Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

´╗┐Title: Mother's Remedies - Over One Thousand Tried and Tested Remedies from Mothers - of the United States and Canada
Author: Ritter, Thomas Jefferson, 1855-
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Mother's Remedies - Over One Thousand Tried and Tested Remedies from Mothers - of the United States and Canada" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



[Transcriber's Notes]

Some of the suggestions in this book may be helpful or at least have a
placebo effect. Beware of the many recipes that include kerosene (coal
oil), turpentine, ammonium  chloride, lead, lye (sodium hydroxide),
strychnine, arsenic, mercury, creosote, sodium phosphate, opium, cocaine
and other illegal, poisonous or corrosive items. Many recipes do not
specify if it is to be taken internally or topically (on the skin). There
is an extreme preoccupation with poultices (applied to the skin, 324
references) and "keeping the bowels open" (1498 references, including
related terms).

I view this material as a window into the terror endured by mothers and
family members when a child or adult took ill. The doctors available (if
you could afford one) could offer little more than this book. The guilt of
failing to cure the child was probably easier to endure than the
helplessness of doing nothing.

There are many recipes for foods I fondly remember eating as a child.

Note the many recipes for a single serving that involve lengthy and
labor-intensive preparation. Refrigeration was uncommon and the
temperature of iceboxes was well above freezing, so food had to be
consumed quickly.

Many recipes use uncooked meat and eggs that can lead to several diseases.

Obvious typographical errors have been corrected but contemporary spelling
and usage are unchanged. Page headers are retained, but are moved to the
beginning of the paragraph where the text is interrupted. Page numbers are
shown in brackets [ ].

The author claims the material is directed toward non-medical "family"
members, but many passages are obviously copied from medical textbooks.
The following glossary of unfamiliar (to me) terms is quite lengthy and
does not include incomprehensible (to me) medical terms and many words and
names I could not find in several reference books. The book's own 16 page
dictionary is on page 893.

I recommend the article on "hydrophobia" (page 241) as an interesting
history of the Pasture treatment.

Don Kostuch


Transcriber's Dictionary

These entries are absent or brief in the original dictionary on page 893.
A short cooking dictionary is on page 831. Check there for items not found
here.

acetanilide   (also acetanilid)
  White crystalline compound, C6H5NH(COCH3), formerly used to relieve pain
  and reduce fever. It has been replaced because of toxicity.

Aconite
  Various, usually poisonous perennial herbs of the genus Aconitum, having
  tuberous roots, palmately lobed leaves, blue or white flowers with large
  hoodlike upper sepals, and an aggregate of follicles. The dried leaves
  and roots of these plants yield a poisonous alkaloid that was formerly
  used medicinally. Also called monkshood, wolfsbane.

actinomycosis  (lumpy jaw)
  Inflammatory disease of cattle, hogs, and sometimes humans, caused by
  actinomyces; causes lumpy tumors of the mouth, neck, chest, and abdomen.

Addison's disease
  Caused by partial or total failure of adrenocortical function;
  characterized by a bronze-like skin color and mucous membranes, anemia,
  weakness, and low blood pressure.

ad libitum
  At the discretion of the performer. Giving license to alter or omit a
  part.

affusion
  Pouring on of liquid, as in baptism.

ague
  Alternating periods of chills, fever, and sweating. Used in reference to
  the fevers associated with malaria.

aletris farinosa (Colicroot, star grass, blackroot,
blazing star, and unicorn root )
  Bitter American herb of the Bloodwort family, with small yellow or white
  flowers in a long spike (Aletris farinosa and A. aurea).

algid
  Cold; chilly.

alkanet
  European perennial herb (Alkanna tinctoria) having cymes of blue flowers
  and red roots. The red dye extracted from the root. Plants of the
  Eurasian genus Anchusa, having blue or violet flowers grouped on
  elongated cymes.

allyl
  Univalent, unsaturated organic radical C3H5.

aloin
  Bitter, yellow crystalline compound from aloe, used as a laxative.
alum
  Double sulfates of a trivalent metal such as aluminum, chromium, or iron
  and a univalent metal such as potassium or sodium, especially aluminum
  potassium sulfate, AlK(SO4)2 12H2O, widely used in industry as
  clarifiers, hardeners, and purifiers and medicinally as topical
  astringents and styptics.

anemonin
  Acrid poisonous compound containing two lactone groups; obtained from
  plants of the genus Anemone and genus Ranunculus, containing the
  buttercups.

aneurysm (aneurism)
  Localized, blood-filled dilatation of a blood vessel caused by disease
  or weakening of the vessel wall.

animadversion
  Strong criticism. Critical or censorious remark:

anise
  Aromatic Mediterranean herb (Pimpinella anisum) in the parsley family,
  cultivated for its seed-like fruits and the oil; used to flavor foods,
  liqueurs, and candies.

anodyne
  Relieves pain.

antipyrine (antipyrin, phenazone)
  Analgesic and antipyretic (reduces fever) C11H12N2O formerly used, but
  now largely replaced by less toxic drugs such as aspirin.

antrum
  Cavity or chamber, especially in a bone. Sinus in the bones of the upper
  jaw, opening into the nasal cavity.

apomorphine
  Poisonous white crystalline alkaloid, C17H17NO2, derived from morphine
  and used to induce vomiting.

arnica
  Perennial herbs of the genus Arnica. Tincture of the dried flower heads
  of the European species A. montana, applied externally to relieve the
  pain and inflammation of bruises and sprains.

articular
  Relating to joints: the articular surfaces of bones.

asafetida (asafoetida)
  Fetid (offensive odor) gum resin of Asian plants of the genus Ferula
  (especially F. assafoetida, F. foetida, or F. narthex). It has a strong
  odor and taste, and was formerly used as an antispasmodic and a general
  prophylactic against disease.

atresia
  Absence or closure of a normal body orifice or tubular passage such as
  the anus, intestine, or external ear canal. Degeneration and resorption
  of one or more ovarian follicles before a state of maturity has been
  reached.

atropine
  Poisonous, bitter, crystalline alkaloid, C17H23NO3, obtained from
  belladonna and related plants. Used to dilate the pupils of the eyes and
  as an antispasmodic.

bainmarie
  Large pan of hot water in which smaller pans may be placed to cook food
  slowly or to keep food warm.

barberry
  Shrubs of the genus Berberis having small yellow flowers, and red,
  orange, or blackish berries.

baryta
  A barium compounds, such as barium sulfate.

baste
  Sew loosely with large running stitches to hold together temporarily.

batiste
  Fine, plain-woven fabric made from various fibers and used especially
  for clothing.

bedizen
  Ornament or dress in a showy or gaudy manner.

belladonna (deadly nightshade)
  Poisonous Eurasian perennial herb (Atropa belladonna) with solitary,
  nodding, purplish-brown, bell-shaped flowers and glossy black berries.
  An alkaloidal extract of this plant used in medicine.

benne (sesame)
  Tropical Asian plant (Sesamum indicum) bearing small flat seeds used as
  food and as a source of oil.

benzoin
  Balsamic resin obtained from certain tropical Asian trees of the genus
  Styrax and used in perfumery and medicine. Also called benjamin, gum
  benjamin, gum benzoin. A white or yellowish crystalline compound, C14
  H12 O2, derived from benzaldehyde.

berberine
  Bitter-tasting yellow alkaloid, C20H19NO5, from several plants such as
  goldenseal. Used medically as an antipyretic and antibacterial agent.

bergamot
  Small tree (Citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia) grown in southern Italy
  for its sour citrus fruits. The rinds yield an aromatic oil (bergamot
  oil) used in perfume.

beri-beri
  Deficiency of thiamine, endemic in eastern and southern Asia and
  characterized by neurological symptoms, cardiovascular abnormalities,
  and edema.

Berserker
  Ancient Norse warriors legendary for working themselves into a frenzy
  before a battle and fighting with reckless savagery and insane fury.

bijouterie
  Collection of trinkets or jewelry; decorations.

bilious
  Relating to bile. Excess secretion of bile. Gastric distress caused by a
  disorder of the liver or gallbladder. Resembling bile, especially in
  color: a bilious green. Peevish disposition; ill-humored.

bistort
  Eurasian perennial herb (Polygonum bistorta) with cylindrical spikes of
  pink flowers and a rhizome used as an astringent in folk medicine.

blue flag
  Several irises with blue or blue-violet flowers, especially Iris
  versicolor of eastern North America.

blue stone (blue vitriol, blue copperas, chalcanthite)
  Hydrated blue crystalline form of copper sulfate.

bobbinet
  Machine-woven net fabric with hexagonal meshes.

boil
  Painful, circumscribed pus-filled inflammation of the skin and
  subcutaneous tissue usually caused by a local staphylococcal infection.
  Also called furuncle.

bolster
  Long narrow pillow or cushion.

bombazine
  Fine twilled fabric of silk and worsted or cotton, often dyed black for
  mourning clothes.

boracic acid (boric acid)
  Water-soluble white or colorless crystalline compound, H3BO3, used as an
  antiseptic and preservative.

boutonniere
  Flower or small bunch of flowers worn in a buttonhole.

bryonia
  Small genus of perennial old world tendril-bearing vines (family
  Cucurbitaceae) having large leaves, small flowers, and red or black
  fruit; Dried root of a bryony (Bryonia alba or B. dioica) used as a
  cathartic.

bubo (buboes)
  An inflamed, tender swelling of a lymph node, especially in the area of
  the armpit or groin, that is characteristic of bubonic plague and
  syphilis.

bubonic plague (black death)
  Contagious, often fatal epidemic disease caused by the bacterium
  Yersinia (syn. Pasteurella) pestis, transmitted from person to person or
  by the bite of fleas from an infected rodent, especially a rat; produces
  chills, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and the formation of buboes.

buchu
  South African shrubs of the genus Agathosma, especially A. betulina and
  A. crenulata; the leaves are used as a mild diuretic and provide an
  aromatic oil used for flavoring.

burdock
  Weedy, chiefly biennial plants of the genus Arctium.

cachexia
  Weight loss, wasting of muscle, loss of appetite, and general debility
  during a chronic disease.

cajeput (paperbark)
  Australian and southeast Asian tree (Melaleuca quinquenervia, M.
  leucadendron) of the myrtle family (Myrtaceae); yields a pungent
  medicinal oil; grown in Florida.

calamine
  White or colorless mineral, essentially Zn4Si2O7(OH)2.H2O
  (hemimorphite).  Pink, odorless, tasteless powder of zinc oxide with a
  small amount of ferric oxide, dissolved in mineral oils and used in skin
  lotions.

calcareous
  Composed of calcium carbonate, calcium, or limestone; chalky.

cale
  Variety of cabbage in which the leaves do not form a head, being nearly
  the wild form of the species; also called kail.

calomel
  Colorless, white or brown tasteless compound, Hg2Cl2, used as a
  purgative and insecticide. Mercurous chloride.

cambric
  Finely woven white linen or cotton fabric.


cantharis  (pl. cantharides) (also called Spanish fly)
  Brilliant green blister beetle (Lytta vesicatoria or Cantharis
  vesicatoria) of central and southern Europe. Toxic preparation of the
  crushed, dried bodies of this beetle, formerly used as a
  counter-irritant for skin blisters and as an aphrodisiac.

capsicum
  Topical American pepper plants, genus Capsicum, especially C. annuum and
  C. frutescens.

capsid (mirid bug, mirid)
  Variety of leaf bug.

carbolic acid (phenol)
  Caustic, poisonous, white crystalline compound, C6H5OH, derived from
  benzene and used in resins, plastics, and pharmaceuticals and in dilute
  form as a disinfectant and antiseptic.

carbuncle
  A painful localized bacterial infection of the skin that usually has
  several openings discharging pus.

cardamom
  Rhizomatous (horizontal, usually underground stem) Indian herb
  (Elettaria cardamomum) having capsular fruits with aromatic seeds used
  as a spice or condiment.  Plants of the related genus Amomum, used as a
  substitute for cardamom.

carminative
  Inducing the expulsion of gas from the stomach and intestines.

cascara (See Rhamnus purshiana)
  A buckthorn native to northwest North America; the bark yields  cascara
  sagrada.

cassia
  Tropical or subtropical trees, shrubs, or herbs of the genus Cassia in
  the pea family, having yellow flowers, and long, flat or cylindrical
  pods. Tropical Asian evergreen tree (Cinnamomum cassia) having aromatic
  bark used as a substitute for cinnamon.

Castile soap
  Fine, hard, white, odorless soap made of olive oil and sodium hydroxide.

castor oil
  Colorless or pale yellowish oil extracted from the seeds of the
  castor-oil plant, used as a laxative and skin softener.

catarrh
  Inflammation of mucous membranes, especially in the nose and throat.

catechu (cutch, Acacia catechu, betel palm)
  Spiny Asian tree with yellow flowers, and dark heartwood. A raw material
  obtained from the heartwood of this plant, used in the preparation of
  tannins and brown dyes.

caudal
  Near the tail or hind parts; posterior. Similar to a tail in form or
  function.

caustic potash (potassium hydroxide)
  Caustic white solid, KOH, used as a bleach and in the manufacture of
  soaps, dyes, alkaline batteries.

cerate
  Hard, unctuous, fat or wax-based solid, sometimes medicated, formerly
  applied to the skin directly or on dressings.

chambray
  Fine lightweight fabric woven with white threads across a colored warp.

chancel
  Space around the altar of a church for the clergy and sometimes the
  choir, often enclosed by a lattice or railing.

chary
  Cautious; wary; not giving or expending freely; sparing.

chelidnium
  Herbs of the poppy family (Papaveraceae) with brittle stems, yellowish
  acrid juice, pinnately divided leaves, and small yellow flowers that
  includes the celandine. Preparation of celandine (Chelidonium majus)
  used formerly as a diuretic.

Cheviot
  Breed of sheep with short thick wool, originally raised in the Cheviot
  Hills. Fabric of coarse twill weave, used for suits and overcoats,
  originally made of  Cheviot wool.

chicken pox
  Caused by the varicella-zoster virus; indicated by skin eruptions,
  slight fever, and malaise. Also called varicella.

chilblain
  Inflammation and itchy irritation of the hands, feet, or ears, caused by
  moist cold.

chloral hydrate
  Colorless crystalline compound, CCl3CH(OH)2, used as a sedative and
  hypnotic.

chlorosis
  Iron-deficiency anemia, primarily of young women, indicated by
  greenish-yellow skin color.

cholera infantum
  Acute non-contagious intestinal disturbance of infants formerly common
  in congested areas with high humidity and temperature.

cholera morbus
  Acute gastroenteritis occurring in summer and autumn exhibiting severe
  cramps, diarrhea, and vomiting. No longer in scientific use.

chorea
  Nervous disorders marked by involuntary, jerky movements, especially of
  the arms, legs, and face.

Chrysarobin
  Bitter, yellow substance in Goa powder (from the wood of a Brazilian
  tree Vataireopsis araroba), and yielding chrysophanic acid; formerly
  called chrysphanic acid.

cinchona (Jesuit's bark, Peruvian bark)
  Trees and shrubs of the genus Cinchona, native chiefly to the Andes and
  cultivated for bark that yields the medicinal alkaloids quinine and
  quinidine, which are used to treat malaria. Dried bark of these plants.

Cinnamyl
  Hypothetical radical, (C6H5.C2H2)2C, of cinnamic compounds. Formerly,
  cinnamule.

clonic
  The nature of clonus--contraction and relaxation of muscle.

cocculus
  Poisonous bean-shaped berry of a woody vine (Anamirta cocculus) of the
  East Indies that yields picrotoxin.

cochineal
  Red dye made of the dried and pulverized bodies of female cochineal
  insects.

coddle
  Cook in water below the boiling point: coddle eggs. Treat indulgently;
  baby; pamper.

codling (codlin)
  Greenish elongated English apple used for cooking. Small unripe apple.

Cohosh (baneberry, herb Christopher)
  Plant of the genus Actaea having acrid poisonous berries; especially
  blue cohosh, black cohosh.

colchicum
  Various bulbous plants of the genus Colchicum, such as the autumn
  crocus. The dried ripe seeds or corms (short thick solid food-storing
  underground stem) of the autumn crocus which yield colchicine.

collodion
  Highly flammable, colorless or yellowish syrupy solution of pyroxylin,
  ether, and alcohol, used as an adhesive to close small wounds and hold
  surgical dressings, in topical medications, and for making photographic
  plates.

colocynth  (bitter apple)
  Old World vine (Citrullus colocynthis) bearing yellowish, green-mottled
  fruits the size of small lemons. The pulp of the fruit is a strong
  laxative.

colombo (calumba)
  Root of an African plant (Jatrorrhiza palmata, family Menispermaceae)
  containing  columbin; it is used as a tonic called calumba root or
  colombo root.

colostrum  (foremilk)
  Thin yellowish fluid secreted by the mammary glands at birth, rich in
  antibodies and minerals. It precedes the production of true milk.

coltsfoot (galax)
  Eurasian herb (Tussilago farfara), naturalized in parts of North America
  with dandelion-like flower heads. Dried leaves or flower heads of this
  plant have been long used in herbal medicine to treat coughs.

consomme
  Clear soup or bouillion boiled down so as to be very rich.

contretemps
  Unforeseen disruption of the normal course of things; inopportune
  occurrence.

copaiba
  Transparent, often yellowish, viscous oleoresin from South American
  trees of the genus Copaifera in the pea family, used in varnishes and as
  a fixative in perfume.

copperas (ferrous sulfate)
  Greenish crystalline compound, FeSO4.7H2O, used as a pigment,
  fertilizer, and feed additive, in sewage and water treatment, and in the
  treatment of iron deficiency.

corrosive sublimate
  Mercuric chloride.

costal
  Relating to or near a rib.

costive
  Constipated

cranesbill  (geranium, storksbill)
  Plants of the genus Geranium, with pink or purplish flowers.  Various
  plants of the genus Pelargonium, native chiefly to southern Africa and
  widely cultivated for their rounded and showy clusters of red, pink, or
  white flowers.

cream of tartar
  Potassium bitartrate. White, acid, crystalline solid or powder,
  KHC4H4O6, used in baking powder, in the tinning of metals, and as a
  laxative.

Creasote (creosote)
  Colorless to yellowish oily liquid containing phenols and creosols,
  obtained by the destructive distillation of wood tar, especially from
  beech, and formerly used as an expectorant in treating chronic
  bronchitis. Also used as a wood preservative and disinfectant. May cause
  severe neurological disturbances if inhaled.

crepe de Chine
  Silk crepe used for dresses and blouses.

cretonne
  Heavy unglazed cotton, linen, or rayon fabric, colorfully printed and
  used for draperies and slipcovers.

croton oil
  Brownish-yellow, foul-smelling oil from the seeds of a tropical Asian
  shrub or small tree (Croton tiglium); formerly used as a drastic
  purgative and counterirritant. Its use was discontinued because of its
  toxicity.

croup
  Condition of the larynx, especially in infants and children, causing
  respiratory difficulty and a hoarse, brassy cough.

Culver's root
  Perennial herb (Veronicastrum virginicum) native to eastern North
  America; the root was formerly used as a cathartic and an emetic.

cupping
  Therapeutic procedure, no longer in use; an evacuated glass cup is
  applied to the skin to draw blood to the surface.

Cuprum
  Copper.

Curacao
  Flavored with sour orange peel. Popular island resort in the Netherlands
  Antilles.

cystitis
  Inflammation of the urinary bladder.

damask
  Rich patterned fabric of cotton, linen, silk, or wool. Fine, twilled
  table linen.

deadly night-shade (bittersweet, bittersweet nightshade, climbing
nightshade, poisonous nightshade, woody nightshade, Solanum dulcamara)
  Perennial Eurasian herb with reddish bell-shaped flowers and shining
  black berries; extensively grown in United States; roots and leaves
  yield atropine (belladonna, Atropa belladonna).

decollete
  Cut low at the neckline. Wearing a garment that is low-cut or strapless.

demi-monde
  Class of women kept by wealthy lovers or protectors; prostitutes; group
  whose respectability is dubious or whose success is marginal.

demulcent
  Soothing, usually mucilaginous or oily substance, such as glycerin or
  lanolin, used to relieve pain of irritated mucous membranes.

diathesis
  Hereditary predisposition to disease, allergy, or other disorder.

digitalis
  Plant of the genus Digitalis, including foxgloves. Drug prepared from
  the seeds and dried leaves used as a cardiac stimulant.

dilatory
  Delay or postpone.

discomfit
  Make uneasy or perplexed; disconcert; embarrass; thwart the plans of;
  frustrate.

dry cupping
  See cupping.

dysmenorrhea
  Painful menstruation.

effusion
  Seeping of serous, purulent, or bloody fluid into a body cavity or
  tissue. The effused fluid.

eiderdown (eider down)
  Down of the eider duck, used to stuff quilts and pillows. Quilt stuffed
  with the down of the eider duck.

empyema
  Pus in a body cavity, especially the pleural cavity.

ennui
  Listlessness, dissatisfaction, lack of interest; boredom:

Epsom salts
  Hydrated magnesium sulfate, MgSO4.7H2O, used as a cathartic and to
  reduce inflammation.

ergot
  Fungus (Claviceps purpurea) infecting cereal plants; forms compact black
  masses of branching filaments that replace many of the grains of the
  host plant. Disease caused by such a fungus. The dried sclerotia of
  ergot obtained from rye is a source of several medicinal alkaloids and
  lysergic acid.

erigeron
  Genus of composite herbs having flower heads resembling asters. Formerly
  used as a diuretic and as a hemostatic in uterine hemorrhage

erysipelas
  Acute skin disease caused by hemolytic streptococcus; marked by
  localized inflammation and fever. Also called Saint Anthony's fire.

eschar
  Dry scab or slough formed on the skin caused by a burn or by the action
  of a corrosive or caustic substance.

eucaine
  A crystalline substance, C15H21NO2, used as a local anesthetic,
  substituting for cocaine, in veterinary medicine.

eucalyptol  (cineole)
  Colorless oily liquid, C10H18O, from eucalyptus; used in
  pharmaceuticals, flavoring, and perfumery.

eucalyptus
  Trees of the genus Eucalyptus, native to Australia; they have aromatic
  leaves that yield an oil used medicinally.

farcy (see glanders)
  Chronic form of glanders that affects the skin and superficial lymph
  vessels.

febrile
  ferverish

felon
  Painful purulent infection at the end of a finger or toe in the area
  surrounding the nail. Also called whitlow.

ferrocyanate
  Salt of ferrocyanic acid; a ferrocyanide.

fistula
  An abnormal duct or passage resulting from injury, disease, or other
  disorder that connects an abscess, cavity, or hollow organ to the body
  surface or to another hollow organ.

flounce
  Strip of decorative, gathered or pleated material attached by one edge,
  as on a garment or curtain.

fondant
  Sweet creamy sugar paste used in candies and icings. Candy containing
  this paste.

fontanelles
  The soft membranous gaps between the incompletely formed cranial bones
  of a fetus or an infant. Also called soft spot.

formaldehyde
  Colorless gaseous compound, HCHO, used to manufacture resins,
  fertilizers, dyes, and embalming fluids and in aqueous solution as a
  preservative and disinfectant.

formalin
  Aqueous solution of formaldehyde that is 37 percent by weight.

fossa
  A small depression, as in a bone.

foulard
  Lightweight twill or plain-woven fabric of silk or silk and cotton,
  often having a small printed design. Necktie or scarf, made of this
  fabric.

Fowler's solution
  Solution of arsenite of potassium in water; named for Fowler, an English
  physician who brought it into use.

frock coat
  Man's dress coat or suit coat with knee-length skirts.

fuller's earth
  Highly adsorbent (attaches to other substances without any chemical
  action) clay-like substance consisting of hydrated aluminum silicates;
  used  in talcum powders.

fly blister
  Blister caused by the vesicating (blistering) body fluid of certain
  beetles.

fusiform
  Tapered at each end; spindle-shaped.

galatea
  Durable, often striped cotton fabric used in making clothing.

galax (beetleweed, coltsfoot, wandflower)
  Stemless evergreen perennial plant (Galax urceolata) of the eastern US,
  with a rosette of glossy, heart-shaped leaves and small white flowers in
  spike-like clusters.

gallic acid
  Colorless crystalline compound, C7H6O5, derived from tannin used as a
  tanning agent, ink dye, in photography, and paper manufacturing.

gamboge
  Brownish or orange resin from trees of the genus Garcinia of
  south-central Asia and yielding a golden-yellow pigment.

gaucherie
  Awkward or tactless act, manner, or expression.

gelsemium
  Genus of climbing plants. The yellow (false) jasmine (Gelsemium
  sempervirens) is a native of the Southern United States; the root is
  used for malarial fevers.

gentian
  Plants of the genus Gentiana, having showy, variously colored flowers.
  The dried rhizome and roots of a yellow-flowered European gentian, G.
  lutea, used as a tonic.

germander
  Aromatic plants of the genus Teucrium, with purplish or reddish flowers.

gingham
  Yarn-dyed cotton fabric woven in stripes, checks, plaids, or solid
  colors.

glace
  Smooth, glazed or glossy surface, such as certain silks or leathers.
  Coated with a sugar glaze; candied.

glairy
  Slimy consistency, like egg white; cough producing glairy sputum.

glanders
  Contagious, usually fatal disease of horses, caused by the bacterium
  Pseudomonas mallei; causes swollen lymph nodes, nasal discharge, and
  ulcers of the respiratory tract and skin. Communicable to other mammals,
  including humans.

glaubers salts
  (Na2SO4.10H2O); colorless salt used as a cathartic.

gleet
  Inflammation of the urethra caused by chronic gonorrhea with a discharge
  of mucus and pus; the discharge that is characteristic of this
  inflammation.

Glonoin
  Dilute solution of nitroglycerin used as a neurotic.

glycerite
  Preparation made by mixing or dissolving a substance in glycerin.

glycyrrhiza
  Widely distributed perennial herbs of the family Leguminosae  that
  include licorice. Dried root of a licorice of the genus Glycyrrhiza (G.
  glabra); used to mask unpleasant flavors in drugs or to give a pleasant
  taste to confections called licorice.

goiter (goitre)
  Enlargement of the thyroid gland; often results from insufficient intake
  of iodine.

golden seal
  See hydrastis.

groats
  Hulled, usually crushed grain, especially oats.

grosgrain
  Closely woven silk or rayon fabric with narrow horizontal ribs. Ribbon
  made of this fabric.

gruel
 Thin porridge (usually oatmeal or cornmeal). See page 574.

guaiacum  (guaiac )
  Tree of the genus Guaiacum; a lignum vitae. Greenish-brown resin from
  this tree, used medicinally and in varnishes.

gustatory
  Concerning the sense of taste.

haematuria
  Blood in the urine.

hamamelis
  Genus of shrubs or small trees (family Hamamelidaceae), including the
  witch hazels. Dried leaves of a witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) of
  the eastern U.S. used formerly as a tonic and sedative.

hartshorn
  Antler of a hart, formerly used as a source of ammonia and in smelling
  salts.  Ammonium carbonate.

hellebore
  Plants of the genus Helleborus, native to Eurasia, most of which are
  poisonous. Plants of the genus Veratrum, especially V. viride of North
  America, yielding a toxic alkaloid used medicinally.

henbane  (black henbane, insane root)
  Poisonous Eurasian plant (Hyoscyamus niger) having an unpleasant odor,
  sticky leaves, and funnel-shaped greenish-yellow flowers. It is a source
  hyoscyamus, hyoscamine and scopolamine.

henna
  Tree or shrub (Lawsonia inermis) of the Middle East, having fragrant
  white or reddish flowers. Reddish-orange dyestuff prepared from the
  dried and ground leaves of this plant, used as a cosmetic dye and for
  coloring leather and fabrics. To dye (hair, for example) with henna.

Hepar
  Liver of sulphur; a substance of a liver-brown color, sometimes used in
  medicine. Fformed by fusing sulphur with carbonates of the alkalies
  (esp. potassium), and consists essentially of alkaline sulphides. Called
  also hepar sulphuris. A substance resembling hepar; in homeopathy,
  calcium sulphide, called also hepar sulphuris calcareum.

hepatica  (liverleaf)
  Woodland plants of the genus Hepatica, especially H. americana of
  eastern North America, having three-lobed leaves and white or lavender
  flowers.

Herpes Zoster
  Varicella-zoster virus:  A herpesvirus that causes chickenpox and
  shingles. Causes an acute viral infection--inflammation of the sensory
  ganglia of spinal or cranial nerves and the eruption of vesicles along
  the affected nerve path. It usually strikes only one side of the body
  and is often accompanied by severe neuralgia.

Honduras Bark
  Dried bark of a tropical American tree (Picramnia antidesma) formerly
  used in the treatment of syphilis and skin diseases.

Hunyadi (Hunyady )
  Hungarian noble family, partly of Romanian origin. The first recorded
  member of the family was Serbe, who settled in Hunyad county in
  Transylvania from Wallachia.

hydrastis
  Genus of herbs (family Ranunculaceae) with palmately lobed leaves and
  small greenish flowers and including the goldenseal (H. canadensis). The
  dried rhizome and roots of the goldenseal formerly used in pharmacy as a
  bitter tonic and antiseptic called also goldenseal.

hydragogue
  Cathartics that aid in the removal of edematous fluids and promote the
  discharge of  fluid from the bowels.

hydrophobia (rabies)
  Viral disease of the nervous system of warm-blooded animals. Transmitted
  by a rhabdovirus (genus Lyssavirus)  in infected saliva of a rabid
  animal. Causes increased salivation, abnormal behavior, and paralysis
  and death when untreated

hypophosphite
  Salt of hypophosphorous acid.

hyoscine (scopolamine)
  An alkaloid, C17H21NO4, from plants such as henbane; used as a mydriatic
  (dilatate the pupils) and sedative, and to treat nausea and motion
  sickness.

hyoscyamus
  Poisonous Eurasian herbs of the family Solanaceae that have simple
  leaves, irregular flowers, and include the henbane (H. niger). Dried
  leaves of the henbane containing the alkaloids hyoscyamine and
  scopolamine, used as an antispasmodic and sedative.

ichthyol
  Oily substance prepared by the dry distillation of a bituminous mineral
  containing fossil fishes. Used as a remedy for some skin diseases.

ignatia
  Dried ripe seeds of the Saint-Ignatius's-bean used like nux vomica.

impetigo
  Contagious bacterial skin infection, usually of children, indicated by
  the eruption of superficial pustules with thick yellow crusts, commonly
  on the face.

incommode
  Cause inconvenience; disturb.

inspissate
  Undergo thickening or cause to thicken, as by boiling or evaporation;
  condense.

intercostal
  Relating to or near a rib.

iodoform
  Yellowish crystalline compound, CHI3, used as an antiseptic.

ipecac
  Tropical American shrub (Cephaelis ipecacuanha) that yields emetine.
  Medicinal preparation made from this shrub used to induce vomiting.

Iris Florentina (Florentine iris, orris, Iris germanica
florentina, Iris florentina)
  German iris having large white flowers and a fragrant rhizome.

Irish moss (carrageen)
  Edible North Atlantic seaweed (Chondrus crispus) that yields a
  mucilaginous substance used medicinally and in preparing jellies.

iritis
    Inflammation of the iris of the eye.

jalap
  Eastern Mexican vine (Ipomoea purga) with tuberous roots that are dried,
  powdered, and used as a cathartic.

jocose
  Given to joking; merry; humorous.

kamala
  Asian tree (Mallotus philippinensis) that bears a hairy capsular fruit;
  vermifugal powder is obtained from the capsules of this tree.

kino
  Reddish resin from several Old World trees of the genera Eucalyptus,
  Pterocarpus, and Butea and from tropical American trees of the genera
  Coccoloba and Dipteryx.

kumiss (koumiss)
  Fermented milk of a mare or camel, used as a beverage in western and
  central Asia.

La Grippe
  Influenza.

lancinating
  Sensation of cutting, piercing, or stabbing.

lard
  White solid or semisolid rendered fat of a hog.

laudanum
  Tincture of opium, formerly used as a drug.

leukemia (leucemia, leukaemia, leucaemia)
  Disease in humans and other warm-blooded animals involving the
  blood-forming organs; causes an abnormal increase in the number of white
  blood cells in the tissues  with or without a corresponding increase in
  the circulating blood.

lime (calcium oxide)
  White, caustic, lumpy powder, CaO, used as a refractory, as a flux, in
  manufacturing steel and paper, in glassmaking, in waste treatment, in
  insecticides, and as an industrial alkali.

  Slaked lime is calcium hydroxide, a soft white powder, Ca(OH)2, used in
  making mortar, cements, calcium salts, paints, hard rubber products, and
  petrochemicals.

litmus
  Coloring material from lichens that turns red in acid solutions and blue
  in alkaline solutions.

Liveforever (orpine, orpin, livelong, Sedum telephium)
  Perennial northern temperate plant with toothed leaves and heads of
  small purplish-white flowers.

lobelia
  See Herb Department, page 428.

lochia
  Normal uterine discharge of blood, tissue, and mucus from the vagina
  after childbirth.

lupus
  Systemic lupus erythematosus. Chronic skin conditions characterized by
  ulcerative lesions that spread over the body. No longer in scientific
  use.

lupulin
  Minute yellowish-brown hairs in the strobili of the hop plant, formerly
  used in medicine as a sedative.


lycopodium
  Plant of the genus Lycopodium, including club mosses. The yellowish
  powdery spores of certain club mosses, especially Lycopodium clavatum,
  are used in fireworks and as a coating for pills.

madras
  Cotton or silk cloth of fine texture, usually with a plaid, striped, or
  checked pattern. Large handkerchief of madras cloth.

malines
  Thin, stiff net woven in a hexagonal pattern, used in dressmaking.

mandrake  (may-apple)
  Southern European plant (Mandragora officinarum) having greenish-yellow
  flowers and a branched root. This plant was once believed to have
  magical powers because its root resembles the human body. The root
  contains the poisonous alkaloid hyoscyamine. Also called mandragora. See
  podophyllin.

marseille
  Heavy cotton fabric with a raised pattern of stripes or figures.

meatus
  Body opening or passage, such as the opening of the ear or the urethra.

menorrhagia
  Unusually heavy or extended menstrual flow.

menstruum
  Solvent used to extract compounds from plant and animal tissues and
  preparing drugs.

messaline
  Lightweight, soft, shiny silk cloth with a twilled or satin weave.

mezereon
  Poisonous Eurasian ornamental shrub (Daphne mezereum) with fragrant
  lilac-purple flowers and small scarlet fruit. The dried bark of this
  plant was used externally as a vesicant (blistering agent) and
  internally for arthritis.

miliary
  Appearance of millet seeds. Small skin lesions with the appearance of
  millet seeds.

mullein
  Eurasian plants of the genus Verbascum, especially V. thapsus. Also
  called flannel leaf, velvet plant.

muriate
  Chloride; compound of chlorine with another element or radical;
  especially, a salt or ester of hydrochloric acid called.

myrrh
  Aromatic gum resin from trees and shrubs of the genus Commiphora of
  India, Arabia, and eastern Africa, used in perfume and incense.

methyl salicylate
  Liquid ester C8H8O3 obtained from the leaves of wintergreen (Gaultheria
  procumbens) or the bark of a birch (Betula lenta); now made
  synthetically, and used as a flavoring and a counterirritant.

motherwort
  Eurasian plants of the genus Leonurus, especially L. cardiaca, a weed
  having clusters of small purple or pink flowers.

mugwort
  Aromatic plants of the genus Artemisia, especially A. vulgaris, native
  to Eurasia; used as a condiment.

mustard plaster (sinapism)
  Medicinal plaster made with a paste-like mixture of powdered black
  mustard, flour, and water, used as a counterirritant.

nephritis
  Various acute or chronic inflammations of the kidneys, such as Bright's
  disease.

naphthalene (naphthaline, tar camphor)
  White crystalline compound, C10H8, derived from coal tar or petroleum
  and used in manufacturing dyes, moth repellents, and explosives and as a
  solvent.

nebulize
   To convert a liquid to a fine spray; atomize.
   To treat with a medicated spray.

nainsook
  Soft lightweight muslin used for babies.

Neroli
  An essential oil made by distilling the flowers of the orange; it is
  used in perfume.

nitre (niter,  saltpeter)
  Potassium nitrate, KNO3, used in making gunpowder.

nux vomica
  Tree (Strychnos nux-vomica) native to southeast Asia, having poisonous
  seeds that are the source of the medicinal alkaloids strychnine and
  brucine.

ocher (ochre)
  Yellow, brown, or red mineral oxides of iron used as pigments.

oil of vitriol
  Sulfuric acid; highly corrosive, dense, oily liquid, H2SO4, colorless to
  dark brown depending on its purity and used to manufacture a wide
  variety of chemicals and materials including fertilizers, paints,
  detergents, and explosives.

omentum
  Folds of the peritoneum (membrane lining the abdominal cavity) that
  connect the stomach with other abdominal organs.

ophthalmia neonatorum (infantile purulent conjunctivitis)
  Various forms of conjunctivitis in newborns, usually contracted during
  birth from passage through the infected birth canal of the mother.

orchitis
  Inflammation of the testes, often the result of mumps or other
  infection, trauma, or metastasis.

organdy (organdie)
  Stiff transparent fabric of cotton or silk, used for trim, curtains, and
  light apparel.

Origanum
  Marjoram. Genus of mint-like plants (Origanum). The sweet marjoram (O.
  Majorana) is aromatic and fragrant, and used in cooking. The wild
  marjoram of Europe and America (O. vulgare) is less fragrant.

orris
  Several species of iris with a fragrant rootstock, especially Iris
  germanica, used in perfumes and cosmetics.

panada
  Paste or gruel of bread crumbs, toast, or flour combined with milk,
  stock, or water; used for soups or thickening sauces.

Paralysis Agitans (Parkinson's disease, shaking palsy)
  Progressive nervous disease causing destruction of brain cells that
  produce dopamine, muscular tremor, slowing of movement, partial facial
  paralysis, peculiarity of gait and posture, and weakness.

paregoric
  A camphorated tincture of opium, taken internally for the relief of
  diarrhea and intestinal pain

Paris green
  Poisonous emerald-green powder, C4H6As6Cu4O16, used as a pigment,
  insecticide, and wood preservative.

pedicle (pedicel)
  Small stalk or stalk-like structure, especially one supporting or
  connecting an organ or other body part. Slender foot-like part, as at
  the base of a tumor.

pell mell
  Jumbled, confused manner; helter-skelter; frantic disorderly haste;
  headlong:

pemphigus
  Several acute or chronic skin diseases characterized by groups of
  itching blisters.

pennyroyal
  Eurasian mint (Mentha pulegium) with small lilac-blue flowers that yield
  an aromatic oil. Aromatic plant (Hedeoma pulegioides) of eastern North
  America, having purple-blue flowers that yields an oil used as an insect
  repellent

peptonize
  Convert protein into a peptone (water-soluble protein derivative
  produced by partial hydrolysis of a protein by an acid or enzyme ).
  Dissolve (food) by means of a proteolytic enzyme.

pernicious anemia (Addison's anemia, malignant anemia.)
  Severe anemia in older adults, caused by failure absorb vitamin B12;
  causes abnormally large red blood cells, gastrointestinal disturbances,
  and lesions of the spinal cord.

pharyngitis
  Inflammation of the pharynx.

phenacetine (phenacetin)
  White, crystalline compound, C10H13O2N, used as an antipyretic.

phlox
  North American plants of the genus Phlox, having opposite leaves and
  flowers.

phytolacca decandra (Scoke, Poke, Pokeweed)
  Tall coarse perennial American herb with small white flowers followed by
  blackish-red berries on long drooping racemes; young fleshy stems are
  edible; berries and root are poisonous.

picric acid
  Poisonous, yellow crystalline solid, C6H2(NO2)3OH, used in explosives,
  dyes, and antiseptics.

piece de resistance
  Outstanding accomplishment. Principal dish of a meal.

pilocarpus
  Small tropical American shrubs (family Rutaceae) with small greenish
  flowers.

pilocarpine muriate
  3-ethyl-4-[(3-methylimidazol-4-yl)methyl]oxolan-2-one hydrochloride
  C11H17ClN2O2

pique
  Vexation caused by a perceived slight or indignity; feeling of wounded
  pride.

pleurodynia
  Paroxysmal pain and soreness of the muscles between the ribs.  Epidemic
  disease caused by a coxsackievirus, causing pain in the lower chest and
  fever, headache, and malaise.

podophyllin
  Bitter-tasting resin from the dried root of the may apple; used as a
  cathartic.

pokeweed (pokeberry, pokeroot.)
  Tall North American plant (Phytolacca americana) with small white
  flowers, blackish-red berries, and a poisonous root.

prickly ash
  Deciduous or evergreen shrubs or trees of the genus Zanthoxylum.

probang
  Long, slender, flexible rod with a tuft or sponge at the end; used to
  remove objects from or apply medication to the larynx or esophagus.

proteid  (obsolete term)
  Protein.

proud flesh
  Swollen flesh that surrounds a healing wound, caused by excessive
  granulation (Small, fleshy, bead-like protuberances--new capillaries--on
  the surface of a wound that is healing).

pruritus
  Severe itching, often of undamaged skin.

Prunus Virginiana (Chokecherry)
  Astringent fruit of a species of wild cherry; the bush or tree which
  bears such fruit.

pterygium
  Abnormal mass of tissue on the conjunctiva of the inner corner of the
  eye that obstructs vision by covering the cornea.

pulsatilla
  Dried medicinal herb from a pasqueflower (especially Anemone pulsatilla)
  formerly used to treat amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea.

punctilio
  Fine point of etiquette. Precise observance of formalities.

purpura
  Hemorrhages in the skin and mucous membranes having the appearance of
  purplish spots or patches.

pyemia
  Septicemia (blood poisoning) caused by pyogenic (producing pus)
  microorganisms in the blood, often resulting in the formation of
  multiple abscesses.

pyrogallic Acid
  White, toxic crystalline phenol, C6H3(OH)3, used as a photographic
  developer and to treat certain skin diseases.

quassia
  Tropical American shrub (Quassia amara) with bright scarlet flowers. A
  bitter substance from its wood is used in medicine and as an
  insecticide.

Queen of the meadow (Meadowsweet)
  European herbaceous plant (Spiraea Ulmaria). North American shrubs
  (Spiraea alba or S. latifolia) having umbel-shaped clusters of white
  flowers.  Perennial herbs of the genus Filipendula in the rose family.

quinine
  Bitter, colorless, powder or crystalline alkaloid, C20H24N2O2-3H2O,
  derived from cinchona barks and used to treat malaria.

quince
  Western Asian shrub or tree (Cydonia oblonga) with white flowers and
  hard apple-like fruit.

quinsy
  Acute inflammation of the tonsils and surrounding tissue, often leading
  to an abscess.

rabies
  see hydrophobia

ranunculus bulbosus
  Perennial Old World buttercup with yellow flowers in late spring to
  early summer.

red precipitate
  Mercuric oxide (HgO) a heavy red crystalline powder formed by heating
  mercuric nitrate, or by heating mercury in the air.

repousse
  Ornamented with patterns in relief made by pressing or hammering on the
  reverse side;

resorcinol (resorcin)
  White crystalline compound, C6H4(OH)2, used to treat certain skin
  diseases and in dyes, resin adhesives, and pharmaceuticals.

Rhamnus Purshiana (Cascara buckthorn )
  Buckthorn of the Pacific coast of the United States, which yields
  cascara sagrada.

rhatany
  Dried root of South American shrubs (Krameria lappacea or K. argentea)
  used as an astringent and in toothpaste and mouthwash.

rheumatic fever
  Acute inflammatory disease occurring after an infection from group A
  streptococci,  marked by fever and joint pain. Associated with
  polyarthritis, Sydenham's chorea, and endocarditis; frequently causes
  scarring of the heart valves.

rheumatism
  Painful disorder of the joints or muscles or connective tissues. Chronic
  auto-immune disease with inflammation of the joints and marked
  deformities.

rhus
  Genus of vines and shrubs including poison ivy, poison oak, and poison
  sumac.

rickets (rachitis)
  Childhood disease caused by a lack of vitamin D or calcium and from
  insufficient exposure to sunlight, characterized by defective bone
  growth.

Rochelle salts
  Potassium sodium tartrate; colorless efflorescent crystalline compound,
  KNaC4H4O6.4H2O, used in making mirrors, in electronics, and as a
  laxative

ruche
  Ruffle or pleat of lace, muslin, or other fine fabric used to trim
  women's garments.

rumex Crispus (chrysophanic acid)
  Yellow crystalline substance found in the root of yellow dock (Rumex
  crispus).

rush
  Stiff marsh plants of the genus Juncus, having pliant hollow or pithy
  stems and small flowers with scale-like perianths (outer envelope of a
  flower,).

sago
  Powdery starch from the trunks of sago palms; used in Asia as a food
  thickener and textile stiffener.

sal-ammoniac
  ammonium chloride; white crystalline volatile salt NH4Cl, used in dry
  cells and as an expectorant called.

saleratus
  Sodium or potassium bicarbonate used as a leavening agent; baking soda.

salicylate
  Salt or ester of salicylic acid.

salicylic acid
  White crystalline acid, C6H4(OH)(COOH), used to make aspirin and to
  treat skin conditions such as eczema.

salol
  White crystalline powder, C13H10O3, derived from salicylic acid and used
  in plastics, suntan oils, analgesics and antipyretics. Was a trademark.

saltpetre (potassium nitrate, saltpeter, niter, nitre)
  (KNO3) used especially as a fertilizer, explosive and a diuretic.

salt rheum
  Popular name in the United States, for skin eruptions, such as eczema.
  Eczema; inflammatory skin disease, indicated by redness and itching,
  eruption of small vesicles, and discharge of a watery exudation, which
  often dries up, leaving the skin covered with crusts;--called also
  tetter, and milk crust.

sanguinaria
  Rhizome (horizontal, underground stem)  and roots of the bloodroot
  (Sanguinaria canadensis) used formerly as an expectorant and emetic.

sedulous
  Persevering and constant in effort or application; assiduous.

senna
  Plants of the genus Cassia, having showy, nearly regular, usually yellow
  flowers. Dried leaves of Cassia angustifolia or C. acutifolia, used as a
  cathartic.

santonin
  Colorless crystalline compound, C15H18O3, wormwood, especially
  santonica; used to expel or destroy parasitic intestinal worms.

sarsaparilla
  Tropical American plants, genus Smilax, with fragrant roots used as a
  flavoring. Dried roots of any of these plants. Sweet soft drink flavored
  with these roots.

savin
  Evergreen Eurasian shrub (Juniperus sabina) with brownish-blue
  seed-bearing cones and young shoots that yield an oil formerly used
  medicinally.

scrofula  (struma)
  A form of tuberculosis affecting the lymph nodes, especially of the
  neck. Common in children. Spread by unpasteurized milk from infected
  cows.

scurf
  Scaly or shredded dry skin, such as dandruff.

scurvy
  Disease caused by deficiency of vitamin C (citrus fruit; oranges,
  limes,..); causes spongy and bleeding gums, bleeding under the skin, and
  extreme weakness.

Seidlitz
  A village in Bohemia (also Sedlitz). Seidlitz powders, effervescing
  salts, consisting of  forty grains of sodium bicarbonate, two drachms of
  Rochell salt (tartrate of potassium and sodium) and thirty-five grains
  of tartaric acid. The powders are mixed in water, and drunk while
  effervescing, as a mild cathartic; the result resembles the natural
  water of Seidlitz. Also Rochelle powders.

senega
  Dried root of seneca snakeroot containing an irritating saponin and was
  formerly used as an expectorant

sesquioxide
  Oxide containing three atoms of oxygen with two atoms (or radicals) of
  some other substance; thus, alumina, Al2O3 is a sesquioxide.

shirr
  Cook (unshelled eggs) by baking until set.

sinapism.
  See mustard plaster.

sitz bath
  Bathtub shaped like a chair, used to bathe only the hips and buttocks.

slaked lime
  See lime

sling
  Drink consisting of brandy, whiskey, or gin, sweetened and usually
  lemon-flavored.

smallpox
  Contagious febrile (feverish) disease characterized by skin eruption
  with pustules, sloughing, and scar formation. It is caused by a poxvirus
  (genus Orthopoxvirus) that is believed to exist now only in lab
  cultures.

smilax (catbrier, greenbrier)
  Slender vine (Asparagus asparagoides) with glossy foliage, greenish
  flowers, heart-shaped leaves, and bluish to black berries; popular as a
  floral decoration.

Socotrine
  Pertaining to Socotra, an island in the Indian Ocean, on the east coast
  of Africa.

sordes
  Dark brown or blackish crust-like deposits on the lips, teeth, and gums
  of a person with dehydration resulting from a chronic debilitating
  disease.

spermaceti
  White, waxy substance from the head of the sperm whale used for making
  candles, ointments, and cosmetics.

spematorrhea (spermatorrhoea)
  Involuntary discharge of semen without orgasm

spigelia (pinkroot )
  Genus of American herbs (family Loganiaceae) related to the nux vomica
  and used as anthelmintics (expel or destroy parasitic intestinal worms).

sprue
  Chronic, chiefly tropical disease characterized by diarrhea, emaciation,
  and anemia, caused by defective absorption of nutrients from the
  intestinal tract.

squill  (sea onion)
  Bulbous Eurasian and African plants of the genus Scilla, having narrow
  leaves and bell-shaped blue, white, or pink flowers. The dried inner
  scales of the bulbs used as rat poison and formerly as a cardiac
  stimulant, expectorant, and diuretic.

stephanotis
  Woody climbing plants of the genus Stephanotis, especially S. floribunda
  of Madagascar, cultivated for its showy fragrant white flowers.

staphisagria (stavesacre)
  Eurasian plant of the genus Delphinium (D. staphisagria). Ripe seeds of
  the stavesacre contain delphinine, are violently emetic and carthartic,
  and have been used to kill head lice called also staphisagria

steppage
  Peculiar gait seen in neuritis of the peroneal nerve and in tabes
  dorsalis; high stepping to allow the drooping foot and toes to clear the
  ground.

stertorous
  Harsh snoring or gasping sound.

stevia
  Plant of the genus Stevia or  Piqueria, having white or purplish
  flowers.

stiletto
  Small dagger with a slender, tapering blade. Small, sharp-pointed
  instrument used for making eyelet holes in needlework.

stillingia
  Genus of widely distributed herbs and shrubs (family Euphorbiaceae). The
  dried root of a plant of the genus Stillingia (S. sylvatica) was
  formerly used as a diuretic, and laxative.

stomachic
  Relating to the stomach; gastric. Beneficial to digestion. An agent that
  strengthens  the stomach.

strychnine
  Extremely poisonous white crystalline alkaloid, C21H22O2N2, derived from
  nux vomica and related plants, used to poison rodents and topically in
  medicine as a stimulant for the central nervous system.

stupe
  Hot, wet, medicated cloth used as a compress.

St. Vitus' Dance
  See chorea

stye (hordeolum)
  Inflamed swelling of a sebaceous gland at the margin of an eyelid.


suety
  Consisting of, or resembling, suet (hard fatty tissues around the
  kidneys of cattle and sheep, used in cooking and for making tallow.)

sugar of lead
  lead acetate, a poisonous white crystalline compound, Pb(C2H3O2)2.3H2O,
  used in hair dyes, waterproofing compounds, and varnishes.

sumbul
  Root of a plant of the genus Ferula (F. sumbul);  formerly a tonic and
  antispasmodic.

Summer complaint (summer diarrhea)
  Diarrhea of children that in hot weather; often caused by ingestion of
  food contaminated by microorganisms.

Sulphonal
  Produced by combining mercaptan and acetone; employed as a hypnotic.

sulphuric ether
  Ethyl ether; formerly called Naphtha vitrioli (naphtha of vitriol).

sumac (sumach)
  Shrubs or small trees of the genus Rhus, having compound leaves,
  clusters of small greenish flowers, and usually red, hairy fruit. Some
  species, such as the poison ivy and poison oak, cause an acute itching
  rash on contact.

suppuration
  Formation or discharge of pus. Also called pyesis, pyopoiesis, pyosis.

suprarenal
  Located above the kidney; a suprarenal part, especially an adrenal
  gland.

sweet william
  Annual, biennial, or perennial herb (Dianthus barbatus), native to
  Eurasia, widely cultivated as an ornamental for its flat-topped dense
  clusters of varicolored flowers.

synechia
  Adhesions between the iris and the lens or cornea caused by trauma or
  eye surgery or as a complication of glaucoma or cataracts; may cause
  blindness

terebenthene
  Oil of turpentine.

terebinth
  Mediterranean tree (Pistacia terebinthus), a source of tanning material
  and turpentine.

tetter
  Skin diseases (eczema, psoriasis, herpes) that cause eruptions and
  itching.

thrall
  Slave or serf, who is held in bondage. One intellectually or morally
  enslaved.

thrush
  A contagious childhood disease caused by a fungus, Candida albicans.
  Causes  small whitish eruptions on the mouth, throat, and tongue, and
  usually accompanied by fever, colic, and diarrhea.

thuja (arborvitae)
  A North American or east Asian evergreen tree or shrub of the genus
  Thuja, having flattened branchlets with opposite, scale-like leaves and
  small cones; used as ornamentals and timber. A similar plant of the
  genus Platycladus or Thujopsis.

thymol
  White, crystalline, aromatic compound, C10H14O, derived from thyme oil
  and other oils or made synthetically and used as an antiseptic, a
  fungicide, and a preservative.

tolu (balsam of tolu, tolu balsam)
  Aromatic yellowish brown balsam from the tolu balsam tree used in cough
  syrups.

tormentil (Potentilla erecta)
  Plant of northern Europe found in clearings and meadows. The root has
  been used to stop bleeding, for food in times of need and to dye leather
  red.

torpid
  Lacking the power of motion or feeling.

tragacanth
  Thorny shrubs of the genus Astragalus, especially A. gummifer, of the
  Middle East, yielding a gum used in pharmacy, adhesives, and textile
  printing.

trephine
  Surgical instrument with circular edges, used to cut out disks of bone
  from the skull.

trillium   (birthroot, wake-robin)
  Plants of genus Trillium, of North America, the Himalaya Mountains, and
  eastern Asia, having a cluster of three leaves and a variously colored,
  three-petaled flower.

trional
  Contains three ethyls. Similar to sulphonal, used as a hypnotic.

turbinated
  Shaped like a top. A small curved bone in the lateral wall of the nasal
  passage.

tulle
  Fine, starched net of silk, rayon, or nylon, used for veils, tutus, or
  gowns.

turmeric (tumeric)
  East Indian perennial herb (Curcuma longa) of the ginger family
  (Zingiberaceae) used as a coloring agent, a condiment, or a stimulant.
  Yellow to reddish brown dyestuff obtained from turmeric.

typhus (prison fever, ship fever, typhus fever.)
  Infectious diseases caused by rickettsia bacteria, especially those
  transmitted by fleas, lice, or mites. Symptoms are severe headache,
  sustained high fever, depression, delirium, and the eruption of red
  rashes on the skin.

ulster
  Loose, long overcoat made of  rugged fabric.

umbrage
  Offense; resentment. Affording shade. Vague or indistinct indication; a
  hint.

Uva Ursi
  Common bearberry; a procumbent (trailing along the ground but not
  rooting) evergreen shrub 10-30 cm high with red berries.

Valerianate (Valerianic)
  One of three metameric acids; the typical one (called also inactive
  valeric acid), C4H9CO2H, is from valerian root and other sources; it is
  a corrosive, oily liquid, with a strong acid taste, and the odor of old
  cheese.

valvular
  Resembling or functioning as a valve. Relating to a valve, especially of
  the heart.

varioloid
  Mild form of smallpox occurring in people previously vaccinated or who
  previously had the disease.

vegetable marrow
  Squash plants with elongated fruit and smooth dark green skin and
  whitish flesh.

veratrum
  Poisonous alkaloid from the root hellebore (Veratrum) and from sabadilla
  seeds. Used externally to treat neuralgia and rheumatism.

verdigris
  Blue or green powder, basic cupric acetate used as a paint pigment and
  fungicide. A green patina of copper sulfate or copper chloride on
  copper, brass, and bronze exposed to air or seawater.

vermifuge
  Medicine that expels intestinal worms.

vervain (verbena)
  New World plants of the genus Verbena, especially those with showy
  spikes of variously colored flowers.

Vichy water
  Sparkling mineral water from springs at Vichy, France or water similar
  to it.

vis-a-vis
  One that is face to face with or opposite to another.

vitiate
  Reduce the value; impair the quality; corrupt morally; debase; make
  ineffective; invalidate.

voile
  Light, plain-weave, sheer fabric of cotton, rayon, silk, or wool used
  for dresses and curtains.

wahoo
  Shrubby North American tree of the genus Euonymus (E. atropurpureus)
  having a root bark with cathartic properties.

Waldorf salad
  Diced raw apples, celery, and walnuts mixed with mayonnaise.

wen
  Harmless cyst, usually on the scalp or face, containing the fatty
  secretion of a sebaceous gland.

whortleberry
  Two deciduous shrubs, Vaccinium myrtillus, of Eurasia, or V. corymbosum,
  of eastern North America, having edible blackish berries.

wontedness
  Being accustomed.

yarrow
  Plants of the genus Achillea, especially A. millefolium, native to
  Eurasia. Also called achillea, milfoil.

yellow fever (yellow jack)
  Infectious tropical disease caused by an arbovirus transmitted by
  mosquitoes of the genera Aedes, especially A. aegypti, and Haemagogus;
  it causes high fever, jaundice, and gastrointestinal hemorrhaging.

yerba reuma
  A low California undershrub (Frankenia grandifolia).

Zingiber
  Tropical Asiatic and Polynesian perennial plants: ginger.

zwieback
  Sweetened bread baked as a loaf and then sliced and toasted.



The following table is copied from page 636.

20 grains       equal    1 scruple
3 scruples       "       1 dram
8 drams          "       1 ounce
12 ounces        "       1 pound

The pound is the same as the pound Troy. Medicines are bought and sold in
quantities by Avoirdupois Weight.

1 grain                           equals  1 drop or 1 minim
60 grains or drops                  "     1 teaspoonful
1 teaspoonful                       "     1 fluid dram
8 drams (or 8 teaspoonfuls) make    "     1 fluid ounce
2 tablespoonfuls make               "     1 fluid ounce
1/2 fluid ounce is a                "     tablespoonful
2 fluid ounces is a                 "     wineglassful
4 fluid ounces is a                 "     teacupful
6 fluid ounces is a                 "     coffee cup
16 ounces (dry or solid) is a       "     pound
20 fluid ounces is a                "     pint



The remaining tables are copied from contemporary (circa 2005) sources


Measurement Unit Conversion

From                 Multiply by     To get
inches                  25.4       millimeters
inches                   2.54      centimeters
feet                    30.48      centimeters
yards                    0.91      meters
miles                    1.61      kilometers
teaspoons                4.93      milliliters
tablespoons             14.79      milliliters
fluid ounces            29.57      milliliters
cups                     0.24      liters
pints                    0.47      liters
quarts                   0.95      liters
gallons                  3.79      liters
cubic feet               0.028     cubic meters
cubic yards              0.76      cubic meters
ounces                  28.35      grams
pounds                   0.45      kilograms
short tons (2,000 lbs)   0.91      metric tons
square inches            6.45      square centimeters
square feet              0.09      square meters
square yards             0.84      square meters
square miles             2.60      square kilometers
acres                    0.40      hectacres

millimeters              0.04      inches
centimeters              0.39      inches
meters                   3.28      feet
meters                   1.09      yards
kilometers               0.62      miles
milliliters              0.20      teaspoons
milliliters              0.06      tablespoons
milliliters              0.03      fluid ounces
liters                   1.06      quarts
liters                   0.26      gallons
liters                   4.23      cups
liters                   2.12      pints
cubic meters            35.32      cubic feet
cubic meters             1.35      cubic yards
grams                    0.035     ounces
kilograms                2.21      pounds
metric ton (1,000 kg)    1.10      short ton
square centimeters       0.16      square inches
square meters            1.20      square yards
square kilometers        0.39      square miles
hectacres                2.47      acres

Temperature Conversion Between Celsius and Fahrenheit

C = (F - 32) / 1.8
F = (C x 1.8) + 32

Condition              Fahrenheit   Celsius
Boiling point of water    212        100
A very hot day            104         40
Normal body temperature    98.6       37
A warm day                 86         30
A mild day                 68         20
A cool day                 50         10
Freezing point of water    32          0
Lowest temperature
   by mixing salt and ice   0        -17.8


U.S.  Length

Unit              Equal to                     Metric Equivalent
inch              1/12 foot                     2.54 centimeters
foot              12 inches or 1/3 yard         0.3048 meter
yard              36 inches or 3 feet           0.9144 meter
rod               16 1/2 feet or 5 1/2 yards    5.0292 meters
furlong           220 yards or 1/8 mile         0.2012 kilometer
mile (statute)    5,280 feet or 1,760 yards     1.6093 kilometers
mile (nautical)   2,025 yards                   1.852 kilometers


U.S.  Liquid Volume or Capacity

Unit           Equal to                Metric Equivalent
minim          1/60 of a fluid dram    0.0616 milliliters
ounce          1/16 pint              29.574 milliliters
wineglassful   2 ounces                 .0591 liter
gill           4 ounces                0.1183 liter
pint          16 ounces                0.4732 liter
quart         2 pints or 1/4 gallon    0.9463 liter
gallon        128 ounces or 8 pints    3.7853 liters

barrel
(wine)        31 1/2 gallons         119.24 liters
(beer)        36 gallons             136.27 liters
(oil)         42 gallons             158.98 liters


U.S. Dry Volume or Capacity

Unit      Equal to               Metric Equivalent
pint      1/2 quart                 0.5506 liter
quart     2 pints                   1.1012 liters
peck      8 quarts or 1/4 bushel    8.8098 liters
bucket    2 pecks                  17.620 liters
bushel    2 buckets or 4 pecks     35.239 liters


U.S. Weight

Unit              Equal to     Metric Equivalent
grain         1/7000 pound        64.799 milligrams
dram            1/16 ounce         1.7718 grams
ounce             16 drams        28.350 grams
pound             16 ounces      453.6 grams
ton (short)    2,000 pounds      907.18 kilograms
ton (long)     2,240 pounds    1,016.0 kilograms


U.S. Geographic Area

Unit     Equal to               Metric Equivalent
acre    4,840 square yards      4,047 square meters


Cooking Measures

Unit          Equal to                    Metric Units
drop       1/76 teaspoon                   0.0649 milliliter
teaspoon     76 drops or 1/3 tablespoon    4.9288 milliliters
tablespoon    3 teaspoons                 14.786 milliliters
cup          16 tablespoons or 1/2 pint    0.2366 liter
pint          2 cups                       0.4732
quart         4 cups or 2 pints            0.9463


British Liquid Volume or Capacity

Unit     British Units            U.S. Units        Metric Units
minim   1/20 of a scruple                           0.0592 milliliters
pint    1/2 quart                  1.201 pints      0.5683 liter
quart     2 pints or 1/4 gallon    1.201 quarts     1.137 liters
gallon    8 pints or 4 quarts      1.201 gallons    4.546 liters


British Dry Volume or Capacity

Unit   British Units   U.S. Units       Metric Units
peck    1/4 bushel    1.0314 pecks       9.087 liters
bushel    4 pecks     1.0320 bushels    36.369 liters


Apothecary Weights

Unit     Apothecary Units               U.S. Units      Metric Units
grain    160 dram or 1/5760 pound       1 grain          64.799 milligrams
dram      60 grains or 1/8 ounce        2.1943 drams      3.8879 grams
ounce      8 drams                      1.0971 ounces    31.1035 grams
pound     12 ounces or 96 drams         0.8232 pound    373.242 grams

[End Transcriber's Notes]



MOTHER'S'  REMEDIES
Over One Thousand
Tried and Tested Remedies from Mothers of
the United States and Canada.

Also
Symptoms, Causes, Prevention, Diet, Nursing,
Treatments, Etc., of Every Known Disease.
Poisons, Accidents, Medicinal Herbs and
Special Departments on Women, Children and
Infants,

by
DR. T. J. RITTER
Formerly connected with Medical Faculty of
University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, Mich.

REVISED with INTRODUCTION
by
DR. W. E. ZIEGENFUSS

PUBLISHED BY
G.H. FOOTE  PUB. CO.
DETROIT
MICH
1921



Copyright, 1910
by
G. H. FOOTE PUBLISHING CO.
All rights reserved


Copyright, 1915
by
G. H. FOOTE PUBLISHING CO.
All rights reserved



RIVERSIDE PRINTING COMPANY
PORT HURON
MICHIGAN



PREFACE. [iii]

Medicine is not an exact science, and it is reasonable to presume that
even Time, with all its qualifying influences, will fail in its effects on
this one branch of science. As the millions of faces seem each to present
some differentiating feature, so each human system seems to require
special study of its individual temperament.

So physicians find it necessary to have more than one remedy for a given
ill; they still find truth in the old adage, "What is one man's meat is
another's poison." But Mother finds a variety of remedies necessary for
another reason. Her medicine-chest is usually lacking the full quota of
drugs required to meet the many emergencies, and she must turn to the
"remedy at hand."

Necessity has again proved its influence and with the years thousands of
simple home concoctions have found their way to the relief of the daily
demands on Mother's ingenuity. These mothers' remedies have become a
valuable asset to the raising of a family, and have become a recognized
essential in a Mother's general equipment for home-making.

For fifteen years the Publisher has handled so-called home medical works;
during that time he has had occasion to examine practically all the home
medical works published. He has been impressed with the utter uselessness
of many, perhaps most, of these books because the simple home remedies
were lacking.

A few years ago he conceived the idea of gathering together the "Mothers'
Remedies" of the world. This one feature of this book he claims as
distinctly his own. Letters were sent by him to Mothers in every state and
territory of the United States, and to Canada and other countries, asking
for tried and tested "Mothers' Remedies." The appeal was met with prompt
replies, and between one thousand and two thousand valuable remedies were
collected in this way.

Through courtesy to these Mothers who helped to make this book possible,
the book was named "MOTHERS' REMEDIES."

Dr. T. J. Ritter, of Ann Arbor, Michigan, a graduate of the regular School
of Medicine at the University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor, and later one of
the medical staff of the University, consented to furnish the necessary
material to complete the Medical Department. Dr. Ritter, in over thirty
years of actual practice, has met with all the exigencies of both city and
country practice which have brought to him the ripe experience of what
would be called a "physician's life-time." His success has been, in part,
due to his honesty, kindliness and conscientiousness, as well as to his
thorough training and natural adaptability to the profession.

Besides writing the Causes, Symptoms, Preventives, Nursing, Diet,
Physicians' Treatment, etc., he has examined each and every one of the
Mothers' Remedies and added, when possible, the reason why that remedy is
valuable. In short, he supplied in his remarks following each Mother's
Remedy the Medical virtue or active principle of the ingredients. This
lifts each Mother's Remedy into the realm of science,--in fact, to the
level of a Doctor's Prescription.

In writing his part, Dr. Ritter consulted, personally or through their
works, considerably over one hundred of the acknowledged Medical
Specialists of the world. Thus he has brought to you the latest
discoveries of modern science,--the Medical knowledge of the world's great
specialists.

Dr. Ritter, therefore, wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to the
following: On the subject of Theory and Practice, to Dr. Wm. Osler, Oxford
University, England; Dr. James M. Andres, Ph. D., Medico-Chirurgical
College, Philadelphia, Pa.; Dr. Hughes Dayton, Vanderbilt Clinic-College
of Physicians and Surgeons; Dr. Hobart A. Hare, Jefferson Medical College,
Philadelphia, Pa.; Dr. Temple S. Hoyne, Hahnemann Medical College,
Chicago, Ill.; Dr. A. E. Small, Hahnemann Medical College, Chicago, Ill.;
Dr. C. G. Raue, Hahnemann Medical College, Philadelphia, Pa.; Dr. John
King, Eclectic Medical Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio. On the subject of
Materia Medica to Dr. John Shoemaker, Medico-Chirurgical College,
Philadelphia, Pa.; Dr. Hobart A. Hare; Drs. Hemple and Arndt, Homeopathic,
and others. On the subject of Obstetrics, to Dr. W. P. Manton, Detroit
Medical College, and others. On the subject of Surgery, to the American
Text Book on Surgery, edited by Drs. Keen and White, of Philadelphia, and
many contributors. On the subject of Nervous Diseases, to Dr. Joseph D.
Nagel and others. On the subject of the Eye, to Dr. Arthur N. Alling, of
Yale University. On the subject of the Ear, to Dr. Albert H. Buck, College
of Physicians and Surgeons, New York City; Dr. O. A. Griffin, University
of Michigan and others. On the Nose and Throat, to Dr. James B. Ball,
London, England. On the Skin, to Dr. James N. Hyde, Rush Medical College,
Chicago, Ill.; Dr. Alfred Schalek, Rush Medical College, Chicago, Ill. On
the Rectum and Anus, to Dr. Samuel G. Gant, Ph. D., Post-graduate College,
New York City. On the Diseases of Children, to Dr. L. Emmett Holt, College
of Physicians and Surgeons, New York City; Dr. Koplik, New York City; Dr.
Charles Douglas, Detroit College of Medicine; Dr. Henry E. Tuley,
University of Kentucky; Dr. Tooker, Chicago. On the subject of Nursing, to
Isabel Hampton Robb, and on Dietetics, to Dr. Julius Friedenwald, College
Physicians and Surgeons, Baltimore, Md. On the Baby to Drs. Holt, Douglas,
Tooker, Koplik and Coolidge. On Insanity, to Dr. Selden Talcott, formerly
superintendent of the Middleton State Hospital for the Insane, New York
State. Besides the above a great many other physicians and their works
might be mentioned, and to all appreciation is gratefully acknowledged.

Mrs. Elizabeth Johnstone, who writes the department on "Manners and Social
Customs," is the only daughter of the late Francis Gardiner, one of the
early settlers of Washtenaw County, Michigan. She was educated at the
State Normal School, now the Normal College at Ypsilanti, and taught for
several years after graduation. In 1880 she married the late Robert
Ferguson Johnstone, editor of the Michigan Farmer, and after his death
became editor of the Household Department of that paper. In 1895, the
Farmer having passed into other ownership, she became a member of the
Editorial Staff of the Detroit Free Press, where,--continuing to write
under the pseudonym of "Beatrix" she has become widely known through the
vast circulation of that paper.

Years of experience have enabled her to write on topics of interest to
women with comprehension of their needs, and to answer social inquiries
with exactness.

Miss Edna Gertrude Thompson, who supplies the chapter on Domestic Science,
is a graduate of the Northern State Normal of Michigan. She was for a time
a teacher in the Public Schools of Michigan and New York State. Miss
Thompson later graduated from and is now the director of the Domestic
Science Department of the Thomas Normal Training School of Detroit,
Michigan.

Miss Thompson has won an enviable reputation in Domestic Science work. She
has avoided all of the quackery, self-exploitation and money schemes,
which have proved a temptation to many in the work, and which have tended
to brand the science as an advertising scheme, and confined herself to
study, teaching and the legitimate development of the science. Her work in
the Normal and in giving lectures on Domestic Science brings her in touch
with large numbers of intelligent and practical women who realize that
housekeeping and cookery must be reduced to a science. Luxuries of fifty
years ago are necessities today. The increase in the cost of living
without a corresponding advance in wages has made it imperative that
method and system he installed in the home.

Domestic Science is still in the embryo, but let us hope it will, in a
measure at least, prove a panacea for modern domestic ills and receive the
encouragement and speedy endorsement that it deserves.



TABLE OF CONTENTS [vii]

                                          Beginning on Page
MEDICAL DEPARTMENT                               1
   Mother's Diagnosis                            1
   Respiratory Diseases                          6
   Animal Parasites, Diseases Caused by         44
   Skin, Diseases of                            52
   Digestive Organs, Diseases of                97
   Kidney and Bladder, Diseases of             152
   Infectious Diseases                         166
   Blood and Ductless Glands, Diseases of      249
   Nervous System, Diseases of                 261
   Constitutional Diseases                     314
   Circulatory System, Diseases of             337
   Eye and Ear, Diseases of                    346
   Deformities                                 369
   Intoxicants and Sunstrokes                  371
   Accidents, Emergencies and Poisons          376
   Herb Department                             408
   Homeopathy                                  448
   Patent Medicines and Secret Formula,        465

Woman's Department
   Diseases of Women                           489
   Obstetrics or Midwifery                     515
   All About Baby                              544
   Nursing Department                          623
   Schools of Medicine, Leading                669
   Operations                                  662
   Hot Springs of Arkansas                     666
   Common Household Articles, Medical Uses of  668
   Mothers' Remedies, Unclassified             674

   MANNERS AND SOCIAL CUSTOMS                  683
   BEAUTY AND THE TOILET                       790
   NURSERY HINTS AND FIRESIDE GEMS             800
   DOMESTIC SCIENCE DEPARTMENT                 817
   CANNING, PICKLING, PRESERVING, ETC          831
   CANDY DEPARTMENT                            848
   MISCELLANEOUS, GENERAL                      856
   DICTIONARY, MEDICAL                         893

INDEX
   Medical                                     909
   Manners and Social Customs                  944
   Miscellaneous                               946



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS [viii]

ADENOIDS                                       Opposite Page    8
APPENDIX, VERMIFORM (Showing Different Types)                 116
APPENDIX, VERMIFORM (When Affected by Inflammation
         and Gangrene, Necessitating an Operation)            116
ARDIS (Baby Photo)                                            544
BANDAGING, HOSPITAL METHOD                                    384
BRONCHIAL TUBES AND LUNGS                      Opposite Page    6
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM                             Opposite Page  337
DIPHTHERIA                                     Opposite Page  184
DROWNING (Schaefer Method of Resuscitating)    Opposite Page  399
EYE BANDAGE, PLAN OF BORSCH'S                           Page  386
HAND ARTERIES                                  Opposite Page  392
HAND NERVES                                    Opposite Page  292
HEART, STOMACH AND APPENDIX                    Opposite Page   97
HERB PLATES:
      Bearberry                                Opposite Page  411
      Blood Root                               Opposite Page  413
      Boneset                                  Opposite Page  414
      Canada Fleabane                          Opposite Page  430
      Chamomile, True                          Opposite Page  417
      Elder Flowers                            Opposite Page  422
      Elecampane                               Opposite Page  446
      Ginseng                                  Opposite Page  424
      Indian Tobacco or Lobelia                Opposite Page  417
      Mandrake or May-apple                    Opposite Page  429
      Marigold, Marsh                          Opposite Page  430
      Mustard                                  Opposite Page  432
      Partridge Berry                          Opposite Page  432
      Pleurisy Root                            Opposite Page  434
      Rock Rose                                Opposite Page  431
      St. John's Wort                          Opposite Page  443
      Scouring Rush                            Opposite Page  414
      Seneca Snake Root                        Opposite Page  438
      Snake Head                               Opposite Page  408
      Tansy                                    Opposite Page  437
      Wahoo                                    Opposite Page  445
      Wormsted, American                       Opposite Page  446
      Wormwood                                 Opposite Page  443


KIDNEYS, URETERS AND BLADDER                             Page 153
MUSCULAR SYSTEM                                 Opposite Page 323
NERVOUS SYSTEM                                           Page 262
OBLIQUE BANDAGE OF THE JAW                                    380
RITTER, DR. T. J. (Photo)                     Opposite Title Page
SCIATIC NERVE                                   Opposite Page 266
SKELETON                                        Opposite Page 369
SKIAGRAPH (X-RAY PHOTOGRAPH) OF THE HAND                      316
SPIRAL BANDAGE OF THE FINGER                                  384
SPIRAL BANDAGE OF THE FOOT                                    384
SPIRAL REVERSED BANDAGE OF THE JAW                            386
TASTE BUDS                                                    308
THYROID GLAND (Goitre)                          Opposite Page 258



PHYSICIAN'S INTRODUCTION [x]

"Of the things which man can do or make here below, by far the most
momentous, wonderful, and worthy, are the things we call Books."
--CARLYLE.

"A good book may be among the best of friends. It is the most patient and
cheerful of companions. It does not turn its back upon us in times of
adversity or distress. It always receives us with the same kindness."
--S. SMILES.

Of making books there seems no end. Some are good, some bad, and many just
an encumbrance upon the book-shelves, neither of much use nor particularly
harmful. Some books are to be read for cheer and amusement; some for
reproof and correction; others to be studied for useful information and
profit.

The Ideal Book.

There is a wide felt need for a worthy book of sound hygienic and medical
facts for the non-medical people. The Ideal Book for this mission should
be compact in form, but large enough to give the salient facts, and give
these in understandable language; it must not be "loaded" with obsolete
and useless junk of odds and ends which have long ceased to be even
interesting; it must carry with it the stamp of genuine reliability; it
should treat all the ordinary and most common forms of ailments and
accidents; it must be safe in its teachings; it needs to be free from
objectionable language and illustrations, so that all of any family may
study and use it with profit; it must frequently warn of dangers ahead and
urge the summoning of professional skill promptly, for there are many
cases requiring the services of experienced physicians and surgeons in
their treatment; it should advise remedies readily obtainable, as well as
those for which long journeys to a drug store are required; and finally
the book should be reasonable in price that those who most need it can
afford to own it.

Need of Brevity.

The facts of hygiene and therapeutic measures are widely scattered through
medical literature, and extend over hundreds of years of time. Many
volumes have been written on diseases of the eye, the heart, liver, and
stomach, brain and other organs, to understand which requires special
technical education. It would be the height of folly to present these
discussions to the laity in their original form, hence the necessity for
condensation and presentation of the needful facts in the language of the
people in whose interests the book is printed. In a book of fiction there
may be need for useless verbiage for the sake of "making pages," but facts
of vital importance and usefulness in our daily welfare need to be well
boiled down and put into shape for ready reference. This has been done in
"Mothers' Remedies" and I think it quite fulfills the ideal I have
outlined above.

The title is rather odd upon first seeing it, but the most plausible when
you become acquainted with its import. It surely becomes the best friend
of the whole family. "It does not turn its back upon us in times of
adversity," but cheerfully answers a thousand and one questions of vital
importance to the household. In the hour of distress, when illness or
accident befalls the dear ones, you may turn again and again to its pages
without meeting disappointment.

Its Value. [x]

There are many books on household medicines, but in my opinion
this is the most useful of them all, a very present help in time of need.
You can go to it for helpful information without failing to find it. Is
there serious illness in the house? It will tell you about it concisely
and plainly, describing its symptoms, nature and course, and advise you to
consult the family physician if of a serious nature before it is too late.
In the chapters on accidents, emergencies and poisons, it tells you what
to do at once while awaiting the doctor's arrival. He will be much pleased
to see that you have made the proper effort to treat the case. Prompt
treatment makes for prompt recovery.

The real value of any book, or what is sometimes called its intrinsic
value, or utility, consists in what it avails to gratify some desire or
want of our nature. It depends, then, wholly upon its qualities in
relation to our desires. That which contributes in ever so small degree to
the wellbeing of humanity is of greater value than silver or gold. This
book contains hundreds of prescriptions, anyone of which will repay the
small cost in money that it requires to possess it. In fact, the financial
investment is so small when compared with the benefit derived from its
pages that this feature need not be considered.

Examples.

In the stillness and loneliness of the night, away from medical help,
there comes the hoarse barking cough of the child, perhaps, and a case of
croup is upon the responsibility of the parents. The struggles and terror
of the little patient throws the household into consternation, and all is
excitement in a moment. If the mother ever knew what to do in such a case
she is likely not able to recall the exact remedy at this time, the doctor
is miles away, and the case is urgent.

A reference to the medical index of "Mothers' Remedies" under croup shows
that on pages 27, 28 and 29, is a full description of the attack, and
there are fifteen (15) home remedies given, many of which can be found in
the house, and the spasm may be stopped by the use of one of them.

This is only one example of the use of this book. There are innumerable
times when cases come up in the home, or accidents befall a dear one and a
ready remedy is required; the book most likely contains it, and is willing
to tell you if you consult it carefully.

Tuberculosis.

The article on tuberculosis is full of valuable rules on diet and hygiene
for every person, whether he has the disease or not. A knowledge of the
dangers and mode of spreading the disease is the best safeguard against
having it. Where one person in every seven (7) dies of consumption it
becomes imperative that full knowledge of the disease and its prevention
should become widespread.

Accidents and Poisons. [xii]

Another department that illustrates the value of the book is that on
Accidents and Poisons, where quick action is needed to prevent great
suffering and danger and the salvation of life itself. One cannot always
get the doctor in time. A quick reference to this part of the book will
give the proper course of action to follow. The indicated mother's remedy
or the physician's treatment as given here applied in the "nick of time"
will save many a life in cases of burns, or accidental poisoning, or
hemorrhage. I have been called in such cases where a simple drink of warm
mustard water promptly used would have saved a life in carbolic acid
poisoning. It is in the emergencies where a ready knowledge of the ways
and means necessary to conserve life is most valuable; and it is in just
such emergencies that one is most apt to forget what is best to do that a
copy of Mothers' Remedies becomes a priceless boon of helpfulness.

All About Baby.

The Woman's Department, and the chapter on "All About Baby," alone contain
priceless information for the guidance of the women of the home. It is
like having a good doctor right in the house who is ready and able to
answer more than 500 questions of vital interest about Baby. The book is
thoroughly reliable, free from exaggerated statements and written in the
plainest language possible so as to make it useful to every member of the
home. The Herb Department gives a brief description of the more common and
most useful plants and roots, with the time for gathering them, and the
dose and therapeutic indication for their use. The botanical illustrations
are correct and worthy of careful study.

THE INDEX.

Mothers' Remedies is unique in arrangement, and full of detail, but so
well indexed that any portion of it, or any disease and remedy, can be
readily found, and when found you will have a choice of home remedies
ready at hand. This is one of the features of the book that distinguishes
Mothers' Remedies from the usual home medical books heretofore sold.

This feature of the book cannot be too strongly impressed. Its value
becomes apparent as soon as one consults its pages. Long chapters of
descriptive reading filled with high sounding, technical terms may look
very learned because the average reader does not understand it fully. But
it is what one can obtain from a book that is usable that makes it
valuable. In Mothers' Remedies this idea has been excellently carried out.

The Home Remedies.

If there was any question regarding the success of the book in this
homelike arrangement, the utilization of the home remedies, in addition to
the strictly medical and drug-store ingredients; it was promptly dispelled
when the book was printed and presented to the people interested. It has
proved to be the most wonderful seller on the market--the most usable and
useful book ever offered the non-medical reader; because never before has
a medical book contained the hundreds of simple home remedies from
mothers. Because a physician tells you why the remedies are useful--the
reason why the things used are efficacious.

Medical Terms.  [xiii]

Frequently one comes across technical terms in the secular papers which,
unless understood, obscure the sense of the reading. There is a dictionary
of medical terms as a separate department which adds much to the
usefulness of the work; the spelling, pronunciation and definition being
concisely given in English.

Other Departments.

There are other departments, such as chapters on Manners and Social
Customs, by an expert. Nursery Hints, Candy Making, Domestic Science, and
Miscellaneous departments which interest every member of any average
family in health as well as in sickness. The Candy Department provides
many an evening's enjoyment for the young people.

In addition, the book gives under each disease the physician's remedies,
the symptoms, causes, preventives wherever important, the diet, nursing,
necessity for operations, and much other needful information for the
sick-room. A complete chapter on Nursing and a detailed account of the
Baby and its care is perhaps the most useful portion of the book to the
mothers who desire to learn all about the baby. Many home medical books
are of doubtful value by reason of exaggerated statements or vague and
unusable directions regarding treatments. Mothers' Remedies stands
squarely upon the foundation of utility and practical every-day
usefulness. No matter how many other home medical books one may have, this
is also needful because there's none other on the market like it. One of
the missions of Mothers' Remedies in the home is the prevention of disease
through its sound sanitary teachings. It was written exclusively for home
use, and its instructions can be followed by anyone who can understand
plain English, and the home remedies are extensively explained and
recommended so that in emergencies one can always find something of value
to use while awaiting the surgeon's arrival. It is a well-spring of
usefulness in any home, and it gives me genuine pleasure to call attention
to it in these few lines, and to bespeak for it the continued enthusiastic
reception with which it has met heretofore.

(Signed) WM. ELLWOOD ZIEGENFUSS, M.D.
Detroit, July 2, 1914.

The National Narcotic law makes it practically impossible for the laity to
have prescriptions filled which contain opiates or cocaine.

We therefore have substituted other remedies quite as good whenever this
was possible and still retain the efficiency of the prescription.

DR. W. E. ZIEGENFUSS.
August, 1918.



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT [1]

MOTHERS' DIAGNOSIS

STRIKING, CHARACTERISTIC SYMPTOMS
of Many Diseases for Quick Reference and Comparison
WHEN IN DOUBT
BEFORE CALLING THE DOCTOR.

APPENDICITIS.--Loss of appetite. There may be nausea and vomiting; there
is usually a sudden onset of pain, often sharp and severe in the whole or
part of the abdomen. Later the pain settles in the right groin. Patient
lies on his back with his right knee drawn up. The muscles become rigid on
the right side and later a lump appears in the right groin (iliac fossa).

ANEMIA.--This disease is a diminution of the total quantity of the blood
of its red cells, or red corpuscles or of their Haemoglobin, the coloring
matter of the red corpuscles. Some difficulty of breathing. Palpitation
on least exertion, tendency to faint, headache, tired, irritable, poor or
changeable appetite, digestive disturbances, constipation, cold hands and
feet, difficult and painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea), irregular
menstruation, leucorrhea. And when the skin is pale, yellowish green
tinge, with perhaps flushed cheeks, it might properly be called chlorosis
or "green sickness."

ADDISON'S DISEASE.--Great weakness, stomach and bowel disorders, weak
heart and dark coloring (pigmentation) of the skin.

BRIGHT'S DISEASE.--Albumin and casts in the urine. The onset is usually
gradual. There is paleness and puffiness of the eyelids, ankles or hands
in the morning. Later increased dropsy of face and the extremities, pasty
yellow complexion, dyspepsia, constipation and heart symptom.

[2 MOTHERS' DIAGNOSIS]

BRONCHITIS, ACUTE. (Cold on the Chest.)--There is a feeling of
tightness under the breastbone, with a dry hard cough and headache. This
cough may make the chest feel raw and sore, especially in front.

CHOLERA MORBUS.--The onset is usually sudden with nausea, vomiting, and
cramp-like bowel pains; vomits at first the stomach contents. Purging
follows; vomiting and purging with severe cramps in abdomen and legs.

CROUP.--Child wakes up suddenly, perhaps at midnight, with a harsh barking
cough, with difficulty of breathing, and it looks as if it could not get
another breath. Then there is an easy spell and soon the spasm recurs.

CANCER OF THE STOMACH.--There is anemia and a gradual loss of weight. A
peculiar color of the skin (cachexia), irregular vomiting, some bleeding
of "coffee-ground" color. Progressive loss of weight. Dragging or burning
in the region of the stomach.

CHICKEN POX.--Slight fever, chilly feelings. In twenty-four hours the
eruption appears upon the body, face and forehead often only a few
separate red pimples which soon become rounded vesicles; however, there
may be few or many.

DIABETES.--The onset is gradual, glucose (sugar) is persistently in the
urine. Great quantity of urine passed; six to forty pints in twenty-four
hours. Thirst is great. Large quantities of water is taken. Loss of
strength and weight, mouth is dry, tongue is red and glazed, skin is dry
and wrinkled.

DIPHTHERIA.--This disease begins gradually, as a rule, with chilly
feelings, pain in the back and limbs, pulse is faster, with a general
redness of the throat before the formation of the membrane; with such
symptoms there are great weakness, paleness, and a bad smelling breath.
Soon a spot or spots may be seen on the tonsils, uvula or soft palate, but
in a day or two a dirty white patch is seen on the tonsils and this may
spread, and with it there is increased weakness, pallor, loss of appetite
and fever. When the membrane is taken off of the tonsils there is left a
raw surface, and the membrane rapidly reforms.

DYSENTERY.--The onset may be marked by diarrhea, followed by a severe,
cramp-like bowel pain, with frequent small stools containing blood and
mucus and accompanied by much straining (tenesmus).

DYSPEPSIA, ACUTE. (Acute Gastritis, Acute Indigestion).--Distress in the
stomach, headache, thirst, nausea, vomiting, tongue heavily coated, foul
breath, distaste for food, tender stomach.

[3 MOTHERS' DIAGNOSIS]

ERYSIPELAS.--The onset is sudden, high fever, and a local redness with a
sharply defined margin between it and a healthy skin. It frequently
appears upon the nose and spreads over one cheek or both. It may show only
a smooth raised skin, or there may be vesicles.

EARACHE.--This is very common in children. It comes frequently as an
extension through the eustachian canal of a cold. The ache is only an
evidence of congestion or inflammation in the ear. The child bursts out
crying violently and nothing seems to make it stop. It may cry for some
time then stop. When it is very young it is restless, and wants to move
constantly, and refuses to be comforted by the soothing embraces of its
mother. It is quiet only a few moments at a time and again renews its
cries and restlessness. The cries are moaning and seem like hopeless
cries. A child or infant that cries that way and will not be quieted,
should be suspected of having earache, and hot applications of dry or wet
heat should be applied to the ear. If such symptoms are neglected, in a
few days you are likely to have a discharge running from the external
canal (meatus) and perhaps permanent injury may be done to the drum
membrane by ulceration. Warm water poured in the ear frequently relieves
common earache.

GALL STONES.--Sudden agonizing pain in the right upper abdomen in the
region of the liver, with vomiting, prostration, tenderness in that
region. Pain generally comes at intervals in paroxysms. There may be pains
in the stomach during the weeks when the attack is absent and the patient
may think the stomach is the seat of the trouble.

IRITIS.--Pain is severe and worse at night, the iris looks cloudy, muddy,
the pupil is small. There is congestion around the iris (ciliary
congestion).

KIDNEY STONES.--Pain goes from the kidneys down through the ureter into
the bladder and into the scrotum. There may be sand in the urine that
makes it look like blood.

LA GRIPPE--The onset is usually sudden, with a chill, and all of the
symptoms of an active fever, headache, bone-ache, a general ache all over.
A feeling of extreme weakness; feels miserable and sick.

LOCK-JAW (Tetanus).--History of a wound. The muscles of the jaw may be
stiff and set. When there are spasms the muscles remain stiff and hard for
some time.

MALARIAL FEVER.--Chill, fever, and sweat, or one stage may be absent.
There may be only a slight chilly feeling with fever almost all day and
then remission.

[4 MOTHERS' DIAGNOSIS]

MUMPS.--The swelling is in front and below and behind the ear. Hard to eat
and the swallowing of vinegar is almost impossible.

MEASLES.--Comes on gradually. There is a feeling of tiredness and languor,
headache followed shortly by sneezing, cold symptoms, running at the eyes,
dry throat, cough, much like an ordinary cold in the head, but with a
persistent, hard racking cough. The eruption appears first in the sides of
the mouth, in the inner surface of the cheeks, lips, gums and soft palate,
in size from that of a pin-head to that of a split pea. It appears then
about the eyes and then on the face, chest and extremities. It is first in
red spots and then gets blotchy. This is usually three to six days after
the appearance of the cold (catarrh) symptoms.

MEASLES (German).--Chilliness, slight fever, pain in the back and legs,
coryza. The eruption appears on the first or second day, on the face, then
on the chest and in twenty-four hours over the whole body. The glands
under the jaw enlarge.

OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM.       (Inflammation of Eyes at Birth).--A severe
conjunctivitis in the newly-born baby, swelling and redness usually of
both eyes, occurring on the second or third day after birth; very soon
there is a discharge and shortly it becomes creamy pus which runs from the
eyes when the lids are parted.

PLEURISY.--The onset may be sudden or gradual. Sudden with a chill, fever,
a severe sharp pain, stitch in the side, made worse by respiration,
coughing or moving. The cough is dry. The pain is near the breast and
sometimes it extends to the back.

PNEUMONIA.--It begins with a chill, fever, pain in the lungs,
expectoration with cough, and the material spit up may be mixed with blood
(rusty sputa). Then also rapid rise of temperature, "grunting" breathing,
the nostrils dilate, and the cheeks are flushed.

RHEUMATIC FEVER OR INFLAMMATORY RHEUMATISM.--A number of joints become
involved. It spreads from one joint to another, very painful joints;
profuse sweating.

SMALLPOX.--The onset is sudden and ushered in by a chill, nausea and
vomiting, headache, and severe pains in the back and legs, without grip
symptoms. There is a rapid rise of  temperature. Usually on the fourth day
after the onset small red pimples appear on the forehead, along the line
of the hair and on the wrists. The temperature falls with the appearance
of the eruption.

SPOTTED FEVER.--Marked loss of appetite, chill, projectile vomiting,
severe headache, pain and stiffness of the back and neck. Later head is
drawn back, often the back is rigid. The muscles of the neck and back are
very tender.

[5 MOTHERS' DIAGNOSIS]

SCARLET FEVER. (Scarlatina).--Comes on suddenly with loss of appetite,
headache, sick stomach, perhaps vomiting, high fever, sore throat,
vomiting may persist. The tongue is coated, edges are red; later it is red
and rough; the so-called strawberry tongue. Usually within twenty-four
hours an eruption appears, first upon the neck and chest which spreads
rapidly over the face and the rest of the body. The eruption consists of
red pimply elevations about the size of a pin-head, very close together,
so that the body seems to be covered with a scarlet flush. If you look
closely you can see these little pimply elevations.

TUBERCULOSIS OF THE LUNGS.--Irregular temperatures, respiration is more
frequent than normal, pulse is rapid, cough, expectoration, night sweats,
perhaps, and general failure of strength.

TONSILITIS. (Smooth and Follicular).--Commences with a chill, rapid rise
of temperature, general aching in the back, and legs especially. The
tonsils are large and red and spots may appear on them in a few hours.
There may be no spots but a smooth; red, swollen tonsil, sometimes swollen
to an enormous size. The spot and membrane, if any exists, are easily
rubbed off and when this is done a glistening surface is seen, but not
raw, as in diphtheria.

TYPHOID FEVER--There is a feeling of illness for a week or two and the
patient is not able to work much, does not sleep well, dreams, has a dull
headache, back of the neck may be stiff, nosebleed sometimes, with a
feeling as if there was some fever, increasing feeling of weakness, and
sick feeling. Finally the fever, etc., becomes more prominent with
constipation and diarrhea.

ULCER OF THE CORNEA.--Light hurts the eyes very much, tears run freely and
there is a feeling of something in the eye. The eyeball shows a rim of
pink congestion about the cornea. The ulcer can be seen.

ULCER OF THE STOMACH.--Pain, local tenderness, bleeding. Distress after
eating and vomiting of a very acid fluid. Pain in the region of the
stomach and usually sharp pain in the back is the most constant symptom.
It is increased by food at once and relieved by vomiting. The tenderness
upon pressure is usually marked and is localized.

WHOOPING-COUGH.--Begins with symptoms of a cold in the eyes, nose, and the
chest. The cough gradually becomes worse, usually in from seven to ten
days; it comes in paroxysms (spells) and then the whoop.

RESPIRATORY DISEASES [6]
Including CROUP, COLDS, SORE-THROAT, HOARSENESS,
BRONCHITIS, ASTHMA, HAY-FEVER, PLEURISY,
ADENOIDS, PNEUMONIA, ETC.

With Definition, Cause, Symptoms, Preventives,
Mothers' Remedies, Physicians' Treatment;
also Diet, Nursing and Sanitary Care; all for Home
Use and Reference.

THE ANATOMY OF THE NOSE.--The nose is divided by a middle partition
(septum) into two cavities (nasal chambers or fossae) each being a
wedge-shaped cavity, distinct by itself and extending from the nostril or
anterior nares in front to the posterior openings behind and from the base
of the skull to the hard palate below. Where the posterior opening or
nares ends is called the nose-pharynx, The pharynx joins there with the
cavities and hence called nose-pharynx. The partition (septum) is thin,
one-tenth to one-eighth of an inch in thickness and is composed in front
of cartilage (gristle) and behind of bone. In its normal state this
partition (septum) should be perfectly straight, thin and in the middle
line, The cartilaginous (gristle) portion is seldom found in this
condition as, owing to its prominent location and frequent exposure to
injury, blows and falling on the nose, the partition (septum) is often
bent or turned to one side or the other so far in some cases as to close
the nostril. The posterior part is composed of bone, and being well
protected, is seldom found out of position or displaced, even when the
cartilaginous portion is often badly deformed, The floor of the nose is
formed by the upper jaw bone (maxillary) and the palate bone. The outer
wall of the nose or nose cavity is the most complicated, for it presents
three prominences, the turbinated bones, which extend from before
backwards and partially divide the nose cavity into incomplete spaces
called meatus passages. The turbinated bones are three in number, the
inferior, middle and superior. They vary in size and shape, and owing to
the relations they hear to the surrounding parts, and to the influence
they exert on the general condition of the nose and throat, are of great
importance. The inferior or lower turbinate bone is the largest and in a
way is the only independent bone. The middle and superior are small. They
are all concave in shape and extend from before backwards, and beneath the
concave surface of each one of the corresponding passages or openings
(meatus) is formed. The inferior or lower (meatus) opening or passage is
that part of the nasal (nose) passage which lies beneath the inferior
turbinate bone and extends from the nostrils in front to the passage
behind the nose (post-nasal) (posterior nares) toward the pharynx. The
middle opening (meatus) lies above the inferior turbinate bone and below
the middle turbinate bone. The superior opening (meatus) is situated above
the middle turbinate bone.

[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 7]

[Illustration: Bronchial Tubes and Lungs.]

The mucous membrane lining the nasal passages is similar to other mucous
membranes. It is here called the Schneiderian membrane after the name of a
German anatomist named Schneider. It is continuous through the ducts with
the mucous membrane of all the various accessory cavities of the nose. It
is quite thin, in the upper part over the superior turbinate bone and
partition (septum) while it is quite thick over the lower turbinate bone,
the floor of the nose cavity and the lower part of the partition. It is
well supplied with blood vessels, veins, and glands for producing the
necessary secretion.

The nose is an organ of breathing (respiration) and it warms and moistens
the air we breathe and arrests particles of dust in the air before they
enter the lungs. If the air we breathe is of an uneven temperature, or of
marked degree of dryness, or if it is saturated with impurities, it always
acts as a source of irritation to the mucous membrane of the upper
respiratory tract, like the larynx. By the time the air reaches the
pharynx, through the nose, it has become almost as warm as the blood, and
also is well saturated with moisture. The mucous membrane that lines the
nose cavity and especially that part over the lower turbinate bone,
secretes from sixteen to twenty ounces of fluid daily. This fluid cleanses
and lubricates the nose and moistens the air we breathe. Conditions may
arise which interfere with this natural secretion. This may be due to the
fact that some of the glands have shrunk or wasted (atrophied) and the
secretion has become thick. This collects in the nose, decomposes and
forms scabs and crusts in the nostrils. In this condition there will be
dropping of mucus into the throat. This condition is usually only a
collection of  secretions from the nose,--which are too thick to flow
away,--collect in the space behind the nose, and when some have
accumulated, drop into the pharynx.

[8 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

In order to be in good health it is necessary to breath through the nose,
and to do this there must be nothing in the nose or upper part of the
pharynx to interfere with the free circulation of the air through these
cavities. The cavities of the nose may be partly closed by polpi (tumors)
on the upper and middle turbinate bone, a spur on the (septum) partition,
deviation of the partition or enlarged turbinate bones, or adenoids in the
upper part of the pharynx. These troubles almost close up the nose
sometimes and the person is compelled to breathe through his mouth. He not
only looks foolish, talks thick, but is laying up for himself future
trouble. By correcting the trouble in the nose and removing the adenoids
in the upper part of the pharynx the patient can breathe through the nasal
passages. If you take a tube you can pass it straight back through the
lower channel (meatus) into the pharynx. It will touch the upper back wall
of the pharynx. If the tube has a downward bend you can see it behind the
soft palate and by attaching a string to that end you can draw it back out
through the nostrils. In that way we plug the posterior openings (nares).
The upper part of the pharynx reaches higher up behind than a line drawn
horizontally above the tip of the nose to the pharynx. It reaches forward
above the soft palate on its front surface. Its front surface is almost
directly on a vertical line with tonsil, above the soft palate. On its
upper part and on the side near the nose cavity is the opening of the
eustachian tube.

The name naso-pharynx means the junction of the nose and pharynx.
Sometimes the upper posterior wall of the pharynx, called the vault of the
pharynx, especially the part behind each eustachian tube, is filled almost
full with adenoids. These are overgrowths or thickenings of the glandular
tissue in the upper posterior wall of the pharynx (vault of the pharynx).

ADENOIDS. (Pharyngeal Tonsil, Lursehkas Tonsil, Adenoid Vegetation, Post-
nasal Growth.)--Adenoids are overgrowths or thickenings of the glandular
tissue in the vault (top) of the pharynx. They are on the upper posterior
wall of the pharynx, often filling the whole space, especially the part
behind the ear-tube--eustachian tube.

They are a soft pliable mass, well supplied with blood vessels, especially
in children. Some are firmer and these are the kind seen in adults. The
color varies from pale pink to dark red. The structure is similar to
enlarged tonsils.

[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 9]

[Illustration: Adenoids]

Symptoms.--Children breathe chiefly or wholly through the mouth. They are
apt to breathe noisily, especially when they eat and drink. They sleep
with their mouth open, breathe hard and snore. They have attacks of slight
suffocation sometimes, especially seen in young children. There may be
difficulty in nursing in infants; they sleep poorly, toss about in bed,
moan, talk, and night terrors are common.  They may also sweat very much
during sleep. A constant hacking or barking cough is a common symptom and
this cough is often troublesome for some hours before going to bed.
Troubles with the larynx and pharynx are common and spasmodic laryngitis
appears to be often dependent upon adenoids. Bronchial asthma and sneezing
in paroxysms are sometimes connected with them. The chest becomes
deformed. The prolonged mouth-breathing imparts to adenoid patients a
characteristic look in the face. The lower jaw is dropped and the lips are
kept constantly apart. In many cases the upper lip is short, showing some
part of the upper teeth. The dropping of the jaw draws upon the soft parts
and tends to obliterate the natural folds of the face about the nose,
lips, and cheeks. The face has an elongated appearance and the expression
is vacant, listless, or even stupid. The nose is narrow and pinched, from
long continued inaction of the wings of the nose (alae nasi). The root of
the nose may be flat and broad. When the disease sets in during early
childhood, the palate may become high arched. If the disease continues
beyond second teething, the arch of the palate becomes higher and the top
of the arch more pointed. The upper jaw elongates and this often causes
the front teeth to project far beyond the corresponding teeth in the lower
jaw. The high arched palate is often observed to be associated with a
deflected partition (septum) in the nose.

The speech is affected in a characteristic way; it acquires a dead
character. There is inability to pronounce the nasal consonant sounds; m,
n, and ng and the l, r, and th sounds are changed. Some backwardness in
learning to articulate is often noticed.

Deafness is frequently present, varying in degree, transient and
persistent. Attacks of earache are common and also running of the ears.
The ear troubles often arise from the extension of catarrh from the
nose-pharynx through the eustachian tubes to the middle ear. Sometimes the
adenoids block the entrance to the tubes. The ventilation of the middle
ear may be impeded. Dr. Ball, of London, England, says: "Ear troubles in
children are undoubtedly, in the vast majority of cases, dependent upon
the presence of adenoid vegetation" (growths).

Children with adenoids are very liable to colds in the head, which
aggravate all the symptoms, and in the slighter forms of the disease the
symptoms may hardly be noticeable, except when the child is suffering from
a cold.

[10 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Chronic catarrh is often caused by adenoids. A chronic pus discharge often
develops, especially in children. There is often a half-pus discharge
trickling over the posterior wall of the pharynx from the nose-pharynx.
And yet some children with adenoids never have any discharge from the
nose. There may be more or less dribbling of saliva from the mouth,
especially in young children, and this is usually worse during sleep.
Headache is not uncommon when these growths persist into adult life: they
continue to give rise to most of the symptoms just described, although
these symptoms may be less marked because of the relatively larger size of
the nose-pharynx. The older patients seek relief, usually, from nasal
catarrh symptoms. They complain of a dry throat on waking and they hawk
and cough, In order to clear the sticky secretion from the throat. The
adenoids have often undergone a considerable amount of shrinking, but they
frequently give rise to a troublesome inflammation of the nose and
pharynx. Rounded or irregular red elevations will often be seen on the
posterior wall of the pharynx, outgrowths of adenoid tissue in this
region. Similar elevations are sometimes seen on the posterior pillars of
the fauces. The tonsils are often enlarged. A good deal of thick discharge
will sometimes be seen in the posterior wall of the pharynx proceeding
from the nose-pharynx.

Although adenoids, like the normal tonsil, usually tend to diminish and
disappear with the approach of youth, they constitute during childhood a
constant source of danger and trouble and not infrequently inflict
permanent mischief. Also children afflicted with adenoids are less able to
cope with diphtheria, scarlet fever, measles, whooping-cough, etc.

Deafness, mouth-breathing habit, and imperfect resonance of the voice, as
well as the characteristic expression of the face, will often remain as
permanent effects of the impairment of function due to these growths in
childhood, even though they have more or less completely disappeared. The
collapsed state of the wings of the nose, and wasted condition of their
muscles, resulting from long disease, often contributes to the
perpetuation of the mouth-breathing habit. On the other hand the rapid
improvement, after a timely removal of the growths, is usually very
striking.

Treatment.--The only thing to do is to remove them soon, no matter how
young the patient may be. An anaesthetic is usually given to children. The
operation does not take long and the patient soon recovers from its
effects. The result of an operation, especially in young children, is
usually very satisfactory. Breathing through the nose is re-established,
the face expression is changed for the better. The symptoms as before
described disappear to a great extent.



COLDS. (Coryza. Acute Nasal Catarrh. Acute Rhinitis).--This is an
inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the nose.

Causes.--Exposure to cold or wet when the body is overheated; sudden or
extreme changes in the atmosphere; inhaling irritating fumes or dust.

Symptoms.--A chilly feeling, limbs ache, tendency to sneeze, severe
headache above the nose, eyes are dry, stopped-up feeling in the nostrils.
Then there is a thin watery discharge, usually of an irritating character,
very thin at first, but it soon becomes thicker; sometimes the ears ring
(tinnitus). The nose and lining is red and swollen.


MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--1. Colds. Borax for Cold Settled in Throat. "For a
cold in the throat, dissolve a piece of borax, the size of a pea, in the
mouth and don't talk. It will work like a charm." This is an old and well
tried remedy and is very good for colds or sore throat. It acts by
contracting the tissues and in that way there is less congestion in the
parts.

[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 11]

2. Colds, Valuable Caution and Treatment for.--Mrs. Maxwell, of Cleveland,
writes in the Cleveland Press as follows: "If you intend to treat the cold
yourself, take it up at the outset. Don't wait for it to develop. To break
it up, nothing is better than the full hot bath at bed time, or the foot
bath with mustard, followed by a hot drink. It is old-fashioned, but
scientific, for nine colds out of ten are due to clogged pores. Benjamin
Franklin said a hundred years ago that all colds come from impure air,
lack of exercise, and over-eating, and nobody has ever bettered his
conclusion. Even contagious colds will not be taken if the bodily
resistance is kept at par. More fresh air, less grip. Avoid people who
have colds, and keep out of badly ventilated rooms. Stuffy street cars are
responsible for half the hard colds, not because people get chilled, but
because the air is foul. And when you have a cold keep away from the baby.
If the baby takes a cold, let it have medical attention at once. Don't
experiment upon it with remedies intended for grown-ups."

3. Colds, Molasses-Vinegar Syrup for.--"One-half cup of molasses, butter
the size of a hickory nut, one tablespoon vinegar, boil together. Dose:
One teaspoonful or less as the case requires. Take often until relieved."
This is an old remedy and a good one.

4. Colds, Quinine and Ginger for.--"Give plenty of quinine and drink hot
water with ginger in it." Quinine, as we all know, is an old remedy for
colds and therefore we all know how it acts. The ginger warms up the
system and produces sweating. Care should be taken when using this remedy
not to take cold, as the pores are all opened by the quinine.

5. Colds, Boneset for.--"Boneset tea steeped and drank cold cures a
cold." Boneset simply acts by causing a better circulation in the system
and in that way sweating is produced and we all know that a good sweat
will usually cure a cold if taken in time.

6. Severe Cold or Threatened Consumption.--"One pint of molasses; one pint
of vinegar; three tablespoonfuls of white pine tar; let this boil not
quite half down; remove from the stove and let stand until next day; then
take and skim tar off from the top, throwing tar away. Jar up and take as
often as necessary. Spoonful every half to two hours."

7. Colds, Rock Candy Syrup for.--"Ten cents worth of rock candy; one pint
of whisky; one pint of water; fifteen cents worth of glycerine; mix all
together; this will syrup itself." Take one teaspoonful as often as
necessary. This is excellent.

8. Colds, Skunk's Oil for.--"Skunk's oil has cured colds quickly by
rubbing on chest and throat." The oil penetrates quickly and relieves the
congestion. This remedy can always be relied upon.

[12 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

9. Colds, Lemons and Mustard for.--"A hot lemonade taken on going to bed
and put the feet in a hot mustard bath; taken in time will break up a
cold." The idea of the foot bath is to equalize the circulation, as so
many of our colds begin in the head and by drawing the blood from the head
the congested parts of the head are relieved.

10. Colds and Cough, Hops or Catnip Poultice for.--"Hops or catnip put in
little bags and steamed until hot, then placed on lungs and throat." This
is a very good remedy, as the hot bags act as a poultice and draw the
congestion from the diseased parts. It produces not only local, but
general perspiration.

11. Colds, Honey for.--"Eat honey. I have tried this many times and it is
very good." The honey is very soothing, but if a little hoarhound or lemon
is added it would make it much more effective. This is a good remedy for
children, as they most all like honey.

12. Colds, to Break Up at the Outset.--"To break up a cold soak the feet
in hot water and drink all the cold water you can." This has been known to
cure many severe colds if taken at the beginning.

13. Cold in the Chest, Mutton Tallow and Red Pepper for.--"If cold is in
the chest, render enough mutton tallow for one cupful and add one
teaspoonful of red pepper and rub on chest and apply a flannel to keep out
the cold. This is an old-time remedy and a good one."

14. Colds, Lard and Turpentine for.--"Melt a half cupful of lard and add
one and one-half teaspoonfuls of turpentine, rub on chest and apply
flannel cloth."

15. Cold, Milk and Cayenne as a Preventive.--"Drink a glass of milk with a
pinch of cayenne in it. This will warm the stomach and prevent headache."


PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Colds.--Preventive. Avoid the known causes of
the trouble. A daily cold bath, if well borne, is held to be an effectual
prevention against taking cold. Have the adenoids removed if your
physician so recommends it. If seen early it can frequently be aborted.
Bathe the feet in hot mustard water, a small handful of mustard to a pail
half full of hot water. At the same time, drink hot teas, like hoarhound,
ginger, lemonade, etc. Then put the patient to bed and place hot water
fruit jars around him. This treatment will produce a good sweat. After the
sweating has continued for some time and the patient feels uncomfortable
because of the sweat, bathe him with a towel dipped in warm water, and dry
the parts as you go along. Of course, all of this is done under cover.
After you have bathed and dried the patient, put on a clean and well-aired
night shirt and clean sheets, also well aired. This simple treatment will
abort most colds. The patient should keep in bed for at least twelve hours
after such a sweating. Plenty of cold water and lemonade can be given,
especially after the patient has become cooler. Plenty of water is good
for any cold; hot outside and cool for the inside. The bowels should be
opened with salts. A Dover's powder (ten grains) will produce sweating,
but why use it when sweating can be produced by the means first mentioned.


[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 13]

1. Camphor and Vaseline Mixed, or Camphor and Cream, rubbed in the nose is
good to stop the cold and soreness.

2. A few drops (two or three) of camphor taken internally every three
hours will abort some colds, especially if the nose is all the time
pouring out drops of water.

3. Aconite in small doses, one-tenth of a drop, every two hours is a
splendid remedy at the beginning. My experience has shown me that aconite
does better work in these small doses. Put one drop in ten teaspoonfuls of
water and give one teaspoonful at a dose.

4. The following is good for a thick discharge: in oil spray.

Menthol            6 grains
Chloroform         5 drops
Camphor            5 grains
Liquid Alboline    2 ounces

Mix and make into a solution. Use in an atomizer, every two hours.

To cleanse the nostrils wash out each nostril gently with a solution made
of one teaspoonful of listerine, or glyco-thymoline, or borolyptol, or
one-quarter teaspoonful of common salt in a half glass of warm water.
You can use a vaporizer and this solution:

Menthol                      5 grains
Camphor                      5 grains
Compound tincture benzoin    1 dram
Liquid Alboline              1 ounce

Mix and make solution and use frequently in a nebulizer.

Never snuff a solution into the nose, and do not blow the nose hard after
using. Some of the solution or nasal discharge may be forced into the
eustachian tube.

5. Lard or camphorated oil rubbed on the nose and throat twice a day is
good.

6. To Restore the Loss of the Voice.--

Oil of wintergreen       2 drams
Lanolin or vaseline      1 ounce

Mix and rub on the throat at night and put on flannel until morning. This
will relieve the loss of voice very promptly.

7. Put a quart of boiling water in a pitcher; add from two to four drams
of the compound tincture of benzoin and inhale the hot vapor. Wrap both
head and pitcher in a towel. This is very good for sore throat also.

8. Herb Teas for.--Ginger tea, catnip, hoarhound, pennyroyal, etc.; hot,
are all good to produce sweating and thus relieve cold.

9. From Dr. Ball, a London, England, Specialist.--

Menthol                    30 grains
Eucalyptol                 30 drops
Carbolic acid               2 drams
Rectified spirits of wine   1 dram

Mix thoroughly; a teaspoonful to be put into a pint (or less) of hot water
and the steam to be inhaled through the nose for four or five minutes.
This is useful in acute colds, especially in the later stages, and in
chronic catarrh, etc.

[14 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

10. When the stage is rather marked or prolonged spray or syringe out the
nose with tepid solution once or twice a day using the following:

Bicarbonate of soda   3 to 5 grains
Borax                 3 to 5 grains
Tepid water           1 ounce

Use a spray, douche, or gargle in chronic catarrh and chronic pharyngitis.
When you wish to use a large quantity, mix an equal quantity each of soda
and borax and put a couple teaspoonfuls to each pint of warm water and
use.


CATARRH. (Chronic Inflammation of the Nose, Chronic Rhinitis). Causes.--
Frequent attacks of colds, irritating gases and dust, adenoids, enlarged
tonsils, spurs on the septum (partition bone) or foreign bodies in the
nose, like corn, beans, stone, etc.

Symptoms and Course.--There are alterations of the secretions: the amount
varies in the same case at different times. Sometimes it is thin and
watery, or thick, sticky mucus or this may alternate with more watery
discharges. It may be mucus and pus or entirely pus. Frequently the
secretions discharge into the throat and cause efforts to clear it by
hawking and spitting. The secretion sometimes dries and forms crusts in
the fore part of the turbinated bones and partition. Patients frequently
pick the nose for this crust and ulceration may result at that point from
its doing. Bleeding often occurs from picking the scales from the ulcers,
and perforation of the partition may take place from extension of the
ulceration. There is a feeling of stuffiness. There is some obstruction to
breathing. If there is much thickness of the structures, nasal obstruction
is a persistent symptom. Changed voice, mouth-breathing, etc., are
noticed. A sensation of pain or weight across the bridge of the nose is
sometimes complained of and this symptom is especially found associated
with enlargement of the middle turbinated body on one or both sides, etc.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. 1. Catarrh, Successful remedy for.--- "Dissolve in
one-half ounce olive oil as much camphor gum as it will take up. Moisten a
little finger with the oil, rub into the nostrils and snuff well up into
the head." The olive oil is very soothing to the diseased parts and the
camphor contracts the swollen mucous membranes, thereby relieving the
catarrh. This is an excellent remedy.

2. Catarrh, Cleansing Antiseptic Remedy for.--"Snuff about one teaspoonful
of salt in cup of warm water every morning in nostrils. I have found this
remedy simple but fine for catarrh and also having sleeping room well
ventilated summer and winter will help in curing disease." This remedy
will be found very effective in catarrh because it loosens up the
secretions and cleanses the nose of the foul secretions and also has an
antiseptic action. This can be used twice daily. Snuffing should be done
very gently so as not to draw the water too far back.

[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 15]

3. Catarrh, Witch-Hazel for.--"Pond's extract applied with nose spray."
Pond's extract is simply witch-hazel water and everyone knows that
witch-hazel water is healing and soothing to the membranes of the nose.
This may be used regularly twice a day.

4. Catarrh, Cure for.--

Menthol          10 grains
Camphor Gum      10 grains
Chloroform       10 drops
Fluid Alboline    8 ounces

Mix. Apply in the nasal cavities with alboline atomizer.

5. Catarrh of head, Mullein Leaves. Treatment, etc., for.--"Smoke dried
mullein leaves and blow the smoke through the nose, and in addition to
this, put a heaping tablespoonful of powdered borax in a quart of soft
water; syringe this up in the nose, and in addition to both of the above,
frequently inhale a mixture of two drams of spirits of ammonia, half a
dram tincture of iodine and fifteen drops of carbolic acid; smoke the
mullein, syringe the borax water and inhale the last mixture all as
frequently as convenient and it frequently will cure if kept up
faithfully."

6. Catarrh, Milk and Salt Wash for.--"Mix together one teaspoonful common
salt, a teacupful milk, and half pint of warm water. Inject this into the
nostrils three times a day. You may use the same quantity of borax in
place of the salt, if you choose to do so."


PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Catarrh.--If the patient is run down, give
tonics, plenty of fresh air and sunshine in the sleeping room, change of
climate to a dry, unchangeable climate is sometimes necessary.

Local.--Attend to any disturbing cause, such as adenoids, spurs on the
partition, turbinate bone, etc. It is first necessary to render the parts
clean, through the use of some mild antiseptic solution, such as
glyco-thymoline, listerine, borolyptol, salt, etc. Salt should not be used
stronger than one-quarter teaspoonful in a glass half full of water. The
others can be used in one to two teaspoonfuls, to same amount of warm
water. The solution should always be mild and warm. To use any solution
pour it gently through the nose, tilting the head backward, with the mouth
open; then as the solution flows through the head should be put forward
and downward. The solution flows out of the mouth, and also out of the
other nostril. A nasal douche cup made purposely should be used if
possible.

1. Spray for.--After cleansing the nostrils with the solution the
following soothing mild spray will be found of great benefit.

Menthol           5 grains
Camphor           5 grains
Liquid Alboline   2 ounces

Mix and make a solution. Use in an atomizer or nebulizer.

[16 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

2. Powders for.--Antiseptic powders are also very useful in some cases,
such as, compound stearate of zinc and boric acid, or compound stearate of
zinc and alum or compound stearate of zinc and menthol. One or two drams
is enough to buy at once as it is very light; always use it in a powder in
the following way:

First take a long breath and while holding the breath, puff some of the
powder into each nostril; then gently puff the breath out through each
nostril. Do not snuff powder up the nose or use the powder-blower while
breathing. If this is done, some will get into the pharynx and larynx and
cause annoying coughing.

3. Solution for.--

Bicarbonate of soda  1/2 ounce
Borax                1/2 ounce
Salt                 1/2 ounce
White sugar            1 ounce

Mix all. Half a teaspoonful to be dissolved in one-half tumbler of warm
water; used with spray producer or a syringe.

4. Spray, for.--

Bicarbonate of soda  1-1/2 drams
Listerine                6 drams
Water                    1 ounce

Use as a spray.

OZENA.--(Foul odor from nose, not breath, due to catarrh of the nose). The
membrane is dry and shrunken. It is a very offensive odor, thus called
"ozena."

Causes.--It is usually seen in people who are very much debilitated, in
young factory girls, and sometimes in healthy boys. Retained secretions in
the nose, usually cause the odor. These decompose and ferment. The nose is
large and roomy, the nostrils are filled with scabby secretions; hard
masses are formed which sometimes fill the nostril.


PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT.--The first few weeks, cleansing the nose with
peroxide of hydrogen will stop the odor. First, remove the scabs with
forceps and then wash and cleanse the nose with the peroxide solution. It
can be used from one-quarter strength to full strength, but warm. This
will leave the nose in a foamy, soapy condition and this can be cleansed
with a mild solution of glyco-thymoline or salt water.

HOME TREATMENT.--This is very important. The patient should use a douche
three or four times a day. In the solution glyco-thymoline or borolyptol
one or two teaspoonfuls to one-half cup of warm water, and follow by a
nebulizer or atomizer in which the following solution can be used:

1.    Lysol             10 drops
      Oil of Pine       15 drops
      Liquid Alboline    2 ounces

Mix and make a solution, spray into the nose after douching.

[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 17]

2. The following ointment can be used if there is no atomizer or nebulizer
at hand:

Iodol        5 grains
Boric Acid  10 grains
Cold cream   2 ounces

Mix and make into an ointment, and rub a little into each nostril before
retiring.

3. Dr. Ferguson of New York uses the following: A new antiseptic enzymol.
This is used as follows.--Use one part of enzymol, three parts of warm
water. Rub and cleanse the nose thoroughly with the solution, saturate a
piece of absorbent cotton with this solution, place it in the nostril and
leave it there fifteen to twenty minutes.

HAY FEVER. (Rose Cold, June Cold or Hay Asthma).--This inflammation of the
nose occurs in August and September. It is really a nervous affection of
the nose membrane.

Causes.--A predisposition: A peculiar sensitive area in the mucous
membrane of the nose. An exciting cause circulating in the air, the dust
or pollen of certain plants, such as rag-weed, hay and barley; the odor of
certain flowers, such as roses and golden rod; dust of some drugs as
ipecac and benzoic acid; the odor of some animals. It usually comes about
the same date each year, growing worse each year and, in time, affects the
bronchial tubes.

Symptoms.--The earliest symptoms are, usually, an itching sensation in the
roof of the mouth and the palate, or itching and burning at the inner
corner of the eyes. Irritation within the nose is also experienced and
very soon spells of sneezing set in. The nose soon feels stuffy and
obstructed, and there is a clear water discharge from the nose, which is
especially copious after sneezing. The eyes look red and watery and the
eyeballs pain and there is also pain in the forehead above the nose. It
may take several days to develop these symptoms. They are usually worse in
the morning. After some days these symptoms become more persistent and
severe. The nostrils are completely closed, and the patient must breathe
through the mouth, and the spells of sneezing are very violent. The
conjunctiva becomes congested and red, a profuse watery discharge runs
from the eyes and the lids are swollen. In severe cases the face looks red
and swollen. The mucous membrane of the mouth, pharynx and tonsils is more
or less reddened and irritated, smell and taste are impaired and sometimes
the patient is slightly deaf. The patient feels tired, weak, and it is
hard to study or do manual labor. Slight feelings of chillness are common.


MOTHERS' REMEDIES. 1. Hay fever, Quick Relief from.--"For hay fever and
other slight forms of diseases which produce sneezing, there is no remedy
more quickly effective, and often curative, than a vapor of heated salt
and alcohol. Heat it very hot and breathe the vapor for ten minutes at a
time, four or five times a day."

2. Hay fever, Remedy Worth Trying for.--"A mixture composed of ten grains
of sulphate of zinc, half teaspoonful of borax, and about four ounces of
rose water. This is very good to inject into the nostrils if there is much
irritation of eyes and nostrils."

[18 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

3. Hay fever, Our Canadian Remedy for.--"Inhale smoke from ground coffee
(sprinkle over coals). This relieved a case for me of five years
standing."

4. Hay Fever, Medicine That Helps.--"Use phenol sodique as directed on the
bottles. This was recommended to me by Mrs. Levi Weller, who said her
husband had found more relief from this remedy than any other he had
tried."

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Hay Fever.--1. The following gives relief from
the distressing symptoms. (But first the nose should be examined, for
often there is local trouble there.). Then give suprarenal extract
tablets, each five grains. Take one every four or five hours.

2. Pill Blennostasin.--Each pill contains five grains. Take one every four
hours.

3. The following solution gives temporary relief:--

Dionin                 10 grains
Adrenalin (1 to 1000)   5 drams
Water                   2 ounces

Mix solution and spray into the nose every two hours.

4. After using the above spray which will shrink the mucous membrane apply
the following oil spray:--

Thymol            5 grains
Menthol           5 grains
Camphor           5 grains
Liquid Alboline   1 ounce

Mix and make a solution and spray into the nose three or four times a day.

5. In some cases a drying powder does well, such as compound stearate of
zinc and alum one dram; puff it into the nose with a powder-blower every
hour.

6. Dr. Ball of London, England, gives the following.--A spray of a four
per cent of cocaine, or direct application of cotton-wool soaked in a
stronger solution will be found to afford immediate relief. But the after
effect is likely to be bad. Hence menthol is a better application.

[RESPIRATORY DISEASES  19]

7. Another from Dr. Ball.--A one to five per cent solution of menthol in
liquid paraffin may be painted or sprayed on the mucous membrane, or a
little cotton-wool soaked in an oily solution may be inserted in the
nostrils. We must confess our weakness as physicians, when we treat this
disease. There are local measures, such as give relief for the time being,
but they must be carefully used. Diseases of the nose, tumors or "spurs"
frequently cause in the first place; bad tonsils, and adenoids are likely
to aggravate the trouble. A change of climate is the only real help. Tone
the general health. If the patient is very nervous fifteen grains of
bromide of sodium three or four time a day gives relief. People subjected
to hay fever should be treated between the attacks to make them strong and
to remove any local nose trouble and just before the time of year arrives
for the attack it is well to take five grains three times a day of the
suprarenal tablets or blennostasin the same way, and also spray the nose
twice daily with a mild adrenalin solution as the following:-
Adrenalin (1 to 1000)   1 dram
Water                   2 ounces
Change of climate is frequently quite beneficial. Some are relieved in the
dry mountain air, while others are more benefited by the seashore or an
ocean trip.

TUMOR OF THE NOSE.  (Nasal Polypus).--This tumor consists of a soft jelly-
like whitish growth, usually found in the upper front part of the nostril.
It may extend to the bottom (floor) of the nose, is quite soft and
moveable, being easy to push aside with a probe. The air passing through
the nostril will move it backward and forward. There may be one or several
and they may completely fill the nostril. They sometimes grow from the
back end of the middle turbinate bone, and gradually extend backward
filling up the back part of the nostril and even extending into the space
behind the nose and, if large, they may be seen below the soft palate.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT.--The only thing to do is to remove them. This is
usually done by a wire placed around the polypus and by the thumb-screw in
the instrument, tighten the wire until it has cut through the base.

DEVIATION OF THE SEPTUM (Partition).--Deviation is the bending or curving
of the partition (septum) to one side or the other, leaving one nostril
very large and roomy and closing the other nostril wholly or partly.
Causes.--Blows, falls, etc., high-arch palate. It is seldom seen under
seven years of age.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT.--The treatment is to replace if possible, the part
in the proper position. This requires an operation.


NOSEBLEED. Mothers' Remedies.--1. Nosebleed; remedy sent us by a Public
School Teacher.--"Make a compress of paper soaked in cold water; put it
under the upper lip and have the patient press the lip with the fingers.
Remarks.--Tried with success in many cases by a school teacher." By
putting under the lip and pressing on it, you press on an artery and stop
bleeding. Be careful to use nothing but white paper, as ink or colors
would come out when wet.

2. Nosebleed, Alum as a cure for.--"Apply cold water to face and back of
neck; snuff powdered alum." The powdered alum contracts the blood vessels,
thereby shutting off the supply of blood. The cold water applied to the
back of the neck affects the nervous system in such a manner that the
blood vessels are contracted and so the blood supply is diminished.

[20 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

3. Nosebleed; Remedy that succeeded in a severe case.--"Put pieces of ice
in cloth. Lay a piece each side of the nose and on the back of the neck.
Remarks.--My neighbor's daughter had nosebleed which refused to stop until
they were much frightened but this treatment soon stopped it, after which
she rested quietly for a time,"

4. Nosebleed, Simple Remedy for.--"Place the finger on the side of the
nose tight for ten or fifteen minutes. My mother has stopped her nose from
bleeding when other remedies failed." This shuts off the circulation and
helps to form a clot.

5. Nosebleed, Another Home Remedy for.--"Hold the head back as far as
possible, press up the end of the nose with the end of the finger." Best
to lie on the side so blood will not run down the throat and choke the
patient.

6. Nosebleed, Puff-Ball for.--"Find an old brown puff-ball from the
ground, pick out the soft inside part and put it in nose and let remain
for some time."

7. Nosebleed, Vinegar and Water for.--"Wet a cloth in very cold water or
strong cold water and vinegar and apply to back of neck, renewing as it
gets warm. Have seen this tried and know it to be good."

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Nosebleed.--Place the patient on his side half
lying, head and shoulders raised and apply a cold compress to the
forehead, nose, and to the back of the neck. Press the end of the nose
firmly against the partition between the nostrils, for some minutes. This
presses directly upon the bleeding point, as a rule. Also, when lying in
this position, the blood does not flow into the throat so readily. Raise
the arms above the head, apply cold to the spine or to the scrotum of men
and breasts of women. Mustard foot baths are good, injection of cold
water, or the injection of hot water, 120 F., into the nostril will often
help: Cold water, Or salt water, can be gently snuffed. Alum solution on a
cloth put in the nostril often helps. A piece of bacon cut to bits and
placed in the nostril often stops it. Vinegar injected into the nostril is
good, or you can use a cloth saturated with vinegar and placed in the
nostril. White oak bark tea, strong, is effective; juice of lemon applied
same way or injected is helpful.

How to plug the nostrils; (front or anterior nares).--Do this with narrow
strips of sterilized gauze, by placing the first piece as far back as
possible, then with a narrow pair of forceps pushing in a little at a time
until the nostril is filled. The gauze should be only one-half inch wide.
If the bleeding still continues the posterior opening (nares) should be
plugged. This can be known by seeing the blood flowing down the throat
(pharynx).

[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 21]

How this is done? Pass a soft rubber catheter, along the floor (bottom) of
the nose until its end is seen passing down behind the soft palate into
the throat. Grasp this with a pair of forceps and pull it forward into the
mouth. Tie a stout string to the end of the catheter (about 1-1/2 feet
long) and tie the other end of the string around the centre of a plug of
lint or gauze, 1-1/2 inches long and three-quarters of an inch wide. Then
pull the catheter back through the nostril, very gently. This will pull
the plug into the posterior opening of the nose, and plug it. . Hold this
same end firmly and with a pair of forceps fill the anterior nostril with
strips (1/2 inch wide) of gauze, pushing them back to the posterior plug.
The end of the string in the mouth may be fastened to a tooth or to the
side of the cheek (if long enough) with a piece of adhesive plaster. The
plug should not be left in position more than forty-eight hours, and it
should be thoroughly softened with oil or vaselin before it is removed.
Remove the anterior part first, gently and carefully and then with cocaine
(if necessary) and more oil, the posterior plug is softened and removed by
pulling the end of the string which is in the mouth gently and slowly.

SORE THROAT (Acute Pharyngitis--Acute Pharyngeal Catarrh--- Inflammation
of the Pharynx--Simple Angina).--This is a common complaint especially
among some adults. A predisposition to it is often due to chronic
pharyngitis, chronic enlargement of the tonsils and adenoids of the wall
of the pharynx as well as chronic nasal obstruction. Rheumatic persons are
especially subject to it and acute articular rheumatism is often observed
to be preceded by an attack of pharyngitis. Tonsilitis is said to have the
same influence also.

Symptoms.--The throat is dry and feels stiff. There may be tenderness at
the angle of the jaw and outside of the neck. Pains some to swallow. In a
day or two there is a mucous secretion, making the patient inclined to
clear the throat by hawking or coughing. The throat looks red and in the
early stage this is more noticeable on the anterior pillars of the fauces,
the soft palate and uvula. On the back wall you see bright red spots, the
inflamed lymph follicles. It usually gets well in two to seven days. It
may become chronic after repeated acute attacks.

Chronic.--This is very common in persons who smoke or drink to excess,
also people who use their voice in public speaking as preachers do, or in
calling loudly as hucksters, railroad brakemen, stationmen, etc.

Prevention of chronic kind.--Ascertain the cause and remove it. Too hot
food or too much spiced food cause the chronic kind. Rest the voice.
Remove any existing catarrh.

Prevention of acute kind.--Avoid undue exposure to cold and wet, wear warm
comfortable flannel underwear. Bath the neck and chest daily with cold
water. This is good cold preventive. The wearing of handkerchiefs,
mufflers, around the neck is injurious unless you are driving. Accustom
your neck to the cold from the beginning in the fall and winter months.
Wearing a full beard is said to be a good preventive.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--1. Sore throat, Used for Years Successfully.--"Salt
pork dipped in hot water then covered thick with black pepper. Heat in the
oven and lay or bind on the throat or lungs. This has been a favorite
remedy with us for years." Sew the pork to a piece of cotton cloth and
bind over the sore parts after you have sprinkled the pork with salt and
pepper. Leave this on as long as the patient can endure it. When the pork
is removed, rub the affected parts with cold cream or vaselin and put a
clean muslin cloth on to keep person from taking cold.

[22  MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

2. Sore throat, Splendid Liniment for.--

"Olive oil    1/2 pint
Ammonia       1/2 pint
Turpentine    1/2 pint
One egg.

Shake till it forms emulsion. This can be used as a blister."

This is a very effective remedy, but you must watch the throat very
carefully as this will blister quickly. After removing the liniment,
grease the parts with oil or cold cream.

3. Sore throat, Simple Gargle for.--

"Soda     1 teaspoonful
Salt      1 teaspoonful
Borax     1 teaspoonful

Dissolve in pint of warm water; use as a gargle frequently."

This is a very good gargle. It contracts the parts and acts as an
antiseptic and thoroughly cleanses the parts.

4. Sore throat, Home Made salve for.-

"Beeswax      1 ounce
Rosin         1 ounce
Camphor gum   1 ounce
Lard about the size of an egg."

Mix the above ingredients together and apply to the outside of the throat.
This causes the skin to become red thus drawing the inflammation out of
the throat and relieving the trouble.

5. Sore Throat, Cold Packs, Sure Cure for.--"Put cold packs on the throat.
Remarks: Was in Washington once and my little girl had a very sore throat.
I put cold packs on the throat the first half of the night and the next
day she was out seeing the sights as well as ever." Gargle with very hot
water and a little soda. This makes it very effective.

6. Sore Throat, Ointment for.--

"Oil Turpentine      1/2 ounce
Oil of Hemlock       1/2 ounce
Oil of Peppermint    1/2 ounce
Oil of Encaliptus    1/2 ounce

Mix with one cup warm lard, apply warm to the throat."

[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 23]

7. Sore Throat, Remedy from a mother in Johnson City, Tenn.--"Fat meat
stewed in vinegar and bound to the neck. Kind friends:--After waiting so
long I will help you what I can, and where is the mother that won't want
the book? I am truly glad you have such an interest in the welfare of
suffering humanity. I hope this book will soon be out on its good mission.
Kind friends, I think it a wonderful kindness to the rich as well as the
poor to have a friend in time of need. I think a good honest book of home
remedies tried by our good mothers and grandmothers will be accepted and
looked to by all mothers, for we all think mother knows best. I certainly
want this book completed and in my home."

8. Sore Throat, Gargle and Local Application for.--

"Common salt       2 tablespoonfuls
Strained honey     2 tablespoonfuls
Vinegar            3 tablespoonfuls
Camphor          1/2 teaspoonful"

Use as a gargle. External applications, wring a cloth out of salt and cold
water and keep it quite wet, bind tightly about the neck and cover with a
dry cloth. It is best to use this at night."

9. Mild Sore Throat, Vinegar Gargle for.--"Gargle with vinegar and hot
water. This will help to sooth the irritation and in a mild sore throat is
a sure cure."

10. Sore Throat, Alum and Vinegar for.--"One glass of warm water; one
tablespoonful of vinegar; one teaspoonful of sugar; one-half teaspoonful
of alum; dissolve well and gargle throat several times daily."

11. Sore Throat, Kerosene for.--"Dip a flannel cloth in coal oil,
(kerosene) and bind on the throat. I have tried this; in fact it is what I
always use. It is almost sure to cure."

12. Sore Throat and Cough, Remedy always at hand.--"Equal parts of alcohol
and glycerin make a good gargle, or use three tablespoonfuls of vinegar
and one of salt to a tumbler of water. Or simply hot water and salt when
nothing else is to be had. The hot water alone is very good."

13. Tickling in Throat, Simple Remedy for.--"Take bread crumbs and swallow
them."

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Sore Throat.--1. Inhalation of steam either with
or without medicine is good. (See treatment of tonsilitis-Inhaling steam)
I treated a man once who had a terrific pharyngitis, All the parts were so
terribly swollen, that he was unable to swallow or talk. I induced him to
inhale steam from a teakettle. He was able to put his mouth over the spout
of the kettle and he was relived in a few minutes. I think it saved his
life. I put no medicine in the water for that case. Very few persons can
inhale the steam directly from the kettle. Other method is given under
tonsilitis. A dose of salts at first is good. Remain in the house for a
few days.

2. Sulphur and Cream for.--Mix some sulphur with cream and put some of it
on the sore membrane.

3. Good Old Mother's Remedy.--"Steep a medium sized red pepper in one-half
pint of water, strain and add one-fourth pint of good vinegar and a
heaping teaspoonful each of salt and powdered alum and gargle with it as
often as needed. This is a very good remedy."

[24 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

1. Physicians' Local Treatment.--A wet compress on the neck is useful at
the onset. Sucking ice or gargling with ice or cold water, or applying an
ice bag to the throat will be found useful.

Later on, warm gargles and steam inhalation are more grateful. If there is
great pain in swallowing, cocaine painted on the throat or sucking a
cocaine lozenge before taking food will be found very useful.

2. When the attack is mild medicine may not be needed. When there is fever
and the throat is real sore, you can use one drop doses of tincture of
aconite every hour. This will frequently check it.

3. I like the following at the beginning. Give tincture of aconite and
mercury biniodide, called the pink tablet, alternately. Put ten drops of
the aconite in one-half glass of water and give from one-half to two
teaspoonfuls everyone or two hours, alternating with one or two tablets of
one-hundred grain tablet of mercury biniodide. After the first twenty-four
hours stop the acoite and give the mercury biniodide every three hours.

4. For Chronic Catarrh remaining after, lozenges containing rhatany or
tannin are useful.

5. Other gargles.--

Menthol             3 to 5 grains
Camphor             2 to 4 grains
Liquid paraffine         1 ounce

For irritable and catarrhal conditions of nasal membrane use a spray.

8. Snuff.-

Hydrochloride of Cocaine   1 grains
Menthol                    1 grain
Sugar of Milk              2 drams

Mix very thoroughly.

When using the Menthol preparation do not use the preparation very hot.

HOARSENESS. Inflammation of the Larynx. (Acute Laryngitis) Causes.--Due to
taking cold or over using the voice; hot liquids, poisons. It may occur in
influenza and measles; from irritating gases; some are subject to it.

Symptoms.--Tickling in the larynx; cold air irritates, and breathing may
cause some pain; dry cough; the voice may be altered. At first it may be
only husky. In children breathing may be very difficult, after a day or
two there may be a light expectoration and finally there may be a loose
cough and a slight fever. The trouble is in the region of "Adam's Apple."
There is little or no danger in these attacks if proper care is taken. The
attack generally lasts two to four days.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. Hoarseness, Borax for.--"For hoarseness dissolve a
piece of borax the size of a pea in the mouth and don't talk. It will work
like a charm." The borax does away with the inflammation of the inflamed
parts and gives relief very quickly.

[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 25]

2. Hoarseness, Egg and Lemon for.--"Beaten white of one egg, juice of one
lemon, with sugar enough to thicken, then add one teaspoonful olive oil."
Take one teaspoonful every hour until relieved.

3. Hoarseness, Horseradish for.--"Horseradish root; eat plenty of it. This
has been tried and proved successful."

4. Hoarseness, Successful Remedy for Adults.--"Take two ounces of fresh
scraped horseradish root, infuse in a close vessel in one-half pint of
cold water for two or three hours; then add four ounces of acid tincture
of lobelia and one-half pound of honey. Boil altogether for one-half hour,
strain and take a teaspoonful four times a day. This is a very good
remedy, especially for adults."

5. Hoarseness, Lemon and Sugar for Children.--"Take the juice of one lemon
and saturate with sugar, take a teaspoonful several times a day. It is
sure to give relief. This is very pleasant to give to children, as they
most all like it."

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Hoarseness.--1. Rest of the voice and if the
case is severe keep in bed in a room with an even temperature and the air
saturated with moisture from a steaming teakettle, etc.

2. An ice bag on the throat or cold water cloths to the front of the
throat often give relief.

3. Tincture of Aconite.--This is given in the beginning when there is
fever. The dose depends upon the age, and the amount of fever. You can
give it to a child by putting one drop of aconite in twelve teaspoonfuls
of water and then give one teaspoonful every one to three hours according
to the case. For an adult you can put ten drops of aconite in ten
teaspoonfuls of water and give one teaspoonful every hour or two.

4. Citrate of Potash is given every four to five hours in adults.

5. Full dose of five grains of Dover's powders at night for the irritating
cough.

6. For a cough, for a child one year old you can give one-half
teaspoonful, every two hours, of the following:--

Syrup of Dover's powder   1 fluid dram
Tincture of Aconite       10 drops
Simple syrup              Enough to make two ounces

Shake before using.


TICKLING IN THROAT. Mothers' Remedies. Mullein Leaf Smoke Beneficial
for.--"Smoke dried mullein leaves, just a few puffs are needed, and should
be drawn into the throat. Myron H. Grinnel of Albion, Mich., says his
grandmother always gathers mullein leaves for this purpose and finds them
an excellent remedy. Too much would cause dizziness." Mullein leaves are
good for inflamed membranes like the ear and throat. If a person does not
wish to gather the leaves themselves they may buy them at a drug store.

2. Tickling in Throat, Good Northern Canada Remedy for.--"Chew some of the
bark of slippery elm and gargle the throat with saliva. This stops
tickling in a few minutes."

[26 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

3. Tickling in Throat, Tested Gargle for.--"Gargle from four to six times
daily with following:--

Strong Sage Tea     1 pint
Salt                2 tablespoonfuls
Cayenne Pepper      2 tablespoonfuls
Vinegar             2 tablespoonfuls
Honey               2 tablespoonfuls

Mix thoroughly and bottle for use."

The above ingredients are all excellent for sore throat and it is an old
tried remedy and can easily be obtained. If it is too strong dilute with
warm water to the desired strength.


SWELLING OF THE GLOTTIS. (Oedematous Laryngitis. Oedma of the
Glottis).--Swelling or oedma of the glottis or more correctly of the
structure which forms the glottis, is a very serious affection. It may
follow acute laryngitis or may be met with in chronic diseases of the
larynx and from other diseases. It is dangerous.

Symptoms.--Difficulty of breathing which increases in intensity so that
the condition becomes very serious in a short time. There is whistling
breathing, the voice is husky and disappears.

Acute Laryngitis.--Inhalations and sprays.

Menthol              10 grains
Oil of pine           1 dram
Tincture of benzion   1 dram
Liquid alboline       2 ounces

Make a solution. Use one teaspoonful in a pint of boiling water; inhale
with a cone placed over the dish or put a shawl over the head and dish and
inhale the steam. Or this one to inhale same way:

Tincture of benzoin   1 dram
Oil of tar            1 drain
Liquid alboline       2 ounces

Make a solution and use one teaspoonful to a pint of boiling water as
above.

It may be necessary in order to save life, to have a physician make an
opening by incision into the windpipe for the admission of air into the
lungs. This process is called Tracheotomy.

Diet in Laryngitis.--Hard and dry toasts should be avoided, for they give
pain on being swallowed, same reason applies to highly seasoned foods.
Milk, custards, eggs, scraped beef may be taken. Difficulty in swallowing
may be overcome by allowing the patient to lie flat on the bed, etc., with
his face over the edge. Food can be sucked through the tube from a vessel
placed below; or the patient can lean forward while eating.

"CHILD CROWING" (Spasm of the Glottis.)--This is usually peculiar to
children.

[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 27]

Cause.--It is purely a nervous affection and it occurs between six months
and three years, and is most commonly seen in children with rickets.

Symptoms.--It may come in the night or day; or when the child awakes. The
breathing is arrested, the child struggles for breath, the face is
flushed, and then with a sudden relaxation of the spasm, the air is drawn
into the lungs with a high pitched crowing sound. Convulsions may occur.
Death rarely occurs. There may be many attacks during the day.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT of Child Crowing. Preventive.--The gums should be
carefully examined and if they are swollen and hot they should be lanced.
The bowels should be carefully regulated, and as these children are
usually of a delicate nature and afflicted with rickets, nourishing food
and the treatment in diet and medicine should be given for rickets. Cod
liver oil is a good general remedy. (See rickets).

Cold Sponging.--In severe cases, the child should be placed in a warm bath
tub and the back and chest thoroughly sponged for a minute or two with
cold water. This plan may be used even when a child is in a paroxysm,
though the attack is severe and the child looks blue, it is much better
than to dash cold water in the face. Sometimes the attack can be stopped
by introducing the finger far back into the throat.


CROUP, Spasmodic.--This disease gives the parents a terrible shock if they
have never seen any attacks of the kind. The symptoms which attend the
attack are out of all proportion to the real danger. It is generally the
result of exposure to cold or to the cold wind. Irritating, undigested
food, often causes it.

Symptoms.--Usually the child goes to bed perfectly well, or has a slight
cold and wakes up an hour or two later, coughing and gasping for breath,
due to a spasm in the wind pipe. The cough is shrill, more like a bark;
the cough is repeated at intervals and soon the patient breathes quickly
and laboriously. It must sit up for it can breathe easier sitting. The
voice is oftentimes nearly or quite lost, or at least only a hoarse
whisper; the face is bluish or perspiring. The spasm lasts for a variable
period, but rarely exceeds one-half hour, sometimes only a few minutes.
The croupy cough and oppressed breathing may last longer than this, but
these too subside after a time, after which the child drops to sleep and
usually rests quietly for the rest of the night. There is a tendency to
recurrence on succeeding night unless obviated by treatment.

Treatment. Preventive.--Guard against such children's exposure to cold
winds and dampness, dress them warmly. The living and sleeping rooms
should not be too warm. Do not give them food hard to digest at any time,
especially before bedtime. Foods hard to digest frequently cause the
attack.

[28 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. Croup, Cold Application for.--"Apply to throat a
flannel wrung out of cold water, lay a dry cloth over it." This is an
excellent remedy for a mother to try in case of an emergency when no other
medicine can be obtained. This very often will relieve a child until other
remedies can be secured and has been known to save many children's lives:
The cold water helps to draw the blood away from the larynx and air
passages and also dilates the tubes and gives relief. Take great care not
to wet the child, as this will cause it to take more cold and may prove
fatal.

2. Croup, Sure Cure for.--"Give child anything that will make it vomit,
soak feet in hot water, apply onion drafts to bottom of feet, roast onions
and put on the chest, keep warm. My mother has cured me at least one
hundred times with the above remedy. She generally gave me pig's foot oil,
or oil from the feet of a chicken, sometimes melted lard. Croup has to be
attended to at once or it is fatal with the child." This is a very good
remedy.

3. Croup, Immediate Relief from Steaming.--"Put a small shawl over the
child's head to retain steam, then put a small chunk of unslaked lime in a
bowl of water under shawl. The steam affords immediate relief, usually, if
child inhales it." This is very good; shawl should cover the child's head
and bowl in which lime is dissolved.

4. Croup, for Baby or Older Child.--"Take a teaspoonful alum, pulverize it
and sprinkle it on the whites of two fresh eggs in a cup or glass, let it
stand for a few minutes, until the combination has turned to water, or
water is produced; then give one-half teaspoonful to a child six months
old or less and increase the dose to one teaspoonful for older children,
and repeat the dose in fifteen or thirty minutes as the case may require.
Remarks: From personal experience in my own and neighbors' families, I
have never known a case where it did not bring relief and cure. The dose
must produce vomiting."

5. Croup, Remedy that Never Fails.--"Two tablespoonfuls of liquor or
brandy and one-quarter teaspoonful of glycerin, one teaspoonful of sugar,
one tablespoonful of water; stir up well and give one teaspoonful every
hour or oftener if necessary. Then at same time take a flannel and soak
well in cold water, wring it gently and put around neck with a heavy, dry
flannel over the damp one. If damp flannel becomes hot take it off, dampen
it in more cold water and apply again, and so on until relieved. Do not
allow the patient to get chilled. Better results are obtained if patient
will go to bed. Remarks: I have used this in my family, and have always
found it to be the best croup cure I have ever seen, and it will be found
to give immediate relief. The external application is extremely good."

6. Croup, Coal Oil (kerosene) and Sugar for.--"Coal oil and sugar; put a
few drops on a teaspoonful of sugar." The coal oil produces vomiting,
relieving the trouble. If the first dose does not have this effect upon
the child, repeat it.

[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 29]

7. Croup, Pork and Onion Poultice for.--"Put pork and onions on the
throat. Drink plenty of hot water." Bind the pork and onions on the
throat, acting as a poultice. The virtue of this can be increased by
cooking the onions and pork together. Onion syrup may be given internally
to produce vomiting, even in very small babies.

8. Croup, Bloodroot for.--"One teaspoonful powdered bloodroot mixed with
molasses or sugar. Have taken this myself and it relieved at once. If one
dose does not seem enough it may be repeated." This is a very effective
remedy, but is very weakening. Care should be taken not to repeat dose any
oftener than absolutely necessary.

9. Croup, Time Honored Remedy for.--"Pulverized alum and sugar or honey or
molasses; mix together and give half teaspoonful doses or less. For
infants use only in emergency cases." This is one of the good
old-fashioned remedies that nearly every mother has used. It acts simply
by producing vomiting and causing the air tubes to relax. Repeat in five
to twenty minutes until it causes vomiting.

10. Croup, Ipecac for.--"One-third teaspoonful of powdered ipecac
dissolved in one teaspoonful of water, one tablespoonful of sugar; pour on
one teacupful of boiling water and let boil down to a half cup, Dose: One
teaspoonful for adults; children in proportion every two hours; or, if
needed to vomit children give again in ten or fifteen minutes." If you
cannot secure the powdered ipecac, the syrup can be bought at any drug
store, and is already prepared, Dose: Ten to fifteen drops as the case may
need.

11. Croup, Vaselin for.--"Vaselin rubbed on the chest, cover with a hot
flannel, and take 1/4 teaspoonful of vaselin internally occasionally."
Dissolve vaselin and repeat dose if necessary to produce vomiting.

12. Croup, Ice Application for.--"Ice applied to the throat is almost
instant relief." It is best to break the ice up fine and sprinkle salt on
same, putting it in a cheese cloth bag, binding on the throat with a
flannel, and change as soon as it shows signs of wetting.

13. Croup, Salt for.--"Parched salt put on the throat hot." The parched
salt acts the same as mustard plaster, by producing a redness on the
throat. Salt is something that we can always have on hand and by using
this remedy we are always prepared for an emergency in case of croup.

14. Croup, Castor Oil Breaks up.--"Castor oil, given before bedtime, is
good. Dose.--From one-half to one teaspoonful. I have taken this when I
was small." Castor oil is good when the bowels are constipated or the
stomach is full.

15. Croup, Coal Oil, Turpentine and Snuff, a Canadian Remedy for.--"A
little coal oil and a few drops of turpentine soaked up by snuff, and used
as plaster. Makes the child sneeze after a few minutes. The poultice
loosens the phlegm and the sneezing throws it off."

[30 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Croup.--Active. 1. Dr. Douglas says wring cloths
out of cold water and apply very freely to the throat, and recommends the
following syrup:

Syrup of Ipecac       3 fluid drams
Hive Syrup            4 fluid drams
Water             1-1/2 ounces

Mix, and give one teaspoonful every half hour until the child vomits, then
repeat the dose every two hours as needed.

2. Place the child in a hot bath, wrap hot or cold cloths about the throat
and put one teaspoonful of common soda in a glass of water and give one
teaspoonful every fifteen minutes until relieved.

3. Dr. Holt of New York, says.--The room should be very warm, hot cloths
or poultices should be applied over the throat (Adam's apple and below)
and either a croup kettle or ordinary teakettle kept boiling in the room.
This is more efficacious if the child is placed in a tent made by a raised
umbrella or some like method with a sheet thrown over it, and the steam
introduced beneath the tent. If the symptoms' are urgent ten drops of the
syrup of ipecac should be given every fifteen minutes until free vomiting
occurs.

Whenever the symptoms reach a point where the breathing becomes difficult,
a doctor should be summoned without delay. It might be some other disease.

4. Home Treatment.--One-half teaspoonful of alum mixed with molasses or
honey will produce vomiting and help. This is very good when the croup is
due to indigestion. At the same time, fry onions in lard and put them on
the neck in front, or hot wet cloths may do. The alum can be given once or
twice if necessary, half an hour apart, about in one-fourth or one-half
the first dose.

5. Goose grease, or lard dissolved, and enough given to produce vomiting
will do good. This idea is not only to cause vomiting but to cause a sick
feeling after and at that time, which will cause the spasms to relax. A
very good thing to do in addition is to put the child's feet in hot water,
while local applications are put on the throat. These things tend to relax
the muscles and this relieves the spasm.

6. Steam is Very Useful. It relaxes the spasm by local contact and by
producing general sweating. Cover the child's head and a pitcher with a
shawl and inhale the steam from the boiling water in pitcher. You can put
in the pitcher one teaspoonful of oil of tar or one to two teaspoonfuls of
tincture of benzoin. This can be kept up for some time.

COLD IN THE CHEST. (Acute Bronchitis. Inflammation of Bronchial Tubes).--
This is an acute inflammation of the larger and medium sized bronchial
tubes.

[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 31]

Causes.--Youth and old age are more predisposed to it. Lack of fresh air
and exercise, dusty work, poor general health, dampness and changeable
weather in winter and early spring. It may be secondary to cold,
pharyngitis, measles, typhoid fever, malaria, asthma, and heart disease.

Symptoms.--There is a feeling of oppression with chilliness and pain in
the back, a dry, tight feeling beneath the breastbone with a dry harsh
cough. This may cause headache and pain, and a raw feeling in the chest,
chiefly in front. There may be a temperature of one hundred or one hundred
three or less. After a few days there is a thick, sticky secretion; it is
profuse. The other symptoms, except the cough, subside. This generally
stops in ten days in a favorable case, or it may become chronic. In
infants or old people it may extend to the smaller tubes causing
broncho-pneumonia. There is more danger in infants than in older people.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. Bronchitis, Camphor and Lard for.--1. "Grease a cloth
well with lard to which has been added some camphor gum, then sprinkle on
some dry baking soda and lay it on the chest. The camphor and lard should
be made into a salve, then put on the soda. The lard and camphor gum
penetrates the affected parts, relieving the inflammation and tightness in
the chest. It is well in children to put a layer of cotton cloth over the
chest keeping them warm and getting better results from the remedy."

2. Bronchitis, Grandmother's Remedy for.--

"Hoarhound          5 cents worth
Hops                5 cents worth
Wild cherry bark    5 cents worth
Licorice root       5 cents worth

"Boil and simmer altogether in two quarts of water long enough to get the
strength out of the ingredients, strain, add three cups sugar, then add
enough good whisky to keep from souring, say a half pint." This
combination is not only good for bronchitis, but for the cough left from
the effects of bronchitis. The hoarhound, wild cherry bark and licorice
root have a very soothing effect on the bronchial tubes, and the hops
quiets the nervous system. This is also good for a common cough.

[32 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

3. Bronchitis, Antiphlogistine Plaster for.--"Antiphlogistine is fine for
bronchitis, where there is any inflammation, pleurisy, any kind of a
scratch, especially rusty nails; pneumonia, Set can in water long enough
to heat, but not hot, spread on with case knife as thick as a silver
dollar, spread cotton batting over it, keep on twenty-four hours, before
changing. This is a very useful remedy to keep on hand." Antiphlogistine
is very good to apply to the body wherever inflammation is present, as it
withdraws the blood from the organ or part of the body that is affected.
It does this by drawing the blood into the external circulation. It has
the same effect upon the diseased parts as the old-fashioned mustard, but
does not blister. In using the mustard plaster you are in fear of
blistering, and then having the outward blister and inward inflammation to
contend with. The antiphlogistine can be purchased at drug stores. Set the
can in warm water until it is warm, then spread on a piece of cotton cloth
and apply to the affected parts, where it may remain for twenty-four
hours, then repeat if necessary. Should always be put on warm, but not
hot. It usually drops off when dry and no longer effective.

4. Bronchial, or any Severe Cough. One of the best Home Remedies.--

"Hoarhound (herb form)                1 ounce
Irish moss                            1 ounce
Flax Seed (the seed not pulverized)   1 ounce
Boneset                               1 ounce
Licorice Root (cut up fine)           1 ounce

Place the above in some suitable pan or dish for such purpose in a gallon
of cold water, and put it on the back of the stove, so that it will simmer
slowly until reduced to one-half gallon, which may require one day or
more, then strain and place in a bottle, or bottles. Dose.--One
wineglassful three times a day. Add a little sugar if desired." This is a
very fine cough remedy, as the hoarhound loosens the cough, the flax seed
soothes the membrane, and the boneset by its general action on the system
produces sweating. The Irish moss is a sort of food for the whole system
and helps to build a person up.

5. Bronchitis, Camphorated Oil and Steaming for.--"Bathe the chest and
throat up around the head with camphorated oil; drink water and steam the
throat and mouth over hot water. Have tried this recipe and found it
effectual. Have a bronchial cough now and am treating it myself." The
camphorated oil seems to have a very soothing effect upon the chest, in
fact it acts about the same as camphor and lard, only is more pleasant to
use, and can be bought already prepared. Drinking plenty of water cleanses
the system by acting upon the stomach, bowels and kidneys, carrying off
the impurities. The breathing of steam is very soothing and healing to the
throat and air passages.

6. Bronchitis, General Relief for.--"Dose of castor oil every night; one
teaspoonful for child. Grease well with camphorated oil or any good oil."
The castor oil is very good for carrying off the phlegm from the stomach
and bowels that children always swallow instead of coughing up like an
older person. It is well in addition to the above remedy to give a little
licorice or onion syrup to relieve the bronchial cough.

7. Bronchitis, Lard Poultice for.--"Take a piece of cotton batting large
enough to cover chest and fit up close to the neck; wring out of melted
lard as hot as the patient can stand it, and apply. Change as often as it
gets cold. Also give dose of castor oil."

8. Bronchitis, Mustard Plaster for.--"Mustard plasters are very good."
This acts as a counter-irritant, as it draws the blood to the surface and
relieves the inflamed bronchial tubes.

[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 33]

9. Bronchitis, Well-Known Remedy for.--

"Cod Liver Oil          2 ounces
Ginger Syrup            2 ounces
Mucilage of Gum Arabic  2 ounces
Oil of Cloves           6 drops

Dose :-Teaspoonful before meals and at bedtime."

This is a very good remedy, as the cod liver oil by its general action
tones up the whole system. The ginger tones and stimulates the stomach and
takes away the sickening effect of the cod liver oil.

10. Bronchitis Remedy and General Tonic.--"Take small doses of glycerin
and one teaspoonful three times a day of codfish oil." This remedy, though
simple, is very effective. The glycerin and codfish oil are both soothing
to the affected parts, and the codfish oil is a very good tonic to tone up
the general system.


1. PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Bronchitis. Sweating Remedy for.--Take a hot
bath and then go to bed, and take hot drinks after. See that the bowels
are open. Nourishment is especially important in infants and old age. You
can sweat them as directed under la grippe. Drink hot drinks, such as
hoarhound, ginger, flaxseed, hot lemonade or slippery elm. These will
produce sweating and will give much relief. An onion poultice applied over
the breastbone where the pain and tightness are, will do good.

2. Steaming Remedy.--Inhaling steam from plain boiling water is good, or
you can add one to two teaspoonfuls of compound tincture of benzoin or
turpentine. The steaming will be more effective if you make a tent, by
fastening four sticks to the cradle or bed and cover with a sheet,
introducing the steam underneath this at the foot of the bed, etc. A
rubber tube can be fastened to the kettle. In this same way you can
produce, if you wish, sweating by putting the end of the tube under the
clothes elevated a little above the patient. Be careful not to scald the
patient.

3. Steaming With Pitcher.--If the soreness of the bronchial tubes is not
relieved by this means, inhalations of steam arising from boiling water
may be practiced, either through a cone, one end of which covers the top
of a pitcher, and the other end of which covers the mouth and nose of the
patient, or by covering the head and pitcher with a towel. The usefulness
of this method may be much increased by the addition of from two
teaspoonfuls to one tablespoonful of compound tincture of benzoin to each
pint of water in a pitcher. This latter method can also be used in
tonsilitis, pharyngitis and quinsy.

4. Rub the chest with a camphor liniment and give the following:

Tincture of Aconite       10 drops
Sweet Spirits of Nitre     2 drams
Distilled water to make    4 ounces

Mix--One-half teaspoonful to a child, or dessert spoonful to an adult in
water every hour.

[34 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

5. For Adults.--Compound licorice mixture one to two drams every three to
four hours; or five grains of Dover's powders every three to four hours.

Diet in Bronchitis (similar to Laryngitis).--Drinks are useful in the
dryer forms, such as hot flaxseed tea sweetened and flavored with lemon
juice. It should be taken in large quantities. Hot milk and lemonade are
also useful.


CHRONIC BRONCHITIS. Causes.--People over middle age are more liable to it.
It comes chiefly in winter, in changeable, cold and damp climates. It may
follow repeated acute attacks.

Symptoms.--These are variable and are present chiefly in winter and damp
weather. The cough is worse at night, and in the morning, expectoration is
usually great. There may be slight fever at times. Often the patients are
entirely free from the trouble during the summer.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Chronic Bronchitis. Preventive.--Warm equable
climate, such as southern California, Florida, or the south of France,
especially in the colder months; warm clothing, avoid exposure and
fatigue.

1. First you can take three grains of ammonium chloride three to four
times a day.

2.  Ammonium Chloride              2 drams
    Fluid Extract of Licorice      2 drams
    Distilled water brought to     3 ounces

Mix and take one teaspoonful every three hours.

3. If the cough is troublesome the following is good:

    Ammonium Chloride                 2 drams
    Hive Syrup                        4 drams
    Fluid Extract Licorice            1 ounce
    Paregoric                         6 drams
    Distilled water enough to make    2 ounces

Mix. Teaspoonful every three to four hours.


COUGHS. Causes.--There are many causes; inflammation of the larynx,
bronchial tubes, lungs, also stomach and liver; and a nervous cough is
present in our day. Remove the cause when possible. There are many good
cough medicines now put up, and they can be bought at any drug-store.
Cough lozenges of all kinds are plenty, and a sure cure is claimed by
each.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. Dry Cough and Tickling.--l. "Raspberry Tincture. Take
one-half pound of honey, one cup water; let these boil; take off scum;
pour boiling hot upon one-half ounce lobelia herb and one-half ounce
cloves; mix well, then strain and add one gill of raspberry vinegar. Take
from one teaspoonful to a dessertspoonful four times a day. Pleasant to
take,"

[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 35]

2. Cough, Honey and Vinegar for.--"Honey and vinegar." This is an old and
tried remedy and a good one. The vinegar cuts the phlegm in the throat and
bronchial tubes, and the honey is very soothing.

3. Cough of Long Standing, Excellent Syrup for.--

    "Carbonate Ammonia  40 grains
    Syrup Senega         6 drams
    Paregoric            4 drams
    Syrup Wild Cherry    6 drams
    Syrup Tolu           4 ounces"

This is a very good syrup, and is especially good for chronic cough or
chronic bronchitis. Dose.--One teaspoonful every three hours.

4. Cough, Reliable Mixture in Severe Cases.--

    "Oil of Anise            1/2 ounce
    Syrup of Balsam of Tolu  1/2 ounce
    Black Stick Licorice     1/2 ounce
    Best Rye Whisky            1 pint

Shake well before using. Dose:--One teaspoonful at intervals of one hour
or oftener; if cough is very bad."

5. Cough, Mullein Leaf Tea for--"Mullein leaves steeped with loaf sugar
cures a cough." Take four ounces of mullein leaves and boil for ten
minutes in water: then add the loaf sugar. This is very soothing to the
sore parts and also helps to loosen up the secretion so it can be raised
easily.

6. Cough, Lemon Juice and Sugar for.--"Lemon juice and sugar is a good
remedy for coughs." It is surprising to see how quickly the lemon juice
will cut the phlegm in throat, and sugar is always good for cold.

7. Cough, Standard Remedy for.--

    "Hoarhound         Five cents worth
    Hops               Five cents worth
    Wild cherry bark   Five cents worth
    Licorice root      Five cents worth

Boil or simmer altogether in two quarts of water long enough to get the
strength out of the ingredients; strain, add three cups sugar. Add enough
good whiskey to keep from souring, say one-half pint. This will cure a
stubborn cough."

8. Cough, Ipecac Syrup for.--"One-third teaspoonful of ipecac dissolved in
one teaspoonful of water; one tablespoonful of sugar; pour on one
teacupful of boiling water and let it boil down to half cup. Dose.--One
teaspoonful for adults, and children in proportion, every two hours, or,
if needed to vomit children give again in ten or fifteen minutes."

[36 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

9. Cough Remedy for Adults (not for children).--

    "Laudanum               Three cents worth
    Anise                   Three cents worth
    Essence of Peppermint   Three cents worth
    Licorice (liquid)       Three cents worth
    Brown Sugar             1 cup
    Molasses                1 cup
    Boiling water           2 cups

Let this come to a little more than a boil. Take a teaspoonful of it as
often as necessary." This is for adults. Do not use for children.

10. Coughs, Very Simple Remedy for.--"Take one-half tablespoonful hogs'
lard or salt pork grease, heat it hot, fill spoon with coal oil and
swallow while hot. Have used this, will stop and cure the worst cough."
Not to be given to children.

11. Coughs, Glycerin, Brandy and Paregoric with Lemon, Good
for.--"Glycerin, one ounce; brandy, one ounce; paregoric, one ounce; lemon
juice, one ounce. Mix well; one teaspoonful every hour." This makes a very
effective cough syrup. The glycerin and brandy cut the phlegm, and the
paregoric is soothing and quieting. The lemon juice is healing to the
membranes of the throat.

PHYSICIANS'TREATMENT. For Coughs.--

1.   Flaxseed (unground)    3 teaspoonfuls
     Extract of Licorice   30 grains
     Boiling water         10 ounces

"Allow the mixture to stand one to four hours in a warm place. Then add a
little lemon juice and sugar and place one to two teaspoonfuls of gum
arabic in the pitcher containing the mixture." A little paregoric (ten
drops to the dose for adults) can be taken with it if the cough is very
bad. Dose.--Drink freely every two to three hours.

2. A good combination is the following:

     Chloride of Ammonia          2 drams
     Fluid Extract of Licorice    2 drams
     Distilled water             20 ounces

Mix. Teaspoonful every two hours or longer.

3.    Ammonium Carbonate                 1/2 dram
      Syrup Senega                         4 drams
      Wine of Ipecac                       3 drams
      Syrup Totu                           1 ounce
      Spirits of Chloroform                3 drams
      Syrup of Wild Cherry enough to make  4 ounces

Mix. Take one to two teaspoonfuls every hour or two until better.

[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 37]

4.    Ammonia Chloride      2 drams
      Hive Syrup            5 drams
      Paregoric             6 drams
      Syrup of Wild Cherry  4 ounces

Mix. Teaspoonful every three hours until cough is better.

5. Many other combinations could be given. Hoarhound tea. Sugar enough to
sweeten makes a good cough remedy.

6. Onion syrup is good for children. The bowels should always be kept
open.


BRONCHIAL ASTHMA. (Spasmodic Asthma.) Causes.--It occurs in all ages, but
usually begins in the young, particularly males. It often follows
whooping-cough. It may come from diseases of the mouth such as adenoids,
polypi. Exciting causes are change of climate and residence, dust, smoke,
odors, errors in diet, emotion, and cold.

Symptoms.--The onset is often sudden, often during the night. Difficulty
of breathing is intense. The patient cannot lie down, but often sits at an
open window, resting the elbows on a table. The face is pale and the
expression is anxious. There is a feeling of great oppression in the chest
and often dread of suffocation. Respiration (breathing) though labored, is
not unusually frequent, as expiration (out breathing) is much prolonged.
In severe or prolonged attacks there are blueness, sweating, coldness of
the extremities, with small and frequent pulse and great drowsiness. The
attack lasts a few minutes to many hours, and may pass off suddenly,
perhaps to recur soon, or on several successive nights, with slight cough
and difficulty in breathing in the intervals. The cough is nearly dry at
first and the sputum is very tenacious.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. 1. Asthma, Raspberry Tincture for Adults.--"Take a half
pound of honey, one cup water; let these boil, take off the scum; pour
boiling hot upon one-half ounce lobelia herb and one-half ounce cloves;
mix well, then strain and add one gill of raspberry vinegar. Take from one
teaspoonful to a dessertspoonful four times a day. Pleasant to take." The
above remedy is very effective, as the honey has a soothing effect upon
the inflamed parts, and the lobelia causes the bronchial tubes to dilate,
relieving the patient. The raspberry tincture makes it more pleasant to
take. In severe cases it will be necessary to give enough of the above
remedy to cause vomiting which relieves the phlegm.

2. Asthma, Simple but Effective Remedy for.--"Take pieces of ordinary
blotting paper and saturate it with a strong solution of saltpetre, then
dry the paper. When a paroxysm is felt ignite a piece of the paper and
inhale the smoke. This remedy is very good and acts quickly, doing away
almost entirely with the distressing symptoms and shortens the paroxysm."

[38 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

3. Asthma, Lobelia Tea for.--"There is no medicine that is half so
effective as lobelia in removing the tough, hard ropy phlegm from the
asthmatic persons." This remedy is very good, but care should be taken not
to give it to consumptives, because it is too weakening. To obtain the
best results, enough of the remedy should be given to produce relaxation
of the bronchial tubes. Dose.--For adults should be from fifteen to sixty
drops according to the strength of the patient. This will cause a little
sickness of the stomach and vomiting, thus relaxing the muscles and
relieving the asthma.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Asthma.--1. Inhale chloroform, or break a pearl
of amyl nitrite in a handkerchief and inhale the fumes; or smoke saltpetre
paper; or cigarettes containing stramonium (thornapple). Sometimes hot
coffee fumes are good.

To Prevent Recurrence.--Take five to twenty grains of iodide of potash
three times a day. Do not eat much at night. Do not eat foods that cause
gas or that are hard to digest. A change of climate is often good. Hot
foot baths and hot drinks are helpful. Tincture of lobelia can be given in
severe cases, fifteen drops repeated every half hour until the patient
feels sick at the stomach.

2. Vapo-Cresolene burned in a room is very good. This can be bought in
twenty-five cent bottles in any drug store, with directions around the
bottle.

3. Tartar Emetic in one-hundredth grain, two given every half hour until
there is a little sickening is a very good remedy. These can be bought at
a drug store or from a homeopathic doctor or pharmacist.


BLEEDING FROM THE WIND-PIPE AND LUNGS. (Haemoptysis).--This is a spitting
of blood. It may come from the small bronchial tubes and less frequently
from the blood vessels in the lung cavities or their walls.

Symptoms.--In incipient consumption of the lungs, bleeding develops
suddenly as a rule, a warm salty taste, lasting but a few moments,
generally preceded by the spitting up of blood. The blood is coughed up
and the bleeding may last only a few minutes or it may continue for days,
the sputum being apt to remain blood-stained for a longer time. The
immediate effect of the bleeding is to alarm the patient and family, no
matter how slight it may be, inducing heart palpitation and other nervous
symptoms. A small bleeding is not attended with any bad result, but large
ones give rise to the symptoms of shock (sometimes immediate death)
combined with anemia following the loss of blood. When the bleeding is
large, blood by the mouthful may be ejected with each cough, and in these
instances of such profuse bleeding is shown by dizziness, faintness, cold
extremities, excessive pallor, sweating and rapid, small feeble pulse.
This is followed, if the attack does not prove speedily fatal, by
restlessness, and later by mild delirium and some fever. In few cases does
the patient have a single bleeding; more frequently there are several at
shorter or longer intervals. Large or small bleedings may precede by
weeks, months, or even years any rational symptoms of consumption.

[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 39]

Quantity.--This varies greatly. There may be less than an ounce or it
might amount to a pint or more before the bleeding stops. In advanced
cases, in which large cavities have formed, large blood vessels may be
eaten through and this followed by copious and alarming bleeding.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--1. Bleeding from the Lungs. Salt Water for.--"Give the
patient half a teaspoonful of common salt every hour or two until
hemorrhage abates."

2. Bleeding from the Lungs. Herb Tea for.--"Two ounces each of bistory
root, tormentil root, oak bark, and comfrey root, boil in three quarts of
water down to one pint, strain and add one tablespoonful of ground ginger.
Give a wine glass full every half hour until relieved. Place the feet in
hot mustard water, keep the bowels open with a little senna and ginger tea
and if necessary give a vapor bath,"

3. Bleeding from the Lungs, Effective Remedy for.--

    "Powdered Sugar       3 ounces
    Powdered Rosin        3 ounces

Mix. Dose one teaspoonful three times a day."

4. Bleeding from the Lungs, Tannin and Sugar for.-

    "Tannin             30 grains
    Powdered Sugar       1 dram

Mix. Make ten powders and give one every ten minutes until relieved."

Either one of the above remedies is excellent for this trouble, as the
tannin and rosin contract the arteries and acts as an astringent.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Bleeding of the Wind-pipe and Lungs.--In many
cases the bleeding is slight and no more need be done than to keep the
patient quiet and absolute rest. If the bleeding is free, the patient
should be placed in bed, not allowed to speak above a whisper nor to
change his position.

1. First Thing to Do.--Eating ice, and using ice drinks are useful
measures. The drinking of a little salt water at a time with one
tablespoonful of salt in a glassful of water is good. In most cases more
can be done by assuring the patient he will not die and keeping him quiet
and at rest. Medicines should be given to satisfy the patient and family.
The most cases stop of themselves.

2. If Caused by Coughing.--If cough causes the bleeding one-half grain of
opium should be given to control it, hypodermically, or even morphine
one-eighth grain.

3. Alum for.--Alum solution six grains to three ounces of water in fine
spray is good. This goes right to the wind-pipe and contracts the vessels;
use a vaporizer.

4. White Oak Bark Tea can be used as a spray in a vaporizer. If these
produce coughing, they should be discontinued.

[40 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

5. Hot Water and Salt for.--A teaspoonful of salt in a pint of hot water
is good also, used as a spray, or to inhale. But the patient must lie
down.

6. Other Easily Obtained Remedies.--Ergot in dose of one-half to one
teaspoonful is very good; this contracts the vessels. Bromide of potash in
a dose of five to fifteen grains; or chloral hydrate in dose of five to
seven grains, if there is not heart trouble. If there is, chloral hydrate
cannot be used. These quiet the nervous system and do much good. Strong
hop tea will do the same thing if taken freely. Witch-hazel water thirty
drops at a dose is good.

Cautions.--Quiet the patient; keep quiet yourself. If the bleeding is bad
the extremities should be bandaged, beginning at the toes and fingers.

Thirst.--Give small quantities at a time of ice-water.

Diet.--Peptonized or plain milk, liquid beef peptonoids, fresh beef juice,
bouillon, should be given in small quantities, two or three ounces every
two or three hours. If there is a tendency to constipation give rectal
enemata. Return to the regular diet as soon as possible. Alcohol in any
form is best avoided. If given as a stimulant it should be given in small
quantities.


BRONCHO-PNEUMONIA. (Acute Inflammation of the Smaller Tubes and Lungs).--

Causes.--Most common under two years and in old people. Taking cold,
whooping cough and measles.

Symptoms.--A primary case begins suddenly with a convulsion or chill,
vomiting and rapid rise of temperature. Breathing is frequent and brain
symptoms are marked.

Secondary Cases.--After an ordinary case of whooping-cough, measles,
bronchitis, etc., there is more fever. The pulse is more frequent, and
also the respiration, difficulty in breathing and severe and often painful
cough. Temperature rises to 102 to 104; respirations are very fast, up to
60 to 80; the breathing (inspiration) is hard, labored, while the wings of
the nose dilate; expiration may be grunting. Face looks anxious and
bluish. This color may increase, other symptoms decreasing as suffocation
deepens, rattling in chest and death from heart weakness.

Prevention.--Avoid exposure to sudden changes of temperature. For the
attack, jacket of oil silk or flannel to prevent sudden exposure, keep the
temperature warmed up to 68 to 70 degrees night and day; the air must be
fresh and pure and changed regularly.

[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 41]

Children should be given ample room and not hampered by extra clothing, as
they like change of position, to get relief. The hot bath must be used
often to redden the skin and relieve the pressure on the lungs, till they
can be given relief. If you wish to use a poultice the following is a nice
way to make it. Take a piece of muslin or linen, or cheese-cloth, wide
enough when doubled to reach from the lower margin of the ribs to well up
under the arm pits, and long enough to go a little more than around the
chest, open the double fold and spread the hot mass of poultice on
one-half of the cloth and fold the other over it. It should be applied as
hot as it can be comfortably borne and covered with oil silk or paraffin
paper, so as to the longer retain the heat and moisture. The poultice
should be renewed as often as it gets cold, and a fresh poultice should be
all ready to put on when the old one is taken off. Place the end of the
poultice uppermost, so that the contents will not fall out.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. 1. Pneumonia, Herb Tea and Poultice for.--"Congestion
of the lungs. One ounce of each of the following, slippery elm bark,
crushed thyme, coltsfoot flowers, hyssop or marshmallow. Simmer in two
quarts of water down to three pints; strain and add one teaspoonful of
cayenne. Dose:--Wineglassful every half hour. Apply hot bran poultices or
chamomile scalded in vinegar, changing often until the violence of the
symptoms abate. If the bowels are confined, give an injection of half pint
of hot water in which one-half teaspoonful each of gum myrrh, turkey
rhubarb and ginger powder have been well mixed. If possible give vapor
bath. Apply hot stones or bottles to the feet."

2. Pneumonia, Home Remedy for.--"This can easily be relieved by the use of
cayenne and vapor bath. This promotes the circulation in every part of the
body, diminishing the pressure upon the lungs. These baths produce a
regular circulation throughout the whole body, thus relieving the pressure
upon the lungs by decreasing the amount of blood in the lungs. These baths
should be taken but once a day, as they are weakening."

3. Pneumonia, Hot Vinegar Applications for.--Congestion of Lungs.--"Over
the lungs lay cloths wet in clear hot vinegar. They should be five or six
inches square and several thicknesses. Over the cloths lay a hot plate or
hot water bottle; change as often as necessary to keep them hot. This
treatment will soon give relief, after which rub as much oil into the
lungs as possible."

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Pneumonia.--A doctor must be called. For high
fever, one to one and a half drops of aconite, for adults every hour; for
children, about one-twelfth to one-eighth of a drop. For cough, chloride
of ammonium, one to two grain doses. For pain, hot applications.

Diet.--Milk, broth and egg albumen and plenty of water to drink. (See
laryngitis for diet.)

ACUTE PLEURISY (Inflammation of the Pleura).--The pleura covers the wall
of the chest cavity and infolds or surrounds the lungs. Pleurisy means the
inflammation of this pleura or covering.

[42 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Causes.--Exposure to cold, etc. Onset may be gradual or sudden, with
chills fever and sharp stitches in the side near the arm pit or breast.
The patient lies on the affected side during the attack, the pain is made
worse by breathing, coughing or motion. The cough is dry and painful, with
difficult breathing. The temperature 102 to 103. Sometimes there is fluid
accumulated in the cavity. In about seven to ten days the fever and other
symptoms disappear. The fluid is absorbed quickly if it is scanty, often
very slowly if abundant. This fluid is contained in the cavity of the
pleura. The pleura covers the lungs. Its outer layer is attached to the
ribs and costal cartilages in front and ribs behind, goes around the foot
of the lungs underneath, then turns around under the side of the lungs and
comes in front, making a sac. The two layers in health touch each other,
but are separated when there is fluid in the cavity. The inner layer
covers the lungs and drops into the grooves of the lungs. You can thus
readily understand how easy it is for the pleura to be attacked. Also when
the lung is inflamed we have what we call pleura-pneumonia. Pleurisy is a
very painful disease. It hurts to move, breathe, or cough. The patient
holds his chest when he coughs. The fluid that forms is poured out from
the inflamed membrane, sometimes it is so great in quantity it must be
drawn off,--tapped; we then call this hydrothorax,--water in the chest.

Diet and Nursing--The patient should be kept quiet and in the easiest
position.

Milk diet is the best to use. There should not be much liquid diet, except
milk. The milk may be diluted with lime water if necessary. Malted milk,
Mellin's food, imperial granum, can be used when the milk cannot be taken.


PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Pleurisy.--1. Home Remedy.--The patient must go
to bed and remain there. It is a good thing to get the patient in a sweat.
For this purpose you can use the corn sweat described under treatment of
la grippe. This will ease the patient and may shorten the attack.

I have great faith in this remedy in most inflammatory diseases. I had a
patient sick with pleurisy; she did not get along fast enough to suit me,
her color was a yellow-green. I advised the corn sweat and she improved
fast from that time. Her night dress was green in color after the sweat. I
have saved pneumonia cases in the same way. Of course, some cases may be
too weak to stand it.

[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 43]

2. Other Home Remedies.--Another way to produce sweating is by placing
fruit cans filled with hot water about the patient. This will stop the
chilly cold feeling and also will relieve the pain. If you have a rubber
water bottle, put hot water in that and place it near the sorest spot. It
may hurt the patient by its weight; if so, use less water, at the same
time you can give hot drinks freely. Almost  any kind will do. If the
stomach feels bad, ginger or peppermint is best. Hoarhound tea is
especially good for chest trouble.

3. Fomentations.--Of hops or wormwood or smartweed, or catnip applied
frequently and hot to the affected side often bring relief. They must
always be hot, and you must be careful not to get the night robes or
covers wet.

4. Camphorated Oil for.--Rub the side with camphorated oil and cover over
with a cotton jacket. This is good unless it makes the patient too warm.

5. Adhesive Plaster Zinc Oxide.--Use a roll two or two and one-half inches
wide. Commence at the backbone and cross directly over the ribs to the
further side of the breastbone. The first strip should be at the lower
part of the chest. In putting on the succeeding strips make them lap
one-half inch over the next lower. Bandage almost up to the arm-pit. It
may take eight strips for an adult. After you have the strips on, place a
piece at each end, part on the flesh and part on the plasters, to keep
them from giving any. The patient should have his arms over his head when
you are putting on the strips. This strapping will hold that side of the
chest quieter. The breathing will be less full and consequently less
motion and pain.

6. Tincture of aconite in doses of one-tenth to one drop can be given
everyone to three hours at the beginning, if there is much fever, dry hot
skin, and full bounding pulse. Dover's powder can be given at night.

7. A hypodermic of morphine is frequently given when the pain is intense.


ABSCESS OF THE LUNGS. Causes.--Lobular pneumonia from abscesses in pyemia,
from septic pleurisy, etc.

Symptoms.--Fever, pain, difficult breathing, cough, and expectoration
containing or consisting of pus of offensive odor, etc.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT of Abscess of the Lungs.--Incision and drainage. You
must depend entirely upon your physician.


EMPHYSEMA.--A condition in which there is air or gas in tissues that
normally have none, or an excess of air in tissues that normally contain a
certain quantity of it. A condition of the lungs characterized by a
permanent dilation of the air cells of the lung with dwindling of the air
cell walls and the blood vessels, resulting in a loss of the normal
elasticity of the lung tissue.

Causes.--Heredity; it occurs in glass blowers, in musicians using wind
instruments. It occurs also after whooping-cough, asthma, etc.


HYDROTHORAX.--This is an exudation (liquid) in the pleural cavity.
Causes.--Comes from disease causing dropsy, kidney disease, lung trouble,
pleurisy, etc.

[44 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT.--Treat disease that causes it. An operation to
remove the fluid may be necessary. A trusted physician must advise you.

NIGHT SWEATS.--These are common in "consumption" and constitute one of the
most distressing features of the disease. They usually occur when the
fever drops in the early morning hours, or at any time of the day when the
patient is sleeping. They may come on early in the disease, but are more
persistent and frequent after cavities have formed in the lungs; some of
the patients escape it altogether.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.-l. Night Sweats, Salt Bath for.--"Bathe the body in
salt water every other day. Just before retiring take a cup of sage tea,
and eat nourishing food," The salt acts as an astringent as it slightly
closes up the pores, and the sage establishes a better circulation and at
the same time helps the sweating. This is a very simple and effective
remedy.

2. Night Sweats, Cold Sage for.--"Drink cold sage tea, before retiring."
This cold sage tea is only to be used when the patient has a fever and
needs a cold drink. In case of this kind it would be effective.

PHYSICIAN'S TREATMENT for Night Sweats.--l. Atropine in doses of 1-120 to
1-60 grain is good to stop the sweating. It must be used carefully, three
doses in twenty-four hours are enough.

2. Tonics to keep up the appetite like gentian, nux vomica or quinine may
be given. The patient should wear flannel night-dresses, as the cotton
night-shirt, when soaked with perspiration, has a cold, clammy feeling.
Bathe the patient in the morning with tepid water and afterwards rub
gently with alcohol diluted one-half with water. Night sweating occurs in
rickets but mainly around the head. They also occur when one is run down,
but they are not so debilitating and constant. In such cases, building up
treatment is needed. Proper diet, bathing, out-door life, bitter tonics,
etc.


[ANIMAL PARASITES 45]


ANIMAL PARASITES, DISEASES CAUSED BY.

ROUND WORM.--(Ascariasis Lumbricoides).--The round worm resembles the
angle worm in form; is the most common human parasite and is found chiefly
in children. The female is seven to twelve inches long, the male four to
eight inches. It is pointed at both ends. The parasite occupies the upper
part of the small bowel and there is usually only one or two present, but
sometimes they occur in enormous numbers. They migrate in a peculiar
manner. They may pass into the stomach, whence they may be thrown out by
vomiting, or they may crawl up the gullet, and enter the pharynx and cause
serious trouble. They may go up the eustachian tube and appear at the
external meatus (opening of ear). The serious migration is into the
bile-duct. There is a specimen in the Wister-Horner Museum of the
University of Pennsylvania in which not only the common bile-duct, but
also the main branches throughout the liver, are enormously distended, and
packed with numerous round worms. The bowel may be blocked or in rare
instances an ulcer may be perforated; even the healthy bowel may be
perforated.

Symptoms.--Picking of the nose, grinding of the teeth, a whitish paleness
around the mouth, restless sleep; sometimes convulsions, or presence of
worms in the stool. Bad health, cross, peevish, irritable and dumpy, when
the child is naturally the opposite.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--l. Round or Pin Worms, Sage Tea for.--"Sage tea is a
fine remedy for children troubled with worms, taken before breakfast or on
going to bed." Sage tea may help; I have known other mothers to have faith
in it. Its virtue may consist in being a laxative and an antiseptic which
in themselves would add to the general health of the child.

2. Round and Pin Worms, Tansy remedy for.--"Tansy leaves may be crushed
and put in whisky or dried and crushed with sugar. This is the best
vermifuge I ever used." A tea made of tansy leaves must be used carefully
as it is strong and never given to pregnant women.

3. Round and Pin Worms, Peach Leaf Tea for.--"Half an ounce of dried peach
leaves may be infused in a pint of boiling water and a tablespoonful given
for a dose three times a day." They are laxative and exert a sedative
influence over the nervous system. They have been frequently used for
worms with reported success. An infusion is highly recommended in
irritability of the bladder, in sick stomach and in whooping cough.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT.--l. Dr. Osler, of Oxford, England, recommends as
follows: Santonin in doses of two or three grains for an adult; one or two
a day for three or four days, followed by salts or calomel; one-half to
one grain for children in the same way. This seems to me to be
unnecessarily large.

[46 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

2. Dr. Ritter's Santonin Remedy.--

    I always give it thus:
    Santonin      1/10 grain
    Calomel       1/10 grain

Give four a day for two days, then miss two days, then give again for two
days and stop. Salts can be given after this. I then follow this treatment
by giving one drop doses of tincture of cina (Homeopathic preparation)
four times a day for one or two weeks. Before giving any of these remedies
it is well to move the bowels freely and also after the medicine has been
stopped.

3. Dr. Douglass of Detroit, Michigan, recommends the following for a child
five to ten years old:

    Santonin     12 grains
    Calomel       3 grains

Divide into six powders, and give one night and morning while fasting.

4. The following is from Professor Stille:

    Spigelia       1/2 ounce
    Senna            2 drams
    Fennel seed      2 drams
    Manna            1 ounce
    Boiling water    1 pint

Mix and make into an infusion (tea). Dose for a child, one or two
teaspoonfuls. For an adult, one or two wineglassfuls.


THREAD WORM OR PIN WORM.--(Oxyuris Vermicularis.)--This common worm
occupies the rectum and colon. They produce great irritation and itching,
particularly at night, symptoms which become intensely aggravated by the
nightly migration (traveling) of the parasite. They sometimes in their
travels enter the vagina. Occasionally abscesses are formed around the
bowel (rectum) containing numbers of worms. The patient becomes extremely
restless and irritable, for the sleep is very often disturbed, and there
may be loss of appetite and also anemia. These worms are most common in
children, but they can occur in all ages. The worms can easily be seen in
the feces. The infection takes place through the drinking of water and
possibly through salads, such as lettuce and cresses, and various other
means. A person who is the subject of worms passes ova (eggs) in large
numbers in the feces, and the possibility of reinfection must be guarded
against very scrupulously.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--1. Pin worms, Aloes treatment for.--"Pin worms or seat
worms are usually found in children and sometime cause a great deal of
annoyance to the child. They are usually very restless at night and pull
at the rectum both day and night. This condition may be relieved by an
injection, of powdered aloes,--five grains; hot water one-half pint." This
is sufficient for two injections and should be used at about blood heat.

[ANIMAL PARASITES 47]

2. Pin worms, Pink Root for.--"Take one ounce pink root, and one pint of
water. Make a decoction of this by boiling the above to  half a pint. Give
a teaspoonful three times a day for two days, following this up by a good
dose of castor oil or cream of tartar to thoroughly cleanse the system."

3. Pin worms, Quassia chips for.--"I knew of a child who had not slept
three hours a night for several months, and several doctors had been
called and none of them seemed to get down to the real trouble. Finally
the mother tried an injection made by steeping quassia chips for two or
three hours slowly, then straining it and injecting about one pint (luke
warm) once a day. This gave the child immediate relief and improvement
could be seen within a week."

4. Pin worms, Lime-water injection for.--"A very simple remedy is an
injection of a teacupful of lime water once a day, preferably in the
morning, as the worms are usually lodged in the rectum and this injection
will bring them away, giving the child relief at once."

5. Worms-Stomach, Salt Remedy for.--"Encourage the child to eat as much
salt as possible and give an injection of salt and water, about one
teaspoonful of salt to two quarts of water, once a day."

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT.--1. Santonin in small doses and mild purgatives
like rhubarb. Santonin in doses of one-tenth of a grain can be given for
two days, three or four times a day, preceded by spiced syrup of rhubarb,
one dram dose, and also followed by the rhubarb. In children the cold
injections of strong salt and water is effective. They should be repeated
for ten days. The hips should be well elevated so that the injection can
be retained for some time.

2.    Quassia chips       1 ounce
      Common salt       1/2 ounce
      Water               1 pint

Soak over night and inject slowly all the bowels will hold. Repeat once
each week till all are removed.

3. Dr. Tooker of Chicago, Illinois, recommends the following:--Give an
injection of an infusion of fresh garlic for two or three nights in
succession, using, to make the infusion, a small bunch of garlic in a pint
of water, steeped down to one-quarter pint.

4. Dr. Tooker gives another method which is often successful. Anoint the
anus for several nights in succession with sweet oil, using the little
finger to insert the oil as far into the rectum as the fingers will reach.


5. Another Remedy. Inject cod-liver oil (pure) into the bowel or make into
an emulsion with the yolk of an egg and then inject.

[48 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

6. Spearmint Remedy.--Make an infusion of the common spearmint and inject
some in the bowel every night for one week. Some can be taken internally
at the same time.

      Oil of Wormseed             1/2 ounce
      Oil of Turpentine         1-1/2 dram
      Castor Oil                    2 ounces
      Fluid extract of Pink Root    3 drams
      Hydrastin                    10 grains
      Syrup of Peppermint          4 drams

One teaspoonful three times a day one hour before meals to a child ten
years old. If it physics to much give less often. Good for both kinds of
worms.

8. Tincture of Cina; to accompany any injection.--I give the Tincture of
Cina (Homeopathic preparation) in from one-quarter to two or three drop
doses, three or four times a day, always after I have given the other worm
remedies. It can be given for weeks without producing bad effects. The
dose can be made less for weakly children; or greater in grown people. It
is good to give in small doses in pin worms when injections are used. It
seems to prevent their formation. It is also a good remedy for the worms
puppies are troubled with. I have saved the lives of a good many little
fellows with this remedy.


TAPE WORM, PORK.-(Taenia Solium). It is six to twelve feet long, but it is
not a common form in this country. The head is small, round, not so large
as the head of a pin and provided with four sucking ducts and a double row
of hooklets. By these hooklets and disks, the parasite attaches itself to
the mucous membrane of the small intestine in man. Below the head is a
constricted neck, which is followed by a large number of segments,
increasing in size from the neck onward. Each segment contains the
generative organs of both sexes. The parasite (worm) becomes fully grown
in three to three and one-half months. Segments then continually break off
and are discharged at stool. Each ovum (egg) contains a single embryo,
armed with six hooklets and contained in a thick shell. When swallowed by
a pig or man these shells are digested and the embryos migrate (travel) to
various parts of the body, where they change to Cysticerci or "Measles."
Each contains a scolex or tape-worm. When meat, improperly cooked and
containing "measles," is eaten, the cyst is dissolved in the human stomach
and the free scolex or head attaches itself to the intestinal mucous
membrane and grows into a tapeworm.


TAPE WORM, BEEF.--(Taenia Saginata). This is a larger and longer parasite
than the Pork Tape Worm. It is the common form found in this country. It
may grow fifteen to twenty feet or more and possesses a large head in
comparison with the Taenia Solium. It is square shaped and has four large
sucking disks, but no hooklets. The ripe segments are larger and they are
passed as in the Taemia Solium, and are eaten by cattle, in the flesh or
organs of which the eggs develop into the Cysticerci.

[ANIMAL PARASITES  49]

Symptoms.--These worms (parasites) are found at all ages. They are not
uncommon in children, and may be found in nursing children. They may cause
excessive appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or  abdominal pain or
sometimes anemia. The knowledge of the presence of this worm may cause
great nervousness or depression. The presence of the segment in the stools
proves their presence in the bowels.

Treatment, preventive.--This is most important. Careful attention should
be given to three points: First, all tapeworm segments should be burned.
They should never be thrown into the water-closet or outside; secondly,
special inspection of all meat; and, thirdly, cooking the meat
sufficiently to kill the parasites.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--1. Tape Worms, Pumpkin Seed Tea for.--"One pint
pumpkin seeds skinned and steeped. Add water enough to make three
tumblers. Take one tumbler every half hour, then a good dose of castor
oil. The worm will come with oil. My mother helped prepare the seeds and
saw the tapeworm which came from a woman as a result of this dose."

2. Tape Worms, Another good Remedy for.--

    "Powdered Kamala   3 drams
    Syrup simple       3 ounces

Two doses of this mixture hardly ever fails to bring the worm. Give oil
and turpentine two hours after the last dose." Of the oil and turpentine
an average dose would be a half ounce of castor oil and fifteen drops of
turpentine.

3. Tape Worm, Ontario Mother's Remedy for.--"Don't eat until very hungry
(extremely so), then eat one-half pint of pumpkin seeds. This is good and
will remove the worm every time." This remedy is different from the above
in that you eat the seeds instead of making a tea.

4. Tape Worm, Successful Remedy for Children or Adult.--

    "Turpentine   15 drops
    Castor Oil     1 teaspoonful
    Milk           1 teacupful

Mix and for adult take at one dose. If not successful repeat the next day.
For child under ten years, one-half the quantity."

[50 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT.--Preparing the Patient; Giving the Remedy, and
Receiving the Worm.--Whenever a round or tape worm is to be attacked, the
patient must be starved for at least twelve to twenty-four hours, in order
that no food in the intestinal (bowel) tract may protect the worm from the
action of the drug. During this time a little milk can be given, and after
a night of fasting, before breakfast, the worm medicine (anthelmintic)
must be swallowed. In addition, nearly all the drugs must be followed by
purges in order to dislodge the intruder while he is paralyzed and has
lost his hold; and in many it is well to have a basin of salt and water
ready so that when a passage occurs a rectal injection may be given to
wash out the segments of the worm which remain in the rectum. I am giving
many remedies and the different ways of administering them. Not every one
can be cured with the same remedy. One will act better in some people than
in others. So I give a variety and they are all good.

1. For two days prior to the administration of the remedies the patient
should take a very light, diet and have the bowels moved by a saline
(salts) cathartic. As a rule the male fern acts promptly and well. The
etheral extract of male fern in two dram doses may be given; fast, and
follow in the course of a couple of hours by a brisk purgative; that is,
calomel followed by salts.

Fasting means this: Light diet for a day or two and a cathartic at night,
no supper except a glass of milk before the worm medicine is given. Then
at bed-time take two to three grains of calomel with ten grains of
bicarbonate of sodium; rochelle salts, one-half to one ounce, upon
awakening. As soon as the bowels have moved give oleorisin of aspidium,
one dram in capsules. A saline cathartic should be given one-half to one
hour later. Never give castor oil or any oil after this remedy, When
calomel is given it should be given about one hour after taking the worm
medicine and followed in one or one and one-half hours by a half to one
ounce of salts.

2. Pelletierine Remedy for.--This comes in bottles of the proper dose. It
is dear, but effective. It must be taken lying down, and followed by some
cathartic or a dose of epsom salts in two hours after taking.

3. Infusion and Emulsion for.--An infusion of

      Pomegranate root   1/2 ounce
      Pumpkin seeds        1 ounce
      Powdered ergot       1 dram
      Boiling water       10 ounces

To an emulsion of the male fern (a dram of the ethereal extract) made with
acacia powders, two drops of croton oil are added. The patient should have
had a low diet on the previous day and have taken a dose of salts in the
evening.

The emulsion and infusion are mixed and taken at nine in the morning. If
the bowels do not move in two hours, salts should be taken.

4. An Old Remedy.--Chew freely of slippery elm bark. This, it is stated,
is very effective and as it is cheap and will not injure, it is worth a
thorough trial. I am often surprised at the value of the seemingly simple
remedies.

[ANIMAL PARASITES  51]

TRICHINIASIS (Trichinosis).--The disease is caused by the trichina
spiratis, a parasite introduced into the body by eating imperfectly cooked
flesh of infected hogs. The "embryos" pass from the bowel and reach the
voluntary muscles, where they finally become "encapsulated
larvae,"--muscle trichinae. It is in the migration of these embryos that
the group of symptoms known as trichiniasis is produced.

When the flesh containing the trichinae is eaten by man or by any animal
in which the development can take place, the capsules are digested and the
trichinae are set free. They pass into the small intestine and about the
third day attain their full growth and become sexually mature. The young
produced by each female trichina have been estimated at several hundred.
The time from the eating of the flesh containing the muscle trichinae to
the development of the brood of embryos in the intestines (bowels) is from
seven to nine days. The female worm penetrates the intestinal wall and the
embryos are probably discharged into the lymph spaces, thence into the
venous system, and by the blood stream to the muscles, which constitutes
their seat of election. After a preliminary migration in the
inter-muscular connective tissue, they penetrate the primitive muscle-
fibres and in about two weeks develop into the full grown muscle form. In
this process interstitial inflammation of the muscle is excited, and
gradually an ovoid capsule develops about the parasite. Two, and
occasionally three or four, worms may be seen within a single capsule.
This process of encapsulation has been estimated to take about six weeks.
Within the muscles the parasites do not undergo further development.
Gradually the capsule becomes thicker and ultimately lime salts are
deposited within it. This change may take place in man within four or five
months. The trichinae may live within the muscles for an indefinite
period. They have been found alive and capable of developing as late as
twenty or twenty-five years after their entrance into the system. These
calcified capsules appear as white specks in the muscles. In many
instances however these worms are completely calcified. In the hog the
trichinae cause few if any symptoms. An animal, the muscles of which are
swarming with living trichinae, may be well nourished and healthy looking.
An important point also is the fact that in the hog the capsule does not
readily become calcified, so that the parasites are not visible as in the
human muscles.

Modes of Infection.--The danger of infection depends entirely upon the
mode of preparation of the flesh. Thorough cooking, so that all parts of
the meat reach the boiling point, destroys the parasites; but, in larger
joints, the central portions are not often raised to this temperature. The
frequency of the disease in different countries depends largely upon the
habits of the people in the preparation of pork. In North Germany, where
raw ham and wurst are freely eaten, the greatest number of instances have
occurred. In South Germany, France, and England cases are rare. Salting
and smoking the flesh are not always sufficient, and the Havre experiments
showed that animals are readily infected when fed with portions of the
pickled or the smoked meat as prepared in this country.

[52 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Symptoms.--The eating of trichinous flesh is not always followed by this
disease.

In the course of a few days after eating the infected meat there are signs
of disturbance of the stomach and bowels, and pain in the abdomen, loss of
appetite, vomiting and sometimes diarrhea; and yet, these preliminary
symptoms do not always occur, for in some of the large epidemics cases
have been observed in which they have been absent. Pain in different parts
of the body, general debility and weakness have been noted in some of the
epidemics. In some instances the stomach and bowel disturbances have been
so marked from the outset that the attack resembled our cholera. The
invasion symptoms develop between the seventh and tenth day. Sometimes not
until the end of the second week, and they are marked by fever, a chill in
some cases and pain and swelling and tenderness along the muscles
involved. The migration of the parasites into the muscles excites a more
or less intense inflammation of these muscles, which is characterized by
pain on pressure and movement, and by swelling and tension of the muscles,
over which the skin may be swollen. The limbs are placed in some position
in which these muscles are more at rest. Difficulty in chewing and
swallowing is caused by the involvement of the muscles controlling these
acts. In severe cases the involvement of the diaphragm and intercostal
muscles may lead to difficult breathing (Dyspnoea) which sometimes proves
fatal. Watery swelling, a feature of great importance, may be seen early
in the face, particularly about the, eyes. Later it develops in the
extremities when the swelling and stiffness of the muscles are at their
height. Profuse sweats, tingling and itching of the skin and in some
instances hives (Urticaria) have been described.

There are emaciation and anemia. In the severe cases the appearance may be
like that in the third week of typhoid fever. In mild cases the fever and
muscular symptoms subside in ten to fourteen days, in others only after
two or three months. The mortality, from one to thirty per cent, seems to
depend upon the virulence and number of parasites.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT.--If discovered within twenty-four to thirty-six
hours, thoroughly empty the bowel with purgatives. Rhubarb and senna, or
an occasional dose of calomel may be given. Relieve the pains afterwards
and support the strength.

[SKIN DISEASES  53]



DISEASES OF THE SKIN.

The skin is divided into three layers. Beginning with the outer one and
naming inward, they are named as follows: The outer layer is called the
epidermis or cuticle (near or upon the skin). The second layer is called
the corium, derma cutis vera, or true skin. The third layer is called the
sub-cutaneous (under the skin) (fatty or connective) tissue. This last
layer contains the sweat glands, the lower end of the deep-seated hair
follicles, (little sacs containing the roots of the hair) and larger
branches of the lymphatics, blood vessels and nerves, and serves in
general as a bed for the true skin to rest upon, and by which the true
skin is connected with the deeper parts, muscles, etc. The appendages of
the skin are the hair, nails, sebaceous and sweat-glands. The discharge
from the sweat-glands form a little or larger tumor. The contents of a wen
are from sebaceous glands--fat secretions--fat tumor. The following names
are frequently mentioned in the skin diseases:

Macule. (Spots, patches). Skin is altered in color, but the skin is not
raised or depressed; freckle, etc.

Papule. (Pimple). Elevated piece of skin, varying in size from a pin-head
to a coffee bean.

Tubercle. (Node-lump). A solid elevation of the skin, varying in size from
a pea to a cherry.

Tumors. These are soft or firm elevations of the skin, like a wen or hard
lump. They are always deep-seated.

Wheel. A round flat, white or pink elevation of the skin; such as hives,
mosquito bites, etc.

Vesicle. This is a pin-head or pea-sized elevation of the outer layer
(epidermis) filled with a watery fluid.

Bleb. (Bulla). A circumscribed elevation of the skin and contains a watery
fluid, such as a burn, etc.

Pustule. A rounded elevation of the outer layer (epidermis) of varying
size, containing pus (matter).

A vesicle, bleb, and pustule are hollow; macule, papule, and tubercle are
solid.

Scale. (Squama). This is a dry attached or unattached thin piece from the
skin as a result of disease of the skin.

Crust. This is a dried mass as a result of fluid oozing from a diseased
skin.

Excoriation. Like a scratch mark.

Fissures. This is a crack, like that found on chapped hands.

Ulcer. (Sore). Eating away of the parts.

Scar. Ulcer healed leaving a mark, like from a healed cut.

Pigmentation. Discoloration.



ACNE. (Simple Acne).--This is an inflammation of the sebaceous (fatty,
cheesy) glands. It forms these pimples or pustules and these are
intermingled with black-heads (comedones), flesh-worms. They vary from a
pin-head to a split-pea in size, and are of a bright or dark red color.
They occur for the most part on the face; also on the back, neck and
chest.

Condition.--An over secretion, or alteration and retention of the fatty
(sebaceous) matter, and this is followed by inflammation involving the
glands, ducts of the glands, and hair follicles. Pus often forms and
tissue may be destroyed.

[54 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Causes.--These skin glands are active at the time of puberty.  The active
cause may be the stomach troubles, constipation, womb disorders, and poor
general nutrition.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Acne.--All stomach troubles, constipation, and
womb troubles should be looked into and remedied. The diet and hygiene
must be regulated. Food that stimulates and is hard to digest should be
prohibited. When there is dyspepsia and constipation, bitter tonics, like
compound tincture of gentian, one dram before meals, or pepsin (five
grains) and loosening medicines like salts should be given.

Tincture of Nux Vomica is a good stomach and bowel tonic given in doses of
one to two drops before meals.

Calomel, one-half grain at night for a few nights, followed in the morning
by epsom salts or some mineral water like Abilena or Hunjadi is useful.
The following is a good combination by Dr. Schalek:

    Tincture of Nux Vomica       2 drams
    Dilute Nitro Muriatic Acid   4 drams
    Sherry Wine enough for       3 ounces

Mix and take one teaspoonful three times a day.

Diet.--See diet for dyspepsia and constipation. All fatty, greasy, rich
foods are prohibited.

Local Treatment.--If the skin is quite red and tender, mild soothing
applications should be used. Most cases require vigorous treatment. First
wash the parts with warm water and the best soap, rinse with hot water and
then dry carefully. Remove the black-heads by careful pressure of the
fingers, or with black-head extractor; the pimples and pustules should be
freely cut, to allow the matter to escape and all the matter taken out.

External Medication, Ointment and Lotions.--Lotions are to be preferred in
cases of oily discharge. If the skin becomes rough and chapped, soap
should not be used in washing, and a soothing ointment should be applied.
Drugs used are for stimulating the skin and healing the lesions.

1. Soothing Ointment.--

    Precipitated Sulphur     1 dram
    Benzoinated Lard       1/2 ounce
    Lanolin                1/2 ounce

For local use but not in oily cases. (Dr. Schalek.)

2. The following used as a soothing lotion:

    Washed Sulphur           2-1/2 drams
    Spirits of Camphor           3 drams
    Biborate of Sodium           2 drams
    Glycerin                     6 drams
    Distilled water enough for   4 ounces

Mix and shake well and apply freely so as to leave a film on the face.
(Dr. Schalek.)

[SKIN DISEASES 55]

3. Dr. Duhring's Lotion, following:

    Precipitated Sulphur   2 drams
    Glycerin               2 drams
    Alcohol                1 ounce
    Lime water             1 ounce
    Rose water             2 ounces

Mix and shake before using and apply.

4. Kummerfield's Lotion. "Oriental Lotion."

    Precipitated Sulphur    4 drams
    Powdered Camphor       10 grains
    Powdered Tragacanth    20 grains
    Lime water              2 ounces
    Rose water              2 ounces

    Mix; shake well and apply every few hours.

5. Stimulating preparations.

    Corrosive sublimate       1/2 to 2 grains
    Emulsion bitter almonds   4 ounces

Mix thoroughly and use to stimulate the skin.

6. Ointment of white precipitate (five to fifteen per cent strength) can
be used in place of one above.

7. The Following Hebra Lotion (I give as written).

    Hydrarg. Bichlor  1 dram
    Aqua Distill      4 drams
    Ov. Albuminis     3 drams
    Succi Citri       3 drams
    Sacchari          1 ounce

      Mix and apply as directed.

Caution.--Sulphur and mercury preparations should not be used at the same
time, nor immediately succeeding each other, as they will stain the skin.



BALDNESS. (Alopecia). Causes.--Hereditary and diseases. Congenital and
senile (old age) baldness is incurable. Congenital (born without hair)
baldness is rare.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. 1. Baldness, Well Recommended for.--"A first class hair
restorative is made of sage tea and whisky in equal parts with a dash of
quinine in the bottle."

2. Baldness, Vaselin and Quinine for.--

    "Vaselin      1 ounce
    Quinine      1/2 ounce"

Mix together and apply to the scalp.

3. Baldness, Good Canadian Remedy for.--"Strong sage tea. Rub the scalp
frequently. I have used this with great success."

[56 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Baldness.--Persons who have an hereditary
tendency to baldness should pay close attention to the hygiene of the
scalp, as this is very important. The hair should be shampooed two or
three times a week, to remove sebaceous accumulations and other foreign
materials. After the scalp has been thoroughly rinsed with clean water and
dried, some oil or (tube) vaselin should be rubbed in, Fine-toothed combs
should never be used, The daily wetting of the hair is injurious, Rats
should be light and well aired, When the hair begins to fall, stimulating
applications should be used, in the form of ointments or lotions. The
following are among the best with the author's name given but in English
instead of Latin.

Dr. Schalek. 1.

    Bichloride of Mercury            3 grains
    Tinct. of Cantharides          1/2 ounce
    Oil of Sweet Almonds             1 dram
    Spirits of Rosemary              1 ounce
    Rectified Spirits of Wine        2 ounces
    Distilled water enough to make   6 ounces

Mix; shake bottle well; rub thoroughly into the scalp every morning.

2.  Carbolic add   15 grains
    Glycerin        2 drams
    Cologne water   1 ounce

Mix, and apply to the scalp once daily.

3.  Precipitated Sulphur           1 dram
    Lanolin                    2-1/2 drams
    Glycerin                   2-1/2 drams
    Rose water enough to make      1 ounce

Mix well. Part the hair in different places and rub ointment into the
scalp.

4. Ihle's Mixture.--

    Resorcin        1-1/2 drams
    Castor Oil      1-1/2 ounces
    Spirits of Wine     5 ounces
    Balsam Peru        10 drops

Mix. Rub into the scalp daily with a piece of flannel.

5. Bulkley's Lotion.--

    Tincture Cantharides  1/2 ounce
    Tincture Capsicum     1/2 ounce
    Castor Oil              1 dram
    Cologne Water           1 ounce

Mix and apply daily to the scalp.

6. Lassar's Ointment.--

    Pilocarpine Muriate   30 grains
    Vaseline               5 drams
    Lanolin                2 ounces
    Oil of Lavender       20 drops

Mix and apply to the scalp.


BALD PATCHES. (Alopecia Areata).--These appear rather suddenly. They are
circular bald patches which may appear on any hairy part of the body, but
more frequently on the scalp. It is considered a chronic trouble, but
tends to final recovery.

[SKIN DISEASES 57]

Cause.--Occurs usually between the ages of ten and forty. It may be from a
parasite.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT.--Cod-liver oil, elixir quinine, iron and strychnine
one dram three times daily. Arsenic, Fowler's solution, four drops three
times daily.

Local Treatment.--Stimulating remedies, like sulphur, tar, tincture of
cantharides, capsicum, in various strength in combination such as given
for baldness. In old persons it may become permanent.



ANIDROSIS. (Lessened Sweat Secretion).--This means a diminution of the
sweat secretion. The patient does not sweat enough, especially in certain
skin diseases like psoriasis, etc.

Treatment.--Hot water, vapor baths, friction, massage, etc., should be
used to increase the sweat secretion. Treat the accompanying skin disease.



FOUL SWEATING. (Bromidrosis). Symptoms.--The odor may be very
disagreeable, or resemble the odor of certain flavors or fruits. It is
generally found in the arm-pit and genital organs.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. 1. Offensive Sweating, Alum Water for.--"A wash made
with a teaspoonful of alum and a quart of water will prevent offensive
sweating. We all know how disagreeable it is to sit near a person in a
street car or any crowded place, who has an odor of perspiration about
them, How easy it would be to use this wash and rid yourself of this
difficulty,"

2. Sweaty Feet, Borax and Alcohol for.--"Dissolve a tablespoonful of
powdered borax in half a pint of diluted alcohol (half alcohol, half
water) and rub the feet at night, You will find this a splendid remedy."
I

3. Sweating, Simple Home Remedy to Produce.--"Place a rubber sheet or
blanket under the patient. Have a simple blanket soaking in hot water and
when all is ready, wring blanket as dry as possible and wrap about the
patient up to the neck. After this a dry blanket is wrapped around the
patient. Care should be taken not to have the blanket hot enough to burn
the patient, but not too cool. After a few minutes the patient is taken
out, rubbed dry gently and left to rest and sleep." This treatment will be
found very beneficial and inexpensive.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Foul Sweating.--Frequent bathing, dressing
powders of boric and salicylic acids, etc.

1.   Salicylic Acid      1/2 ounce
     Powdered Starch     1/2 ounce

Mix and dust on the parts.

2. Boric acid powdered may also be used.

3. Powdered Boric Acid and Salicylic Acid; Equal parts.

To be used as a dusting powder on the sweating parts.

[58 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

3. One per cent solution of potassium permanganate or permanganate of
potash is good applied to the parts.

CALLOSITY or Callositas.--This is circumscribed yellowish-white,
thickened and horny patches of one of the layers of the cuticle
(epidermis).

Causes--They come as the result of the occupation or pressure, and
sometimes without any seeming cause.

Symptoms.--They occur mostly on the hands and feet and are usually
sensitive.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT, for Callosity or Callositas.--Remove the cause of
the horny masses. The latter is done by soaking them with prolonged hot
water baths and scraping off the mass afterwards. This should be continued
and done frequently.

    Salicylic Acid    30 grains
    Collodion         4 ounce

Mix and apply with a camel's hair pencil.

CORNS. (Calvus).--A small, flat, deep-seated, horny growth, mostly on or
between the toes.

Cause.--Usually the result of too tight or too loose shoes. Due to
pressure and rubbing.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--Corns, one of the Surest Remedies.--"Take salicylic
acid, make a thick paste with flour, put on absorbent cotton and apply,
leaving same on several days; soak well and corn will come out." This is a
thoroughly tried remedy and a good one. This is about as good a cure as
there is for corns. After this paste has been on the corn for three days,
it should be removed and the feet soaked well, and the corn scraped off.

2. Corns, Turpentine and Kerosene for.--"A very simple remedy is to apply
turpentine or kerosene oil to the affected part on going to bed." It is
always a good plan to soak the feet well before treating the corn, as the
turpentine will penetrate more quickly.

3. Corns, to Remove Without Pain.--

    "Alcohol         1/2 ounce
    Muriatic Acid      1 dram
    Nitric Acid        1 dram
    Oil of Rosemary    1 dram
    Chloroform         2 drams
    Tincture Iron      2 drams

Mix the above, and apply freely to the corn with little brush or feather
until it can be removed with thumb lance. It may require several
applications."

4. Corns, Onion a Cure for.--"Soak a small onion in vinegar four hours,
then cut in two and bind on the corn at night. In the morning (if the
onion has remained over the corn) the soreness will be gone and you can
pick out the core. If not cured in first application repeat."

[SKIN DISEASES 59]

5. Corns, Castile Soap an Effective Remedy for.--"Rub the corn night and
morning with castile soap, as often as possible shave it, being careful
not to cut deep enough to make it bleed." Be faithful in soaping it
thoroughly night and morning for several days until it disappears. This is
a very simple but effective remedy.

6. Hard Corns, Iodine a Successful Remedy for.--"Paint the corns with
iodine every night for three nights, stop three nights, then apply three
nights again, and so on for two weeks." Have tried this and know it to be
very successful, especially good for hard corns.

7. Corns, Castor Oil for.--"Apply castor oil; rub it thoroughly, then soak
feet. It will soften and remove corns."

8. Corns, Vinegar and Bread for.--"Take bread and soak in vinegar for
twenty-four hours, put a plaster on for three or four nights. If not cured
on first application, repeat."

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Corns.--Remove the cause; soften them by
prolonged soaking in hot water, and then gently scrape off the softened
particles, continue this for several days; then put a narrow strip of
rubber or salicylated plaster (adhesive plaster) over to protect them from
pressure. The following is good to soften them:

1.  Salicylic Acid               1-1/2 dram
    Extract of Cannabis indica      10 grains
    Collodion                        1 ounce

Mix and paint on the corn for several days and after soaking corn scrape
it off with a sharp knife.

2. A Good but Weaker Remedy:-

    Salicylic Acid                      30 grains
    Extract of Cannabis indica     5 to 10 grains
    Collodion                          1/2 ounce

Both of these prescriptions are good, the first being stronger with
salicylic acid.

3. When the corns are soft with inflammation, wash and dry the foot and
apply a solution of nitrate of silver, sixty to one hundred and twenty
grains to the ounce of water, to every part every four or five days.

Ulcerating Corns.--Cauterize with nitrate of silver in stick form.



CARBUNCLE. (Anthrax).--A carbuncle is an acute circumscribed inflammation
of the skin and tissues beneath, of the size of an egg, orange, or larger.
It is a hard mass and ends in local death of some of the tissue and
formation of pus, which empties upon the surface through several
sieve-like openings.

[60 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Symptoms.--There is a feeling of general sickness, chilliness and some
fever. The skin over the sore part is hot and painful. The several dead
parts may run together until the entire mass separates in a slough. In
favorable cases it proceeds to heal kindly, but in severe cases it may
spread to the surrounding tissues and end fatally, sometimes by the
absorption of putrid materials, or by the resulting weakness. It runs
usually from two to five weeks.

Causes.--It comes in middle or advanced life, usually oftener in men than
in women. It occurs frequently in patients suffering from diabetes, in
whom it is usually fatal.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. Carbuncles, Poppy Leaves to Draw and Ripen.--"A
poultice of poppy leaves is very efficacious to draw or ripen a
carbuncle." A poultice made from these leaves is very quieting and
soothing, and at the same time will cause the carbuncle to ripen.

2. Carbuncle, Slippery Elm and Sassafras Root for.--"Sassafras root and
slippery elm bark boiled together and the decoction thickened with
cornmeal." This should be changed as often as it becomes cool.

3. Carbuncle, Sheep Sorrel Poultice for.--"Gather a bunch of sheep sorrel
leaves, wrap them in a cabbage leaf and roast in the oven. Apply to the
carbuncle, and it will soon ripen and break."

4. Carbuncle, Bread and Milk Poultice for.--"Keep warm bread and milk
poultice on until the core comes out, then put on salve or vaselin and
keep covered until all healed."

5. Carbuncle, the Common Scabious for.--"Take scabious, the green herb and
bruise it. Apply this to the affected part. This has been found a very
effectual remedy." The common field scabious have many hairy, soft,
whitish green leaves, some of which are very small and rough on the edges,
others have hairy green leaves deeply and finely divided and branched a
little. Flowers size of small walnut and composed of many little ones.
Sometimes called "Morning Bride," "Devil's Bit," etc.

6. Carbuncle, Snap Bean Poultice for.--"Apply snap bean leaves beat up
fine. Bruise the leaves until they are real fine, then apply as a
poultice."

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Carbuncles.--Keep up the strength by a
nourishing diet and in some cases, stimulants.

[SKIN DISEASES 61]

Local.--Cut it open thoroughly by a cross (crucial) cut, like this (x).
The cut must reach through the mass to sound tissue beneath and beyond it.
Then scrape out all the dead tissue. Dress with iodoform or sterile gauze.
An antiseptic like listerine, glyco-thymoline, etc., can be used to wet
the gauze, put on as a dressing afterwards and then more dry gauze above,
strapped with adhesive plaster. Water and instruments must be boiled,
hands must be absolutely clean. Everything around it must be clean.
Sometimes it is necessary to go slowly and take out at each dressing only
what can be easily removed, It is not always possible to get the whole
mass away at once. Opening the carbuncle and giving free drainage afford
great relief from the fever and often general symptoms. When the part
feels as if it needed redressing, it should be done, for it then gives
much relief. The dressings frequently become hard and do not absorb all of
the material ready to be discharged. It is usually proper and prudent to
dress a carbuncle two or three times a day. There is no danger if the one
who dresses it is clean with the instruments, hands and gauze or cotton.



LIVER SPOTS, Moth Patch, Chloasma, etc.--This is a discoloration of the
skin of a yellowish to a blackish tint of varying size and shape.

Causes.--It may be due to external agencies, such as rubbing, scratching,
heat (tanning and sunburn) blistering; or due to diseases such as
tuberculosis, cancer, malaria, Addison's disease, disease of the womb,
pregnancy.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Liver Spots.--Remove all causes if possible.

Local.--This must be carefully used, find out first how sensitive the skin
is. Dr. Bulkley recommends this lotion:

    Corrosive Sublimate       5 grains
    Dilute Acetic Acid        2 drams
    Borax                    40 grains
    Rose water enough for     4 ounces

Shake bottle, mix and apply to the part night and morning. If the skin
becomes too scaly, a mild soothing ointment should be substituted for the
above. White suggests the following:

    Hydrarg. Ammon. Chlar     2 drams
    Subnitrate Bismuth        2 drams
    Starch                 1/20 ounce
    Glycerin                1/2 ounce

Mix and apply twice daily.

The application of peroxide of hydrogen has only a temporary effect.

BLACK-HEADS. Flesh Worms, Comedones, Pimples, etc.--This is a disorder of
the sebaceous glands in which the sebaceous (fatty, cheesy) secretions
become thickened; the excreting ducts, appearing on the surface, as
yellowish or blackish points. They appear chiefly on the face, neck,
chest, and back and are very unsightly.

Symptoms.--They are easily pressed out, and appear then as thread-like,
whitish masses which contain fatty material. The black point may be due to
pigment or to dirt from without. Comedones may exist with acne and
seborrhoea and excessive secretion of sebum.

Causes.--Want of tone to the skin, which performs its functions
sluggishly. Stomach-bowel disorders, menstrual disturbances and anemia are
other causes and assist in making them worse. Improper care of the skin
and dusty air may be other assistant causes.

[62 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. For Pimples and Black-heads.--l. Pimples on the face,
effective yet harmless remedy for:

    Camphor                 10 grains
    Acacia (pulverized)     20 grains
    Sulphur (precipitated)   2 drams
    Lime water               2 ounces
    Rose water               2 ounces

Apply on the face with a soft cloth at bedtime. Allow to dry and brush off
the excess of the powder.

Anyone suffering from these eruptions is usually willing to try every
known remedy. The above is excellent and very effective and is harmless.

2. Pimples, Alum Water for.--"Take a teaspoonful of alum to a quart of
water and use as a wash, say three times a day. This will cure ordinary
pimples on the face."

3. Skin Blotches, Cream of Tartar and Sulphur for.--"Two ounces cream
tartar and one ounce of powdered sulphur (from the lump). Mix.
Dose:--Teaspoonful in a little water three times a day will cure."

4. Rough Skin, Healing Cream for.--"One-fourth cup tallow melted, one
teaspoonful glycerin, small lump camphor, dissolved. Mix all together by
warming sufficiently." Rub in thoroughly as you do any face cream.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Pimples.--Remove the cause if possible. The diet
should be like that given under dyspepsia and constipation. Menstrual
disorders should be remedied.

Local.--Remove the plugs (of sebum) and stimulate the skin glands. For
this purpose prolonged (ten minutes at a time) bathing of the face with
hot water and soap; tincture of green soap in the more indolent, sluggish
cases, should precede the pressing out of the blackheads: Lateral pressure
with the fingers or with the comedone extractor, especially contrived for
this purpose, will express the black-heads. After they are out, the skin
dried and cleaned, various stimulating remedies can be applied in
ointments and lotions such as following:

1.   "Precipitated Sulphur       1 dram
      Ointment of Rose water     1 ounce

Mix and rub on at night."

2.    Beta-Naphthol   1/2 dram
      Resorcin        1/2 dram
      Lanolin           1 ounce

Mix and apply locally.

INFLAMMATION of the Skin. (Dermatitis).--This is due to many causes. It
can come from injuries, for instance the rubbing or pressure of
ill-fitting clothes, bandages, bites of insects and from scratching.

Varieties.--Dermatitis ambustionis, (burning). This is due to excessive
heat upon the skin.

[SKIN DISEASES 63]

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Inflammation of the Skin.--Relieve the pain;
protect the parts; exclude the air. Paint the burned part with a one to
five per cent solution of cocaine, according to the severity of
inflammation. Then apply soothing lotions of equal parts of lime-water and
olive or linseed oil; cover the whole with absorbent cotton. Dusting
powder of soda bicarbonate may also be used, or common soda. In burns with
vesicles, etc., open them and then cover with carbolized oil, gauze and
adhesive to hold the dressing. The parts can be washed with a solution of
boric acid, one teaspoonful to a cup of water; then dust upon the parts
sugar of lead once or twice a day. Some use it in solution; I like the
powder better. Infusion of lobelia, one ounce to pint of hot water, is
good. Also lead and laudanum wash.



ECZEMA. (Humid Tetter-Salt Rheum-Dry Tetter). Definition.--Eczema is an
inflammatory disease of the skin, characterized at its commencement by
redness, pimples, vesicles, pustules and their combinations, with itching
and burning. It terminates in a watery or pus-like discharge with the
formation of crusts or scaling.

Varieties.--There are many varieties, red, scaly, fissured, watery looking
and hard skin.

Symptoms.--Itching is almost always a symptom of this disease. There is
more or less pouring out of liquid (serum). The dry, scaly type, and the
weeping type, may alternate with each other. There are six cardinal
symptoms; inflammation, itching, moisture, crusting, infiltration (liquid
filling of the tissues), fissuring or cracking. Dr. Fox says that nearly
one-third of all skin diseases are eczema in some of its stages or
varieties. In one kind there is red spot (macule). The skin is dry, of a
bright or dull red color, with intense itching or burning, more or less
watery swelling in the acute stage. In the chronic stage, the skin becomes
thick and covered with fine dry scales, usually in the face (Eczema
Erythematosum).

Eczema Vesiculosum. (Vesicular Eczema).--This is preceded by a feeling of
heat and irritation about the part. In a short time pinhead sized vesicles
appear. These frequently run together and form patches. They rupture
rapidly; the liquid is poured out, dries up and forms crusts. The
discharge stiffens linen, a characteristic of this variety.

Eczema Pustulosum. (Pustules). Pustular Kind.--This is nearly like the
preceding. The vesicles have pus in them from the start or develop from
the vesicles. When the pustules rupture, their contents dry up to the
thick greenish-yellow crusts. The scalp and face, in children especially,
are the favored spots for this kind. It occurs in poorly nourished
children.

[64 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Eczema Papulosum. (Papular Variety).--This is characterized by flat or
sharp pointed reddish pimples (papules), varying in size from a small to a
large pin-head. They are usually numerous, run or crowd together and form
large patches. The itching is usually very intense. This causes much
scratching, rawness and crusts. The pimples may continue as such, or
change into vesicles. In chronic cases they run together, and finally form
thick scaly patches, and may run into a scaly eczema.

Eczema Rubrum (red).--The skin looks red, raw, and "weeps."  It is most
commonly found about the face and scalp in children, and the lower parts
of the legs in the old.

Eczema Squamosis. (Scaling).--This may follow any of the other varieties,
but usually follows the red and pimple (papule) variety. They are various
sized and shaped reddish patches, which are dry and more or less scaly.
Thickening is always present, also a tendency to cracking of the skin,
especially if it affects the joints. There are other varieties but these
are the most important.

RECOVERY.--Eczema has a tendency to persist and rarely disappears
spontaneously.

Causes.--Gout, diabetes, rheumatism, Bright's disease, dyspepsia,
constipation, nervous trouble, heat, cold, strong soaps, acids, alkalies,
rubbing, scratching, etc.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. 1. Eczema, Lemon or Vinegar for.--"Rub the spots with
sliced lemon. This will sometimes relieve the itching. Bathing with
vinegar water is better for some as it destroys the germs." The bowels
should be kept open, and then constitutional faults removed as the
eruption of the skin is but a local manifestation of a functional fault.

2. Eczema, Olive Oil and Powder for.--"Bathe with olive oil and sift over
the skin a powder composed of equal parts of fine laundry starch and oxide
of zinc powder." Do not bathe with water until healed.

3. Eczema, Herb Tea for.--"A good wash for eczema is made of an ounce of
bruised blood-root and yellow dock, steeped well in a pint of alcohol, and
half pint of vinegar." Apply gently to the affected parts.

4. Eczema, Potato and Camphor for.--"Make a poultice of a cold potato with
a small quantity of camphor. This is very good and relieves the trouble
very soon."

5. Eczema, Sulphur and Lard for.--"An excellent eczema cure is made by
applying a paste made of sulphur and lard to the affected parts." This is
very easily prepared, and has been known to cure many cases.

[SKIN DISEASES 65]

6. Skin Diseases, Burdock Tea a Standard Remedy for.--"Take a handful of
the freshly bruised burdock root to two quarts of water and boil down
one-half; drink from a half to one pint a day." This is considered one of
the best home remedies for skin diseases that is known and is perfectly
harmless.

7. Skin Disease, Blood Purifier for.--

    "Iodide Potash                        192 grains
    Fluid Extract Stillingia                1 ounce
    Fluid Extract Prickly Ash Bark        1/2 ounce
    Fluid Extract Yellow Dock               1 ounce
    Compound Syrup Sarsaparilla to make     8 ounces

Mix."

8. Tetter, Reliable Remedy for.--"Turpentine 1 ounce, red precipitate 3
drams, vaselin 4 ounces. Mix, rub on the affected parts several times a
day." This is a splendid ointment for a severe case of tetter.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Eczema.--Water is likely to make acute cases
worse. In order to cleanse the parts use water softened by starch or bran.
Use oily preparations to soften the crusts and then they can be removed
with water and good soap.

In Chronic Sluggish Cases.--Water and strong soaps may be used. Cloths
wrung from hot water and applied, will frequently relieve the itching. Use
lotions in moist and salves in dry eczema. For the acute kind the remedy
should be soothing, and more or less stimulating for the chronic forms.

Local Treatment for the acute and sub-acute (between acute and chronic)
eczema.

In acute cases, with much pouring out of liquid (serum), lotions have a
cooling effect. They should be frequently renewed.

1. Black Wash.

    Calomel                1 dram
    Mucilage Tragacanth    1 dram
    Lime water            10 ounces

Mix. Can be used full strength or diluted. Bathe the affected parts
several times daily for fifteen or twenty minutes with this lotion and
apply oxide of zinc ointment afterwards.

2. Lead and Laudanum wash.--When the parts discharge moisture with burning
feeling, and are very sensitive the following is good:

    Laudanum                      1/2 ounce
    Solution of Sugar of lea    7-1/2 ounces

Mix and apply externally with gauze saturated with it.

3. A solution of boric acid is also a good remedy.

4. Apply the following soothing application frequently, allowing the
sediment to remain on the skin:

    Powdered Calamine   1 dram
    Oxide of Zinc       1 dram
    Glycerin            1 dram
    Lime water          6 ounces

[66 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

5. Dusting powders.--Corn, potato or rice starch powders. Mennen's baby
powder is also good. Borated kind is the best for this.

6. Oxide of Zinc ointment alone, applied night and morning, is valuable in
many cases.

The Black wash should be used twice a day just before the oxide of zinc
ointment is applied. In other cases powdered oxide of zinc is dusted over
the part if the discharge is watery or profuse.

7. McCall Anderson's Ointment.--

    Oxide of Bismuth   1 ounce
    Pure Oleic Acid    8 ounces
    White Wax          3 ounces
    Vaselin            9 ounces
    Oil of Rose        5 drops

Make an ointment and apply. The proportions of each ingredient call be
reduced one-half, for smaller amount.

8. Pastes are often borne better than ointment. The following is a good
one. Lassar's paste:

    Starch          2 drams
    Oxide of Zinc   2 drams
    Vaselin         4 drams

Mix and make a paste, apply to the part and cover with soft gauze.

9. For the Itching.--

    Powdered Oxide of Zinc     1/2 ounce
    Powdered Camphor         1-1/2 dram
    Powdered Starch              1 ounce

Mix and dust on as needed.

When the disease is not so acute (sub-acute) applications of a mildly
stimulating character are needed. For this purpose, resorcinal in the
proportion of two to thirty grains to the ounce of lard, according to the
severity and amount of hardness existing. Apply to the part. Stimulant and
soothing.

External Treatment of Chronic Eczema.--Applications for chronic and
lasting sluggish eczema.

1. Tincture of green soap used with hot water until the skin is bared and
then dress with oxide of zinc ointment.

2. Tar in the form of the pure Official tar ointment.

3. Salicylic acid thirty to sixty grains to an ounce of lard and applied
for stimulating purposes.

4. Dr. Schalek uses the same remedies in part and the following for a
fixed dressing, especially on the eyes. They do not need to be changed
often.

[SKIN DISEASES 67]

Glycogelatin Dressing.--

    Gelatin           10 drops
    Oxide of Zinc     10 drops
    Glycerin          40 drops
    Water             40 drops

Mix and apply to the part.

The above may be made in any quantities,--using drops, spoonfuls, etc.
Dress the parts in a thin gauze bandage, over which the melted preparation
is painted. I have given many different prescriptions, but those who treat
skin diseases know that a great many are needed, for they act differently
upon different persons.

Special Varieties of Eczema and what to do for them.--

Eczema of Children.--This is generally acute of the vesicular (watery) or
vesicular pustular (pus forming) variety. The parts commonly affected are
the scalp and the face.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Eczema.--Remove the causes, watch the feeding.
Keep the folds of the skin dry and free from friction. To prevent
scratching, masks must be applied to the scalp and face, or the hands must
be tied in bad cases. The local treatment is the same as above except the
strength of the drugs used must be reduced in proper proportion.

Eczema of the Scalp, Milk Crust.--Remove the crusts by soaking the scalp
with some bland oil for twelve hours, followed by a shampoo, (the hair
should be cut in children) then the lotions and thin ointment (see above)
should be applied.

Eczema of the Face.--A mask of soft linen with holes cut out for the eyes,
mouth and nostrils may be used.

Eczema of the Scrotum.--A well fitting suspensory should be worn, sponge
the parts with very hot water and follow with the anti-itching lotion and
dusting powders for the itching.

Eczema of the Hands in Adults.--Keep the hands out of water as much as
possible. Dry them thoroughly and then anoint. Greatly thickened patches
may be softened by soap plasters or bathe the parts in ten or twenty per
cent solutions of caustic potash and followed by a salve application. The
internal treatment must be given for the cause.

Diet in Eczema.--Avoid salty foods, such as salted fish or pork and corned
beef; greasy foods such as bacon and fried dishes; pastry and cheese.

[68 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

MOTHERS' REMEDIES for Salt Rheum. 1. Alum Wash and Cathartic for.--"Use
an astringent wash as alum, tablespoonful in pint of water, and keep
bowels opened by cooling medicines, as cream tartar, rochelle salts,
etc." The alum solution will be found very cooling and by keeping the
bowels open you will carry off all the impurities thus cleansing the
blood, which is one of the essential things to do in salt rheum.

2. Salt Rheum, Ammonia and Camphor for.--"Apply ammonia and camphor to the
cracks. Have used this successfully when everything else failed." Care
should be taken not to have the ammonia too strong, as it may irritate the
skin more. If used properly, it is a good remedy.

3. Salt Rheum, Cactus Leaf Cure for.--"From one large cactus leaf take out
the thorns, add one tablespoon of salt, three tablespoons lard, stew out
slowly, and grease with this at night. Remarks:--This cured my hand that
had been in an awful condition for years."

4. Salt Rheum, Pine Tar for.--"Apply pine tar as a paste." This is an
excellent remedy but care should be taken in using it, as pine tar is very
irritating to some people, and should be used very cautiously.



BOIL. (Furunculus, Furuncle). Causes.--Boils may appear in a healthy
person, but they are often the result of a low condition of the system;
they are frequently seen in persons suffering from sugar diabetes.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. 1. Boil, My Mother's Poultice for.--"Poppy leaves
pounded up and bound on are good. My mother has used this recipe and found
it to be good." This remedy not only makes a good poultice, but is very
soothing, as poppies contain opium. The leaves may be purchased at any
drug store.

2. Boil, Soap and Sugar Poultice for.--"Poultice made of yellow or soft
soap and brown sugar, equal parts. Spread on cloth and apply faithfully."
This makes a good strong poultice, and has great drawing powers and would
be apt to create a good deal of pain, but would draw the boil to a head.
The above remedy was sent in by a number of mothers, all of whom said they
had tried it with success when other remedies failed.

3. Boil, Vinegar or Camphor for.--"May be cured by bathing in strong
vinegar frequently when they first start. When it stops smarting from the
vinegar cover with vaseline or oil." Bathing the boil in vinegar seems to
check the growth and does not allow them to become as large as they would
ordinarily. If you do not have vinegar in the house, camphor will answer
the same purpose.

4. Boil, Bean Leaf Poultice for.--"Apply snap bean leaves, beat up fine."
Bruise the leaves so that they are real fine, and apply to the boil. This
acts the same as a poultice.

5. Boil, Another Vinegar Remedy for.--"If taken at first a boil can be
cured by dipping the finger in strong vinegar and holding on the boil
until it stops smarting. Repeat three or four times then apply a little
oil to the head of boil."

[SKIN DISEASES 69]

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Boils.--Tonics such as iron, quinine, and
strychnine are good. Elixir, iron, quinine and strychnine from a half to
one teaspoonful three times a day is a good tonic for an adult. Sulphide
of calcium one-tenth grain four times a day is good. Paint the inflamed
spot when it first begins, with a solution of gun cotton (collodion) and
renew it every hour until a heavy contractile coating is formed.
Poultices, if used, should contain sweet oil and laudanum. Alcohol and
camphor applied over the skin in the early stages is recommended by
Ringer. This I know is good. Another, wipe the skin and use camphorated
oil. When boils occur in the external ear, the canal should be washed out
with hot water. If it is ripe it should be opened. The following is good
for the pain of a boil:

    Iodoform      4 grains
    Menthol       2 grains
    Vaselin       1 dram

Mix and smear a cotton plug and insert in the ear two or three times a
day.

ABSCESS.--An accumulation of pus (matter) in any part of the body.

External Abscess.--Boil the knife, wash your hands in clean, hot, soapy
water. Wash the abscess and surrounding parts in hot water and good soap,
and rinse off with alcohol, a salt solution, or listerine, etc. Then make
a good deep clean cut and scrape out if necessary. Dress with a clean
linen gauze or absorbent cotton, Poultices may be used if you are careful.
Such an abscess should be dressed twice a day. The inner dressing should
be soft and thick enough to absorb all the secretion given out between
dressings.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. 1. Abscess, Beech Bark Poultice for.--"Poultice made of
red beech bark and wheat bran," A poultice made of the bark will cause a
drawing feeling, and the wheat bran will retain the heat. The proportions
for making the poultice should be about half and half.

2. Abscess, Milk and Salt Poultice for.--"Make a poultice of one cup of
hot milk and common salt three teaspoonfuls; salt added gradually so it
will not curdle. Cook until smooth and creamy, then add enough flour so it
will spread but not be dry. Divide this into four poultices and apply in
succession every half hour. This will remove the soreness and it should be
kept oiled until healed."

3. Abscess, More Good Poultices for.--"Take equal parts of rosin and
sugar, mix well and apply for several days until the abscess is broken. If
this does not cause the abscess to break, poultice hourly with flaxseed
meal."

[70 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

FELON. (Whitlow).--An inflammation of the deeper structures and frequently
it is under the covering of the bone, (periosteum). If under the latter it
must be opened soon or the resulting pus will burrow and destroy bone,
joints, etc. The pain is intense, and after the patient has passed one
sleepless night walking the floor and holding his finger it should be
opened.

How? Place the hand with the fingers extended with the palm up (it is
usually under the finger or in the palm of the hand) upon the table; stand
by the side of the arm. Attract the patient to something else; have a
curved two-edge knife ready and put the point, one-half inch, toward the
palm, away from the felon part, press hard and the patient will jerk his
hand and the cut will be made down to the bone, the membrane and tissues
all opened freely, a vent given for the pus and in ten minutes very little
pain. Dress as for an abscess. If opened this way, it need not be
reopened.

If in the Palm.--This needs a doctor, and must be opened with care. There
are too many blood vessels to be careless there and one who understands it
must do it. Open a true felon early before it has time to destroy the
bone.



SUPERFICIAL FELONS. Mothers' Remedies. 1. A Cure if Taken in Time.--"If
taken in time a felon may be cured without lancing, but if poultice or
liniment is used it is important that they should be bound on tightly as
the mechanical compression is more essential than the application. A good
remedy is finely pulverized salt, wet with spirits of turpentine bound
tightly and left two or three days, wetting with the turpentine when dry
without removing the cloth."

2. Felon, Treatment until time to Lance.--"If the felon has succeeded in
getting a good start and pains considerably, it is well to paint it with
iodine; in a few days it will become very painful, the pain being so
intense that you cannot sleep. See a physician at once then, and have it
lanced as the sac of pus on the bone must be opened. Then apply flaxseed
poultices. Care should be taken not to have it lanced too early, as this
is dangerous.

3. Felon, Strong Remedy for.--"Turpentine, yellow of egg and salt, equal
parts, bind on." This is very strong and should only be allowed to remain
on the finger a short time.

4. Felon, Lemon to draw inflammation from.--"Take a lemon, make a little
hole, put finger in it and hold there a number of hours." Lemons have a
great many healing qualities in them, and seem to be very good for felons.
The acid in the lemon seems to help draw out the inflammation and serves
as a poultice.

5. Felon, Hot Water Cure for.--"When you first feel it coming put the
finger in a cup of hot water, just so it does not blister, keep adding
more hot water as it cools for one hour. This has been tried several times
and it has always stopped them."

6. Felon, Soap and Cornmeal Poultice for.--"Poultice with soft soap and
cornmeal. This never fails if taken in time."

[SKIN DISEASES 71]

7. Felon, Smartweed Poultice for.--"Apply the bruised leaves of smartweed
and bind on tight as can be borne." This makes a very good poultice
applied in this way.

8. Felon, Hot Application for.--"When a felon first starts, soak the
finger in equal parts of alcohol and hot water; keep it as hot as the
finger will bear it."

9. Felon, an Old, Tried Remedy for.--"Put wood ashes, covered with warm
water in a dish on the stove, hold the affected part in this, allowing it
to get as hot as can be borne."

10. Felon, Turpentine Cure for.--"Soak the finger for one hour in
turpentine. This has been known to cure a great many cases of felon."

11. Felon, Weak Lye Application for.--"Stick your finger in weak lye (can
lye). Have water just as hot as you can stand your finger in. Hold it in
as long as possible."

12. Felon, Rock Salt and Turpentine for.--"Rock salt dry and pounded fine.
Mix equal portions with turpentine. When dry change. This cured a felon on
my father." As much of our Canadian salt is rock salt, it is the most
common salt to use.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Superficial Felons.--Such may be averted
perhaps. I have heard of that but have never seen it done. They are not
the genuine, true blue, terrible felons, but even these can give much
pain. They do not need such a deep opening, and they are not so dangerous
to the structures. They are superficial and abscesses, perhaps, might be
the better term. For these many applications have been made.

1. Some hold the finger in hot lye. That is a good poultice.

2. Yolk of an egg and salt (equal parts) make a salve as a drawer.

3. The membrane within the shell of an egg is another good drawing remedy.

Dr. Chase gives this definition of a felon in his first edition: "This is
on one of the fingers, thumb or hand and is very painful. It is often
situated at the root of the nail." The latter is the kind, and also that
of the structures above the covering of the bone that are eased by local
treatment. Especially the superficial, about the nail, etc. Steaming with
herbs will do such good, or any hot poultice will do good. Dr. Chase says
in another place, "Whitlow resembles a felon, but it is not so deeply
seated. It is often found around the nail. Immerse the finger in strong
lye as long and as hot as can be borne several times a day." Such felons
are curable by local treatment. I prefer the salt and yolk of the egg to
the lye. If you cannot stand this all the time, steam in the intervals
with strong herbs or use hot poultices, and then open when it points.

[72 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

ULCERS. An Eating Away of the Parts, Causes.--Diseases like syphilis,
tuberculosis, leprosy. Disturbances of nutrition, constitutional ulcers,
local conditions. Ulcers are acute and chronic. An acute ulcer is a
spreading ulcer, in and about which acute destructive inflammation exists.

Treatment.--Keep them thoroughly clean (aseptic) and use soothing
applications, mild lotions and salve.

Chronic Ulcer.--This is one which does not tend to heal, or heals very
slowly. Sometimes such ulcers need to be stimulated like the application
of nitrate of silver and then healing applications. Carbolated oxide of
zinc ointment is a good healing ointment.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. 1. Sores and Ulcers, the Potato Lotion for.--"Take the
water you boil potatoes in and in one quart of it boil one ounce of
foxglove leaves for ten minutes, then add one ounce tincture of myrrh to
the lotion, bathe the affected parts with the lotion warm, then keep a
cloth wet with it on the sore, if possible, until cured."

2. Sores and Ulcers, Chickweed Ointment for.--"Chop chickweed and boil in
lard, strain and bottle for use." This makes a fine green cooling
ointment, It is surprising to see the relief obtained by this simple
ointment.

3. Old Sores and Wounds, Healing Ointment for.--

    "Honey                    4 ounces
    Spirits of Turpentine   1/2 ounce
    Beeswax                   4 ounces
    Oil of Wintergreen      1/2 ounce
    Tincture of Opium         1 ounce
    Fluid Extract Lobelia   1/4 ounce
    Lard                    3/4 pound

Mix by the aid of gentle heat, stirring well at the same time. This is a
very useful ointment for healing wounds and old sores."

4. Sores and Ulcers, Excellent Salve for.--"One tablespoon of melted
mutton or even beef tallow while warm; add some spirits of turpentine and
one teaspoonful of laudanum, stir well."

5. Ill-Conditioned Sores, an Old German Remedy for.--"Wash or syringe the
sore with weak saleratus water, and while wet fill with common black
pepper. Remarks:--This is a highly recommended German remedy, and has
been tried by my mother with good, results."

6. Sores, Cuts, Antiseptic Wash for; Also Tooth Wash.--"Peroxide of
hydrogen. Should always be kept in the house." If you are cut by anything
that might cause infection or if scratched by a cat, in fact wherever
there is chance for infection and blood poison, peroxide of hydrogen may
be used by moistening well the wound with it as soon as you can. As a
mouth wash put a little in a glass of water. Directions usually on the
bottle.

[SKIN DISEASES 73]

7. Indolent Ulcers and Boils, Chickweed and Wood Sage Poultice
for.--"Equal parts of chickweed and wood sage pounded together make a good
poultice for all kinds of indolent ulcers and boils."

8. Ulcers, Proud Flesh, Venereal Sores and all Fungus Swellings, Blood
Root and Sweet Nitre for.--"Two ounces pulverized blood root; one pint of
sweet nitre; macerate for ten days, shake once or twice a day."

9.  Rosin           1 ounce
    Beeswax         1 ounce
    Mutton Tallow   4 ounces
    Verdigris       1 dram

Melt the rosin, tallow and wax together, then add the verdigris. Stir
until cool and apply.

Add a few drops of carbolic acid to the above and you will have the
carbolated salve which is quite expensive when bought prepared and under
the manufacturer's label.

10. Sores and Chapped Hands, Sour Cream Salve for.--"Tie thick sour cream
in a cloth and bury in the ground over night. In the morning it will be a
nice salve. Excellent for chapped hands or anything that requires a soft
salve."

11. Old Sores, A Four-Ingredient Remedy for.--"Soften one-half pound of
vaselin, stir into it one-half ounce each of wormwood, spearmint and
smartweed. This is good for old and new sores. My people near Woodstock,
Canada, used this and found it very good."

12. Ulcers and Sores, Carrots will heal.--"Boil carrots until soft and
mash them to a pulp, add lard or sweet oil sufficient to keep it from
getting hard. Spread and apply; excellent for offensive sores. Onion
poultice made the same way is good for slow boils and indolent sores."
This makes a very soothing poultice and has great healing properties.

13. Ulcers and Sores, a Remedy that Cures.--"To one-fourth pound of tallow
add one-fourth pound each of turpentine and bayberry and two ounces of
olive oil. Good application for scrofulous sores and ulcers." This makes a
good ointment, but should not be continued too long at a time as the
turpentine might have a bad action on the kidneys.

14. Ulcers and Old Sores, Bread and Indian meal for.--"Take bread and milk
or Indian meal, make to consistency of poultice with water, stir in
one-half cup of pulverized charcoal. Good to clean ulcers and foul sores."
The bread and Indian meal make a good poultice while the charcoal is
purifying and a good antiseptic.

[74 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Ulcers.--Keep them thoroughly cleaned. A mild,
weak, hot solution of salt water is good in chronic, slow healing,
indolent ulcers. Carbolated salve applied afterwards is healing. Sometimes
a stimulating poultice is necessary, like salt pork followed by soothing
salves. If an ulcer looks red and angry, it needs soothing. If there is
any "proud flesh" powdered burnt alum applied directly upon it and left on
for an hour or two is good. Then soothing salves.

Balsam of Peru is good for chronic ulcers. It stimulates them to a little
activity.

A salve made by boiling the inner bark of the common elder, the strained
juice mixed with cream or vaselin is a good healing application for
ulcers.

Poultice an irritable, tender, painful ulcer with slippery elm bark.
Repeat when necessary.

Indolent Sluggish Ulcer.--This kind needs stimulating, salt solution, or
salt pork applied.

Poultice made of sweet clover is well recommended for ulcers. As before
stated, the active kind should have soothing treatment. The chronic
indolent kind, should be stimulated occasionally and then soothing
applications applied.



SHINGLES (Herpes Zoster). Definition.--This is an acute inflammatory
disease of the skin, characterized by groups of vesicles upon the inflamed
base, distributed along the course of one or more cutaneous (skin) nerves.

Symptoms.--The eruption is preceded by a great deal of neuralgic pain and
is almost always one-sided. They first appear as red patches and upon
these patches vesicles soon develop (skin elevations with liquid in them);
these are separate, size of a pin-head to a coffee bean, swollen with a
clear fluid, and clustered in groups of two to a dozen. They may dry up in
this stage, or they may fill with pus or run together, forming larger
patches; new crops may appear, while the others fade. The vesicles rarely
rupture of themselves, but dry into brownish crusts, which drop off
leaving a temporary colored skin. It follows the course of a nerve. The
most common seat of this disease is over one or more intercostal (between
the rib) nerves, extending from the backbone to the breastbone. It also
occurs along the side of the face and temple.

Causes.--It is a self-limited disease, runs its course in a few weeks, of
nervous origin and may be produced by exposure to weather changes, blows
and certain poisons.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. Shingles, Herb Remedy for.--1. "Make a solution of
yerba rheuma, one ounce to a pint of boiling water, and apply freely to
the part several times a day." The yerba rheuma has an astringent action
and contracts the tissues, relieving the inflammation of the skin. It also
relieves the itching.

[SKIN DISEASES. 75]

2. Shingles, Mercury Ointment for.--"Apply night and morning an ointment
from the oleate of mercury." This preparation will be found effective, but
care should be taken not to use too much of it, as oleate of mercury is
very powerful. It relieves the burning and itching.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Shingles.--Protect the vesicles from rupture or
irritation and relieve the pain. Paint the surface with a solution of gun
cotton (collodion). Tonics to keep up the strength.



EXCESSIVE SWEATING. (Hyperidrosis).--This is a disorder of the sweat
glands in which sweat is thrown out in excessive quantities.

Symptoms.--It may be great only in the armpit where it stains the
clothing. When it comes on the hands and feet they may be wet, clammy and
have an offensive odor. They may be soaked, inflamed and painful.

Causes.--The local forms may be due to a nervous condition; it is often
the result of general debility.

Treatment.--General tonics are needed and those given under anemia, which
see. Applications for the local treatment.--Solution of alum applied to
the part will act as an astringent.

White oak bark tea is good as anything. It should not be used so strong as
to stop sweating entirely. Then follow it with dusting powders of starch
or boric acid, containing salicylic acid (two to five per cent). When it
occurs upon the feet use the Diachylon ointment. It must be made up fresh
in a drug store. This is applied on strips of lint or muslin after the
parts have been thoroughly washed and dried; it should be renewed twice
daily, the parts being dried with soft towels and then covered with
dusting powder, followed by the ointment.

FRECKLES. (Lentigo).--Freckles are an excessive deposit of pigment in the
skin.

Causes.--Exposure to the sun's rays aggravates this condition.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES for Freckles. 1. Freckles, Buttermilk for.--"Buttermilk
on the face every night." This is a very simple remedy, and as buttermilk
is very easily obtained, anyone troubled with freckles can try this remedy
without very much expense. This simple remedy has been known to cure many
cases.

2. Freckles, to Remove.--"Nitrate of potash applied to the face night and
morning is very good, and the freckles will soon disappear."

3. Freckles, Alcohol and Lemon Juice for.--"Use alcohol and lemon juice
freely at night." Lemon juice is very good for the skin if applied
frequently.

[76 MOTHERS' REMEDIES.]

4. Freckles, Excellent Lotion for.--

    "Rose Water           4 ounces
    Alcohol             1/2 ounce
    Hydrochloric Acid   1/2 dram

Mix and apply with sponge or cloth three times daily.

5. Freckles, Borax Water for.--"Rain water eight ounces, borax one-half
ounce. Mix and dissolve; wash parts twice daily."

6. Freckles, Canadian Remedy for.--"Glycerin, lemon juice, rosewater,
equal parts. Apply at night with a soft cloth,"

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Freckles.--They are apt to return on exposure to
the sun. The following ointment may be of service. Care should be taken
not to blister:

    Ammoniated Mercury      1 dram
    Subnitrate of Bismuth   1 dram
    Glycerin Ointment       1 ounce

Mix and apply every other night.



PRICKLY HEAT RASH.--An acute inflammatory disease of the sweat glands;
minute pimples and vesicles develop.

Symptoms.--It occurs upon the body and consists of many pinhead sized
bright red pimples and vesicles which are very close together. It appears
suddenly, and is usually accompanied by much sweating and subsides in a
short time with slight scaling following. There is itching, tingling and
burning usually present.

Cause.--Excessive heat in summer in children and weak people.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. 1. Prickly Heat, Soda Water for.--"Bathe with saleratus
(baking soda) water, dry carefully and apply good talcum powder freely."

2. Prickly Heat, Relief from pain of.--

    "Borax Powder    6 drams
    Menthol         10 grains
    Rose Water       6 ounces

Bathe the parts and between applications dust on lycopodium powder."

The borax powder will be found good to cover the parts and muriate of
morphia relieves the pain. The rose water is simply put in to dissolve the
other ingredients.

3. Prickly Heat, a Hamilton, Ontario, Mother Found Burnt Cornstarch good
for.--"Dust with browned cornstarch. This acts like talcum powder and is
not so expensive."

[SKIN DISEASES. 77]

4. Rash, Soothing Ointment for. l.--"Make an ointment of one dram of boric
acid powder to one ounce of vaseline. First wash the affected parts with a
strong solution of saleratus, then apply the ointment  and dust talcum
powder over this." The washing with saleratus is very important as this is
a good antiseptic and thoroughly cleanses the parts.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Prickly Heat.--It disappears usually in a few
days. Tonics for the weak, light clothing, a light nourishing diet and
frequent cold bathing. Alcoholic drinks are prohibited. White oak bark tea
as a wash for the sweating, followed by dusting powders of starch,
oatmeal, and zinc oxide, etc.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. 1. Chafing, Fuller's Earth Eases.--"Wash parts well
with boracic acid water, then dust with fuller's earth," The boracic water
is cleansing and fuller's earth is very healing. This is a very simple but
effective remedy.

2. Chafing, Good Home Remedy for.--"Usually all that is required is
washing the parts well with castile soap and cold water, and anointing
with plain vaselin," This remedy is always at hand, and is one to be
relied upon. Vaselin, as we all know, is very healing.

3. Chafing, Borax and Zinc Stops.--"Wash parts frequently with cold water
and use the following solution:

    Pure Water           2 gills
    Powdered Borax       1 teaspoonful
    Sulphate of Zinc   1/2 teaspoonful

Apply by means of a soft rag several times daily. After drying the parts
well, dust with wheat flour, corn starch or powdered magnesia;"

The above combination is excellent as the water cleanses the parts and the
borax and zinc are very soothing and healing.

4. Chafing, Common Flour good to stop.--"Burn common wheat flour until
brown. Tie in rag and dust chafed parts."



MOLE. (Naevus).--Mole is a congenital condition of the skin where there is
too much pigment in a circumscribed place. It varies in size from a
pin-head to a pea or larger. The face, neck and back are their usual
abiding place.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Moles.--They should be removed by knife or by
electricity. The last is the best, especially for the hairy variety.

Causes.--If they are subject to too much irritation they develop into
malignant growth.



ENLARGED NAIL. (Onychauxis).--The nail may become too long, thick or wide.
Treatment.--Remove the cause. Trim away the excessive nail tissue with a
knife or scissors. In paronychia, inflammation around the nail, pieces of
lint or cotton should be inserted between the edge of the nail and the
inflamed parts, and wet solution of antiseptics, like listerine or salt
water, applied with cloths.

[78 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]


INFLAMMATION OF THE NAIL. (Onychia). Treatment.--Cut into the back part if
it needs it. That will relieve the tension and pain. Sometimes the nail
must be removed. The inflammation is at the base (matrix) of the nail.

LOUSE, Disease of the Skin Produced by.--This is a disease of the skin
produced by an animal parasite, the pediculus or louse. There are the head
louse, pediculus capitis; the body louse, pediculus corporis; the pubis,
(about the genitals) pediculus pubis. The color of lice is white or gray.
They multiply very fast, the young being hatched out in about six days and
within eighteen days are capable of propagating their same species. The
nits are glued to the hair with a substance which is secreted by the
female louse.

HEAD LOUSE or Pediculus Capitis. Treatment.--The symptoms are very
apparent. Apply pure kerosene, rub it into the hair thoroughly. It can be
mixed with an equal part of balsam of peru. It should be left on the scalp
for twelve to twenty-four hours and then removed by a shampoo. Other
remedies that can be used are, tincture of staphisagria (stavesacre), this
can be made into an ointment; or ointment of ammoniated mercury. The dead
nits are removed from the hair by dilute acetic acid or vinegar. Cutting
the hair is not usually required. An infusion of quassia is good as a
wash.

Body Louse or Clothes Louse (Pediculus Corporis).--This parasite lives in
the clothes. It is apt to be found in the folds or seams, especially where
the clothes come in close contact with the skin, as about the neck,
shoulders and waist. This creature visits the body for its meal. They may
produce different kinds of skin troubles like eczema, boils, etc.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Lice.--Destroy the lice and their eggs (ova) by
thoroughly baking or boiling the clothing. The irritated skin can be
healed by soothing applications like vaselin, and oxide of zinc.

(Pediculus Pubis).--Lice on the hair of the pubis or about the genitals.
This is the smallest parasite of the three varieties, and it attaches
itself firmly to the hair with its head buried in the follicular openings,
and it is removed with great difficulty.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Lice.--1. Ointment of mercury, blue ointment.
This is to be used frequently. It is rather unclean and may create a
severe inflammation so be careful of it.

2. Solution of corrosive sublimate, from one to four grains to one ounce
of water. This is good and can be used once or twice a day; rub thoroughly
into the parts. It will cause redness and inflammation may follow if too
much is used. It is very effective. Kerosene with an equal quantity of
balsam of peru is a good remedy.

[SKIN DISEASES 79]


BLISTER DISEASE, (Pemphigus).--This is an acute or chronic skin disease in
which there are blisters of various sizes and shapes, and these usually
occur in crops.

Symptoms.--The disease may attack any part of the body. The blisters range
from the size of a pea to a large egg. They contain at first a clear
fluid, which soon becomes cloudy and looks more or less like pus. They
last several days and then dry up. They do not rupture of themselves very
often. It is not catching.

Causes.--These are obscure and not understood. A low state of the system
is usually found.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Blister Disease.--General treatment should be
given. Arsenic is the best remedy and can be given in the form of Fowler's
solution, five drops after meals at the beginning far an adult. This
should be increased until some  poisonous symptoms, such as bloating in
the face is produced.

Elixir Quinine, Iron and Strychnine is good as a tonic, one teaspoonful
after meals. Regulate the diet, give nourishing and easily digested food.

Local Treatment.--Puncture the blisters. Then put on a mild ointment like
vaselin; bran and starch baths can be given in some cases. The length of
the time of the disease is uncertain.

THE ITCH DISEASE. (Psoriasis) (not Common Itch). Definition.--This is a
chronic inflammatory disease of the skin, in which there appear upon the
skin thick, adherent, overlapping, scales of a shiny, whitish color, and
these are situated upon a reddish, slightly raised and sharply outlined
(defined) base.

Symptoms.--They begin as small reddish spots, sharply defined against the
healthy skin. They may be elevated slightly and soon became covered with
whitish pearl colored scales. If the scales are picked off, there is left
a smooth red surface, and from this, small drops of blood ooze out. No
watery or pus-like discharge escapes at any period of this disease. These
spots extend at the circumference (periphery), reaching the size of the
drops, or of the coins, or they may run together and form ring-shaped, or
crooked wavy lines of patches, with a center that is healing up. A few
scattered spots may be present, or large areas may be involved. In rare
cases the whole skin is affected. These spots or patches may occur an any
part of the body, but involve the extending part of the limbs, especially
the elbows and knees. There may be slight itching present at times.

Course of the Disease.--It is chronic; patches may continue indefinitely
or they may disappear in one place, while new crops appear elsewhere. This
disease usually appears far the first time between the ages of ten and
fifteen; it may then return at various intervals during a lifetime. It is
usually worse during the winter.

[80 MOTHERS' REMEDIES.]

Causes.--Are usually unknown, it may occur in all classes and kinds of
people.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Itch Disease.--Remedies for the general symptoms
are demanded. The general health must be looked after. Stimulating foods
and drinks and the use of tobacco are forbidden.

Arsenic in the form of Fowler's solution from three to ten drops three
times a day; or the arsenious acid in pills of 1/50 of a grain three times
a day. This medicine must not be used in the acute form, but only in
chronic cases.

Local Treatment.--1. Remove the scales first and follow this by
stimulating applications unless there is much inflammation. In such cases
soothing lotions should be applied. Dr. Schalek of New York, recommends
the following:

2. Remove the scales thoroughly with hot water and soap and then apply:

    Chrysarobin       1 dram
    Ether, Alcohol    Equal parts of each and enough
                         to dissolve the first remedy
    Collodion         1 ounce

Mix and apply with a brush to the parts affected.

This solution may cause inflammation and great swelling, and on that
account it should not be used on the face, it stains the skin. Dr. Hare
recommends a bath only before the application. In that way some scales
remain and there is not so much inflammation and swelling resulting. The
stain can be removed with a weak solution of chlorinated lime.

3. Tar Remedy.--Tar is also a good remedy in ointment forms. The skin
should be closely watched to find out how sensitive it is to the tar's
action, not only in this but in all skin diseases. Drugs should be changed
occasionally, for they lose their efficiency.

4. Tar and Sulphur Remedy for.--Never use tar on the face, it stains.

    Ointment of Tar      1 ounce
    Ointment of Sulphur  1 ounce

Mix thoroughly and apply at night.

5.  Precipitated Sulphur    6 drams
    Tar                     6 drams
    Green Soap              2 ounces
    Lard                    2 ounces
    Powdered Chalk          4 drams

Apply frequently.

If necessary more lard can be used, especially if the skin is very tender.

[SKIN DISEASES 81]

6. Another good local application. It is composed of the following
ingredients:

    Resorcinol            1 dram
    Zinc Oxide            1 dram
    Rose Water Ointment  10 drams

Apply twice a day to the part affected.

After mixing the ointment heat it until the resorcinol crystals melt to
prevent any irritation of the skin from them.

    Ichthyol           2-1/2 drams
    Salicylic Acid     2-1/2 drams
    Pyrogallic Acid    2-1/2 drams
    Olive Oil              1 ounce
    Lanoline               1 ounce

Mix thoroughly and apply.

The result of the disease is always favorable as to life and general
health. It yields to treatment, but it has a tendency to recur.

ITCH. Common Itch (Scabies).--Itch is a contagious disease, due to the
presence of an animal parasite. There is intense itching in this disease.
The parasite seeks the thin, tender regions of the skin, the spaces
between the fingers, wrists and forearms, the folds in the arm-pit, the
genitals in men and the breasts in women.

Cause.--It is always transmitted by contagion. An intimate and long
contact is usually needed. A person occupying the same bed with one who
has it is liable to take it. The female parasite lives from six to eight
weeks, during which time she lays fifty eggs, which, when hatched out,
become impregnated in their turn.

MOTHERS' TREATMENT for Common Itch. 1. Mustard Ointment for.--"Make an
ointment of cup of fresh lard (without salt) and a tablespoonful of dry
mustard, work to cream and apply." This is very soothing.

2. Itch, Grandmother's Cure for.--"Sulphur and lard mixed; rub on at
night, then take a good bath, using plenty of soap, every day." The above
ingredients are always easily obtained and anyone suffering with this
disease will find relief from the itching by using this remedy. It is very
soothing.

3. Itch, Herb Ointment for.--"Mix the juice of scabious with fresh lard
and apply as an ointment. A decoction made from the same herb might be
taken at the same time to purify the blood. It is always well to take some
blood tonic together with any outward application you may use." Some who
read the above may know scabious by other names as the "morning bride" or
"sweet scabious" or "devil's bit," etc.

4. Itch, Elecampane Root Ointment for.--"Boil elecampane root in vinegar,
mix with fresh lard, beating thoroughly." This is an excellent remedy for
itch, having a very soothing effect and relieving the itching.

[82 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

5. Itch, Oatmeal for.--"A poultice of oatmeal and oil of bays; cures the
itch and hard swellings." Oatmeal poultices are more stimulating and draw
more rapidly than those made of linseed meal.

6. Itch, a Mother at Parma, Michigan, Sends the Following.--"Make a salve
of sulphur and lard and each night apply it to the whole body; also one
tablespoonful internally for three mornings, then skip three and so on.
This is the only thing I know of that will cure itch. I have tried it with
success."

7. Itch, Kerosene for.--"Apply kerosene oil, undiluted, to the parts
several times a day. Apply nitrate of mercury ointment to the body."

8. Itch, Splendid Ointment for Common Itch.--

    "Lac-Sulphur   160 grains
    Napthaline      10 grains
    Oil Bergamot     4 drops
    Cosmoline        1 ounce

Rub lac-sulphur into fine powder. Sift it into the melted cosmoline and
stir until nearly cool, then add napthaline and oil bergamot. Stir until
cool."

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Itch.--If the skin is much inflamed or
irritable, soothing baths and ointments should be used at first. There are
three indications to be met in the treatment; first, to destroy the cause,
the parasite; second, to cure the result of their work; third, to prevent
a return or transmission to others.

First Thing to Do.--Soak the body thoroughly with soap (green soap if you
have it) and water, this softens the outer layer (epidermis). This layer
covers the female parasite which burrows under it. The male does not
burrow and it is therefore easier to kill. Rub the skin thoroughly with a
rough towel after the soaking. This rubbing will remove the outer skin
scales and with it some of the parasites. The towel should be boiled at
once to prevent it from conveying the parasite to others. Then apply the
ointment, which, if thoroughly applied, relieves the patient at once. The
skin should be well softened and rubbed in order to open every track
(burrow) of the parasite. Allow the ointment to remain on all night and
use it for three or four nights successively.

Ointments.--1. Simple sulphur ointment alone.

2.   Oil of Cale (from Juniper)   1 dram
     Sulphur Ointment             2 drams
     Lanolin                      5 drams

3.   Flowers of Sulphur           6 ounces
     Oil of Fagi                  6 ounces
     White Chalk                  4 ounces
     Green Soap                  16 ounces
     Lard                        16 ounces

Apply at night. This is not so strong.

[SKIN DISEASES 83]

4. For children the following can be used:

    Sulphur       1 dram
    Balsam Peru   1 dram
    Lard          1 ounce

Apply as usual.

5. The following for adults:

    Precipitated Sulphur       2 drams
    Carbonate of Potash        1 dram
    Lard Ointment          1-1/2 ounces

Rub well into the skin.

Second:--Heal the resultant sores with soothing applications like vaselin
and a little camphor in it.

Third:--Boil and disinfect all underwear and bedding or any article liable
to give an abiding place to the parasite. It is easily cured with proper
treatment.



DANDRUFF (Seborrhoea).--The scurfs or scales (dandruff) upon the scalp are
formed from seborrhoea.

Definition.--The word seborrboea means to flow suet or fatty fluids.
Seborrhoea is a functional disorder of the sebaceous gland (fatty, suet
matter) and this secretion is somewhat altered in character.

Varieties.--There are three varieties. These depend upon the character of
the material excreted.

1. Oily seborrhoea (seborrhoea oleosa).

2. Dry seborrhoea (seborrhoea sicca).

3. Mixed type of both.

Oily seborrhoea.--Symptoms.--This appears most frequently upon the nose
and forehead and sometimes upon the scalp. The skin looks oily,
glistening, with the appearance of dust adhering to it. Small drops of oil
are seen to ooze out of the follicles and when wiped off it reforms at
once. The ducts of the follicles appear gaping or they are plugged with
black-heads (comedones). The hair is rendered unusually oily, when it
appears on the scalp, and it is especially noticeable on bald heads. It is
very common in the negro, almost natural or physiological.

Dry Seborrhoea.--This is a more common form and occurs upon the hairy or
non-hairy parts, but chiefly upon the scalp (dandruff). The affected
parts are covered with grayish, greasy scales, which are easily dislodged,
the skin underneath is oily and slate gray in color. This type of the
disease forms one type of dandruff. When it is of long standing the hair
becomes dry and falls out.

[84 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Mixed type.--This type is common upon the scalp. The surface is covered,
more or less, with scales and crusts. If the disease continues long the
hair becomes dry, lusterless and falls out. Permanent baldness may result.

Causes.--These may be constitutional and local. "Green sickness"
(chlorosis), disorders of the stomach and bowels are often the cause.

Local.--Uncleanness, lack of care of the scalp, heavy and airtight hats
may cause it. Some writers claim parasites are the cause.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--1. Dandruff, Home Preparation from New York State
Mother.--"Into one pint of water drop a lump of fresh quick-lime, the size
of a walnut; let it stand all night, pour off the clear liquid, strain,
and add one gill of the best vinegar, wash the roots of the hair with the
preparation. It is a good remedy and harmless."

2. Dandruff, a Barber's Shampoo for.--"Shampoo with the following:

    Sassafras          5 cents worth
    Salts of Tartar   10 cents worth
    Ether             10 cents worth
    Castile Soap       5 cents worth

Dissolve the above in one gallon of soft water. Rinse the hair thoroughly
and repeat as often as necessary. This recipe was given me by a barber and
I find it very good,"

3. Dandruff, Lemon Juice for.--"Cut a lemon in two, loosen the hair and
rub the lemon into the scalp. Do this in the evening before retiring, for
about a week, then stop for a few nights, then use for another week, and
so on until cured."

4. Falling Hair, a Brook, Ontario, Lady Prevents.--"Garden sage, make a
quart sage tea, add equal parts (a teaspoonful) of salt, borax and
rosewater, and one-half pint of bay rum. Wet the head with this every
night."

5. Hair Restoratives, Simple and Harmless.--"A simple and harmless
"invigorator" is as follows:

    Cologne Water              2 ounces
    Tincture of Cantharides    2 drams
    Oil of Lavender           10 drops
    Oil of Rosemary           10 drops

Use twice daily. If it makes the scalp a tittle sore, discontinue for a
short time."

6. Dandruff, Talcum Powder an Excellent Remedy for.--"Take talcum powder
and sprinkle in the hair thoroughly, then brush," This is a very good
remedy.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Dandruff.--If there are general diseases, they
should be treated.

[SKIN DISEASES 85]

Local--In mild cases, shampooing with hot water and a good soap may be
sufficient when the scales and crusts are thick and abundant; first soften
them with olive oil and then remove them with hot water and green soap.

After the scalp has been cleaned, the remedies should be applied. The
remedies should be thoroughly rubbed in and applied in the form of
ointments or lotions and used once daily. Cutting the hair may be
necessary. The odor of sulphur may be overcome by the use of perfume. If
the scalp becomes too dry after shampooing some oil should first be
applied, whatever application is used afterwards.

Remedies.--Resorcin, sulphur, salicylic acid, in combination with other
ingredients. Some favorite prescriptions are now given:

1.  Resorcin           1 to 2 drams
    Pure Castor Oil         1 dram
    Alcohol                 2 ounces

    Mix and rub well into the scalp.

2.  Precipitated Sulphur    1 dram
    Salicylic Acid         15 grains
    Ointment Petrolatum     1 ounce

3.  Washed Sulphur          4 drams
    Castor Oil             10 drams
    Oil of Cocoa            1 ounces
    Balsam of Peru        1/2 ounce

    Apply twice daily.

4.  Carbolic Acid                   20 drops to 1 dram
    Oil of Almonds                   4 drams
    Oil of Lemon                     1 dram
    Distilled Water, enough to make  2 ounces

    Apply after washing.

The oily type is best treated with lotions and powders. The disease is
very obstinate, but generally gets well.

WEN (Sebaceous Cyst. Steatoma).--A wen varies in size from a millet seed
to an egg, and it is due to the distention of a sebaceous gland by its
retained secretions. They occur most commonly on the scalp, face and back.
They cause no pain, grow slowly, and after they have grown to a certain
size remain stationary for an indefinite time. Sometimes they become
inflamed and ulcerate.

Treatment.--Make a free cut and take the mass out. Its covering (capsule)
or sac must be removed at the same time, for if any of this membrane
(capsule) is left it will fill up again. Equal parts of fine salt and the
yolk of an egg beaten together and applied continuously will eat the skin
open and the mass can then be taken out. This is quite painful and takes
several days, while with the knife there is little pain if cocaine is
injected and it will all be over in a few minutes.

[86 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

RINGWORM (Tinea Trichophytina).--Ringworm is a contagious disease of the
skin, produced by the presence of a vegetable parasite. The disease
affects the hair follicles of the scalp and the beard, and also of the
portions of the body that, seemingly at least, have no hair.

Varieties.--Ringworm affecting the body called Tinea Circinata. Ringworm
affecting the scalp called Tinea Tonsurans. Ringworm affecting the beard,
etc., Tinea Barbae (barbers' itch).

Ringworm of the Body.--This type of ringworm usually begins as one or
several round, somewhat raised and very small, defined congested spots and
these are covered with a few branny scales. The disease extends from the
circumference and, while healing in the center, assumes a shape like a
ring and these rings may become as large as a silver dollar and remain the
same size for months or years, or they may go together (coalesce) to form
circle (gyrate) patches. Vesicle and pimples frequently crop out at the
circumference.

Mothers' Remedies for Ringworm.--1. Gunpowder and Vinegar for.--"Make a
paste of gunpowder and vinegar and apply. Sometimes one application will
be sufficient; if not, repeat."

2. Ringworm, Cigar Ashes for.--"Wet the sore and cover with cigar ashes.
Repeat frequently. This will cure if taken in time." This is a very simple
and effective remedy. Cigar ashes are always easy to obtain and if applied
to the ringworm at the very beginning, the nicotine in the tobacco will
draw out the soreness and relieve the inflammation.

3. Ringworm, Kerosene for.--"Apply kerosene with the finger or a cloth
several times a day."

4. Ringworm, Ontario Mother Cured Boy of.--"Wash head with vinegar and
paint with iodine to kill germ. Cured a neighbor's boy."

5. Ringworm, Another from a Mother at Valdosta, Georgia.--"Burdock root
and vinegar." Take the dock root and steep it the same as any ordinary
herb tea, then add your vinegar, making the proportions about half and
half. Apply this to the affected part.

6. Ringworm, Egg Skin Remedy for.--"Take the inner skin of an egg and wrap
around it, and cover with a piece of cloth."

7. Ringworm, from a Mother at Owosso. Michigan.--"Take gunpowder and wet
it and put it on the sores," This remedy has been tried a great many times
and always gives relief when taken right at the beginning. So many people
will wait, thinking the ringworm will disappear of its own accord, instead
of giving some simple home remedy like the above a trial.

[SKIN DISEASES 87]

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Ringworm.--1. For infants and children simpler
remedies should be used at first. Scrub each patch with tincture of green
soap, or merely good soap and water may be employed. Then apply tincture
of iodine to the patches, once or twice a day, enough to irritate the
patches. Dilute acetic acid, or dilute carbolic acid will do the same
work. A ten per cent solution of sodium hyposulphite is a good remedy
also.

2. Corrosive sublimate, one to four grains to the ounce of water, is very
good to put on the patches. For children the strength should be about
one-half grain to the ounce.

3. Ammoniated mercury is also very good to put on. Sometimes a combination
of remedies will do better, as follows:

    Milk of Sulphur        2-1/2 drams
    Spirits of Green Soap       6 drams
    Tincture of Lavender        6 drams
    Glycerin                  1/2 dram

4.  Pure Iodine       2 ounces
    Oil of Tar        1 ounce

Mix with care gradually.

5.  Creasote                20 drops
    Oil of Cadini            3 drams
    Precipitated Sulphur     3 drams
    Bicarbonate Potash       1 dram
    Lard                     1 ounce

Mix, to be used in obstinate cases in adults.

Ringworm of the Scalp.--Cautions and Treatment.--Be careful that others do
not catch it from you. Separate the child affected. Cleanse the diseased
parts from time to time by shampooing with a strong soap. The hair over
the whole scalp should be clipped short and the affected parts shaved, or
if allowed, the hairs in the affected parts pulled out. The remedies are
then applied if possible in the shape of ointments, which are thoroughly
rubbed in. Vaselin and lanolin are better as a base for the medicine, as
they penetrate deeper. Following remedies are the most valuable:

1. Carbolic acid, one to two drams to glycerin one ounce.

2. Oleate of mercury, strength ten to twenty per cent.

3. Sulphur Ointment, ten to twenty per cent strength.

4. Tincture of Iodine.

This variety lasts longer than the ringworms on the body, months sometimes
are required to cure it.

BARBER'S ITCH (Ringworm of the Beard).--Mother's Remedies. 1. Standard
Remedy for.--"Plain vaselin two ounces, venice turpentine one-half ounce,
red precipitate one-half ounce. Apply locally. Great care should be taken
not to expose affected parts to cold and draughts while ointment is in
use, especially if affected surface is large." The above is a standard
remedy and will be found very effective in all cases of barber's itch. The
vaselin will assist in healing the sores and softening up the scabs.

[88 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

2. Barber's Itch, Healing Ointment for.--"Plain vaselin four ounces,
sulphur two ounces, sal-ammoniac powder two drams. Mix and apply daily
after cleansing the parts thoroughly with castile soap and soda water.
This is also an almost infallible cure for common itch." The vaselin is
very good and healing, while the sulphur has a soothing effect and is a
good antiseptic.

3. Barber's Itch, Reliable Remedy for.--"Citrine ointment one dram,
vaselin or cosmolin one ounce. Mix thoroughly. Wash the affected parts
clean and apply this ointment on a soft rag three times a day." This is a
standard remedy and one to be relied upon. It is very soothing and has
great healing properties.

4. Barber's Itch, Sulphur and Lard for.--"Sulphur and lard mixed together
and applied three or four times a day. Have found this to be the best of
anything ever used for barber's itch." This remedy will be found very good
if the case is not very severe. If the face is covered with sores, filled
with pus and of long standing a stronger treatment should be used. See
other Mothers' Remedies, also Doctors' Treatment.

5. Barber's Itch, Cuticura Ointment for.--"Apply cuticura ointment to the
sores, and as it draws out the water press a clean cloth against the sore
to absorb the water. This will generally draw the water out in three or
four days."

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Barber's Itch.--Pulling out the hairs or close
shaving every day. Keep the affected parts soaking with olive oil for two
successive days. The evening of the third day the shampoo is employed, the
skin is washed free from crusts and scales, shave cleanly. After shaving
bathe the parts for ten minutes with borated water, as hot as can be
borne; while this is being done, all pustules or points where there is a
mucous fluid coming out to the surface are opened with a clean needle.
Sponge freely over the affected surface with a strong solution of
hyposulphite of sodium for several minutes and not allow it to dry; this
solution may contain one dram and perhaps more to the ounce. After a
thorough and final washing with hot water, the tender skin is carefully
dried and gently smeared with a sulphur ointment containing one to two
drams of sulphur to the ounce of vaselin, often with the addition of from
one-quarter to one-half grain of mercuric sulphide. In the morning wash
the ointment off with soap and water, the sodium solution is reapplied and
a borated or salicylated powder is thoroughly dusted and kept over the
parts during the day and apply ointment at night. The shaving must be
repeated at least the next day. As soon as there are no pustules (lumps),
or they have diminished in size, the ointment at night is superseded by
the use of the dusting powder. The washing with very hot water and with
the solution hyposulphite is continued nightly, when the inflammation
excited by the parasite is limited to the follicles that are invaded.
Continue the dusting powder after the ointment is discontinued.

[SKIN DISEASES 89]

WART (Verucca). Mothers' Remedies.--1. An Application for, also Good for
Cuts and Lacerations.--"Make a lotion of ten drops tincture of marigold to
two ounces of water and apply." This is also good for severe cuts and
lacerations. It may be applied by cloths or bandages if the case requires.


2. Warts, Match and Turpentine Wash.--"Dissolve matches in turpentine and
apply to wart three or four times," This preparation helps to eat them
away and if kept on too long is apt to produce a sore; care should
therefore be taken in using this remedy.

3. Warts, Muriate of Ammonia for.--"Take a piece of muriate of ammonia,
moisten and rub on the wart night and morning; after a week's treatment
the wart, if not extra large, will disappear."

4. Warts, Turpentine for.--"Rub frequently with turpentine for a few days
and they will disappear. This is a very simple remedy, but a good one, and
worth trying if you are afflicted with warts."

5. Warts, to Remove.--"The juice of the marigold frequently applied is
effectual in removing them. Or wash them with tincture of myrrh."

6. Warts, Milkweed Removes.--"Let a drop of the common milkweed soak into
the wart occasionally, the wart will loosen and fall out. This can be
applied as often as convenient; here in Canada we do not have to go far to
get a plant."

7. The following is a good application:

    Salicylic Acid     1/2 dram
    Cannabis Indicia     5 grains
    Collodion            1 ounce

Mix and apply to the wart.

Tincture of thuja is very good in some cases when applied daily.

HIVES, Nettle Rash (Urticaria). Causes.--Foods such as shell fish,
strawberries, cheese, pickles, pork and sausages.

Medicines that may cause it.--Quinine, copaiba, salicylic acid, etc.
Disorders of the stomach and bowels. Insects, like mosquito, bedbug, etc.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--1. Hives or Nettle Rash, Slippery Elm.--"Slippery elm
used as a wash and taken as a drink." Slippery elm is especially good for
any skin disease, as it is very soothing to the parts and relieves the
itching. If taken as a drink it acts on the kidneys and bowels, throwing
off all the impurities.

2. Hives or Nettle Rash, External and Internal Home Medicine for.--"Bathe
with weak solution of vinegar. Internal remedy; sweet syrup of rhubarb
with small lump of saleratus (size of a pea) dissolved in it. This dose
was given to a two-year-old child." The rhubarb helps to rid the stomach
and bowels of its impurities, relieving the disease, as hives are usually
due to some disorder of the kidneys and bowels.

[90 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

3. Hives or Nettle Rash, Tea and Powder for.--"Rub with buckwheat flour;
this will relieve the itching almost immediately. Sassafras tea is a good
internal remedy."

4. Hives or Nettle Rash, Catnip Tea for.--"Boil catnip leaves to make a
tea, slightly sweeten and give about six or eight teaspoonfuls at bed time
and keep patient out of draughts." The tea can be taken throughout the day
also. If taken hot on going to bed it causes sweating and care should be
taken not to catch cold while the pores are opened.

5. Hives or Nettle Rash, Mother from Buckhorn, Florida, says following is
a sure Cure for.--"Grease with poplar bud stewed down until strong; take
out buds, add one teaspoonful lard, stew all the water out. Grease and
wrap up in wool blanket."

6. Hives or Nettle Rash, from a Mother at New Milford, Pennsylvania.--"One
tablespoonful castor oil first. Then put one tablespoonful salts and cream
tartar in glass of water; take one spoonful before eating. Have used this
and found it excellent." The castor oil acts on the bowels and the cream
of tartar on the blood.

7. Hives or Nettle Rash, Buttermilk for.--"Buttermilk applied two or three
times a day. Found this to be good for nettle rash." Buttermilk is very
soothing and will relieve the itching. This is an old tried remedy.

8. Hives or Nettle Rash, Baking Soda Wash for.--"Make a strong solution of
common baking soda, about three teaspoonfuls to pint of water. Sponge or
bathe body thoroughly." Any mother who has a child in the house knows how
valuable baking soda is in case of burns, on account of its cooling
properties. For this same reason it will be found excellent for above
disease, as it will relieve the itching and is very soothing. Good for
children if used not quite as strong.

9. Hives or Nettle Rash, Canada Blue Clay for.--"Mix up blue clay and
water to make a paste. Leave until dry and then wash off."

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Hives or Nettle Rash.--Remove causes. Bowels and
kidneys should act freely. Abstain from eating for a day or two if
necessary.

For the Itching.--Diluted vinegar, applied is effective. Also camphor.

    Cream of Tartar   2 ounces
    Epsom Salts       2 ounces

Take three or four teaspoonfuls to move the bowels, or one teaspoonful
every three hours if the bowels are regular enough. For a child one year
old, give one teaspoonful in water every three hours until the bowels move
freely.



SUNBURN.--When severe, sunburn may present the symptoms of inflammation of
the skin. Then there will be redness, swelling and pain followed by deep
discoloration of the skin.

[SKIN DISEASES 91]

MOTHERS' REMEDIES for Sunburn.--1. Lemon Juice and Vinegar for.--"An
application of the juice of a lemon or vinegar."

2. Sunburn, Ammonia Water for.--"Ammonia will remove sunburn in one
night." Care should be taken in using this remedy. The ammonia should be
diluted half with water and not used too often.

3. Sunburn, Relief from Pain and Smarting of.--"Benzoated zinc ointment or
vaselin applied to the affected parts is sure to give relief and avoid
much pain and smarting."

4. Sunburn, Preparation for.--"I have found nothing better than
mentholatum." Mentholatum is simply a mixture of vaselin or cosmolin and
menthol. They are both very healing, and will be found beneficial.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Sunburn.--Soothing ointments and dusting powders
are generally sufficient for sunburn. Talcum powder (Mennen's borated),
rice powder, oatmeal powders are good and healing. The following are good:

1.  Oxide of Zinc Powder     1/2 ounce
    Powdered Camphor       1-1/2 dram
    Powdered Starch            1 ounce

Mix. Dust on the parts.

2.  Powdered Starch     1 ounce
    Powdered Camphor    1 dram

Well mixed and applied is soothing to the parts.

3. The following is a good combination:

      Carbonate of Lead        1 dram
      Powdered Starch          1 dram
      Ointment of Rose Water   1 ounce
      Olive Oil                2 drams

Mix and apply to the inflamed skin.

GANGRENE.--This is the death of a part of the body in mass. There are two
forms, moist and dry.

Dry Gangrene.--This is a combination produced by a loss of water from the
tissues. The skin becomes dark and wrinkled and is often hard, like
leather. Senile or old age gangrene, and really due to the arterial
sclerosis, usually occurs in the lower extremities, involving the toes. A
slight injury may first start up the trouble. The pain in this variety is
not usually great.

[92 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--1. Gangrene, Remedy from New York that cured a
Gangrenous Case.--"A man aged 74 years had a sore below the knee for
fifteen years; at last gangrene appeared in his foot and three physicians
pronounced his case hopeless on account of his age. I was called as a
neighbor and found the foot swollen to twice its natural size, and the man
in pain from head to foot. I ordered cabbage leaves steamed until wilted,
then put them over the limb from knee to foot and covered with a cloth. In
about fifteen minutes they were black, so we removed them and put on fresh
ones, repeating the change until the leaves did not turn black. Then the
sore was thoroughly cleansed with a weak solution of saleratus and while
wet was thickly covered with common black pepper and wrapped up. The
saleratus water and pepper was changed night and morning until the sore
was entirely healed. After the third day this man had no pain, and in four
weeks was entirely healed. A year later he said he had never had any
trouble with it or with rheumatism which he had had for years before."

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Gangrene.--The skin should be treated. Poultices
sometimes may be good, or bottles of hot water around the parts. A general
tonic should be given.

Moist Gangrene. Causes.--Wounds, fractures, injuries, pressure from lying
in bed and frost bite.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Moist Gangrene.--Remove the cause if possible.
This kind is more dangerous, and a physician should be called as the best
treatment that can be given is none too good.

BLISTER.--This is a watery elevation of the outer skin. It is caused by
rubbing, for instance of a shoe, friction from anything, or from burns. It
frequently appears on the hands after working for some time at manual
labor, when the hands are not accustomed to work. It is the common blister
which hardly needs much describing.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES for Blister.--1. Linseed Oil for.--"Linseed oil used
freely." This is a very good remedy because it is soothing. Any good
soothing lotion or salve that will draw out the soreness and pain is
helpful.

2. Blister. A Method of Raising a Blister.--"If a blister is needed take
an ordinary thick tumbler, rub alcohol inside and around the rim, then
invert over a piece of cotton, saturated with alcohol and ignited; after a
few minutes the glass may be removed and clapped on the surface of the
body. As the glass contains rarified air the flesh will be drawn up into
it and a blister formed."



IVY POISONING.--The parts usually affected are the hands, face, the
genitals, the arms, the thighs and neck.

Symptoms.--These usually appear soon. Red patches, with scanty or profuse
watery pimples, with a watery discharge after bursting. There is swelling,
intense burning and itching. The parts sometimes swell very much and look
watery. The person can hardly keep from scratching.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--1. Ivy Poisoning, Buttermilk and Copperas for.--"Wash
in copperas and buttermilk three or four times a day. Have seen this used
and it helped." The copperas and buttermilk is very good when applied to
the parts immediately after the poison is discovered. The copperas acts
very much like sugar of lead and in some cases is very much more
effective.

[SKIN DISEASES 93]

2. Ivy Poisoning, Cure for.--

    "Bromine    10 to 20 drops
    Olive Oil          1 ounce

Mix. Rub the mixture gently into the affected parts three or four times a
day. The bromine being volatile the solution should be freshly made."

This remedy is frequently used by physicians, and is very effective.



CHAPPED HANDS AND FACE. Mothers' Remedies.--1. Chapped Hands, Quince Seed
Cream for.--"Soak one teaspoonful of quince seeds in one cup warm water
over night. Strain through a cloth and add one ounce glycerin, five cents'
worth bay rum, and perfume if you choose."

2. Chapped Hands, Soothing Lotion for.--"Bathe them in soft water using
ivory soap and Indian meal; when dry bathe in vinegar. Have tried this
treatment and my hands feel soft and easy after treatment." It would be
best to dilute the vinegar with water one-half.

3. Chapped Hands, Glycerin for.--"Use glycerin freely." Glycerin is very
irritating to some people, then again it works like a charm. You can tell
only by trying it.

4. Chapped Hands, Carbolic Salve for.--"We always use a good carbolic
salve for these, as we have found nothing better for sores of any kind." A
few drops of carbolic acid added to any good salve will give you the
above.

5. Chapped Hands, Glycerin and Lemon Juice for.--"Two-thirds glycerin,
one-third lemon juice, mix well together; apply nights."

6. Chapped Hands, Camphor Ice for.--"Camphor ice." Apply frequently after
thoroughly washing and drying the hands.

7. Chapped Hands, Remedy from a New York Lady.--

    Glycerin        4 ounces
    Cologne         2 ounces
    Benzoin       1/2 ounce
    Rain water      1 pint

Mix thoroughly and apply to the hands after washing.

This remedy has also been used for years by a friend, and we have proved
it good. If applied frequently during the winter the hands will not chap."

8. Chapped Hands, Rose Cream for.--"Get ten cents' worth of rose water,
five cents' worth of glycerin and the juice of one lemon. Mix and rub on
the affected parts,"

9. Chapped Hands, Preventive for.--"A little diluted honey or almond oil
will restore softness and prevent chapping."

[94 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

10. Chapped Hands or Face, from a Twin Falls Idaho, Mother.--"One-fourth
ounce gum tragacanth dissolved in one and half pints of soft water; then
add ounce each of alcohol, glycerin and witch-hazel, also a little
perfume. I find this one of the best remedies I ever used for sore or
chapped hands."

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Chapped Hands.--

1.  Subnitrate of Bismuth    3 drams
    Oleate of Zinc           3 drams
    Lycopodium               2 drams

Mix. Apply to the parts three times daily.

2. Powdered camphor mixed with vaselin is healing.

3. Ointment of water of roses (cold cream) is a soothing application. It
can be improved by adding a little glycerin and benzoic acid--this keeps
it sweet in warm weather.

4. Powdered zinc oxide, or starch as a dusting powder.

FACE CREAMS, Mothers' Preparations.--l. Cream of Pond Lilies.--"This
agrees especially well with oily skins; will keep indefinitely.

    Orange Flower Water, triple        6 ounces
    Deodorized Alcohol             1-1/2 ounces
    Bitter Almonds, blanched
      and beaten in a mortar           1 ounce
    White Wax                          1 dram
    Spermaceti                         1 dram
    Oil of Benne                       1 dram
    Shaving Cream                      1 dram
    Oil of Bergamot                   12 drops
    Oil of Cloves                      6 drops
    Oil of Neroli Bigrade              6 drops
    Borax                            1/5 ounce

Dissolve the borax in the orange flower water, slightly warmed. Mix the
wax, spermaceti, oil of benne and shaving cream in a bainmaire, at gentle
heat. Then stir in the perfumed water and almonds. Strain through a clean
muslin strainer, place in a mortar and while stirring gradually work in
the alcohol in which the oils have been previously dissolved."

2. Face Cream, When Facing our North Winds, in Canada, I Use
this.--"Honey, almond meal, and olive oil to form paste. Use after getting
skin cleaned. I used it myself and find it good when going out driving."

3. Face Cream, Lanolin Cream.--

    Lanolin                  1 ounce
    Sweet Almond Oil       1/2 ounce
    Boric Acid              40 drops
    Tincture of Benzoin     10 drops

This is a good skin food to be rubbed into the skin with the tips of the
fingers."

4. Face Cream, Cucumber Lotion.--

    "Expressed Juice of cucumbers     1/2 pint
    Deodorized Alcohol              1-1/2 ounces
    Oil of Benne                    3-1/4 ounces
    Shaving Cream                       1 dram
    Blanched Almonds                1-3/4 drams

[SKIN DISEASES 95]

The preparation of this is the same as for almond lotion. It is an
excellent cosmetic to use in massaging the face and throat, as it not only
tones any relaxed tissues, but also may be used to cleanse the skin during
the day. A complexion brush is an excellent investment; one should be
chosen that has fine camel's hair bristle's. It should be used in
connection with good soap."

5. Face Cream, Almond Lotion to Whiten and Soften the Skin.--

    "Bitter Almonds, blanched and beaten      4 ounces
    Orange Flower Water                      12 ounces
    Curd Soap (or any fine toilet soap)     1/2 ounce
    Oil of Bergamot                          50 drops
    Oil of Cannelle                          10 drops
    Oil of Almonds                           20 drops
    Alcohol (65% solution)                    4 ounces

Powder or break up the soap; dissolve in the orange flower water by
heating in a bain-maire, gradually work almonds into the soap and water.
Strain and finish as directed above. This is a bland lotion, very
cleansing, whitening and softening."

6. Face Cream. the Cold Ontario Wind Harmless When Using this.--"Wash in
warm water, rub face dry with corn-meal. This takes place of bottle
cream."



FROST BITES.--Keep the patient in a cold atmosphere, or put into a cold
bath and the frozen part rubbed with snow or ice until sensation is felt
and color returns; then discontinue the rubbing and apply ice water
compresses. Stimulants such as brandy, coffee and hot drinks are given,
but external heat is only gradually permitted, for the circulation returns
very slowly to the frost-bitten parts, and in trying to hasten it, we run
the risk of producing or, at least, increasing the tendency to gangrene of
the frozen parts.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--l. Frost Bites. Remedy from Northern New York.--"Soak
the parts affected in kerosene oil; this will soon draw out the frost."

2. Frost Bites, Roasted Turnips for.--"Roasted turnips bound to the parts
frosted." This is a very soothing application, but should not be put on
warm. Cold applications are what are needed in frost bites.

[Transcriber's Note: From the Mayo Clinic (2005): 1. Get out of the cold.
2. Warm hands by tucking them into your armpits. If your nose, ears or
face is frostbitten, warm the area by covering it with dry, gloved hands.
3. Don't rub the affected area, especially with snow. 4. If there's any
chance of refreezing, don't thaw out the affected areas. If they're
already thawed out, wrap them up so they don't refreeze. 5. Get emergency
medical help if numbness remains during warming. If you can't get help
immediately, warm severely frostbitten hands or feet in warm--not
hot--water.]

BUNIONS.--This is a lump over a joint usually of the big toe, usually due
to pressure and a wrong position of the surfaces of the joint.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--1. Bunions, Remedy from Your Flower Garden.--"Peel
the outside skin from the leaf of 'Live Forever' and apply as a poultice.
Repeat until cured. This is a very good remedy and one that should be
tried if you are troubled with bunions or corns."

[96 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

2. Bunions, A Cure for.--

    "Tincture of Iodine       2 drams
    Tincture of Belladonna    2 drams

Apply twice a day with camel's hair brush."

This mixture when applied will have a drawing effect, and care should be
taken not to leave it on too long, as it will irritate the parts and make
it very sore.

3. Bunions, Iodine for.--"Apply tincture of iodine to the bunion night and
morning. This will reduce size; if used at first will entirely remove."

4. Bunions, Tested Remedy for.--"Take about one teaspoonful salicylic acid
in two tablespoons of lard, and apply night and morning. Before doing this
apply adhesive plasters to the affected parts." This is a standard remedy.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Bunions.--Rest of the part, cold applications
and liniments.



CHILBLAINS. (Erythema Pernio).--This occurs usually in people with a
feeble circulation or scrofulous constitution, usually seen in the young
or very old. The redness shows most, as a rule, on the hands and feet.
The redness may be either a light or dusky shade. It itches and burns
especially when near artificial heat. The redness disappears on pressure,
and the parts are cool rather than hot. It is an inflammation that follows
freezing or a frost-bite. It may return for years at the return of cold
weather.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. 1. Chilblains, a Cure for.--"Equal parts of extract of
rosemary and turpentine. Apply night and morning until cured." The
rosemary is very soothing, and the turpentine creates a drawing sensation.
It has cured many cases of chilblains.

2. Chilblains, Witch-hazel for.--"Bathe feet in lukewarm water and soda
and apply carbolized witch-hazel." This remedy is very soothing, and
always give relief.

3. Broken Chilblains, Ointment for.--

    "Sweet Oil             1/2 pint
    Venice Turpentine    1-1/2 ounce
    Fresh Lard             1/4 pound
    Beeswax              1-1/2 ounce

Simmer gently together in a pan water bath until the beeswax is melted,
stirring until cool. When it is ready for use apply on going to bed on a
soft rag."

4. Chilblains, Vinegar Cure.--"Soak the feet in a weak solution of
vinegar, then rub good with vaselin or oil."

5. Chilblains, Home-made Salve for.--

    Fresh Lard             2 ounces
    Venice Turpentine    1/2 ounce
    Gum Camphor          1/2 ounce

Melt together, stirring briskly. When cold it is ready for use.

6. Chilblains, Common Glue for.--"Put a little common (dissolved) glue in
hot water and soak the feet in it. Repeat if necessary." This is very good
and gives relief.

[Illustration: Hearth, Stomach and Appendix]


[SKIN DISEASES 97]

7. Chilblains, the Onion Cure for.--"Raw onion rubbed on chilblains every
night and morning." The onion seems to have a very soothing effect upon
the chilblains, and this remedy has been known to cure many stubborn
cases. It is always well to soak the feet well before applying this
treatment, as the juice from the onion will penetrate more quickly.

8. Chilblains, the Hemlock Remedy for.--"Hemlock twigs mixed with lard and
pounded until it is green, then bound on."

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Chilblains.--Thick woolen stockings, mittens and
ear protections should be worn. Daily cold baths, especially of such
parts, should be taken. Alcohol applied to the parts, full strength, will
harden the tissues. Camphor also is good.

Internal.--Iron should be given to establish a better circulation and give
strength. Tincture of iron, five drops three times a day, is good.

External.--1. Alum as a wash applied to the parts.

2. Ointment of ichthyol, one-half strength, is very good in some cases.

3. Rosin made in an ointment is also good to relieve some cases.

4. Lard and iodine ointment is excellent for some.

5. The following is also good:

    Prepared Chalk        1 ounce
    Powdered Camphor     10 grains
    Linseed Oil           2 ounces
    Balsam of Peru       20 drops

Mix and apply.



DIGESTIVE ORGANS, DISEASES OF.

CANKER SORE MOUTH. (Aphthous Stomatitis.)--This is a variety of
inflammation of the mouth where there are one or more vesicles (cankers)
upon the edges of the tongue, the cheek or the lips.

Causes.--They are most common in children between two and six years of
age; but are not rare in adults. Predisposing causes are spring and
autumn, tuberculosis, teething, poor nutrition, stomach and bowel
disorders.

Symptoms.--The vesicles soon rupture and leave the ulcer (canker). There
may be a few or many, pin-head or split pea in size, along the edges of
the tongue, inside the cheeks. They are very tender.

[98 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--1. Canker Sore Mouth, Raspberry Leaf for.--"Infuse a
handful of raspberry leaves in a half pint of boiling water for fifteen
minutes; when cold strain and add two ounces tinc. of myrrh, rinse the
mouth with a little of it two or three times a day, swallow a little each
time until relieved. This is also good for spongy gums, loose teeth, bad
breath and for gently correcting and cleansing the stomach."

2. Canker Sore Mouth, Oak Bark Tea for.--"Red Oak bark, a little salt and
pepper." The bark should be boiled down to make a good strong tea,
according to age of person. The salt has an astringent effect upon the
mouth and is also a good antiseptic. The pepper should not be used when
the parts are very red and inflamed. It should be used only when they are
rather sluggish.

3. Canker Sore Mouth, Boracic acid for.--"Rinse the mouth with a solution
of boracic acid and put some of the dry powder on the canker," This is a
very good remedy as the boracic acid is a good antiseptic and is
especially good for children and mild cases of canker sore mouth.

4. Canker Sore Mouth, Canker Weed Tea for.--"Apply canker weed found in
the woods. A small plant with dark green leaves spotted with white." Make
a tea of the canker weed by steeping it, then strain and apply to the
affected parts. This is a very good remedy.

5. Canker Sore Mouth, Honey and Borax for.--"Honey and borax used as a
mouth wash or swabbing is excellent." The honey is very soothing and the
borax is a good antiseptic.

6. Canker Sore Mouth, Wild Turnip for.--"Dried wild turnip grated fine and
put in mouth. I know this is excellent."

7. Canker Sore Mouth, Alum for.--"Take a piece of alum, rub on the canker
often."

8. Canker Sore Mouth, Borax Water for.--"Rinse the mouth well with a weak
solution of borax water, then put a little dry borax on the canker. They
will generally heal after one or two applications."

9. Sore Mouth, Common and Effective Remedy for.--"Make an infusion of
sumach bobs (not the poison ones, of course). Good for sore throat when
used as a gargle and a little swallowed frequently." This is a very
effective remedy and is also good for sore mouth.

10. Sore Mouth, Shoemaker Root and Borax good for.--"Take the inside bark
of shoemaker root and steep it; strain, add a little borax; have known it
to take off canker where doctors failed." If the above cannot be secured
make a tea from common strawberry leaves. You can use this for a baby by
swabbing the mouth, and I have known some mothers to throw in a small
piece of alum making it stronger for an older person.

[DIGESTIVE ORGANS 99]

1. PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Canker Sore Mouth.--If from the diseases
mentioned treat them. In the meantime to relieve the local conditions keep
the mouth clean and use as a mouth wash boric acid, one teaspoonful to a
cup of warm water.

2. Burnt alum applied directly to the part is good.

3. Nitrate of silver pencil applied directly to the canker until it turns
whitish, cures in a few applications. Use twice a day.

4. A wash of sage tea is good also, but it must be strong.

5. The juice of a ripe tomato is good applied locally. Sore mouth should
be kept absolutely clean. Thrush frequently comes from uncleanness.



GANGRENOUS STOMATITIS.--This is a rapidly spreading gangrenous affection
of the cheeks and forms a rare occurrence and ending fatally in most
cases. The trouble may extend to the jaws and lips.

Causes.--It is more common in girls and boys and usually appears between
the ages of two and five years. It is worse in the low countries like
Holland, but it is not contagious. It is more likely to attack the sickly
children suffering from the effects of overcrowding. It may follow
diseases like scarlet fever, typhoid fever, smallpox, etc.

Symptoms.--It usually affects first the mucous membrane of one cheek, near
the corner of the mouth, as a dark, ragged, sloughing ulcer and spreads
for two or three days before the substance of the cheek is infected. If
you grasp the cheek between the thumb and finger you can then feel a hard
and sensitive lump. The cheek may be eaten through by the third day,
though a week generally passes before this happens. There is a burning
watery discharge from the unhealthy wound. The breath smells terribly and
it is almost unbearable. The gangrene may spread over one half of the face
of the side affected.

TREATMENT.--The death rate is eighty to ninety per cent. This is a very
dangerous disease and a doctor must be in attendance. Cut, away all the
dead tissue by using burning caustics, such as fuming nitric acid, solid
zinc chloride, nitrate of silver, carbolic acid on the actual canker.
Sometimes mild applications like sub nitrate of bismuth, chloride of
potash or the following do well:--

    Sulphate of copper        2 drams
    Powdered cinchona       1/2 ounce
    Water enough to make      4 ounces

Mix and apply. Peroxide of hydrogen is good as a disinfectant or boric
acid solution, etc., may be used. Keep up the patient's strength.

Fortunately this disease is rare. I have never seen a case in practice.

Salivation.--Stop the mercury, keep the bowels open and use the same
antiseptic washes as directed for sore mouth.

[100 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Chlorate of Potash Solution, Soda Solutions, Boracic Acid
Solutions.--Brush the ulcers with nitrate of silver sticks. Keep the mouth
clean with hot water washes and some of the antiseptics put in the water
as boric acid, soda, glycothymotine, listerine, etc.

ACUTE DYSPEPSIA.--(Acute Indigestion, Acute Gastritis). "Gaster" is the
Greek for stomach; "itis" means inflammation,--thus acute inflammation of
the stomach. It may be acute or chronic. When acute it may be called acute
gastritis, acute gastric catarrh, acute dyspepsia or acute indigestion.
When chronic it may be called chronic gastritis, chronic catarrh of the
stomach, chronic dyspepsia or chronic indigestion.

Causes.--This is a very common complaint and is usually caused by eating
foods that are hard to digest, which either themselves irritate the
stomach, or remain undigested, decompose, and so excite an acute
dyspepsia, or indigestion, or it may be caused by eating or taking in more
than the stomach can digest. A frequent cause is eating decomposing food,
particularly in hot weather. Alcohol is another great cause.

Symptoms.--In mild cases. Distress in the stomach, headache, weary
feeling, thirst, nausea, belching of wind, sour food, and vomiting; the
tongue is heavily coated and the saliva increased. In children there are
loose bowels and colicky pains. It lasts rarely more than twenty-four
hours. Vomiting usually relieves the patient.

Severe cases.--These may set in with a chill; fever 102 or 103. The
tongue is much coated, breath foul and frequent vomiting, loss of
appetite, great thirst, tenderness in region of the stomach; repeated
vomiting of food at first, then of bile stained fluid with mucus;
constipation or diarrhea. Attacks last one to five days.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--1. Indigestion or Dyspepsia, Mustard and Molasses
for.--"Mustard is an excellent household remedy kept in every home. A
tablespoonful of white mustard mingled with two ounces of molasses and
then taken once a day will act gently on the bowels and is a beneficial
remedy in dyspepsia." By acting upon the bowels it relieves the stomach of
any food that may have caused a disturbance and relieves the dyspepsia.

2. Flatulent Dyspepsia, Wormwood tea for.--"Wormwood, one to two
teaspoonfuls, water one pint. Make a tea and take from one to four
teaspoonfuls daily." This is an old tried remedy and one that should be
given a trial if affected with dyspepsia.

3. Indigestion or Dyspepsia, Dry salt for.--"One-half teaspoon dry salt
taken before each meal. Knew a gentleman who was nearly worn out with this
trouble and entirely cured himself with this simple remedy." It is always
well to give these simple remedies a fair trial, before resorting to
strong drugs. Salt is a good stimulant.

[DIGESTIVE ORGANS  101]

4. Indigestion or Dyspepsia, Chicken Gizzard Skin for.--"Four ounces good
brandy, one-fourth pound of loaf sugar, one tablespoonful pulverized
chicken gizzard skin, one teaspoonful Turkish rhubarb dried on paper
stirring constantly; this prevents griping; the chicken gizzard skin is
the lining of the gizzard which should be thoroughly cleaned and dried
then pulverized. To prepare put brandy and sugar together (crush the
sugar), light a paper and set fire to the brandy; let burn until sugar is
dissolved, then add the gizzard skin and rhubarb, stir together and if too
thick add a little water and boil up. Dose :--Infant, one-half teaspoonful
every four hours; child, one teaspoonful every four hours; adult, one
tablespoonful every four hours. Have used this remedy for a great many
years and given it to a great many people who have worn out all other
remedies."

5. Indigestion or Dyspepsia, an Excellent Tonic for.--

    "Tincture Gentian Compound   2 ounces
    Tincture Rhubarb             2 ounces
    Tincture Ginger            1/2 ounce
    Essence Peppermint           2 ounces
    Bicarbonate Soda           1/2 ounce
    Water to make                8 ounces

    Mix.

For acute cases of indigestion where the stomach and bowels are full and
distended, or sour stomach, spitting up of food. This will often relieve
at once and with continued use relieves entirely."

6. Indigestion or Dyspepsia, Fruit Diet Cure for.--"Persons afflicted with
this disease would find great relief if they would confine themselves to a
diet of fruit only for several days." This gives the stomach an
opportunity to rest up and get back to its natural state.

7. Indigestion or Dyspepsia, Hickory Ashes for.--"Take a swallow of
hickory limb ashes and water three times a day."

8. Indigestion or Dyspepsia, Salt and water for.--"Drink sal and water
before eating breakfast."

9. Indigestion or Dyspepsia, Slippery Elm for.--"Chew slippery elm; it
aids digestion."

10. Indigestion or Dyspepsia, Cold Water for.--"A glass of cold water half
hour before eating."

11. Indigestion or Dyspepsia, Hot Water for.--"Sip a cup of boiling hot
water before eating anything."

12. Indigestion or Dyspepsia, Yolk of Egg and Salt for.--"A very simple
but good remedy is the yolk of one egg, with a small quantity of common
salt before breakfast. This treatment has been tried and known to cure in
many cases."

13. Indigestion or Dyspepsia, Lemon Remedy for.--"Drink a half glass of
water into which has been put the juice of a lemon (no sugar) morning and
evening. This is a fine remedy."

[102 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

14. Indigestion or Dyspepsia, Hops Excellent for.--"Pour one quart of
boiling water over one-half ounce of hops, cover this over and allow the
infusion to stand for fifteen minutes; the tea must then be strained off
into another jug. A small cupful may be drank in the morning, which will
create an appetite and also strengthen the digestive powers. It is an
excellent medicinal drink." Hops does its work by the soothing and
quieting action on the whole system, and should be taken regularly for
some time.

15. Indigestion or Dyspepsia, Tested Remedy for.--"A good digestive is
made as follows:

    Tincture of Leptandrin    1 ounce
    Tincture of Hydrastis     1 ounce
    Tincture of Colombo       1 ounce
    Wine of Pepsin            1 ounce

Mix. Dose, two teaspoonfuls after each meal."

The leptandrin acts on the liver, the colombo is a bitter tonic and
hydrastis is a good tonic for the stomach.

16. Indigestion or Dyspepsia, Chamomile Tonic for Aged Persons also for
Children.--"Put about one-half ounce chamomile flowers into a jug, pour a
pint of boiling water upon them, cover up the tea, and when it has stood
about ten minutes pour it off from the flowers into another jug; sweeten
with sugar or honey. A cupful in the morning will strengthen the digestive
organs, a teacupful in which is stirred a large dessert spoonful of moist
sugar and a little grated ginger is an excellent thing to give to aged
persons a couple of hours before dinner," It is remarkable to see how this
treatment aids the digestion, especially in chronic cases. It may also be
given to fretful children in small doses.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT in mild cases of acute Dyspepsia.--These recover by
themselves by giving the stomach rest, and taking a dose of castor oil.
Hot water is good to help to clean out the stomach.

Treatment in severe forms.--Promote vomiting by drinking large amount of
warm water. This cleans the stomach of the sour, foul, decomposing food.
If warm water does not cause vomiting, give any simple emetic you may have
at your hand, such as mustard, etc., one teaspoonful. If the stomach
tastes very sour, take some baking soda; subnitrate of bismuth (ten
grains) is good, if you have it. If the bowels are constipated you should
take an enema (injection) or salts. Soda water can be drank freely. Rest
the stomach for a day from food. For the thirst cracked ice is relished.
As the patient is usually very thirsty the mouth should be rinsed
frequently with cool water and some can be swallowed. As stated before for
nausea and sour belching, baking soda or bismuth subnitrate can be used
when there is much gas, sour belchings; crust coffee is very good. Burn
the toast and make a hot coffee of it.

[DIGESTIVE ORGANS 103]

DIET.--Given us by the Lady Superior of one of the largest Catholic
Hospitals in Ohio.

May take--

Soups--Clear thin soups of beef, mutton or oysters.

Fish--Oysters raw, shad, cod, perch, bass, fresh mackerel.

Meats--Beef, mutton, chicken, lamb, tripe, tongue, calf's head, broiled
chopped meat, sweetbread, game, tender steak.

Eggs--Boiled, poached, raw.

Farinaceous--Cracked wheat, hominy, rolled oats, rice, sago, tapioca,
crackers, dry toast, stale bread, corn bread, whole wheat bread, graham
bread, rice cakes.

Vegetables--Spinach, string beans, green peas, lettuce, cresses, celery,
chicory, asparagus.

Desserts--Rice, tapioca or farina pudding, junket, custards, baked apples,
apple snow, apple tapioca, ripe fruits--raw or stewed.

Drinks--One cup of milk and hot water equal parts, or one glass of pure
cool water, sipped after eating, Panopepton or cracked ice.

Must Not Take--Rich soups or chowders, veal, pork, hashes, stews, turkey,
potatoes, gravies, fried foods, liver, kidney; pickled, potted, corned or
cured meats; salted, smoked or preserved fish; goose, duck, sausage,
crabs, lobster, salmon, pies, pastry, candies, ice cream, cheese, nuts,
ice water, malt or spirituous liquors.



CHRONIC DYSPEPSIA (Chronic Indigestion--Chronic Gastritis--Stomach
Trouble).--A chronic digestive disorder characterized by increased
secretion of mucus, changes in the gastric juice, weakening of the stomach
muscles and diseased changes in the mucous membrane.

Causes.--The use of unsuitable and improperly prepared food, too much fat,
starchy foods, New England pie, and hot meals, biscuits, cakes, etc.,
greasy gravies, too strong tea or coffee, and too much alcohol. Eating too
much food, eating too fast, and eating between meals. Drinking of ice and
cold water during or after meals. Chewing, especially, and smoking
tobacco.

[104 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Symptoms.--Almost every bad feeling can be put under this head, both
physical and mental. It has been coming on gradually for some time and the
warnings have not been heeded; The appetite is variable, sometimes good
and often poor. Among the early symptoms are feelings of distress or
oppression after eating, and they may amount to actual pain; great or
small. Sometimes feels sick at the stomach, belching of gas and bitter
liquids and vomiting of food immediately after eating or some hours later.
Stomach tender and painful to the touch. Stomach and abdomen are
distended, especially after meals, with costive bowels or diarrhea. Feels
weary, blue, tired, discouraged, poor sleep, bad dreams, bitter taste in
the mouth, tongue coated especially on the back part, craves different
things, much wind on the stomach, acid stomach, heavy feeling in the
stomach, sometimes as if a stone lay there. Stomach feels weak, it is
hard to sit up. Frequently must lie down after meals. Urine may have sand
in it, Stomach feels full after eating only a little, must open up the
clothes across the stomach. Persons are cross, irritable, discouraged,
gloomy, nervous, generally look thin, haggard and sallow. The dreams are
of horrid things, nightmare.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES, Stomach Trouble, Spice Poultice for,--1. "Take all
kinds of ground spices and make a poultice. Heat whisky and wet the
poultice with it, then apply to the stomach and bowels." This will always
give relief. Wetting the poultice with whisky will be found very
beneficial as it will retain the heat longer.

2. Stomach Trouble, Oil of Hemlock for,--"The Oil of Hemlock is a superior
remedy in gastric irritation of the stomach. Dose:--One to two drops in
sweetened water every ten or twenty minutes until relief is afforded, for
an adult."

3. Cramps in Stomach, Ginger and Soda for.--"One teaspoonful of ginger
stirred in half glass of hot water in which a half teaspoonful of baking
soda has been dissolved." The ginger is very beneficial, as it warms up
the stomach and thereby relieves the cramps, and the baking soda relieves
any gas in the stomach that may be causing the trouble.

4. Cramps in Stomach, Oil of Peppermint for.--"Put a few drops of
peppermint in a glass of warm water. Take a teaspoonful every few minutes
until relieved." This is an old time-tried remedy our grandmothers used to
use and can be relied upon.

5. Cramps in Stomach, Mustard Poultice and Eggs for.--"Make a mustard
poultice with whites of eggs instead of water, and apply same to bowels.
Give a teaspoonful of blackberry tea every fifteen or twenty minutes until
relieved." The poultice acts as a counter irritant and will almost always
relieve the cramps without further medicines.

6. Pains in Stomach, Hot Plate for.--"Hot plate laid on stomach. Use the
heavy English made plates, common to us in Canada, as they will hold heat
longer."

[DIGESTIVE ORGANS 105]

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Chronic Gastritis.--Most cases can be cured if
the patient is willing to do the proper thing in eating and drinking and
regulating the habits. It takes time to cure such cases, and plenty of
grit and courage and "stick" on the patient's part. Remember it has been a
long time coming, longer than it will be going if the patient does right.
Diet and habits must be corrected. You cannot help the trouble if you put
into the stomach what has caused it. We eat too much fat and too much
improper and improperly cooked foods, our bread, etc., is half baked.
Gravies are rich and greasy, everything is highly seasoned, very much like
the life we lead.

Diet.--A regular time for eating and no eating between meals. Do not eat
too much or too fast, or anything that you know disagrees with you. Fried
foods are generally harmful, pies, cakes, hot breads, strong tea and
coffee and alcohol, gravy and highly spiced foods; vinegar pickles,
preserves, etc., are generally bad. If there is acid belching gas on
stomach, the starch foods should be restricted, particularly potatoes and
the coarser vegetables. Potatoes fried in lard or butter are always bad
unless you are a hard physical worker. Dr. Osler, England, says breads,
pancakes, pies, and tarts, with heavy pastry and fried articles of all
sorts, should be strictly prohibited. As a rule, white bread toasted is
more readily digested than bread made from the whole meal. Sometimes
graham bread is better. Sugar and very sweet articles of food should be
used in great moderation or avoided altogether. Ice cream frequently
aggravates it. Soda water is a great dyspepsia producer. Fats, except a
little good butter, very fat meats, and thick greasy soups and gravies
should be avoided.

Ripe fruits are good in some cases. Bananas generally are not digested.
Berries are frequently harmful. Milk is splendid diet for some people.

Cautions.--The bowels must be kept "moving" every day, try to do it by
dieting, rubbing the abdomen and exercise. Bathing the abdomen in cool
water is good. Go to the closet at a regular time every day and try to
have a passage, as this helps. Never put off going to stool when nature
calls. Dyspepsia is frequently made worse by constipation. Seek good
cheerful company. Do not worry over your condition. By care and diet you
will soon be all right.

Home Treatment.--1. Drink a glass of cold water an hour before breakfast,
or hot water if it agrees better with you.

2. Do not eat much meat.

3. If the stomach wants tone, bitter tonics, like quassia, gentian,
cardanum are good, even if drank as teas. When the tongue is coated with a
white thick fur, golden seal is good. Medicines are not as essential as
care and diet.

4. Charcoal in small doses is good for' a "gassy" stomach.

5. If a bitter tonic is needed the following is good:

    Bicarbonate of Soda                            1 dram
    Tincture of Nux Vomica                    l to 2 drams
    Compound tincture of Gentian, enough for       3 ounces

Mix and take one teaspoonful to a dessert spoonful before meals.


[106 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]


NERVOUS DYSPEPSIA.--This is acquired from over work, worry, excitement,
hurried or irregular meals, or inherited. It shows itself in all sorts of
symptoms and they must be met as they come. Diet the same as for general
dyspepsia, never eat when you are tired, rest after eating.

ULCER OF THE STOMACH AND DUODENUM (Upper part of bowel).--Round or
perforating ulcer. The stomach ulcer is most common in women of twenty or
thirty; servant girls, shoemakers, and tailors are frequently attacked.
Ulcer of the duodenum is usually in males and may follow large superficial
burns. The ulcer in the stomach is usually situated near the pylorus (small
end) and in the first portion of the duodenum.

Symptoms.--Pain, local tenderness, vomiting and bleeding. These may not
show until perforation or bleeding occurs. Distress after eating, often
nausea and vomiting of very acid fluid, loss of weight and lack of blood.

Pain in the region of the stomach and the back is the most constant
symptom. It is usually sharp, increased at once by food, relieved by
vomiting. The tender spot can be located. Bleeding occurs in about
one-half the cases and is usually profuse, bright red and fluid; if
retained in the stomach the blood becomes clotted and brown. Tar-like
stools when there is blood in the bowels. They usually recover under
treatment, but may recur.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT FOR ULCER OF THE STOMACH.--1. Rest in bed most of
the time for several months.

2. Feed by the rectum at first in severe cases, then peptonized or plain
milk or buttermilk (three to four ounces) every two hours, some adding
eggs, chicken, scraped beef and farinaceous food, made of: rice, flour,
corn, potatoes, etc.



CANCER OF THE STOMACH.--Usually occurs after the age of forty.

Symptoms.--Indigestion for a few months; lack of blood and loss of weight.
Well marked case shows the following symptoms:--Distaste for food, nausea,
irregular vomiting, especially in cases where it is located near the
pylorus--the opening between the stomach and the small intestine--usually
one hour or more after eating; bleeding rarely profuse, usually of
"coffee-ground type," dragging, gnawing or burning pain in the region of
the stomach, back, loins or shoulders, usually increased by food;
progressive loss of weight and strength; peculiar sallow look, skin pale
or yellowish.

Course.--The person usually dies in twelve to eighteen months, sometimes
in three to four months.

[DIGESTIVE ORGANS 107]

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT of Cancer of the Stomach and Bowels.--There is no
cure for this trouble except by an operation. This must be done early;
even this may not cure but it, at least, prolongs life and makes the
patient more comfortable while life does last. In the line of medicine the
only thing to do is to give only such remedies as will ease the symptoms.

Diet.--Attend to this also and you will save pain and distress. Every case
should be treated as it needs and no special directions can be given here.



BLEEDING FROM THE STOMACH.--(Haematemesis).

Causes.--Cancer and ulcer of the stomach are main causes of excessive
bleeding; poisons also cause it; injuries also.

Symptoms.--The vomited blood may be fluid or clotted; it is usually of
dark color. The longer it remains in the stomach the darker it becomes.
There may be great weakness and faint feeling on attempting to rise before
a vomiting of blood. The contents of the bowels when passed look "tarry."

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Bleeding of the Stomach.--Absolute rest in bed
is necessary. The bowels should be moved by an enema and it can be
repeated carefully as often as necessary. Cracked ice in bag over the
stomach. If the patient vomits much medicine is useless. They generally
recover with rest. The extremities can be bandaged if there is great
weakness and also external heat can be applied if there is a tendency to
faintness.

Caution.--A person so afflicted, if he has ulcer, must be careful of his
diet for months after an attack. He should be careful not to lift, over
work, over eat or worry.



NEURALGIA OF THE STOMACH (Cardialgia, Gastralgia, Gastrodynia).--
This is a severe pain in paroxysms in the region of the stomach.

Causes.--The patients are of a nervous type. They may have anemia,
exhaustion from sickness and bleedings, the menstruation be at fault.
Grief, worry and anxiety.

Symptoms.--The attack comes suddenly as a rule. The pains are agonizing in
the stomach region, they may dart to the back or pass around the lower
ribs. The attack lasts from a few minutes to an hour or two. It does not
depend upon the food taken.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Neuralgia of the Stomach.--The causes should be
understood and especial treatment given for them. The patients are usually
run down and a tonic treatment is needed. Constipation and menstrual
troubles should be cured, worry, trouble and anxiety, if possible, be
removed. The following is good for nervous patients:--

    Valerianate of zinc       18 grains
    Valerianate of quinine    18 grains
    Iron Arsenate              2 grains

    Mix and make into eighteen pills and take one after meals.

[108 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Bitter tonics can be taken such as gentian, columbo, quassia. Change of
air and scene may be needed. Sometimes morphine must be given for the
attack. A physician should do this. If there is much gas, soda and
peppermint are good.



DIARRHEA:--Causes.

(a) Improper or excessive food, including green or over-ripe fruit.

(b) Poison substances; such as decomposed milk or meat either fresh or
canned: or caused by arsenic, mercury or colchicum.

(d) Exposure to cold, wet or draughts.

(c) Stomach disorder, preventing thorough digestion.

(e) Extension of inflammation from other organs.

Symptoms.--Sudden colicky pain in the bowels, moving about with rumbling
noises. The pain is not constant and is followed at intervals with a
sudden extreme desire to empty the bowels. The stools may be four to
twenty a day, watery or gruel-like in appearance and they sometimes
contain mucus or undigested food. The stools usually relieve the pain for
the time. It usually lasts two or three days or longer.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--Diarrhea.--1. "Wild Sage Tea." Wild sage tea is a
very good remedy for bowel trouble because of its astringent virtues.
Before the sage is used, however, the bowels should be thoroughly cleansed
with castor oil or salts.

2. Diarrhea, Egg and Nutmeg for.--"Beat up an egg, grate in half a nutmeg
and sweeten to taste. Repeat two or three times during the day. Remarks:
Has been known to help in chronic cases when doctors' medicine failed."

3. Diarrhea, Scorched Flour and Sugar for.--"Scorched flour in boiled milk
or scorched flour and sugar eaten dry is very good. This is a simple but a
never failing remedy if taken right at the beginning of the trouble."

4. Diarrhea, Excellent Compound for.--

    "Paregoric                 1 ounce
    Tincture of Camphor      1/2 ounce
    Tincture of Ginger       1/2 ounce
    Tincture of Red Pepper   1/2 ounce
    Essence of Peppermint    1/2 ounce
    Ether                    1/2 ounce

    Mix.--Dose for adult, one teaspoonful to four of water every two hours
    if necessary. This is an excellent remedy."

5. Diarrhea, Spice Poultice for.--"Make a poultice of all kinds of ground
spices, heat whisky and wet the poultice, apply to the stomach and
bowels."

6. Diarrhea, Blackberry Root Tea for.--"One-half ounce blackberry root
boiled in one pint water fifteen minutes, strain. Dose.--One teaspoonful
every hour or two until relieved."

[DIGESTIVE ORGANS 109]

7. Diarrhea, Hot Milk, for.--"A glass of sweet milk that has been boiled
well. Drink hot; use several times daily until checked."

8. Diarrhea, Castor Oil for.--"Castor oil. Dose.--One to four teaspoonfuls
according to age. Wrap warm flannel around abdomen."

9. Summer Complaint, Former Canadian's Remedy for.--"Eat one blossom of
the May weed every hour or two until relieved. This remedy came from Port
Huron and has been used by my father with success."

10. Summer Complaint, a Goderich Lady Found this Good for.--"Powdered
rhubarb, cinnamon, baking soda (one tablespoonful of each), dissolve in
one pint of boiling water, add one tablespoonful of peppermint; take every
hour one teaspoonful in water."

11. Summer Complaint, Inexpensive Remedy for.--

     "Paregoric       2 ounces
     Brandy           1 ounce
     Jamaica Ginger   1 ounce

Have used this and found it excellent." Dose: 1/2 dram every 3 hours.

12. Summer Complaint, Fern Root Good to Relieve.--"A decoction is made
with two ounces of the sweet fern root boiled in one and one-half pints
water to one pint. Dose.--A tablespoonful several times a day as the case
requires. Most useful in diarrhea," This may be purchased at any drug
store and will be found a very good treatment for diarrhea.

13. Summer Complaint, Milk and Pepper a Common Remedy for.--"Sweet milk
and black pepper once or twice a day. Dose.--Three or four swallows.
Mother used to use this for us children." The milk should be warmed, for
in this way it relieves the diarrhea while the pepper is stimulating.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Diarrhea.--1. Rest in bed is the best. Abstain
from food, especially at first, and then only give a little milk and
boiled water or milk and lime water every two hours for two days. Cracked
ice is good for the thirst.

2. A dose of one-half to an ounce of castor oil to an adult is of great
benefit, as it removes all the irritating matter from the bowels. This
often cures a light diarrhea. Follow by a blackberry wine or blackberry
cordial if it is more severe.

3. For children.--An infusion of path weed is an excellent remedy for this
trouble in children; after castor oil in one to two teaspoonful doses has
been given. If castor oil is too bad to take, you can use what is called
"spiced syrup of rhubarb," one to two teaspoonfuls to a child one to two
years old, and then follow with blackberry wine.

4. For infants.--An infusion of chamomile is good for the green diarrhea
of teething babies.

[110 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

5. Another for infants.--For infantile diarrhea the root of geranium
maculation or cranesbill, boiled in milk in the proportion of one or two
roots to the pint, will be found of great service and is tasteless.

6. Ginger tea is frequently of good service, especially when the stomach
needs "toning."

7. Infants of six months.--Chalk and bismuth mixture by Dr. Douglass, of
Detroit.

    "Subnitrate of Bismuth    2 drams
    Paregoric                 2 fluid drams
    Chalk mixture             2 fluid drams

Mix and shake bottle. Give one-half to one teaspoonful for loose
bowels in a child six months old, every two to four hours as needed."



DIET IN DIARRHEA.--From the Head Nurse of a Large Hospital.

May Take--

Soups.--Milk soup well boiled, clam juice, beef tea.

Meats.--Scraped fresh beef or mutton well broiled, sweetbread, beef juice
from freshly broiled steak (all sparingly).

Eggs.--Lightly boiled or poached on dry toast.

Farinaceous.--Rice, sago, macaroni, tapioca, arrowroot, dry toast, milk
toast, toasted crackers.

Desserts.--Milk puddings, plain, with sago, rice, tapioca or arrowroot (no
sugar).

Drinks.--Tea, toast water, boiled peptonized milk, Panopepton.

Must Not Take--

Oatmeal, wheaten grits, fresh breads, rich soups, vegetables, fried foods,
fish, salt meats, lamb, veal, pork, brown or graham bread, fruits, nuts,
pies, pastry, ice cream, ice water, sugars, sweets, custards, malt
liquors, sweet wines.

Infants.--Bottle-fed infants should stop milk and use egg albumen, etc.
This is prepared by gently stirring (not to a froth) the white of one egg
in a cup of cold water and one-fourth teaspoonful of brandy and a little
salt mixed with it. Feed this cold.

[DIGESTIVE ORGANS 111]

If it causes foul or green stools it must be stopped. Dr. Koplik, of New
York, recommends stopping the feeding of breast and bottle-fed infants in
severe diarrhea or cholera infantum and to use the following:--Albumin
water, acorn cocoa, or beef juice expressed and diluted with barley water.
The white of one egg is equal in nourishing value to three ounces of milk
and is well borne by infants. The albumin water can be used alternately
with the solution of acorn cocoa or beef juice or barley water. Liebig's
soup mixture is better liked by older children. Meat juice is made from
lean beef, slightly broiled, then cutting it in squares and squeezing
these in a lemon press. Rice or barley water can be added to this if the
meat juice causes vomiting. Add only one or two teaspoonfuls of barley or
rice water and increase, if it agrees well, in a day or two.

CHOLERA MORBUS (Acute Inflammation of Stomach and Upper Bowel).--This is
most common in young people in late summer, after indiscretion in eating.

Symptoms.--Sometimes the patient feels tired, then nausea, etc. The attack
though is usually sudden, with nausea, vomiting, and cramp-like pains in
the abdomen. The contents of the stomach are vomited. The bowel discharge
at first is diarrhea and later like rice water. Repeated vomiting and
purging, with severe cramps. It looks like true cholera.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES, Cholera Morbus.--Castor Oil for.--"Castor oil one
tablespoonful for an adult, one-half tablespoonful for children." This is
an old, tried remedy and very good.

2. Cholera Morbus, Blackberry Root and Boiled Milk for.--"Steep the root
of the long blackberry, give in one-half teaspoonful doses; alternate with
teaspoonfuls of well boiled sweet milk, one-half hour apart."

3. Cholera Morbus, Blackberry Cordial for.--"Take a quantity of
blackberries, strain out all of the juice. To each pint of juice add a
pint of sugar. Then put in a little bag or cloth one-half ounce of
cinnamon, one-fourth ounce of mace, two teaspoonfuls of cloves. Place this
little bag with spices in the berry juice and boil for about two minutes,
after which remove bag of spices and add one large cup of brandy or whisky
to each pint of juice."

4. Cholera Morbus, Tincture Cayenne Pepper for.--"Tincture cayenne pepper,
five to ten drop doses in a little hot water. Before giving this medicine
it is well to drink a quantity of tepid water and produce vomiting. This
can be made more effective by adding five or ten drops of camphor."

5. Cholera Morbus, Nutmeg and Jamaica Ginger for.--"Grate one teaspoonful
nutmeg, put few drops Jamaica ginger in three or four tablespoonfuls of
brandy, add little water." The writer says this is one of the finest
remedies she has ever known for summer complaint.

6. Cholera Morbus, Home Remedy for.--"To a pint of water, sweetened with
sugar, add chalk one-half dram, anise, two drams, cayenne pepper, ten
grains; boil this down to one-half pint. Give a teaspoonful every hour or
two until relieved. Kerosene may be applied to the abdomen with cloths.
This is a very good remedy and easily prepared."

[112 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

7. Cholera Morbus, Old Reliable Remedy for.--

    Tincture Rhubarh                  4 ounces
    Spirits Camphor                   2 ounces
    Paregoric (Tinct. opii camph.)    3 ounces
    Spirits Ammonia                   4 ounce
    Essence Peppermint                1 dram

Take a half teaspoonful every two hours. This is a tested recipe; have
known of its being used the last fifty years."

The camphor and paregoric will relieve the pain, while the rhubarb and
pepper are stimulating and laxative.

8. Cholera Morbus, Common Remedy for.--"To check vomiting and purging, the
following mixture is excellent:

    Essence of Peppermint      1 ounce
    Water                      1 ounce
    Carbonate of Potash       20 grains
    Paregoric                  1 teaspoonful
    White Sugar or Honey       2 teaspoonfuls

Mix and shake well. Dose.--One teaspoonful every ten or twenty minutes
until the patient becomes quiet. If necessary keep up bodily heat by means
of hot flannels or bricks to extremities. Keep the patient quiet."

This is an excellent remedy for this trouble and may be used by anyone.
The above mixture is for an adult.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Cholera Morbus.--l. Heat to the bowels and to
the extremities. Give plenty of hot water to aid vomiting and to wash the
stomach. It is always well to keep on drinking hot water and frequently
the vomiting stops. If not, the camphor, laudanum and water can be given.

2. Morphine by hypodermic method. A doctor must give this.

3.   Tincture of Camphor   15 drops
     Laudanum              15 drops

Mix in one-third of a cup of hot water. This is a good remedy. Mustard
poultice to the stomach and bowels benefits.

[DIGESTIVE ORGANS 113]

CHOLERA INFANTUM, Symptoms.--Usually begins with a diarrhea, which is
often so mild as to attract but little attention, but should be a warning.
If a weakly baby has a diarrhea which persists, or is foul smelling and
especially if there is a marked loss of flesh and dullness of mind, there
is ground for worry. If a bright child loses interest in things and has
diarrhea something is wrong. The two essential features are vomiting and
diarrhea, and the vomiting is persistent. First it vomits food, then the
mucus and bile. The thirst is great, but anything taken to relieve it is
instantly thrown up. The stools are frequent, large and watery. They may
be painless and involuntary. They may look like dirty water, but later
they loose all color. They are sometimes so thin and copious as to soak
through the napkin and saturate the bed. They may be without odor, and
again the odor is almost over-powering. The prostration is great and
rapid. The fontannelles, openings in the head, are depressed, the face
becomes pale and pinched, and the eyes are sunken. It occurs usually
during the summer months, oftener in babies under eighteen months and
still more under a year old.

Cautions.--This book will probably find its way into homes many miles from
a drug store and possibly a long distance from a physician. Should a child
in that home show symptoms of cholera infantum it would be imperative for
that mother to begin at once home treatments. We, therefore, give below a
number of remedies which a mother can either prepare in her home or can
take the precaution to have filled at some convenient time and keep
constantly at hand, properly labeled so she can turn to them at any
moment. On the other hand, should you have to wait even three or four
hours for a physician begin one of the treatments below until he comes;
you may save the child's life by doing so. Cholera infantum and pneumonia
claim so many of our little ones each year, and in many cases snatch them
away within a few hours of the first noticeable symptoms that we must
advise you to call a physician as soon as you suspect it is serious. Cases
vary and only a trained eye can detect the little symptoms and changes
that may weigh in the balance the life of baby.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES for Cholera Infantum.--l. Castor oil and warm
applications for.--"Give the child one teaspoonful of castor oil, then
wring woolen cloths out of warm whisky and apply to the abdomen. This will
most always give relief, especially after the castor oil has acted upon
the bowels."

2. Cholera Infantum, First Thing to Do.--"The first thing to do is to give
a teaspoonful of castor oil, so as to thoroughly clean out the bowels.
Then add one tablespoonful of turpentine to one quart of hot water and
wring cloths out of this and apply to the bowels to relieve the pain that
is always present in this disease. The turpentine is especially good for
the bowels when they are bloated and have much gas in them."

3. Cholera Infantum, White of Egg and Cathartic for.--"One teaspoonful
castor oil every two hours, until the movements are natural. Give no food
except albumen water, which is composed of the white of one egg (slightly
beaten) and a small pinch of salt in a glass of cold water which has been
previously boiled. Feed this by spoonfuls."

4. Cholera Infantum, Olive or Sweet Oil for.--"One teaspoonful sweet or
olive oil three times a day and an injection of one tablespoonful of the
oil at night, to be retained in the bowels. If continued this will
completely cure."

5. Cholera Infantum, Spice and Whisky Poultice for.--"Take all kinds of
ground spices, make a poultice. Heat whisky and wet the poultice. Apply to
the stomach and bowels."

[114 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

6. Cholera Infantum, Cabbage Leaf Poultice for.--"Take a cabbage leaf,
hold it over the stove until warm as can be stood on back of hand; lay it
across the child's abdomen. Repeat if necessary."

7. Cholera Infantum, Herb Remedy for.--"Strawberry root, blackberry root
and raspberry root, equal parts, steeped together. I have used this remedy
and found it good, but it should be used in time." Make a tea of these
roots and take one teaspoonful every hour until relieved. This is a mild
astringent.

8. Cholera Infantum, Tomatoes Will Relieve.--"Make a syrup of peeled
tomatoes well sweetened with white sugar. Give one teaspoonful every half
hour." This syrup is very soothing and the tomatoes are especially good if
there is some ulcerated condition of the bowels. This preparation should
always be strained before using.

9. Cholera Infantum, Injection for.--"For infant one year old inject into
the bowels one pint of thin starch, in which is mixed from three to five
drops of laudanum; cool, repeat night and morning. Plenty of water or cold
barley water may be given and the food for a time may consist of egg
albumen with a few drops of brandy. When the symptoms first appear apply a
spice plaster or hot application over the abdomen; and keep child as quiet
as possible." This is a remedy recommended and used by a number of
physicians and has cured many severe cases.

Diets and Drinks.--Stop ordinary feeding at once. A little cream and
water, or barley water and cream may do. If the breast milk excites the
stomach and the bowels, stop it for a few hours. You can give a few drops
of raw beef juice or a little brandy and water. To satisfy the thirst,
wrap up a small bit of ice in a linen cloth and let the baby mouth it.
Dilute the milk or stop entirely and give only water, or lime water and
milk, barley water. Give all the water the child can drink boiled and
cooled.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Cholera Infantum.--1. Washing out of the bowel
frequently by injection controls the diarrhea. Use water of a temperature
of 107. Elevate the tube about two feet above the bed, use one-half pint
at one time. As the half pint flows in disconnect the funnel attached to
the tube and the contents of the bowel are allowed to escape. Then allow
another one-half pint to flow in. Some may escape and this is not an
unfavorable sign. Keep on until a quart is given. This treatment is to
wash and clean out the gut and stimulate the heart. The salt solution
should be used, if necessary. Give only two daily.

2. For Vomiting.--Wash out the stomach through a tube or by giving a great
deal of water.

3. Subcarbonate of bismuth for the vomiting and straining; two or three
grains in powder every two or three hours. If there is much colicky pain,
add one-half grain of salol to the bismuth powder.

[DIGESTIVE ORGANS 115]

4. Castor oil; one teaspoonful may be needed if the bowels have any fecal
matter in them.

5. Mustard poultice or spice poultice on the belly is useful.

Vomiting.--This is simply a symptom; many diseases cause it, as scarlet
fever, tuberculosis, meningitis, acute dyspepsia, biliousness, chronic
dyspepsia, indigestion, neuralgia of the bowels, appendicitis, ulcer and
cancer of the stomach, pregnancy, etc. Many persons with dyspepsia vomit
their food.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES for Vomiting.--1. Spice Poultice to Stop.--"Make a
poultice of one-half cup of flour and one teaspoonful of each kind of
ground spice, wet with alcohol or whisky. Apply over the stomach." This
acts as a counter irritant and has the same action on the system as a
mustard plaster, only not so severe and can be left on for hours, as there
need be no fear of blistering. This kind of a poultice should always be
used when it is necessary to leave one on any length of time.

2. Vomiting, Mustard Plaster to Stop.--"Plaster of mustard on pit of
stomach." Be very careful not to allow the plaster to remain on too long,
as it will blister, and this would be worse to contend with than the
vomiting.

3. Vomiting, Parched Corn Drink to Stop.--"Take field corn and parch it as
brown as you can get it without burning. When parched throw in boiling
water and drink the water as often as necessary until vomiting is
stopped."

4. Vomiting, Peppermint Leaves Application for.--"Bruise peppermint leaves
and apply to the stomach." This can be found in any drug store in a powder
form, and is easily prepared by crushing the leaves and applying to the
stomach. If you have the essence of peppermint in the house, that will
answer about the same purpose taken internally and rubbed over abdomen.

5. Vomiting, to Produce, Mustard and Water for.--"To produce vomiting take
two tablespoonfuls dry mustard, throw luke warm water over it and let
stand a minute, then drink." This is an old, tried remedy that we all know
about.

6. Vomiting, to Produce, Warm Water for.--"Drink a quart of warm water and
you will easily find relief at once." The warm water remedy is very good
as the water helps the patient by removing all decomposed food.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Vomiting.--The only way to treat it is to treat
the disease that causes it. Here I may mention a very simple remedy; a tea
made from wood soot is frequently helpful. It is the creosote in the wood
soot that gives it its medical virtue.

2. For nervous vomiting; two to five drops of garlic juice is good. Dose
of syrup for a child [is] one teaspoonful. Dose of syrup for an adult is
four teaspoonfuls.

[116  MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

3. A little brandy on cracked ice is often good.

4. Oil of cloves, one-half to one drop, helps in some cases.

5. Lime water added to milk is good in babies.

6. Vinegar fumes, saturate a cloth and inhale the fumes.

7. Seidlitz powder often settles the stomach, soda also.

8. Mustard plaster over the stomach is good in all cases.

9. One-tenth of a drop of ipecac is good for nausea and vomiting.

10. One-half of a drop of Fowler's solution every two hours is useful in
nausea following a spree. So also one drop dose of nux vomica every half
hour.



APPENDICITIS.--Inflammation of the vermiform appendix is the most
important of acute bowel troubles. Sometimes the appendix may contain a
mould of feces, which can be squeezed out readily. Sometimes foreign
bodies like pins are found there; in about seven per cent of cases foreign
bodies are found.

It is a disease of young persons. Fifty per cent occur before the
twentieth year. It is most common in males. Persons who do heavy lifting
are quite subject to the disease. Some cases follow falls or blows.
Indiscretions of diet are very apt to bring on an attack, particularly in
those who have had it before. Pain in the appendix in such persons,
frequently follows the eating of food hard to digest. Gorging with peanuts
is also a cause.

Symptoms.--In a large proportion of cases the following symptoms are
present:--Sudden pain in the abdomen, usually referred to the right groin
region. Fever often of moderate form or grade. Disturbances of the stomach
and bowels, such as nausea, vomiting and frequently constipation.
Tenderness or pain in the appendix region. The pain in fully one-half of
the cases is localized in right lower part of the abdomen, but it may be
in the central portion, scattered, or in any part of the abdomen. Even
when the pain is not in the region of the appendix at first, it is usually
felt there within thirty-six or forty-eight hours. It is sometimes very
sharp and colic-like; sometimes it is dull. The fever follows rapidly upon
the pain. It may range from 100 to 102 and higher. The tongue is coated
and moist usually,--seldom dry. Nausea and vomiting are commonly present.
It rarely persists longer than the second day in favorable cases.
Constipation is the rule, but the attack may start with diarrhea.

Local Signs.--Tenderness of the rectus muscle (to the right of the centre
of the abdomen) and tenderness or pain on deep pressure. The muscle may be
so rigid that a satisfactory examination cannot be made. Sometimes there
is a hardness or swelling in the appendix region. Tenderness, rigidity and
actual pain on deep pressure; with the majority of cases, a lump or
swelling in the region of the appendix.

[Illustration: Vermiform Appendix.
When Affected by Inflamation and Gangrene
Necessitating an Operation.]

[Illustration: Vermiform Appendix.
Showing Different Types.]

[DIGESTIVE ORGANS 117]

Recovery.--Recovery is the rule. It frequently returns. General
peritonitis may be caused by direct perforation of the appendix and death
in appendicitis is usually due to peritonitis.

Surgeons have declared that sudden pain in the region of the appendix,
with fever and localized tenderness, with or without a lump almost without
exception means appendix disease. Rest in bed, take measures to allay the
pain; ice bag applied to the part is very effective.

Operation.--Dr. Osler, of Oxford, England, says.--"Operation is indicated
in all cases of acute inflammatory trouble in this region, whether the
lump is present or not, when the general symptoms are severe, and when by
the third day the features of the case points to a progressive (condition)
lesion. An operation after an acute attack has disappeared is not fraught
with much danger."

Diet.--All food should be withheld for a few days if possible. Liquids,
such as egg albumen, weak tea, thin broth, barley or rice water, or milk
diluted with lime water may be given in small quantities if necessary.
When the acute symptoms have subsided, milk may be taken undiluted, and
eggs may be added to the broth. When the pain and fever have disappeared
entirely, gruels made of rice or barley, soft-boiled egg, scraped beef,
stewed chicken, toast, and crackers may be added to the list; still later,
mashed potatoes and vegetables, finely divided and strained, may be
allowed and, finally, when well, usual diet resumed.

APPENDICITIS, Mothers' Remedies.--Home Treatment Found Good for.--"To
allay the pain and stop the formation of pus in appendicitis it is
recommended that a flannel cloth be saturated with hot water, wrung out,
drop ten to fifteen drops of turpentine on it and apply to the affected
parts as hot as the patient can bear. Repeat until relief is obtained.
Then cover the bowels with a thin cotton cloth, upon which place another
cloth wrung out of kerosene oil. This sustains the relief and conduces to
rest and eventual cure. It is an essential part of the absorbent cure for
appendicitis, and since its adoption doctors do not resort to a surgical
operation half so often." The above is a standard remedy and will most
always give relief.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Appendicitis.--The bowels should at first be
moved by an enema, The patient should be perfectly quiet in bed. The
ice-bag should be applied to the part, but wrapped in flannel and flannel
also on the skin, It must not be allowed to make the flesh too cool. This
coolness relieves the inflammation of the part. Small doses, from
one-tenth to one drop, of aconite can be given for the fever and
inflammation the first twenty-four hours. Dose every one to three hours.
But little medicine is now given in appendicitis.

[118 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Caution.--Keep the bowels regular, especially if you have ever had
appendicitis before, also be careful of your eating. This disease will
attack high livers, hearty eaters and those with constipated bowels more
quickly than others.



INFLAMMATION OF THE BOWELS. Mothers' Remedies.--1.--Inflammation of the
Bowels, Excellent Remedy for.--"First bathe the abdomen with warm salt
water, then lay over the navel a piece of lard the size of black walnut.
Hold the hand over this until it softens; then rub well into the bowels.
This often relieves when pills and powders fail." The massaging brings
about action of the bowels without a cathartic usually. Sweet oil or olive
oil instead of lard, will do as well.

2. Inflammation of the Bowels, Red Beet Poultice for.--"Take red beets;
chop up, put in bag, warm a little and put across the stomach. This will
draw out the inflammation quickly and makes a very good poultice."

3. Inflammation of the Bowels, Hop Poultice for.--"Take hops, strain them
and put in a sack. Lay across the stomach and bowels."

4. Inflammation of the Bowels, Griddle Cake Poultice for.--"Apply hot
griddle cakes on bowels. This acts as a poultice, and should be replaced
as soon as cold." This remedy saved my life when I was seventeen years of
age. Am now fifty. This remedy will be found very good, but care should be
taken not to burn the patient.

5. Cold or Pain in the Bowels, Spice Poultice for Child or Adult.--"Take a
cloth sack large enough to cover abdomen; take all kinds of ground spices,
put in the bag and tie up, sprinkle bag lightly with alcohol, just enough
to dampen spices; lay this on abdomen." This serves as a poultice and is
an excellent remedy for this trouble. This may be used for a child as well
as an adult.

6. Inflammation of the Bowels, Simple Remedy Always at Hand for.--"Apply
hot woolen cloths to abdomen as hot as can be wrung out, change every few
minutes. My life was saved twice when I was several hundred miles from a
doctor by this treatment." This simple but never failing remedy is easily
prepared and, as we all know, heat is the most essential thing for this
trouble, especially moist heat.

7. Inflammation of the Bowels, a Rather Unique Remedy for.--"Cut the head
off of a hen, cut open down the breast, take out the inwards, pound flat
and roll with rolling pin and apply to the bowels. This will draw out all
inflammation, but must be done in as little time as possible." The above
remedy can do no harm. Many people use it. Perhaps other poultices would
be easier to prepare, just as effective and save the hen.

8. Inflammation of the Bowels, Marshmallow Leaves, a Canadian Remedy
for.--"Green marshmallow leaves (dry will do). Wet flannel and apply
hot." Make a strong tea of the marshmallow leaves and while hot dip
flannels and apply to abdomen.

[DIGESTIVE ORGANS 119]

9. Inflammation of the Bowels, Syrup of Rhubarb for.--"Add to three pints
of simple syrup one and three-fourths ounces of crushed rhubarb,
one-fourth ounce each of crushed cloves and cinnamon, one dram of bruised
nutmeg, one pint of diluted alcohol, evaporate liquid by a gentle heat to
one-half pint. Excellent in bowel complaint in one-half dram (one-half
teaspoonful) doses every hour until it operates." The rhubarb moves the
bowels and casts out all irritating matter. The oil of cloves stimulates
the membranes of the bowels and the cinnamon and nutmeg are astringents.


MOTHERS' REMEDIES for Toothache, Dry Salt and Alum for.--1. "Equal parts.
Take common salt and alum. Mix and pulverize these together, wet a small
piece of cotton and cause the mixture to adhere to it and place in the
hollow tooth. At first a sensation of coldness will be produced, which
will gradually disappear, as will the toothache. This is an excellent
remedy and should be given a trial by any person suffering with this
trouble."

2. Toothache, Oil of Cloves Quick Relief for.--"If the tooth has a cavity
take a small piece of cotton and saturate with oil of cloves and place in
tooth, or you may rub the gum with oil of sassafras." These are both good
remedies, and will often give relief almost instantly.

3. Toothache, Home-Made Poultice for.--"Make a poultice of a slice of
toast, saturate in alcohol and sprinkle with pepper and apply externally.
This will give almost instant relief."

4. Toothache, Clove Oil and Chloroform for.--"Clove oil and chloroform,
each one teaspoonful. Saturate cotton and apply locally."

5. Toothache, Sure Cure for.--

    "Peppermint water   1/2 ounce
    Nitre               1/4 ounce
    Chloroform            1 dram
    Ether                 1 dram
    Oil of mustard       10 drops

    Remark: This remedy will give relief where all others fail. Not only
    for toothache, but for neuralgia pains in any part of the body, apply
    with cloth moistened and lay on the parts affected. Continue until
    relieved."

6. Toothache, Salt and Alum Water for.--"Fill a bottle of any size half
full of equal parts of pulverized alum and salt, then fill up the bottle
with sweet spirits of nitre. Shake and apply it to the tooth and gums.
Apply it freely, as there is nothing to hurt or injure you."

7. Toothache, Oil of Cinnamon for.--"A drop of oil of cinnamon will
frequently relieve very serious cases of toothache. Apply to the tooth
with a little cotton. This will at least give temporary relief until you
can see your dentist and have the tooth treated."

8. Toothache, Reliable Remedy for.--"Chloroform, clove oil, alcohol, one
half ounce of each. Mix together and saturate a piece of cotton and place
it in the tooth. This is sure to give relief."

[120 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

9. Toothache, From Decayed Teeth.--"If the tooth is decayed take a small
piece of raw cotton, saturate with chloroform and place in cavity."



MOTHERS' TOOTH POWDERS.--1. "The ashes of burnt branches of the common
grape vine make a very superior tooth powder. It will clean the blackest
of teeth, if continued for a few mornings, to that of pure white."

2. Tooth Powder.--"Precipitated chalk four ounces, powdered orris root
eight ounces, powdered camphor one ounce; reduce camphor to fine powder
moistening with very little alcohol, add other ingredients. Mix thoroughly
and sift through fine bolting cloth." Have used this with great success.

3. Tooth Powder.--"All tooth powders, or anything that has a grit will,
with the friction of the brush, scour loose from the enamel of the teeth;
and this is far superior to any of them in every respect.

    Soap tree bark           1 pound
    Turpentine               2 ounces
    Powdered orris root      2 ounces
    Alkanet root           1/2 ounce

Diluted alcohol, half water, sufficient to make the whole into one gallon.
Let it stand in an earthen jar to macerate for fourteen days; stir
occasionally, then strain and filter through filtering paper. The alcohol
will have no injurious effect. This is an excellent tooth remedy."

4.--Tooth Wash.--"One teaspoonful of boracic acid in a pint of boiling
water.

    Tincture Myrrh           1/2 teaspoonful
    Spirits of Camphor       1/2 teaspoonful
    Essence of Peppermint    1/2 teaspoonful

Use in the water in which you brush your teeth. Let boracic acid water
cool, then add last three ingredients."

5. Tooth Powder.--"Precipitated chalk four ounces, pulverized sugar two
ounces, powdered myrrh one ounce, pulverized orris root one ounce. Mix and
sift through fine bolting cloth. This is fine."

6. Tooth Powder, Commonly Used.--

    "Precipitated Chalk     12 drams
    Rose Pink                2 drams
    Carbonate of Magnesia    1 dram
    Oil of Rose              5 drops

Mix all well together and after using it you will find the following
mouth-wash fine for rinsing out the mouth."

Antiseptic Mouth Wash.--

    "Boric Acid    10 grains
    Resorcin        4 grains
    Salol            2 grains
    Thymol         1/2 dram
    Glycerin       1/2 dram
    Pure water       1 ounce

This sweetens and cleanses the mouth."

[DIGESTIVE ORGANS 121]

7. Tooth Powder, Simple and Unsurpassed.--

    Cream of Tartar, powdered   3 ounces
    Cochineal                   1 dram
    Alum, powdered              4 drams
    Myrrh                       1 dram
    Cinnamon                    1 ounce
    Sugar                       1 ounce

Mix and pass through a sieve. This is a preparation that has no superior
for cleaning, preserving and whitening the teeth.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Toothache.--1. Chloretone dissolved in oil of
cloves and applied on a cotton wad is very good for toothache.

2. Creosote.--Put on a piece of cotton and put this in the hollow tooth.

3. Toothache in an ulcerated or hollow tooth, caused from wet feet, etc.
Take a hot foot bath and drink a hot lemonade, hot ginger, or hot
pennyroyal tea, and go to bed and take a good sweat. Aching tooth needs
the care of a dentist. It pays to retain your natural teeth in good shape.



INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION.--Causes.--This may be caused by strangulation,
telescope (intussusception) of the bowels, twists and knots, strictures
and tumors, abnormal contents.

1. Strangulation is the most frequent cause; this is caused by adhesions
and bands from former peritonitis, or following operations. The
strangulation may be recent and due to adhesion of the bowels to the
abdominal cut or wound, or a coil of the bowel may be caught between the
pedicle of a tumor and the wall of the pelvis. These cases are rather
common after some operations.

2. Intussusception.--This means that one portion of the bowel slips into
an adjacent portion. These two portions make a cylindrical lump varying in
length from one-half inch to a foot or more. Irregular worm-like motion of
the bowel is a cause of intussusception.

3. Twists and knots.--Most frequent between thirty and forty. (There is an
unusually long mesentery.)

4. Strictures and tumors.--These are not very important causes.

5. Abnormal contents.--Fruit stones, coins, pins, needles, false teeth,
round worms rolled in a mass. Coins rarely cause inconvenience.

[122 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Symptoms of Acute Obstruction.--Constipation, pain in the bowels, and
vomiting are the three most important symptoms. Pain sets in early, and
may come on abruptly when walking or more commonly when working. It is at
first colicky, but soon becomes continuous and very intense, vomiting soon
follows and is constant and very distressing. First the stomach contents
are vomited, and the greenish bile-stained material, and soon the material
vomited is a brownish-black liquid, with a bowel odor. This peculiar
vomiting is a very characteristic symptom. Constipation may be absolute,
without the discharge of either feces or gas. Very often the contents of
the bowel below the obstruction are discharged. The abdomen is usually
distended and when the large bowel is involved this is extreme. If it is
high up in the small intestine, it may be very slight. At first, the
abdomen is not tender, but later it becomes very sensitive and tender. The
face is pale and anxious and finally collapse symptoms intervene. The eyes
are sunken, the features look pinched and a cold, clammy sweat covers the
skin. The pulse becomes rapid and weak. There may be no fever, and it may
go below normal. The tongue is dry, parched, and the thirst is incessant.

Recovery.--The case terminates as a rule in death in three to six days,
if aid is not given.

Treatment.--Purgatives should not be given. For the pain, hypodermics of
morphine are needed. Wash out the stomach for distressing vomiting. This
can be done three to four times a day. Thorough washing out of the large
bowel with injections should be practised, the warm water being allowed to
flow in from a fountain syringe and the amount carefully estimated.
Hutchinson recommends that the patient be placed under an anesthetic, the
abdomen kneaded, and a copious enema given with the hips placed high or
patient in inverted position. Then the patient should be thoroughly
shaken, first with the abdomen held downward and subsequently in the
inverted position. If this and similar measures do not succeed by the
third day surgical measures must be resorted to.

For bloating, turpentine cloths should be used, and other hot, moist
applications.

Diet.--Should be very light, if any, for a day or so.



RUPTURE (Hernia).--Hernia means a protrusion of an organ from its natural
cavity, through normal or artificial openings in the surrounding
structures. But by the term hernia, used alone, we mean the protrusion of
a portion of the abdominal contents through the walls, and that is known
by the popular term of "rupture."

[DIGESTIVE ORGANS 123]

The most common forms of rupture protrude through one of the natural
openings or weak spots in the abdominal walls, as for instance, the
inguinal (groin) and femoral canals. The femoral canal is located at the
upper and inner part of the thigh, and this place is a seat of rupture,
especially in women. Rupture may also occur at the navel, when it is
called umbilical hernia or rupture. The contents of a hernia are bowel and
omentum (a covering of the bowel) separately or together. The bowel
involved in a rupture is usually the lower portion of the small bowel, but
the large bowel is sometimes affected. A sac covers the bowel or omentum
in a rupture. This sac consists of the protruded portion of peritoneum,
which has been gradually pushed through one of the canals (inguinal or
femoral) or of the process of peritoneum, which has been carried down by
the testicle in its descent, and the connection of which with the
peritoneum of the abdomen still continues, not having been obliterated, as
it usually is before birth. The former is called an acquired rupture sac;
the latter is a congenital rupture sac, and it is found only in groin
(inguinal rupture).

Causes.--Rupture is more common in men than in women. It may occur at any
time of life. The majority of cases occur before middle age, and the
largest number during the first ten years of life, owing to the want of
closure of the peritoneum which is carried down by the testicles before
birth. Rupture is most frequently strangulated between the ages of forty
and fifty.

Location.--The great majority of cases of rupture are groin or inguinal
rupture.

Symptoms.--A fullness or a swelling is first noticed in the groin, which
is made worse in standing, coughing and lifting. This disappears on lying
down and reappears on rising in many cases, even at first; coughing makes
the lump or swelling harder. It may come on both sides, when it is called
double rupture or hernia.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--Rupture, Poultice for.--"Take equal parts of lobelia
and stramonium leaves; make a poultice and apply to the parts. Renew as
often as necessary. This combination makes a very effective poultice and
is sure to give relief."

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT.--A person should wear a truss (support) that fits
perfectly, and this should not cause any pain or discomfort. The truss
should be worn all day, taken off at night after going to bed and put on
before rising, when still lying down. If it is put on after rising a
little of the gut may be in the canal and pressed down by the support.
There are many kinds of supports.

Operations now performed for rupture are very successful if the patient
takes good care for months afterwards until the parts are thoroughly
healed. The operation simply closes a too large opening. The testicles
descending through the groin canal from the abdominal cavity before birth
and in congenital rupture, left too big an opening. In acquired rupture,
these natural openings were enlarged by lifting, falls, etc. The round
ligament of the womb goes down through this canal and sometimes there is
too large an opening left or acquired by accident.

Irreducible Rupture.--This is when the rupture cannot be returned into
the abdominal cavity, and it is without any symptoms of strangulation.
They are of long standing and of a large size. This condition is often due
to carelessness of a patient in not keeping in a reducible rupture with a
proper support. Adhesions form, holding the rupture. Even if it is small,
it gives rise to much discomfort and the patient is always in danger of
strangulation of the rupture.

Operation for radical cure is generally a success.

[124 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Strangulation Hernia or Rupture.--This means the rupture is so tightly
constricted that it cannot be returned into the abdominal cavity, and its
circulation is interfered with; then there is not only obstruction to the
passage of the feces, but also an arrest of circulation in the protruded
portion of bowel which, if not relieved, results in gangrene and death.
This occurs more often in old than in recent ruptures and more often in
congenital than in acquired rupture.

Symptoms.--Sudden and complete constipation with persistent vomiting. The
lump may be tense, hard and irreducible. Then there is faintness,
collapse; severe abdominal pain, complete constipation, with no gas
passing, then vomiting, at first of food, then of the bile-stained fluid
and finally of fluid with a bowel odor. All these symptoms increase and
the patient gradually sinks from exhaustion in eight or nine days, though
in very acute cases the patient may die within forty-eight hours.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--Strangulated Hernia, Hop Poultice for.--"A large warm
poultice of hops over the abdomen will be found one of the best known
means of relieving strangulated hernia."

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT.--It must be reduced or an operation must be
performed and soon.

To reduce.--The patient is put under an anesthetic and placed on his back
with the hips (pelvis) raised and the thigh of the affected side flexed,
bent up and rotated inward if the rupture be inguinal or femoral. This
motion relaxes the parts. The neck of the sac is then seized with the
thumb and fingers of one hand, and thus fixed, while with the other hand,
the operator endeavors to return the strangulated gut by gentle pressure
in the proper direction. In femoral rupture, this is at first downward, to
bring the gut opposite the opening then backward and then upward. In groin
(inguinal) rupture it is usually slightly upward and outward. It must be
coaxed, kneaded and squeezed carefully. Care must be taken. If it cannot
be returned in from five to ten minutes no further time should be wasted,
but an operation should be performed immediately. This consists in cutting
down to the constriction and through it, thus allowing the rupture to be
reduced.

The patient should be kept in bed and treated the same way as for other
abdominal operations.

Caution.--Persons with rupture must be very careful not to lift or fall.
If a support is worn it must fit perfectly and be worn with comfort.

[DIGESTIVE ORGANS 125]

INTESTINAL COLIC. (Enteralgia).--Causes.--Predisposing; poor general
condition, worry, over-work, nervous disposition. Exciting causes;
exposure, gas in the bowels, mass of feces, undigested or irritating food,
cold drinks, green fruit, ice cream when a person is very warm.

Symptoms.--Intermittent pain usually in the umbilical (navel) region,
moving from place to place, dull or sharp pain, relieved by pressure or
bending forward. Abdomen is distended or drawn back. It lasts a few
minutes or many hours, ending gradually or suddenly, after a passage of
gas or movement of the bowels.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT.--1. Remove cause first if possible. Mild cases; put
heat to the abdomen by hot water bag, wring cloths out of hot water and
put in them ten drops of turpentine and place over the bowels hot. Give
dose of peppermint water or ginger tea.

2. Severe case.--Morphine hypodermically, if necessary, in a severe case;
mustard poultice is good, also a spice poultice.

3. Tincture of Colocynth (bitter cucumber) is an excellent remedy for this
trouble. I have often used it with great success. Put five drops of it in
a glass half full of water and give two teaspoonfuls every fifteen minutes
until relieved. A few doses generally relieve the patient.



THE LIVER.--The liver is the largest gland in the body, and is situated in
the upper and right part of the abdominal cavity. The lower border of the
liver corresponds to the lower border of the ribs in front and to the
right side. It weighs fifty to sixty ounces in the male; in the female,
forty to fifty ounces. It is about eight to nine inches in its transverse
measurement; vertically near its right surface it is six to seven inches,
while it is four to five inches thick at its thickest part. Opposite the
backbone from behind forward it measures about three inches. The left
lobe, the smallest and thinnest, extends to the left, over what is called
the pit of the stomach.



BILIOUSNESS.--This condition presents different symptoms in different
cases, but it always includes languor, headache or dizziness, perhaps some
yellow color of the skin and conjunctiva, and a general sense of want of
tone, depression of spirits and discomfort.

Causes.--The liver does not perform its function well, or there is a
retention of bile in the bile ducts. Most of the symptoms do not depend
directly upon the changes in the bile, but upon failure of proper
digestion in the stomach and intestines. Certain poorly prepared foods or
improper food for stomach digestion, quickly cause the development of
active fermentation and its results irritate the stomach mucous membrane
bringing about a faulty stomach secretion of mucus, which causes further
trouble. It may end in a sick headache.

TREATMENT. Prevention.--Normal, easily digested food, open bowels. Active
exercise, horseback riding, massage of the liver region. Stooping over and
bending from side to side and bending back with feet close together are
good aids.

[126 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Diet.--Do not over-eat. Avoid alcohol in any form. Stimulating foods such
as spices, mustard salads, concentrated meat extracts and meat broths,
pepper, horseradish are not to be used. Do not use too much salt; strong
coffee and tea are harmful. In severe cases milk either diluted with water
or lime water or peptonized should alone be used.

Gruels, albumen water, kumiss, buttermilk and oyster broth may be allowed.
Orange juice as well as lemonade may generally be given. Fasting is good
in biliousness. No one will starve in a few days of fasting.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--1. Biliousness, Lemons for.--"One lemon squeezed in a
glass of water with a very little sugar, repeat for several days." Lemon
is a very good medicine, and it is surprising to know how few people
realize what medical properties the lemon contains. This is a good,
simple, but very effective remedy.

2. Biliousness, Salt and Water for.--"Take a teaspoonful of salt to a cup
of water and drink before breakfast for a few mornings." It is a
well-known fact that a little salt in warm water before breakfast is
laxative and also cleanses the system and bowels on account of its
purifying action.

3. Biliousness, (chronic) Dandelion Tea for.--"Dandelion root is highly
recommended for this." The root should be collected in July, August or
September. Dose:--A strong tea may be taken freely two or three times a
day, or the fluid extract may be purchased at any drug store.

4. Biliousness, a cheap and very safe plan.--"Drink plenty of cold water
and exercise freely in the open air." Following the above advice is often
better than medicines and spring tonics, also unless doing hard physical
labor, cut down on the meat eating. In fact, eat less generally for a
time.

5. Biliousness, Salt Lemonade for.--"Hot salt lemonade night and morning.
Juice of one lemon and teaspoonful salt to as much hot water as you can
drink."

6. Biliousness, Boneset Tea for.--"Pour hot water on boneset and let stand
until it is cold. Take a swallow occasionally." This is very good.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT. Medicines.--1. Nitro-hydrochloric acid three drops
three times a day in half a tumblerful of water is valuable.

2. Twenty drops of fluid extract of Queen's root three times a day.

[DIGESTIVE ORGANS 127]

3. The following combination forms a good pill to be taken every night:

    Extract of Chirata    40 grains
    Podophyllin            4 grains
    Wahoo                  8 grains
    Culver's root          8 grains
    Creosote              10 grains

Mix and make into twenty pills. Take one every night.

4. For the Attack.--Take calomel one-sixth grain tablets; one every
fifteen minutes until six are taken, and then follow with two to four
teaspoonfuls of epsom salts.



JAUNDICE (Icterus).--A symptom consisting in discoloration by bile pigment
of the skin, whites of the eyes, other mucous membranes and secretions.

Causes.--Obstruction of the gall ducts, from gall stones, inflammation,
tumor, strictures, from pressure by tumors, and other enlarged abdominal
organs.

Symptoms.--The skin and the conjunctiva (red membrane of the eyes) are
colored from a pale lemon yellow to a dark olive or greenish black. The
itching may be intense, especially in a chronic case. The sweat may be
yellow. The stools are a pale slate color, from the lack of bile, and are
often pasty and offensive. The pulse is slow. Recovery depends upon the
cause. Plain, simple jaundice cases recover in a few days or weeks.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--1. Jaundice, Sweet Cider Sure Cure for.--"New cider
before it ferments at all. Drink all you can." This is a very simple
remedy, but a sure one if taken in the early stages of jaundice. It causes
the bowels to move freely and carries off any impurities in the system.

2. Jaundice, Lemon Juice for.--"Take a tablespoonful of lemon juice
several times a day." This disease is produced by congestion of the liver,
and as lemon is excellent as a liver tonic it is known to be an excellent
remedy for jaundice.

3. Jaundice, Peach Tree Bark for.--"Take the inner bark of a peach tree,
and make a strong tea, and give a teaspoonful before each meal for five
days, then stop five days, and if the patient's indications do not warrant
a reasonable expectation that a cure is effected repeat the medicine as
above. I never knew of a case in which the above medicine failed to cure.
Keep the bowels open with sweet oil."

MOTHERS' REMEDIES for Liver Complaint. Mandrake Root for.--1. "Dry and
powder the mandrake root (often called may-apple) and take about one
teaspoonful." This dose may be repeated two or three times a day,
according to the requirements of the case. This is a stimulant, a tonic
and a laxative, and is especially good when the liver is in a torpid and
inactive condition.

[128 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

2. Liver Trouble, Dandelion Root Tea for.--"Steep dandelion root, make a
good strong tea of it; take a half glass three times a day." This is a
very good remedy as it not only acts on the liver, but the bowels as well.
This will always cure slight attacks of liver trouble.

3. Torpid Liver, Boneset Tea for.--"Drink boneset tea at any time during
the day and at night. It is also good for cleansing the blood." This is a
very good remedy, especially for people who live in a low damp region.

4. Liver Trouble, Mandrake Leaves for.--"A very good remedy to use
regularly, for several weeks, is to use from one to three grains of
may-apple (mandrake) seed, night and morning, followed occasionally by a
light purgative, as seidlitz powder or rochelle salts." This is sure to
give relief if kept up thoroughly.

5. Liver Trouble, Mullein Leaf Tea for.--"Mullein leaves steeped, and
sweetened. Drink freely." This acts very nicely upon the liver.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Liver Trouble.--1. For the itching, hot alkaline
baths with baking soda in water, or dust on the following:--

    Starch                  1 ounce
    Camphor, powdered   l-1/2 drams
    Oxide of Zinc         1/2 ounce

Mix and use as a powder, or use carbolic vaselin locally. Move the bowels
with salts and do not give much food for a few days. Use nothing but milk.

2. The following is good to move the bowels when the stool is yellow and
costive in a child one year old:

    Sulphate of Magnesia    2 ounces
    Cream of tartar         2 ounces

Mix and give one-half teaspoonful in water every three hours until the
bowels move freely. Phosphate of soda in one dram doses every three hours
is good.

3. Severe Type and Epidemic Form.--Give one to two drops of tincture
myrica cerifera (barberry) every two hours for an adult. This I know to be
very good.

4. The common simple kind of jaundice will get well readily by moving the
bowels freely and keeping the patient on light food.



CATARRHAL JAUNDICE. (Acute catarrhal angiocholitis).--Jaundice caused by
obstruction of the terminal portion of the common duct, by swelling of the
mucous membrane.

Causes.--This occurs mostly in young people. It follows inflammation of
the stomach or bowels, also from emotion, exposure, chronic heart disease.
It may be epidemic.

[DIGESTIVE ORGANS 129]

Symptoms.--Slight jaundice preceded by stomach and bowel trouble. Epidemic
cases may begin with chill, headache and vomiting. There may be slight
pain in the abdomen, the skin is light or bright yellow, whites of the
eyes are yellowish, pain in the back and legs, tired feeling, nausea, clay
colored stools. Pulse is rather slow, liver may be a little enlarged. It
may last from one week to one to three months.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Catarrhal Jaundice.--1. Restrict the diet if the
stomach and bowels are diseased. Sodium phosphate may be given one
teaspoonful every three hours to keep the bowels open. Drink large
quantities of water and with it some baking soda one-half to one
teaspoonful in the water.

2. If you have calomel you may take one-tenth of a grain every hour for
four hours, and then follow with the sodium phosphate in one-half
teaspoonful doses every two to three hours, until the bowels have fully
moved, or epsom salts, two to four teaspoonfuls. Keep in bed if there is a
fever or a very slow pulse say of forty to fifty.

GALL STONES. (Biliary Calculi, Cholelithiasis).--Cases of gall stones are
rare under the age of twenty-five years. They are very common after
forty-five, and three-fourths of the cases occur in women. Many people
never know they have them. Sedentary habits of life, excessive eating and
constipation tend to cause them. They may number a few, several, or a
thousand, or only one.

Symptoms.--There are usually none while the stones are in the gall
bladder, but when they pass from the gall bladder down through the
(channel) duct into the bowel they often cause terrific pain, especially
when the stone is large. Chill, fever, profuse sweating and vomiting,
which comes in paroxysms or is continuous. The pain may be constant or
only come on at intervals. The region of the liver may be tender, the gall
bladder may be enlarged, especially in chronic cases and very tender. In
some cases the pain comes every few weeks and then may be scattered,
sometimes seeming to be in the stomach, and then in the bowels, or in the
region of the liver. When a person has such pains and locates them in the
stomach or bowels, and they come periodically, every week or two or more,
he ought to be suspicious about it being gall stones, especially if the
symptoms do not show any stomach trouble. If the stone is large and closes
the common duct, jaundice occurs; the stools are light colored; the urine
contains bile. The attacks of pain may cease suddenly after a few hours,
or they may last several days or recur at intervals until the stone is
passed. The stones may be found in the bowel discharges after an attack.
Death may occur from collapse during an attack.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--1. Gall Stones, Sweet Oil for.--"Massaging the part
over the region of the liver lightly night and morning is very good,
following by drinking a wineglassful of sweet oil at bedtime." The patient
should take some good cathartic the next morning, such as a seidlitz
powder or cream of tartar. Teaspoonful in glass of water each morning.
This treatment should be continued for several weeks and is very
effective.

[130 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

2. Gall Stones, Tried and Approved Remedy for.--"Drink about a wineglass
of olive oil at bedtime followed in the morning by a cathartic, as
seidlitz powder, or cream of tartar and phosphate of soda; teaspoonful
each morning in wineglass of water. This treatment to be pursued several
weeks. Massage the part over the liver lightly night and morning. If the
suffering is intense use an injection of thirty drops of laudanum to two
quarts of water." In many cases the cathartic may not be needed as the
olive oil will move the bowels freely. Massaging the parts over the liver
will cause it to work better and has proven successful in many cases.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Gall Stones.--1. For the pain. Morphine must be
used and by the hypodermic method; one-fourth grain dose and repeated, if
necessary, and chloroform given before if the pain is intense, until the
morphine can act. Fomentations can be used over the liver.

2. Soda.--The bowels must be kept open by laxatives, Sodium Phosphate or
Sodium Sulphate, (Glauber's) salt.

3. Olive Oil.--Olive oil is used very extensively. I do not know whether
it does any good; some people think it does. From two to ten ounces daily,
if possible. The phosphate or sulphate of sodium should be taken daily in
one to two teaspoonfuls doses each day. Some claim these salts prevent
formation of gall stones.

4. Powder for the Itching.--For the intolerable itching you may use the
following powder, dust some of it over the skin:

    Starch            1 ounce
    Zinc Oxide      1/2 ounce
    Camphor       1-1/2 drams

Mix into a powder.

Diet.--This must be thoroughly regulated. The patient should avoid the
starchy and sugar foods as much as possible. He or she should also take
regular exercise. If a person afflicted with gall stones keeps the stomach
and bowels in good condition, they will be better. Pure air, sunshine,
exercise, and diet are big factors in the treatment of chronic diseases. A
woman so afflicted should not wear anything tight around the stomach and
liver, corsets are an abomination in this disease; olive oil if taken must
be continued for months.

Surgery.--The operation is indicated when the patient is suffering most of
the time from pain in the liver region or when the person is failing in
health, or during an acute attack. When there are symptoms of obstruction
or when there is fever, sweating shows that there is pus in the gall
bladder. Also an operation is then necessary, and in most cases it results
satisfactorily.


[DIGESTIVE ORGANS 131]

CANCER OF THE GALL BLADDER, AND BILE DUCTS. Causes.--It usually occurs
between forty and seventy years of age. The cases that originate here show
no percentage in either sex; but those that appear here as secondary
cancers are three times as frequent in women as in men. Chronic irritation
by gall stones is an important cause. They are hard to diagnose and, of
course, fatal in the secondary kind. For the primary kind early complete
removal may cure if you can get at them.

CIRCULATORY DISTURBANCES OF THE LIVER. (Acute Hyperemia or
Congestion).--This occurs normally after meals, and in acute infections,
diseases, etc.

CHRONIC CONGESTION OR NUTMEG LIVER.--This is due to an obstruction of the
blood circulation in the liver by chronic valvular heart disease with
failure of heart action. Lung obstruction in the trouble called Emphysema,
Chronic Pneumonia, etc., may cause it. The cut section of a liver shows an
appearance like a nutmeg, due to a deeply congested central vein and
capillaries. In a later stage the liver is contracted, central liver cells
are shrunk and the connective tissue is increased.

ACUTE YELLOW ATROPHY. (Malignant Jaundice).--This is fortunately a rare
disease. There is rapid progress, and it is fatal in nearly all cases. The
liver is very small and flabby. The symptoms are many and are hard to
differentiate. You must depend upon your physician. The only thing for him
to do is to meet the symptoms and relieve them if possible.

CIRRHOSIS OF THE LIVER. (Sclerosis of the Liver, Hobnail Liver, Gin
Drinkers Liver, Hard Liver).--This occurs most often in men from forty to
sixty years old. It is not uncommon in children.

Cause.--It is usually due to drinking of alcohol to excess, especially
whisky, brandy, rum or gin. The liver is small and thin; hard, granular,
white bands run through it and press on the liver cells and destroy them.

Symptoms.--These are few as long as proper circulation in the heart is
maintained. Fatty cirrhosis is often found in post-mortems. The first
symptoms are the same as those accompanying chronic gastritis, dyspepsia,
They are:--Appetite is poor, nausea, retching and vomiting, especially in
the morning; distress in the region of the stomach, constipation or
diarrhea. These increase and vomiting of blood from the stomach may occur
early and late. Bleeding from the stomach and bowels, etc., cause the
stools to look like tar. Nosebleed and piles are common and profuse;
bleeding may cause severe lack of blood. The epigastric and mammary veins
are enlarged. Ascites (dropsy in the abdomen) usually occurs sooner or
later and may be very marked, and it recurs soon after each tapping. The
feet and genital organs may be oedematous (watery swelling), jaundice is
slight and does not occur until late. During the late stage the patient is
much shrunken, face is hollow, the blood vessels of the nose and cheeks
are dilated, abdomen is greatly distended. Delirium, stupor, coma or
convulsions may occur at any time.

[132 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Cirrhosis of the Liver.--It is usually fatal;
sometimes even after temporary improvements. No coffee or alcohol; simple
diet, bitter tonics, keep bowels open, A physician must handle such a
case.

ABSCESS OF THE LIVER. Hepatic Abscess: Suppurative Hepatitis.--This is a
circumscribed collection of pus in the liver tissue. If there is only one
abscess it is in the larger lobe in seventy per cent of the cases. The
amount of fluid contained in such an abscess may be two or three quarts
and its color varies from a grayish white to a creamy reddish-brown; when
the abscess is caused by a type (amebic) of dysentery, there is generally
only one abscess, occurring more often in the right lobe, whereas other
forms due to septic infection give rise to many abscesses.

Causes.--This disease is rare even in tropical climates. When it is
excited by gall stones, it is invariably septic in character and the
infecting material reaches the interior through the liver vessels or bile
passages. Stomach ulcers, typhoid fever, appendicitis, may bring on such
an abscess. Pus wounds of the head are sometimes followed by a liver
abscess. The most common method of infection is through the portal vein.
Other causes that may be mentioned are foreign bodies traveling up the
ducts, as round-worms and parasites.

Symptoms.--Hectic temperature, pain, tenderness, and an enlarged liver,
and often slight jaundice. In acute cases the fever rises rapidly,
reaching 103 or 104 in twenty-four hours. It is irregular and
intermittent, and it may be hectic, that is, like the fever of
consumption. Shakings or decided chills frequently are present with the
rise of fever and when the fever declines there may be profuse sweating.
The skin is pale and shows a slight jaundice, the conjunctiva being
yellowish. Progressive loss of strength with disturbance of the stomach
and bowels is present. The bowels are variable and constipated and loose.
Dropsy of the abdomen (Ascites) may develop, on account of pressure on the
big vein, inferior vena-cava. Lung symptoms, severe cough, reddish-brown
expectoration are often present.



THE ABSCESS.--May break into the pleural cavity, bronchial tubes, lungs
and stomach, bowels, peritoneum or through the abdominal wall.

Recovery.--The result is unfavorable as it generally goes on to a rapid
termination. The abscess should be opened and evacuated when its location
can be detected. The death rates ranges from fifty to sixty per cent.

Treatment.--Open it if you can, Sponge liver region with cool water. For
the pain, mustard poultices, turpentine stupe or hot fomentations prove
beneficial. Keep up strength by stimulation and quinine.

[DIGESTIVE ORGANS 133]

Diet in Liver Troubles sent us from Providence Hospital (Catholic),
Sandusky, Ohio:

May Take--

Soups--Vegetable soups with a little bread or cracker, light broths.

Fish--Boiled fresh cod, bass, sole or whiting, raw oysters.

Meats--Tender lean mutton, lamb, chicken, game, (all sparingly).

Farinaceous--Oatmeal, hominy, tapioca, sago, arrowroot (well cooked),
whole wheat bread, graham bread, dry toast, crackers.

Vegetables--Mashed potato, almost all fresh vegetables (well boiled),
plain salad of lettuce, water-cress, dandelions.

Desserts--Plain milk pudding of tapioca, sago, arrowroot or stewed fresh
fruit (all without sugar or cream), raw ripe fruits.

Drinks--Weak tea or coffee (without sugar or cream), hot water, pure,
plain or aerated water.

Must Not Take--

Strong soups, rich made dishes of any kind, hot bread or biscuits,
preserved fish or meats, curries, red meats, eggs, fats, butter, sugar,
herrings, eels, salmon, mackerel, sweets, creams, cheese, dried fruits,
nuts, pies, pastry, cakes, malt liquors, sweet wines, champagne.



ACUTE GENERAL PERITONITIS. (Inflammation of the Peritoneum, Lining of the
Abdominal Cavity).--Causes. Primary; Occurs without any known preceding
disease, and is rare. Secondary; Occurs from injuries, extension from
inflamed nearby organs, such as appendicitis or infection from bacteria,
without any apparent lesion (disease of the bowel). Perforation causes
most of the attacks of peritonitis. Peritonitis may accompany acute
infections or accompany chronic nephritis, rheumatism, pleurisy,
tuberculosis and septicemia. Peritonitis occurs from perforation of the
bowel in typhoid fever also, and it frequently occurs after appendicitis
and sometimes after confinement.

Symptoms.--This is often the history of one of the causes mentioned above,
followed in cases with perforation or septic disease by a chill or chilly
feeling and pain, varying at first, with the place where the inflammation
begins. The patient lies on his back, with the knees drawn up, and the
body bent so as to relax the muscles of the abdomen, which are often
rigidly contracted,--stiff at first on the side where the pain starts. The
pain may be absent. The abdomen becomes distended, tympanitic (caused by
gas). An early symptom is vomiting and it is often repeated. There is
constipation; occasionally diarrhea occurs. The temperature may rise
rapidly to 104 or 105 and then become lower; it is sometimes normal. The
pulse is frequent, small, wiry and beats 100 to 150 per minute; the
breathing is frequent and shallow. The tongue becomes red and dry and
cracked. Passing the urine frequently causes pain; sometimes there is
retention of urine. The face looks pinched, the eyes are sunken, the
expression is anxious, and the skin of the face is lead colored or livid.
Hiccoughs, muttering, delirium or stupor may be present.

[134 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Recovery, Prognosis, etc.--The action of the heart becomes weak and
irregular, respiration is shallow, the temperature taken in the rectum is
high, the skin is cold, pale and livid, death occurs sometimes suddenly,
usually in three to five days; less often thirty-six to forty-eight hours;
or even after ten days. The results depend mainly upon the cause of the
inflammation, and the nature of the infection, infectious disease that
produces it, being usually very bad after puerperal sepsis (after
confinement), induced abortion, perforation of the bowel or stomach, or
rupture of an abscess.

LOCAL PERITONITIS.--This may come from local injury, but it is usually
secondary to empyema, tuberculosis, or cancer, abscess, perforation of the
stomach or bowel, ulcer, etc.

Symptoms.--Onset is usually sudden. There is sudden local pain, increased
by any movements; tenderness, and vomiting; then chills, irregular fever,
sweating, difficult breathing, emaciation.

TREATMENT OF THE ACUTE PERITONITIS.--There must be absolute rest, morphine
by hypodermic method, one-fourth to one-half grain to relieve the pain.
Ice cold and hot fomentations with some herb remedy like hops, smartweed,
etc.; or cloths wrung out of hot water with five to ten drops of
turpentine sprinkled on them. This is very good when there is much
bloating from gas.

The turpentine should be stopped when the skin shows red from it. The
cloths should not be heavy or they will cause pain by their weight. Ice
water can be used when cold cloths are needed.

For vomiting.--Stop all food and drink for the time and give cracked ice.

Diet.--Should be hot or cold milk with lime water or peptonized milk if
necessary. If the feeding causes vomiting, you must give food by the
rectum. For the severe bloating enemas containing turpentine should be
given, one to two to six ounces of water used with ten to thirty drops of
turpentine in it; sometimes it is necessary to resort to surgery.

TUBERCULAR PERITONITIS.--This may occur as a primary trouble or secondary
to tuberculosis of the bowels, lungs, and Fallopian tube. It is most
frequent in males between twenty and forty.

[ DIGESTIVE ORGANS 135]

Symptoms.--These are variable. It may occur like acute peritonitis with
sudden onset of high fever, pain, tenderness, bloating, vomiting and
constipation; these symptoms passing into those of chronic peritonitis.
Often there are gradual loss of strength and flesh, low and irregular
fever; frequently the temperature goes below normal with a little ascites
tympanites, constipation, diarrhea and masses in the abdomen which consist
of the omentum (apron covering the bowels) rolled up and matted into a
sausage-shaped tumor in  the upper part of the abdomen, or of thickened or
adherent coils of the bowel, enlarged mesentric lymph nodes, etc.
Spontaneous recovery may occur, or the course of the disease may resemble
that of a malignant tumor.

Treatment.--If there is effusion and few adhesions, cutting in and
removing the fluid may help. In other cases good nourishing diet with cod
liver oil is best.



ASCITES. (Hydroperitoneum. Abdominal Dropsy).--This is an accumulation of
serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity. It is but a symptom of disease.

Local Causes.--Chronic peritonitis, obstruction of the portal (vein)
circulation as in cirrhosis of the liver, cancer or other liver disease,
from heart disease, tumors, as of the ovaries or enlarged spleen. All
these mentioned may produce this dropsy.

General Cause.--Heart disease, chronic nephritis, chronic malaria, cancer,
syphilis, etc.

Symptoms.--Gradual increasing distention of the abdomen, causing sometimes
a sense of weight, then difficulty of breathing from pressure. The abdomen
is distended, flattened at the sides unless it is very full. The skin may
be stretched tense, superficial veins are distended. The navel may be flat
or even protrude and around it the vessels may be greatly enlarged. There
is fluctuation when you tap sharply at one side, while holding your hand
on the other side you feel a wavy feeling.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Ascites.--First treat the disease causing it.
Sometimes it is necessary in order to prolong life to repeatedly tap the
patient as in cirrhosis of the liver. When it is caused by the heart or
kidneys, give cathartics that carry away much liquid, hydragogue
cathartics. One dram of jalap at night followed by a big dose of salts
before breakfast. Cream of tartar and salts are good, equal parts. Or
cream of tartar alone, one to two drams, with lemon juice in water in
repeated doses. Digitalis and squill, of each one grain to cause great
flow of urine. Infusion of digitalis is also good to increase flow of
urine, when the heart is the real cause of the ascites. These treatments
take the liquids away through the proper channels, the bowels and kidneys.

[136 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Ascites caused by an Ovarian Tumor.--The tumor must be removed. I am not
in favor of indiscriminate operating, but operations often save lives. I
remember one case in which I very strongly urged the lady to have an
operation performed. It was a case of ascites, caused, as I was sure, by a
tumor of the ovary. The lady, as almost all people do,--and I do not blame
them for it,--dreaded even the thought of an operation, but she was
finally compelled to have an operation or die. She filled so full that it
was almost impossible for her to breathe. She went away from home in
terrible shape, almost out of breath, and returned home a well woman and
has remained so. Such cases formerly died. But not all cases of ascites
can be cured by an operation, it depends upon the cause. In many cases all
one can do is to doctor the cause, if that cannot be removed, make the
patient's remaining days as comfortable as possible.

DISEASES OF THE RECTUM AND ANUS.--The lower part of the alimentary canal
is called the rectum, originally meaning straight. It is not straight in
the human animal. It is six to eight inches long. The anus is the lower
opening of the rectum. In health it is closed by the external Sphincter
(closing muscle). Disease may wear this muscle out and then the anus
remains open, causing the contents of the bowel to move involuntary.

CONSTIPATION. Causes.--1. Mechanical obstruction.

2. Defective motion of the bowels.

3. Deficient bowel secretions.

4. Other causes. Mechanical obstruction.--Anything that will hinder the
free and easy passage of the feces (bowel contents). Too tight external
sphincter (rectum) muscle, stricture, tumors, etc. Bending of the womb on
the bowel.

Defective Worm-like Bowel Movement.--Irregular habits of living head the
list causing this defective action. Everyone should promptly attend to
Nature's call. Some people wait until the desire for stool has all gone,
and in that way the "habit" of the bowels is gradually lost. Everyone
should go to stool at a certain regular time each day, and at any other
time when Nature calls. If a person heeds this call of Nature, the call
will come regularly at the proper time, say every morning after breakfast.
If these sensations (Nature's calls) are ignored day after day, the mucous
membrane soon loses its sensitiveness and the muscular coat its tonicity,
and as a result, large quantities of fecal matter may accumulate in the
sigmoid (part of the bowel) or in the rectum without exciting the least
desire to empty the bowels. Again, irregular time for eating and improper
diet are liable to diminish this action also. Foods that contain very
little liquid and those that do not leave much residue are liable to
accumulate in the bowel and at the same time press upon the rectum hard
enough to produce a partial paralysis.

Deficiency of the Secretions.--Many of the causes that hinder worm-like
motion are also likely to lessen the normal secretions of the bowel. Some
kinds of liver diseases tend to lessen the secretions of the bowel,
because the amount of bile emptied into the bowel is lessened. Sometimes
the glands of the intestine are rendered less active by disease and other
causes.

Sundry Causes.--Diabetes, melancholy, insanity, old age, paralysis, lead
poisoning and some troubles of local origin, like fissure of the rectum,
ulceration, stricture and polypus.

[DIGESTIVE ORGANS 137]

Symptoms.--Headache, inattention to business, loss of memory, melancholy,
sallow complexion, indigestion, loss of appetite, nervous symptoms.
Spasmodic muscular contraction of the external sphincter. The bowel
contents press upon it; spasm of this sphincter muscle is frequently
brought on by the presence of a crack in the mucous membrane, caused by
injury inflicted during expulsion of hardened feces. Instead of aiding a
bowel movement, the muscles now present an obstruction beyond control of
the will and aggravate the condition. The most frequent cause of disease
of the rectum is constipation and anyone of the following local diseases
of the rectum and anus may be a symptom of constipation. (1) Fissure or
crack of the anus. (2) Ulceration. (3) Hemorrhoids (piles). (4) Prolapse
(falling). (5) Neuralgia. (6) Proctitis and periproctitis.

Fissure of the anus is a common local symptom of constipation. The feces
accumulate when the bowels do not move for a few days, the watery portion
is absorbed; they become dry, hard, lumpy, and very difficult to expel,
frequently making a rent (tear) in the mucous membrane and resulting
eventually in an irritable fissure. Ulceration of the rectum and the
sigmoid (part of the bowel) is a symptom of persistent constipation,
because the pressure exerted upon the nourishing blood vessels by the
fecal mass causes local death of the tissues.

Hemorrhoids (Piles) may be produced by constipation in several ways; first
by obstruction to the return of the venous (dark) blood. Second, by venous
engorgement (filling up) of the hemorrhoidal veins during violent and
prolonged straining at stool. Third, as a result of the general looseness
of the tissues in those suffering from constipation.

Prolapse (Falling of the Bowel).--This falling of the rectum may be
partial or complete, and may be caused by straining or by the downward
pressure exerted by the fecal mass during the emptying movement of the
bowel. It may also be the result of a partial paralysis of the bowel
caused by pressure of the feces upon the nerves.

Proctitis and Peri-Proctitis.--Inflammation of the rectum and surrounding
tissue that may or may not terminate in an abscess and fistula, sometimes
follows injury to the very sensitive mucous membrane by the hardened
feces.

Neuralgia of the Rectum.--This may sometimes result from the pressure of
the fecal mass upon the nearby nerves causing pain in the sacrum coccyx
(bones).

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--1. Constipation, a Good Substitute for Pills and
Drugs.--"Two ounces each of figs, dates, raisins, and prunes (without
pits) one-half ounce senna leaves. Grind through meat chopper, and mix
thoroughly by kneading. Break off pieces (about a level teaspoonful) and
form into tablets. Wrap each in a wax paper and keep in covered glass
jars, in a cool place. Dose.--One at night to keep the bowels regular.
Very pleasant to take."

[138 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

2. Constipation, Substitute for Castor Oil.--"Take good clean figs, and
stew them very slowly in olive oil until plump and tender, then add a
little honey and a little lemon juice, and allow the syrup to boil thick.
Remarks.--Keep this in a covered glass jar and when a dose of castor oil
seems necessary, a single fig will answer every purpose. Not unpleasant to
take."

3. Constipation, Hot Water for.--"A cup of hot water, as hot as one can
drink it, a half an hour before breakfast." The hot water thoroughly
rinses the stomach and helps the bowels to carry off all the impurities.

4. Constipation. Excellent Nourishment for Old People.--"A tablespoonful
of olive oil three times a day internally for weak or very old people: it
can be injected,--used as an enema." Olive oil will be found very
beneficial for young people as well as old. It acts as a food for the
whole system and is very nourishing.

5. Constipation, Salt and Water for.--"A pinch of salt in a glass of water
taken before breakfast every morning. I have found it a very good remedy."
This is a remedy easily obtained in any home and will be found very
helpful. Few people seem to realize how valuable salt is as a medicine. It
acts as a stimulant and loosens the bowels.

6. Constipation, Water Cure for.--"Drink a quantity of water on retiring
and during the day." This simple home remedy has been known to cure
stubborn cases of constipation if kept up faithfully.

7. Constipation, Tonic and Standard Remedy for.--"Calomel one ounce, wild
cherry bark one ounce, Peruvian bark one ounce, Turkish rhubarb ground one
ounce, make this into one quart with water, then put in sufficient alcohol
to keep it." Dose:--Take a small teaspoonful each morning when the bowels
need regulating, or you need a stimulating tonic.

8. Constipation, Glycerin and Witch-Hazel Remedy Where Castor Oil Failed--
"Equal parts of glycerin and witch-hazel." Dose :--One teaspoonful every
night at bedtime. In severe cases where you have been unable to get a
movement of the bowels by the use of other cathartics, take a teaspoonful
every two hours until the bowels move freely. This remedy has been known
to cure when castor oil and other remedies have failed.

9. Constipation, Well-known Remedy for.--

    "Fluid Extract Cascara Sagrada    1 ounce
    Syrup Rhubarb                     1 ounce
    Simple Syrup                      2 ounces

Mix."

One teaspoonful at night or fifteen drops four times a day for an adult.

[DIGESTIVE ORGANS 139]

10. Constipation, Effective Remedy, in the most Stubborn Cases of.--

    "Fluid Extract Cascara Sagrada   1 ounce
    Fluid Extract Wahoo              1 ounce
    Neutralizing Cordial             2 ounces

Mix."

Adults may take a teaspoonful of this mixture before retiring, this will
be found very effective in the most stubborn cases of constipation.

11. Constipation, Remedy from a Mother at Lee, Massachusetts.--

    "Senna Leaves          1/2 pound
    English Currants       1/2 pound
    Figs                   1/4 pound
    Brown Sugar              1 large cup

Chop all together fine. Dose:--One-fourth to one-half teaspoonful every
night. Do not cook. The best remedy I know."

12. Constipation, Fruit and Hot Water Cure for.--"Drink a pint of hot
water in the morning before eating. Eat fruit, plenty of apples, eat
apples in the evening, and they will loosen the bowels. Chew them fine,
mix with saliva."

13. Constipation, Herb Tea for.--"One ounce senna leaves steeped in
one-half pint of hot water, with a teaspoonful of ginger powdered; strain.
This is a most certain and effective purge, and mild in its action upon
the bowels. Dose:--A cupful at bedtime. This is far superior to salts."

14. Constipation, Purshiana Bark Tea Without an Equal for.--"An infusion
of one ounce of purshiana bark to one pint of boiling water; infuse for
one hour and strain. It stands without an equal in the treatment of
constipation in all its varied forms. Dose:--One teaspoonful, morning and
evening according to symptoms or until the bowels are thoroughly
regulated." This is fine for constipation, especially if of long standing.
It may be used in connection with cascara. This will give relief when
other remedies fail.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Constipation.--Too much reliance has been placed
upon medicine in the treatment of this disease and too little attention
given to diet, and the establishment of regular habits in eating,
exercising, sleeping and attending to the calls of Nature. Also, local
disease of the rectum has been overlooked until of late years. Remedies of
a laxative and cathartic nature soon lose their power and the dose must be
repeated or a new remedy must be given. This method of treatment is well
recommended and is very good.

1--Stretching of the sphincter.

2--Frequent rectal and abdominal massage.

3--Copious injection of warm water (in the beginning only).

4--Application of electricity over the abdomen and in the rectum.

[140 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

In addition to this treatment which must be carried out by a physician the
patient must observe the following rules: Go to stool daily, and as near
the same time as is convenient, correct errors of diet. Drink an abundance
of water and eat sufficient fruit. Take plenty of outdoor exercise; take a
cold bath every morning followed by a thorough rubbing. Dress warmly in
winter and cool in summer. Change of temperature or climate if the case
demands it. Be temperate in all things affecting the general health.
Stretching the sphincter must be done carefully, but in a thorough manner.
It can only be done properly by an experienced person. Stretching of the
sphincter closes the opening so that the feces are not passed at all
times. It is circular in shape. Sometimes this grows larger, stiffer, or
it acts spasmodically. The opening is often so tight in some people that
it is difficult to introduce even a finger, and it frequently produces a
spasm of pain in the bowels, stomach and head to do so. This kind will
produce constipation or make it worse. In such cases it should be
stretched thoroughly but carefully so that the muscle will be able to
close the opening and the bowel contents will not pass at any time
unhindered. There are two methods of stretching the muscle--forcible or
gradual. The forcible method is generally done by inserting the two thumbs
into the anus and stretching the muscle thoroughly in every direction
until there is no resistance. (Dilators are made for this purpose, but
unless they are very carefully used they will tear the muscle). The
forcible method should be done under an anesthetic. Gradual stretching is
done when an anesthetic cannot be used. It is better to do too little than
to do too much at the first sitting. The muscle is very stubborn
sometimes, and it requires careful handling or the irritability will be
increased. An instrument in the hands of a careful man is all right. They
can be stretched by the fingers or the Wales' bougie, thus: Patients
should come to the office two or three times a week, the instrument
(bougies) are introduced and allowed to remain within the bowel until the
muscle resistance is overcome, and many times their withdrawal will soon
be followed by a copious stool. Forcible stretching is seldom required
more than once, if a large sized instrument is used from time to time
afterward, just as in gradual stretching; when thorough dilatation has
been accomplished, the muscle instead of acting as an impassable barrier
to the discharge of the feces, now offers only passive resistance, but
sufficiently strong, however, to prevent any unpleasant accidents, yet not
strong enough to resist the power of the expulsory muscles when the latter
are brought into full play during stool. Large quantities of feces do not
now accumulate; consequently the pressure upon the mucous membrane and
neighboring nerves is eliminated, and the bowel regains its normal
sensibility and strength. There are now sold dilators in sets for self use
in almost every drug store. These when used continuously do good and
successful work.

[DIGESTIVE ORGANS 141]

Abdominal Massage. (Kneading, Rubbing, etc.).--This is an essential
feature in the treatment. It was practiced by Hippocrates hundreds of
years ago. Place the patient in the recumbent position upon a table which
can be so manipulated that the head may be raised or lowered, the body
rolled from side to side. Gentle but firm pressure is then made with the
palm of the hand and the ball of the thumb over the large intestine
beginning in the lower right groin region. Then go up to the ribs on the
right side, then over the body to the same place on the left side and down
to the left lower side and center, accompanying the pressure by kneading
the parts thoroughly with the fingers. Repeat this several times for about
ten to twelve minutes. At first this should be practised every day; later
twice a week. Special treatment should be given the small intestines and
liver when the bile and intestinal secretion are lessened. In children
gentle rubbing of the abdomen with circular movements from right to left
with a little oil for ten minutes daily will help to increase the action
of the bowels and often bring on a normal movement.

Copious Warm Water Injections.--This is good at the beginning of the
treatment when the feces become packed. They soften the mass and aid its
discharge. The water must go above the rectum into the colon. To do this a
colon tube from eighteen to twenty-four inches long, a good syringe (the
Davidson bulb) hard rubber piston or a fountain syringe, the nozzle of
which can be inserted into the tube, are required. The patient is placed
in the lying down position on the left side with knees drawn up, with the
hips elevated. Oil the tube and pass it gently and slowly up the bowel for
a few inches until it meets with a slight obstruction. A few ounces of
water are then forced through the tube and at the same time pressure is
made upward with the tube; by these means the obstruction will be lifted
out of the way each time the tube meets with resistance; the procedure
must be repeated until the tube is well within the colon. Attach the
syringe to the tube and allow the water to run until the colon is
distended. A quart to a gallon of warm water can be used depending upon
the age and amount of feces present. The water should be retained as long
as possible.

The injections should be continued daily until all the feces has been
removed. They should not be used for weeks as has been recommended. If
soap suds are used in the enema, green or soft soap should be used, not
the hard soap.

Electricity.--One pole may be placed over the spinal column and the other
moved about over the course of the colon, or one over the spine and the
other over the rectum.

Again constipation is caused by the womb lying upon the rectum. Change
this condition. (See diseases of women).

[142 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Rules.--Patients should go to stool daily at the same hour, usually after
the morning meal. You can educate the bowel to act daily at the same hour
or after breakfast; or on the other hand not more than once in two or
three days in those who are careless in their habits. Some patients need
to have two or three movements daily in order to feel well. It may take
time to educate the bowels to do this, but it can be done in many cases
and many persons become constipated because they put off attending to the
educated bowel's call, and often produce constipation by carelessness. It
is surprising how many educated people put off this duty; Nature
neglected, soon ceases to call. If constipated persons will persevere in
going to the closet at or near the same time every day and devote their
entire time while there to the expulsion of the fecal contents, and not
make it a reading room, they will bring about the desired result. Patients
are apt to become discouraged at first; they should be informed that the
final result of the treatment is not influenced by the failure of the
bowel to act regularly during the first few days. Do not strain to expel
the stool.

Corrections of Errors in Diet.--This is one of the necessary features in
the treatment. All kinds of foods known to disagree should be discarded.
The foods should be easily digested. In children the diet should be rich
in fats, albuminoids and sugar, but poor in starches. A reasonable amount
of fruits such as apples, oranges, and figs should be allowed. Meals
should be at regular hours. Foods that can be used:

May Take--

Soups.--Meat broths, oyster soup.

Fish.--Boiled fish of all kinds, raw oysters.

Meats.--Almost any fresh tender meat, poultry, game, not fried.

Farinaceous.--Oatmeal, wheaten grits, mush, hominy, whole wheat bread,
corn bread, graham bread, rye bread.

Vegetables.--Boiled onions, brussels sprouts, spinach, cauliflower,
potatoes, asparagus, green corn, green peas, string beans, salads with
oil.

Desserts.--Stewed prunes, figs, baked apples with cream, ripe peaches,
pears, oranges, apples, melons, grapes, cherries, raisins, honey, plain
puddings, fig puddings, apple charlotte.

Drinks.--Plenty of pure water, cold or hot, new cider, buttermilk, orange
juice, unfermented grape juice.

Must Not Take--

Salt, smoked, potted or preserved fish or meats, pork, liver, eggs, new
bread, puddings of rice or sago, pastry, milk, sweets, tea, nuts, cheese,
pineapple, spirituous liquors.

Foods classed as laxatives are honey, cider, molasses, and acid fruits,
such as apples, pears, peaches, cherries, and oranges. Berries are
effective laxatives on account of the acids and seeds they contain.
(Huckleberries are constipating). Prunes, dates and figs are good and
effective, also fruit juices.

[DIGESTIVE ORGANS 143]

Drinks.--There are few laxatives better than a glass of cold water or
preferably hot water, taken upon an empty stomach before breakfast; water
prevents the feces from becoming dry and massed, and stimulates the
intestinal movements. A pinch of salt added to the water increases its
effectiveness.

Out-door Exercise.--This should be taken regularly and freely.

Bathing.--The best time is before breakfast, and in as cold water as
possible. The bath should be followed by a thorough rubbing of the skin
with a Turkish towel.

Clothing.--Warm clothing in winter; cool clothing in summer.  Cold weather
induces constipation, and warm weather diarrhea. Moderate manner of living
is everything.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Constipation. 1. One year to three years.--For
infants one teaspoonful or less of black molasses or store syrup, or of
olive oil; and Mellin's food eaten dry, is good for babies a year and
older.

2. Small Children.--Increase cream in the milk, give oatmeal or barley
water. Castile soap suppository, enema, massage, castor oil, or citrate of
magnesia if drugs are needed.

3. Older Children.--In older children, fruit, oatmeal, etc. Black molasses
is good for children, one to two teaspoonfuls.

4. Fluid Extract of Cascara Sagrada.--Dose: ten to sixty drops at night.
This is good for a great many cases and sometimes it cures the trouble,
but on the other hand it seems to injure some people.

5. The Aromatic Cascara is also good; doses are larger and pleasant to
take. This is more agreeable for children.

6. The Compound Licorice Powder is a mild, simple laxative and effective.
It is composed of senna eighteen parts, licorice root powder sixteen
parts, fennel eight parts, washed sulphur eight parts, sugar fifty parts.
Dose:--One to two teaspoonfuls.

7. For one dose, or one capsule, the proportions would be:

                                ONE        AMOUNT FOR
                              CAPSULE       ONE DOZEN
    Aloin                    1/4 grain       3 grains
    Extract of Belladonna    1/8 grain       10 grains
    Extract Nux Vomica       1/4 grain       3 grains
    Powdered Gentian           3 grains     36 grains

Mix and put up in twelve capsules and take one at night.

There are many tablets and pills made that can be bought at any drug
store. No doubt some of them are first class, though perhaps not attaining
to that high degree of virtue claimed in their advertising columns.

[144 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

ITCHING OF THE ANUS. (Itching Piles) (Pruritus ani).Causes.--An inherited
or an acquired nervous constitution. Disease of the colon, rectum or anus.
Improper diet. Skin affections in that region. Operations about the rectum
and anus with resulting discharge sometimes. Diseases in the neighboring
organs. Disease of the general system. Diarrhea, discharge of mucus and
pus, fissure, etc. Irregular habits and dissipation. Over-seasoned foods
such as lobster, salmon, shell-fish and foods containing much grease or
starch are especially conducive to it; the same is true of tea, coffee,
cocoa, strong alcoholic drinks. Skin diseases, lice, pin worms often cause
it.

After Operations.--Some part has not healed, and there is left an
irritating discharge.

Symptoms.--There is intense itching at the anus, increased by warmth, and
contact of the buttocks. The itching grows worse after the patient becomes
warm in bed. It may spread and extend to the scrotum, down the limbs and
sometimes over the lower back.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT FOR ITCHING OF ANUS. Preventive and Palliative.

DIET.--May Take.--Strong drink must be prohibited; tea, coffee, cocoa, if
used at all should be sparingly used. A light diet such as bread, milk,
eggs, nourishing soups, kumiss and a little fresh fish, broiled steak,
etc., may be used.

May Not Take--Hot cakes, pastry, parsnips, cheese, pickles, beans,
cucumbers, cabbage, oatmeal, pork, shell-fish, salmon, lobster, salt fish,
confectionery and starchy or highly seasoned foods are to be prohibited.
Regular meals, no lunches between meals, and the patient must not over-eat
at any time. Long course dinners and over-indulgence in highly seasoned
foods and wines aggravate it.

Remedies for Bath.--The bowels should move daily and the parts should be
kept clean. The parts should be bathed with hot water or weak solutions of
carbolic acid, alcohol or listerine, the heat being especially soothing.
Bathing the parts with bran, oatmeal, flaxseed, salt, rice, slippery elm
teas, or tar water adds much comfort to these parts. Do not wash much with
soapy water.

1. Separate the Buttocks with Gauze, a thin layer of cotton or a piece of
soft cloth. This eases the soreness, pain and itching by absorbing the
secretions and preventing irritations while walking. The patient should
not scratch the parts. Direct pressure over the itching parts with a soft
cloth, or by drawing a well oiled cloth across the sore parts several
times gives relief.

2. Dr. Allingham Recommends the introduction of a bony or ivory
nipple-shaped plug into the anus before going to bed. It is self
retaining, about two inches in length, and as thick as the end of the
index finger. He claims it prevents the night itching by pressing upon the
many veins and terminal nerve fibres of the parts. When the rawness is
extensive and the parts are highly inflamed, the patient should be kept to
bed and kept on his back with the limbs separated until the irritation is
allayed.

3. Local Applications.--Soothing remedies: These can be used when the
parts are inflamed and raw. Lead and opium wash, or boric acid, or linseed
oil, or starch, or cocaine, and zinc stearate with boric acid. This form
of zinc adheres to the parts when rubbed on, and is thus more valuable.

[DIGESTIVE ORGANS 145]

4. The following is good to dust in the parts:--

    Boric Acid          2 drams
    Stearate of Zinc    2 drams
    Talcum              1 dram

Apply as a dusting powder.

5. The following is good for the raw parts:--

      Carbolic Acid          1 scruple
      Menthol               10 grains
      Camphor               10 grains
      Suet enough to make    1 ounce

Mix. Apply freely two or three times daily after cleansing the parts.
Melt the suet and when partially cold, add the other ingredients.

6. The following is good for the itching and to heal the raw surfaces:--

      Carbolic acid       1 dram
      Zinc oxide          1 dram
      Glycerin            3 drams
      Lime water          8 ounces

Mix and apply once or twice daily to relieve the itching.

 7.   Carbolic acid              1 dram
      Calamin prep               2 drams
      Zinc oxide                 4 drams
      Glycerin                   6 drams
      Lime water                 1 ounce
      Rose water enough to make  8 ounces

Mix. Keep in contact with the itching area by means of gauze or cotton
while the itching is intense.

8. For injections into the rectum for rawness of the mucous membrane, the
following is well recommended. Use three drams of this at one time.

      Fluid extract Witch Hazel          2 ounces
      Fluid extract Ergot                2 drams
      Fluid extract Golden Seal          2 drams
      Compound tincture Benzoin          2 drams
      Carbolized Olive or Linseed Oil    1 ounce
      Carbolic acid                      5 per cent

Mix and shake well before using.

9.  For the same purpose:--
      Ichthyol       1 dram
      Olive oil      1 ounce

Mix and apply in the rectum on a piece of cotton.



[146 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

PILES. (Hemorrhoids).--Hemorrhoid is derived from two Greek words, meaning
blood and flowing with blood. "Pile" is from a Greek word meaning a ball
or globe. Hemorrhoids, or piles, are varicose tumors involving the veins,
capillaries of the mucous membranes and tissue directly underneath the
mucous membrane of the lower rectum, characterized by a tendency to bleed
and protrude. They were known in the time of Moses.

Varieties.--There are the external (covered by the skin) and the internal
(covered by mucous membrane).

Causes.--Heredity. More frequent in males. Women sometimes suffer from
them during pregnancy. Usually occurs between the ages of twenty-five and
fifty. Sedentary life, irregular habits, high-grade wines and liquors, hot
and highly seasoned and stimulating foods. Heavy lifting. Those who must
remain on their feet long or sit on hard unventilated seats for several
hours at a time. Railway employees, because they take their meals any time
and cannot go to stool when Nature calls, causing constipation. Purgatives
and enemata used often and for a long time. Constipation is perhaps the
most frequent cause: when a movement of the bowels is put off for a
considerable time the feces accumulate and become hard and lumpy and
difficult to expel. If this hard mass is retained in the rectum, it
presses upon the blood vessels interfering with their circulation and by
bruising the vessels may induce an inflammation of the veins when the
hardened feces are expelled; straining is intense, the mass closes the
vessels above by pressure and forces the blood downward into the veins,
producing dilatation when the force is sufficient. One or more of the
small veins near the anus may rupture and cause a bloody (vascular) tumor
beneath the mucous membrane or skin.

External Piles.--Two kinds, venous piles and skin or simple enlarged tags
of skin. Venous piles usually occur in robust persons. They come on
suddenly and are caused by the rupture of one or more small veins during
the expulsion of hardened feces. There may be one or more, and may be
located just at the union of the mucous membrane and the skin. Their size
is from a millet-seed to a cherry, livid or dark blue in color, and appear
like bullets or small shots under the skin. At first they cause a feeling
of swelling at the margin of the anus; but as the clot becomes larger and
harder, there is a feeling of the presence of a foreign body in the lower
part of the anal canal (or canal of the anus). The sphincter muscle
resents this and occasionally contracts, spasmodically at first, producing
a drawing feeling; later these contractions become longer and more
frequent, and there is intense suffering caused by the pile being
squeezed, and this suffering may be so great that sleep is impossible
without an opiate. Because of the straining, irritation of the rectum and
pain in the sphincter, the piles soon become highly inflamed and very
sensitive. The clot may be absorbed without any treatment. Occasionally it
becomes ulcerated from the irritation, infection takes place and an
abscess forms around the margin of the anus terminating in a fistula.

[DIGESTIVE ORGANS 147]

Skin Piles. (Cutaneous).--These are enlarged tags of the skin. They
frequently follow the absorption of the clot in the venous piles where the
skin is bruised and stretched. There may be one or many and usually have
the skin color. These cause less suffering than the venous variety, and
sometimes they exist for years, without any trouble, providing care is
taken; but when bruised from any cause, such as a kick or fall, sitting on
a hard seat, stretching of the parts during stool, or when they become
irritated by discharges from the rectum or vagina, they become inflamed
and cause much annoyance and pain. When they are acutely inflamed they
swell greatly, are highly colored, swollen, painful, and extremely
sensitive to the touch and cause frequent spasmodic contractions of the
sphincter muscle and may finally result in an abscess. The pain is usually
confined to the region of the anus, but may go up the back, down the limbs
or to the privates.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES FOR PILES. Sulphur and Glycerin for.--"Equal parts of
sulphur and pure glycerin. Grease parts." This preparation is very
healing, and will often give relief even in severe cases.

2. Piles, Strongly Recommended Remedy for.--

    Extract Belladonna      15 grains
    Acetate lead           1/2 dram
    Chloretone               1 dram
    Gallic acid             15 grains
    Sulphur                 20 grains
    Vaseline                 1 ounce

Mix.

In protruding, itching and blind piles, this ointment will give you almost
instant relief. If kept up several days it will promote a cure."

3. Piles, Good Salve for.--"Red precipitate two and one-half drams, oxide
of zinc one dram, best cosmoline three ounces, white wax one ounce,
camphor gum one dram." It is much better to have this salve made by a
druggist, as it is difficult to mix at home. This it a splendid salve and
very good for inflammation.

4. Piles, Smartweed Salve for.--"Boil together two ounces of fresh lard
and half an ounce smartweed root. Apply this to the piles three or four
times a day." This is very healing, and has been known to cure in many
cases when taken in the early stages.

5. Piles, the Cold Water Cure for.--"Take about a half pint of cold water
and use as an injection every morning before trying to have a movement of
the bowels." This simple treatment has cured many cases where the stronger
medicines did not help.

6. Piles, Simple Application and Relief from.--"Mix together one
tablespoonful plain vaselin and one dram flower of sulphur. Apply three
times daily and you will get relief."

7. Piles, Steaming with Chamomile Tea for.--"A tea made of chamomile
blossoms and used as a sitz bath is excellent; after using the sitz bath
use vaselin or cold cream and press rectum back gently."

[148 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Piles.--What to do first.--The palliative
treatment of both varieties of external piles is the same. In all cases
the patient should lie flat on his back in bed and remain there for a few
days. Highly seasoned foods and stimulants, tea, coffee, whisky, wine,
etc., must be discarded. Secure a daily half liquid stool by the use of
small doses of salts, Hunyadi or Abilena water. Cleansing the parts with
weak castile soap water is essential to allay the pain, reduce the
inflammation and soothe the sphincter muscle; cold, or if it is more
agreeable, hot applications may be kept constantly on the parts. Hot
fomentations of hops, smartweed, wormwood, or poultice of flaxseed, or
slippery elm, or bread and milk give almost instant relief in many cases;
while in others soothing lotions, and ointments or suppositories are
needed.

The lead and laudanum wash is always reliable.

Lead and Laudanum Wash.--

      Solution of Subacetate of Lead       4 drams
      Laudanum                            20 drams
      Distilled water enough to make       4 ounces

Mix thoroughly and apply constantly ice cold on cotton to the sore parts.

The following ointments, lotions, and suppositories to be used freely
within the bowels and to the piles, are effective in relieving the pain,
reducing inflammation and diminishing pain and spasm in the sphincter.

1.    Ointment of Stramomium       1-1/2 drams
      Ointment of Belladonna       2-1/2 drams
      Ointment of Tannic Acid        1/2 ounce

Mix thoroughly and apply inside and outside the anus.

2.    Camphor Gum       1 dram
      Calomel          12 grains
      Vaselin           1 ounce

This must be thoroughly mixed. Apply freely within the anus and to the
piles. Good for the pain.

3. For External Piles cleanse them well with a sponge dipped in cold
water, and then bathe them with distilled extract of witch hazel.

4. If there is much itching with the piles use the following salve:--

      Menthol      20 grains
      Calomel      30 grains
      Vaselin       1 ounce

Mix and apply to the piles.

5. I use quite frequently the following for sore external piles:

Chloroform and Sweet oil in equal parts

Apply freely with cotton or on to the piles. Ten cents will buy enough to
use.

[DIGESTIVE ORGANS 149]

Operation for Piles.--When these measures do not relieve the pains or the
piles become inflamed from slight causes and often, it is best to operate.
This can be done in a few minutes with a local anesthetic and the patient
frequently goes to sleep afterward, almost free from pain. Inject a three
per cent solution of eucaine, or six per cent solution of cocaine.
Thoroughly cleanse the part and hold the buttocks apart, pierce the pile
at its base with a thin sharp-pointed curved knife, laying it open from
side to side. Remove the clot with a curette, cauterize the vessel and
pack the cavity with gauze to prevent bleeding and to secure drainage.

Cutaneous (skin) piles are operated upon as follows.--Each one is grasped
in turn with a pair of strong forceps and snipped off with the scissors,
or removed with a knife. Close the wound with sutures, if necessary, and
dress it with gauze. Small ones need no sutures. Be careful not to remove
too much tissue. Much after-pain can be prevented by placing in the rectum
a suppository containing one-half grain of opium or cocaine before either
of the above operations are performed. The after treatment is quite
simple. Keep the patient quiet, cleanse the parts frequently, and secure a
soft daily stool. Cleanse with tepid boiled water with clean sterilized
gauze and give salts in small doses, one to two drams to produce a stool.


INTERNAL PILES. Symptoms.--The two prominent symptoms are bleeding and
pain. The bleeding is usually dark. It may be slight and appear as streaks
upon the feces or toilet paper; it may be moderate and ooze from the anus
for some time after a stool, or it may be so profuse as to cause the
patient to faint from loss of blood while the "bowels are moving." Death
may follow in such a case unless the bleeding is stopped. The blood may
look fresh and fluid or if retained for some time, it looks like coffee
grounds, sometimes mixed with mucus and pus. Patients who bleed profusely
become pale and bloodless, and are very nervous and gloomy and they
believe they are suffering from cancer or some other incurable trouble.
The first the patient notices he has internal piles is when a small lump
appears at the end of the bowel during a stool and returns spontaneously;
afterwards the lump again protrudes after the stool and others may appear.
They become larger and larger, come down oftener and no longer return
spontaneously, but must be replaced after each stool. As a result of this
handling, they grow sensitive, swollen, inflamed and ulcerated, and the
sphincter muscle becomes irritable. Later on one or more of the piles are
caught in the grasp of the sphincter muscle and rapidly increases in size.
It is then hard to relieve them, and when returned they act as foreign
bodies, excite irritation and they are almost constantly expelled and the
same procedure goes on at each stool. The sphincter muscle contracts so
tightly around them as to cause strangulation and unless properly treated
they become gangrenous and slough off.

[150 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Recovery, Pain, etc.--The pain is not great in the early stages, but when
the muscle grasps and contracts the pile or piles it becomes terrible and
constant. Piles rarely end fatally. Palliative treatment does not afford a
permanent cure. They frequently return, but by care and diet many can be
kept from returning so frequently. They should be treated upon their first
appearance when the chances of a permanent cure without an operation are
much better.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Internal Piles.--What to do first. The cause
should be removed. Restore a displaced womb. Regulate the bowels, liver,
diet, and habits. Much can be accomplished by these measures if properly
used, in allaying inflammation diminishing pain and reducing the size of
the piles. These measures will not cure them if they are large, overgrown
and protruding. When the piles are inflamed, strangulated or ulcerated,
the patient should remain in bed in a recumbent position and hot
fomentations of hops, etc., and hot poultices, of flaxseed, slippery elm,
bread and milk, the ice bag, or soothing applications and astringent
remedies, should be applied to the parts. In some cases cold applications
are the best. The cold or astringent applications give the best results
where the piles are simply inflamed and the sphincter muscle does not act
spasmodically, jerkily. But when the piles are strangulated, "choked
tight" by the sphincter muscle, hot fomentations, poultices and soothing
remedies give the most relief, because they reduce spasmodic contractions
of the muscle and allay the pain. Instead of the poultices and
fomentations, the "sitz" bath can be used. Put in the steaming water,
hops, catnip, tansy, pennyroyal, etc., and the steam arising will
frequently give great relief. This can be given frequently; ten to twenty
drops of laudanum can be added to the poultices when the piles are very
painful.

1. For inflamed piles, the following combinations may be used:--

      Gum Camphor      1 dram
      Calomel         12 grains
      Vaselin          1 ounce

Mix thoroughly and apply freely around the anus and in the rectum on the
piles.

The external parts should always be bathed with hot water, thoroughly,
before using.

2.    Gum Camphor              2 drams
      Chloretone               1 dram
      Menthol                 20 grains
      Ointment of Zinc Oxide   1 ounce

Mix and apply directly to the piles.

3. When there is a slight bleeding, water of witch-hazel extract, one to
two ounces to be injected into the rectum. This witch-hazel water freely
used is good for external piles also. This is good and well recommended.

[DIGESTIVE ORGANS 151]

4. If the protruded pile is inflamed and hard to push back, the following
is good and recommended highly:--

      Chloretone      1 dram
      Iodoform        1 dram
      Gum Camphor     1 dram
      Petrolatum      1 ounce

Mix and use as a salve.

5. An ointment composed of equal parts of fine-cut tobacco and raisins,
seedless, chopped fine and mixed with enough lard, makes a good ointment
to apply on both external and internal piles.

6. Tea of white oak bark, boiled down so as to be strong, and mixed with
lard and applied frequently, is good as an astringent, but not for the
very painful kind. It will take down the swelling.

7. Take a rectal injection of cold water before the regular daily stool.
This will soften the feces and decrease the congestion.

Preventive Treatment.--This is very important and includes habits and
diet and other diseases. If the patient is thin and pale give tonics.
Correct any disease of any neighboring organ. Attend to any disease that
may be present.

For Constipation.--Take a small dose of salts or hunyadi water so as to
have one semi-solid stool daily. If necessary remove any feces that may
even then be retained, by injections of soap suds or warm water containing
oil. Discontinue injections as soon as a daily full stool can be had
without it.

Habits.--Full-blooded people should not use upholstered chairs as the heat
of the body relaxes the tissues of the rectum. A cane seated chair is best
or an air cushion with a hollow center. It is best to rest in bed, if
possible, after stool for the rest relieves the congestion and soreness.
An abundance of out-door exercise, when the piles are not present, or bad,
consisting of walking or simple gymnastics may usually be indulged in;
violent gymnastics and horseback riding must be avoided. A daily stool
must be secured.

Diet.--Such patients should avoid alcoholic beverages, spiced foods,
strong coffee, and tea, cheese, cabbage, and old beans.

Foods Allowed.--Potatoes, carrots, spinach, asparagus, and even salads,
since they stimulate intestinal action and thus aid in keeping the stool
soft. Stewed fruits, including grapes, oranges, pears, and apples. Water
is the best to drink. Meats: tender broiled, boiled or baked beef--do not
eat the inside part to any great amount. Other meats, but no pork or ham,
fresh fish, chicken. The foods should not be too highly seasoned; vinegar
is not to be used to any extent and this excludes pickles, etc.

PERIPROCTITIS. Abscess Around the Anus and Rectum. (Ano-rectal) (Ischio-
rectal Abscess).--This is an inflammation of the tissues around the rectum
which usually terminates in the above named abscess. It occurs mostly in
middle-aged people. Men are affected more often than women.

[152 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Causes.--Sitting in cold, damp hard seats; horseback riding, foreign
bodies in the rectum such as pins, fish-hooks, etc., blows on the part,
kicks, tubercular constitution, etc.

Symptoms.--Inflammation of the skin, like that of a big boil, some fever,
throbbing pain, swelling of the part, heat and fullness in the rectum,
these symptoms increase until the pus finds an outlet into the rectum.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Periproctitis.--Little can be done in a
palliative way. It generally terminates in an abscess. Make the patient as
comfortable as possible, by applying cold or hot things to the part, rest
in bed, mild laxatives to keep the bowels open. Cut it open as soon as
possible, and it should be laid wide open, so that every part is broken
up. Then it should be thoroughly washed and scraped out. Sometimes it is
necessary to use pure carbolic acid to burn out the interior. The dressing
should be as usual for such wounds and removed when soiled and the wound
washed out with boiled water and then gauze loosely placed in the bottom
and in every corner of the wound. The dressing should be continued until
all has been healed from inside out. Be sure to leave no cotton in to heal
over it. Such patients should be built up with nourishing foods, and
should remain quietly in bed. Cod liver oil is good for some patients.
Iron, etc., for others. Keep the bowels regular. Outdoor life and
exercise. If treated right it should not return.

FISTULA IN ANUS.--This usually follows the abscess. It has two openings,
one upon the surface of the body near the anus, and the other in the
rectum. There are a great many varieties of fistula, but it is unnecessary
to name them. What can be done for them?

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT.--If the general health is good an operation is the
best thing to do, but patients in the last stage of consumption,
nephritis, diabetes, or organic heart disease, are not apt to receive much
benefit from an operation. The patient in poor condition should be given
the treatment suitable to his condition, according to the advice of a
trusted physician.

[KIDNEY AND BLADDER 153]


DISEASES OF THE KIDNEYS AND BLADDER.

KIDNEYS.--The kidneys are deeply placed and cannot be felt or distinctly
identified when normal. They are most accessible to pressure just below
the last rib, behind. The right kidney usually lies lower than does the
left, but even then, the lower part of this kidney is an inch above the
upper part of the hip bone, or an inch above a line drawn around the body
parallel with the navel. The kidney is about four inches long. The long
axis of the kidneys corresponds to that of the twelfth rib; on an average
the left kidney lies one-half inch higher than the right.

[Illustration: Kidneys, Ureters and Bladder.]

As stated before, each kidney is four inches long, two to two and one-half
in breadth, and more than one inch thick. The left is somewhat longer,
though narrower, than the right. The kidney is covered with what is called
a capsule. This can be easily stripped off. The structure of the kidney is
quite intricate. At the inner border of each kidney there is an opening
called the pelvis of the kidney, and leading from this, small tubes
penetrate the structure of the kidney in all directions. These tubes are
lined with special cells. Through these tubes go the excretions (urine)
from the body of the kidneys, to the pelvis, and from the pelvis through
the ureters, sixteen inches long, to the bladder.

[154 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

KIDNEY TROUBLE. MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--1. Kidney Trouble and Inflammation of
the Bladder, Cornsilk for.--"Get cornsilk and make a good strong tea of it
by steeping slowly, and take one ounce three or four times a day. This
acts well on the kidneys, and is a harmless remedy to use."

2. Kidney Trouble, Flaxseed and Lemons for.--"Make a tea by placing the
flaxseed in a muslin or linen bag, and suspend it in a dish of water, in
the proportion of about four teaspoonfuls for each quart of water. After
allowing the seeds to soak for several hours remove the same and tea will
be ready for use. The addition of a little lemon juice will improve the
flavor. Give in quantities as may be found necessary."

3. Kidney Trouble, Temporary Relief for.--"Rub witchhazel on stomach and
back; use freely." This is an old-time remedy, and can be relied upon to
at least give temporary relief. The witch hazel has a very soothing effect
upon the parts affected.

4. Kidney and Bladder Trouble, Buchu Leaves for.--"Get five cents' worth
of buchu leaves at any drug store, and make a good strong tea of it by
steeping. This acts nicely on the kidneys. This remedy is easily prepared,
and is not expensive."

5. Kidney Trouble, Common Rush Root for.--"Take a handful of the root of
common rush in one and one-half pints of water, boil down to one pint.
Dose:--One tablespoonful every two or three hours. For a child ten years,
give one teaspoonful four times a day. For a child of four to six years,
one-half teaspoonful four times a day."

6. Kidney Trouble, Effective and Easy Cure for.--

    "Fluid Extract of Cascara Sagrada      1 ounce
    Fluid Extract of Buchu                 2 ounces
    Fluid Extract of Uva Ursi              2 ounces
    Tincture Gentian Comp                  1 ounce
    Simple Syrup                           1 pint

Mix the above ingredients and give a teaspoonful four times a day. This is
a very good remedy, as the cascara sagrada acts on the bowels and the
buchu and uva ursi acts on the kidneys, carrying off all the impurities
that would otherwise be retained in the system and cause trouble."

7. Kidney Trouble, Sheep-Sorrel Excellent for.--"Make a decoction of sheep
sorrel, one ounce to pint of water; boil, strain and cool. Give
wineglassful, three or four times a day. If necessary apply the spinal ice
bag to kidneys." The sheep sorrel is a good kidney remedy, and the ice bag
by continuous application will relieve the congestion.

[KIDNEY AND BLADDER 155]


MOVABLE KIDNEY. (Floating Kidney. Nephroptosis).--Causes.--This condition
is usually acquired. It is more common in women than in men, possibly due
to lacing and the relaxations of the muscles of the abdomen from
pregnancy. It may come from wounds, lifting too heavy articles,
emaciation.

Symptoms.--They are often absent. There may be pain or dragging sensation
in the loins, or intercostal neuralgia; hysteria, nervousness, nervous
dyspepsia and constipation are common. The kidney can be felt. A dull pain
is caused by firm pressure. Sometimes there are attacks of severe
abdominal pain, with chill, fever, nausea, vomiting and collapse. The
kidney becomes large and tender. The urine shows a reddish deposit and
sometimes there is blood and pus in the urine.

Treatment.--If the symptoms are not present, it is best for the patient
not to know the true condition, as nervous troubles frequently follow a
knowledge of its presence. If the symptoms are present, replace the kidney
while the patient is lying down and retain it by a suitable belt. Also
treat the nervous condition. If the symptoms are of the severe kind an
operation may be needed to fasten the kidney in its proper condition. This
is quite generally successful, and does away with much suffering and pain.
The pain may be so severe at times as to require morphine. Sometimes the
pain is due to uric acid or oxalates in the urine. For this regulate the
diet.

Diet for Movable Kidney.--The diet should be such as to produce fat. Milk
is excellent where it is well borne; if not well borne give easily
digested meats, such as chicken, roast beef, broiled steak and lamb chop;
fish of various kinds and vegetables, such as spinach, carrots, asparagus
and cauliflower; of fats, butter, cream, and chocolate; for constipation,
cider, buttermilk, grape-juice, fruits and honey.



ACUTE CONGESTION OR HYPEREMIA OF THE KIDNEYS.--This occurs at the
beginning of acute nephritis; in acute infectious diseases, after taking
turpentine, chlorate of potash, cantharides, carbolic acid, alcohol, etc.;
after one kidney has been removed.

Kidney.--The kidney is enlarged, dark red, while the covering is very
tight (tense). The urine is scanty, and there is increased specific
gravity (normal is 1015 to 1020) and contains albumin and a few casts.

Treatment.--The cause should always be removed if possible. Rest in bed,
and as a diet use only milk; if the congestion is bad, use dry cupping
over the kidneys and inject large quantities of hot normal salt solution
in the bowels. Hot fomentations of wormwood or smartweed are of benefit.
If you can get the patient into a sweat the congestion will be somewhat
relieved by it.

[156 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]


CHRONIC CONGESTION OF THE KIDNEYS. Causes.--Diseases of other organs and
obstruction to the return of the circulation in the veins. Cirrhosis of
the liver causes it. The kidney is enlarged dark red, the urine is
diminished, with albumin and casts and sometimes blood.

Treatment.--Remove the cause if possible. Fluid diet, like milk, broths,
etc. Dry cupping or sweating materials can be used. Rest in bed if
possible. The bowels should be kept open, and the kidneys should rest.

BLOOD IN THE URINE. (Haematuria). Causes.--The congestion of the kidneys,
pernicious malaria, etc., nephritis, tuberculosis, kidney stones. The
urine looks smoky and dark, or bright red.

Treatment.--This depends upon the cause. The patient must rest in bed and
the kidneys should not be stimulated. Cold applications to the loins. Hot
applications would injure.



URAEMIC TOXAEMIA.--This means poison in the blood occurring in acute and
chronic nephritis (inflammation of the kidneys). The cause is unknown. The
disease is acute and chronic.

ACUTE URAEMIA. Symptoms.--The onset may be sudden or gradual. The headache
is severe, usually on the back top of head (occipital) and extending to
the neck; there is persistent vomiting with nausea and diarrhea attending
it. This may be due to inflammation of the colon. Difficulty in breathing,
which may be constant or comes in spells. This is worse at night, when it
may resemble asthma; fever if persistent, is usually slight until just
before death. General convulsions may occur. There may be some twitching
of the muscles of the face and of other muscles. The convulsions may occur
frequently. The patient becomes abnormally sleepy, before the attack, and
remains so. One-sided paralysis may occur. Sudden temporary blindness
occurs sometimes. There may be noisy delirium or suicidal mania. Coma
(deep sleep) may develop either with or without convulsions or delirium,
and is usually soon followed by them; sometimes by chronic uraemia or
recovery.

CHRONIC URAEMIA.--This develops most often in cases of Arterio-sclerosis
or chronic interstitial nephritis, (one kind of Bright's disease). The
symptoms are less severe than those of acute uraemia, but similar, and of
gradual onset, sometimes with symptoms of the acute attack. There is often
constant headache and difficult breathing; the tongue is brown and dry,
sometimes there is nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sleeplessness, cramps of
the legs and much itching may be present. It may last for years. Death may
occur when the patient is in coma (deep sleep). There may have been mania,
muscular twitchings or convulsions before death.

Treatment.--Found under "Chronic Interstitial Nephritis."


[KIDNEY AND BLADDER 157]

ACUTE BRIGHT'S DISEASE. (Acute Inflammation of the Kidneys. Acute
Nephritis).--This occurs chiefly in young people and among grown men.
Exciting causes are exposure to cold, wet, burns, extensive skin tears
(lesions), scarlet fever, diphtheria, typhoid fever, measles and acute
tuberculosis, poisons; and pregnancy is one cause when it occurs in women.

Symptoms.--After exposure or scarlet fever the onset may be sudden,
sometimes with chills or chilliness, variable fever, pain in the loins,
watery swelling of the face and extremities, then of other portions of the
body like the abdomen, then general dropsy. Sometimes there is nausea,
vomiting, headache, delirium, or very deep sleep. The urine is scanty,
dark colored, of increased "specific gravity" and contains albumin, cells
and casts. Anemia is marked. After some fever disease, the onset is
gradual with anemia, swelling of the eyelids, face and extremities; scanty
thickish urine containing casts, then headache, nausea, vomiting, little
or no fever, dry skin. In these cases there may be gradual recovery,
attack of uraemia, or they may end in chronic nephritis.

Diagnosis.--Examine the urine often in pregnancy, scarlet fever, etc., and
especially when watery swelling is noticed.

Recovery.--The result in your children when it comes with scarlet fever is
not so good. It may run into chronic nephritis. In adults when it is due
to exposure the rule is recovery.

Treatment.--The patient must be kept in bed until there is complete
recovery. He should be clothed in flannel.

Diet and Nursing.--This must be of milk, water or mineral water in large
quantities; milk or buttermilk should be the main article of food. You can
give gruels made of arrowroot or oatmeal, barley water, beef tea and
chicken broth. But it is better to stick strictly to milk. As the patient
gets better, bread and butter, lettuce, watercress, grapes, oranges, and
other fruits may be given. The return to a meat diet should be gradual.
The patient should drink freely of mineral waters, ordinary water or
lemonade, these keep the kidneys flushed and wash out the "debris" from
the tubes. One dram of cream of tartar in a pint of boiling water, add the
juice of half a lemon and a little sugar; this when taken cold is a
pleasant satisfactory diluting drink. Cream of tartar one dram, juice of
lemon, sugar sufficient, water one pint, may be given whenever desired.
There should be hot water baths daily or oftener; or you can produce
sweating by placing hot water jars around the patient, and watch to see
whether it is too weakening. It can also be done by introducing steam
underneath the bedding, that is then lifted a little, so that the steam
vapor can circulate about the patient. Be careful not to burn the patient
with the hot steam. This, of course, is done through a hose attached to a
steaming kettle. Also see treatment of dropsy under "scarlet fever."

Bowels, Attention to.--They should be moved every morning by a saline
(salt) cathartic, if necessary, especially if the dropsy continues. This
produces watery stool. Cream of tartar and epsom salts, equal parts, is
good remedy; one-half teaspoonful every three hours for a child one year
old until the bowels move freely; one-half to one ounce can be given to an
adult.

[158 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]


CHRONIC BRIGHT'S DISEASE. (Chronic Parenchymatous Nephritis. Chronic
Diffuse Desquamative or Tubal Nephritis. Chronic Diffuse Nephritis with
Exudation). Causes.--Young adult life and most common in males. It may
come from acute inflammation of the kidneys that was due to exposure,
pregnancy, or scarlet fever, or follow excessive use of alcohol, etc. In
children it usually follows acute inflammation of the kidneys or scarlet
fever.

Condition.--The kidneys may be enlarged, with thin capsule, white surface,
cortex thickened and yellowish, or whitish (large white kidney). The
epithelium of the tubules is granular, or fatty or the tubules are
distended and contain casts. Cells of the "Glomeruli" and their capsules
are swollen. There is moderate increase of interstitial tissue. In other
cases, the "small white kidney," the kidney is small and pale either at
first or as a later stage of the large white kidney. The surface is pale,
rough and granular; the capsule is thickened and partially adherent; the
surface is thin with white and yellowish areas of fatty degenerations. The
interstitial tissue is much increased; epithelial degeneration in the
tubules extensive. There is also the large red kidney, and with any of
these types the left heart may be enlarged and the arteries thickened.

Symptoms.--If it occurs after acute nephritis the symptoms of acute
nephritis subside, but anemia and the changes in the urine persist.
Usually there is a gradual onset with paleness and puffiness of the
eyelids, ankles or hands in the morning. Later there is difficult
breathing, increased watery swelling of the face, extremities and
dependent portions of the body; worse in the morning. There is a pasty
yellowish pallor, afterwards dropsy of the abdominal and chest cavities.
The urine is diminished, high colored, specific gravity usually 1020 to
1025 with much albumin. Many casts which are named hyaline, granular,
epithelial and fatty. The action of the heart is bad. There may be trouble
with the stomach and bowels, constipated, etc. The digestion is poor and
the patient frequently suffers with much gas. Recovery is rare after it
has lasted one year.

Treatment. Diet.--Milk or buttermilk should be the main article of food.
You can give gruels made of arrowroot or oatmeal, barley water, beef tea,
and chicken broth, but it is better to keep strictly to milk. As the
patient gets better, bread and butter, lettuce, watercress, grapes,
oranges and other fruits may be given. The return to the meat diet should
be gradual. The patient should drink freely of mineral water, ordinary
water, or lemonade. These keep the kidneys flushed and wash out the
"debris" from the tubes. One dram (teaspoonful) of cream of tartar in a
pint of boiling water, add the juice of a half a lemon and a little sugar.
This when taken cold is a pleasant, satisfactory drink. Medical treatment
is not satisfactory. The only thing to do is to give medicines to meet the
indications; fifteen to twenty grain doses of lactate of strontium.
Diuretin also is used. Basham's mixture for anemia is of help in some
cases. It can be bought at any drug store.

[KIDNEY AND BLADDER 159]

CHRONIC INTERSTITIAL NEPHRITIS. (Sclerosis or Cirrhosis of the Kidneys.
Granular, Contracted or Gouty Kidney).--This is met with, (a) as a
sequence of the large white kidneys forming the so-called pale granular or
secondary contracted kidney; (b) as an independent primary affection; as a
sequence of arterio-sclerosis.

Causes.--The primary form is chronic from the onset, and is a slow
creeping degeneration of the kidney substance, and in many respects an
anticipation of the gradual changes which take place in the organ in
extreme old age. Families in which the arteries tend to degenerate early
are more prone to this disease. Doctor Osler says: "Among the better
classes in this country Bright's disease is very common and is caused more
frequently by over-eating than by excesses in alcohol."

Arterio-Sclerotic Form.--This is the most common form in this country, and
is secondary to arterio-sclerosis. The kidneys are not much, if at all,
contracted; very hard, red and show patches of surface atrophy. It is seen
in men over forty who have worked hard, eaten freely, and taken alcohol to
excess. They are conspicuous victims of the "strenuous life," the
incessant tension of which is felt first in the arteries. After forty, in
men of this class, nothing is more salutary than to experience the shock
brought on by the knowledge of albumin and cast tubes in the urine.

Symptoms.--Perhaps a majority of the cases are latent (hidden) and are not
recognized until the occurrence of one of the serious and fatal
complications. There may have been no symptoms to suggest to the patient
the existence of a dangerous malady. In other cases the general health is
disturbed. The patient is tired, sleepless; he must get up two or three
times at night to pass urine; the digestion is disordered, the tongue is
coated; the patient complains of a headache, failing sight, and gets out
of breath by exercising. There may be vomiting, headache, neuralgia, and
increase of the quantity of urine is common. This is light in color, of
low specific gravity, 1005 to 1012; frequently there is a trace of albumin
and a few casts of the hyaline and granular kind. In the late stages the
albumin may be increased with high specific gravity and a less quantity of
urine. The disease often lasts for a year.

In the arterio-sclerotic variety the urine may be normal or diminished in
quantity, specific gravity normal or increased, the casts are more
numerous, and the albumin is usually more abundant. There is an
enlargement of the heart; the pulse is increased in tension; the wall of
the artery is thickened. The skin is usually dry, with eczema common, but
dropsy is rare, except when it is due to heart failure. There may be
bronchial and lung troubles; attacks of uraemia, or hard breathing caused
by the heart, frequently occurs. There may be hemorrhage of the brain or
hemorrhage of the membranes, and these are often fatal.

[160 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Recovery.--Chances are unfavorable, but life may be prolonged for years,
especially with care and especially if it is discovered early.

Treatment.--A quiet life without mental worry, with gentle but not
excessive exercise, and residence in a climate that is not changeable
should be recommended. A business man must give up his worry; his rush;
his hurried eating, and rest. The bowels should be kept regular; there
should be a tepid water bath daily, and the kidneys should be kept acting
freely by drinking daily a definite amount of either distilled water or
some pleasant mineral water. Alcohol, tobacco, excessive eating and
improper food must not be allowed. Weak tea and coffee may be allowed. The
diet should be light and nourishing. Meat should not be taken more than
once a day. If it is possible, the patient should be urged to move to a
warm equable climate during the winter months, from November to April,
like that of southern California. Medicines must be given to meet the
indications. No special directions can be given. The heart, stomach, and
bowels must be watched.

DIET as Allowed by a Prominent Hospital.--

May Take:--

Soups.--Broths with rice or barley, vegetable or fish soup.

Fish.--Boiled or broiled fresh fish, raw oysters, raw clams.

Meats.--Chicken, game, fat bacon, fat ham (sparingly).

Farinaceous.--Hominy, oatmeal, wheaten grits, rice, stale bread, whole
wheat bread, toast, milk toast, biscuits, maccaroni.

Vegetables.--Cabbage, spinach, celery, water-cresses, lettuce, mushrooms,
mashed potatoes, cauliflower, onions.

Desserts.--Rice and milk puddings, stewed fruits, raw ripe fruits.

Must Not Take:--

Fried fish, pork, corned beef, veal, heavy bread, hashes, stews,
battercakes, lamb, beef, mutton, gravies, peas, beans, pastry, ice cream,
cakes, coffee, tobacco, malt or spirituous liquors.


[KIDNEY AND BLADDER 161]

PYELITIS.--This is an inflammation of the pelvis of the kidney and may be
caused by bacteria from the blood, or by ascending pus, infection or
tuberculous infection from the lower tracts like the ureter, bladder and
urethra.

Symptoms.--There is pain in the back, with tenderness and pressure,
cloudy-looking urine, either acid or alkaline, containing pus, mucus, and
sometimes red blood cells; chills, high fever, and sweating occur. This
may become chronic and then it becomes quite serious. Anemia and
emaciation are then marked. Mild cases usually recover; pus cases may end
in other diseases or death from exhaustion.

Treatment. Diet.--In mild cases fluids should be taken freely,
particularly the alkaline mineral water to which citrate of potash can be
added. Tonics should be given when called for, and milk diet and
buttermilk may be taken freely. When a tumor has formed, and even before,
it is perceptible, if the symptoms are serious and severe, an operation
may be necessary.

KIDNEY STONE. (Renal Calculus. Nephro-Leithiasis).--Forming of a stone or
gravel in the kidney or its pelvis may occur in intra uterine, (before the
child is born), in the womb, or at any age. A family tendency, sedentary
life, excesses in eating and drinking and very acid urine predispose. They
vary in size from that of fine sand to that of a bean.

Symptoms.--Patients may pass gravel for years without having an attack of
renal (kidney) colic, and a stone may never lodge in the ureter. A person
may pass an enormous number of calculi. Dr. Osler speaks of having had a
patient who had passed several hundred kidney stones (calculi) with
repeated attacks of kidney colic. His collection filled an ounce bottle. A
patient may pass a single stone and may never be troubled again. A stone
remaining in the kidney may cause dull aching pain in the affected kidney,
or the pain may be referred to the other side and sometimes there may be
blood or pus in the urine, with chill and fever due to pyelitis. Kidney
(renal) colic comes on when a stone enters the ureter, if it is at all
large. At attack may set in abruptly, without any apparent reason, or it
may follow a strain in lifting. The pain may be agonizing in character,
which starts in the flank of the affected side, passes down along the
course of the ureter and is felt in the testicle and along the inner side
of the thighs. The testicle is drawn back. The pain may also go through
the abdomen and chest, and be very severe in the back. In severe attacks
nausea and vomiting are present and the patient is collapsed; sweating
breaks out in his face and the pulse is feeble and weak. The pain lasts
from an hour to several days, until the stone reaches the bladder, partial
suppression of the urine during the attack occurs, but a large quantity of
urine is usually passed after it and a feeling of soreness may, be present
for several days. The stone may again cause pain in passing through the
urethra, or it may remain in the bladder as a nucleus for a bladder
calculus (stone). Dr. Osler gives Montaigne's description as follows;
"Thou art seen to sweat with pain, to look pale and red, to tremble, to
vomit well nigh to blood, to suffer strange contortions and convulsions,
by starts to let tears drop from thine eyes, to urine thick, black and
frightful water, or to have it suppressed by some sharp and craggy stone
that cruelly pricks and tears thee."

[162 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Treatment.--Great relief is experienced in the attacks by the hot baths or
fomentations which sometimes are able to cause the spasm to relax. If the
pain is very severe morphine should be given by the hypodermic method and
inhalations of chloroform given until morphine has had time to act. Local
applications are sometimes grateful,--hot poultices or cloths wrung out of
hot water may be helpful. Cloths wrung out of steaming hop, wormwood, or
smartweed teas, are of benefit sometimes. Change of position often gives
relief; when the stone is large an operation may be needed. The patient
should drink freely of hot lemonade, soda water, barley water. When the
patient is free from the attack, he should live a quiet life and avoid
sudden exertion of all kinds. There should be a free passage of urine
always. The patient should drink daily a large but definite quantity of
mineral, or distilled water which is just as satisfactory. You may take
the citrate or bicarbonate of potash. Mineral springs are good to visit,
such as Saratoga, Hot Springs, Arkansas, etc. Abstain from alcohol and eat
moderately. Live an open-air life with plenty of exercise and regular
hours. The skin should be kept active; a cold friction bath in the morning
is good, if one is strong; but if he is weak and debilitated the evening
warm bath should be substituted. The patient should dress warmly, avoid
rapid alterations in temperature, and be careful not to allow the skin to
become suddenly chilled.

Diet.--Most persons over forty eat too much. One should take plenty of
time to eat, and not too much meat should be eaten.

"Queen of the Meadow."--The Indians used this medicine quite frequently in
the treatment of kidney and bladder troubles. A lady, whom I know well,
told me that she had a cousin who was affected with the kidney stone
colic. At one time, when he was suffering from an attack, an Indian
happened in their home and saw him suffering. He went into the meadow and
dug some of this remedy and made a tea of it. It seemed to do the work,
for while he gave it, the pain was eased and he never had any more
attacks. I give this for what it is worth. The remedy will certainly do no
harm for it is a good diuretic.



INFLAMMATION OF THE BLADDER. (Cystitis). Causes.--It may occur from injury
from passing a catheter, etc., from the use of drugs like cantharides,
from the presence of a stone, from stricture of the urethra and from
gonorrhea or cold.

Symptoms.--The urine is passed more frequently, sometimes the desire to
pass the urine is almost constant. The distress is relieved for only a few
minutes by passing the urine; sometimes only a few drops are passed, and
it gives no relief from the desire for passing urine. The straining is
extremely severe. Sometimes the patient will lean over the vessel
quivering with the muscular effort to pass urine. The bowels often move at
the same time from the straining. The urine becomes thick with much mucus,
then scanty, and then tinged with blood.


[KIDNEY AND BLADDER 163]

BLADDER TROUBLE. Mothers' Remedies. 1. English Oil of Sandal Wood
for.--"Get one ounce of the pure English oil of sandal wood, take four
drops three times a day in a little water. As you urinate more freely
reduce the dose. This is a splendid remedy."

2. Bladder Trouble, Effective Herb Teas for.--"Make a tea of half ounce of
buchu leaves, half ounce of uva ursi leaves (barberry leaves), one pint of
boiling water. Dose: Two or three tablespoonfuls three times a day, or may
drink quite freely." A tea made of cornsilk is a common and standard
remedy.

Treatment.--Remove cause if possible. Fomentations of hops, smartweed,
wormwood are good, even hot water over the bladder. Hot hip bath is good,
and also the warm foot bath. The bowels should be kept open with saline
laxatives. Buchu tea is very good. Use about one-half ounce of the leaves
to a pint of warm water and let it steep, not boil. Drink freely of this.
Pumpkin seed tea or watermelon seed tea is good, also flaxseed tea. Dr.
Hare recommends the following at the beginning if there is fever:

    Tincture of Aconite             3 drams
    Sweet Spirits of Nitre          1 ounce
    Solution of Citrate of Potash   enough to make 6 ounces

Mix.

Give a dessertspoonful every four hours until all fever ceases and the
pulse is quiet. The patient should be kept quiet.

Diet.--Should be milk only.



CHRONIC INFLAMMATION OF THE BLADDER.--Causes.--It follows repeated
attacks; partial retention of urine in the bladder, decomposing there;
Bright's disease, inflammation of the urethra, injury, etc.

Treatment.--Wash out the bladder with pure warm water or water containing
about one to two teaspoonfuls of boric acid to the pint of warm water.
This should be given once or twice a day; or enough permanganate of potash
can be put into the water to give the water a tinge of the color. An
injection of golden seal, one teaspoonful to the pint of warm water, is
good if there is much mucus. The best way to give the irrigation is to
attach a small funnel to a soft rubber catheter and fill the bladder by
raising the funnel when full of water above the patient's belly; or you
can attach the rubber tube of a fountain syringe to a catheter at one end
and to a funnel at the other and raise the funnel to the desired height;
or you can attach a catheter to the rubber tube of a fountain syringe
(clean one) and raise syringe high enough to allow the water to run into
the bladder gently. The patient will stand just about so much water. The
rubber can then be detached from the catheter and the water allowed to run
out.

[164 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

DISEASE OF THE PROSTATE GLAND. The prostate, which both in structure and
in function is rather a muscle than a gland, is situated at the neck of
the bladder and around the first inch of the urethra. It is divided into
two lateral (side) lobes (parts) by a deep notch behind and a furrow at
the upper and lower surfaces. The so-called middle or third lobe is the
portion which is between the two side lobes at the under and posterior
part of the gland, just beneath the neck of the bladder. The urethra (the
channel for the urine to pass through from the bladder out through the
penis) usually passes through the gland at about the junction of its upper
and middle third.



HYPERTROPHY OF THE PROSTATE.--This is a general enlargement of the gland
in all directions. All the three lobes may enlarge and in about one-third
of the men who have passed middle life some enlargement takes place, and
in about one-tenth of all men over fifty-five this enlargement becomes of
importance in regard to the size. The middle lobe may enlarge so much that
it may extend up into the bladder and block the opening into the urethra;
the side lobes may compress the urethra into a mere slit, or may lengthen
it so that the prostatic portion measures three or four inches, or may
twist and distort it so that the most flexible instrument can only be made
to pass through it with difficulty.

Symptoms.--The earliest symptom may be increased frequency in passing
urine, especially at night. Soon some urine is retained in the bladder,
and this may increase so much that only an ounce or two can be passed
spontaneously, although the bladder contains one pint or more. The stream
of urine is feeble, and will drop perpendicularly towards the feet of the
patient. In some cases an inflammation of the prostate and bladder is set
up, and then the symptoms felt are very distressing. There is an almost
constant desire to pass urine; there is much pain and straining with it; a
slight bleeding may follow and night rest is broken; the general strength
fails from the continual suffering; the urine becomes foul, smells like
ammonia, and is reduced in quantity; inflammation of the kidneys develops
also; general poisoning occurs; and the patient dies of uraemia and in a
"coma" condition.

Treatment. Preventive.--The patient should avoid taking cold in this
disease. Light and easily digested diet is necessary. The bowels must be
kept regular. Alcohol of any kind should not be used. The bladder should
be emptied at regular intervals. Some patients keep a catheter and "draw"
their own urine. Unless the patient takes great care, the bladder and
urethra will be irritated and perhaps infected through neglect of
cleanliness. Medicines are not very useful in severe cases. Operation is
the only reliable cure especially when some urine is always retained.

URINARY PASSAGE. Mother's Remedy.--1. Dandelion Root Will Clean.--"A
decoction made of the sliced root of dandelion in white wine is very
effectual for cleansing and healing inward ulcers in the urinary passage.
If the fresh root cannot be obtained, buy extract of dandelion and give
two teaspoonfuls in water once in two or three hours as the case requires.
It also acts on the liver, gall and spleen."


[KIDNEY AND BLADDER 165]

DROPSY.--Dropsy should be regarded as a symptom, which may arise from many
causes, such as heart disease, lung disease or kidney disease, or it may
depend upon obstruction to the normal flow of blood and lymph through the
vessels and tissues.

From Heart Disease.--In heart disease dropsy is due to a weak heart. The
heart is unable to supply the arteries with enough blood to maintain the
normal pressure, or to damming up of blood in the venous system as the
result of imperfect emptying of the heart cavities. In kidney trouble the
dropsy depends more on the lack of proper nourishing processes in the
capillary walls and upon changes in the blood and blood pressure. If the
kidneys are diseased, they may not be able to eliminate the proper amount
of liquids which accumulate and finally escape into the tissues. Liver
troubles cause dropsy by producing pressure upon the large blood-vessels
going to the liver, and consequently the fluid is generally confined to
the lower limbs and abdomen.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. Dropsy, 1. Juniper Berries Fresh or Dry for.--"The
berries of the juniper tree are regarded as excellent home remedies in
dropsy. They may be eaten fresh or dry, or make a decoction and drink. Two
teaspoonfuls of the berries two or three times a day is considered a dose.
It is well to bruise them thoroughly by breaking the seeds with a hammer
before taking." The decoction is more effective. This helps the dropsy by
acting on the kidneys.

2. Dropsy, Wild Milkweed for.--"Steep the root of the wild milkweek and
drink the tea in doses of a wineglass three times a day. This is a sure
cure if taken in early stages."

3. Dropsy, White Bay Buds for.--"White bay buds steeped in water." The
white bay buds can be secured at any drug store, and are easily prepared.
Make a tea of these the same as you would make green tea for the table,
only stronger. Take several times a day. This is an excellent remedy.

4. Dropsy, Canada Thistle for.--"Steep dwarf elder root, or Canada thistle
root, and drink the tea." This is an old tried remedy that our
grandmothers used to use, and can be depended upon. We all know that in
olden times mothers had to use these herb remedies, as doctors could not
be secured as easily as they can in these days.

5. Dropsy, Very Effective Remedy for.--"Make a decoction of fresh
dandelion root slices, one ounce to one pint of water boiled down to
one-half pint, strain, adding two drams of cream of tartar. Dose: A wine
glassful two or three times a day."

6. Dropsy, Common Herb Remedy for.--"One gallon white beech bark, after
the rough bark is removed, good big handful of blackberry root, cut fine,
and also of sassafras root. Cover with cold water and steep to get the
strength; then strain. When cool, not cold, add one pint bakers' yeast and
one cup of sugar. Let it stand twenty-four hours in a warm place. Then
strain and set in a cool place. Take a wineglassful three times a day
before meals. This has been highly recommended to me by a friend in
Kalkaska, Michigan."

[166  MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

7. Dropsy, "Queen of the Meadow" for.--"Is a symptom of morbid conditions
existing in the system, therefore nutritious diet, alkaline baths and a
general hygienic regulation of the daily habits are of the greatest
importance. Take one teaspoonful of powder of "Queen of the Meadow" in a
cupful of water three or four times a day as the case may require. Either
use tea or powder."

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Dropsy.--Treat the disease that causes it.
Remedies should be given that will cause an outpouring of the liquids.
Salines, such as epsom salts in large doses. Cream of tartar and epsom
salts (equal parts) taken freely is effective. If the kidneys are inactive
owing to heart trouble, the following may be used: An infusion of
digitalis in one to four teaspoonful doses every three to four hours. This
pill is good.

    Powdered Digitalis    20 grains
    Powdered Squills      20 grains

Mix into twenty pills and take one every five hours.



INFECTIOUS DISEASES.

INFECTION AND CONTAGION.--These words are often used in such a way that a
wrong impression is made. A disease may be infectious but not contagious.
Malaria is an instance. Infection means an ability to enter the body from
any source, wind, water, food or other persons and produce a
characteristic disease. The agency doing this is known as a germ.
Contagion is properly a poisoning of one individual from contact with a
diseased individual in some way known or unknown. It may be conveyed
indirectly through clothes, etc., or other person; but always comes from
some person sick with the same disease. Diseases may be both infectious
and contagious. Nearly all the epidemic diseases of infancy are both
infectious and contagious and accompanied by fever. In nursing children,
suffering from infectious diseases the mother or nurse should avoid their
breath and handle them as little as possible. All secretion from bowels
and kidneys should fall in a vessel containing a disinfecting solution of
Copperas, bichloride of mercury, etc., and should be emptied into the
sewer or buried. Following are the solutions as made. Copperas:--Put a
lump as big as a walnut in the chamber with one-half pint of water, to
receive feces, urine, sputum and vomited matter from infectious and
contagious patients.

2. Solution of chlorinated soda, four fluid ounces; water ten ounces,
useful for hands and dishes, not silverware. Dissolve eight corrosive
sublimate tablets, also called bichloride, in a gallon of water. This is
used to disinfect floors, woodwork, rubber, and leather, but not metal
parts. Great care must be taken to have the hands washed after handling
such a patient, so as not to infect the food, eyes, mouth, or any small
skin sores.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 167]

Diet in Infectious Diseases.--Foods that can be used: Milk, milk-water,
milk and lime-water, Mellin's food, malted milk, imperial granum, albumin
water, rice water, oatmeal water, barley water, egg (white part), and
barley water, arrowroot water, whey, whey and cream mixture, cream and
rice mixture, beef tea, beef extract, mutton broth, beef juice. Chewing
broiled steak and only swallowing the juice, dry toast and soft boiled
eggs, milk toast, dried beef broth, soups, rice, cornstarch, tapioca, etc.
The diet must not consist of solid food in any severe case of fever. Small
quantities of cold drinks can be given, frequently repeated if there is no
vomiting. Frequent washing with tepid water or cool water lessens the
fever and produces sleep. The bowels should be kept open at least once a
day, and castor oil or salts usually can be given. (See Nursing and
Dietetics department.)

Table of Infectious Diseases.
                                     Date of
                                     characteristic       Whole
                 Incubation lasts    symptom.           duration.
Mumps             7 to 20 days       1st day           7 days or less
Whooping Cough    2 to 7 days        7 to 14 days      2 months
Diphtheria        1 to 12 days       1 to 2 days       1 week to 1 month
Erysipelas        2 to 8 days        1 to 2 days       1 week to 3 weeks
Varioloid        10 to 13 days       1 day             1 week to 3 weeks
Chicken Pox      12 to 17 days       1 day             4 to 7 days
German Measles    1 to 3 weeks       1 day             3 to 4 days
Measles          12 to 14 days       4 days            7 to 9 days
Scarlet Fever     1 to 7 days        1 to 2 days       7 to 12 days
Typhoid Fever     1 to 14 days       7 to 8 days       3 to 5 weeks
Smallpox         10 to 14 days       3 to 4 days       2 to 4 weeks


SCARLET FEVER. Definition.--Scarlet fever is an acute infectious disease,
with a characteristic eruption.

Modes of Conveying.--The nearer a person is to a patient the more likely
one is to take or convey the disease. Clothing, bedding, etc., may retain
the poison for months. Scales from the skin of a patient, dried
secretions, the urine if inflammation of the kidneys (nephritis) exists,
the discharges (feces) from the bowels, are all means of infection. The
longer a person remains near the patient the more likely he is to convey
the disease. Foods handled by those sick of the disease, or by those who
may have been near patients may convey the disease. This is especially
true of milk. Epidemics of scarlet fever have been started by dairy-men
who had scarlet fever in their family. I once attended a family where the
only known cause for it in that family was a long-haired dog of a neighbor
who had scarlet fever in the family. The dog was in the room with the sick
ones, and visited the neighbor's family and played with the children who
afterwards came down with the fever. Discharges from the ear, caused by
scarlet fever, are said to be capable of giving it.

[168 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Remains in the Room, how long?--It may remain for months in a room, and
extend over two years as recorded by Murchison. We do not yet know how the
poison obtains entrance to the body. Hence, the need for thorough
disinfection.

Age, Occurrence, Susceptibility.--All children exposed to the disease do
not contract the disease. It is less contagious than measles. A person who
is exposed once, and does not take it, may take it at a future exposure.
It occurs at any age and in all countries. It occurs oftener in autumn
(September) and winter (February). Isolated cases occur, and then it is
called sporadic. This disease attacks nursing children less frequently
than older children. It is not often seen during the first year of life.

How Often?--As a rule, it attacks a person only once; yet there are
recorded cases of well observed second and third attacks, but fortunately
these are very rare. I once attended a family where they had it and
claimed to have had it before, but very lightly.

Incubation.--The vast majority of cases develop within three to five days
after exposure. If eleven days elapse without the appearance of symptoms
we may reasonably expect that the danger is past, at least in the great
majority of cases exposed.

Contagiousness.--There is danger of catching the disease during the stages
of incubation, eruption and scaling. It is most contagious in the last two
stages.

Onset.--Sometimes the onset is sudden; there may be a convulsion, preceded
by a sharp rise in the temperature. An examination in such cases may
reveal a marked sore throat or a membranous deposit on the tonsils
preceding the eruption, and nothing more. A chill followed by fever and
vomiting ushers in a large number of cases. These may be mild or severe.
The severity of these symptoms usually indicates the gravity of the
attack.

Rash.--The rash or eruption appears from twelve to thirty-six hours after
the onset, usually on the second day, and looks like a very severe heat
rash, but is finer and thicker. It consists of a very finely pointed
rose-colored rash. In mild cases it is hardly noticeable. Usually it first
appears on the upper part of the chest around the collar bones, spreads
over the chest and around upon the back. Also it is now seen on the neck,
beneath the jaw, behind the ears and on the temples, thence spreads over
the body. There is a paleness about the mouth and wings of the nose, while
the cheeks are flushed with a flame-like redness. There is much itching if
the rash is severe. It attains the full development at the end of two or
three days, and then gradually declines. In some cases the rash is seen
only twenty-four hours.

Fever.--The fever rises rapidly in the first few hours to 104 or 105-8/10
degrees. It remains high except in the morning, until the eruption reaches
its full development and falls with the fading eruption, and in
uncomplicated and typical cases, within six days becomes normal.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 169]

Sore Throat.--This we find on the pillars of the fauces, uvula, tonsils,
and pharynx, reddened and inflamed. Sometimes it is very severe, and a
membrane comes on one or both tonsils and pillars of the fauces. There is,
generally a severe sore throat, and this makes swallowing difficult.

Tongue.--The tongue is covered with a coating at the onset, and may
present a slightly reddened appearance at the borders and tip. The
papillae are prominent and covered and look like a strawberry sometimes,
or like the tongue of a cat. In fatal poisonous cases it becomes dry and
cracked.

Scaling.--As the disease subsides the outer layer of the skin dries and
peels off. The extent of this depends upon the severity of the attack. In
some cases the scaling is hardly perceptible, and sometimes it appears
only on certain parts, such as on the toes and inner parts of the thighs.
There is always some scaling. This is called "desquamation." Generally
speaking, scaling begins where the eruption first appeared on the upper
part of the chest and neck. The scales may be fine and branny or as is
most common, the skin peels in large particles. Some scaling is always
present. The length of the scaling time is variable. It usually lasts from
three to four weeks, but often longer. This stage is considered by many as
the most contagious, as the fine scales fly in the air.

Complications. Nose.--The nose is affected at the same time if the "sore
throat" is very severe. A membrane may also form in the nose.

Ear.--This may be affected in as high as one-fifth of the cases and needs
careful watching and attention. Both ears may be diseased and deafness
frequently results from it. Ten per cent of those who suffer from
"deaf-mutism" can trace their affliction to scarlet fever. The ears
usually become afflicted in the third week. The fever rises and there is
pain in the ears or ear. The onset may not appear alarming and not be
suspected until the discharge makes its appearance This is unfortunate;
these complications are serious, as meningitis and abscess of the brain
may result. The ear trouble (otitis) usually occurs during the scaling.
The patient may be up and around. There is a rise of the temperature to
103 or 104 degrees, the patient begins to vomit food and has a headache.
At night the child starts from its crib and cries as if in pain. They do
not always locate the pain in the ear. The face and hands may twitch. The
fever may fall to normal and rise sharply again. Such symptoms should call
for a thorough examination.

Eye.--Inflammation of the (conjunctiva) red membrane of the eyes, often
occurs.

[170 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Kidneys.--There may be a mild form of inflammation in the earlier stages.
The severe form comes, if at all, usually in the third week. It occurs in
five to seven per cent of the cases. It may occur in the mildest case, as
such cases are not so closely watched. The first symptom is a slight
bloating of the eyes and face and spreads over the whole body. Sometimes
the swelling is very slight; at other times it is extreme. The urine
diminishes early and sometimes is wholly suppressed. It may be light
colored, smoky or straw colored. This trouble usually runs for weeks. The
patient may get uremia and result fatally.

Heart.--This also may be affected as the valves may become diseased.

Joints.--Rheumatism also may occur, and other complications.

Chorea.--Follows scarlet fever also, especially in girls from twelve to
fifteen years.

Diagnosis.--In most cases it is easy to distinguish from other diseases.
Dermatitis, inflammation of the skin ("Itis" always means inflammation).
In dermatitis the throat symptoms and strawberry tongue are absent.

From Measles.--By the rapid onset, absence of cold symptoms of the nose,
eyes, and bronchial tubes, blotchy eruptions that occur in measles. There
is no strawberry tongue in measles and no coughing at beginning.

Recovery.--The prognosis is favorable in uncomplicated cases. It also
depends upon the character of the epidemic type of the disease. In England
it varies from thirteen to fourteen per cent. In this country it is
sometimes as low as two to four per cent. The kidney trouble is always
feared for it may result in uremia and death, or the acute may be followed
by chronic nephritis or Bright's disease, which will ultimately prove
fatal.

Sanitary Care of Room and Patient.--If you are exposed to this disease
what can you do? If a child, it must be put in a room by itself. If
several children have been exposed they should be put in separate rooms.
These rooms should have no carpet, curtains, rugs, etc., or any
unnecessary furniture, for everything must be disinfected afterward, and
sometimes destroyed. The clothes worn just before the sickness should be
sterilized in steam or boiled and then aired in the sun. Anyone suffering
from sore throat who has been about the patient should not be allowed to
be near the healthy. All the children must be kept from school. It is well
for them to spray their throats with a simple cleansing solution morning
and night, with a full teaspoonful of boric acid to a glass full of warm
water; or you can use common salt, but not strong enough to irritate the
throat, about one teaspoonful to a glass of water. If you have listerine
or glyco-thymoline or any such disinfectant use them, one teaspoonful to
sixteen spoonfuls of water. Hot water itself is a very good gargle, very
healing and cleansing. Anyone who enters the sick room and comes out again
should wear a sheet all over him. On coming out, he or she should leave
this sheet outside the window of another room. If the person has a beard
he should wash his face with a 1 to 2000 solution of corrosive sublimate,
and the hands also, before leaving the sick room. The one who waits upon
the sick one should remain there, but everyone can not do so. They must
stay away from the healthy if possible.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 171]

City and State Supervision.--If you live in the city your physician should
notify the health board who will probably send someone to instruct you
regarding cautions and some cities have private rules, laws, etc., for
them to follow while under quarantine. A copy is usually furnished also to
your close neighbors. Also some of the state departments of health have
made up pamphlets which are circulated free on request dealing with the
sanitary science of infectious and contagious diseases. Some colleges use
these same pamphlets in their study of sanitary science. Much valuable
information is contained in them. Comparatively few people learn of these
pamphlets. For the benefit of those who have not read or seen them we
quote from their scarlet fever subjects as follows:

HOW TO AVOID AND PREVENT SCARLET FEVER.

Do not let a child go near a case of scarlet fever. This is especially
important to be observed.

Children are in much greater danger of death from scarlet fever than are
adults; but adult persons often get and spread the disease, and sometimes
die from it. Mild cases in adults may cause fatal cases among children.
Unless your services are needed keep away from the disease yourself. If
you do visit a case, bathe yourself and change and disinfect your clothing
and hair, beard, if any, and hands before you go where there is a child.
Do not permit any person or thing or a dog or cat, or other animal to come
from a case of scarlet fever to a child. No cat or dog should be permitted
to enter the sick room.

Do not permit a child to wear or handle clothing worn by a person during
sickness or convalescence from scarlet fever.

Beware of any person who has sore throat. Do not kiss or come near to such
a person. Do not drink from the same cup, blow the same whistle, or put
his pen or pencil in your mouth. Whenever a child has sore throat and
fever, and especially when this is accompanied by a rash on the body, the
child and attendant should immediately be isolated until the physician has
seen it and determined whether it has scarlet fever. Strict quarantine
should be established and maintained throughout the course of the disease.
Exposed persons should be isolated until such time has elapsed as may
prove that they are not infected. The period of incubation, that is the
interval of time between exposure to the contagion of scarlet fever and
the first sign of the disease in the person so exposed, varies. In many
cases it appears in seven days, in some cases in fourteen days, and in
some cases twenty-one days; the average period is about nine days.
Quarantine of persons exposed should not be raised under four weeks.

[172 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Children believed to be uninfected may be sent away from the house in
which there is scarlet fever to families in which there are no persons
liable to the disease, or to previously disinfected convalescent wards in
hospitals; but in either case they should be isolated from the public
until the expiration of the period of incubation. This time may vary, but
for full protection to the public isolation should be observed for four
weeks.

Persons who are attending upon children or other persons suffering from
scarlet fever, and also the members of the patient's family, should not
mingle with other people nor permit the entrance of children into their
house.



SANITARY CARE OF INFECTED AND SICK PERSONS AND ROOMS.

All persons known to be sick with this disease (even those but mildly
sick) should be promptly and thoroughly isolated from the public and
family. In ordering the isolation of infected persons, the health officer
means that their communication with well persons and the movement of any
article from the infected room or premises shall be absolutely cut off.

Except it be disinfected, no letter or paper should be sent through the
mail from an infected place. That this is of more importance than in the
case of smallpox is indicated by the fact of the much greater number of
cases of sickness and of deaths from scarlet fever,--a disease for which
no such preventive as vaccination is yet known.

The room in which one sick with this disease is to be placed should
previously be cleared of all needless clothing, drapery and other
materials likely to harbor the germs of the disease; and except after
thorough disinfection nothing already exposed to the contagion of the
disease should be moved from the room. The sick room should have only such
articles as are indispensable to the well-being of the patient, and should
have no carpet, or only pieces which can afterwards be destroyed.
Provision should be made for the introduction of a liberal supply of fresh
air and the continual change of the air in the room without sensible
currents or drafts.

Soiled clothing, towels, bed linen, etc., on removal from the patient
should not be carried about while dry; but should be placed in a pail or
tub covered with a five per cent solution of carbolic acid, six and
three-fourths ounces of carbolic acid to one gallon water. Soiled clothing
should in all cases be disinfected before sending away to the laundry,
either by boiling for at least half an hour or by soaking in the five per
cent solution of carbolic acid.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 173]

The discharges from the throat, nose, mouth, and from the kidneys and
bowels of the patient should be received into vessels containing an equal
volume of a five per cent solution of carbolic acid, and in cities where
sewers are used, thrown into the water closet; elsewhere the same should
be buried at least one hundred feet distant from any well, and should not
by any means be thrown into a running stream, nor into a cesspool or
privy, except after having been thoroughly disinfected. Discharges from
the bladder and bowels may be received on old cloths, which should be
immediately burned. All vessels should be kept scrupulously clean and
disinfected. Discharges from the nose, ears, etc., may be received on soft
rags or pieces of cloth and which should be immediately burned.

All cups, glasses, spoons, etc., used in the sick room, should at once on
removal from the room, be washed in the five per cent solution of carbolic
acid and afterwards in hot water, before being used by any other person.

Food and drink that have been in the sick room should be disinfected and
buried. It should not be put in the swill barrel.

Perfect cleanliness of nurses and attendants should be enjoined and
secured. As the hands of the nurses of necessity become frequently
contaminated by the contagion of the disease, a good supply of towels and
basins, one containing a two per cent solution of carbolic acid (two and
three-fifths ounces of carbolic acid to a gallon of water) and another for
plain soap and water should always be at hand and freely used.

Persons recovering from scarlet fever, so long as any scaling or peeling
of the skin, soreness of the eyes or air passages or symptoms of dropsy
remain, should be considered dangerous, and, therefore, should not attend
school, church or any public assembly or use any public conveyance. In a
house infected with scarlet fever, a temporary disinfection after apparent
recovery may be made, so as to release from isolation the members of the
household who have not had the disease.

Diet and Nursing.--Food should be given every two to four hours. Only
water can be given as long as there is nausea and vomiting, and sometimes
not even that. After they have stopped you can give milk and water and
then milk. You should give it to a child every two to three hours, about
one-fourth of a glass full and warm if possible. A child can take at least
one quart in twenty-four hours. Watch the stomach and bowels for bad
symptoms; if necessary you can put in one teaspoonful of lime water after
the milk has been heated. If the child will not take milk, use one of the
prepared foods. Mellins' malted milk, Borden's malted milk, peptonized
milk, Imperial Granum, and follow the directions on the bottle. The
different food waters mentioned above are to use when milk and other food
preparations cannot be given. Albumen (white of an egg and water, not
whipped) can be given and always cold. Cold milk also tastes better.

[174 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

During the Sickness, etc.--The linen, bedding, etc., of the patient should
be put into a one to five-thousand solution of corrosive sublimate (you
can buy that strength tablet) before being boiled, dried and aired in the
sun. The sick room must be kept well ventilated, but no drafts should be
allowed to go over the patient. The temperature is better at 68 degrees F.
The patient should be kept in bed during all the feverish stage and during
the scaling stage also.

Care must be taken lest the patient take cold. During this time there is a
great danger of ear and kidney trouble. It would be safer to keep the
patient in bed until the peeling is done. Children are naturally lively,
risky, and a little careless. To keep the scales from flying you can
grease the patient with cold cream, vaselin, lard, etc. This will also
help to ease the itching. The peeling is aided by bathing the patient
every day with warm, soapy water.

Special Treatment.--In ordinary cases little treatment is needed except to
keep the throat and nose free from excessive secretions. The urine should
be examined daily, and the bowels should move once or twice a day. Cold
water should be given frequently after the nausea has passed away. Milk is
the usual food, but must not be given during the vomiting stage. Equal
parts of milk and water can be given after the vomiting stage, if the
patient will not take pure milk.

During the vomiting stage very little water even can be given. The
greatest danger in scarlet fever comes from the throat complications and
the high fever.

When the fever is high the patient suffers from delirium. A temperature of
105 is dangerous and such patients must be bathed well in water,
commencing at 90 degrees and rubbed well all over while in the water,
allowing the temperature of the bath to fall to 85 or 80 degrees while so
doing; bath to last five to fifteen minutes. Bathe the head with water, at
the temperature of 50 degrees, all the time the temperature is at 103
degrees or higher. Always use the thermometer to determine the temperature
of the water. Weakly children often do not stand the bath well, so you
must exercise discretion in giving it often. The temperature must be kept
down to 102 to 103-1/2, and baths must be used often to do so. Where baths
cannot be used, frequent washing with water at 60 to 70 degrees must be
adopted without drying the child afterwards. A mother should always
remember that a feverish, restless child needs a bath or a good washing
with cool soap and water. If the bowels and kidneys do not act freely
enough give the following:

    Epsom Salts        2 ounces
    Cream of Tartar    2 ounces

Mix and give one-half teaspoonful in water every three hours until the
bowels move freely.

This is the dose for a child one year old.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES  175]

Dropsy in Scarlet Fever.--In this case you must have a doctor. A simple
way to make a dropsy patient sweat is to place the patient upon a cane
seated chair, pin a blanket around the neck, covering the whole body.
Under the chair place a wooden pail half full of cool water and into this
put a brick baked as hot as possible; or you can introduce steam under the
blanket while the patient is sitting on a chair, or lying in bed, taking
care not to scald the patient. This will cause sweating, and relieve the
dropsy and also congested kidneys.

How Soon May a Scarlet Fever Patient Associate with the Healthy?--It is
best to wait a few weeks after scaling ends. Give the patient a bath in a
one to 10,000 corrosive sublimate solution first.

Caution.--An ordinary case of scarlet fever does not need much medicine.
Nursing and care are essential. Even the slightest case should be watched.
There is always danger of the eyes, ears and kidneys becoming affected. If
the child complains of pain in the head the ear must be examined. If the
urine passed is small in quantity, or if there are any signs of dropsy,
treatment must be given at once. You have heard very much lately about the
sting of the honey bee for rheumatism. I often use a preparation of this
for the kidney troubles in scarlet fever. The name is Apis Mel. I use the
second or third homeopathic attenuation in tablet form and give one to two
about every two hours. I have found this effective in such cases where the
urine is small in quantity, and there is some dropsy. The lightest cases
can have dropsy, especially if special care is not taken when scaling goes
on.

I was once attending three children for scarlet fever. The one that had it
in a mild form became affected with dropsy. For this I steamed her. In her
case I placed her in a cane-seated chair, pinned a blanket tightly around
her so as to thoroughly cover her, put a pail of cool water under her
chair and dropped into the pail a hot baked brick. The hot brick caused
steam to rise from the water and enveloped the child, producing sweating.
This was done frequently, and the child considered it a joke, but it
relieved her of the bloat. It was in the country and these crude means
produced the desired result. By attaching a rubber tube to a steaming
kettle and introducing the steam under the covering the same result can be
produced. Sometimes you may not have all things you wish, then you must
make use of what is handy. You would be surprised perhaps to know how much
can be done to relieve sickness by what can be found in every house. (For
disinfectants see chapter on nursing.)

[176 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]


MEASLES.--Measles is an acute infectious disease, distinguished by a
characteristic eruption on the mucous membranes and skin. It is very
contagious and spreads through the atmosphere. Almost everyone is
susceptible to measles and suffers at least one attack. The disease is not
frequent during the first year of life. It prevails in all countries.

Incubation.--This varies from thirteen to fifteen days. In calculating
this period we include the time from exposure to the appearance of the
eruption. One attack generally protects the person from another attack.
The period of the greatest danger of taking it extends through the period
of the eruption. It diminishes as the eruption fades. From this we learn
that the infection in measles takes place generally in the incubation
stage.

Symptoms and Description of Ordinary Type.--The first symptoms may be only
a headache or a slight disturbance of the stomach. There may be some fever
in the evening. There is now a redness and watery condition of the eyes,
and general feeling of weariness. The cold symptoms (coryza) are not yet
marked, but if we look in the mouth we may see a few spots on the mucous
membrane of the cheek. Then follow the sneezing, running at the nose, sore
and red eyes; running water, sensitiveness to the light, cough and fever.
The eruption now appears, and is first noticed on the side of the head and
the wings of the nose, as a red spotted eruption, which soon looks like a
pimple, and then "blotchy." Older people feel quite sick. The aching all
over, and headache are sometimes almost unbearable, especially when there
is much coughing. The face, eyes and scalp are soon covered by the red
rose irregularly shaped pimples, which next appear rapidly on the back of
the hands, fore-arms, front of the trunk, on the back and lower
extremities. This order is not always maintained. Sometimes it first
appears on the back.

The eruptive stage generally lasts three or four days, during which time
the symptoms are all aggravated, especially by any strong light, on
account of the sore eyes for the measles are also in them. We have active
cold symptoms like sneezing, running at the nose, snorting, snuffling,
hawking. The cough is terribly severe, annoying, making the lungs and
stomach very sore. The head feels as if it would split. The patient holds
his chest and "stomach" while coughing. Symptoms of acute bronchitis
develop. Sometimes there is much diarrhea. Pneumonia often develops
through carelessness. The fever reaches its height when the eruption is
fully developed. The eruption fades after it has been out for three or
four days, and then all the symptoms decrease, the fever lessens and
becomes normal by gradual morning remissions. Scaling begins when the
pinkish hue of the rash has disappeared and continues until the last
vestige of reddish spots has disappeared. As a rule it is completed in two
to four weeks after the first eruption has appeared. Sometimes the scaling
is difficult to see, but it is never absent in measles: It is best seen on
the front part of the chest, shoulders, and the inner surface of the
thighs. The temperature may reach 104 to 105-8/10 without complications.
This description gives a picture of a typical case. The eruption that
appears in the mucous membrane of the mouth appears three to four days
before the skin rash. It is accompanied by redness of the pharynx and of
the front and back pillars of the fauces. The soft palate is studded with
irregular shaped, rose colored spots or streaks and the hard palate
presents small whitish vesicles. They are also found on the colored mucous
membrane of the cheeks and on that opposite the gums of the upper and
lower teeth. The rash of measles is a characteristic eruption of rose
colored or purple colored papules (pimples). As a rule the whole face is
covered with the eruption and is swollen. Diphtheria may complicate
measles. Bronchitis and brancho-pneumonia also may occur, especially if
the patient is careless and takes cold. Diarrhea is frequently present.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 177]

Eyes.--Following severe cases fear of light, spasm of the orbicularis
muscle, inflammation of the lachrymal duct, conjunctivitis, ulceration of
the cornea and amaurosis (general blindness) may result. Hence the
necessity of careful attention to the eyes. Never read anything during the
attack of the measles. The ear may also become afflicted. There are other
complications, but these mentioned are the important ones.

Mortality in Measles.--The mortality in childhood and infancy is about
eight per cent. Mortality is greatest for number of cases during the first
year. Six per cent between fifth and eighth years.

Diagnosis.--Presents few difficulties in a typical case. The mode of onset
is cold symptoms of the nose and eye, cough; appearance of the mouth,
throat and the blotchy eruptions are very characteristic.

Treatment. Prevention.--As soon as you know it to be the measles, separate
the case and put the patient in a well-aired room where you can have air
without a draft and where the room can be made and kept dark. Those
persons who must go in the room should put over them a linen robe, and
hang it outside of the sick room. It should thoroughly cover them. When
not in use hang it in the open air. An attendant who wears a beard should
disinfect his beard, face, head and hands before mingling with the well.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--1. Measles, Lemon Remedy from a Canadian
Mother.--"Give child all cold lemonade it can drink and keep in warm room.
This acts just as well as if the drinks are hot. We tried both on our
children and cured both ways." Don't give so much of the cold as to chill.
The cold drink makes child sweat, just as hot does. Also helps to carry
off impurities by flushing bowels, just as clear water would.

2. Measles, Elder Blossom Tea to Drive Out.--"Elder blossom tea is good
for a cold or fever. Gather the blossoms, and make a tea. Pleasant to
take. Sweeten if desired. This is also good to drive out the measles."
This remedy should be taken warm and is especially good to bring out the
rash in children. Take a teaspoonful every hour.

[178 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

General Treatment.--An ordinary case of measles does not need much
treatment. If the patient has a high fever and is very hot and restless,
bathe with tepid or cool water every two or three hours, till the patient
becomes quite restful. Sometimes they have too much covering and that
makes them hot and restless. Remove a little at a time. Bathing will not
hurt the rash, for it can be done under the clothes and without any danger
to the patient.

Cold Drinks.--These are refreshing and beneficial, if not given too
freely. One-third of a glass of water is enough at one time, but it can be
given often, if it does not chill the patient. After the feverish days
have passed, diluted milk or plain milk can be given in greater amount.

Cough in Measles.--It is likely to be severe, straining and barking and
hard to relieve. If it is too severe you can give, for a child one year
old:

    Acetanelid       1/2 dram
    Dover's Powder   1/2 dram

Mix and make into thirty powders.

Give one-half powder every two hours when awake or restless.

2. For a child two years old:

    Paregoric       2 to 5 drops
    Syrup Ipecac    3 drops

Mix.

Give every three hours, according to age, one to three hours for a child
two years old.

3. For Irritation of the Skin.--Sponge once a day with water at 100
degrees F. containing a little alcohol or a pinch of sodium bicarbonate or
soda.

4. For Scaling.--Use ointment of benzoinated lard, combined with five per
cent of boric acid.

Diet.--The food should be light; milk, broths, and when the fever is gone
chicken and soft boiled eggs, jelly, toasted bread, crackers, cereals,
with cocoa for drink. Orange juice or lemon juice may be given in
moderation. Milk, one pint per day for every fifty pounds in weight of the
patient, during a fever sickness, is a safe and liberal allowance. Smaller
children in proportion. Mothers will be apt to give too much and it may
then prevent rest and steep. When the fever subsides you can give more
milk and some of the above foods. Water, as before stated, can be given
for the thirst quite frequently.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 179]

Teas.--The laity gives lots of these to bring out the rash. It seems to me
before the rash is out the patient is feverish and chilly and the skin is
dry, and a small amount of tea given every hour or two might do good
unless the patient is made warmer. There are many varieties given. Elder
blossom seems to have the call. For some time after the patient is well he
may be bothered with a cough; it better be looked after if it continues,
for there might be bronchitis or some lung trouble left and unknown.

Caution.--A person who has had the measles or German measles, should be
very careful about taking cold, for if they do they are liable to have
serious trouble, especially in the chest. It is very easy to take
bronchitis or pneumonia during and after an attack of measles. The mucous
membrane of these parts is left somewhat swollen and it remains
susceptible to disease for some time. "An ounce of prevention is worth a
pound of cure." Remain in the house three or four days longer than may
seem necessary and you will be paid for so doing by having good bronchial
tubes and lungs,--as good as before if you were careful during the attack.



GERMAN MEASLES.--This is an acute self-limited disease and contagious. It
has a mild fever, watery eyes, cough, sore throat and enlargement of the
glands of the neck, not seen in the common measles. It has an eruption
that may come the first day to the fourth.

Incubation Period Runs.--From fifteen to twenty days.

Rash.--Just before the rash appears there is a headache, nausea and
irritation of the bronchial tubes. The eruption is so similar to that of
measles at the outset that it is hard to differentiate between them. The
eruption in the mouth, however, is not so characteristic. Before the
appearance of the eruption, the glands on the back of the neck and angles
of the jaw may be enlarged. At the time of its appearance the glands in
the armpits and groin become enlarged to the size of a bean and bigger,
and they remain enlarged for weeks after the eruption has disappeared.

Treatment.--Similar to the measles if any is needed.

CHICKEN POX (Varicella).--This is an acute infectious disease,
characterized by a peculiar eruption. Children are the ones usually
attacked. It generally occurs before the tenth year. It is transmitted
through the atmosphere. The period of coming on is usually fourteen days,
but it may extend to nineteen days. It is perhaps the simplest and mildest
disease of childhood. It occurs but once, is contagious, is very common,
and resembles varioloid. It has a mild light fever and large vesicles
almost the size of a split pea, scattered over the body. There may be few
and there may be hundreds. They are reddish gray and appear first on the
head and face, then on the body, one crop following another on the body.
They are filled at first with a clear liquid, which soon turns yellowish,
then breaks and dries up. They leave no scar unless they are scratched or
are very large. The patient is usually well in a week, but the scars last
longer.

MOTHER'S REMEDY.--1. Chicken Pox, Catnip Tea and Soda Water for.--"Put
the patient to bed and give catnip tea. A daily bath of saleratus water is
good and the bowels should be kept open." One of the most essential things
is to keep the patient warm.

[180 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT FOR CHICKEN POX.--Exclude other children. The child
should be lightly fed and on ordinary food. Large vesicles on the face,
when yellow, should be pricked with a needle that has been boiled, then
wash them with a disinfecting lotion twice daily.

The following is a good lotion:

    Boric Acid       1/2 ounce (4 teaspoonfuls)
    Boiled Water       1 pint

Mix thoroughly and use twice a day on the eruption.

The child should not pick the sores on his face, as this may cause delay
in healing and leave a mark.

MUMPS (Parotitis).--This is an acute infectious disease of one or both of
the parotid glands, located at the angle of the jaw, and extending up to
the ear, and, also, to other salivary glands. It appears only once. One
attack gives immunity. It may come at any age; but appears mostly before
the age of fifteen. It comes on one side first and may pass over to the
other side in a few days, as it usually does, and gives the face a broad
appearance, under the ears, or ear, and makes chewing and swallowing
almost impossible. There is no soreness of the throat in mumps. In
well-marked cases there is considerable fever and pain. It may last from a
few days to a week. The usual length of time the disease lasts is one
week. There is no tendency to form pus, even when the face is very hard
and swollen and tender. It will occasionally leave the face and appear in
the breasts and ovaries in the females or in the testicles of the males,
and in both places it causes much pain.

Treatment.--The patient should be kept in the house and isolated in bed as
long as the symptoms last. When there is much pain, laudanum diluted
one-third with water may be applied continually with a soft warm cloth.
Oil of hyoscyamus applied twice daily to the sore parts is good if
laudanum is not used. When the swelling goes down I know of nothing as
good as a hot bean poultice, which must be changed often so as to keep
hot. Bean poultice.--Simply boil the beans in water until they are soft
and thick enough to use as a poultice. The bowels should be kept open with
salts. The food must be liquid, such as milk, soups and gruels. If there
is not much fever, soft boiled eggs and milk toast from the beginning. Do
not use vinegar, acids or astringents.


[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 181]

WHOOPING-COUGH (Pertussis).--Whooping cough is an acute specific
infectious, disease caused by a micro-organism. It is characterized in a
majority of cases by a spasmodic cough, accompanied by a so-called whoop.
It is not only infectious, but very contagious. It is propagated through
the atmosphere in schools and public places; the air of which is
contaminated with the specific agent of the disease. This agent is thought
to reside in the sputum and the secretions of the nose and air passages of
the patient. It is very contagious at the height of the attack. The sputum
of the first or catarrhal stage is thought to be highly contagious. The
sputum in the stage of decline is also thought to be capable of carrying
the disease. It prevails in all countries and climates. During the winter
and spring months it is most frequent. At times it prevails as an
epidemic. It occurs most frequently in infancy and childhood, but a person
can take it at any age. Second attacks are rare. It is most frequent
between the first and second year; next most frequent between the sixth
and twelfth month. After the fifth year the frequency diminishes up to the
tenth year, after which the disease is very infrequent. Not everyone who
is exposed contracts the disease. It seems that whooping-cough, measles,
and influenza frequently follow one another in epidemic form. This is one
of the diseases much dreaded by parents. It is very tedious and endangers
the life of weak and young children by exhaustion. It is a terrible thing
to watch one with this disease, day in and day out. It can be known by the
impetuous, continuous and frequent coughing spells, following each other
rapidly until the patient is out of breath, with a tendency to end in
vomiting. When it comes in the fall or winter months there will likely be
spasmodic coughing until summer through the usual colds contracted. Summer
is the best time to have it.

Symptoms.--There is an incubation stage, but it is hard to determine its
length. After the appearance of the symptoms there are three stages; the
catarrhal, the spasmodic, and the stage of decline.

The First Stage.--This is characterized by a cough which is more
troublesome at night. One can be suspicious, when instead of getting
better in a few days, it gets worse and more frequent, without any seeming
cause. After four or five days the cough may be accompanied by vomiting,
especially if the cough occurs after eating. There may be some bronchitis,
and if so there will be one or more degrees of fever. Fever is present as
a rule, only during the first few days, unless there is bronchitis. As the
case passes into the spasmodic or second stage, the paroxysms of coughing
last longer, the child becomes red in the face and spits up a larger
amount of mucus than in ordinary bronchitis. This period of the cough
without a whoop, may last from five to twelve days. In some cases there is
never a whoop. The child has a severe spasmodic cough, followed by
vomiting. Usually at the close of this stage the incessant cough causes
slight puffiness of the eyelids and slight bloating of the face.

[182 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Spasmodic or Second Stage.--The peculiar whoop is now present. The cough
is spasmodic. The child has distinct paroxysms of coughing which begin
with an inspiration (in-breathing) followed by several expulsive,
explosive coughs, after which there is a deep, long-drawn inspiration
which is characterized by a loud crowing called the "whoop." This paroxysm
may be followed by a number of similar ones. When the paroxysm is coming
on the face assumes an anxious expression, and the child runs to the
nearest person or to some article of furniture and grasps him or it with
both hands. It is so severe sometimes that the child will fall or claw the
air, convulsively. In the severest and most dangerous types, a convulsion
may come on in a moderate degree, the face is red or livid, the eyes bulge
and when the paroxysm ends a quantity of sticky tenacious mucus is spit
up. In other cases there is vomiting at the end of the paroxysm. There is
frequently nose-bleed. In the intervals the face is pale or bluish,
eyelids are puffy and face swollen. There is little bronchitis at this
period in the majority of cases. In some cases the number of paroxysms may
be few. There are generally quite a number during the twenty-four hours.

Stage of the Decline.--In this stage the number and severity or the
paroxysms lessen. They may subside suddenly or gradually after four to
twelve weeks. The whoop may reappear at times. The cough may persist, more
or less, for weeks after the whoop is entirely gone.

Complications.--Bronchitis is common, it may be mild or severe. It may run
into capillary bronchitis and this is dangerous.

Diagnosis.--Continued cough, getting worse and spasmodic, worse at night,
livid face when coughing, causes great suspicion as to its being
whooping-cough. The whoop will confirm it.

Mortality is quoted as twenty-five per cent during the first year. Between
first and fifth year about five per cent, from fifth to tenth year about
one per cent. Rickets, or wasting disease (marasmus) and poor hygienic
surroundings makes the outlook less favorable.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. 1. Whooping-Cough, Chestnut Leaves for.--"Steep
chestnut leaves, strain, add sugar according to amount of juice and boil
down to a syrup; give plenty of this. A friend of mine gave this to her
children. She said they recovered rapidly and the cough was not severe."
They are not the horse-chestnut leaves.

2. Whooping-Cough, Chestnut Leaves and Cream for.--"Make an infusion of
dry chestnut leaves, not too strong, season with cream and sugar, if
desired. The leaves can be purchased at a drug store in five cent
packages."

3. Whooping-Cough, Mrs. Warren's Remedy for.--

    "Powdered Alum         1/2 dram
    Mucilage Acacia          1 ounce
    Syrup Squills          1/2 ounce
    Syrup Simple, q. s       4 ounces

Mix this.

This is one of the best remedies known to use for whooping cough. It has
been used for many years, and some of our best doctors use it in their
practice. I do not hesitate to recommend it as a splendid remedy."

4. Whooping-Cough, Raspberry Tincture for.--"Take one-half pound honey,
one cup water; let these boil, take off scum; pour boiling hot upon
one-half ounce lobelia herb and one-half ounce cloves; mix well, then
strain and add one gill raspberry vinegar. Take from one teaspoonful to a
dessertspoonful four times a day. Pleasant to take."

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 183]


PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Whooping-Cough.--The patient should be isolated
and sleep in a large, well ventilated room. In spring and summer weather,
the child is better in the open air all day. In the winter the child
should be warmly clothed. Pine wood and a fairly high altitude are
probably the best. The greatest care should be taken in all seasons to
keep from taking cold, or bad bronchitis or pneumonia may result. All
complications are serious, especially in nursing children. There should be
no appreciable fever, and when the paroxysm of cough is over the child
should sleep or play quite well, until the next one returns. So if there
is much fever the case needs watching.

Medical Treatment.--Medicines have little effect in controlling the
disease. The severity can be lessened. If the child is much disturbed at
night, the following is good:

1.    Acetanelid       1/2 dram
      Dover's Powder   1/2 dram

Mix thoroughly and make up into thirty powders; for one year old one-half
a powder every two hours while awake or restless.

2.    Syrup of Dover's Powder         1 fluid dram
      Tincture of Aconite            10 drops
      Simple Syrup enough to make   two ounces.

Mix and give one-half teaspoonful every two hours for a child one year
old. Shake bottle.

3. But the best treatment I know is the following: Go to any good drug
store and get a fifty-cent bottle of vapo-cresolene. Burn this, according
to the directions given on the bottle in the evening. Use a small granite
cup, put about one-third of an inch of the medicine in this, set cup on a
wire frame above a lamp, (can buy a regular lamp with the medicine) close
windows and let the child inhale the fumes. This will give the patient a
good night's sleep. I have used this for years, and know it is good and
effective. A tea made of chestnut leaves is said to be good, and is often
used as a home remedy. The leaves of the chestnut that we eat, not the
horse-chestnut.

Diet.--This is an extremely important part of the treatment. As the child
vomits frequently, especially after eating, the food is generally vomited,
so there should be frequent feeding in small quantities. The food should
be digestible and nourishing. Milk is a good food for older children. In
nursing infants they should be nursed oftener, especially if they vomit
soon after nursing. In older children, you must not feed too heavy and
hearty foods; meat and potatoes should not be given to young children
having the disease. When vomiting is severe the food should be fluid and
given often. The child must be nourished. If this disease occurs in the
winter the person attacked, after he is seemingly well, must be careful
not to take cold. The condition of the mucous membrane of the air tube
after an attack of this disease, makes it very easy for the person to
contract inflammation of that part and have in consequence laryngitis,
bronchitis, or pneumonia. Thc cough in very many cases will last all
winter without any additional cold being added.

[184 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

DIPHTHERIA.--Diphtheria is an acute disease and always infectious. There
is a peculiar membrane which forms on the tonsils, uvula, soft palate and
throat and sometimes in the larynx and nose. It may form in other places
such as in the vagina, bowels, on wounds or sores of the skin. I once cut
off the fingers for a child under the care of another doctor. The child
came down with diphtheria, and the membrane formed on the fingers. Also it
is often epidemic in the cold autumn months. Its severity varies with
different epidemics. Children from two to fifteen years old are most
frequently attacked with it. Catarrhal inflammations of the respiratory
mucous membrane predisposes to it.

Cause.--The exciting cause is a bacillus called after the
discoverers--Klebs-Loeffler--and this may be communicated directly to
another person from the membrane or discharges from the nose and mouth,
secretions of convalescents, or from the throat of normal persons. The
local condition (lesion) may be a simple catarrhal inflammation, or a
greenish or gray exudate, involving chiefly the tonsils, pharynx, soft
palate, nose, larynx and trachea, less often the conjunctiva and
alimentary tract. It is firmly adherent at first and leaves a bleeding
surface when detached; later it is soft and can be removed.

Symptoms.--Incubation period usually lasts from two to seven days after
exposure, usually two, generally there is chilliness, sometimes
convulsions in young children, pain in the back and extremities and a
fever of 102-1/2 to 104 degrees.

PHARYNGEAL DIPHTHERIA.--In typical cases this begins with slight
difficulty in swallowing, and reddened throat (pharynx), then there is a
general congestion of these parts, and membrane is seen on the tonsils. It
is grayish white, then dull or yellowish; adherent and when removed it
leaves a bleeding surface upon which a fresh membrane quickly forms. If
the disease runs on, in a few days the membrane covers the tonsils and
pillars of the fauces, often the uvula. The glands around the neck often
enlarge. Temperature 102 to 103 degrees. Pulse 100 to 120. The
constitutional symptoms are usually in proportion to the local condition,
but not always. The membrane frequently extends into the nostrils and
frequently there is a burning discharge. In malignant cases all the
symptoms are severe and rapidly progressive ending in stupor and death in
three to five days. Death may occur from sudden heart failure or
complications.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 185]

[Illustration: Diphtheria (view of infected throat)]

LARYNGEAL DIPHTHERIA, Formerly Called Membranous Croup.--Diphtheria in
the larynx may occur alone or with the pharyngeal kind, and was formerly
called "Membranous Croup." After several days of hoarseness and coughing
the breathing suddenly becomes hard, generally at night, and it is at
first in paroxysms, but later it is constant. The space above the breast
bone (sternum) is depressed and there is a drawing in of the spaces
between the ribs during inspiration accompanied with a husky voice and
blue look. The fever is slight. If the obstruction in the larynx is severe
the cyanosis,--blueness,--and difficulty of breathing increase, and
gradual suffocation leads to (coma) deep sleep and death.

Diagnosis.--Diagnosis can only be made certain by proper chemical tests.
The presence of membrane on a tonsil and a small patch streak, or speck of
membrane, on the adjacent surface of the uvula or tip of the uvula; a
patch of membrane on the tonsil and an accompanying patch on the posterior
wall of the pharynx; the presence of a croupy cough and harsh breathing
with small patches of membrane on the tonsil or epiglottis. These symptoms
are very suspicious and warrant separation of the patient. If such
conditions are seen in any one, it will be the part of prudence to send
for your doctor immediately. You give the patient a better chance by
sending early, protect yourselves and also your neighbors.

Recovery.--Chances in mild cases are good. Antitoxin has brought the death
rate down from forty to twelve per cent. Death may occur from sudden heart
failure, obstruction in the pharynx, severe infection, complications or
paralysis.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--Diphtheria is such a dangerous disease and so rapidly
fatal that the family physician should be promptly called. Until he
arrives the following may be used to give some relief:

2. Diphtheria, Kerosene Good for.--"Kerosene oil applied to the throat of
child or adult is very good."

3. Diphtheria, Hops and Hot Water Relieves.--"Make two flannel bags and
fill with hops which have been moistened with hot water; place bags in a
steamer and heat. Keep one bag hot and the other around the throat. Change
often, relief in short time." Mrs. Shaw has tried this in a case of
diphtheria and other throat trouble and recommends it as an excellent
remedy.

[186 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Diphtheria. Prevention.--The patient should be
isolated as soon as the spots or membrane are seen. Other children who
have been with the sick one should at once be given "immunizing" doses of
antitoxin, and the furniture of the sick room such as hangings, carpets.
rugs, etc., should be removed and disinfected, only the necessary articles
being kept in the room. The room should be kept well ventilated, but no
draught should get to the patient. The one nursing the patient should not
come near the other members of the family. All articles of clothing worn
by the patient should be dipped in a 1 to 2000 solution of corrosive
sublimate before they are removed from the sick room. (Other solutions may
be used; see Nursing Department). Dishes, etc., should be treated in the
same way and foods left over should be put in a vessel containing an
antiseptic solution, and then burned. Everyone going into the sick room
should cover their head with a cap and wear a robe-covering over their
clothes, and on leaving the room should gargle or rinse their mouth with a
solution of boric acid, about one or two teaspoonfuls to a glass of water,
The infant should not be nursed at the breast lest the breast become
infected; the milk should be pumped out and fed to the infant with a
bottle. If the infant has diarrhea milk must be stopped, the bowels
irrigated, and no milk given until all danger from this source is past.
The nurse must be careful of the discharges from the nose, mouth and
bowels. Discharges from the bowels and the urine must be received in a
vessel with an antiseptic solution in it like copperas, lime, etc. Cloths
used to receive the discharge from the nose and mouth should be thrown in
a vessel containing a solution of 1 to 2000 of corrosive sublimate and
then burned. The nurse should wear a gauze protection over her nose and
mouth when she is near the patient, and glasses, so that no sputum or
discharge from the patient can enter these organs. When the nurse leaves
the sick room for a rest or walk, she should change her clothes in an
unused room and put them where they can air, wash her hands, face and hair
in an antiseptic solution. Great care must be taken by the nurse, or she
will carry the disease. The doctor also must take the same care.

PHYSICIANS' MEDICAL TREATMENT.--Antitoxin is the best. 1/100 grain of
corrosive sublimate or more according to age is frequently given in the
severe cases and is beneficial.

Local Treatment.--In older persons, inhaling steam may benefit. Gargling
the throat or spraying the nose and throat is cleansing and helpful; but
in children it is sometimes hard to do this, for they may struggle and
thus injure and weaken themselves more than they can be benefited by the
spraying or gargling. Swab the throat if you can with solution of
corrosive sublimate, 1 to 1000. Peroxide of hydrogen, one-sixth to one-
half to full strength, is good in many cases, used as a gargle and a swab.
Wash out the nose with a normal salt solution. One dram to a pint of
water. The persons doing this must take great care or the patient will
cough and the discharge will go over them.

When in the Larynx.--Steam inhalations without or with medicine in them
and the application of cold or hot to the neck are good. Compound tincture
of benzoin is good to use in the water for steaming; one-half to one
tablespoonful to a quart of water. A tent can be made by putting a sheet
over the four posts of the bed and steam vapor introduced under this
covering.

Diet.--The main food is milk, albumin water, broths, eggs given every two
hours. Some doctors give stimulants with the food.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 187]

Cautions.--Members of the family have no idea how much they can aid the
physician in this terrible disease. Pay particular attention  to the
directions the doctor gives you, if you are doing the nursing, watch so
that you may detect any bad symptom, and immediately inform the physician.
A harsh cough with increased difficulty in breathing may mean that the
disease has extended to the larynx. If such symptoms are first noticed in
the physician's absence, he should be sent for at once so he can treat it
properly at the start. If the kidneys do not act properly he should be
informed. One may take nephritis in diphtheria also. I was called one
morning at 3 a. m., to see a case I was attending; she seemed to the
parents to be worse; she was, but today she is living, and I believe her
life was really saved by her parents. I would rather a loving mother and
father nurse a case any time than a selfish, lazy professional nurse. Good
nurses are a blessing; selfish ones are a curse; I have met both kinds.
After an attack of this disease the patient is left "weak" in many organs.
He should be careful, not only of taking cold, but of over-doing. The
heart and nervous system in some cases have been terribly wrecked. Take
life easy for some time, for you may be thankful that you are alive.

ACUTE TONSILITIS. (Follicular Inflammation of the Tonsils). Causes.--
Authors regard this as an infectious disease. It is met with more
frequently in the young; infants may take it. Some authors state it can be
communicated either through the secretions or by direct contact, as in the
act of kissing (Koplik). It is frequent in children from the second to the
fourth year, but it is more common after than before the fourth year. Sex
has no influence. In this country it is more common in the spring. The
predisposing causes are exposure to wet and cold and bad hygienic
surroundings. One attack renders a person more susceptible. It spreads
through a family in such a way that it must be regarded as contagious. The
small openings (Lacunae) of the tonsils become filled with products which
form cheesy-looking masses, projecting from the openings of the (Crypts)
hidden sacs. These frequently join together, the intervening tissue is
usually swollen, deep red in color and sometimes a membrane forms on it in
which case it may look like diphtheria.

[188 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Symptoms.--Chilly feelings or even a chill and aching pains in the back
and limbs may precede the onset. The fever rises rapidly and in the young
child may reach 105 degrees in the evening of the first day. The infant is
restless, peevish and wakeful at night; it breathes rapidly, and there is
high fever and great weakness. Nursing is difficult, not only on account
of the pain in swallowing, but because in the majority of cases there is
more or less inflammation of the nose. The bowels are disturbed as a
result of swallowing infectious secretions from the mouth with the food.
The tonsils are enlarged and studded with whitish or yellowish white
points. The glands at the angle of the jaws may be enlarged. In older
children the tonsils are enlarged and the crypts plugged with a creamy
deposit. The surface is covered with a deposit and the pillars of the
fauces, uvula and pharynx may all be inflamed. The tongue is coated, the
breath is bad, the urine high colored, swallowing is painful; the pain
frequently runs to the ear and the voice sounds nasal, as if one had mush
in his mouth when talking. In severe cases the symptoms all increase, and
the parts become very much swollen. Then the inflammation gradually
subsides, and in a week, as a rule, the fever is gone and the local
conditions have greatly improved. The tonsils, though, remain somewhat
swollen. The weakness and general symptoms are often greater than one
would suppose. The trouble may also extend to the middle ear through the
eustachian tubes.

Diagnosis Between Acute Tonsilitis and Diphtheria.--Follicular form. "In
this form the individual, yellowish, gray masses, separated by the reddish
tonsilar tissue are very characteristic, whereas in diphtheria the
membrane is of ashy gray and uniform, not patch."--Osler. A point of the
greatest importance in diphtheria is that the membrane is not limited to
the tonsils, but creeps up the pillars of the fauces or appears on the
uvula. The diphtheric membrane when removed leaves a raw, bleeding, eroded
surface; whereas, the membrane of follicular tonsilitis is easily
separated as there is no raw surface beneath it.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. 1. Tonsilitis, Raw Onion and Pork for.--"Take a raw
onion and some salt pork, chop together, make a poultice on which put a
little turpentine and wrap around the throat." This is a very good remedy
and should be used for some time. Change as often as necessary.

2. Tonsilitis, Peppermint Oil Good for.--"Apply peppermint oil thoroughly
on the outside of the throat from well up behind the ear nearly to the
chin, also just in front of the ear. This will soon penetrate through to
the tonsils; apply freely if the case is severe and later apply hot cloths
if relief does not follow without."

3. Tonsilitis, Borax Water for.--"One-fourth teaspoonful borax in one cup
of hot water, gargle frequently." This may be used for ordinary sore
throat not quite so strong.

4. Tonsilitis, Salt and Pepper Will Relieve.--"Apply salt pork well
covered with pepper to the swollen parts; will often give relief."

5. Tonsilitis, Peroxide of Hydrogen Will Cure.--"Tonsilitis and contagious
sore throats are just now extremely popular. Persons having a tendency to
them will seldom be sick if they gargle daily with a solution of peroxide
of hydrogen and water in equal parts for adults. Peroxide diluted with
five parts of water and used as a head spray will prevent catarrhal
colds." Children, are often sent to school immediately after an attack of
tonsilitis, when they should be at home taking a tonic and building up by
a week of outdoor play.

6. Tonsilitis, a Remedy Effective for.--"Rub the outside of the throat
well with oil of anise and turpentine, and keep the bowels open." Care
should be taken not to take cold. The anise is very soothing and the
turpentine will help to draw out the soreness. This would be a good remedy
for children.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 189]

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Tonsilitis. 1. First Home Treatment.--Put the
patient to bed alone in a pleasant room, comfortably warm; for this
disease is recorded as contagious in this form. Cold applied externally
around the sore spot is good. Use an ice bag if you have it; or wring
cloths out of cold water and put just under the jaw and a flannel over
that, bound around the neck. It must be changed often to keep cold.

2. Smartweed.--Cloths wrung out of smartweed tea are very good when
applied under the jaw.

3. Salt Pork.--Salt pork, well salted and peppered, sewn to a cloth and
applied on both sides, if both are diseased, directly to the lumps is very
good. These can be kept on indefinitely. I have used them.

4. Liniment.--A strong blistering liniment applied externally where the
lumps are is also good. These applications tend to withdraw some of the
blood from the sore tonsils, and of course, that relieves them. There are
many such that can be used. Poultices should not be applied for this form
as they tend to hasten formation of pus.

5. Internally.--Dip your clean moistened finger tip into dry bicarbonate
of soda (baking soda), rub this gently on the sore tonsil and repeat it
every hour. You can also put one teaspoonful of it in one-half glass of
very hot water and gargle if you do not use it locally.

6. Hot Water.--Gargling frequently with very hot water is splendid. If you
wish you can use one teaspoonful of some antiseptic, like listerine, in
it.

7. Thyme.--You can make a tea of the common garden thyme and gargle or
rinse your mouth and throat with it every half to one hour. This is not
only healing and soothing, but it is also antiseptic. This is a
constituent of many of the antiseptic preparations.

8. Steaming With Compound Tincture of Benzoin.--Tincture of benzoin is
splendid. Put one tablespoonful in a quart of hot water and inhale the
steam. Put a sheet over your head and pitcher; or put it in a kettle, and
roll white writing paper into a funnel, tie one part over the spout and
put the other end in your mouth if possible; or you can inhale simple
steam in the same way. I know this is excellent and often recommended;
everyone has it, and it costs literally nothing, except to heat the water.

9. For the Pain.--Dissolve two drams of chloral hydrate in an ounce of
water, use a camel's hair pencil if you have it, or a soft piece of cloth
tied on a smooth stick, and apply directly to the diseased parts. This is
for older persons, relieves the pain very much. There are many other
simple remedies that can be used in this way.

[190 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

10. MEDICINES. Parke, Davis & Co., Anti-Tonsilitis Tablet No. 645 is very
good. This can be bought at any drug store. For a child give one-half a
tablet every two hours for four doses, then every three hours. An adult
can take one to two every one to three hours according to the severity of
the case.

11. Aspirin.--Aspirin is another good remedy; five grains every four hours
for an adult; but used only under doctor's directions.

12. Dr. Hare of Philadelphia, uses 1/200 grain mercurius biniodide (pink
powder) every four to six hours to abort tonsilitis. I would recommend the
following:--Give one-tenth drop dose of a good tincture of aconite and
1/200 grain of the mercury biniodide (one to two tablets a dose) every
hour, alternately, one of them one hour and the next, etc. If there is
much deposit I would put ten tablets of mercury protoiodide (one-tenth of
a grain in a tablet) in one-half glass of water and give two teaspoonfuls
every hour until the bowels move freely, then every three to four hours.
The aconite can be used if there is much fever, with hot, dry skin,
alternately everyone-half hour. I prefer the pink powder when there is no
deposit or membrane. These I have used for years, and know them to be
excellent. For children the dose is about one-half. After twelve hours the
remedies should be given only every three to four hours.

QUINSY. (Suppurative Tonsilitis).--In from two to four days the enlarged
gland becomes softer and finally may break, sometimes in the pharynx; the
breaking gives the patient great relief. Suffocation has sometimes
followed the rupture of a large abscess and the entrance of the pus into
the larynx. This form of tonsilitis was formerly called quinsy. By this
term now is meant an abscess around the tonsils, (Peri-tonsilar abscess).
The structures are very much swollen.

Causes are somewhat similar to what has produced the regular tonsilitis.
It may follow exposure to cold and wet, and is very liable to recur. It is
most common between fourteen and twenty-five years. The inflammation here
is more deeply seated. It involves the main tissue of the tonsil and tends
to go on to suppuration.

Symptoms.--The general disturbance is very great. The fever goes to 104 or
105 degrees; the pulse 110 to 120. Delirium at night is not uncommon. The
weakness may be extreme. The throat is dry and sore, hurts terribly to
swallow, this being the first thing of which the patient complains. Both
tonsils may be involved. They become large, firm to the touch, dusky red
and swollen, and the surrounding parts are also much swollen. The swelling
may be so great that the tonsils may touch each other or one tonsil may
push the uvula aside and almost touch the other tonsil. There is much
saliva. The glands of the neck enlarge, the lower jaw is almost immovable
and sometimes it is almost impossible to open the mouth at all.

QUINSY. Mothers' Remedies. 1. Willow Gargle for.--"Steep pussy willow and
gargle throat with it. This remedy if taken in time, will cure quinsy and
it will not return."

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 191]

2. Quinsy, Liveforever Root Good Poultice for.--"Get the root of
liveforever, pound it up and bind on throat as you would a poultice." We
have tried this, and it has always given relief, if done in time.

3. Quinsy, Plaster of Lard and Salt for.--"Take one tablespoonful lard and
stir into as much table salt as possible making it about like mortar.
Spread on a cloth and apply." Splendid for sore throat and quinsy.

4. Quinsy, Oil of Anise Effective for.--"Rub inside of throat with oil of
anise."

5. Quinsy, Quick Remedy for.--"In severe cases of quinsy where the tonsils
are inflamed and almost meet, a third of a grain of mercury and chalk, or
"gray powder," acts very quickly. Cold compresses used nightly to harden
the throat is very good. At night use a gargle made of a teaspoonful
tincture of cayenne pepper to half pint of water." This remedy is very
good and is sure to give relief.

6. Quinsy, Pleasant Peppermint Application for.--"There is nothing better
for this disease than oil of peppermint applied externally to the neck and
throat." This is an excellent remedy.

7. Quinsy, Kerosene Good for.--"A cloth wet with kerosene oil applied to
the throat is very good; also gargling with kerosene oil." Repeat the
application of the wet cloths every two or three hours.

8. Quinsy, Raw Beef Has Cured.--"Bind raw beefsteak over the tonsils on
one or both sides of the throat as required." The beefsteak acts as a
poultice and counter-irritant, drawing the inflammation out in a short
time. This is very good, and is easily prepared.

9. Quinsy, Easy and Simple Remedy for.--"Strong sulphur water. Broke up
two cases I know."

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Quinsy.--The external applications used should
now be hot. Hot water; hot poultices, cloths wrung out of smartweed hot,
and thyme tea or golden seal teas. The same steaming process and hot water
gargles can be used as given under follicular tonsilitis. But if it
continues the tonsils or tonsil must be opened to save pain and life. Just
as soon as there is suppuration they should be opened. It will feel softer
to the finger touch when ready for opening.

Prevention of Attacks.--By taking care a good many attacks of tonsilitis
can be avoided. A person subject to this trouble must be careful about
taking cold. He should not sit down with wet clothes, or feet, or shoes
that are wet. Girls should wear rubbers and keep dry feet and skirts.
Sleeping in damp unused beds is bad. Putting on underwear that has not
been dried thoroughly and aired, and the use of bedding, pillows, etc., in
the same condition should not be tolerated. Sleeping on the first floor is
generally unhealthy for such persons, for it is generally damp.

[192 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Do not get chilled; wear sufficient clothing. Drying clothes in a kitchen
is an abomination and terrible to one subject to this disease or
rheumatism. You can keep from having it so often by proper care. It is
likely to return, and repeated attacks will cause permanently enlarged
tonsils and they will become so diseased that they, will not only be
annoying, but dangerous to health and life. You will go around with your
mouth open, "talk through your nose." The tonsil must then be removed,
also the adenoids in the throat, to enjoy proper mental and physical
health. Enlarged tonsils with pus in them are a menace to anyone. A person
who has had these troubles should be careful not to expose himself to the
danger of taking cold after an attack.

The parts are still tender and in danger of a return upon the least error
in your daily life. I once had a friend who had a return of tonsilitis
brought on through going out too soon, and the second attack was worse
than the first, a genuine "hummer."

What to do with enlarged tonsils.--Moderate enlargement of the tonsils
giving rise to no symptoms or inconvenience need not be interfered with.
When, however, the enlargement is great, or when with moderate sized
tonsils there are resulting troubles, such as liability to inflammatory
rheumatism attacks, active local treatment will be called for; especially
is this true when the tonsils contain pus and interfere with the
breathing. They should be removed. An anaesthetic is not usually
necessary, as the pain is not severe.



INFLUENZA (La Grippe).--La Grippe is an acute infectious disease caused by
a germ. It may be epidemic, attacking a large number of persons at one
time, or it may continue in the same region for some time and is then
called endemic. It is caused by a germ, discovered by a man named
Pfeiffer.

The Onset.--The onset may be from one to four days and is usually sudden
with a chill and all the symptoms of an active fever due to a general
infection, varying according to the location. If in the organs of
respiration it begins like a severe cold; active fever, severe pains in
the eyes, back, arms, legs, and in the bones; "aches all over" and great
prostration. After the fever subsides there is usually a general sore
feeling. Symptoms of bronchitis, pleurisy or pneumonia may develop. Then
there is the nervous type, generally with a bad headache, neuralgia, pains
in the head, backache, legs and arms ache and prostration. May also have
inflammation of nerves. Then again the stomach and bowels may be the main
seat, for La Grippe has no respect for any organ. We have then symptoms of
acute indigestion with fever, nausea, vomiting, stomach pains or acute
bowel trouble with fever, colicky pain in the abdomen; diarrhea; or we may
have the febrile (fever) type. This may be the only symptom. The fever may
be continuous or remittent, and last several days or several weeks and
often with pains accompanying it.

In all forms convalescence is often gradual on account of the bodily and
mental prostration with general soreness for several days. Many persons
never fully regain their health, especially if they are careless during
the attack, and almost any disease like bronchitis, kidney disease,
pleurisy, pneumonia, etc., may follow.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 193]

LA GRIPPE, Mothers' Remedies.--1. Pepper, Red or Cayenne for.--"Make a tea
of red pepper or cayenne, and take a tablespoonful in a cup of hot water,
drink slowly, before each meal and on retiring. Larger doses in proportion
to the intensity of the disease." Sponging the face, temples and neck with
water as hot as can be borne relieves the headache of la grippe, which is
often very painful and annoying.

2. La Grippe, Easy Remedy for.--"Plenty of good physic with hot teas of
any kind has helped my own family."

3. La Grippe, Pleasant and Effective Remedy for.--"Use the oil of
peppermint freely; rubbing it on the forehead, in front and back of the
ears and each side of the nose. Inhale through each nostril separately. If
the throat is affected pour two or three drops in small dish of hot water.
Invert a funnel over the dish with the small end in the mouth and draw
long breaths. Soak the feet in hot water at bedtime and take a good sweat,
if possible."

4. La Grippe, To Allay Fever in.--"To produce sweating and to act on the
kidneys and to allay restlessness in fever use the following: Lemon juice
and water equal parts, enough to make four ounces; bicarbonate of
potassium, one dram; water, three ounces. Make and keep in separate
solutions to be used in tablespoonful doses several times daily and taken
while effervescing, that is, foaming and bubbling up."

5. La Grippe. Poor Man's Herb Vapor Bath for.--"Give a Turkish or vapor
bath every other day. A pail of hot water, with a hot brick thrown into it
and placed under a cane-seated chair is the poor man's vapor bath. The
patient should be covered. Then take the following herb tea:

    Yarrow      2 ounces
    Vervain     2 ounces
    Mullein     2 ounces
    Boneset     1 ounce
    Red Sage    2 ounces

Add two quarts of water and boil down to three pints; strain, and then add
one ounce fluid extract of ginger; sweeten with honey or syrup; take a
wine glassful three times a day, hot. Keep the bowels open and let the
diet be light."

6. La Grippe, Red Pepper Treatment From Canada for.--"Take a bottle of
alcohol and put enough red peppers in it so that when four drops of this
liquid are put in a half cup of water it tastes strong. This is what I
always break up my grippe with." Peppers thus prepared stimulates and
warms up the stomach and bowels, and increases the circulation.

[194 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for La Grippe.--All discharges from the nose, throat
and lungs should be disinfected, for the disease is contagious. Go to bed
and stay there. You have no business to be around if you value your
health. I am not writing of common cold. A great many people say they have
had this disease when they have not had it. One who has had this disease
is sick enough to go to bed, and there is where he should be. For the
chill a sweat should be produced by putting hot water in fruit jars,
wrapping them and placing them around the patient's feet, legs and body.
Hot tea drinks can be given; hot lemonade, teas made from hoarhound,
ginger, hops and catnip are good.

Corn Sweat.--The corn sweat can be used. Put from ten to twenty-five ears
of corn in a boiler, boil thoroughly until the boiled corn smell appears,
then put the corn ears into five packs, putting from two to five ears in a
pack, according to the age of the patient. Use cloths or towels, but do
not put the ears in contact, wrap the cloth between them. Put one pack to
the feet and one at each side of the hips, and in each armpit. This will
soon cause sweating and restore the external (capillary) circulation. It
will generally produce a grateful sweat. Keep the clothes on the patient.
After the patient has perspired enough you can remove one pack at a time.
Have fresh aired sheets and night dress ready, and after bathing the
patient slowly and carefully under the clothes with tepid water and drying
all of the body put on the new night-dress and sheets. This remedy is also
good for colds and inflammatory diseases of all kinds and when used
carefully and thoroughly is always good. Of course, if there is great
weakness it cannot be used, for it weakens a patient somewhat. I have
saved lives with this sweat, and I know I have cut short many colds and
inflammatory diseases. After the sweat the patient should have enough
covering to keep comfortably warm and care must be taken to keep from the
cold.

Fever.--If the disease goes on and there is high fever, so that the
patient suffers from it, it is better to reduce it by cool sponging than
by the coal tar products like antipyrin, acetanilid, etc. They are
weakening and this is a weakening, prostrating disease. Good, careful cool
sponging generally relieves the excessive fever and restlessness. The
fever does not continue so long in this disease and it is not, therefore,
so harmful. Delirium is present in some cases when the fever is not high.

Irritating Cough.--This can frequently he controlled by steam inhalations
as directed under tonsilitis. You can also put in the steaming water one
teaspoonful to one tablespoonful of compound tincture of benzoin for this
disease. Hoarhound tea can be put in the water and the steam inhaled. If
such measures do not stop the cough, medicine will be needed.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 195]

Sore Throat.--Spraying the throat with a solution of boric acid, one dram
to one pint of hot water, is good. Listerine is good in the same way and
dose.

Bowels.--They should be kept open from the first. Salts are usually handy
and good.

Medicines.--Ten grains Dover's powder at night is good; unless there is
much weakness. Some give quinine, some salol. Quinine, one to two grains,
is given one to three hours. Salol, five grains, every three hours,
especially for the backache.

Aspirin in five-grain doses for an adult every four hours is given very
much now. The bowels should be kept open with salts.

Diet.--Children should take milk if there is no vomiting or diarrhea. If
there is vomiting and diarrhea, give only water or diluted milk, or
nothing if they continue. Water can generally be given.

For adults a good, nourishing diet when convalescence commences is
necessary. During the sickness, milk, eggs,--raw and soft boiled, broths,
soups, milk toast, can be given. A person must be very careful after an
attack of the grip. He should remain in the house for some time, a week
after he is well and thinks he can go out.

TYPHOID FEVER.--Typhoid fever is an acute infectious disease caused by a
(Bacillus) germ, named after the discoverer (Eberth). This germ enters
into the system, as stated below, locates itself in different organs,
especially in the small intestine. It does its worst work in Peyer's
glands, situated in the small intestines. They enlarge, ulcerate, break
down and their structure is cast off into the bowel. This eating goes so
far, in some cases, that it eats through the tissue to the blood vessels
and other bleeding follows. Sometimes it goes through all the coats, the
peritoneal being the last one. If this occurs we have what is called
perforation of the bowel and the peritoneum around this perforation
inflames and there is the dread complication of peritonitis. This is very
fatal, as the patient is weakened from the inroads of weeks of fever and
from the effects of the poison germ. Typhoid fever is also characterized
by its slow (insidious), slyly, creeping onset, peculiar temperature,
bloating of the abdomen, diarrhea, swelling of the spleen, rose-colored
spots and a liability to complications, such as bleeding from the bowels,
peritonitis, bronchitis and pneumonia. Its average duration is three to
four weeks, often longer. In order to take this disease there must first
be the poison germ and then this enters into the system, generally through
water that contains the germ, milk, oysters and other foods, etc.

Cause.--The typhoid bacillus (typhoid). This enters into the alimentary
canal usually through contaminated water or with milk directly infected by
the milk or by water used in washing cans. Also through food to which the
germs are carried from the excreta (discharges) by flies, occasionally
through oysters by freshening.

Filth, improper drainage and poor ventilation favor the preservation of
the bacillus germ and lower the power of resistance in those exposed.

[196 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Time.--It occurs most frequently between August and November and in those
of from fifteen to twenty years of age. The Peyer's patches and solitary
glands of the bowel enlarge, become reddish and are somewhat raised. These
go on and ulcerate until the blood vessels may be eaten into and bleeding
sometimes results, it eats through the bowel, then there is perforation
and peritonitis. The spleen is enlarged, the liver shows changes, the
kidney functions are also deranged.

Symptoms.--The symptoms are variable. The following gives the symptoms in
a typical case:

Incubation.--The period of incubation lasts from eight to fourteen and
sometimes to twenty-three days. During the period the patient feels weak,
is almost unable to work, has chilly feelings, headache and tiring dreams,
does not know what is the matter with him, constipation or diarrhea, has
no appetite, may have some pain in the abdomen which is occasionally
localized in the right lower side. Soreness on deep pressure is often
found there. In some cases there is nosebleed.

First Week.--After the patient is obliged to take to his bed: During the
first week there is in some cases a steady rise in the fever each evening
showing a degree or degree and one-half higher than the preceding evening,
reaching 103 to 104, and each morning showing higher fever than the
preceding morning. The pulse is characteristically low in proportion to
the temperature, being about 100 to 110, full of low tension, often having
double beat. The tongue is coated; there is constipation or diarrhea; the
abdomen is somewhat distended and a little tender to the touch in the
lower right portion. There may be some mental confusion at night.
Bronchitis is often present. The spleen becomes enlarged between the
seventh and tenth day and the eruption usually appears during this period
on the stomach and abdomen.

Second week.--All the symptoms are intensified in the second week, the
fever is always high and the weakening type; the pulse is more frequent;
the headache is replaced by dullness; the bowel symptoms increase and we
have the "pea soup" discharge if there is diarrhea; there is a listless,
dull expression on the face; the tongue is coated in the center, red along
the edges and the tip, becomes dry and sometimes cracked and almost
useless. It is hard to put it out of the mouth, it sticks to the teeth or
lips and curls there, and sometimes the patient allows it to remain partly
out of the mouth. There may be bleeding from the bowels and perforation of
the bowel, producing peritonitis.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 197]

Third week.--The temperature is lower in the morning with a gradual fall;
the emaciation and weakness are marked. Perforation of the bowel or
bleeding may occur. Unfavorable symptoms now include low muttering,
delirium, shakings of the muscles, twitching of the tendons, grasping at
imaginary things, lung complications and heart weakness.

Fourth week.--In a favorable case: The fever gradually falls to normal,
the other symptoms disappear. Death may occur at any time after the second
week from the disease or complications. The convalescence is very gradual
and the appetite is very great.

Special symptoms and variations.--It may come on with a chill sometimes it
is observed by nervous symptoms only.

Walking type.--In this type the patient is able to be around and can walk.
The temperature is as high, but some of the other symptoms are not so
violent. This is a dangerous kind because the patient is able to walk and
thinks it foolish to remain quiet in bed. Walking and being around are
likely to injure the bowels, and there is then more danger of bleeding
from the bowels. A typhoid fever patient should always go to bed and
remain there until he has fully recovered.

Digestive Symptoms.--The tongue is coated, white and moist at first, and
in the second week it becomes red at the tip, and at the edges. Later it
is dry, brown and cracked. The teeth and lips are covered with a brown
material, called sordes.

Diarrhea.--In some cases constipation is prominent, in others diarrhea is
a prominent symptom. Bloating is frequent, and an unfavorable symptom,
when it is excessive. Bleeding from the bowel occurs usually between the
end of the second and the beginning of the fourth week. A sudden feeling
of collapse, and rapid fall of the temperature mark it. It is not always
fatal.

Perforation of the bowel is usually shown by a sudden sharp pain coming in
paroxysms generally localized in the right lower side. The death rate
varies very much; in hospitals it is seven to eight per cent. Unfavorable
symptoms are continued high fever, delirium and hemorrhage. Persons who
are hard drinkers do badly and very many of them die.

TREATMENT. Prevention. Sanitary Care.--Do away with the causes. Keep your
cellars clean; do not have them damp, filthy, and filled with decaying
matter, as these all tend to weaken the system and make you more
susceptible to the poison. In the country, no drainings should come near
the wells or springs. Not all water that looks clear and nice is pure. The
"out-houses" must be kept clean, and emptied at least twice each year. In
the small cities, especially, the water should be boiled during the months
when the supply is limited and the wells are low. If more attention was
paid to our water supply to make certain that it was not contaminated, and
to our foods, especially milk, and to keeping our cellars and drains in a
good clean and dry condition, we would have little typhoid fever.
Carelessness is the real cause of this terrible disease. The milk should
be boiled as well as the water when there is an epidemic of typhoid.

[198 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Sanitary Care of the Household Articles.--Dishes must be isolated, washed,
dried separately and boiled daily. Thermometers must be isolated, kept in
a corrosive sublimate solution one to one thousand, which must be removed
daily. Linen when soiled must be soaked in carbolic acid, one cup of
carbolic acid to twenty of water, for two hours before being sent to the
laundry. Stools must be thoroughly mixed with an equal amount of milk of
lime and allowed to stand for one hour. Urine must be mixed with an equal
amount of carbolic acid, one to twenty, and allowed to stand one hour. Bed
pans, urinals, must be isolated and scalded after each time of using.
Syringes and rectal tubes must be isolated, and the latter boiled after
using. (See Nursing Department). Tubs should be scrubbed daily, canvasses
changed daily and soaked in carbolic acid as the linen is. Hands must be
scrubbed and disinfected after giving tubs or rubbing over typhoid fever
patients. Blankets, mattresses, and pillows must be sterilized after use
in steam sterilizer. I know some people have not all the necessary
conveniences, especially in the country, but the greatest care must be
taken. A professional nurse was once taking care of a very severe case of
typhoid for me. I was continually cautioning her to be more careful of
herself. She did not heed it, and finally took the disease and battled
eight long weeks with it, before there was much improvement. Careful
nursing and a well regulated diet are the essentials in a majority of
cases. Put the patient in a well ventilated room, and confine him to the
bed from the beginning, and have him remain there until well. The woven
wire bed with soft hair mattress, upon which there are two folds of
blanket, combines the two great qualities of a sick bed, smoothness and
elasticity. A rubber cloth should be placed under the sheet. An
intelligent nurse should be in charge; when this is impossible, the
attending physician should write out special instructions, regarding diet,
treatment of the discharges and of the bed linen.

Much of the above on typhoid is from the world-wide authority, Dr. Osler,
and should be-followed in all cases if possible.

Diet and Nursing in Typhoid Fever.--Milk is the most suitable food. Three
pints every twenty-four hours may be given when used alone, diluted with
water or lime-water.

The stools will show if the milk is digested. Peptonized milk, if not
distasteful, may be used. Curds are seen in the stools if too much milk is
given and is undigested. Mutton or chicken broth or beef juice can be
used; fresh vegetable juices can be added to these, instead of milk. The
animal broths are not so good when diarrhea is present. Some patients will
take whey, buttermilk, kumiss, when ordinary milk is distasteful. Thin
barley gruel well strained is an excellent food for this disease. Eggs may
be given, either beaten up in milk or better still, in the form of albumin
water, This is prepared by straining the whites of eggs through a cloth
and mixing them with an equal quantity of water, which may be flavored
with lemon. Water can be given freely; iced tea, barley water, or lemonade
may be used, and there is no objection to weak coffee or cocoa in moderate
quantities. Feed the patient at stated intervals. In mild cases it is well
not to arouse the patient at night. When there is stupor, the patient
should be aroused for food at the regular intervals night and day. Do not
give too much food. I once had a case in which I did not give more than
one quart of liquid food in four weeks, as it distressed her. She made a
good recovery on plenty of water.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 199]

Cold Sponging.--The water may be warm, cool, or ice cold, according to the
height of the fever. A thorough sponge bath should take from fifteen to
twenty minutes. The ice cold sponging is quite as formidable as the full
cold bath, for which there is an unsuperable objection in private
practice.

The Bath.--This should be given under the doctor's directions, and I will
not describe it.

Medical Treatment.--Little medicine is used in hospital practice. Nursing
is the important essential in typhoid fever.

Management of the Convalescent.--An authority writes, My custom has been
not to allow solid food until the temperature has been normal for ten
days. This is, I think, a safe rule, leaning perhaps to the side of
extreme caution; but after all with eggs, milk toast, milk puddings, and
jellies, the patient can take a fairly varied diet. You cannot wait too
long before you give solid foods, particularly meats, They are especially
dangerous. The patient may be allowed to sit up for a short time about the
end of the first week of convalescence, and the period may be prolonged
with a gradual return of strength. He should move about slowly, and when
the weather is favorable should be in the open air as much as possible.
Keep from all excitement. Constipation now should be treated with an
enema. A noticeable diarrhea should restrict the diet to milk and the
patient be confined to the bed. There are many who cannot have a
professional nurse. Good nursing is necessary in typhoid fever. Any
sensible person who is willing to follow directions can do well. But she
must do as the doctor directs.

These are some things you need to do: Look out for bad symptoms; twitching
of the tendons, grasping at imaginary things are bad symptoms. Inform the
doctor and soon. Never allow the patient to sit up in bed. The stool must
be passed lying flat and you must place the bed pan without the patient's
aid. Bleeding may be started by the least exertion. I knew of one woman
who lost her life through necessity of getting up and passing the stool
sitting on a chamber. Bleeding came on suddenly, and before the doctor
could get there she was nearly gone. Cough and sudden pain in the lungs
need prompt attention. I dismissed a boy on one Wednesday as convalescent.
That night it became suddenly cold and he became chilled. The mother sent
for me the next day, and we pulled him through pneumonia. Suppose she had
waited another day? She was not that kind of a mother. Your greatest trial
will come in convalescence, when the patient is so hungry. Be careful or
you will kill the patient by kindness. A minister I knew killed himself by
going against the doctor's orders and eating a hearty dinner. The doctor
was rather profane, and when he went to see the preacher, after the
relapse caused by the dinner, he relieved his mind in no gentle manner.
Again allow no visitors in the sick room or one adjacent. They are an
abomination. Many people are killed by well-intentioned ignoramuses. Do
not whisper; the Lord save the patient who has a whisperer for a nurse. I
cannot urge too strongly proper nursing in this disease. It is an absolute
necessity. A nurse to be successful must have good sense and also must
obey all directions. A diet is a necessity in this disease. The patient
must not move any more than is absolutely necessary for his comfort. He
must never try to help move himself. The muscles of the abdomen must
remain lax and quiet. The danger, I think, is in the bowels. The mucous
covering in the interior is inflamed and ulcerated, and there is always
some danger of the ulceration eating through the coating into the blood
vessels, causing more or less bleeding and even eating the bowel enough to
cause an opening (perforation) and the escape of the bowel contents into
the abdominal cavity causing inflammation of the peritoneum (peritonitis)
and almost certain death. Walking typhoid is dangerous for that reason.
The food must be of such nature that it is all digested. It must not leave
lumps to press upon the sore places in the bowels causing more trouble
there and more diarrhea.

[200 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

TYPHUS FEVER, (Filth Disease).--Typhus fever is an acute, infectious
disease, characterized by a sudden onset, marked nervous symptoms, and
spotted rash and fever ending quickly after two weeks. Also called jail,
camp, hospital, or ship fever. Filth has a great deal to do with its
production. There is no real characteristic symptom except the eruption.

Symptoms.--It generally lasts two weeks. Incubation period of twelve days
or less, marked at times by slight weary feeling. The onset is usually
sudden, by one chill or several, with high fever, headache, pain in back
and legs, prostration, vomiting, and mild and active delirium. Pulse does
not have the double beat, often there is bronchitis.

Eruption.--"This appears on the third to fifth day; the fever remaining
high. During the second week all the symptoms increase and are weakening
with marked delirium and coma vigil" (unconscious, delirious, but with the
eyes open). When death occurs it usually comes at the end of the second
week from exhaustion. Favorable cases terminate at this time by crisis;
the prostration is extreme; but convalescence is rapid.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 201]

Fever.--Sudden onset to even 104 to 105 degrees; steady rise for four or
five days with slight morning remissions; terminating by crisis on the
twelfth to fourteenth day, falling in some cases below normal; in fatal
cases there is a rapid rise to 108 or 109 degrees. The eruption appears on
the abdomen on the third to fifth day.

Treatment like Typhoid.--Mortality, twelve to twenty per cent.

SMALLPOX or Variola.--Smallpox is an acute infectious disease. It has a
sudden onset with a severe period of invasion which is followed by a
falling of the fever, and then the eruption comes out. This eruption
begins as a pimple, then a watery pimple (vesicle) which runs into the pus
pimple (pustule) and then the crust or scab forms. The mucous membrane in
contact with the air may also be affected. Almost all persons exposed, if
not vaccinated, are almost invariably attacked. It is very contagious. It
attacks all ages, but it is particularly fatal to young children.

Cause.--An unknown poison in the contents of the pustules or crusts in
secretion and excretion, apparently, and in the exhalations of the lungs
and skin; one attack does not always confer immunity for life. It is
contagious from an early period. Direct contact does not seem to be
necessary, for it can be carried by one who does not have it.

Symptoms.--Incubation lasts from ten to fourteen days, and is usually
without symptoms. Invasion comes suddenly with one or more chills in
adults, or convulsions in children, with terrible headache, very severe
pain in the back and extremities, vomiting, the temperature rising rapidly
to 103 or 104 degrees.

Eruptions.--This usually appears on the fourth day as small red papules on
the forehead, along the line of the hair and on the wrists, spreading
within twenty-four hours over the face, extremities, trunk and mucous
membrane.

Symptoms of fever diminish with the appearance of the rash, which is most
marked on the face and ripens first there. The papules become hollowed
vesicles and a clear fluid fills them on the fifth or sixth day. They fill
with pus about the eighth day, and their summits become globular, while
the surrounding skin is red, swollen and painful. The general bodily
symptoms again return and the temperature rises for about twenty-four
hours. Drying of the eruption begins the tenth or eleventh day. The
pustules dry, forming crusts, while the swelling of the skin disappears
and the temperature gradually falls. The crusts fall off, leaving scars
only where the true skin has been destroyed.

Confluent form.--All the symptoms are more severe. The eruption runs
together and all the skin is covered.

Varioloid.--This is smallpox modified by vaccination. The invasion may be
sudden and severe. It is usually mild and gradual, but with severe pain in
the back and head. A scanty eruption of papules, often only on the face
and hands, appears on the third or fourth day, with disappearance of
constitutional symptoms.

[202 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Treatment.--Vaccinate the children the second or third month, and all
persons about every six years, and always after exposure to the disease or
during epidemics. Put the patient in a room cleared of all furniture,
carpets, curtains, rugs, etc.; keep the patient thoroughly clean, and the
linen should be frequently changed. The bed clothing should be light.
Disinfect and sterilize everything thoroughly that has been in contact
with the patient. Get a good experienced nurse, and one who has been
around the disease.

Diet.--Give the supporting diet early. During the first stage give milk,
broths of different kinds, albumin water. Relieve the intense thirst by
water and lemonade. When the first (initial) fever subsides and the
patient feels improved, give milk, eggs, chops, steak, or rare roast meat,
bread or toast; vegetables, such as potato, spinach, celery, asparagus
tips, cauliflower tops. When the second fever returns go back to the
liquid diet again, and give regularly and as much as possible every two or
three hours during the day, and every three or four hours during the
night. Milk, plain or peptonized; milk punch, raw eggs, broths, beef
juice. If swallowing is difficult, give food cold and oftener, and in less
quantity. Increase the diet rapidly during convalescence.

Cold drinks should be freely given. Barley water and oatmeal water are
nutritious and palatable. Milk broths, and articles that give no trouble
to digest.

Nursing.--Nursing is the main thing. The bowels should be kept open with
salts. There is no special medicine we can claim will do good. Aconite may
be used for the fever at first, in drop doses every hour for twenty-four
hours. But the least medicine that is given the better it will generally
be.

There is, I believe, something in protecting the ripening papules from the
light. The constant application on the face and hands of lint soaked in
cold water, to which antiseptics such as carbolic acid or bichloride may
be added, is perhaps the most suitable treatment. It is very pleasant for
the patient at least, and for the face it is well to make a mask of lint
which can be covered with oiled silk. When the crusts begin to form, the
chief point is to keep them thoroughly moist, which may be done with oil
or glycerin; vaselin is particularly useful, and at this stage can be
freely used upon the face. It frequently relieves the itching also. For
the odor, which is sometimes so characteristic and disagreeable, the
diluted carbolic acid solutions are probably the best. If the eruption is
abundant on the scalp the hair should be cut short. During, convalescence
frequent bathing is advisable. It should be done daily, using carbolic
soap freely in order to get rid of the crusts and scabs. There is danger
to others as long as the skin is not smooth and clean, and not free from
any trace of scabs. As you must have a physician, I give but little
medical treatment. Nursing is the main thing in this disease.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 203]

General Rules for Disinfection.--The walls, woodwork, and ceiling may be
cleaned by washing with one to one thousand solution of corrosive
sublimate solution, or a five per cent carbolic acid solution, Or by
rubbing with bread if solutions would injure. All dust must be removed.
Plastered walls and ceilings may be white-washed. Woodwork must then be
scrubbed with soap and thoroughly wiped. Then fumigate, at least three
pounds of sulphur should be burned in the room for each 1,000 cubic feet
of space. Placing it in a pan supported in another containing water to
guard against fire. After scrubbing or fumigating, the room and its
contents should be freely aired for several days, admitting sunlight if
possible. All useless articles and badly soiled bedding should be burned.
Such pieces of clothing as will not be injured may be boiled or soaked in
a one to one thousand formaldehyde solution (one ounce of twelve per cent
solution in one gallon of water), or two per cent carbolic acid solution.
Clothing, bedding, etc., may be disinfected in the steam sterilizer.

Hands, Body, etc.--Special outer garments may be worn while in the sick
room and removed, and clothing aired before leaving. Hands of the
attendant should be washed in one to one thousand corrosive sublimate
solution.

Vaccination and Re-vaccination and its Prevention of Smallpox. We quote in
part from an article prepared by the State of Michigan. It is well known
that smallpox can be prevented or modified by vaccination; and a
widespread epidemic of the disease can be attributed only to an equally
widespread ignorance or willfulness concerning smallpox and its prevention
by vaccination and re-vaccination.

A Good Time to be Vaccinated.--Smallpox is usually most prevalent in the
winter and spring months, reaching the highest point in May. The rarity of
smallpox in Michigan for several years led to a feeling of security and to
neglect vaccination, resulting in an increased proportion of inhabitants
not protected by recent vaccination. This made possible a widespread
epidemic. The proper preventive of such an epidemic is general vaccination
and re-vaccination of all persons not recently thus protected. There is no
better settled fact than that vaccination does protect against smallpox.
But after a time the protection is weakened, therefore after a lapse of
five years there should be re-vaccination.

[204 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Why Vaccinate.--Because vaccination is a preventive of all forms of
smallpox, and because by traveling, or by travelers, by articles received
in the mail or from the stores or shops, or other various ways anyone at
any time, may, without knowing it, be exposed to smallpox, it becomes
important so far as possible without injury to health to render every
person incapable of taking the disease. This may be done so perfectly by
vaccination and re-vaccination with genuine bovine vaccine virus that no
question of ordinary expense or trouble should be allowed for a day to
prevent the careful vaccination of every man, woman and child in Michigan,
and the re-vaccination of every one who has not been vaccinated within
five years. It is well established that those who have been properly
vaccinated are far less likely to take smallpox if exposed to it, and that
the very few who have been properly vaccinated and have smallpox have it
in a much milder form and are much less disfigured by it than those who
have not been thus vaccinated. The value of vaccination is illustrated by
the following facts: On March the 13th, 1859, Dr. E. M. Snow, of
Providence, R. 1., found in a cluster of seven houses twenty-five
families, and in these families ten cases of smallpox, all apparently at
about the same stage of the disease. In the same families there were
twenty-one children, who had never been vaccinated. The ten cases and the
remaining members of the families, including the twenty-one children, were
quarantined at home, and the children were all vaccinated and compelled to
remain with the sick. Several other cases of smallpox occurred in the
persons previously exposed, but not one of the twenty-one children
referred to had the slightest touch of the disease.

In Sweden, the average number of deaths in each year from smallpox per
million inhabitants was:

  Before the introduction of vaccination          (1774-1801),  1,973;
  During the period of optional vaccination       (1802-1816),    479;
  And during the period of obligatory vaccination (1817-1877),    189.

Vaccination was introduced in England near the beginning of the nineteenth
century, and since 1853 compulsory vaccination has been attempted. In
England the number of deaths in each year from smallpox per one million
inhabitants was:

At the close of the eighteenth century, 3,000.
             From 1841 to 1853 (average), 304.
             From 1854 to 1863 (average), 171.

Smallpox entirely prevented by re-vaccination.--In the Bavarian army re-
vaccination has been compulsory since 1843. From that date till 1857, not
even a single case of unmodified smallpox occurred, nor a single death
from smallpox. During the year of duty, Dr. Marson, physician of the
London Smallpox Hospital, has never observed a single case of smallpox in
the officers and employees of the hospital, who are re-vaccinated when
they enter the service, and who are constantly exposed to the infection.

"Out of more than 10,000 children vaccinated at Brussels with animal
lymph, from 1865 to 1870, and who went through the terrible epidemic of
smallpox, which in 1870 and 1871 frightened the world, not a single one
was to my knowledge reported as being attacked by  the disease. The same
immunity was shared by those, a much larger number, whom I had
re-vaccinated and who at the same time were living in epidemic
centers."--Dr. Warlemont, of Brussels.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 205]

Who should be Vaccinated.--Everybody, old and young, for his own interest,
and that he may not become a breeding place for the distribution of
smallpox to others, should seek that protection from smallpox which is
afforded by vaccination alone. It is believed that all persons except
those mentioned in the following paragraph may, if the operation is
properly performed, at the proper time, and with pure bovine virus, be
vaccinated with perfect safety to themselves. Even those who have had
smallpox should be vaccinated, for otherwise they may take the disease;
and it seems to be proved that a larger proportion, of those who have
smallpox a second time, die than of those who have the disease after
vaccination.

Who should not be Vaccinated.--Unless exposure to smallpox is believed to
have taken place or likely to take place, teething children, pregnant
women, persons suffering from measles, scarlet fever, erysipelas, or
susceptible to and recently exposed to one of these diseases, persons
suffering with skin diseases or eruption, and in general feeble persons
not in good health, should not be vaccinated. In all cases in which there
is any doubt as to the propriety of vaccinating or postponing vaccination
the judgment of a good physician should be taken. The restriction, as to
vaccinating teething children makes it important that children should be
vaccinated before the teething process has begun, because smallpox is very
much more dangerous than vaccination. Smallpox is exceedingly dangerous to
pregnant women.

When should a person be Vaccinated.--The sooner the better as a rule, and
especially whenever there is much liability of exposure to smallpox.
Children should be vaccinated before they are four months old; those who
have never been vaccinated, should, except teething children, be
vaccinated at once. Because the vaccination often loses its protective
power after a time, those who have been vaccinated but once or twice
should, in order to test and to increase the protective power of the
former vaccination, be vaccinated again, and as often as the vaccination
can be made to work. In general, to insure full protection from smallpox,
one should be vaccinated as often as every five years. It has been found
that of those who have smallpox the proportion of deaths is very much less
among those who have three or four good vaccination scars than among those
who have but one scar.

Vaccination after exposure to Smallpox.--Vaccination as late as the second
day after known exposure to smallpox is believed to have prevented the
smallpox; vaccination the third day after exposure has rendered the
disease much milder than usual, and in a case in Iowa, vaccination on the
seventh or eighth day after exposure to smallpox ran a partial course and
was believed to have modified the attack of smallpox, which, however, it
did not wholly prevent. A recent case in Michigan was vaccinated three
days after exposure, as were also the wife, mother, and two children, both
under five years of age; all vaccinated again six days after the exposure.
The health officer reported as follows: "The results were gratifying.
During the first week of the eruption it was evidently aborting and
without doubt as the result of vaccination eight days before the eruption.
A complete and fine recovery. Certainly an aborted course, with scarcely a
mark left, and not another case in the above family, whom necessity
compelled to occupy the same house, the same rooms, continual contact with
the contagion, scores one more big credit mark for vaccination."

[206 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

With what should one be Vaccinated.--Because the potency of virus depends
largely upon its being fresh, and it is so easy to obtain pure and fresh
bovine virus, and because such bovine virus is efficient it is better in
all cases to use only the pure and fresh bovine virus.

Where should Vaccination be Performed.--In a room or place free from
persons suffering from disease, and from dust which may convey to the
scratched surface germs of any communicable disease; certainly not in or
near a room where there is erysipelas or consumption, nor in the presence
of one who has just come from a person sick with erysipelas, diphtheria,
or scarlet fever.

By whom should one be Vaccinated.--The operation of vaccination should be
performed always by a competent and responsible physician. To try to
vaccinate one's self or one's family is poor economy, for it often results
not only in a waste of money and of time, but in a false and dangerous
feeling of security. To trust to vaccination by nurses and midwives is
equally foolish. A well-educated and experienced physician has the skill,
and the special knowledge necessary to the best judgment on all of the
questions involved, without which the operation may be a failure or worse
than a failure. In work of this kind the best is the cheapest, whatever it
costs.

After Vaccination.--Let the vaccinated place alone. Do not scratch it or
otherwise transfer the virus where it is not wanted. Protect it by a
bandage, or cloth which has been boiled and ironed with a hot iron. Try to
keep the pustule unbroken, as a protection against germs of diseases and
against unnecessary discomfort. A bad sore arm may not be and probably is
not true vaccination, but may be due to lack of care during and after
vaccination to keep out septic germs.

Common appearances after Vaccination.--For a day or two nothing unusual
should appear. A few days after that, if it succeeds regularly, the skin
will become red, then a pimple will form, and on the pimple a little
vesicle or blister which may be plainly seen on the fifth or sixth day. On
the eighth day the blister (vesicle) is, or should be, plump, round,
translucent, pearly white, with a clearly marked edge and a depression in
the center; the skin around it for about half an inch is red and swollen.
This vesicle and the red, inflamed circle about it (called the areola) are
the two points which prove the vaccination to be successful. A rash, and
even a vesicular eruption, sometimes comes on the child's body about the
eighth day, and lasts about a week; he may be feverish, or may remain
quite well. The arm may be red and swollen down as far as the elbow, and
in the adult there will usually be a tender or swollen gland in the
arm-pit, and some disturbance of sleep for several nights. The vesicle
dries up in a few days more, and a crust forms which becomes of a brownish
mahogany color, and falls off from the twentieth to the twenty-fifth day.
In some cases the several appearances described above may be delayed a day
or two. The crust or scab will leave a well-marked, permanent scar.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 207]

What to do during and after Vaccination.--Do nothing to irritate the
eruption, do not pull the scab off, when it drops off throw it in the
fire. When the eruption is at its height show it to the doctor who
performed the vaccination. If it is satisfactory, ask him for a
certificate stating when and by whom you were vaccinated, whether with
bovine or humanized lymph, in how many places and with what result at each
place. When the arm is healed, if the vaccination did not work well, be
vaccinated again as soon as possible, and in the best manner possible.
This will be a test to the protection secured by the former vaccination,
and will itself afford increased protection. Do not be satisfied with less
than four genuine vaccine scars, or with four if it is possible to secure
more than four. This vaccination a second or third time in close
succession is believed to be hardly less important than vaccination the
first time, and hardly less valuable as a protection against smallpox.
Without doubt many persons are living in a false sense of security from
smallpox because at some time in their lives they have had a little sore
on their arm caused by a supposed or real vaccination, or because an
imperfect vaccination failed to work, or because they were successfully
vaccinated, or had the varioloid, or the unmodified smallpox many years
ago. Until smallpox is stamped out throughout the world so that exposure
of the disease shall be practically impossible, the only personal safety
is in such perfect vaccination that one need not fear an exposure to
smallpox through the recklessness of the foolish.

Make a record of your Vaccination.--Do not fail to procure and preserve
the certificate mentioned in the preceding paragraph, and also to make a
personal record of the facts with regard to any vaccination of yourself or
in your family. From it you may sometime learn that it is ten years since
you or some member of your family was vaccinated, when you thought it only
five.

Lives saved from smallpox in Michigan.--Since the State Board of Health
was established, many thousands of people in Michigan have been vaccinated
because of its recommendations; and the statistics of deaths, published by
the Secretary of State, show that at the close of the year 1906, the death
rate from smallpox in Michigan had been so much less than before the board
was established as to indicate that over three thousand lives had been
saved from that loathsome disease. The average death rate per year, for
the five years, 1869-1873, before the board was established, was 8.5 per
100,000 inhabitants, and since the board was established, for the
thirty-three years, 1874-1907, it was only 1.5. Since 1896 an uncommon
mild type of the disease has prevailed very extensively, but the death
rate has been exceedingly low, being for the eleven years, 1897-1907,
slightly less than one death for each 100,000 inhabitants. The great
saving of life from smallpox in civilized countries has been mainly
because of vaccination and revaccination.

[208 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

VACCINATION, Symptoms.--At first a slight irritation at the place of
vaccination. The eruption appears on the third or fourth day as a reddish
pimple surrounded by a reddened surface. On the fifth or sixth day this
pimple becomes a vesicle with a depressed center and filled with clear
contents. It reaches its greatest size on the eighth day. By the tenth day
the contents are pus-like and the surrounding skin is more inflamed and
often quite painful. These symptoms diminish, and by the end of the second
week the pustule has dried to a brownish scab, which falls off between the
twenty-first and twenty-fifth days, and leaves a depressed scar. Fever and
mild constitutional symptoms usually go with the eruption and may last
until about the eighth day.

Reliable lymph points should always be used. Clean the skin near the
insertion of the deltoid muscle on the arm, and with a clean (sterile)
knife or ivory point, a few scratches are made, deep enough to allow a
slight flow of liquid, but no bleeding. The vaccine virus moistened, if
dried on a point, is rubbed into the wound and allowed to dry. A piece of
sterile gauze, or a "shield," is used as a dressing. This shield can be
bought at any drug store. One vaccination may give immunity for ten to
twelve years, but it is better to be vaccinated every six years at least.

DENGUE. Break-bone Fever, Dandy Fever.--This is an acute infectious
disease characterized by pains in the joints and muscles, fever, an
initial reddish swollen eruption and a terminal eruption of variable type.
It occurs in the tropical regions and the warmer portions of the temperate
zone. The disease appears in epidemics, rapidly attacking many persons.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 209]

Symptoms.--Incubation lasts from three to five days without any special
symptoms. The onset is marked with chilly feelings, an active fever with
temperature gradually rising. There is severe pain in the muscles and in
the joints which become red and swollen. There is intense pain in the
eyeballs, head, back and extremities. Face looks flushed, eyes are sunken,
the skin looks flushed and mucous membrane looks red. This is the
beginning rash. The high fever falls quickly after three or four days,
sometimes with sweating, diarrhea or nose bleed. The patient feels stiff
and sore then, but comparatively well. A slight fever returns after two to
four days, although this sometimes remains absent. Pains and eruptions,
like scarlet fever or hives, appear. An attack usually lasts seven to
eight days. Convalescence is often long and slow, with stiffness and pain
in the joints and muscles and great weakness. A relapse may return within
two weeks.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Dengue.--An anti-plague serum is sometimes used,
though with doubtful results. The pain is controlled by doses of morphine
of one-eighth to one-fourth of a grain every four or five hours. Hyoscin,
one hundredth of a grain, is also given for the pain. The high temperature
can be relieved by cold and tepid sponging. Tonics are given during the
convalescence and continued for some time.

CEREBRO-SPINAL MENINGITIS.--This is an acute infectious disease. It comes
in epidemics, when there are many cases, or appears here and there as a
separate case (sporadic). It is caused by a specific organism (germ) and
the disease attacks the membranes of the brain and spinal cord.

Of late years great progress has been made by patient investigation, and a
serum is now prepared for the treatment of this disease. The results of
this treatment are better than the treatments formerly used, and there is
good reason to believe that in a few years this treatment will be as
effective in this disease as antitoxin is in diphtheria.

Cause.--Young adults and children are affected most often. Bad
surroundings and over-exertion are predisposing factors.

Conditions.--There is congestion of the membranes of the brain and spinal
cord which are covered with an exudate confined on the brain, chiefly to
the base.

Symptoms. Ordinary Form.--Incubation is of unknown length and occasionally
marked by want of appetite, headache, and pain in the back. The invasion
is usually sudden, chill, projectile vomiting, throwing forward, severe
headache, pain and rigidity of the back of the neck, pain in various parts
of the body, skin over-sensitive, irritable, and temperature about 102
degrees, with all symptoms of an active fever. Later, pains are very
severe, especially in the head, neck and back; the head is drawn back;
often the back is rigid; the muscles of the neck and back are tender and
attempts to stretch them cause intense pain. The vomiting now is less
prominent. Temperature is extremely irregular, 99 to 105 degrees or more.
Pulse is slow, often 50 to 60, and full and strong at first. The delirium
is of a severe and variable type in common, alternating with partial or
complete coma, the latter predominating toward the close of fatal attacks.
Stimulation of nerve centers causes cross-eyed look, drooping of upper
eyelid, movement of eyeballs unequal, contracted, dilated, or sluggish
pupils; acute and painful hearing, spasmodic contractions of the muscles
followed by paralysis of the face muscles, etc. The disease may last
several hours or several months. Many die within five days. In fatal cases
the patient passes into seemingly deep sleep with symptoms of a very
prostrating and weakening fever, and often retention of urine. Mild cases
occur with only a little fever, headache, stiff muscles of the neck,
discomfort in back and extremities. The malignant type occurs epidemically
or sporadically.

[210 MOTHERS' REMEDIEs]

Malignant type.--Sudden invasion with severe chills, slight rise in
temperature, pain in the back of the neck, headaches, stupor, muscular
spasms, a slow pulse, often purple bleeding, eruption, coma and death
within hours, rather than days. This is a terrible disease, and a
physician is needed from the first. The death rate varies from twenty to
seventy-live per cent. Treatment must be given by a physician. Spinal
meningitis is inflammation of the membrane of the spinal cord along with
the accompanying back and extremity symptoms, while the head remains clear
and free from complications.

MENINGITIS.--This is an inflammation of the membranes covering the brain
alone, and generally commences with fever and severe headaches, with
avoidance of light and noise as these are painful. In some cases we have
delirium, stupor and coma.

Treatment.--Treatment must be given by a physician, but cold applications
to the head and back are generally good. The bowels also must be kept
open.

MENINGITIS. Tubercular, (Basilar Meningitis).--This affection which is
also known as acute hydrocephalus (meaning water on the brain), is
essentially an acute tuberculosis in which the membranes of the brain,
sometimes of the cord bear the brunt of the attack. It is more common in
children than in adults. It is more frequent between the second and fifth
years, than in the first year. It is caused by the tubercular infection,
and follows the usual course of this disease. Ordinary meningitis is rapid
and well defined in its course, with "high fever," severe pains in the
head, intense nervousness, avoidance of light and sound, loss of appetite
and constipation. These symptoms are easily understood and are generally
clearly read by those around the patient. Unfortunately in tubercular
meningitis the clearly defined symptoms are absent in the beginning, and
when the physician is called the condition is dangerous. Usually the
patient complains but little. There is a slight headache, low fever, no
heat in the head, patient is pale most of the time, has little appetite,
vomits occasionally and desires to sleep. He is nervous, stupid and lies
on his side curled up with eyes away from the light. This disease appears
mostly in delicate children, who are poor eaters and fond of books;
usually in those inheriting poor constitutions. The mortality is very
high. Parents who have thin, pale sallow children with dainty appetites,
who frequently complain of headaches and are fond of books, should be
afraid of infection from tuberculosis and make the little ones live in the
open air and keep away from school. But earlier in the lives of these
children care must be taken. A child with that pale, thin, sallow,
delicate face and poor body should be fed with the best of food and live
in the open air. I once had a family who lost their only two babies
through this disease. After the first one died I instructed them carefully
how to treat the second child. However, they loved their child foolishly
and not wisely and fed it everything it wanted, and you know the children
take an advantage of their parents. Give plenty of good, wholesome
digestible food. Dress them comfortably and warm and keep them out in the
open air. No cakes, candy, peanuts or any food that is not nourishing and
easy to digest.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 211]

TUBERCULOSIS. (CONSUMPTION).--Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused
by the bacillus, tuberculosis, and characterized by the formation of
nodules or diffuse masses of new tissue. Man, fowls and cows are chiefly
affected.

Indians, negroes and Irish are very susceptible. The disease is less
common at great altitudes. Dark, poorly ventilated rooms, such as
tenements and factories and the crowding of cities favors infection, as do
in-door life and occupations in which dust must be inhaled. Certain
infections such as measles, whooping-cough, chronic heart, kidney and
liver diseases and inflammation of the air tract are predisposing factors.
Inhalation is the chief mode of transmission. Hereditary transmission is
rare.

Forms. The Lungs.--Consumption. This is caused by a germ. Some have the
form called galloping consumption. This person is attacked suddenly,
wastes away and dies, in a very short time. There is rapid loss of
strength and weight, high fever, night sweats, fast breathing, pains in
the chest, cough and profuse expectoration, and rapid loss of strength.

Ordinary Consumption.--Begins slowly and the patient is not aware of the
danger. He may have loss of appetite, dyspepsia, diarrhea and distress
after meals. He looks pale, is weak and loses flesh. Soon he has a hacking
cough, worse in the morning, with a scanty, glairy sputum. His weight
continues to decrease, his heart is weak and beats faster. He has pain in
his chest below the shoulder blades. He may have a slight bleeding from
the lungs. His cough becomes worse, the expectoration gets thicker and
more profuse, with night sweats, high fever, and shortness of breath. The
eyes are bright; the cheeks are pale or flushed. Chronic looseness of the
bowels may be present. Bleeding from the lungs may occur at any time, but
it is most frequent and profuse during the last stages. The patient
becomes very weak, thin and pale, emaciated. The brain action remains
good, and he remains hopeful almost until the last. Tuberculosis may exist
in almost every part of the body and we have many forms. It is not
necessary to discuss all. It would tend to confusion. I will name the most
of them:

  1. Acute Miliary Tuberculosis.
    (A.) Acute General Miliary Tuberculosis.
    (B.) Pulmonary (lung) type.
    (C.) Tubercular Meningitis.

  2. Tuberculosis of the lymph nodes (glands). This was formerly called
  Scrofula. This is more curable and will be treated more fully elsewhere.

  3. Tuberculous Pleurisy.

  4. Tuberculous Pericarditis.

  5. Tuberculous Peritonitis. (Of this there are a good many cases.)

  6. Tuberculosis of the Larynx.

  7. Acute Pneumonia (Pulmonary Tuberculosis) or "Galloping Consumption."

  8. Chronic Ulcerative Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

  9. Chronic Miliary Tuberculosis.

  10. Tuberculosis of the Alimentary Canal.

  11. Tuberculosis of the Brain.

  12. Tuberculosis of the liver, kidneys, bladder, etc.

  13. Tuberculosis of joints, this will be treated more fully elsewhere.


[212 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

CERVICAL, TUBERCULOSIS (Scrofula).--This is common in children that are
not well nourished, living in badly ventilated and crowded houses, and in
the negroes. Chronic catarrh of the nose and throat and tonsilitis
predispose to it. The glands under the lower jaw are usually the first
involved. They are enlarged, smooth, firm and often become matted
together. Later the skin may adhere to them and suppuration occurs, that
is, pus forms. An abscess results that breaks through the skin and leaves
a nasty looking sore or scar. The glands in the back of the neck may
enlarge also; or in the arm pit or under the collar bone and also the
bronchial glands. There is usually secondary anemia. A long course and
spontaneous recovery are common. Lung or general miliary tuberculosis may
occur.

Mesenteric Kind.--Symptoms are loss of flesh and strength, anemia,
distended abdomen (pot-belly) and bloated, with offensive diarrhea.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--1. Consumption, Simple Home Method to Break up.--"A
cloth saturated with kerosene oil, bound around the chest at night and
frequently repeated, will remove lung soreness, and it may be taken
inwardly with advantages, eight to ten drops three or four times a day in
sarsaparilla. It has been tried efficaciously as a cure for consumption."

2. Consumption, Physicians' Remedy for.--

      Arsenic Acid           1 part
      Carbonate of Potash    2 parts
      Cinnamyllic Acid       3 parts

Heat this until a perfect solution is obtained, then add twenty-five parts
cognac and three parts of watery extract of opium which has been dissolved
in twenty-five parts of water filtered. Dose:--At first take six drops
after dinner and supper, gradually increasing to twenty-two drops. Mild
cases are cured in two months, but the severe cases may require a year or
two. This treatment should be given under the care of a physician, as it
is poisonous and needs close watching.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 213]

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Consumption.--Tuberculous peritonitis is often
present. General better hygienic measures; fresh air, nourishing food;
cod-liver oil. The glands are now often cut.

Sanitary Care. Prevention of Tuberculosis.--The sputum of consumptives
should be carefully collected and destroyed. Patients should be urged not
to spit about carelessly, but always use a spit cup and never swallow the
sputum. The destruction of the sputum of consumptives should be a routine
measure in both hospitals and private practice. Thorough boiling or
putting in the fire is sufficient. It should be explained to the patient
that the only risk, practically is from this source.

The chances of infection are greatest in young children. The nursing and
care of consumptives involves very slight risks indeed, if proper
precautions are taken.

Second.--A second important measure, relates to the inspection of dairies
and slaughter houses. The possibility of the transmission of tuberculosis
by infected milk has been fully demonstrated, and in the interest of
health, the state should take measures to stamp out tuberculosis in
cattle.

Individual Prevention.--A mother with pulmonary tuberculosis should not
nurse her child. An infant born of tuberculosis parents or of a family in
which consumption prevails, should be brought up with the greatest care
and guarded most particularly against catarrhal affections of all kinds.
Special attention should be given to the throat and nose, and on the first
indication of mouth breathing or any affection of the nose, a careful
examination should be made for adenoids. The child should be clothed in
flannel, and live in the open air as much as possible, avoiding close
rooms. It is a good practice to sponge the throat and chest night and
morning with cold water. Special attention should be paid to the diet and
to the mode of feeding. The meals should be given at regular hours, and
the food plain and substantial. From the onset the child should be
encouraged to drink freely of milk. Unfortunately in these cases there
seems to be an uncontrollable aversion to fats of all kinds. As the child
grows older, systematically regulated exercise or a course of pulmonary
(lung) gymnastics may be taken. In the choice of an occupation, preference
should be given to an out of door life. Families with a predisposition to
tuberculosis should, if possible, reside in an equable climate. It would
be best for a young person belonging to such a family to remove to
Colorado or Southern California, or to some other suitable climate before
trouble begins. The trifling ailments of children should be carefully
watched. In convalescence from fevers, which so frequently prove
dangerous, the greatest care should be exercised to prevent from catching
cold. Cod-liver oil, the syrup of iodide of iron and arsenic may be given.
Enlarged tonsils should be removed. "The spontaneous healing of local
tuberculosis is an every-day affair. Many cases of adenitis (inflammation
of the glands) and disease of the bone or joints terminate favorably. The
healing of pulmonary (lung) tuberculosis is shown clinically by the
recovery of patients in whose sputa elastic tissue and bacilli have been
found."

[214 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

General Measures.--The cure of tuberculosis is a question of nutrition;
digestion and assimilation control the situation; make a patient grow fat,
and the local disease may be left to take care of itself. There are three
indications:

First, to place the patient in surroundings most favorable for the
greatest degree of nutrition; second, to take such measures as in a local
and general way influence the tuberculosis process; third, to alleviate
the symptoms. This is effected by the open air treatment with the
necessary feeding and nursing.

At Home.--In the majority of cases patients must be treated at home. In
the city it has many disadvantages. The patient's bed should be in a room
where he can have plenty of sunshine and air. Two things are
essential--plenty of fresh air and sunshine. While there is fever he
should be at rest in bed. For the greater part of each day, unless the
weather is blustering and raining, the windows should be open. On the
bright days he can sit out-doors on a balcony or porch, in a reclining
chair. He must be in the open air all that is possible to be. A great many
patients spend most of the time out in the open air now. In the country
places this can be easily carried out. In the summer he should be out of
doors from eleven to twelve hours; in the winter six to eight at least. At
night the room should be cool and thoroughly ventilated. "In the early
stages of the disease with much fever, it may require several months of
this rest treatment to the open air before the temperature falls to
normal." The sputum is dangerous when it becomes dry. As long as sputum is
moist the germs are held in the sputum; but when it is dry they are
released and roam at will in the atmosphere and are inhaled. They are then
ready to lodge themselves in suitable soil. Always keep the sputum
(expectoration) moist, and then there is no danger.

Diet. Treatment.--The outlook in this disease depends upon the digestion.
Nausea and loss of appetite are serious obstacles. Many patients loathe
foods of all kinds. A change of air or a sea voyage may promptly restore
the appetite. When this is not possible, rest the patient, keep in the
open air nearly all day and feed regularly with small quantities either of
buttermilk, milk, or kumiss, alternating if necessary with meat juice and
egg albumin. Some cases which are disturbed by eggs and milk do well on
kumiss. Raw eggs are very suitable for feeding, and may be taken between
meals, beginning with one three times a day, and can be increased to two
and three at a time. It is hard to give a regular diet. The patient should
be under the care of a physician who will regulate the kind of diet,
amount and change. When the digestion is good there is less trouble in
feeding. Then the patient can eat meat, poultry, game, oysters, fish,
animal broths, eggs. Nothing should be fried. Avoid pork, veal, hot bread,
cakes, pies, sweet meats, rich gravies, crabs, lobsters.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 215]

Diet in Tuberculosis furnished us by a Hospital.--

May Take.--Soups.--Turtle or oyster soup, mutton, clam, or chicken broth,
puree of barley, rice, peas, beans, cream of celery or tomatoes, whole
beef tea; peptonized milk, gruel.

Fish.--All kinds of fresh fish boiled or broiled, oysters or clams, raw,
roasted or broiled.

Meats.--Rare roast beef or mutton, lamb chops, ham, fat bacon.
sweetbreads, poultry, game, tender steaks, hamburger steak rare.

Eggs.--Every way except fried.

Farinaceous.--Oatmeal, wheaten grits, mush, hominy, rice, whole wheat
bread, corn bread, milk toast, biscuits, muffins, gems.

Vegetables.--Potatoes baked, boiled, or creamed, string beans, spinach,
onions, asparagus, tomatoes, green peas, all well cooked, cresses,
lettuce, plain or with oil dressing, celery.

Desserts.--Farina, sago, tapioca, apple or milk pudding, floating island,
custards, baked or stewed apples with fresh cream, cooked fruits, rice
with fresh cream.

Drinks.--Fresh milk, cool, warm, or peptonized, cocoa, chocolate,
buttermilk, pure water, tea, coffee, panopepton.

Must Not Take.--Fried foods, salt fish, hashes, gravies, veal, pork,
carrots, parsnips, cabbage, beets, turnips, cucumbers, macaroni,
spaghetti, sweets, pies, pastry, sweet wines.



WHAT EVERY PERSON SHOULD KNOW ABOUT TUBERCULOSIS,
WHETHER HE HAS THE DISEASE OR NOT.

Tuberculosis is caused by a germ.

Tuberculosis is communicable and preventable.

Consumption of the lungs is the most common form of tuberculosis.

Consumption of the bowels is the next most common form.

The germ causing tuberculosis leaves the body of the person who has the
disease by means of the discharges; by the sputum coughed up from the
lungs, by nasal discharge, by bowel excrement, by urine, by abscesses.

If the sputum of the consumptive is allowed to dry, its infected dust
floats in the air, and is breathed into the lungs.

[216 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Any person breathing such air is in danger of contracting tuberculosis. It
is best not to stand near a person suffering with tuberculosis who is
coughing, because in this act finely divided droplets of saliva are thrown
from the mouth, and may be carried for a distance of three feet. These may
contain large numbers of the bacilli. They are also sometimes thrown out
in forcible speaking. The ordinary breath of a consumptive does not
contain them.

If the bowels or other discharges from the tuberculous person are not
disinfected, but are thrown into a sewer, privy, river or buried they are
a source of danger, and may pollute a source of drinking water.

Impure milk, that is, milk from a tuberculous cow or milk exposed to
infected dust is a common source of tuberculosis. Milk from suspected
sources should be boiled. The all-important thing to do to prevent
tuberculosis from spreading from one person to another, and from one part
of the body to another, is immediately to destroy all discharges from the
body of a person who has tuberculosis.

Destroy by fire or by disinfectant all sputum, all nasal discharges, all
bowel excrement, all urine as soon as discharged. For such a purpose use a
five per cent solution of carbolic acid (six and three-fourths ounces of
carbolic acid to one gallon of water).

No person, well or sick, should spit in public places or where the sputum
cannot be collected and destroyed.

Flies carry sputum and its infection to food, to your hands, your face,
clothes, the baby's bottle, from which the germs are taken into the mouth,
and thus gain access to the stomach or lungs.

Spitting on the sidewalk, on the floor, on the wall, on the grass, in the
gutter, or even into a cuspidor containing no disinfectant is a very
dangerous practice for a consumptive to indulge.

The person infected with tuberculosis should protect himself, his family,
his associates and the public by not spitting in public places, and by
promptly destroying all discharges.

The well person should defend himself by insisting that the tuberculous
person shall destroy all discharges.

Well persons should set the example of restraint and themselves refrain
from spitting promiscuously. A person may appear quite healthy and yet be
developing tuberculosis without knowing it.

Such a person, if he spits where he pleases, may be depositing infected
sputum where it can endanger the health and lives of other persons.

Do not sleep with a person who has tuberculosis, nor in the room occupied
by a tuberculous person, until that room has been thoroughly disinfected.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 217]

Any person is liable to contract tuberculosis, whether he is well or not.
Sickly persons, or those having bad colds, influenza bronchitis or
pneumonia or any general weakness are much more liable to contract
tuberculosis than a perfectly well or robust person. If you have a cough
that hangs on consult at once a reliable physician who has ability to
diagnose tuberculosis.

Prevention is possible; it is cheaper and easier than cure.

Any person having tuberculosis can recover from the disease if he takes
the proper course in time.

Advanced cases of tuberculosis, that is, those cases where the disease is
well developed, are the most dangerous to the public and the most
difficult to cure.

Every advanced case of tuberculosis should be in a sanatorium.

Sanatoria offers the best chance, usually the only chance, of cure to an
advanced case.

They also protect well citizens from danger of infection from advanced
stages of tuberculosis. There are fewer deaths from tuberculosis in those
localities where sanatoria are established for the care of tuberculous
persons.

One person out of every seven who die, dies from tuberculosis.

One child out of every ten dies from tuberculosis.

Homes and school-houses greatly need more fresh air supplied to their
occupants.

Day camps are city parks, vacant lots or abandoned farms where the
tuberculous persons of a community may go and spend the entire day in
rest, receiving instructions in proper hygiene and skillful treatment.
Such camps are supplied with tents, hammocks, reclining chairs, one or
more nurses, milk, eggs and other nourishment.

Dispensaries are centers of sanitary and medical instruction for local
tuberculous persons.

Every locality should establish and maintain a dispensary for the benefit
of tuberculous persons; for their instruction how to prevent the disease
from spreading, and how to conduct themselves to insure relief and cure.

Householders are required by law to report a case within their households
to the local health officers. The local health officer has certain duties
to perform under the law, and co-operation with him by the householder and
tuberculous person, works for the suppression of this disease.

Do not consider a tuberculous person an outcast, or one fit for the
pesthouse. Your crusade is against tuberculosis, not against the person
suffering from the disease.

Give the freedom of a well person to the tuberculous who is instructed and
conscientious in the observance of necessary precautions. Be very much
afraid of the tuberculous person who is ignorant or careless in the
observance of necessary precautions.


[218 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

PNEUMONIA (Lobar) Lung Fever.--Inflammation of the lungs. This is an acute
infectious disease characterized by an exudative inflammation of one or
more lobes of the lungs, with constitutional symptoms due to the
absorption of toxins (poison), the fever terminating by crisis (suddenly).
In speaking of pneumonia you frequently hear the expression "the lungs are
filling up." This is the real condition. The structures surrounding the
air cells are inflamed and from the inflamed tissues a secretion exudate
is poured out into the cells. This is expectorated, thrown out, by
coughing; but it is poured out into the cells faster than it can be spit
up and consequently it remains in some of the cells and fills them up.

The air does not get into such cells and they fill, with many others, and
make that section solid. When the patient is improving he keeps on
spitting this up, until all is out and the air cells resume their normal
work. Sometimes they remain so and we have chronic pneumonia.

Causes of Pneumonia.--Pneumonia occurs frequently as a complication of
other diseases, such as typhoid fever and measles. Yet the majority of
cases occur spontaneously. Many times the disease seems to be induced by
exposure to the cold, and there can be no doubt that such exposure does at
least promote the development of this affection. It seems, however,
probable that there is some special cause behind it without which the
exposure to cold is not sufficient to induce this disease. Pneumonia may
occur at any period of life, and is more common among males than females.
It occurs over the entire United States, oftener in the southern and
middle, than in the Northern States; it is more frequently met with during
the winter and spring months than at other times in the year.

Symptoms.--The onset is usually abrupt with a severe chill and chills
lasting from fifteen minutes to an hour, with the temperature suddenly
rising and an active fever. There is usually intense pain in a few hours,
generally in the lower part of the front of the chest, made worse by
breathing and coughing. The patient lies on the affected side so as to
give all chance for the other lung to work, cheeks are flushed, with
anxious expression; the wings of the nostrils move in and out with each
breath. The cough is short, dry and painful. Rapid, shallow, jerky
breathing, increasing to difficult breathing. On the first day the
characteristic expectoration mixed with blood appears (called rusty).
Pulse runs from 100 to 116, full bounding, but may be feeble and small in
serious cases. After three or four days the pain disappears, the
temperature keeps to 104 or 105, but falls quickly the seventh, fifth,
eighth, sixth and ninth day in this order of frequency. In a few hours,
usually twelve, the temperature falls to normal or below, usually with
profuse sweating and with quick relief to all symptoms. This relief from
distressing symptoms is, of course, a time of rejoicing to both patient
and friends and the patient and nurse may feel inclined to relax a little
from the strict observance of rules followed up to this time. Do not,
under any circumstances, yield to such folly. Keep patient properly
covered, as he is weak from the strain and the pores are open.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 219]

Convalescence is usually rapid. A prolonged rise of temperature after the
crisis may be regarded as a relapse. Death may occur at any time after the
third day from sudden heart failure, or from complications such as
pleurisy, nephritis, meningitis, pericarditis, endocarditis, gangrene of
the lungs.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--1. Lungs, Salt Pork for Inflammation of.--"Salt pork
dipped in hot water, then covered thick with black pepper. Heat in the
oven and lay or bind on the throat and lungs."

2. Lungs, Raspberry Tincture for Inflammation of.--"Take one-half pound of
honey, one cup water; let these boil; take off the scum; pour boiling hot
upon one-half ounce lobelia herb and one-half ounce cloves; mix well, then
strain and add one gill of raspberry vinegar. Take from one teaspoonful to
a dessertspoonful four times a day. Pleasant to take."

3. Lungs, Herb Ointment for Congestion of.--

    "Oil of Turpentine     1/2 ounce
    Oil of Hemlock         1/2 ounce
    Oil of Peppermint      1/2 ounce
    Oil of Feverweed       1/2 ounce

Mix this with one cup warm lard."

Rub this ointment on throat or lungs and apply a flannel over it. Heat it
through thoroughly with hot cloths. If used thoroughly and the cold is
taken in time will prevent pneumonia.

4. Lungs, Mullein for Congestion.--"The mullein leaves may be purchased at
any drug store or gathered in the fields. Make a tea of the leaves by
steeping them. Add enough water to one tablespoon mullein to make a pint,
which will be three doses, taken three times a day." This is a very good
remedy.

5. Lungs, Salve for Weak.--

    "Bees Wax        1 ounce
    Rosin            1 ounce
    Camphor Gum      1 ounce
    Lard about the size of an egg."

The beeswax forms sort of a coating and may remain on for several hours.

This is very good.

[220 MOTHERS' REMEDIES ]

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT FOR LUNGS.--The home treatment should be to put the
patient to bed and try to produce sweating. This will cause the blood to
leave the congested lung and return to the full regular circulation. By
doing this, you not only relieve the congested lung, but also the pain. If
the patient is stout and strong, give him the "corn sweat" under La Grippe
(see index); or you can put bottles of hot water about the patient. Use
fruit jars, wrap cloths around them so that you will not burn the patient.
Always put one to the feet. If you have a rubber water bag, fill that and
put it to his affected side over the pain. After you get him into a sweat
you can remove a little, of the sweating remedy at a time and when all are
removed give him a tepid water sponging. By this time the physician will
be at hand. If you give medicine you can put fifteen drops of the Tincture
of Aconite in a glass one-half full of water and give two teaspoonfuls of
this every fifteen minutes for four doses. Then give it every one-half
hour. Water can be given often, but in small quantities; plain milk alone,
or diluted, or beaten with eggs will make a good diet and keep up the
strength.

Fomentations.--Cloths wrung out of hot hop tea are often applied to the
affected part with good effect. Be careful about wetting the patient.
Flaxseed poultices are used.

If used they must be moist and hot. Some doctors are opposed to them. An
antiphlogistine poultice is good. Apply it hot. For children you can
grease the whole side of the chest, back and front, with camphor and lard
and put over that an absorbent cotton jacket. In the early life of the
country, home treatment was necessary. Men and women were posted on herbs,
etc. Teas made of them were freely and successfully used. A great mistake
made was the indiscriminate use of lobelia in too large doses. We have
learned that the hot herb drinks in proper doses are of help. Teas made of
boneset, hoarhound, pennyroyal, ginger, catnip, hops, slippery elm, etc.,
were good and are now. They produced the desired result--sweating--and
relieved the congestion of the internal organs and re-established the
external or (peripheral) circulation. So in the home treatment of
pneumonia, etc., if you are so situated that you cannot get a physician
use teas internally for sweating, fomentations upon the painful part and
if done properly and not too excessively, they will accomplish the desired
result. With the corn sweat, I have saved many lives.

ERYSIPELAS.--Erysipelas is an infectious disease, and it is usually caused
by a germ which we call "streptococcus pyogenes." The disease shows itself
by its local symptoms, pain, swelling, etc., and also by general or
constitutional symptoms such as fever, headache, etc., as hereafter given.


Causes.--It is a disease that occurs at any time, and is sometimes
epidemic, that is, attacks many persons at a time, like La Grippe. It
occurs more often in the spring; it is contagious, and can be carried by a
third person or in bedding, etc.

Symptoms.--The type that appears upon the face is the most common. The
incubation lasts from three to seven days and it usually comes suddenly
with a chill, followed by an active fever and with the local inflammation.
In some cases the local condition appears first. There is at first
redness, usually of the bridge of the nose and it rapidly spreads to the
cheeks, eyes, ears, etc. It is red, shiny hot, drawing, but with a
distinct margin at its edges, showing how much skin is inflamed. It may
take the form of vesicles. The eyelids may be so swollen as to close, the
face and scalp greatly swollen with watery swelling of the eyelids, lips,
eyes, ears, etc. The glands under the jaw may become enlarged. The general
or constitutional symptoms may be severe. The fever may rise to 104 to 106
and terminates suddenly. The parts that were first affected become pale
and more normal, as other parts are involved. It occurs also on other
parts of the body. A sting of an insect sometimes looks like it at first;
but it does not spread like erysipelas. It seems to me to be more
dangerous around the head.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 221]

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. 1. Erysipelas, Slippery Elm Bark for.--"Slippery elm
used as a wash and taken as a drink." Slippery elm is a very good remedy
for this on account of its soothing effect to the affected parts. It is
very good to take internally, as it cleanses the system by acting on the
bowels and kidneys.

2. Erysipelas, Bean Poultices for.--"White navy beans boiled soft and
applied as a poultice to the affected parts and renewed frequently is a
sure cure for erysipelas if taken in time." This is a very good and
effective poultice, but care should be taken not to use it too long, as
the parts will become too soft and might slough.

3. Erysipelas, Soda Wash for.--"Put about a tablespoonful of baking soda
in one pint of water and bathe parts several times a day," This is an
extremely simple remedy for such a serious disease, but has been known to
do good in many cases. The baking soda is soothing.

4. Erysipelas, Easy Remedy for.--"Keep parts well bathed with
witch-hazel." A good preparation should be bought. By applying this freely
to the affected parts it will be found to have a very soothing effect.

5. Erysipelas, Copperas Liniment for.--"A few cents' worth of common
copperas. Make a solution and keep applying it. This kills the poison as
it comes on and relieves the pain. I knew of a very bad case to be cured
by this treatment."

6. Erysipelas, Cranberry Poultice for.--"Take cranberries and stew them
and make a poultice of them." This is a remedy that cannot be beaten for
this disease. It gives relief in a very short time and saves the patient a
great deal of suffering. If the whisky is used to wet the poultice it is
much better, as it keeps the poultice moist longer. All that is necessary
is simply to put on more whiskey and it will not be necessary to change
the poultice so often.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Erysipelas.--It is best to separate the patient
from the others in the family. Some people very easily take this disease.
I know one who cannot be in the room where such a patient is for even five
minutes without contracting it.

Local Treatment.--1. Wash the parts with a solution of boric acid,
one-half teaspoonful to eight teaspoonfuls of tepid water, put this on the
inflamed parts. Then apply a poultice of bruised cranberries. Wash the
face each time with the solution before applying the cranberry poultice
afresh.

[222 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

2. Paint thoroughly with tincture of iodine outside of the margin of the
disease where the skin shows no sign of the trouble. This is very
effective. If done freely it produces a slight inflammation. The stain
made by it remains for some time and that is the objection to it on the
face, but do not hesitate on that account if the other remedies do not
work well or are not at hand.

3. The following is a splendid local application.--Cleanse thoroughly the
inflamed part with pure castile soap and water, and then wash this off
with one to one thousand corrosive sublimate solution. Dry the skin with a
soft towel and apply a thick coating of equal parts of Ichthyol and
vaselin, and over this place antiseptic gauze or sterilized absorbent
cotton. Keep this in place with adhesive straps. If the diseased surface
is small it may not be necessary to use the gauze, etc.

4. Tincture Chloride of Iron in dose of ten to twenty drops and more if
necessary four times a day, well diluted with water. This is very hard on
the teeth and should be taken through a glass tube.

Diet.--Milk, broths, etc., liquid diet or foods. (See Nursing Dept. under
liquid diet.)

Nursing.--When you nurse any infectious patient, you must be not only
careful of your patient, but of yourself. It is not necessary in order to
do good nursing to endanger yourself; and a nurse who does not know how to
care for herself, cannot successfully nurse the sick. In erysipelas I
always watch the eruption closely. Sometimes it recedes, and the patient,
of course, is worse. Then there are some people who believe in "pow-
wowing." They have that done and then do not take care of themselves. I
have attended such cases. One case was especially striking. The "pow-wow"
person did his work and then the patient thought himself well and
proceeded to enjoy himself and caught cold. The result was the "going in"
of the eruption and a beautiful cough. I succeeded in my efforts and the
next day he had the erysipelas going along nicely, but no cough. I write
this so you will take proper care of yourself and shun conjurers and their
"pow-wow."

TOXEMIA, SEPTICEMIA; PYEJMIA.--Toxemia refers to the group of symptoms and
lesions caused by the presence in the blood of toxins (poison) usually
resulting from bacterial growths.

Septicemia refers to the condition caused by the presence in the blood of
bacteria (microbes) as well as toxin.

Pyemia refers to the same condition as septicemia with the development of
fresh places of suppuration.

Sapremia is a septic intoxication, the result of the absorption of toxins.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 223]

SEPTICEMIA.--The presence of bacteria in the blood, introduced from a
local lesion (wound, injury, etc.) or with no obvious local infection.

Symptom.--If there is a local infection, symptoms of this precede the
septicemia. The invasion may be sudden or gradual, with chill or chilly
feelings, followed by symptoms of active fever and later of an asthenic
(absence of strength and feeling) fever, with dry tongue and dullness or
delirium. Death may occur in one to seven days.

PYEMIA.--This means the presence in the blood of bacteria with resultant
foci (places) of suppuration.

Symptoms.--They are local at first where the lesion is. The invasion of
the general infection is marked by a severe chill, then high fever and
sweating, repeated daily or at irregular intervals.

Fever is variable with sudden falls. In some cases the fever assumes very
weakening type and the patient looks like a case of typhoid fever in the
third week, and death soon occurs.

In other cases the chills, fever and sweating are repeated at irregular
intervals. The patients are emaciated and the skin has a sallow color.
Death usually occurs eventually from exhaustion in a few days or months.

Local Treatment.--This should be attended to from the beginning. If you
injure your finger or any part and it soon looks red, and feels sore, open
it up thoroughly with a clean instrument and cover it with a clean gauze
or cotton. It must not be covered too tightly so that the discharge, if
any, can leave the wound. Enough dressing must be put on to absorb that.
Then keep the wound clean, and so it can "run" if necessary. If you
neglect this or do it carelessly and admit dirt you will make it worse.

See treatment of wounds, etc.

General Treatment.--Keep the strength up in every way. The strength should
be kept up by giving nourishing diet that will suit that special case and
medicine that will produce a tonic effect, such as quinine and strychnine.



ASIATIC CHOLERA.--This is an acute infectious disease caused by a specific
organism and characterized by profuse watery discharges from the bowels
and great prostration.

Causes.--Some inherit a weakness, making them more susceptible than others
to this disease. Other causes are intemperance, general debility,
unhygienic surroundings, exciting causes. The spirillum (cholera
asiaticus) found in the stools, watery discharges and intestines of
affected cases and its transmission by infected food and water.

[224 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Symptoms.--After an incubation period of about one to five days, the
invasion is marked either by simple diarrhea with some general ill-feeling
and prostration, or by abdominal pains, vomiting and diarrhea. Mild cases
may recover at this time. In the stage of collapse, there are frequent
watery movements resembling rice water, with vomiting, great thirst,
abdominal pains and eruptions on the legs. There is sudden collapse and
temperature that is below normal; nearly all secretions are greatly
diminished. In the so-called cases of cholera sicca (dry) death occurs
before the diarrhea begins, although a rice water fluid is found in the
intestines after death. After two to twenty-four hours those who have not
died may recover or pass into the stage of reaction in which the signs of
collapse and purging disappear. After improvement, with slight rise of
temperature at times, there may be a relapse or the patient may have
inflammation of some of the viscera (cavity organs) and suppression of the
urine with delirium, coma and death.

The prognosis is worse in infancy, old age and debilitated persons, and in
cases of rapid collapse, low temperature and great blueness. Death rate
from thirty to eighty per cent.

Treatment.--Isolate the patient and disinfect all discharges and clothing.

Use boiled water during an epidemic.

For pain, morphine hypodermically, and apply hot applications to the
abdomen.

For vomiting.--Wash out the stomach and give cocaine, ice, coffee, brandy
or water by the mouth. Intestines may be irrigated with a two per cent
solution of tannic acid.

During collapse.--Hypodermic of camphor, hot applications to the body.
Good nursing and careful diet.



YELLOW FEVER.--Yellow fever is an acute infectious disease characterized
by jaundice, hemorrhages, albuminuria (albumin in the urine).

Cause.--It is common in the West Indies and epidemic in nearby countries.
It is most common in crowded, dirty, poorly drained portions of sea coast
cities. It is probably caused by a specific organism which is conveyed
from one person to another by mosquitoes and not in clothing, as formerly
believed. One attack usually confers immunity.

Symptoms.--Incubation is about three to four days. There may be a
fore-warning period, but the attack is usually sudden, with chills,
headache, backache, rise in fever, and general feverish symptoms,
vomiting, and constipation. Early in this disease the face is flushed,
while the conjunctiva and the mucous membrane lining the eyelids is
congested and slightly jaundiced. Fever is 102 or 103 degrees, and falls
gradually after one to three days. Pulse is slow, and while the
temperature rises, it again falls. The stage of calm follows the fall of
the temperature with increased jaundice and vomiting of dark altered
blood, the "black vomit." Hemorrhages may also occur into the skin or
mucous membranes. Brain symptoms are sometimes severe. Convalescence   is
usually gradual. The disease varies from great mildness to extreme
malignancy. Mortality from fifteen to eighty-five per cent.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 225]

Treatment.--Prevent spread of the infectious mosquitoes; use screens and
netting in infected districts. Careful nursing, food by rectum while
vomiting is frequent. For the hemorrhage opium is given; frequent bathing
will keep down the fever; and for the vomiting cocaine is given and
cracked ice.



PLAGUE (BUBONIC PLAGUE).--Plague is an infectious disease characterized by
inflammation and suppuration of the lymph nodes and cutaneous (skin)
hemorrhages. It has long been known as the Plague or "Black Death," on
account of its "flea-bite looking eruptions." This disease is becoming a
serious matter on our western coast, especially in and around San
Francisco. The disease exists in India all the time, and there is now
danger of it becoming epidemic (existing all the time) in San Francisco,
according to today's, Jan. 10th, Detroit Free Press. Mr. Merriam, chief of
the U. S. Bureau of Biological Survey, recently appeared before congress
and asked for more money to investigate this and other conditions, and how
to stamp out the carriers of this dreadful disease. European wharf rats,
introduced about San Francisco, have spread the plague to the ground
squirrels, and the gophers, rabbits, field mice, and other rodents are now
being infected. In India, fleas on the native squirrel, perpetuate the
plague. The way to stop the plague is to kill the carriers.

Causes.--The bacillus pestis (pests) is transmitted through insects, small
animals, like rats, through the air, or in clothing, bedding, and is
contained in the feces and urine. The poor in unhygienic districts are
most often attacked.

Bubonic Type.--In this type the lymph nodes, particularly in the arm-pit,
and groins show inflammatory lesions with marked overgrowth of new tissue.
Sometimes there is suppuration, hemorrhage and local death of the part.
The bacilli are formed in great numbers in the affected nodes and
secondary lesions.

Septicemic Type.--In this type all lymph nodes and nodules show signs of
toxemia and the bacilli are formed in the primary (first) lesions and in
the blood.

Pneumonic Type.--In this type there are areas of broncho-pneumania, with
lesions of the bronchial lymph nodes. The bacilli occur in these
situations and in the sputa.

[226 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Symptoms.--In the bubonic plague (the usual form) the invasion is marked
by headache, depression, pain in the back, stiffness of the extremities
and fever. This rises for three or four days, then falls several degrees
and is followed by a more severe secondary fever of the prostrating type.
At about the third to the fifth day the lymph nodes usually become
enlarged most often in the inguinal (groin) region. This is followed by a
resolution (getting better) suppuration forming pus or necrosis (local
death of the part). "A flea bite looking eruption and hemorrhages from the
mucous membrane often occur. The mild cases, which often occur at the
beginning of an epidemic, and at its close, are marked only by slight
fever and glandular swelling, which may terminate in the forming of pus in
the part. In these cases the symptoms are slight and last only a few
days."

Septicemic Plague.--This is characterized by symptoms of severe general
infection, with hemorrhages, rapid course, and death in three or four
days, without the development of swelling of the lymph nodes. Cultures
from the blood show bacteria.

Pneumonic Plague.--The symptoms are those of a severe "lobular" pneumonia,
with bloody sputum containing many bacilli. It is usually rapidly fatal.
Death rate may reach ninety per cent.

Treatment. Prevention.--Prolonged isolation, disinfection of the
discharges, cremation of plague victims, destruction of rats, and
preventive inoculation of healthy persons with sterilized cultures of the
bacillus pestis.

Immunity following this procedure is said to last from one to eighteen
months.

For pain, morphine; for weakness, stimulation; for fever, bathing; for
buboes, application of ice, injection of bichloride and excision have been
advised.



DYSENTERY.--A group of inflammatory intestinal affections, either acute or
chronic, and of infectious origin, characterized by frequent painful
passages, (containing mucus and blood) or by loose movements.

Acute Catarrhal Dysentery.--This is the most common form in the temperate
climate The colon is congested and swollen with a covering of blood-tinged
mucus on its mucous membrane.

Symptoms.--The invasion: This is usually marked by diarrhea, then
cramp-like general pain in the abdomen and frequent mucous, bloody stools,
accompanied by hard straining at stool. The temperature may reach 102 to
103 degrees. After one or two days the stools consist entirely of bloody
mucus and are very frequent. The thirst is great. In about one week the
stools may become normal.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. 1. Dysentery, Sweet Cream for.--"One or two
teaspoonfuls of thick cream every hour. Three doses is usually sufficient.
(This remedy proved successful with my baby when all others failed)."

2. Dysentery, One Ounce Dewberry Root for.--"Boil in one quart of water
one ounce of dewberry root. This should be boiled down to one-half pint
and a half wineglassful given to patient two or three times a day, or in
severe cases, a half wineglassful every two or three hours until discharge
diminishes."

      INFECTIOUS DISEASES       227

3. Dysentery, "Colt Tail" Remedy for.--"The herb called "Colt Tail," steep
and drink the tea. It's a tall weed and grows in damp places. It is one of
the best herbs for this." This is especially good when the discharge from
the bowels is bloody or contains mucus.

4. Dysentery, Sugar and Brandy for.--"Two tablespoonfuls brandy poured
into a saucer. Set fire to the brandy and hold in flame lump of sugar on
fork. This is a very good remedy, and has cured cases when doctors'
remedies failed. This sugar will melt and form a syrup. Dose:--One-half
teaspoonful every two hours or oftener if necessary."

5. Dysentery, Herb Remedy for.--"Take four ounces poplar bark, four ounces
bayberry bark and three ounces tormentil root, simmer gently in four
quarts of water, down to three, strain and add two pounds granulated
sugar; let it come to boiling point, skim and add one-half pound
blackberry or peach jelly and one-half pint best brandy. Keep in a cool
place, take one-half wineglassful three or four times a day or more often
if required."

6. Dysentery, New Method to Cure.--"A hot hip bath will often relieve
distressing sensations of dysentery or itching piles." This is a very
simple remedy and will have a very soothing effect upon the whole system,
relieving any nervousness that may be present and usually is with this
disease.

7. Dysentery, Starch Injection for.--"Use injection of one cup thin boiled
starch, and one-half teaspoonful laudanum. Repeat every 3 to 4 hours."

8. Dysentery, To Cure Bloody.--"Put a teaspoonful of salt into a quart of
warm water and inject into the bowels to wash them out thoroughly."

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Dysentery.--Remain in bed on fluid diet, and
give a free saline cathartic or castor on, one-half ounce, followed by
salol five grains in capsules every three hours.

2. Bismuth subnitrate, one-half to one dram every two to three hours.

3. Irrigation of the colon with normal salt solution or weak solution of
silver nitrate at about one hundred degrees with a long rectual tube. Dr.
Hare, of Philadelphia, recommends one two-hundredth grain of bichloride of
mercury every hour or two (in adults), if the stools are slimy and bloody
and if much blood is present, and high rectal injections of witch-hazel
water and water, half and half. I know this last is good, and also the
following; Oil of fireweed, five drops on sugar every two to three hours.

4. Ipecac.--In acute dysentery ipecac is one of the best remedies, Dr.
Hare says; "When the passages are large and bloody and the disease is
malignant as it occurs in the tropics, ipecac should be given in the
following manner: The powdered ipecac is to be administered on an empty
stomach in the dose of thirty grains with thirty drops of the tincture of
deodorized opium, which is used to decrease the tendency to vomit.
Absolute rest is essential for its success. Finally a profuse gray, mushy
stool is passed." This is a favorable sign.

[228 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Nursing and Diet.--The patient should always remain in bed and use
bed-pan. He must be given a bland, unirritating diet, composed of milk,
with lime-water, beef peptonoids, broth, egg albumin, etc., in acute
cases.



MALARIA FEVER.--Malarial fever is a group of diseases characterized by
intermittent, quotidian (daily), tertian (every other day) or quartan
(every fourth day) fever or remittent fever; there are also several
pernicious types of this disease and chronic malarial condition of the
system with enlargement of the spleen.

Causes.--It occurs most frequently in low lands, along sea coasts, and
swamps, particularly in the tropics and warmer portion of the temperate
zone. The exciting cause it what is called the plasmodous malarial, a
parasite developing in the body of all species of anopheles, a common form
of mosquito and transmitted to man, its intermediate host, by the bite of
the infected mosquitoes.


INTERMITTENT MALARIAL FEVER. (a) Tertian. (b) Quartan. (c) Quotidian.
Symptoms.--The symptoms of all these are the same, except that in tertian
fever, the paroxysms occur every third day; in quartan they occur every
fourth day. Quotidian occurs daily.

The incubation time is unknown. It consists usually of three stages, cold,
hot, and sweating, and they usually occur in the morning. "The cold stage
is ushered in by yawning, lassitude and headache, and rapid rise of
temperature; sometimes nausea and vomiting followed by shivering and
rather violent shaking with chattering of the teeth." It may last from ten
minutes to two hours. The internal temperature may rise to 104 to 106
degrees, while the surface is blue and cold, with severe headache, often
nausea and vomiting. Hot stage: this may last from one-half to five hours;
the temperature may increase somewhat, the face is flushed, the skin is
red and hot, great thirst, throbbing headache and full bounding pulse.
Sweating stage lasts two to four hours, and entire body may be covered;
fever and other symptoms abate and sleep usually follows. The patient
feels nearly well between attacks.

REMITTENT OR CONTINUOUS MALARIAL FEVER (Aestivo-Autumnal Fever).--This
form occurs in the temperate zone regions, especially in the summer and
autumn. The symptoms vary greatly. The fever may be irregularly
intermittent, but at longer intervals than the Tertian variety. The cold
stage is often absent, and in the hot the temperature falls gradually. The
appearance is often like typhoid for there may be then hardly any
remission of fever.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 229]

PERNICIOUS MALARIAL FEVER.--This is a very dangerous disease. The chief
forms are the comatose, algid and hemorrhagic.

(a) Comatose form is characterized by delirium or sudden coma (deep sleep)
with light temperature.

(b) The algid or asthenic form begins with vomiting and great prostration.
The temperature is normal or below normal. There may be diarrhea and
suppression of the urine.

(c) The hemorrhagic form includes malarial hemoglobinuria, hemoglobin in
the urine. Haemoglobin is the coloring matter of the red corpuscles.

Treatment. Prevention.--Destroy mosquitoes and protect from them by
screens. Small preventive doses of quinine for persons in malarious
regions, three grains three times a day. Five grains three times a day
will nearly always cure tertian and quartan cases, especially if the
patient is kept in bed until the time for one or two paroxysms has passed.
Attacks often stop spontaneously for a time when the patient is kept in
bed, even without the administration of quinine.

In Remittent Fever larger doses are necessary. For pernicious forms:
Hydrochlorate of quinine and urea ten to twenty grains, given
hypodermically, every three or four hours until improvement occurs, when
the sulphate of quinine by the mouth may be substituted.



AGUE. (See Malarial Fever.)--By ague is meant the cold chills and fever;
or dumb ague where there is little chill, mostly chilly and fever. These
attacks may come on every day, every other day, or every third day.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. 1. Ague and Fever, Dogwood Good for.--"Take one ounce
of dogwood root and one quart of water. Make an infusion by boiling down
to one-half pint. Strain and give one-half wineglassful every two or three
hours."

2. Ague in Face, Menthol and Alcohol Effective Remedy for.--"After making
a solution of teaspoonful of menthol crystals, dissolved in two ounces of
alcohol, apply several times a day to the face. Care should be taken that
this solution does not enter the eyes, as it would be injurious,"

3. Ague, Simple Remedy for.--"Give purgative and follow with quinine. Give
large 4 grain capsule every four hours.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. 1. Chills and Fever, Peruvian Bark and Rhubarb for.--

    "Pure Rye Whisky           4 ounces
    Pulverized Peruvian Bark   1 dram
    Pulverized Rhubarb         1 ounce

Mix.

Put in bottles. Dose for adults:--One tablespoonful three times a day.
This is an excellent remedy."

[230 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

2. Chills and Fever, Horse-radish for.--"Take fresh green horseradish
leaves, bruise and mash them to the consistency of a poultice and bind on
the bottom of the feet. This will tend to reduce the fever and is a
reliable remedy. I have often used this with great satisfaction."

3. Chills and Fever, Dogwood Known to be Good for.--"Make a decoction of
one ounce of dogwood root, boiled in one quart of water down to one pint;
strain, and give half wineglassful every two or three hours." This remedy
has been used by our grandmothers for many years, and is one to be
depended upon. The dogwood root can be purchased at any drug store.

Treatment.--For acute cases quinine in various doses. I usually prescribe
two grains every two hours until the ears ring, and then take only enough
to keep them in that condition.

It is well always to see that the bowels and liver are active before
taking quinine. The medicine acts better when the patient remains quiet in
bed. If the chill and fever comes on every day, the quinine should be
taken every hour between the paroxysms.



MALTA FEVER.--This occurs in the Mediterranean countries, India, China,
the Philippines and Porto Rico. The fever is irregular or marked by
intervals of "no fever" for two or more days with febrile relapses lasting
one to three weeks. Constipation, anemia (scarcity of blood), joint
symptoms and debility exist. Ordinary cases may last three months to two
years. Mortality two per cent.

Treatment.--Like that for typhoid. Change climate, if possible.



BERI-BERI.--Beri-beri is a disease rarely occurring in the United States.
It is usually found in the warmer climates and peculiar to certain regions
such as India, and Japan.

It is characterized by paralysis and fatal effusion, also neuritis, which
is an inflammation of the nerves. It seems to be undecided among the
medical profession as to whether the disease is infectious or not. Some
claim it is brought on by the eating of bad rice or certain raw fish.
Young men in those climates seem to be most susceptible to beri-beri.

Treatment.--There is very little known about this disease. Fortunately it
does not often occur here. It is necessary to keep up the strength by food
and tonics and relieve the pain.



ANTHRAX. (Charbon, Wool Sorters' Disease, Splenic Fever).--This is "an
acute infectious disease of animals, transmitted to man by inoculation
into the wounds, or by inhalation of, or swallowing the germs." Butchers,
tanners and shepherds are most liable to it. The exciting cause is the
bacillus anthracis (anthrax bacillus). The local skin condition is a
pustule containing the bacilli, which may also invade the general
circulation. If the germs are inhaled, there is broncho-pneumonia; if
swallowed, areas of inflammation and local death occur in the intestines.
The spleen and lymph nodes are enlarged.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 231]

Symptoms. 1. External anthrax, malignant pustule. This begins in a papule
(pimple) at the point of inoculation turning into a vesicle and then a
pustule, (blister-like pimple) surrounded by an inflammatory area (space)
with marked watery swelling. The nearby glands are enlarged and tender. At
first the temperature rapidly rises; later it may be below normal. The
fever symptoms may be severe. Recovery takes place slowly. Death occurs in
three to five days.



MALIGNANT ANTHRAX (swelling).--In this lesion is a pustule, with very
marked swelling. It most frequently occurs on the eyelid and face and the
swelling may terminate in fatal gangrene.

2. Internal anthrax.--(a) Internal anthrax is caused by the introduction
of the bacteria into the alimentary canal in infected meat, milk, etc. The
invasion is marked by a chill, followed by moderate fever, vomiting,
diarrhea, pain in the back and legs and restlessness. Sometimes
convulsions occur and hemorrhages into the skin from the mucous membranes.
The spleen is swollen. Prostration is extreme and it often ends in death.

(b) Charbon or Wool Sorter's disease occurs among those employed in
picking over wool or hair of infected animals--the germs being inhaled or
swallowed. The onset is sudden with a chill, then fever, pain in the back
and legs, and severe prostration. There may be difficulty of breathing and
signs of bronchitis, or vomiting and diarrhea. Death is a common
termination, sometimes within a day. Death rate is from five to twenty-six
per cent. Greatest when the swelling is near the head.

Treatment.--The wound or swelling should be cauterized and a solution of
carbolic acid or bichloride of mercury injected around it and applied to
its surface. Stimulants and feeding are important.



LOCKJAW. (Tetanus).--Tetanus or lockjaw, as it is commonly called, is an
infectious disease and is characterized by painful and violent
contractions of the voluntary muscles; it may be of the jaw alone or of a
considerable part of the body.

Causes.--The intelligence and mental faculties are not impaired. In most
cases it follows a wound or injury, although in others there seems to be
no exciting causes. Fourth of July celebrations furnish a great many of
our lockjaw cases. Ten to fifteen days usually elapse after the wound
before lockjaw really sets in.

[232 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Symptoms.--It comes on occasionally with a chill or chilly feelings;
usually by rigidity (stiffness) of the neck, jaw and face. On arising in
the morning there is sometimes a stiffness of the muscles at the back of
the head. It is not unusual on taking a slight cold to have a stiff neck
and often the patient's attention is not attracted by this symptom.
Sometimes this stiffness begins or soon extends to the muscles of the
lower jaw; the throat becomes dry and is painful and gradually the
stiffness increases to a continuous contraction, spasm, and extends to the
muscles of the trunk and extremities. The body becomes rigid in a straight
line or bent backward, forward or sidewise. This spasm occurs after any
slight irritation and is extremely painful. Temperature is usually low.
During the first spasms the patient may attempt to open his mouth as he
may naturally be suspicious of the trouble that is coming; he succeeds
with difficulty and even finds it hard to swallow; soon the jaws may be
firmly closed, and it is from this feature of the disease that it gained
the name of lockjaw. The contractions in some cases do not extend beyond
the neck and face muscles. During the contractions the face may be drawn
into frightful contortions. Food can be given only through such spaces as
may exist between the teeth, as often the patient cannot open his mouth
himself, nor can it be pried open by any force that would be allowable.
When the muscles of the trunk are affected the abdomen may be drawn
inward, become very hard and stiff, chest movements are affected, making
it difficult to breathe, sometimes almost to suffocation. Sometimes the
body becomes bent like a bow, as in some cases of spinal meningitis, so
that only the head and heels support the weight of the body. The body may
become so rigid that it can be lifted by a single limb as you would a
statue. It is fortunate that there are few cases, comparatively, of
lockjaw as the distorted face and general contractions of the body are
painful to witness.

Recovery.--The mortality in lockjaw cases runs about eight per cent.
Sometimes death is caused by exhaustion from the muscular exertions; the
patient is seldom able to sleep and sometimes wears out in a few days.
Sometimes suffocation brings a sudden end to his sufferings and usually
one or two days to ten or twelve days is the limit. Among the lower
classes where sanitary science is seldom observed, and even among the
better classes, lockjaw has been known to occur in infants. It usually
comes on, in ten to fifteen days after birth, and the child seldom lives
more than a few days, It is hard to account for such cases which may come
on suddenly from the slightest excitement such as sudden noises, etc.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--l. Lockjaw, Successful Remedy for.--"A very good and
successful remedy for this disease, is to apply a warm poultice of
flaxseed meal, saturated with laudanum and sugar of lead water, to the
jaws and neck."

2. Lockjaw, Smoke as a Cure for.--"Smoke the wound for twenty minutes in
the smoke of burnt woolen cloths. This is considered a never failing
remedy."

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 233]

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT.--If from a wound cut open and use antiseptics.
Isolate the patient and have absolute quiet. Antitoxin is used with
success in some cases of lockjaw, but this and other remedies or measures
must be handled by a physician, Opium is sometimes given and stimulants
such as brandy, whisky, etc. As it is a case of life or death in a very
short time, we cannot advise depending upon home treatment. A preventive
caution that must always be observed is the use of antiseptics and the
strictest care of all injuries and wounds that might result in lockjaw.
This is a disease where an ounce of prevention is worth a thousand pounds
of cure, because by the time the disease is recognized as lockjaw and has
really made an appearance, it may be too late for medical skill. While you
are waiting for the doctor you may apply cold cloths or even an ice bag to
the spine. If the spasms are severe let the patient inhale chloroform to
kill the pain and quiet him. In the meantime secure the best physician
within your reach, and follow his directions carefully, be calm and self-
possessed when in the presence of the patient, for you must remember that
he has full possession of his mental faculties and will notice every
evidence of fear or worry in the faces of those who are nursing him. This
will only add to his sufferings, affect his nervous system and undermine
his general vitality. Read carefully the nursing department in this book
and you will gain some valuable hints and knowledge regarding the sick
room.



GLANDERS.--This is an acute disease of the horse and occasionally of man.
It is called "glanders" when the affection appears in the nostrils, and is
called "farcy" when in the skin.

Causes.--The bacilli is usually introduced from infected horses through
the nose, mouth and cheek, mucous membranes or skin abrasions (rubbing off
of the skin). There are large or small lumps in the skin, mucous membrane
of the nose and mouth.

Symptoms. Acute Glanders.--1. Incubation lasts from three to four days.
There are signs of inflammation at the site of infection and general
symptoms. In two or three days, small lumps appear on the mucous membrane
of the nose, and ulcerate, with a discharge of mucus and pus. Sometimes
these nodules die locally, and their discharge is then foul. The glands
around the neck are enlarged. An eruption appears over the face and
joints. Inflammation of the lungs may occur. Death may take place in eight
to ten days.

2. Chronic Glanders.--This may last for months. It acts like chronic cold
with ulcer in the nose. Some recover.

3. Acute Farcy.--The local and general signs are those of an infection,
with necrosis (local death) at the site (in the skin) of inoculation;
nodules, (lumps) known as "farcy buds" form along the lymphatics (glands)
and form pus. There may be pus collections in the joints and muscles.
Death often occurs in one to five days.

Chronic Farcy.--Tumors in the skin of the extremities, containing pus. The
process is local, the inflammatory symptoms light, and the duration may be
months or years.

[234 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Treatment of Glanders.--This disease does not often occur in man; it is an
awful affliction. All infected horses must be killed, it is dangerous for
man to be around one. If seen early, the wound should be cut out or burned
out with caustics, and afterwards dressed like any wound. The "farcy buds"
should be opened early. There is very little hope in acute cases of
glanders. In chronic cases recovery is possible, but it will be after a
long tedious time. There must be proper nourishing food and tonic
medicines. Each case should be treated according to the indications. It is
safe to say the parts should be thoroughly cut or scraped out and then
treated with antiseptics and the general system built up, by tonics and
stimulating remedies, if needed. As stated before, acute glanders and
acute farcy are almost always fatal.



BIG-JAW OR LUMP-JAW. (Actinomycosis).--This is an infectious disease of
cattle, less frequently of man, and it is caused by what is called the
"ray fungus." This grows in the tissues and develops a mass with a
secondary chronic inflammation.

This disease is widespread among cattle, and also occurs in the pig. In
the ox it is called the "big jaw." The infection may be taken in with the
food, and it locates itself often in the mouth or surroundings. Oats,
barley, and rye may carry the germ to the animals. The fungus may be found
even in decayed teeth.

Alimentary Canal Type.--The jaw has been affected in man. One side of the
face is swollen or there may be a chronic enlargement of the jaw, which
may look like a sarcoma (tumor). The tongue also is sometimes affected and
shows small growths. It may also occur in the intestines and liver. There
is at first a tumor (lump), and this finally suppurates.

In the Lungs.--They also can be affected. It is chronic here and there is
cough, fever, wasting and an expectoration of mucus and pus, sometimes of
a very bad odor (fetid). It sometimes acts like miliary tuberculosis of
the lungs, and this is quite frequent in oxen. Other diseases of the lungs
and bronchial affections occur and abscesses and cavities are formed that
may be diagnosed during life.

Symptoms.--If in the jaw there may be toothache, difficulty of swallowing
and of opening the jaw. The adjacent muscles may be hardened (indurated).
A swelling appears at the angle of the jaw and this quickly passes into
suppuration; later it opens first outside, then inside--into the mouth and
discharges pus containing little yellow masses. It will extend down even
into the bowels unless it is properly treated. Then there will be stomach
disturbances and diarrhea. It may ulcerate through the bowels and cause
peritonitis. The liver, spleen and ovaries may also become affected.

The Skin.--There may be chronic suppurating ulcers of the skin and the
"ray fungus" can be found in them.

Diagnosis.--The "ray fungus" can be found. There is a wooden hardness of
the tissues beyond the borders of the ulcers; there are the little yellow
granules in the pus. The course is chronic. Mild cases recover in six to
nine months or earlier, the mouth form being the most favorable.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 235]

Treatment.--Surgical. Remove the parts involved. Internally, iodide of
potash in large doses is recommended. The food should be plenty and
nourishing. In this case we must recommend you to a physician instead of
the home treatments.



GONORRHEA (Urethritis).--This can be called an infectious inflammation of
the urethra, caused by the gonococcus, a microbe or germ, causing a
specific inflammation of the mucous membrane of the urethra or vagina.

Incubation.--The time that elapses between the exposure and development of
the symptoms in the urethra is variable, extending from a few hours to
twelve or fourteen days. In the great majority of cases, however, the
disease appears during the first week. The patient notices a drop of
milk-like fluid at the opening of the urethra, which is slight, red and
puffed or turned out; a tickling sensation is often felt in this locality,
and the next time urine is passed it is attended with a feeling of warmth
at the end of the canal, or with actual scalding. After this the symptoms
increase rapidly in number and severity, so that within forty-eight hours,
or even sooner, the disease may be described as having passed its first or
increasing stage, the characteristic phenomena of which are as follows:

Changes in the meatus (opening). There are redness, eversion (turning
out), ulceration and eating away and often erosion of the lips of the
opening of urethra. Sometimes, but rarely, so much swelling that the
person can hardly pass the urine, which drops away. The other symptoms are
too well-known by those who have had this disease to need a description.

Prognosis.--It is now considered more than a cold, and it is the cause of
terrible sickness in both sexes, among the innocent as well as the guilty.

Treatment.--It may be cured perhaps in a short time, and yet no one can be
certain of its absolute cure. This disease is better understood now, and
the treatment is entirely different from formerly. The strong injections
are now considered not only useless but dangerous to the future health of
the patient. The best treatment is mild antiseptic injections, irrigation
carefully done by an expert person; remaining quietly in bed, being
careful to use food and drink that are not stimulating, keeping the bowels
open by proper diet and mild laxatives and the urine mild by soothing
diuretic remedies. Unfortunately those affected want quick work and they
get it, frequently to their future sorrow. The following are good
injections. Before each injection the urine should be passed and an
injection of an antiseptic like listerine, etc., one dram to an ounce of
boiled water, to cleanse the canal. You can use twice a day the following:

    Fluid Extract Hydrastis (colored)    1 dram
    Water                                1 ounce

Use one dram of this for each injection. It stains the clothes so you must
be careful. This is good and healing.

[236  MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

GONORRHEAL ARTHITIS. (Gonorrheal Rheumatism, Inflammation of the
Joints).--This is more common in men than women. Occurring during, and at
the end of or after inflammation of the urethra. It usually involves many
joints, such as the temporal, maxillary and collar bone. The effusion in
the joints is usually serious.

Symptoms.--Variable joint pains may be the only one. The attack may
resemble an acute articular rheumatism of one joint, or a subacute
rheumatism of one or more.

Sometimes there is a chronic one-jointed inflammation usually of the knee.
The tendon sheaths and bursae may be involved alone, or with the joints.
Gonorrheal septicemia may result from arthritis. This is protracted.
Iritis is a most frequent complication. The urethra source of the
infection must be cured.

Treatment.--Keep the joint quiet and you can use an ice cap for the pain.
Tonic treatment with quinine, iron, and arsenic in chronic cases is
needed. The joints should be kept at rest in acute cases. In chronic cases
massage and slight motion. The tonics must be chosen for each individual
case. One afflicted with this must be under treatment for a long time.



HIP JOINT DISEASE. (Morbus Coxarius).--This is more common in children
than in adults.

Cause.--It is usually tubercular.

Symptoms. First stage.--It may be overlooked; slight lameness, a little
stiffness is noticed at times. The muscles begin to dwindle.

Second stage.--Child limps very perceptibly, dwindling is more apparent.
Pain appears.

Treatment.--Absolute rest. Lying down treatment if begun early arrests
this disease often. Build up the system. Splints and brace are needed
sometimes.



KNEE JOINT DISEASE. (White Swelling).--This is simply a tuberculous knee.

Treatment.--Rest. Stop motion of the joint by some form of splint or
plaster of Paris cast. Get a good physician at the beginning in these
cases and you will save lots of after worry and blame for yourself. It
does not pay to wait. These joint diseases will progress, and often
treatment is begun months after trouble is seated. It ought to be criminal
negligence and dealt with accordingly to neglect such diseases. Parents
should never forget that they have endowed their children with such a
constitution, and they should be glad and willing to correct it as far as
they can.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 237]

LEPROSY. Definition.--Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease, caused by
what is called the "Bacillus Leprae," and is characterized by the presence
of tubercular nodules in the skin and mucous membranes (tubercular
leprosy), or by changes in the nerves (anaesthetic leprosy). These forms
are separate at first, but ultimately they are combined and there are
disturbances of sensation in the characteristic tubercular form.

History.--Leprosy is supposed to have originated in the Orient, and to be
as old as the records of history. It appears to have prevailed in Egypt
even so far back as three or four thousand years before Christ. The Hebrew
writers make many references to it, and it is no doubt described in
Leviticus. The affection was also known both in India and China many
centuries before the Christian era. The old Greek and Roman physicians
were familiar with its manifestations, ancient Peruvian pottery represent
on their pieces deformities suggestive of this disease. The disease
prevailed extensively in Europe throughout the middle ages and the number
of leper asylums has been estimated at, at least, 20,000. Its prevalence
is now restricted in the lands where it still occurs while once it was
prominent in the list of scourges of the old world.

It is now found in Norway and to a less extent in Sweden, in Bulgaria,
Greece, Russia, Austro-Hungary and Italy, with much reduced percentage in
middle Europe; it is the rarest of diseases in England where once it
existed. In India, Java, and China, in Egypt, Algiers, and Southern
Africa, in Australia and in both North and South America, including
particularly Central America, Cuba, and the Antilles, it exists to a less
extent. It has been recognized in the United States chiefly in New
Orleans, San Francisco, (predominantly among the Chinese population of
that city). The disease has steadily decreased among the latter colonists
in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Iowa. Isolated cases have been recognized in
almost every state, and leprous cases are presented at the public
charities of New York, Philadelphia, Boston, etc. The estimated number of
lepers a few years ago in the United States varied between two hundred and
five hundred. It is represented as diminishing in frequency in the
Hawaiian Islands, Porto Rico and the Philippines. In the Hawaiian Islands
it spread rapidly after 1860, and strenuous attempts have been made to
stamp it out by segregating all lepers on the island of Molokai. There
were 1,152 lepers in that settlement in 1894. In British India, according
to the leprosy commission, there were 100,000 lepers in 1900.

Cause.--The bacillus, discovered by Hansen, of Bergen, in 1874, is
universally recognized as the cause of leprosy. It has many points of
resemblance to the tubercle bacillus. These bacilli have been found in the
dwellings and clothing of lepers as well as in the dust of apartments
occupied by the victims.

[238 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

The usual vehicle by which the disease is transmitted is the secretions of
a leprous patient containing bacilli or spores. The question of
inheritance of leprosy is regarded now as standing in the same position as
that relating to the inheritance of tuberculosis; no foetus, no new-born
living child, has been known to exhibit the symptoms of either disease.
Several cases have been cited where infants but a few weeks old exhibited
symptoms of leprosy. It affects men more than women. Infection is more
common after the second decade, though children are occasionally among its
victims. When it occurs in countries where it had not previously existed,
its appearance is invariably due to the infection of sound individuals by
lepers first exhibiting symptoms where the disease is prevalent.

Neisser states this: "The number of lepers in any country bears an inverse
ratio to the laws executed for the care and isolation of infected persons.
The disease appears to spread more rapidly in damp and cold, or warm and
moist, climates than in temperate countries. It is not now regarded as
contagious. The leprosy of the book of Leviticus not only includes lepra,
as that term is understood today, but also psoriasis, scabies and other
skin affections," The leper, in the eye of the Mosaic law, was
ceremoniously unclean, and capable of communicating a ceremonial
uncleanness. Several of the narratives contained in the Bible bear witness
to the fact that the Oriental leper was seen occasionally doing service in
the courts of kings, and even in personal communication and contact with
officers of high rank.

Symptoms.--Previous symptoms: Want of appetite, headache, chills,
alternating with mild or severe feverish attacks, depression, nosebleed,
stomach and bowel disturbances, sleeplessness. The durations of these
symptoms is variable. Some patients will remember that these symptoms
preceded for years the earliest outbreak of lepra (leprosy). In other
cases only a few weeks elapsed. These earlier skin lesions are tubercular,
macular (patches), or bullous elevations of the horny layer of the skin.
It may then be divided into three varieties tuberculous, macular and
anaesthetic.



LEPRA TUBEROSA. (Tuberculated, Nodulated or Tegumentary (skin) Leprosy).--
This nodular type comprises from ten to fifty per cent of cases. After the
occurring of the symptoms just mentioned spotted lesions appear, which are
bean to tomato in size, reddish brown or bronze-hued patches, roundish,
oval or irregular in contour, well defined, and they occur upon the face,
trunk and extremities. The skin covering them is either smooth and
shining, as if oiled, or is infiltrated, nodulated and elevated. The
surface of the reddened spots is often oversensitive.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 239]

After a period ranging from weeks to years, tubercles rise from the spots
described, varying in size from a pea to that of a nut, and they may be as
large as a tomato. They are in color, yellowish, reddish-brown, or
bronzed, often shining as if varnished or oiled, are covered with a soft,
natural, or slightly scaling outer skin, roundish or irregular in shape
and are isolated or grouped numbers of very small and ill-determined
nodules may often be seen by careful examination of the skin in the
vicinity of those that are developed. They may run together and cause
broad infiltrations and from this surface new nodules spring. They may be
in the skin or under the skin and feel soft or firm. The eruption of these
tubercles is usually preceded at the onset by fever, as well as by puffy
swelling of the involved region, eyelids, ears, etc. These leprous
tubercles choose the face as their favored site. They mass here in great
numbers, and thus produce the characteristic deformity of the countenance
that has given to the disease one of its names, Leontiasis (lion face).

In such faces the tubercles arrange themselves in parallel series above
the brows down to the nose, over the cheeks, lips and chin, and as a
result of the infiltration and development of the conditions the brows
deeply over-hang; the globes of the eyes, and the ears, are so studded
with tubercular masses as to stand out from the side of the head. The
trunk and extremities, including the palms of the hands and soles of the
feet, are then usually involved to a less degree. The arm-pit, genital and
mammary regions, and more rarely the neck and the palms of the hands and
soles of the feet, may be invaded. In occasional cases when the
development of tubercles upon the face and ears is extensive, there may
not be more than from five to fifty upon the rest of the body, and these
either widely scattered and isolated or agglomerated in a single hard,
flat, elevated plaque of infiltration upon the elbow or thigh. When the
tubercles run together (become confluent) large plaques of infiltration
may form, which are elevated and brownish or blackish in color.

The soft palate and larynx are often involved when the skin lesions are
present. The voice may sound gruff and hoarse, and the tongue, the larynx
and soft palate have been found studded with small sized, ashen-hued
tubercles. These tumors or tubercles may degenerate and form into
irregularly outlined, sharply cut, glazed ulcers, with a bloody or
sloughing floor, or they may disappear and leave behind pigmented,
shrunken depressions, or they lose their shapes from partial resorption. A
large plaque may flatten in the center until an annular disk is left to
show its former location. Coincident symptoms are disturbance in the
functions of the sweat and sebaceous secretion, thinning and loss of hair
in the regions involved, especially the eyebrows, and disorders of
sensibility. Later results, are a nasal catarrh, atrophy of the sexual
organs in both sexes, with impairment or loss of procreative power,
hopeless blindness. However the course of the disease is very slow, and
years may elapse before these several changes are accomplished. Often the
disease appears quiescent for months at a time, after which fever occurs
and with it acute or sub-acute manifestations appear, including gland
disease, orchitis, ulcerative processes, slow or rapid, followed by
gangrene and a relatively rapid progress is made toward a fatal
conclusion.

Toward the last the mutilations effected by the disease may result. Parts
of the fingers or toes, whole fingers or toes, and entire hand or foot may
become wholly or partially detached by the ulcerative and other
degenerations. This stage of this type of the disease may extend through
ten or more years. After it has fully developed the dejected countenance
of the leper, with his leonine expression and general appearance is highly
characteristic.

[240 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

LEPRA MACULOSA.--This form is more common in tropical countries and is
distinguished chiefly by its macular (spotty) lesions. In size they vary
from a small coin to areas as large as a platter. They are diffused or
circumscribed, roundish or shaped irregularly, yellowish, brownish or
bronzed in color, often shiny or glazed. They may be infiltrated and may
be elevated, or on a level with the adjacent tissues. The patches are
usually at first very sensitive, but they finally become insensitive, so
that a knife can be thrust deeply into them without being felt. The
regions chiefly affected by this type are the back, exposed parts, the
backs of the hands and wrists, the forehead, the cheeks, ears, back of the
feet, and ankles. The eruptions may be scanty or general; conspicuous or
insignificant. The eruptive symptoms are associated commonly, early or
late, with the serious phenomena described below.



LEPRA ANAESTHETICA. (Nerve Leprosy. Atrophic Leprosy. Lepra
Trophoneurotica).--Before the development of this form of leprosy there
may be one or two years of ill-health. Usually the skin at this time
becomes in localized patches over-sensitive, sometimes there is
over-sensitiveness and special nerves, because of their enlargement,
become accessible to the touch. Those named later become tender, and the
seat of lancinating or shooting pains. This clinical variety may be
commingled in its symptoms with each of the other types. With or without
such commingling, however, there commonly is noted, after exposure to cold
or after being subject to chills first an eruption, red (erythematous)
patches, or of "bullae," size of a bean on cheeks, ears, back of the feet,
and ankles. The eruption may be outer skin covering (epidermis) and filled
with a clear tinted or blood-mixed serum, and usually occurring upon the
extremities. The scars that follow are shrunken (atrophic) patches, each
often greater in extent than the base of the original trouble, color
whitish, shiny, glazed, or better described as a tint suggesting the hue
of mica; their outline is circular and form also the dumb-bell figure by
running (coalescing) together, or juxtaposition. These scars are always
without sensitiveness (anaesthetic), and they may exist together with
spotted and non-sensitive patches upon the trunk or other parts such as
the face, hands, feet, ankles, thighs, but rarely on the palms and soles.
Neither those of the one class nor of the other, however, are disposed
over the surface of the body in lines, bands or curves, corresponding with
the distribution of the skin (cutaneous) nerves. Sometimes the ulnar and
other nerves (median, posterior tibial, peroneal, facial and radial) that
are accessible to the touch are swollen, tender, insensitive or as rigid
as hardened cords. Reddish-gray swellings may be recognized by the eye
along the nerve tract. General shrinking skin symptoms follow. The skin
becomes dry and harsh; there is little or no sebaceous product and the
skin of the face seems tightly drawn over the bones. As a consequence of
deforming shrinking (atrophy) of the eyelids, a persistent overflow of
tears, consequent eye changes follow, and a constant flow of saliva
escapes from the parted lips. The fingers are half drawn into the palm of
the hands; the nails are distorted and ulceration occurs later. These
ulcers are irregular, oval, roundish or linear in form covered with thin
blackish, flattened, tenacious crusts with soft bases, and their floors
covered with a soft debris mixed with blood, the whole insensitive to
every foreign body, and external application. At last the symptoms of
mutilating lepra (leprosy) may occur, digits or portions of the wrist,
part of hand (meta carpus) or corresponding portions of the foot may be
detached from the body. Death may occur at any time during the course of
the disease. In this form it is said to last from eighteen to twenty years
and is thus not so rapidly fatal as the tubercular variety.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 241]

Treatment.--The main treatment is the isolation and segregation of all
lepers from contact with the well; wholesome laws are enforced in some
countries where leprosy prevails, and provision is made not only for the
isolation and segregation, but also for their care. On account of its
relative variety America has not yet awakened and legislation only forbids
the entry of infected persons. At Molokai, in the Hawaiian Islands,
provision is made for the care of lepers. Many of the public hospitals for
the care of the sick poor refuse to receive lepers. The child of a leprous
woman should be removed from the mother after birth and not nursed by
another woman. No medicines are known to have any curative effect. An
immediate change of residence and climate should be made if the patient
happens to live in a district where the disease prevails. A highly
nutritious diet should be taken.

The outlook.--The future is in general dark for the leper. It is often of
a malignant character, and a fatal result is the rule. A change of climate
and conditions may help. Scandinavian lepers who have removed to the
United States have been greatly benefited by the change, but there is no
known cure. The isolation should be as effective as that for tuberculosis.
It is not contagious but infectious.



HYDROPHOBIA.--Rabies and hydrophobia are two different terms, meaning the
same disease, the former meaning to rage or become mad. This term applies
more especially to the disease as it exists in the maniacal form in the
lower animals, while hydrophobia comes from the Greek, meaning "dread of
water." As we occasionally find this dread of water only in the human
subject, the term is properly used in such a case. The lower animals
frequently attempt to drink water even though the act brings on a
spasmodic contraction of the swallowing (deglutitory) muscles. Hydrophobia
is an acute infectious disease communicated to man by the bite of an
animal suffering from rabies. It is due to a definite specific virus which
is transmitted through the saliva by the bite of a rabid animal. Its
natural habitat (location) is the nervous system, and it does not retain
its virulence when introduced into any other system of organs. It is
essentially a nervous disease and transmitted by the saliva of rabid
animals. When inoculated into a wound this virus must come in contact with
a broken nerve trunk in order to survive and reproduce itself. If by
accident it attacks the end of the broken nerve trunk, it slowly and
gradually extends to the higher nerve centers and eventually produces the
disease.

[242 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

The incubation, or the time it takes for the disease to develop, varies,
but usually is from three to six months. There is a recorded case where
the person began to show symptoms of the disease thirteen days after
having received a severe wound on the head. The incubation period is
seldom longer than six months. The symptoms of the disease in the human
being vary within narrow limits. There are three classic symptoms usually
encountered, and these are fear, apprehension or excitement, together with
deglutitory (swallowing) spasms, terminating in general paralysis. The
patient remains conscious of his agony to the end, but the period of
illness is of short duration, lasting from one to three days.

The bites of rabid dogs cause ninety per cent of the cases in man and
animals. The cat is the next important factor in spreading the disease and
about six per cent of the cases are caused by this animal. For other cases
four per cent come from bites of horses, wolves, foxes, etc. The wolf in
Russia, or other animals like it, may be the chief cause there; but dogs
cause ninety per cent, taking all the cases found. Man, dog, cat, horse,
cattle, sheep, goat, hog, deer, etc., are subject to the disease either
naturally or experimentally. The disease is confined commonly to dogs,
because the dog naturally attacks animals of his own species and thus
keeps the disease limited mainly to his own kind. Naturally the dog
follows this rule, but on the other hand, in the latter stages of the
disease he usually goes to the other extreme and even attacks his own
master, etc. The dogs that are the most dangerous and do the greatest
damage are of the vicious breeds.

The rabbit or guinea pig is used for demonstration in the laboratory.
Guinea pigs respond to the virus more rapidly than do other animals and
therefore they are especially useful in diagnostic work. Rabbits, however,
on account of the convenient size and ease with which they are operated
upon, are usually the choice in the production of material used in
treating patients.

The director of one Pasteur Institute says, "We have two classes of
patients to deal with in the Pasteur institute. The larger class, of
course, are those inoculated by the bite of rabid animals, but we also
have a few who are infected by the rabid saliva accidentally coming in
contact with wounds already produced. In these accidental eases the
disease is almost as likely to result as in those to whom the virus is
directly communicated by the bite." The wounds considered most dangerous
are the recent fresh wounds. The possibility of infection decreases with
the formation of the new connective tissue which protects the ends of the
broken nerve fibres. One must remember, however, that wounds over joints,
especially on the hands, are likely to remain open for some time. A dog
ill of this disease can give the disease to man through licking a wound.
Such a case has been recorded. This dog licked the child's hands before it
was known to be mad. The child died from the disease. As stated before
ninety per cent of the cases are inoculated by the bites of rabid animals.


[INFECTIOUS DISEASES  243]

The wounds are considered according to their severity and location.
Lacerating, tearing wounds upon uncovered surfaces, especially the head,
are the most dangerous. This is due to the fact of the closeness of the
brain and the large amount of infection in such a wound, and for this
reason treatment should be immediately given. But smaller wounds should
also be treated for the smallness of the wound furnishes no sure criterion
as to the future outcome of the disease. All possible infections should be
regarded as dangerous when considering the advisability of taking the
Pasteur Treatment. The small wound has usually a longer period of
incubation, because of the small amount of infection, still it may cause a
fatal termination. A dog never develops rabies from a lack of water or
from being confined or overheated during the summer months. A spontaneous
case of rabies has never been known. It must be transmitted from animal to
animal and the history of the case will point to a previous infection by a
diseased animal.

Where rigid quarantine rules exist the disease does not occur. In
Australia they quarantine every dog, that comes to that country, for six
months, and in consequence they have never had a case of rabies. In Russia
they have had many cases. In Constantinople the disease frequently "runs
riot." France has lost as many as 2,500 dogs in one year. Before the
Pasteur Treatment was instituted (in 1885) there was an average of sixty
deaths in human beings in the Paris hospitals.

Belgium and Austria average one thousand dogs annually. There was a yearly
average in Germany of four hundred dogs, dying of rabies, until the law
requiring the muzzling of dogs was strictly enforced and since that time
the disease is practically unknown. We do not have strict quarantine laws
against dogs, and the result is death from hydrophobia in many states
annually. It was formerly believed that rabies was a hot weather disease.
The number of cases during the winter months of late years has disproved
that belief, for the records of the institute for treatment of hydrophobia
at Ann Arbor have shown a decrease of cases during the summer months. This
was before 1908. This shows that rabies is not a hot weather disease.

[244 MOTHERS' REMEDIES ]

Ordinarily cases of rabies occur here and there (sporadic), but if the
conditions are favorable epidemics break out. One dog may bite several
dogs and these dogs bite others and thus spread the disease to many. Not
every animal bitten by a mad dog develops the disease. The disease does
not always follow the bite. Only about forty per cent of all animals
bitten by a mad dog contract the disease. This is given by a noted
authority. Statistics also show that in man the disease develops in only
about twenty per cent of the cases in those who have been bitten by rabid
dogs. But in dealing with those who have been bitten such measures should
be taken as would be if they were certain of developing the disease; one
cannot tell how much poison enters the system in such cases and preventive
procedures should be taken. There are reasons why everyone who is bitten
does not contract the disease.

The location and character of the bite must be considered. Bites on the
head, neck and hands have been recognized as more dangerous, from early
times, and such bites produce fatal results quicker than do bites on other
parts of the body, and the reason is largely due to the fact that the
other parts of the body are more or less protected by the clothing, and
this clothing prevents the entrance of so much poison into the system.
Bites on the head give a high mortality rate and are rapidly fatal. The
close proximity to the brain is one reason.

The part the clothing plays in protection is clearly shown by the
following quotation from an eminent authority: "In India where the natives
dress very scantily, the mortality was exceedingly high up to a few years
ago, at which time the British introduced the Pasteur laboratories. The
clothing protects the body and it holds back the saliva and can be looked
upon as a means of filtering the saliva of the rabid animal, most of the
saliva is held back as the teeth pierce the clothing, so that upon
entering the flesh the teeth are practically dry, and only a portion of
the virus is introduced. Upon entering the wound this small amount of
virus is further diluted by the tissue juices to the non-infectious point.
We know from actual experimental work in the laboratory that the higher
dilution will not kill."

If a portion of the brain of an animal dead from street virus is taken and
made up in a dilution of one to five hundred, and this is injected, we
find that it does not produce death. But a dilution of one to three
hundred will invariably kill. This is practically what very often happens
when one is bitten through the clothing. The saliva may be filtered and
held back so that a small amount is introduced; perhaps a dilution of one
to five hundred of the virus may get into the wound, but this is usually
not enough to cause the disease. There is no possible way of estimating
the amount of the inoculation. In such cases one's chances of never
contracting the disease are only decreased; that is all we can say.

The treating of individuals, bitten by rabid animals, in the Pasteur
Institutes, is simply the practical application of results obtained by
Pasteur from his original work on rabies virus. Pasteur was a French
chemist living in Paris, and he began his search for the cause and cure of
rabies in 1880. He hoped to find a sure method of preventing the
development of the dread disease, even if he could not find a cure for it
after it had developed. While he was pursuing this research Pasteur had
access to the cases of rabies in the Paris hospitals, and these numbered
sixty each year. He had practically an unlimited supply, for France could
furnish him with twenty-five hundred more mad dogs, and a large number of
other animals each year.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 245]

Pasteur devoted the remainder of his life to the study of this subject. He
collected some saliva from the mouth of a child, on December 11, 1880, who
had died at the Hospital Trousseau four hours before. This saliva he
diluted with distilled water, and this mixture he injected into rabbits,
and they all died, and the saliva taken from these rabbits when injected
into other rabbits caused their death with rabies. He found also that
saliva from rabid dogs almost always caused the disease. The incubation
period varied within wide limits, and very often the animals lived. He
then used the blood of rabid dogs for inoculation, but these blood
inoculations always failed to produce the disease. Pasteur was convinced
after careful study of rabid animals during the many months necessary to
complete his experiments, that rabies was a disease of the nervous system,
and that the poison (virus) was transmitted from the wound to the brain by
the way of the nerve trunks. Then to prove his theory Pasteur removed a
portion of the brain of a dog that had died of rabies. A part of this was
rubbed up in sterile water and used to inoculate other animals; and
subcutaneous inoculations with this material almost always produced death.

After this Pasteur tried a new method and injected directly into the
nervous system, either into the nerve trunk or directly into the brain,
after trephining, and all such injections produced rabies in the injected
animal and death. He also found that rabbits inoculated in the brain
always died in the same length of time. When he injected into the nerve
trunk the inoculation period was longer, depending upon the distance from
the brain. Two problems now remained for Pasteur to solve, and these were,
how could he obtain the definite virulence and how could he reduce the
virulence regularly and gradually, so that it could be used by inoculation
safely as a vaccine to produce immunity to rabies in healthy animals, and
also to prevent the development of rabies in animals bitten by rabid
animals. He first tried successive inoculations. These inoculations were
made, after trephining, directly to the brain, and he used a portion of
the brain as a virus each time. He inoculated rabbit number one with a
portion of brain taken from a rabid dog, and this rabbit died on the
fifteenth day. He then inoculated rabbit number two with a portion of the
brain of rabbit number one; from the brain of rabbit number two the virus
was supplied for inoculating rabbit number three, and thus the brain of
each inoculated rabbit was taken, after its death, for material to
inoculate the next rabbit in the series. This experimentation showed him
that each rabbit in the series died a little sooner, showing that the
virus was becoming more virulent, till no increase in activity of the
poison was shown after the fiftieth successive inoculation. "Rabbits
inoculated with a brain suspension of rabbit number fifty all died in
seven days." This caused Pasteur to name the virus of number fifty "virus
fixe," a virus of definite length. He now had obtained a virus of definite
strength and the next question was, how could the virulence be gradually
and definitely reduced.

[246 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

This he accomplished after many experiments. He proved that pieces of the
"medulla oblongata" suspended in sterile tubes which contained fragments
of caustic potash, steadily and gradually reduced their virulence as they
dried, till the fourteenth day, when they were practically inert. New
specimens were prepared each day and cords which had dried in one day
Pasteur called "one-day virus;" cords which had dried in two days, "two
day's virus," and so on up to the fourteenth day. With this graduated
virus he now experimented on dogs, and the injection he used on the first
day consisted of an emulsion of fourteen-day virus; for the second day,
the thirteen-day virus, thus using a stronger virus each day, until on the
fourteenth day he used the full strength virus. This treatment produced
what is called immunity in the dog, and even the direct inoculation into
the brain of the strong virus would not produce death.

After Pasteur had thoroughly satisfied himself by repeated trials, he
announced his wonderful discovery, and it was in 1886 that Pasteur
considered the preventive inoculation in human beings as resting upon a
satisfactory experimental basis. During these five years this eminent man
proved that it was possible to protect or immunize the lower animals,
rabbits and dogs, against inoculation with the virulent virus.

The efficiency of this immunity was given trials by different methods of
inoculation. It was found that sixty per cent of dogs inoculated under the
"dura" (a membrane of the brain) were saved if treatment was given the
second day. This test is more severe than is required to meet the ordinary
infection of rabies. Pasteur, after a series of these final tests were so
convincing, prescribed the preventive inoculations in human beings and on
July 6th, 1886, the first human patient received the first treatment of
his series of inoculations.

The method of obtaining the attenuated virus used in the treatment is as
follows: A rabbit is inoculated by the brain method before described, each
day, with suspension of the fresh, fixed virus. These rabbits die in six
days after the inoculation. In this way a rabbit dies each day; the spinal
cord is removed, divided into sections, and suspended in a flask
containing potassium hydrate. The action of potassium hydrate is drying
(desiccating). A series of these cords, which have been hung on fourteen
successive days, are always kept in stock for the treatment of patients.
The virus becomes less active with each successive day of exposure to
drying (desiccation) and finally the virulence is altogether lost.

When the patient comes for treatment the fourteenth and thirteenth-day
cords are used for the first inoculation, and on each successive day the
patient receives inoculation, the strength of which has been regulated by
the number of days the cord has been hanging. During the first four days
patients receive injections of six cubic centimeters of emulsions made
from cords aging from fourteen to seven days, and from the fifth day until
the completion of the course of treatment patients receive emulsions from
cords of higher immunizing properties, but no cords desiccated for less
than four days are used.

[INFECTIOUS DISEASES 247]

Death rate from 1878-1883 before Pasteur treatment was instituted taken
from documents in the department of the Seine:

    1878       143 bitten.     24 deaths.
    1879       76    "         12   "
    1880       68    "          5   "
    1881      156    "         22   "
    1882       67    "         11   "
    1883       45    "          6   "

Average of one death to every six bitten, or seventeen per cent mortality.


Incubation period from eleven days to thirteen months, average one hundred
and twenty days, depending upon location of bite. Pasteur Institute
records during the years 1886-1887 and first half of 1888, show that
Pasteur had under his supervision 5,374 persons bitten by animals either
proven or thought to have been mad. Mortality for 1886 was 1-34 per cent,
during 1887 it was 1-12 per cent, during 1888 it was 77/100 per cent. With
the later treatment the mortality has decreased to 3-10 per cent in 1908.
The Pasteur method of treatment is a process of immunization which must be
completed before the development of the disease. It is of no value after
the symptoms have appeared.

Those who have not been affected can be immunized the same as those who
have been bitten. The individual who has been bitten by a mad dog realizes
when and how severely he has been bitten, and were it not for the
so-called period of latent development of the virus, it would not be
possible to carry out the Pasteur treatment. The patient may, if he will,
take advantage of this fact and be immunized by treatment before the
disease has developed. Deep and severe bites are most dangerous, but the
disease may develop simply from a rabid dog licking a scratch of the skin.
As before stated bites on exposed or uncovered surfaces, are more
dangerous than those through clothing. There is a very easy access of the
saliva to the wound in the unprotected part, while in the protected parts
the teeth in passing through the protection, clothing, are freed of their
saliva at least partially. The virus is conveyed from the bitten part or
inoculation to the central nervous system through the nerve trunk, and the
rapidity of extension depends upon the resistant powers of the patient,
the virulence and the amount of virus deposited in the bitten part at the
time the person was bitten. This disease develops only in nerve tissues.
Virus can be found in the nerves of the side bitten, while the
corresponding nerves on the opposite side are free from it. It can be
ascertained that the virus is present in the medulla oblongata before the
lower portion of the cord.

[248 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Comparative danger.--A wound of the hand after a delay of three weeks is
as dangerous as a bite on the head exposed only a few days. There is
always a possibility of an accumulative action and extension of the virus
along the nerve trunk to the central nervous system during the interval of
exposure, and this should be always borne in mind. It is stated by
authority that the virus is not transmitted by the bite of a rabid animal
until two days previous to the appearance of the first symptoms. It is
with some difficulty that a decision is reached in advising patients who
are bitten to take treatment early in the course of the disease. The
symptoms are often so very obscure and slight that they are not
recognized. If a dog which is not naturally vicious suddenly bites without
any cause it should be tied securely and watched for seven days; and
should it develop symptoms of the disease during this period the bite
should be considered dangerous.

Immediate treatment of the wound.--A temporary measure is the
cauterization of the wound; do not neglect this because a few hours have
passed since the person was bitten, for wounds may be cauterized with
advantage even after two or three days have elapsed. Of course the earlier
it is done the better. If they are thoroughly laid open and scrubbed it is
more effective. Nitric acid used freely is the best method to use. Wash
the wound freely with boiled water after the acid has been applied;
ninety-five per cent carbolic acid may be used if nitric acid cannot be
obtained.

If carbolic acid is used it is necessary that it be washed from the wound
by the free use of absolute alcohol, followed by boiled water and a
dressing of bichloride of 1-7000. This prevents the ulceration of the
wound by the carbolic acid. Cauterization thoroughly done destroys a part
of the inoculated virus. Thorough cauterization is especially necessary
with large wounds in which large quantities of the virus is inoculated.

When to send patients to an Institute.--Send them immediately, if there is
good reason to believe the animal had rabies. It is not wise to wait until
the animal dies; it is very important that treatment is begun as soon as
possible, especially in severe bites.

What to send for examination.--The entire head may be sent by express, or
better, the health officer should bring it in person. This saves time and
relieves anxiety; or a portion of the brain may be removed under
thoroughly clean conditions and placed in a sterilized twenty per cent
solution of glycerin and water. In this way the virus retains its
virulence and putrefaction is diminished. The first method is the best,
taking the head directly. The head after it reaches the laboratory is
examined microscopically for "negri bodies," and if there is no
contamination the microscopic findings are verified by animal
inoculations. The presence of negri bodies in a specimen is of great value
owing to the rapidity with which a diagnosis can be made. In one case a
positive diagnosis was reported within twenty minutes after the specimen
entered the laboratory and within the next hour and a half the patient
bitten by the dog the same day had begun her course of protective
injections and was saved.

[BLOOD AND DUCTLESS GLANDS  249]

Protection.--To stamp out this disease city authorities, etc., can enact
laws. All ownerless dogs should be killed, and the keeping of useless dogs
should be discouraged by taxation. All dogs should be thoroughly muzzled
where the disease prevails. This article is made up from an article
written by an acknowledged authority on this disease, a man in charge of a
Pasteur Institute.

Cities where Pasteur Institutes are located:
    Ann Arbor, Michigan.     Baltimore, Maryland.
    Chicago, Illinois.       Austin, Texas.
    Minnesota.               Toronto, Ont.
    New York City.



DISEASES OF THE BLOOD AND DUCTLESS GLANDS.

Anaemia, or Anemia.--This may be defined as a reduction of the amount of
blood as a whole or of its corpuscles, or of certain of its more important
constituents, such as albumin and haemoglobin. Primary or essential anemia
includes chlorosis and pernicious anemia; secondary anemia results from
hemorrhages, poor nourishment or intoxications, poisons. Chlorosis, a
primary anemia chiefly of young girls, characterized by marked relative
decrease of haemoglobin.

Causes.--It usually occurs in blondes of from twelve to twenty years of
age and most often from fourteen to seventeen years of age, when the
menstrual function is being established and during which time they are
rushed with their school work. There may be a family history of chlorosis
or tuberculosis. Poor food, hard, unhealthy work, confinement in close
unventilated rooms are other causes.

Symptoms.--Rounded fleshy appearance may continue. There is some
difficulty of breathing, palpitation of the heart on slight exertion, from
a fright or from excitement, tendency to faint feeling or even fainting,
headache, a tired feeling, hard to stir or do anything, irritable temper,
poor or changeable appetite, the digestion is disturbed, there is
constipation, coldness of the hands and feet, difficult menstruation,
irregular menstruation, leucorrhea, amenorrhea, and sometimes there is a
slight fever. The color is often of a yellowish-green tinge, and this is
more noticeable in the brunette type, though the cheeks may be flushed;
the whites of the eyes bluish white in color. The heart sounds are not
right. The blood is pale in color. The red cells are diminished, but
usually are not below eighty per cent of the normal; the haemoglobin is
greatly reduced, sometimes to thirty-five or forty per cent. The age,
greenish tint of pallor, bluish whites of the eyes, poor nutrition, etc.,
aid in making the diagnosis.

[250 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Treatment.--Fresh air, good food, care of the bowels and rest if the
symptoms are severe. When it is not so severe, plenty of outdoor exercise
is necessary and beneficial. That takes them away from their cramped
sedentary life and gives the sunshine, good pure air, and change of the
scene. Horseback riding is a very good form of exercise, but it should be
slow riding. "Tending" the horse is also good, and sleeping in the open
air is excellent. Automobile riding is too straining and should not be
indulged in.

1. Blaud's pills are very much used. The formula follows:

    Dried Sulphate of Iron    2 drams
    Carbonate of Potash       2 drams
    Syrup                     Sufficient

Mix thoroughly, and make forty-eight pills. Take one to three pills, three
times a day after meals.

2. Fowler's solution of arsenic is also very good remedy; three to four
drops three times a day. It must be watched for bad symptoms and should
only be taken under a physician's supervision.

Diet.--This should be good and varied to suit the special taste, and as
the stomach and bowels are usually disordered such food should be chosen
as will best agree. Diet plays a very important part.



PERNICIOUS ANAEMIA.--This is characterized by great decrease of the red
cells of the blood with a relatively high color index and the presence of
large number of germs. The causes are unknown.

Condition.--The body is not emaciated. A lemon color of the skin is
usually present. The muscles are a dark red, but all the other organs are
pale and fatty. The heart is large and fatty. The liver and spleen are
normal in size, or only slightly enlarged with an excess of iron in the
pigment. The red cells may fall to one-fifth or less of the normal number.
The rich properties of the blood are fearfully decreased.

Symptoms.--Stomach and bowels, dyspepsia, nausea and vomiting, or
constipation, may precede other symptoms or they may last throughout the
case. The onset is gradual and unknown, with gradually increasing weary
feeling, paleness and some difficulty in breathing and palpitation of the
heart on exertion. There is paleness of the skin and the mucous membranes,
the lips look pale, no color. The paleness becomes extreme, the skin often
having a lemon yellow tint. The muscles are flabby; the ankles are
swollen, you can see the arteries beat. Hemorrhages may occur into the
skin, mucous membrane and retina of the eye. Nervous symptoms are not
common. The pallor and weakness become extreme, sometimes with intervals
of improvement and death usually occurs. The following is Addison's
description given by Dr. Osler:

[BLOOD AND DUCTLESS GLANDS 251]

It makes its approach in so slow and insidious a manner that the patient
can hardly fix a date to the earliest feeling of that languor which is
shortly to become extreme. The countenance gets pale, and white of the
eyes become pearly, the general frame flabby rather than wasted. The pulse
perhaps larger, but remarkably soft and compressible, and occasionally
with a slight jerk, especially under the slightest excitement. There is an
increasing indisposition to exertion, with an uncomfortable feeling of
faintness or breathlessness in attempting it; the heart is readily made to
palpitate; the whole surface of the body presents a blanched, smooth and
waxy appearance; the lips, gums and tongue seem bloodless, the flabbiness
of the solid increases, the appetite fails, extreme languor and faintness
supervene, breathlessness and palpitation are produced by the most
trifling exertion, or emotion; some slight oedema (swelling) is probably
perceived about the ankles; the debility becomes extreme. The patient can
no longer rise from the bed; the mind occasionally wanders; he falls into
a prostrate and half torpid state and at length expires; nevertheless, to
the very last, and after a sickness of several months' duration, the
bulkiness of the general frame and the obesity (fat) often present a most
striking contrast to the failure and exhaustion observable in every other
respect. The disease is usually fatal.

Treatment.--The patient should remain in bed and should use a light
nourishing diet, taking food in small amounts and at stated intervals.
Rest in bed is essential. Dr. Osler treated a case in the following way: I
usually begin with three minims (drops) of Fowler's solution of arsenic
three times a day and increase the dose to five drops at the end of the
first week; to ten at the end of the second week; to fifteen at the end of
the third week, and if necessary go up to twenty or twenty-five. Symptoms
of an overdose are rare; vomiting and diarrhea occur. Then the medicine
must be discontinued for a few days.

SECONDARY ANEMIA. Causes.--Hemorrhage form (bleeding). (a) Rapid bleeding
from the rupture of an aneurism, from a blow, or eating into the blood
vessels by an ulcer. (b) Slow bleeding as from nose-bleed, flow from the
womb, piles or in "bleeders" people who bleed readily.

2. Inanition form.--Not nourished because of interference in taking food
or assimilating food, from cancer of the gullet, or disease of the
stomach.

3. Toxic poison cases; from acute and chronic diseases, such as typhoid
fever, tuberculosis, rheumatism, syphilis, malaria, nephritis; or chronic
lead poisoning, mercury, arsenic, and copper poisoning.

Symptoms.--There is pallor, dizziness, headache, palpitation and dyspnoea,
difficult breathing on exertion; there is weakness, tendency to fainting,
poor appetite, dyspepsia and constipation. The red blood cells are
diminished, also the haemoglobin. Death may occur from a single
hemorrhage.

[252 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Treatment.--Remove the cause and rest. Good fresh air, good easily
digested food. The bowels must be kept regular. Iron and arsenic are good
remedies if necessary. It is not possible to give special directions. A
person in this condition needs a good physician. There is no time to
waste. Iron and arsenic are good remedies, but they must be used
intelligently and in proper doses. Blaud's pill is good in some cases. It
contains iron. Also Fowler's solution of arsenic.

LEUKAEMIA.--An affection characterized by persistent increase in the white
blood corpuscles, associated with changes, either alone or together, in
the spleen, lymphatic glands and bone-marrow.

1. Spleen and Bone-Marrow, (Spleen-Medullary) type.--The changes are
especially localized in the spleen and in the bone-marrow while the blood
shows a great increase in elements which are derived especially from the
latter tissue.

2. Lymphatic Type.--The changes in this type are chiefly localized in the
lymphatic apparatus, the blood showing an especial increase in those
elements derived from the lymph glands.

Causes--Unknown. It is most common before middle age.

Symptoms.--Either type may be acute or chronic. The invasion may be
gradual, sometimes with disturbance of the stomach and bowels, or
nose-bleed. (a) The first type is the common one. The spleen generally
becomes enlarged; it is sometimes tender and painful, it may occupy over
half of the abdominal cavity and varies in size after a hemorrhage,
diarrhea or after a meal. There may be paleness of the face, etc., early
and late nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and dysentery are common, as is also
ascites (dropsy in the abdomen). The pulse is rapid, full and soft. Fever
is usual. Hemorrhages occur in the skin, retina, pleura, peritoneum, etc.
Headache, dizziness, short breathing, and fainting may occur from the
anemia. The liver may be enlarged. The blood shows a great increase in the
white cells. Sometimes they are more numerous than the red blood cells.
(b) Lymphatic type is rare, various groups of the lymph glands are
enlarged, usually separate, but sometimes matted together; others, such as
the tonsils may become large. The blood shows an increase of the white
cells, but less than in the other form. The spleen is usually somewhat
enlarged. Recovery is rare; the lymphatic cases may last only six or eight
weeks. The course is usually progressive for two or three years.

Treatment.--The same as for Pernicious Anaemia.



FALSE LEUKAEMIA.  (Pseudo-Leukaemia).--Also called Hodgkin's disease,
malignant lymphoma, and general lymphadenoma. This is a progressive anemia
and enlargement of the lymph glands and the skin, with secondary lymphoid
growth in the liver, spleen and other organs.

Causes.--Males are more affected than females, and usually young persons.
Continual local irritation causes a local enlargement of the gland, but
the actual cause is unknown.

[BLOOD AND DUCTLESS GLANDS 253]

Symptoms.--The lymph glands of the neck, arm-pit or groin are enlarged and
without any pain, followed by anemia, loss of strength and slight fever.
The glands enlarge slowly or rapidly, forming large masses, while the
growth extends to other regions. The spleen may be felt; the skin may be
bronzed. In cases with involvement of deep seated nodes the first symptoms
may be those of pressure on blood vessels, nerves, trachea, bronchial
tubes or other structures.

Treatment.--Cut them out if they are small and localized. Arsenic,
quinine, cod-liver oil are good medicines.



PURPURA.--This is not strictly a disease, but a symptom. This includes a
group of affections characterized by hemorrhages into the skin.

Symptoms.--There are hemorrhages into the skin, and this takes the form of
small blood spots underneath the skin, (petechia) and spots like the
bursting of a blood vessel shows vibices or ecchymoses. The first are in
small minute points and appear, as a rule, in the hair follicles and
unlike the erythemas (redness) do not disappear upon pressure. Another
kind occurs as streaks, while the ecchymoses are larger, but similar in
nature to the first kind. They may be larger than a split pea, and they
range from a deep red to a livid bluish tint. They assume a yellowish
brown, then a yellow color, as they fade away and finally disappear. This
eruption appears in a series of crops and the legs are the usual seat.

1. Symptomatic Purpura. (a) Infectious. Occurs in typhus fever,
endocarditis, cerebro-spinal meningitis, typhoid fever, etc. (b) Toxic;
from snake bites, iodide of potash, quinine, copaiba, bella donna, ergot,
etc., and with jaundice. (c) Cachectic; with cancer, tuberculosis,
leukaemia, false leukaemia, scurvy, etc. (d) Neurotic; with hysteria,
neuralgia, and some organic disease. (e) Mechanical; due to violent effort
and poor venous circulation.

2. Type arthritic purpura. (a) Simple Purpura. A mild form usually
occurring in children, sometimes with pains in the joints, rarely any
fever. There is anemia, disturbance of the stomach and purpuric spots on
the legs, often on the arms and trunks. (b) Rheumatic purpura; this
usually occurs in men from twenty to forty years old. There is usually
pain and swelling of several joints, temperature 101 to 103 degrees,
purpuric eruption chiefly on the legs and about the affected joints, often
with hives and digestive disturbances: (c) Henoch's purpura; usually in
children and is sometimes fatal. There are recurrent joint pains and
swelling, disturbances of the stomach and bowels, skin troubles resembling
it, and hemorrhage from mucous membrane.

[254 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]


PURPURA HAEMORRHAGIC.--This is a severe form, usually seen in delicate
girls. The cause is unknown.

Symptoms.--Weakness, extensive purpuric spots (small blood spots in the
skin), eruption, hemorrhages from the mucous membranes which may cause
secondary anemia, slight fever, slow clotting of the blood. The duration
is from ten to fourteen days. Death may occur within a day in cases marked
by profuse bleedings into the skin and prostration.

Treatment.--Remove the causes. Fresh air, food and tonics, etc. This
disease is serious and needs careful treatment from a physician.



HAEMOPHILIA. "Bleeders."--This is a hereditary disorder characterized by a
tendency to persistent bleeding, spontaneously or even after a slight
injury.

Causes.--Usually hereditary through many generations. It is transmitted
through daughters, themselves usually not "bleeders," to their male
children. It is found most often in the Anglo-German races.

Condition.--The blood vessel walls are thin; the skin is delicate,
clotting of the blood is usually retarded.

Symptoms.--It comes spontaneously or after only slight wounds; the person
is extremely delicate. The bleedings occur from the skin, or mucous
membrane, or from wounds, but rarely during menstruation or confinement.
They vary from small spots to bleeding which may end fatally, or in
recovery with marked anemia. There may be pain and swelling of the joints,
etc., and this may leave deformities resembling deformed arthritis. The
result is worse the earlier the disease shows itself. They may live to old
age.

Treatment.--Avoid, as much as possible, wounds and operations in
"bleeding" families. Marriage of the women should be discouraged. For
bleeding: rest, ice, tannic or gallic acid or adrenalin locally if the
bleeding points can be reached. Plug the nostrils for nose-bleed both
behind and in front.



SCURVY. (Scorbutus).--A constitutional disease characterized by weakness,
anemia, sponginess of the gums and tendencies to bleeding.

Causes.--This disease has been called "The calamity of sailors." It has
been known from the earliest times, and has prevailed particularly in
armies in the field and among sailors on long voyages. It has become a
very rare disease in the United States.

Predisposing Causes.--Overcrowding; dark unhealthy rooms; prolonged
fatigue; mental depression.

Exciting Cause.--The lack of fresh vegetables, poisoning from slightly
tainted food, or an infection. The gums are swollen, sometimes ulcerated,
skin is spotted, bluish, etc,

[BLOOD AND DUCTLESS GLANDS 255]

Symptoms.--It comes on gradually (insidiously). There is loss of weight,
progressively developing weakness and pallor, very soon the gums are
swollen and look spongy and bleed easily. The teeth may become loose and
fall out. The breath is very foul. The tongue is swollen, but it may be
red and not coated. The skin becomes dry and rough and (ecchymoses) dark
spots soon appear, first on the legs, and then on the arm and trunk and
particularly about the hair follicles. These are spontaneous or follow a
slight injury. In severe cases hemorrhages under the periosteum (the
covering of the bones) may cause irregular swelling, especially in the
legs, and these may break down and form ulcers. The slightest bruise or
injury causes hemorrhages into the injured part. Extravasion under the
skin, especially in the lower extremities may be followed by permanent
hardness (induration) and stiffness due to connective tissue infiltration
(scurvy sclerosis). There may be pains in the joints and often watery
swelling (oedema) of the ankles. Bleeding from internal mucous membranes
is less common than from the skin. The appetite is poor, palpitation of
the heart and feebleness and irregularity of the pulse are prominent
symptoms. Owing to the sore gums the patient is unable to chew the food.
The urine often contains albumin and is scanty and concentrated. There are
weariness, depression, headache and finally delirium or coma, or symptoms
due to hemorrhages within the brain; or day and night blindness may be
present.

Recovery.--The patient will recover if the cause can be removed, unless it
is far advanced. Death may result from complications.

Treatment. Preventive.--Fresh or canned vegetables or fruit must be eaten.

Treatment for the attack.--Dr. Osler, of England, says: "I think the juice
of two or three lemons daily and a diet of plenty of meat and fresh
vegetables will cure all cases unless they are far advanced. For the
stomach small quantities of scraped meat and milk should be given at short
intervals, and the lemon juice in gradually increasing quantities. As the
patient gains in strength you can give a more liberal diet, and he may eat
freely of potatoes, cabbage, water cresses, and lettuce. A bitter tonic
may be given. Permanganate of potash or dilute carbolic acid forms the
best mouth-wash. Penciling the swollen gums with a tolerably strong
solution of nitrate of silver is very useful. Relieve the constipation by
enemas."

ADDISON'S DISEASE. Diseases of the Suprarenal (above Kidneys) Bodies.--A
constitutional disease characterized by great weakness, stomach and bowel
symptoms, heart weakness, and dark coloring of the skin.

Causes.--It usually occurs in men from twenty to forty years old. The skin
and mucous membrane and sometimes the serous, like the pleura, etc.,
membranes are pigmented (darkened).

Symptoms.--There is a gradual onset of weakness, changeable symptoms in
the stomach and bowels and darkening of the skin. There is great feeling
of fatigue and feeble irregular action of the heart; nausea and vomiting
and often absence of appetite and some diarrhea. The abdomen may be
painful and drawn back in the course of the disease. The pigmentation
(coloring of the skin) varies from the light yellow to dark brown, olive
or black. It usually begins on the skin or regions naturally pigmented; or
where pressure is exerted by the clothing. The mucous membranes are also
pigmented. Death may occur from fainting, extreme weakness, convulsions or
delirium or through tuberculosis. Usually death occurs within one year,
though this may occur in a few weeks to two years, sometimes after
intervals of improvement.

[256 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Treatment.--This must be to meet the indications as they arise. It is a
serious disease and should be under the supervision of a competent
physician.

DISEASES OF THE SPLEEN. 1. Rupture of the spleen.--This may occur
spontaneously from no apparent cause, or from hurts received in cases of
typhoid or malaria.

Symptoms.--Severe pain, and signs of intestinal hemorrhages.

2. Acute inflammation of the spleen (splenitis).--This occurs in acute
infections after injuries.

Symptoms.--They are pain, tenderness, and enlargement of the spleen.

Treatment.--Treat the cause and relieve the pain. As this is a serious and
painful affection a physician should be called. The pain is often relieved
by a mustard poultice or hot fomentations. The patient should remain in
bed for acute inflammation of the spleen no matter what the cause.

3. Chronic Splenitis. Causes.--It comes from malaria, syphilis or
leukaemia, etc.

Symptoms.--There is the feeling of weight and symptoms of pressure on the
lungs or bowel.

Treatment.--Remove the cause. If it comes from malaria, attend to that,
etc.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. 1. Blood Purifier, Molasses and Sulphur as a.--"Take a
pint of molasses to five cents' worth of sulphur, and mix well." A
teaspoonful four times a day in the spring will do wonders towards
purifying the blood.

2. Blood Purifier, Sassafras Tea, Known all over as.--"Sassafras tea made
from the root and boiled to extract the strength." Drink freely of this
for a few days in the spring. It thins the blood, and is a good tonic.

3. Blood Purifier, Herb Tea Used as.--

    Burdock Root         2 ounces
    Yellow Dock          2 ounces
    Slippery Elm Bark    1 ounce
    Mezeron Root         1 ounce
    Licorice Juice       1 ounce

Simmer gently in three pints of water down to one quart; when cold, strain
and add one-fourth ounce of iodine potassium." A wineglassful may be
taken three times a day. This preparation is a fine blood purifier and can
be relied upon.

[BLOOD AND DUCTLESS GLANDS 257]

4. Blood Purifier, Sweet Fern for.--"Make a tea of this and drink freely.
This is very good to take in the spring of the year, as it thoroughly
cleanses the system."

5. Blood Purifier, Doctor Recommends Senna and Salts for:--"Five cents'
worth of senna leaves, one tablespoonful of epsom salts in one quart of
cold water; cover and let stand over night, then strain and put in
bottles. Take a wine-glass full every morning until you feel well." This
is from Mrs. Jonathan Shaw, she has used it with good results in her
family. A physician in England told her if people would use this the year
round they would seldom need a doctor.

6. Blood Purifier, Remedy Easy to Make for.--"We always use one
teaspoonful of cream of tartar, two spoonfuls of sulphur, and mix with
syrup. Any size spoon will do. Take a teaspoonful at a dose." This is an
excellent remedy, and should be taken before retiring; about three times a
week would be sufficient.

7. Blood Purifier, Beech Bark and Blackberry Root a Good.--"One gallon
white beech bark (after the rough bark is removed), good big handful of
blackberry root (cut fine), and also of sassafras root. Cover with cold
water and steep to get the strength, then strain. When cool (not cold) add
one pint baker's yeast and one cup sugar. Let it stand twenty-four hours
in a warm place. Then strain and set in a cool place. Take a wineglassful
three times a day before meals. This has been highly recommended to me by
a friend from Kalkaska, Michigan."

8. Blood Purifier, from a Madison, Connecticut, Mother.--"Take blackberry
root, black cherry bark, spruce boughs, wintergreens: sarsaparilla roots;
steep in a large vessel, till all the goodness is out; strain and when
lukewarm put in a cup of yeast, let work and bottle up."

9. Blood Purifier, How to make, Celery Compound for a.--

    "Celery Compound      2 ounces
    Chamomile Flower      1 ounce
    Sassafras Root        1 ounce
    Senna Leaves          1 ounce
    Mandrake              1 ounce
    Wintergreen Essence   1 ounce
    Whisky                1 gill
    White Sugar           1 pound
    Hops                  2 handfuls

Steep three hours in four quarts of water, strain, add sugar, when cold
add wintergreen and whisky. Dose:--One teaspoonful before meals and at
bedtime."

10. Blood Purifier, Another Effective Herb Remedy.--"Pour boiling hot
water on four ounces of gentian root with two ounces of dried orange peel,
a sufficient amount of water should be used to exhaust the strength in the
root and orange peel; then boil in a porcelain pot until there is left
one-half pint of the concentrated infusion to every ounce of gentian root
used. Then to every one-half pint add one half ounce alcohol. The effect
of the alcohol is to coagulate it from a quantity of jelly looking
substance which must be separated by straining. This is one of the best
strengtheners of the human system. Dose:--One teaspoonful in an ounce of
water."

[258 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

11. Blood Purifier, Burdock for.--"The root is the part employed
eliminating very rapidly the specific poison from the blood. Best
administered in decoction by boiling two ounces of the root in three pints
of water, to two pints. Dose:--One tablespoonful four times a day."
Burdock is a splendid blood purifier and is not expensive. It can be
purchased at any drug store for a reasonable amount.



DISEASES OF THE THYROID GLAND.--Inflammation of the thyroid gland,
(Thyroiditis),--Acute inflammation of the gland, simple or suppurative. It
may develop in a patient with goitre, or acute infectious diseases, or
from other parts, or from wounds. The gland is enlarged and soft and may
contain abscesses.

Symptoms.--Pain, tenderness, and enlargement of the part or of all the
gland. Fever may be present even in cases without signs of pus forming
(suppuration). If there is great enlargement, there may be symptoms of
compression of vessel, nerves or the windpipe.

Treatment.--If there is pus it must be carefully opened. The patient must
remain quiet in bed. Sometimes cold applications relieve. Do not use warm
applications. This disease is not frequent and the patient needs care and
watching more than medicine.



GOITRE (BRONCHIAL). Causes.--No satisfactory explanation can be given for
this disease. It seems to be more prevalent where lime-stone water is
used. Heredity plays a part. This is an enlargement of the thyroid gland.
Chronic enlargement of the thyroid is sporadic. Cases are scattered and
endemic in certain mountainous regions. It affects young women most often.
A great excess in lime drinking water may be the cause. It is very
prevalent about the eastern shore of Lake Ontario and in parts of
Michigan. It is a common complaint in this country.

Symptoms.--There is a gradual painless enlargement of the whole gland or
one lobe, etc. It may press on the windpipe, and cause difficult
breathing, also on the blood vessels and nerves.

Recovery.--This is usually favorable as to life, but not so favorable as a
cure. It becomes chronic. A sudden fatal ending may come.

GOITRE, MOTHERS' REMEDIES,--1. Three Ingredient Remedy for.--"The
following treatment is excellent, but must be continued for several months:

    Extract of Belladonna      1/2 dram
    Compound Ointment Iodine   1/2 dram
    Vaselin                    1/2 ounce

Apply this to the affected parts several times a day."

If this treatment is kept up faithfully it is sure to help.

[Illustration: Thyroid Gland.]

[BLOOD AND DUCTLESS GLANDS 259]

2. Goitre, Simple Remedy for.--"Wring a cloth from cold water and bind it
around the neck every night when retiring. This is a sure cure if
continued for some time."

3. Goitre, Inexpensive Remedy for--"Apply the following several times a
day: Extract of belladonna one-half dram, compound ointment of iodine two
drams; this treatment must be kept up several months." The above treatment
will be found very beneficial and is not an expensive one.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Goitre.--1. Locally tincture of iodine; paint
some on the gland once or twice a day until it gets a little sore and keep
it so for weeks, or use cosmoline and put in it about one-quarter as much
iodine and rub on. Lard will do instead of cosmoline. The parts should be
kept red and a little sore. Use also iodide of potash, five grains, three
times a day internally, while you are using external applications.

2. Use the compound of tincture of iodine the same way, externally. This
is not so strong and can be used longer with, I think, better results. At
the same time you may use this same medicine internally. Take one to two
drops internally three times a day; or you may take five grains of iodide
of potash three times a day instead. Externally: These applications must
produce a little redness and be continued for some time.

3. An Ointment. The red iodide of mercury is also good to rub on the part.
This may be used if the others fail.

4. Other medical remedies are used, but they must be closely watched and
must be used under the supervision of a doctor. The thymus or thyroid
extracts are thus used and with good results in many cases.

5. Colorless Iodine: This does not stain, but I have no faith in it. It is
used very much now and can be used freely. It is simply, druggists tell
me, iodide of potash made in solution, dissolved, and put on the part. A
great many cases of large goitres are now being operated upon with quite
good success. It is not done until other measures have failed, unless the
goitre is interfering with breathing and the blood supply.

6. This is very good, both for internal and external use.

    Iodide of Potash     20 drams
    Iodine                1 dram
    Water enough for      3 ounces

Mix thoroughly and shake bottle before using.

Put some in two bottles; one for internal and other for external use. Take
internally five to ten drops in a little water before meals. Externally,
put on the enlarged neck, night and morning, unless it feels too sore,
when you can use it once a day or less.

[260 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

EXOPHTHALMIC GOITRE. (Parry's, Graves or Basedows Disease).--It is
characterized by exophthalmos (bulging of the eyes), Goitre, fast beating
of the heart, trembling and nervousness.

Causes.--It is most common in women from twenty to thirty. Several cases
may occur in the same family. The exact cause is unknown.

Symptoms.--Acute cases. Sudden onset, vomiting, diarrhea, the heart beats
fast with throbbing arteries, bulging of the eyes, enlarged thyroid gland.
Death may occur in a few days.

Chronic Cases.--There is usually a gradual onset of tachy cardia,--fast
beating of the heart,--pulse being 100 to 180 or more, if excited. Later
there are throbbing of the arteries and of the thyroid glands.

Bulging of the eyeball is sometimes extreme. There may be fever and
usually is anemia, emaciation, weakness, nervousness, perspiration,
difficult breathing, dark color of the skin. It usually lasts several
years. Spontaneous recovery may occur in six months to a year and is not
common. Recovery is rare in advanced cases.

Treatment.--Prolonged rest in bed, with an ice bag constantly over the
heart, or better over the lower part of the neck and upper breast bone.
Avoid all worry and excitement. Drugs are uncertain. Surgery is sometimes
resorted to. The thyroid extract has been used.



MYXOEDEMA.--This is a constitutional disease due to atrophy (wasting away)
of the thyroid gland and characterized by swollen condition of the tissue
under the skin, wasting of the thyroid and mental failures. Three forms
exist, myxoedema proper, cretinism and operative myxoedcma.

Causes of Cretinism.--This may exist at birth (congenital) or it may
develop at puberty, and is due to the absence or loss of function of the
thyroid gland. Sporadic (here and there) cretinism may follow an acute
infectious disease or it may be congenital. Myxoedema may be hereditary
and is most common in women.

Symptoms, (a) Cretinism.--Mental and bodily development is slow. There is
extraordinary disproportion between the different parts of the body. The
condition is sometimes not recognized until the child is six or seven
years old, then the slow development is noticed. The tongue looks large
and hangs out of the mouth. The hair may be thin, the skin very dry.
Usually by the end of the first year and during the second year the signs
of the cretinism become very marked and should be recognized. The face
looks large, looks bloated, the eyelids are puffy and swollen, the nose is
flat and depressed and thick. Teething is late, and the teeth that do
appear decay. The fontanelles are open. The abdomen is swollen, the legs
are short and thick, the hands and feet are not developed and look pudgy.
The face is pale and has a waxy, sallow tint. The muscles are weak and the
child cannot support itself. Above the collar bone there are pads of fat.
The child does not develop mentally and there may be one of the grades of
idiocy and imbecility (feeble-minded).

[BLOOD AND DUCTLESS GLANDS 261]

(b) Myxoedema, proper--The skin is infiltrated, causing loss of the lines
of the facial expression, skin is dry and harsh, much thickened,
especially in the region above the collar bone. The face is broad, with
coarse features, the nose is broad and thick, the mouth is large, lips
thick, hair scanty and coarse, slowness of motion and thought, weak
memory, irritability, headache, suspiciousness, followed sometimes by
hallucinations, delusion and dementia (insane). The disease may progress
for ten or fifteen years. Death may occur early.

Operative type.--This rarely develops except the thyroid glands have been
entirely removed and then only if no extra glands are present.

Symptoms.--Are the same as that of cretinism.

Treatment.--An even, warm climate. Thyroid extract, to be given by a
physician, is the remedy. After the recovery occasional small doses still
may be necessary for some, or in cretinism for life.



DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM.


NEURALGIA.--Pain occurring in the course of the nerves and in their area
of distribution. The pain has remission and intermissions, and is due to
some morbid affection of the nerves of sensation or their spinal or
(brain) centers.

Causes.--The affection may depend upon some functional disturbance alone;
or it may be due to some organic disease of the nerve or to some disease
or diseased state outside of the nervous system. It occurs more frequently
in women past the middle-age, in those of a nervous tendency. As stated,
it affects women more than men. Debility is a frequent cause. Neuralgia is
frequently associated with the various forms of anemia. It may occur at
the onset of acute diseases like typhoid fever. Exposure to cold causes it
in susceptible persons. Decayed teeth may cause neuralgia of the fifth
nerve. It also occurs in rheumatism, gout, lead poisoning, and diabetes.
Persistent neuralgia may be a feature of hidden Bright's disease.

Symptoms.--Pain is the chief and characteristic symptom. It may develop
suddenly and without warning, or soreness or stiffness in the tissues
surrounding may precede it. There is a burning or violent sensation in the
course of the affected nerve, increased on exertion in acute cases. In
other cases the pain comes intermittently or in paroxysms, and is of a
darting, stabbing character, or accompanied by tingling sensations. There
may be a want of sensation of the skin in the affected region or
over-sensitiveness over the entire nerve-trunk with certain painful
points. The attacks of pain may come only at long intervals of time, but
usually they occur every few minutes and last for some hours. Pain may be
continued for hours or days in severe cases. In rare cases it may persist
for months or years, being worse at a certain time each day, especially in
cases where malaria exists. There is paleness or congestion of the part
affected, various eruptions, and changes in the color of the hair occur
and, in advanced chronic cases, symptoms of interference with the general
nutrition also occur. Spasms of the adjacent muscles may accompany the
severe paroxysms.

[262 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

[Illustration: The Nervous System.]

[NERVOUS SYSTEM 263]

Varieties.--Neuralgia may be classified according to its causes, as
neurotic, toxic, rheumatic, etc.; or according to its location as
trifacial, intercostal, sciatic, and so on, Exposure to cold, mechanical
irritations, tumors, pressure on the nerves, and wounds may lead to
neuralgia. It is more frequent in cold and damp climates than in dry and
warm locations; everyone should remember the causes.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. Neuralgia.--1. Lemon Juice as Liniment for.--"Cut a
lemon in two and squeeze juice on parts afflicted and rub in, then place
hot cloths over it. I know this will cure the pain." This is very good.

2. Neuralgia, Salt and Vinegar Will Relieve.--"A small sack of hot salt
applied to the pain, or steam with vinegar." The heat from the salt is
very effective and the moisture of the vinegar is also very good. This
simply produces a counter irritation.

3. Neuralgia, Quinine Will Cure.--"Use quinine three times a day." It is
well in taking quinine to take two grains three times a day for two days,
then take some good cathartic, so as not allow the quinine to remain in
the system. This is very beneficial, especially when neuralgia is due to
malarial conditions.

4. Neuralgia, Four Ingredient Remedy for.--

    "Oil of Peppermint        1 ounce
    Oil of Mustard (strong)  1/4 ounce
    Vinegar                    1 pint
    White of one egg.

Beat egg and stir all together."

5. Neuralgia, Good Liniment for.--

    "Essential Oil of Mustard   1 dram
    Tincture Aconite            1 dram
    Glycerin                    1 ounce
    Alcohol                     4 ounces

Mix and shake well before using."

This remedy is a valuable external preparation for all nervous and
neuralgia pains, rub twice a day until relieved.

6. Neuralgia, Menthol Liniment for.--"One dram of menthol liniment, two
ounces of alcohol. This makes a very excellent liniment for many purposes.
For rheumatism, neuralgia, headache, etc." This liniment will be found
very beneficial as the menthol is soothing and quieting, and we all know
that alcohol is very good to be applied for any of the above mentioned
diseases.

7. Neuralgia, Belladonna Plaster for.--"Melt three ounces of rosin plaster
and add one-half ounce of extract of belladonna. An excellent application
in neuralgia and rheumatism."

[264 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

PHYSICIANS' GENERAL TREATMENT for Neuralgia.--Remove the cause if
possible. If from anemia, give tonics for that and try to cure that
disease. Tonics with good nourishing food, and proper surroundings are
needed for anemia. In malaria, syphilitic or gouty patients,
constitutional treatment must be given for those diseases before the
neuralgia will be better. The systematic use of galvanic electricity,
properly used, is the most valuable means at the physician's disposal,
especially in the descending current, beginning with the mild current and
gradually increasing in strength. Internally: Arsenic, bromine, ergotinc,
aconite, gelsemium, valerian, ether, cannabis indica and quinine are
recommended. Opium may be used in the very severe forms, but it must be
used with caution, or you will make your patient a drug fiend, and his
latter state will be worse than the first condition. Wet compresses, vapor
baths, cold affusions, wet cloths, are highly recommended.

1. For the Cure of an Attack--

    Antipyrine             30 grains
    Citrate of Caffeine    20 grains

Make into ten powders. Take one everyone-half hour until 3 doses are
taken. Three (3) doses at least should relieve the neuralgia.

2.  Antipyrine         30 to 60 grams
    Bromide of Potash         3 drams

Mix: and make into ten powders; one every thirty minutes until relieved or
until six doses have been taken; this is better than the first
prescription when there is much nervousness with the neuralgia or
neuralgic headaches.

3. If caffeine in first prescription causes nervousness, give this one:

    Antipyrine           30 to 60 grains
    Citrate of Caffeine        10 grains
    Bromide of Potash           3 drams

Mix and make ten powders. Take one every half hour until relieved or until
six doses have been used.

These are very effective prescriptions, but if a person has any heart
trouble I would not advise their use except under a physician's care.
(Sometimes a patient with neuralgia gets desperate, and he will even
resort to morphine). Antipyrine is one of the simplest coal tar remedies,
and most persons can safely take it. Persons who are subject to neuralgia
or headaches need to take good care of themselves. Get plenty of rest and
sleep. Neuralgia at first can be cured, but when it once becomes chronic,
especially neuralgia of the face, it is hard to cure and frequently makes
life a constant misery. Plenty of outdoor life is essential. In that way
the system will be built up, and when the body is strong the disease can
be thrown off much easier. A great many people depend too much upon strong
medicines. Medicines are all right in their place, but all the medicine in
the world cannot cure a person unless that person does his or her part.

[NERVOUS SYSTEM 265]

SPECIAL DISEASES. Facial Neuralgia. (Neuralgia of the fifth pair of
Cranial Nerves. Also known as Trifacial Neuralgia. Neuralgia of the
Trigeminus. Tic doloureux, etc.).--This form is more frequent than all
other forms combined, this nerve being peculiarly susceptible to
functional and organic disorders. All three branches are very rarely
affected together, the ophthalmic (eye) branch being most often involved.
The symptoms depend upon the branch involved.

1. Ophthalmic Neuralgia Pain, (eye neuralgia pain).--This pain is above
the eye, or frontal kind, with a special painful point at the supraorbital
(above the eye) notch. Sometimes the pain is very severe in the eye-ball.

2. Supramaxillary Neuralgia.--In this the pain is along the infraorbital
(nerve beneath the eye) nerve, and there is a marked tender point at the
opening in the bone (infraorbital foramen) beneath the eye. A
toothache-like pain in the upper teeth is common in this variety.

3. Inframaxillary (lower maxillary) Neuralgia.--This is characterized by a
scattered (diffused) pain along the inferior dental (teeth) branch, and
extends from the temporal (side forehead) region over the side of the face
to the chin, with pain in the lower teeth and side of the tongue. The pain
in this nerve may come on without any special cause, or it may come after
excitement of a physical or mental nature. Disorders of nutrition occur.
The circulation is interfered with and the face, at first pale, becomes
red. Eruptions may appear along the course of the nerve, while salivation
and "running" (lachrymation) of the eyes are often prominent symptoms.
Spasms of muscles of the face (tic doloureux) may accompany the paroxysms
and this is the most terrible form of nerve pain. The attacks may be mild
or very severe and sometimes sudden. This is a terrible disease,
especially when it has existed for some time. A person with severe pain in
the face should always attend to it immediately, before it becomes
chronic.

Treatment.--It is directed towards removing the cause, if possible.
Chronic cases are difficult to cure. The patient should be careful not to
take cold, keep strong and healthy by regular hours for sleep, good
sufficient clothing. The general health must be improved. These directions
apply to all kinds of neuralgia.



INTERCOSTAL NEURALGIA.--A neuralgia of one or more of the intercostal
nerves. These nerves run in a groove in the lower edge of the ribs.
Causes.--It may develop without any special cause. It comes in anemia,
after exposure to cold, from affection of the vertebrae, ribs, spinal
cord, or from the pressure of tumors, or aneurism of the aorta. This is
next in importance to neuralgia of the fifth nerve, and occurs more often
in women and very common in those who have hysteria. It is more common on
the left side and mostly in the nerves situated from the fifth to the
ninth intercostal space. If it is located in the nerves distributed to the
mammary glands it gives rise to neuralgia of the mammary gland. The flying
darts of pain in the chest (pleurodynia) are to be regarded as neuralgic
in character.

[266 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Symptoms.--The pain is usually very severe, especially on movement of the
intercostal (between the ribs) muscles. With this pain, as a rule, an
eruption (herpes) appears along the course of the affected nerve and this
is supposed to be due to the extension of the inflammation from the
nerve-ends to the skin. Pain, when pressed upon, is most marked near the
spinal vertebral, the breastbone (sternal) end and the middle part of the
nerve. The trouble may continue a long time after the eruption (herpes)
has disappeared, for it is very obstinate.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Intercostal Neuralgia.--This consists in using
remedies that will cause counter-irritation. Electricity and pain
destroying (anodynes) remedies are indicated in chronic cases. Apply heat
for pain in the "breasts." For the eruption an ointment like oxide of zinc
can be used.

Local Treatment.--A mustard plaster is frequently good to use. It produces
the counter-irritation desired. Application of dry heat from hot cloths; a
hot sand bag may help in some cases. A rubber bag containing hot water can
also be used. Fomentations of hops, etc., applied hot and frequently
changed to keep them hot are beneficial in some cases. I have found in
some cases that an adhesive plaster put over the sore parts relieves the
severe pain. Porous plasters are also good. Tincture of ranunculus
bulbosus (buttercup) is a good remedy. Put ten drops in a glass half full
of water, and take two teaspoonfuls every hour.

[Illustration: Sciatic Nerve.]

SCIATICA.--This is as a rule a neuritis of the sciatic nerve or of its
cords of origin. It is characterized by pain chiefly along the course of
the sciatic nerve.

Causes.--It occurs most commonly in adult males. The person may have a
history of rheumatism or gout in many cases. Exposure to cold after heavy
muscular work or exertion, or a severe wetting are common causes. The
nerves in the pelvis may be compressed by large tumors of the ovaries or
womb, by other tumors, or by the child's head during confinement.
Occasionally hip joint disease causes it. The nerve, as a rule, is
swollen, reddened, and in a condition of "interstitial neuritis." The pain
may be most severe where the nerves emerge from the hip bone, behind, or
in the inner back, and middle part of the thigh.

      NERVOUS SYSTEM       267

Symptoms.--Pain is the most constant and troublesome. It is sometimes very
severe. The onset is usually gradual, and for a time there is only a
slight pain in the back of the thigh; soon the pain becomes more intense,
extends down the thighs, and leg and reaches to different parts of the
foot. The very sensitive spots can often be pointed out by the patient,
and on pressure these spots are very painful.  It is gnawing and burning
in character, usually constant, but sometimes it comes in paroxysms, and
is often worse at night. Walking usually causes great pain. The knee is
bent and the patient treads on his toes. As a rule it is an obstinate
trouble, and it may last for months, or even with slight remissions for
years. In the severer forms the patient must remain in bed and such cases
are very trying for both patient and doctor.

(See Mothers' Remedies under Neuralgia above).

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT. Cautions for Sciatica.--Remove all causes if you
can. Rheumatism and gout, if the patient have them, should be treated. The
patient should not overwork or expose himself to wet, damp weather. Keep
every part dry. Rest in bed with the whole leg fixed is a valuable mode of
treatment in many cases. Hot water bags from the hip to the knee placed
along the painful nerve, sometimes gives great relief. Mud baths are
beneficial. Hot Springs baths relieve many cases. Fly blisters placed
along the track of the nerve relieve the pain in many cases. Fomentations
of smartweed and hops are good, but they must be changed often so as to be
hot. Wet or dry cupping is a help in many cases. It draws the blood from
the inflamed nerve. Morphine given hypodermically will relieve the pain,
but it is a dangerous medicine to use in a chronic case. The patient will
be very likely to form the habit, and that is worse than the sciatica. By
care and treatment most cases can be greatly helped and cured. Rhus tox
(poison ivy) is very good in minute doses in cases where it is impossible
to remain in one position for any length of time. Ten drops of the
tincture in a glass two-thirds full of water and two teaspoonfuls given
every hour. I have helped many cases with this remedy. The hot iron along
the track of the nerve is helpful. Electricity is better in a chronic case
where there is wasting of the legs, and it should be combined with
massage. The galvanic current should be used.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. Nervousness. 1. Catnip Tea for.--"A tea made of catnip
will quiet the nerves. This is good for women when they are apt to be
nervous."

2. Nervousness, Hops Will Stop.--"Purchase a small package of hops at any
drug store, and make a tea of it, drinking frequently in tablespoonful
doses." It is a harmless remedy, and should be used more freely by nervous
people. The hops are very soothing. Nervous mothers should never be
without this. It is surprising to see how few people know the value of
some of these simple home remedies.

3. Nervousness, Effective Remedy for.--

    "Spirits of Camphor         1/2 ounce
    Comp. Spirits of Lavender   1/2 ounce
    Tincture of Valerian          1 ounce
    Sulphuric Ether             1/2 ounce

Mix. Dose, one or two teaspoonfuls every three hours."

[268  MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

The foregoing remedy is very effective, as spirits of camphor and the
tincture valerian quiet the nerves. The sulphuric ether also has a
soothing effect. This combination makes a fine tonic, but should not be
taken too long, as it is quite strong.

4. Nervousness, Five Ingredient Remedy That Relieves.--"In extreme nervous
debility with tendency to fainting fits, use the following:

    Spirits of Camphor              1/2 ounce
    Aromatic Spirits of Ammonia     1/2 ounce
    Spirits of Lavender Compound      1 ounce
    Tincture Valerian                 1 ounce
    Tincture Castor                   1 ounce

Mix. Dose.--From one to three teaspoonfuls at intervals of from fifteen
minutes to three hours, according to urgency of symptoms. This mixture
should be kept on hand by all persons subject to fainting fits."

Spirits of camphor and aromatic spirits of ammonia stimulates the heart,
while the tincture of valerian quiets the nervous system.

5. Nervousness, "Lady's Slippers" Breaks up.--"A decoction is made with
two ounces of the root, sliced, to two pints of water, boiled to one and
one-half pints. Dose: One tablespoonful four times a day. Has been used
with marked success in epilepsy and in other various nervous diseases."
This is used very extensively for nervous people, and has proven very
successful.



HEADACHE.--This term means a pain in the head, all over the head, or at
one particular spot. It may be only a symptom of a general constitutional
derangement, some disease of some other organ, a temporary inability of
some organ like the stomach, liver, bowels, etc., to do work, or it may be
due to some local affection depending upon some trouble with the skull and
its contents. It is frequently but a symptom of some other trouble. It
occurs in fevers, infectious diseases, brain disease, etc. There are
different varieties depending upon the causes.

  Sick Headache.
  Nervous Headache.
  Catarrhal Headache.
  Congestive Headache.
  Neuralgic or Gastric (stomach) Headache.
  Bilious Headache.
  "Bowel" Headache.
  "Womb" Headache.
  Rheumatic Headache.

[NERVOUS SYSTEM 269]

CATARRHAL HEADACHE and RHEUMATIC HEADACHE may be treated together. This is
due to exposure to a draught of air, walking against the sharp and keen
wind, by getting the feet or other parts of the body wet, sudden
suppression of perspiration about the head, or by some other exposure such
as might result from cold, influenza or attack of rheumatism. There may be
aching pains and a feeling of heavy weight in the forehead; tearing,
stitching pains above the eyes, in the cheek bones; sometimes the skull
feels as if it would fall to pieces. In the rheumatic variety the scalp is
sore and tender, tearing throbbing pains or hard aching pains. There is
some fever, dry skin, the pulse is faster.

Treatment.--Get into a sweat by hot drinks of lemonade and hot foot baths.
Apply cold or warmth to the head, lie down and keep quiet.

Medicine.--Aconite in doses of one-tenth of a drop to an adult every hour
will frequently abort it: open the bowels with salts. Remain in bed.



NERVOUS HEADACHE.--This may occur as a sick headache or be simply a
nervous headache: This occurs oftenest in a nervous person, or in persons
who are run down by different causes, such as diseases, overwork, worry,
trouble, etc. It is not periodic, and has no fixed type, but breaks out at
indefinite intervals, and is excited by almost any special cause such as
motions, mental exertions, menses, excitement, overdoing, over-visiting,
want of sleep. It is often due to eye strain in persons who have poorly
fitted, or who do not wear glasses. It appears in any part of the head,
usually one-sided, or it may be all over the head, which feels enlarged
and sometimes as if a band was around it. The least mental effort makes it
worse. Sometimes there is a feeling as if a nail was being driven into the
head; head is too big; eyes feel heavy and the lids droop; sees double;
hard to keep eyes open. This kind of headache, or sick-headache, can be
brought on suddenly by womb trouble, especially if the womb has fallen
from a jar, fall, etc. The patient often moans and cries, laments and
simply cannot stand thc pain. In some cases the menses cause it, and it
appears at every menstrual period.

Treatment.--The patient should be quiet and remain in bed in a darkish
room. Womb troubles and other diseases that cause it such as protruding
piles, etc., should be attended to. Tincture gelsemium is a good remedy.
Put ten drops in a glass half full of water, and take two teaspoonfuls
every half hour until better. A tea made from lady's slipper is also
effective in some cases, used freely. Bromide of potash in ten-grain doses
one-half hour apart, for three doses, if necessary, is quieting in many
attacks. Mustard plaster to back of the neck.



CONGESTIVE HEADACHE.--In this kind there is or seems to be too much blood
in the head. The patient may be stupid, with a flushed face. If conscious,
the brain feels as if it was rising or falling, especially upon the motion
of the head. The top of the head sometimes feels as if it would fly off.
The head throbs and beats violently. The hands and feet may be cold, the
face flushed or pale, the eyes bright, the pulse is generally heavy, full
and fast, or it may be feeble, slow and intermittent.

[270 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Treatment.--1. The patient should remain in bed in a dark room, with the
head usually high. Cold should be applied to the head and heat to the
hands and feet. Move the bowels with salts and, if necessary, give an
enema also. It is well to give the foot-bath before going to bed. If
these things do not relieve the headache a doctor should be called, for it
may mean something serious. A hot mustard foot-bath and a mustard plaster
applied to the nape of the neck are of great value. In severe cases an ice
bag or very cold water, applied to the forehead and temples will very
often give great relief.

2.  Spirits of Camphor      1 ounce
    Spirits of Lavender     2 ounces
    Alcohol                 2 ounces

Wet the top of the head with it.

3.  Camphor                  1 dram
    Oil of Peppermint        1 dram
    Chloroform           1-1/2 ounces
    Alcohol enough for       3 ounces

Shake the bottle and apply a little of the liquid to the place. Horseback
riding and walking are good for nervous girls and women.



NEURALGIC HEADACHE.--This commonly comes periodically, usually, one-
sided. It may occur at the same hour for several days in succession. The
pains are of all kinds. It may start in the morning or at any time. It
involves more especially the eyes, side of the head, face, and goes into
the teeth and neck. It comes in persons subject to neuritis in other parts
or neuralgia.

Treatment.--Build up the system with tonics in the interval. Lead a quiet
restful life. Acetanilid in five-grain doses frequently relieves it. This
is a dangerous medicine to use, except under a doctor's supervision.
Spigelia in doses of one-twelfth of a drop of the tincture is good for
left-sided attacks; two doses are enough, one-half hour apart.



STOMACH OR GASTRIC HEADACHE.--This, as the name indicates, is due to some
acute or chronic trouble with the stomach. It is caused by over-loading
the stomach, or eating food that does not agree, such as fat meat,
gravies, starchy food, warm bread, pastry, etc., or it may be due to
dyspepsia. The tongue is generally coated, the mouth tastes bitter. If it
is acute and the stomach is full, take a common emetic like warm water,
salt water or mustard water. If it is due to decomposed food, drink lots
of warm water and take an enema and also a dose of salts. If there is much
gas in the stomach, take some baking soda in a glass of warm water; one
drop doses of tincture of nux vomica every half hour for three hours often
relieves.

[NERVOUS SYSTEM 271]

HEADACHE FROM CONSTIPATION.--This is frequent. There is generally a dull,
heavy feeling in the forehead, the head feels full and sometimes dizzy,
the patient feels blue and morose, the tongue is coated on its back part,
mouth tastes bitter, patient is drowsy and stupid and work goes hard. A
free passage from the bowels relieves the headache.

Treatment.--Cure the constipation as directed in another part of the book.
Take a good full enema of warm soap suds and water, and one drop of
tincture of nux vomica every hour for six hours during the attack.



BILIOUS HEADACHE.--This is so-called because the bilious symptoms are the
most prominent. It may be caused by violent anger, disputes, excessive
eating causing congestion of the liver; abuse of spirits; some persons are
of a bilious constitution and the least error in diet and habit produces
such an attack. The pain may be violent or dull, the head may throb
terribly; the whites of the eyes have a yellowish look, and the face may
be of a dark brown hue, the patient may vomit bile. The vomiting causes
more brain distress. The mouth is bitter, the tongue coated yellowish, the
breath smells badly. Bowels may be irregular.

Treatment.--A free movement of the bowels often relieves. First take an
enema and then one-half ounce of epsom salts. Do not eat anything but
drink all the water you may wish. A tea made of blue flag is often of
benefit. The diet should be regulated so as not to overload the stomach
and liver and the bowels should move freely daily.

WOMB HEADACHE.--Women who suffer from womb troubles such as leucorrhea,
torn cervix, falling womb displacements and diseases of the inner womb,
ovaries and tubes, suffer from all kinds of headache. The pain may be in
the nape of the neck, the back part of the head and on the top behind
(occiput). It may come on suddenly when the womb is displaced by a sudden
fall or over-lifting, etc. The woman should then go to bed and lie down
with her arms crossed over her chest, with the knees drawn up and weight
resting upon them and chest with the buttocks elevated, (knee-chest-
position). This replaces the womb. The other troubles should be corrected
or these headaches will keep on. The womb and its appendages are the cause
of many kinds of headaches, neuralgias, dyspepsia, and constipation;
correct the troubles and the headache will disappear.



MENSTRUAL HEADACHES.--These are very common. They may be regular every
month, and they are then caused by some trouble with the womb or ovaries,
or may be due to a run-down condition or heredity. It comes sometimes from
suppression of the menses as a consequence of some violent emotion,
fright, anger, grief, or by exposure to wet, draughts of air, privations,
over-fatigue, etc. It may last for several days. The headache may be mild
or severe.

Treatment.--A foot bath or sitz bath is very good, with free drinking of
pennyroyal tea after the bath, and when in bed. Place warmth to the feet,
moist heat over the abdomen, such as a hot water bag or fomentations.
Remain quietly in bed. If constipated, take an enema. Frequently a free
bowel movement gives much relief in this trouble. During the interval
doctor the patient for the trouble causing the headache for which see
another part of this book, "Diseases of Women."

[272 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

MOTHERS' REMEDIES, 1. Headache, Paregoric and Soda for.--"A teaspoonful of
paregoric, with one-half teaspoonful of baking soda in a tumbler of water,
May be taken all at once or sipped slowly."

2. Headache, Hops Good for.--"Make a strong decoction of hop tea, and take
a wineglassful every half hour until relieved." This is an old tried
remedy and a good one.

3. Headache, Mustard Excellent for.--"Place a mustard plaster on the back
of the head, also bathe the feet in mustard water and stay in a darkened
room, and avoid all excitement and noise." The one essential thing is to
get the nerves quieted; take as little food as possible for twenty-four
hours, giving the stomach an opportunity to rest, as most of the headaches
come from a disordered stomach.

4. Headache, Peppermint Beneficial for,--"Bathe the head in strong
peppermint. Then apply cloths wrung from water as hot as can be endured."
Hot or cold applications are known to be very beneficial. After the cloths
are taken off, the soothing effect can be further enhanced by gentle
rubbing of the forehead.

5. Headache, Cold Application in Case of.--"Apply cold applications on the
forehead and over the eyes." These cold applications have been known to
give relief in a very few minutes to many people suffering with severe
headaches. It is well to continue the treatment; even after relief has
been obtained, for at least a half hour. Gentle rubbing of the head is
very good, also.

6. Headache, Castor Oil Will Relieve.--"One tablespoonful of castor oil.
Have used this and found relief." This remedy gives relief as the castor
oil carries off the food that is distressing the stomach. It is well to
take two tablespoonfuls of lime-water in a glass of milk three times a day
for about a week after the castor oil has operated.


SICK HEADACHE. (Migraine. Hemicrania).--Migraine is a peculiar form of
severe paroxysms of unilateral (one side) headache often associated with
disorders of sight.

Causes.--It is frequently hereditary, and it has occurred through several
generations. Women and members of nervous families are usually attacked.
Many of the headaches from eye-strain are of this type, It is often
inherited, and may last from puberty to the menopause. Some authors claim
that decay of the teeth without toothache will cause it. Adenoid growths
in the pharynx and particularly abnormal conditions of the nose will cause
it. Many of the attacks of severe headaches in children are of this
nature, and the eyes, nose and throat should be examined when children or
older persons suffer from this complaint. Mental emotion, physical or
mental fatigue, disorders of the female genital organs, eye-strain, etc.,
loud noises, toothache, act as predisposing causes. Some think it a
poisonous condition due to the absorption of poisons from the stomach and
intestines, and others regard it as a nervous condition due to anemia and
all conditions which weaken the resistance of the nervous system.

[NERVOUS SYSTEM 273]

Symptoms.--The premonitory symptoms, which may last a few hours or a day
or more, are sleepy feelings of discomfort, uneasiness, weariness, chills,
vertigo (dizziness), disturbance of the sight or disturbances of the
senses. The real attack may follow quickly, beginning with the
characteristic headache, at first one sided, located in one spot in the
temple, eye or back of the head, but spreading, as it increases in
severity, until it involves all of one side of the head and occasionally
both sides. The pain is usually constant and of great severity and it is
increased by motion, noises, light, or mental strain. The skin over the
painful part is very sensitive. There are loss of appetite, nausea and
vomiting. If the stomach has a great deal of food in it, vomiting relieves
the pain sometimes. In the spasmodic form the affected side is painful,
the skin is cool, the pupil is dilated, and the flow of saliva is
increased. In the paralytic form the affected side is flushed, hot, the
vessels are dilated and the pupils are contracted. There is great
weakness, prostration and depression. The urine may be abundant or
suppressed, temporarily. The results of treatment in this disease are
uncertain, as the attacks are likely to occur in spite of treatment. They
usually cease in old age, and in women they may stop after the menopause.
The attacks in women are likely to occur at or near the menstrual periods.

First Thing to do in Sick Headache.--It is well to remain in a darkened
room away from noise, etc. If the head throbs and beats very hard, either
a cold ice bag or hot applications often bring relief. A mustard plaster
at the base of the brain with a hot foot-bath often helps. Some people by
stroking the forehead and temples have the power to ease the pain,
producing quiet and sleep. If the bowels are costive, salts should be
taken to move them, or they can be moved by an enema, if salts are not at
hand. If the stomach is full, or tastes sour, drink a lot of warm water
and vomit, or produce vomiting by tickling your throat with your finger,
after having taken a large quantity of warm water for sometimes warm water
thus taken fails to cause vomiting. If there is no food in the stomach,
but there is sour and bilious vomiting, the warm water will frequently
help. For a sour stomach or when it is full of gas, a teaspoonful of
baking soda in some hot water will often feel very pleasant and grateful.
The patient should keep absolutely quiet after these are done, and often
they fall into a refreshing sleep.

[274 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

EMERGENCY MEDICINES.--If anemia is the cause, give tonics such as iron and
arsenic. If the patient feels faint and nauseated, a small cup of strong
hot coffee gives relief, sometimes. Antipyrin, given early in doses of two
and one-half grains often relieves. Take another dose in one-half hour if
necessary. But such remedies are hard on the heart.

TREATMENT. Preventive in Sick Headache.--The patient is often aware of the
causes that bring on an attack. Such causes should be avoided. A great
many people who are afflicted with this trouble are not only careless in
their eating, eating anything and everything and at all times--at meal
time and between meals--but also careless in their habits of life.
Patients should avoid excitement, like card parties, etc., staying up
late, or reading exciting books. The meals should be regular, no food
taken that is hard to digest. Pies, cakes, puddings, gravies, ham, pork,
sausage, and fried foods must be avoided. Rich, greasy foods will not do
for such persons to eat. Strong tea and coffee are bad. Plenty of water
should be taken between meals. At meals it is better to take no water
unless it is hot water. Every morning on arising it is well to drink a
large quantity of either cold or hot water. This washes out the stomach,
bowels and kidneys, and stimulates them to better perform their functions.
The bowels must be kept regular, one or more passages a day and at a
regular hour. Sometimes, especially in younger persons, the eyes are at
fault and may need glasses. Frequently it is caused by overwork in school
in young girls, especially during their menstrual periods. Social duties
cause them in many women, and then strong tea or coffee, or headache
powders, or tablets, are taken to keep up or to stop the pain, making the
patient more liable to the attacks in the future; and then still more tea,
coffee, and headache remedies are taken until the patient is a slave to
the remedies taken to help her. A great many of these headaches can be
helped by simple measures, and the time between the attacks, in about all
cases, made longer if the patient will but work with the physician, not
only at the time of the attack, but in the interval. The clothing should
be comfortable. The feet should always be kept dry. This applies
especially to neuralgia. In fact the above measures of prevention and care
apply to all kinds of headaches and neuralgias. Prevention is worth more
than the cure.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. 1. Sick Headache, Hop Tea Will Relieve.--"Hop tea is
very good if a good strong decoction is made. A wineglassful may be taken
every half hour or hour until relieved." This is very easily prepared, as
the hops may be purchased at any drug store.

2. Sick Headache, a Favorite Remedy for.--"Aconite liniment or aconite
rubbed on the forehead will relieve the pain in the head almost instantly.
One drop of the tincture of nux vomica in a teaspoonful of water every
five or ten minutes will quickly relieve." Nux vomica is good only when
the headache comes from constipation and stomach trouble and too high
living.

[NERVOUS SYSTEM 275]

3. Sick Headache, Aromatic Spirits of Ammonia for.--"For a nervous
headache there is nothing better for immediate relief than fifteen or
twenty drops of the aromatic spirits of ammonia." This relieves the pain
and quiets the nerves and stimulates the heart.

4. Sick Headache, Camphor Application for.--"A very simple but effective
remedy is a cloth wet with spirits of camphor and sprinkled with black
pepper applied to the head gives almost instant relief."

5. Headache, Soda and Peppermint for.--"One teaspoonful (level) of soda in
two-thirds glass of hot water, add five or eight drops of oil of
peppermint and a little sugar. Drink quite warm. This has been often tried
and proven to be a success." The soda will relieve any gas in the stomach
and the peppermint aids digestion and relieves sickness of the stomach.

6. Sick Headache, Lemon Good for.--"One lemon before breakfast will help
to keep off sick headache. Have never found a remedy to cure sick
headaches. A sack of hot salt will always help the pain." The lemon will
help to tone up the stomach and the salt applied to the head will help the
pain by relieving the congestion. It is always well to take a good
cathartic after a spell of sick headache.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Sick Headache.--

1.  Antipyrine               25 grains
    Citrate of Caffeine      10 grains
    Bromide of Potash        25 grains

Mix and make into five powders. One powder as needed. (You might take
second one in three hours.) This is not good when it is bilious sick
headache. In fact, it would make it worse. It is good for sick headache
and neuralgia due to eye or nerve strain, but then the first remedy,
antipyrine, can be left out. It is not needed. I would then put twice as
much of the bromide of potash, fifty grains, and take a powder every two
hours until better.

2.  Citrate of Caffeine    1/2 dram (30 grains)
    Phenacetine             60 grains
    Bicarbonate of soda     60 grains
    Aromatic powder         12 grains

Mix and make twelve powders. Take one every three hours. This is good.
Sometimes it is depressing on the heart for some people, due to the
phenacetine. Acetanilid can be substituted in same dose.

(The homeopathic treatment is very successful in relieving spells of sick
headache. See chapter on Homeopathy.)

3. Sodium Phosphate, taken every morning, about one-half to one
teaspoonful in hot water. It is good for the bowels and liver.

4. Prescription for the Liver and Bowels in Sick Headache.--

    Sulphate of soda       30 grains
    Salicylate of soda     10 grains
    Sulphate of Magnesia    1 grain
    Benzoate of Lithia      5 grains
    Tincture of Nux Vomica  3 minims
    Distilled water         4 ounces

This mixture should be made up in large quantity and placed in a siphon by
one of the concerns which charge soda water, and from one-quarter to
one-half a glass of this water, at ordinary temperature, is to be taken
every morning at least one-half an hour before breakfast; enough being
taken to insure an adequate bowel movement during the forenoon. This ought
to be a good combination to use regularly.

[276 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

5. Dr. Hare gives the following recommendations. Probably no single source
of pain compares in its frequency to headache, chiefly because it is
essentially a symptom of diseases or functional disturbances.

It may come from constipation or eye strain, from brain disease, anemia,
uremia, too much blood in the head, etc. In many cases a mild laxative to
thoroughly empty the bowels is necessary. Sometimes the urine will be
deficient in solids and liquids, so that the effete and poisonous material
are retained in the blood, which produce headache. For such cases if the
urine is acid, the frequent use of Vichy water, to which is added a little
bicarbonate of potassium, about five grains to a drink, as a diuretic will
prove of great service. If the urine is alkaline (and this you can tell by
using a red litmus paper which will turn blue if it is alkaline) ten grain
doses of benzoate of ammonium three (3) times a day are often useful.

NERVE TUMORS (Neuroma).--A morbid increase in the tissue-elements of the
peripheral (the external surface) nerves.

Varieties. True and False Nerve Tumors.--True nerve tumors (neuromata) are
composed of nerve-fibres provided with a medullary (marrow) sheath or of
nerve tissue; false nerve tumors are composed of other structure than
nerve tissue, are usually of secondary origin, extending to the nerve from
nearby structures.

Symptoms.--The true nerve tumors may be hereditary or due to wounds or
blows and amputation. They may give rise to no symptoms, or may cause
intermittent pain. Pressure increases this pain, when the condition of the
nerve fibre is interfered with. Loss of local sensation and power may
develop. It is sometimes possible to feel the little nodular growths, and
they can be seen when they are superficial. They may give no pain, or they
may become very sensitive. They may become chronic and they are very
liable to do so. Some of them may disappear.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Nerve Tumor.--The severe forms should be cut
out; others can be let alone.



NEURITIS (Inflammation of the Nerves. Neura-Nerves; Itis-Inflammation.
Inflammation of the Bundles of Nerve Fibres).--Nagel describes it as "an
inflammation of the nerves of an acute or chronic nature, associated with
more or less degeneration, change in the nerve fibrils of the affected
nerves."

[NERVOUS SYSTEM 277]

Causes.--An injury to the nerves, frequent muscular strains, exposure to
cold. Inflammation can extend to the nerve from adjacent inflamed
structures. Pressure can cause it. Fractures of bones cause it by
compression and it is also caused by infectious diseases, such as
rheumatism, typhoid fever, syphilis, etc. In some cases it simply appears
without apparent cause.

When the disease process involves the nerve sheaths and connective tissue
structures in particular, an interstitial neuritis results; when the
disease locates itself in the nerve fibrils it gives rise to
"parenchymatous neuritis" (main part of the nerve is inflamed).

Simple Neuritis.--This means that a single nerve of a group of adjacent
nerve trunks is affected. If a number of nerves are affected at the same
time it is called Multiple Neuritis or Polyneuritis.

Causes.--(a) Exposure to cold. This is a very frequent cause, as for
example, in the facial (face) nerve. (b) Traumatism,--that is, wounds,
blows, injuries caused by fractures and dislocations; pressure from
tumors, sleeping with the head resting on the arms. Pressure from
crutches, "crutch paralysis." (c) Diseases involving the nerves due to
extension of inflammation from nearby structures, as in neuritis of the
facial nerve due to decay of the temporal bone.

Symptoms.--The constitutional or general symptoms are usually slight. The
pain is the most important symptom, being of a boring in the parts to
which it is distributed. This pain may be very distressing, or of a
stabbing character, and is usually felt in the course of the nerve; or it
may cause little inconvenience. Sometimes the skin is red and swollen over
the affected parts. There is impaired nerve function and as a result of
this the muscles supplied by these nerves become weak, and occasionally
paralyzed. In severe cases they may become atrophied and an eruption often
appears along the course of the nerve. Sometimes the hair and nails are
not properly nourished, causing falling out or grayness of the hair and
loss of the nails. This neuritis may extend from the peripheral (external)
nerves and involve the larger nerve trunks or even reach the spinal cord.
This rarely occurs in neuritis from cold, or in that which follows fevers;
but it occurs most frequently in neuritis caused by blows, wounds, etc.,
(traumatic).

Duration.--This varies from a few days to weeks or months. If the primary
cause can be remedied it usually ends in full recovery. Sometimes it is
followed by the chronic form.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Neuritis.--The first thing to do is to try to
remove the cause. Then absolute and continued rest of the affected part.
If one has a sore hand it will be rested, if possible; so it must be with
the sore and inflamed nerve.

For the Attack.--After having placed the part in absolute rest, moist heat
applied to it frequently brings great relief. Sometimes a mustard plaster
applied along the sore part does good. This produces a counter irritation
and thus draws some of the congestion from the congested, inflamed nerve.
Ice is more effective in some cases than heat. The bowels should be kept
open daily with salts. Build up the general health with tonics; no alcohol
can be used. If it shows a tendency to become chronic, use massage,
electricity or change of climate. Atrophy (shrinking) of the muscles is
likely to follow if the disease continues long and for this massage and
electricity must be given.

[278 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Treatment. Preventive.--A person who has once had neuritis must exercise
all care to keep from taking cold or exposing themselves to severe cold
winds and storms. Wet clothing will be apt to cause its return. Damp
houses are bad. The climate should be dry and not changeable. There should
be enough and proper kind of clothing to keep the body heat at the normal
point. Plenty of rest and sleep are required. These cautions also apply to
rheumatism and neuralgias.

Multiple Neuritis.--Other names: Polyneuritis, Disseminated Neuritis,
Peripheral Neuritis. Meaning--Multiple neuritis is an inflammatory disease
of the peripheral (toward the end of the nerves or external nerves)
nervous system. It varies much in extent and intensity and affects
symmetrical parts of the body.

Varieties.--These arise from differences in the nature, causes, severity
and location of the disease process.

Causes.--They are many. (1.) The poison that comes from infectious
diseases such as typhoid fever, diphtheria, smallpox, leprosy, la grippe,
etc. (2) From poisons such as alcohol, lead, arsenic; phosphorus, mercury,
coal gas, etc. (3) From anemia, cancer, tuberculosis, syphilis,
septicemia, diabetes. (4) From cold, over-exertion, etc.

Symptoms.--Acute febrile multiple neuritis. A typical case: This comes on
from exposure to cold, over-exertion, or in some cases spontaneously.
There are chills, headaches, pains in the back, limbs and joints, and the
case may be called rheumatism. Loss of appetite, coated tongue,
constipation, and other symptoms of stomach and bowel trouble. The
temperature rises rapidly, and may go to 103 to 104 degrees. The limbs and
back ache, but intense pain in the nerves are not always constant. The
pain is usually sharp, severe, and located in the limbs, and is worse from
moving and pressure. There are tingling feelings in the hands, feet and
body, and a feeling as if ants or insects were crawling over them, and
there is also increased sensitiveness of the nerve trunks or entire limb.
There is loss of muscular power, first marked, perhaps, in the legs, and
it extends upwards and reaches the arms. Sometimes it first begins in the
arms. In typical cases the extending muscles of the wrist and ankles drop.
(Wristdrop and foot-drop). In severe cases there is a general loss of
muscular power, producing a flabby paralysis. This may extend to the
muscles that control speaking, swallowing and hearing resulting in
impairment of these functions. The muscles soften and waste away rapidly.
Disorders of nutrition are frequent, like watery swelling (oedema), glossy
looking skin, sweating, hives, etc.

[NERVOUS SYSTEM 279]

Recovery.--The course of the disease varies considerably. In mild cases
the symptoms disappear very soon. In the worst form the patient may die in
a week or ten days. As a rule, in moderately severe cases after persisting
for five or six weeks, the condition remains about the same for a few
months, and then improvement slowly begins and recovery takes place in six
to twelve months. In neuritis from alcohol drinking there is a rapid onset
as a rule, with delirium and delusions. The result is usually favorable
and after persisting for weeks or months improvement gradually begins, the
muscles regain their power, and even in the most desperate cases recovery
may follow. The mental symptoms are very severe in alcoholic cases.
Delirium is common. It takes much longer for such cases to regain what
they call their normal condition.

Neuritis following diphtheria and other infectious diseases. The outlook
in cases from these diseases is usually favorable, and except in
diphtheria, fatal cases are uncommon. It is most common from diphtheria.
Recovery, in neuritis from diphtheria, takes place in about three months,
but some cases are fatal.

Neuritis from lead.--The first symptoms are those of intestinal colic,
lead line on the gums, "dropped-wrist." The recovery is quite gradual and
the poison may be cast out in three to four months.

In Neuritis from Arsenic.--We have disturbance of the stomach and bowels
first, then the legs and arms are about equally affected, weakened; may
recover in two to six months.

Treatment for acute kind.--The first thing to do is to rest in bed and
control the pain and acute symptoms. Hot applications help to relieve the
suffering. Patient must be kept comfortably and constantly warm and quiet.
Hot applications of lead water and laudanum.

Medicines.--It may be necessary to use morphine to control the pain.
Remedies such as antipyrine or aspirin are often used. A physician must be
called. When the disease is caused by arsenic and lead and alcohol, of
course you must remove the cause before you can hope for any improvement.

Caution.--Any one can readily understand from reading this description
that the thing to do is to be careful not to needlessly expose yourself to
taking cold. One subject to rheumatism or neuritis, even in small degree,
should take care not only not to take cold but not to overdo in laboring;
cold, wet and over-exertion cause the majority of the acute attacks. But
some are caused by diseases, such as diphtheria, typhoid fever, etc., and
a great many cases of neuritis following these and other infectious
diseases can be avoided if proper care is taken during and after these
diseases. Such care can easily be taken. Keep your rooms warm and
comfortable, and the patient in bed or in a comfortable room until all
danger is past. How often I have heard a doctor blamed for such results
when in most cases it is the patient's or nurse's fault. Certain results
will follow certain diseases and only proper care can keep such results
from following. Dropsy frequently follows even a light case of scarlet
fever. Why? Simply because, on account of being a light case, the child is
left to roam at will about the rooms and catches cold, takes la grippe. If
people would only take care of themselves this disease would not leave so
many lifelong victims. I have seen men and women who have just recovered
from this disease stand on the street corners on a cold, damp day, and
talk an hour, and the next day they wondered how they could possibly have
taken cold. We cannot disobey the laws of nature safely. Persons who are
subject to neuritis or rheumatism should be especially careful on cold,
damp, wet days and of over-exertion.

[280 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]


GENERAL AND FUNCTIONAL BRAIN DISEASES. NERVOUS
PROSTRATION. NERVOUS EXHAUSTION.
NEURASTHENIA.

NERVOUS PROSTRATION.--Is a condition of weakness or exhaustion of the
nervous system, giving rise to various forms of mental and bodily
inefficiency.

Causes. 1. Hereditary causes.--Some children are born of parents who are
weak themselves, and who have led fast lives through business or pleasure
and these parents have given their offspring a weakened body, and the
children are handicapped with a nervous predisposition and furnish a
considerable proportion of "nervous" patients.

2. Acquired.--It is acquired by continual worry and overwork, sexual
indiscretion, excesses, irregular living and indiscretion in diet. A great
many business men, teachers and journalists become "neurasthenics." It may
follow infectious diseases, particularly influenza, typhoid fever and
syphilis. It also follows operations sometimes. Alcohol, tobacco, morphine
may produce a high grade of the disease, if their use is abused.

Symptoms.--These are varied. The most prominent symptom is fatigue. The
patient feels so tired and complains of being unable to do any mental
labor. It is almost impossible to put the mind on one subject for any
length of time. There are headache, dizziness, want of sleep, and there is
great depression of spirits; patient is gloomy, irritable in temper with
manifestations of hysteria. Sometimes there are marked symptoms of spinal
trouble. Pain along the spine with spots or areas of tenderness. Pains
simulating rheumatism are present. There is frequently great muscular
weakness, great prostration after the least exertion, and a feeling of
numbness, tingling, and neuralgic pains. In spinal symptoms, there is an
aching pain in the back, or in the back of the neck, which is a quite
constant complaint. Then there  are the anxiety symptoms in many cases.
There may be only a fear of impending insanity or of approaching death, or
of apoplexy, in simple cases. More frequently the anxious feeling is
localized somewhere in the body, in the heart region, in the head, in the
abdomen, in the thorax (chest, etc.). In some cases the anxiety becomes
intense. They are so restless they do not know what to do with themselves.
They throw themselves on the bed, complain, and cry, etc. Sometimes the
patients become so desperate they commit suicide. Some patients do not
wish to see anyone. Some patients cannot read, reading wearies them so
much, or they get confused and dizzy and must stop. Some are very
irritable. They complain of everything. Remember they cannot help it,
usually. Some are easily insulted and claim they are misunderstood. The
circulation may be disturbed in some cases. Then there is palpitation of
the heart, irregular and very rapid pulse, pains, and feeling of
oppression around the heart, cold hands, and feet. The heart's action may
be increased by the least excitement and with the fast pulse and
palpitation there are feelings of dizziness and anxiety and such patients
are sure they have organic disease of the heart. No wonder. Flashes of
heat, especially in the head, and transient congestion of the skin are
distressing symptoms. Profuse sweating may occur. In women, especially,
and sometimes in men, the hands and feet are cold, the nose is red or
blue, and the face feels "pinched." Nervous dyspepsia is present in many
cases. The digestion is poor and slow and constipation accompanies it.
Sometimes there is neuralgia of the stomach. The sexual organs are
seemingly affected, many men are "almost scared to death" and they use all
sorts of quack remedies to restore their sexual vigor. Spermatorrhea is
their bugbear. They usually get well if they stop worrying. In women there
is the tender ovary and the menstruation may be painful or irregular. The
condition of the urine in these patients is important. Many cases are
complicated with lithaemia (sand-stone in the urine). It is sometimes also
increased in quantity.

[NERVOUS SYSTEM 281]

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Nervous Prostration.--The patient must be
assured and made to believe that the disease is curable, but that it will
take time and earnest help on the part of the patient. Much medicine is
not needed, only enough to keep the system working well. Encouragement is
what is needed from attendants. Remove the patient from the causes that
produce the trouble, whether it be business, worry, over-study, too much
social duties, or excesses of any kind. The patient must have confidence
in the physician, and he must be attentive to the complaints of the
patient. It is the height of foolishness and absurdity for a physician to
tell such a patient before he has thoroughly examined him or her that the
troubles are imaginary. I believe that is not prudent in the majority of
cases. I have heard physicians talk that way to such patients. I thought,
what fools! The patient needs proper sympathy and sensible encouragement.
You must make them believe they are going to get well. If you do not wish
to do this, refuse such cases, or you will fail with them. If there are
any patients that need encouragement and kindly, sympathetic, judicious
"cheering up," these patients are the ones, and they generally are
"laughed at and made fun of" by people who should know better. Remember
their troubles are real to them, and are due to exhaustion or prostration
of the nervous system and this condition, as before described, produces
horrid feelings and sensations of almost every part of the body. The
patient must be made to believe that he may expect to get well; and he
must be told that much depends upon himself, and that he must make a
vigorous effort to overcome certain of his tendencies, and that all his
power of will will be needed to further the progress of the cure.

[282 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

First, then, is rest.--Both mental and physical diversions, nutritious
though easily digested food, and removal of baneful influences as far as
possible. Physical exercise for the lazy. Rest for the anemic and weak.
For business or professional men the treatment is to get away and far off,
if possible, from business. It will often be found best to make out a
daily programme for those that must remain at home, something to keep the
mind busy without tiring, and then times of rest. The patient, if it is
possible, should be away from home if home influences and surroundings are
not agreeable. Dr. S. Weir Mitchell, of Philadelphia, has devised and
elaborated a cure, called a rest cure, for the relief of this class of
patients, and it is wonderfully successful especially in thin people. "Be
the symptoms what they may, as long as they are dependent upon nerve
strain, this 'cure' is to be resorted to, and if properly carried out is
often attended with surprising results." "A bright, airy, easily cleaned,
and comfortable room, is to be selected, and adjoining it, if possible,
should be a smaller one for an attendant or nurse. The patient is put to
bed and kept there from three to six weeks, or longer as may be necessary,
and during this time is allowed to see no one except the nurse and doctor,
since the presence of friends requires conversation and mental effort. The
patient in severe cases must be fed by the nurse in order to avoid
expenditure of the force required in the movement of the arms. No sitting
up in bed is allowed and if any reading is done it must be done by the
nurse who can read aloud for an hour a day (I have seen cases where even
that could not be done). In the case of women, the hair should be dressed
by the nurse to avoid any physical effort on the part of the patient. To
take the place of ordinary exercise, two measures are employed, the first
of which is massage or rubbing; the second, electricity. By the kneading
and rubbing of the muscles and skin the liquids in the tissues are
absorbed and poured into the lymph spaces, and a healthy blush is brought
to the skin. This passive exercise is performed in the morning or
afternoon, and should last from one-half to an hour, every part of the
body being kneaded, even the face and scalp. In the afternoon or morning
the various muscles should be passively exercised by electricity, each
muscle being made to contact by the application of the poles of the
battery to its motor points, the slowly interrupted current being used.
Neither of these forms of exercise call for any expenditure of nerve
force; they keep up the general nutrition. The following programme for a
day's existence is an example of what the physician should order:

[NERVOUS SYSTEM 283]

7:30 a. m.--Glass of hot or cold milk, predigested, boiled or raw as the
case requires.

8:00 a. m.--The nurse is to sponge the patient with tepid water or with
cold and hot water alternately to stimulate the skin and circulation, the
body being well wrapped in a blanket, except the portion which is being
bathed. After this the nurse should dry the part last wetted, with a rough
towel, using some friction to stimulate the skin.

8:30 a. m.--Breakfast. Boiled, poached or scrambled eggs, milk toast,
water toast, or a finely cut piece of mutton chop or chicken.

10:00 a. m.--Massage.

11:00 a. m.--A glass of milk, or a milk punch, or egg-nog.

12:00 m.--Reading for an hour.

1:00 p. m.--Dinner. Small piece of steak, rare roast beef, consomme soup,
mutton broth, and any one of the easily digested vegetables, well cooked.

3:00 p. m.--Electricity.

4:30 p. m.--A glass of milk, a milk punch or egg-nog.

6:30 p. m.--Supper. This should be very plain, no tea or coffee, but toast
and butter, milk, curds and whey, or a plain custard.

9 :30 p. m.--A glass of milk or milk punch.

In this way the day is well filled, and the time does not drag so heavily
as would be thought. If the stomach rebels at over feeding, the amount of
food must be cut down, but when all the effort of the body is concentrated
on respiration, circulation, and digestion a large amount of nourishment
can be assimilated by the exhausted body, which before this treatment is
undertaken may have had its resources so shattered as to be unable to
carry out any physiological act perfectly. For the treatment to be
successful the rules laid down should be rigidly followed, and the cure
should last from three to six weeks or longer."

HYSTERIA.--A state in which ideas control the body and produce morbid
changes in its functions.

Causes.--It occurs mostly in women, and usually appears first about the
time of puberty, but the manifestations may continue until the menopause
or even until old age. It occurs in all races. Children under twelve years
are not very often affected. A physician writes: One of the saddest
chapters in the history of human deception, that of the Salem witches,
might be headed, "Hysteria in Children," since the tragedy resulted
directly from the hysterical pranks of girls under twelve years of age.
During late years it has been quite frequent among men and boys. It seems
to occur oftener in the warm and mild climates than in the cold. There are
two predisposing causes that are very important--heredity and education.
Heredity acts by endowing the child with a movable (mobile) abnormally
sensitive nervous organization. Cases are seen most frequently in families
with marked nervous disease tendencies, whose members have suffered from
various sorts of nervous diseases.

[284 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Education.--The proper home education is neglected. Some parents allow
their girls to grow up accustomed to have every whim gratified, abundant
sympathy lavished on every woe, however trifling, and the girl reaches
womanhood with a moral organization unfitted to withstand the cares and
worries of every-day life. And between the ages of twelve and sixteen, the
most important in her life, when the vital energies are absorbed in the
rapid development of the body, the girl is often "cramming" for
examinations and cooped in close schoolrooms for six or eight hours daily;
not only that, but at home she is often practicing and taking lessons on
the piano in connection with the full school work. The result too often is
an active bright mind in an enfeebled body, ill-adapted to subserve the
functions for which it was framed, easily disordered, and prone to act
abnormally to the ordinary stimuli of life.

Direct Influences.--Those influences that directly bring on the attack are
fright, anxiety, grief, love affairs, and domestic worries, especially in
those of a nervous nature. Diseases of the generative organs and organic
diseases in general, and of the nervous system especially, may be causes
of hysteria.

Symptoms.--These may be divided into two classes: 1. Interparoxysmal or
time between the paroxysms (spells). 2. Paroxysmal. During the time of the
attack. First variety--The will power seems defective. In bad cases
self-control is lost. The patient is irritable, and easily annoyed by the
slightest trifle; is very excitable and easily moved to laughter or tears
without any apparent cause for either. Easily discouraged and despondent.
She wants lots of sympathy. Second--Loss of sensation is frequently
present, and it is most commonly one-sided; it may involve certain parts,
as one or two limbs, the trunk escaping, or part of one limb. Various
spots of want of sensation (feeling) may exist. The skin of the affected
side is frequently pale and cool and a pin prick may not cause bleeding.
In some cases they feel the touch of the hand, but there is no feeling
from heat. There may also be oversensitiveness to pain and of the skin. It
may be one-sided or both, or only in spots. The left ovarian region is a
common sensitive point; also over the breasts, lower positions of the
ribs, on top of the head and over many portions of the backbone. Pain in
the head is a very common and distressing symptom, and is usually on the
top. Pain in the back is common. Abdominal pains may be very severe and
the abdomen may be so tender as to be mistaken for peritonitis. Various
parts of the body may have neuralgic pains. There may be intense pain
around the heart. There may be complete blindness, the taste and smell may
be disturbed or complete loss of hearing. Third--Paralysis is frequently
present. It may be one-sided or only of the lower extremities, or only one
limb. The face is usually not involved when it is on one side. The leg is
more affected than the arm. Sensation is lessened or lost on the affected
side. Paralysis of the lower extremities is more frequent than one-sided
paralysis. The power in the limbs hardly ever is entirely lost; the legs
may usually be moved, but the legs give way if the patient tries to stand.
The affected muscles do not waste. The feet are usually extended and turn
inward. Sudden loss of voice occurs in many cases. The paralysis is
generally paroxysmal, and is frequently associated with contractures,
shortening of the muscle. The contractures may come on suddenly or slowly,
and may last minutes, hours, or months, and some cases even years.
Movements of the hands, arms, etc., like the motions in chorea are often
seen in the young. A trembling (tremor) is sometimes seen in these
patients. It most commonly involves the hands and arms, more rarely the
head and legs. These movements are small and quick. Fourth--Swallowing may
be difficult on account of spasms of the muscles of the pharynx. The
larynx may be involved and interfere with respiration. Indigestion in some
form is often present. The stomach and bowels may be very much bloated
with gas. There may be a "phantom tumor" in the intestine (bowel).
Constipation may be very obstinate, vomiting may be present and persistent
and hiccough present. The action of the heart may be irregular, and rapid
heart action is common. The least motion may cause difficult breathing and
false Angina Pectoris (heart pang); the urine is retained not infrequently
in female patients.

[NERVOUS SYSTEM 285]

Symptoms of the Paroxysms.--Convulsive seizures are common manifestations
of hysteria, and frequently present a great similarity to epilepsy. The
prodromal (fore-running) symptoms are frequently present and may begin
several days before the convulsion occurs. In milder forms, in which the
cause may be due to a temporary physical exhaustion, or emotional shock,
the fore-running symptoms are of short duration. The patient may become
very nervous, irritable, impatient, have fits of laughing and crying,
alternately, or have a feeling of a chill rising in the throat. The
convulsion follows these symptoms. The patient generally falls in a
comfortable place; consciousness is only apparently lost, for she
frequently remembers what has taken place; the tongue is rarely bitten, In
the milder forms the movements are apt to be disorderly. In the severe
forms the movements are apt to be a lasting contraction of the muscles and
the patient may have the head and feet drawn back and the abdomen drawn
front. There then may follow a condition of ecstacy, sleepiness,
catalepsy, trance, or the patient may show symptoms of a delirium with the
most extraordinary sights of unreal things. These convulsions may last for
several hours or days. Firm pressure over the ovaries may bring on a
convulsion, or if made during a convulsion may arrest it. The disease is
rarely dangerous to life, yet death has followed exhaustion induced by
repeated convulsions or prolonged fasting. The duration of hysteria is
very uncertain.

[286 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

DURING A CONVULSION. The first thing to do is not to be frightened. A
patient in a convulsion from hysteria very seldom injures herself during
the convulsions. If you are sure it is hysteria, give a nasty tasting
medicine, asafoetida is a splendid remedy, but not in pill form, for there
is no taste or smell to them. Sometimes a convulsion may be arrested by
the sudden use of ice to the backbone or abdomen or by dashing cold water
in the face and chest, or by pressing upon the ovaries. When the hysteria
is of a mild form it is sometimes a good plan, when the convulsion comes
on, to place the patient in a comfortable position and then leave her, and
when the patient comes to and finds herself alone and without sympathy,
the attacks are less likely to be repeated. Sometimes if you watch a
patient closely when she is seemingly unconscious, you will see, if you
look at her very guardedly, that one eyelid is not entirely closed, and
that the patient really sees much that is occurring around her. I am
writing of real genuine hysteria, in which the patient is not quite right,
not only physically but mentally,--especially the latter,--during the
attack at least. For that and other reasons such patients should not be
treated cruelly.

Preventive Treatment of Hysteria.--In order to be successful in this line
of treatment the cause must be found and treated. An English physician
writes: "It is pitiable to think of the misery that has been inflicted on
these unhappy victims of the harsh and unjust treatment which has resulted
from false views of the nature of the trouble; on the other hand, worry
and ill-health, often the wrecking of the mind, body and estate, are
entailed upon the near relatives in the nursing of a protracted case of
hysteria. The minor manifestations, attacks of the vapors, the crying and
weeping spells are not of much moment, and rarely require treatment. The
physical condition should be carefully looked into and the mode of life
regulated, so as to insure system and order in everything. A congenial
occupation offers the best remedy for many of these manifestations. Any
functional disturbance should be attended to and a course of tonics
prescribed. Special attention should be paid to the action of the bowels.
The best preventive treatment is the one that is given early, when the
girl is growing from childhood to girlhood. It should be begun even
earlier. A weakly baby should be built up by proper food and outdoor life.
Dainties should not be given to such a child. When the child is old
enough, as some mothers think, to go to kindergarten school, keep the
little one at home. It is plenty early enough to send such a child to
school when she is seven years old. This early school work rushes the
child, makes it nervous. If you should happen to listen to the heart of
many young school children you would find it pounding away at a furious
rate. Do not hurry a weakly child. Do not hurry or rush a young girl even
though she is strong, from the ages of twelve to sixteen years. Our school
system does just that. Instead of taking life easy when she is nearing the
crisis (puberty) or is in that period, she is hurried and rushed and
crammed with her school work; the girl frequently goes to school during
this period, even when she is unwell and sits there for an hour or more
with wet skirts and sometimes wet shoes and stockings. Every day I see
girls of all ages go past my office here in this cultured city of Ann
Arbor, without rubbers, treading through the slush and water. Is it any
wonder they become sickly, become victims of hysteria and suffer from
menstrual disorders? Dysmenorrhea must follow such carelessness, and the
parents are to blame in many cases. Be careful of your children,
especially girls at this age, care less for their intellectual growth, and
pay more attention to their body development, even if it should happen to
be at the expense of their intellectual development. A healthy body is
better than all the knowledge that can be obtained, if it goes, as it too
often does, with a body that is weak and sick. Outdoor life is necessary.
Horseback riding is splendid; walking is also good exercise at a regular
time each day."

[NERVOUS SYSTEM 287]

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Hysteria.--If there is any womb trouble, it must
be attended to. There is frequently trouble with the menses in cases of
hysteria. It sometimes comes from anemia or simply comes without any
special reason. Tonics like arsenic, iron, strychnine and cod-liver oil
are needed for anemia. Iron valerate is good, in one grain doses, three
times a day, in this disease, when the patient is not fleshy.

1. The following is recommended by Dr. Goodell:

    Of each one scruple (20 grains).
      Quinine Valerate
      Iron Valerate
      Ammonia Valerate

Make into twenty pills. Take one or two pills three times a day.

(This is a good tonic in such cases.)

2. Fowler's Solution of Arsenic in three to five drops doses is frequently
used (three times a day) and is a good lasting tonic in cases where the
patient has a very pale white looking skin.

3. Asafoetida in three to five-grain pills is a splendid tonic in such
cases, and in that form is pleasant to take. Take three during the day,
before meals.

4. Sumbul or musk root is a good remedy. Tincture in one-half dram doses
three times a day. This is good when the patient is very nervous.

5. The following is good when anemia is prominent:

    Dried Sulphate of Iron        20 grains
    Alcoholic extract of Sumbul   20 grains
    Asafoetida                    10 grains
    Arsenious acid               1/2 grain

Mix thoroughly and make twenty pills, one after each meal.

[288 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

6. Tincture of hops in doses of one-half to two teaspoonfuls is good for
nervousness and sleeplessness, taken at bedtime. It can also be taken
regularly four times a day in from one-half to one teaspoonful doses.

7. General Cautions.--Proper, easily digested foods must be taken. Keep
the bowels open daily. Let trash and dainties alone. Pies, cakes, and rich
foods are an abomination for such patients. Candy is not to be eaten. Let
novels alone. Go to bed at nine and sleep until six or seven. Bathe five
or ten minutes every morning or evening in tepid water or cool water. The
patient should be warmly clothed. Sleep in a pleasant, sunshiny and airy
room. In severe forms of the disease the "Rest Cure" and feeding described
under Nervous Prostration should be used.



EPILEPSY. (Falling Sickness).--This is an affection of the nervous system,
characterized by attacks of unconsciousness, with or without convulsion.

Causes.--In a large proportion of cases the disease begins before puberty.
It rarely begins after twenty-five. It is more liable to attack females
than males. Heredity is thought by some to play a big role. Dr. Osler
says: "In our figures it appears to play a minor role." Another doctor
says: "Heredity plays an important role in the production of the disease.
Besides epilepsy, insanity, migraine, alcoholism, near relationship of
parents (consanguinity) and hysteria are among the more common ancestral
taints observed." All factors which impair the health and exhaust the
nervous system are predisposing causes. Injury to the head often causes
it. Teething, worms, adherent foreskin and clitoris, closing of the
internal opening of the womb, delayed menstruation, are sometimes the
cause.

Symptoms.--There are two distinct types. The major attacks--or "grand
mal"--in which there are severe convulsions with complete loss of
consciousness, etc.; and the minor attacks or "petit mal," in which the
convulsive movements are slight and may be absent, and in which the loss
of consciousness is often but momentary or practically absent. In some the
attacks occur during the day; in others during the night, and they may not
be noticed for a long time.

Characteristic paroxysm of the Major attacks.--This may be ushered in by a
localized sensation, known as the Aura, in some part of the body; but it
may come without any warning and suddenly. The convulsions begin suddenly
and at first are tonic, that is, it does not change but holds on. Thc
patient falls unconscious regardless of the surroundings, and the
unconsciousness may be preceded by an involuntary piercing cry. The head
is drawn back and often turned to the right. The jaws are fixed (tonic
spasm). The fingers are clenched over the thumb and the extremities are
stiff. The breathing is affected and the face looks blue. The urine and
bowel contents may escape; but this occurs oftener in the next stage. This
tonic spasm usually lasts from a few seconds to a half minute when it is
succeeded by the clonic spasm stage.

[NERVOUS SYSTEM 289]

Clonic spasm stage.--In this the contraction of the muscles is
intermittent. (Tonic spasm is the opposite condition.) At first there is
trembling, but it gradually becomes more rapid and the limbs are jerked
and patient tosses violently about. The muscles of the face are in
intermittent motion, the eyes roll, the eyelids are opened and closed
convulsively. The jaws move forcibly and strongly, and the tongue is apt
to be caught between the teeth and bitten. The blue look now gradually
decreases. A frothy saliva, which may be bloodstained from the bitten
tongue, escapes from the mouth. The urine and bowel contents may escape
involuntarily. The length of time of this stage is variable. It may last
two minutes. The contraction becomes less violent and the patient
gradually sinks into the condition of deep sleep, when the breathing is
noisy and stertorous, the face looks red and swollen, but no longer
bluish. The limbs loose their stiffness and unconsciousness is profound.
The patient, if left alone, will sleep for some hours and then awakes and
complains only of a dull headache. His mind is apt to be confused. He
remembers nothing or little of what has occurred. Afterwards the patient
may be irrational for some time and even dangerous.

The minor attack or "petit mal."--There is a convulsion; a short period of
unconsciousness, and this may come at any time, and may be accompanied by
a feeling of faintness or vertigo. Suddenly, for example, at dinner time
the person stops talking and eating, the eyes are fixed and staring and
the face is slightly pale. The patient usually drops anything he may be
holding. The consciousness returns in a moment or two and the patient
resumes conversation as if nothing had happened. In other instances there
is a slight incoherency or the patient performs some almost automatic
action. He may begin to undress himself, and on returning to consciousness
find that he has partially disrobed. He may rub his beard or face, or may
spit about in a careless way. An eminent physician states: "One of my
patients, after an attack, was in the habit of tearing anything he could
lay his hands on, particularly books; violent actions have been committed
and assaults made, frequently giving rise to questions which come before
court. In the majority of cases of "petit mal" (light attacks) convulsions
finally occur, at first slight, but ultimately the grand mal (major
attacks) becomes well developed, and the attacks may then alternate."

Recovery.--The authority above goes on to say: "This may be given today in
the words of Hippocrates: 'The prognosis in epilepsy is unfavorable when
the disease is congenital (that is, existing at birth), when it endures to
manhood, and when it occurs in a grown person without any previous cause.
The cure may be attempted in young persons but not in old.' '' Death
rarely occurs during the fit, but it may happen if the patient is eating.
If the attacks are frequent and the patient has marked mental disturbance
the conditions are unfavorable. Males have a better outlook than females.

[290 MOTHERS' REMEDIES ]

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT.--What to do during the Attack of Epilepsy.--Keep
the patient from injuring himself, loosen the clothing, take off the
collar or anything tight about the neck. Place a cork or spool or
tooth-brush handle between the teeth to keep the patient from biting his
tongue, but attach a stout cord to the object and hold it in that way.

Preventive and general treatment.--In the case of children the parents
should be made to understand that in the great majority of cases epilepsy
is incurable. The patients need firm but kind treatment. It does not
render a person incapable of following some occupations. "Julius Caesar
and Napoleon were subjects of epilepsy." The disease causes gradual
impairment of the mind, and if such patients become extremely irritable or
show signs of violence, they should be placed under supervision in an
asylum. A person with this disease should not marry.

Diet.--Give the patient a light diet at regular hours, and the stomach
should never be overloaded. There are cases in which meat is injurious,
and it should not be eaten more than once a day and at noon time. A
vegetable diet seems best. The patient should not go to sleep until the
digestion is completed in the stomach.

Causes.--Should be removed if possible. Circumcision should be done,
especially in the young. In case of a female child the "hood of the
clitoris" should be kept free. Undue mental and physical excitement should
be avoided. Systematic exercise should be taken. Baths in cold water in
the morning, if possible, as the skin should be in good working condition.

Medicines.--The bromides are the best, and should always be given under
proper supervision of a physician or nurse.

Caution.--I wish to add that parents should always attend to the seemingly
harmless "fits" in their young children. It will not do to say they are
due to teething or worms. If they are, the worms at least can be treated
and that cause removed. They may be due to too tight opening in the penis.
If that opening is small, or if the foreskin is tight it will make the
child irritable and cause restless sleep. Attend to that immediately. The
same advice applies to female children. The "cover" of the "clitoris" may
be tight, making the little one nervous; loosen it. If your child keeps
its fingers rubbing its private organs there is reason for you to have the
parts examined and the cause removed as masturbation often starts in that
way. The parts itch and the child tries to stop the itching. These little
things often cause "big things" and I am sure "fits" can be stopped very
often by looking after the private organs in both sexes.

[NERVOUS SYSTEM 291]

SHAKING PALSY. (Paralysis Agitans).--This is a chronic affection of the
nervous system, characterized by muscular weakness, trembling and
rigidity.

Causes.--It usually occurs after the fortieth year, and is more common in
men than in women. The exciting causes are exposure to cold and wet,
business worries, anxieties, violent emotional excitement and specific
fevers.

Symptoms.--The four prominent symptoms are trembling, weakness, rigidity,
and a peculiar attitude. It generally develops gradually, usually in one
or the other hand. There is at first a fine trembling, beginning in the
hands or feet, gradually extending to the arms, the legs and sometimes the
whole body. The head is not involved so frequently. This trembling
(tremor) consists of rapid, uniform "shakings." At first it may come in
spells, but as the disease advances it is continuous. Any excitement makes
it worse. It is very marked in the hands. The trembling generally ceases
during sleep. The muscles become rigid and shortened; the head is bent and
the body is bent forward; the arms are flexed (bent) and the thumbs are
turned into the palms and grasped by the fingers; the legs are bent,
movement soon becomes impaired and the extremities show some stiffness in
motion. There is great weakness of the muscles and it is most marked,
where the trembling is most developed. There is no expression on the face,
and the person has a slow and measured speech. The walk is very peculiar,
and in attempting to walk the steps are short and hurried. The steps
gradually become faster and faster, while the body is bent forward and the
patient must keep on going faster to keep from falling. It is difficult to
go around in a short circle. The patient cannot change his position in bed
easily. The mind is rarely affected.

Recovery.--It is an incurable disease. It may run on for twenty years or
more. There may be times of improvement, but the tendency is to grow,
gradually worse.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Shaking Palsy.--This is simply to make the
patient as comfortable as possible. Regulate the diet. The patient should
not worry or have much exercise. Frequent warm baths are sometimes
beneficial with gentle massage of the muscles.



APHASIA.--A partial or total inability to express thoughts in words or to
interpret perceptions.

Varieties.--Motor and sensory aphasia.

Causes.--Softening of the brain, tumors of the brain, lesions in syphilis
especially, hemorrhage in the brain, blows on the head, and inflammation
of the brain and its covering.

Symptoms of Motor Aphasia.--The patient cannot make the muscles of the
larynx, tongue, palate and lips perform their functions and produce
speech. The patient knows what he wishes to say, but cannot pronounce it.
This may be complete or partial. Complete, when the patient can only utter
separate sounds. Partial, when the words are only slightly mispronounced
and when some certain words cannot be pronounced at all. In some cases,
nouns only or verbs cannot be pronounced. Agraphia, means inability to
write down the thoughts. Sensory aphasia: word deafness. This is an
inability to interpret spoken language. The sound of the word is not
recognized and cannot be recalled; but sounds such as that of an engine
whistle, or an alarm clock, are heard and recognized. Word-blindness: the
person cannot interpret written language. Pharaphrasia: cannot use the
right word in continued speech; the patient uses words but misplaces them.

[292 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Recovery depends a great deal upon the cause.

Treatment.--Treat the cause. If from syphilis, iodide of potash and
mercury. If from an injury or tumors, operate if possible. Teach the
patient how to speak, read and write. The result of this often gives you a
pleasant surprise.

[Illustration: Hand Nerves.]

WRITERS' CRAMP. Causes.--This occurs much oftener in men than in women,
and usually between the ages of twenty-five and forty. The predisposing
causes are a nervous constitution, heredity, alcoholism, worry, etc. The
chief exciting cause,--excessive writing, especially when it is done
under a strain.

Symptoms.--It usually begins with fatigue, weight, or actual pain in the
affected muscles. In the spasm form the fingers are seized with a constant
or intermittent spasm whenever the person grasps the pen. The neuralgic
form is similar in symptoms but severe pain and fatigue comes with
writing. The tremulous form: In this the hand when used becomes the seat
of the decided tremor. The paralytic form: The chief symptoms are
excessive weakness and fatigue of the part and these disappear when the
pen is laid aside.

Recovery.--If taken in time and if the hand is allowed perfect rest, the
condition may improve rapidly. There is, however, a tendency to recur.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Writers' Cramps.--There must be absolute rest of
the hand. General tonics, such as iron, strychnine, arsenic, and cod-liver
oil may be needed to tone up the system.



APOPLEXY.  (Cerebral Hemorrhage).  (Brain Hemorrhage). Causes.--Bleeding
(hemorrhage) into the brain substance is almost always due to an affection
of the walls of the large or small arteries of the brain, producing
rupture and subsequent bleeding. Persons of fifty or over are more subject
to it, and it is more common in men than in women. Any disease that will
cause degeneration of the arteries, helps to cause it, such as nephritis,
rheumatism, syphilis, gout and alcoholism. Nephritis is one of the most
certain causes, because arterio-sclerosis (hardening and decaying of the
walls of the arteries) and hypertrophy of the heart are associated with
nephritis, etc.

[NERVOUS SYSTEM 293]

Direct Causes.--Straining at stool, heavy lifting, anger, rage, fright,
etc.; paroxysm of whooping-cough or convulsions may cause it in children.

Symptoms.--Sometimes the patient experiences headache, dizziness, paleness
or flushing of the face, fullness in the head, ringing in the ears, etc.,
temporary attacks of numbness or peculiar tingling in one-half of the
body. When the bleeding takes place there is usually loss of
consciousness. In the attack:--If the bleeding is extensive the patient
falls suddenly into coma, and this may soon prove fatal. If the bleeding
is slight at first and gradually increases, the patient is delirious at
first, then one arm, then one side, and finally the whole body may become
paralyzed, and unconsciousness, and even death may come from the paralysis
of the heart and breathing nerve centers. In many cases the patient falls
unconscious without previous warning. The face is red, the eyes injected,
the lips are blue, the pulse is full and slow, and the breathing is slow
and deep. The head and eyes may be strongly turned to the injured side.
The pupils may be unequal. The paralysis may not be noticed while the
patient is unconscious and is quiet. The urine and the bowels contents may
pass involuntarily or the urine may be retained. Sometimes when the case
is very grave the patient does not awake from his deep sleep (coma); the
pulse becomes very feeble, respiration becomes changed, mucus collects in
the throat, and death may occur in a few hours or days. In other cases the
clot in the brain is gradually absorbed, and the patient slowly returns to
consciousness. Sometimes relapses occur. In mild cases instead of deep
coma, there may be only headache, faintness, nausea and vomiting.

Subsequent Symptoms.--When the patient improves, consciousness returns,
but there remains a half-side paralysis, hemiplegia, on the side and
opposite to that of the seat of the injury in the brain. It may not take
in the whole side, only a part. The gait is peculiar. In walking the
patient supports the paralyzed arm. In many cases the paralyzed parts
gradually regain their functions in a few weeks, but not always complete.
The leg improves more than the arm. There is danger of other attacks. When
the sleep (coma) is very deep, the breathing is embarrassed, with vomiting
and prolonged half-consciousness and extension and complete paralysis,
the danger to life is great.

What can I do at once? Loosen the clothing around the neck and waist.
Raise the head and shoulders and put cold to the head (ice bag if you have
it) and warmth to the feet, legs and hands. Watch the bladder closely. The
urine must be drawn frequently in this disease, especially if there is
much paralysis. It may dribble away, but that is not enough. Look out for
bed sores, especially if the sickness is a long one.

[294 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

APOPLEXY. 1. Mothers' Remedies, Simple yet Effective Remedy for.--"Place
the feet of the patient in hot water and mustard," This is a very simple
treatment for such a serious disease, but very often will relieve as the
hot bath will cause a reaction, take the pressure of blood from the brain
and by this means has been known to save many lives.

2. Apoplexy, Simple Injection for.-"Place dry salt on the tongue and give
an injection as follows:

    Warm water       1 quart
    Common salt      2 teaspoonfuls
    Brandy         1/2 ounce

    This injection is recommended for any kind of a shock which affects
    the circulation."

    The injection of the bowels will relieve the congestion by drawing the
    blood away from the brain.

Medical treatment must be to regulate the diet, bowels, kidneys, and
stomach. Restore the general health.

Caution.--A person who has had an attack of this kind may have another.
The mode of life must be changed in most cases. The patient must take
things easy. The bowels, kidneys, stomach, and liver must work naturally
and the stomach must not be overloaded. Too much meat must not be eaten;
alcohol must be let alone; rich foods are prohibited. Hurry, worry, anger,
fright, excitement, etc., are bad. Be lazy, take life easy, do not get
over-heated, and sleep, sleep, SLEEP,--in a room where there is plenty of
good air. Do not lift or strain to have a passage of the bowels. Stooping
is injurious. The blood must be kept from the head. Take proper care and
you are likely to live years longer. And now you may wonder why I give
such cautions. Apoplexy is directly due to a breaking of the wall of a
blood vessel, large or small; due to a weakening, or decay, or
degeneration of the wall. This lets the blood into the substance of the
brain and presses upon the nerve centers, causing the trouble and
paralysis. Any wrong action tends to fill the blood vessels very full and
the weakened wall bursts.



PALSY. Paralysis.--A loss of movement, entire or partial, in the voluntary
muscles of the body. When this loss of power is complete it is called
paralysis; when it is not complete, paresis.

Causes.--Inflammation of the brain and spinal cord, tumors in these parts,
accidents and injuries, poisons, apoplexy, etc.

Symptoms.--The patient cannot make all the usual motions of the part. The
affected muscles may waste after a time.

Different Varieties.--

(a) Paralysis of the ocular (eye) muscles.--The vision becomes double, the
eyelids do not act normally, may droop. The eye may not move in every
direction as it should.

(b) Paralysis of the muscles of mastication (eating). Symptoms.--If
paralysis is only on one side, it is difficult to chew; if on both sides,
chewing is impossible. The jaw hangs down.

[NERVOUS SYSTEM 295]

(c) Paralysis of the facial (face) muscle.--This is a rather common
occurrence, and is due to exposure to wet, and cold, diseases of the
middle ear, tumors, etc. Symptoms:--The eyelids do not close tightly, and
tears are continually trickling over the cheek; the corner of the mouth
droops and the saliva runs out, etc. The mild cases last two or three
weeks; the severe form from four to six weeks; the worst cases usually
recover in a long time.

(d) Paralysis of the muscles of the upper extremity.--There are various
and many symptoms, but with all there is the same loss of the usual
motion. That particular muscle does not do its special work; for instance,
if the paralysis is of the deltoid muscle of the arm and shoulder, it is
not possible to raise the arm, usually pain in the shoulder. The muscle
soon wastes and the head of the arm bone (humerus) falls away from the
shoulder, etc.

(e) Paralysis of the muscles of the lower extremities.--Paralysis of the
"Gluteus Maximus and Minimus." (Hip muscles). Lifting up of the thigh is
difficult and so is walking up hill or rising from sitting position. The
toes are turned out. The other muscles may be paralyzed and simply cannot
do their usual duty.

(f) Toxic (poison) paralysis. Lead paralysis.--It is hard to extend the
fingers. The lead line is shown on the gums.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Palsy.--Remove the cause. Give salts and iodide
of potash. Paralysis from arsenic, mercury, zinc or copper:--The symptoms
are those of neuritis and are greatly similar in each kind. The spongy
gums show mercury; the puffy face and diarrhea show arsenic poison. Remove
the cause.



CONGESTION OF THE BRAIN. (Diseases of the Cerebral (Brain) Circulation).
(Hyperaemia).--The brain is too full of blood.

Causes. For Active Congestion.--Over-exertion in study, etc.; chronic
pletbora (too much blood in the blood vessels); from constant use of
alcohol, tobacco, amyl nitrite, and from the stomach.

For passive congestion.--Local obstruction to the return of blood from the
brain. Prolonged mental and physical exertion with excesses and irregular
living may cause it.

Symptoms of active kind.--Head feels warm, face is red, the arteries in
the neck beat hard, violent headache, ears ringing, very restless and does
not sleep well.

Symptoms of the passive form.--The headache is not so great; there may be
stupor, drowsiness and dull intellect and very sleepy.

Recovery.--Favorable if the cause is removed.

Treatment for active congestion.--Keep the patient absolutely quiet in a
dark, well aired room, with the head and shoulders raised, an ice bag or
cold cloths to the head and warm applications to the hands and feet. A
warm foot bath will aid in drawing the blood away from the head. Give
salts (salines) to move the bowels. These take away a great deal of water
from the blood and aid in relieving the congestion of the head.

[296 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Treatment for passive congestion.--Remove the cause if possible. Give a
light nutritious diet; prohibit alcohol in any form; keep the bowels
regular.



CEREBRAL ANEMIA. (Too little blood in the brain). Causes.--Heart disease,
general anemia, and mental excitement.

Symptoms.--"Fainting spells," dizziness, the ears ring and there are spots
before the eyes; nausea and vomiting may go ahead of the fainting spells.
The face is pale, the pupils are dilated, the pulse is small and feeble,
and there may be cold sweating on the body. If you can remove the cause
the result is favorable.

Treatment.--For the fainting fits:--Place the patient in the "lying down"
position and this frequently restores consciousness; loosen any tight
clothes, corset, waist, collar, etc. Give plenty of fresh air and do not
crowd. Keep quiet yourself; do not get excited. In mild cases, mild
stimulants may be necessary. Let the patient smell of camphor, put a cloth
with camphor or ammonia near the nose. In other cases amylnitrite and
strychnine may be necessary. Small doses of whisky or brandy frequently
help. Remove the cause. Give tonics for general anemia.



TUMORS OF THE BRAIN AND INFLAMMATION, Abscess, etc. Abscess.

Causes.--This is always secondary and comes from some other part of the
body. It comes often in young and middle life and is more common in males
than in females. The most frequent cause is inflammation of the ear and
the next is from fracture of the skull bones. It may be large or small.

Symptoms.--May come slowly or quickly. After an injury to the head the
symptoms may come on suddenly such as intense headache, delirium,
vomiting, chills, high fever, and sometimes convulsions, and a very deep
seeming sleep (coma). In chronic cases the symptoms are not so severe.

Treatment.--An operation if the abscess can be reached. If not, an ice bag
should be applied to the head; quiet the distress with narcotics.



TUMORS OF THE BRAIN.--Varieties in order of their frequency. Gumma,
tuberculous tumors, glioma, sarcoma, cancer, etc.

Causes. Predisposing.--Men are about twice as often affected as women
until fifty and then it is about equal. It is more frequent in early adult
life. The exciting causes are blows and severe emotional shock.

Gumma (in third stage of Syphilis) appear as a round, yellow, cheesy mass,
usually beginning in the membranes and are usually seen between thirty and
fifty. They come from syphilis.

[NERVOUS SYSTEM 297]

Tuberculous tumors. These appear as hard masses and vary in size. They may
be single or many, and are situated in any part of the brain. More than
half of the tumors appearing in children are of this variety.

Glioma. "Glue-tumor." They come from tissue forming the basis of the
supporting framework of the nervous tissue. This kind occurs often in the
young.

Sarcoma and Cancer are rare.

Symptoms.--The most of the growths start in the membranes of the brain,
and by compressing a certain part of the brain they produce their special
symptoms such as headache, vomiting, inflammation of the nerves of the
eye, double vision, blindness, the memory impaired, dullness and apathy,
an irritable temper, and sometimes become demented. There is often vertigo
or a sense of giddiness. There may be convulsions, and paralysis of some
muscles. A general tuberculosis tendency or history of syphilis will help
to make the diagnosis. In children it is more likely to be tuberculous.
The result is more favorable in tuberculous growths in children and
syphilitic tumors in adults. It may last from a few months to three years
in a bad case.

Treatment.--For gumma, caused by syphilis, iodide of potash and mercury
should be given. In both kinds, syphilitic and tuberculous, a nutritious
diet and general tonic treatment, such as cod-liver oil, iron, arsenic,
and quinine should be given. The bowels must be kept open and special
attention given to the digestion.

For headache.--Ice bags, cold to the head, mustard to the nape of the
neck.

For Vomiting.--Mustard over the stomach. Surgery is necessary for some
tumors that can be reached. You will naturally depend upon your attending
physician for advice and treatment.



SYPHILIS OF THE BRAIN. Causes.--The symptoms of syphilis of the brain,
belong to the third stage of the disease, and are rarely ever observed
until at least one year or longer from the time of the first lesion
(chancre). It may be from ten to twenty years coming on. Both sexes are
equally liable, and it may come at any age. Syphilis may produce a
circumscribed tumor, a disease of the arteries or a general hardened
infiltration of the brain. The tumors are small, yellowish, and cheesy in
the center. They originate in the "Dura Mater" (covering) and spread to
the brain structure proper. The disease of the arteries causes a
thickening of these vessels, a narrowing of the blood channel in them,
thus producing a clot.

Symptoms.--Of gumma (syphilis tumors) at the base of the brain, are
persistent headache, worse at night; sleeplessness, depression of the
mind, memory impaired, vertigo, sometimes vomiting and paralysis of some
of the nerves (third and sixth pairs). Violent convulsions, like epilepsy,
appear in some cases.

[298 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Symptoms when arteries are diseased.--Temporary loss of speech, numbness
or weakness in one limb, the sight is disturbed, or vertigo; and, when the
clot (thrombus) appears, symptoms of apoplexy, This is a common variety of
syphilis of the brain.

How to tell what the disease is.--The history of the patient will help. An
apoplexy in a young person would suggest syphilis.

Recovery.--The chances are better when the disease forms gumma (tumors)
than when the blood vessels are diseased.

Treatment.--Should be begun and properly carried on when the person has
the primary sore (chancre), and then these after troubles may not follow.
This is one of the diseases where the victim reaps a big harvest on
account of the sexual sin, and in order to escape the bad results for
himself, etc. he should go through a regular course of treatment when he
first contracts the disease, perhaps for a year or more, This treatment
should last as a rule for some years. It is late to begin when the brain
symptoms show brain involvement. For this there must be radical and
careful treatment with mercury and iodide of potash; with tonics and
general building up treatment, and then even if the patient lives he may
be a nuisance to himself and others.



GENERAL PARESIS. (Paretic dementia. General Paralysis of the Insane.
Softening of the Brain).--This belongs under diseases of the mind, but
there are so many cases that a description of this disease may be
instructive and interesting. One author says: "General paresis is a
chronic, progressive, diffuse, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain),
resulting in structural changes in the cerebral (brain) tissue, with
involvement of the cortical, and meningeal, (covering) blood and lymph
vessels, presenting characteristic symptoms, with progressive course and
fatal termination usually within three years." There are three stages:--1.
The period of incubation (the prodromal stage). 2. A stage of pronounced
mono-maniac activity with symptoms of paralysis. 3. Stage of extreme
enfeeblement with diminution and final loss of power. These stages run
into each other. First stage in a typical case:--There are tremblings and
slight trouble in speech and expression of the face. The mind has exalted
and excited spells, etc.

Symptoms.--The patient is irritable. The mental and moral character is
unstable. His affairs are in confusion. He uses bad language, neglects his
family, goes with drunkards and bad women, makes indecent proposals to
respectable women of his acquaintance without realizing that it is
improper. He cannot keep his mind on one thing. Speech is a little thick,
indistinct and hesitating. Syllables are dropped or repeated, speech
finally becomes undistinguishable. He is very excited; he thinks he is
persecuted. He is a big fellow generally. He is a king, he is rich and
mighty. This is the usual run. As the disease progresses he becomes
feeble-minded more and more so continually. Persistent insomnia comes on
early and frequently recurring, one-sided headache often goes with it.
Sometimes there is an uncontrollable desire to sleep. Loss of
consciousness is an early symptom. After severe attacks there may be
one-sided paralysis (hemiplegia) which usually disappears in a few hours
or days. Convulsions like epilepsy may appear early, but usually occur in
the later stages. The pupils are mostly dilated, rarely contracted, and
they are often unequal and react slowly to light. When the tongue is
protruded it trembles and is put out in a jerky manner. The hands tremble,
in the advanced stage. The speech is jerky and slow. Syllables are dropped
and repeated. One early symptom is retention of the urine. There is
another annoying symptom--a constant grinding of the teeth. The walk is
very spasmodic, but in advanced stages it becomes slouching or dragging.
The skin may be red or blue. When the feeble-mindedness is fully developed
the mind does not perceive anything accurately. He sees imaginary things,
and things that he does see do not appear to him as they are. Finally he
has no mind.

Treatment.--The end is sure. You can relieve the distress partly. Personal
attention by a physician is needed.

[NERVOUS SYSTEM 299]

INSOMNIA.--Insomnia is not a disease, but a symptom of disease. It may,
however, become so active, prominent, and important a symptom as to
constitute a condition which merits individual management and treatment.

Definition.--Insomnia is the term employed to denote actual or absolute
sleeplessness, and also lack of fully restful sleep, which might be termed
relative sleeplessness.

Causes.--Organic causes. Disease of the brain and spinal cord. Toxic
causes due to poison circulating in the blood which by irritation of the
brain and cord (axis) and especially of the brain, cause such diseases as
nephritis (chronic), jaundice, typhoid fever and consumption.

Primary causes. Depend upon insanity.

Nervous or simplest causes.--These are present in nervous persons and
comprise the two conditions of congestion and anemia of the brain. The
brain congestion is typified by the nerve-tire of the student; over-study
and anxiety bring too much blood to the brain and necessarily too much
activity and then insomnia. Anemia of the brain acts in the opposite
manner. The brain cells are not properly nourished and hence irritated,
and sleeplessness follows.

SLEEPLESSNESS. Mothers' Remedies. 1. Hop Pillow Stops.--"People affected
in this way will be very much benefited by the use of a pillow composed of
hops, or cup of warm hop tea on retiring. The hops have a very soothing
effect upon the nerves."

2. Sleeplessness, Easy and Simple Remedy for.--"On going to bed, take some
sound, as a clock-tick or the breathing of some one within hearing, and
breathe long breaths, keeping time to the sound. In a very short time you
will fall asleep, without any of the painful anxieties attending
insomnia."

[300 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

3. Sleeplessness, Ginger at Bedtime for.--"Ginger tea taken at bedtime
soothes one to sleep," This is a very good remedy when the stomach is at
fault. It stimulates this organ and produces a greater circulation,
thereby drawing the blood from the head. This will make the patient feel
easier and sleep will soon follow.

4. Sleeplessness, Milk Will Stop.--"Sip a glass of hot milk just before
retiring. This is very soothing to the nerves, and a good stimulant for
the stomach,"

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT.--Remove the cause and be careful in using drugs. In
the organic kind the treatment is not very successful. In the toxic kind
drugs must be given to correct other diseases and also tonics given. For
brain congestion and anemia kind other means must be used first, and the
drugs as the last resort. Treatment of the congestive insomnia.--1. Hot or
warm general body-baths are very advantageous to stimulate the circulation
and restore its balance alike in congestion and anemic cases. After such
baths the patient must go to bed at once and not get chilled in cold rooms
or by drafts. They must be properly covered and kept warm.

2. Cold spongings, cold shower baths, or cold plunge baths are given when
the hot or warm bath does not produce the correct result. If this does not
depress it is better than the warm bath. The person should be rubbed with
warm rough towels until the skin is aglow. If he feels rested and quieted,
the reaction is proper; if depressed, the treatment is too vigorous and
not suitable.

3. The patient should stand ankle deep in a tub of hot water and a "drip
sheet," from water at 75 to 80 degrees temperature, thrown over him. Then
rub the patient's back and abdomen hard and a general brisk rub-down
immediately after leaving the tub. This treatment should quiet, not excite
or depress.

4. The cold abdominal pack is valuable. Flannel is wrung out in water, 75
to 80 degrees temperature and laid in several thicknesses upon the
abdomen; place a dry towel over this, cover all with oiled silk,
overlapping widely in order to protect the bed. Tie or bandage all this
firmly. The effect of this work is first that of a cold then of a warm
poultice.

5. Exercise. This should be in the open air when possible. A fast walk,
horseback ride or ride on bicycle for a half hour before bedtime, followed
by a rub-down will frequently give a good sleep. Dumb-bell, Indian club
exercise, chest weight, are good in some cases.

Diet.--A light easily digested supper is often better than a heavy meal.
Sometimes a little eaten before bed-time will give sleep. A piece of
toast, for instance. It draws the blood from the brain and more to the
stomach.

[NERVOUS SYSTEM 301]

Medicines. If you must use them.--The bromides are the best. Sodium and
strontium bromide are first choice. Twenty to thirty grains in water
one-half hour before retiring. Chloral hydrate should not be used often.
Sulphonal, trional, etc., should always be given with a little food-never
alone. Sometimes bread pills do just as well.



ANEMIC CONGESTION. Diet.--A light supper before retiring, like hot milk,
broths, milk punch, etc., will very frequently promote sleep by removing
the cause and quickening the circulation. Give nutritious, easy food to
digest. The baths are not so valuable for this kind of insomnia. A cold
sponge bath or plunge may be of service.

Medicines.--Tonics are needed here as in regular anemia. The patient must
be carefully treated, and very many of these cases can be cured. The
patient must render all the aid he can give, and the physician should gain
his confidence. If he does he will not need to give much medicine to put
the patient to sleep, and if he does give it he can frequently use a
Placebo with the same effect. Mind has an influence over mind. By
"Placebo" is meant any harmless substance, as bread-pills, given to soothe
the patient's anxiety rather than as a remedy.



SLEEP WALKING.--There is a tendency to sleep walking in some families,
often more than one child will do this to a greater or less extent. It is
very extreme in some cases, and the next morning they do not know anything
about it. The person is very seldom hurt and he can do some dizzy things.
Many persons walk about in their sleeping room or simply get out of bed.
Fatigue, worry, poor sleep, restlessness, nervousness, a hearty late
dinner are aggravating causes. As age advances and the person becomes
stronger, the patient will do less of it.

Treatment.--Avoid over-eating, worry, over-study. The evening should be
spent quietly. Such persons had better drop parties, late hours or
anything that tends to cause worry, fatigue or nervousness.



STAMMERING.--This may be inherited to some extent; excitement,
nervousness, bodily fatigue, want of rest, etc., make it worse.

MOTHER'S REMEDY. 1. Stammering, Easy Cure for.--"Read aloud in a room an
hour each day. Repeat each word slowly and distinctly."

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT.--The person should be taught early to talk slowly,
and to do everything to control himself and not get nervous. There are
schools for this trouble, and they seem to do good work. They teach the
patients how to speak slowly, distinctly and to keep their minds off of
themselves.



HICCOUGH.--This is caused by intermittent, sudden contraction of the
diaphragm; obstinate hiccough is a very distressing symptom and sometimes
it is hard to control.

302       MOTHERS' REMEDIES

Causes.--Inflammatory causes. It is seen in gastritis, peritonitis,
hernia, appendicitis, and in severe forms of typhoid fever. Irritative
causes. Swallowing hot substances, local disease of the gullet near the
diaphragm, and in many cases of stomach trouble and bowel disorder,
especially when associated with gas (flatus). Specific causes: Gout,
diabetes or chronic Bright's disease. Nervous (Neurotic) causes. Hysteria,
epilepsy, shock, or brain tumors.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. 1. Hiccough. Vinegar for.--"One teaspoonful vinegar
sipped carefully (so it will not strangle the patient) will stop them
almost instantly."

2. Hiccough, Sugar and Vinegar Stops.--"A few drops of strong vinegar
dropped on a lump of sugar and held in the mouth until dissolved, will
stop most cases of hiccoughs."

3. Hiccough, Sugar Will Relieve Patient of.--"Place a little dry sugar on
the end of the tongue and hold the breath. I have tried this remedy after
others have failed and obtained instant relief."

4. Hiccough, Simple Remedy for.--"Have patient hold both ears closed with
the fingers, then give them three swallows cold water while they hold
their breath."

5. Hiccough, Home Remedy to Stop.--"Take nine swallows of cold water while
holding the breath."

6. Hiccough. Vinegar Stops.--"One teaspoonful of vinegar thickened with
sugar and eaten slowly."

7. Hiccough, Cinchona Bark in Peppermint Stops.--"Put about one-fourth
teaspoonful of cinchona bark, powdered in two ounces of peppermint water,
and give one teaspoonful every five or ten minutes until relieved, or
three drops of camphor and aqua ammonia in wineglassful of water," These
remedies are very good when the stomach is at fault, as they have a
stimulating effect.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT.--Sudden start may check it in the light forms. Ice,
a teaspoonful of salt and lemon juice may be tried. Inhalations of
chloroform often relieve. Strong retraction of the tongue may give
immediate relief. Spirits of camphor, one teaspoonful. Tincture of cayenne
pepper one to two drops in water. Ten grains of musk by the rectum.
Hoffman's anodyne one teaspoonful in ice water is very good.

[NERVOUS SYSTEM 303]

INJURIES TO THE HEAD. Concussion or Laceration of the Brain.--The brain
may be injured by a blow on the head, or indirectly by falling fully upon
the feet or sitting down hard upon the buttocks.

Symptoms.--The person who is injured may lose his balance and fall, become
pale, confused, and giddy, may have nausea and vomiting and recover. If
the injury is more severe and there is a tear of the membranes of the
brain or the brain itself, the patient will fall and lie quietly with a
feeble and fluttering heart, cold, clammy skin, and apparent
unconsciousness; he can be roused by shouting but will not reply
intelligently. He will be able to move his limbs. The urine and contents
of the bowels will be passed involuntarily. As he gets better he may
vomit. He may soon return to entire consciousness, but still suffer from
some headache, feel wearied, and tired, and not feel like exerting
himself. This may continue for some time. Occasionally the results are
more serious even after a long time has passed, and an abscess of the
brain should be watched for, sometimes epilepsy or insanity follows. If
the patient grows worse instead of recovering, either deep seeming sleep
sets in or symptoms of inflammation of the covering (meninges) or the
brain itself follows. Such injuries must be carefully watched, for you can
not tell at first how severe they may prove to be.

TREATMENT. What to do First.--Put the patient to bed without any pillow,
and put around his body hot water bottles or bags, suitably covered. He
should be kept quiet and free from excitement, and sleep should be
encouraged. Hot water or ice water, when awake, as is most agreeable to
the patient, may be given. Aromatic spirit of ammonia, during the shock is
better for the patient to take than alcohol, for alcohol excites the
brain; dose, one-half to two drams; the former can be given every ten
minutes in a little water for about three doses. Surgical treatment may be
necessary at any time.



INJURIES OF THE SPINAL CORD. Concussion of the Spine.--A severe jarring of
the body followed by a group of spinal symptoms supposed to be due to some
minute changes in the cord, of an unknown nature.

Causes.--Severe concussion may result from railway accidents or violent
bending of the body, fall from a house, blow on the back, jumping, etc.

Symptoms.--May come on suddenly, when it is due to a jar of the brain as
well as the cord. Loss of consciousness, complete paralysis, small pulse,
collapse, and within a few hours death may follow. In other cases
improvement, though very slow, follows. Walking is difficult and the upper
extremities are weak in these cases. There are pain and tenderness along
the spine. Brain symptoms, such as headache, dizziness and fainting, may
be present or absent.

Treatment.--Absolute rest from the beginning, stimulants if necessary,
electricity is useful.



TRAUMATISM OF THE CORD. (Blows, etc.).--(Fractures and dislocations,
gunshot and stab wounds, etc.).

Symptoms.--They differ according to the place where the cord is injured.
The motion and feeling power may be disturbed. There may be sudden
complete paralysis of the upper and lower extremities depending on how
severely the cord is injured, and how high up the injury is. The bladder
and rectum may not act properly. The contents may be retained or
"run-away." Death follows sooner or later if the injury is extensive. In
some cases the symptoms are slight in the beginning, but increase in a few
days, or they may suddenly increase a few months afterwards. In other
cases, bad symptoms at first may gradually abate which is due to the blood
clot having been absorbed.

[304  MOTHERS' REMEDIES ]

Recovery depends upon the extent of the injury and the constitution of the
patient. It is always well to be careful about expressing an opinion about
this injury.

Treatment. Immediate.--Surgical treatment is necessary. Absolute rest is a
necessity, and must be had for weeks according to the severity of the
case. It may seem long and become tedious, but the case must have rest for
a long time.

ORGANIC DISEASES OF THE SPINAL CORD. Caisson Disease; Divers' Paralysis.
Causes.--This affection occurs in divers, bridge builders, and others who
are subject to increased atmospheric pressure. The symptoms develop on
coming suddenly to the surface when the atmospheric pressure is greatly
lessened.

Symptoms.--They usually occur on the return to the surface of the water,
or after a few hours have passed. There are pains in the ears and joints
and nose-bleed. The pulse is slow and strong. Neuralgia of the stomach and
vomiting often occur. Paralysis of one side, or of the lower extremities
may occur. Brain symptoms may develop and death may follow in a few hours.
In most cases recovery takes place in a few days or weeks.

Treatment.--Persons who are engaged in such work should change very
gradually from a great depth to the surface, and should not go into the
outer air suddenly.



MYELITIS.--Myelitis is an inflammation of the spinal cord.

Causes.--It may occur at any age, and is more common in male than in
female. The exciting causes are prolonged exposure to severe colds, too
great mental and physical exertion, sexual excess, blows, bleeding into
the cord, alcoholic excess, acute infectious diseases, syphilis, etc.

Symptoms.--These depend upon the location of the inflammation and the
severity. The onset may be sudden or gradual--when it is sudden, there may
be a chill followed by a fever of 101 to 103 degrees--general feeling of
illness, loss of appetite, with coated tongue and constipation. There may
be over-sensitiveness to pain and touch. Pain may radiate from the back
into the limbs, with numbing and tingling of the limbs. The urine may be
retained or may dribble away. Usually there is obstinate constipation.
There is frequently the feeling of a band around the body. Paralysis may
follow in the lower extremities and higher up, sometimes, depending upon
how high up in the cord the inflammation exists. This paralysis may cause
no motion of the limbs or produce an exaggerated contracting of the
affected muscles, the knees being drawn up on the abdomen and the heels
touching the buttocks.

[NERVOUS DISEASES 305]

Recovery.--Chances for recovery depend upon the cause. Most cases are
chronic and may last for years.

Treatment.--Treatment depends also upon the cause. Rest in bed;
counter-irritation, wet cupping, with care on account of bed sores. A
water-bed from the first may prevent bed-sores. The urine must be drawn if
it is retained. The medical treatment must be carefully given and a
physician of experience should be obtained.



LOCOMOTOR ATAXIA. Tabes dorsalis. Posterior Spinal Sclerosis).--A
hardening (sclerosis) affecting the posterior parts of the spinal cord and
characterized by incoordination, which means a condition where a person is
unable to produce voluntary muscular movements; for instance, of the legs,
etc., loss of deep reflexes to bend them back; disturbances of nutrition
and sensation, and various affections of sight.

Causes.--This is a disease of adult life, persons under twenty-five being
rarely affected, and is more common in men than women (ten to one).
Sometimes children suffering from hereditary syphilis have it. The chief
predisposing cause is syphilis which precedes it in from seventy to
eighty-five of the cases according to various authorities. Exposure to
cold and wet, sexual and alcoholic excesses, mineral poisoning, and great
physical exertion also exciting causes.

Symptoms.--These are numerous. They appear in succession and with the same
regularity.

Stages.--Stages of pain; the stage of ataxia, peculiar gait; and the state
of paralysis.

1. Prodromal or forerunning; the stage of pain.--This consists of
lightning-like pains in the lower extremities, numbness, formication
(feeling of ants, etc., crawling), sensation of dead extremities; pins and
needles in the soles of the feet and fingers, coldness, itching of arms
and scrotum or other parts, a sensation of constriction around the chest,
headache, pain in the small of the back and loins of an aching character
may occur. These symptoms may constitute the only evidence of locomotor
ataxia and last for years; but sooner or later there are added absence of
knee cap bone reflex (knee jerk), and immobility of the pupil. The loss of
the knee jerk is always observed in time. The pupil fails to respond to
light while it still accommodates for distance, called Argyll Roberston
pupil. There may be imperfect control of the bladder with slow, dripping
or hasty urination. Later the control is not imperfect, but it may be
painful. Inflammation of the bladder may occur which is dangerous. There
is usually obstinate constipation and loss of sexual power. These symptoms
may last for several months and years, and then the second stage symptoms
appear.

[306 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

2. Stage of Ataxia (Disturbance of motion).--The disturbance of motion
(ataxia) is very marked, especially in the lower extremities; the walking
becomes difficult and uncertain; there is difficulty in rising or rapid
turning; the legs are wide apart; feet lifted too high and come down too
forcibly; the length of the steps is irregular, and the body is
imperfectly balanced. If the patient stands with his feet together and
eyes closed he begins to sway, (Romberg's symptom), which is due to a
defect in controlling the muscles from impairment of sensation. There may
be imperfect use of the hands in dressing, writing, etc.; lancinating
pains are marked in all cases and come on in paroxysms. The pains are
mostly in the legs, but also occur in the arms, head, loins, back, and
trunk. Then the sense of touch is partially lost. The prick of a pin may
not be felt until a few seconds after being applied. This stage may last
for years and remain at a "standstill;" but it is usually progressive, and
advances to the third stage.

3. The stage of paralysis is marked by a gradual change to the worse, and
the patient must remain in bed, because he cannot get out. The lower and
sometimes the upper extremities have lost a great deal of their power of
sensation: The joints, mostly the knee and hip joints show on both sides
of the body a painless swelling, owing to the great quantities of watery
liquid there. Dislocations and fractures occur simultaneously. Bed-sores
and peculiar ulcers on the sole of the foot also occur. The urine dribbles
away constantly, for all control of the bladder is lost. Death occurs from
exhaustion; bedsores, inflammation of the bladder, or pneumonia coming on
as a complication.

Treatment;--The only thing to do when the patient has this disease is to
make him comfortable and arrest the progress of it, if possible. It is
incurable, but treatment sometimes arrests the progress and at least
lessens the suffering and prolongs life as long as it is worth living to
them. I have given a longer description than was necessary, for I wanted
men who live such fast lives to understand what it brings them for most
cases are caused by syphilis. The description could have been made longer
and other symptoms and complications put in. I think enough has been given
and perhaps this description may deter some one from going the same road.

The Diagnosis is made at first by the fatigue, peculiar pains, loss of the
knee jerk, the peculiar pupil and history of syphilis. Later it is made
from the ataxia; the peculiar walk, etc., and the bladder disturbances.



HEREDITARY ATAXIA. Friedrich's Disease.--This peculiar disease is due to a
degenerative disease of the posterior and lateral columns (parts) of the
spinal cord, occurring in childhood, and often in several children of the
same family.

Causes.--More in boys than in girls and oftener in the country districts.
Heredity is frequently a cause and it is traced to syphilis, epilepsy,
alcoholism, and insanity in the ancestors. Several children of the same
family may have it.

Symptoms.--In very young children it is noticed that they are slow in
learning to walk; the child staggers in trying to stand or to walk; it
uses its hands clumsily, and has difficulty in speaking. The movements of
the hands are peculiar, the hands move like in chorea, the speech is slow
and drawling.

Recovery.--Very doubtful, but they may last for years.

[NERVOUS DISEASES 307]

INFANTILE PARALYSIS. (Acute Anterior Polio Myelitis).--This is an acute
disease occurring almost exclusively in young children with paralysis,
followed by rapid dwindling of the muscles of the parts affected by the
paralysis.

Causes.--Found in children under three years old. It is more common in
summer than in winter. It often follows scarlet fever, measles, and
diphtheria.

Symptoms.--The onset is usually sudden; often the child is put to bed at
night seemingly well and in the morning is found paralyzed in one or more
limbs. High fever or chills, general feeling of illness, pain all over the
body, decided brain symptoms, like delirium or convulsions and
intermittent contractions of the muscles may usher in the disease. These
forerunning symptoms may last a short time or for several weeks, after
which the paralysis is noticed, being extensive as a rule, and affecting
one, two, or all of the extremities and sometimes the muscles of the
trunk. This general paralysis soon disappears being left permanently in
only one extremity, chiefly in one leg. The other symptoms disappear. The
paralyzed part atrophies (wastes) rapidly. The disease is very rare in
adults. If the paralysis does not show a decided change within the first
few months, full recovery is doubtful.

Treatment.--During the acute stage there must be absolute quiet and rest
with a diet that is not stimulating, one that is easily digested; ice to
the head or cold cloths, counter-irritation to the spine; electricity
should be used after a few weeks. There is quite a good deal of this
paralysis, and the case should receive careful attention from the start.



TASTE.--Taste-Buds.--There are three kinds of papillae or eminences on the
human tongue,--the circumvallate, the fungiform and the filiform. The
circumvallate are from seven to twelve in number and lie near the root of
the tongue, arranged in the form of a V, with its open angle turned
forward. Each one is an elevation of the mucous membrane, covered by
epithelium and surrounded by a trench. On the sides of the papillae,
embedded in the epithelium, are small oval bodies called taste-buds. These
taste-buds consist of a sheath of flattened, fusiform cells, enclosing a
number of spindle-like cells whose tapering ends are prolonged into a
hair-like process. As the filaments of the gustatory nerves terminate
between these rod-like cells, it is probable that they are the true
sensory cells of taste.

[308 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

In the human tongue taste-buds are also found in the fungiform papillae,
often seem as red dots scattered over its surface; and to an area just in
front of the anterior pillar of the fauces. It is also possible that
single taste-cells are scattered over the tongue, as the sense of taste
exists where no taste-buds can be found.

[Illustration: Taste Buds.]

Many so-called tastes are really smells. This is easily proved by
compressing the nostrils and attempting to distinguish by taste different
articles of food.

The taste sensation is greatest when the exciting substance is at the
temperature of the body. There is no perceptible sweetness to sugar when
the tongue has been dipped for a half-minute in water either at the
freezing temperature or warmed to 50 degrees C. Neither is there any sense
of taste until the substance is dissolved by the natural fluids of the
mouth, as will be seen by wiping the tongue dry and placing sugar upon it.

The four primary taste-sensations are bitter, sweet, sour and salt. These
probably have separate centers and nerve fibers. Sweet and sour tastes are
chiefly recognized at the front and bitter and alkaline tastes at the back
of the tongue. The same substance will often excite a different sensation,
according as it is placed at the front or back of the tongue.

There are also laws of contrast in taste sensations. Certain substances
will enhance the flavor of another and others will destroy it. Again,
certain tastes may disguise others without destroying them, as when an
acid is covered with a sweet.



INSANITY. History.--The earliest reference to insanity is found in the
book of Deuteronomy. Another reference is in Samuel where it speaks
concerning David's cunning and successful feigning of insanity. "And he
changed his behavior before them and feigned himself mad in their hands,
and scrabbled on the door-posts of the gate, and let his spittle fall down
upon his beard," Feigning insanity under distressing circumstances has
been one of man's achievements throughout the centuries. It is spoken of
in Ecclesiastes. Jeremiah says in regard to the  wine cup: "And they shall
drink and be moved and be mad." Nations also were poisoned by the wine
cup, for Jeremiah says, "Babylon has been a golden cup in the Lord's
hands, that made all the earth drunken. The nations have drunken of her
wine, therefore the nations are mad." Greek writers speak of cases of
mental unsoundness as occurring with some frequency in Greece. The
inhabitants of the Roman Empire were afflicted with mental unsoundness and
Nero was considered crazy. In ancient Egypt there were temples and priests
for the care of the insane.

[NERVOUS DISEASES 309]

Hippocrates, who lived four hundred years before Christ, was the first
physician who seemed to have any true conception of the real nature of
insanity. For many centuries later the masses believed that madness was
simply a visitation of the devil. The insane, in the time of Christ, were
permitted to wander at large among the woods and caves of Palestine. The
monks built the first hospital or asylum for the insane six centuries
after Christ.

A hospital for the insane was established at Valencia in Spain in 1409. In
1547 the hospital of St. Mary of Bethlehem was established near London and
was known as "Bedlam" for a long time.

The first asylum to be run upon reform principles was St. Luke's of
London, founded in 1751. About 1791 Samuel Hahnemann established an asylum
for the insane at Georgenthal, near Gotha, and the law of kindness was the
unvarying rule in the institution. Hahnemann says in his Lesser Writings:
"I never allow any insane persons to be punished by blows or other
corporeal inflictions." Pineli struck the chains from the incarcerated
insane at the Bicetre, near Paris in 1792 or 1793.

There has been a gradual tendency during the last century toward better
things in the behalf of the insane. A hundred years ago they were treated
with prison surroundings and prison fare. Then asylum treatment began to
prevail. This means close confinement, good food, sufficient clothing and
comfortable beds. Asylum care means the humane custody of dangerous
prisoners. "From the asylum we move on to the hospital system of caring
for the insane and this system recognizes the fact that the lunatic is a
sick man and needs nursing and medical treatment in order to be cured.
Hospital treatment has been gradually introduced during the past thirty
years or more," and in time it will eventually supercede asylum treatment
and prison or workhouse methods in the management of the insane
everywhere.

[310 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Causes of Insanity.--There are many and various causes. One author states:
"Mental abnormality is always due to either imperfect or eccentric
physical development, or to the effects of inborn or acquired physical
disease, or to injurious impressions, either ante-natal or post natal,
upon the delicate and intricate physical structure known as the human
brain." Some physical imperfections, more than others, give rise to mental
derangements, and some persons, more than others, when affected by any
bodily ailment, tend to aberrated conditions of the mind. Some impressions
more than others, are peculiarly unfortunate by reason of their crowding
effects upon the brain tablets of a sensitive mind. To these natural
defects and unnatural tendencies, we apply, in the general way, the term
"Insane Diathesis." This diathesis may be inherited or acquired. Those who
are born to become insane do not necessarily spring from insane parents or
from an ancestry having any apparent taint of lunacy in the blood. But
they do receive from their progenitors oftentimes certain impressions upon
their mental and moral, as well as upon their physical being, which
impressions, like iron molds, fix and shape their subsequent destinies."

The insane diathesis in the child may come from hysteria in the mother. A
drunken father may impel epilepsy, madness or idiocy in the child.
Ungoverned passions, from love to hate, from hope to fear, when indulged
in overmuch by the parents, may unloose the furies of unrestrained madness
in the minds of the children. "The insane may often trace their sad
humiliation and utter unfitness for life's duties back through a tedious
line of unrestrained passion, of prejudice, bigotry, and superstition
unbridled, of lust unchecked, of intemperance uncontrolled, of avarice
unmastered, and of nerve resources wasted, exhausted, and made bankrupt
before its time. Timely warnings by the physician and appeals to his
clients of today, may save them for his own treatment, instead of
consigning them to an asylum where his fees cease from doubling, and the
crazed ones are at rest." The causes of the insane diathesis
(constitution) are frequently traceable to the methods of life of those
who produce children under such circumstances and conditions that the
offspring bear the indelible birthmark of mental weakness. Early
dissipations of the father produce an exhausted and enfeebled body; and a
demoralized mind and an unholy and unhealthy existence in the mother, are
causes. Fast living of parents in society is a fruitful cause of mental
imperfections in their children. "The sons of royalty and the sons of the
rich, are often weak in brain force because of the high living of their
ancestry."

The fast high livers of today are developing rapidly and surely, strong
tendencies to both mental and physical disorders. Elbert Hubbard says of
those who live at a certain hotel and waste their substance there, that
they are apt "to have gout at one end, general paresis at the other, and
Bright's disease in the middle."

Drunkenness, lust, rage, fear, mental anxiety or incompatibility, "if
admitted to participation in the act of impregnation will each, in turn or
in combination, often set the seal of their presence in the shape of
idiocy, imbecility, eccentricity, or absolute insanity."

Diogenes reproached a half-witted, cracked-brained unfortunate with this
remark, "Surely, young man, thy father begat thee when he was drunk."

[NERVOUS DISEASES 311]

Burton in his anatomy of melancholy states that: "If a drunken man begets
a child it will never likely have a good brain," Michelet predicts: "Woe
unto the children of darkness, the sons of drunkenness who were, nine
months before their birth, an outrage on their mothers."

Children of drunkards are often "sad and hideous burlesques upon normal
humanity." Business worry may cause unsoundness in the offspring generated
under such conditions.

One father had two sons grow up strong and vigorous, mentally and
physically, while a third son was weak, irresolute, fretful, suspicious
and half demented. The father confessed to his physician that on account
of business troubles he was half crazy and during this time the wife
became pregnant and this half-crazy son was born and the father states
that "he inherits just the state of mind I was then in." Many such cases
could be mentioned. "A sound body and a cheerful mind can only be produced
from healthy stock." Mental peculiarities are produced by unpleasant
influences brought to bear upon the pregnant mother. The story is told of
King James the Sixth of Scotland, that he was constitutionally timid and
showed great terror at a drawn sword. His father was murdered in his
mother's presence while she was pregnant. Children born under the
influence of fear may be troubled with apprehensions of impending
calamity, so intense that they may become insane at last. An instance is
given of "an insane man who always manifested the greatest fear of being
killed and constantly implored those around him not to hurt him." His
mother lived with her drunken husband who often threatened to kill her
with a knife.

Other Causes of Insanity. Imperfect Nutrition.--Whatever tends to weaken
the brain or exhaust the central forces of life must favor the growth of
insanity. The brain is not properly nourished.

Blows and Falls upon the Head.--Sometimes such injuries are forgotten, but
they result infrequently in stealthily developed, but none the less
dangerous, conditions, which may result in the derangement of all mental
faculties. A child should not be struck on the head. Teachers or parents
should not box a child's ears. One author says such a person "is guilty of
slow murder of innocents."

Fright is Another Cause.--Punishing a child by locking it in a dark room
or by "stories of greedy bears or grinning ghosts produces, oftentimes, a
mental shock that makes a child wretched in early life, and drives him
into insanity at a later date." Overtaxing the undeveloped physical powers
is another cause.

[312 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Insanity is most Prevalent among the Working Classes.--Our factories,
shops and stores frequently employ the young of both sexes and they are
overtaxed by day and night and they become feeders of our hospitals for
the insane. Another cause is forced education in the young. Our present
school system tends to break down the body. The work may not be too hard,
but the amount of anxiety and worry, which this work causes in the minds
of sensitive children, tends to enfeeble them. Many children are
sensitive, with nervous temperaments, and they are easily affected by the
strain of mental toil. Delicate children should be kept in the open air
and their physical condition should be considered more than their mental.
Girls, especially, at the age of puberty, should be built up instead of
rushed through a heavy routine of study. Herbert Spencer says: "On old and
young the pressure of modern life puts a still increasing strain. Go where
you will, and before long there comes under your notice cases of children,
or youths of either sex, more or less injured by undue study." Here, to
recover from a state of debility thus produced, a year's vacation has been
found necessary. There you will find a chronic congestion of the brain
that has already lasted many months and threatens to last much longer. Now
you hear of a fever that has resulted from the over excitement, in some
way, brought on at school. And, again, the instance is that of a youth who
has already had to desist from his studies, and who, since he has returned
to them is frequently taken out of his class in a fainting fit.

Social pleasure also tends to weaken the system of parents who produce
nervous and weakened children. Another great cause of insanity is the
unnatural, improper and excessive use of the sexual organs, and diseases
that often come from indiscriminate sexual relations. General paresis is
very often caused by specific disease. I might go on and enlarge upon
these causes, but enough has been written to give warning to those who are
breaking nature's laws.

Classification.--There are many classifications. I will mention only the
leading names, such as Melancholia, Mania. Dementia, General Paresis.



MELANCHOLIA (Sad Mania).--Melancholia is a disease characterized by great
mental depression.

Causes--Predisposition, physical disease, dissipation, work and worry,
shock, brooding. In simple melancholia the mildest attack may be called
the "blues."



ACUTE MELANCHOLIA.--Is generally the result of some mental shock.



CHRONIC MELANCHOLIA is the end of all other forms of mental depression.
All these have their own peculiar manifestations and need a special line
of treatment.



MANIA.--This type of insanity means a raving and furious madness. There
are many cases of this kind. The causes are many and may be the same as
those which produce melancholia. In melancholia the shock, etc., causes
depression, while in the mania the causes of mental injury tend to produce
irritation and excitement. In dementia, the causes of insanity tend to
exhaust the body and to mental failure, while in general Paresis "the
shock of disease comes after long and unwise contact with worry, wine and
women." Insufficient sleep often causes mania. It often follows after
exhausting and irritating fevers. Long continued ill health, together with
worry, etc., may cause it.

      NERVOUS DISEASES       313

To sum up, "mania" may result from any unusual shock or strain upon the
nervous system; or it may come after any unusual mental excitement in
business, politics or in religion. Such are the exciting or stimulating
causes, but we must go back of the presence of worldly misfortune and
trace the tendency to mental disorder through channels of hereditary
influence. "Infants are born every day whose inevitable goal is that of
insanity." What is said in the Bible about sins of the parents is true.



DEMENTIA.--This term literally means "from mind," out of mind, and such a
person is in a state of the most deplorable mental poverty. We all have
seen such cases and some cases are not only very sad but disgusting.



PRIMARY DEMENTIA comes on independently of any other form of insanity.



SECONDARY DEMENTIA follows after some other form of insanity,--chiefly
melancholia or mania. Dementia may be acute or chronic.



SENILE (OLD AGE) DEMENTIA may be Primary.--Acute dementia attacks both
sexes, but it occurs most often in females, though in a milder degree. It
is a disease of youth, being rarely seen beyond thirty years of age. It
seems to depend often upon exhausting influences operating at a period of
rapid growth. Monotony of thought and feeling or want of mental food can
also induce it. Children who are sent at an early age into factories often
pass into the condition of acute dementia. Prison life also tends to
produce such a condition. Acute diseases such as typhoid and other fevers
are sometimes followed by acute dementia. Persons frequently go "out of
their mind" suddenly in this age, and upon recovering from acute dementia,
the patient finds a great "vacancy of memory."

Chronic Dementia.--Shakespeare says, "Last scene of all, that ends this
strange, eventful history, is second childishness and mere oblivion; sans
teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans everything."

"The Sans Everything."--Is the sad and hopeless obscuration by time or
disease of the once bright, vigorous, scintillating mental powers of
exhuperant and lusty youth. Everyone has seen such people who are
partially or hopelessly demented. It may come from diseases, such as
epilepsy and syphilis; alcohol produces it.

Senile dementia is the result of old age and of acquired brain disease. It
is different from simple old age or dotage. In old age the mind is
weakened, but the patient is conscious of it, such a person forgets a name
or date and gropes about in his memory to find it.

The demented person is not conscious of loss of memory, but applies wrong
names to persons, and serenely thinks he is right.

The senile demented person does not realize his condition, and if there is
any mental power left he cherishes delusions or false beliefs.

The victim of old age is unconscious of his weakness.

[314 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

GENERAL PARESIS.--Wine, worry and women produce a great many cases of this
disease. The doctors claim a notorious criminal now committed to one
asylum and about whom we have read so much, is a victim of this disease.

First stage.--There is worry, anxiety, sleeplessness and melancholy.

Second stage.--Stage of mania, wealth, power, and grandeur, alternating in
some cases with attacks of temporary depressions.

Third stage.--Patient passes into a condition of subacute or chronic
mania, with a slow tendency to decadence of all the powers, idiotic.

Fourth stage.--Stage of physical and mental failure and of death. Syphilis
causes most cases. It usually develops between twenty-five and fifty
years. The outlook for such cases is very unfavorable, as the patient
usually dies from one to eight or ten years after the beginning of the
disease.

TREATMENT.--There have been great advances made in recent years in the
treatment of persons mentally unsound. They should be placed under proper
treatment at an early stage. The causes have been given so that preventive
measures may be taken.



CONSTITUTIONAL DISEASES.

RHEUMATIC GOUT. (Rheumatic Arthritis. Arthritis Deformans).--Cause.--It
occurs most often from thirty to fifty-five, usually in women, generally
at or after the change of life, and most frequently in those who have not
had children. The involvement of the joints is most common in adult males.


Exciting cause may be: Exposure to cold and wet, improper food, unhygienic
surroundings, worry, blows and acute infections.

Conditions.--Several joints are usually involved symmetrically. At the
edge of the joints there is formation of new bone covered with cartilage,
causing the enlargement of the bone and often partial loss of motion in
that joint.

Symptoms.--Several distinct types exist. 1. General progressive types
which may be acute or chronic.

Acute.--This occurs usually in women from twenty to thirty and at the
change of life. It comes on like acute joint rheumatism, many joints being
affected, permanent enlargement appearing early, redness of the joints
rarely existing, the pain being very severe, some fever, feel very tired,
with anemia, loss of flesh and strength. The first and later attacks are
often associated with pregnancy, confinement or nursing.

[CONSTITUTIONAL DISEASES 315]

Chronic Type.--There is a gradual onset of pain or stiffness in one or
more joints, usually of the fingers, then of the corresponding joints of
the other side and then other joints. The swelling at first may be in the
soft parts of the joints with effusion in the joints and tenderness. The
pain varies from slight to severe. Periods of improvement and getting
worse alternate; the joints becoming enlarged and deformed, often nearly
stiff in partial bending on account of the thickened bone and soft
tissues. The muscles that move the joint dwindle and there may be changes
in the skin and nails of the parts affected due to the want of proper
nourishment. Disturbances of the stomach and anemia are common. The heart
is not affected. There may be only a few joints affected, or many, with
great deformity, before the disease reaches the period of inactivity.

2. Monarticular or one joint type.--This usually occurs in males over
fifty; one joint or a few large joints may be affected, generally with
shrinking of the corresponding muscles. If it occurs in the hip it is
called Morbus Coxae Senilis,--Hip joint disease in the aged.

Recovery.--The disease usually goes on with intervals of improvement and
often results in great crippling and disability. In some cases it becomes
permanent.

General Treatment.--The climate should be warm and dry. The patient should
avoid exposing himself; lead a general hygienic life, with as nourishing
food as his digestion will permit. The chief line of treatment should be
to improve the general health and relieve the pain. The stomach, bowels,
and kidneys should be kept working well. Nourishing food should be taken,
but its effect must be watched. Cod-liver oil to build up the system, iron
and arsenic may be of value. Sometimes iodide of potash is good. Early and
thorough treatment at Hot Springs offers the best hope of arresting its
progress, the Hot Springs in Bath County, Va., and in Arkansas. Much can
be done at home by hot air baths, hot baths, and compresses at night to
the tender joints.

Local.--Massage carefully given is helpful. The hot air treatment is good.
Baking the joints is now frequently done.



GOUT (PODAGRA).--A disorder of nutrition characterized by excess of uric
acid in the blood, attacks of acute arthritis (inflammation of joints)
with deposit of urate of sodium in and around the joints; with various
general symptoms.

Causes.--Heredity; male sex, usually appears from thirty to fifty and
rarely under twenty; from continued use of alcoholic liquors, especially
fermented, with little or no exercise; too much meat. Unhygienic living
with poor food, and excessive drinking of ale and beer may be followed by
the "poor man's gout." It is common in lead workers.

Symptoms. Acute Type.--There is often a period of irritability,
restlessness, indigestion, twinges of pain in the hands and feet; the
urine is scanty, dark, very acid, with diminished uric acid and deposit
when it is cooled. The attack sets in usually early in the morning with
sudden intense pain in a joint of the big toe, generally the right; less
often in an ankle, knee, wrist, hand or finger. The part swells rapidly,
and is very tender, the overlying skin being red, glazed and hot. The
patient is usually as cross as a wounded bear. The fever may be 103. The
pain may subside during the day, and increase again at night. There is no
suppuration (pus forming). The symptoms usually decrease, gradually, the
entire attack may last from five to eight days. Scaling of the skin over
the sore part may follow. After the attack, the general health may be
improved, and the joint may become normal or but slightly stiff. It recurs
at intervals of a few months commonly.

[316 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Retrocedent Gout.--This is a term applied to serious symptoms which
sometimes go with rapid improvement of the local joint conditions. There
are severe pains in the stomach, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, pain in the
heart, difficult breathing, palpitation, irregular and feeble action of
the heart with brain symptoms, probably from uraemia. These attacks often
cause death.

Chronic Gout, Causes, etc.--Frequent acute attacks; many joints, beginning
with the feet, become stiff and deformed, perhaps with no motion. The
overlying skin may ulcerate, especially over the knuckles. Dyspepsia,
arterio-sclerosis, enlargement of the left ventricle of the heart and a
great quantity of urine with low specific gravity are common. The patient
is morose and irritable. Eczema, chronic bronchitis, frequently complicate
the case.

Death often occurs from uraemia, meningitis, pleurisy, pericarditis or
peritonitis.

Treatment, Preventive.--Live temperately, abstain from alcohol, eat
moderately, have plenty of fresh air and sunshine, plenty of exercise and
regular hours. These do not counteract the inherited tendency. The skin
should be kept active, if the patient is robust, by the morning cold bath
with friction after it; but if he is weak and debilitated, the evening
warm bath should be substituted. The patient should dress warmly, avoid
rapid alternations in temperature, and be careful not to have thc skin
suddenly chilled.

Diet in Gout.--Most persons over forty eat too much. Eat reasonably and at
regular hours and take plenty of time to eat. Do not eat too freely of
meats and avoid too much starchy and sugary foods. Fresh vegetables and
fruits may be used freely, except cranberries and bananas.

Dr. Osler of England says.--While all stimulants are injurious to these
patients some are more so than others, particularly malted liquors,
champagne, port and a very large proportion of all the light wines. Take
large quantities of water on an empty stomach, mineral waters are no
better than others, but treatment of chronic and irregular gout at springs
gives the advantage of regular hours, diet, etc.

[Illustration: A Skiagraph (X-RAY photograph) of the hand. Made for the
purpose of locating piece of needle.  Photo by P. M. Campbell, Detroit,
Mich.]

      CONSTITUTIONAL DISEASES       317

Diet from a prominent hospital for gout patient:--

May Take--

Soups.--Fresh fish soups, vegetable broths clear.

Fish.--Raw oysters, fresh fish, boiled.

Meats.--Fat bacon, boiled or broiled chicken, game (all sparingly).

Farinaceous.--Cracked wheat, oatmeal, rice, sago, hominy, whole wheat
bread, or biscuits, rye bread, graham bread or rolls, crackers, dry toast,
milk toast, macaroni.

Vegetables.--Mashed potatoes, green peas, string beans, spinach, cabbage,
cucumbers, cresses, lettuce, celery.

Desserts.--Plain milk pudding, junket, rice and milk, sago and milk,
stewed fruits, all without sugar.

Drinks.--Weak tea (no sugar), milk, buttermilk, toast water, pure water,
cold or hot.

Must Not Take--

Veal, pork, goose, duck, turkey, salted, dried, potted or preserved fish
or meat (except fat bacon), eels, mackerel, crabs, salmon, lobster, eggs,
rich soups, gravies, patties, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, asparagus,
mushrooms, rhubarb, lemons, pickles, vinegar, fried or made dishes, rich
puddings, spices, pies, pastry, sweets, nuts, dried fruits, tobacco,
coffee, cider, malt liquors, sweet wines, champagne.

Treatment.--In an acute attack raise the affected limb and wrap the "sick"
joint in cotton wool; warm fomentations may be used. The wine or tincture
of colchicum in doses of twenty to thirty drops may be given every four
hours in combination with the citrate of potash, fifteen grains, or the
citrate of lithium five to ten grains. Stop the tincture of colchicum as
soon as the pain is relieved and then you can give wine of colchicum ten
drops every four hours, watching for irritation of the stomach, bowels and
kidneys.

Dr. Hare of Philadelphia says.--For hospital practice a very useful
mixture is made by adding one part of bicarbonate of sodium to nine parts
of linseed oil. The joint is then wrapped in a piece of lint soaked with
this concoction. In some cases oil of peppermint has been recommended. In
chronic gout Dr. Hare also gives for diet milk and eggs, the white meat of
chicken; fruits, cooked without sugar being added, are allowed. Tea and
coffee being used only in moderation. If any wine is taken it must be
followed by copious draughts of pure water and the last article should be
used ad libitum. On the other hand, pastries and, more than all, sweet
wines, are the worst things that such a patient can take, and must be
absolutely prohibited.

[318  MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

RHEUMATIC FEVER (Articular Rheumatism).--Causes. This may be acute or
chronic. It is an infectious disease characterized by inflammation of
several joints. The joints are held in place by ligaments and are inclosed
by a thin membrane. In this acute rheumatism these parts become congested
and inflamed, there is redness and swelling, heat and pain. Fluid is
passed into the joint sometimes and then the parts look watery
(oeclematous). The inflammation and swelling cause great pain in the
joint.

Predisposing.--A damp climate, winter and spring, young adults and persons
who are exposed to damp, wet and cold.

Condition.--There is congestion of the soft parts of the joints and
effusion into the joint cavities of a watery fluid. Endocarditis,
pericarditis, myocarditis, pleurisy and pneumonia may complicate it. The
first named, endocarditis, is very common and as the mitral valves become
inflamed it is likely to leave valvular trouble unless carefully watched
and treated at the time.

Symptoms.--The invasion may be gradual, with a very tired feeling and
often tonsilitis; but it is usually sudden, with pains, soreness in one or
more joints and fever. The knees, ankles, elbows and wrists are much
affected, but it frequently goes through almost every joint in the body
and sometimes repeats the terrible dose. I know, for I had it twice. The
suffering, torture and pain sometimes are simply indescribable and almost
too hard to bear. The joints become hot, red, painful, swollen and tender
to touch and motion. It seems to hurt worse when anyone comes near, for
the patient is afraid of careless handling.

Fever.--This runs from 102 to 104 and is modified by profuse perspiration
with bad odor and, generally, it does not afford any relief. The urine is
very acid, very thick and looks like thick, strong coffee. The symptoms
frequently disappear partially from one joint or joints as they begin in
other joints, attacking several in rapid succession, the fever varying and
changing with the degrees of joint involvement.

We may see the shoulder and hip, the elbow and wrist, knee and ankle,
etc., all affected at once: Heart complications are frequent and bear
close watching, for they are dangerous to life and the future health of
the patient. The patient becomes very anemic and this progresses rapidly.
When improvement does begin it is gradual; or the disease may become
chronic. Care must be taken not to be too active when improvement sets in
or you will cause a return by using the joints before they have become
thoroughly well. I did the same thing in my anxiety to get out, but would
never be as reckless again. Pain and stiffness of the joints often last
long after convalescence has set in. One who has had this disease once is
liable to another attack if he is not careful.

[CONSTITUTIONAL DISEASES 319]

MOTHERS' REMEDIES. 1. Articular Rheumatism.--A gentleman sends us the
following treatment for articular rheumatism and writes as follows: "I
send you the following treatment for articular rheumatism because I used
it myself and was cured in a very short time, in fact, about ten days. It
was a number of years ago in the early spring when my knee joints, ankles
and wrists began to pain me and continued to become worse for about a
week, at the end of which time both my knees were perfectly stiff. I sent
for my physician; he wrapped my knees with common baking soda; taking long
wide bandages he was enabled to have the baking soda a fourth of an inch
thick around the knee, raising the bandage as he laid the soda on; after
this was completed I had heavy wet hot cloths laid around my knee and
renewed every fifteen or twenty minutes for probably eight or ten hours.
In the meantime I was taking the salicylate of soda and the cathartic,
veronica water, as directed below. The following day I sat up with my legs
resting on a chair, straightened out, and hot flat irons at my knees. I
began this treatment on Saturday, and the following Thursday was able to
walk about and go out of town, and never had rheumatism since, but at two
or three different times I suspected it was coming on and used the
salicylate of soda and veronica water as a successful preventive; at least
the rheumatism did not materialize.

Veronica Water.--Dose:--Glassful every two and one-half hours till bowels
are free, then one dose a day.

Also
      Salicylate of Soda       1 ounce
      Water                    6 ounces

Large teaspoonful every two hours with a quinine pill every other dose."

2. Rheumatism, Cotton Excellent for Inflammatory.--"Take a roll of cotton
batting and wrap the limb, or part of the body affected, as firmly and
tightly as possible, without tearing the cotton, let it remain
"twenty-four hours, then tighten it up by unwinding and rewrapping the
cotton as tight as possible, as on the first application, and so continue
every twenty-four hours until cured, which, in my case, was three days. I
had been troubled with rheumatism for a long time, and was unable to walk.
I tried everything, doctors and all, but nothing helped me. A lady from
Cincinnati, who was visiting at a neighbor's, called at my house one day
and learning what was the matter with me, advised me to put cotton on as
stated above. I had no faith in it, but I had tried everything else and
concluded I would try that, with the result that it cured me. Possibly if
a case should require a longer time for a cure than mine it might be
necessary, or be better, to replace the cotton with a fresh roll. The
rewrapping every twenty-four hours is intended to keep the cotton batting
firmly and tightly around the part affected as the swelling recedes."

[320 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Prevention.--Wear flannel late and early. Keep from taking cold. Put off
wet things of every kind immediately upon getting home and dry your body
and put on dry well-aired clothes. Never sleep in a damp bed, under damp
unaired clothes. When you go away from home do not sleep in a room or bed
that has been unoccupied for any length of time, especially if there is no
furnace in the house. Do not sit down in wet damp clothes, stockings,
shoes, etc. Do not sit down anywhere to "cool off." It is inviting trouble
and sickness. Do not lie on the damp ground, do not sleep on the first
floor of an old damp house. Have plenty of sunlight and air in your
sleeping room. These directions apply to the chronic cases also. It does
not matter so much if one is wet or sweating as long as he keeps moving or
working. On wash day do not dry your clothes in the kitchen or sitting
room, or put them on your bed, unless they have been thoroughly dried,
aired and warmed before using. These little things mean much in real life.

PHYSICIANS' CAUTION for Articular Rheumatism.--Go to bed and remain there
and do not get up too soon, for remember the parts are still tender when
they may not be painful.

Local Treatment.--1. There must be absolute rest. Remove the sheets from
the bed and wrap woolen cloths or blankets about the patient and protect
the inflamed joints from the weight of the coverings. Cover the joints
with gauze or absorbent cotton, after putting on the parts a thick coating
of ichthyol ointment.

2. Sometimes hot fomentations are helpful in relieving the suffering;
sometimes cold cloths are best.

3. The following is good. Apply with cloths wrung out of it:

    Carbonate of Soda    6 drams
    Tincture Arnica     10 ounces
    Glycerin             2 ounces
    Water                9 ounces

4.  Oil of Wintergreen       1 ounce
    Compound Soap Liniment   8 ounces

Mix.

Rub the affected parts with oil of wintergreen and then wrap the parts in
cotton wool and soak with the solution.

5. "A layer or two of gauze saturated with methyl-salicylate is wrapped
around the painful joints and covered with paraffin paper, or other
impervious dressing, held in place by a bandage. This is renewed once or
twice daily until the pain in all the joints is relieved."

6. Internal.--Sodium salicylate or aspirin given until the pain and
temperature are relieved; usually five to ten grains of sodium salicylate
every three hours for an adult; or five grains of the aspirin every three
hours.

7. Dr. Hare recommends for the beginning in a strong, healthy individual,
ten drops of the tincture of aconite at once in a little water, and follow
it by a teaspoonful of a mixture containing fifteen drops of tincture of
aconite and two ounces of water everyone-half hour, until perspiration on
the skin betokens the circulatory depression through the action of the
drug. I use aconite in this disease very often, but not in such doses as
the first one. It seems to me that it is uselessly large. I use about
one-tenth of a drop at a dose everyone to two hours during the first
twenty-four hours.

[CONSTITUTIONAL DISEASES 321]

Nursing.--The nurse must have the patience of Job to attend a patient sick
with this disease; but you must remember the suffering is awful. The
patient may be very restless and the pillows may need rearranging every
few minutes. Also be careful how you handle the patient. It hurts terribly
to be even touched. A rough, hearty person has no business to care for
such a patient. I allow patients to say anything they wish, for this is a
painful disease. They may swear at me if they wish. I know how it is, for
I was there twice, the last time for six long weeks. Have patience and
courage and cheer your patient. Do not look cross or scold.

Diet.--Milk mainly, broths, gruels, albumen water, oyster or clam broth,
milk toast, buttermilk, kumiss. Do not give solid food. Water, lemonade,
vichy or carbonated water.



CHRONIC RHEUMATISM.--Causes.--Heredity may predispose to it. It is most
common in those who are exposed to hard labor in the cold and wet;
especially in women about middle age. It occasionally follows sub-acute,
but rarely acute rheumatism.

Symptoms.--Many large joints are usually affected; sometimes it may be
only one joint; at times, the small joints only are affected. It may be
only on the one side. It usually persists in the joints involved, but may
attack others. The chief symptoms are stiffness of the joints, especially
after a rest and this diminishes after some motion, also pain, which grows
worse in damp weather. The joints may be tender to the touch, slightly
swollen, rarely red. They may in time become entirely stiff and deformed.
The general health may be good or there may be anemia, dyspepsia and
valvular disease due to sclerosis,--hardening of the valves of the heart.

Prognosis.--This is good as to life, but the disease is often progressive.

Treatment. Preventive.--A warm, dry, unchangeable climate, good
surroundings, good food; keep the stomach and bowels and kidneys in good
condition, avoid taking cold. Do not sit down in a draft to "cool off." Do
not go into a cool room in summer when you are warm or sweated. Do not
sleep in a bed that has not been used for months and kept for "company."
Do not dry your clothes in the kitchen and in that way make the whole
house steamy and damp. Do not sleep under unaired damp covers or in a damp
night dress. Always air and dry your bedding and night dress before using.
Do not take a hot bath and go into a cool room to cool off, but wrap
yourself up so as to be warm and cool off gradually. Any additional cold
will cause more rheumatism.

[322 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Sleeping rooms on the first floor are an abomination for rheumatic
persons. Do not sit down in wet clothes, stockings or shoes. Take them off
immediately on getting home, wipe yourself dry and put on dry garments.
Care in such little seemingly foolish things will do wonderful things for
a rheumatic person. I had two rheumatic attacks in my first year of
practice. Since then I have learned caution and through a hard and busy
life I have kept myself reasonably well by looking after such little aids
and cautions as, the above. I never sit down for any length of time in
damp or wet clothes, and if I can do that, persons that are not driven
like doctors can do the same. These cautions apply to not only this kind
of rheumatism, but to all kinds of rheumatism, neuralgias, and to
inflammatory diseases, such as neuritis, tonsilitis, pneumonia, pleurisy,
etc. Hot air baths, Hot Springs, massage will be more effectual in this
disease than in the former. Iodide of potash also is very useful. Flannel
underwear, heavy and light weight, is very beneficial in rheumatism. Great
benefit can be derived at home by wrapping the affected joints in cold
cloths, covering with a thin layer of flannel and protected by oiled silk.
A great many cases are helped by using hot fomentations of hops, wormwood,
smartweed, etc. Turpentine applied locally to the joints is effective, but
it is very likely to injure the kidneys when used freely and in these days
when there are so many diseases of the kidneys one must be careful or they
will produce an incurable and serious disease in the place of one that is
painful, but not necessarily dangerous. Many of the simple remedies have a
good effect on the rheumatic troubles.

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Rheumatism.--Dr. Hare gives the following to
rub on large joints:

1.   Ichthyol   1/2 to 1 ounce
     Lard       1 ounce

2.   Tincture of Aconite        6 drams
     Tincture Arnica            1 ounce
     Oil of Turpentine          l ounce (l or 2)
     Soap Liniment enough for   8 ounces

Use as a liniment three times a day. This can be used for some weeks.

3.   Strong Water of Ammonia           6 drams
     Oil of Cajeput                    1 dram
     Tincture of Belladonna       1 to 2 ounces
     Camphor Liniment enough for       8 ounces

Use as a liniment.

4.   Tincture of Aconite     1 ounce
     Tincture Belladonna     2 drams
     Strong Ammonia Water    4 drams
     Chloroform Liniment     6 drams

Used as a liniment on chronic or inflamed muscles or joints.

5.   Iodide of Potash                 1/2 ounce
     Compound Syrup of Sarsaparilla     3 ounces
     Distilled Water                    3 ounces

Mix and take a dessertspoonful in a glass of water two hours after meals
for chronic rheumatism.

[Illustration: Muscular System.]

[CONSTITUTIONAL DISEASES 323]

6. This is prepared by Parke, Davis & Co., and made into a syrup:

    Red Clover         32 grains
    Queen's Root       16 grains
    Barberry           10 grains
    Prickly Ash Bark    4 grains
    Burdock Root       16 grains
    Poke Root          16 grains
    Honduras Bark      16 grains
    Iodide of Potash    8 grains

This portion to each fluid ounce of the syrup.

7. The following is good:

Equal parts of each of the following:
    Blue Cohosh Root
    Black Cohosh Root
    Poke Root
    Yellow Dock Root
    Blue Flag Root
    Prickly Ash Root
    Burdock Root
    Dandelion Root

Bruise them thoroughly or grind them coarsely, steep and make a tea and
drink freely of it. If you wish you can take three to five grains of
Iodide of Potash to each dose. This may in time disorder the stomach and
you may then stop it for a time. All these can be used in muscular
rheumatism also. The food should not be rich or highly seasoned. Spices
are bad for such patients. Pickles, mustard, etc., are best let alone.

MUSCULAR RHEUMATISM.--This is a very painful affection of the voluntary
muscles, called also neuralgia, or according to its location, torticollis
(stiff neck, wry neck), pleurodynia, lumbago (rheumatism in the back).

Causes.--Predisposed to it by previous attacks, having a rheumatic or
gouty constitution (diathesis). It follows sudden exposure, hence it is
most common in men.

Symptoms.--Local pain in the muscles, sharp or dull, aching constant, or
caused by certain movements and is usually relieved by pressure. It lasts
from a few days to several weeks and frequently recurs. The common forms
are: Lumbago. This affects the muscles of the back, and usually comes on
suddenly with a sharp stich-like pain, and is chiefly seen in those who
labor hard, often completely disabling them for a time.

Torticollis (stiff or wry neck).--It is usually on the side or back of the
neck. Comes from a draught of cold wind on the neck, etc.

Pleurodynia, pain in the chest muscles, etc.--With pain in all movements
of the chest, resembling intercostal neuralgia or pleurisy.

[324 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Diet for Rheumatism from the Head Nurse of a Prominent Hospital:--

May Take--

Soups.--Mutton broth, chicken or beef tea, in small quantities.

Fish.--Raw clams or oysters, fresh fish (whiter kinds) boiled.

Meats.--Chicken, calf 's head, sweetbread, tripe, broiled fat bacon or
broiled ham (all sparingly).

Farinaceous.--Whole wheat, corn or brown bread, arrowroot, rice, dry
toast, milk toast.

Vegetables.--Spinach, green peas or cabbage (well boiled), celery,
lettuce, cresses, radishes.

Desserts.--Milk, rice or arrowroot pudding, (all without sugar), junket.

Drinks--Tea (without sugar), buttermilk, pure water, plain with lemon or
lime juice (no sugar).

Must Not Take--

Pork, veal, turkey, goose, duck, fried fish or salt meats, cooked oysters
or clams, salted, dried, potted or preserved fish or meats (except fat
bacon or ham), crabs, salmon, lobster, eggs, rich made dishes, gravies,
potatoes, tomatoes, beans, asparagus, mushrooms, candies, rich puddings,
pies, pastry, nuts, cheese, coffee, cider, malt liquors, wines.

Treatment for Stiff Neck.--Wry Neck, (torticollis).--Warmth applied either
dry or moist as hot salt bag or fomentations of hops, etc. Parke, Davis &
Co., Detroit, now make a preparation called capsicine. This is very good
for this trouble, rubbed on thoroughly as directed. It can be bought at
most drug stores. It is also good for headaches and neuralgias. The same
line of treatment, hot and cold applications, can be given for pain in the
chest muscles (pleurodynia) and lumbago.

A MOTHERS' REMEDY for Stiff Neck.--Hot Salt and Oil of Sassafras.--"If
troubled with stiff neck, fill a bag with hot salt and sleep on it, or rub
the neck with oil of sassafras which, by the way, is also excellent for
lumbago and to scatter, not cure, rheumatism pains."

PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Rheumatism.--Preventive.--Avoid exposure as
stated for other rheumatism. Rest the chest by strapping with adhesive
plaster as in pleurisy. Porous plasters are good and liniments; sometimes
help is obtained by rubbing freely with camphor. Hot dry or wet
applications are frequently useful. Mustard plaster is very good when the
space is not too great. Mix the mustard with the white of an egg and after
it is taken off grease the part and keep on warm cloths. Hot foot baths
and hot drinks of lemonade or teas, after which the person should go to
bed and sweat and remain there for some hours.

[CONSTITUTIONAL DISEASES 325]

Liniment.--

    Oil of Wintergreen       1/2 to 1 ounce
    Compound Soap Liniment          8 ounces

Mix and rub on thoroughly.

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--Lumbago, Menthol Liniment for.--Apply the menthol
liniment, cover with a thick cloth and put the hot water bottle next to it
and go to bed. If up through the day have a cotton batting sewed to cloth
and keep affected parts warm, using the liniment freely." The menthol
liniment will be found an excellent remedy for lumbago, The menthol
absorbs quickly and by applying the hot water bottle relief is sure to
follow.

1. Weak Back, Vinegar and Salt for.--"One tablespoonful of salt and one
tablespoonful of vinegar to a quart of hot water. Bathe the back, then rub
well with sweet oil and relief will soon follow,"

2. Weak Back. Simple Remedy for.--"Aching may be relieved by taking a
large pinch of buchu leaves, steep and drink. Sweeten if desired. Use a
pint of water for steeping the leaves," This is a good remedy for a weak
back, resulting from kidney trouble. The buchu leaves acts quickly on the
kidneys and it is surprising to see how quickly the backache will
disappear. You can purchase a two ounce package for five cents at any drug
store.

3. Weak Back, Good Liniment for.--

    "Tincture of Aconite         1 ounce
    Oil of Wintergreen         1/2 ounce
    Tincture of Belladonna       1 ounce
    Tincture of Arnica           1 ounce
    Aqua Ammonia                 2 ounces

Mix and use as a liniment."

This is a very good liniment.

4. Lameness, Chloroform Liniment for.--"Chloroform liniment is the best
for all lameness and sore limbs."

5. Lameness, Plantain Leaves and Cream for.--"Make ointment from plantain
laves, simmered in sweet cream or fresh butter. This is very cooling."


MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--1. Rheumatism, Saltpetre Good in Cases of.--"One ounce
of saltpetre to one pint of water. Take one teaspoonful of the above in a
large glass of water, about six times daily." The saltpetre acts on the
kidneys, carrying off the impurities in this way. Care should be taken not
to continue this treatment too long at a time, as continued use would
result in injury to the kidneys.

2. Rheumatism, Rochelle Salts for.--"One teaspoonful rochelle salts in
one-half glass water every other morning." This acts on the bowels and
cleanses the system.

3. Rheumatism, Flowers of Sulphur Will Relieve Pain of.--Sciatica is
sometimes very much improved by wrapping the limb for one night with
flowers of sulphur."

[326 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

4. Rheumatism, Three Simple Ingredient Liniment for.--"One pint pure cider
vinegar, one pint of turpentine, four fresh eggs, put the egg shells and
all in the vinegar, let stand until the vinegar eats the eggs all up, then
add the turpentine." This makes a fine liniment.

5. Rheumatism, Sulphur Good for.--"Cases of chronic rheumatism are often
relieved by sulphur baths and sulphur tea. Dose:--Powder sulphur and mix
with molasses. A teaspoonful three times a day," Sulphur is a good blood
purifier and laxative.

6. Rheumatism, Horse-Radish for.--"An excellent and well-known remedy for
rheumatism is to make a syrup of horse-radish by boiling the root and add
sufficient sugar to make it palatable. Dose:--Two or three teaspoonfuls
two or three times a day,"

7. Rheumatism, Simple Remedy to Relieve Pain of.--

    "Peppermint         1 ounce
    Oil of Mustard    1/4 ounce
    Vinegar             1 pint
    White of one egg.

Beat egg; stir all together."

8. Rheumatism, Liniment for Chronic.--

    "Olive Oil          1 pint
    Sassafras Oil       2 drams
    Camphor Gum         2 ounces
    Chloroform        1/2 ounce

Dissolve the camphor in the oil and when dissolved add the chloroform and
four ounces of turpentine or rosemary. Rub the parts well night and
morning. If the limbs are very sensitive to cold, add to the mixture two
ounces of tincture of capsicum."

9. Rheumatism, Herb Remedy for.--

    Tincture Colchicum Seed    4 ounces
    Gum Guaiacum               4 ounces
    Black Cohosh Root          4 ounces
    Prickly Ash Berries        4 ounces
    Iodide Potash              1 ounce

Dose for adult, one teaspoonful three times a day in wineglassful of water
or milk."

10. Rheumatism, Three Things that Will Help.--

    "Best Rye Whisky           2 pints
    Ground Burdock Seed      1/2 pound
    Poke Berry Juice         1/2 pint

Mix, shake well before using.

Dose for adults, one and one-half or two tablespoonfuls night and
morning." In severe cases take three times a day. This is a thoroughly
tried remedy and is a very successful one.

[ CONSTITUTIONAL DISEASES 327]

11. Rheumatism, Good Liniment for.--

    "Alcohol                1 ounce
    Oil of Wintergreen      1 dram
    Chloroform              5 drams
    Gum Camphor           1/2 ounce
    Sulphuric Ether       3/4 ounce
    Oil of Cloves         1/2 dram
    Oil of Lavender         1 dram

Mix and apply externally for rheumatism and you will find it a very
beneficial remedy."

12. Rheumatism, Camphor and Alcohol for.--"Soak cotton batting in alcohol
and camphor and apply on part." Application to the affected parts will
frequently give relief in some rheumatic patients, when in others no
relief is obtained by this method, it being necessary to take something
internally.

13. Rheumatism, Sweet Fern Tea Excellent for.--"Sweet fern tea taken three
times a day. Dose, one cupful. Father has used this successfully himself."


14. Rheumatism, Well-known Celery Remedy for.--"Celery tea several times a
day with plenty of celery cooked or raw as a regular table food. Cut the
celery in pieces, boil until soft in water and let the patient drink the
tea, then make a stew of the remaining bits. If fresh celery cannot be
obtained, celery preparations can be found at the drug store.

15. Rheumatism, Flowers of Sulphur Relieves.--"Rheumatism is effectually
removed by enveloping the limb one night with flowers of sulphur." The
flowers of sulphur can be purchased at any drug store, and will give great
relief, especially in severe cases.

16. Rheumatism, Poultice for.--"Apply belladonna ointment to seat of pain,
poultices applied very hot. Sulphur applied to painful part is very
effective, after which the parts should be enveloped in flannel." The
belladonna ointment acts like a fly blister, but not quite so severe. The
ointment can remain on for some time without blistering. This treatment
relieves by removing the inflammation from the sore parts.

17. Rheumatism, Novel Relief for.--"The best remedy is electricity. It
cured me; I used medical battery." Electricity has been known to help in a
great many cases, but should be applied by a competent person.

18. Rheumatism, Snake Root and Lemons Good for.--"Make use of lemon juice
freely. Use decoction of black snake root, one ounce to pint of boiling
water; a tablespoonful four times a day. Wet compress renewed every two
hours applied to painful joints."

The black snake root is a remedy that was used by the early settlers for
this trouble. The wet compresses are very soothing, but care should be
taken not to wet the bed clothing, as the patient would then take cold.

[328 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

19. Rheumatism, Another Good Liniment for.--

      Alcohol               5 ounces
      Amber                30 drops
      Tincture of Pinoum   30 drops
      Hemlock Oil          30 drops
      Tincture of Iron     30 drops
      Aconite              30 drops

DIABETES MELLITUS.--A disorder of nutrition in which sugar accumulates in
the blood and is excreted in the urine, the daily amount of which is
greatly increased.

Causes.--Hereditary influences play an important role and cases are on
record of its occurrence in many members of the same family. Men are more
frequently affected than women, the ratio being about three to two.
Persons of a nervous temperament are often affected. It is a disease of
the higher classes. Hebrews seem especially prone to it. The disease is
comparatively rare in the colored race; women more than men in the negro,-
nine to six. In a considerable proportion of the cases of diabetes the
patients have been very fat at the beginning of or prior to the onset of
the disease. It is more common in cities than in country districts. The
combination of intense application to business, over-indulgence in food
and drink, with a sedentary life, seem particularly prone to induce the
disease. Injury to or disease of the spinal cord or brain has been
followed by diabetes. It is much more frequent in European countries than
here. Acute and chronic forms are recognized in the former.

Symptoms.--The only difference is that the patients are younger in acute
forms, the course is more rapid and the wasting away is more marked. The
onset of the disease is gradual and either frequent passing of urine (six
to forty pints in twenty-four hours) or inordinate thirst attracts
attention. When it is fully established, there is great thirst, the
passage of large quantities of sugar urine, a terrible appetite, and, as a
rule, progressive emaciation. The thirst is one of the most distressing
symptoms. Large quantities of water are required to keep the sugar in
solution and for its excretion in the urine. Some cases do not have the
excessive thirst; but in such case the amount of urine passed is never
large. The thirst is most intense an hour or two after meals. The
digestion is generally good, but the appetite is inordinate. Pain in the
back is common. The tongue is usually dry, red and glazed, and the saliva
is scanty. The gums may become swollen. Constipation is the rule. The skin
is dry and harsh and sweating rarely occurs. The temperature is under
normal. In spite of the enormous amount of food eaten a patient may become
rapidly emaciated. Patients past middle life may have the disease for
years without much disturbance of the health; on the other hand I have
seen them die after that age. Progress is more rapid the younger the
person. Death usually occurs from coma of diabetes. This is most common in
young patients.

[CONSTITUTIONAL DISEASES 329]

1. There is a sudden onset after exertion of weakness, feeble pulse,
stupor, coma, death in a few hours.

2. Sudden headache, coma, death in a few hours.

3. After nausea, vomiting or a lung complication, there are headache,
delirium, abdominal pain, rapid labored breathing, sweetish odor of the
breath, stupor, rapid feeble pulse, coma and death within a few days.

Recovery.--Instances of cure in true diabetes are rare.

Treatment. Preventive.--The use of starchy and sugary articles of diet
should be restricted in families with a marked disposition to this
disease. Sources of worry should be avoided and he should lead an even
quiet life, if possible, in an equable climate. Flannel and silk should be
worn next to the skin, and the greatest care should be taken to promote
its action. A lukewarm and, if tolerably robust, a cold bath should be
taken every day. An occasional Turkish bath is useful.

Diet.--Let the patients eat food of easy digestion, such as veal, mutton
and the like, and abstain from all sorts of fruit and garden stuff. In
Johns Hopkins' Hospital these patients are kept for three or four days on
the ordinary ward diet, which contains a moderate amount of
carbo-hydrates, in order to ascertain the amount of sugar excretions. For
two days more the starches are gradually cut off. They are then placed on
the following standard non-carbohydrate diet.

Breakfast: 7:30, six ounces of tea or coffee; four ounces of beefsteak,
mutton chops without bone, or boiled ham; one or two eggs.

Lunch: 12:30, six ounces of cold roast beef; two ounces celery, fresh
cucumbers or tomatoes with vinegar, olives, pepper and salt to taste, five
drams of whisky with thirteen ounces of water, two ounces of coffee
without milk or sugar.

Dinner: 6:00 P. M., six ounces of clear bouillon; seven and a half ounces
of roast beef; one and one-half drams of butter; two ounces of green salad
with two and a half drams of vinegar, five drams of olive oil, or three
tablespoonfuls of some well-cooked green vegetable: three sardines; five
drams of whisky with thirteen ounces of water.

Supper: 9:00 P. M., two eggs, raw or cooked, thirteen ounces of water .

The following is a list of articles which a diabetes patient may take as
given by one of the best authorities in the world on diabetes:

Liquids: Soups.--Ox tail, turtle bouillon and other clear soups. Lemonade,
coffee, tea, chocolate and cocoa; these to be taken without sugar, but
they may be sweetened with saccharin. Potash or soda water and
appollinaris, or the Saratoga-vichy and milk in moderation may be used.

[330 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

Animal Food.--Fish of all sorts, including crabs, oysters, salt and fresh
butcher's meat (with the exception of liver), poultry and game, eggs,
buttermilk, curds and cream cheese.

Bread.--Gluten and bran bread, almond and cocoanut biscuits.

Vegetables.--Lettuce, tomatoes, spinach, chickory, sorrel, radishes,
asparagus, water-cress, mustard and cress, cucumber, celery and endives;
pickles of various sorts.

Fruits.--Lemons and oranges, currants, plums, cherries, pears, apples
(tart), melons, raspberries and strawberries may be taken in moderation.
Nuts, as a rule, allowable.

Must Not Take--

Thick Soups and Liver. Ordinary bread of all sorts (in quantity), rye,
wheaten, brown or white. All farinaceous (starchy) preparations, such as
hominy, rice, tapioca, arrowroot, sago and vermicelli.

Vegetables: Potatoes, turnips, parsnips, squashes, vegetable-marrows of
all kinds, beets, common artichokes.

Liquids: Beer, sparkling wine of all sorts and the sweet aerated drinks.

Medicines. Codeine.--A patient may begin with one-half grain three times a
day, which may be gradually increased to six or eight grains in the
twenty-four hours (under the doctor's care); withdraw it gradually when
sugar is absent or reduced as far as possible.



DIABETES INSIPIDUS.--A chronic affection characterized by the passage of
large quantities of normal urine of low specific gravity.

Causes.--It is most often found in young males and is probably of nervous
origin. It may follow excitement or brain injury.

Symptoms.--The onset is usually gradual. The urine is pale; ten to twenty
quarts a day. Thirst, dryness of the mouth and skin. Appetite and general
conditions are usually normal; sometimes there are feebleness and
emaciation. Death usually occurs from some other disease.

Treatment.--There is no known cure. Keep the general health in good
condition according to the advice of your family physician.

OBESITY.--An excessive development of fat; it may be hereditary. It occurs
most frequently in women of middle age and in children. Its chief cause is
excessive eating and drinking, especially of the starch and sugar foods
and malt liquors, and lack of exercise. The increase of fat is in all the
normal situations and the heart and liver are often large and fatty. The
condition in general may be good or there may be inactivity of the mind
and body. Disturbances of digestion and symptoms of a fatty heart. There
is less power to resist disease. Death may occur from fatty infiltration
of the heart, resulting in dilatation or rupture.

[CONSTITUTIONAL DISEASES 331]

Treatment.--Must be in regulating the diet. The person must avoid all
excess in food and drink, and avoid especially foods that contain starch
and sugar. There must be regular and systematic exercise, hot baths and
massages are helps. Medicines made from the poke berry are much used and
are successful in some cases.

Diet.--The food of a fleshy person should be cut down gradually. Its bulk
can be great, but its nourishing properties should be small. The diet for
reduction of obesity should consist chiefly of bulky vegetables, but not
too much of any one article or set of articles. The following list is
recommended by Dr. Hare of Philadelphia:

For Breakfast.--One or two cups of coffee or tea, without milk or sugar,
but sweetened with a fraction of a grain of saccharin. Three ounces of
toasted or ordinary white bread or six ounces of brown bread; enough
butter may be used to make the bread palatable, not more than one ounce.
Sliced raw tomatoes with vinegar, or cooked tomatoes without any sugar or
fats. This diet may be varied by the use of salted or fresh fish, either
at breakfast or dinner. This fish must not be rich like salmon or
sword-fish, but rather like perch or other small fish.

Noon Meal--Dinner.--One soup plate of bouillon, consomme julienne, or
other thin soup, or Mosqueras beef-jelly, followed by one piece of the
white meat of any form of fowl or a small bird. Sometimes a small piece,
the size of one's hand, of rare beef, or mutton but no fat, may be
allowed, and this should be accompanied by string beans, celery (stewed or
raw), spinach, kale, cabbage, beans, asparagus, beets and young onions.
Following this, lettuce with vinegar and a little olive oil (to make a
French dressing), a cup of black coffee or one of tea, and a little acid
fruit, such as sour grapes, tamarinds and sour oranges, or lemons may be
taken, and followed by a cigar, if the patient has such a habit.

Supper.--This should consist of one or two soft boiled eggs, which may be
poached, but not fried, a few ounces of brown bread, some salad and fruit
and perhaps a glass or two of light, dry (not sweet) wine, if the patient
is accustomed to its use.

Before Going to Bed.--To avoid discomfort from a sensation of hunger
during the night, the patient may take a meal of panada, or he may soak
graham or bran crackers or biscuits in water and flavor the mess with salt
and pepper. The reduction of the diet is generally best accomplished
slowly and should be accompanied by measures devoted to the utilization of
the fat present for the support of the body. Thus, the patient should not
be too heavily clad, either day or night, should resort to exercise, daily
becoming more severe, and should not drink freely of water, unless
sweating is established sufficiently to prevent the accumulation of liquid
in vessels and tissues. Baths of the proper kind, cold or Turkish, should
be used, if the patient stands them well. The bowels should be kept active
by laxative fruit or purges. Salts are useful if drinks are thrown off
rapidly. If proper exercise is impossible the rest cure with massage,
electricity, passive exertion and absolute skimmed milk diet may be
resorted to, particularly in those persons known as "fat anemics," who
have not enough red corpuscles in their blood to carry sufficient oxygen
to the tissues to complete oxidation.

[332 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]


CANCER.--(In the following article on cancer we quote in part from
material issued by the Public Health Department of the State of Michigan).


Cancer is curable if it be operated upon in its early stages.--If it be
left to grow and develop, cancer is always fatal. It may be partially
removed when in an advanced stage, and relief may be had for some time
after operation; but beyond the early stage, cancer cannot at present be
permanently removed, nor permanently cured. Permanent cure of a cancer is
possible if the afflicted person obtains an early diagnosis and receives
early attention from a skilled surgeon. The only permanent cure for cancer
known at the present time is early surgical operation.

Have Operations Failed to Cure?--Very few persons die from operations
performed by skilled surgeons for the removal of cancer. Where cancer
operation is done by experienced surgeons the fatality in America for the
past fourteen years is less than one case out of a hundred, or in other
words ninety-nine persons out of a hundred survive operation for cancer.
Many persons have died from the return of the cancerous growth even after
operation by a skilled surgeon, and this fact has led many persons to
believe that operation for cancer is, therefore, unsuccessful, that it
does not cure. This is not the fact. It is true that cancer often returns
after operation, and that this method does not always effect a permanent
cure; but it is not true that operations are, therefore, useless. The
reason that operations do not remove cancers permanently in a great number
of cases is that such cases do not submit to operation soon enough. The
majority of persons suffering from cancer seek surgical aid too late. If a
house is on fire and one refuses to turn in an alarm until the fire has
spread from cellar to garret, neither blame nor disparagement must be
placed upon the fire department if it failed to save the burning house. So
with cancer; if the public refuses or neglects to operate for cancer at
the time when it can be eradicated, the public cannot censure or belittle
surgery. A cancer is like a green and ripe thistle. Pull up the green
thistle and you have gotten rid of it. But if you wait until the thistle
is ripe, and the winds have blown away the seeds, there is no use of
pulling up that thistle. Early operations are successful. Late ones are
not.

No reliable surgeon claims to save his patient or cure him of cancer if
the disease be in an advanced stage. But experienced surgeons do recognize
the fact that cancer in its early stage can be permanently removed and a
permanent cure can be effected by surgical operation. No other means of
permanent cure are known.

[CONSTITUTIONAL DISEASES 333]

Caustic pastes applied to cancerous growths or sera, are sometimes
successful in obliterating the cancer for a time; but they are not
reliable for effecting enduring cures, and usually are merely palliative,
The fact that a cancer does not return for three years after removal is
not sure proof that it will not return; the return of a cancerous growth
depends upon its state of development and other conditions at the time of
removal from the cancer. In Johns Hopkins' Hospital forty-seven per cent
of all patients with cancers of the breast operated upon remained well for
three years or more, and seventy-five per cent of this forty-seven per
cent were cured, being in the most favorable condition for cure at the
time of the operation. But where conditions are not favorable at the time
of the operation, many patients have a return of the cancer even after the
three years of apparent cure have elapsed.

What is Cancer?--A cancer is a growth of cancerous cells in a network of
connective tissue. The cause of cancer is not known. It has not been
proved to be communicable and the majority of investigators of this
subject believe that it is not caused by a germ. Nor is it thought to be
inherited. Out of 8,000 cases of cancer at Middlesex Hospital, London, no
evidence of heredity was found. Until the cause of cancer is known, it
cannot be prevented. The only safeguard lies in an early diagnosis of the
condition and an immediate operation. Eminent investigators are carrying
on extensive research and thousands of dollars are being spent annually to
ascertain, if possible, what is the cause of this dread disease, and it is
confidently believed that final success will crown this labor.

When to Suspect Cancer and What to Do.--External or Exposed
Cancer.--Cancer of the exposed or surface parts of the body, such as the
skin of the lip, nose, cheek, forehead, temples, etc., is more readily
recognized than internal cancer, and is therefore more liable to early
operation and prompt cure. One rarely sees these forms of cancer in an
advanced stage, because such cases are readily seen and recognized by
physicians in the early stage of development, when operation can be
sufficiently early to effect a lasting cure.

The least malignant of all cancers is that kind which first exhibits
itself by a hardening of the skin, forming a nodule looking pimple or a
mole and having a dark red color, due to tortuous blood vessels, upon the
sides of the nose near the eyes, upon the cheek bones, forehead or
temples. This form of epithelioma is called rodent ulcer, flat epithelioma
or cancroid and sometimes does little harm for many years, but should
receive the attention of a physician familiar with cancer and its
eradication.

Deep or squamous cancer occurs on the lip, the tongue or the forehead or
wherever the mucous membrane joins the skin, and is characterized by a
hard, deep-seated sore formed upon any such part, growing down into the
flesh and having a dark red or purplish-red color.

[334 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

If such a cancer is suspected of being present, the patient should at once
seek diagnosis from a competent physician. Cancer of the lip is more
frequent in men than in women, occurring usually in the under lip and
called "Smoker's Cancer." Any hard persistent nodule in the under lip
should cause suspicion and should be taken to a skilled surgeon, as cancer
of the under lip is easily removed when in its early stage of development.



CANCER OF THE STOMACH.--The beginning of cancer of the stomach is very
difficult to recognize and it is far safer and wiser, upon the appearance
of the first suspicious symptom, to seek the aid of some physician skilled
in cancer diagnosis than to ignore and neglect these early warnings of the
disease. Although cancer of the stomach may occur in younger persons, it
is usually met with in persons after forty years of age. Therefore, any
person at this age who suffers from continuous indigestion or
characterized by retention and prolonged fermentation of food in the
stomach, should at once consult a competent physician. In the early stages
of the cancer of the stomach the patient loses weight, but in the later
stages there is more or less pain.

Whenever a physician finds that a patient has a pappy, insipid taste with
a furred, pale, rarely dry and red tongue, and is suffering from
continuous, dull sensations or pain in the region of the stomach,
periodically increasing to paroxysms, often induced by pressure or
increased by it, together with a sensation of weight, drawing pains of
varying character, and frequent pain in the shoulder, loss of appetite,
frequent belching of fetid gas from the stomach, severe and frequent
vomiting, often periodical, often occurring before partaking of a meal but
more often afterwards with slight indigestion, but vomitus being more or
less watery and containing mucus and blood, usually decomposed and
recurring frequently, together with constipation of the bowels, the skin
being sallow, yellowish, dry and flaccid, and losing weight and strength,
he should suspect cancer of the stomach and where possible advise an
immediate surgical operation for the removal of the cancer.



CANCER OF THE UTERUS.--What women should know regarding it. The menopause
or change of life comes on gradually, rarely suddenly. It is not preceded
by excessive flowing or discharge or pain in a healthy woman.

By cancer period is understood those years after forty, although rarely it
may occur earlier. The first symptoms of uterine cancer are:

1. Profuse flowing, even if only a day more than usual. Flowing or
spotting during the interval or after the use of a syringe or the movement
of the bowels.

2. Whites or Leucorrhea, if not existing previously. If existing but
getting more profuse, watery, irritating, or producing itching is a very
suspicious symptom.

[CONSTITUTIONAL DISEASES 335]

3. Loss of weight, if no other cause is apparent. Pain in the region of
the womb, back or side.

If any of the above symptoms occur after the age of thirty-five or forty,
a woman should seek relief and insist on thorough investigation of the
cause and prompt treatment.

Cancer is always at first a local disease and can be removed if early
recognized and an absolute, permanent cure brought about.



CANCER OF THE BREAST.--Eighty-one per cent of an tumors of the breast are
cancer or become so. Whenever a woman feels a lump in her breast,
particularly if she be at the cancerous age, she should consult a skilled
physician at once and keep that breast under medical observation. If so
advised by her physician or by a skilled surgeon, she should have an
operation for the removal of the cancer, as it can be completely
eradicated when operated upon in its early stages. If left to grow and
develop it will get beyond the aid of even the most skillful surgeon.
Early diagnosis plus surgery is the only hope for a cancerous person.
Operation offers a most hopeful outlook for those afflicted with cancer.
It is more important to make an early diagnosis in cancer of the breast
than it is in appendicitis.



CANCER (CARCINOMA).--This is very malignant. This kind is divided into two
classes, Scirrhus and Epithelial.

1. Scirrhus cancer. This is a hard, irregular growth of moderate size. Its
special seat is the breast, the pyloric (smaller) end of the stomach and
in few instances the glands of the skin.

Soft Medullary or Encephaloid cancer. This type resembles brain tissue
both in appearance and consistence. It appears quite soft and may be
mistaken for an abscess. In form, it differs according to the organ
attacked. Special seats: The testicle, liver, bladder, kidney, ovary, the
eye and more rarely the breast.

Colloid cancer; jelly-like substance.--The cancer cells have undergone a
degeneration in one of the preceding varieties. The material it contains
is a semi-translucent, glistening, jelly-like substance. Its special
seats are the stomach, bowel, omentum, ovary and, occasionally, the
breast.

Diagnosis.--This kind is very rare before thirty years of age and common
after forty. They involve the gland early, contrary to what the sarcoma
variety does. Innocent growths occur, as a rule, in younger patients, do
not grow so rapidly, do not become adherent to neighboring parts and do
not ulcerate.

2. The Epithelial Cancer (Carcinoma).--These always spring from free
epithelium-clad surfaces, as the skin, and mucous membranes or from the
glands of the same. These growths appear with great frequency at the
points of junction of mucous membranes and skin surfaces, probably because
these parts are subjected to more frequent and varied forms of mechanical
and chemical irritation, Special seats: Skin surfaces, the nose, the lower
lip, the penis and scrotum, the vulva, the anus (mucous surfaces), tongue,
palate, gums, tonsils, larynx, pharynx, gullet, bladder, womb.

[336 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--l. Cancer, Simple Remedy for.--"Give a teaspoonful of
sarsaparilla tea four times daily, made with two ounces of sarsaparilla
root and quart of water boiled to one pint and apply to cancer growth a
poultice made of carrots scraped or mashed cranberries." These simple
remedies will relieve and often cure growths taken for cancers, but if it
is really a cancerous growth no medicine will help and a physician should
be consulted at once.

2. Cancer, Nettles and Laudanum Will Help.--"Take the juice of common
nettles inwardly and mix a little laudanum with the juice and rub the
parts outwardly. Cancer has often yielded to this treatment." This remedy
will no doubt help an ugly looking ulcer, repeatedly taken for cancer, by
the patients themselves and frequently the doctor. It is always well to
give this simple home remedy a trial, at least, for it is frequently
admitted by the medical fraternity to-day that ugly ulcers are often
treated in this way as cancers, sometimes to the lasting detriment of the
sufferer. Then why not try some efficient home remedy like the above until
you are certain that it is a cancer?



TUMORS.--A tumor is a new growth which produces a localized enlargement of
a part, or an organ, has no tendency to a spontaneous cure, has no useful
function, in most cases tends to grow during the whole of the individual's
life. Clinically, tumors are divided into the benign and the malignant.

A benign tumor is usually composed of tissues, resembling those in which
it originates.

A malignant tumor usually consists of tissues widely different from those
in which it originates; its growth is rapid and therefore often painful;
it infiltrates all the surrounding tissues, however resistant, even bone,
because it is never encapsulated; it thus early becomes immovable; the
overlying skin is apt to become adherent, especially when the breast is
involved. Sooner or later it usually infects the group of lymphatic glands
intervening between it and the venous circulation and from these new
centres, or directly through the veins, gives rise to secondary deposits
in the internal organs.

Some varieties. 1. Fibrous tumors; these consist of fibrous tissues. 2.
Fatty tumors (or lipomata); these consist of normal fat tissue. 3.
Cartilaginous tumors; consist of cartilage. 4. Osseous (bony) tumors. 5.
Mucous tumors (myxomata). 6. Muscular tumors (myomata). 7. Vascular tumors
(Angeiomata). 8. Nerve tumors (Neuromata).

Malignant Sarcoma (Sarcomata).--These are a variety of tumors. The result
of these varies with the location of the tumor. If located in the jaw, an
operation may cure it. If in the tonsil or lymphatic gland, it destroys
life rapidly. If in the sub-cutaneous tissue, it may be repeatedly
removed, the system remaining free, or the amputation of the limb involved
will probably cure the disease.

[Illustration: Circulatory System.]

[CONSTITUTIONAL DISEASES 337]

TUMORS.--Diagnosis. It is uncommon under thirty, quite common after.
Epithelioma of the lower lip is limited almost entirely to men. If, then,
a man of from forty to seventy develops a small tumor in the lower lip
which ulcerates early, it is likely to be the cancer. The same applies to
some extent to the tongue. These growths and sores need attention early.

Treatment.--The best treatment is early free removal of the entire growth
before the glands are involved.



DISEASES OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

HEART DISEASE, Emergency Treatment.--For collapse or fainting, loosen
clothing, lie down, rub camphor on forehead, and keep quiet.

To Revive When Fainting.--Smell of camphor or aromatic spirits of ammonia.
Put one to two teaspoonfuls of whisky or brandy in eight teaspoonfuls of
hot water, and give one or two teaspoonfuls at a time and repeat often.
Some are not accustomed to stimulants and it may strangle them, so give it
slowly. Pulse is weak in such cases, calling for stimulants.

2. Pearls of Amylnitrite. Break one in a handkerchief and put the
handkerchief to the patient's nose so that he may inhale the fumes.

Stimulant.--A person with heart valvular trouble should always carry
pearls of amylnitrite. Inhale slowly so as not to get too much of it at
once.



HEART FAILURE.--The pulse may be slow and weak or fast and weak.

Digitalis.--Give five drops of the tincture in a little water. Another
dose can be given in fifteen minutes. Then another in an hour, if
necessary.



PALPITATION OF THE HEART.--Irregular or forcible heart beat action usually
perceived by the person troubled.

Causes.--Hysteria, nervous exhaustion, violent emotions or sexual
excesses; overdose of tea and coffee: alcohol or tobacco.

Symptoms.--There may be only a sensation of fluttering with that of
distention or emptiness of the heart. There may be flushing of the skin,
violent beating of the superficial arteries, with rapid pulse, difficult
breathing and nervousness. Attack lasts from a few minutes to several
hours.

[338 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.-l. Palpitation of the Heart, Tea of Geranium Root
for.--"Make an infusion of geranium root, half an ounce in pint of boiling
water, strain, cool, and give wine glass full three or four times a day."
The geranium root will be found to be an excellent remedy where female
weakness has caused the palpitation of the heart.

2. Palpitation of the Heart, Hot Foot Bath and Camphor for.--"Place the
feet in hot mustard water and give two grains camphor every two or three
hours, or two drops aconite every hour. This remedy is very good and is
sure to give relief."

3. Palpitation of the Heart, Valuable Herb Tea for.--"All excitement must
be avoided. Where there is organic disease, all that can be done is to
mitigate the severity of the symptoms. For this take the following herb
tea: One ounce each of marigold flowers, mugwort, motherworth, century
dandelion root, put in, two quarts of water and boil down to three pints;
pour boiling hot upon one-half ounce of valerian, and one-half ounce of
skullcap. Take a wineglassful three times a day. Let the bowels be kept
moderately open and live principally upon vegetable diet, with plenty of
outdoor exercise."

MOTHERS' REMEDIES.--1. Heartburn, Home Remedy for.--"A few grains of table
salt allowed to dissolve in the mouth and frequently repeated will
sometimes give relief." People who have too little acid in the stomach
will be much benefited by this remedy.

2. Heartburn, Soda a Popular Remedy for.--"One-half teaspoonful soda in
glass of water. Everybody uses this in the neighborhood."

3. Heartburn, Excellent Remedy for.--

    "Powdered Rhubarb       1/2 ounce
    Spirits of Peppermint.    2 drams
    Water                     4 ounces
    Bicarbonate of Soda     1/2 ounce

Dose--One Tablespoonful after meals."

The bicarbonate of soda relieves the gas and swelling of the stomach,
while the rhubarb has a tonic action and relieves the bowels. The spirits
of peppermint stimulates the mucous membrane.

4. Poor Circulation, Remedy for Stout Person.--"Ten cents worth of salts,
five cents worth of cream of tartar; mix and keep in a closed jar. Take
one teaspoonful for three nights, then skip three nights." This is an
old-time remedy known to be especially good, as the salts move the bowels
and the cream of tartar acts on the kidneys, carrying off the impurities
that should be thrown off from these organs.

PHYSICIAN'S TREATMENT FOR PALPITATION.--When caused by valvular trouble,
digitalis can be given as above directed under heart failure.

When Caused by the Stomach.--From gas or too much food, take salts to move
the bowels. Hot whisky is good when caused by gas; or soda, one
teaspoonful in hot water is also good when gas causes palpitation.

[CIRCULATORY DISEASES 339]

Difficult Breathing.--If caused by gas, soda, hot whisky or brandy will
relieve. If caused by too fast beating of the heart, give digitalis as
above directed. If caused by dropsy, the regular remedies for dropsy. If
the dropsy is due to scanty urine you can use infusion of digitalis, dose
one to four drams; or cream of tartar and epsom salts, equal parts, to
keep the bowels open freely.

PHYSICIAN'S CAUTIONS:--Quiet the patient's mind and assure him there is no
actual danger; moderate exercise should be taken as a rule with advantage.
Regular hours should be kept and at least ten hours out of twenty-four
should be spent in lying down. A tepid bath may be taken in the morning,
or if the patient is weakly and nervous, in the evening, followed by a
thorough rubbing. No hot baths or Turkish bath. Tea, coffee and alcohol
are prohibited. Diet should be light, and the patient should avoid
overeating at any meals. Foods that cause gas should not be used. If a
smoker the patient must give up tobacco. Sexual excitement is very
pernicious, and the patient should be warned especially on this point.
Absolute rest for the distressing attacks of palpitation which occur with
nervous exhaustion. In these cases we find the most distressing throbbing
in the abdomen, which is apt to come after meals, and is very much
aggravated by the accumulation of gas.

Diet.--A person with heart disease should not bring on palpitation from
over-eating or eating the wrong kind of food. Such a person dare not be a
glutton. The diet must be simple, nutritious, but food that is easily
digested. Any food that causes trouble must be avoided; starchy foods,
spiced foods, rich greasy foods, are not healthy for such a person. The
stomach must be carefully treated by such a patient. The bowels should
move daily. The kidneys should always do good work and pass enough urine
and of the right color and consistency. Stimulants like alcohol, tea and
coffee are not to be used. Weak cocoa is all right in most cases. Hot
water, if any drink must be taken, at meals. Such a patient in order to
live and live comfortably, must take life