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Title: Catalogue of Violent and Destructive Earthquakes in the Philippines - With an Appendix: Earthquakes in the Marianas Islands 1599-1909
Author: Saderra Masó, Miguel, -1939
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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    +--------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Transcriber's Note:                                          |
    |                                                              |
    | Most of the information in this document is presented in     |
    | wide tables (75 characters per line).                        |
    |                                                              |
    | A number of obvious typographical errors have been corrected |
    | in this text. For a complete list, please see the bottom of  |
    | this document.                                               |
    |                                                              |
    +--------------------------------------------------------------+

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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
WEATHER BUREAU
MANILA CENTRAL OBSERVATORY

CATALOGUE
OF
VIOLENT AND DESTRUCTIVE
EARTHQUAKES IN THE
PHILIPPINES

WITH AN APPENDIX

EARTHQUAKES IN THE MARIANAS ISLANDS

1599-1909

BY
REV. MIGUEL SADERRA MASÓ, S. J.

ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF THE WEATHER BUREAU

MANILA
BUREAU OF PRINTING
1910



CATALOGUE OF VIOLENT AND DESTRUCTIVE EARTHQUAKES IN THE PHILIPPINES
(1599-1909).


Introduction.--The occasion for publishing this catalogue of
Philippine earthquakes which were of violent and destructive character
has been furnished by a request from Prof. John Milne for a list of
such phenomena, to be included in the General Earthquake Catalogue
which this eminent seismologist is preparing under the auspices of the
British Association for the Advancement of Science. The said general
catalogue has been undertaken with a view toward reducing to
uniformity and completing those published years ago by Robert Mallet
(1859) and Perrey (1844-1871). The form adopted for Professor Milne's
new catalogue is very concise, comprising only the date, intensity,
and region together with principal localities affected. It will
contain only the earthquakes of intensities VII to X according to the
scale of De Rossi-Forel, and these will be divided into three classes:
Class I will be formed by the earthquakes of sufficient force to
produce cracks in buildings and to throw down chimneys; they
correspond to force VII of De Rossi-Forel. Class II consists of the
earthquakes which not only threw down chimneys but also walls and some
weak structures; force VIII of De Rossi-Forel. Class III comprises the
earthquakes which caused general destruction; force IX and X of De
Rossi-Forel. As this classification is as purely conventional as every
other and adopted only in the catalogue mentioned, we do not employ it
in the present catalogue of Philippine earthquakes, but retain the
almost universally adopted scale of De Rossi-Forel. We shall also
present more details as to the towns and buildings damaged, the number
of victims and other disastrous effects than enter into the catalogue
of Professor Milne.

Hence, the differences between the list prepared for Professor Milne
as well as the partial catalogue published in our Monthly Bulletin for
February of the present year consist in the following: (1) This
catalogue contains also several earthquakes whose intensities were
between VI and VII, while in the former only such figure as according
to their effects were decidedly of force VII. (2) The new catalogue is
more complete as to details concerning the towns, etc., which have
been destroyed.

It is to be regretted that we are unable to present here a complete
historical catalogue of all the destruction wrought in the Archipelago
by earthquakes since the time when Legaspi and Urdaneta first set foot
on these shores. But the old chroniclers, who dwell upon the political
happenings with an attention to detail which is occasionally overdone,
were invariably laconic when there was question of earthquakes and
similar natural phenomena; as a rule they were satisfied with
mentioning the occurrence in a general and therefore vague way,
without any attempt at precision as to dates and places. Still the
writers in the Philippines did nothing worse than imitate their
colleagues throughout the rest of the world. This fact is responsible
for the great contrast exhibited by our catalogue as regards the
number and details of earthquakes which occurred prior to 1800,
records of which have been preserved, and the same data for the period
from 1800 to the present time. This same difference is observable in
all catalogues of a similar nature, even in those which cover
phenomena which occurred in Europe. As to the Philippine writers, an
additional excuse is found in the peculiar conditions of life in these
Islands. As far as we know, only two earthquakes which took place
during the period which alone can come under consideration--that is,
since the discovery of the Archipelago--have claimed a considerable
number of victims, and these in the capital, because outside of
Manila--if we except two or three of the principal cities--the
buildings which could become dangerous during an earthquake have
always been few.

Moreover, in a country in which fires consume every year thousands of
dwellings and where the terrible typhoons frequently destroy whole
towns with heavy loss of lives, the damage done by earthquakes has
rarely been so great as to impress those occurrences indelibly upon
the memory. This is beyond doubt one of the reasons why prior to the
beginning of the nineteenth century hardly any data can be found
concerning the numerous earthquakes which during the preceding two
centuries must have occurred in the Visayas and above all on the large
Island of Mindanao.

The first earthquake of which the chronicles contain a mention is that
of 1599. There is no reasonable doubt that during the twenty-eight
years which had then elapsed since the founding of Manila by Legaspi,
several strong and possibly even destructive earthquakes occurred in
this part of Luzon Island, but, as the author of the "Verdadera
relación de la grande destrucción * * * del año 1645" tells us, "when
first founded, Manila consisted of wooden houses roofed with a certain
kind of palm leaves, the same which the natives use in their
buildings." Hence the damage done by these earthquakes must have been
insignificant. Much more terrible were the losses caused by
conflagrations which within a few years twice wiped out the entire
city.

The first Bishop of Manila, Domingo de Salazar, seeing the city
exposed to such general destructions by fire like the one of February
14, 1583, gave the first impulse to the construction of stone
buildings and worked indefatigably in this direction. In person he
explored the surroundings of Manila in quest of stone quarries and by
the middle of the year 1591 he had nearly finished his palace and the
cathedral, when financial difficulties caused a temporary suspension
of the work. At the same time a great number of public and private
buildings were under construction. The enthusiasm for structures of
stone or brick with tile roofs did not diminish during the next fifty
years. The chroniclers tell us that "the Spaniards began to build
their houses of stone and tiles without the so necessary precautions
against earthquakes. * * * Beautiful structures and dwelling houses
were reared, so high and spacious that they resembled palaces;
magnificent churches with lofty and graceful towers, within the walls
of Manila as well as outside of them: all of which made the city very
beautiful and gay and contributed equally to health and pleasure." The
disaster of 1645, commonly called the earthquake of St. Andrew, as it
occurred on the feast of this apostle, November 30, razed nearly every
one of these buildings to the ground, and since then the style and
appearance of buildings has changed greatly throughout the
Archipelago, with a correspondingly great saving of lives in the
subsequent earthquakes.

Masonry arches were henceforth banished from the churches; the heavy
walls of the latter were further strengthened by massive buttresses;
and the towers were given truly enormous substructures. But even with
these precautions there is at present hardly one out of the hundreds
of churches built during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
which did not some time or other require important repairs of its
masonry work or even partial reconstruction owing to earthquake
damages. The only structure of this class which thus far has withstood
all convulsions, is the church of St. Agustin, Manila. Nevertheless,
as we have stated before, the chroniclers hardly mention all this
destruction, except in a very general and cursory manner. I do not
hesitate to say: they were accustomed to see similar havoc created
nearly every year in one part of the Archipelago or the other by some
severe typhoon, accompanied by far greater loss of lives and property,
and consequently much more felt by the people than the destruction of
a church, _convento_, municipal building ("tribunal"), one or two
bridges, or other masonry structure.

In the present catalogue our aim has been to present all that is known
of the various violent and destructive earthquakes on record. The
first column of each page contains the ordinal number of the
disturbance for purposes of reference. In the second, the date is
given as accurately as it could be ascertained, Roman numerals being
used to designate the months. Unfortunately, of some earthquakes only
the year is known; of others, the year and month. Of one (No. 32) the
approximate hour has been recorded, but not the day of the month;
while of another (No. 38) the hour has been preserved for posterity,
but whether the phenomenon occurred during February or March, the
records leave undecided. In the third column will be found, in the
first place, the intensity of the disturbance, Roman numerals
representing the degrees of the scale of De Rossi-Forel (I-X); then
the region affected most, and finally the damages caused, if known,
and other information, if available.

In describing the epicentral regions, the present distribution of the
Archipelago into provinces has been used throughout the catalogue.
This division is shown on the first of the two maps of the Philippines
which accompany this catalogue (Plate I). As to the designation
"Benguet" occasionally occurring in the text where provinces are
enumerated, but not found on the map, we beg to offer the excuse that
the region thus named is exceedingly well known in the Philippines as
it contains Baguio, _the_ health resort of the Islands. For the
readers outside of the Archipelago we remark that Benguet is at
present a subprovince of the Mountain Province, of which it forms the
southernmost part. The location of Baguio is shown on the map on Plate
II. A similar remark applies to Lepanto and Bontoc, likewise divisions
of the Mountain Province, whose capitals, Cervantes and Bontoc, are
indicated on the same map.

As we would hardly be justified in assuming that every reader is in
possession of a detailed map of the Philippines, and a knowledge of
the general distribution and the main directions of the principal
mountain systems of an earthquake country is important, we add a
second map on which these data are shown by means of dashes, together
with the most important seismic regions, and the positions of the
principal towns, bays, etc., mentioned in the text. (Plate II.)

Near the left margin of this second map will be found an index of the
seismic regions just mentioned, each of them being represented by its
ordinal number (large Roman figures). Near each of these ordinals is
placed the corresponding number of earthquakes since 1862 contained in
the catalogue (Arabic figures), which is followed, in brackets, by an
analysis of the said number, in which Roman figures designate the
degrees of the earthquake, scale of De Rossi-Forel, while small Arabic
figures, written like exponents, give the number of earthquakes of
each degree of intensity.

In drawing the map on Plate II it was not intended to represent the
epicentric area of every individual earthquake center (which would
have crowded the map beyond reasonable limits), but rather to show the
principal seismic regions. Hence most of these curves contain more
than one focus. The approximate position of each of the latter has,
however, been indicated by a star, while the figure placed close to
the star gives the number of earthquakes which proceeded from the said
center.

A word must be said in apology for the constant use in the following
list of the Spanish word "_convento_." This word which means
monastery, cloister, or convent, is universally used in the
Philippines to designate also the habitation of the clergy attached to
a parish church. Although these are, as a rule, spacious buildings and
were formerly inhabited well-nigh exclusively by friars, they can not
properly be called monasteries. Wherefore, in order to avoid lengthy
circumlocutions, the Spanish word "_convento_" has been retained.

The reader who is not familiar with this country may find it strange
that in reporting earthquake damages so much emphasis appears to be
laid on the harm done to churches and _conventos_. This is easily
explained by the fact that these buildings were often the only
structures within the meizoseismal area, and built nearly everywhere
in the most substantial manner.

In the present catalogue we have also included, by way of an appendix,
the earthquakes which are known to have occurred in the Marianas or
Ladrones group of islands. While their number is too small to warrant
separate publication, we believe that the data concerning them will be
welcome to the earthquake investigator.



CATALOGUE OF VIOLENT AND DESTRUCTIVE EARTHQUAKES IN THE PHILIPPINES.

----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
No. |       Date.        |Intensity.
    |                    |     |        Epicenter and effects.
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
    | _Y.  M.  d. h. m._ |     |
  1 |1599   VI 25  3 20  |  IX |Manila and neighboring provinces. Damaged
    |                    |     |many private buildings in Manila; cracked
    |                    |     |the vault of the Jesuit Church so badly
    |                    |     |that it had to be demolished and replaced
    |                    |     |by a ceiling; fissured the walls and
    |                    |     |ruined the roof of Santo Domingo Church.
    |                    |     |
  2 |1600    I  2  0  0  |VIII |Earthquake of destructive force and long
    |                    |     |duration in Manila; extent of damage
    |                    |     |unknown.
    |                    |     |
  3 |1600   XI -- -- --  |  VI |Violent and protracted earthquake.
    |                    |     |
  4 |1601    I 16  0 --  |VIII |Manila and adjacent provinces. Did
    |                    |     |considerable damage to some churches and
    |                    |     |many private houses in Manila. Its
    |                    |     |duration was unusually great, it being
    |                    |     |said that during 7 minutes the shocks were
    |                    |     |almost continuous. There were several dead
    |                    |     |and a great number of injured. The
    |                    |     |repetitions were frequent throughout the
    |                    |     |year.
    |                    |     |
  5 |1608  XII  3 -- --  |  VI-|Leyte Island. Violent chiefly in the
    |                    | VII |country around Dulag and Palo (E coast of
    |                    |     |northern Leyte). It does not appear to
    |                    |     |have been destructive.
    |                    |     |
  6 |1610   XI -- -- --  |  IX |Manila and provinces east of it. Several
    |                    |     |writers call it a "terrible earthquake
    |                    |     |which progressed from E to W."
    |                    |     |
  7 |1620   -- -- -- --  |  IX |Panay Island. Great convulsions of the
    |                    |     |ground; the Aclan River changed its
    |                    |     |course. The few stone buildings in the
    |                    |     |affected districts, as, for instance, the
    |                    |     |church at Passi, Province of Iloilo, were
    |                    |     |badly cracked, the wooden structures
    |                    |     |either fell, owing to the snapping of the
    |                    |     |uprights, or remained inclined in various
    |                    |     |directions. The provinces which suffered
    |                    |     |most were those of Iloilo and Capiz.
    |                    |     |
  8 |1627 VIII -- -- --  |   X |Northern Luzon. The historians mention it
    |                    |     |as one of the earthquakes which caused the
    |                    |     |greatest convulsions in northern Luzon,
    |                    |     |especially in Ilocos Norte and Cagayan,
    |                    |     |but above all in the region of the Central
    |                    |     |Central Cordillera, Lepanto, and Bontoc.
    |                    |     |The data are somewhat vague. It is said
    |                    |     |that part of the northern Caraballo
    |                    |     |Mountains subsided.
    |                    |     |
  9 |1628   -- -- -- --  |  IX |Camarines and Albay. A destructive
    |                    |     |earthquake in which, it is said, a
    |                    |     |mountain burst and emitted a river of
    |                    |     |water and mud which swept away the town
    |                    |     |of Camarines and others. The name of
    |                    |     |Camarines was at the time used to
    |                    |     |designate the present town of Camalig
    |                    |     |and the district near the southern slopes
    |                    |     |of Mayon Volcano. The flood mentioned
    |                    |     |was probably an avalanche of water, sand,
    |                    |     |volcanic ashes, and lapilli, such as also
    |                    |     |on other occasions have occurred on the
    |                    |     |slopes of the same volcano during periods
    |                    |     |of torrential rains.
    |                    |     |
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
No. |       Date.        |Intensity.
    |                    |     |        Epicenter and effects.
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
    | _Y.  M.  d. h. m._ |     |
 10 |1636  XII 21 -- --  |  IX |Western Mindanao. Destructive earthquake.
    |                    |     |The epicenter appears to have been in
    |                    |     |Illana Bay. Great landslides are reported
    |                    |     |to have occurred at Point Flechas which is
    |                    |     |between the Bays of Illana and Sibuguey.
    |                    |     |
 11 |1641    I  4 -- --  |   X |Northern Luzon. Destructive earthquake,
    |                    |     |accompanied by great landslides in the
    |                    |     |mountains and eruptions of water and mud
    |                    |     |in the region of northern Luzon which
    |                    |     |comprises the Provinces of the Ilocos, of
    |                    |     |Cagayan, and the Cordillera Central. All
    |                    |     |the historians of the Archipelago mention
    |                    |     |this cataclysm which occurred shortly
    |                    |     |after the almost simultaneous eruptions of
    |                    |     |Sanguir and Jolo.
    |                    |     |
 12 |1645   XI 30 20 --  |   X |The most terrible earthquake recorded in
    |                    |     |the annals of the Archipelago. It might
    |                    |     |almost be said that from Manila to Cagayan
    |                    |     |and Ilocos Norte it left no stone upon the
    |                    |     |other. In the capital, where during the
    |                    |     |preceding fifty years a great number of
    |                    |     |stone buildings had been erected,
    |                    |     |magnificent churches, palaces, and public
    |                    |     |buildings, as well as private residences
    |                    |     |and villas, the destruction was frightful.
    |                    |     |Ten churches were wrecked entirely, to
    |                    |     |wit: the Royal Chapel, Cathedral, Santo
    |                    |     |Domingo, those of the Recollects and
    |                    |     |Franciscans, Santiago, San Antonio,
    |                    |     |Nuestra Señora de Guia, and the parish
    |                    |     |churches of Binondo and San Miguel; only
    |                    |     |San Agustin and the Jesuit Church remained
    |                    |     |standing. Twelve monasteries, colleges,
    |                    |     |and hospitals were likewise converted into
    |                    |     |ruins. No better fared the palace of the
    |                    |     |Governor-General, the Real Audiencia and
    |                    |     |up to 150 of the finest residences which,
    |                    |     |as one author puts it, "in other cities
    |                    |     |would have been considerable palaces." The
    |                    |     |rest of the private houses were damaged
    |                    |     |to so great an extent that the majority
    |                    |     |had to be demolished. The number of
    |                    |     |persons killed exceeded 600 and the total
    |                    |     |of killed and injured is stated to have
    |                    |     |been 3,000.
    |                    |     |
    |                    |     |Outside of Manila there was a general
    |                    |     |destruction of villas and other buildings
    |                    |     |which had been erected on both banks of
    |                    |     |the Pasig River. Throughout the
    |                    |     |neighboring provinces the masonry
    |                    |     |structures built by the missionaries
    |                    |     |suffered the same fate as those in Manila.
    |                    |     |From the farthest provinces in the north
    |                    |     |were reported great alterations of the
    |                    |     |surface with almost complete disappearance
    |                    |     |of some native villages, changes in the
    |                    |     |courses of rivers, subsidences of plains,
    |                    |     |eruptions of sand, etc. All the writers of
    |                    |     |the time qualify this disturbance as the
    |                    |     |most disastrous earthquake not only in
    |                    |     |Luzon, but likewise in Mindoro,
    |                    |     |Marinduque, and the other islands south of
    |                    |     |Luzon. On the other hand, the provinces of
    |                    |     |Camarines and Albay appear to have
    |                    |     |suffered little or nothing.
    |                    |     |
 13 |1645  XII  5 23 --  |VIII |The earthquake of November 30 was followed
    |                    |     |by almost daily repetitions and countless
    |                    |     |aftershocks, one of which, on December 5,
    |                    |     |was of such intensity as to finish the
    |                    |     |wrecking of many buildings, "leaving [as a
    |                    |     |chronicler writes] the city in such
    |                    |     |condition that it was impossible to walk
    |                    |     |through it." Aftershocks of variable force
    |                    |     |continued to be very frequent throughout
    |                    |     |an entire year; that is, until the end of
    |                    |     |1646.
    |                    |     |
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
No. |       Date.        |Intensity.
    |                    |     |        Epicenter and effects.
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
    | _Y.  M.  d. h. m._ |     |
 14 |1646  III -- -- --  |  VI |According to several chroniclers, the
    |                    |     |aforementioned aftershocks were more were
    |                    |     |more frequent and of greater intensity
    |                    |     |during the month of March, some of them
    |                    |     |assuming a violent character.
    |                    |     |
 15 |1648   -- -- -- --  |VIII |Southern Luzon. Very violent earthquake,
    |                    |     |damaging many buildings (Von Hoff).
    |                    |     |
 16 |1653    V  1 -- --  |  VI |Earthquake in Manila and surrounding
    |                    |     |provinces.
    |                    |     |
 17 |1658 VIII 20 17 --  |  IX |Destructive earthquake. Some historians
    |                    |     |maintain that it was as severe as that of
    |                    |     |1645; but it caused fewer ruins, partly on
    |                    |     |account of its short duration, partly
    |                    |     |because it found buildings of less height
    |                    |     |and greater power or resistance than those
    |                    |     |erected before 1645. Nevertheless it
    |                    |     |destroyed the monastery of Santa Clara and
    |                    |     |did great damage to the churches and
    |                    |     |monasteries of the Dominicans and
    |                    |     |Recollects, likewise to the archiepiscopal
    |                    |     |palace, the Jesuit College, and a
    |                    |     |considerable number of private buildings.
    |                    |     |The epicentral region appears to have
    |                    |     |included only the southern part of Luzon.
    |                    |     |
 18 |1665   VI 19 -- --  |VIII |Destructive in Manila and adjacent
    |                    |     |provinces. In the ruins of numerous houses
    |                    |     |19 persons perished and many more were
    |                    |     |injured. Of public buildings only the
    |                    |     |Jesuit Church is mentioned as having
    |                    |     |suffered to some extent.
    |                    |     |
 19 |1675   II -- -- --  |VIII |Destructive in northern Mindoro and
    |                    |     |Batangas Province. Mention is made of
    |                    |     |extensive landslides, the opening of many
    |                    |     |fissures and the subsidence of large
    |                    |     |tracts on the beach of the northeast
    |                    |     |coast of Mindoro. The repetitions were many
    |                    |     |and severe.
    |                    |     |
 20 |1683 VIII 24 -- --  | VII |Damaged some buildings in Manila.
    |                    |     |
 21 |1687   II -- -- --  |  VI |Several violent earthquakes, which,
    |                    |     |however, caused no notable damages.
    |                    |     |
 22 |1699   -- -- -- --  | VII |Many chroniclers assure us that during
    |                    |     |this year and the following destructive
    |                    |     |earthquakes visited Manila; but there is
    |                    |     |great confusion as to the days and months
    |                    |     |in which they occurred.
    |                    |     |
 23 |1716   IX 24 -- --  | VII |Vicinity of Taal Volcano. Violent in
    |                    |     |Manila and the Provinces of Rizal, Laguna,
    |                    |     |Cavite, and Batangas. Connected with an
    |                    |     |eruption of the volcano. At each spasm of
    |                    |     |the latter the earth shook so violently
    |                    |     |that many buildings in Manila and the
    |                    |     |provinces mentioned suffered much harm,
    |                    |     |especially those in the vicinity of Lake
    |                    |     |Bombon, within which is situated the said
    |                    |     |volcano.
    |                    |     |
 24 |1728   XI 28 -- --  |  IX |Remarkable on account of its having been
    |                    |     |very perceptible throughout the entire
    |                    |     |Archipelago. Caused considerable damage in
    |                    |     |Manila and towns in southern Luzon.
    |                    |     |
 25 |1730   -- -- -- --  |  IX |Destructive in the Provinces of Tayabas
    |                    |     |and Laguna; ruined the church and the
    |                    |     |church and _convento_ at Mauban and other
    |                    |     |buildings in this and other towns of the
    |                    |     |two provinces.
    |                    |     |
 26 |1743   -- -- -- --  |  IX |Destructive in Tayabas Province, wrecking
    |                    |     |masonry structures in the town of Tayabas
    |                    |     |and others.
    |                    |     |
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
No. |       Date.        |Intensity.
    |                    |     |        Epicenter and effects.
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
    | _Y.  M.  d. h. m._ |     |
 27 |1749 VIII 12  9 --  |  IX |A violent eruption of Taal Volcano, which
    |                    |     |caused great havoc in all the towns on the
    |                    |     |shores of Lake Bombon. The shocks which
    |                    |     |accompanied each of the intermittent
    |                    |     |outbursts of the volcano were so severe
    |                    |     |that they left hardly any building
    |                    |     |undamaged throughout the provinces in the
    |                    |     |neighborhood of Manila--Rizal, Laguna,
    |                    |     |Cavite, Batangas, Tayabas, and in northern
    |                    |     |Mindoro. The convulsions of the ground
    |                    |     |were very remarkable; displacement
    |                    |     |occurred and fissures, both wide and deep,
    |                    |     |opened in the entire Province of Batangas
    |                    |     |and likewise in Cavite Province, up to
    |                    |     |Lake Bay. As the shocks occurred during
    |                    |     |many days, the majority of Manila's
    |                    |     |inhabitants abandoned the Walled City and
    |                    |     |lived under tents or in structures of
    |                    |     |bamboo and nipa. The greatest force of
    |                    |     |the earthquakes and, consequently, the
    |                    |     |greatest upheavals seem to have occurred
    |                    |     |in the region stretching from Taal Volcano
    |                    |     |toward Talim Island (Lake Bay) and the
    |                    |     |Antipolo Mountain Range.
    |                    |     |
    |                    |     |Repetitions and aftershocks were frequent
    |                    |     |during nearly a year.
    |                    |     |
 28 |1754    V 15 21 --  |   X |Another eruption of Taal Volcano, the most
    |                    |     |terrible in the history of the Islands.
    |                    |     |All the towns which surrounded Lake Bombon
    |                    |     |were destroyed completely. When rebuilt,
    |                    |     |they were placed at a distance from the
    |                    |     |lake. There occurred most violent
    |                    |     |earthquakes which produced disasters in
    |                    |     |the neighboring provinces equal too, if
    |                    |     |not exceeding those of 1749. The spasms,
    |                    |     |separated by intervals of greater or less
    |                    |     |duration, lasted 7 months, the principal
    |                    |     |outbursts being always accompanied by very
    |                    |     |intense earthquakes which made themselves
    |                    |     |felt throughout a large part of Luzon, on
    |                    |     |Mindoro Island, and northern Panay.
    |                    |     |
 29 |1766  XII  7 10 45  | VII |A violent earthquake, but did very slight
    |                    |     |damage in Manila. During the month many
    |                    |     |more earthquakes of less intensity were
    |                    |     |felt; in fact they had been frequent ever
    |                    |     |since the preceding August. There exist no
    |                    |     |data concerning the provinces around
    |                    |     |Manila.
    |                    |     |
 30 |1767   II  8  1  5  | VII |Manila and neighboring provinces. Violent
    |                    |     |earthquake, preceded and followed by
    |                    |     |numerous shocks of smaller intensity.
    |                    |     |
 31 |1767   XI 13 15 25  | VII |Very violent. In Manila a few walls fell
    |                    |     |and tile roofs sagged. Slight repetitions
    |                    |     |marked the succeeding days. Nothing is
    |                    |     |known of the happenings in the near-by
    |                    |     |provinces.
    |                    |     |
 32 |1770  XII -- 23 --  |VIII |Destructive earthquake. Mr. Sonnerat
    |                    |     |states that it wrecked many houses in
    |                    |     |Manila. This traveler was at the time on
    |                    |     |board a ship in the very Bay of Manila;
    |                    |     |hence it is very strange that he does not
    |                    |     |give the day of the month on which the
    |                    |     |disaster took place.
    |                    |     |
 33 |1771   II  1 -- --  |VIII |Very severe earthquake which laid in ruins
    |                    |     |several buildings in Manila, express
    |                    |     |mention being made of the Church of
    |                    |     |Nuestra Señora de Guia in Ermita, a suburb
    |                    |     |of Manila. This is probably the same
    |                    |     |disturbance which, according to some
    |                    |     |writers, in the beginning of February
    |                    |     |damaged the church of Antipolo and others
    |                    |     |in La Laguna and Cavite Provinces.
    |                    |     |
 34 |1783   IV 19 -- --  |  VI |Violent earthquake in Dapitan and the
    |                    |     |whole of northwestern Mindanao.
    |                    |     |
 35 |1787    V 13  6 --  |VIII |Very violent in southern Panay,
    |                    |     |especially in the Province of Iloilo.
    |                    |     |
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
No. |       Date.        |Intensity.
    |                    |     |        Epicenter and effects.
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
    | _Y.  M.  d. h. m._ |     |
 36 |1787  VII 13  7 --  |   X |Panay Island. A terrible earthquake which
    |                    |     |left the whole island strewn with ruins.
    |                    |     |Of 15 to 20 churches and _conventos_ in
    |                    |     |Iloilo Province only two or three remained
    |                    |     |standing; in the two other provinces,
    |                    |     |Capiz and Antique, the destruction was
    |                    |     |less universal. Even the thick walls of
    |                    |     |the fort at Iloilo were breached in many
    |                    |     |places. There were subsidences in the
    |                    |     |plains and landslides in the mountains and
    |                    |     |mighty fissures opened. It is stated that
    |                    |     |the victims were numerous: in one building
    |                    |     |15 persons perished.
    |                    |     |
 37 |1796   -- -- -- --  |  IX |Many writers assert that during this year
    |                    |     |a most violent earthquake shook Manila
    |                    |     |and was followed by severe repetitions
    |                    |     |during the succeeding 20 days. But,
    |                    |     |although all agree that the quake was
    |                    |     |destructive, not one of them gives
    |                    |     |precise information as to its effects.
    |                    |     |
 38 |1797  II- -- 14 --  | VII |A violent earthquake but not destructive
    |      III           |     |in Manila took place between February 11
    |                    |     |and March 7. It fissured walls and ruined
    |                    |     |tile roofs.
    |                    |     |
 39 |1811    X  5 -- --  |  IX |Destructive earthquake in Camarines
    |                    |     |Province. It wrecked many churches,
    |                    |     |_conventos_, and other buildings
    |                    |     |throughout the province, from San Miguel
    |                    |     |Bay to the vicinity of Albay.
    |                    |     |
 40 |1814   II  2 -- --  | VII |Albay. Violent earthquakes which preceded
    |                    |     |and accompanied the great eruption of
    |                    |     |Mayon Volcano, Province of Albay. Several
    |                    |     |towns situated on the slopes of the
    |                    |     |mountain were destroyed by this outburst,
    |                    |     |while others, at a greater distance,
    |                    |     |suffered less severely.
    |                    |     |
 41 |1818   -- -- -- --  | VII |Dapitan, northwestern Mindanao. Several
    |                    |     |violent earthquakes with countless
    |                    |     |repetitions distributed through 6 months.
    |                    |     |
 42 |1824    I -- -- --  | VII |Earthquake, violent in Manila and
    |                    |     |destructive in Cagayan and Isabela
    |                    |     |Provinces, northeastern Luzon.
    |                    |     |
 43 |1824   IX 29 -- --  |  IX |Central Luzon. Destructive, making many
    |                    |     |ruins throughout the Provinces of Tayabas,
    |                    |     |Laguna, Rizal, and Nueva Ecija. The
    |                    |     |churches of Cavinti and Lukban were
    |                    |     |destroyed, that of Antipolo and others
    |                    |     |badly damaged.
    |                    |     |
 44 |1824    X 26 -- --  |  IX |Destructive in Manila and neighboring
    |                    |     |provinces. Spoiled the Bridge of Spain
    |                    |     |and the barracks in its vicinity, the
    |                    |     |church of Saint Francis and others and
    |                    |     |many private houses. Frightened by the
    |                    |     |continual repetitions, people left the
    |                    |     |city to live in nipa houses and under
    |                    |     |tents. The undulations seemed to come
    |                    |     |from north-northwest.
    |                    |     |
 45 |1828   XI  9 18 30  |VIII |Destructive earthquake. Damaged several
    |                    |     |churches in Manila, likewise the prison
    |                    |     |and many private residences. The shocks
    |                    |     |appeared to advance from south to north.
    |                    |     |
 46 |1830    I 18 17 --  |  IX |Southern Luzon. Destructive in the
    |                    |     |Provinces of Rizal, Laguna, and Tayabas.
    |                    |     |In Manila the damage was confined to the
    |                    |     |cracking of walls and the falling of such
    |                    |     |as had little power of resistance; but
    |                    |     |toward Laguna and Tayabas the destruction
    |                    |     |was greater; the complete destruction of
    |                    |     |the church and _convento_ of Mauban is
    |                    |     |expressly mentioned.
    |                    |     |
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
No. |       Date.        |Intensity.
    |                    |     |        Epicenter and effects.
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
    | _Y.  M.  d. h. m._ |     |
 47 |1836    I  5 -- --  | VII |Very violent earthquake in western
    |                    |     |Mindanao. The epicenter was in Illana
    |                    |     |Bay. Severe shocks were felt in Cotabato
    |                    |     |and Zamboanga, 250 kilometers distant
    |                    |     |from each other.
    |                    |     |
 48 |1840   -- -- -- --  |  IX |Destructive earthquake in Sorsogon and
    |                    |     |Masbate. Ruined the masonry buildings. In
    |                    |     |Sorsogon Bay extensive subsidences
    |                    |     |occurred; the sea invaded the town,
    |                    |     |causing great destruction and claiming
    |                    |     |many victims.
    |                    |     |
 49 |1852   IX 16 18 45  |  IX |Central Luzon. Destructive earthquake
    |                    |     |which made itself felt with violence in
    |                    |     |the Provinces of Rizal, Laguna, Cavite,
    |                    |     |Batangas, Tayabas, Bataan, Zambales,
    |                    |     |Pampanga, Bulacan, and Nueva Ecija. In
    |                    |     |Manila it damaged severely a great number
    |                    |     |of buildings, among them the cathedral and
    |                    |     |the churches of the Jesuits, San Miguel,
    |                    |     |and Paco, the church and _convento_ at
    |                    |     |Pandacan (near Manila), and many houses.
    |                    |     |It is stated that the damage was
    |                    |     |(relatively) vastly greater in the
    |                    |     |Provinces of Bataan, Cavite, and Batangas,
    |                    |     |where many fissures opened and subsidences
    |                    |     |and landslides occurred. The zone most
    |                    |     |severely chastised seems to have stretched
    |                    |     |from the Zambales Mountain Range as far as
    |                    |     |the coasts of Batangas and Northern
    |                    |     |Mindoro. Aftershocks were frequent until
    |                    |     |the middle of October.
    |                    |     |
 50 |1852   IX 25 -- --  |  VI |Very strong earthquake in Camarines and
    |                    |     |Albay Provinces.
    |                    |     |
 51 |1852  XII 24 -- --  |  IX |Destructive earthquake in Batangas
    |                    |     |Province and northern Mindoro. Ruined
    |                    |     |many buildings, among which were the
    |                    |     |church of Taal and the church and
    |                    |     |_convento_ of Bauang; the church of
    |                    |     |Batangas likewise suffered severely.
    |                    |     |
 52 |1853   -- -- -- --  |VIII |Destructive earthquake in Camarines
    |                    |     |Province. Made ruins in many towns of the
    |                    |     |southeastern part of the province, express
    |                    |     |mention being made of the church,
    |                    |     |_convento_, tribunal, and the schools of
    |                    |     |Pulangui.
    |                    |     |
 53 |1855  III 22 -- --  |VIII |Very violent earthquake in southeastern
    |                    |     |Luzon. Caused likewise some ruins in the
    |                    |     |Provinces of Camarines, Albay, and
    |                    |     |Sorsogon.
    |                    |     |
 54 |1858   -- -- -- --  |  VI |Very strong earthquakes throughout the
    |                    |     |district of Cotabato and the south of
    |                    |     |Lanao district; but it is not known
    |                    |     |whether they caused extensive damages.
    |                    |     |
 55 |1862  III  4 17 30  | VII |Violent earthquake; cracked some buildings
    |                    |     |in Manila and the neighboring provinces.
    |                    |     |
 56 |1862  VII 13 16  2  | VII |Violent earthquake which displayed its
    |                    |     |greatest intensity to the east-northeast
    |                    |     |of Manila, in the vicinity of Casiguran
    |                    |     |and Baler Bays. Damaged the church and
    |                    |     |_convento_ of Baler. Several aftershocks
    |                    |     |followed during the next 4 days.
    |                    |     |
 57 |1862   IX  9  3 --  |VIII |Ilocos Norte and Cagayan. The epicenter
    |                    |     |lay within the Central Cordillera. Did
    |                    |     |some damage to the church of Piddig and to
    |                    |     |other towns situated near the Cordillera.
    |                    |     |
 58 |1862    X 30 12 30  |  VI |Laguna Province. Very strong earthquake,
    |                    |     |doing slight damage in the towns south of
    |                    |     |Lake Bay and close to the volcanic cone of
    |                    |     |Mount Maquiling.
    |                    |     |
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
No. |       Date.        |Intensity.
    |                    |     |        Epicenter and effects.
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
    | _Y.  M.  d. h. m._ |     |
 59 |1863   VI  3 19 20  |   X |Manila and adjacent provinces. A
    |                    |     |disastrous earthquake, comparable with
    |                    |     |that of 1645. Laid in ruins the cathedral
    |                    |     |and nearly all the other churches, except
    |                    |     |San Agustin, the palace of the
    |                    |     |Governor-General, the Audiencia, the
    |                    |     |barracks, warehouses, etc.; all in all, 46
    |                    |     |public buildings in ruins and 25 others
    |                    |     |badly damaged. Of private houses 570 were
    |                    |     |destroyed, 531 left tottering. Total,
    |                    |     |1,172 buildings in ruins or badly damaged.
    |                    |     |The number of victims was appalling. It is
    |                    |     |estimated that in Manila and the
    |                    |     |surrounding towns alone the number of
    |                    |     |killed reached 400, that of the injured
    |                    |     |2,000. The catastrophe likewise involved
    |                    |     |many towns in Rizal, Laguna, and Cavite,
    |                    |     |where it destroyed churches and a great
    |                    |     |number of houses.
    |                    |     |
 60 |1863   VI  9 -- --  | VII |Violent earthquake which in Manila and
    |                    |     |neighboring towns brought to the ground
    |                    |     |several buildings left in a tottering
    |                    |     |condition by the preceding disturbance.
    |                    |     |
 61 |1864    I  3 -- --  |  VI |Origin, south of Illana Bay. It was felt
    |                    |     |very strongly both at Zamboanga and
    |                    |     |Cotabato; the former west, the latter
    |                    |     |east of the bay mentioned.
    |                    |     |
 62 |1865   XI 23  4 --  |  VI |Strong earthquake which caused great
    |                    |     |excitement in Manila and adjacent
    |                    |     |provinces.
    |                    |     |
 63 |1866  XII 29  3 --  | VII |Ilocos Norte. Very violent earthquake.
    |                    |     |Damaged several buildings at Laoag and in
    |                    |     |other towns of the province.
    |                    |     |
 64 |1867    I  5  9 45  |  VI |Albay Province. Very strong earthquake.
    |                    |     |
 65 |1867  III 26 13 --  |  VI |Ilocos Norte. Very strong earthquake.
    |                    |     |Shocks of varying intensity were frequent
    |                    |     |in this province during the months
    |                    |     |December, 1866, to April, 1867.
    |                    |     |
 66 |1867  XII 27  9 11  |  VI |Samar Island. Very strong and prolonged
    |                    |     |earthquake.
    |                    |     |
 67 |1868   IV  4 -- --  |  VI |Leyte Island. Very strong earthquake.
    |                    |     |
 68 |1868   VI 29  8 11  |  VI |Panay Island. Very strong earthquake in
    |                    |     |Iloilo and other towns of the southern
    |                    |     |part of the island. Frequent, but weak
    |                    |     |shocks had been felt since June 7.
    |                    |     |
 69 |1869 VIII 16 15 --  |  IX |Masbate Island. Disastrous earthquake.
    |                    |     |Destroyed the few masonry buildings extant
    |                    |     |on the island and ruined or inclined
    |                    |     |hundreds of houses of wood or light
    |                    |     |materials; large trees fell, fissures
    |                    |     |opened, and vast landslides occurred in
    |                    |     |the mountains and along the coasts,
    |                    |     |especially in the south of the island.
    |                    |     |Countless repetitions followed, over 100
    |                    |     |of the more severe ones having been
    |                    |     |counted during the first fortnight after
    |                    |     |the earthquake.
    |                    |     |
 70 |1869    X  1 11 35  |VIII |Neighboring provinces east and south of
    |                    |     |Manila, and northern Mindoro. On Luzon the
    |                    |     |provinces chiefly affected were Rizal,
    |                    |     |Laguna, Cavite, and Batangas. In Manila
    |                    |     |this earthquake did considerable damage to
    |                    |     |quite a number of buildings. In the
    |                    |     |Provinces of Cavite and Batangas a few
    |                    |     |churches and _conventos_ were wrecked.
    |                    |     |There was no loss of life. Repetitions
    |                    |     |were frequent during the 5 days
    |                    |     |immediately following the earthquake.
    |                    |     |
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
No. |       Date.        |Intensity.
    |                    |     |       Epicenter and effects.
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
    | _Y.  M.  d. h. m._ |     |
 71 |1869    X 23 16 30  | VII |Very violent earthquake in southern
    |                    |     |Luzon, especially in Laguna Province.
    |                    |     |Slightly damaged some buildings.
    |                    |     |
 72 |1870  III  2  3 --  |  VI |Northeastern Samar. Very strong
    |                    |     |earthquake.
    |                    |     |
 73 |1870    V 23 23 55  | VII |Northern Luzon. Very violent earthquake
    |                    |     |in the Provinces of Ilocos Norte,
    |                    |     |Cagayan, Isabela, and the northern part
    |                    |     |of the Mountain Province.
    |                    |     |
 74 |1870   XI  4  4 --  | VII |Central Mindanao. A violent earthquake
    |                    |     |whose epicenter lay between the Gulf of
    |                    |     |Davao and the Province of Misamis. During
    |                    |     |the months of November and December
    |                    |     |occurred many repetitions, some of them
    |                    |     |very intense.
    |                    |     |
 75 |1871   II 21  4 --  |  IX |Camiguin Island. Destructive earthquake
    |                    |     |which affected only the extreme north of
    |                    |     |the island, where subsequently, on the
    |                    |     |30th of April, a volcano which had been
    |                    |     |believed extinct, burst forth again near
    |                    |     |its base. This great earthquake was the
    |                    |     |first of a series of shocks which preceded
    |                    |     |the eruption. It ruined many buildings
    |                    |     |constructed of wood, and rent asunder the
    |                    |     |massive walls of the churches at Mambajao
    |                    |     |and Catarman, while in the mountains it
    |                    |     |caused many landslides. Between February
    |                    |     |21 and April 30, the date of the volcanic
    |                    |     |eruption, four violent earthquakes were
    |                    |     |felt on Camiguin and the neighboring
    |                    |     |Islands of Mindanao, Cebu, Bohol, etc.,
    |                    |     |aside from countless shocks of less
    |                    |     |intensity. With the eruption, the
    |                    |     |earthquakes ceased completely.
    |                    |     |
 76 |1871   VI 28  5 30  |  VI |District of Davao, southeastern Mindanao.
    |                    |     |Violent earthquake throughout the region
    |                    |     |surrounding Davao Gulf, with frequent
    |                    |     |aftershocks during the ensuing 8 days.
    |                    |     |
 77 |1871  VII 11 21 19  |  VI |Very strong earthquake, remarkable for its
    |                    |     |wide extension, as it was felt strongly in
    |                    |     |all the provinces of Luzon north of the
    |                    |     |sixteenth parallel of north latitude.
    |                    |     |Repetitions were frequent for three or
    |                    |     |four days.
    |                    |     |
 78 |1871    X  4 20 30  | VII |District of Davao, southeastern Mindanao.
    |                    |     |A very violent earthquake, shaking the
    |                    |     |region around the Gulf of Davao.
    |                    |     |
 79 |1871   XI  5  9 --  | VII |Surigao, northeastern Mindanao. Very
    |                    |     |violent and prolonged earthquake in the
    |                    |     |Province of Surigao; also remarkable for
    |                    |     |its extension, being felt intensely
    |                    |     |throughout eastern Mindanao and
    |                    |     |perceptible on all the Visayan Islands.
    |                    |     |
 80 |1871   XI 29 16 30  | VII |Very violent earthquake in western
    |                    |     |Mindanao and on the Islands of Basilan
    |                    |     |and Jolo. It caused slight damage to
    |                    |     |several buildings at Zamboanga.
    |                    |     |
 81 |1871  XII  8 17 30  |  IX |Destructive earthquake throughout the
    |                    |     |districts of Lanao, Cotabato, and Davao,
    |                    |     |Mindanao. It is reported that at Cotabato
    |                    |     |and Pollok not a single building remained
    |                    |     |standing; the happenings in the Moro
    |                    |     |villages and forts are not known. Even in
    |                    |     |Davao, at a distance of 200 kilometers,
    |                    |     |it developed great violence. Within one
    |                    |     |hour three series of most violent shocks
    |                    |     |were experienced, accompanied by
    |                    |     |subterraneous rumblings.
    |                    |     |
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
No. |       Date.        |Intensity.
    |                    |     |       Epicenter and effects.
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
    | _Y.  M.  d. h. m._ |     |
 82 |1871  XII  9  7 30  |VIII |Most violent earthquake in the same
    |                    |     |regions of Lanao and Cotabato, which
    |                    |     |completed the devastation of the
    |                    |     |preceding. Also in this earthquake several
    |                    |     |separate groups of shocks could be
    |                    |     |distinguished, which occurred within the
    |                    |     |space of a little more than half an hour.
    |                    |     |The subterranean noises were much stronger
    |                    |     |than on the preceding day and caused
    |                    |     |consternation. During the first few days
    |                    |     |following these quakes occurred uncounted
    |                    |     |repetitions, some of which, like the
    |                    |     |principal earthquakes, were perceptible
    |                    |     |not only throughout Mindanao, but likewise
    |                    |     |in the Visayas up to distances exceeding
    |                    |     |500 kilometers.
    |                    |     |
 83 |1871  XII 19 22 30  | VII |Very violent earthquake throughout the
    |                    |     |length of eastern Mindanao, from Surigao
    |                    |     |to Davao. It was likewise very perceptible
    |                    |     |on Samar and Leyte Islands. For a number
    |                    |     |of days there were many repetitions, some
    |                    |     |of them very intense, notably those which
    |                    |     |took place on the 21st and 22d.
    |                    |     |
 84 |1872    I 26 19 30  | VII |Violent earthquake close to the coast of
    |                    |     |Zambales, near the town of Agno. The
    |                    |     |shock was repeated ten to twelve times,
    |                    |     |accompanied by subterraneous noises; an
    |                    |     |extraordinary wave was seen in the sea
    |                    |     |close to the coast and in the Agno River
    |                    |     |which empties into the sea near the town.
    |                    |     |The affected area was very small, which
    |                    |     |makes it appear probable that the cause
    |                    |     |must be sought in some displacements in
    |                    |     |the scarps of the coast.
    |                    |     |
 85 |1872    I 27 16 30  |  VI |Very strong earthquake in the Province of
    |                    |     |Ilocos Norte, followed by numerous
    |                    |     |repetitions of considerable intensity
    |                    |     |during the 28th, 29th, and 30th.
    |                    |     |
 86 |1872  VII 22 22 50  |  VI |Camarines and Albay. Very strong
    |                    |     |earthquake, followed by frequent
    |                    |     |repetitions during the next two days.
    |                    |     |
 87 |1872 VIII 24 21 --  |  VI |District of Davao, southeastern Mindanao.
    |                    |     |Very strong and prolonged earthquake in
    |                    |     |the vicinity of Mount Apo; repetitions
    |                    |     |somewhat frequent during several days.
    |                    |     |
 88 |1872   IX  6  0 --  |  VI |Violent earthquake in northern Samar,
    |                    |     |Catanduanes Island, and the Provinces of
    |                    |     |Sorsogon and Albay, having its origin
    |                    |     |to the northeast of San Bernardino Strait.
    |                    |     |On the same and the following day occurred
    |                    |     |four repetitions of moderate intensity.
    |                    |     |
 89 |1872   IX 10 20 20  |  VI |Very strong earthquake in the northern
    |                    |     |part of the Mountain Province, Luzon,
    |                    |     |which, during the month, was preceded and
    |                    |     |followed by other shocks of less
    |                    |     |intensity.
    |                    |     |
 90 |1872  XII 29 11 48  |VIII |Most violent earthquake in the region
    |                    |     |southwest of Manila, which is comprised
    |                    |     |between the Zambales Mountain Range and
    |                    |     |the northern part of Mindoro. It did
    |                    |     |considerable damage to buildings in the
    |                    |     |Provinces of Bataan, Cavite, and Batangas.
    |                    |     |The towns which suffered most severely
    |                    |     |were Balanga, Tuy, Nasugbu, Calaca,
    |                    |     |Balayan, Taal, and Batangas. Several
    |                    |     |shocks of small intensity preceded the
    |                    |     |principal quake between 6 and 9 o'clock.
    |                    |     |
 91 |1873    I 16 23 45  |  VI |An earthquake which was very strong in
    |                    |     |Batangas Province and strong in northern
    |                    |     |Mindoro and the Provinces of Tayabas,
    |                    |     |Cavite, Laguna, Rizal, and Bulacan.
    |                    |     |During the preceding days several light
    |                    |     |shocks had been felt.
    |                    |     |
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
No. |       Date.        |Intensity.
    |                    |     |        Epicenter and effects.
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
    | _Y.  M.  d. h. m._ |     |
 92 |1873  III 18 13 --  |VIII |Southern Samar. Destructive earthquake
    |                    |     |whose meizoseismic area included only the
    |                    |     |town of Mercedes--where some walls were
    |                    |     |thrown down and others cracked--and a few
    |                    |     |unimportant villages in the vicinity,
    |                    |     |situated on the Pacific coast, near which
    |                    |     |was the seat of disturbance.
    |                    |     |
 93 |1873  III 31  1 58  | VII |Northern Luzon. This earthquake was
    |                    |     |violent in Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, and
    |                    |     |the Mountain Province. It was remarkable
    |                    |     |for its duration of nearly one minute.
    |                    |     |The resulting damage was negligible.
    |                    |     |
 94 |1873   VI 11 23 15  |  VI |This earthquake was violent in
    |                    |     |northeastern Mindoro and very strong on
    |                    |     |Romblon and Marinduque Islands, likewise
    |                    |     |in the Province of Batangas. During June,
    |                    |     |July, and August the same region
    |                    |     |experienced several shocks of less
    |                    |     |intensity.
    |                    |     |
 95 |1873   XI 14 17 30  |VIII |Destructive earthquake in Tayabas Province
    |                    |     |and on Marinduque Island. It caused great
    |                    |     |harm in towns of Mauban, Lucban, and
    |                    |     |others in northeastern Tayabas, and
    |                    |     |likewise at Boac and Santa Cruz on
    |                    |     |Marinduque. Many repetitions of smaller
    |                    |     |intensity occurred during that day and the
    |                    |     |following.
    |                    |     |
 96 |1874    I 17  4 --  |  VI |Sorsogon Province and Masbate Island.
    |                    |     |Intense earthquake, followed by frequent
    |                    |     |light repetitions and five strong
    |                    |     |earthquakes during the months of February
    |                    |     |and March.
    |                    |     |
 97 |1874   IV 14  6 45  |  VI |Northern Luzon. A very strong earthquake
    |                    |     |throughout northern Luzon; that is, in
    |                    |     |the provinces north of the 16th parallel
    |                    |     |of latitude. Its center appears to have
    |                    |     |been near the Ilocos coast.
    |                    |     |
 98 |1874  VII  8 10 32  |  VI |Central Luzon. Strong earthquake in the
    |                    |     |Provinces of Pangasinan, Union, Benguet,
    |                    |     |Nueva Vizcaya, Isabela, Tarlac, Zambales,
    |                    |     |Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, and Bulacan. The
    |                    |     |epicenter was near the shores of
    |                    |     |Casiguran Bay.
    |                    |     |
 99 |1874 VIII 25  6 30  |VIII |Destructive earthquake in Zamboanga,
    |                    |     |western Mindanao. It did considerable
    |                    |     |damage to masonry buildings and overturned
    |                    |     |walls. Many large fissures opened near the
    |                    |     |beach of the sea.
    |                    |     |
100 |1874   IX 16 10  9  | VII |Violent earthquake in central and eastern
    |                    |     |Luzon, with innumerable repetitions until
    |                    |     |the end of October. The center lay near
    |                    |     |Casiguran Bay. The provinces affected
    |                    |     |most were northern Camarines, Tayabas,
    |                    |     |Laguna, Rizal, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija,
    |                    |     |Nueva Vizcaya, and Isabela.
    |                    |     |
101 |1875  III  9  3 30  | VII |Very violent earthquake in Abra and the
    |                    |     |Mountain Province. Destroyed some houses
    |                    |     |and caused landslides on the mountain
    |                    |     |sides, ruining rice terraces. It was
    |                    |     |preceded by feeble shocks and followed by
    |                    |     |many repetitions until the 14th.
    |                    |     |
102 |1876    V 19 11 30  |VIII |An earthquake which displayed destructive
    |                    |     |force in the Camarines. Considerable
    |                    |     |damage resulted to many buildings in Daet,
    |                    |     |Nueva Caceres, Iriga, Buhi, and some other
    |                    |     |towns. The duration of this earthquake was
    |                    |     |quite unusual. Many repetitions were felt
    |                    |     |during the following five days.
    |                    |     |
103 |1877   VI  2 11  6  |  VI |Very strong earthquake throughout central
    |                    |     |Luzon. The meizoseismal area comprised
    |                    |     |the northern and east-northeastern part
    |                    |     |of Pangasinan Province. The shocks had
    |                    |     |still considerable force on the southern
    |                    |     |and northern coast of Luzon, at distances
    |                    |     |of about 300 kilometers.
    |                    |     |
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
No. |       Date.        |Intensity.
    |                    |     |       Epicenter and effects.
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
    | _Y.  M.  d. h. m._ |     |
104 |1877   VI 24  7 --  | VII |Very violent earthquake in Batangas and
    |                    |     |Cavite Provinces, in the vicinity of Taal
    |                    |     |Volcano. During the 5 hours immediately
    |                    |     |preceding the quake, seven series of
    |                    |     |violent shocks were felt. The earthquake
    |                    |     |cracked many walls in the towns closest
    |                    |     |to Lake Bombon.
    |                    |     |
105 |1877  VII  5 12  7  | VII |Violent earthquake in Camarines, which did
    |                    |     |no damage, but is remarkable on account of
    |                    |     |its having been felt with considerable
    |                    |     |force throughout a great part of Luzon and
    |                    |     |the Visayas. It was followed by very many
    |                    |     |aftershocks of variable intensity, 20
    |                    |     |having been recorded during the first 24
    |                    |     |hours following the earthquake.
    |                    |     |
106 |1877  VII 23 16 24  | VII |Leyte Island. Very violent earthquake,
    |                    |     |doing some harm in the northern part of
    |                    |     |the island.
    |                    |     |
107 |1878 VIII 13 12 14  |  VI |Very strong earthquake of great extension.
    |                    |     |Its epicenter was southwest of Luzon, near
    |                    |     |the western coast of Cavite and Zambales
    |                    |     |Provinces. It was felt intensely from
    |                    |     |Mindoro to the Provinces of Union and
    |                    |     |Isabela.
    |                    |     |
108 |1878   IX 17  0 50  | VII |Violent earthquake to the west of the
    |                    |     |Gulf of Davao, in the neighborhood of Apo
    |                    |     |Volcano. Many buildings of Davao suffered
    |                    |     |seriously. Repetitions were frequent
    |                    |     |until the 22d.
    |                    |     |
109 |1879  VII  1  2 38  |   X |Surigao Peninsula. Destructive earthquake,
    |                    |     |with disastrous results to buildings and
    |                    |     |the topography of the region. Not a single
    |                    |     |stone building remained inhabitable,
    |                    |     |although some of them, like the church,
    |                    |     |government house, and prison at Surigao,
    |                    |     |were of most solid construction. Besides
    |                    |     |the opening of innumerable fissures and
    |                    |     |vast landslides on the coasts and in the
    |                    |     |mountains, there occurred extensive
    |                    |     |subsidences: several accurate observations
    |                    |     |seem to prove that a great part of the
    |                    |     |peninsula was depressed by about 2 feet.
    |                    |     |In short, this earthquake was one of those
    |                    |     |which produced the greatest changes of
    |                    |     |topography experienced in the Philippines.
    |                    |     |There followed other very strong quakes on
    |                    |     |July 5, 24, and 28, and August 8, with
    |                    |     |countless repetitions of less importance
    |                    |     |during several months. From July 1 to 15
    |                    |     |occurred on the average 5 perceptible
    |                    |     |shocks per day.
    |                    |     |
110 |1879 VIII 29  6 --  |  VI |District of Cotabato, Mindanao. Very
    |                    |     |strong earthquake which closed a series of
    |                    |     |quakes which had begun on the 10th of the
    |                    |     |month. Of these, two felt on the 13th and
    |                    |     |one on the 21st had been rather intense.
    |                    |     |
111 |1879   IX 28 -- --  |  VI |District of Davao, Mindanao. Very strong
    |                    |     |earthquake followed by some repetitions.
    |                    |     |On the 16th of the same month a somewhat
    |                    |     |less intense earthquake had been felt in
    |                    |     |the same region.
    |                    |     |
112 |1879    X 14  9 --  | VII |Ilocos Norte. Very violent earthquake
    |                    |     |which damaged buildings in the town of
    |                    |     |Baccarra.
    |                    |     |
113 |1879  XII 19 -- --  | VII |Ilocos Norte. Very violent earthquake
    |                    |     |resulting in damaged buildings at Laoag
    |                    |     |and other towns of the province.
    |                    |     |
114 |1880  III 28  5  4  |  VI |Very strong earthquake in eastern Panay
    |                    |     |and the northwestern part of Negros
    |                    |     |Island.
    |                    |     |
115 |1880  VII 15  0 53  |VIII |Eastern part of Luzon. Destructive
    |                    |     |earthquake in the Provinces of Tayabas
    |                    |     |and Laguna. It damaged to some extent all
    |                    |     |masonry structures, both public and
    |                    |     |private, in the towns east of Lake Bay.
    |                    |     |
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
No. |       Date.        |Intensity.
    |                    |     |        Epicenter and effects.
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
    | _Y.  M.  d. h. m._ |     |
116 |1880  VII 18 12 40  |  IX |Central and southern Luzon. Destructive
    |                    |     |earthquake affecting the Provinces of
    |                    |     |Tayabas, Cavite, Laguna, Rizal, Bulacan,
    |                    |     |Bataan, Pampanga, Tarlac, Nueva Ecija, and
    |                    |     |Pangasinan. In Manila, as well as in the
    |                    |     |towns of the provinces mentioned, the
    |                    |     |earthquake did incalculable harm to
    |                    |     |buildings, besides causing subsidences,
    |                    |     |fissures, lateral displacements and
    |                    |     |similar effects, especially in the
    |                    |     |alluvial lands along the banks of the
    |                    |     |Rivers Pasig, the Great and Little
    |                    |     |Pampanga, and the Agno.
    |                    |     |
117 |1880  VII 20 15 40  |VIII |Earthquake of destructive violence in the
    |                    |     |towns surrounding Lake Bay, especially in
    |                    |     |those south and west of the lake.
    |                    |     |
    |                    |     |Within the epicentral region of the three
    |                    |     |preceding earthquakes, which measures
    |                    |     |about 300 kilometers from north to south
    |                    |     |and 200 kilometers from east to west,
    |                    |     |severe damage was done to the principal
    |                    |     |stone buildings, such as churches,
    |                    |     |_conventos_, court-houses, schools, and a
    |                    |     |few private houses, of 112 of the city
    |                    |     |principal towns. In the of Manila some 30
    |                    |     |public buildings (administration
    |                    |     |buildings, barracks, churches,
    |                    |     |monasteries, and colleges) and about 200
    |                    |     |private houses of strong materials were
    |                    |     |either wrecked or badly damaged.
    |                    |     |Fortunately the number of victims was not
    |                    |     |in proportion to the magnitude of the
    |                    |     |disaster, neither in Manila nor in the
    |                    |     |provinces. From the various reports
    |                    |     |published at the time we conclude that
    |                    |     |the number of killed did not exceed 20,
    |                    |     |nor that of the injured 50.
    |                    |     |
118 |1880   IX 23 22 30  |  VI |Strong earthquake along the Zambales
    |                    |     |coast, western Luzon. Frequent
    |                    |     |repetitions until October 2d.
    |                    |     |
119 |1881  VII 11 12 35  |  VI |Very strong earthquake in southern Panay
    |                    |     |and northwestern Negros.
    |                    |     |
120 |1881  VII 27 16 30  | VII |Violent earthquake in the Province of
    |                    |     |Nueva Vizcaya. This was the first violent
    |                    |     |forerunner of the innumerable shocks which
    |                    |     |during the months of August, September,
    |                    |     |and October were to spread devastation and
    |                    |     |terror throughout this province.
    |                    |     |
121 |1881   IX  1 12 20  |  IX |Destructive earthquake in Nueva Vizcaya.
    |                    |     |
122 |1881   IX 18  4 55  |VIII |Destructive earthquake in Nueva Vizcaya.
    |                    |     |
123 |1881   IX 18 22 40  |VIII |Destructive earthquake in Nueva Vizcaya.
    |                    |     |
124 |1881   IX 20 14 25  |VIII |Destructive earthquake in Nueva Vizcaya.
    |                    |     |
    |                    |     |This memorable seismic period of Nueva
    |                    |     |Vizcaya ended after October 15. During
    |                    |     |August and September a missionary made a
    |                    |     |list comprising over 150 distinct
    |                    |     |earthquakes, without including countless
    |                    |     |repetitions of smaller intensity. The
    |                    |     |effects of these earthquakes were more
    |                    |     |notable by the alterations in the
    |                    |     |topography of the region than by the
    |                    |     |damage done to buildings, as the latter
    |                    |     |were of wood and thatched with cogon
    |                    |     |grass. The inhabitants were
    |                    |     |terror-stricken and the authorities had
    |                    |     |to work hard to prevent a general exodus
    |                    |     |from the country.
    |                    |     |
125 |1882   IV 10 19 30  |  VI |District of Cotabato, Mindanao. Violent
    |                    |     |earthquake, preceded by subterraneous
    |                    |     |rumblings and followed by frequent
    |                    |     |repetitions. Already during March some
    |                    |     |very strong shocks had preceded.
    |                    |     |
126 |1882    X 10 16 57  | VII |Violent earthquake in Camarines Province
    |                    |     |with several repetitions.
    |                    |     |
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
No. |       Date.        |Intensity.
    |                    |     |        Epicenter and effects.
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
    | _Y.  M.  d. h. m._ |     |
127 |1882  XII  6 -- --  | VII |Very violent earthquake in the north of
    |                    |     |Cebu Island and southern Masbate.
    |                    |     |
128 |1883   II 10  3 28  | VII |Very violent earthquake in Nueva Vizcaya
    |                    |     |and Benguet Provinces. It had been
    |                    |     |preceded by a strong shock at 12h 20m of
    |                    |     |the 6th.
    |                    |     |
129 |1884    I 10  7 22  | VII |Very violent earthquake near the southern
    |                    |     |coasts of Camarines Province, followed by
    |                    |     |a strong quake on the 11th and by
    |                    |     |numerous repetitions.
    |                    |     |
130 |1884   VI  5 -- --  |  VI |Very strong earthquake in the Province of
    |                    |     |Misamis, northern Mindanao. Repeated with
    |                    |     |the same intensity at 8h and 13h.
    |                    |     |
131 |1884    X 29  4 10  |  VI |Very strong earthquake in the whole south
    |                    |     |and southeast of Luzon, chiefly in the
    |                    |     |Provinces of Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines,
    |                    |     |Albay, and Sorsogon; likewise on Masbate
    |                    |     |Island. Many repetitions occurred until
    |                    |     |the end of November.
    |                    |     |
132 |1884  XII 24  5 --  |  VI |Samar, Leyte, and northeast Mindanao. Very
    |                    |     |strong earthquake, with very severe
    |                    |     |repetitions on the 26th, 27th, and 28th.
    |                    |     |
133 |1885   II 22 15 30  |VIII |East coast of Mindanao. Destructive
    |                    |     |earthquake, which did extensive damage to
    |                    |     |the churches and other buildings of stone
    |                    |     |or wood and caused mighty fissures and
    |                    |     |landslides in the mountains as well as in
    |                    |     |the scarps of the Pacific coast.
    |                    |     |
134 |1885  VII 23 22 45  |  IX |Northwestern Mindanao. Destructive
    |                    |     |earthquake which ruined several buildings
    |                    |     |in the towns and villages of the Dapitan
    |                    |     |district. The origin lay in the
    |                    |     |east-northeastern part of the Sulu Sea.
    |                    |     |The disturbance was felt strongly in
    |                    |     |nearly all of the Visayan Islands, in
    |                    |     |western Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago.
    |                    |     |Repetitions were frequent until the end of
    |                    |     |October, those of July 31, September 9,
    |                    |     |September 23, and October 25 being very
    |                    |     |intense.
    |                    |     |
135 |1885   IX 30  6 --  |  VI |Northeastern Mindanao and southeastern
    |                    |     |Leyte. Very strong earthquake, followed by
    |                    |     |many repetitions.
    |                    |     |
136 |1885   XI 19 21 31  | VII |Very violent earthquake in the Provinces
    |                    |     |of Nueva Vizcaya, Isabela, and Benguet,
    |                    |     |followed by strong repetitions on
    |                    |     |December 8, 19, and 27.
    |                    |     |
137 |1886   IV 10  8 --  |  VI |Very strong earthquake in the southeast
    |                    |     |of Panay and northwest of Negros Islands.
    |                    |     |
138 |1887   II  2 23 --  |  IX |Panay Island. Destructive earthquake,
    |                    |     |causing notable damages, especially in
    |                    |     |the towns of the Provinces of Iloilo and
    |                    |     |Capiz. The two days following the
    |                    |     |earthquake brought many aftershocks.
    |                    |     |
139 |1887  III 24 21 14  |VIII |Camarines Province. Destructive earthquake
    |                    |     |doing considerable harm in several towns
    |                    |     |in the vicinity of Nueva Caceres. The 25th
    |                    |     |witnessed a very intense repetition, while
    |                    |     |lighter aftershocks were frequent until
    |                    |     |the month of May.
    |                    |     |
140 |1888    I 27  3 45  |  VI |Very strong earthquake in eastern
    |                    |     |Mindanao, which had its epicenter in the
    |                    |     |Agusan River Valley.
    |                    |     |
141 |1888 VIII 19 14 39  |  VI |Northeastern Luzon. Very strong
    |                    |     |earthquake, especially in the Provinces
    |                    |     |of Cagayan and Isabela, followed by many
    |                    |     |repetitions of varying intensity.
    |                    |     |
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
No. |       Date.        |Intensity.
    |                    |     |        Epicenter and effects.
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
    | _Y.  M.  d. h. m._ |     |
142 |1889    I  1 10 20  | VII |Northeastern Mindanao. Violent earthquake
    |                    |     |in the districts of Surigao and Butuan.
    |                    |     |Repeated with equal force at 21h 40m of
    |                    |     |the 12th, doing slight damage to buildings
    |                    |     |in Surigao, Placer, and Gigaquit, and
    |                    |     |opening numerous fissures in the ground.
    |                    |     |Repetitions were very frequent throughout
    |                    |     |the month, more than 100 having been
    |                    |     |recorded until the 22d.
    |                    |     |
143 |1889   II  5 15 53  |VIII |Western Mindanao. Destructive earthquake
    |                    |     |whose origin lay south of Illana Bay. It
    |                    |     |was felt with equal force at Zamboanga and
    |                    |     |Cotabato, each at a distance of more than
    |                    |     |100 kilometers from the epicenter, but did
    |                    |     |no harm worth mentioning.
    |                    |     |
144 |1889    V 26  2 23  |VIII |Destructive earthquake in the Province of
    |                    |     |Batangas and northern Mindoro. It wrecked
    |                    |     |the church at Ibaan and severely damaged
    |                    |     |the church and other buildings in
    |                    |     |Batangas, Bauang, Calapan, and several
    |                    |     |other towns.
    |                    |     |
145 |1889    X  6 11 10  | VII |Very violent earthquake throughout eastern
    |                    |     |Mindanao, with epicenter in the valley of
    |                    |     |the Agusan River. It was very perceptible
    |                    |     |in every part of the island and on many of
    |                    |     |the Visayas.
    |                    |     |
146 |1890   II  7  0 10  |VIII |Destructive earthquake in northern Leyte
    |                    |     |which split walls in Barugo, Carigara, and
    |                    |     |other towns, and produced large fissures
    |                    |     |in the lowlands along the coast. On the
    |                    |     |7th and 8th occurred 2 strong and more
    |                    |     |than 20 light repetitions.
    |                    |     |
147 |1890   IV 13 14  4  |  VI |Northern Luzon. Very strong earthquake in
    |                    |     |Ilocos Norte and Sur, the Mountain
    |                    |     |Province, Cagayan, and Isabela. A
    |                    |     |repetition occurring at 20h developed the
    |                    |     |same intensity.
    |                    |     |
148 |1891   VI 25 20 10  | VII |Very violent earthquake in eastern
    |                    |     |Mindanao whose center was in the Agusan
    |                    |     |River Valley. Slightly damaged buildings
    |                    |     |at Davao and Butuan, situated 100
    |                    |     |kilometers south and north, respectively,
    |                    |     |of the focus.
    |                    |     |
149 |1892  III  8 -- --  |VIII |Batanes Islands. Destructive earthquake.
    |                    |     |All that is known of the effects is that
    |                    |     |it wrecked some buildings at Santo Domingo
    |                    |     |and other towns on Batan Island.
    |                    |     |
150 |1892  III 16 20 58  |   X |Disastrous earthquake in the Provinces of
    |                    |     |Pangasinan, Union, and Benguet. It created
    |                    |     |great havoc in the masonry buildings, such
    |                    |     |as churches, _conventos_, court-houses,
    |                    |     |and schools, besides a few private houses,
    |                    |     |of 30 of the principal towns within the
    |                    |     |meizoseismic area, produced great fissures
    |                    |     |and extensive subsidences in the alluvial
    |                    |     |plains, and many landslides in the steep
    |                    |     |mountains of northern Pangasinan. Luckily
    |                    |     |the falling buildings killed only one or
    |                    |     |two persons. Repetitions were frequent up
    |                    |     |to the end of the month; of these three
    |                    |     |occurring on the 17th and one each on the
    |                    |     |26th and 28th were of exceptional
    |                    |     |intensity.
    |                    |     |
151 |1892  III 17  0 34  | VII |Very violent earthquake in the region
    |                    |     |mentioned under No. 150. Wrecked some
    |                    |     |buildings damaged by the preceding.
    |                    |     |
152 |1893  III  9  0 35  |  VI |Central Luzon. Very strong earthquake in
    |                    |     |the Provinces of Nueva Vizcaya, Benguet,
    |                    |     |and Pangasinan.
    |                    |     |
153 |1893   IV 12 13 48  |  VI |Very strong earthquake in Camarines,
    |                    |     |Albay, Sorsogon, Masbate, and northern
    |                    |     |Samar. Its epicenter was close to Masbate
    |                    |     |Island.
    |                    |     |
154 |1893   VI  3  6 23  | VII |Violent earthquake in the whole western
    |                    |     |part of Mindanao, proceeding from the
    |                    |     |neighborhood of Illana Bay.
    |                    |     |
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
No. |       Date.        |Intensity.
    |                    |     |        Epicenter and effects.
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
    | _Y.  M.  d. h. m._ |     |
155 |1893   VI 21 14 50  |   X |Disastrous earthquake in the Agusan River
    |                    |     |Valley. The fact that there was no general
    |                    |     |destruction of buildings with heavy loss
    |                    |     |of life is due solely to the circumstance
    |                    |     |that the region affected contained only
    |                    |     |structures of bamboo and nipa. The effects
    |                    |     |of the convulsions on the topography of
    |                    |     |the region give an idea of what the
    |                    |     |consequences of the quake might have been
    |                    |     |had it found another class of buildings.
    |                    |     |There are indications that in the southern
    |                    |     |part of the valley an area of many square
    |                    |     |kilometers subsided to a considerable
    |                    |     |extent. Repetitions were frequent
    |                    |     |throughout an entire year.
    |                    |     |
156 |1893  VII  1  4  8  | VII |Very violent earthquake in the valley of
    |                    |     |the Agusan River.
    |                    |     |
157 |1893  XII 24  0 24  |  VI |Very strong earthquake in southeastern
    |                    |     |Luzon, northern Samar, and Masbate. The
    |                    |     |epicenter lay northeast of Masbate Island,
    |                    |     |close to Capul Island, on which latter the
    |                    |     |quake was violent. Repeated at 18h 2m of
    |                    |     |the same day.
    |                    |     |
158 |1894   II 10  0 42  |VIII |Destructive earthquake in southeastern
    |                    |     |Mindanao, having its epicenter in the
    |                    |     |region east of Davao Gulf. It produced
    |                    |     |many fissures and displacements in the
    |                    |     |mountains and cracked a few houses of wood
    |                    |     |in the towns of Mati and Sigaboy. The
    |                    |     |aftershocks continued on the 10th and
    |                    |     |11th, occurring at intervals of about 5
    |                    |     |minutes.
    |                    |     |
159 |1894   II 18  5 23  |  VI |Very strong earthquake in the valley of
    |                    |     |the Agusan River which was repeated with
    |                    |     |the same intensity at 23h 58m of the 19th.
    |                    |     |
160 |1894   IV  2  2 34  |  VI |Very strong earthquake in central Luzon,
    |                    |     |especially in Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, and
    |                    |     |Benguet.
    |                    |     |
161 |1894   VI 29  2 57  |VIII |Agusan River Valley. Destructive
    |                    |     |earthquake whose effects were similar to
    |                    |     |those of the earthquake on June 21, 1893
    |                    |     |(No. 155). The aftershocks, which had been
    |                    |     |felt ever since the latter disturbance,
    |                    |     |increased in force and frequency.
    |                    |     |
162 |1894   VI 30  5 50  | VII |Violent earthquake in Agusan River Valley.
    |                    |     |Repeated with the same intensity at 20h
    |                    |     |8m.
    |                    |     |
163 |1895    V 14  6 42  | VII |Northern Mindoro. Very violent earthquake
    |                    |     |which damaged considerably the church and
    |                    |     |_convento_ at Calapan, these being the
    |                    |     |only masonry buildings in the town. It was
    |                    |     |repeated with great intensity at 23h 52m
    |                    |     |of the same day and at 0h 3m of the 17th.
    |                    |     |On the 14th more than 40 aftershocks of
    |                    |     |variable intensity were counted.
    |                    |     |
164 |1895   VI  7 21 56  | VII |Northern Mindoro. Very violent earthquake
    |                    |     |which ruined part of the church at Calapan.
    |                    |     |Severe repetitions occurred at 4h 0m and
    |                    |     |6h 26m of the 8th.
    |                    |     |
165 |1896   IX 13 12 58  | VII |Northwestern Luzon. Very violent
    |                    |     |earthquake which damaged several buildings
    |                    |     |in Laoag and other towns of Ilocos Norte.
    |                    |     |Strong repetitions at 16h 45m and 17h 10m.
    |                    |     |
166 |1897    I 18  2 35  |  VI |Very strong earthquake in the Mountain
    |                    |     |Province and the Provinces of Isabela and
    |                    |     |Cagayan. Numerous aftershocks followed
    |                    |     |during the day.
    |                    |     |
167 |1897   II 16  5  4  | VII |Agusan River Valley. Violent earthquake
    |                    |     |with daily aftershocks during the rest of
    |                    |     |the month.
    |                    |     |
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
No. |       Date.        |Intensity.
    |                    |     |        Epicenter and effects.
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
    | _Y.  M.  d. h. m._ |     |
168 |1897   IV  8 21 20  |VIII |Agusan River Valley. Destructive
    |                    |     |earthquake.
    |                    |     |
169 |1897    V 13 19 22  |VIII |Masbate Island. Destructive earthquake
    |                    |     |which heavily damaged several buildings,
    |                    |     |bridges, and wharves. A strong repetition
    |                    |     |occurred at 14h 9m of the 15th. Weak
    |                    |     |aftershocks were frequent until the 27th.
    |                    |     |
170 |1897 VIII 15 20 17  |VIII |Ilocos Sur. Destructive earthquake with
    |                    |     |epicentric area of 50 kilometers in length
    |                    |     |and 20 kilometers in width. The towns
    |                    |     |which suffered most were those between
    |                    |     |Candon and Vigan.
    |                    |     |
171 |1897   IX 21  3 10  | VII |Very violent earthquake in northwestern
    |                    |     |Mindanao. It produced fissures in the
    |                    |     |ground and slightly injured buildings in
    |                    |     |the district of Dapitan. More than 36
    |                    |     |aftershocks of varying intensity were
    |                    |     |recorded during the next 10 hours.
    |                    |     |
172 |1897   IX 21 13 15  |  IX |Disastrous earthquake in the district of
    |                    |     |Zamboanga, Basilan, and Jolo Islands. It
    |                    |     |wrought great destruction of buildings and
    |                    |     |produced fissures, landslides, and similar
    |                    |     |effects. A formidable "tsunami" (tidal
    |                    |     |wave) claimed hundreds of victims on the
    |                    |     |western shores of Basilan. This "tsunami"
    |                    |     |was the most imposing recorded in the
    |                    |     |seismological history of the Archipelago.
    |                    |     |There followed innumerable aftershocks
    |                    |     |during 18 months, 200 having been counted
    |                    |     |before the middle of October, of which
    |                    |     |those on September 22, 23, 24, 26, and 29,
    |                    |     |and October 12 and 15 deserve special
    |                    |     |mention on account of their great
    |                    |     |intensity.
    |                    |     |
173 |1897    X  8  5  0  |  VI |Very strong earthquake in the district of
    |                    |     |Davao.
    |                    |     |
174 |1897    X 19  8  5  |  IX |Northern Samar. Destructive earthquake
    |                    |     |which damaged to a considerable extent
    |                    |     |buildings in Sulat, Palapag, Catubic,
    |                    |     |Oras, Gandara, and Laoang, towns near the
    |                    |     |northern and northeastern coasts of the
    |                    |     |island, and also produced vast fissures
    |                    |     |and other notable effects which resulted
    |                    |     |in the destruction of various bridges and
    |                    |     |roads.
    |                    |     |
175 |1897    X 19 15 15  |VIII |Northern Samar. Most violent earthquake,
    |                    |     |with results similar to those of the
    |                    |     |preceding, though less severe. Countless
    |                    |     |aftershocks continued until the following
    |                    |     |April, those of October 19, 20, and 21
    |                    |     |being the strongest.
    |                    |     |
176 |1897   XI 14  8 59  | VII |Very violent earthquake, but of very
    |                    |     |limited epicentral area, in Ilocos Sur,
    |                    |     |northwestern Luzon. It wrecked the church
    |                    |     |at Candon.
    |                    |     |
177 |1898    I 30 19 15  | VII |Sulu Archipelago. Violent earthquake,
    |                    |     |preceded by two of less severity at
    |                    |     |18h 10m and 18h 36m.
    |                    |     |
178 |1899  XII 26  4 20  |  VI |Very strong earthquake in the Agusan River
    |                    |     |Valley.
    |                    |     |
179 |1900 VIII 14  4 14  |  VI |Very strong earthquake in Masbate and
    |                    |     |northern Cebu.
    |                    |     |
180 |1901   IX 10  8 30  | VII |Very violent earthquake in eastern
    |                    |     |Tayabas; damaged the church of Calauag and
    |                    |     |other towns on the eastern shores of Lamon
    |                    |     |Bay. Large fissures opened on the beach
    |                    |     |and the water became very turbid; dead
    |                    |     |fishes were likewise found.
    |                    |     |
181 |1901  XII 15  6 58  | VII |Very violent earthquake in southern Luzon.
    |                    |     |Some towns in Batangas Province suffered
    |                    |     |slight damage.
    |                    |     |
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
No. |       Date.        |Intensity.
    |                    |     |        Epicenter and effects.
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
    | _Y.  M.  d. h. m._ |     |
182 |1902  VII 12 21 47  |  VI |Northeastern Mindanao. Very strong
    |                    |     |earthquake with epicenter in Butuan Bay.
    |                    |     |Two repetitions, which occurred on the
    |                    |     |13th, showed little intensity.
    |                    |     |
183 |1902 VIII 21 19 17  |   X |Southwestern Mindanao. Destructive
    |                    |     |earthquake in the Lanao and Cotabato
    |                    |     |districts. It proceeded from the center
    |                    |     |which lies in the northern part of Illana
    |                    |     |Bay, and caused heavy damage to all the
    |                    |     |buildings in the towns and in the Moro
    |                    |     |villages and strongholds within the
    |                    |     |meizoseismal region. The effects were
    |                    |     |extraordinary on land as well as within
    |                    |     |the bay; in the latter the telegraph
    |                    |     |cables were found broken and buried by
    |                    |     |débris. It is assumed as certain that
    |                    |     |there were many lives lost in the Moro
    |                    |     |forts, but their number is not known. The
    |                    |     |aftershocks were so frequent that some 400
    |                    |     |could be counted within the first 8 days
    |                    |     |after the disaster, some 10 or 12 of these
    |                    |     |reaching force VI and VII.
    |                    |     |
184 | 1902 VIII 26  1  9 |  IX |Province of Iloilo, Panay. Destructive
    |                    |     |earthquake which seriously damaged the
    |                    |     |churches and other buildings in the towns
    |                    |     |of Maasin, Calinog, and Janiuay. Many
    |                    |     |fissures opened in the mountains and
    |                    |     |extensive subsidences took place. The
    |                    |     |disturbance was preceded by an
    |                    |     |extraordinary noise, which was audible at
    |                    |     |great distances from the epicentral
    |                    |     |region. The reports do not mention a
    |                    |     |single aftershock.
    |                    |     |
185 |1902   XI 17  8 38  | VII |Southwestern Luzon. Very violent
    |                    |     |earthquake in the Provinces of Batangas,
    |                    |     |Cavite, Bataan and Zambales. The effects
    |                    |     |were confined to slight damages to several
    |                    |     |buildings in Batangas, Taal, and other
    |                    |     |towns south and west of Taal Volcano. The
    |                    |     |epicenter was near the coasts of
    |                    |     |southwestern Luzon, where intense
    |                    |     |subterranean noises were heard. The 7
    |                    |     |aftershocks which have been recorded were
    |                    |     |of little intensity.
    |                    |     |
186 |1903    V 24  6 11  |  VI |Southeastern Mindanao. Very intense
    |                    |     |earthquake, having its center to the
    |                    |     |northwest of Davao Gulf. The shock was
    |                    |     |perceptible throughout the island.
    |                    |     |
187 |1903  XII 28 10 56  |VIII |Destructive earthquake in the region east
    |                    |     |of Davao Gulf which damaged many houses in
    |                    |     |Mati, Caraga, Sigaboy, etc. Large fissures
    |                    |     |opened and several displacements occurred
    |                    |     |in the limestone layers of the Pacific
    |                    |     |coast near Caraga. A few aftershocks were
    |                    |     |felt on the 29th and 30th.
    |                    |     |
188 |1904    X  1 18 16  | VII |Very violent earthquake in the southern
    |                    |     |part of the Agusan River Valley.
    |                    |     |
189 |1904    X  9  2 39  | VII |Northern Luzon. Very violent earthquake
    |                    |     |whose epicenter lay in the northern part
    |                    |     |of the Mountain Province. Slight damage
    |                    |     |was done in several towns of Ilocos Norte
    |                    |     |and Cagayan, situated near the Central
    |                    |     |Cordillera.
    |                    |     |
190 |1905  XII  8 16 22  | VII |Very violent earthquake in southeastern
    |                    |     |Luzon and the eastern Visayas. Its
    |                    |     |epicenter lay underneath the sea, to
    |                    |     |the south of Masbate Island.
    |                    |     |
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
No. |       Date.        |Intensity.
    |                    |     |        Epicenter and effects.
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
    | _Y.  M.  d. h. m._ |     |
191 |1905  XII 11  2 12  |VIII |Agusan River Valley. Destructive
    |                    |     |earthquake, which left its history written
    |                    |     |on the topography of the region, but made
    |                    |     |little impression upon the buildings, as
    |                    |     |these were of bamboo and palm leaves. The
    |                    |     |shock was well felt throughout Mindanao
    |                    |     |and the eastern Visayas.
    |                    |     |
192 |1906   VI 19 19 23  |  VI |Batanes Islands. Violent earthquake
    |                    |     |accompanied by subterranean noises. It
    |                    |     |proceeded from a center situated south of
    |                    |     |Balintang Channel, and showed likewise
    |                    |     |considerable intensity in northern Luzon.
    |                    |     |The 20th and 21st witnessed many
    |                    |     |aftershocks.
    |                    |     |
193 |1907   IV 19  5  0  |  IX |Camarines Province. Destructive earthquake
    |                    |     |which, within an area of 200 kilometers
    |                    |     |in length and 60 in width, wrecked many
    |                    |     |masonry buildings, produced great
    |                    |     |fissures in the ground and landslides in
    |                    |     |the mountains. Only two cases of death
    |                    |     |and a few of injuries received have been
    |                    |     |recorded.
    |                    |     |
194 |1907   IV 19  7 53  | VII |Very violent earthquake in the same region
    |                    |     |as the preceding. It completed the ruin of
    |                    |     |some buildings weakened by its
    |                    |     |predecessor. These two earthquakes were
    |                    |     |followed by numerous aftershocks of
    |                    |     |varying intensity until the month of July.
    |                    |     |
195 |1907    V 20 15 49  |VIII |Southern Leyte. Very violent earthquake
    |                    |     |with a very intense repetition at 16h
    |                    |     |3m. The meizoseismic area had a diameter
    |                    |     |of only 10 kilometers, determined by an
    |                    |     |extinct volcano, Mount Cabalían, which is
    |                    |     |situated in this part of the island. From
    |                    |     |May 17 to 25 some 60 earthquakes of
    |                    |     |various intensities were felt. No enhanced
    |                    |     |activity was observed in the volcano, but
    |                    |     |many fissures and great landslides were
    |                    |     |produced on its slopes.
    |                    |     |
196 |1907    V 25 23 52  |VIII |Northern Luzon. Very violent earthquake
    |                    |     |whose center was in the northern part of
    |                    |     |the Central Cordillera (Mountain
    |                    |     |Province). It did considerable damage in
    |                    |     |the Provinces of Ilocos Norte and Cagayan.
    |                    |     |The central part of the epicentral region,
    |                    |     |where the effects must have been more
    |                    |     |severe, is inhabited exclusively by wild
    |                    |     |tribes. No aftershocks have been recorded.
    |                    |     |
197 |1907   XI 24 21 59  |  IX |Camarines Province. Destructive earthquake
    |                    |     |which ruined nearly all the masonry
    |                    |     |buildings of the towns within an area of
    |                    |     |some 30 kilometers in length and 20 in
    |                    |     |width. Within this small region, composed
    |                    |     |of recent alluvial soil and traversed by
    |                    |     |the Quinali River, a great number of
    |                    |     |fissures opened and various subsidences
    |                    |     |took place.
    |                    |     |
198 |1908    I 21  4  5  |  VI |Western Leyte. Very strong earthquake
    |                    |     |proceeding from a submarine center not
    |                    |     |far from Ormoc Bay. It was followed by
    |                    |     |two very intense aftershocks at 4h 30m and
    |                    |     |7h 57m and many of less severity until
    |                    |     |the 23d.
    |                    |     |
199 |1908  III  5 10 20  |  VI |Agusan River Valley. Very strong
    |                    |     |earthquake.
    |                    |     |
200 |1908    V 14 21 18  |  VI |Very strong earthquake in western
    |                    |     |Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago.
    |                    |     |
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
No. |       Date.        |Intensity.
    |                    |     |        Epicenter and effects.
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
    | _Y.  M.  d. h. m._ |     |
201 |1909   II  7  0  1  |  VI |Very strong earthquake in the region
    |                    |     |south of Butuan Bay. Its epicentral area
    |                    |     |was very small, comprising only Butuan
    |                    |     |and the towns close to the mouth of the
    |                    |     |Agusan River.
    |                    |     |
202 |1909  III 18 16 30  |VIII |Eastern Mindanao. Very violent earthquake
    |                    |     |whose epicenter stretched in a narrow
    |                    |     |belt along parallel 8° 12' latitude north
    |                    |     |from the Agusan River to the Pacific
    |                    |     |coast. It did severe damage to the church
    |                    |     |and _convento_ of Bislig and in some
    |                    |     |neighboring towns.
    |                    |     |
203 |1909   IV 14  6 37  |  VI |Very strong earthquake in the extreme
    |                    |     |southeast of Luzon, having its center
    |                    |     |underneath the sea to the south of
    |                    |     |Catanduanes Island.
    |                    |     |



APPENDIX.

EARTHQUAKES IN THE MARIANAS ISLANDS.


----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
No. |       Date.        |Intensity.
    |                    |     |        Epicenter and effects.
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
    | _Y.  M.  d. h. m._ |     |
  1 |1825   IV -- -- --  |VIII |Destructive earthquake in the Marinas or
    |                    |     |Ladrones group of islands. Ruined many
    |                    |     |buildings at Agaña, Guam Island.
    |                    |     |
  2 |1834    V -- -- --  |VIII |Destructive earthquake on Guam Island.
    |                    |     |Considerable havoc and great panic at
    |                    |     |Agaña and in the other towns of the
    |                    |     |island.
    |                    |     |
  3 |1849    I 25 14 56  |  IX |Destructive earthquake. Laid in ruins all
    |                    |     |the masonry buildings on the islands--the
    |                    |     |church, _convento_, and college at Agaña,
    |                    |     |the churches at Umata, Pago, and Agat,
    |                    |     |together with a great number of houses.
    |                    |     |Immense fissures opened in many places,
    |                    |     |and an extraordinary commotion of short
    |                    |     |duration was observed in the sea. There
    |                    |     |followed countless aftershocks, some of
    |                    |     |them very intense; from January 25 to
    |                    |     |March 11 no fewer than 150 were actually
    |                    |     |counted.
    |                    |     |
  4 |1862  VII  1  7 48  | VII |Violent earthquake. Did great damage to
    |                    |     |the tile roofs at Agaña and in other towns
    |                    |     |on the Island of Guam.
    |                    |     |
  5 |1863  XII  7  3 --  |  VI |Guam. Violent earthquake causing great
    |                    |     |alarm but little harm.
    |                    |     |
  6 |1866   VI 24 13 --  |  VI |Guam. Very strong earthquake.
    |                    |     |
  7 |1870    V 13 15 27  |  VI |Guam. Two very strong shocks at an
    |                    |     |interval of 10 seconds. The fact that they
    |                    |     |did no damage has been attributed to the
    |                    |     |absence of horizontal movements.
    |                    |     |
  8 |1892    V 16 21 10  |VIII |Destructive earthquake which severely
    |                    |     |damaged the masonry buildings in Agaña and
    |                    |     |other towns, produced many fissures and
    |                    |     |displacements on the coasts and in other
    |                    |     |places. The sea retired suddenly, but no
    |                    |     |devastating alternations of floods and
    |                    |     |ebbs followed. The few aftershocks which
    |                    |     |occurred during the two following days
    |                    |     |were feeble.
    |                    |     |
  9 |1902   IX 22 11 15  |  IX |Destructive earthquake which wrecked or
    |                    |     |damaged very seriously all the buildings
    |                    |     |at Agaña, Guam. Great fissures opened in
    |                    |     |the ground and displacements occurred
    |                    |     |which resulted in the destruction of
    |                    |     |several bridges. Similar effects are
    |                    |     |reported from Saipan Island. Personal
    |                    |     |accidents were limited to a few injured.
    |                    |     |Aftershocks were very numerous during the
    |                    |     |first days after the earthquake.
    |                    |     |
 10 |1902  XII 24  7 15  |  VI |Very strong earthquake lasting over a
    |                    |     |minute. At this time the aftershocks of
    |                    |     |the earthquake of September 22 were still
    |                    |     |continuing.
    |                    |     |
 11 |1903   II 10 12 39  | VII |Guam. Violent earthquake which damaged to
    |                    |     |some extent the government house at Agaña.
    |                    |     |Two distinct series of shocks were
    |                    |     |observed, having a total duration of more
    |                    |     |than a minute.
    |                    |     |
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
No. |       Date.        |Intensity.
    |                    |     |        Epicenter and effects.
----+--------------------+-----+------------------------------------------
    | _Y.  M.  d. h. m._ |     |
 12 |1909  XII 10  9  0  |VIII |Guam. Destructive earthquake. Two shocks
    |                    |     |lasting 20 seconds, of which the second
    |                    |     |was the more severe. Direction of the
    |                    |     |shocks SE-NW. In Agaña practically all the
    |                    |     |east and west walls of native mortar
    |                    |     |houses were badly cracked. In nearly every
    |                    |     |house articles on shelves of these walls
    |                    |     |were thrown down, while those on the north
    |                    |     |and south sides remained in place. The
    |                    |     |women's hospital, built of local mortar,
    |                    |     |was so badly injured as to require tearing
    |                    |     |down; its tiled roof slid off to westward
    |                    |     |and the worst cracks were in the east
    |                    |     |wall. Many ceiling boards in different
    |                    |     |houses were shaken down. Several fissures
    |                    |     |opened in the ground, from one of which,
    |                    |     |near the river, came a large flow of
    |                    |     |water. The river bed sank in several
    |                    |     |places. The passing wave could be seen
    |                    |     |distinctly as it crossed the plaza, and
    |                    |     |the station ship in the harbor reported
    |                    |     |having felt the shock. No damage of
    |                    |     |importance was done in the other towns on
    |                    |     |the island. The buildings of the cable
    |                    |     |station at Sumay, constructed of
    |                    |     |reinforced concrete, were not injured, but
    |                    |     |a few objects were thrown down and the
    |                    |     |steel water towers could be seen swaying.
    |                    |     |No shocks were noticed before or after the
    |                    |     |earthquake, nor was anything extraordinary
    |                    |     |observed in the sea. The disturbance was
    |                    |     |not felt at Yap, Western Carolines. No
    |                    |     |information from the other islands.
    |                    |     |

[Illustration: (Map of the Philippine Islands)]

[Illustration: EARTHQUAKE MAP OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 1599-1909]

       *       *       *       *       *

    +--------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Typographical errors corrected in text:                      |
    |                                                              |
    | Page 10: neihgboring replaced with neighboring               |
    | Page 10: Iloílo replaced with Iloilo                         |
    | Page 11: Iloílo replaced with Iloilo                         |
    | Page 21: damage replaced with damaged                        |
    |                                                              |
    +--------------------------------------------------------------+

       *       *       *       *       *





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