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Title: Robert's Rules of Order - Pocket Manual of Rules of Order for Deliberative Assemblies
Author: Robert, Henry M., 1837-1923
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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ROBERT'S RULES OF ORDER

=== Page 1 =============================================================

Pocket Manual
of
Rules Of Order
For
Deliberative Assemblies

---

Part I.
Rules of Order.

A Compendium of Parliamentary Law, based upon the rules
and practice of Congress.

Part II.
Organization and Conduct Of Business.

A simple explanation of the methods of organizing and
conducting the business of societies, conventions,
and other deliberative assemblies.

By Major Henry M. Robert,
Corps of Engineers, U.S.A.

Chicago:
S. C. Griggs & Company.
1876.

=== Page 2 =============================================================

---

Copyright, A.D. 1876,
by
H. M. Robert

---

Printed by Burdick & Armitage, Milwaukee

=== Page 3 =============================================================

PREFACE.

There appears to be much needed a work on parliamentary law, based, in
its general principles, upon the rules and practice of Congress, and
adapted, in its details, to the use of ordinary societies.  Such a work
should give, not only the methods of organizing and conducting the
meetings, the duties of the officers and the names of the ordinary
motions, but in addition, should state in a systematic manner, in
reference to each motion, its object and effect; whether it can be
amended or debated; if debatable, the extent to which it opens the main
question to debate; the circumstances under which it can be made, and
what other motions can be made while it is pending.  This Manual has
been prepared with a view to supplying the above information in a
condensed and systematic manner, each rule being either complete in
itself, or giving references to every section that in any way qualifies
it, so that a stranger to the work can refer to any special subject with
safety.

To aid in quickly referring to as many as possible of the rules relating
to each motion, there is placed immediately before the Index, a Table of
Rules, which enables one, without turning a page, to find the answers to
some two hundred questions.  The Table of Rules is so arranged as to
greatly assist the reader in systematizing his knowledge of
parliamentary law.

The second part is a simple explanation of the common methods of
conducting business in ordinary

=== Page 4 =============================================================

meetings, in which the motions are classified according to their uses,
and those used for a similar purpose compared together.  This part is
expressly intended for that large class of the community, who are
unfamiliar with parliamentary usages and are unwilling to devote much
study to the subject, but would be glad with little labor to learn
enough to enable them to take part in meetings of deliberative
assemblies without fear of being out of order.  The object of Rules of
Order in deliberative assemblies, is to assist an assembly to accomplish
the work for which it was designed, in the best possible manner.  To do
this, it is necessary to somewhat restrain the individual, as the right
of an individual in any community to do what he pleases, is incompatible
with the best interests of the whole.  Where there is no law, but every
man does what is right in his own eyes, there is the least of real
liberty.  Experience has shown the importance of definiteness in the
law; and in this country, where customs are so slightly established and
the published manuals of parliamentary practice so conflicting, no
society should attempt to conduct business without having adopted some
work upon the subject, as the authority in all cases not covered by
their own rules.

It has been well said by one of the greatest of English writers on
parliamentary law:  "Whether these forms be in all cases the most
rational or not is really not of so great importance.  It is much more
material that there should be a rule to go by, than what that rule is,
that there may be a uniformity of proceeding in business, not subject to
the caprice of the chairman, or captiousness of the members.  It is very
material that order, decency and regularity be preserved in a dignified
public body."

H. M. R.
December, 1875.

=== Page 5 =============================================================

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Introduction.                                                      Page.
  Parliamentary Law .................................................. 9
  Plan of the Work .................................................. 12
     ''   Part I .................................................... 13
     ''   Part II ................................................... 14
  Definitions ....................................................... 15

Part I.--Rules of Order.
Art. I.--Introduction of Business.
§ 1. How introduced ................................................. 17
  2. Obtaining the floor ............................................ 17
  3. What precedes debate on a question ............................. 19
  4. What motions to be in writing, and
     how they shall be divided ...................................... 20
  5. Modification of a motion by the mover .......................... 21

Art. II.--General Classification of Motions.
§ 6. Principal or Main motions ...................................... 22
  7. Subsidiary or Secondary motions ................................ 22
  8. Incidental motions ............................................. 23
  9. Privileged motions ............................................. 24

Art. III.--Motions and their Order of Precedence.
Privileged Motions.
  10. To fix the time to which to adjourn ........................... 25
  11. Adjourn ....................................................... 26
  12. Questions of privilege ........................................ 28
  13. Orders of the day ............................................. 28
Incidental Motions.
  14. Appeal [Questions of Order] ................................... 30
  15. Objection to the consideration of a
      question ...................................................... 32
  16. Reading papers ................................................ 33
  17. Withdrawal of a motion ........................................ 34
  18. Suspension of the Rules ....................................... 34

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Subsidiary Motions.
§ 19. Lie on the table .............................................. 35
  20. Previous Question ............................................. 37
  21. Postpone to a certain day ..................................... 40
  22. Commit [or Re-commit] ......................................... 41
  23. Amend ......................................................... 43
  24. Postpone indefinitely ......................................... 46
Miscellaneous Motions.
  25. Filling blanks, and Nominations ............................... 47
  26. Renewal of a motion ........................................... 48
  27. Reconsideration ............................................... 49

Art. IV.--Committees and Informal Action.
§ 28. Committees .................................................... 54
  29.     ''     Form of their Reports .............................. 58
  30.     ''     Reception    ''       .............................. 59
  31.     ''     Adoption     ''       .............................. 61
  32. Committee of the Whole ........................................ 61
  33. Informal consideration of a question .......................... 65

Art. V.--Debate and Decorum.
§ 34. Debate ........................................................ 66
  35. Undebatable questions and those opening
      the main question to debate ................................... 68
  36. Decorum in debate ............................................. 71
  37. Closing debate, methods of .................................... 72

Art. VI.--Vote.
§ 38. Voting, various modes of ...................................... 74
  39. Motions requiring more than a
      majority vote ................................................. 80

Art. VII.--Officers and the Minutes.
§ 40. Chairman or President ......................................... 81
  41. Clerk, or Secretary, and the Minutes .......................... 85

Art. VIII.--Miscellaneous.
§ 42. Session ....................................................... 90
  43. Quorum ........................................................ 93
  44. Order of business ............................................. 94
  45. Amendment of the Rules of Order ............................... 97

=== Page 7 =============================================================

Part II.-Organization and Conduct of Business.

Art. IX.--Organization and Meetings.
§ 46. An Occasional or Mass Meeting.
      (a) Organization .............................................. 99
      (b) Adoption of resolutions .................................. 101
      (c) Committee on    ''      .................................. 102
      (d) Additional Officers ...................................... 105
  47. A Convention or Assembly of
      Delegates .................................................... 106
  48. A Permanent Society.
     (a) First meeting ............................................. 108
     (b) Second meeting ............................................ 111
  49. Constitutions, By-Laws, Rules of
      Order and Standing Rules ..................................... 115

Art. X.--Officers and Committees.
§ 50. President or Chairman ........................................ 119
  51. Secretary, or Clerk, and the Minutes ......................... 120
  52. Treasurer .................................................... 123
  53. Committees ................................................... 127

Art. XI--Introduction of Business.
§ 54. Introduction of Business ..................................... 129

Art. XII.--Motions.
§ 55. Motions classified according to their
      object ....................................................... 131
  56. To Amend or modify.
      (a) Amend .................................................... 133
      (5) Commit ................................................... 134
  57. To Defer action.
      (a) Postpone to a certain time ............................... 134
      (b) Lie on the table ......................................... 135
  58. To Suppress Debate.
      (a) Previous Question ........................................ 136
      (b) An Order limiting or closing
          debate ................................................... 137

=== Page 8 =============================================================

§ 59. To Suppress the question.
      (a) Objection to its consideration ........................... 138
      (b) Postpone indefinitely .................................... 139
      (c) Lie on the table ......................................... 139
  60. To Consider a question the second time
      (a) Reconsider ............................................... 140
  61. Order and Rules.
      (a) Orders of the day ........................................ 142
      (b) Special orders ........................................... 143
      (c) Suspension of the rules .................................. 144
      (d) Questions of order ....................................... 144
      (e) Appeal ................................................... 145
  62. Miscellaneous.
      (a) Reading of papers ........................................ 146
      (b) Withdrawal of a motion ................................... 146
      (c) Questions of privilege ................................... 146
  63. To close a meeting.
      (a) Fix the time to which to adjourn ......................... 147
      (b) Adjourn .................................................. 147
  64. Order of Precedence of motions ............................... 149

Art. XIII.--Debate.
§ 65. Rules of speaking in debate .................................. 150
  66. Undebatable questions and those that
      open the main question to debate ............................. 151

Art. XIV.--Miscellaneous.
§ 67. Forms of stating and putting questions ....................... 154
  68. Motions requiring a two-thirds vote
      for their adoption ........................................... 154
  69. Unfinished business .......................................... 154
  70. Session ...................................................... 155
  71. Quorum ....................................................... 156
  72. Order of Business ............................................ 156
  73. Amendment of Constitutions, By-Laws
      and Rules of Order ........................................... 157

Legal Rights of Deliberative Assemblies ............................ 158
Table of Rules Relating to Motions ................................. 166
Index .............................................................. 169

=== Page 9 =============================================================

INTRODUCTION.

Parliamentary Law.

Parliamentary Law refers originally to the customs and rules of
conducting business in the English Parliament; and thence to the customs
and rules of our own legislative assemblies.  In England these customs
and usages of Parliament form a part of the unwritten law of the land,
and in our own legislative bodies they are of authority in all cases
where they do not conflict with existing rules or precedents.

But as a people we have not the respect which the English have for
customs and precedents, and are always ready for innovations which we
think are improvements, and hence changes have been and are being
constantly made in the written rules which our legislative bodies have
found best to adopt.  As each house adopts its own rules, it results
that the two houses of the same legislature do not always agree in their
practice; even in Congress the order of precedence of motions is not
the same in both houses, and the Previous Question is admitted in the
House of Representatives, but not in the Senate.  As a consequence of
this, the exact method of conducting business in any particular

=== Page 10 ============================================================

legislative body is to be obtained only from the Legislative Manual of
that body.

The vast number of societies, political, literary, scientific,
benevolent and religious, formed all over the land, though not
legislative, are still deliberative in their character, and must have
some system of conducting business, and some rules to govern their
proceedings, and are necessarily subject to the common parliamentary law
where it does not conflict with their own special rules.  But as their
knowledge of parliamentary law has been obtained from the usages in this
country, rather than from the customs of Parliament, it has resulted
that these societies have followed the customs of our own legislative
bodies, and our people have thus been educated under a system of
parliamentary law which is peculiar to this country, and yet so well
established as to supersede the English parliamentary law as the common
law of ordinary deliberative assemblies.

The practice of the National House of Representatives should have the
same force in this country as the usages of the House of Commons have in
England, in determining the general principles of the common
parliamentary law of the land; but it does not follow that in every
matter of detail the rules of Congress can be appealed to as the common
law governing every deliberative assembly.  In these matters of detail,
the rules of each House of Congress are adapted to their own peculiar
wants, and are of no force whatever in other assemblies.

=== Page 11 ============================================================

But upon all great parliamentary questions, such as what motions can be
made, what is their order of precedence, which can be debated, what is
their effect, etc., the common law of the land is settled by the
practice of the U. S. House of Representatives, and not by that of the
English Parliament, the U. S. Senate, or any other body.

While in extreme cases there is no difficulty in deciding the question
as to whether the practice of Congress determines the common
parliamentary law, yet between these extremes there must necessarily be
a large number of doubtful cases upon which there would be great
difference of opinion, and to avoid the serious difficulties always
arising from a lack of definiteness in the law, every deliberative
assembly should imitate our legislative bodies in adopting Rules of
Order for the conduct of their business.* [Where the practice of
Congress differs from that of Parliament upon a material point, the
common law of this country follows the practice of Congress.  Thus in
every American deliberative assembly having no rules for conducting
business, the motion to adjourn would be decided to be undebatable, as
in Congress, the English parliamentary law to the contrary
notwithstanding; so if the Previous Question were negatived, the debate
upon the subject would continue as in Congress, whereas in Parliament
the subject would be immediately dismissed; so too the Previous Question
could be moved when there was before the assembly a motion either to
amend, to commit, or to postpone definitely or indefinitely, just as in
Congress, notwithstanding that, according to English parliamentary law,
the Previous Question could not be moved under such circumstances.
When the rules of the two Houses of Congress conflict, the H. R. rules
are of greater authority than those of the Senate in determining the
parliamentary law of the country, just as the practice of the House of
Commons, and not the House of Lords, determines the parliamentary law of
England.  For instance, though the Senate rules do not allow the motion
for the Previous Question, and make the motion to postpone indefinitely
take precedence of every other subsidiary motion [§ 7] except to lie on
the table, yet the parliamentary law of the land follows the practice of
the House of Representatives, in recognizing the Previous Question as a
legitimate motion, and assigning to the very lowest rank the motion to
postpone indefinitely.  But in matters of detail, the rules of the House
of Representatives are adapted to the peculiar wants of that body, and
are of no authority in any other assembly.  No one for instance would
accept the following H. R. rules as common parliamentary law in this
country:  That the chairman, in case of disorderly conduct, would have
the power to order the galleries to be cleared; that the ballot could
not be used in electing the officers of an assembly; that any fifteen
members would be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members
and make them pay the expenses of the messengers sent after them; that
all committees not appointed by the Chair would have to be appointed by
ballot, and if the required number were not elected by a majority vote,
then a second ballot must be taken in which a plurality of votes would
prevail; that each member would be limited in debate upon any question,
to one hour; that a day's notice must be given of the introduction of a
bill, and that before its passage it must be read three times, and that
without the special order of the assembly it cannot be read twice the
same day.  These examples are sufficient to show the absurdity of the
idea that the rules of Congress in all things determine the common
parliamentary law.]

=== Page 12 ============================================================

Plan of the Work.

This Manual is prepared to partially meet this want in deliberative
assemblies that are not legislative in their character.  It has been
made sufficiently complete to answer for the rules of an assembly, until
they see fit to adopt special rules conflicting with and superseding any
of its rules of detail, such as the Order of Business [§ 44], etc.  Even
in matters of detail the practice of Congress is followed, wherever it
is not manifestly unsuited to ordinary assemblies, and in such cases, in
Part I, there will be found, in a foot note, the Congressional practice.
In the important matters referred to above, in which the practice of the
House of

=== Page 13 ============================================================

Representatives settles the common parliamentary law of the country,
this Manual strictly conforms to such practice.* [On account of the
party lines being so strictly drawn in Congress, no such thing as
harmony of action is possible, and it has been found best to give a bare
majority in the House of Representatives (but not in the Senate) the
power to take final action upon a question without allowing of any
discussion.  In ordinary societies more regard should be paid to the
rights of the minority, and a two-thirds vote be required, as in this
Manual [§ 39], for sustaining an objection to the introduction of a
question, or for adopting a motion for the Previous Question, or for
adopting an order closing or limiting debate.  In this respect the
policy of the Pocket Manual is a mean between those of the House and
Senate.  But some societies will doubtless find it advantageous to
follow the practice of the H. R., and others will prefer that of the
Senate.  It requires a majority, according to the Pocket Manual, to
order the yeas and nays, which is doubtless best in the majority of
assemblies; but in all bodies in which the members are responsible to
their constituents, a much smaller number should have this power.  In
Congress it requires but a one-fifth vote, and in some bodies a single
member can require a vote to be taken by yeas and nays.  Any society
adopting this Manual, should make its rules govern them in all cases to
which they are applicable, and in which they are not inconsistent with
the By-Laws and Rules of Order of the society.  Their own rules should
include all of the cases where it is desirable to vary from the rules in
the Manual, and especially should provide for a Quorum [§ 43], and an
Order of Business [§ 44], as suggested in these rules.]

The Manual is divided into two distinct parts, each complete in itself.
[The table at the end contains a large amount of information in a
tabular form, for easy reference in the midst of the business of a
meeting.]

Part I contains a set of Rules of Order systematically arranged, as
shown in the Table of Contents.  Each one of the forty-five sections is
complete in itself, so that no one unfamiliar with the work can be
misled in examining any particular subject.  Cross references are freely
used to save repeating

=== Page 14 ============================================================

from other sections, and by this means the reader, without using the
index, is referred to everything in the Rules of Order that has any
bearing upon the subject he is investigating.  The references are by
sections, and for convenience the numbers of the sections are placed at
the top of each page.  The motions are arranged under the usual classes,
in their order of rank, but in the index under the word motion will be
found an alphabetical list of all the motions generally used.  In
reference to each motion there is stated:

  (1) Of what motions it takes precedence (that is, what motions may,
      be pending, and yet it be in order to make this motion).
  (2) To what motions it yields (that is, what motions may be made
      while this motion is pending).
  (3) Whether it is debatable or not.
  (4) Whether it can be amended or not.
  (5) In case the motion can have no subsidiary motion applied to it,
      the fact is stated [see Adjourn, § 11, for an example:  the
      meaning is, that the particular motion to adjourn, for example,
      cannot be laid on the table, postponed, committed or amended].
  (6) The effect of the motion if adopted.
  (7) The form of stating the question when peculiar, and whatever other
      information is necessary to enable one to understand the question.

Part II.  While the second part covers the entire ground of the first
part, it does so in a much simpler manner, being intended for those who
have

=== Page 15 ============================================================

no acquaintance with the usages of deliberative assemblies.  It also
explains the method of organizing an assembly or society, and conducting
a meeting.  The motions are treated on an entirely different plan, being
classified according to the objects for which they are used, and those
of each class compared together so that the reader may obtain the best
motion for the accomplishment of any given object.  It omits the
complications of parliamentary law, and has but few references to the
rules of Congress, or those in this Manual.  In order to make it
complete in itself, it was necessary to repeat a few pages from the
first part.

Definitions.

In addition to the terms defined above (taking precedence of, yielding
to and applying to, see p. 14), there are other terms that are liable to
be misunderstood, to which attention should he called.

Meeting and Session.--In this Manual the term "meeting" is used to
denote an assembling together of the members of a deliberative assembly
for any length of time, during which there is no separation of the
members by adjournment.  An adjournment to meet again at some other
time, even the same day, terminates the meeting, but not the session,
which latter includes all the adjourned meetings.  The next meeting, in
this case, would be an "adjourned meeting" of the same session.

A "meeting" of an assembly is terminated by a

=== Page 16 ============================================================

temporary adjournment; a "session" of an assembly ends with an
adjournment without day, and may consist of many meetings [see Session,
§ 42].

Previous Question--This term is frequently understood to refer to the
question previously under consideration.  As used in this country it is
equivalent to a motion to "Stop debate, and proceed to voting on all the
questions before the assembly," with certain exceptions, where it
affects only one motion (as to postpone, to reconsider and an appeal;
see § 20 for a full explanation).

Shall the Question be Considered (or discussed)?  This question, which
is put as soon as a subject is brought before an assembly, if any member
"objects to its consideration" (or "discussion," or "introduction"), is
not intended to merely cut off debate, but to prevent the question from
coming before the assembly for its action.  If decided by a two-thirds
vote in the negative, the question is removed from before the assembly
immediately [see § 15].

Whenever the word "assembly," which is used throughout these rules,
occurs in forms of motions (as in Appeals, § 14), it is better to
replace it by the special term used to designate the particular
assembly; as for instance, "Society," or "Convention," or "Board."  The
term "Congress," when used in this Manual, refers to the House of
Representatives of the U.S.

=== Page 17 ============================================================

Part I.

Rules of Order.

---

Art. I. Introduction of Business.
[§§ 1-5.]

1. All business should be brought before the assembly by a motion of a
member, or by the presentation of a communication to the assembly.  It
is not usual, however, to make a motion to receive the reports of
committees [§ 30] or communications to the assembly; and in many other
cases in the ordinary routine of business, the formality of a motion is
dispensed with; but should any member object, a regular motion becomes
necessary.

2. Before a member can make a motion or address the assembly upon any
question, it is necessary that he obtain the floor; that is, he must
rise and address the presiding officer

=== Page 18 ============================================================

by his title, thus:  "Mr. Chairman" [§ 34], who will then announce the
member's name.  Where two or more rise at the same time the Chairman
must decide who is entitled to the floor, which he does by announcing
that member's name.  From this decision, however, an appeal [§ 14] can
he taken; though if there is any doubt as to who is entitled to the
floor, the Chairman can at the first allow the assembly to decide the
question by a vote--the one getting the largest vote being entitled to
the floor.

The member upon whose motion the subject under discussion was brought
before the assembly (or, in case of a committee's report, the one who
presented the report) is entitled to be recognized as having the floor
(if he has not already had it during that discussion), notwithstanding
another member may have first risen and addressed the Chair.  If the
Chairman rise to speak before the floor has been assigned to any one, it
is the duty of a member who may have previously risen to take his seat.
[See Decorum in Debate, § 36.]

When a member has obtained the floor, he cannot be cut off from
addressing the assembly, nor be interrupted in this speech by a

=== Page 19 ============================================================

motion to adjourn, or for any purpose, by either the Chairman or any
member, except (a) to have entered on the minutes a motion to reconsider
[§ 27]; (b) by a call to order [§ 14]; (c) by an objection to the
consideration of the question [§ 15]; or (d) by a call for the orders of
the day [§ 13].* [See note to § 61.] In such cases the member when he
arises and addresses the Chair should state at once for what purpose he
rises, as, for instance, that he "rises to a point of order."  A call
for an adjournment, or for the question, by members in their seats, is
not a motion; as no motion can be made, without rising and addressing,
the Chair, and being announced by the presiding officer.  Such calls for
the question are themselves breaches of order, and do not prevent the
speaker from going on if he pleases.

3. Before any subject is open to debate [§ 34] it is necessary, first,
that a motion he made; second, that it be seconded, (see exceptions
below); and third, that it be stated by the presiding officer.  When the
motion is in writing it shall be handed to the Chairman, and read before
it is debated.

This does not prevent suggestions of alterations, before the question is
stated by the

=== Page 20 ============================================================

presiding officer.  To the contrary, much time may be saved by such
informal remarks; which, however, must never be allowed to run into
debate.  The member who offers the motion, until it has been stated by
the presiding officer, can modify his motion, or even withdraw it
entirely; after it is stated he can do neither, without the consent of
the assembly.  [See §§ 5 and 17].  When the mover modifies his motion,
the one who seconded it can withdraw his second.

Exceptions:  A call for the order of the day, a question of order
(though not an appeal), or an objection to the consideration of a
question [§§ 13, 14, 15], does not have to be seconded; and many
questions of routine are not seconded or even made; the presiding
officer merely announcing that, if no objection is made, such will be
considered the action of the assembly.

4. All Principal Motions [§ 6], Amendments and Instructions to
Committees, should be in writing, if required by the presiding officer.
Although a question is complicated, and capable of being made into
several questions, no one member (without there is a special rule
allowing it) can insist upon its being divided; his resource is to move
that the question be divided, specifying in his motion how it is to be
divided.  Any one else can move as

=== Page 21 ============================================================

an amendment to this, to divide it differently.

This Division of a Question is really an amendment [§ 23], and subject
to the same rules.  Instead of moving a division of the question, the
same result can be usually attained by moving some other form of an
amendment.  When the question is divided, each separate question must be
a proper one for the assembly to act upon, even if none of the others
were adopted.  Thus, a motion to "commit with instructions," is
indivisible, because if divided, and the motion to commit should fail,
then the other motion to instruct the committee would be improper, as
there would be no committee to instruct.* [The 46th Rule of the House of
Representatives requires the division of a question on the demand of one
member, provided "it comprehends propositions in substance so distinct
that one being taken away, a substantive proposition shall remain for
the decision of the House."  But this does not allow a division so as to
have a vote on separate items or names.  The 121st Rule expressly
provides that on the demand of one-fifth of the members a separate vote
shall be taken on such items separately, and others collectively, as
shall be specified in the call, in the case of a bill making
appropriations for internal improvements.  But this right to divide a
question into items extends to no case but the one specified.  The
common parliamentary law allows of no division except when the assembly
orders it, and in ordinary assemblies this rule will be found to give
less trouble than the Congressional one.]

The motion to "strike out certain words and insert others," is
indivisible, as it is strictly one proposition.

5. After a question has been stated by the presiding officer, it is in
the possession of the

=== Page 22 ============================================================

assembly for debate; the mover cannot withdraw or modify it, if any one
objects, except by obtaining leave from the assembly [§ 17], or by
moving an amendment.

Art. II.  General Classification of Motions.
[§§ 6-9.]

6. A Principal or Main Question or Motion, is a motion made to bring
before the assembly, for its consideration, any particular subject.  No
Principal Motion can be made when any other question is before the
assembly.  It takes precedence of nothing, and yields to all Privileged,
Incidental and Subsidiary Questions [§§ 7, 8, 9].

7. Subsidiary or Secondary Questions or Motions relate to a Principal
Motion, and enable the assembly to dispose of it in the most appropriate
manner.  These motions take precedence of the Principal Question, and
must be decided before the Principal Question can be acted upon.  They
yield to Privileged and Incidental Questions [§§ 8, 9], and are as
follows (being arranged in their order of precedence among themselves):

=== Page 23 ============================================================

Lie on the Table .................... See § 19.
The Previous Question ...............  '' § 20.
Postpone to a Certain Day ...........  '' § 21.
Commit ..............................  '' § 22.
Amend ...............................  '' § 23.
Postpone Indefinitely ...............  '' § 24.

Any of these motions (except Amend) can be made when one of a lower
order is pending, but none can supersede one of a higher order.  They
cannot be applied* [See Plan of Work and Definitions, in Introduction,
for explanation of some of these technical terms.] to one another except
in the following cases:  (a) the Previous Question applies to the motion
to Postpone, without affecting the principal motion, and can, if
specified, be applied to a pending amendment [§ 20]; (b) the motions to
Postpone to a certain day, and to Commit, can be amended; and (c) a
motion to Amend the minutes can be laid on the table without carrying
the minutes with it [§ 19].

8. Incidental Questions are such as arise out of other questions, and,
consequently, take precedence of, and are to be decided before, the
questions which give rise to them.  They yield to Privileged Questions
[§ 9], and cannot be amended.  Excepting an Appeal,

=== Page 24 ============================================================

they are undebatable; an Appeal is debatable or not, according to
circumstances, as shown in § 14.  They are as follows:

  Appeal (or Questions of Order) ........................... See § 14.
  Objection to the Consideration of a Question .............  '' § 15.
  The Reading of Papers ....................................  '' § 16.
  Leave to Withdraw a Motion ...............................  '' § 17.
  Suspension of the Rules ..................................  '' § 18.

9. Privileged Questions are such as, on account of their importance,
take precedence over all other questions whatever, and on account of
this very privilege they are undebatable [§ 35], excepting when relating
to the rights of the assembly or its members, as otherwise they could be
made use of so as to seriously interrupt business.  They are as follows
(being arranged in their order of precedence among themselves):

  To Fix the Time to which the Assembly shall Adjourn ...... See § 10.
  Adjourn ..................................................  '' § 11.
  Questions relating to the Rights and
    Privileges of the Assembly or any of
    its Members ............................................  '' § 12.
  Call for the Orders of the Day ...........................  '' § 13.

=== Page 25 ============================================================

Art. III.  Motions and their Order of Precedence.* [For a list of all
the ordinary motions, arranged in their order of precedence, see § 64.
All the Privileged and Subsidiary ones in this Article are so arranged.]
[§§ 10-27.]

Privileged Motions.
[§§ 10-13.  See § 9.]

10.  To Fix the Time to which the Assembly shall Adjourn.  This motion
takes precedence of all others, and is in order even after the assembly
has voted to adjourn, provided the Chairman has not announced the result
of the vote.  If made when another question is before the assembly, it
is undebatable [§ 35]; it can be amended by altering the time.  If made
when no other question is before the asembly, it stands as any other
principal motion, and is debatable.** [In ordinary societies it is better
to follow the common parliamentary law, and permit this question to be
introduced as a principal question, when it can be debated and
suppressed [§ 58, 59] like other questions.  In Congress, it is never
debatable, and has entirely superseded the unprivileged and inferior
motion to "adjourn to a particular time."]

The Form of this motion is, "When this assembly

=== Page 26 ============================================================

adjourns, it adjourns to meet at such a time."

11. To Adjourn.  This motion (when unqualified) takes precedence of all
others, except to "fix the time to which to adjourn," to which it
yields.  It is not debatable, and cannot be amended, or have any other
subsidiary motion [§ 7] applied to it.  If qualified in any way it loses
its privileged character, and stands as any other principal motion.  The
motion to adjourn can be repeated if there has been any intervening
business, though it be simply progress in debate [§ 26].  When a
committee is through with any business referred to it, and prepared to
report, instead of adjourning, a motion should be made "to rise," which
motion, in committee, has the same privileges as to adjourn in the
assembly [§ 32].

The effect upon Unfinished Business of an adjournment is as follows*
["After six days from the commencement of a second or subsequent session
of any Congress, all bills, resolutions and reports which originated in
the House, and at the close of the next preceding session remained
undetermined, shall be resumed, and acted on in the same manner as if an
adjournment had not taken place."  Rule 136, H. R. Any ordinary society
that meets as seldom as once each year, is apt to be composed of as
different membership at its successive meetings, as any two successive
Congresses, and only trouble would result from allowing unfinished
business to hold over to the next yearly meeting.] [see Session, § 42]:

=== Page 27 ============================================================

(a) When it does not close the session, the business interrupted by the
adjournment is the first in order after the reading of the minutes at
the next meeting, and is treated the same as if there had been no
adjournment; an adjourned meeting being legally the continuation of the
meeting of which it is an adjournment.

(b) When it closes a session in an assembly which has more than one
regular session each year, then the unfinished business is taken up at
the next succeeding session previous to new business, and treated the
same as if there had been no adjournment [see § 44, for its place in the
order of business].  Provided, that, in a body elected for a definite
time (as a board of directors elected for one year), unfinished business
falls to the ground with the expiration of the term for which the board
or any portion of them were elected.

(c) When the adjournment closes a session in an assembly which does not
meet more frequently than once a year, or when the assembly is an
elective body, and this session ends

=== Page 28 ============================================================

the term of a portion of the members, the adjournment shall put an end
to all business unfinished at the close of the session.  The business
can be introduced at the next session, the same as if it had never been
before the assembly.

12. Questions of Privilege.  Questions relating to the rights and
privileges of the assembly, or any of its members, take precedence of
all other questions, except the two preceding, to which they yield.  The
Previous Question [§ 20] can be applied to these, as to all other
debatable questions.

13. Orders of the Day.  A call for the Orders of the Day takes
precedence of every other motion, excepting to Reconsider [§ 27], and
the three preceding, to which latter three it yields, and is not
debatable, nor can it be amended.  It does not require to be seconded.

When one or more subjects have been assigned to a particular day or
hour, they become the Orders of the Day for that day or hour, and they
cannot be considered before that time, except by a two-thirds vote [§
39].  And when that day or hour arrives, if called up, they take
precedence of all but the three

=== Page 29 ============================================================

preceding questions [§§ 10, 11, 12].  Instead of considering them, the
assembly may appoint another time for their consideration.  If not taken
up on the day specified, the order falls to the ground.

When the Orders of the Day are taken up, it is necessary to take up the
separate questions in their exact order, the one first assigned to the
day or hour, taking precedence of one afterwards assigned to the same
day or hour.  (A motion to take up a particular part of the Orders of
the Day, or a certain question, is not a privileged motion).  Any of the
subjects, when taken up, instead of being then considered, can be
assigned to some other time.

The Form of this question, as put by the Chair when the proper time
arrives, or on the call of a member, is, "Shall the Order of the Day be
taken up?" or, "Will the assembly now proceed with the Orders of the
Day?"

The Effect of an affirmative vote on a call for the Orders of the Day,
is to remove the question under consideration from before the assembly,
the same as if it had been interrupted by an adjournment [§ 11].

The Effect of a negative vote is to dispense

=== Page 30 ============================================================

with the orders merely so far as they interfere with the consideration
of the question then before the assembly.

Incidental Motions.
[§§ 14-18; see § 8]

14. Appeal [Questions of Order].  A Question of Order takes precedence
of the question giving rise to it, and must be decided by the presiding
officer without debate.  If a member objects to the decision, he says,
"I appeal from the decision of the Chair."  If the Appeal is seconded,
the Chairman immediately states the question as follows:  "Shall the
decision of the Chair stand as the judgement of the assembly?"* [The
word Assembly can be replaced by Society, Convention, Board, etc.,
according to the name of the organization.] This Appeal yields to
Privileged Questions [§ 9].  It cannot be amended; it cannot be debated
when it relates simply to indecorum [§ 36], or to transgressions of the
rules of speaking, or to the priority of business, or if it is made
while the previous question [§ 20] is pending.  When debatable, no
member is allowed to speak but once, and whether debatable or not, the
presiding officer, without leaving the

=== Page 31 ============================================================

Chair, can state the reasons upon which he bases his decision.  The
motions to Lie on the Table [§ 19], or for the Previous Question [§ 20],
can be applied to an Appeal, when it is debatable, and when adopted they
affect nothing but the Appeal.  The vote on an Appeal may also be
reconsidered [§ 27].  An Appeal is not in order when another Appeal is
pending.

It is the duty of the presiding officer to enforce the rules and orders
of the assembly, without debate or delay.  It is also the right of every
member, who notices a breach of a rule to insist upon its enforcement.
In such cases he shall rise from his seat, and say, "Mr. Chairman, I
rise to a point of order."  The speaker should immediately take his
seat, and the Chairman requests the member to state his point of order,
which he does, and resumes his seat.  The Chair decides the point, and
then, if no appeal is taken, permits the first member to resume his
speech.  If the member's remarks are decided to be improper, and any one
objects to his continuing his speech, he cannot continue it without a
vote of the assembly to that effect.  Instead of the method just
described, it is usual, when it is simply a case of improper language
used in debate, for a member to say, "I call the gentleman to order;"
the Chairman

=== Page 32 ============================================================

decides whether the speaker is in or out of order, and proceeds as
before.  The Chairman can ask the advice of members when he has to
decide questions of order, but the advice must be given sitting, to
avoid the appearance of debate; or the Chair, when unable to decide the
question, may at once submit it to the assembly.  The effect of laying
an appeal on the table, is to sustain, at least for the time, the
decision of the Chair, and does not carry to the table the question
which gave rise to the question of order.

15. Objection to the Consideration of a Question.  An objection can be
made to any principal motion [§ 6], but only when it is first
introduced, before it has been debated.  It is similar to a question of
order [§ 14,] in that it can be made while another member has the floor,
and does not require a second; and as the Chairman can call a member to
order, so can he put this question if he deems it necessary, upon his
own responsibility.  It can not be debated [§ 35] or have any subsidiary
motion [§ 7] applied to it.  When a motion is made and any member
"objects to its consideration," the Chairman shall immediately put the
question, "Will the assembly consider it?" or, "Shall the question be
considered"

=== Page 33 ============================================================

[or discussed]?  If decided in the negative by a two-thirds vote [§ 39],
the whole matter is dismissed for that session [§ 42]; otherwise the
discussion continues as if this question had never been made.

The Object of this motion is not to cut off debate (for which other
motions are provided, see § 37), but to enable the assembly to avoid
altogether any question which it may deem irrelevant, unprofitable or
contentious.* [In Congress, the introduction of such questions could be
temporarily prevented by a majority vote under the 41st Rule of the
House of Representatives, which is as follows:  "Where any motion or
proposition is made, the question, 'Will the House now consider it?'
shall not be put unless it is demanded by some member, or is deemed
necessary by the Speaker."  The English use the "Previous Question," for
a similar purpose [see note to § 20].  The question of consideration is
seldom raised in Congress, but in assemblies with very short sessions,
where but few questions can or should be considered, it seems a
necessity that two-thirds of the assembly should be able to instantly
throw out a question they do not wish to consider.  The more common
form, in ordinary societies, of putting this question, is, "Shall the
question be discussed?"  The form to which preference is given in the
rule conforms more to the Congressional one, and is less liable to be
misunderstood.]

Reading Papers.  [For the order of precedence, see § 8.] Where papers
are laid before the assembly, every member has a right to have them once
read before he can be compelled to vote on them, and whenever a member
asks for the reading of any such

=== Page 34 ============================================================

paper, evidently for information, and not for delay, the Chair should
direct it to be read, if no one objects.  But a member has not the right
to have anything read (excepting stated above) without getting
permission from the assembly.

17. Withdrawal of a Motion.  [For order of precedence, see § 8.] When a
question is before the assembly and the mover wishes to withdraw or
modify it, or substitute a different one in its place, if no one
objects, the presiding officer grants the permission; if any objection
is made, it will be necessary to obtain leave to withdraw, etc., on a
motion for that purpose.  This motion cannot be debated or amended.
When a motion is withdrawn, the effect is the same as if it had never
been made.* [In Congress, a motion may be withdrawn by the mover, before
a decision or amendment [Rule 40, H. R.].  Nothing would be gained in
ordinary societies by varying from the common law as stated above.]

18. Suspension of the Rules.  [For the order of precedence, see § 8.]
This motion is not debatable, and cannot be amended, nor can any
subsidiary [§ 7] motion be applied to it, nor a vote on it be
reconsidered [§ 27],

=== Page 35 ============================================================

nor a motion to suspend the rules for the same purpose be renewed [§ 26]
at the same meeting, though it may be renewed after an adjournment,
though the next meeting be held the same day.* [In Congress, it cannot
be renewed the same day.] The rules of the assembly shall not be
suspended except for a definite purpose, and by a two-thirds vote.

The Form of this motion is, to "suspend the rules which interfere with,"
etc., specifying the object of the suspension.

Subsidiary Motions.
[§§ 19-24; see § 7.]

19. To Lie on the Table.  This motion takes precedence of all other
Subsidiary Questions [§ 7], and yields to any Privileged [§ 9] or
Incidental [§ 8] Question. It is not debatable, and cannot be amended or
have any other subsidiary motion [§ 7] applied to it.  It removes the
subject from consideration till the assembly vote to take it from the
table.

The Form of this motion is, "I move that the question lie on the table,"
or, "that it be laid on the table," or, "to lay the question

=== Page 36 ============================================================

on the table."  When it is desired to take the question up again, a
motion is made, either "to take the question from the table," or "to now
consider such and such a question;" which motion is undebatable, and
cannot have any subsidiary motion applied to it.

The Object of this motion is to postpone the subject in such a way, that
at any time it can be taken up, either at the same or some future
meeting, which could not be accomplished by a motion to postpone, either
definitely or indefinitely.  It is also frequently used to suppress a
question [§ 59], which it does, provided a majority vote can never be
obtained to take it from the table during that session [§ 42].

The Effect of this motion is in general to place on the table everything
that adheres to the subject; so that if an amendment be ordered to lie
on the table, the subject which it is proposed to amend, goes there with
it.  The following cases are exceptional:  (a) An appeal [§ 14] being
laid on the table, has the effect of sustaining, at least for the time,
the decision of the Chair, and does not carry the original subject to
the table.  (b) So when a motion to reconsider [§ 27] a question is

=== Page 37 ============================================================

laid on the table, the original question is left where it was before the
reconsideration was moved.  (c) An amendment to the minutes being laid
on the table does not carry the minutes with it.

Even after the ordering of the Previous Question up to the moment of
taking the last vote under it, it is in order to lay upon the table the
questions still before the assembly.

20. The Previous Question* [The Previous Question is a technical name
for this motion, conveying a wrong impression of its import, as it has
nothing to do with the subject previously under consideration.  To
demand the previous question is equivalent in effect to moving "That
debate now cease, and the assembly immediately proceed to vote on the
questions before it," (the exceptions are stated above).  The English
Previous Question is an entirely different one from ours, and is used
for a different purpose.  In the English Parliament it is moved by the
enemies of a measure, who then vote in the negative, and thus prevent
for the day, the consideration of the main question, (which in this
country could be accomplished by "objecting to the consideration of the
question" [§ 15], if the objection were sustained).  In our Congress, it
is moved by the friends of a measure, who vote in the affirmative with a
view to cutting off debate and immediately bringing the assembly to a
vote on the questions before it.  The rules in the two cases are as
different as the objects of the motions.  It requires only a majority
vote for its adoption in the House of Representatives, and is not
allowed in the United States Senate.] takes precedence of every debatable
question [§ 35], and yields to Privileged [§ 9] and Incidental [§ 8]
questions, and to the motion to Lie on the table [§ 19].  It is not
debatable, and cannot be amended or have any other Subsidiary

=== Page 38 ============================================================

[§ 7] motion applied to it.  It shall require a two-thirds vote for its
adoption.

When a member calls for the previous question, and the call is seconded,
the presiding officer must immediately put the question:  "Shall the
main question be now put?"  If adopted, the member who introduced the
pending measure still has the right to close the debate [§ 34]; after
which the presiding officer, without allowing further discussion, shall
put to vote the questions before the assembly, in their order of
precedence, till the main question, with all its subsidiary and
incidental questions, is disposed of (see the exceptions below).  If it
fails, the discussion continues as if this motion had not been made.

The previous question can be moved on a pending amendment, and if
adopted, debate is closed on the amendment only.  After the amendment is
voted on, the main question is again open to debate and amendments.  [In
this case the form of the question would be similar to this :  "Shall
the amendment be now put to the question?"]

=== Page 39 ============================================================

The Object of this motion is to bring the assembly to a vote on the
question before it without further debate.  In ordinary assemblies it is
rarely expedient to deprive a large minority of the right of debate, and
yet two-thirds of the members should have the right to close the debate
when they think it best.

It applies to questions of privilege [§ 12] as well as any other
debatable questions.  It is allowable for a member to submit a
resolution and at the same time move the previous question thereon.

To illustrate the Effect of this motion, suppose it is adopted when we
have before the assembly, (a) the main question; (b) an amendment; (c) a
motion to commit; (d) a motion to amend the last motion by giving the
committee instructions.  The previous question being carried, the
presiding officer would immediately put the question on the last motion
(d); then on the motion to commit, (c); and if this is adopted, of
course the subject is referred to the committee and disposed of for the
present; but if it fails, the amendment (b) is put, and finally the main
question.

Exceptions:  If the Previous Question is

=== Page 40 ============================================================

carried while a motion to Postpone is pending, its effect is only to
bring the assembly to a vote on that motion; if it is voted not to
postpone, the subject is again open for debate.  So if an Appeal [§ 14]
or a motion to Reconsider [§ 27] is pending when the Previous Question
is ordered, it applies only to them and is exhausted by the vote on
them.

An affirmative vote on the motion to Commit [§ 22] exhausts the Previous
Question, and if the vote is reconsidered, it is divested of the Previous
Question.

[For other methods of closing debate see § 37 and § 58].

21. To Postpone to a Certain Day.  This motion takes precedence of a
motion to Commit, or Amend, or Indefinitely Postpone, and yields to any
Privileged [§ 9] or Incidental [§ 8] question, and to the motion to Lie
on the Table, or for the Previous Question.  It can be amended by
altering the time, and the Previous Question can be applied to it without
affecting any other motions pending.  It allows of very limited debate
[§ 35], and that must not go into the merits of the subject matter any
further than is necessary to enable the

=== Page 41 ============================================================

assembly to judge the propriety of the postponement.

The Effect of this motion is to postpone the entire subject to the time
specified, until which time it cannot be taken up except by a two-thirds
vote [§ 13].  When that time arrives it is entitled to be taken up in
preference to every thing except Privileged questions.  Where several
questions are postponed to different times and are not reached then,
they shall be considered in the order of the times to which they were
postponed.  It is not in order to postpone to a time beyond that session
[§ 42] of the assembly, except* [In Congress a motion cannot be
postponed to the next session, but it is customary in ordinary
societies.] to the day of the next session when it comes up with the
unfinished business, and consequently takes precedence of new business
[§ 44].  If it is desired to hold an adjourned meeting to consider a
special subject, the time to which the assembly shall adjourn [§ 10]
should be first fixed before making the motion to postpone the subject
to that day.

22. To Commit [or Recommit as it is called when the subject has been
previously committed].  This motion takes precedence of the motions to
Amend or Indefinitely Postpone, and yields to any Privileged [§ 9] or
Incidental

=== Page 42 ============================================================

[§ 8] Question, and also to the motion to Lie on the Table, or for the
Previous Question, or to Postpone to a certain day.  It can be amended
by altering the committee, or giving it instructions.  It is debatable,
and opens to debate [§ 35] the merits of the question it is proposed to
commit.

The Form of this motion is "to refer the subject to a committee."  When
different committees are proposed they should he voted in the following
order:  (1) Committee the whole [§ 32], (2) a standing committee, and
(3) a special (or select) committee.  The number of a committee is
usually decided without the formality of a motion, as in filling blanks
[§ 25]:  the Chairman asks "of how many shall the committee consist?"
and a question is then put upon each number suggested, beginning with
the largest.  The number and kind of the committee need not be decided
till after it has been voted to refer the subject to a committee.  If
the committee is a select one, and the motion does not include the
method of appointing it, and there is no standing rule on the subject,
the Chairman inquires how the committee shall be appointed, and this is
usually decided informally.  Sometimes the Chair "appoints," in which
case he names the members of the committee and no vote is taken

=== Page 43 ============================================================

upon them; or the committee is "nominated" either by the Chair or
members of the assembly (no member nominating more than one except by
general consent), and then they are all voted upon together, except
where more nominations are made than the number of the committee, when
they shall be voted upon singly.

Where a committee is one for action (a committee of arrangements for
holding a public meeting, for example), it should generally be small, and
no one placed upon it who is not favorable to the proposed action; and
if any such should be appointed he should ask to be excused.  But when
the committee is for deliberation or investigation, it is of the utmost
importance that all parties be represented on it, so that in committee
the fullest discussion may take place, and thus diminish the chances of
unpleasant debates in the assembly.

In ordinary assemblies, by judicious appointment of committees, debates
upon delicate and troublesome questions can be mostly confined to the
committees, which will contain the representative members of all
parties.  [See Reports of Committees, § 29.]

23. To Amend.  This motion takes precedence of nothing but the question
which it proposed to amend, and yields to any Privileged

=== Page 44 ============================================================

[§ 9], Incidental [§ 8] or Subsidiary [§ 7] Question, except to
Indefinitely Postpone.  It can be amended itself, but this "amendment of an
amendment" cannot be amended.  An Amendment may be inconsistent with one
already adopted, or may directly conflict with the spirit of the
original motion, but it must have a direct bearing upon the subject of
that motion.  To illustrate:  a motion for a vote of thanks could be
amended by substituting for "thanks" the word "censure;" or one condemning
certain customs could be amended by adding other customs.

An Amendment may be in any of the following forms:  (a) to "add or
insert" certain words or paragraphs; (b) to "strike out" certain words
or paragraphs, the question, however, being stated by the Chair thus:
"Shall these words (or paragraphs) stand as a part of the resolution?"
and if this is adopted (that is, the motion to "strike out," fails) it
does not preclude either amendment or a motion to "strike out and
insert;" (c) "to strike certain words and insert others," which motion
is indivisible, and if lost does not preclude

=== Page 45 ============================================================

another motion to strike out the same words and insert different ones;
(d) to "substitute" another motion on the same subject for the one
pending; (e) to "divide the question" into two or more questions, as the
mover specifies, so as to get a separate vote on any particular point or
points [see § 4].

If a paragraph is inserted it should be perfected by its friends
previous to voting on it, as when once inserted it cannot be struck out
or amended except by adding to it.  The same is true in regard to words
to be inserted in a resolution, as when once inserted they cannot be
struck out, except by a motion to strike out the paragraph, or such a
portion of it as shall make the question an entirely different one from
that of inserting the particular words.  The principle involved is that
when the assembly has voted that certain words shall form a part of a
resolution, it is not in order to make another motion which involves
exactly the same question as the one they have decided.  The only way to
bring it up again is to move a Reconsideration [§ 27] of the vote by
which the words were inserted.

In stating the question on an Amendment the Chairman should read (1) the
passage to be amended; (2) the words to be struck out, if any; (3) the
words to be inserted, if any; and (4) the whole passage as it will stand
if

=== Page 46 ============================================================

the amendment is adopted.  [For amending reports of committees, and
propositions containing several paragraphs, see § 44.]

The numbers prefixed to paragraphs are only marginal indications, and
should be corrected, if necessary, by the clerk, without any motion to
amend.

The following motions cannot be amended:

  To Adjourn (when unqualified) ............................ See § 11.
  For the Orders of the Day ................................  '' § 12.
  All Incidental Questions .................................  '' §  8.
  To Lie on the Table ......................................  '' § 19.
  For the Previous Question ................................  '' § 20.
  An Amendment of an Amendment .............................  '' § 23.
  To Postpone Indefinitely .................................  '' § 24.
  Reconsider ...............................................  '' § 27.

An Amendment to Rules of Order, By-Laws or a Constitution shall require
previous notice and a two-thirds vote for its adoption [see § 45].

24. To Postpone Indefinitely.  This motion takes precedence of nothing
except the Principal Question [§ 6], and yields to any Privileged [§ 9],
Incidental [§ 8] or Subsidiary [§ 7] Motion, except to Amend.  It cannot
be amended; it opens to debate the entire question which it is proposed
to postpone.  Its effect is to entirely remove the question from before
the assembly for that session [§ 42].

=== Page 47 ============================================================

The Previous Question [§ 20], if ordered when this motion is pending,
applies only to it without affecting the main question.

Miscellaneous Motions.
[§§ 25-27.]

25. Filling Blanks.  In filling blanks the largest sum and the longest
time proposed shall be first put to the question.  Sometimes the most
convenient way of amending a resolution is to create a blank by moving
to strike out a certain number or time.  It is customary for any number
of members to propose numbers to fill a blank without the formality of a
motion, these different propositions not being regarded in the light of
amendments.

Nominations are treated in a similar manner, so that the second
nomination, instead of being an amendment to the first, is an
independent motion, which, if the first fails, is to be immediately
voted upon.  Any number of nominations can be made, the Chairman
announcing each name as he hears it, and they

=== Page 48 ============================================================

should be voted upon in the order announced, until one receives a vote
sufficient for an election.

26. Renewal of a Motion.  When any Principal Question [§ 6] or
Amendment has been once acted upon by the assembly, it cannot be taken
up again at the same session [§ 42] except by a motion to Reconsider [§
27].  The motion to Adjourn can be renewed if there has been progress in
debate, or any business transacted.  As a general rule the introduction
of any motion that alters the state of affairs makes it admissible to
renew any Privileged or Incidental motion (excepting Suspension of the
Rules as provided in § 18), or Subsidiary motion (excepting an
amendment), as in such a case the real question before the assembly is a
different one.

To illustrate:  a motion that a question lie on the table having failed,
suppose afterwards it be moved to refer the matter to a committee, it is
now in order to move again that the subject lie on the table; but such a
motion would not be in order, if it were not made till after the failure
of the motion to commit, as

=== Page 49 ============================================================

the question then resumes its previous condition.

When a subject has been referred to a committee which reports at the
same meeting, the matter stands before the assembly as if it had been
introduced for the first time.  A motion which has been withdrawn has
not been acted upon, and therefore can be renewed.

27. Reconsider.  It is in order at any time, even when another member
has the floor, or while the assembly is voting on the motion to Adjourn,
during the day* [In Congress any one can move a reconsideration,
excepting where the vote is taken by yeas and nays [§ 38], when the rule
above applies.  The motion can be made on the same or succeeding day.]
on which a motion has been acted upon, to move to "Reconsider the vote"
and have such motion "entered on the record," but it cannot be
considered while another question is before the assembly.  It must be
made, excepting when the vote is by ballot, by a member who voted with
the prevailing side; for instance, in case a motion fails to pass for
lack of a two-thirds vote, a reconsideration must be moved by one who
voted against the motion.

A motion to reconsider the vote on a Subsidiary [§ 7] motion takes
precedence of the main question.  It yields to Privileged [§ 9]

=== Page 50 ============================================================

questions (except for the Orders of the Day), and Incidental [§ 8]
questions.

This motion can be applied* [It is not the practice to reconsider an
affirmative vote on the motion to lie on the table, as the same result
can be more easily reached by the motion to take from the table.  For a
similar reason, an affirmative vote on the motion to take from the table
cannot be reconsidered.] to every question, except to Adjourn and to
Suspend the Rules.  It is debatable or not, just as the question to be
reconsidered is debatable or undebatable [§ 35]; when debatable, it
opens up for discussion the entire subject to be reconsidered, and can
have the Previous question [§ 20] applied to it without affecting any
thing but the motion to reconsider.  It can be laid on the table [§ 19],
and in such cases the last motion cannot be reconsidered; it is quite
common and allowable to combine these two motions (though they must be
voted on separately); in this case, the reconsideration like any other
question, can be taken from the table, but possesses no privilege.** [In
Congress this is a common method used by the friends of a measure to
prevent its reconsideration.] The motion to reconsider being laid on the
table does not carry with it the pending measure.  If an amendment to a
motion has been either adopted or rejected, and then a vote taken on the
motion as amended, it is not in order to reconsider the vote on the
amendment until

=== Page 51 ============================================================

after the vote on the original motion has been reconsidered.  If
anything which the assembly cannot reverse, has been done as the result
a vote, then that vote cannot be reconsidered.

The Effect of making this motion is to suspend all action that the
original motion would have required until the reconsideration is acted
upon; but if it is not called up, its effect terminates with the session
[§ 42], provided,* [In Congress the effect always terminates with the
session, and it cannot be called up by any one but the mover, until the
expiration of the time during which it is in order to move a
reconsideration.] that in an assembly having regular meetings as often
as monthly, if no adjourned meeting upon another day is held of the one
at which the reconsideration was moved, its effect shall not terminate
till the close of the next succeeding session.  [See note at end of this
section.] While this motion is so highly privileged as far as relates to
having it entered on the minutes, yet the reconsideration of another
question cannot be made to interfere with the discussion of a question
before the assembly, but as soon as that subject is disposed of, the
reconsideration, if called up, takes precedence of every thing except
the motions to adjourn, and to fix the time to which to adjourn.  As
long as its effect lasts (as shown above), any one can call up the
motion to reconsider and have it acted upon--excepting that when its
effect extends beyond the meeting at which the motion was made, no one
but the mover can call it up at that meeting.  But the reconsideration
of an Incidental [§ 8] or Subsidiary [§ 7]

=== Page 52 ============================================================

motion shall be immediately acted upon, as otherwise it would prevent
action on the main question.

The Effect of the adoption of this motion is to place before the
assembly the original question in the exact position it occupied before
it was voted upon; consequently no one can debate the question
reconsidered who had previously exhausted his right of debate [§ 34] on
that question; his only resource is to discuss the question while the
motion to reconsider is before the assembly.

When a vote taken under the operation of the previous question [§ 20] is
reconsidered, the question is then divested of the previous question,
and is open to debate and amendment, provided the previous question had
been exhausted [see latter part of § 20] by votes taken on all the
questions covered by it, before the motion to reconsider was made.

A reconsideration requires only a majority vote, regardless of the vote
necessary to adopt the motion reconsidered.  [For reconsidering in
committee see § 28].

Note On Reconsider.--In the English Parliament a vote once taken
cannot be reconsidered, but in our Congress it is allowed to move a
reconsideration of the vote on the same or succeeding day, and after the
close of the last day for making the motion, any one can call up the
motion to reconsider, so that this motion cannot delay action more than
two days, and the effect

=== Page 53 ============================================================

of the motion, if not acted upon, terminates with the session.  There
seems to be no reason or good precedent for permitting merely two
persons, by moving a reconsideration, to suspend for any length of time
all action under resolutions adopted by the assembly, and yet where the
delay is very short the advantages of reconsideration overbalance the
evils.

Where a permanent society has meetings weekly or monthly, and usually
only a small proportion of the society is present, it seems best to
allow a reconsideration to hold over to another meeting, so that the
society may have notice of what action is about to be taken.  To prevent
the motion being used to defeat a measure that cannot be deferred till
the next regular meeting, it is provided that in case the society
adjourn, to meet the next day for instance, then the reconsideration
will not hold over beyond that session; this allows sufficient delay to
notify the society, while, if the question is one requiring immediate
action, the delay cannot extend beyond the day to which they adjourn.
Where the meetings are only quarterly or annual, the society should be
properly represented at each meeting, and their best interests are
subserved by following the practice of Congress, and letting the effect
of the reconsideration terminate with the session.

=== Page 54 ============================================================

Art. IV.  Committees and Informal Action.
[§§ 28-33.]

28. Committees.  It is usual in deliberative assemblies, to have all
preliminary work in the preparation of matter for their action, done by
means of committees.  These may be either "standing committees" (which
are appointed for the session [§ 42], or for some definite time, as one
year); or "select committees," appointed for a special purpose; or a
"committee of the whole" [§ 32], consisting of the entire assembly.
[For method of appointing committees of the whole, see § 32; other
committees, see commit, § 22.] The first person named on a committee is
chairman, and should act as such, without the committee should see fit
to elect another chairman, which they are competent to do.  The clerk
should furnish him, or some other member of the committee, with notice
of the appointment of the committee, giving the names

=== Page 55 ============================================================

of the members, the matter referred to them, and such instructions as
the assembly have decided upon.  The chairman shall call the committee
together, and if there is a quorum (a majority of the committee, see §
43,) he should read or have read, the entire resolutions referred to
them; he should then read each paragraph, and pause for amendments to be
offered; when the amendments to that paragraph are voted on he proceeds
to the next, only taking votes on amendments, as the committee cannot
vote on the adoption of matter referred to them by the assembly.

If the committee originate the resolutions, they vote, in the same way,
on amendments to each paragraph of the draft of the resolutions, (which
draft has been previously prepared by one of their members or a
sub-committee); they do not vote on the separate paragraphs, but having
completed the amendments, they vote on the adoption of the entire
report.  When there is a preamble, it is considered last.  If the report
originates with the committee, all amendments are to be incorporated in
the report; but, if the resolutions were referred, the committee cannot
alter

=== Page 56 ============================================================

the text, but must submit the original paper intact, with their
amendments (which may be in the form of a substitute, § 23) written on a
separate sheet.

A committee is a miniature assembly that must meet together in order to
transact business, and usually one of its members should be appointed
its clerk.  Whatever is not agreed to by the majority of the members
present at a meeting (at which a quorum, consisting of a majority of the
members of the committee, shall be present) cannot form a part of its
report.  The minority may be permitted to submit their views in writing
also, either together, or each member separately, but their reports can
only be acted upon, by voting to substitute one of them for the report
of the committee.  The rules of the assembly, as far as possible, shall
apply in committee; but a reconsideration [§ 27] of a vote shall be
allowed, regardless of the time elapsed, only when every member who
voted with the majority is present when the reconsideration is moved.*
[Both the English common parliamentary law and the rules of Congress
prohibit the reconsideration of a vote by a committee; but the strict
enforcement of this rule in ordinary committees, would interfere with
rather than assist the transaction of business.  The rule given above
seems more just, and more in accordance with the practice of ordinary
committees, who usually reconsider at pleasure.  No improper advantage
can be taken of the privilege, as long as every member who voted with
the majority must be present when the reconsideration is moved.] A
committee (except a committee

=== Page 57 ============================================================

of the whole, § 32] may appoint a sub-committee.  When through with the
business assigned them, a motion is made for the committee to "rise"
(which is equivalent to the motion to adjourn), and that the chairman
(or some member who is more familiar with the subject) make its report
to the assembly.  The committee ceases to exist as soon as the assembly
receives the report [§ 30].

The committee has no power to punish its members for disorderly conduct,
its resource being to report the facts to the assembly.  No allusion can
be made in the assembly to what has occurred in committee, except it be
by a report of the committee, or by general consent.  It is the duty of
a committee to meet on the call of any two its of members, if the
chairman be absent or decline to appoint such meeting.  When a committee
adjourns without appointing a time for the next meeting, it is called
together in the same way as at its first meeting.  When a committee
adjourns to meet at another time, it is not necessary (though

=== Page 58 ============================================================

usually advisable) that absent members should be notified of the
adjourned meeting.

29. Forms of Reports of Committees.  The form of a report is usually
similar to the following:

A standing committee reports thus:  "The committee on [insert name of
committee] respectfully report," [or "beg leave to report," or "beg
leave to submit the following report,"] etc., letting the report follow.

A select or special committee reports as follows:  "The committee to
which was referred [state the matter referred] having considered the
same respectfully report," etc.  Or for "The committee" is sometimes
written "Your committee," or "The undersigned, a committee."

When a minority report is submitted, it should be in this form (the
majority reporting as above):  "The undersigned, a minority of a
committee to which was referred," etc.  The majority report is the
report of the committee, and should never be made out as the report of
the majority.

All reports conclude with, "All of which is

=== Page 59 ============================================================

respectfully submitted."  They are sometimes signed only by the chairman
of the committee, but if the matter is of much importance, it is better
that the report be signed by every member who concurs.  The report is
not usually dated, or addressed, but can he headed, as for example,
"Report of the Finance Committee of the Y. P. A., on Renting a Hall."

30. Reception of Reports.  When the report of a committee is to be
made, the chairman (or member appointed to make the report) informs the
assembly that the committee to whom was referred such a subject or
paper, has directed him to make a report thereon, or report it with or
without amendment, as the case may be; either he or any other member may
move that it be "received"* [A very common error is, after a report has
been read, to move that it be received; whereas, the fact that it has
been read, shows that it has been already received by the assembly.
Another mistake, less common, but dangerous, is to vote that the report
be accepted (which is equivalent to adopting it, see § 31), when the
intention is only to have the report up for consideration and afterwards
move its adoption.  Still a third error is to move that "the report be
adopted and the committee discharged," when the committee have reported
in full and their report been received, so that the committee has
already ceased to exist.  If the committee however have made but a
partial report, or report progress, then it is in order to move that the
committee be discharged from the further consideration of the subject.]
now or at some other specified time.

=== Page 60 ============================================================

Usually the formality of a vote on the reception of a report of a
committee is dispensed with, the time being settled by general consent.
Should any one object, a formal motion becomes necessary.  When the time
arrives for the assembly to receive the report, the chairman of the
committee reads it in his place, and then delivers it to the clerk, when
it lies on the table till the assembly sees fit to consider it.  If the
report consists of a paper with amendments, the chairman of the
committee reads the amendments with the coherence in the paper,
explaining the alterations and reasons of the committee for the
amendments, till he has gone through the whole.  If the report is very
long, it is not usually read until the assembly is ready to consider it
[see §§ 31 and 44].

When the report has been received, whether it has been read or not, the
committee is thereby dissolved, and can act no more without it is
revived by a vote to recommit.  If the report is recommitted, all the
parts of the report that have not been agreed to by the assembly, are
ignored by the committee as if the report had never been made.

=== Page 61 ============================================================

31. Adoption of Reports.  When the assembly is to consider a report, a
motion should be made to "adopt," "accept," or "agree to" the report,
all of which, when carried, have the same effect, namely, to make the
doings of the committee become the acts of the assembly, the same as if
done by the assembly without the intervention of a committee.  If the
report contains merely a statement of opinion or facts, the motion
should be to "accept" the report; if it also concludes with resolutions
or certain propositions, the motion should be to "agree to" the
resolutions, or to "adopt" the propositions.  After the above motion is
made, the matter stands before the assembly exactly the same as if there
had been no committee, and the subject had been introduced by the motion
of the member who made the report.  [See § 34 for his privileges in
debate, and § 44 for the method of treating a report containing several
propositions, when being considered by the assembly.]

32. Committee of the Whole.  When an assembly has to consider a subject
which it does not wish to refer to a committee, and yet where the
subject matter is not well digested

=== Page 62 ============================================================

and put into proper form for its definite action, or, when for any other
reason, it is desirable for the assembly to consider a subject with all
the freedom of an ordinary committee, it is the practice to refer the
matter to the "Committee of the Whole."* [In large assemblies, such as
the U. S. House of Representatives, where a member can speak to any
question but once, the committee of the whole seems almost a necessity,
as it allows the freest discussion of a subject, while at any time it
can rise and thus bring into force the strict rules of the assembly.]

If it is desired to consider the question at once, the motion is made,
"That the assembly do now resolve itself into a committee of the whole
to take under consideration," etc., specifying the subject.  This is
really a motion to "commit" [see § 22 for its order of precedence,
etc.] If adopted, the Chairman immediately calls another member to the
chair, and takes his place as a member of the committee.  The committee
is under the rules of the assembly, excepting as stated hereafter in
this section.

The only motions in order are to amend and adopt, and that the committee
"rise and report," as it cannot adjourn; nor can it order the "yeas and
nays" [§ 38].  The only way to close or limit debate in committee of the
whole, is for the assembly to vote that the debate in committee shall
cease at a certain time, or that after a certain time no debate shall be
allowed excepting on new amendments, and then only one speech in favor
of

=== Page 63 ============================================================

and one against it, of say, five minutes each; or in some other way
regulate the time for debate.* [In Congress no motion to limit debate in
committee of the whole is in order till after the subject has been
already considered in committee of the whole.  As no subject would
probably be considered more than once in committee of the whole, in an
ordinary society, the enforcement of this rule would practically prevent
such a society from putting any limit to debate in the committee.  The
rule as given above, allows the society, whenever resolving itself into
committee of the whole, to impose upon the debate in the committee,
such restrictions as are allowed in Congress after the subject has
already been considered in committee of the whole.]

If no limit is prescribed, any member may speak as often as he can get
the floor, and as long each time as allowed in debate in the assembly,
provided no one wishes the floor who has not spoken on that particular
question.  Debate having been closed at a particular time by order of
the assembly, it is not competent for the committee, even by unanimous
consent, to extend the time.  The committee cannot refer the subject to
another committee.  Like other committees [§ 28], it cannot alter the
text of any resolution referred to it; but if the resolution originated
in the committee, then all the amendments are incorporated in it.

When it is through with the consideration of the subject referred to it,
or if it wishes to adjourn, or to have the assembly limit debate, a
motion is made that "the committee rise and report," etc., specifying
the result of its proceedings.

=== Page 64 ============================================================

This motion "to rise" is equivalent to the motion to adjourn, in the
assembly, and is always in order (except when another member has the
floor), and is undebatable.  As soon as this motion is adopted, the
presiding officer takes the chair, and the chairman of the committee,
having resumed his place in the assembly, arises and informs him, that
"the committee have gone through the business referred to them, and that
he is ready to make the report, when the assembly is ready to receive
it;" or he will make such other report as will suit the case.

The clerk does not record the proceedings of the committee on the
minutes, but should keep a memorandum of the proceedings for the use of
the committee.  In large assemblies the clerk vacates his chair, which
is occupied by the chairman of the committee, and the assistant clerk
acts as clerk of the committee.  Should the committee get disorderly,
and the chairman be unable to preserve order, the presiding officer can
take the chair, and declare the committee dissolved.  The quorum of the
committee of the whole is the same as that of the assembly [§ 43].  If
the committee finds itself without a quorum, it can only rise and report
the fact to the assembly, which in such a case would have to adjourn.

=== Page 65 ============================================================

33. Informal Consideration of a Question (or acting as if in committee
of the whole).

It has become customary in many assemblies, instead of going into
committee of the whole, to consider the question "informally," and
afterwards to act "formally."  In a small assembly there is no objection
to this.* [In the U. S. Senate all bills, joint resolutions and
treaties, upon their second reading are considered "as if the Senate
were in committee of the whole," which is equivalent to considering them
informally.  [U. S. Senate Rules 28 and 38.]  In large assemblies it is
better to follow the practice of the House of Representatives, and go
into committee of the whole.] While acting informally upon any
resolutions, the assembly can only amend and adopt them, and without
further motion the Chairman announces that "the assembly acting
informally [or as in committee of the whole] has had such a subject
under consideration, and has made certain amendments, which he will
report."  The subject comes before the assembly then as if reported by a
committee.  While acting informally, the Chairman retains his seat, as
it is not necessary to move that the committee rise, but at any time the
adoption of such motions as to adjourn, the previous question, to
commit, or any motion except to amend or adopt, puts an end to the
informal consideration; as for example, the motion to commit is
equivalent to the following motions when in committee of the whole:  (1)
That the committee rise; (2) that the committee of

=== Page 66 ============================================================

the whole be discharged from the further consideration of the subject,
and (3) that it be referred to a committee.

While acting informally, every member can speak as many times as he
pleases, and as long each time as permitted in the assembly [§ 34], and
the informal action may be rejected or altered by the assembly.  While
the clerk should keep a memorandum of the informal proceedings, it
should not be entered on the minutes, being only for temporary use.  The
Chairman's report to the assembly of the informal action, should be
entered on the minutes, as it belongs to the assembly's proceedings.

Art. V. Debate and Decorum.

[§§ 34-37.]

34. Debate.* [In connection with this section read §§ 1-5.] When a
motion is made and seconded, it shall be stated by the Chairman before
being debated [see § 3].  When any member is about to speak in debate,
he shall rise and respectfully address himself to "Mr. Chairman."
["Mr. President" is used where that is the designated title of the
presiding

=== Page 67 ============================================================

officer; "Brother Moderator" is more common in religious meetings.] The
Chairman shall then announce his name [see § 2].  By parliamentary
courtesy, the member upon whose motion a subject is brought before the
assembly is first entitled to the floor, even though another member has
risen first and addressed the Chair; [in case of a report of a
committee, it is the member who presents the report] ; and this member
is also entitled to close the debate, but not until every member
choosing to speak, has spoken.  This right to make the last speech upon
the question, is not taken away by the Previous Question [§ 20] being
ordered, or in any other way.  With this exception, no member shall
speak more than twice to the same question (only once to a question of
order, § 14), nor longer than ten minutes at one time, without leave of
the assembly, and the question upon granting the leave shall be decided
by a majority vote without debate.* [The limit in time should vary to
suit circumstances, but the limit of two speeches of ten minutes each
will usually answer in ordinary assemblies, and it can be increased,
when desirable, by a majority vote as shown above, or diminished as
shown in § 37.  In the U. S. House of Representatives no member can
speak more than once to the same question, nor longer than one hour.
The fourth rule of the Senate is as follows:  "No Senator shall speak
more than twice in any one debate on the same day, without leave of the
Senate, which question shall be decided without debate."  If no rule is
adopted, each member can speak but once to the same question.]

If greater freedom is desired, the

=== Page 68 ============================================================

proper course is to refer the subject to the committee of the whole [§
32], or to consider it informally [§ 33].  [For limiting or closing the
debate, see § 37.] No member can speak the second time to a question,
until every member choosing to speak has spoken.  But an amendment, or
any other motion being offered, makes the real question before the
assembly a different one, and, in regard to the right to debate, is
treated as a new question.  Merely asking a question, or making a
suggestion, is not considered as speaking.

35. Undebatable Questions.  The following questions shall be decided
without debate, all others being debatable [see note at end of this
section]:

  To Fix the Time to which the Assembly shall Adjourn (when a
privileged question, § 10).
  To Adjourn [§ 11], (or in committee, to rise, which is used instead
of to adjourn).
  For the Orders of the Day [§ 13], and questions relating to the
priority of business.
  An Appeal [§ 14] when made while the Previous Question is pending,
or when simply relating to indecorum or transgressions of the rules of
speaking, or to the priority of business.
  Objection to the Consideration of a Question [§ 15].

=== Page 69 ============================================================

  Questions relating to Reading of Papers [§ 16], or Withdrawing a
Motion [§ 17], or Suspending the Rules [§ 18], or extending the limits
of debate [§ 34], or limiting or closing debate, or granting leave to
continue his speech to one who has been guilty of indecorum in debate
[§ 36].
  To Lie on the Table or to Take from the Table [§ 19].
  The Previous Question [§ 20].
  To Reconsider [§ 26] a question which is itself undebatable.

The motion to Postpone to a certain time [§ 21] allows of but very
limited debate, which must be confined to the propriety of the
postponement; but to Reconsider a debatable question [§ 26], or to
Commit [§ 22], or Indefinitely Postpone [§ 24], opens the main question
[§ 6] to debate.  To Amend [§ 23] opens the main question to debate only
so far as it is necessarily involved in the amendment.

The distinction between debate and making suggestions or asking a
question, should always be kept in view, and when the latter will
assist the assembly in determining the question, is allowed to a
limited extent, even though the question before the assembly is
undebatable.

Note On Undebatable Questions.--The English common parliamentary law
makes all motions

=== Page 70 ============================================================

debatable, without there is a rule adopted limiting debate [Cushing's
Manual, § 330]; but every assembly is obliged to restrict debate upon
certain motions.  The restrictions to debate prescribed in this section
conform to the practice of Congress, where, however, it is very common
to allow of brief remarks upon the most undebatable questions, sometimes
five or six members speaking; this of course is allowed only when no one
objects.

By examining the above list, it will be found, that, while free debate
is allowed upon every principal question [§ 6], it is permitted or
prohibited upon other questions in accordance with the following
principles:

(a) Highly privileged questions, as a rule, should not be debated, as in
that case they could be used to prevent the assembly from coming to a
vote on the main question; (for instance, if the motion to adjourn were
debatable, it could be used [see § 11] in a way to greatly hinder
business).  High privilege is, as a rule, incompatible with the right of
debate on the privileged question.

(b) A motion that has the effect to suppress a question before the
assembly, so that it cannot again be taken up that session [§ 42],
allows of free debate.  And a subsidiary motion [§ 7, except commit,
which see below,] is debatable to just the extent that it interferes
with the right of the assembly to take up the original question at its
pleasure.

Illustrations:  To "Indefinitely Postpone" [§ 24] a question, places it
out of the power of the assembly to again take it up during that
session, and consequently this motion allows of free debate, even
involving the whole merits of the original question.

To "Postpone to a certain time" prevents the assembly taking up the
question till the specified time, and therefore allows of limited debate
upon the propriety of the postponement.

To "Lie on the Table" leaves the question so

=== Page 71 ============================================================

that the assembly can at any time consider it, and therefore should not
be, and is not debatable.

To "Commit" would not be very debatable, according to this rule, but it
is an exception, because it is often important that the committee should
know the views of the assembly on the question, and it therefore is not
only debatable, but opens to debate the whole question which it is
proposed to refer to the committee.

36. Decorum in Debate [see § 2].  In debate a member must confine
himself to the question before the assembly, and avoid personalities.
He cannot reflect upon any act of the assembly, unless he intends to
conclude his remarks with a motion to rescind such action, or else while
debating such motion.  In referring to another member, he should, as
much as possible, avoid using his name, rather referring to him as "the
member who spoke last," or in some other way describing him.  The
officers of the assembly should always be referred to by their official
titles.  It is not allowable to arraign the motives of a member, but the
nature or consequences of a measure may be condemned in strong terms.
It is not the man, but the measure, that is the subject of debate.  If
at any time the Chairman rises to state a point of order, or give
information, or otherwise speak, within his privilege [see

=== Page 72 ============================================================

§ 40], the member speaking must take his seat till the Chairman has been
first heard.  When called to order, the member must sit down until the
question of order is decided.  If his remarks are decided to be
improper, he cannot proceed, if any one objects, without the leave of
the assembly expressed by a vote, upon which question there shall be no
debate.

Disorderly words should be taken down by the member who objects to them,
or by the clerk, and then read to the member; if he denies them, the
assembly shall decide by a vote whether they are his words or not.  If a
member cannot justify the words he used, and will not suitably apologize
for using them, it is the duty of the assembly to act in the case,
requiring both members to withdraw* [If both are personally interested.
[See page 161.]] till it has decided its course, it being a general rule
that no member should he present in the assembly when any matter
relating to himself is under debate.  If any business has taken place
since the member spoke, it is too late to take notice of any disorderly
words he used.

37. Closing Debate.  Debate upon a question is not closed by the
Chairman rising to put the question, as, until both the affirmative

=== Page 73 ============================================================

and negative are put, a member can claim the floor, and re-open debate
[see § 38].  Debate can be closed by the following motions, which are
undebatable [§ 35], and, except to Lie on the Table, shall require a
two-thirds* [In Congress, where each speaker can occupy the floor one
hour, any of these motions to cut off debate can be adopted by a mere
majority.  In ordinary societies harmony is so essential, that a
two-thirds vote should be required to force the assembly to a final vote
without allowing free debate.] vote for their adoption [§ 39]:

  (a) An objection to the consideration of a question [only allowable
when the question is first introduced, § 15], which, if sustained, not only
stops debate, but also throws the subject out of the assembly for that
session [§ 42]; which latter effect is the one for which it was
designed.

  (b) To lie on the table [§ 19], which, if adopted, carries the
question to the table, from which it cannot be taken without a majority
favors such action.

  (c) The previous question [§ 20], which has the effect of requiring
all the questions before the assembly [excepting as limited in § 20] to
be put to vote at once without further debate.  It may be applied merely
to an amendment or to an amendment of an amendment.

=== Page 74 ============================================================

  (d) For the assembly to adopt an order (1) limiting debate upon a
special subject, either as to the number or length of the speeches; or
(2) closing debate upon the subject at a stated time, when all pending
questions shall be put to vote without further debate.  Either of these
two measures may be applied only to a pending amendment, or an amendment
thereto, and when this is voted upon, the original question is still
open to debate and amendment.

Art. VI.  Vote.
[§§ 38-39.]

38. Voting.  Whenever from the nature of the question it permits of no
modification or debate, the Chairman immediately puts it to vote; if the
question is debatable, when the Chairman thinks the debate has been
brought to a close, he should inquire if the assembly is ready for the
question, and if no one rises he puts the question to vote.  There are
various forms for putting the question, in use in different parts of the
country.  The rule in Congress, in

=== Page 75 ============================================================

the House of Representatives, is as follows:  "Questions shall be
distinctly put in this form, to-wit:  'As many as are of the opinion
that (as the question may be) say Aye;' and after the affirmative voice
is expressed, 'As many as are of the contrary opinion, say No.'"  The
following form is very common:  "It has been moved and seconded that
(here state the question).  As many as are favor of the motion say Aye;
those opposed, No."  Or, if the motion is for the adoption of a certain
resolution, after it has been read the Chairman can say, "You have heard
the resolution read; those in favor of its adoption will hold up the
right hand; those opposed will manifest it by the same sign."  These
examples are sufficient to show the usual methods of putting a question,
the affirmative being always put first.

When a vote is taken, the Chairman should always announce the result in
the following form:  "The motion is carried--the resolution is
adopted," or, "The ayes have it--the resolution is adopted."  If, when
he announces a vote, any member rises and states that he doubts the
vote, or calls for a "division," the

=== Page 76 ============================================================

Chairman shall say, "A division is called for; those in favor of the
motion will rise."  After counting these, and announcing the number, he
shall say, "Those opposed will rise." will count these, announce the
number, and declare the result; that is, whether the motion is carried
or lost.  Instead of counting the vote himself, he can appoint tellers
to make the count and report to him.  When tellers are appointed, they
should be selected from both sides of the question.  A member has the
right to change his vote (when not made by ballot) before the decision
of the question has been finally and conclusively pronounced by the
Chair, but not afterwards.

Until the negative is put, it is in order for any member, in the same
manner as if the voting had not been commenced, to rise and speak, make
motions for amendment or otherwise, and thus renew the debate; and this,
whether the member was in the assembly room or not when the question was
put and the vote partly taken.  In such case the question is in the same
condition as if it had never been put.

No one can vote on a question affecting

=== Page 77 ============================================================

himself, but if more than one name is included in the resolution (though
a sense of delicacy would prevent this right being exercised, excepting
when it would change the vote) all are entitled to vote; for if this
were not so, a minority could control an assembly by including the names
of a sufficient number in a motion, say for preferring charges against
them, and suspend them, or even expel them from the assembly.  When
there is a tie vote the motion fails, without the Chairman gives his
vote for the affirmative, which in such case he can do.  Where his vote
will make a tie, he can cast it and thus defeat the measure.

Another form of voting is by ballot.  This method is only adopted when
required by the constitution or by-laws of the assembly, or when the
assembly has ordered the vote to be so taken.  The Chairman, in such
cases, appoints at least two tellers, who distribute slips of paper upon
which each member, including the Chairman,* [Should the Chairman neglect
to vote before the ballots are counted, he cannot then vote without the
permission of the assembly.] writes his vote; the votes are then
collected, counted by the tellers, and the result reported to the
Chairman, who announces

=== Page 78 ============================================================

it to the assembly.  The Chairman announces the result of the vote, in
case of an election to office, in a manner similar to the following:
"The whole number of votes cast is --; the number necessary for an
election is --; Mr. A. received --; Mr. B. --; Mr. C. --.  Mr. B. having
received the required number is elected --."  Where there is only one
candidate for an office, and the constitution requires the vote to be by
ballot, it is common to authorize the clerk to cast the vote of the
assembly for such and such a person; if any one objects however, it is
necessary to ballot in the usual way.  So when a motion is made to make
a vote unanimous, it fails if any one objects.  In counting the ballots
all blanks are ignored.

The assembly can by a majority vote order that the vote on any question
be taken by Yeas and Nays.* [Taking a vote by yeas and nays, which has
the effect to place on the record how each member votes, is peculiar to
this country, and while it consumes a great deal of time, is rarely
useful in ordinary societies.  By the Constitution, one-fifth of the
members present can, in either house of Congress, order a vote to be
taken by yeas and nays, and to avoid some of the resulting
inconveniences various rules and customs have been established, which
are ignored in this Manual, as according to it the yeas and nays can
only be ordered by a majority, which prevents its being made use of to
hinder business.  In representative bodies it is very useful, especially
where the proceedings are published, as it enables the people to know
how their representatives voted on important measures.  In some small
bodies a vote on a resolution must be taken by yeas and nays, upon the
demand of a single member.] In this method of voting the Chairman states
both sides of the question

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at once; the clerk calls the roll and each member as his name is called
rises and answers yes or no, and the clerk notes his answer.  Upon the
completion of the roll call the clerk reads over the names of those who
answered the affirmative, and afterwards those in the negative, that
mistakes may be corrected; he then gives the number voting on each side
to the Chairman, who announces the result.  An entry must be made in the
minutes of the names of all voting in the affirmative, and also of those
in the negative.

The form of putting a question upon which the vote has been ordered to be
taken by yeas and nays, is similar to the following:  "As many as are in
favor of the adoption of these resolutions will, when their names are
called, answer yes [or aye]--those opposed will answer no."  The
Chairman will then direct the clerk to call the roll.  The negative
being put at the same time as the affirmative, it is too late, after the
question is put, to renew the

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debate.  After the commencement of the roll call, it is too late to ask
to be excused from voting.  The yeas and nays cannot be ordered in
committee of the whole [§ 32].

39. Motions Requiring More than a Majority Vote.* [Where no rule to the
contrary is adopted, a majority vote of the assembly, when a quorum [§
43] is present, is sufficient for the adoption of any motion, except for
the suspension of a rule, which can only be done by general consent, or
unanimously.  Congress requires a two-thirds vote for only the motions
to suspend and to amend the Rules, to take up business out of its proper
order, and to make a special order [see note to § 37].] The following
motions shall require a two-thirds vote for their adoption, as the right
of discussion, and the right to have the rules enforced, should not be
abridged by a mere majority:

  An Objection to the Consideration of a Question .............. § 15.
  To Take up a Question out of its proper order ................ § 13.
  To Suspend the Rules ......................................... § 18.
  The Previous Question ........................................ § 20.
  To Close or Limit Debate ..................................... § 37.
  To Amend the Rules (requires previous notice also) ........... § 43.
  To Make a special order ...................................... § 13.

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Art. VII.  The Officers and the Minutes.
[§§ 40, 41.]

40. Chairman* [In connection with this section read § 44, and also §
40, 41.] or President.  The presiding officer, when no special title has
been assigned him, is ordinarily called the Chairman (or in religious
assemblies more usually the Moderator); frequently the constitution of
the assembly prescribes for him a title, such as President.

His duties are generally as follows:

To open the session at the time at which the assembly is to meet, by
taking the chair and calling the members to order; to announce the
business before the assembly in the order in which it is to be acted
upon [§ 44]; to state and to put to vote [§ 38] all questions which are
regularly moved, or necessarily arise in the course of proceedings, and
to announce the result of the vote;

To restrain the members, when engaged in

=== Page 82 ============================================================

debate, within the rules of order; to enforce on all occasions the
observance of order and decorum [§ 36] among the members, deciding all
questions of order (subject to an appeal to the assembly by any two
members, § 14), and to inform the assembly when necessary, or when
referred to for the purpose, on a point of order or practice;

To authenticate, by his signature, when necessary, all the acts, orders
and proceedings of the assembly, and in general to represent and stand
for the assembly, declaring its will, and in all things obeying its
commands.

The chairman shall rise* [It is not customary for the chairman to rise
while putting questions in very small bodies, such as committees,
boards of trustees, &c.] to put a question to vote, but may state it
sitting; he shall also rise from his seat (without calling any one to
the chair), when speaking to a question of order, which he can do in
preference to other members.  In referring to himself he should always
use his official title thus:  "The Chair decides so and so," not "I
decide, &c."  When a member has the floor, the chairman cannot interrupt
him as long as he does not transgress

=== Page 83 ============================================================

any of the rules of the assembly, excepting as provided in § 2.

He is entitled to vote when the vote is by ballot,* [But this right is
lost if he does not use it before the tellers have commenced to count
the ballots.  The assembly can give leave to the chairman to vote under
such circumstances.] and in all other cases where the vote would change
the result.  Thus in a case where two-thirds vote is necessary, and his
vote thrown with the minority would prevent the adoption of the
question, he can cast his vote; so also he can vote with the minority
when it will produce a tie vote and thus cause the motion to fail.
Whenever a motion is made referring especially to the chairman, the
maker of the motion should put it to vote.

The chairman can, if it is necessary to vacate the chair, appoint a
chairman pro tem.,** [When there are Vice Presidents, then the first one
on the list that is present, is, by virtue of his office, chairman
during the absence of the President, and should always be called to the
chair when the President temporarily vacates it.] but the first
adjournment puts an end to the appointment, which the assembly can
terminate before, if it pleases, by electing another chairman.  But the
regular chairman, knowing that he will be absent from a future meeting,
cannot authorize another member to act

=== Page 84 ============================================================

in his place at such meeting; the clerk [§ 41], or in his absence any
member, should in such case call the meeting to order, and a chairman
pro tem. be elected, who would hold office during that session [§ 42],
without such office was terminated by the entrance of the regular
chairman.

The chairman sometimes calls a member to the chair, and himself takes
part in the debate.  But this should rarely be done, and nothing can
justify it in a case where much feeling is shown, and there is a
liability to difficulty in preserving order.  If the chairman has even
the appearance of being a partisan, he loses much of his ability to
control those who are on the opposite side of the question.* [The
unfortunate habit many chairmen have of constantly speaking upon
questions before the assembly, even interrupting the member who has the
floor, is unjustified by either the common parliamentary law, or the
practice of Congress.  One who expects to take an active part in debate
should never accept the chair.  "It is a general rule, in all
deliberative assemblies, that the presiding officer shall not
participate in the debate, or other proceedings, in any other capacity
than as such officer.  He is only allowed, therefore, to state matters
of fact within his knowledge; to inform the assembly on points of order
or the course of proceeding, when called upon for that purpose, or when
he finds it necessary to do so; and on appeals from his decision on
questions of order, to address the assembly in debate."  [Cushing's
Manual, page 106.] "Though the Speaker [chairman] may of right speak to
matters of order and be first heard, he is restrained from speaking on
any other subject except where the assembly have occasion for facts
within his knowledge; then he may, with their leave, state the matter of
fact."  [Jefferson's Manual, sec. xvii, and Barclay's "Digest of the
Rules and Practice of the House of Representatives, U. S.," page 195.]]

The chairman should not only be familiar with parliamentary usage, and
set the example of strict conformity to it, but he should be a

=== Page 85 ============================================================

man of executive ability, capable of controlling men; and it should
never be forgotten, that, to control others, it is necessary to control
one's self.  An excited chairman can scarcely fail to cause trouble in a
meeting.

A chairman will often find himself perplexed with the difficulties
attending his position, and in such cases he will do well to heed the
advice of a distinguished writer on parliamentary law, and recollect
that--"The great purpose of all rules and forms, is to subserve the
will of the assembly, rather than to restrain it; to facilitate, and not
to obstruct, the expression of their deliberate sense."

41. Clerk or Secretary [and the Minutes].  The recording officer is
usually called

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the "Clerk" or "Secretary,"* [When there are two secretaries, he is
termed the "recording secretary," and the other one, the "corresponding
secretary."  In many societies the secretary, besides acting as
recording officer, collects the dues of members, and thus becomes to a
certain extent a financial officer.  In most cases the treasurer acts as
banker, only paying on the order of the society, signed by the secretary
alone, or by the president and secretary.  In such cases the secretary
becomes in reality the financial officer of the society, and should make
reports to the society, of funds received and from what sources, and of
the funds expended and for what purposes.  See § 52 for his duties as
financial officer.] and the record of proceedings the "Minutes."  His
desk should be near that of the chairman, and in the absence of the
chairman, (if there is no vice president present) when the hour for
opening the session arrives, it is his duty to call the meeting to
order, and to preside until the election of a chairman pro tem., which
should be done immediately.  He should keep a record of the proceedings,
commencing in a form similar to the following :** [See Clerk and Minutes
in Part II, § 51.]

"At a regular quarterly meeting of [state the name of the society] held
on the 31st day of March, 1875, at [state the place of meeting], the
President in the chair, the minutes were read by the clerk and
approved."  If the regular clerk is absent, insert after the words "in
the chair," the following:  "The clerk being absent, Robert Smith was
appointed clerk pro tem.

=== Page 87 ============================================================

The minutes were then read and approved."  If the minutes were not read,
say "the reading of the minutes was dispensed with."  The above form
will show the essentials, which are as follows:  (a) The kind of
meeting, "regular" [or stated] or "special," or "adjourned regular,"
or "adjourned special;" (6) name of the assembly; (c) date and place of
meeting (excepting when the place is always the same); (d) the fact of
the presence of the regular chairman and clerk, or in their absence the
names of their substitutes; (e) whether the minutes of the previous
meeting were approved.

The minutes should be signed by the person who acted as clerk for that
meeting:  in some societies the chairman must also sign them.  When
published, they should be signed by both officers.

In keeping the minutes much depends upon the kind of meeting, and
whether the minutes are to be published.  If they are to be published,
it is often of far more interest to know what was said by the leading
speakers, than to know what routine business was done, and what
resolutions adopted.

=== Page 88 ============================================================

In such case the duties of the secretary are arduous, and he should have
at least one assistant.  In ordinary society meetings and meetings of
Boards of Managers and Trustees, on the contrary, there is no object in
reporting the debates; the duty of the clerk, in such cases, is mainly
to record what is "done" by the assembly, not what is said by the
members.  Without there is a rule to the contrary, he should enter every
Principal motion [§ 6] that is before the assembly, whether it is
adopted or rejected; and where there is a division [see Voting, § 38],
or where the vote is by ballot, he should enter the number of votes on
each side; and when the voting is by yeas and nays [§ 38], he should
enter a list of the names of those voting on each side.  He should
endorse on the reports of committees, the date of their reception, and
what further action was taken upon them, and preserve them among the
records, for which he is responsible.  He should in the minutes make a
brief summary of a report that has been agreed to, except where it
contains resolutions, in which case the resolutions will be entered in
full as adopted by the assembly, and not as

=== Page 89 ============================================================

if it was the report accepted.  The proceedings of the committee of the
whole [§ 32], or while acting informally [§ 33], should not be entered
on the minutes.  Before an adjournment without day, it is customary to
read over the minutes for approval, if the next meeting of the board or
society will not occur for a long period.  Where the regular meetings
are not separated by too great a time, the minutes are read at the next
meeting.

The clerk should, previous to each meeting, for the use of the chairman,
make out an order of business [§ 44], showing in their exact order what
is necessarily to come before the assembly.  He should also have at each
meeting a list of all standing committees, and such select committees as
are in existence at the time.  When a committee is appointed, he should
hand the names of the committee and all papers referred to it to the
chairman, or some other of its members.

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Art. VIII.  Miscellaneous.
[§§ 42-45.]

42. A Session of an assembly is a meeting* [See definitions in
Introduction for the distinction between "meeting" and "session."]
which, though it may last for days, is virtually one meeting, as a
session of a Convention; or even months, as a session of Congress; it
terminates by an "adjournment without day."  The intermediate
adjournments from day to day, or the recesses taken during the day, do
not destroy the continuity of the meeting--they in reality constitute
one session.  In the case of a permanent society, having regular
meetings every week, month, or year, for example, each meeting
constitutes a separate session of the society, which session however can
be prolonged by adjourning to another day.

If a principal motion [§ 6] is indefinitely postponed or rejected at one
session, while it cannot be introduced again at the same session [see
Renewal of a Motion, § 26], it can be at

=== Page 91 ============================================================

the next, without it is prohibited by a rule of the assembly.

No one session of the assembly can interfere with the rights of the
assembly at any future session,* [Any one session can adopt a rule or
resolution of a permanent nature, and it continues in force until at
some future session it is rescinded.  But these Standing Rules, as they
are termed, do not interfere with future sessions, because at any moment
a majority can suspend or rescind them, or adopt new ones.] without it
is expressly so provided in their Constitution, Bylaws, or Rules of
Order, all of which are so guarded (by requiring notice of amendments,
and at least a two-thirds vote for their adoption) that they are not
subject to sudden changes, but may be considered as expressing the
deliberate views of the whole society, rather than the opinions or
wishes of any particular meeting.  Thus, if the presiding officer were
ill, it would not be competent for one session of the assembly to elect
a chairman to hold office longer than that session, as it cannot control
or dictate to the next session of the assembly.  By going through the
prescribed routine of an election to fill the vacancy, giving whatever
notice is required, it could then legally elect a chairman to hold
office while the vacancy lasted.  So it

=== Page 92 ============================================================

is improper for an assembly to postpone anything to a day beyond the
next succeeding session, and thus attempt to prevent the next session
from considering the question.  On the other hand, it is not permitted
to move a reconsideration [§ 27] of a vote taken at a previous session
[though the motion to reconsider can be called up, provided it was made
at the last meeting of the previous session.] Committees can be
appointed to report at a future session.

Note On Session--In Congress, and in fact all legislative bodies, the
limits of the sessions are clearly defined; but in ordinary societies
having a permanent existence, with regular meetings more or less
frequent, there appears to be a great deal of confusion upon the
subject.  Any society is competent to decide what shall constitute one
of its sessions, but, where there is no rule on the subject, the common
parliamentary law would make each of its regular or special meetings a
separate session, as they are regarded in this Manual.

The disadvantages of a rule making a session include all the meetings of
an ordinary society, held during a long time as one year, are very
great.  [Examine Indefinitely Postpone, § 24, and Renewal of a Motion, §
26.] If members of any society take advantage of the freedom allowed by
considering

=== Page 93 ============================================================

each regular meeting a separate session, and repeatedly renew obnoxious
or unprofitable motions, the society can adopt a rule prohibiting the
second introduction of any principal question [§ 6] within, say, three
or six months after its rejection, or indefinite postponement, or after
the society has refused to consider it.  But generally it is better to
suppress the motion by refusing to consider it [§ 15].

43. A Quorum of an assembly is such a number as is competent to
transact its business.  Without there is a special rule on the subject,
the quorum of every assembly is a majority of all the members of the
assembly.  But whenever a society has any permanent existence, it is
usual to adopt a much smaller number, the quorum being often less than
one-twentieth of its members; this becomes a necessity in most large
societies, where only a small fraction of the members are ever present
at a meeting.* [While a quorum is competent to transact any business, it
is usually not expedient to transact important business without there is
a fair attendance at the meeting, or else previous notice of such action
has been given.]

The Chairman should not take the chair till a quorum is present, except
where there is no hope of there being a quorum, and then no business can
be transacted, except simply

=== Page 94 ============================================================

to adjourn.  So whenever during the meeting there is found not to be a
quorum present, the only thing to be done is to adjourn--though if no
question is raised about it, the debate can be continued, but no vote
taken, except to adjourn.

In committee of the whole, the quorum is the same as in the assembly; in
any other committee the majority is a quorum, without the assembly order
otherwise, and it must wait for a quorum before proceeding to business.
If the number afterwards should be reduced below a quorum, business is
not interrupted, unless a member calls attention to the fact; but no
question can be decided except when a quorum is present.  Boards of
Trustees, Managers, Directors, etc., are on the same footing as
committees, in regard to a quorum.  Their power is delegated to them as
a body, and what number shall be present in order that they may act as a
Board, is to be decided by the society that appoints the Board.  If no
quorum is specified, then a majority constitutes a quorum.

44. Order of Business.  It is customary for every society having a
permanent existence,

=== Page 95 ============================================================

to adopt an order of business for its meetings.  When no rule has been
adopted, the following is the order:

  (1) Reading the Minutes of the previous meeting [and their approval].
  (2) Reports of Standing Committees.
  (3) Reports of Select Committees.
  (4) Unfinished Business.
  (5) New Business.

Boards of Managers, Trustees, etc., come under the head of standing
committees.  Questions that have been postponed from a previous
meeting, come under the head of unfinished business; and if a subject
has been made a "special order" for the day, it shall take precedence of
all business except reading the minutes.  If it is desired to transact
business out of its order, it is necessary to suspend the rules [§ 18],
which can only be done by a two-thirds vote; but as each subject comes
up, a majority can at once lay it on the table [§ 19], and thus reach
any question which they desire to first dispose of.

The order of business, in considering any report or proposition
containing several paragraphs,* [No vote should be taken on the adoption
of the several paragraphs,--one vote being taken finally on the
adoption of the whole paper.  By not adopting separately the different
paragraphs, it is in order, after they have all been amended, to go back
and amend any of them still further.  In committee a similar paper would
be treated the same way [see § 30].  In § 48 (b) an illustration is
given of the practical application of this section.] is as follows:

=== Page 96 ============================================================

The whole paper should be read entirely through by the clerk; then the
Chairman should read it by paragraphs, pausing at the end of each, and
asking, "Are there any amendments proposed to this paragraph?"  If none
are offered, he says, "No amendments being offered to this paragraph,
the next will be read;" he then reads the next, and proceeds thus to the
last paragraph, when he states that the whole report or resolutions have
been read, and are open to amendment. He finally puts the question on
agreeing to or adopting the whole paper as amended.  If there is a
preamble it should be read after the last paragraph.

If the paper has been reported back by a committee with amendments, the
clerk reads only the amendments, and the Chairman then reads the first
and puts it to the question, and so on till all the amendments are
adopted or rejected, admitting amendments to the committee's amendments,
but no others.  When

=== Page 97 ============================================================

through with the committee's amendments, the Chairman pauses for any
other amendments to be proposed by the assembly; and when these are
voted on, he puts the question on agreeing to or adopting the paper as
amended.  Where the resolutions have been just read by the member
presenting them, the reading by the clerk is usually dispensed with
without the formality of a vote.  By "suspending the rules" [§ 18], or
by general consent, a report can be at once adopted without following
any of the above routine.

45. Amendments of Rules of Order.  These rules can be amended at any
regular meeting of the assembly, by a two-thirds vote of the members
present, provided the amendment was submitted in writing at the previous
regular meeting.  And no amendment to Constitutions or By-Laws shall be
permitted, without at least equal notice and a two-thirds vote.*
[Constitutions, By-Laws and Rules of Order should always prohibit their
being amended by less than a two-thirds vote, and without previous
notice of the amendment being given.  If the By-Laws should contain
rules that it may be desirable to occasionally suspend, then they should
state how they can be suspended, just as is done in these Rules of
Order, § 18.  If there is no such rule it is impossible to suspend any
rule, if a single member objects.

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=== Page 99 ============================================================

PART II.

ORGANIZATION AND CONDUCT OF BUSINESS.*
[The exact words used by the chairman or member, are in many cases in
quotations.  It is not to be inferred that these are the only forms
permitted, but that these forms are proper and common.  They are
inserted for the benefit of those unaccustomed to parliamentary forms,
and are sufficiently numerous for ordinary meetings.]

Art. IX.  Organization and Meetings.
[§§ 46-49.]

46. An Occasional or Mass Meeting.  (a) Organization.  When a meeting
is held which is not one of an organized society, shortly after the
time appointed for the meeting, some member of the assembly steps
forward and says:  "The meeting will please come to order; I move that
Mr. A. act as chairman of this meeting."  Some one else says, "I second
the motion."  The first member then puts the

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question to vote, by saying, "It has been moved and seconded that Mr. A.
act as chairman of this meeting; those in favor of the motion will say
aye," and when the affirmative vote is taken, he says, "those opposed
will say no."  If the majority vote in the affirmative, he says, "The
motion is carried; Mr. A. will take the chair."  If the motion is lost,
he announces that fact, and calls for the nomination of some one else
for chairman, and proceeds with the new nomination as in the first
case.* [Sometimes a member nominates a chairman and no vote is taken,
the assembly signifying their approval by acclamation.  The member who
calls the meeting to order, instead of making the motion himself, may
act as temporary chairman, and say:  "The meeting will please come to
order:  will some one nominate a chairman?"  He puts the question to
vote on the nomination as described above.  In large assemblies, the
member who nominates, with one other member, frequently conducts the
presiding officer to the chair, and the chairman makes a short speech,
thanking the assembly for the honor conferred on him.]

When Mr. A. takes the chair, he says, "The first business in order is
the election of a secretary."  Some one then makes a motion as just
described, or he says "I nominate Mr. B," when the chairman puts the
question as before.  Sometimes several names are called out, and the
chairman, as he hears them, says, "Mr. B. is nominated; Mr. C. is
nominated," etc; he then takes a vote on the first one he heard, putting
the question thus:  "As many as are in favor of

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Mr. B. acting as secretary of this meeting, will say aye;--those
opposed will say no."  If the motion is lost the question is put on Mr.
C., and so on, till some one is elected.  In large meetings the
secretary takes his seat near the chairman:  he should in all cases keep
a record of the proceedings as described in § 51.

(b) Adoption of Resolutions.  These two officers are all that are
usually necessary for a meeting; so, when the secretary is elected, the
chairman asks, "What is the further pleasure of the meeting?"  If the
meeting is merely a public assembly called together to consider some
special subject, it is customary at this stage of the proceedings for
some one to offer a series of resolutions previously prepared, or else
to move the appointment of a committee to prepare resolutions upon the
subject.  In the first case he rises and says, "Mr.  Chairman;" the
chairman responds, "Mr. C."  Mr. C., having thus obtained the floor,
then says, "I move the adoption of the following resolutions," which he
then reads and hands to the chairman;* [The practice in legislative
bodies, is to send to the clerk's desk all resolutions, bills, etc., the
title of the bill and the name of the member introducing it, being
endorsed on each.  In such bodies, however, there are several clerks and
only one chairman.  In many assemblies there is but one clerk or
secretary, and, as he has to keep the minutes, there is no reason for
his being constantly interrupted to read every resolution offered. In
such assemblies, without there is a rule or established custom to the
contrary, it is allowable, and frequently much better, to hand all
resolutions, reports, etc., directly to the chairman.  If they were read
by the member introducing them, and no one calls for another reading,
the chairman can omit reading them when be thinks they are fully
understood.  In reference to the manner of reading and stating the
question, when the resolution contains several paragraphs, see Rules of
Order, § 44.]

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some one else says, "I second the motion."  The chairman sometimes
directs the secretary to read the resolutions again, after which he
says, "The question is on the adoption of the resolutions just read,"
and if no one rises immediately, he adds, "Are you ready for the
question?"  If no one then rises, he says, "As many as are in favor of
the adoption of the resolutions just read, will say aye;" after the ayes
have voted, he says, "As many as are of a contrary opinion will say no;"
he then announces the result of the vote as follows:  "The motion is
carried--the resolutions are adopted," or, "The ayes have it--the
resolutions are adopted."

(c) Committee to draft Resolutions.  If it is preferred to appoint a
committee to draft resolutions, a member, after he has addressed the
Chair and been recognized, says, "I move that a committee be appointed
to draft resolutions expressive of the sense of this meeting on,"

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etc., adding the subject for which the meeting was called.  This motion
being seconded, the Chairman states the question [§ 67] and asks, "Are
you ready for the question?"  If no one rises, he puts the question,
announces the result, and, if it is carried, he asks, "Of how many shall
the committee consist?"  If only one number is suggested, he announces
that the committee will consist of that number; if several numbers are
suggested, he states the different ones and then takes a vote on each,
beginning with the largest, until one number is selected.

He then inquires, "How shall the committee be appointed?"  This is
usually decided without the formality of a vote.  The committee may be
"appointed" by the Chair--in which case the chairman names the
committee and no vote is taken; or the committee may be "nominated" by
the Chair, or the members of the assembly (no member naming more than
one, except by unanimous consent), and then the assembly vote on their
appointment.  When the chairman nominates, after stating the names he
puts one question on the entire committee, thus:  "As many as are in
favor of these gentlemen constituting the committee, will say

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aye."  If nominations are made by members of the assembly, and more
names mentioned than the number of the committee, a separate vote should
be taken on each name.  (In a mass meeting it is safer to have all
committees appointed by the chairman.)

When the committee are appointed they should at once retire and agree
upon a report, which should be written out as described in § 53.  During
their absence other business may be attended to, or the time may be
occupied with hearing addresses.  Upon their return the chairman of the
committee (who is the one first named on the committee, and who quite
commonly, though not necessarily, is the one who made the motion to
appoint the committee), avails himself of the first opportunity to
obtain the floor,* [See Rules of Order, § 2.] when he says, "The
committee appointed to draft resolutions, are prepared to report."  The
chairman tells him that the assembly will now hear the report, which is
then read by the chairman of the committee, and handed to the presiding
officer, upon which the committee is dissolved without any action of the
assembly.

A member then moves the "adoption" or

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"acceptance" of the report, or that "the resolutions be agreed to,"
which motions have the same effect if carried, namely, to make the
resolutions the resolutions of the assembly just as if the committee had
had nothing to do with them.* [A very common error is, after a report
has been read, to move that it be received; whereas, the fact that it has
been read, shows that it has been already received by the assembly.
Another mistake, less common but dangerous, is to vote that the report
be accepted which is equivalent to adopting it), when the intention is
only to have the report up for consideration and afterwards move its
adoption.]

When one of these motions is made, the chairman acts as stated above
when the resolutions were offered by a member.  If it is not desired to
immediately adopt the resolutions, they can be debated, modified, their
consideration postponed, etc., as explained in §§ 55-63.

When through with the business for which the assembly were convened, or
when from any other cause it is desirable to close the meeting, some one
moves "to adjourn;" if the motion is carried and no other time for
meeting has been appointed, the chairman says, "The motion is carried;
--this assembly stands adjourned without day."  [Another method by which
the meeting may be conducted is shown in § 48.]

(d) Additional Officers.  If more officers are

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required than a chairman and secretary, they can be appointed before
introducing the resolutions, in the manner described for those officers;
or the assembly can first form a temporary organization in the manner
already described, only adding "pro tem." to the title of the officers,
thus:  "chairman pro tem."  In this latter case, as soon as the
secretary pro tem. is elected, a committee is appointed to nominate the
permanent officers, as in the case of a convention [§ 47].  Frequently
the presiding officer is called the President, and sometimes there is a
large number of Vice Presidents appointed for mere complimentary
purposes.  The Vice Presidents in large formal meetings, sit on the
platform beside the President, and in his absence, or when he vacates
the chair, the first on the list that is present should take the chair.

47. Meeting of a Convention or Assembly of Delegates.  If the members
of the assembly have been elected or appointed as members, it becomes
necessary to know who are properly members of the assembly and entitled
to vote, before the permanent organization is effected.  In this case a
temporary organization is made, as already described, by the election of
a chairman

=== Page 107 ===========================================================

and secretary "pro tem.," when the chairman announces, "The next
business in order is the appointment of a committee on credentials."  A
motion may then be made covering the entire case, thus:  "I move that a
committee of three on the credentials of members be appointed by the
Chair, and that the committee report as soon as practicable;" or they
may include only one of these details, thus:  "I move that a committee
be appointed on the credentials of members."  In either case the Chair
proceeds as already described in the cases of committees on resolutions
[§ 46, (c)].

On the motion to accept the report of the committee, none can vote
except those reported by the committee as having proper credentials.
The committee, beside reporting a list of members with proper
credentials, may report doubtful or contested cases, with
recommendations, which the assembly may adopt, or reject, or postpone,
etc.  Only members whose right to their seats is undisputed, can vote.

The chairman, after the question of credentials is disposed of, at least
for the time, announces that "The next business in order is the election
of permanent officers of the assembly."  Some one then moves the
appointment of a

=== Page 108 ===========================================================

committee to nominate the officers, in a form similar to this:  "I move
that a committee of three be appointed by the Chair to nominate the
permanent officers of this convention."  This motion is treated as
already explained.  When the committee make their report, some one moves
"That the report of the committee be accepted and that the officers
nominated be declared the officers of this convention."* [Where there is
any competition for the offices, it is better that they be elected by
ballot.  In this case, when the nominating committee report, a motion
can be made as follows:  "I move that the convention now proceed to
ballot for its permanent officers;" or "I move that we now proceed to
the election, by ballot, of the permanent officers of this convention."
[See Rules of Order, § 38, for balloting, and other methods of voting.]
The constitutions of permanent societies usually provide that the
officers shall be elected by ballot.] This motion being carried, the
chairman declares the officers elected, and instantly calls the new
presiding officer to the chair, and the temporary secretary is at the
same time replaced.  The convention is now organized for work.

48. A Permanent Society.  (a) First Meeting.  When it is desired to
form a permanent society, those interested in it should see that only
the proper persons are invited to be present, at a certain time and
place.  It is not usual in mass meetings, or meetings called to organize
a society, to commence until

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fifteen or thirty minutes after the appointed time, when some one steps
forward and says, "The meeting will please come to order; I move that
Mr. A. act as chairman of this meeting;" some one "seconds the motion,"
when the one who made the motion puts it to vote (or, as it is called,
"puts the question"), as already described, under an "occasional
meeting" [§ 46, (a)]; and, as in that case, when the chairman is
elected, he announces as the first business in order the election of a
secretary.

After the secretary is elected, the chairman calls on some member who is
most interested in getting up the society, to state the object of the
meeting.  When this member rises he says, "Mr. Chairman;" the chairman
then announces his name, when the member proceeds to state the object of
the meeting.  Having finished his remarks, the chairman may call on
other members to give their opinions upon the subject, and sometimes a
particular speaker is called out by members who wish to hear him.  The
chairman should observe the wishes of the assembly, and while being
careful not to be too strict, he must not permit any one to occupy too
much time and weary the meeting.

When a sufficient time has been spent in this

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informal way, some one should offer a resolution, so that definite
action can be taken.  Those interested in getting up the meeting, if it
is to be a large one, should have previously agreed upon what is to be
done, and be prepared at the proper time to offer a suitable resolution,
which may be in a form similar to this:  "Resolved, That it is the sense
of this meeting that a society for [state the object of the society]
should now be formed in this city."  This resolution, when seconded, and
stated by the chairman, would be open to debate and be treated as
already described [§ 46, (b)].  This preliminary motion could have been
offered at the commencement of the meeting, and if the meeting is a very
large one, this would probably be better than to have the informal
discussion.

After this preliminary motion has been voted on, or even without waiting
for such motion, one like this can be offered:  "I move that a committee
of five be appointed by the Chair, to draft a Constitution and By-Laws
for a society for [here state the object], and that they report at an
adjourned meeting of this assembly."  This motion can be amended [§ 56]
by striking out and adding words, etc., and it is debatable.

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When this committee is appointed, the chairman may inquire, "Is there
any other business to be attended to?" or, "What is the further pleasure
of the meeting?"  When all business is finished, a motion can be made to
adjourn to meet at a certain place and time, which, when seconded, and
stated by the Chair, is open to debate and amendment.  It is usually
better to fix the time of the next meeting [see § 63] at an earlier
stage of the meeting, and then, when it is desired to close the meeting,
move simply "to adjourn," which cannot be amended or debated.  When this
motion is carried, the chairman says, "This meeting stands adjourned to
meet at," etc., specifying the time and place of the next meeting.

(b) Second Meeting.* [Ordinary meetings of a society are conducted like
this second meeting, the chairman, however, announcing the business in
the order prescribed by the rules of the society [§ 72].  For example,
after the minutes are read and approved, he would say, "The next
business in order is hearing reports from the standing committees."  He
may then call upon each committee in their order, for a report, thus:
"Has the committee on applications for membership any report to make?"
In which case the committee may report, as shown above, or some member
of it reply that they have no report to make.  Or, when the chairman
knows that there are but few if any reports to make, it is better, after
making the announcement of the business, for him to ask, "Have these
committees any reports to make?"  After a short pause, if no one rises
to report, he states, "There being no reports from the standing
committees, the next business in order is hearing the reports of select
committees," when he will act the same as in the case of the standing
committees.  The chairman should always have a list of the committees,
to enable him to call upon them, as well as to guide him in the
appointment of new committees.] At the next meeting the officers of the
previous meeting, if present, serve until the permanent officers are
elected.  When the hour arrives for the meeting, the chairman standing,
says, "The meeting will

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please come to order:"  as soon as the assembly is seated, he adds, "The
secretary will read the minutes of the last meeting."  If any one
notices an error in the minutes, he can state the fact as soon as the
secretary finishes reading them; if there is no objection, without
waiting for a motion, the chairman directs the secretary to make the
correction.  The chairman then says, "If there is no objection the
minutes will stand approved as read" [or "corrected," if any corrections
have been made].

He announces as the next business in order, "the hearing of the report
of the committee on the Constitution and By-Laws."  The chairman of the
committee, after addressing "Mr. Chairman" and being recognized, reads
the committee's report and then hands it to the chairman.* [In large and
formal bodies the chairman, before inquiring what is to be done with the
report, usually directs the secretary to read it again.  See note to §
46 (c), for a few common errors in acting upon reports of committees.
[See also note to § 46 (b).]] If no motion is made, the chairman says,
"You have heard the report read --

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what order shall be taken upon it?"  Or simply inquires, "What shall be
done with the report?"  Some one moves its adoption, or still better,
moves "the adoption of the Constitution reported by the committee," and
when seconded, the chairman says, "The question is on the adoption of
the Constitution reported by the committee."  He then reads the first
article of the Constitution, and asks, "Are there any amendments
proposed to this article?"  If none are offered, after a pause, he reads
the next article and asks the same question, and proceeds thus until he
reads the last article, when he says, "The whole Constitution having
been read, it is open to amendment."  Now any one can move amendments to
any part of the Constitution.

When the chairman thinks it has been modified to suit the wishes of the
assembly, he inquires, "Are you ready for the question?"  If no one
wishes to speak, he puts the question, "As many as are in favor of
adopting the Constitution as amended, will say aye;" and then, "As many
as are opposed, will say no."  He distinctly announces the result of the
vote, which should always be done.  If the articles of the Constitution
are subdivided into sections

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or paragraphs, then the amendments should be made by sections or
paragraphs, instead of by articles.

The chairman now states that the Constitution having been adopted, it
will be necessary for those wishing to become members to sign it (and
pay the initiation fee, if required by the Constitution), and suggests,
if the assembly is a large one, that a recess be taken for the purpose.
A motion is then made to take a recess for say ten minutes, or until the
Constitution is signed.  The constitution being signed, no one is
permitted to vote excepting those who have signed it.

The recess having expired, the chairman calls the meeting to order and
says, "The next business in order is the adoption of By-Laws."  Some one
moves the adoption of the By-Laws reported by the committee, and they
are treated just like the Constitution.  The chairman then asks, "What
is the further pleasure of the meeting?" or states that the next
business in order is the election of the permanent officers of the
society.  In either case some one moves the appointment of a committee
to nominate the permanent officers of the society, which motion is
treated as already described in § 47.  As

=== Page 115 ===========================================================

each officer is elected he replaces the temporary one, and when they are
all elected the organization is completed.

If the society is one that expects to own real estate, it should be
incorporated according to the laws of the state in which it is situated,
and for this purpose, some one on the committee on the Constitution
should consult a lawyer before this second meeting, so that the laws may
be conformed to.  In this case the trustees are usually instructed to
take the proper measures to have the society incorporated.

49. Constitutions, By-Laws, Rules of Order and Standing Rules.  In
forming a Constitution and By-Laws, it is always best to procure copies
of those adopted by several similar societies, and for the committee,
after comparing them, to select one as the basis of their own, amending
each article just as their own report is amended by the Society.  When
they have completed amending the Constitution, it is adopted by the
committee.  The By-Laws are treated in the same way, and then, having
finished the work assigned them, some one moves, "That the committee
rise, and that the chairman (or some other

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member) report the Constitution and By-Laws to the assembly."  If this
is adopted, the Constitution and By-Laws are written out, and a brief
report made of this form:  "Your committee, appointed to draft a
Constitution and By-Laws, would respectfully submit the following, with
the recommendation that they be adopted as the Constitution and By-Laws
of this society;" which is signed by all the members of the committee
that concur in it.  Sometimes the report is only signed by the chairman
of the committee.

In the organization just given, it is assumed that both a Constitution
and By-Laws are adopted.  This is not always done; some societies adopt
only a Constitution, and others only By-Laws.  Where both are adopted,
the constitution usually contains only the following:

(1) Name and object of the society.
(2) Qualification of members.
(3) Officers, their election and duties.
(4) Meetings of the society (only including what is essential, leaving
    details to the By-Laws).
(5) How to amend the Constitution.

These can be arranged in five articles, each article being subdivided
into sections.  The

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Constitution containing nothing but what is fundamental, it should be
made very difficult to amend; usually previous notice of the amendment
is required, and also a two-thirds or three-fourths vote for its
adoption [§ 73].  It is better not to require a larger vote than
two-thirds, and, where the meetings are frequent, an amendment should
not be allowed to be made except at a quarterly or annual meeting, after
having been proposed at the previous quarterly meeting.

The By-Laws contain all the other standing rules of the society, of such
importance that they should be placed out of the power of any one
meeting to modify; or they may omit the rules relating to the conduct of
business in the meetings, which would then constitute the Rules of Order
of the society.  Every society, in its By-Laws or Rules of Order, should
adopt a rule like this:  "The rules contained in--(specifying the work
on parliamentary practice) shall govern the society in all cases to
which they are applicable, and in which they are not inconsistent with
the Rules of Order (or By-Laws) adopted by the society."  Without such a
rule, any one so disposed, could cause great trouble in a meeting.

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In addition to the Constitution, By-Laws and Rules of Order, in nearly
every society resolutions of a permanent nature are occasionally
adopted, which are binding on the society until they are rescinded or
modified.  These are called Standing Rules, and can be adopted by a
majority vote at any meeting.  After they have been adopted, they cannot
be modified at the same session except by a reconsideration [§ 60].  At
any future session they can be suspended, modified or rescinded by a
majority vote.  The Standing Rules, then, comprise those rules of a
society which have been adopted like ordinary resolutions, without the
previous notice, etc., required for By-Laws, and consequently, future
sessions of the society are at liberty to terminate them whenever they
please.  No Standing Rule (or other resolution) can be adopted which
conflicts with the Constitution, By-Laws or Rules of Order.* [In
practice these various classes of rules are frequently very much mixed.
The Standing Rules of some societies are really By-Laws, as the society
cannot suspend them, nor can they be amended until previous notice is
given.  This produces confusion without any corresponding benefit.
Standing Rules should contain only such rules as are subject to the will
of the majority of any meeting, and which it may be expedient to change
at any time, without the delay incident to giving previous notice.
Rules of Order should contain only the rules relating to the orderly
transaction of the business in the meetings of the society.  The By-Laws
should contain all the other rules of the society which are of too great
importance to be changed without giving notice to the society of such
change; provided that the most important of these can be placed in a
Constitution instead of in the By-Laws.  These latter three should
provide for their amendment.  The Rules of Order should provide for
their suspension.  The By-Laws sometimes provide for the suspension of
certain articles.  None of these three can be suspended without it is
expressly provided for.

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Art. X. Officers and Committees.

50. Chairman or President.  It is the duty of the chairman to call the
meeting to order at the appointed time, to preside at all the meetings,
to announce the business before the assembly in its proper order, to
state and put all questions properly brought before the assembly, to
preserve order and decorum, and to decide all questions of order
(subject to an appeal).  When he "puts a question" to vote, and when
speaking upon an appeal, he should stand;* [In meetings of boards of
managers, committees and other small bodies, the chairman usually
retains his seat, and even members in speaking do not rise.] in all
other cases he can sit.  In all cases where his vote would affect the
result, or where the vote is by ballot, he can vote.  When a member
rises to speak, he

=== Page 120 ===========================================================

should say, "Mr. Chairman," and the chairman should reply, "Mr. A;" he
should not interrupt a speaker as long as he is in order, but should
listen to his speech, which should be addressed to him and not to the
assembly.  The chairman should be careful to abstain from the appearance
of partizanship, but he has the right to call another member to the
chair while he addresses the assembly on a question; when speaking to a
question of order he does not leave the chair.

51. The Clerk, Secretary or Recording Secretary, as he is variously
called, should keep a record of the proceedings, the character of which
depends upon the kind of meeting.  In an occasional or mass meeting, the
record usually amounts to nothing, but he should always record every
resolution or motion that is adopted.

In a convention it is often desirable to keep a full record for
publication, and where it lasts for several days, it is usual, and
generally best, to appoint one or more assistant clerks.  Frequently it
is a tax on the judgment of the clerk to decide what to enter on the
record, or the "Minutes," as it is usually called.  Sometimes the points
of each speech should be entered,

=== Page 121 ===========================================================

and at other times only the remark that the question was discussed by
Messrs. A., B. and C. in the affirmative, and Messrs. D., E. and F. in
the negative.  Every resolution that is adopted should be entered, which
can be done in this form:  "On motion of Mr. D. it was resolved that,
&c."

Sometimes a convention does its work by having certain topics previously
assigned to certain speakers, who deliver formal addresses or essays,
the subjects of which are afterwards open for discussion in short
speeches, of five minutes, for instance.  In such cases the minutes are
very brief, without they are to be published, when they should contain
either the entire addresses or carefully prepared abstracts of them, and
should show the drift of the discussion that followed each one.  In
permanent societies, where the minutes are not published, they consist
of a record of what was done and not what was said, and should be kept
in a book.

The Form of the Minutes can be as follows:

"At a regular meeting of the M. L. Society, held in their hall, on
Tuesday evening, March 16, 1875, Mr. A. in the chair and Mr. B. acting
as secretary, the minutes of the previous meeting were read and

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approved.  The committee on Applications reported the names of Messrs.
C. and D. as applicants for membership; and on motion of Mr. F. they
were admitted as members.  The committee on --- reported a series of
resolutions, which were thoroughly discussed and amended, and finally
adopted as follows:

"Resolved, That * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * "

On motion of Mr. L. the society adjourned.
L- B-, Secretary.

If the proceedings are to be published, the secretary should always
examine the published proceedings of similar meetings, so as to conform
to the custom, excepting where it is manifestly improper.

The Constitution, By-Laws, Rules of Order and Standing Rules should all
be written in one book, leaving every other page blank; and whenever an
amendment is made to any of them, it should be immediately entered on
the page opposite to the article amended, with a reference to the date
and page of the minutes where is recorded the action of the society.

The secretary has the custody of all papers belonging to the society,
not specially under charge of any other officer.  Sometimes his

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duties are also of a financial kind, when he should make such reports as
are prescribed in the next section.

52. Treasurer.  The duties of this officer vary in different societies.
In probably the majority of cases he acts as a banker, merely holding
the funds deposited with him, and paying them out on the order of the
society signed by the secretary.  His annual report, which is always
required, in this case consists of merely a statement of the amount on
hand at the commencement of the year, the amount received during the
year (stating from what source received), the total amount paid out by
order of the society, and the balance on hand.  When this report is
presented it is referred to an "auditing committee," consisting of one
or two persons, who examine the treasurer's books and vouchers, and
certify on his report that they "have examined his accounts and vouchers
and find them correct, and the balance on hand is," etc., stating the
amount on hand.  The auditing committee's report being accepted is
equivalent to a resolution of the society to the same effect, namely,
that the treasurer's report is correct.

In the case here supposed, the real financial

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statement is made either by the board of trustees, or by the secretary
or some other officer, according to the Constitution of the society.
The principles involved, are, that every officer who receives money is
to account for it in a report to the society, and that whatever officer
is responsible for the disbursements, shall report them to the society.
If the secretary, as in many societies, is really responsible for the
expenses, the treasurer merely paying upon his order, then the secretary
should make a full report of these expenses, so classified as to enable
the society to readily see the amounts expended for various purposes.

It should always be remembered that the financial report is made for the
information of members.  The details of dates and separate payments for
the same object, are a hinderance to its being understood, and are
useless, as it is the duty of the auditing committee to examine into the
details and see if the report is correct.

Every disbursing officer should be careful to get a receipt whenever he
makes a payment; these receipts should be preserved in regular order, as
they are the vouchers for the payments, which must be examined by the
auditing committee.  Disbursing officers cannot be

=== Page 125 ===========================================================

too careful in keeping their accounts, and they should insist upon
having their accounts audited every time they make a report, as by this
means any error is quickly detected and may be corrected.  When the
society has accepted the auditing committee's report that the financial
report is correct, the disbursing officer is relieved from the
responsibility of the past, and if his vouchers were lost afterwards, it
would cause no trouble.  The best form for these financial reports
depends upon the kind of society, and is best determined by examining
those made in similar societies.

The following form can be varied to suit most cases:  (when the
statement of receipts and expenses is very long, it is often desirable
to specify the amounts received from one or two particular sources,
which can be done immediately after stating the total receipts; the same
course can be taken in regard to the expenditures):

Treasurer's Report.

The undersigned, Treasurer of the M. L. Society, begs leave to submit
the following annual report:

The balance on hand at the commencement of the year was --- dollars and
--- cents.  There was received from all sources during the year, ---
dollars and --- cents; during the same time the

=== Page 126 ===========================================================

expenses amounted to --- dollars and --- cents, leaving a balance on
hand of --- dollars and --- cents.  The annexed statement of receipts
and expenditures will show in detail the sources from which the receipts
were obtained, and the objects to which the expenditures have been
applied.  All of which is respectfully submitted.

S-- M--, Treasurer M. L. S.

The "Statement of receipts and expenditures" can be made, by simply
giving a list of receipts, followed by a list of expenses, and finishing
up with the balance on hand.  The auditing committee's certificate to
the correctness of the account should be written on the statement.
Often the statement is made out in the form of an account, as follows:

Dr.          The M. L. S. in acct. with S. M., Treas.              Cr.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1874.                               1874.

Dec. 31. To rent of hall .. $500 00 Jan. 1.  By balance on hand
         '' Gas ...........   80 00          from last year's
         '' Stationery ....   26 50          account .......... $ 21 13
         '' Janitor .......  360 00 Dec. 31. By initiation fees   95 00
         '' Balance on hand   24 63          '' members' dues .. 875 00
                            -------                             -------
                            $991 13                             $991 13

We do hereby certify that we have examined the accounts and vouchers of
the treasurer, and find them correct; and that the balance in his hands
is twenty-four dollars and sixty-three cents.  R. V., J. L., Audit Comm.

=== Page 127 ===========================================================

53. Committees.  In small assemblies, especially in those where but
little business is done, there is not much need of committees.  But in
large assemblies, or in those doing a great deal of business, committees
are of the utmost importance.  When a committee is properly selected, in
nine cases out of ten its action decides that of the assembly.  A
committee for action should be small and consist only of those heartily
in favor of the proposed action.  A committee for deliberation or
investigation, on the contrary, should be larger and represent all
parties in the assembly, so that its opinion will carry with it as great
weight as possible.  The usefulness of the committee will be greatly
impaired, if any important faction of the assembly be unrepresented on
the committee.  The appointment of a committee is fully explained in §
46 (c).

The first member named on a committee is their chairman, and it is his
duty to call together the committee, and preside at their meetings.  If
he is absent, or from any cause fails or declines to call a meeting, it
is the duty of the committee to assemble on the call of any two of their
members.  The committee are a miniature assembly, only being able to act
when

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a quorum is present.  If a paper is referred to them they must not
deface it in any way, but write their amendments on a separate sheet.
If they originate the paper, all amendments must be incorporated in it.
When they originate the paper, usually one member has previously
prepared a draft, which is read entirely through, and then read by
paragraphs, the chairman pausing after each paragraph and asking, "Are
there any amendments proposed to this paragraph?"  No vote is taken on
the adoption of the separate paragraphs, but after the whole paper has
been read in this way, it is open to amendment, generally, by striking
out any paragraph or inserting new ones, or by substituting an entirely
new paper for it.  When it has been amended to suit the committee, they
should adopt it as their report, and direct the chairman or some other
member to report it to the assembly.  It is then written out, usually
commencing in a style similar to this:  "The committee to which was
referred [state the matter referred], beg leave to submit the following
report;" or, "Your committee appointed to [specify the object], would
respectfully report," etc.  It usually closes thus:  "All of which is
respectfully submitted," followed by the signatures of

=== Page 129 ===========================================================

all the members concurring in the report, or sometimes by only that of
the chairman.

If the minority submit a report, it commences thus:  "The undersigned, a
minority of the committee appointed," etc., continuing as the regular
report of the committee.  After the committee's report has been read, it
is usual to allow the minority to present their report, but it cannot be
acted upon except by a motion to substitute it for the report of the
committee.  When the committee's report is read, they are discharged
without any motion.  A motion to refer the paper back to the same
committee (or to re-commit), if adopted, revives the committee.

Art. XI.  Introduction of Business.

54. Any member wishing to bring business before the assembly, should,
without it is very simple, write down in the form of a motion, what he
would like to have the assembly adopt, thus:

Resolved, That the thanks of this convention be tendered to the citizens
of this community for their hearty welcome and generous hospitality.

=== Page 130 ===========================================================

When there is no other business before the assembly, he rises and
addresses the chairman by his title, thus:  "Mr. Chairman," who
immediately recognizes him by announcing his name.* [If the chairman has
any special title, as President, for instance, he should be addressed by
it, thus:  "Mr. President."  Sometimes the chairman recognizes the
speaker by merely bowing to him, but the proper course is to announce
his name.] He, then having the floor, says that he "moves the adoption
of the following resolution," which he reads and hands to the chairman.**
[Or, when he is recognized by the chair, he may say that he wishes to
offer the following resolutions, which he reads and then moves their
adoption.] Some one else seconds the motion, and the chairman says, "It
has been moved and seconded that the following resolution be adopted,"
when he reads the resolution; or he may read the resolution and then
state the question thus:  "The question is on the adoption of the
resolution just read."  The merits of the resolution are then open to
discussion, but before any member can discuss the question or make any
motion, he must first obtain the floor as just described.  After the
chairman states the question, if no one rises to speak, or when he
thinks the debate closed, he asks, "Are you ready for the question?"  If
no one then rises, he puts the question in a form similar to the
following:  "The question is on the adoption of the resolution

=== Page 131 ===========================================================

which you have heard; as many as are in favor of its adoption will say
aye."  When the ayes have voted, he says, "As many as are of a contrary
opinion will say no."* [There are many other ways of putting a question;
see § 67, and Rules of Order, § 38.  Other illustrations of the ordinary
practice in introducing business will be seen in §§ 46-48.] He then
announces the result, stating that the motion is carried, or lost, as
the case may be, in the following form:  "The motion is carried--the
resolution is adopted;" or, "The ayes have it--the resolution is
adopted."  A majority of the votes cast is sufficient for the adoption
of any motion, excepting those mentioned in § 68.

Art. XII.  Motions.

55. Motions Classified According to their Object.  Instead of
immediately adopting or rejecting a resolution as originally submitted,
it may be desirable to dispose of it in some other way, and for this
purpose various motions have come into use, which can be made while a
resolution is being considered, and for the time being, supersede it.
No one can make any of these motions while another member has the floor,

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excepting as shown in § 64, which see for the circumstances under which
each motion can be made.

The following list comprises most of these motions, arranged in eight
classes, according to the object for which each motion is used.  [The
names of the motions are printed in Italics; each class is treated
separately, as shown by the references.]

Motions Classified.

  (1) To Amend or Modify ....................................... [§ 56]
    (a) Amend.
    (b) Commit.
  (2) To Defer action .......................................... [§ 57]
    (a) Postpone to a certain time.
    (b) Lie on the Table.
  (3) To Suppress Debate ....................................... [§ 58]
    (a) Previous Question.
    (b) An Order limiting or closing Debate.
  (4) To Suppress the question ................................. [§ 59]
    (a) Objection to its Consideration.
    (b) Postpone Indefinitely.
    (c) Lie on the Table.
  (5) To Consider a question the second time ................... [§ 60]
    (a) Reconsider.
  (6) Order and Rules .......................................... [§ 61]
    (a) Orders of the day.
    (b) Special Orders.
    (c) Suspension of the Rules.
    (d) Questions of Order.
    (e) Appeal.

=== Page 133 ===========================================================

  (7) Miscellaneous ............................................ [§ 62]
    (a) Reading of Papers.
    (b) Withdrawal of a Motion.
    (c) Questions of Privilege.
  (8) To close a meeting ....................................... [§ 63]
    (a) Fix the time to which to Adjourn.
    (b) Adjourn.

56. To Amend or Modify.  (a) Amend.  If it is desired to modify the
question in any way, the proper motion to make is to "amend," either by
"adding" words, or by "striking out" words; or by "striking out certain
words and inserting others;" or by "substituting" a different motion on
the same subject for the one before the assembly; or by "dividing the
question" into two or more questions, as the mover specifies, so as to
get a separate vote on any particular point or points.  Sometimes the
enemies of a measure seek to amend it in such a way as to divide its
friends, and thus defeat it.

When the amendment has been moved and seconded, the chairman should
always state the question distinctly, so that every one may know exactly
what is before them, reading first the paragraph which it is proposed to
amend; then the words to be struck out, if there are any; next, the
words to be inserted, if any; and finally, the paragraph as it will
stand if the

=== Page 134 ===========================================================

amendment is adopted.  He then states that the question is on the
adoption of the amendment, which is open to debate, the remarks being
confined to the merits of the amendment, only going into the main
question so far as is necessary in order to ascertain the propriety of
adopting the amendment.

This amendment can be amended, but an "amendment of an amendment" cannot
be amended.  None of the undebatable motions mentioned in § 66, except
to fix the time to which to adjourn, can be amended, nor can the motion
to postpone indefinitely.

(b) Commit.  If the original question is not well digested, or needs
more amendment than can well be made in the assembly, it is usual to
move "to refer it to a committee."  This motion can be made while an
amendment is pending, and it opens the whole merits of the question to
debate.  This motion can be amended by specifying the number of the
committee, or how they shall be appointed, or when they shall report, or
by giving them any other instructions.  [See § 53 on committees, and §
46 (c) on their appointment.]

57. To Defer Action.  (a) Postpone to a certain time.  If it is desired
to defer action

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upon a question till a particular time, the proper motion to make, is to
"postpone it to that time."  This motion allows of but limited debate,
which must be confined to the propriety of the postponement to that
time; it can be amended by altering the time, and this amendment allows
of the same debate.  The time specified must not be beyond that session
[§ 70] of the assembly, except it be the next session, in which case it
comes up with the unfinished business at the next session.  This motion
can be made when a motion to amend, or to commit or to postpone
indefinitely, is pending.

(b) Lie on the table.  Instead of postponing a question to a particular
time, it may be desired to lay it aside temporarily until some other
question is disposed of, retaining the privilege of resuming its
consideration at any time.* [In Congress this motion is commonly used to
defeat a measure, though it does not prevent a majority from taking it
at any other time.  Some societies prohibit a question from being taken
from the table, except by a two-thirds vote.  This rule deprives the
society of the advantages of the motion to "lie on the table." because
it would not be safe to lay a question aside temporarily, if one-third
of the assembly were opposed to the measure, as that one-third could
prevent its ever being taken from the table.  A bare majority should not
have the power, in ordinary societies, to adopt or reject a question, or
prevent its consideration, without debate.  [See note at end of § 35,
Rules of Order, on the principles involved in making questions
undebatable.] The only way to accomplish this, is to move that the
question "lie on the table."  This motion

=== Page 136 ===========================================================

allowing of neither debate nor amendment, the chairman immediately puts
the question; if carried, the whole matter is laid aside until the
assembly vote to "take it from the table" (which latter motion is
undebatable and possesses no privilege).  Sometimes this motion is used
to suppress a measure, as shown in § 59 (c).

58. To Suppress Debate.  (a) Previous Question.  While as a general
rule free debate is allowed upon every motion,* [Except an "objection to
the consideration of the question" [§ 59 (a)].  See note to § 35, Rules
of Order, for a full discussion of this subject of debate.] which, if
adopted, has the effect of adopting the original question or removing it
from before the assembly for the session,--yet, to prevent a minority
from making an improper use of this privilege, it is necessary to have
methods by which debate can be closed, and final action at once be taken
upon a question.

To accomplish this, when any debatable question is before the assembly,
it is only necessary for some one to obtain the floor and "call for the
previous question;" this call being seconded, the chairman, as it allows
of no debate, instantly puts the question, thus:  "Shall the main
question be now put?"  If this is carried by a two-thirds vote [§ 68],
all debate instantly

=== Page 137 ===========================================================

ceases, excepting that the member who offered the original resolution,
or reported it from a committee, is, as in all other cases, entitled to
the floor to close the debate; after which, the chairman immediately
puts the questions to the assembly, first, on the motion to commit, if
it is pending; if this is carried, of course the subject goes to the
committee; if, however, it fails, the vote is next taken on amendments,
and finally on the resolution as amended.

If a motion to postpone, either definitely or indefinitely, or a motion
to reconsider, or an appeal is pending, the previous question is
exhausted by the vote on the postponement, reconsideration or appeal,
and does not cut off debate upon any other motions that may be pending.
If the call for the previous question fails, that is, the debate is not
cut off, the debate continues the same as if this motion had not been
made.  The previous question can be called for simply on an amendment,
and after the amendment has been acted upon, the main question is again
open to debate.

(b) An order limiting or closing debate.  Sometimes, instead of cutting
off debate entirely by ordering the previous question, it is desirable
to allow of but very limited debate.  In

=== Page 138 ===========================================================

this case, a motion is made to limit the time allowed each speaker or
the number of speeches on each side, or to appoint a time at which
debate shall close and the question be put.  The motion may be made to
limit debate on an amendment, in which case the main question would
afterwards be open to debate and amendment; or it may be made simply on
an amendment to an amendment.

In ordinary societies, where harmony is so important, a two-thirds vote
should be required for the adoption of any of the above motions to cut
off or limit debate.* [In the House of Representatives, these motions
require only a majority vote for their adoption.  In the Senate, to the
contrary, not even two-thirds of the members can force a measure to its
passage without allowing debate, the Senate rules not recognizing the
above motions.

59. To Suppress the Question.  (a) Objection to the consideration of a
question.  Sometimes a resolution is introduced that the assembly do not
wish to consider at all, because it is profitless, or irrelevant to the
objects of the assembly, or for other reasons.  The proper course to
pursue in such case, is for some one, as soon as it is introduced, to
"object to the consideration of the question."  This objection not
requiring a second, the chairman immediately

=== Page 139 ===========================================================

puts the question, "Will the assembly consider this question?"  If
decided in the negative by a two-thirds vote, the question is
immediately dismissed, and cannot be again introduced during that
session.  This objection must be made when the question is first
introduced, before it has been debated, and it can be made when another
member has the floor.

(b) Postpone indefinitely.  After the question has been debated, the
proper motion to use in order to suppress the question for the session,
is to postpone indefinitely.  It cannot be made while any motion except
the original or main question is pending, but it can be made after an
amendment has been acted upon, and the main question, as amended, is
before the assembly.  It opens the merits of the main question to debate
to as great an extent as if the main question were before the assembly.
On account of these two facts, in assemblies with short sessions it is
not very useful, as the same result can usually be more easily attained
by the next motion.

(c) Lie on the table.  If there is no possibility during the remainder
of the session of obtaining a majority vote for taking up the question,
then the quickest way of suppressing it is

=== Page 140 ===========================================================

to move "that the question lie on the table;" which, allowing of no
debate, enables the majority to instantly lay the question on the table,
from which it cannot be taken without their consent.

From its high rank [§ 64] and undebatable character, this motion is very
commonly used to suppress a question, but, as shown in § 57 (b), its
effect is merely to lay the question aside till the assembly choose to
consider it, and it only suppresses the question so long as there is a
majority opposed to its consideration.

60. To Consider a question a second time.  Reconsider.  When a question
has been once adopted, rejected or suppressed, it cannot be again
considered during that session [§ 70], except by a motion to "reconsider
the vote" on that question.  This motion can only be made by one who
voted on the prevailing side, and on the day the vote was taken which it
is proposed to reconsider.* [In Congress it can be made on the same or
succeeding day; and if the yeas and nays were not taken on the vote, any
one can move the reconsideration.  The yeas and nays are however ordered
on all important votes in Congress, which is not the case in ordinary
societies.] It can be made and entered on the minutes in the midst of
debate, even when another member has the floor, but cannot be considered
until there is no question

=== Page 141 ===========================================================

before the assembly, when, if called up, it takes precedence of every
motion except to adjourn and to fix the time to which the assembly shall
adjourn.

A motion to reconsider a vote on a debatable question, opens to debate
the entire merits of the original motion.  If the question to be
reconsidered is undebatable, then the reconsideration is undebatable.

If the motion to reconsider is carried, the chairman announces that the
question now recurs on the adoption of the question the vote on which
has been just reconsidered:  the original question is now in exactly the
same condition that it was in before the first vote was taken on its
adoption, and must be disposed of by a vote.

When a motion to reconsider is entered on the minutes, it need not be
called up by the mover till the next meeting, on a succeeding day.* [If
the assembly has not adopted these or similar rules, this paragraph
would not apply, but this motion to reconsider would, like any other
motion, fall to the ground if not acted upon before the close of the
session at which the original vote was adopted.] If he fails to call it
up then, any one else can do so.  But should there be no succeeding
meeting, either adjourned or regular, within a month, then the effect of
the motion to reconsider

=== Page 142 ===========================================================

terminates with the adjournment of the meeting at which it was made, and
any one can call it up at that meeting.

In general no motion (except to adjourn) that has been once acted upon,
can again be considered during the same session, except by a motion to
reconsider.  [The motion to adjourn can be renewed if there has been
progress in business or debate, and it cannot be reconsidered.] But this
rule does not prevent the renewal of any of the motions mentioned in §
64, provided the question before the assembly has in any way changed;
for in this case, while the motions are nominally the same, they are in
fact different.* [Thus to move to postpone a resolution is a different
question from moving to postpone it after it has been amended.  A motion
to suspend the rules for a certain purpose cannot be renewed at the same
meeting, but can be at an adjourned meeting.  A call for the orders of
the day that has been negatived, cannot be renewed while the question
then before the assembly is still under consideration.  See Rules of
Order, § 27, for many peculiarities of this motion.]

61. Order and Rules.  (a) Orders of the Day.  Sometimes an assembly
decides that certain questions shall be considered at a particular time,
and when that time arrives those questions constitute what is termed the
"orders of the day," and if any member "calls for the orders of the
day," as it requires no second, the

=== Page 143 ===========================================================

chairman immediately puts the question, thus:  "Will the assembly now
proceed to the orders of the day?"  If carried, the subject under
consideration is laid aside, and the questions appointed for that time
are taken up in their order.  When the time arrives, the chairman may
state that fact, and put the above question without waiting for a
motion.  If the motion fails, the call for the orders of the day cannot
be renewed till the subject then before the assembly is disposed of.*
[In Congress, a member entitled to the floor cannot be interrupted by a
call for the orders of the day.  In an ordinary assembly, the most
common case where orders of the day are decided upon is where it is
necessary to make a programme for the session.  When the hour arrives
for the consideration of any subject on the programme, these rules
permit any member to call for the orders of the day (as described in
Rules of Order, § 2) even though another person has the floor.  If this
were not permitted, it would often be impossible to carry out the
programme, though wished for by the majority.  A majority could postpone
the orders of the day, when called for, so as to continue the discussion
of the question then before the assembly.  An order as to the time when
any subject shall be considered, must not be confounded with the rules
of the assembly; the latter must be enforced by the chairman, without
they are suspended by a two-thirds vote; the former, in strictness, can
only be carried out by the order of a majority of the assembly then
present and voting.]

(b) Special Order.  If a subject is of such importance that it is
desired to consider it at a special time in preference to the orders of
the day and established order of business, then a motion should be made
to make the question a "special order" for that particular time.  This

=== Page 144 ===========================================================

motion requires a two-thirds vote for its adoption, because it is really
a suspension of the rules, and it is in order whenever a motion to
suspend the rules is in order.  If a subject is a special order for a
particular day, then on that day it supersedes all business except the
reading of the minutes.  A special order can be postponed by a majority
vote.  If two special orders are made for the same day, the one first
made takes precedence.

(c) Suspension of the Rules.  It is necessary for every assembly, if
discussion is allowed, to have rules to prevent its time being wasted,
and to enable it to accomplish the object for which the assembly was
organized.  And yet at times their best interests are subserved by
suspending their rules temporarily.  In order to do this, some one makes
a motion "to suspend the rules that interfere with," etc., stating the
object of the suspension.  If this motion is carried by a two-thirds
vote, then the particular thing for which the rules were suspended can
be done.  By "general consent," that is, if no one objects, the rules
can at any time be ignored without the formality of a motion.

(d) Questions of Order.  It is the duty of the chairman to enforce the
rules and preserve

=== Page 145 ===========================================================

order, and when any member notices a breach of order, he can call for
the enforcement of the rules.  In such cases, when he rises he usually
says, "Mr. Chairman, I rise to a point of order."  The chairman then
directs the speaker to take his seat, and having heard the point of
order, decides the question and permits the first speaker to resume his
speech, directing him to abstain from any conduct that was decided to be
out of order.  When a speaker has transgressed the rules of decorum he
cannot continue his speech, if any one objects, without permission is
granted him by a vote of the assembly.  Instead of the above method,
when a member uses improper language, some one says, "I call the
gentleman to order;" when the chairman decides as before whether the
language is disorderly.

(e) Appeal.  While on all questions of order, and of interpretation of
the rules and of priority of business, it is the duty of the chairman to
first decide the question, it is the privilege of any member to "appeal
from the decision."  If the appeal is seconded, the chairman states his
decision, and that it has been appealed from, and then states the
question, thus:  "Shall the decision of the chair stand as the judgment
of the assembly?"  [or society, convention, etc.]

=== Page 146 ===========================================================

The chairman can then, without leaving the chair, state the reasons for
his decision, after which it is open to debate (no member speaking but
once), excepting in the following cases, when it is undebatable:  (1)
When it relates to transgressions of the rules of speaking, or to some
indecorum, or to the priority of business; and (2) when the previous
question was pending at the time the question of order was raised.
After the vote is taken, the chairman states that the decision of the
chair is sustained, or reversed, as the case may be.

62. Miscellaneous.  (a) Reading of papers and (b) Withdrawal of a
motion.  If a speaker wishes to read a paper, or a member to withdraw
his motion after it has been stated by the chair, it is necessary, if
any one objects, to make a motion to grant the permission.

(c) Questions of Privilege.  Should any disturbance occur during the
meeting, or anything affecting the rights of the assembly or any of the
members, any member may "rise to a question of privilege," and state the
matter, which the chairman decides to be, or not to be, a matter of
privilege:  (from the chairman's decision of course an appeal can be
taken).  If the question is one of privilege, it supersedes,

=== Page 147 ===========================================================

for the time being, the business before the assembly; its consideration
can be postponed to another time, or the previous question can be
ordered on it so as to stop debate, or it can be laid on the table, or
referred to a committee to examine and report upon it.  As soon as the
question of privilege is in some way disposed of, the debate which was
interrupted is resumed.

63. To Close the Meeting.  (a) Fix the time to which to adjourn.  If it
is desired to have an adjourned meeting of the assembly, it is best some
time before its close to move, "That when this assembly adjourns, it
adjourns to meet at such a time," specifying the time.  This motion can
be amended by altering the time, but if made when another question is
before the assembly, neither the motion nor the amendment can be
debated.  If made when no other business is before the assembly, it
stands as any other main question, and can be debated.  This motion can
be made even while the assembly is voting on the motion to adjourn, but
not when another member has the floor.

(b) Adjourn.  In order to prevent an assembly

=== Page 148 ===========================================================

from being kept in session an unreasonably long time, it is necessary to
have a rule limiting the time that the floor can be occupied by any one
member at one time.* [Ten minutes is allowed by these rules.] When it is
desired to close the meeting, without the member who has the floor will
yield it, the only resource is to wait till his time expires, and then a
member who gets the floor should move "to adjourn."  The motion being
seconded, the chairman instantly put the question, as it allows of no
amendment or debate; and if decided in the affirmative, he says, "The
motion is carried;--this assembly stands adjourned."  If the assembly
is one that will have no other meeting, instead of "adjourned," he says
"adjourned without day," or "sine die."  If previously it had been
decided when they adjourned to adjourn to a particular time, then he
states that the assembly stands adjourned to that time.  If the motion
to adjourn is qualified by specifying the time, as, "to adjourn to
to-morrow evening," it cannot be made when any other question is before
the assembly; like any other main motion, it can then be amended and
debated.** [For the effect of an adjournment upon unfinished business see
§ 69.]

=== Page 149 ===========================================================

64. Order of Precedence of Motions.  The ordinary motions rank as
follows, and any of them (except to amend) can be made while one of a
lower order is pending, but none can supersede one of a higher order:

To Fix the Time to which to Adjourn.
To Adjourn (when unqualified).
For the Orders of the Day.
To Lie on the Table.
For the Previous Question.
To Postpone to a Certain Time.
To Commit.
To Amend.
To Postpone Indefinitely.

The motion to Reconsider can be made when any other question is before
the assembly, but cannot be acted upon until the business then before
the assembly is disposed of; when, if called up, it takes precedence of
all other motions except to adjourn and to fix the time to which to
adjourn.  Questions incidental to those before the assembly take
precedence of them, and must be acted upon first.

A question of order, a call for the orders of the day, or an objection
to the consideration of a question, can be made while another member has
the floor:  so, too, can a motion to reconsider, but it can only be
entered on the minutes

=== Page 150 ===========================================================

at that time, as it cannot supersede the question then before the
assembly.

Art. XIII.  Debate.

65. Rules of Speaking in Debate.  All remarks must be addressed to the
chairman, and must be confined to the question before the assembly,
avoiding all personalities and reflections upon any one's motives.  It
is usual for permanent assemblies to adopt rules limiting the number of
times any member can speak to the same question, and the time allowed
for each speech;* [In Congress the House of Representatives allows from
each member only one speech of one hour's length; the Senate allows two
speeches without limit as to length.] as otherwise one member, while he
could speak only once to the same question, might defeat a measure by
prolonging his speech and declining to yield the floor except for a
motion to adjourn.  In ordinary assemblies two speeches should be
allowed each member (except upon an appeal), and these rules also limit
the time for each speech to ten minutes.  A majority can permit a member
to speak oftener or longer whenever it is desired, and the motion
granting such permission cannot be debated.

=== Page 151 ===========================================================

However, if greater freedom is wanted, it is only necessary to consider
the question informally, or if the assembly is large, go into committee
of the whole.* [See Rules of Order, §§ 32, 33.] If on the other hand it
is desired to limit the debate more, or close it altogether, it can be
done by a two-thirds vote, as shown in § 58 (b).

66. Undebatable Questions and those Opening the Main Question to
Debate.  [A full list of these will be found in § 35, to which the
reader is referred.  To the undebatable motions in that list, should be
added the motion to close or limit debate.]

Art. XIV.  Miscellaneous.

67. Forms of Stating and Putting Questions.  Whenever a motion has been
made and seconded, it is the duty of the chairman, if the motion is in
order, to state the question so that the assembly may know what question
is before them.  The seconding of a motion is required to prevent a
question being introduced when only one member is in favor of it, and
consequently

=== Page 152 ===========================================================

but little attention is paid to it in mere routine motions, or when it
is evident that many are in favor of the motion; in such cases the
chairman assumes that the motion is seconded.

Often in routine work the chairman puts the question without waiting for
even a motion, as few persons like to make such formal motions, and much
time would be wasted by waiting for them: (but the chairman can only do
this as long as no one objects.)  The following motions, however, do not
have to be seconded:  (a) a call for the orders of the day; (b) a call
to order, or the raising of any question of order; and (c) an objection
to the consideration of a question.

One of the commonest forms of stating a question is to say that, "It is
moved and seconded that," and then give the motion.  When an amendment
has been voted on, the chairman announces the result, and then says,
"The question now recurs on the resolution," or, "on the resolution as
amended," as the case may be.  So in all cases, as soon as a vote is
taken, he should immediately state the question then before the
assembly, if there be any.  If the motion is debatable or can be
amended, the chairman, usually after stating the question, and

=== Page 153 ===========================================================

always before finally putting it, inquires, "Are you ready for the
question?"  Some of the common forms of stating and putting questions
are shown in §§ 46-48.  The forms of putting the following questions,
are, however, peculiar:

If a motion is made to Strike out certain words, the question is put in
this form:  "Shall these words stand as a part of the resolution?" so
that on a tie vote they are struck out.

If the Previous Question is demanded, it is put thus:  "Shall the main
question be now put?"

If an Appeal is made from the decision of the Chair, the question is
put thus:  "Shall the decision of the Chair stand as the judgment of the
assembly?"  [convention, society, etc.] If the Orders of the Day are
called for, the question is put thus:  "Will the assembly now proceed to
the Orders of the Day?"

When, upon the introduction of a question, some one objects to its
consideration, the chairman immediately puts the question thus:  "Will
the assembly consider it?" or, "Shall the question be considered?"  [or
discussed.]

If the vote has been ordered to be taken by yeas and nays, the question
is put in a form similar to the following:  "As many as are in favor of
the adoption of these resolutions, will, when their names are called,
answer yes [or aye]--those opposed will answer no."

=== Page 154 ===========================================================

68. Motions requiring a two-thirds vote.* [See Two-thirds Vote, page
159, and § 39 of Rules of Order.]

All motions that have the effect to make a variation from the
established rules and customs, should require a two-thirds vote for
their adoption.  Among these established customs should be regarded the
right of free debate upon the merits of any measure, before the assembly
can be forced to take final action upon it.  The following motions would
come under this rule:

To amend or suspend the rules.
To make a special order.
To take up a question out of its proper order.
An objection to the consideration of a question.
The Previous Question, or a motion to limit or close debate.

69. Unfinished Business.  When an assembly adjourns, the unfinished
business comes up at the adjourned meeting, if one is held, as the first
business after the reading of the minutes; if there is no adjourned
meeting, the unfinished business comes up immediately before new
business at the next regular meeting, provided the regular meetings are
more frequent than yearly.** [See Rules of Order, § 11, for a fuller
explanation of the effect of an adjournment upon unfinished business,
and the Congressional practice.] If the meetings are only once a

=== Page 155 ===========================================================

year, the adjournment of the session puts an end to all unfinished
business.

70. Session.  Each regular meeting of a society constitutes a separate
session.  Any meeting which is not an adjournment of another meeting,
commences a new session; the session terminates as soon as the assembly
"adjourns without day."* [In ordinary practice, a meeting is closed by
moving simply "to adjourn;" the society meet again at the time provided
either by their rules or by a resolution of the society.  If they do not
meet till the time for the next regular meeting, as provided in the
By-Laws, then the adjournment closed the session, and was in effect an
adjournment without day.  If, however, they had previously fixed the
time for the next meeting, either by a direct vote, or by adopting a
programme of exercises covering several meetings or even days, in either
case the adjournment is in effect to a certain day, and does not close
the session.]

When an assembly has meetings for several days consecutively, they all
constitute one session.  Each session of a society is independent of the
other sessions, excepting as expressly provided in their Constitution,
By-Laws, or Rules of Order, and excepting that resolutions adopted by
one session are in force during succeeding sessions until rescinded by a
majority vote [see note to § 49].

Where a society holds more than one regular session a year, these rules
limit the independence of each session as follows:  (a) The Order of
Business prescribed in § 72 requires that the

=== Page 156 ===========================================================

minutes of the previous meeting, the reports of committees previously
appointed, and the unfinished business of the last session, shall all
take precedence of new business, and that no subject can be considered
out of its proper order, except by a two-thirds vote; (b) it is
allowable to postpone a question to the next session, when it comes up
with unfinished business, but it is not allowable to postpone to a day
beyond the next session, and thus interfere with the right of the next
session to consider the question; (c) a motion to reconsider a vote can
be made at one meeting and called up at the next meeting even though it
be another session, provided the society holds its regular sessions as
frequently as monthly.* [See Rules of Order, § 42, for a full discussion
of this subject.]

71. Quorum.  [See § 43 for full information on this subject.]

72. Order of Business.  Every society should adopt an order of business
adapted to its special wants.  The following is the usual order where no
special rule is adopted, and when more than one regular meeting is held
each year:

=== Page 157 ===========================================================

(1) Reading of the minutes of the last meeting.
(2) Reports of Boards of Trustees or Managers, and Standing Committees.
(3) Reports of Select Committees.
(4) Unfinished Business (including questions postponed to this meeting).
(5) New Business.

Business cannot be considered out of its order, except by a two-thirds
vote; but a majority can lay on the table the different questions as
they come up, and thus reach a subject they wish first to consider.  If
a subject has been made a Special Order for this meeting, then it is to
be considered immediately after the minutes are read.

73. Amendments of Constitutions, By-Laws and Rules of Order, should be
permitted only when adopted by a two-thirds vote, at a regular meeting
of the society, after having been proposed at the previous regular
meeting.  If the meetings are very frequent, weekly, for instance,
amendments should be adopted only at the quarterly meetings, after
having been proposed at the previous quarterly meeting.

=== Page 158 ===========================================================

Legal Rights of Assemblies and the Trial of their Members.

The Right of Deliberative Assemblies to Punish their Members.  A
deliberative assembly has the inherent right to make and enforce its own
laws and punish an offender--the extreme penalty, however, being
expulsion from its own body.  When expelled, if the assembly is a
permanent society, it has a right, for its own protection, to give
public notice that the person has ceased to be a member of that society.

But it has no right to go beyond what is necessary for self protection
and publish the charges against the member.  In a case where a member of
a society was expelled, and an officer of the society published, by
their order, a statement of the grave charges upon which he had been found
guilty, the expelled member recovered damages from the officer, in a
suit for libel--the court holding that the truth of the charges did
not affect the case.

=== Page 159 ===========================================================

The Right of an Assembly to Eject any one from its place of meeting.
Every deliberative assembly has the right to decide who may be present
during its session, and when the assembly, either by a rule or by a
vote, decides that a certain person shall not remain in the room, it is
the duty of the chairman to enforce the rule or order, using whatever
force is necessary to eject the party.

The chairman can detail members to remove the person, without calling
upon the police.  If, however, in enforcing the order, any one uses
harsher treatment than is necessary to remove the person, the courts
have held that he, and he alone is liable to prosecution, just the same
as a policeman would be under similar circumstances.  However badly the
man may be abused while being removed from the room, neither the
chairman nor the society are liable for damages, as, in ordering his
removal, they did not exceed their legal rights.

Rights of Ecclesiastical Tribunals.  Many of our deliberative assemblies
are ecclesiastical bodies, and it is important to know how much respect
will be paid to their decisions by the civil courts.

A church became divided and each party

=== Page 160 ===========================================================

claimed to be the church, and therefore entitled to the church property.
The case was taken into the civil courts, and finally, on appeal, to the
U. S. Supreme Court, which held the case under advisement for one year,
and then reversed the decision of the State Court, because it conflicted
with the decision of the highest ecclesiastical court that had acted
upon the case.  The Supreme Court, in rendering its decision, laid down
the broad principle that, when a local church is but a part of a larger
and more general organization or denomination, it will accept the
decision of the highest ecclesiastical tribunal to which the case has
been carried within that general church organization, as final, and will
not inquire into the justice or injustice of its decree as between the
parties before it.  The officers, the ministers, the members, or the
church body which the highest judiciary of the denomination recognizes,
the court will recognize.  Whom that body expels or cuts off, the court
will hold to be no longer members of that church.

Trial of Members of Societies.  Every deliberative assembly, having the
right to purify its own body, must therefore have the right to
investigate the character of its members.

=== Page 161 ===========================================================

It can require any of them to testify in the case, under pain of
expulsion if they refuse.  In § 36 is shown the method of procedure when
a member is charged with violating the rules of decorum in debate.  If
the disorderly words are of a personal nature, before the assembly
proceeds to deliberate upon the case, both parties to the personality
should retire.  It is not necessary for the member objecting to the
words to retire, unless he is personally involved in the case.

When the charge is against the member's character, it is usually
referred to a committee of investigation or discipline, or to some
standing committee to report upon.  Some societies have standing
committees, whose duty it is to report cases for discipline whenever any
are known to them.

In either case the committee investigate the matter and report to the
society.  This report need not go into details, but should contain their
recommendations as to what action the society should take, and should
usually close with resolutions covering the case, so that there is no
need for any one to offer any additional resolutions upon it.  The
ordinary resolutions, where the member is recommended to be expelled,

=== Page 162 ===========================================================

are (1) to fix the time to which the society shall adjourn; and (2) to
instruct the clerk to cite the member to appear before the society at
this adjourned meeting to show cause why he should not be expelled, upon
the following charges, which should then be given.

After charges are preferred against a member and the assembly has
ordered that he be cited to appear for trial, he is theoretically under
arrest, and is deprived of all the rights of membership until his case
is disposed of.

The clerk should send the accused a written notice to appear before the
society at the time appointed, and should at the same time furnish him
with a copy of the charges.  A failure to obey the summons is generally
cause enough for summary expulsion.

At the appointed meeting, what may be called the trial, takes place.
Frequently the only evidence required against the member is the report
of the committee.  After it has been read and any additional evidence
offered that the committee may see fit to introduce, the accused should
be allowed to make an explanation and introduce witnesses if he so
desires.  Either party should be allowed to cross-examine the other's
witnesses and introduce rebutting testimony.

=== Page 163 ===========================================================

When the evidence is all in, the accused should retire from the room,
and the society deliberate upon the question, and finally act by a vote
upon the question of expulsion or other punishment proposed.

In acting upon the case, it must be borne in mind that there is a vast
distinction between the evidence necessary to convict in a civil court
and that required to convict in an ordinary society or ecclesiastical
body.  A notorious pickpocket could not even be arrested, much less
convicted, by a civil court, simply on the ground of being commonly
known as a pickpocket; while such evidence would convict and expel him
from any ordinary society.

The moral conviction of the truth of the charge is all that is necessary
in an ecclesiastical or other deliberative body, to find the accused
guilty of the charges.

If the trial is liable to be long and troublesome, or of a very delicate
nature, the member is frequently cited to appear before a committee,
instead of the society, for trial.  In this case the committee report to
the society the result of their trial of the case, with resolutions
covering the punishment which they recommend the society to adopt.

=== Page 164 ===========================================================
=== Page 165 ===========================================================

TABLE OF RULES

RELATING TO MOTIONS.

[This Table contains the answers to more than two hundred questions on
parliamentary law, and should always be consulted before referring to
the body of the Manual.]

=== Page 166 ===========================================================

TABLE OF RULES RELATING TO MOTIONS.

Explanation of the Table.  A Star shows that the rule heading the column
in which it stands, applies to the motion opposite to which it is
placed:  a blank shows that the rule does not apply:  a figure shows
that the rule only partially applies, the figure referring to the note
on the next page showing the limitations.  Take, for example, "Lie on
the table:"  the Table shows that § 19 of the Pocket Manual treats of
this motion; that it is "undebatable" and "cannot be amended;" and that
an affirmative vote on it (as shown in note 3) "cannot be reconsidered:"
-- the four other columns being blank, show that this motion does not
"open the main question to debate," that it does not "require a 2/3
vote," that it does "require to be seconded," and that it is not "in
order when another member has the floor."

The column headed "Requires a two-thirds vote," applies only where the
"Pocket Manual of Rules of Order," or similar rules, have been adopted.
[See "Two-thirds Vote," on next page, under Miscellaneous Rules.]

After the note to the Table is some additional information that a
chairman should always have at hand, such as the Order of Precedence of
Motions, the Forms Of Putting Certain Questions, etc.

                In order when another has the floor [§ 2]-------------|
                                 Requires no Second [§ 3]-----------| |
                 Requires a 2/3 vote [§ 39]--See Note 1.---------| | |
                            Cannot be Reconsidered [§ 27]-------| | | |
                                 Cannot be Amended [§ 23]-----| | | | |
                     Opens Main Question to Debate [§ 35]---| | | | | |
                                       Undebatable [§ 35]-| | | | | | |
|- Section in Pocket Manual                               | | | | | | |
|                                                         | | | | | | |
11  Adjourn ............................................. x . x x . . .
10  Adjourn, Fix the Time to which to ................... 2 . . . . . .
23  Amend ............................................... . . . . . . .
23  Amend an Amendment .................................. . . x . . . .
43  Amend the Rules ..................................... . . . . x . .
14  Appeal, relating to indecorum, etc., [6] ............ x . x . . . x
14  Appeal, all other cases ............................. . . x . . . x
14  Call to Order ....................................... x . x . . x x
37  Close Debate, motion to ............................. x . . . x . .
22  Commit .............................................. . x . . . . .
31  Extend the limits of debate, motion to .............. x . . . . . .
10  Fix the Time to which to Adjourn .................... 2 . . . . . .
15  Leave to continue speaking when guilty of indecorum   x . x . . . .
19  Lie on the Table .................................... x . x 3 . . .
37  Limit Debate, motion to ............................. x . . . x . .
13  Objection to Consideration of a Question [7] ........ x . x . x x x
13  Orders of the Day, motion for the ................... x . x . . x x
21  Postpone to a certain time .......................... 4 . . . . . .
24  Postpone indefinitely ............................... . x x . . . .
20  Previous Question ................................... x . x . x . .
44  Priority of Business, questions relating to ......... x . . . . . .
16  Reading Papers ...................................... x . x . . . .
27  Reconsider a debatable question ..................... . x x . . . 5
27  Reconsider an undebatable question .................. x . x . . . 5
22  Refer (same as Commit) .............................. . x . . . . .
11  Rise (in Committee equals Adjourn) .................. x . x x . . .
11  Shall the question be discussed? [7] ................ x . x . x x x
61  Special Order, to make a ............................ . . . . x . .
23  Substitute (same as Amend) .......................... . . . . . . .
18  Suspend the Rules ................................... x . x x x . .
59  Take from the table ................................. x . x 3 . . .
44  Take up a question out of its proper order .......... x . x . x . .
17  Withdrawal of a motion .............................. x . x . . . .

=== Page 167 ===========================================================

Notes To The Table.

(1) This column only applies to assemblies that have adopted these
Rules.  If no rules are adopted, a majority vote is sufficient for the
adoption of any motion, except to "suspend the rules," which requires a
unanimous vote.  [See Two-thirds Vote, below.]

(2) Undebatable if made when another question is before the assembly.

(3) An affirmative vote on this motion cannot be reconsidered.

(4) Allows of but limited debate upon the propriety of the postponement.

(5) Can be moved and entered on the record when another has the floor,
but cannot interrupt the business then before the assembly;  it must be
made on the day the original vote was taken, and by one who voted with
the prevailing side.

(6) An appeal is undebatable only when relating to indecorum, or to
transgressions of the rules of speaking, or to the priority of business,
or when made while the Previous Question is pending.  When debatable,
only one speech from each member is permitted.

(7) The objection can only be made when the question is first
introduced, before debate.

MISCELLANEOUS RULES.

Order of Precedence of Motions.

The ordinary motions rank as follows, and any of them (except to amend)
can be made while one of a lower order is pending, but none can
supercede one of a higher order:

To Fix the Time to which to Adjourn.
To Adjourn (when unqualified).
For the Orders of the Day.
To Lie on the Table.
For the Previous Question.
To Postpone to a Certain Time.
To Commit.
To Amend.
To Postpone Indefinitely.

The motion to Reconsider can be made when any other question is before
the assembly, but cannot be acted upon until the business then before
the assembly is disposed of [see note 5 above], when, if called up, it
takes precedence of all other motions except to adjourn and to fix the
time to which to adjourn.  Questions incidental to those before the
assembly, take precedence of them and must be acted upon first.

Two-thirds Vote.

In Congress the only motions requiring a two-thirds vote, are to suspend
or amend the Rules, to take up business out of its proper order, and to
make a special order.  In ordinary societies harmony is so essential,
that a two-thirds vote should be required to force the assembly to a
final vote upon a resolution without allowing free debate.  The Table
conforms to the Rules of Order, which are based upon this principle.  If
an assembly has adopted no Rules of Order, then a majority vote is
sufficient for the adoption of any motion, except to "suspend the
rules," which would require a unanimous vote.

Forms of Putting Certain Questions.

If a motion is made to Strike out certain words, the question is put in
this form:  "Shall these words stand as a part of the resolution?" so
that on a tie vote they are struck out.

If the Previous Question is demanded, it is put thus:  "Shall the main
question now be put?"

If an Appeal is made from the decision of the Chair, the question is put
thus:  "Shall the decision of the Chair stand as the judgement of the
assembly?"  [convention, society, etc.].

If the Orders of the Day are called for, the question is put thus:
"Will the assembly now proceed to the Orders of the Day?"

When, upon the introduction of a question, some one objects to its
consideration, the chairman immediately puts the question thus:  "Will
the assembly consider it?" or "Shall the question be considered?"  [or
discussed.]

If the vote has been ordered to be taken by yeas and nays, the question
is put in a form similar to the following:  "As many as are in favor of
the adoption of these resolutions, will, when their names are called,
answer yes [or aye]--those opposed will answer no."

Various Forms of Amendments.

An Amendment may be either (1) by "adding" or (2) by "striking out"
words or paragraphs; or (3) by "striking out certain words and inserting
others;" or (4) by "substituting" a different motion on the same
subject; or (5) by "dividing the question" into two or more questions,
so as to get a separate vote on any particular point or points.

=== Page 168 ===========================================================

Additions and Corrections.

[These corrections, though mostly contained in other parts of
the Manual, are also needed in the places here indicated.]

19th page, 7th line, after "§ 13" insert a star referring to this
           note: "See note to § 61."
50th  ''   2d line of last note, omit all after "reconsideration."
51st  ''   at end of 12th line, insert "upon another day."
 ''   ''   10th line, insert a star, referring to this note: "In
           Congress the effect always terminates with the session,
           and it cannot be called up by any one but the mover,
           until the expiration of the time during which it is in
           order to move a reconsideration."
69th  ''   4th line, after "§ 34," insert "or limiting or closing debate."
72d   ''   17th line, insert a star referring to this note:
           "If both are personally interested. [See p. 161.]"
73d   ''   last line of note, insert "final" before "vote."
80th  ''   add to the list in § 39 the motion
           "To make a special order."

=== Page 169 ===========================================================

INDEX.

The figures from 1 to 45 refer to sections in Part I; those greater than
45, to sections in Part II.  A complete list of motions will be found in
the Index, under the title Motions, list of.  The arrangement of the
work can be most easily seen by examining the Table of Contents [pp.
5-8]; its plan is explained in the Introduction, pp. 12-15.
                                                                SECTION.

Adjourn, motion to ............................................. 11, 63b
  when in order  ................................................ 11, 64
  effect upon unfinished business  .............................. 11, 69
  motion to "fix the time to which to adjourn" .................. 10, 63
Amendment, motion to "amend"  .................................. 23, 56a
  by "adding" or "striking out" ................................ 23, 56a
  by "striking out and inserting" .............................. 23, 56a
  by "substituting" ............................................ 23, 56a
  by "dividing the question" ................................ 4, 23, 56a
  of an amendment .............................................. 23, 56a
  in committee .................................................. 28, 53
  in committee of the whole  ........................................ 32
  of reports or propositions with several paragraphs ........... 44, 48b
  of Rules of Order, By-Laws and Constitutions .................. 45, 73
  motions that cannot be amended ............................... 23, 56a
Announcing the vote. See Forms.
Appeal from the decision of the chair .......................... 14, 61e
Apply, meaning of (Introduction, page 14).
Assembly, how organized ..................................... 46, 47, 48
  the word to be replaced by Society, Convention, etc.,
    when it occurs in forms of questions, p 16.
  legal rights of, pp. 158-163.
  right to punish members, p. 158.
  right to eject persons from their room, p. 159.
  trial of members, p. 160.
Ayes and Noes. See Yeas and Nays, § 38.
Ballot .............................................................. 38
Blanks, filling of .................................................. 25
  in balloting, not to be counted ................................... 38

=== Page 170 ===========================================================

Boards of Trustees, Managers, etc., their reports in
  order when reports of standing committees are made ............ 44, 72
  (See Quorum.)
Business, introduction of ...................................... 1-5, 54
  order of ...................................................... 44, 72
  unfinished, effect of an adjournment upon ..................... 11, 69
     [See Priority of Business.]
By-Laws, what they should contain ................................... 49
  adoption of ...................................................... 46a
  amendment of .................................................. 45, 73
Chairman, duties of ............................................. 40, 50
  election of ...................................................... 46a
  temporary ..................................................... 40, 47
  of a committee ................................................ 28, 53
of committee of the whole ........................................... 32
Change of Vote allowed before result is announced ................... 38
Classification of Motions according to their object ................. 55
  into Privileged, Incidental, Subsidiary, etc. .................... 6-9
Clerk, duties of ................................................ 41, 51
  additional duties of when receiving money ......................... 52
  election of ...................................................... 46a
Commit, motion to .............................................. 22, 56b
Committees, appointment of ..................................... 22, 46c
  how they should be composed ................................... 22, 53
  object of ..................................................... 28, 53
  manner of conducting business in .............................. 28, 53
  Reports of, their form ........................................ 29, 53
    their reception ............................................ 30, 46c
    their adoption ............................................. 31, 46c
    their place in the order of business ........................ 44, 72
    common errors in acting upon (note) ........................ 30, 46c
  Minority Reports of, their form ............................... 29, 53
    to be acted upon must be moved as a substitute
      for the committee's report ................................ 28, 53
  of the whole ...................................................... 32
  as if in committee of the whole ................................... 33

=== Page 171 ===========================================================

Congress, rules of, the basis of this work, pp. 10-12.
Consideration of a question, objection to ...................... 15, 59a
Constitutions, what they should contain ............................. 49
  adoption of by a society ......................................... 48b
  amendment of .................................................. 45, 73
Convention, manner of organizing and conducting a
    meeting of  ..................................................... 47
Credentials of delegates ............................................ 47
Debate, what precedes ............................................ 3, 54
  no member to speak but twice in same .......................... 34, 65
  no member to speak longer than ten minutes at one
    time ........................................................ 34, 65
  a majority can extend the number and length of
    speeches allowed  ........................................... 34, 65
  number of speeches and time allowed in Congress
    (note) ...................................................... 34, 65
  member introducing measure has right to close ..................... 34
  list of undebatable questions ................................. 35, 66
  motions that open the main question to ............................ 35
  principles regulating the extent of (see note) .................... 35
  decorum in .................................................... 36, 65
  closing or limiting ........................................... 37, 58
Decorum in debate ............................................... 36, 65
Definitions of various terms [Introduction, p. 15].
Delegates, organization of a meeting of ............................. 47
Division of the assembly ............................................ 38
  of questions [see Amendment] .................................. 4, 56a
Ecclesiastical Tribunals, legal rights of, p. 159.
Election of Officers ........................................... 46a, 47
Fix the time to which to Adjourn, motion to .................... 10, 63a
Floor, how to obtain ............................................. 2, 54
Forms of making motions ......................................... 46, 54
  of stating and putting questions .............................. 38, 67
  of announcing the result of a vote ............................ 38, 54
  of reports of committees ...................................... 29, 53
  of treasurers' reports ............................................ 52
  of minutes of a meeting ....................................... 41, 51

=== Page 172 ===========================================================

Forms-Continued.

  of conducting an occasional or mass meeting ....................... 46
  of conducting a meeting of delegates .............................. 47
  of conduction a meeting to organize a society ..................... 48
  of conducting an ordinary meeting of a society ................... 48b
Incidental questions ................................................. 8
Indefinite postponement ........................................ 24, 59b
Informal consideration of a question ................................ 33
Introduction of Business ....................................... 1-5, 54
Journal, or minutes ............................................. 41, 51
Legal Rights. See Assembly and Ecclesiastical Tribunals.
Lie on the table, motion to ............................... 19, 57b, 59c
Main question ........................................................ 6
Majority. See Two-thirds and Quorum.
Meeting, distinction between it and session ..................... 42, 70
    [See also Introduction, page 15.]
  how to conduct. See Forms.
Members not to be present during a debate or vote
  concerning themselves ............................................. 36
  trial of, p. 160.
Minority Report. See Committees.
Minutes, form and contents of ................................... 41, 51
Moderator. See Chairman.
Modification of a motion by the mover ................................ 5
Motions, list of. [For details, see each motion in the Index.]
  Adjourn ...................................................... 11, 63b
  Adjourn, Fix the time to which to ............................ 10, 63a
  Amend ........................................................ 23, 56a
  Adopt a report (same as accept or agree to) .................. 31, 46c
  Appeal ....................................................... 14, 61e
  Blanks, filling ................................................... 25
  Call to order ................................................ 14, 61d
  Close debate .................................................. 37, 58
  Commit ....................................................... 22, 56b
  Consideration of a question, objection to  ................... 15, 59a
  Divide the question ....................................... 4, 23, 56a

=== Page 173 ===========================================================

Motions-Continued.

  Extend the limits of debate ................................... 34, 65
  Fix the time to which to adjourn ............................. 10, 63a
  Incidental motions or questions .................................... 8
  Indefinitely postpone ........................................ 24, 59b
  Informal consideration of a question .............................. 33
  Leave to continue speech when guilty of indecorum ................. 36
  Leave to withdraw a motion ................................... 17, 62b
  Lie on the table ........................................ 19, 57b, 59c
  Limit Debate ................................................. 37, 58b
  Main motions or questions .......................................... 6
  Objection to the consideration of a question ................. 15, 59a
  Order, questions of .......................................... 14, 61d
  Orders of the day ............................................ 13, 61a
  Orders, special .................................................. 61b
  Postpone to a certain day .................................... 21, 57a
  Postpone indefinitely ........................................ 24, 59b
  Previous question ............................................ 20, 58a
  Principal motions or questions ..................................... 6
  Priority of Business, questions relating to ....................... 35
  Privileged motions or questions .................................... 9
  Privilege, questions of ...................................... 12, 62c
  Reading papers ................................................ 16, 62
  Reception of a report [see Committees] ....................... 30, 46c
  Recommit [same as Commit] ..................................... 22, 56
  Reconsider .................................................... 27, 60
  Refer [same as Commit] ....................................... 22, 56b
  Renewal of a motion ........................................... 26, 60
  Rise [in committee, equals adjourn] ........................... 11, 32
  Shall the question be considered? [or discussed] ............. 15, 59a
  Special Order, to make a ......................................... 61b
  Strike out [see Amendment] ................................... 23, 56a
  Subsidiary motions or questions .................................... 7
  Substitute (same as Amendment, which see) .................... 23, 56a
  Suspension of the Rules ...................................... 18, 61c
  Take from the table [see Lie on the table] ................... 19, 57b
  Take up a question out of its proper order .................... 44, 72
  Withdrawal of a motion ........................................ 17, 62

=== Page 174 ===========================================================

Motions, tabular view of rules relating to, page 166.
  classified according to their object .............................. 55
  classified into Privileged, Incidental, Subsidiary, etc. ......... 6-9
  order of precedence of [see each motion, §§ 10-27] ................ 64
  how to be made .......................................... 1, 2, 46, 54
  a second required (with certain exceptions) .................... 3, 67
  to be stated by chairman before being discussed ................ 3, 54
  when to be in writing .......................................... 4, 54
  how to be divided .................................................. 4
  how to be modified by the mover ............................. 3, 5, 17
  how to be stated and put to the question ...................... 38, 67
  that cannot be amended ....................................... 23, 56a
  that cannot be debated ........................................ 35, 66
  that open main question to debate ................................. 35
  that require two-thirds vote for their adoption ............... 39, 68
Nominations, how treated ....................................... 25, 46a
Numbers of paragraphs to be corrected by clerk without
  a vote ............................................................ 23
Objection to the consideration (discussion or introduction
  of a question ................................................ 15, 59a
Officers of an assembly. See Chairman, Clerk, Treasurer
  and Vice-Presidents.
Order, questions of and a call to .............................. 14, 61d
  of business ................................................... 44, 72
  of the day ................................................... 13, 61a
    distinction between, and rules of the assembly (note) .......... 61a
  special .......................................................... 61b
  of precedence of motions. See Precedence.
Organization of an occasional or mass meeting ...................... 46a
  of a convention or assembly of delegates .......................... 47
  of a permanent society ............................................ 48
Papers and documents, reading of ................................ 16, 62
  in custody of clerk ........................................... 41, 51
Parliamentary Law, its origin, etc., (Introduction. p. 9.)
Plan of the Manual, (Introduction, page 12.)
  of Part I, Rules of Order, (Introduction, page 13.)
  of Part II, Organization and Conduct of Business,
    (Introduction, page 14.)

=== Page 175 ===========================================================

Postpone to a certain time ..................................... 21, 57a
  indefinitely ................................................. 24, 59b
Preamble, considered after the rest of a paper ...................... 44
Precedence of motions [see each motion, §§ 10-27] ................... 64
  meaning of, (Introduction, page 14.)
Presiding Officer. See Chairman.
Previous Question .............................................. 20, 58a
Principal (or main) question ......................................... 6
Priority of Business, questions relating to are undebatable ......... 35
Privilege, questions of ........................................ 12, 62c
Privileged questions ................................................. 9
Putting the question, form of ................................... 38, 67
Questions. See Forms, Motions, Privilege and Order.
Quorum, when there is no rule, consists of a majority ............... 43
  committees and boards cannot decide upon .......................... 43
Reading of Papers ............................................... 16, 62
Reception of a report. See Committees.
Re-commit (same as Commit) ..................................... 22, 56b
Reconsider ...................................................... 27, 60
Record, or minutes .............................................. 41, 51
Recording officer. See Clerk.
Refer [same as Commit] ......................................... 22, 56b
Renewal of a motion ............................................. 26, 60
Reports of committees. See Committees.
Rights of assemblies. See Assembly.
  of ecclesiastical tribunals, p. 159.
Rise, motion to, in committee, equals adjourn ................... 11, 32
Rules of debate. See Debate.
  of Order, amendment of ........................................ 45, 73
  of Order, what they should contain ................................ 49
  standing, what they should contain ................................ 49
  suspension of ................................................ 18, 61c
  relating to motions, tabular view of p. 166.

=== Page 176 ===========================================================

Seconding, motions that do not require ........................... 3, 67
Secretary. See Clerk.
Session [See also Meeting] ...................................... 42, 70
Shall the question be considered (or discussed) ................ 15, 59a
Speaking, rules of, See Debate.
Special Order ...................................................... 61b
Standing Rules ...................................................... 49
Stating a question, form of ..................................... 38, 67
Strike out (see Amendment) ..................................... 23, 56a
Subsidiary motions or questions ...................................... 7
Substitute (see Amendment) ..................................... 23, 56a
Sum, largest, first put ............................................. 25
Suspension of the rules ........................................ 18, 61c
Table of Rules relating to motions, p. 166.
Take from the table, motion to ................................. 19, 57b
Time, longest, first put ............................................ 25
Treasurer, duties of ................................................ 52
Trial of Members, p. 160.
Two-thirds vote, motions requiring .............................. 39, 68
Undebatable Questions ........................................... 35, 66
Unfinished business, effect of adjournment upon ................. 11, 69
  its place in the order of business ............................ 44, 72
Vice-Presidents .................................................... 46d
Vote, form of announcing [see also Forms] ....................... 38, 54
  motions requiring more than a majority ........................ 39, 68
  change of, permitted before result is announced ................... 38
Voting, various methods of .......................................... 38
Withdrawal of a motion .......................................... 17, 62
Yeas and Nays, voting by ............................................ 38
Yields, meaning of, (Introduction, page 14.)





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