3.15|
|23587-E|55 per cent malt and|      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  45 per cent rice  | 3.56 | 4.96|12.08|58.94| .151| .007| 1.24| 2.53|
|23586-E|50 per cent malt and|      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  50 per cent rice  | 3.44 | 5.67|12.55|54.82| .160| .008| 1.44| 3.08|
+=============================================================================+
|       |               |     |     |     |     |     |     |        Q        |
|       |               |     |     |     |     |     |     +-----+-----+-----+
|   A   |        B      |  K  |  L  |  M  |  N  |  O  |  P  |  R  |  S  |  T  |
+-------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----|-----+-----+
|       |               |     |     |     |     | De- | De- |     |     |     |
|       |               | Per | Per | Per | Per |grees|grees| Per | Per | Per |
|       |               | ct. | ct. | ct. | ct. |  V. | [1] | ct. | ct. | ct. |
|22042-D|80 per cent    |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  malt and 20  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  per cent rice|0.395|0.154|0.056| 0.62|+37.2|   2 |0.517|0.202|0.073|
|23527-E|66 per cent    |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  malt and 34  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  per cent rice| .449| .160| .068|  .69|+40.0|   2 | .555| .198| .084|
|23581-E|62 per cent    |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  malt and 38  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  per cent rice| .386| .162| .048|  .69|+48.6| ... | .488| .205| .061|
|23587-E|55 per cent    |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  malt and 45  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  per cent ric | .306| .119| .062|  .76|+37.0|   2 | .380| .148| .077|
|23586-E|50 per cent    |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  malt and 50  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  per cent rice| .294| .140| .047|  .72|+46.4|   2 | .351| .167| .056|
+-------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+

[Footnote 1: Brewer's scale.]


TABLE XI.--_Analyses of malt-and-corn American beers._

Column Headings:
A: Sample No.
B: Raw materials.
C: Alcohol.
D: Extract (Schultz and Ostermann).
E: Extract in original wort (calculated).
F: Degree of fermentation.
G: Total acid as lactic.
H: Volatile acid as acetic.
I: Reducing sugars as anhydrous maltose.
J: Dextrin.
K: Protein (N × 6.25).
L: Ash.
M: Phosphoric acid (as P_{2}O_{5}).
N: Undetermined.
O: Polarimeter.
P: Color (Lovibond) in 1/4-inch cell.
Q: Calculated to basis of wort with 15 per cent of solids.
R: Protein (N × 6.25).
S: Ash.
T: Phosphoric acid (as P_{2}O_{5}).

+-------+--------------------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
|   A   |          B         |  C   |  D  |  E  |  F  |  G  |  H  |  I  |  J  |
+-------+--------------------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
|       |                    |  Per |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |                    |ct. by| Per | Per | Per | Per | Per | Per | Per |
|       |                    |weight| ct. | ct. | ct. | ct. | ct. | ct. | ct. |
|23534-E|70 per cent malt and|      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  30 per cent corn  | 2.75 | 5.53|11.03|50.32|0.125|0.005| 1.27| 3.13|
|       |                    |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|23535-E|    do              | 3.03 | 4.85|10.91|55.55| .224| .011| 1.15| 2.76|
|23518-E|68 per cent malt and|      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  32 per cent corn  | 3.37 | 5.96|12.70|53.07| .116| .006| 1.63| 3.07|
|23561-E|    do              | 3.26 | 6.14|12.66|51.50| .134| .016| 1.54| 3.07|
|23572-E|    do              | 3.37 | 6.07|12.81|52.62| .143| .020| 1.56| 3.29|
|23584-E|60 per cent malt and|      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  40 per cent corn  | 3.09 | 4.90|11.08|55.78| .178| .020| 1.35| 2.43|
|23523-E|    do              | 3.16 | 6.07|12.39|51.01| .214| .009| 1.60| 3.36|
|23660-E|    do              | 3.26 | 6.07|12.59|51.79| .205| .009| 1.55| 3.06|
|16286-C|    do              | 3.19 | 5.60|11.98|53.34| .173| .014| 1.85| 2.61|
|16287-C|    do              | 3.23 | 5.67|12.13|53.26| .178| .014| 1.84| 2.41|
|23524-E|45 per cent malt and|      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  55 per cent corn  | 3.43 | 5.75|12.61|54.40| .169| .007| 1.44| 3.19|
+==============================================================================
|       |               |     |     |     |     |     |     |        Q        |
|       |               |     |     |     |     |     |     |-----+-----+-----+
|   A   |        B      |  K  |  L  |  M  |  N  |  O  |  P  |  R  |  S  |  T  |
+-------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----|-----+-----+
|       |               |     |     |     |     | De- | De- |     |     |     |
|       |               | Per | Per | Per | Per |grees|grees| Per | Per | Per |
|       |               | ct. | ct. | ct. | ct. |  V. | [1] | ct. | ct. | ct. |
|23534-E|70 per cent    |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  malt and 30  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  per cent corn|0.252|0.146|0.042| 0.73|+42.6|   2 |0.343|0.199|0.057|
|23535-E|    do         | .267| .137| .047|  .53|+37.2|   2 | .367| .188| .065|
|23518-E|68 per cent    |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  malt and 32  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  per cent corn| .390| .127| .048|  .74|+49.6|   3 | .461| .150| .057|
|23561-E|    do         | .393| .153| .052|  .98|+48.0| ... | .466| .181| .062|
|23572-E|    do         | .392| .140| .048|  .69|+47.0| ... | .459| .164| .056|
|23584-E|60 per cent    |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  malt and 40  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  per cent corn| .416| .159| .055|  .54|+34.6| ... | .563| .215| .074|
|23523-E|    do         | .490| .155| .064|  .46|+45.0|   5 | .593| .188| .076|
|23660-E|    do         | .501| .187| .062|  .77|+44.4|   5 | .597| .223| .074|
|16286-C|    do         | .311| .219| .057|  .61|+41.0| ... | .389| .274| .071|
|16287-C|    do         | .322| .205| .055|  .89|+41.0| ... | .398| .254| .068|
|23524-E|45 per cent    |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  malt and 55  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  per cent corn| .292| .122| .048|  .71|+45.6|   2 | .347| .145| .057|
+-------+---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+

[Footnote 1: Brewer's scale.]


In Table XII have been brought together the results of the examination
of a large number of commercial beers of American production, which were
represented to be made from malt and hops. This representation
subsequently proved to be false, although exact information as to the
amount or kind of substitute used is not available. These results are of
value, however, in showing the general composition of American beers
made from the ordinary commercial mixtures and clearly indicate that by
taking into consideration the ash, protein, and phosphoric acid content
it is practicable to distinguish commercial beers made in this country
from malt and malt substitutes from beers made from malt alone.


TABLE XII.--_Analyses of American beers incorrectly represented to be
all-malt._

Column Headings:
A: Sample No.
B: Alcohol.
C: Extract (Schultz and Ostermann).
D: Extract in original wort (calculated).
E: Degree of fermentation.
F: Total acid as lactic.
G: Volatile acid as acetic.
H: Reducing sugars as anhydrous maltose.
I: Dextrin.
J: Protein (N × 6.25).
K: Ash.
L: Phosphoric acid (as P_{2}O_{5}).
M: Undetermined.
N: Polarimeter.
O: Color (Lovibond) in 1/4-inch cell.
P: Calculated to basis of wort with 15 per cent of solids.
Q: Protein (N × 6.25).
R: Ash.
S: Phosphoric acid (as P_{2}O_{5}).

+-------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
|       |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|   A   |  B   |  C  |  D  |  E  |  F  |  G  |  H  |  I  |  J  |
+-------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
|       |  Per |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       | cent.|     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
|       |  by  | Per | Per |     | Per | Per | Per | Per | Per |
|       |weight|cent.|cent.|     |cent.|cent.|cent.|cent.|cent.|
| 2417-E| 3.67 | 4.66|12.00|61.33|0.154|0.013| 1.59| 1.97|0.341|
|36612-E| 3.10 | 7.55|13.75|45.09| .232| .017| 2.33| 3.93| .274|
| 1146-E| 4.23 | 7.35|15.81|53.51| .241| .029| 2.21| 3.39| .472|
| 3014-E| 3.26 | 6.74|13.26|49.17| .167| .014| 2.74| 2.56| .406|
| 2538-E| 2.86 | 6.69|12.41|46.09| .214| .017| 3.22| 2.12| .390|
| 1734-E| 3.55 | 6.55|13.65|52.02| .250| .028| 1.87| 3.58| .303|
| 1154-E| 3.55 | 5.62|12.72|55.82| .187| .014| 1.88| 2.52| .352|
| 1006-E| 3.58 | 4.74|11.90|60.17| .138| .017| 1.42| 1.99| .420|
|  195-E| 3.56 | 4.21|11.33|62.84| .127| .008| 2.72|  .77| .254|
| 5022-E| 2.95 | 5.60|11.50|51.30| .133| .022| 2.30| 2.20| .233|
| 1005-E| 2.69 | 5.33|10.71|50.24| .102| .010| 1.77| 2.34| .354|
|  194-E| 3.18 | 4.00|10.36|61.39| .062| .017| 1.37| 1.58| .296|
|  185-E| 3.44 | 3.92|10.80|63.70| .141| .011| 2.06|  .97| .250|
| 5314-E| 3.78 | 5.65|13.21|57.15| .151| .010| 1.46| 2.84| .416|
| 4451-E| 3.23 | 6.52|12.98|49.77| .228| .009| 2.80| 2.44| .519|
| 5696-E| 4.19 | 6.44|14.82|56.55| .268| .012| 2.15| 3.06| .309|
| 3359-E| 4.96 | 7.43|17.35|57.18| .321| .019| 1.76| 3.74| .509|
| 3358-E| 3.23 | 5.53|11.99|53.83| .121| .009| 1.88| 2.51| .314|
|  481-E| 3.87 | 5.20|12.94|59.82| .147| .014| 1.32| 2.47| .319|
|  687-E| 3.24 | 4.71|11.19|57.91| .080| .009| 1.63| 2.20| .284|
|  193-E| 3.66 | 5.75|13.07|56.01| .148| .017| 1.78| 2.67| .346|
| 5023-E| 3.16 | 5.30|11.62|54.39| .128| .005| 1.95| 2.13| .214|
| 5318-E| 3.57 | 5.20|12.34|57.86| .220| .003| 1.50| 2.59| .320|
| 6715-E| 3.75 | 7.98|15.48|48.45| .174| .006| 2.55| 3.60| .430|
| 6716-E| 3.66 | 7.73|15.05|48.64| .187| .009| 2.37| 3.84| .384|
| 2388-E| 2.95 | 5.35|11.25|52.45| .080| .012| 1.64| 2.32| .337|
| 2352-E| 3.20 | 4.69|11.09|57.71| .147| .011| 1.99| 1.76| .326|
| 2770-E| 3.66 | 5.99|13.31|55.00| .169| .019| 1.82| 2.56| .276|
| 8705-E| 2.91 | 5.62|11.44|50.96| .147| .017| 1.86| 2.58| .366|
| 8706-E| 3.48 | 4.93|11.89|58.54| .214| .022| 1.83| 1.83| .470|
| 8704-E| 2.76 | 4.98|10.50|52.57| .160| .010| 1.62| 2.26| .390|
| 7839-E| 3.51 | 5.38|12.40|56.61| .142| .012| 1.57| 2.77| .290|
| 5707-E| 3.35 | 5.82|12.52|53.51| .160| .011| 2.01| 2.65| .352|
| 8171-F| 3.50 | 5.99|12.99|53.85| .169| .013| 1.92| 2.67| .271|
|  397-E| 3.73 | 6.71|14.17|52.65| .169| .007| 1.56| 3.96| .324|
+-------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+

+-------+-----+-----+-----+-------+-------+-----------------+
|       |     |     |     |       |       |        P        |
|       |     |     |     |       |       |-----+-----+-----+
|   A   |  K  |  L  |  M  |   N   |   O   |  Q  |  R  |  S  |
+-------+-----+-----+-----+-------+-------+-----+-----+-----+
|       |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |
|       |     |     |     |       |       |     |     |     |
|       | Per | Per | Per |Degrees|Degrees| Per | Per | Per |
|       |cent.|cent.|cent.|   V.  |  [1]  |cent.|cent.|cent.|
| 2417-E|0.120|0.053| 0.64| +31.0 |    1  |0.426|0.150|0.066|
|36612-E| .149| .043|  .87| +54.4 |   35  | .299| .163| .047|
| 1146-E| .202| .074| 1.08| +50.0 |   32  | .448| .192| .070|
| 3014-E| .147| .060|  .89| +49.6 |    3  | .459| .166| .068|
| 2538-E| .181| .050|  .78| +43.2 |   54  | .472| .219| .060|
| 1734-E| .145| .048|  .65| +53.0 |    3  | .333| .159| .053|
| 1154-E| .158| .043|  .71| +41.0 |    3  | .415| .186| .051|
| 1006-E| .158| .057|  .75| +31.2 |   12  | .529| .199| .072|
|  195-E| .127| .044|  .34| +22.6 |    3  | .336| .168| .058|
| 5022-E| .121| .036|  .75| +41.0 |    3  | .304| .158| .047|
| 1005-E| .132| .048|  .74| +39.6 |    3  | .496| .185| .067|
|  194-E| .110| .045|  .64| +27.0 |    5  | .423| .159| .065|
|  185-E| .116| .041|  .52| +23.2 |    3  | .347| .161| .057|
| 5314-E| .177| .059|  .76| +40.8 |    3  | .472| .201| .067|
| 4451-E| .153| .054|  .61|  ...  |   78  | .599| .177| .062|
| 5696-E| .197| .082|  .72| +44.0 |   18  | .313| .199| .083|
| 3359-E| .294| .074| 1.13| +48.4 |   44  | .440| .254| .064|
| 3358-E| .175| .045|  .65| +41.0 |    3  | .392| .219| .056|
|  481-E| .163| .054|  .93| +36.6 |    2  | .370| .189| .063|
|  687-E| .124| .048|  .47| +35.6 |    2  | .382| .167| .065|
|  193-E| .153| .048|  .80| +42.8 |    3  | .397| .176| .055|
| 5023-E| .126| .033|  .88| +40.0 |    2  | .276| .163| .043|
| 5318-E| .147| .045|  .64| +41.8 |    3  | .389| .179| .055|
| 6715-E| .186| .058| 1.21| +61.6 |   14  | .417| .180| .056|
| 6716-E| .164| .055|  .97| +61.6 |   14  | .383| .164| .055|
| 2388-E| .135| .042|  .91| +40.4 |    2  | .449| .180| .056|
| 2352-E| .146| .037|  .46| +32.2 |    3  | .441| .198| .050|
| 2770-E| .194| .050| 1.14| +45.2 |    6  | .311| .219| .056|
| 8705-E| .150| .041|  .66| +41.0 |  ...  | .480| .197| .053|
| 8706-E| .160| .062|  .64| +30.4 |  ...  | .593| .202| .078|
| 8704-E| .150| .054|  .56| +36.4 |  ...  | .557| .214| .077|
| 7839-E| .116| .031|  .63| +41.2 |  ...  | .351| .140| .038|
| 5707-E| .147| .048|  .66| +43.0 |  ...  | .422| .176| .058|
| 8171-F| .178| .054|  .95| +45.2 |  ...  | .313| .205| .062|
|  397-E| .151| .051|  .72| +55.2 |    2  | .343| .160| .054|
+-------+-----+-----+-----+-------+-------+-----+-----+-----+

[Footnote 1: Brewer's scale.]


The data reported in Tables X, XI, and XII give the results of analyses
of commercial American beers obtained from various breweries in
different parts of the United States as these beers are found on the
market at the present time; hence, they are of general value for the
purpose of showing the composition of American beers. These data also
are of considerable interest when we compare them with data relating to
American beers published by the department in 1887.[1] A comparison of
these two sets of figures shows that beers made at the present time have
a much lower percentage of alcohol and are made from a wort containing a
much lower percentage of solids than beers made a generation ago. The
average of 28 samples examined and reported in 1887 in the publication
cited[1] showed an average alcohol content of 4.63 per cent by weight
and solids in the original wort of 14.79 per cent, while the average of
72 beers representing the products now on the market showed an average
of 3.52 per cent by weight of alcohol and solids in the original wort of
12.50 per cent. This is a reduction of 1.11 per cent by weight of
alcohol and 2.23 per cent of solids in the original wort.

[Footnote 1: U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Chem., Bul. 13, 1887, pt. 3, p. 282.]


CONCLUSIONS.

The all-malt beers made in this country contain higher percentages of
protein than the all-malt beers made in Europe, owing to the use in this
country of a barley high in protein.

The use of rice, corn or corn products, and brewer's sugar as
substitutes for malt reduces the content of protein, ash, and phosphoric
acid in the finished beer.

This difference, as regards the protein, ash, and phosphoric acid, is a
sufficient basis for distinguishing the all-malt beers made in this
country from those containing the commercial mixtures of rice, corn,
cerealin, and brewer's sugar.

It is necessary to calculate analytical results to the basis of a common
wort in order to interpret them properly.

                   *       *       *       *       *

                             ADDITIONAL COPIES
                 OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM
                     THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS
                        GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
                             WASHINGTON, D. C.
                                   AT
                             5 CENTS PER COPY



                           WASHINGTON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1917

                   *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's notes:

Removed italics marks '_' from tables in text version to make more readable

Changed header in Table I, 7th column to read 'Reducing Sugars ...' instead
of 'Reducing Sugar ...' to match identical headers in the other Tables





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