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Title: The Botanist's Companion, Volume II
Author: Salisbury, William, -1823
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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THE BOTANIST'S COMPANION,

OR AN INTRODUCTION TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF PRACTICAL BOTANY, AND THE USES OF
PLANTS. EITHER GROWING WILD IN GREAT BRITAIN, OR CULTIVATED FOR THE
PUROSES OF AGRICULTURE, MEDICINE, RURAL OECONOMY, OR THE ARTS.



By WILLIAM SALISBURY, OF THE BOTANIC GARDEN OF SLOANE-STREET.



"Behold I have given you every herb bearing seed, and every tree
yielding fruit, and to you it shall be for meat."



VOL. II.



PREFACE TO THE SECOND VOLUME



In demonstrating the Plants which occur in our annual herborizing
excursions, I have found it necessary to put into the hands of my pupils
some Manual of Botany; and in so doing I have found all that have yet
been published, deficient in one or two essential points, and
particularly as relating to the uses to which each plant is adapted;
with out which, although the charms of the Flora are in themselves truly
delightful, yet the real value of Botanic knowledge is lost. The study
of plants, so far as regards their uses and culture, has engaged my
particular attention for the last twenty-five years, during which time I
had the honour of conducting a series of experiments on the growth of
plants, for the Board of Agriculture, which gave me an opportunity of
ascertaining many facts relative to our Grasses, &c. an account of
which, I have had some time ready for publication. The necessity of a
work of this kind in my present profession, has therefore induced me to
abridge it and put it to press; as such I offer it to the Public. To the
Subscribers to my Botanic Garden this will also prove of great service;
it being intended to arrange the plants in their several departments, so
as to make it a general work of reference both in the fields or garden.
In the department which treats of the Vegetables used for medicinal
purposes, I have given as ample descriptions as the nature of the work
will admit of, having in view the very necessary obligation which the
younger branch of the profession are under, of paying attention to the
subject.

In prosecuting this work, I have been more actuated by a desire to
render to my pupils and others, useful in-formation, than that of
commencing Author on such a subject; and writing for the press has been
but very little my employment, I trust that an ample excuse will be
granted for any errors that may appear, or for the want of that
happiness of diction with which more able and accomplished Authors may
be endowed.



BOTANIC GARDEN,

Sloane Street, May 1816.



CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME



PLANTS USEFUL IN AGRICULTURE.



SECT. 1. Observations on saving Grass-seeds and the use of the British
Grasses in general, as fodder, &c.

SECT. 2. Observations on Artificial Grasses

SECT. 3. Observations on Plants affording fodder from leaves and roots

SECT. 4. Observations on Grains

SECT. 5. Observations on Miscellaneous Articles



PLANTS USEFUL IN THE ARTS.



SECT. 6. Observations on British Trees and Shrubs

SECT. 7. Observations on Medicinal Plants contained in the London,
Edinburgh, and Dublin Pharmacopoeias

SECT. 8. Observations on Medicinal Plants not in the Pharmacopoeias of the
present day

Observations on drying and preserving Plants for medicinal use, &c.

SECT. 9. Observations on Plants cultivated for culinary purposes

SECT. 10. Observations on Wild Plants useful for culinary purposes,
which are not in cultivation

SECT. 11. Observations on Plants useful for Dyeing

SECT. 12. Observations on Plants used in rural oeconomy



POISONOUS PLANTS GROWING IN GREAT BRITAIN, And their best recommended
Antidotes.



SECT. 13. Observations on Nauseous Poisonous Plants

Observations on Acrid Poisonous Vegetables

Observations on Stupefying Poisonous Vegetables

Observations on Foetid Poisons

Observations on Drastic Poisons

Observations on Poisonous Fungi, Mushrooms, &c.



NOXIOUS PLANTS.



SECT. 14. Observations on Plants noxious to cattle

SECT. 15. Observations on Annual Weeds, or such as grow wild and do not
produce food for cattle

Observations on Weeds with creeping roots

Observations on Perennial Weeds

SECT. 16. Observations on Exotic Trees and Shrubs, and the soil to which
each is best adapted

SECT. 17. Observations on Foreign Hardy Herbaceous Plants, with the
soil which each is found to thrive best in

SECT. 19. Observations on Hardy Annual Flowers, with the seasons for
sowing each

SECT. 20. Observations on Hardy Biennial Flowers, with their culture

SECT. 21. Observations on Tender Annual Flowers

SECT. 22. Observations on Foreign Alpine Plants, or such as are adapted
to the decoration of rock-work, with the best soils for each denoted



APPENDIX.



British Plants cultivated for ornamental purposes

Miscellaneous Articles not mentioned under the foregoing heads

On extracting Sugar from Beet-root

On liquid Sugar made from Apple-juice

On the Urtica canadensis, or Canadian Hemp-plant

On the bleeding of Trees and obtaining Sap for the purposes of making
Wine and brewing Ale



PLANTS USEFUL IN AGRICULTUE.


OBSERVATIONS ON THE CULTURE OF GRASSES, AND ON SAVING SEEDS, &c.


It is now fifty years since the celebrated Stillingfleet observed, "that
it was surprising to see how long mankind had neglected to make a proper
advantage of plants, of so much importance to agriculture as the
Grasses, which are in all countries the principal food of cattle." The
farmer, for want of distinguishing and selecting the best kinds, fills
his pastures either with weeds or improper plants, when by making a
right choice he would not only procure a more abundant crop from his
land, but have a produce more nourishing for his flock. One would
therefore naturally wonder, after this truth has been so long published,
and that in an age when agriculture and the arts have so much improved,
that Select Seeds of this tribe of plants are scarcely to be produced.

From the experience I have had on this subject, I find their culture is
attended with certain difficulties, which arise not so much from the
nature of the plants, as from the labour requisite to this purpose,
great attention being necessary for saving Grass-seeds at the seasons
when the farmer must exert all the strength of his husbandmen to get his
other business accomplished.

The only mode by which this can be effected is by selecting a proper
soil for the kinds intended to be saved. The seeds should be drilled
into the ground at about one foot distance; and care taken that the
plants are duly weeded of all other kinds that may intrude themselves,
before they get too firm possession of the soil. The hoe should be
frequently passed between the drills, in order both to keep the land
clean and to give vigour to the young plants. The sowing may be done
either in the spring or in the month of September, which will enable the
crop to go to seed the following spring. In order to preserve a
succession of crops, it is necessary every season to keep the ground
clean all the summer months, to dig or otherwise turn up the land
between the drills early in the spring, and to be particular in the
other operations until the seeds ripen. Now this business being so
inconvenient to the farmer, it is not to be wondered at, that, wherever
attempts of this kind have been made, they should fail from want of the
necessary care as above stated, without which it is needless to
speculate in such an undertaking. There is nevertheless still an
opportunity, for any one who would give up his land and time to the
pursuit, to reap a rich and important harvest; as nothing would pay him
better, or redound more to his credit, than to get our markets regularly
supplied with select seeds of the best indigenous Grasses, so that a
proper portion of them may be used for forming pasture and meadow-land.

The above hints are not thrown out by a person who wishes to speculate
in a theory which is new, but by one who has cultivated those plants
himself both for seed and fodder, and who would readily wish to promote
their culture by stating a mode which has proved to him a profitable
pursuit, and for which he has, already, been honoured with a reward form
the Society of Arts.

The following observations are intended to embrace such kinds only as
are likely to be cultivated, with those that are distinguished for some
particular good properties; as it would be impossible within the limits
of this small memorandum to enumerate all the plants that are eaten by
cattle. The same mode shall be pursued under all the different heads in
this department.



PLANTS USEFULL IN AGRICULTURE.



SECT. I.--GRASSES.



1. ANTHOXANTHUM odoratum. SWEET-SCENTED VERNAL-GRASS.--This is found
frequently in all our best meadows, to which it is of great benefit. It
is an early, though not the most productive grass, and is much relished
by all kinds of cattle. It is highly odoriferous; if bruised it
communicates its agreeable scent to the fingers, and when dry perfumes
the hay. It will grow in almost any soil or situation. About three
pounds of seed should be sown with other grasses for an acre of land.



2. ALOPECURUS pratensis. MEADOW FOX-TAIL-GRASS.--One of our most
productive plants of this tribe: it grows best in a moist soil, is very
early, being often fit for the scythe by the middle of May. About two
bushels of seed will sow an acre, with a proportionate quantity of
Clover; which see.



3. ALOPECURUS geniculatus. FLOTE FOX-TAIL-GRASS.--Is very good in water
meadows, being nutritive, and cattle in general are fond of it. We do
not know if the cultivation of this plant has as yet been attempted.



4. AGROSTIS capillaris. FINE BENT-GRASS.--Dr. Walker, in his History of
the Hebrides, speaks very favourably of this grass. I have therefore
noticed it here, but I do not think it so good as many others. It grows
on the sandy hills near Combe Wood in Surrey, and forms the principal
part of the pasturage; but it is neither very productive, nor are cattle
observed to thrive on it. The seeds are very small; one peck would sow
an acre.



5. AGROSTIS pyramidalis. FIORIN-GRASS [Footnote: Fiorin is the Irish
name of butter].--No plant has engaged the attention of the farmer more
than this grass, none ever produced more disputes, and none is perhaps
so little understood. It is perfectly distinct from any species of
Agrostis indigenous to this country: it is introduced by Dr. Richardson,
and to that gentleman's extraordinary account of it we are indebted for
numerous mistakes that have been made respecting it. It is an amphibious
plant, thriving only in water or wet soils, is very productive, and the
stalks after a summer's growth secrete a large quantity of sugar. It has
the power, when the stalks are ripe, of resisting putrefaction, and will
become blanched and more nutritious by being cut and laid in heaps in
the winter season, at which time only it is useful. The cultivator of
this plant must not expect to graze his land, but allow all the growth
to be husbanded as above; and although it will not be found generally
advantageous on this account, it nevertheless may be grown to very great
advantage either in wet soils, or where land can be flooded at pleasure.

The seeds are often barren; and the only mode is to plant the shoots or
strings in drills at nine inches apart, laying them lengthways along the
drills, the ends of one touching the other.



6. AIRA aquatica. WATER HAIR-GRASS.--This is an aquatic, and very much
relished by cattle, but cannot be propagated for fodder. Water-fowl are
very fond of the young sweet shoots, as also of the seeds; it may
therefore be introduced into decoys and other places with good effect.
Pulling up the plants and throwing them into the water with a weight
tied to them, is the best mode of introducing it.



7. ARUNDO arenaria. SEA-SIDE REED-GRASS.--This is also of no value as
fodder, but it possesses the property of forming by its thick and wiry
roots considerable hillocks on the shores where it naturally grows:
hence its value on all new embankments. If it be planted in a sandy
place, during its growth in the summer the loose soil will be collected
in the herbage, and the grass continues to grow and form roots in it;
and thus is the hillock increased. Local acts of parliament have been
passed, and now exist, for preventing its destruction on the sea-coast
in some parts of Great Britain, on this account.



8. ARUNDO Phragmites. COMMON REED.--Is useful for thatching, and making
slight fences; it grows best in ponds near streams of water; it does not
often seed, but it could easily be introduced to such places by planting
its roots in spring: it is a large-growing plant; and where herbage may
be wanted either for beauty or shelter for water-fowl, nothing can be
more suitable, and the reeds are of great value.



9. AVENA flavescens. YELLOW OAT-GRASS.--Is much eaten by cattle, and
forms a good bottom. It has the property of throwing up flowerstalks all
the summer; hence its produce is considerable, and it appears to be well
adapted to pasture. The seeds of this grass are not to be obtained
separately; hence it is not in cultivation. It is however worthy of
attention, as the seeds are produced very abundantly in its native
places of growth. It will grow either in wet or dry soils.



10. AVENA pubescens. ROUGH OAT-GRASS.--This appears to have some merits,
but the foliage is extremely bitter. It grows in dry soils.



11. AVENA elatior. TALL OAT-GRASS.--From the good appearance of this
grass some persons have recommended it as likely to be useful for
forming meadows; but it is excessively bitter, and is not liked by
cattle generally, though when starved they are sometimes observed to eat
of it. There is a variety of it with knobby roots which is found to be a
most troublesome and noxious weed in arable lands, particularly in some
parts of the coast of Hampshire where it abounds. This variety was some
years ago introduced into the island of St. Kitts, and it has since
taken such firm possession of the land as to render a large district
quite useless. Persons should be cautious how they speculate with weeds
from appearances only.



12. BRIZA media. QUAKING-GRASS.--Is common in meadow land, and helps to
make a thick bottom; it does not however appear to be worth the trouble
of select culture. It is bitter to the taste.



13. BROMUS mollis. SOFT BROME-GRASS.--Mr. Curtis has given a very clear
account of this grass, which he says predominates much in the meadows
near London, but that the seeds are usually ripe and the grass dried up
before the hay time: hence it is lost; and he in consequence considered
it only in the light of a weed. It has seldom occurred to me to differ
in opinion from this gentleman, who certainly has given us, as far as it
goes, a most perfect description of our useful grasses: but experience
has convinced me that the Soft Brome-Grass, which seeds and springs up
so early, makes the chief bulk of most of our meadows in March and
April; and although it is ripe and over, or nearly so, by the hay
harvest, yet the food it yields at this early season is of the greatest
moment, as little else is found fit for the food of cattle before the
meadow is shut up for hay, and this plant being eaten down at that
season is not any loss to the hay crop. Whoever examines the seeds of
this grass will be led to admire how wonderfully it is fitted to make
its way into the soil at the season of its ripening, when the land is
thus covered with the whole produce of a meadow. I notice this curious
piece of mechanism [Footnote: Many seeds of the grasses are provided with
awns which curl up in dry weather and relax with moisture. Thus by
change of atmosphere a continued motion is occasioned, which enables the
seeds to find their way through the foliage to the soil, where it buries
itself in a short time in a very curious manner.], not that it is
altogether peculiar to this plant, but to show that Nature has provided
it means of succeeding in burying itself in the ground, when all the
endeavours of man could not sow the land with any other to answer a
similar purpose. If the seeds of this grass were collected and
introduced in some meadows where it is not common, I am sure the early
feeding would be thereby improved.

The seeds are sometimes mixed with those of Rye-grass at market, and it
is known by the name of Cocks: it has the effect of reducing such
samples in value, but I should not hesitate in preferring such to any
other. If any one should be inclined to make the above experiment, two
pecks of the seed sown on an acre will be sufficient.---See Treatise on
Brit. Grasses by Mr. Curtis, edit. 5.



14. CYNOSURUS cristatus. CRESTED DOG'S-TAIL-GRASS.--A very fine herbage,
and much relished by sheep, &c.; it grows best in fine upland loam,
where it is found to be a most excellent plant both for grazing and hay.
The seeds are to be purchased sometimes at the seedshops. About twelve
pounds will sow an acre.---See Observations on laying Land to Grass, in
the Appendix to this work.



15. CYNOSURUS coeruleus. BLUE DOG'S-TAIL-GRASS.--Dr. Walker states this
plant to be remarkably agreeable to cattle, and that it grows nearly
three feet high in mountainous situations and very exposed places. As
this grass does not grow wild in this part of the country, we have no
opportunity of considering its merits. In our Botanic Garden it seldom
exceeds the height of ten inches or a foot.

It is the earliest grass of all our British species, being often in
bloom in February.

The above intelligent gentleman, who seems to have studied the British
Gramina to a considerable extent, says that the following kinds give
considerable food to sheep and cattle in such situations; I shall
therefore mention their names, as being with us of little esteem and
similar to the above.

Phleum alpinum. Eriophorum polystachion. Festuca decumbens. Carex
flavescens. Carex gigantea, probably Pseudocyperus. Carex trigona,
probably vulpina. Carex elata, probably atrata. Carex nemorosa, probably
pendula. And he is of opinion that the seeds may be sown to advantage.
Be this as may, the observation can only apply to situations in the
north of Britain, where he has seen them wild; in this part of the
island we have a number of kinds much better adapted to soil, climate,
and fodder.



16. DACTYLIS glomerata. ROUGH COCK'S-FOOT-GRASS.--Has a remarkable rough
coarse foliage, and is of little account as a grass for the hay-stack;
but from its early growth and great produce it is now found to be a
useful plant, and is the only grass at this time known that will fill
up the dearth experienced by graziers from the time turnips are over
until the meadows are fit for grazing. Every sheep-farm should be
provided with a due portion of this on the land; but no more should be
grown than is wanted for early feed, and what can be kept closely eaten
down all the season. If it is left to get up it forms large tufts, and
renders the field unsightly, and scarcely any animal will eat it when
grown old or when dried in the form of hay. The seed is to be bought;
two bushels per acres is sown usually alone.



17. FESTUCA elatior. TALL FESCUE-GRASS.--This in its wild state has been
considered as a productive and nutritive grass; it grows best in moist
places; but the seeds have been found in general abortive, and the grass
consequently only to be propagated by planting the roots, a trouble by
far too great to succeed to any extent.--See Poa aquatica.



18. FESTUCA duriuscula. HARD FESCUE-GRASS.--A very excellent grass both
for green fodder and hay, and would be well worth cultivating; but the
seeds have not hitherto been saved in any quantity.

I have seen a meadow near Bognor where it formed the principal part of
the herbage; and it was represented to me by the owner as the best
meadow in the neighbourhood, and the hay excellent [Footnote: Mr. Curtis
observes that this grass grows thin on the ground after a time. I have
sometimes observed this to be the case in the Botanic Garden, but it is
otherwise in its native state of growth. Nothing stands the dry weather
better, or makes a more firm sward.].

The seeds of this grass are small, and about one bushel would sow an
acre of ground.



19. FESTUCA rubra. RED or CREEPING FESCUE-GRASS.--A fine grass, very
like duriuscula; but it is not common in this part of the country; it
grows plentifully on the mountains in Wales.

It does not produce fertile seeds with us in the garden.



20. FESTUCA pratensis. MEADOW FESCUE-GRASS.--No plant whatever deserves
so much the attention of the graziers as this grass. It has been justly
esteemed by Mr. Curtis and all other persons practically acquainted with
the produce of our meadows. It will grow in almost any soil that is
capable of sustaining a vegetable, from the banks of rivulets to the top
of the thin-soiled calcareous hills, where it produces herbage equal to
any other plant of the kind; and all descriptions of cattle eat it, and
are nourished by the food. The plant is of easy culture, as it yields
seeds very abundantly, and they grow very readily. I have made some
excellent meadows with this seed, which after a trial of ten years are
now equal to any in the kingdom. The culture of the seed selected is
now nearly lost, which is a misfortune, I had almost ventured to say a
disgrace, to our agriculture.

If the farmer could get his land fit for meadow laid down with one
bushel of this seed, one bushel of Alopecurus pratensis, three pounds of
Anthoxanthum, and a little Bromus mollis, with Clover, I will venture to
predict experience will induce him to say, "I will seek no further."



21. FESTUCA ovina.--SHEEP'S FESCUE-GRASS.--This is very highly spoken of
in all dissertations that have hitherto been written on the merits of
our grasses; but its value must be confined to alpine situations, for
its diminutive size added to its slow growth renders it in my opinion
very inferior to the duriuscula. In fact, I am of opinion that these are
often confounded together, and the merits of the former applied to this,
although they are different in many respects. Those who wish to obtain
more of its history may consult Stillingfleet's Observations on Grasses,
p. 384.



22. FESTUCA vivipara. VIVIPAROUS FESCUE-GRASS.--This affords a striking
instance of the protection that Nature has contrived for keeping up the
regular produce of the different species of plants; as when the Festuca
ovina is found in very high mountainous situations, places not congenial
to the ripening seeds of so light a nature, the panicle is found to
become viviparous, i.e. producing perfect plants, which being beaten
down with heavy rains in the autumn, readily strike root in the ground.

This plant was introduced into our garden many years ago, and still
preserves this difference; otherwise it is in all respects the same as
the Festuca ovina.



23. FESTUCA pinnata. SPIKED FESCUE-GRASS.--I have observed this near the
Thames side to be the principal grass in some of the most abundant
meadows; and as the seeds are very plentiful, I am of opinion it might
be very easily propagated: it is, however, not in cultivation at
present.



24. FESTUCA loliacea. DARNEL FESCUE-GRASS.--This in appearance is very
like the Lolium perenne, but is a more lasting plant in the ground.
Where I have seen it wild, it is certainly very good; but it is liable
to the objection of Festuca elatior, the seeds grow but sparingly.



25. HOLCUS lanatus. YORKSHIRE GRASS, or MEADOW SOFT-GRASS.--This has
been much recommended as fit for meadow-land. I am not an advocate for
it. It is late in blooming, and consequently not fit for the scythe at
the time other grasses are; and I find the lower foliage where it occurs
in meadows to be generally yellow and in a state of decay, from its
tendency to mat and lie prostrate. I hear it has been cultivated in
Yorkshire; hence probably its name. Two bushels of the seed would sow
an acre; and it is sometimes met with in our seed-shops. It will grow in
any soil, but thrives best in a moist loam.



26. HOLCUS mollis. CREEPING SOFT-GRASS.--Mr. Curtis in the third edition
of his Treatise on Grasses says, he is induced to have a better opinion
than formerly of this grass, and that Mr. Dorset also thinks it may be
cultivated to advantage in dry sandy soils. I have never seen it exhibit
any appearance that has indicated any such thing, and do not recommend
it.



27. HORDEUM pratense. MEADOW BARLEY-GRASS.--This is productive, and
forms a good bottom in Battersea meadows: but although I have heard it
highly recommended, I should fear it was much inferior to many others.
One species of Barley-grass, which grows very commonly in our
sea-marshes, the Hordeum maritimum, is apt to render cattle diseased in
the mouth, from chewing the seeds, which are armed with a strong bristly
awn not dissimilar to the spike of this grass.



28. LOLIUM perenne. RAY- or RYE-GRASS.--This has been long in
cultivation, and is usually sown with clover under a crop of spring
corn. It forms in the succeeding autumn a good stock of herbage, and the
summer following it is commonly mown for hay, or the seed saved for
market, after which the land is usually ploughed and fallowed, to clear
it of weeds, or as a preparation for Wheat, by sowing a crop of Winter
Tares or Turnips. The seed is about six or eight pecks per acre, and ten
pounds of Clover mixt as the land best suits. Although this is a very
advantageous culture for such purposes, and when the land is not to
remain in constant pasture; yet it is by no means a fit grass for
permanent meadow, as it exhausts the soil, and presently goes into a
state of decay for want of nourishment, when other plants natural to the
soil are apt to overpower it. There are several varieties of this
grass. Some I have seen with the flowers double, others with branched
panicles; some that grow very luxuriantly, and others that are little
better than annuals; and there is also a variety in cultivation called
PACEY's Rye-grass, much sought for. But I am of opinion that nothing but
a fine rich soil will produce a very good crop, and that the principal
difference, after all, is owing more to cultivation or change of soil,
than to any real difference in the plant itself.



29. MELICA coerulea. BLUE MELIC-GRASS.--This is common on all our heaths;
it appears coarse, and not a grass likely to be useful. Yet this kind is
spoken of by Dr. Walker under the name of Fly-bent, who says it is one
of the most productive and best grasses for sheep-feed in the Highlands
of Scotland, where it grows to the height of three feet, a size to which
it never attains in this part of the country. It is found in all soils,
both in dry and boggy places.



30. PANICUM germanicum. GERMAN PANIC, or MOHAR.--I notice this plant
here, although it is not a native of this country; neither is it in
cultivation. It was introduced some years since by Sir Thomas Tyrrwhit
from Hungary. It is said there to be the best food of all others for
horses; and I think it might be cultivated to advantage on high sandy
soils, as a late crop of green fodder. The seeds are similar to Millet
[Footnote: The Hungarian horses are remarked for their sleekness, and it
is said that it is in consequence of being fed on Mohar.].



31. PANICUM crus galli. COCK'S-FOOT-PANIC-GRASS.--This plant has, I
believe, never been recommended for cultivation; but it possesses
qualities which render it worth attention: it will sometimes grow to the
height of four feet, is very fine food for cattle, and will no doubt
make excellent hay. It stands dry weather better than most other grasses
I know. The seeds will not vegetate before May, and the crop not in
perfection till late September. In dry soils I think it could be
cultivated to advantage if sown among a crop of Tares or Rye in the
autumn; and after they are cut in summer, this would spring up and be a
valuable acquisition in a dry autumn, as it would seldom fail producing
an abundant crop.

It grows thick, and would tend to clear the land as a smothering crop
over weeds: it is annual.



32. PHALARIS arundinacea. REED CANARY-GRASS.--This is not in
cultivation, but grows plentyfully on the muddy banks of the Thames; it
will also grow very well in a moderately dry soil; and I have observed
that cattle eat it when it is young. As it is early and very productive,
as well as extremely hardy, I think it might become valuable as early
feed. The seeds of this plant do not readily grow, but it might easily
be introduced by planting the roots in the spring. The Striped or
Ribbon Grass of the flower garden is only a variety of this. See Poa
aquatica.



33. PHLEUM pratense. TIMOTHY-GRASS, or MEADOW-CAT'S-TAIL-GRASS.--Is very
coarse and late, and consequently not equal to many of our grasses
either for hay or pasture. It has been highly recommended in America,
where it may probably have been found to answer better than it has done
with us in cultivation. The seed used to be imported from New York, and
met with a ready sale; but I believe it is seldom imported at this
time. Dr. Walker says the seeds were taken from South Carolina (where it
was first cultivated) to that State, by one Timothy Hanson, from whence
it acquired its name.

The same gentleman supposes it may be introduced into the Highlands of
Scotland with good effect, but is of my opinion as to its utility in
England.--Rural Economy of the Hebrides, vol. ii. p. 27.



34. PHLEUM nodosum. BULBOUS CAT'S-TAIL-GRASS. (Phleum pratense var. ?
Hudson.)--This affects a drier soil than the Timothy-grass: it grows
very frequently in dry thin soils, where it maintains itself against the
parching sun by its bulbous roots, which lie dormant for a considerable
time, but grow again very readily when the wet weather sets in,--a
curious circumstance, which gives us an ample proof of the wise
contrivance of the great Author of Nature to fertilize all kinds of soil
for the benefit of his creatures here below. There is another instance
of this in the Poa bulbosa, Bulbous Meadow-grass, which grows on the
Steine at Brighton, and which I have kept in papers two years out of
ground, and it has vegetated afterwards.



35. POA annua. ANNUAL MEADOW-GRASS.--This is the most general plant in
all nature: it grows in almost every situation where there is any
vegetation. It has been spoken of as good in cultivation, and has had
the term Suffolk grass applied to it, from its having been grown in that
county. I have never seen it in such states, neither can I say I should
anticipate much benefit to arise from a plant which is not only an
annual, but very diminutive in size.



36. POA aquatica. WATER MEADOW-GRASS.--This is quite an aquatic, but is
eaten when young by cattle, and is very useful in fenny countries: it is
highly ornamental, and might be introduced into ponds for the same
purpose as Arundo Phragmites: it might also be planted with Festuca
elatior and Phalaris arundinacea, in wet dug out places, where it would
be useful as fodder, and form excellent shelter for game.



37. POA fluitans. FLOTE FESCUE-GRASS.--This would be of all others the
most nutritive and best plant for feeding cattle; but it thrives only in
water. I have noticed it only because it is highly recommended by the
editor of Mr. Curtis's Observations on British Grasses, 5th edit. The
cattle are very fond of it; but it is not to be cultivated, unless it be
in ponds, being perfectly aquatic.

Linnaeus speaks of the seeds being collected and sold in Poland and
Germany as a dainty for culinary purposes; but I have never seen it used
here, neither are the seeds to be collected in great quantities.
Stillingfleet, on the authority of a Mr. Dean, speaks highly of its
merits in a water-meadow, and also quotes Mr Ray's account of the famous
meadow at Orchiston near Salisbury. There this, as well as Poa
trivialis, most certainly is in its highest perfection; but the real and
general value of grasses or other plants must not be estimated by such
very local instances, when our object is to direct the student to a
general knowledge of the subject. See Curtis, art. Poa trivialis.



38. POA trivialis. ROUGH-STALKED MEADOW-GRASS.--Those who have observed
this grass in our best watered meadows, and in other low pasture-land,
have naturally been struck with its great produce and fine herbage. In
some such places it undoubtedly appears to have every good quality that
a plant of this nature can possess; it is a principal grass in the
famous Orchiston meadow near Salisbury, and its amazing produce is
mentioned in the Bath Agricultural Papers, vol. i. p. 94: but persons
should not be altogether caught by such appearances; for I have seen it
in some lands, and such as would produce good red Clover, a very
diminutive and insignificant plant indeed.

When persons wish to introduce it, they should carefully examine their
neighbouring pastures, and see how it thrives in such places. The seeds
are small, and six pounds would be sufficient for an acre, with others
that affect a similar soil.



39. POA pratensis. SMOOTH-STALKED MEADOW-GRASS.--This is also a grass of
considerable merit when it suits the soil; it affects a dry situation,
and in some such places it is the principal herbage; but I have
cultivated this by itself for seed in tolerably good land, and after
some time I found it matted so much by its creeping roots as to become
quite unproductive both of herbage and seed. Care should therefore be
taken that only a proper portion of this be introduced. The seeds of
this and Poa trivialis are the same in bulk, and probably the same
proportion should be adopted. The seeds of both species hang together by
a substance like to cobwebs, when thrashed, and require to be rubbed
either in ashes or dry sand to separate them before sowing.



*       *       *       *       *



SECT. II.--ARTIFICIAL GRASSES [Footnote: This technical term is
generally known to farmers. It is applied to Clovers, and such plants as
usually grow in pastures, and not strictly Gramina.].

Under this term are included such plants as are sown for fodder, either
with a view to form permanent pastures when mixed with the grasses, or
as intermediate crops on arable land. In those cases they are usually
sown with a spring crop of Oats or Barley, and the artificial grasses
are protected after the harvest by the stubble left on the ground,
affording the succeeding season a valuable crop, either for pasturage or
hay.



40. ACHILLEA Millefolium. YARROW.--This has been much recommended for
sheep feed; but I observe it is frequently left untouched by them if
other green herbage is found on the land. It will thrive in almost any
soil, but succeeds best in good loam. The seed used is about twelve
pounds per acre.



41. ANTHYLLIS vulneraria. KIDNEY VETCH.--This plant is not in
cultivation, but it has been noticed that where it grows naturally the
cows produce better milk and in greater quantity. It grows best in
calcareous soils: the seeds are large, and easily collected. This plant
well deserves attention.



42. CICHORIUM Intybus. CICHORY, or BLUE SUCCORY.-Much has been said of
the good properties of this plant; and if it has them to the full extent
mentioned by different authors, I wonder there is not little else than
Cichory grown in this country. It is very prolific, and will grow
extremely quick after the scythe during the summer months: but I fear,
from the observations I have made, that it does not possess the
fattening quality it is said to have. The plant is so extremely bitter,
that although cattle may be inclined to feed on it early in the spring,
yet as the season advances and other herbage more palatable is to be met
with, it is left with its beautiful blue flowers and broad foliage to
rob the soil and adorn our fields, to the regret of the farmer. It grows
wild in great abundance in Battersea fields, where my late friend Mr.
Curtis used ludicrously to say that bad husbandry was exhibited to
perfection. This plant is there continually seen in the greatest
abundance, where the ground has not been lately disturbed, even under
the noses of all the half-starved cattle of that neighbourhood that are
turned in during the autumn.

The root dried and ground to a powder will improve Coffee, and is
frequently drunk therewith, especially in Germany, where it is prepared
in cakes and sold for that purpose.



43. HEDYSARUM Onobrychis. SAINT-FOIN.--This is certainly one of the most
useful plants of this tribe, and in the south of England is the life and
support of the upland farmer: in such places it is the principal fodder,
both green and in hay, for all his stock. I have not observed it to be
cultivated in Worcestershire or Herefordshire, where there appears to be
much land that would grow it, and which is under much inferior crops.
The seed sown is about four bushels per acre. A mistake is often made in
mentioning this plant. The newspapers, in quoting prices from Mark Lane,
call it Cinquefoil, a very different plant, (Potentilla) of rather a
noxious quality. See Gleanings on Works of Agriculture and Gardening, p.
88, where a curious blunder occurs of this kind.



44. LATHYRUS pratensis. MEADOW VETCHLING.--Abounds much in our natural
meadows, particularly in the best loamy soils, where it is very
productive and nutritious. It is not in cultivation, for the seeds do
not readily vegetate; a circumstance much to be regretted, but
unfortunately the case with several of our other Tares, which would
otherwise be a great acquisition to our graziers.



45. LOTUS corniculatus. BIRD'S-FOOT-LOTUS.--There are several varieties
of this plant; one growing on very dry chalky soils, and which in such
places helps to make a good turf, and is much relished by cattle. The
other varieties grow in marshy land, and make much larger plants than
the other. Here it is also much eaten; and I have also noticed it in
hay, where it appears to be a good ingredient. As it thus appears to
grow in any situation, there is no doubt, if the seeds were collected,
that it might be cultivated with ease, and turn to good account in such
land as is too light for Clover. In wet and boggy situations it becomes
very hairy, and in this state its appearance is very different from that
which it has when growing in chalk, where it is perfectly smooth.

This plant should not be overlooked by the experimental farmer.

It is very highly spoken of in Dr. Anderson's Essays on Agriculture,
under the mistaken name of Astragalus glycophyllos, p. 489; but a truly
practical account is given of it by Ellis in his Husbandry, p. 89, by
the old name Lady-Finger-Grass.



46. MEDICAGO falcata. YELLOW MEDIC.--Is nearly allied to Lucerne, and is
equally good for fodder; it will grow on land that is very dry, and
hence is likely to become a most useful plant; its culture has, however,
been tried but partially. Some experiments were made with this plant by
Thomas Le Blanc, Esq., in Suffolk, which are recorded by Professor
Martyn. Martyn's Miller's Dict. art. Medicago.



47. MEDICAGO polymorpha. VARIABLE MEDIC.--This is also a plant much
relished by cattle, but is not in cultivation: it is an annual, and
perhaps inferior in many respects to the Nonsuch, which it in some
measure resembles. There are many varieties of this plant cultivated in
flower gardens on account of the curious shapes of the seed-pods, some
having a distant resemblance to snails' horns, cater-pillars, &c. under
which names they are sold in the seed-shops. It grows in sandy hilly
soils; the wild kind has flat pods.



48. MEDICAGO sativa. LUCERNE.--Too much cannot be said in praise of this
most useful perennial plant: it is every thing the farmer can wish for,
excepting that it will not grow without proper culture. It should be
drilled at eighteen inches distance, and kept constantly hoed all
summer, have a large coat of manure in winter, and be dug into the
ground between the drills. Six or seven pounds of seed will sow an acre
in this mode.

I have known Lucerne sown with Grass and Clover for forming meadow land;
but as it does not thrive well when encumbered with other plants, I see
no good derived from this practice. No plant requires, or in fact
deserves, better cultivation than this, and few plants yield less if
badly managed.



49. MEDICAGO lupulina. TREFOIL, or NONSUCH.--A biennial plant, very
usefully cultivated with Rye-grass and Clover for forming artificial
meadows. Trefoil when left on the ground will seed, and these will
readily grow and renew the plant successively; which has caused some
persons to suppose it to be perennial. About eight or ten pounds of seed
are usually sown with six or eight pecks of Rye-grass for an acre, under
a crop of Barley or Oats.



50. PLANTAGO lanceolata. RIB-GRASS.--This is a perennial plant, and very
usefully grown, either mixed with grasses or sometimes alone: it will
thrive in any soil, and particularly in rocky situations. It is much
grown on the hills in Wales, where by its roots spreading from stone to
stone it is often found to prevent the soil from being washed off, and
has been known to keep a large district fertile which would otherwise be
only bare rock. Sheep are particularly fond of it. About four pounds
sown with other seeds for pasture, will render a benefit in any
situation that wants it. Twenty-four pounds is usually sown on an acre
when intended for the sole crop, and sown under corn.



51. POTERIUM Sanguisorba. BURNET.--This plant grows in calcareous soils,
and is in some places much esteemed. On the thin chalky soils near
Alresford in Hampshire, I have observed it to thrive better than almost
any other plant that is cultivated. Sheep are particularly fond of it;
and I have heard it said that the flavour of the celebrated Lansdown
mutton arises from the quantity of Burnet growing there. It is also the
favourite food of deer. This will grow well in any soil, and
there are few pastures without it but would be benefited by its
introduction. Twenty-five pounds per acre are sown alone: eight pounds
mixed with other seeds would be sufficient to give a good plant on the
ground.



52. SANGUISORBA officinalis. GREAT CANADA BURNET.--Cattle will eat this
when young; and it has been supposed to be a useful plant, but I do not
think it equal to Burnet.

It is perennial, and is often found wild, but has not yet been
cultivated.



53. TRIFOLIUM pratense. RED CLOVER.--This is a very old plant in
cultivation, and perhaps, with little exception, one of the most useful.
It is very productive and nutritive, but soon exhausts the soil; and
unless it is in particular places it presently is found to go off, which
with the grazier is become a general complaint of all our cultivated
Clovers. It is also well known, that if the crop is mown the plant is
the sooner exhausted.

Seeds of Clover have the property of remaining long in the ground after
it has become thus in a manner exhausted; and it frequently occurs that
ashes being laid on will stimulate the land afresh, and cause the seeds
to vegetate; which has given rise to the erroneous opinion with many
persons, that ashes, and particularly soap ashes, will, when sown on
land, produce Clover.

Red Clover is usually cultivated in stiff clays or loamy soils; and when
sown alone, about sixteen or eighteen pounds of seed are used for the
acre.



54. TRIFOLIUM medium. ZIGZAG, or MOUNTAIN-CLOVER.--Is in some degree
like the preceeding; it produces a purple flower, and the foliage is
much the same in appearance: but this is a much stronger perennial, and
calculated from its creeping roots to last much longer in the land. It
is equally useful as a food for cattle, and does not possess that
dangerous quality of causing cattle to be hove, or blown, by eating it
when fresh and green. This plant is, however, only to be met with in
upland pastures, and there in its wild state; for it does not seed very
abundantly, and is not in cultivation.

In the London seed-markets we often hear of a species of red Clover
termed Cow-grass, and it generally sells for more money, and is said to
differ in having the characters ascribed to it of this plant, namely, a
hollow stem; the leaves more sharply pointed; the plant being a stronger
perennial, and having the property of not causing the above-mentioned
disorder to cows that eat of it. It is said to be cultivated in
Hampshire, from whence I have often received the seeds which have been
purchased purposely for the experiment; but on growing them, I never
could discover these differences to exist. It is a circumstance worthy
notice, that the very exact character of the Trifolium medium should
thus be said to belong to the supposed variety of red Clover. I have
endeavoured for the last twenty years to find out the true Cow-grass,
and am of opinion that it has been from some cause mistaken for this
plant.

The Trifolium medium is, at all events, a plant worth attention, and I
think it might be easily brought into cultivation; for although it does
not seed so abundantly as the T. pratense, I have observed it in places
where a considerable quantity has been perfected, and where it might
have been easily collected by gathering the capsules.



55. TRIFOLIUM repens. DUTCH CLOVER.--This is not so robust a plant as
either of the former kinds, but it creeps on the ground and forms a fine
bottom in all lands wherever it occurs, either cultivated or wild. This
has not the property of blowing the cattle in so great a degree as the
other sorts have. This disease is said to be accelerated by clover being
eaten whilst the dew is on it: and when green clover is intended to be
used as fodder, it is always best to mow it in the heat of the day, and
let it lie till it is whithered, when it may be given to cows with
safety.

Clover seeds of all kinds are necessary ingredients in laying down land
to pasture; and the usual quantity is about twelve pounds per acre mixt
in proportion at the option of the grower.

This kind remains longer in slight soils than the red does; but although
both are perennial plants, they are apt to go off, for the reason
pointed out under the head of T. pratense. This plant, as well as the T.
medium and other perennial kinds, is sometimes found in old pastures on
loamy soils; and whenever this is the case, it is a certain indication
of the goodness of the soil, and such as a judicious gardener would make
choice of for potting his exotic plants in, as he may rest assured that
the soil which will maintain clover for a succession of seasons will be
fit loam for such purposes.



56. TRIFOLIUM procumbens. YELLOW SUCKLING.--An annual very like the
Nonsuch; it is a very useful plant, seeding very freely in pastures and
growing readily, by which means it is every year renewed, and affords a
fine bite for sheep and cattle. I have now and then seen the seeds of
this in the shops, but it is not common. There is a gentleman who
cultivates this plant very successfully near Horsham, and who, I am
informed, states it to be the best kind of Clover for that land. It
grows very commonly amongst the herbage on Horsham Common, so that it is
probably its native habitat. The seeds are the smallest of all the
cultivated Clovers, and of course less in weight will be necessary for
the land.



57. TRIFOLIUM ochroleucum. YELLOW CLOVER.--This is not a common plant,
but it deserves the attention of the grazier. I believe it is not in
cultivation. In the garden it stands well, and is a large plant. The
herbage appears to be as good as that of any other kind of Clover, and
it might, if introduced, be cultivated by similar means.



58. TRIFOLIUM agrarium. HOP TREFOIL.--This is also a good plant, but not
in cultivation; it is eaten by cattle in its wild state, is a perennial,
and certainly deserves a trial with such persons who may be inclined to
make experiments with these plants.

Buffalo Clover is a kind similar to Trifolium agrarium and Trifolium
repens, and appears to me to be a hybrid plant. This has been sometimes
sent to this country from America, and is a larger plant than either. It
has, however, as far as I have grown it, the same property of exhausting
the soil as all the other species possess, and is soon found to go off:
it is not in cultivation to any large extent.



59. VICIA Cracca. TUFTED VETCH.--Persons who have most noticed this
plant have imagined it might be introduced into cultivation. It is
hardy, durable, nutritious, and productive; but, like the Yellow
Vetchling, the seeds do not readily vegetate; the only way to cultivate
it, therefore, would be by planting out the roots; which might be done,
as they are easily parted and are to be procured in great plenty in the
places where it grows wild.



60. VICIA sativa. VETCHES, FETCH, or TARE.--A very useful and common
plant, of which we have two varieties known to the farmer by the name of
Spring and Winter Tares: they are both annuals. The spring variety is a
more upright growing plant, and much tenderer than the other: it is
usually sown in March and April, and affords in general fine summer
fodder.

The Winter Tares are usually sown at the wheat seed-time, remain all
winter, and are usually cut in the spring, generally six weeks before
the spring crop comes in. The Winter Tares are now considered a crop
worth attention by the farmers near London, who sow them, and sell the
crop in small bundles in the spring at a very good price. Tares are
usually sown broadcast, about three bushels and a half to the acre.
Persons should be careful in procuring the true variety for the winter
sowing; for I have frequently known a crop fail altogether by sowing the
Spring Tares, which is a more tender variety, at that season. It should
be noticed that the seeds of both varieties are so much alike that the
kinds are not to be distinguished; but the plants are easily known as
soon as they begin to grow and form stems; the Spring kind having a very
upright habit, and the Winter Tares trail on the ground. It is usual for
persons wanting seeds of such to procure a sample; and by growing them
in a hothouse, or forcing frame, they may soon be able to ascertain the
kinds. Ellis in his Husbandry says, that if ewes are fed on Tares, the
lambs they produce will invariably have red flesh.



61. VICIA sylvatica. WOOD VETCH.--A perennial plant growing in the
shade; it seems to have all the good properties in general with the
other sorts of Tares; but it is not in cultivation.



62. VICIA sepium. BUSH VETCH.--Is also a species much eaten by cattle in
its wild state, but has not yet been cultivated: it nevertheless would
be an acquisition if it could be got to grow in quantity.

So much having been said of the different kinds of Tares, perhaps some
persons may be inclined to think that it would be superfluous to have
more in cultivation than one or two sorts. To this I would beg leave to
reply, that they do not all grow exactly in the same situations wild;
and if they were cultivated, some one of them might be found to suit in
certain lands better than others; and perhaps we never shall see our
agriculture at the height of improvement, till by some public-spirited
measure all those things shall be grown for the purposes of fair
comparative experiment--an institution much wanted in this country.



*      *      *      *      *



HINTS AS TO THE LAYING DOWN LAND TO PERMANENT PASTURE.



Having endeavoured to explain as nearly as possible the nature and uses
of the plants which are likely to improve our meadows and pastures; I
shall proceed to describe the best approved mode of sowing the land, on
which depends, in a great measure, the future success of the
husbandman's labour.

Under the head Lolium perenne I observed the practice of sowing clovers
and that grass with a crop of barley or oats, which is intended as an
intermediate crop for a season or two, and then the land to be again
broken up and used for arable crops. And this is a common and useful
practice; for although neither the Clover or Rye-grass will last long,
yet both will be found to produce a good crop whilst the land will bear
it, or until it is overpowered by the natural weeds of the ground
[Footnote: It is not an uncommon opinion amongst farmers, that Rye-grass
produces Couch; and this is not extraordinary; for, if the land is at
all furnished with this weed, it receives great encouragement under this
mode of culture.], which renders it necessary to the farmer to break it
up.

I am aware of the difficulty of persuading persons (farmers in
particular) to adopt any new systems; and I have often, when speaking of
this subject amongst men of enlightened understandings, been told it
would be next to madness, to sacrifice the benefit of a crop of oats or
barley when the land is in fine tilth, and whilst we can grow grass
seeds underneath it.

"To this I reply, that there is no land whatever, when left for a few
months in a state of rest, but will produce naturally some kind of
herbage, good and bad; and thus we find the industry of man excited, and
the application of the hoe and the weeder continually among all our
crops, this being essential to their welfare. I cannot help, therefore,
observing how extremely absurd it is to endeavour to form clean and good
pasturage under a crop hat gives as much protection to every noxious
weed as to the young grass itself. Weeds are of two descriptions, and
each requires a very different mode of extermination: thus, if annual,
as the Charlock and Poppy, they will flower among the corn, and the
seeds will ripen and drop before harvest, and be ready to vegetate as
soon as the corn is removed; and if perennial, as Thistles, Docks,
Couch-grass, and a long tribe of others in this way, well known to the
farmer, they will be found to take such firm possession of the ground
that they will not be got rid of without great trouble and expense.

"Although the crop of corn thus obtained is valuable, yet when a good
and permanent meadow is wanted, and when all the strength of the land is
required to nurture the young grass thus robbed and injured, the
proprietor is often at considerable expense the second year for manure,
which, taking into consideration the trouble and disadvantage attending
it, more than counterbalances the profit of the corn crop.

"To accomplish fully the formation of permanent meadows, three things
are necessary: namely to clean the land, to produce good and perfect
seeds adapted to the nature of the soil, and to keep the crop clean by
eradicating all the weeds, till the grasses have grown sufficiently to
prevent the introduction of other plants. The first of these matters is
known to every good farmer,--the second may be obtained,--and the third
may be accomplished by practising the modes in which I have succeeded at
a small comparative expense and trouble, and which is instanced in a
meadow immediately fronting Brompton Crescent, the property of Angus
Macdonald, Esq. which land was very greatly encumbered with noxious
weeds of all kinds: but, by the following plan, the grasses were
encouraged to grow up to the exclusion of all other plants; and though
it has been laid down more than ten years, the pasturage is now at least
equal to any in the county.

"Grass seeds may be sown with equal advantage both in spring and autumn.
The land above mentioned was sown in the latter end of August, and the
seed made use of was one bushel of Meadow-fescue, and one of Meadow
fox-tail-grass, with a mixture of fifteen pounds of white Clover and
Trefoil per acre; the land was previously cleaned as far as possible
with the plough and harrows, and the seeds sown and covered in the usual
way. In the month of October following, a most prodigious crop of annual
weeds of many kinds having grown up, were in bloom, and covered the
ground and the sown grasses; the whole was then mowed and carried off
the land, and by this management all the annual weeds were at once
destroyed, as they do not spring again if cut down when in bloom. Thus,
whilst the stalks and roots of the annual weeds were decaying, the sown
grasses were getting strength during the fine weather, and what few
perennial weeds were amongst them were pulled up by hand in their young
state. The whole land was repeatedly rolled, to prevent the worms and
frost from throwing the plants out of the ground; and in the following
spring it was grazed till the latter end of March, when it was left for
hay, and has ever since continued a good field of grass.

"Several meadows at Roehampton, belonging to the late B. Goldsmid, Esq.,
were laid down with two bushels of Meadow fescue-grass and fifteen
pounds of mixed Clover, and sown in the spring along with one peck and a
half of Barley, intended as a shade to the young grasses. The crop was
thus suffered to grow till the latter end of June, and then the corn,
with the weeds, was mowed and carried off the land; the ground was then
rolled, and at the end of July the grasses were so much grown as to
admit good grazing for sheep, which were kept thereon for several weeks.
It should be observed, that the corn is to be mowed whilst in bloom, and
when there is an appearance of, or immediately after rain; which will be
an advantage to the grasses, and occasion them to thrive greatly.

"I sowed some fields for the same gentleman in autumn in the same way,
and found them to succeed equally well."

The above remarks are part of a communication I gave six years since to
the Society of Arts, for which I was honoured with their prize medal;
and I have great pleasure in transcribing it [Footnote: See Transactions
of the Society of Arts, vol. xxvii. p. 70.], as I frequently visit the
meadows mentioned above, and have the satisfaction of hearing them
pronounced the best in their respective neighbourhoods. Thus are my
opinions on this head borne out by twelve years experience. Let the
sceptic compare this improvement with his pretended advantage of a crop
of Barley.

It should be observed that our agricultural efforts are intended only to
assist the operations of nature, and that in all our experiments we
should consult the soil as to its spontaneous produce, from whence alone
we can be enabled to adapt, with propriety, plants to proper situations.
The kinds of selected grass-seeds that are at this time to be purchased
are few, and consist of Lolium perenne, Festuca pratensis, Alopecurus
pratensis; Dactylis glomeratus, Cynosurus cristatus; with the various
kinds of Clovers: and it is not easy to lay down any rule as to the
mixture or proportion of each different kind that would best suit
particular lands. Attention however should, in all cases, be paid to the
plants growing wild in the neighbouring pastures, or in similar soils,
and the greater portion used of those which are observed to thrive best.

In certain instances I have mentioned particular quantities of seeds to
be mixed with others; but in general I have stated how much it would
require to sow an acre with each kind separately; from which a person
may form a criterion, when several sorts are used, as to what quantity
of each sort should be adopted. Taking into view, therefore, that
nothing but a mixture of proper kinds of Grasses, &c. will make good
pasturage, and that our knowledge is very imperfect on this head at the
present season, we must advise that particular attention be paid to the
subject, or little good can be hoped for from all our endeavours.



*       *       *       *       *



SECT. III.--FODDER FROM LEAVES AND ROOTS.



The student in agriculture will find in this department a wide field for
speculation, which, although it has been greatly improved during the
last century, still affords much room for experiments.

During the last thirty-five years I have had opportunity of observing
the great difference in the quantity of cattle brought to one of our
largest beast-markets in the south of England; and it is well known that
this has increased in a ratio of more than double; and I am informed by
a worthy and truly honourable prelate, who has observed the same for
twenty-five years previously, that it has nearly quadrupled. I have also
made it my business, as a subject of curiosity, to inquire if the
increase at other markets has been the same, and from all accounts I am
convinced of the affirmative. Now as we have ample proofs from the
statistical accounts of our husbandry, that less corn has not been grown
in the same period, we shall naturally be inclined to give the merit of
this increase to the introduction of the Turnip husbandry, which,
although it is now become so general, is, comparatively speaking, but in
its infancy; and it is from that branch of our agriculture that has
sprung the culture of the great variety of fodder of the description
which I am now about to explain.

And here it may not prove amiss to observe to the botanical student,
should he hereafter be destined to travel, that by making himself thus
acquainted with the nature of such vegetables, he may have it in his
power to render great benefit to society by the introduction of others
of still superior virtues, for the use both of man and the brute
creation. When Sir Walter Raleigh undertook his expedition to South
America, the object of which failed, he had the good fortune from his
taste for botany to render to his country, and to the world at large, a
more essential service, by the introduction of one single vegetable,
than was ever achieved by the military exploits performed before or
since that period [Footnote: The Potatoe was introduced by Sir Walter
Raleigh, on his return from the River Plate, in the year 1586.]. It has
not only been the means of increasing the wealth and strength of
nations, but more than once prevented a famine in this country when
suffering from a scarcity of bread-corn and when most of the ports which
could afford us a supply were shut by the ambition of a powerful enemy.

63. BRASSICA Napus. TURNIP.--Turnips afford the best feed for sheep in
the autumn and winter months. It is usual to sow them as a preparatory
crop for Barley, and now very frequently for a crop of Spring Wheat.
Turnips are not easily raised but where some kind of manure is used to
stimulate the land. In dry seasons the crop is often destroyed by the
ravages of a small beetle, which perforates the cotyledons of the
plants, and destroys the crop on whole fields in a few hours.

Many remedies against this evil are enumerated in our books on
husbandry. The best preventative, however, appears to be the putting
manure on the ground in a moist state and sowing the seeds with it, in
order to excite the young plant to grow rapidly; for the insect does not
hurt it when the rough leaf is once grown. I have this season seen a
fine field of Turnips, sown mixt with dung out of a cart and ploughed in
ridges. The seeds which were not too deeply buried grew and escaped the
fly; when scarcely a field in the same district escaped the ravages of
that insect. Turnips are sown either broad-cast or in drills. It takes
about four pounds of seed per acre in the first mode, and about half the
quantity in the second.

There are several varieties of turnips grown for cattle; the most
striking of which are, the White round Norfolk; the Red round ditto; the
Green round ditto; the Tankard; the Yellow. These varieties are nearly
the same in goodness and produce: the green and red are considered as
rather more hardy than the others. The tankard is long-rooted and stands
more out of the ground, and is objected to as being more liable to the
attack of early frosts. The yellow is much esteemed in Scotland, and
supposed to contain more nutriment [Footnote: The usual season for
sowing the above varieties is within a fortnight or three weeks after
Midsummer.]. The Stone and Dutch turnips are grown for culinary
purposes, and are also sometimes sown after the corn is cleared, as
being small and of early growth; these in such cases are called stubble
turnips, and often in fine autumns produce a considerable quantity of
herbage. For a further account of the culture &c. see Dickson's Modern
Husbandry, vol. ii. p. 639.

There is nothing in husbandry requiring more care than the saving seeds
of most of the plants of this tribe, and in particular of the Genus
Brassica. If two sorts of turnips or cabbages are suffered to grow and
bloom together, the pollen of each kind will be sufficiently mixed to
impregnate each alternately, and a hybrid kind will be the produce, and
in ninety-nine times out of a hundred a worse variety than either.
Although this is generally the result of an indiscriminate mixture, yet
by properly adapting two different kinds to grow together, new and
superior varieties are sometimes produced. One gentleman having profited
by this philosophy, has succeeded in producing some fine new varieties
of fruits and vegetables, much to the honour of his own talents and his
country's benefit [Footnote: See Mr Knight On the Apple-tree.]. It is
well known to gardeners that the cabbage tribe are liable to sport thus
in their progeny; and to some accidental occurrence of this nature we
are indebted for the very useful plant called the



64. ROOTA-BAGA. SWEDISH TURNIP.--Which is a hybrid plant par-taking of
the turnip and cabbage, and what has within these few years added so
much to the benefit of the grazier. This root is much more hardy than
any of the turnips; it will stand our winters without suffering injury
from frosts, and is particularly ponderous and nutritious.

It is usually cultivated as the common trunip, with this difference,
that it requires to be sown as early in some lands as the month of May,
it being a plant which requires a longer time to come to maturity.

Every judicious farmer who depends on turnips for foddering his stock in
the winter, will do well to guard against the loss sometimes occasioned
by the failure of his Turnips from frost and wet. Various ways of doing
this are recommended, as stacking &c. But if he has a portion of his
best land under Swedish turnip, he will have late in the winter a
valuable crop that will be his best substitute. Another advantage is
this, that it will last a fortnight longer in the spring, and
consequently be valuable on this account. The quantity of seed usually
sown is the same as for the common kinds of turnip. There are two
varieties of this plant, one white and the other yellow: the latter is
the most approved.



65. BRASSICA Napo Brassica. KOHLRABBI.--A hardy kind of Turnip cabbage,
grown much in Germany for fodder: it is very nutritive, and has the
property of resisting frost better than either the turnips or
cattle-cabbage. The seed and culture of this are the same as of
Drum-head cabbage.

There are two varieties of this plant, the green and the purple; the
latter is generally most esteemed.



66. BRUSSELS SPROUTS.--This is a large variety of cabbage, very
productive and hardy. The culture is the same as for Cattle-cabbage.



67. BRASSICA oleracea. DRUM-HEAD CABBAGE.--This is usually sown in March
and the plants put out into beds, and then transplanted into the fields;
this grows to a most enormous size, and is very profitable. About four
pounds of seed is sufficient for an acre.



*       *       *       *       *



SEC. IV.--GRAINS.



73. AVENA sativa. COMMON OATS.--A grain very commonly known, of which we
have a number of varieties, from the thin old Black Oats to the fine
Poland variety and the celebrated Potatoe-Oats.

These give the farmer at all times the advantage of a change of seeds, a
measure allowed on all hands to be essential to good husbandry. The
culture is various; thin soils growing the black kind in preference,
which is remarkably hardy, where the finer sorts affecting a better soil
will not succeed. It is applicable both to the drill and broad-cast. The
seed is from six pecks to four bushels per acre, and the crop from seven
to fourteen quarters.



74. CARUM Carui. CARAWAY SEEDS.--The seeds of this are in demand both by
druggists and confectioners. It is cultivated in Kent and Essex; where
it, being a biennial plant, is sown with a crop of spring corn, and left
with the stubble during the succeeding winter, and after clearing the
land in the spring is left to go to seed. It requires a good hot dry
soil; but although the crop is often of great value, it so much exhausts
the land as to be hazardous culture in many light soils where the
dunghill is not handy.

The seed is about ten pounds per acre, and the crop often five or six
sacks.



75. CORIANDRUM sativum. CORIANDER.--Is grown in the stiff lands, in
Essex, and is an annual of easy but not of general culture. The seeds
are used by druggists and rectifiers of spirits, and form many of the
cordial drinks.

The quantity of seed and produce are similar to those of Caraway.



76. ERVUM Lens. LENTILS.--Once cultivated here for the seeds, which are
used for soups; but it is furnished principally from Spain, and can at
all times be purchased for less than it can be grown for.



77. HORDEUM distichon. COMMON TWO-ROWED BARLEY.--A grain now in very
general cultivation, and supposed to be the best kind grown for malting.
The season for sowing barley is in the spring, and the crop varies
according to soil and culture; it is sown either broad-cast, drilled, or
dibbled. The quantity of seed sown is from three pecks to three bushels
per acre, and the produce from three to eleven quarters.

As the process of malting may not be generally understood by that class
of readers for which this work is mostly intended, I shall give a short
sketch of it.--It is a natural principle of vegetation, that every seed
undergoes a change before it is formed into the young plant. The
substance of the cotyledons, which when ground forms the nutritious
flower of which bread is made, changes into two particular substances,
i. e. sugar and mucilage; and whilst mankind form from it the principal
staff of life as an edible commodity, the same parts of the seed in
barley are by certain means made into malt, which is only another term
for the sugar of that grain. To effect this, the barley is steeped in
water, and afterwards laid in heaps, in which state it vegetates in a
few days, and the saccharine fermentation is by that means carried on to
a certain pitch, when it is put on a kiln to which a fire is applied,
and it is by that means dried. It is then perfect malt, and fit for the
purpose of brewing.

Pearl and Scotch Barley, used for soup and medicinal purposes, are made
from the grain by being put into a mill, which merely grinds off the
husk. The Pearl barley is mostly prepared in Holland, but the Scotch is
made near Edinburgh in considerable quantities. A description of an
improved Mill for this purpose is to be seen in the Edinburgh
Encyclopaedia, p. 283.



78. HORDEUM vulgare. BERE, BIG, or WINTER BARLEY.--This is a coarser
grain than the Two-rowed Barley, and hence it is not so well adapted to
the purpose of malting. It is grown on cold thin soils, being much
hardier than the former.

It is now often sown in October, and in the month of May or June
following it is mown and taken off the land for green fodder. The plants
will notwithstanding this produce in August a very abundant crop of
grain. Hence this is a valuable mode of culture for the farmer.

The other varieties of Barley are,



79. HORDEUM hexastichon. SIX-ROWED BARLEY.--This is also a coarse grain;
and although it was once in cultivation here, it has been altogether
superseded by the Bere, which is a better kind.



80. HORDEUM zeocriton. BATTLEDORE BARLEY.--This is a fine grain, but
very tender, and not now in cultivation in this country.

NAKED BARLEY. The two first species sometimes produce a variety which
thrashes out of the husks similar to wheat: these are very heavy and
fine grain, but they are not in cultivation: for what reason I know not.



81. PANICUM miliaceum. MILLET.--Millet is of two kinds, the brown and
yellow. They are sometimes sown in this country for feeding poultry, and
also for dressing; i. e. it is divested of the husk by being passed
through a mill, when it is equal to rice for the use of the pastrycook.
The seed used is from one to two bushels per acre. This is more commonly
grown in Italy, and on the shores of the Mediterranean sea, from which
large quantities are annually exported to the more northern countries.



82. PAPAVER somniferum. MAW-SEED.--The large white Opium Poppy is grown
for seed for feeding birds, and also for pressing the oil, which is used
by painters. The heads are also used by the apothecaries; which see
under the head Medicinal Plants. About two pounds of seed to the acre.



83. PHALARIS canariensis. CANARY-SEED.--This is grown mostly in the Isle
of Thanet, and sent to London &c. for feeding canary and other
song-birds, and considered a very profitable crop to the farmer. It is
sown in April, and the quantity of seed is about one bushel and a half
per acre.



84. PISUM sativum. THE PEA [Footnote: At the request of Sir John
Sinclair I made an experiment, from directions given by a French
emigrant, of mixing Pease with urine in which had been steeped a
considerable quantity of pigeon's dung. In the course of twenty-four
hours they had swoln very much, when they were put into the ground. An
equal quantity were steeped in water; and the same quantity also that
had not been steeped, were sown in three adjoining spots of land. There
was a difference in the coming up of the crops, of some days in each;
but that with the above preparation took the lead, and was by far the
best crop on the ground. This is an experiment worth attending to. It is
usual to prepare wheat in a similar way, but no other grain that I have
ever heard of.].--The Gray Hog-pea used to be the only one considered
sufficiently hardy for culture in the fields; but since the improvement
in our agriculture we have all the finer varieties cultivated in large
quantities. The seed used is about two bushels and a half per acre, and
the produce varies from three to ten quarters.

The varieties of Peas are many, but the principal ones used in
agriculture are the Early Charlton Pea; the Dwarf Marrow; the Prussian
Blue. All these are dwarf kinds; and as the demand for this article in
time of war is great for the navy and army, if the farmer's land will
suit, and produce such as will boil, they will fetch a considerably
greater price in proportion.

The varieties that are found to boil are either used whole, or split,
which is done by steeping them in water till the cotyledons swell, after
which they are dried on a kiln and passed through a mill; which just
breaking the husk, the two cotyledons fall apart.



85. POLYGONUM Fagopyrum. BUCK-WHEAT.--This is usually sown in places
where pheasants are bred, as the seed is the best food for those birds;
it is also useful for poultry and hogs. I have eaten bread and cakes
made of the flower, which are also very palatable. Two bushels are
usually sown per acre. The season is May; and it is often sown on foul
land in the summer, as it grows very thick on the land, and helps to
clean it by smothering all the weeds. The crop does not stand on the
ground more than ten or twelve weeks.



86. SECALE cereale. RYE.--This is often grown for a spring crop of green
food, by sowing it early in the autumn, as it is very hardy and is not
affected by frost. It grows fast in the spring months, and affords a
very luxuriant crop of green fodder. Tares and Rye are frequently sown
mixed together for the same purpose, and the Tares find a support in the
stalks of the Rye, by which means they produce a larger crop than they
make by themselves. The grain is the next in estimation to Wheat, and is
frequently used for making bread. The quantity sown per acre is the same
as Wheat.



87. SINAPIS nigra. BLACK MUSTARD.--This is grown in Essex in great
quantities for the seeds, which are sold to the manufacturers of flower
of mustard, and is considered better flavoured, stronger, and capable of
keeping better, than the white kind for such purpose. It is also in use
for various medicinal preparations; which see. About two bushels of seed
sown broad-cast are sufficient for an acre.

This plant affords another striking instance of the care of Providence
in preserving the species of the vegetable kingdom, it being noticed in
the Isle of Ely and other places, that wherever new ditches are thrown
out, or the earth dug to any unusual depth, the seeds of Black Mustard
immediately throw up a crop. In some places it has been proved to have
lain thus embalmed for ages.

Flower of mustard, which is now become so common on our tables, and
which is an article of very considerable trade, is but a new
manufacture. A respectable seedsman who lived in Pall-Mall was the first
who prepared it in this state for sale. The seeds of the white sort had
been used to be bruised in a mortar and eaten sometimes as a condiment,
but only in small quantities.

When used fresh it is weak, and has an unpleasant taste; but after
standing a few hours the essential oil unites with the water which is
used, and it then becomes considerably stronger, and the flavour is
improved. It is prepared by drying the seeds on a kiln and grinding them
to a powder. As this article is become of considerable importance from
the demand, it has occasioned persons to speculate in its adulteration,
which is now I believe often practised. Real flower of mustard will bear
the addition of an equal quantity of salt without its appearing too much
in the taste. In an old work, Hartman's treasure of Health, I find it to
have been practised by a noble lady of that time to make mustard for
keeping, with sherry wine with the addition of a little sugar, and
sometimes a little vinegar. Query, Is this, with the substitution of a
cheaper wine, the secret of what is called Patent Mustard?



88. TRITICUM aestivum. SPRING WHEAT.--Wheat is a grain well known in most
countries in Europe. It has been in cultivation for many ages. This
species was introduced some years ago from the Barbary coast, and has
been found very beneficial for sowing in the spring, when it often
produces a large crop. It takes a shorter time to come to maturity than
the other sorts; and as it is a more profitable crop to the farmer on
good soils than Barley, it is frequently sown after Turnips are over.
This has, perhaps, been one of the best improvements in Grain husbandry
that was ever introduced, as it gives the grower great advantages which
he could not have under the common culture of Wheat at the usual
seed-time. This is little different in appearance from the Common White
Wheat. But there was a small variety of it with rounder grains sent to
the Board of Agriculture from the Cape of Good Hope about the year 1801,
of which I saved a small quantity of seeds which was distributed among
the members; and I have lately seen a sample of it in the hands of a
gentleman in Devonshire, who speaks very highly of it as producing a
large crop in a short time, and that the flower was so much esteemed,
that the millers gave him a higher price for it than the finest samples
at market of the other kinds would sell for. I believe this variety is
very scarce. It is now twelve years since I grew it, from which what I
saw, and all other in cultivation, if any there are, have sprung.



89. TRITICUM compositum. EGYPTIAN WHEAT.--This is a species with
branched ears, and commonly having as many as three and four divisions.
It is much cultivated in the eastern countries, but has not been found
to answer so well in this country as the common cultivated species.



90. TRITICUM hybernum. COMMON WHEAT.--Of this grain we have a number of
varieties, which are grown according to the fashion of countries,
differing in the colour of the ear and also of the grain. The most
esteemed sorts are the Hertfordshire White and the Essex Red Wheat,
which are both much cultivated and equally esteemed. The season for
growing these kinds is usually September and October. The drill, dibble,
and broad-cast modes are all used, as the land and convenience of the
farmer happen to suit, and the produce varies accordingly; as does also
the quantity of seed sown. From two pecks to two bushels and a half are
sown on an acre.

Wheat is liable to the ravages of many terrestrious insects which attack
its roots; and also some very curious diseases. One of these has been
very clearly elucidated by our munificent patron of science, Sir Joseph
Banks, in the investigation of a parasitical plant which destroys the
blood of the stalk and leaves, renders the grain thin, and in some cases
quite destroys the crop, which has done that gentleman's penetration
great credit [Footnote: Sir Joseph Banks On the Blight in Corn.]. An
equally extraordinary disease is the Smut, which converts the
farinaceous parts of the grain to a black powder resembling smut: a
cirumstance too well known to many farmers. Those who wish to consult
the remedies recommended against this, may refer to The Annals of
Agriculture, and most other books on the subject. It is usual with
farmers to mix the Wheat with stale urine or brine, and to dry it by
sifting it with slaked lime, which has the effect of causing it to
vegetate quickly, and to prevent the attacks of many insects when the
seed is first put into the ground. This is considered as productive of
great benefit to the crop; but it is also to be remarked, that it is
almost the only grain that is ever prepared with this mixture, although
it might be applied with equal propriety to all others. See article
Pisum sativum.



91. TRITICUM turgidum. CONE WHEAT.--This a fine grain, and cultivated
much in the strong land in the Vale of Evesham, where it is found to
answer better than any other sorts. It is distinguished by the square
and thick spike, and having a very long arista or beard.

The following sorts of Wheat are mentioned as being in cultivation. But
I have not seen them, neither do I think any of them equal to the sorts
enumerated above:

Triticum nigrum. BLACK-GRAINED WHEAT. Triticum polonicum. POLISH WHEAT.
Triticum monococcon. ONE-GRAINED WHEAT. Triticum Spelta. SPELT WHEAT.

Besides the use of Wheat for bread and other domestic purposes, large
quantities are every season consumed in making starch, which is the pure
fecula of the grain obtained by steeping it in water and beating it in
coarse hempen bags, by which means the fecula is thus caused to exude
and diffuse through the water. This, from being mixed with the
saccharine matter of the grain, soon runs into the acetous fermentation,
and the weak acid thus formed by digesting on the fecula renders it
white. After setting, the precipitate is washed several times, and put
by in square cakes and dried on kilns. These in drying part into flakes,
which gives the form to the starch of the shops.

Starch is soluble in hot water, and becomes of the nature of gum. It is
however insoluble in cold water, and on this account when pulverized it
makes most excellent hair-powder.



92. Vicia Faba. THE BEAN.--Several kinds of Beans are cultivated by
farmers. The principal are the Horse-Bean or Tick-Bean; the Early
Mazagan; and the Long-pods. Beans grow best in stiff clayey soils, and
in such they are the most convenient crop. The season for planting is
either the winter or spring month, as the weather affords opportunity.
They are either drilled, broad-cast sown, or put in by the dibble, which
is considered not only the most eligible mode but in ge-neral affording
the best crops. The seed is from one to three bushels per acre.



93. ZEA Mays. INDIAN CORN, or MAIZE. In warmer climates, as the South of
France, and the East and West Indies, this is one of the most useful
plants; the seeds forming good provender for poultry, hogs and cattle,
and the green tops excellent fodder for cattle in general. I once saw a
small early variety, that produced a very good crop, near Uxbridge; but
I believe it is not in cultivation.



*       *       *       *       *



SECT. V.--MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES.



94. CANNABIS sativa. HEMP.--This plant is cultivated in some parts of
this country. It is usually sown in March, and is fit to harvest in
October. It is then pulled up and immersed in water; when the woody
parts of the stalks separating from the bark, which sloughs off and
undergoes a decomposition by which the fibres are divided, it is then
combed (hackled), dried, and reduced to different fineness of texture,
and spun for various purposes. It requires good land, and the seed is
usually two bushels and a half per acre.

The seed, which ripens about the time the hemp is pulled, is useful for
feeding birds and poultry, and very nourishing.



95. DIPSACUS Fullonum. FULLER'S TEAVEL.--The heads of this plant are
used for combing kerseymeres and finer broad cloths. The heads are
generally fit to cut about the latter end of August, and are then
separated and made up into bundles, and sold to the clothiers. The large
heads are called Kings; the next size Middlings; and the smaller
Minikins. The reason they are separated before sending to market is,
that the large and small will not fit together on the frame in which
they are fixed to the water-wheel, so that it is usual for the
proprietor of the fulling-mills to purchase all of either one or the
other size. The crop is considered very valuable, but the culture is
confined to a small district in Somersetshire. The plant is biennial,
and is usually sown in May, and the crop kept hoed during that season.
In the following spring the plants bloom, and when the seeds are ripe
the heads are fit for cutting; when they are assorted as above for the
dealers. Three pounds of seed are used to an acre, and the plants at the
last stirring are left from two feet to two feet and a half apart.



96. HUMULUS Lupulus. THE HOP.--The Hop is cultivated for brewing, being
the most wholesome bitter we have, though the brewers are in the habit
of using other vegetable bitters, which are brought from abroad and sold
at a much cheaper rate. There is, however, a severe penalty on using any
other than Hops for such purpose.

The Hops are distinguished by several varieties grown in Kent,
Worcestershire, and at Farnham. The last place produces the best kind.
For its culture more at length see Agriculture of Surry, by Mr.
Stevenson.



97. ISATIS tinctoria. WOAD.--Is cultivated in the county of
Somersetshire. It is used, after being prepared, for dyeing &c. It is
said to be the mordant used for a fine blue on woollen. The foliage,
which is like Spinach, is gathered during the summer months, and steeped
in vats of water. After some time a green fecula is deposited in the
bottom of the water, which is washed, and made into cakes and sold for
use.

It is a perennial plant, and found wild in great abundance near
Guildford, where great quantities might be gathered for use, and where a
great deal of the seed could be collected. Its culture is very similar
to that of the Teazle, with this difference, it requires the hoe at work
constantly all the summer months.

The two plants Weld and Woad from the similarity of names are frequently
confounded with each other, and some of the best agricultural writers
have fallen into this error. They are two very different plants, and
ought to be well defined, being each of them of very material
consequence in this country.



98. LINUM usitatissimum. FLAX, or LINT-SEED.--Is grown for the purpose
of making cloth, and has been considered a very profitable crop. The
culture and management is similar to that of Hemp, and the seeds are in
great demand for pressing. Lintseed oil, which it produces, is much used
by painters, and is the only vegetable oil that is found fit for such
purposes in general. The seeds are of several uses to the farmer; a tea
is made of it, and mixed with skimmed milk, for fattening house-lambs
and calves. Oxen are often fattened on the seed itself; but the cakes
after the oil is expressed are a very common and most excellent article
for fattening both black cattle and sheep. These are sold at from 10 l.
to 16 l. per thousand.

It will require three bushels of Flax-seed for one acre, as it must be
sown thick on the land. Lintseed cake has been used also for manure; and
I have seen fine crops of Turnips where it has been powdered and sown in
the drills with the seed.



99. RESEDA luteola. DYER'S-WEED, or WELD.--Is often confounded with
Woad, but is altogether a very different plant. Weld is cultivated on
the chalky hills of Surry, being sown under a crop of Barley, and the
second year cleaned by hoeing, and then left to grow till it blooms,
when it is pulled and tied up in small bundles, and after drying is sent
to market, where it is purchased for dyeing yellow, and is in great
request.



100. RUBIA tinctoria. MADDER.--This very useful dyeing drug used to be
grown in this country in considerable quantities, but it is not
cultivated here at the present time. The principal part of what is used
now is brought from Holland, and affords a considerable article of trade
to the Dutch farmers. Those who wish to be informed of the mode of
culture may consult Professor Martyn's edition of Miller's Dictionary.

Some years since Sir Henry Englefield, Bart., obtained a premium from
the Society of Arts for the discovery of a fine tint drawn from Madder,
called the Adrianople red. It was found that it was to be obtained from
a variety of the Rubia brought from Smyrna; and Mr. Smyth, our consul at
that city, was prevailed on by Dr. Charles Taylor to procure seeds from
thence, which the Society did me the honour of committing to my care;
and I have now a considerable stock of that kind, from whence I have
myself obtained the same beautiful and superior tint. See Trans. Soc.
Arts. vol. 27, p. 40.



101. ULEX europaeus. FURZE, GORSE, or WHIN.--Is used in husbandry for
fences, and is also much cultivated for fuel for burning lime, heating
ovens, &c. Cattle and sheep relish it much; but it cannot be eaten by
them except when young, in consequence of its strong spines; to obviate
which an implement has been invented for bruising it. When it grows wild
on our waste land, it is common to set it on fire in the summer months,
and the roots and stems will throw up from the ground young shoots,
which are found very useful food for sheep and other animals. It is
readily grown from seeds, six pounds of which will be enough for an acre
of land.



*       *       *       *       *



PLANTS USEFUL IN THE ARTS.



SECT. VI.--BRITISH TREES AND SHRUBS.



102. ACER Pseudo-Platanus. SYCAMORE.--The wood of this tree is soft and
of little use, unless it is for the turners' purposes, who make boxes
and other small toys of it. It is not of value as timber.



103. ACER campestre. THE MAPLE.--Before the introduction of Mahogany and
other fine woods the Maple was the principal wood used for all kinds of
cabinet work, and was much esteemed: the knobs which grow on those trees
in an old state afforded the most beautiful specimens, and according to
Evelyn were collected by the curious at great prices. The Maple trees in
this country are none of them at the present day old enough to afford
that fine-veined variegation in the timber which is alluded to in this
account.



104. ARBUTUS Unedo. THE STRAWBERRY-TREE.--Is a native of the islands in
the celebrated Lake of Killarney in Ireland, where it grows to a large
size. We know of no particular use to which it is applied. It is however
one of our most ornamental evergreen shrubs, producing beautiful
flowers, which vary from transparent white to deep red, in the winter
months, at which season also the fruit appears; which taking twelve
months to come to maturity affords the singular phaenomenon in plants, of
having lively green leaves, beautiful flowers, and fruit as brilliant as
the richest strawberry, in the very depth of our winter. We have a fine
variety of this plant with scarlet blossoms, and also one with double
flowers, both of which are singularly ornamental to the shrubbery.



105. ARBUTUS Uva Ursi. BEAR-BERRIES.--A small trailing plant of great
repute as a medicine, but of no use in any other respect.



106. BERBERIS vulgaris. BARBERRY.--This has long been cultivated in
gardens for its fruit, which is a fine acid, and it is used as a
conserve, and also for giving other sweeter fruits a flavour. The common
wild kind has stones in the fruit, which renders it disagreeable to eat.
There is a variety without stones called the Male Barberry, which is
preferred on this account.

This tree is subject to a disease in the summer, caused apparently from
a yellow fungus growing on the leaves and young shoots; and it is said
that where it grows near corn fields it imparts its baneful influence to
the grain, for which reason it is recommended in some of our books on
agriculture to exterminate the trees.



107. BETULA alba. BIRCH-TREE.--Is in great use and of considerable value
on some estates for making brooms, and the timber for all purposes of
turnery-ware and carving. The sap of the Birch-tree is drawn by
perforating the bark in the early state of vegetation. It is fermented,
and makes a very pleasant and potent beverage called Birch Wine.



108. BETULA Alnus. ALDER-TREE.--This is a valuable tree for planting in
moors and wet places. The wood is used for making clogs, pattens, and
other such purposes; and the bark for dyeing and manufacturing some of
the finer kinds of leather. This wood is of considerable value for
making charcoal for gunpowder. In charring it a considerable quantity of
acetic acid is extracted, which is of great value for the purpose of
bleaching, &c. &c.



109. BUXUS sempervirens. BOX-TREE.--The wood of Box is of great value
for musical instruments, and for forming the handles of many tools:
being very hard, it admits of a fine polish. This tree is growing in
quantity at Box-hill in Surry, and has given name to that place.

This was planted by a late Duke of Norfolk, and has succeeded so well,
that the wood has been cut twice, and sold each time for treble the
value of the fee-simple of the land.

It forms a better cover for game than any other plant; and being very
bitter, is not liable to be destroyed by any animal eating it down. An
infusion of the leaves is frequently given as a vermifuge with good
effect.

There is a smaller variety of this, much used for making edging to
gravel walks in gardens.



110. CARPINUS Betulus. THE HORNBEAM.--This grows to a large tree, but is
not of much account as timber: it is however very useful in forming
ornamental fences, and is well adapted to this purpose from the tendency
of its young branches to grow thick.



111. CLEMATIS Vitalba. TRAVELLER'S JOY.--A beautiful creeping shrub very
useful to the farmers for making shackles for gates and hurdles, or
withs for tying faggots and other articles. Whenever this plant is found
in the hedges, &c. it is a certain indication of a ckalky under stratum
in the soil.



112. CORNUS sanguinea. DOG-WOOD.--This is planted in pleasuregrounds as
an ornamental shrub, and from the red appearance of the wood in the
winter forms a beautiful constrast in plantations. It is also used by
butchers for making skewers.



113. CORYLUS Avellana. THE HAZEL.--Is a well known shrub of large growth
producing nuts, which are much admired. The Filbert is an improved
variety of this plant. The farmers in Kent are the best managers of
Filberts, and it is the only place where they are grown with any
certainty; which appears to be owing principally to the trees being
regularly pruned of the superfluous wood. It is performed in the month
of March when the plants are in bloom, and is the only time when the
fruit-bearing wood can be distinguished.



114. CRATAEGUS Aria. WHITE BEAM-TREE.--Is a beautiful tree producing very
hard wood, and is much in esteem for cogs of millwork and various other
purposes.



115. CRATAEGUS Oxyacantha. THE QUICKSET, or WHITE-THORN.--This is in
great request for making fences, and is the best plant we know for such
purposes if properly managed. It is readily propagated by sowing the
hips, or fruit, which does not readily grow the first season; it is
therefore usual to bury them mixed with saw-dust, or sand, one year, and
then to sow them in beds.



116. DAPHNE Laureola. SPURGE- or WOOD-LAUREL.--Is used in medicine;
which see.

We have many species of Daphne which are very ornamental to our
shrubberies and green-houses: these are propagated principally by
grafting; and the Wood-Laurel being hardy and of ready growth forms the
stock principally used. It is readily propagated by seeds, which in
three years will make plants large enough for this purpose.

The plant in all its parts is excessively acrid. I remember a man being
persuaded to take the leaves reduced to powder, as a remedy for
Syphilis, and he died in consequence in great agony in a few hours.



117. DAPHNE Mezerium. MEZERION.--Is a very beautiful shrub, and is one
of the earliest productions of Flora, often exhibiting its brilliant
scarlet flowers in January and February. We have also a white variety of
this shrub in the gardens. The bark and roots are extremely acrimonious,
and are used in medicine.



118. ERICA vulgaris. THE COMMON HEATH, HEATHER, or LING.---This
spontaneous produce of most of our sandy waste lands is of much usin
rural oeconomy.

It is of considerable value for making brooms, and affords food to
sheep, goats, and other animals; particularly to the grouse and
heath-cock. The branches of heath placed upright in a wooden frame form
the couch of repose to the brave Highlander. It is also stated that an
excellent beverage was brewed from the tops of this plant, but the art
of making it is now lost. This is the most common of the species, but
all the others have similar properties. They are very ornamental plants.
A numerous variety of heaths are brought from the Cape of Good Hope, and
afford great pleasure to the amateur of exotic plants, being the
greatest ornaments to our green-houses.



119. EUONYMUS europaeus. SPINDLE-TREE.--An ornamental shrub. The wood is
in great request for making skewers for butchers, as it does not impart
any unpleasant taste to the meat.



120. FAGUS Castanea. THE SPANISH CHESNUT.--This tree produces timber
similar to oak in point of durability, and the bark also contains a
considerable quantity of tannin. The Chesnut was in greater plenty in
this country many years ago than at the present day; large forests are
represented to have been in the neighbourhood of London; and we are led
to believe such may have been the case, as many of the old buildings
when examined have been found to be built of this timber. The fruit is
used as a dainty at table; but the variety which is brought from
Portugal and Spain is much larger than what are grown in this country.
The large kind imported from those countries is grafted, and kept on
purpose for the fruit. It is an improvement to graft this variety by
taking the scions from trees in bearing, and they will produce fruit in
a few years and in a dwarf state.



121. FAGUS sylvatica. THE BEECH.--The timber of the Beech is valuable
for making wheels, and is applied to many other useful purposes in
domestic oeconomy. The seeds of the Beech are very useful for fattening
hogs.

This tree affords many beautiful varieties in foliage, the handsomest of
which is the Copper Beech, whose purple leaves form a fine contrast in
colour with the lively green of the common sort.



123. FRAXINUS excelsior. THE ASH.--The wood of the Ash is considered the
best timber for all purposes of strong husbandry utensils. The wheels
and axle-trees of carriages, the shafts for carts, and the cogs for
mill-work, are principally made of this timber. The young wood when gown
in coppices is useful for hop-poles, and the small underwood is said to
afford the best fuel of any when used green. Coppice-land usually sells
for a comparatively greater price according as this wood prevails in
quantity, on account of its good quality as fuel alone.



124. HEDERA Helix. IVY.--A common plant in woods, and often planted in
shady places to hide walls and buildings. The leaves are good food for
deer and sheep in winter. The Irish Ivy, which was brought from that
country, is a fine variety with broad leaves. It was introduced by Earl
Camden.



125. HIPPOPHAE Rhamnoides. SEA BUCKTHORN.--This is a scarce shrub; but
is very useful as a plant for forming shelter on the hills near the
sea-coast, it having been found to stand the sea-breeze better than any
plant of the kind that is indigenous to this country.



126. ILEX aquifolium. HOLLY.--A well-known evergreen of singular beauty,
of which we have many varieties, both striped, and of different colours
in the leaf. Birdlime is made from the inner bark of this tree, by
beating it in a running stream and leaving it to ferment in a close
vessel. If iron be heated with charcoal made of holly with the bark on,
the iron will be rendered brittle; but if the bark be taken off, this
effect will not be produced. Ray's Works and Travels by Scott.



127. JUNIPERUS communis. JUNIPER.--An evergreen shrub, very common on
waste lands. The berries are used in preparing the well-known spiritous
liquor gin, and have been considered of great use in medicine.



128. LIGUSTRUM vulgare. PRIVET.--A shrub of somewhat humble growth, very
useful for forming hedges where shelter is wanted more than strength. It
bears clipping, and forms a very ornamental fence. There is a variety of
this with berries, and another nearly evergreen.



129. MESPILUS germanica. THE MEDLAR.--Is cultivated for its fruit, and
of which we have a variety called the Dutch Medlar; it is larger than
our English one, but I do not think it better flavoured.



130. PINUS sylvestris. THE SCOTCH FIR.--A very useful tree in
plantations for protecting other more tender sorts when young. It is
also now very valuable as timber:--necessity, the common parent of
invention, has taught our countrymen its value. When foreign deal was
worth twenty pounds per load, they contrieved to raise the price of this
to about nine or ten pounds, and it was then thought proper for use;
before which period, and when it could be bought for little money, it
was deemed only fit for fuel. On the South Downs I know some plantations
of this tree, which have been sold, after twenty-five years growth, at a
price which averaged a profit of twenty shillings per annum per acre, on
land usually let for sheep-pasture at one shilling and six-pence.



131. POPULUS alba. WHITE POPLAR. This is a very ornamental tree. The
leaves on the under surface are of a fine white, and on the reverse of a
very dark green; and when growing on large trees are truly beautiful, as
every breath of air changes the colour as the leaves move. The wood of
all the species of poplar is useful for boards, or any other purposes if
kept dry. It is much in demand for floor-boards for rooms, it not
readily taking fire; a red-hot poker falling on a board, would burn its
way through it, without causing more combustion than the hole through
which it passed.



132. POPULUS monilifera. CANADA POPLAR.--This is also known by the name
of BLACK ITALIAN POPLAR, but from whence it had this name I do not know.
This species, which is the finest of all the kinds, grows very commonly
in woods and hedges in many parts of Worcestershire and Herefordshire,
where it reaches to prodigious sizes. Perhaps no timber is more useful
than this; it is very durable, and easy to be converted to all purposes
in building. The floors of a great part of Downton Castle, the seat of
R. Payne Knight, Esq. are laid with this wood, which have been used
forty years and are perfectly sound. Trees are now growing on his estate
which are three and four feet in diameter. I have one growing in my
Botanic garden which is eight years old, and measures upwards of six
cubic feet of timber. The parent of this tree which grew at Brompton I
converted into boards. It was nineteen years growing; and when cut down
it was worth upwards of fourteen pounds, rating it at the then price of
deal, for which it was a good substitute. Some fine specimens of this
tree are also to be seen at Garnins, the seat of Sir J. G. Cotterell,
Bart. the present worthy member for the county of Hereford.



133. PRUNUS domestica. THE COMMON PLUM-TREE.--This is the parent of our
fruit of this name.



134. PRUNUS Cerasus. WILD CHERRY-TREE.--Is the parent of our fine
cherries. It is cultivated much in Scotland for the timber, which is
hard, and of use for furniture and other domestic purposes. It is the
best and most lasting stock for grafting on. Persons who are about to
plant this fruit would do well to inquire into the nature of the stock,
as no fruit-tree is so liable to disease and become gummy as cherries
are, and that is often much owing to the improved kinds being sown for
stocks, which are of a more tender texture and of course less hardy than
this.



135. PRUNUS insititia. SLOE-TREE.--Is of little use except when it
occurs in fences. The fruit is a fine acid, and is much used by the
common people, mixed with other fruits less astringent and acid, to
flavour made wines. It is believed that much Port wine is improved by
the same means.



136. PYRUS communis. PEAR-TREE.--This is the parent of all our fine
varieties of this fruit, and is used as the stock for propagating them;
these are raised from seeds for that purpose. The wood of the Peartree
is in great esteem for picture frames, it receiving a stain better than
almost any other timber known.



137. PYRUS Malus. CRAB-TREE.--A tree of great account, as being the
parent of all our varieties of apples, and is the stock on which the
fine varieties are usually grafted. A dwarf variety of this tree, called
the Paradise Apple, is used for stocks for making dwarf apple trees for
gardens.

The juice of the Crab is called verjuice, which is in considerable
demand for medicinal and other purposes.



138. QUERCUS robur. THE OAK.--Is a well known tree peculiar to Great
Britain, and of the greatest interest to us as a nation. It is of very
slow growth; but the timber is very strong and lasting, and hence it is
used for building our shipping. The bark is supposed to contain more
tannin than that of any other tree, and is valuable on that account. The
acorns, or fruit, are good food for hogs, which are observed to grow
very fat when turned into the forests at the season when they are ripe.
The tree is raised from the acorn, which grows very readily.

We have accounts of Oak trees growing to great ages, and to most
enormous sizes. One instance is mentioned by Evelyn, of one growing at
Cowthorp, near Weatherby, in 1776, which within three feet of the ground
was sixteen yards in circumference, and its height about eighty-five
feet. Hunter's Evelyn's Sylva, p. 500.



139. ROSA rubiginosa. SWEET-BRIAR.--Is a very fragrant shrub, for which
it has long been cultivated in the gardens. There are several varieties
in the nurseries; as the Double-flowering, Evergreen, &c. which are much
esteemed.



140. RUBUS Idaeus. THE RASPBERRY.--Produces a well known fruit in great
esteem, and of considerable use both as food and for medicine.



141. RUBUS fruticosus. BRAMBLE.--Produces a black insipid fruit, but
which is used by the poor people for tarts and to form a made wine: when
mixt with the juice of sloes it is rendered very palatable.



142. RUBUS caesius.--Is a dwarf kind of bramble, and produces fruit of a
pleasant acid, and where it grows in plenty it is used by the poor
people for pies and other purposes of domestic oeconomy.



143. SALIX Russelliana. THE WILLOW.--No trees in this country are of
more use than the species of this genus: many are grown for
basket-makers in form of osiers, and other larger sorts serve for
stakes, rails, hop-poles, and many other useful purposes. The bark of
several species has been considered as useful for tanning leather. The
charcoal of the Willow is also much in demand for making gunpowder.



144. SALIX viminalis. THE OSIER.--These are cultivated in watery places
for making baskets, which are become a profitable article, and are the
shoots of one season's growth cut every winter. The species best adapted
to this purpose, besides the common osier, are

The Salix vitellina. Golden Willow. The Salix monandria. Monandrous
Willow. The Salix triandria. Triandrous Willow. The Salix mollissima.
Silky-leaved Willow. The Salix stipularis. Auriculated Osier. The Salix
purpurea. Bitter Purple Willow. The Salix Helix. Rose Willow. The Salix
Lambertiana. Boyton Willow. The Salix Forbyana. Basket Osier. The Salix
rubra. Green Osier. The Salix nigricans. Dark Purple Osier.



145. SAMBUCUS nigra. ELDER.--The timber of the Elder is useful for
making musical instruments, and the berries made into wine and fermented
make a useful and valuable beverage. A variety with green berries is
much esteemed for wine also.



146. SORBUS Aucuparia. QUICKEN-TREE, or MOUNTAIN-ASH.--In this part of
Britain we usually find this tree in plantations, where it is very
ornamental; and the berries, which are of a fine scarlet, are the food
of many species of birds. The wood is also useful for posts, &c. and is
considered lasting.



147. SORBUS domestica. TRUE SERVICE.--Produces a fruit much like the
Medlar, and when ripe is in great esteem. The only tree in this country
in a wild state, is growing in Bewdley Forest, Worcester-shire.



148. SPARTIUM Scoparium. BROOM.--Is a very ornamental plant, and is used
for making besoms. It was once considered as a specific in the cure of
dropsy, but is now seldom used for medicial purposes.



149. STAPHYLEA pinnata. BLADDER-NUT.--This is not a common plant in this
country. I know of no other use to which it is applied, but its being
cultivated in nurseries and sold as an ornamental shrub. The
seed-vessel, from whence it takes its name, is a curious example of the
inflated capsule.



150. TAMARIX gallica. A shrub of large growth; and being less affected
by the sea breeze than any others, is useful to form a shelter in
situations where the bleak winds will not admit of trees of more tender
kinds to flourish.



151. TAXUS baccata. THE YEW.--Was formerly much esteemed for making
bows: but since those instruments of war and destruction have given
place to the more powerful gun-powder, it is not so much in request. The
wood is very hard and durable, and admits of a fine polish. The foliage
of Yew is poisonous to cattle, who will readily eat it, if cut and
thrown in their way in frosty weather.



152. TILIA europaea. THE LIME or LINDEN-TREE.--Is a very ornamental tree
in plantations, and from its early putting forth its leaves is much
esteemed. The flowers emit a very fine scent, and the inhabitants of
Switzerland make a favourite beverage from them. The wood is very soft,
though white and beautiful. It is much used for the ornamental boxes,
&c. so well known by the name of Turnbridge-ware.



153. VACCINIUM uliginosum. GREAT BILBERRY. Vaccinium Vitis Idaea, RED
WHORTLE-BERRY, and Vaccinium Oxycoccos, CRANBERRY, are all edible fruits,
but do not grow in this part of the kingdom. Great quantities of
Cranberries are imported every winter and spring from Russia; they are
much esteemed by the confectioners for tarts, &c. and are sold at high
prices. These three kinds grow only in wet boggy places. A species which
is native of America, called Vaccinium macrocarpon, has been very
successfully cultivated at Spring Grove by Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. and
which has also been attempted in various other places, but not with the
same success. The fruit of this species is larger and of better flavour
than either of the other kinds.



154. VACCINIUM Myrtillus. WHORTS, or BILBERRIES.--To a common observer
this would appear to be a very insignificant shrub; it is not uncommonly
met with on our heaths: but it is only in particular places where it
fruits in abundance, and in such districts it is of considerable value.

The waste lands on Hindhead and Blackdown in Surry and Sussex are
noticed for producing this fruit, which is similar to Black Currants.
They are gathered in the months of August and September, and sold at the
neighbouring markets.

In a calculation of the value of this plant with an intelligent
nurseryman in that county, we found that from 500 l. to 700 l. were
earned and realized annually by the neighbouring poor, who employed
their families in this labour, and who are in the habit of travelling
many miles for this purpose. The fruit is ripe in August, and at that
season is met with in great plenty in all the neighbouring towns.



155. VISCUM album. MISSELTO.--A parasitical plant well known, and
formerly of much repute in medicine, but wholly disregarded in the
present practice. Birdlime is made from the berries.

Dr. Pulteney in tracing the history of Botanic science quotes Pliny for
an account of the veneration in which this plant was held by the Druids,
who attributed almost divine efficacy to it, and ordained the collecting
it with rites and ceremonies not short of the religious strictness which
was countenanced by the superstition of the age. It was cut with a
golden knife, and when the moon was six days old gathered by the priest,
who was clothed with white for the occasion, and the plant received on a
white napkin, and two white bulls sacrificed. Thus consecrated, Misselto
was held to be an antidote to poison, and prevented sterility. Query,
Has not the custom of hanging up Misselto at merry-makings, and the
ceremony so well known among our belles, some relation to above
sacrifice?



156. ULEX europaeus. COMMON FURZE.--The culture of this shrub is given in
the Agricultural Plants, being good for feeding cattle; its principal
use however is for fuel, and it is frequently grown for such purposes.
It is common on most of our waste lands. It also forms good fences, but
should always be kept short and young, otherwise it becomes thin,
especially in good land where it grows up and makes large bushes.



157. ULMUS campestris. THE ELM.--We have a number of varieties of the
Elm; the most esteemed is that with the smooth bark. The timber has been
long in request for water-pipes, and for boards, which are converted
into various uses in domestic oeconomy.



158. ULMUS montana. BROAD-LEAVED ELM.--This has not been considered of
so great value as the common sort, but it is of much more free growth;
and I have been informed that in the West of England the timber has been
found to be good and lasting.



*       *       *       *       *



SECT. VII.--PLANTS USEFUL IN MEDICINE.



The initial letters in this class distinguish the Pharmacopoeia in which
each plant is inserted.

"By the wise and unchangeable laws of Nature established by a Being
infinitely good and infinitely powerful,--not only man, the lord of the
creation, 'fair form who wears sweet smiles, and looks erect on heaven,'
but every subordinate being becomes subject to decay and death: pain and
disease, the inheritance of mortality, usually accelerate his
dissolution. To combat these, to alleviate when it has not the power to
avert, Medicine, honoured art! comes to our assistance.

"It will not be expected that we should here give a history of this
ancient practice, or draw a parallel betwixt the success of former
physicians and those of modern times: all that concerns us to remark is,
that the ancients were infinitely more indebted to the vegetable kingdom
for the materials of their art than the moderns. Not so well acquainted
with the oeconomy of nature, which teaches us that plants were chiefly
destined for the food of various animals, they sought in every herb some
latent healing virtue, and frequently endeavoured to make up the want of
efficacy in one by the combination of numbers: hence the extreme length
of their farraginous prescriptions. More enlightened ideas of the
operations of medicine have taught the moderns greater simplicity and
conciseness in practice. Perhaps there is a danger that this simplicity
may be carried to far, and become finally detrimental to the practice."

The above is quoted from the Preface to a Catalogue of Medicinal Plants
published by my predecessor in 1783: and it may be observed, that the
medical student has, at the present season, a still less number of
plants to store up in memory, owing, probably, to the great advances
that chemistry has made in the mean time, through which mineral articles
in many instances have superseded those of the vegetable kingdom. But,
nevertheless, as Dr. Woodville has justly observed, "it would be
difficult to show that this preference is supported by any conclusive
reasoning drawn from a comparative superiority of the former;" or that
the more general use of them has led to greater success in the practice
of the healing art. It is however evident, that we have much to regret
the almost total neglect of the study of medical botany by the younger
branches of the professors of physic, when we are credibly informed that
Cow-parsley has been administered for Hemlock, and Foxglove has been
substituted for Coltsfoot [Footnote: See the account of a dreadful
accident of this nature, in Gent. Mag. for Sept. 1815.], from which
circumstance, some valuable lives have been sacrificed. It is therefore
high time that those persons who are engaged in the business of pharmacy
should be obliged to become so far acquainted with plants, as to be able
to distinguish at sight all such as are useful in diet or medicine, and
more particularly such as are of poisonous qualities.

The medical student has so many subjects for his consideration, that it
is not desirable he should have a greater number of vegetables to
consult than are necessary. And we cannot help lamenting the difficulty
he has to struggle with in consequence of the great difference of names
which the Pharmacopoeias of the present day exhibit. The London,
Edinburgh, and Dublin, in many instances, enforce the necessity of
learning a different term in each for the same thing, and none of which
are called by the same they were twenty years ago. Surely it would be
the means of forwarding the knowledge of drugs, if each could be
distinguished by one general term.

The candidate for medical knowledge, however, is not the only one who
has at times to regret this confusion of names. The Linnaean system is an
easy and delightful path to the knowledge of plants; but, like all other
human structures, it has its imperfections, and some of which have been
modified by judicious alterations. Yet the teachers of this science, as
well as the students, have often to deprecate the unnecessary change in
names which has been made by many writers, though., in many cases, no
more reason appears for it than there generally would be to change
Christian and surnames of persons.

In the following section, I shall enumerate and describe those plants
which are contained in the lists of the three colleges; and afterwards a
separate list of those which, although they have been expunged, are
still sometimes used by medical men.

I shall also endeavour to give such descriptions as are concise, at the
same time sufficient for general knowledge, and for which reason I have
taken Lewis's Materia Medica for my text, unless where improvements have
been made in certain subjects I have consulted more modern authorities.
It should be observed, that writers on medical plants, with few
exceptions, have copied from one another: or with a little alteration as
to words only.

And as some vegetables, from their affinitiy, may be confounded with
others, whereby those possessing medical qualities may be substituted
for others having none, or even poisonous ones, I shall in some
instances enumerate a list of similar plants, which, with attention to
their botanical characters, it is hoped will prevent those dangerous
errors we have lately witnessed. As it is our business, in demonstrating
plants, to guard the student against such confusion, it will be proper
that specimens of such as come under this head be preserved, as a work
for reference and contrast wherever doubts may arise.



158. ACONITUM Napellus. COMMON BLUE MONKSHOOD. The Leaves. L. E.--Every
part of the fresh plant is strongly poisonous, but the root is
unquestionably the most powerful, and when chewed at first imparts a
slight sensation of acrimony, and a pungent heat of the lips, gums,
palate and fauces, which is succeeded by a general tremor and sensation
of chilliness.

This plant has been generally prepared as an extract or inspissated
juice, after the manner directed in the Edinburgh and many of the
foreign Pharmacopoeias, and, like all virulent medicines, it should be
first administered in small doses. Stoerck recommends two grains of the
extract to be rubbed into a powder with two drums of sugar, and as a
dose to begin with ten grains of this powder two or three times a-day.

Similar Plants.--Aconitum japonicum; A. pyrenaicum; Delphinium elatum;
D. exallatum.

Instead of the extract, a tincture has been made of the dried leaves
macerated in six times their weight of spirit of wine, and forty drops
given for a dose.--Woodville's Med. Bot. 965.

The Dublin College has ordered the Aconitum Neomontanum, which is not
common in this country [Footnote: In plants of so very poisonous a
nature as the Aconite, it is the duty of every one who describes them to
be particular. Here seems to have been a confusion. The A. Neomontanum
is figured in Jacquin's Fl. Austriaca, fasc. 4. p. 381; and the first
edition of Hortus Kewensis under A. Napellus erroneously quotes that
figure: but both Gmelin in Syst. Vegetabilium, p. 838, and Wildenow in
Spec. Plant. p. 1236, quote it under its proper name, A. Neomontanum.
Now the fact is, that the Napellus is the Common Blue Monkshood; and
the Neomontanum is altogether left out of the second edition of the
Hortus Kewensis for the best of all reasons, it is not in this country;
or, if it is, it must be very scarce, and, of course, not the plant used
in medicine.].



160. ACORCUS Calamus. SWEET RUSH. The Root. L.--It is generally looked
upon as a carminative and stomachic medicine, and as such is sometimes
made use of in practice. It is said by some to be superior in aromatic
flavour to any other vegetable that is produced in these northern
climates; but such as I have had an opportunity of examining, fell
short, in this respect, of several of our common plants. It is,
nevertheless, a sufficiently elegant aromatic. It used to be an
ingredient in the Mithridate and Theriaca of the London Pharmacopoeia,
and in the Edinburgh. The fresh root candied after the manner directed
in our Dispensatory for candying eryngo root, is said to be employed at
Constantinople as a preservative against epidemic diseases. The leaves
of this plant have a sweet fragrant smell, more agreeable, though
weaker, than that of the roots.--Lewis's Mat. Med.



161. AESCULUS Hippocastanum. HORSE-CHESNUT. The Bark and Seed. E. D.--
With a view to its errhine power, the Edinburgh College has introduced
the seeds into the Materia Medica, as a small portion of the powder
snuffed up the nostrils readily excites sneezing; even the infusion or
decoction of this fruit produces this effect; it has therefore been
recommended for the purpose of producing a discharge from the nose,
which, in some complaints of the head and eyes is found to be of
considerable benefit.

On the continent, the Bark of the Horse Chesnut-tree is held in great
estimation as a febrifuge; and, upon the credit of several respectable
authors, appears to be a medicine of great efficacy.--Woodville's Med.
Bot. 615.



162. AGRIMONIA Eupatoria. COMMON AGRIMONY. The Herb. D.--The leaves have
an herbaceous, somewhat acrid, roughish taste, accompanied with an
aromatic flavour. Agrimony is said to be aperient, detergent, and to
strengthen the tone of the viscera: hence it is recommended in scorbutic
disorders, in debility and laxity of the intestines, &c. Digested in
whey, it affords an useful diet-drink for the spring season, not
ungrateful to the palate or stomach.



163. ALLIUM Porrum. LEEK. The Root. L.--This participates of the virtues
of garlic, from which it differs chiefly in being much weaker. See the
article ALLIUM.



164. ALLIUM sativum. GARLIC. The Root. L. E. D.--This pungent root warms
and stimulates the solids, and attenuates tenacious juices. Hence in
cold leucophelgmatic habits it proves a powerful expectorant, diuretic,
and emmenagogue; and, if the patient is kept warm, sudorific. In humoral
asthmas, and catarrhous disorders of the breast, in some scurvies,
flatulent colics, hysterical and other diseases proceeding from laxity
of the solids, and cold sluggish indisposition of the fluids, it has
generally good effects: it has likewise been found serviceable in some
hydropic cases. Sydenham relates, that he has known the dropsy cured by
the use of garlic alone; he recommends it chiefly as a warm
strengthening medicine in the beginning of the disease.

Garlic made into an unguent with oils, &c. and applied externally, is
said to resolve and discuss cold tumors, and has been by some greatly
esteemed in cutaneous diseases. It has likewise sometimes been employed
as a repellent. Sydenham assures us, that among all the substances which
occasion a derivation or revulsion from the head, none operate more
powerfully than garlic applied to the soles of the feet: hence he was
led to make use of it in the confluent small-pox about the eighth day,
after the face began to swell; the root cut in pieces, and tied in a
linen cloth, was applied to the soles, and renewed once a day till all
danger was over.



165. ALLIUM Cepa. ONION. The Root. D.--These roots are considered rather
as articles of food than of medicine: they are supposed to afford little
or no nourishment, and when eaten liberally they produce flatulencies,
occasion thirst, headachs, and turbulent dreams: in cold phlegmatic
habits, where viscid mucus abounds, they doubtless have their use; as by
their stimulating quality they tend to excite appetite, attenuate thick
juices, and promote their expulsion: by some they are strongly
recommended in suppressions of urine and in dropsies. The chief
medicinal use of onions in the present practice is in external
applications, as a cataplasm for suppurating tumours, &c.



166. ALTHAEA officinalis. MARSH-MALLOW. The Leaves and Root. L.--This
plant has the general virtues of an emollient medicine; and proves
serviceable in a thin acrimonious state of the juices, and where the
natural mucus of the intestines is abraded. It is chiefly recommended in
sharp defluxions upon the lungs, hoarseness, dysenteries, and likewise
in nephritic and calculous complaints; not, as some have supposed, that
this medicine has any peculiar power of dissolving or expelling the
calculus; but as, by lubricating and relaxing the vessels, it procures a
more free and easy passage. Althaea root is sometimes employed externally
for softening and maturing hard tumours: chewed, it is said to give ease
in difficult dentition of children.

The officinal preparations are:-Decoctio Althaeae officinalis, and Syrupus
Althaeae.

Similar Plants.--Malva officinalis; M. rotundifolia; M. mauritanica;
Lavatera arborscens.

This root gives name to an officinal syrup [L. E.] and ointment [L.] and
is likewise an ingredient in the compound powder of gum tragacanth [L.
E.] and the oil and plaster of mucilages [L.] though it does not appear
to communicate any particular virtue to the two last, its mucilaginous
matter not being dissoluble in oils.--Lewis's Mat. Med.



167. AMYGDALUS communis. SWEET and BITTER ALMONDS. L. E. D.--The oils
obtained by expression from both sorts of almonds are in their sensible
qualities the same. The general virtues of these oils are, to blunt
acrimonious humours, and to soften and relax the solids: hence their use
internally, in tickling coughs, heat of urine, pains and inflammations:
and externally in tension and rigidity of particular parts.



168. ANCHUSA tinctoria. ALKANET-ROOT. E. D.--Alkanet-root has little or
no smell: when recent, it has a bitterish astringent taste, but when
dried scarcely any. As to its virtues, the present practice expects not
any from it. Its chief use is for colouring oils, unguents, and
plasters. As the colour is confined to the cortical part, the small
roots are best, these having proportionally more bark than the large.



169. ANETHUM graveolens. DILL. The Seeds. L.--Their taste is moderately
warm and pungent; their smell aromatic, but not of the most agreeable
kind. These seeds are recommended as a carminative, in flatulent colics
proceeding from a cold cause or a viscidity of the juices. The most
efficacious preparations of them are, the distilled oil, and a tincture
or extract made with rectified spirit. The oil and simple water
distilled from them are kept in the shops.--Lewis.



170. ANETHUM Foeniculum. FENNEL. Seeds. E.--These are supposed to be
stomachic and carminative; but this, and indeed all the other effects
ascribed to them, as depending upon their stimulant and aromatic
qualities, must be less considerable than those of Dill, Aniseed, or
Caraway, though termed one of the four greater hot seeds.--Woodville's
Med. Bot. p. 129.



171. ANGELICA Archangelica. GARDEN ANGELICA. The Root, Leaves, and
Seeds. E.--All the parts of Angelica, especially the roots, have a
fragrant aromatic smell, and a pleasant bitterish warm taste, glowing
upon the lips and palate for a long time after they have been chewed.
The flavour of the seeds and leaves is very perishable, particularly
that of the latter, which, on being barely dried, lose greatest part of
their taste and smell: the roots are more tenacious of their flavour,
though even these lose part of it upon keeping. The fresh root, wounded
early in the spring, yields and odorous yellow juice, which slowly
exsiccated proves an elegant gummy resin, very rich in the virtues of
the Angelica. On drying the root, this juice concretes into distinct
moleculae, which, on cutting it longitudinally, appear distributed in
little veins: in this state they are extracted by pure spirit, but not
by watery liquors.

This resin is considered one of the most elegant aromatics of European
growth, though little regarded in the present practice, and is rarely
met with in prescription; neither does it enter any officinal
composition.



172. ANTHEMIS nobilis. CHAMOMILE. The Flowers. L.E.D.--These have a
strong not ungrateful, aromatic smell, but a very bitter nauseous taste.
They are accounted carminative, aperient, emollient, and in some measure
anodyne: and stand recommended in flatulent colics, for promoting the
uterine purgations, in spasmodic affections, and the pains of women in
child-bed: sometimes they have been employed in intermittent fevers, and
the nephritis. These flowers are also frequently used externally in
discutient and antiseptic fomentations, and in emollient glysters. The
double-flowered variety is usually cultivated for medicine, but the wild
kind with single flowers is preferable.

Similar Plants.--Anthemis arvensis; A. Cotula; Pyrethrum maritimum.



173. ANTHEMIS Pyrethrum. PELLITORY OF SPAIN. The Root. L.--The principal
use of Pyrethrum in the present practice is as a masticatory, for
promoting the salival flux, and evacuating viscid humours from the head
and neighbouring parts: by this means it very generally relieves the
tooth-ach, pains of the head, and lethargic complaints. If a piece of
the root, the size of a pea, be placed against the tooth, it instantly
causes the saliva to flow from the surrounding glands, and gives
immediate relief in all cases of that malady.



174. APIUM Petroselium. COMMON PARSLEY. The Root. E.--Both the roots and
seeds of Parsley are directed by the London College for medicinal use:
the former have a sweetish taste, accompanied with a slight warmth of
flavour somewhat resembling that of a carrot; the latter are in taste
warmer and more aromatic than any other part of the plant, and also
manifest considerable bittenress.

These roots are said to be aperient and diuretic, and have been
employed in apozems to relieve nephritic pains, and obstructions of
urine.

Although Parsley is commonly used at table, it is remarkable that facts
have been adducted to prove, that in some constitutions it occasions
epilepsy, or at least aggravates the epileptic fit in those who are
subject to this disease. It has been supposed also to produce
inflammation in the eyes.--Woodville's Med. Bot. p. 43. A variety which
produces larger roots, called Hamburgh Parsley, is commonly grown for
medicinal uses.



175. ARBUTUS Uva Ursi. TRAILING ARBUTUS or BEAR-BERRY. The Leaves.--This
first drew the attention of physicians as an useful remedy in calculous
and nephritic affections; and in the years 1763 and 1764, by the
concurrent testimonies of different authors, it acquired remarkable
celebrity, not only for its efficacy in gravelly complaints, but in
almost every other to which the urinary organs are liable, as ulcers of
the kidneys and bladder, cystirrhoea, diabetes, &c. It may be employed
either in powder or decoction; the former is most commonly preferred,
and given in doses from a scruple to a dram two or three times a-day.--
Woodville's Med. Botany.



176. ARNICA montana. MOUNTAIN ARNICA. The whole Plant. E. D.--The odour
of the fresh plant is rather unpleasant, and the taste acrid,
herbaceous, and astringent; and the powdered leaves act as a strong
sternutatory.

This plant, according to Bergius, is an emetic, errhine, diuretic,
diaphoretic, emmenagogue; and from its supposed power of attenuating the
blood, it has been esteemed so peculiarly efficacious in obviating the
bad consequences occasioned by falls and bruises, that it obtained the
appellation of Panacea Lapsorum.--Woodville's Med. Bot. p. 43.



177. ARTEMISIA Absinthium. WORMWOOD, The Herb. L.--Wormwood is a strong
bitter; and was formerly much used as such against weakness of the
stomach, and the like, in medicated wines and ales. At present it is
rarely employed in these intentions, on account of the ill relish and
offensive smell which it is accompanied with. These it may be in part
freed from by keeping, and totally by long coction, the bitter remaining
entire. An extract made by boiling the leaves in a large quantity of
water, and evaporating the liquor with a strong fire, proves a bitter
sufficiently grateful, without any disgustful flavour.



178. ARTEMISIA Abrotanum. SOUTHERNWOOD. Leaves. D.--Southernwood has a
strong, not very disagreeable smell; and a nauseous, pungent, bitter
taste; which is totally extracted by rectified spirit, less perfectly by
watery liquors. It is recommended as an anthelmintic; and in cold
lencophlegmatic habits, as a stimulant, detergent, aperient, and
sudorific. The present practice has almost entirely confined its use to
external applications. The leaves are frequently employed in discutient
and antiseptic fomentations; and have been recommended also in lotions
and unguents for cutaneous eruptions, and the falling off of the hair.



179. ARTEMISIA maritima. SEA WORMWOOD. Tops. D.--In taste and smell, it
is weaker and less unpleasant than the common worm-wood. The virutes of
both are supposed to be of the same kind, and to differ only in
strength.

The tops used to enter three of our distilled waters, and give name to a
conserve. They are an ingredient also in the common fomentation and
green oil.



180. ARTEMISIA Santonica. ROMAN WORMWOOD. Seeds. E. D.--It is a native
of the warmer countries, and at present difficultly procurable in this,
though as hardy and as easily raised as any of the other sorts. Sea
wormwood has long supplied its place in the markets, and been in general
mistaken for it.

Roman wormwood is less ungrateful than either of the others: its smell
is tolerably pleasant: the taste, though manifestly bitter, scarcely
disagreeable. It appears to be the most eligible of the three as a
stomachic; and is likewise recommended by some in dropsies.



181. ARUM maculatum. BITING ARUM. Fresh Root. L. E.--This root is a
powerful stimulant and attenuant. It is reckoned a medicine of great
efficacy in some cachectic and chlorotic cases; in weakness of the
stomach occasioned by a load of viscid phlegm, and in such disorders in
general as proceed from a cold sluggish indisposition of the solids and
lentor of the fluids. I have experienced great benefit from it in
rheumatic pains, particularly those of the fixed kind, and which were
seated deep. In these cases I have given from ten grains to a scruple of
the fresh root twice or thrice a day, made into a bolus or emulsion with
unctuous and mucilaginous substances, which cover its pungency, and
prevent its making any painful impression on the tongue. It generally
excited a slight tingling sensation through the whole habit, and, when
the patient was kept warm in bed, produced a copious sweat.

The only officinal preparation, in which this root was an ingredient,
was a compound powder; in which form its virtues are very precarious.
Some recommend a tincture of it drawn with wine; but neither wine,
water, nor spirit, extract its virtues.--Lewis's Mat. Med.



182. ASARUM Europaeum, ASARABACCA. The Leaves. L. E. D.--Both the roots
and leaves have a nauseous, bitter, acrimonious, hot taste; their smell
is strong, and not very disagreeable. Given in substance from half a
dram to a dram, they evacuate powerfully both upwards and downwards. It
is said that tinctures made in spirituous menstrua possess both the
emetic and cathartic virtues of the plant: that the extract obtained by
inspissating these tinctures acts only by vomit, and with great
mildness: that an infusion in water proves cathartic, rarely emetic:
that aqueous decoctions made by long boiling, and the watery extract,
have no purgative or emetic quality, but prove notable diaphoretics,
diuretics, and emmenagogues.

Its principal use at present is as a sternutatory. The root of asarum is
perhaps the strongest of all the vegetable errhines, white hellebore
itself not excepted. Snuffed up the nose, in the quantity of a grain or
two, it occasions a large evacuation of mucus, and raises a plentiful
spitting. The leaves are considerably milder, and may be used to the
quantity of three, four, or five grains. Geoffroy relates, that after
snuffing up a dose of this errhine at night, he has frequently observed
the discharge from the nose to continue for three days together; and
that he has known a paralysis of the mouth and tongue cured by one dose.
He recommends this medicine in stubborn disorders of the head,
proceeding from viscid tenacious matter, in palsies, and in soporific
distempers. The leaves are an ingredient in the pulvis sternutatoris of
the shops.



183. ASPIDIUM Filix-Mas. Polypodium, Linn. MALE FERN. The Roots. L. E.
D.--They are said to be aperient and anthelmintic. Simon Pauli tells us,
that they have been the grand secret of some empirics against the broad
kind of worms called taenia; and that the dose is one, two, or three
drams of the powder. Two other kinds of Ferns used to be recommended;
but this, being the strongest, has therefore been made choice of in
preference, though the College of Edinburgh still retain them in their
Catalogue of Simples.--Lewis's Mat. Med.



184. ASTRAGALUS Tragacanthus. GOATS-THORN. The Gum. L. E. D.--This gum
is of a strong body, and does not perfectly dissolve in water. A dram
will give to a pint of water the consistence of a syrup, which a whole
ounce of gum Arabic is scarce sufficient to do. Hence its use for
forming troches, and the like purposes, in preference to the other gums.
It is used in an officinal powder, and is an ingredient in the compound
powders of ceruss and amber.--Lewis's Mat. Med.



185. ATROPA Belladonna. DEADLY NIGHTSHADE. The Leaves, L. E. D.--
Belladonna was first employed as an external application, in the form of
fomentation, to scirrhus and cancer. It was afterwards administered
internally in the same affections; and numerous cases, in which it had
proved successful, were given on the authority of the German
practitioners. It has been recommended, too, as a remedy in extensive
ulceration, in paralysis, chronic rheumatism, epilepsy, mania, and
hydrophobia, but with so little discrimination, that little reliance can
be placed on the testimonies in its favour; and, in modern practice, it
is little employed. It appears to have a peculiar action on the eye:
hence it has been used in amaurosis; and from its power of causing
dilatation of the pupil, when topically applied under the form of
infusion, it has been used before performing the operation for cataract.
A practice which is hazardous, as the pupil, though much dilated by the
application, instantly contracts when the instrument is introduced. When
given internally, its dose is from one to three grains of the dried
leaves, or one grain of the inspissated juice.--Murray's Mat. Med. p.
174.

I have had a cancer of the lip entirely cured by it: a scirrhosity in a
woman's breast, of such kind as frequently proceeds to cancer, I have
found entirely discussed by the use of it. A sore, a little below the
eye, which had put on a cancerous appearance, was much mended by the
internal use of the Belladonna; but the patient having learned somewhat
of the poisonous nature of the medicine, refused to continue the use of
it; upon which the sore grain spread, and was painful; but, upon a
return to the use of the Belladonna, was again mended to a considerable
degree; when the same fears again returning, the use of it was again
laid aside, and with the same consequence, the sore becoming worse. Of
these alternate states, connected with the alternate use of and
abstinence from the Belladonna, there were several of these alterations
which fell under my own observation [Footnote: See the Poisonous Plants,
in a future page].--Cullen's Mat. Med. vol. ii. p. 270.



186. CARDAMINE pratensis. LADIES SMOCK. The Leaves. L. E. D.--Long ago
it was employed as a diuretic; and, of late, it has been introduced in
nervous diseases, as epilepsy, hysteria, choraea, asthma, &c. A dram or
two of the powder is given twice or thrice a-day. It has little sensible
operation.



187. CARUM Carui. CARAWAY. The Seeds. L. E. D.--These are in the number
of the four greater hot seeds; and frequently employed as a stomachic
and carminative in flatulent colics, and the like. Their officinal
preparations are an essential oil and a spiritous water; they were used
as ingredients also in the compound juniper water, tincture of sena,
stomachic tincture, oxymel of garlic, electuary of bayberries and of
scammony, and the cummin-seed plaster.



188. CENTAUREA benedicta. BLESSED THISTLE. The Leaves. E. D.--The herb
should be gathered when in flower, great care taken in drying it, and
kept in a very dry airy place, to prevent its rotting or growing mouldy,
which it is very apt to do. The leaves have a penetrating bitter taste,
not very strong or very durable, accompanied with an ungrateful flavour,
which they are in great measure freed from by keeping.

The virtues of this plant seem to be little known in the present
practice. We have frequently experienced excellent effects from a light
infusion of carduus in loss of appetite, where the stomach was injured
by irregularities. A stronger infusion made in cold or warm water, if
drunk freely, and the patient kept warm, occasions a plentiful sweat,
and promotes all the secretions in general.

The seeds of this plant are also considerably bitter, and have been
sometimes used for the same purposes as the leaves.



189. CHIRONIA Centaurium. LESSER CENTAURY. The Tops. L. E. D.--This is
justly esteemed to be the most efficacious bitter of all the medicinal
plants indigenous to this country. It has been recommended as a
substitute for Gentian, and, by several, thought to be a more useful
medicine: experiments have also shown it to possess an equal degree of
antiseptic power.

Many authors have observed, that, along with the tonic and stomachic
qualities of a bitter, Centaury frequently proves cathartic; but it is
possible that this seldom happens, unless it be taken in very large
doses. The use of this, as well as of the other bitters, was formerly
common in febrile disorders previous to the knowledge of Peruvian-bark,
which now supersedes them perhaps too generally; for many cases of fever
occur which are found to be aggravated by the Cinchona, yet afterwards
readily yield to the simple bitters.--Woodville, p. 277.



190. COCHLEARIA officinalis. SCURVY-GRASS. The Herb. E.--Is antiseptic,
attenuant, aperient, and diuretic, and is said to open obstructions of
the viscera and remoter glands, without heating or irritating the
system. It has long been considered as the most effectual of all the
antiscorbutic plants; and its sensible qualities are sufficiently
powerful to confirm this opinion. In the rheumatismus vagus, called by
Sydenham Rheumatismus scorbuticus, consisting of wandering pains of long
continuance, accompanied with fever, this plant, combined with Arum and
Wood-Sorrel, is highly commended both by Sydenham and Lewis.

We have testimony of its great use in scurvy, not only from physicians,
but navigators; as Anson, Linschoten, Maartens, Egede, and others. And
it has been justly noticed, that this plant grows plentifully in those
high latitudes where the scurvy is most obnoxious. Forster found it in
great abundance in the islands of the South Seas.--Woodville, p. 395.



191. COCHLEARIA Armoracia. HORSE-RADISH. The Root. E.-The medical
effects of this root are, to stimulate the solids, attenuate the juices,
and promote the fluid secretions: it seems to extend its action through
the whole habit, and affect the minutest glands. It has frequently done
great service in some kinds of scurvies and other chronic disorders
proceeding from a viscidity of the juices, or obstructions of the
excretory ducts. Sydenham recommends it likewise in dropsies,
particularly those which sometimes follow intermittent fevers. Both
water and rectified spirit extract the virtues of this root by infusion,
and elevate them in distillation: along with the aqueous fluid an
essential oil arises, possessing the whole taste and pungency of the
horse-radish. The College have given us a very elegant compound water,
which takes its name from this root.



192. COLCHICUM autumnale. MEADOW-SAFFRON. The Roots. L. E. D.--The
roots, freed from the outer blackish coat and fibres below, are white,
and full of a white juice. In drying they become wrinkled and dark
coloured. Applied to the skin, it shows some signs of acrimony; and
taken internally, it is said sometimes to excite a sense of burning
heat, bloody stools, and other violent symptoms. In the form of syrup,
however, it has been given to the extent of two ounces a-day without any
bad consequence. It is sometimes employed as a diuretic in dropsy. It is
now supposed to be a principal ingredient in the celebrated French gout
medicine L'Eau Medicinale.



193. CONIUM maculatum. HEMLOCK. The Leaves. L. E. D.--Physicians seem
somewhat in dispute about the best mode of exhibiting this medicine;
some recommending the extract, as being most easily taken in the form of
pills; others the powder, as not being subject to that variation which
the extract is liable to, from being made in different ways. With
respect to the period, likewise, at which the plant should be gathered,
they seem not perfectly agreed; some recommending it when in its full
vigour, and just coming into bloom, and others, when the flowers are
going off. An extract of the green plant is ordered by the College in
their last list. Dr. Cullen has for many years commended the making it
from the unripe seeds; and this mode the College of Physicians at
Edinburgh have thought proper to adopt in their late Pharmacopoeia.

Similar Plants.--Aethusa Cynapium; Apium Petroselium; Oenanthe crocata;
Oe. fistulosa; Phellandrium aquaticum.



194. CORIANDRUM sativum. CORIANDER. The Seeds. L. E. D.-These, when
fresh, have a strong disagreeable smell, which improves by drying, and
becomes sufficiently grateful. They are recommmended as carminative and
stomachic.



195. CROCUS sativus. TRUE SAFFRON. The Stigmata. L. E. D.--There are
three sorts of saffron met with in the shops, two of which are brought
from abroad, the other is the produce of our own country. This last is
greatly superior to the two former.

This medicine is particularly serviceable in hysteric depressions
proceeding from a cold cause, or obstruction of the uterine secretions,
where other aromatics, even those of the more generous kind, have little
effect. Saffron imparts the whole of its virtue and colour to rectified
spirit, proof spirit, wine, vinegar, and water: a tincture used to be
drawn with vinegar, but it looses greatly its colour in keeping. There
can be little use for preparations of saffron, as the drug itself will
keep good for any length of time.



196. CUMINUM Cymini. CUMMIN. The Seeds. L.--Cummin seeds have a
bitterish warm taste, accompanied with an aromatic flavour, not of the
most agreeable kind. They are accounted good carminatives, but not very
often made use of. An essential oil of them used to be kept in the
shops, and they gave name to a plaster and cataplasm.--Lewis's Mat. Med.



197. CYNARA Scolymus. ARTICHOKE. The Leaves. E.--The bitter juice of the
leaf, mixed with an equal part of Madeira wine, is recommended in an
ounce dose night and morning, as a powerful diuretic in dropsy. An
infusion of the leaf may likewise be used.



198. DAPHNE Mezereum. THE MEZEREON. The Roots. L. E. D.--This plant is
extremely acrid, especially when fresh, and, if retained in the mouth,
excites great and long continued heat and inflammation, particularly of
the throat and fauces. The bark and berries of Mezereon in different
forms have been long externally used to obstinate ulcers and ill
conditioned sores. In France, the former is strongly recommended as an
application to the skin, which, under certain management, produces a
continued serious discharge without blistering, and is thus rendered
useful in many chronic diseases of a local nature answering the purpose
of what has been called a perpetual blister, while it occasions less
pain and inconvenience.

In this country Mezereon is principally employed for the cure of some
siphylitic complaints; and in this way Dr. Donald Monro was the first
who gave testimony of its efficacy in the successful use of the Lisbon
Diet Drink.

The considerable and long-continued heat and irritation that is produced
in the throat when Mezereon is chewed, induced Dr. Withering to think of
giving it in a case of difficulty of swallowing, seemingly occasioned by
a paralytic affection. The patient was directed to chew a thin slice of
the root as often as she could bear it, and in about a month recovered
her power of swallowing. This woman had suffered the complaint three
years, and was greatly reduced, being totally unable to swallow solids,
and liquids but very imperfectly.--Woodville's Med. Bot. p. 720.



199. DATURA Stramonium. THORN APPLE. The whole Plant. E.--Dr. Woodville
informs us, that an extract of this plant has been the preparation
usually employed, and from one to ten grains and upwards a-day: but the
powdered leaves after the manner of those directed for hemlock would
seem, for the reason given, to be a preparation more certain and
convenient.

It has been much celebrated as a medicine in epilepsy and convulsions
and mania; but it is of a violent narcotic quality, and extremely
dangerous in its effects.

Stramonium has been recommended, as being of considerable use in cases
of asthma, on the authority of some eminent physicians of the East
Indies; and the late Dr. Roxburgh has stated to me many instances
wherein it had performed wonders in that dreadful malady.

The Datura Metal, Purple-flowered Thorn-apple, is much like the
Stramonium, except in the flowers and the stalks being of a purple
colour. I have made particular inquiry of Dr. Roxburgh if any particular
kind was used in preference, and he said not; that both the above sorts
were used; and, in fact, not only these, but the Datura Tatula, another
species which grows wild there, and is cultivated in our stoves for the
sake of its beautiful flowers, is also used for the same purposes.

The mode of using it was by cutting the whole plant up after drying, and
smoking it in a common tobacco-pipe; and which, in some cases in this
country also, has given great ease in severe attacks; and I know several
persons who use it with good effect to this day. In vegetables of such
powerful effects as this is known to have, great care ought to be taken
in their preparation, which, I fear, is not always so much attended to
as the nature of this subject requires [Footnote: See Observations on and
Directions for preparing and preserving Herbs in general, et the end of
this section.].



200. DAUCUS sylvestris. WILD CARROT. The Seeds. L.--These seeds possess,
though not in a very considerable degree, the aromatic qualities common
to those of the umbelliferous plants, and hence have long been deemed
carminative and emmenagogue; but they are chiefly esteemed for their
diuretic powers, and for their utility in calculus and nephritic
complaints, in which an infusion of three spoonfuls of the seeds in a
pint of boiling water has been recommended; or the seeds may be
fermented in malt liquor, which receives from them an agreeable flavour
resembling that of the lemon-peel.--Woodville's Med. Bot. p. 132.

Similar Plants.--Sison Amonum; Daucus Carota.



201. DAUCUS Carota. CULTIVATED CARROT. The Roots. L. E. D.--The
expressed juice, or a decoction of these roots, has been recommended in
calculous complaints, and as a gargle for infants in aphtous affections
or excoriations of the mouth; and a poultice of scraped carrots has been
found an useful application to phagedenic ulcers, and to cancerous and
putrid sores.



202. DELPHINIUM Staphis Agria. STAVES AGRIA. The Seeds. L. D.--
Stavesacre was employed by the ancients as a cathartic, but it operates
with so much violence both upwards and downwards, that its internal use
has been, among the generality of practitioners, for some time laid
aside. It is chiefly employed in external applications for some kinds of
cutaneous eruptions; and for destroying lice and other insects; insomuch
that it has from this virtue received its name in different languages,
Herba pedicularis, Herbe aux poux, Lauskraut, Lousewort.



203. DIANTHUS caryophyllus. CLOVE-PINK. The Petals. E.--These flowers
are said to be cardiac and alexipharmac. Simon Paulli relates, that he
has cured many malignant fevers by the use of a de-coction of them;
which he says powerfully promoted sweat and urine without greatly
irritating nature, and also raised the spirits and quenched thirst. The
flowers are chiefly valued for their pleasant flavour, which is entirely
lost even by light coction. Lewis says, the College directed the syrup,
which is the only officinal preparation of them, to be made by infusion.



204. DIGITALIS purpurea. FOXGLOVE. The Leaves. L. E. D.--The leaves of
Foxglove have a nauseous taste, but no remarkable smell. They have been
long used externally to sores and scrophulous tumours with considerable
advantage. Its diuretic effects, for which it is now so deservedly
received into the Materia Medica, were entirely overlooked. To this
discovery Dr. Withering has an undoubted claim; and the numerous cures
of dropsy related by him and other practitioners of established
reputation, afford incontestable proofs of its diuretic powers, and of
its practical importance in the cure of those diseases. The dose of
dried leaves in powder is from one grain to three twice a-day; but if a
liquid medicine be preferred, a dram of the dried leaves is to be
infused for four hours in half a pint of boiling water, adding to the
strained liquor an ounce of any spiritous water. One ounce of this
infusion given twice a-day is a medium dose; it is to be continued in
these doses till it either acts upon the kidneys; the stomach, or the
pulse, (which it has a remarkable power of lowering,) or the bowels.--
Woodville's Med. Bot. p. 221.

This is now become a very popular medicine, but if used incautiously is
attended with danger. Medical practitioners should make themselves
perfectly acquainted with this plant, as the leaves are the only part
used; and their not being readilly discriminated when separated from the
flowers, several accidents have occurred. In the Gent. Mag. for
September 1815 is recorded a very extraordinary mistake, where the life
of a child was sacrificed to the ignorance of a person who administered
this instead of Coltsfoot; a plant so very dissimilar, that, had it not
been well authenticated, I should not have believed the fact.

Similar Plants.--Verbascum nigrum; V. Thapsus; Cynoglossum officinale,
or, after the above mistake, any other plant with a lanceolate leaf, we
fear, may be confounded with it.



205. ERYNGIUM maritimum. SEA-HOLLY. Roots. D.--The roots are slender,
and very long; of a pleasant sweetish taste, which on chewing for some
time is followed by a light degree of aromatic warmth and acrimony. They
are accounted aperient and diuretic, and have also been celebrated as
aphrodisiac: their virtues, however, are too weak to admit them under
the head of medicines. The candied root is ordered to be kept in the
shops.--Lewis's Mat. Med.



206. FERULA assafoetida. ASSAFOETIDA. Gum. L. E. D.--This drug has a
strong fetid smell, somewhat like that of garlick; and a bitter, acrid,
biting taste. It looses with age of its smell and strength, a
circumstance to be particularly regarded in its exhibition. It consists
of about one-third part pure resin, and two-thirds of gummy matter; the
former soluble in rectified spirit, the other in water. Proof-spirit
dissolves almost the whole into a turbid liquor; the tincture in
rectified spirit is transparent.

Assafoetida is the strongest of the fetid gums, and of frequent use in
hysteric and different kinds of nervous complaints. It is likewise of
considerable efficacy in flatulent colics; and for promoting all the
fluid secretions in either sex. The ancients attributed to this medicine
many other virtues which are at present not expected from it.--Lewis's
Mat. Med.



207. FICUS Carica. COMMON FIG. Fruit. L. D.--The recent fruit completely
ripe is soft, succulent, and easily digested, unless eaten in immoderate
quantities, when it is apt to occasion flatulency, pain of the bowels,
and diarrhoea. The dried fruit is pleasanter to the taste, and is more
wholesome and nutritive. Figs are supposed to be more nutritious by
having their sugar united with a large portion of mucilaginous matter,
which, from being thought to be of an oily nature, has been long
esteemed an useful demulcent and pectoral; and it is chiefly with a view
of these effects that they have been medicinally employed.



208. FRAXINUS Ornus. MANNA. L. E. D.--There are several sorts of Manna
in the shops. The larger pieces, called Flake Manna, are usually
preferred; though the smaller grains are equally as good, provided they
are white, or of a pale yellow colour, very light, of a sweet not
unpleasant taste, and free from any visible impurities.

Manna is a mild agreeable laxative, and may be given with saftey to
children and pregnant women: nevertheless, in some particular
constitutions it acts very unkindly, producing flatulencies and
distension of the viscera.--Lewis's Mat. Med.



209. GENTIANA lutea. YELLOW GENTIAN. Root. L. D.--This root is a strong
bitter, and, as such, very frequently made use of in practice: in taste
it is less exceptionable than most of the other substances of this
class: infusions of it, flavoured with orange peel, are sufficiently
grateful. It is the capital ingredient in the bitter wine; and a
tincture and infusion of it are kept in the shops.

Lewis mentions a poisonous root being mixed among some of the Gentian
brought to London; the use of which occasioned in some instances death.
This was internally of a white colour, and void of bitterness. There is
no doubt but this was the root of the Veratrum album, a poisonous plant
so similar, that it might readily be mistaken for it.--Lewis's Mat. Med.



210. GEUM urbanum. COMMON AVENS. Root. D.--This has a warm, bitterish,
astringent taste, and a pleasant smell, somewhat of the clove kind,
especially in the spring, and when produced in dry warm soils. Parkinson
observes, that such as is the growth of moist soils has nothing of this
flavour. This root has been employed as a stomachic, and for
strengthening the tone of the viscera in general: it is still in some
esteem in foreign countries, though not taken notice of among us. It
yields, on distillation, an elegant odoriferous essential oil, which
concretes into a flaky form.--Lewis's Mat. Med.

Similar Plants.--Geum rivale; G. intermedium.



211. GLYCYRRHIZA glabra. LIQUORICE. Root. L. D.--This is produced
plentifully in all the countries of Europe: that which is the growth of
our own is preferable to such as comes from abroad; this last being
generally mouldy, which this root is very apt to become, unless kept in
a dry place.

The powder of liquorice usually sold is often mingled with flower, and,
I fear, too often with substances not quite so wholesome. The best sort
is of a brownish yellow colour (the fine pale yellow being generally
sophisticated) and of a very rich sweet taste, much more agreeable than
that of the fresh root. Liquorice is almost the only sweet that quenches
thirst.

This root is a very useful pectoral, and excellently softens acrimonious
humours, at the same time that it proves gently detergent: and this
account is warranted by experience. It is an ingredient in the pectoral
syrup, pectoral troches, the compound lime waters, decoction of the
woods, compound powder of gum tragacanth, lenitive electuary, and
theriaca. An extract is directed to be made from it in the shops; but
this preparation is brought chiefly from abroad, though the foreign
extract is not equal to such as is made with proper care among
ourselves.--Lewis's Mat. Med.



212. GRATIOLA officinalis. HEDGE-HYSSOP. Herb. E. D.--The leaves have a
very bitter disagreeable taste: an infusion of a handful of them when
fresh, or a dram when dried, is said to operate strongly as a cathartic.
Kramer reports that he has found the root of this plant a medicine
similar in virtue to Ipecacuanha.

Similar Plants.--Lythrum Salicaria; Scutellaria galericulata.



213. HELLEBORUS niger. BLACK HELLEBORE. Root. L.--The tase of Hellebore
is acrid and bitter. Its acrimony, as Dr. Grew observes, is first felt
on the tip of the tongue, and then spreads immediately to the middle,
without being much perceived on the intermediate part: on chewing it for
a few minutes, the tongue seems benumbed, and affected with a kind of
paralytic stupor, as when burnt by eating any thing too hot.

Our Hellebore is at present looked upon principally as an alterative,
and in this light is frequently employed, in small doses, for
attenuating viscid humours, promoting the uterine and urinary
discharges, and opening inveterate obstructions of the remoter glands:
it often proves a very powerful emmenagogue in plethoric habits, where
steel is ineffectual or improper. An extract made from this root with
water, is one of the mildest, and for the purposes of a cathartic the
most effectual preparation of it: this operates sufficiently, without
occasioning the irritation which the pure resin is accompanied with. A
tincture drawn with proof-spirit contains the whole virtue of the
Hellebore, and seems to be one of the best preparations of it: this
tincture, and the extract, used to be kept in the shops. The College of
Edinburgh used to make this root an ingredient in the purging cephalic
tincture, and compound tincture of jalap; and its extract, in the
purging deobstruent pills, gamboge pills, the laxative mercurial pills,
and the compound cathartic extract.--Lewis's Mat. Med.

Similar Plant.--Helleborus viridis.



214. HELLEBORUS foetidus. BEARSFOOT. Leaves. L.--The root is a strong
cathartic; it destroys worms, and is recommended in different species of
mania. It is commonly substituted for that of the Helleborus viridis,
which is a more dangerous medicine. Hill's Herbal, p. 32. Great care
ought to be used in the administering this plant: many instances of its
dreadful effects are related. (See Poisonous Plants.)

Similar Plant.--Helleborus viridis.



215. HORDEUM distichon. PEARL BARLEY. Seeds. L. E.--Barley, in its
several states, is more cooling, less glutionous, and less nutritious
than wheat or oats; among the ancients, decoctions of it were the
principal aliment, and medicine, in acute diseases. The London College
direct a decoction of pearl barley; and both the London and Edinburgh
make common barley an ingredient in the pectoral decoction.



216. HUMULUS Lupulus. THE HOP.--The flowers and seed-vessels are used in
gout and rheumatism, under the form of infusion in boiling-water. The
powder formed into an ointment with lard, is said to ease the pain of
open cancer. A pillow stuffed with hops is an old and successful mode of
procuring sleep in the watchfulness of delirious fever.



217. HYOSCYAMUS niger. HENBANE. Leaves and Seeds. L. E.--Henbane is a
strong narcotic poison, and many instances of its deleterious effects
are recorded by different authors; from which it appears, that any part
of the plant, when taken in sufficient quantity, is capable of producing
very dangerous and terrible symptoms. It is however much employed in the
present days as an anodyne. Dr. Withering found it of great advantage in
a case of difficult deglutition. Stoerck and some others recommend this
extract in the dose of one grain or two; but Dr. Cullen observes, that
he seldom discovered its anodyne effects till he had proceeded to doses
of eight or ten grains, and sometimes to fifteen and even to twenty. The
leaves of Henbane are said to have been applied externally with
advantage, in the way of poultice, to resolve scirrhous tumours, and to
remove some pains of the rheumatic and arthritic kind.

Similar Plants.--Verbascum Lychnites; V. nigrum.

The roots of the Henbane are to be distinguished by their very powerful
and narcotic scent.



218. HYSSOPUS officinalis. HYSSOP. The Herb. L. E. D.--The leaves of
Hyssop have an aromatic smell, and a warm pungent taste. Besides the
general virtues of aromatics, they are particularly recommeded in
humoral asthmas, coughs, and other disorders of the breast and lungs;
and said to notably promote expectoration.



219. INULA Helenium. ELECAMPANE. Root. D.--Elecampane root possesses the
general virtues of alexipharmics: it is principally recommended for
promoting expectoration in humoural asthmas and coughs; in which
intention, it used to be employed in the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia:
liberally taken, it is said to excite urine, and loosen the belly. In
some parts of Germany, large quantities of this root are candied, and
used as a stomachic, for strengthening the tone of the viscera in
general, and for attenuating tenacious juices. Spiritous liquors extract
its virtues in greater perfection than watery ones: the former scarce
elevate any thing in distillation: with the latter, an essential oil
arises, which concretes into white flakes; this possesses at first the
flavour of the elecampane, but is very apt to lose it in keeping.



220. JUNIPERUS Sabina. SAVINE. The Tops. L. E. D.--Savine is a warm
irritating aperient medicine, capable of promoting all the glandular
secretions. The distilled oil is one of the most powerful emmenagogues;
and is found of good service in obstructions of the uterus, or other
viscra, proceeding from a laxity and weakness of the vessels, or a cold
sluggish indisposition of the juices.

Similar Plants.--Juniperus oxycedrus; J. Phoenicea. These should be
particularly distinguished, as Savine is attended with danger when taken
immoderately.



221. JUNIPERUS communis. JUNIPER. Berries. L. E. D.--Juniper berries
have a strong, not disagreeable smell; and a warm, pungent sweet taste,
which, if they are long chewed, or previously well bruised, is followed
by a bitterish one. The pungency seems to reside in the bark; the sweet
in the juice; the aromatic flavour in oily vesicles, spread through the
substance of the pulp, and distinguishable even by the eye; and the
bitter in the seeds: the fresh berries yield, on expression, a rich,
sweet, honey-like, aromatic juice; if previously pounded so as to break
the seeds, the juice proves tart and bitter.



222. LACTUCA virosa. WILD LETTUCE. Leaves. E.--Dr. Collin at Vienna
first brought the Lactuca virosa into medical repute; and its character
has lately induced the College of Physicians at Edinburgh to insert it
in the Catalogue of the Materia Medica. More than twenty-four cases of
dropsy are said by Collin to have been successfully treated, by
employing an extract prepared from the expressed juice of this plant,
which is stated not only to be powerfully diuretic, but, by attenuating
the viscid humours, to promote all the secretions, and to remove
visceral obstructions. In the more simple cases proceeding from
debility, the extract in doses of eighteen to thirty grains a-day,
proved sufficient to accomplish a cure; but when the disease was
inveterate, and accompanied with visceral obstructions, the quantity of
extract was increased to three drams; nor did larger doses, though they
excited nausea, ever produce any other bad effect; and the patients
continued so strong under the use of this remedy, that it was seldom
necessary to employ any tonic medicines.--Woodville's Med. Bot. p. 76.

Similar Plants.--Sonchus arvensis; Lactuca Scariola.



223. LAVANDULA Spica. LAVENDER. Flowers. L. D.--Lavender has been an
officinal plant for a considerable time, though we have no certain
accounts of it given by the ancients. Its medical virtue resides in the
essential oil, which is supposed to be a gentle corroborant and
stimulant of the aromatic kind; and is recommended in nervous
debilities, and various affections proceeding from a want of energy in
the animal functions.--Woodville's Med. Bot. p. 323.



224. LAURUS nobilis. BAY-TREE. Leaves and Berries. L.--In distillation
with water, the leaves of bay yield a small quantity of very fragrant
essential oil; with rectified spirit, they afford a moderately warm
pungent extract. The berries yield a larger quantity of essential oil:
they discover likewise a degree of unctuosity in the mouth; give out to
the press an almost insipid fluid oil; and on being boiled in water, a
thicker butyraceous one of a yellowish-green colour, impregnated with
the flavour of the berry. An infusion of the leaves is sometimes drunk
as tea; and the essential oil of the berries may be given from one to
five or six drops on sugar, or dissolved by means of mucilages, or in
spirit of wine.--Woodville's Med Bot. p. 680, 681.



225. LAURUS Sassafras. SASSAFRAS-TREE. Bark. L. E. D.--Its medical
character was formerly held in great estimation; and its sensible
qualities, which are stronger than any of the woods, may have probably
contributed to establish the opinion so generally entertained of its
utility in many inveterate diseases: for, soon after its introduction
into Europe, it was sold at a very high price, and its virtues were
extolled in publications professedly written on the subject. It is now,
however, thought to be of very little importance, and seldom employed
but in conjunction with other medicines of a more powerful nature.

Dr. Cullen found that a watery infusion of it taken warm and pretty
largely, was very effectual in promoting sweat; but he adds, "to what
particular purpose this sweating was applicable, I have not been able to
determine." In some constitutions sassafras, by its extreme fragrance,
is said to produce headache: to deprive it of this effect, the decoction
ought to be employed.--Woodville's Mat. Med. p. 677.



226. LEONTODON Taraxicum. N EBION. Root. L.--The roots contain a bitter
milky juice; they promise to be of use as asperient and detergent
medicines; and have sometimes been directed in this intention with good
success. Boerhaave esteems them capable, if duly continued, of resolving
almost all kinds of coagulations, and opening very obstinate
obstructions of the viscera.



227. LINUM usitatissimum. FLAX. The Seeds. L. E.--Linseed yields to the
press a considerable quantity of oil; and boiled in water, a strong
mucilage: these are occasionally made use of for the same purposes as
other substances of that class; and sometimes the seeds themselves in
emollient and maturating cataplasms. They have also been employed in
Asia, and, in times of scarcity, in Europe, as food: but are not
agreeable, or in general wholesome.



228. LINUM catharticum. PURGING-FLAX. The Herb. L. D.-This is a very
small plant, not above four or five inches high, found wild upon chalky
hills, and in dry pasture-grounds. Its virtue is expressed in its title:
an infusion in water or whey of a handful of the fresh leaves, or a dram
of them in substance when dried, is said to purge without inconvenience.



229. LOBELIA siphylitica. BLUE CARDINAL FLOWER. The Root. E.--Every part
of the plant abounds with a milky juice, and has a rank smell. The root,
which is the part directed for medicinal use, in taste resembles
tobacco, and is apt to excite vomiting. It derived its name,
Siphylitica, from its efficacy in the cure of Siphylis, as experienced
by the North American Indians, who considered it a specific to that
disease.

A decoction was made of a handful of the roots in three measures of
water. Of this, half a measure is taken in the morning fasting, and
repeated in the evening; and the dose is gradually increased till its
purgative effects become too violent, when the decoction is to be
intermitted for a day or two, and then renewed till a perfect cure is
effected. But it does not appear that the antisiphylitic powers of
Lobelia have been confirmed by any instances of European practice.--
Woodville's Med. Bot. p. 251.



230. LYTHRUM Salicaria. WILLOW HERB. The Herb. D.--This is used
internally in dropsies, obstinate gleets, and leucorrhoea.

Similar Plants.--Epilobium palustre; Epilob. angustifolium; Epilob.
hirsutum.



231. MALVA sylvestris. COMMON MALLOW. Herb. L. E.--The leaves are ranked
the first of the four emollient herbs: they were formerly of some
esteem, in food, for loosening the belly; at present, decoctions of them
are sometimes employed in dysenteries, heat and sharpness of urine, and
in general for obtunding acrimonious humours: their principal use is in
emollient glysters, cataplasms, and fomentations.



232. MARRUBIUM vulgare. HORFHOUND. Herb. E. D.--It is greatly extolled
for its efficacy in removing obstructions of the lungs and other
viscera. It has chiefly been employed in humoural asthmas. Mention is
made of its successful use in scirrhous affections of the liver,
jaundice, cachexies, and menstrual suppressions.--Woodville's Med. Bot.
p. 333.

Similar Plants.--Ballota nigra; B. alba.



233. MELISSA officinalis. BALM. Herb. L. E.--This herb, in its recent
state, has a weak roughish aromatic taste, and a pleasant smell,
somewhat of the lemon kind. On distilling the fresh herb with water, it
impregnates the first runnings pretty strongly with its grateful
flavour. Prepared as tea, however, it makes a grateful diluent drink in
fevers; and in this way it is commonly used, either by itself, or
acidulated with the juice of lemons.--Woodville's Med. Bot. p. 335, 336.



234. MENTHA viridis. SPEAR-MINT. Leaves. L. D.--The virtues of Mint are
those of a warm stomachic and carminative: in loss of appetite, nauseae,
continual retchings to vomit, and (as Boerhaave expresses it) almost
paralytic weakness of the stomach, there are few simples perhaps of
equal efficacy. In colicky pains, the gripes to which children are
subject, lienteries, and other kinds of immoderate fluxes, this plant
frequently does good service. It likewise proves beneficial in sundry
hysteric cases, and affords an useful cordial in languors and other
weaknesses consequent upon delivery. The best preparations for these
purposes are, a strong infusion made from the dry leaves in water (which
is much superior to one from the green herb) or rather a tincture or
extract prepared with rectified spirit.

The essential oil, a simple and spirituous water, and a conserve, are
kept in the shops: the Edinburgh College directs an infusion of the
leaves in the distilled water. This herb is an ingredient also in the
three alexitereal waters; and its essential oil in the stomach plaster
and stomach pills.--Lewis's Mat. Med.



235. MENTHA Piperita. PEPPER-MINT. Herb. L. E. D.--The leaves have a
more penetrating smell than any of the other mints, and a much warmer,
pungent, glowing taste like pepper, sinking as it were into the tongue.
The principal use of this herb is in flatulent colics, languors, and
other like disorders; it seems to act as soon as taken, and extends its
effects through the whole system, instantly communicating a glowing
warmth. Water extracts the whole of the pungency of this herb by
infusion, and elevates it in distillation. Its officinal preparations
are an essential oil, and a simple and spirituous water.



236. MENTHA Pulegium. PENNYROYAL. Herb. L. E. D.--Pennyroyal is a warm
pungent herb of the aromatic kind, similar to mint, but more acrid and
less agreeable. It has long been held in great esteem, and not
undeservedly, as an aperient and deobstruent, particularly in hysteric
complaints, and suppressions of the uterine purgations. For these
purposes, the distilled water is generally made use of, or, what is of
equal efficacy, an infusion of the leaves. It is observable, that both
water and rectified spirit extract the virtues of this herb by infusion,
and likewise elevate greatest part of them in distillation.--Lewis's
Mat. Med.



237. MENYANTHES trifoliata. BUCK-BEAN. Leaves. L. E. D.--This is an
efficacious aperient and deobstruent; it promotes the fluid secretions,
and, if liberally taken, gently loosens the belly. It has of late gained
great reputation in scorbutic and scrophulous disorders; and its good
effects in these cases have been warranted by experience: inveterate
cutaneous diseases have been removed by an infusion of the leaves, drunk
to the quantity of a pint a-day, at proper intervals, and continued some
weeks. Boerhaave relates, that he was relieved of the gout by drinking
the juice mixed with whey.



238. MOMORDICA Elaterium. SPIRTING CUCUMBER. Fruit L. E. D.--Elaterium
is a strong cathartic, and very often operates also upwards. Two or
three grains are accounted in most cases a sufficient dose. Simon Paulli
relates some instances of the good effects of this purgative in
dropsies: but cautions practitioners not to have recourse to it till
after milder medicines have proved ineffectual; to which caution we
heartily subscribe. Medicines indeed in general, which act with violence
in a small dose, require the utmost skill to manage them with any
tolerable degree of safety: to which may be added, that the various
manners of making these kinds of preparations, as practised by different
hands, must needs vary their power.



239. MORUS nigra. MULBERRY. Fruit. L.--It has the common qualities of
the other sweet fruits, abating heat, quenching thirst, and promoting
the grosser secretions; an agreeable syrup made from the juice is kept
in the shops. The bark of the roots has been in considerable esteem as a
vermifuge; its taste is bitter, and somewhat astringent.--Lewis's Mat.
Med.



240. NICOTIANA Tabacum. TOBACCO. Leaves. L. E. D.--Tobacco is sometimes
used externally in unguents for destroying cutaneous insects, cleansing
old ulcers, &c. Beaten into a mash with vinegar or brandy, it has
sometimes proved serviceable for removing hard tumours of the
hypochondres.



241. ORIGANUM Majorana. SWEET MARJORAM. Herb. L. E.-It is a moderately
warm aromatic, yielding its virtues both to aqueous and spirituous
liquors by infusion, and to water in distillation. It is principally
celebrated in disorders of old people. An essential oil of the herb is
kept in the shops. The powder of the leaves proves an agreeable errhine.



242. ORIGANUM vulgare. POT MARJORAM. Herb. L. D.--It has an agreeable
aromatic smell approaching to that of marjoram, and a pungent taste much
resembling thyme, to which it is likewise thought to be more nearly
allied in its medicinal qualities than to any of the other verticillatae,
and therefore deemed to be emmenagogue, tonic, stomachic, &c.

The dried leaves used instead of tea are said to be extremely grateful.
They are also employed in medicated baths and fomentations.--Woodville's
Med. Bot. p. 345.



243. OXALIS Acetosella. WOOD SORREL. Herb. L.--In taste and medical
qualities it is similar to the common sorrel, but considerably more
grateful, and hence is preferred by the London College. Boiled with
milk, it forms an agreeable whey; and beaten with sugar, a very elegant
conserve.--Lewis's Mat. Med.



244. PAPAVER Rhoeas. RED POPPY. Petals. L. E. D.--The flowers of this
plant yield upon expression a deep red juice, and impart the same colour
by infusion to aqueous liquors. A syrup of them is kept in the shops:
this is valued chiefly for its colour; though some expect from it a
lightly anodyne virtue.



245. PAPAVER somniferum. OPIUM POPPY. Gum. L. E. D.-Poppy heads, boiled
in water, impart to the menstruum their narcotic juice, together with
the other juices which they have in common with vegetable matters in
general. The liquor strongly pressed out, suffered to settle, clarified
with whites of eggs, and evaporated to a due consistence, yields about
one-fifth or one-sixth the weight of the heads, of extract. This
possesses the virtues of opium; but requires to be given in double its
dose to answer the same intention, which it is said to perform without
occasioning nausea and giddiness, the usual consequences of the other.

The general effects of this medicine are, to relax the solids, ease
pain, procure sleep, promote perspiration, but restrain all other
evacuations. When its operation is over, the pain, and other symptoms
which it had for a time abated, return; and generally with greater
violence than before, unless the cause has been removed by the
diaphoresis or relaxation which it occasioned.

The operation of opium is generally attended with a slow, but strong and
full pulse, a dryness of the mouth, a redness and light itching of the
skin: and followed by a degree of nausea, a difficulty of respiration,
lowness of the spirits, and a weak languid pulse.

With regard to the dose of opium, one grain is generally sufficient, and
often too large a one; maniacal persons, and those who have been long
accustomed to take it, require three or more grains to have the due
effect. Among the eastern nations, who are habituated to opium, a dram
is but a moderate dose: Garcias relates, that he knew one who every day
took ten drams. Those who have been long accustomed to its use, upon
leaving it off, are seized with great lowness, languor, and anxiety;
which are relieved by having again recourse to opium, and, in some
measure, by wine or spirituous liquors.

Similar Plants.--Papaver hybridum; P. Argemone.



246. PASTINACA Opoponax. OPOPONAX, or CANDY CARROT. Gum Opoponax. L.--
The juice is brought from Turkey and the East Indies, sometimes in round
drops or tears, but more commonly in irregular lumps, of a
reddish-yellow colour on the outside, with specks of white, inwardly of
a paler colour, and frequently variegated with large white pieces.

Boerhaave frequently employed it, along with ammoniacum and galbanum, in
hypochondriacal disorders, obstructions of the abdominal viscera from a
sluggishness of mucous humours, and a want of due elasticity of the
solids.



247. PIMPINELLA Anisum. ANISEED. The Seeds. L. E. D.-These seeds are in
the number of the four greater hot seeds: their principal use is in cold
flatulent disorders, where tenacious phlegm abounds, and in the gripes
to which young children are subject. Frederick Hoffman strongly
recommends them in weakness of the stomach, diarrhoeas, and for
strengthening the tone of the viscera in general; and thinks they well
deserve the appellation given them by Helmont, intestinorum solamen.



248. PINUS sylvestris. SCOTCH FIR. Tar, yellow Resin, and Turpentine. L.
D.--Tar, which is well known from its oeconomical uses, is properly an
empyreumatic oil of turpentine, and has been much used as a medicine,
both internally and externally. Tar-water, or water impregnated with the
more soluble parts of tar, was some time ago a very popular remedy in
various obstinate disorders, both acute and chronic, especially in
small-pox, scurvy, ulcers, fistulas, rheumatisms, &c.

Turpentine is an extract also from the same tree, which is used for
various purposes of medicine and the arts.



249. PINUS Abies. SPRUCE-FIR. Burgundy Pitch. L. E. D.--This is entirely
confined to external use, and was formerly an ingredient in several
ointments and plasters. In inveterate coughs, affections of the lungs,
and other internal complaints, plasters of this resin, by acting as a
tropical stimulus, are frequently found of considerable service.--
Woodville's Med. Bot.



250. POLYGONUM Bistorta. BISTORT. The Roots. L. E. D.--All the parts of
bistort have a rough austere taste, particularly the root, which is one
of the strongest of the vegetable stringents. It is employed in all
kinds of immoderate haemorrhages and other fluxes, both internally and
externally, where astringency is the only intention. It is certainly a
very powerful styptic, and is to be looked on simply as such; the
sudorific, antipestilential, and other like virtues attributed to it, it
has no other claim to, than in consequence of this property, and of the
antiseptic power which it has in common with other vegetable styptics.
The largest dose of the root in powder is one dram.



251. PRUNUS domestica. FRENCH PRUNES. The Fruit. L. E. D.--The medical
effects of the damson and common prunes are, to abate heat, and gently
loosen the belly: which they perform by lubricating the passage, and
softening the excrement. They are of considerable service in costiveness
accompanied with heat or irritation, which the more stimulating
cathartics would tend to aggravate: where prunes are not of themselves
sufficient, their effects may be promoted by joining with them a little
rhubarb or the like; to which may be added some carminative ingredient,
to prevent their occasioning flatulencies. Prunelloes have scarce any
laxative quality: these are mild grateful refrigerants, and, by being
occasionally kept in the mouth, usefully allay the thirst of hydropic
persons.



252. PUNICA Granatum. POMEGRANATE. Rind of the Fuit. L. E. D.--This
fruit has the general qualities of the other sweet summer fruits,
allaying heat, quenching thirst, and gently loosening the belly. The
rind is a strong astringent, and as such is occasionally made use of.



253. PYRUS Cydonia. QUINCE. The Kernels. L.--The seeds abound with a
mucilaginous substance, of no particular taste, which they readily
impart to watery liquors: an ounce will render three pints of water
thick and ropy like the white of an egg. A syrup and jelly of the fruit,
and mucilage of the seeds, used to be kept in the shops.



254. QUEROUS pedunculata. OAK. Bark. L. E. D.--This bark is a strong
astringent; and hence stands recommended in haemorrhagies, alvine fluxes,
and other preternatural or immoderate secretions.



255. RHAMNUS catharticus. BUCKTHORN. Berries. L. E.--Buckthorn-berries
have a faint disagreeable smell, and a nauseous bitter taste. They have
long been in considerable esteem as cathartics; and celebrated in
dropsies, rheumatisms, and even in the gout; though in these cases they
have no advantage above other purgatives, and are more offensive, and
operate more churlishly, than many which the shops are furnished with:
they generally occasion gripes, sickness, dry the mouth and throat, and
leave a thirst of long duration. The dose is about twenty of the fresh
berries in substance, and twice or thrice this number in decoction, an
ounce of the expressed juice, or a dram of the dried berries.



256. RHEUM palmatum. TURKEY RHUBARB. Roots. L. E. D.--Rhubarb is a mild
cathartic, which operates without violence or irritation, and may be
given with safety even to pregnant women and to children. In some
people, however, it always occasions severe griping. Besides its
purgative quality, it is celebrated for an astringent one, by which it
strengthens the tone of the stomach and intestines, and proves useful in
diarrhoea and disorders proceeding from a laxity of the fibres. Rhubarb
in substance operates more powerfully as a cathartic than any of the
preparations of it. Watery tinctures purge more than the spirituous
ones; whilst the latter contain in greater perfection the aromatic,
astringent, and corroborating virtues of the rhubarb. The dose, when
intended as a purgative, is from a scruple to a dram or more.

The Turkey rhubarb is, among us, universally preferred to the East India
sort.

The plant is common in our gardens, but their medicinal powers are much
weaker than in those from abroad.

RHODODENDRON Chrysanthemum. YELLOW-FLOWERED RHODODENDRON. See No. 290.



257. RHUS Toxicodendron. POISON-OAK. Leaves. L. E.--Of considerable use
in paralytic affections, and is much used in the present day.

It is, however, often substituted by the Rhus radicans, which has not
the medical properties that this plant has; and it is to be regretted
that the leaves of both species are so much alike, that, when gathered,
they are not to be distinguished.



258. RICINUS communis. PALMA CHRISTI. Seeds and Oil. L. E. D.--The oil,
commonly called nut or castor oil, is got by expression, retains
somewhat of the mawkishness and acrimony of the nut; but is, in general,
a safe and mild laxative in cases where we wish to avoid irritation, as
in those of colic, calculus, gonorrhoea, &c. and some likewise use it as
a purgative in worm-cases. Half an ounce or an ounce commonly answers
with an adult, and a dram or two with an infant. The castor oil which is
imported is not so good as the expressed oil from the nut made in this
country. The disagreeable taste is from the coats of the seeds; the best
kind is pressed out after the seeds are decorticated.



259. ROSA centifolia. DAMASK ROSE. Petals. L. E. D.--In distillation
with water, it yields a small portion of a butyraceous oil, whose
flavour exactly resembles that of the roses. This oil, and the distilled
water, are very useful and agreeable cordials. Hoffmann strongly
recommends them as of singular efficacy for raising the strength,
cheering and recruiting the spirits, and allaying pain; which they
perform without raising any heat in the constitution, rather abating it
when inordinate. Although the damask rose is recommended by Dr.
Woodville, yet, having grown this article for sale, I find that the
preference is always given to the Provence rose by those who distil
them.



260. ROSA gallica. RED OFFICINAL ROSE. Petals. L. E. D.-This has very
little of the fragrance of the foregoing sort; it is a mild and grateful
astringent, especially before the flower has opened: this is
considerably improved by hasty exsiccation, but both the astringency and
colour are impaired by slow drying. In the shops are prepared a conserve
and a tincture.



261. ROSA canina. DOG-ROSE. The Pulp of the Fruit. L. E.-The fruit,
called heps or hips, has a sourish taste, and obtains a place in the
London Pharmacopoeia in the form of a conserve: for this purpose, the
seeds and chaffy fibres are to be carefully removed; for, if these
prickly fibres are not entirely scraped off from the internal surface of
the hips, the conserve is liable to produce considerable irritation on
the primae viae.



262. ROSMARINUS officinalis. ROSEMARY. Tops. L. E. D.--Rosemary has a
fragrant smell and a warm pungent bitterish taste, approaching to those
of lavender: the leaves and tender tops are strongest; next to these the
cup of the flower; the flowers themselves are considerably the weakest,
but most pleasant. Aqueous liquors extract great share of the virtues of
rosemary leaves by infusion, and elevate them in distillation: along
with the water arises a considerable quantity of essential oil, of an
agreeable strong penetrating smell. Pure spirit extracts in great
perfection the whole aromatic flavour of the rosemary, and elevates very
little of it in distillation: hence the resinous mass left upon
abstracting the spirit, proves an elegant aromatic, very rich in the
peculiar qualities of the plant. The flowers of rosemary give over great
part of their flavour in distillation with pure spirit; by watery
liquors, their fragrance is much injured; by beating, destroyed.



263. RUBIA tinctorum. MADDER. Roots. L. E. D.--It has little or no
smell; a sweetish taste, mixed with a little bitterness. The virtues
attributed to it are those of a detergent and aperient; whence it has
been usually ranked among the opening roots, and recommended in
obstructions of the viscera, particularly of the kidneys, in
coagulations of the blood from falls or bruises, in the jaundice, and
beginning dropsies.

It is observable, that this root, taken internally, tinges the urine of
a deep red colour; and in the Philosophical Transactions we have an
account of its producing a like effect upon the bones of animals which
had it mixed with their food: all the bones, particularly the more solid
ones, were changed, both externally and internally, to a deep red, but
neither the fleshy nor cartilaginous parts suffered any alteration: some
of these bones macerated in water for many weeks together, and
afterwards steeped and boiled in spirit of wine, lost none of their
colour, nor communicated any tinge to the liquors.



264. RUMEX Acetosa. SORREL. Leaves. L.--These have an agreeable acid
taste. They have the same medicinal qualities as the Oxalis Acetosella,
and are employed for the same purposes.

Sorrel taken in considerable quantities, or used prepared for food, will
be found of great advantage when a refrigerant and antiscorbutic regimen
is required.--Woodville's Med. Bot.



265. RUTA graveolens. RUE. Leaves. L. E. D.--These are powerfully
stimulating, attenuating, and detergent: and hence, in cold phlegmatic
habits, they quicken the circulation, dissolve tenacious juices, open
obstructions of the excretory glands, and promote the fluid secretions.
The writers on the Materia Medica in general have entertained a very
high opinion of the virtues of this pant. Boerhaave is full of its
praises; particularly of the essential oil, and the distilled water
cohobated or redistilled several times from fresh parcels of the herb:
after somewhat extravagantly commending other waters prepared in this
manner, he adds, with regard to that of rue, that the greatest
commendations he can bestow upon it fall short of its merit: "What
medicine (says he) can be more efficacious for promoting perspiration,
in cases of epilepsies, and for expelling poison?" Whatever service rue
may be of generally, it undoubtedly has its use in the two last cases:
the cohobated water, however, is not the most efficacious preparation.



266. SALIX fragilis. CRACK WILLOW. Bark. L. D.-The bark of the branches
of this tree manifests a considerable degree of bitterness to the taste,
and is also astringent; hence it has been thought a good substitute for
the Peruvian bark, and, upon trial, was found to stop the paroxysms of
intermittents: it is likewise recommended in other cases requiring tonic
or astringent remedies. Not only the bark of this species of Salix, but
that of several others, possess similar qualities, particularly of the
Salix alba pentandria, and capraea, all of which are recommended in
foreign Pharmacopoeias. But, in our opinion, the bark of the Salix
triandria is more effectual than that of any other of this genus; at
least, its sensible qualities give it a decided preference.--Woodville's
Med Bot.



267. SALVIA officinalis. GREEN AND RED SAGE. Herb. E. D.--Its effects
are, to moderately warm and strengthen the vessels; and hence, in cold
phlegmatic habits, it excites appetite, and proves serviceable in
debilities of the nervous system.

The red sage, mixed with honey and vinegar, is used for a gargle in sore
throats. Aqueous infusions of the leaves, with the addition of a little
lemon juice, prove an useful diluting drink in febrile disorders, of an
elegant colour, and sufficiently acceptable to the palate.



268. SAMBUCUS nigra. COMMON ELDER. Flowers and Berries. L. E. D.--The
parts of the Sambucus which are proposed for medicinal use in the
Pharmacopoeias, are the inner bark, the flowers, and the berries. The
flowers have an agreeable flavour, which they give over in distillation
with water, and impart by infusion, both to water and rectified spirit:
on distilling a large quantitiy of them with water, a small portion of a
butyraceous essential oil separates. Infusions made from the fresh
flowers are gently laxative and aperient; when dry, they are said to
promote chiefly the cuticular excretion, and to be particularly
serviceable in erysipetalous and eruptive disorders.--Woodville's Med.
Bot. 598.



269. SCILLA maritima. SQUILL. Root. L. E. D.--This root is to the taste
very nauseous, intensely bitter and acrimonious; much handled, it
exulcerates the skin. With regard to its medical virtues, it powerfully
stimulates the solids, and attenuates viscid juices; and by these
qualities promotes expectoration, urine, and perspiration: if the dose
is considerable, it proves emetic, and sometimes purgative. The
principal use of this medicine is where the primae viae abound with mucous
matter, and the lungs are oppressed by tenacious phlegm.



270. SCROPHULARIA nodosa. KNOTTY FIGWORT. Herb. D.--The roots are of a
white colour, full of little knobs or protuberances on the surface: this
appearance gained it formerly some repute against scrophulous disorders
and the piles; and from hence it received its name: but modern
practitioners expect no such virtues from it. It has a faint unpleasant
smell, and a somewhat bitter disagreeable taste.



271. SINAPIS nigra. BLACK MUSTARD. Seeds. L. E. D.--By writers on the
Materia Medica, mustard is considered to promote appetite, assist
digestion, attenuate viscid juices, and, by stimulating the fibres, to
prove a general remedy in paralytic and rheumatic affections. Joined to
its stimulant qualities, it frequently, if taken in considerable
quantity, opens the body, and increases the urinary discharge; and hence
has been found useful in dropsical complaints.--Woodville's Med. Bot. p.
404.



272. SINAPIS alba. WHITE MUSTARD. Seeds. L. E. D.--These have been
recommended to be taken whole in cases of rheumatism and have been known
to produce considerable relief.



273. SISYMBRIUM Nasturtium. WATER-CRESSES. Herb. E.-Hoffman recommends
this as of singular efficacy for accelerating the circulation,
strengthening the viscera, opening obstructions of the glands, promoting
the fluid secretions, and purifying the blood and humours: for these
purposes, the expressed juice, which contains the peculiar taste and
pungency of the herb, may be taken in doses of an ounce or two, and
continued for a considerable time.



274. SIUM nodiflorum. CREEPING WATER-PARSNEP. The Root. D.-This plant
has not been admitted into the Materia Medica of any of the
Pharmacopoeias which we have seen, except that of the London College,
into which it was received in the character of an antiscorbutic, or
rather as the corrector of acrid humours, especially when manifested by
cutaneous eruptions and tumours in the lymphatic system, for which we
have the testimony of Beirie and Ray; but the best proofs of its
efficacy are the following given by Dr. Withering: "A young lady, six
years old, was cured of an obstinate disease by taking three large
spoonfuls of the juice twice-a-day; and I have repeatedly given to
adults three or four ounces every morning in similar complaints with the
greatest advantage. It is not nauseous; and children take it readily if
mixed with milk. In the dose I have given, it neither affects the head,
the stomach, nor the bowels." Woodville's Med. Bot. 146.



275. SMILAX Sarsaparilla. SARSAPARILLA. Root. L. E. D.--This root was
first brought into Europe by the Spaniards, about the year 1565, with
the character of a specific for the cure of the lues venerea, which made
its appearance a little before that time, and likewise of several
obstinate chronic disorders. Whatever good effects it might have
produced in the warmer climates, it proved unsuccessful in this. It
appears, however, from experience, that though greatly unequal to the
character which it bore at first, it is in some cases of considerable
use as a sudorific, where more acrid medicines are improper.



276. SOLANUM Dulcamara. BITTERSWEET. Stalk. L. D.--The taste of the
twigs and roots, as the name of the plant expresses, is both bitter and
sweet; the bitterness being first perceived, and the sweet afterwards.
They are commended for resolving coagulated blood, and as a cathartic,
diuretic, and deobstruent.



277. SOLIDAGO Virga aurea. GOLDEN ROD. Flowers and Leaves. D.--The
leaves have a moderately astringent bitter taste, and hence prove
serviceable in debility and laxity of the viscera, and disorders
proceeding from that cause.



278. SPARTIUM scoparium. BROOM. Tops and Seeds. L. D.-These have a
nauseous bitter taste: decoctions of them loosen the belly, promote
urine, and stand recommended in hydropic cases. The flowers are said to
prove cathartic in decoction, and emetic in substance, though in some
places, as Lobel informs us, they are commonly used, and in large
quantity, in salads, without producing any effect of this kind. The
qualities of the seeds are little better determined: some report that
they purge almost as strongly as hellebore, in the dose of a dram and a
half; whilst the author above mentioned relates, that he has given a
decoction of two ounces of them as a gentle emetic.



279. SPIGELLA marylandica. WORM GRASS. Root. L. E. D.-About forty years
ago, the anthelmintic virtues of the root of this plant were discovered
by the Indians; since which time it has been much used here. I have
given it in hundreds of cases, and have been very attentive to its
effects. I never found it do much service, except when it proved gently
purgative. Its purgative quality naturally led me to give it in febrile
diseases which seem to arise from viscidity in the primae viae; and in
these cases it succeeded to admiration, even when the sick did not void
worms.

To a child of two years of age who had been taking ten grains of the
root twice a-day without having any other effect than making her dull
and giddy, I prescribed twenty-two grains morning and evening, which
purged her briskly, and brought away five large worms. [Communications
from Dr. Gardner.]-Woodville's Med. Bot.



280. TANACETUM vulgare. TANSY. Herb. E. D.--Considered as a medicine, it
is a moderately warm bitter, accompanied with a strong, not very
disagreeable flavour. Some have had a great opinion of it in hysteric
disorders, particularly those proceeding from a deficiency or
suppression of the usual course of nature.



281. TEUCRIUM Marum. CAT THYME. Herb. D.--The leaves have an aromatic
bitterish taste; and, when rubbed betwixt the fingers, a quick pungent
smell, which soon affects the head, and occasions sneezing: distilled
with water, they yield a very acrid, penetrating essential oil,
resembling one obtained by the same means from scurvy-grass. These
qualities sufficiently point out the uses to which this plant might be
applied; at present, it is little otherwise employed than in cephalic
snuffs.



282. TEUCRIUM Chamaedrys. GERMANDER. Herb. D.--The leaves, tops, and
seeds, have a bitter taste, with some degree of astringency and aromatic
flavour. They were recommended as sudorific, diuretic, and emmenagogue,
and for strengthening the stomach and viscera in general. With some they
have been in great esteem in intermittent fevers; as also in scrophulous
and other chronic disorders.



283. TORMENTILLA erecta. TORMENTIL, or UPRIGHT SEPTFOIL. Root. L. E. D.
--The root is the only part of this plant which is used medicinally; it
has a strong styptic taste, but imparts no peculiar sapid flavour. This
has been long held in great estimation as an astringent. Dr. Cullen has
used it with gentian with great effect in intermittent fevers. Lewis
recommends an ounce and a half of the powdered root to be boiled in
three pints of water to a quart, adding towards the end of the boiling a
dram of cinnamon. Of the strained liquor, sweetened with an ounce of any
agreeable syrup, two ounces or more may be taken four or five times a-day.



284. TUSSILAGO Farfara. COLTSFOOT. Herb. L. E. D.--Tussilago stands
recommended in coughs and other disorders of the breast and lungs: the
flowers were an ingredient in the pectoral decoction of the Edinburgh
Pharmacopoeia.



285. VALERIANA officinalis. VALERIAN. Root. L. E. D.--Valerian is a
medicine of great use in nervous disorders, and is particularly
serviceable in epilepsies proceeding from a debility in the nervous
system. It was first brought into esteem in these cases by Fabius
Columna, who by taking the powdered root, in the dose of half a
spoonful, was cured of an inveterate epilepsy after many other medicines
had been tried in vain. Repeated experience has since confirmed its
efficacy in this disorder; and the present practice lays considerable
stress upon it.



286. VERATRUM album. WHITE HELLEBORE. Root. L. E. D.-The root has a
nauseous, bitterish, acrid taste, burning the mouth and fauces: wounded
when fresh, it emits an extremely acrimonious juice, which mixed with the
blood, by a wound, is said to prove very dangerous: the powder of the
dry root, applied to an issue, occasions violent purging: snuffed up the
nose, it proves a strong, and not always a safe, sternutatory. This
root, taken internally, acts with extreme violence as an emetic, and has
been observed, even in a small dose, to occasion convulsions and other
terrible disorders. The ancients sometimes employed it in very obstinate
cases, and always made this their last resource.

Similar Plant.--Gentiana lutea, which see.



287. VERONICA Beccabunga. BROOKLIME. Herb. L. D.--This plant was
formerly considered of great use in several diseases, and was applied
externally to wounds and ulcers; but if it have any peculiar efficacy,
it is to be derived from its antiscorbutic virtue.

As a mild refrigerant juice, it is preferred where an acrimonious state
of the fluids prevails, indicated by prurient eruptions upon the skin,
or in what has been called the hot scurvy.--Woodville's Med. Bot. 364.



288. VITIS vinifera. GRAPE VINE. Raisins and different Wines. L. E.--
These are to cheer the spirits, warm the habit, promote perspiration,
render the vessels full and turgid, raise the pulse, and quicken the
circulation. The effects of the full-bodied wines are much more durable
than those of the thinner; all sweet wines, as Canary, abound with a
glutinous nutritious substance; whilst the others are not nutrimental,
or only accidentally so by strengthening the organs employed in
digestion: sweet wines in general do not pass off freely by urine, and
heat the constitution more than an equal quantity of any other, though
containing full as much spirit: red port, and most of the red wines,
have an astringent quality, by which they strengthen the tone of the
stomach and intestines, and thus prove serviceable for restraining
immoderate secretions: those which are of an acid nature, as Renish,
pass freely by the kidneys, and gently loosen the belly: it is supposed
that these last exasperate, or occasion gout and calculous disorders,
and that new wines of every kind have this effect.

The ripe fruit of grapes, of which there are several kinds, properly
cured and dried, are the raisins and currants of the shops: the juice of
these also, by fermentation, affords wine as well as vinegar and tartar.

The medical use of raisins is, their imparting a very pleasant flavour
both to aqueous and spiritous menstrua. The seeds or stones are supposed
to give a disagreeable relish, and hence are generally directed to be
taken out: nevertheless I have not found that they have any disagreeable
taste.--Lewis's Mat. Med.



289. ULMUS campestris. ELM. Bark. L. E. D.--The leaves have a bitterish
astringent taste, and are recommended in powder, to the extent of at
least two drams a-day, in ulcerations of the urinary passages and
catarrhus vesicae. The powder has been used with opium, the latter being
gradually increased to a considerable quantity, in diabetes, and it is
said with advantage. Some use it for alleviating the dyspeptic symptoms
in nephritic calculous ailments.--Lewis's Mat. Med.



290. RHODODENDRON Chrysanthemum. YELLOW-FLOWERED RHO-DODENDRON. E. The
Leaves.--This species of Rhododendron has lately been introduced into
Britain: it is a native of Siberia, affecting mountainous situations,
and flowering in June and July.

Little attention was paid to this remedy till the year 1779, when it was
strongly recommended by Koelpin as an efficacious medicine, not only in
rheumatism and gout, but even in venereal cases; and it is now very
generally employed in chronic rheumatisms in various parts of Europe.
The leaves, which are the part directed for medicinal use, have a
bitterish subastringent taste, and, as well as the bark and young
branches, manifest a degree of acrimony. Taken in large doses they prove
a narcotic poison, producing those symptoms which we have described as
occasioned by many of the order Solanaceae.

Dr. Home, who tried it unsuccessfully in some cases of acute rheumatism,
says, it appears to be one of the most powerful sedatives which we have,
as in most of the trials it made the pulse remarkably slow, and, in one
patient, reduced it 38 beats. And in other cases in which the
Rhododendron has been used at Edinburgh, it has been productive of good
effects; and, accordingly, it is now introduced into the Edinburgh
Pharmacopoeia.

The manner of using this plant by the Siberians was, by putting two
drams of the dried leaves in an earthen-pot with about ten ounces of
boiling-water, keeping it near a boiling heat for a night, and this they
took in the morning; and by repeating it three or four times it
generally affected a cure. It is said to occasion heat, thirst, a degree
of delirium, and a peculiar sensation of the parts affected.--
Woodville's Med. Bot. p. 239.



*       *       *       *       *



SECT. VIII.--MEDICINAL PLANTS not contained in either of the BRITISH
DISPENSATORIES.



For the use of the Medical Student I selected in the foregoing section
such plants as are contained in the Pharmacopoeias of the present day:
but there are many mentioned in Woodville's Medical Botany, Lewis's
Dispensatory, &c. which, although discarded from the College list, are
nevertheless still used by medical practitioners and others.

It would be difficult to give a full history of all the plants that have
from time to time been recommended for medical uses. The old writers, as
Gerard, Parkinson, Lyte, &c. attributed medical virtues to all the
plants which came under their notice; and, on the other hand, as we
observed above, the vegetable department of the Pharmacopoeias has from
time to time been reduced so much, that, if we had confined ourselves to
that alone, we fear our little treatise on this head would, by many
persons, be thought defective. The following list is therefore given, as
containing what are used, though probably not so much by practitioners
in medicine, as by our good housewives in the country, who, without
disparagement to medical science, often relieve the distresses of their
families and neighbours by the judicious application of drugs of this
nature, and many of which are also sold for the same purposes in the
London herb-shops.



291. ACANTHUS mollis. SMOOTH BEARS-BREECH. The Leaves.--Are of a soft
sweetish taste, and abound with a mucilaginous juice: its virtues do not
seem to differ from those of Althea and other mucilaginous plants.



292. ACHILLA Ptarmica. SNEEZEWORT. The Root.--The roots have and acrid
smell, and a hot biting taste: chewed, they occasion a plentiful
discharge of saliva; and when powdered and snuffed up the nose, provoke
sneezing. These are sold at the herb-shops as a substitute for pellitory
of Spain.



293. ACHILLEA Ageratum. MAUDLIN. The Leaves and Flowers.--This has a
light agreeable smell; and a roughish, somewhat warm and bitterish
taste. These qualities point out its use as a mild corroborant; but it
has long been a stranger in practice, and is now omitted both by the
London and Edinburgh Colleges. It is however in use by the common
people.



294. ACHILLEA Millefolium. YARROW. The Leaves.--The leaves have a rough
bitterish taste, and a faint aromatic smell. Their virtues are those of
a very mild astringent, and as such they stand recommended in
haemorrhages both internal and external, diarrhoeas, debility and laxity
of the fibres; and likewise in spasmodic hysterical affections.



295. AJUGA reptans. BUGLE. The Leaves.--These have at first a sweetish
taste, which gradually becomes bitterish and roughish. They are
recommended as vulnerary medicines, and in all cases where mild
astringents or corroborants are proper.



296. ALCHEMILLA vulgaris. LADY'S MANTLE. The Leaves.--These discover to
the taste a moderate astringency, and were formerly much esteemed in
some female weaknesses, and in fluxes of the belly. They are now rarely
made use of; though both the fresh leaves and roots might doubtless be
of service in cases where mild astringents are required.



297. AMMI majus. BISHOPS-WEED. The Seeds.--The seeds of common
bishops-weed are large and pale-coloured: their smell and taste are
weak, and without any thing of the origanum flavour of the true ammi,
which does not grow in this country. They are ranked among the four
lesser hot seeds, but are scarcely otherwise made use of than as an
ingredient in the theriaca.--Lewis's Mat. Med.



298. AMYGDALUS Persica. ALMONDS. Flowers.--They have a cathartic effect,
and especially to children have been successfully given in the character
of a vermifuge for this purpose; an infusion of a dram of the flowers
dried, or half an ounce in their recent state, is the requisite dose.
The expressed oil of almonds has been for a long time, and is at
present, in use for many purposes in medicine. The concentrated acid of
the bitter almond is a most dangerous poison to man and all other
animals.



299. ANAGALLIS arvensis. PIMPERNEL. The Leaves.--Many extraordinary
virtues have been attributed to them. Geoffroy esteems them cephalic,
sudorific, vulnerary, anti-maniacal, anti-epileptic, and alexiteral.



300. ANCHUSA angustifolia. BUGLOSS. The Roots, Leaves, and Flowers.--
Bugloss has a slimy sweetish taste, accompanied with a kind of coolness:
the roots are the most glutinous, and the flowers the least so. These
qualities point out its use in hot bilious or inflammatory distempers,
and a thin acrimonious state of the fluids. The flowers are one of the
four called cordial flowers: the only quality they have that can entitle
them to this appellation, is, that they moderately cool and soften,
without offending the palate or stomach; and thus in warm climates, or
in hot diseases, may in some measure refresh the patient.



301. ANEMONE Hepatica. HEPATICA. The Leaves.--It is a cooling gently
restringent herb; and hence recommended in a lax state of the fibres as
a corroborant.



302. ANTIRRHINIUM Elatine. FLUELLIN. The Root, Bark, and Leaves.--They
were formerly accounted excellent vulneraries, and of great use for
cleansing and healing old ulcers and cancerous sores: some have
recommended them internally in leprous and scrophulous disorders; as
also in hydropic cases.



303. ANTIRRHINIUM Linaria. TOAD FLAX. The Flowers.--An infusion of them
is said to be very efficacious in cutaneous disorders; and Hammerin
gives an instance in which these flowers, with those of verbascum, used
as tea, cured an exanthematous disorder, which had resisted various
other remedies tried during the course of three years.--Woodville's Med.
Bot. p. 372.



304. AQUILEGIA vulgaris. COLUMBINE. The Leaves, Flowers, and Seeds.--It
has been looked upon as aperient; and was formerly in great esteem among
the common people for throwing out the small-pox and measles. A
distilled water, medicated vinegar, and conserve, were prepared from the
flowers; but they have long given place to medicines of greater
efficacy.



305. ARISTOLOCHIA longa. LONG BIRTHWORT. The Roots.--This is a tuberous
root, sometimes about the size of the finger, sometimes as thick as a
man's arm: great virtues used to be ascribed to this plant as a specific
in most uterine obstructions and gout: the outside is of a brownish
colour; the inside yellowish.



306. ARTEMISIA vulgaris. MUGWORT. The leaves.--These have a light
aromatic smell, and an herbaceous bitterish taste. They are principally
celebrated as uterine and anti-hysteric: an infusion of them is
sometimes drunk, either alone or in conjunction with other substances,
in suppressions of immoderate fluxes. This medicine is certainly a very
mild one, and considerably less hot than most others to which these
virtues are attributed.



307. ASCLEPIAS Vincetoxium. SWALLOW WORT. The Root.--This root is
esteemed sudorific, diuretic, and emmenagogue, and frequently employed
by the French and German physicians as an alexipharmic, sometimes as a
succedaneum to contrayerva; whence it has received the name of
Contrayerva Germanorum. Among us it is rarely made use of.



308. ASPERULA odorata. SWEET WOODROOF. The Flowers.--It has an
exceedingly pleasant smell, which is improved by moderate exsiccation;
the taste is sub-saline, and somewhat austere. It imparts its flavour to
vinous liquors. Asperula is supposed to attenuate viscid humours, and
strengthen the tone of the bowels: it was recommended in obstructions of
the liver and biliary ducts, and by some in epilepsies and palsies:
modern practice has nevertheless rejected it.



309. ASPLENIUM Ceterach. SPLEENWORT.--It is recommended as a pectoral,
and for promoting urine in nephritic cases. The virtue which it has been
most celebrated for, is that which it has the least title to, i. e.
diminish the spleen.



310. ASPLENIUM Scolophendrium. HARTS-TONGUE. The Leaves.--These have a
roughish, somewhat mucilaginous taste. They are recommended in
obstructions of the viscera, and for strengthening their tone; and have
sometimes been made use of for these intentions, either alone, or in
conjunction with maiden-hair, or the other plants of similar properties.



311. ATROPA Mandragora. MANDRAKE. The Leaves.--The qualities of this
plant are very doubtful: it has a strong disagreeable smell resembling
that of the narcotic herbs, to which class it is usually referred. It
has rarely been any otherwise made use of in medicine, than as an
ingredient in one of the old officinal unguents. Both that composition
and the plant itself are rejected from our Pharmacopoeias.



312. BALLOTA nigra. BASE HOREHOUND. The Leaves.--These are doubtless an
useful aperient and deobstruent; promote the fluid secretions in
general, and liberally taken loosen the belly. They are an ingredient
only in the theriaca.



313. BELLIS perennis. DAISIES. The Leaves.--They have a subtile subacrid
taste, and are recommended as vulneraries, and in asthmas and hectic
fevers, and such disorders as are occasioned by drinking cold liquors
when the body has been much heated.



214. BERBERIS vulgaris. BERBERRY. The Bark and Fruit.--The outward bark
of the branches and the leaves have an astringent acid taste; the inner
yellow bark, a bitter one: this last is said to be serviceable in the
jaundice; and by some, to be an useful purgative.

The berries, which to the taste are gratefully acid, and moderately
restringent, have been given with good success in bilious fluxes, and
diseases proceeding from heat, acrimony, or thinness of the juices.



315. BETONICA officinalis. WOOD BETONY. The Leaves.--These and the
flowers have an herbaceous, roughish, somewhat bitterish taste,
accompanied with a very weak aromatic flavour. This herb has long been a
favourite among writers on the Materia Medica, who have not been wanting
to attribute to it abundance of good qualities. Experience does not
discover any other virtue in betony than that of a mild corroborant: as
such, an infusion or light decoction of it may be drunk as tea, or a
saturated tincture in rectified spirit given in suitable doses, in
laxity and debility of the viscera, and disorders proceeding from
thence.



316. BETULA alba. BIRCH TREE. The bark and Sap.--Upon deeply wounding or
boring the trunk of the tree in the beginning of spring, a sweetish
juice issues forth, sometimes, as is said, in so large quantity, as to
equal in weigth to the whole tree and root: one branch will bleed a
gallon or more a day. This juice is chiefly recommended in scorbutic
disorders, and other foulnesses of the blood: its most sensible effect
is to promote the urinary discharge.



317. BORAGO officinalis. BORAGE. The Flowers.--An exhilarating virtue
has been attributed to the flowers of borage, which are hence ranked
among the so called cordial flowers: but they appear to have very little
claim to any virtue of this kind, and seem to be altogether
insignificant.



318. BRYONIA alba. WHITE BRYONY. The Roots.--This is a strong irritating
cathartic; and as such has sometimes been successfully exhibited in
maniacal cases, in some kinds of dropsies, and in several chronical
disorders, where a quick solution of viscid juices, and a sudden
stimulus on the solids, were required.



319. CALENDULA officinalis. MARIGOLD. The Flowers.--These are supposed
to be aperient and attenuating; as also cardiac, alexipharmic, and
sudorific: they are principally celebrated in uterine obstructions, the
jaundice, and for throwing out the small-pox. Their sensible qualities
give little foundation for these virtues: they have scarcely any taste,
and no considerable smell. The leaves of the plant discover a viscid
sweetishness, accompanied with a more durable saponaceous pungency and
warmth: these seem capable of answering some useful purposes, as a
stimulating, aperient, antiscorbutic medicine.



320. CANNABIS sativa. HEMP. The Seeds.--These have some smell of the
herb; their taste is unctuous and sweetish; on expression they yield a
considerable quantity of insipid oil: hence they are recommended (boiled
in milk, or triturated with water into an emulsion) against coughs, heat
of urine, and the like. They are also said to be useful in incontinence
of urine; but experience does not warrant their having any virtues of
this kind.



321. CARTHAMUS tinctorius. SAFFLOWER. The Seeds.--These have been
celebrated as a cathartic: they operate very slowly, and for the most
part disorder the bowels, especially when given in substance; triturated
with aromatic distilled waters, they form an emulsion less offensive,
yet inferior in efficacy to more common purgatives.



322. CENTAUREA Cyanus. BLUE-BOTTLE. The Flowers.--As to their virtues,
notwithstanding the present practice expects not any from them, they
have been formerly celebrated against the bites of poisonous animals,
contagious diseases, palpitations of the heart, and many other
distempers.



323. CENTAUREA rhapontica. GREATER CENTAURY. The Root.--It has a rough
somewhat acrid taste, and abounds with a red viscid juice; its rough
taste has gained it some esteem as an astringent; its acrimony as an
aperient; and its glutinous quality as a vulnerary: the present practice
takes little notice of it in any intention.



324. CHELIDONIUM majus. GREAT CELANDINE. The Leaves and Juice.--This is
an excellent medicine in the jaundice; it is also good against all
obstructions of the viscera, and, if continued a time, will do great
service against the scurvy. The juice also is used successfully for sore
eyes, removing warts, &c. It should be used fresh, for it loses the
greatest part of its virtue in drying.



325. CHENOPODIUM olidum. STINKING GOOSEFOOT. The Leaves.--Its smell has
gained it the character of an excellent anti-hysteric; and this is the
only use it is applied to. Tournefort recommends a spiritous tincture,
others a decoction in water, and others a conserve of the leaves, as of
wonderful efficacy in uterine disorders.



326. CHRYSANTHEMUM Leucanthemum. OX-EYE DAISY. The Leaves.--Geoffroy
relates that the herb, gathered before the flowers have come forth, and
boiled in water, imparts an acrid taste, penetrating and subtile like
pepper; and that this decoction is an excellent vulnerary and diuretic.



327. CISTUS ladanifetus. GUM CISTUS.--The gum labdanum is procured from
this shrub, and is its only produce used in medicine. This is an
exudation from the leaves and twigs in the manner of manna, more than of
any thing else. They get it off by drawing a parcel of leather thongs
over the shrubs. It is not much used, but it is a good cephalic.--Hill's
Herbal, p. 72.



328. CLEMATIS recta. UPRIGHT VIRGIN'S BOWER.--The whole plant is
extremely acrid. It was useful for Dr. Stoerck to employ the leaves and
flowers in ulcers and cancers, as well as an extract prepared from the
former; yet the preparation which he chiefly recommended was an infusion
of two or three drams of the leaves in a pint of boiling water, of which
he gave four ounces three times a-day, while the powdered leaves were
applied as an escharotic to the ulcers.--Wood-ville's Med. Bot. p. 481.



329. COCHLEARIA Coronopus. SWINES-CRESS.--This is an excellent diuretic,
safe and yet very powerful. The juice may be taken; and it is good for
the jaundice, and against all inward obstructions, and against the
scurvy: the leaves may also be eaten as sallet, or dried and given in
decoction.--Hill's Hebal, p. 105.



330. CONVALLARIA Polygonatum. SOLOMON'S SEAL. The Root.--The root has
several joints, with some flat circular depressions, supposed to
resemble the stamp of a seal. It has a sweetish mucilaginous taste. As
to its virtues, practitioners do not now expect any considerable ones
from it, and pay very little regard to the vulnerary qualities which it
was formerly celebrated for. It is used by pugilists to remove the black
appearance occasioned from extravasated blood, and for curing bruises on
the face, particularly black-eyes obtained by boxing.



331. CONVALLARIA majalis. MAY LILY. The Roots and Flowers.--The roots of
this abound with a soft mucilage, and hence they have been used
externally in emollient and maturating cataplasms: they were an
ingredient in the suppurating cataplasm of the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia.
Those of the wild plant are very bitter: dried, they are said to prove a
gentle errhine; as also are the flowers.



332. CONVOLVULUS sepium. BIND-WEED.--The poor people use the root of
this plant fresh gathered and boiled in ale as a cathartic; and it is
found generally to answer that purpose. It would, however, nauseate a
delicate stomach; but for people of strong constitutions there is not a
better medicine.



333. CUSCUTA europaea. DODDER. The whole plant gathered green is to be
boiled in water with a little ginger and allspice, and this decoction
operates as a cathartic; it also opens obstructions of the liver, and is
good in the jaundice and many other disorders arising from the like
cause.--Hill's Herbal.



334. CYNOGLOSSUM officinale. HOUNDS-TONGUE. The Root.--The virtues of
this root are very doubtful: it is generally supposed to be narcotic,
and by some to be virulently so: others declare that it has no virtue of
this kind, and look upon it as a mere glutinous astringent.



335. CYPERUS longus. LONG CYPERUS. The Root.--This is long, slender,
crooked, and full of knots: outwardly of a dark-brown or blackish
colour, inwardly whitish; of an aromatic smell, and an agreeable warm
taste: both the taste and smell are improved by moderate exsiccation.
Cyperus is accounted a good stomachic and carminative, but is at present
very little regarded.



336. DICTAMNUS albus. WHITE or BASTARD DITTANY. The Root.--The cortical
part of the root, dried and rolled up into quills, is sometimes brought
to us. This is of a white colour, a weak, not very agreeable smell; and
a durable bitter, lightly pungent taste. It is recommended as an
alexipharmic.



337. EQUISETUM palustre. HORSE-TAIL. The Herb.--It is said to be a very
strong astringent: it has indeed a manifest astringency, but in a very
low degree.



338. ERYSIMUM officinale.--It is said to be attenuant, expectorant, and
diuretic; and has been strongly recommended in chronical coughs and
hoarseness. Rondeletius informs us that the last-mentioned complaint,
occasioned by loud speaking, was cured by this plant in three days.
Other testimonies of its good effects in this disorder are recorded by
writers on the Materia Medica, of whom we may mention Dr. Cullen; who
for this purpose recommends the juice of the Erysimum to be mixed with
an euqal quantity of honey and sugar; in this way also it is said to be
an useful remedy in ulcerations of the mouth and throat.--Woodville's
Med. Bot. p. 407.



339. ERYSIMUM Alliaria. SAUCE ALONE.--The leaves of this plant are very
acrimonious, and have a strong flavour of onions. It is considered as a
powerful diaphoretic, diuretic, and antiscorbutic.--Woodville's Med.
Bot.



340. EUPATORIUM cannabinum. HEMP AGRIMONY, &c. Leaves.--They are greatly
recommended for strengthening the tone of the viscera, and as an
aperient; and said to have excellent effects in the dropsy, jaundice,
cachexies, and scorbutic disorders. Boerhaave informs us, that this is
the common medicine of the turf-diggers in Holland, against scurvies,
foul ulcers, and swellings in the feet, which they are subject to. The
roof of this plant is said to operate as a strong cathartic.



341. EUPHORBIA Esula. SPURGE FLAX. Its Berries.--These are useful in
removing warts and excrescences, if bruised and laid thereon. They are
so acrid in their nature as to be altogether unfit for internal use.



342. EUPHRASIA officinalis. EYEBRIGHT. Leaves.--It was formerly
celebrated as an ophtalmic, both taken internally and applied
externally. Hildanus says he has known old men of seventy, who had lost
their sight, recover it again by the use of this herb.



343. FRAGARIA vesca. THE STRAWBERRY. The Leaves and Fruit.--They are
somewhat styptic, and bitterish; and hence my be of some service in
debility and laxity of the viscera, and immoderate secretions, or a
suppression of the natural evacuations depending thereon: they are
recommended in haemorrhages and fluxes; and likewise as aperients, in
suppressions of urine, obstructions of the viscera, in the jaundice, &c.
The fruit is in general very grateful both to the palate and stomach:
like other fruits of the dulco-acid kind, they abate heat, quench
thirst, loosen the belly, and promote urine.



344. FUMARIA officinalis. FUMITORY. The Leaves.--The medical effects of
this herb are, to strengthen the tone of the bowels, gently loosen the
belly, and promote the urinary and other natural secretions. It is
principally recommended in melancholic, scorbutic, and cutaneous
disorders; for opening obstructions of the viscera, attenuating and
promoting the evacuations of viscid juices.



345. GALEGA officinalis. GOAT'S RUE. The Herb.--This is celebrated as an
alexipharmic; but its sensible qualities discover no foundation for any
virtues of this kind: the taste is merely leguminous; and in Italy
(where it grows wild) it is said to be used as food.



346. GALIUM Aparine. GOOSEGRASS, OR CLEAVERS. The Leaves.--It is
recommended as an aperient, and in chronic eruptions; but practice has
little regard to it.



347. GALIUM verum. LADIES BEDSTRAW, OR CHEESE-RENNET. The Herb.--This
herb has a subacid taste, with a very faint, not disagreeable smell: the
juice changes blue vegetable infusions to a red colour, and coagulates
milk, thus exhibiting marks of acidity. It stands recommended as a mild
styptic, and in epilepsy; but has never been much in use.



348. GERANIUM robertianum. HERB ROBERT. The leaves.--They have an
austere taste, and have hence been recommended as astringent: but they
have long been disregarded in practice.



349. GLECHOMA hederacea. GROUND-IVY. The Leaves.--This herb is an useful
corroborant, aperient, and detergent; and hence stands recommended
against laxity, debility, and obstructions of the viscera: some have had
a great opinion of it for cleansing and healing ulcers of the internal
parts, even of the lungs; and for purifying the blood. It is customary
to infuse the dried leaves in malt liquors, to which it readily imparts
its virtues; a practice not to be commended, unless it is for the
purpose of medicine.



350. HEDERA helix. IVY. The Leaves and Berries.--The leaves have very
rarely been given internally; notwithstanding they are recommended (in
the Ephem. natur. curios. vol. ii. obs. 120.) against the atrophy of
children; their taste is nauseous, acrid, and bitter. Externally they
have sometimes been employed for drying and healing ichorous sores, and
likewise for keeping issues open. The berries were supposed by the
ancients to have a purgative and emetic quality; later writers have
recommended them in small doses, as diaphoretics and alexipharmics; and
Mr. Boyle tells us, that in the London plague the powder of them was
given with vinegar, with good success, as a sudorific. It is probable
the virtue of the composition was rather owing to the vinegar than to
the powder.



351. HERNIARIA glabra. RUPTUREWORT. The Leaves.--It is a very mild
restringent, and may, in some degree, be serviceable in disorders
proceeding from a weak flaccid state of the viscera: the virtue which it
has been most celebrated for, it has little title to, that of curing
hernias.



352. HYPERICUM perforatum. ST. JOHN'S WORT. The Leaves and Flowers.--Its
taste is rough and bitterish; the smell disagreeable. Hypericum has long
been celebrated as a corroborant, diuretic, and vulnerary; but more
particularly in hysterical and maniacal disorders: it has been reckoned
of such efficacy in these last, as to have thence received the name of
fuga daemonum.



353. JASMINUM officinale. JASMINE. The Flowers.--The flowers have a
strong smell, which is liked by most people, though to some
disagreeable: expressed oils extract their fragrance by infusion; and
water elevates somewhat of it in distillation, but scarcely any
essential oil can be obtained from them: the distilled water, kept for a
little time, loses its odour.



354. IRIS Pseudoacorus. FLOWER-DE-LUCE. The Root.--The roots, when
recent, have a bitter, acrid, nauseous taste, and taken into the stomach
prove strongly cathartic; and hence the juice is recommended in
dropsies, in the dose of three or four scruples. By drying they lose
this quality, yet still retain a somewhat pungent, bitterish taste:
their smell in this state is of the aromatic kind.



355. IRIS florentina. FLORENTINE IRIS, OR ORRIS-ROOT.--The roots grown
in this country have neither the odour nor the other qualities that
those possess which are grown in warmer climates: so that, for the
purposes of medicine, they are usually imported from Leghorn.

The root in its recent state is extremely acrid, and, when chewed,
excites a pungent heat in the mouth which continues several hours; but
on being dried, this acrimony is almost wholly dissipated, the taste
becomes slightly bitter, and the smell approaching to that of violets.
It is now chiefly used in its dried state, and ranked as a pectoral or
expectorant. The principal use of the roots is, however, for the
purposes of perfumery, for which it is in considerable demand.



356. LACTUCA sativa. GARDEN LETTUCE. The Leaves and Seeds.--It smells
strongly of opium, and resembles it in its effects; and its narcotic
power, like that of the poppy heads, resides in its milky juice. An
extract from the expressed juice is recommended in small doses in
dropsy. In those diseases of long standing proceeding from visceral
obstructions, it has been given to the extent of half an ounce a-day. It
is said to agree with the stomach, to quench thirst, to be greatly
laxative, powerfully diuretic, and somewhat diaphoretic.



357. LAMIUM album. WHITE ARCHANGEL, OR DEAD NETTLE. The Flowers.--The
flowers have been particularly celebrated in female weaknesses, as also
in disorders of the lungs; but they appear to be of very weak powers.



358. LAVENDULA Stoechas. ARABIAN STOECHAS, OR FRENCH LAVEN-DER. The
Flowers.--They have a very fragrant smell, and a warm, aromatic,
bitterish, subacrid taste: distilled with water, they yield a
considerable quantity of a fragrant essential oil; to rectified spirit
it imparts a strong tincture, which inspissated proves an elegant
aromatic extract, but is seldom used in medicine.



359. LEONURUS Cardiaca. MOTHERWORT. The Leaves.--These have a bitter
taste, and a pretty strong smell: they are supposed to be useful in
hysteric disorders, to strengthen the stomach, to promote urine; and
indeed it may be judged from their smell and taste, that their medical
virtues are considerable, though they are now rejected both from the
London and Edinburgh Pharmacopoeias.



360. LILIUM candidum. WHITE LILY. The Roots.--These are used in
poultices. The good housewife doctors cut the roots in slices and steep
them in brandy; and they are said to be an excellent remedy for all
bruises and green wounds: for which purposes it is applied by them with
considerable effect.



361. LITHOSPERMUM officinale. GROMWELL. The Seeds.--These are roundish,
hard, and of a whitish colour, like little pearls. Powdered, they have
been supposed peculiarly serviceable in calculous disorders. Their taste
is merely farinaceous.



362. LYSIMACHIA Nummularia. MONEYWORT, OR HERB TWOPENCE. The Leaves.--
Their taste is subastringent, and very slightly acid: hence they stand
recommended by Boerhaave in the hot scurvy, and in uterine and other
haemorrhagies. But their effects are so inconsiderable, that common
practice takes no notice of them.



363. MALVA alcea. VERVAIN-MALLOW. The Leaves.--Alcea agrees in quality
with the Althaea and Malva vulgaris; but appears to be less mucilaginous
than either.



364. MATRICARIA Parthenium. COMMON WILD FEVERFEW. The Leaves and
Flowers.--Simon Pauli relates, that he has experienced most happy
effects from it in obstructions of the uterine evacuations. I have often
seen, says he, from the use of a decoction of Matricaria and chamomile
flowers with a little mugwort, hysteric complaints instantly relieved,
and the patient from a lethargic state, returned as it were into life
again. Matricaria is likewise recommended in sundry other disorders, as
a warm stimulating bitter: all that bitters and carminatives can do,
says Geoffroy, may be expected from this. It is undoubtedly a medicine
of some use in these cases, though not perhaps equal to chamomile
flowers alone, with which the Matricaria agrees in sensible qualities,
except in being weaker.



365. NEPETA Calamintha. FIELD CALAMINT. The Leaves.--This is a low
plant, growing wild about hedges and highways, and in dry sandy soils.
The leaves have a quick warm taste, and smell strongly of pennyroyal: as
medicines, they differ little otherwise from spearmint, than in being
somewhat hotter, and of a less pleasant odour; which last circumstance
has procured calamint the preference in hysteric cases.



366. NEPETA cataria. NEP, OR CATMINT. The Leaves.--This is a moderately
aromatic plant, of a strong smell, not ill resembling a mixture of mint
and pennyroyal; it is also recommended in hysteric cases.



367. NIGELLA romana. FENNEL-FLOWER. The Seeds.--They have a strong, not
unpleasant smell; and a subacrid, somewhat unctuous disagreeable taste.
They stand recommended as aperient, diuretic, &c. but being suspected to
have noxious qualities should be used with caution.



368. NYMPHAEA alba. WHITE WATER-LILY. The Root and Flowers.--These have a
rough, bitterish, glutinous taste, (the flowers are the least rough,)
and when fresh a disagreeable smell, which is in great measure lost by
drying: they are recommended in alvine fluxes, gleets, and the like. The
roots are supposed by some to be in an eminent degree narcotic.



369. OCYMUM Basilicum. BASIL. The Leaves.--These have a soft, somewhat
warm taste; and when rubbed, a strong unpleasant smell, which by
moderate drying becomes more agreeable. They are said to attenuate
viscid phlegm, promote expectoration, and the uterine secretions.



370. OPHIOGLOSSUM vulgatum. ADDERS-TONGUE. The Leaf.--An ointment is
made of the fresh leaves, and it is a good application to green wounds.
It is a very antient application, although now discarded from the
apothecary's shop.



371. PAEONIA corolloides. MALE PEONY. The Seeds.--These are strong, and
worn round the neck to assist detention, and are probably as good as
other celebrated anodyne beads which have been so long recommended for
the same purpose.



372. PHELLANDRIUM aquaticum. WATER HEMLOCK.--The seeds of this plant,
according to Dr. Lange, when taken in large doses, produce a remarkable
sensation of weight in the head, accompanied with giddiness,
intoxication, &c. It may probably prove, however, an active medicine,
especially in wounds and inveterate ulcers of different kinds, and even
in cancers; also in phthisis pulmonalis, asthma, dyspepsia, intermittent
fevers, &c. About two scruples of the seed, two or three times a-day,
was the ordinary dose given. Medicines of this kind should be used with
great caution.--Woodville's Med. Bot. p. 91, 92.



373. PIMPINELLA saxifraga. BURNET SAXIFRAGE. The Root, Leaves, and
Seeds.--This root promises from its sensible qualities, to be a medicine
of considerable utility, though little regarded in common pratice.
Stahl, Hoffman, and other German physicians, are extremely fond of it,
and recommend it as an excellent stomachic, resolvent, detergent,
diuretic, diaphoretic, and alexipharmic.



374. PLANTAGO major. COMMON BROAD-LEAVED PLANTAIN.--The leaves are
slightly astringent, and the seeds said to be so; and hence they stand
recommended in haemorrhages, and other cases where medicines of this kind
are proper. The leaves bruised a little, are the usual application of
the common people to slight flesh wounds. The Edinburgh College used to
direct an extract to be made from the leaves.



375. POTENTILLA anserina. SILVERWEED. The Leaves.--The sensible
qualities of Anserina promise no great virtue of any kind, for to the
taste it discovers only a slight roughness, from whence it was thought
to be entitled to a place among the milder corroborants. As the
astringency of Tormentil is confined chiefly to its root, it might be
thought that the same circumstance would take place in this plant; but
the root is found to have no other than a pleasant sweetish taste, like
that of parsnip, but not so strong.



376. POTENTILLA reptans. CINQUEFOIL, OR FIVE-LEAVED GRASS. Root.--The
root is moderately astringent: and as such is sometimes given internally
against diarrhoeas and other fluxes; and employed in gargarisms for
strengthening the gums, &c. The cortical part of the root may be taken,
in substance, to the quantity of a dram: the internal part is
considerably weaker, and requires to be given in double the dose to
produce the same effect. It is scarcely otherwise made use of than as an
ingredient in Venice treacle.--Lewis's Mat. Med.



377. POPULUS niger. THE BLACK POPLAR. Its Buds.--The young buds or
rudiments of the leaves, which appear in the beginning of spring, abound
with a yellow, unctuous odorous juice. They have hitherto been employed
chiefly in an ointment, which received its name from them; though they
are certainly capable of being applied to other purposes: a tincture of
them made in rectified spirit, yields upon being isnpissated, a fragrant
resin superior to many of those brought from abroad.



378. PRIMULA officinalis. COWSLIP. The Flowers.--The flowers appear in
April; they have a pleasant sweet smell, and a subacrid, bitterish,
subastringent taste. An infusion of them, used as tea, is recommended as
a mild corroborant in nervous complaints. A strong infusion of them,
with a proper quantity of sugar, forms an agreeable syrup, which for a
long time maintained a place in the shops. By boiling, even for a little
time, their fine flavour is destroyed. A wine is also made of the
flowers, which is given as an opiate.



379. PRUNELLA vulgaris. SELFHEAL. The Leaves.--It has an herbaceous
roughish taste, and hence stands recommended in haemorrhages and alvine
fluxes. It has been principally celebrated as a vulnerary, whence its
name; and in gargarisms for aphthae and inflammations of the fauces.



380. PULMONARIA officinalis. SPOTTED LUNGWORT. The Leaves.--They stand
recommended against ulcers of the lungs, phthisis, and other like
disorders.--Lewis's Mat. Med.



381. RANUNCULUS Ficaria. PILEWORT. The Leaves and Root.--The roots
consist of slender fibres, with some little tubercles among them. These,
with the leaves, are considered of considerable eficacy in the cure of
haemorrhoids; for which purpose, considerable quantities are sold at
herb-shops in London.



382. RANUNCULUS Flammula. SMALL SPEARWORT.--It has been lately
discovered that this plant possesses very active powers as an emetic,
and it is supposed to be useful in some cases of vegetable poisons.



383. RHAMNUS Frangula. THE BLACK OR BERRY-BEARING ALDER. Its Bark.--The
internal bark of the trunk or root of the tree, given to the quantity of
a dram, purges violently, occasioning gripes, nausea, and vomiting.
These may be in good measure prevented by the addition of aromatics; but
we have plenty of safer and less precarious purgatives.



384. RHUS coriaria. ELM-LEAVED SUMACH.--Both the leaves and berries have
been employed in medicine; but the former are more astringent and tonic,
and have been long in common use, though at present discarded from the
Pharmacopoeias.



385. RIBES nigrum.--The juice of black currants boiled up with sugar to
a jelly, is an excellent remedy against sore throats.



386. RUMEX Hydrolapathum. THE GREAT WATER DOCK.--The leaves of the docks
gently loosen the belly, and have sometimes been made ingredients in
decoctions for removing a costive habit. The roots, in conjunction with
other medicines, are celebrated for the cure of scorbutic and cutaneous
disorders, for which the following receipt is given by Lewis.

Six ounces of the roots of the water dock, with two of saffron; and of
mace, cinnamon, gentian root, liquorice root, and black pepper, each
three ounces, (or, where the pepper is improper, six ounces of
liquorice,) are to be reduced into coarse powder, and put into a mixture
of two gallons of wine, with half a gallon of strong vinegar, and the
yolks of three egs; and the whole digested, with a moderate warmth, for
three days, in a glazed vessel close stopped: from three to six ounces
of this liquor are to be taken every morning on an empty stomach, for
fourteen or twenty days, or longer.



387. SALVIA Sclarea. GARDEN CLARY. The Leaves and Seeds.--These have a
warm, bitterish, pungent taste; and a strong, not very agreeable smell:
the touch discovers in the leaves a large quantity of glutinous or
resinous matter. They are principally recommended in female weaknesses,
in hysteric disorders, and in flatulent colics.



388. SAMBUCUS Ebulus. DWARF ELDER, OR DANEWORT. The Root, Bark, and
Leaves.--These have a nauseous, sharp, bitter taste, and a kind of acrid
ungrateful smell: they are all strong cathartics, and as such are
recommended in dropsies, and other cases where medicines of that kind
are indicated. The bark of the root is said to be strongest: the leaves
the weakest. But they are all too churlish medicines for general use:
they sometimes evacuate violently upwards, almost always nauseate the
stomach, and occasion great uneasiness of the bowels. By boiling they
become (like the other drastics) milder, and more safe in operation.
Fernelius relates, that by long coction they entirely lose their
purgative virtue. The berries of this plant are likewise purgative, but
less virulent than the other parts. A rob prepared from them may be
given to the quantity of an ounce, as a cathartic; and in smaller ones
as an aperient and deobstruent in chronic disorders: in this last
intention, it is said by Haller to be frequently used in Switzerland, in
the dose of a dram.



389. SANICULA officinalis. SANICLE. The Leaves.--These have an
herbaceous, roughish taste: they have long been celebrated for sanative
virtues, both internally and externally; nevertheless their effects, in
any intention, are not considerable enough to gain them a place in the
present practice.



390. SAPONARIA officinalis. SOAPWORT. The Herb and Root.--The roots
taste sweetish and somewhat pungent; and have a light smell like those
of liquorice: digested in rectified spirit they yield a strong tincture,
which loses nothing of its taste or flavour in being inspissated to the
consistence of an extract. This elegant root has not come much into
practice among us, though it promises, from its sensible qualities, to
be a medicine of considerable utility: it is greatly esteemed by the
German physicians as an aperient, corroborant, and sudorific; and
preferred by the College of Wirtemberg, by Stahl, Neumann, and others,
to sarsaparilla.



391. SAXIFRAGA granulata.--Linnaeus describes the taste of this plant to
be acrid and pungent, which we have not been able to discover. Neither
the tubercles of this root, nor the leaves, manifest to the organs of
taste any quality likely to be of medicinal use; and therefore, though
this species of Saxifraga has been long employed as a popular remedy in
nephritic and gravelly disorders, yet we do not find, either from its
sensible qualities or from any published instances of its efficacy, that
it deserves a place in the Materia Medica.--Woodville's Med. Bot. p.
551.



392. SCABIOSA succisa. DEVIL'S BIT. The Leaves and Roots.--These stand
recommended as alexipharmics, but they have long given place to
medicines of greater efficacy.



393. SCANDIX Cerefolium. Chervil. The Leaves.--Geoffroy assures us, that
he has found it from experience to be of excellent service in dropsies:
that in this disorder it promotes the discharge of urine when
suppressed, renders it clear when feculent and turbid, and when high and
fiery of a paler colour; that it acts midly without irritation, and
tends rather to allay than excite inflammation. He goes so far as to
say, that dropsies which do not yield to this medicine are scarce
capable of being cured by any other. He directs the juice to be given in
the dose of three or four ounces every fourth hour, and continued for
some time, either alone, or in conjunction with nitre and syrup.



394. SEDUM Telephium. ORPINE. The Leaves.--This is a very thick-leaved
juicy plant, not unlike the houseleeks. It has a mucilaginous roughish
taste, and hence is recommended as emollient and astringent, but has
never been much regarded in practice.



395. SEMPERVIVUM tectorum. GREATER HOUSE-LEEK. The Leaves.--These are
principally applied in cases of erysipelatous and other hot eruptions of
the skin, in which they are of immediate service in allaying the pain
arising therefrom: great quantities are cultivated in Surrey, and
brought to the London markets. It is remarkable of this plant, that its
juice, when purified by filtration, appears of a dilute yellowish colour
upon the admixture of an equal quantity of rectified spirit of wine; but
forms a beautiful white, light coagulum, like the finer kinds of
pomatum: this proves extremely volatile; for when freed from the aqueous
phlegm, and exposed to the air, it altogether exhales in a very little
time.



396. SENECIO Jacobaea. RAGWORT. The Leaves.--Their taste is roughish,
bitter, pungent, and extremely unpleasant: they stand strongly
recommended by Simon Pauli against dysenteries; but their forbidding
taste has prevented its coming into practice.



397. SOLANUM nigrum. COMMON NIGHTSHADE. The Leaves and Berries.--In the
year 1757, Mr. Gataker, surgeon to the Westminster Hospital, called the
attention of the Faculty to this plant, by a publication recommending
its internal use in old sores, srophulous and cancerous ulcers,
cutaneous eruptions, and even dropsies; all of which were much relieved
or completely cured of it.



398. SPIRAEA Ulmaria. MEADOW-SWEET. The Leaves and Flowers.--The flowers
have a very pleasant flavour, which water extracts from them by
infusion, and elevates in distillation.



399. SPIRAEA Filipendula. DROPWORT. The Root.--The root consists of a
number of tubercles, fastened together by slender strings; its taste is
rough and bitterish, with a slight degree of pungency. These qualities
point out its use in a flaccid state of the vessels, and a sluggishness
of the juices: the natural evacuations are in some measure restrained or
promoted by it, where the excess or deficiency proceeds from this cause.
Hence some have recommended it as an astringent in dysenteries, a
diuretic, and others as an aperient and deobstruent in scrophulous
habits.



400. SYMPHYTUM officinale. COMFREY. The Root.--The roots are very large,
black on the outside, white within, full of a viscid glutinous juice, of
no particular taste. They agree in quality with the roots of Althaea;
with this difference, that the mucilage of it is somewhat
stronger-bodied. Many ridiculous histories of the consolidating virtues
of this plant are related by authors.



401. TAMUS communis. BLACK BRYONY.--The root is one of the best
diuretics known in medicine. It is an excellent remedy in the gravel and
all obstructions of urine, and other disorders of the like nature.



402. TANACETUM vulgare. TANSY. The Leaves.--These have a bitterish warm
aromatic taste; and a very pleasant smell, approaching to that of mint
or a mixture of mint and maudlin. Water elevates their flavour in
distillation; and rectified spirit extracts it by infusion. They have
been recommended in hysteric cases.



403. TEUCRIUM Chamaepitys. GROUND PINE. The Leaves.--These are
recommended as aperient and vulnerary, as also in gouty and rheumatic
pains.



404. THYMUS vulgaris. THYME. The Leaves and Flowers.--A tea made of the
fresh tops of thyme is good in asthmas and diseases of the lungs. It is
recommended against nervous complaints; but for this purpose the wild
thyme is preferable. There is an oil made from thyme that cures the
tooth-ache, a drop or two of it being put upon lint and applied to the
tooth; this is commonly called oil of origanum.



405. TRIGONELLA Foenum-graecum. FOENUGREEK. The Seeds.--They are of a
yellow colour, a rhomboidal figure; have a disagreeable strong smell,
and a mucilaginous taste. Their principal use is in cataplasms,
fomentations, and the like, and in emollient glysters.



406. VERBASCUM Thapsus. MULLEIN. The Leaves and Flowers.--Their taste
discovers a glutinous quality; and hence they stand recommended as an
emollient, and is in some places held in great esteem in consumptions.
The flowers of mullein have an agreeable, honeylike sweetness: an
extract prepared from them by rectified spirit of wine tastes extremely
pleasant.



407. VERBENA officinalis. COMMON WILD VERVAIN. The Leaves and Root.--
This is one of the medicines which we owe to the superstition of former
ages; the virtue it has been celebrated for is as an amulet, on which a
pamphlet was some years ago published. It was recommended to wear the
root by a ribband tied round the neck for the cure of the scrophula, and
for which purpose, even now, much of the root is sold in London. As the
age of superstition is passing by, it will be needless to say more on
the subject at present.



408. VERONICA officinalis. MALE SPEEDWELL. The Leaves.--Hoffman and Joh.
Francus have written express treatises on this plant, recommending
infusions of it, drunk in the form of tea, as very salubrious in many
disorders, particularly those of the breast.



*       *       *       *       *



Observations on the Drying and Preserving of Herbs, &c. for Medicinal
Purposes.



The student who has paid attention to the subject described in the
foregoing sections, will be struck with the admirable contrivance of
Divine Wisdom; that has caused such astringent substances as are
contained in the oak and Peruvian bark, to be produced from the same
soil, and in a similar way to those mucilaginous and laxative ones which
we find in the juice of the marsh-mallow, and the olive oil. It is not
intended in this small elementary work to enter into any investigation
of the primitive parts of the vegetable creation, or how such different
particles are secreted. It may therefore suffice, that, although the
science of vegetable physiology admits of many very beautiful and
instructing illustrations, yet they only go so far as to prove to us,
that the first and grand principle of vegetable life and existence, as
well as of the formation of all organic substances, consists in a system
of attraction and combination of the different particles of nature, as
they exist and are imbibed from the soil and the surrounding atmosphere.
Thus, during their existence, we observe a continual series of
aggregation of substance; but no sooner does the principle of life
become extinct, than the agents of decomposition are at work, dividing
and selecting each different substance, and carrying it back from whence
it came:--"From dust thou comest, and to dust thou shalt return." This,
therefore, seems to be the sum total of existence; the explanation of
which, with all its interesting ramifications, is more fully explained
by the learned professors in what is called the science of chemistry.

As plants of all descriptions, and their several parts, form a link of
that chain by which the welfare of the universe is connected, the
industry of mankind is excited to preserve them for the different
purposes to which they are applicable, in the oeconomy of human
existence, to whose use the greater part of the animal and vegetable
creation appears to be subservient. As men, then, and rational beings,
it becomes our duty so to manage those things, when necessary, as to
counteract as much as possible the decomposition and corruption which
are natural to all organized bodies when deprived of the living
principle.

We find that some vegetables are used fresh, but the greater part are
preserved in a dry state; in which, by proper management, they can be
kept for a considerable time afterwards, both for our own use as well as
for that of others who reside at a distance from the place of their
production.

In the preparation of the parts of plants for medicinal purposes, we
should always have in view the extreme volatility of many of those
substances, and how necessary it therefore is, that the mode of
preparation and drying should be done as quickly as possible, in order
to counteract the effects of the air and light, which continue to
dissipate, without intermission, these particles, during the whole time
that any vegetable, either fresh or dried, is left to its influence.

If we consider the nature of hops, which I shall take as an example, as
being prepared in this way on the largest scale, we shall find they
consist of three different principles; namely, an aroma, combined with
an agreeable bitter taste, and a yellow colour; all of which properties
are, by the consumers and dealers therein, expected to exist in the
article after drying.

The art of drying hops, therefore, has been a subject of speculation for
many years; and although we find the kiln apparatus for preserving them
differ in many places, from the various opinions of the projectors, yet
they are all intended for the same mode of action, i. e. the producing
of a proper degree of heat, which must be regulated according to the
state of the atmosphere at the gathering season, and the consequent
quantity of the watery extract that the hops contain at the time: thus
it is usual to have two kilns of different temperatures at work at the
same time. It should, however, be observed, that the principal art of
drying hops is in doing it as quickly as possible, so as not to injure
them in their colour. As soon as they are dried, it is considered
necessary to put them up into close and thick bags.

It should be observed, that all vegetables contain at every period of
their growth two distinct species of moiture: the one called by
naturalists the common juice, which is the ascending sap, and is replete
with watery particles: the other is termed the proper juice, which
having passed up through the leaves, and being there concocted and
deprived of the watery part, contains the principle on which various
properties and virtues of the plant depend. We therefore find that the
operations above described only go to this, that the watery particles in
the common juice should be evaporated, as being a part necessary to be
got rid of; and the proper juice being of a volatile nature, the less
time the plants are exposed for that purpose, the less of this precious
material will be lost: and as those parts are flying off continually
from all dried vegetables, there should be one general rule made with
regard to their peparation; for, if we instance mint, balm, pennyroyal,
&c., the longer these are kept in the open air, the weaker are they
found to be in their several parts.

From hence we may naturally infer, that the usual mode in which the
generality of herbs are dried, is not so good for the purpose, as one
would be if contrived on similar principles, as, during the length of
time necessary for the purpose, a great deal of the principal parts of
the plants must of course be evaporated and lost; for little else is
regarded than to dry them so as to prevent putrefaction. Although the
generality of herbs met with are prepared as above described, yet in
such articles as Digitalis, Hyoscyamus, Conium, Toxicodendron, &c.,
where the quantity necessary for a dose is so small, and so much depends
on its action, practitioners are often obliged to prepare it themselves.
I shall therefore relate the following mode as the best adapted to that
purpose. The Digitalis is prepared by collecting the leaves in the
summer, and stripping them off from the foot-stalks; these should be
then carefully exposed to a slow heat, and the watery extract slowly
thrown off; in which they should not be exposed to any great degree of
heat, which by its action will deprive them of their fine green colour.
When this is effected, the whole may be put in contact with a heat that
will enable the operator to reduce it to a fine powder. And in order to
keep it with its virtues perfect, it will be necessary to deprive it as
much as possible of the influence of air and light. Hence it is
preserved in close glass bottles which are coated, and also placed in a
dark part of the elaboratory. Now, it is necessary that all plants
intended to be used in a dried state, should be prepared and protected
in a similar manner; and although it may be considered as a superfluous
trouble, so far as regards the more common kinds, particular attention
should be paid to these, when a small quantity is a dose, and an
over-dose a certain poison.

Other kinds of vegetables require a certain degree of fermentation, as
Tobacco. The prinicpal art of preserving it consists in this operation
being duly performed; for which purpose, as soon as the leaves of the
herb are fit, the foot-stalks are broken, and the leaves left on, in
order for the moisture in part to be evaporated. Afterwards these are
gathered and tied in handfuls, and hung up in the shade to dry; and when
sufficiently divested of moisture, the bundles are collected together
and laid in large boxes or tubs, in which these are fermented, and
afterwards taken out again and dried; when it is found fit to pack up
for the market.

The properties of Stramonium, which has been so much recommended for
curing asthma, consist pricipally in the aroma, which is only to be
preserved in a similar manner: and I have found from experience, that if
the leaves are separated from the plant in a manner similar to that of
tobacco, and the rest of the plant, noth roots, stalks, and
seed-vessels, be slit and sufficiently dried in the sun or in an oven,
and the whole fermented together, a very different article is the
produce than what it is when dried in the usual way, and left entirely
to the chance influence of the atmosphere.

In the common operation of hay-making it may also be observed, that the
continued turning it over and admitting its parts to the action of the
sun and the air, is for the purpose of getting rid of the watery
particles contained in it; and the quicker this is done, the better it
is. And although this operation is so essentially necessary, yet care
should be taken at the same time, that it be not made too dry, so as to
prevent a due degree of fermentation being allowed to take place in the
rick. And it may be observed that the best grasses, or other plants used
for hay, if made too dry, so as to prevent the natural fermentation
which their proper juices will excite, can never make either palatable
or nutritive food for cattle. Neither can the same be effected if the
article is used in too small quantities. It should be observed, that
herbs of all kinds should be gathered for peserving when in full bloom;
but when roots or barks are recommended, these should be collected in
the autumn months. The principles laid down for preserving dried plants
generally, will apply to these parts also.



*       *       *       *       *



SECTION IX.--PLANTS USED FOR CULINARY PURPOSES.



"Man's first great ruling passion is to eat."



In the following section I have confined myself principally to such as
are in cultivation. There are many of our indigenous plants which, in
times of scarcity, and in other cases of necessity, are used as food by
the people in the neighbourhood where they grow. But of these I shall
make a separate list.



409. ARTICHOKE. Cynara Scolymus.--We have several varieties of this
plant in cultivation; but the most approved are the large green and the
globe. They are propagated by taking off the young suckers from the old
roots in May, and planting them in a piece of rich land. Artichokes have
been raised from seed, but they are seldom perfected in this country.



410. ARTICHOKE, JERUSALEM. Helianthus tuberosus.--Is cultivated for the
sake of its tubers, similar to the potatoe; but they are not generally
esteemed.



411. ASPARAGUS. Asparagus officinalis.--A very delicious vegetable in
the spring, and well known to all amateurs of gardening.

There is a variety called the Gravesend Asparagus, and another called
the Battersea; but it is the richness of the soil and manure that makes
the only difference.



412. BASIL, SWEET. Ocymum Basilicum.--A pot-herb of considerable use for
culinary purposes. It is an annual; and the seeds should be sown in a
hot-bed in March, and transplanted into the open ground. It is usually
dried as other pot-herbs.



413. BEANS. Vicia Faba.--The varieties of the garden-beans are as
follow:--

The early Mazagan and Longpod are planted in November. These will
usually be fit for use in June.

The Windsor.
The Toker.
The Sword Longpod.
The Green Toker.
The White-blossomed.

These are sown usually in succession from January to March, and afford a
continuance of crop during the season.



414. BEANS, FRENCH OR KIDNEY. Phaseolus vulgaris.--The kidney beans are
of two kinds; such as run up sticks and flower on the tops. Of this
description we have in cultivation the following:--

The Scarlet Runner. The Dutch Runner.

Both these are much esteemed.

Of dwarf kinds we have many varieties. The pollen of these plants is
very apt to become mixed; and, consequently, hybrid kinds differing in
the colour of the seeds are often produced. The season for sowing these
is from April till June.

The Black, or Negro Beans. The Blue Dwarf. The Early Yellow. The Black
Speckled. The Red Speckled. The Magpie. The Canterbury.

All these varieties are good and early beans. The white Canterbury is
the kind most esteemed for pickling; the other sorts being all of them
more or less discoloured: and this kind is the sort generally sold for
such purpose in the London markets.



415. BEET, RED. Beta vulgaris v. rubra.--The roots of this variety are
used both in soups and for early spring salads: it is cultivated by
sowing the seeds in March; and the roots are usually kept all winter.

The white beet is only a variety of the other; and it is the tops that
are usually eaten of this kind as a substitute for spinach. Its culture
is the same as that of the red kind.



416. BORECOLE. Brassica Rapa.--Of borecole we have two varieties; the
purple, and green. The former is in much esteem amongst the Germans, who
make a number of excellent dishes from it in the winter.

The culture is the same as for winter cabbage of other kinds.



417. BRUSSELS SPROUTS. Brassica Rapa.--This is also a useful variety of
the cabbage species, which is very productive, forming a large number of
beautiful small close-headed cabbages on their high stalks in the winter
season. The seeds are sown in March.



418. BURNET. Poterium Sanguisorba.--The young leaves of this plant are
eaten with other tender herbs in the spring, and are considered a
wholesome addition to mustard, cress, corn-salad, &c.



419. CABBAGE. Brassica oleracea.--The varieties of cabbage are numerous.
The most esteemed are,

The Early York. The Early Sugar-loaf. The Early Battersea. The Early
Russia.

They are all sown in August, and planted out for an early summer-crop,
and are usually in season in May and June.

The Large Battersea. The Red Cabbage. The Green Savoy. The White Savoy.

These are usually sown in March, and planted for a winter crop.

The use and qualities of the cabbage are too well known to need any
further description.



420. CAULIFLOWER. Brassica oleracea var.--The varieties are,

The Early. The Late.

The early cauliflower is sown in the first week in September, and
usually sheltered under bell or hand glasses during the winter. By this
means the crop is fit for table in the months of May and June.

The late sort is usually sown in the month of March, and planted out for
a succession to the first crop.



421. CAPERS. Capparis spinosa.--This is the flower-pod before it opens
of the above shrub, and is only kept as an ornamental plant here. I am
induced to notice this plant, as I have known some things used in
mistake for capers that are dangerous. I once saw an instance of this,
in the seed-vessels of the Euphorbia Lathyris (which is a poisonous
plant) being pickled by an ignorant person.



422. CAPSICUM. Capsicum annuum.--Cayenne pepper is made from a small
variety of this plant.

We have many varieties cultivated here in hot-beds; namely, yellow and
red, of various shapes, as long, round, and heart-shaped. All these are
very useful, either pickled by themselves, or mixed with any other
substances, as love-apple, radish pods, &c. to which they impart a very
fine warm flavour.



423. CARROT. Daucus Carota.--

The Orange Carrot.--For winter use.

The Early Horn ditto.--For summer use.--The former is usually sown in
March; the latter being smaller, and more early, is commonly raised on
hot-beds. The Early Horn Carrot may likewise be sown in August, and is
good all winter.



424. CELERY. Apium graveolens.--Celery is now so generally known as to
render a description of the plant useless; nor need it be told, that the
stalks blanched are eaten raw, stewed, &c. It should be used with great
caution, if grown in wet land, as it has been considered poisonous in
such cases. The season of sowing celery is in April. We have a variety
of this, which is red, and much esteemed.



425. CELERIAC. This is a variety of the Apium graveolens. It is hollow
in the stem, and the roots are particularly large: although this is much
used in Germany, it is not so much esteemed by us as the celery.



426. CHAMPIGNON. Agaricus pratensis.--This plant is equal in flavour to
the mushroom when boiled or stewed: it is rather dry, and has little or
no scent whatever.



427. CHARDOONS. Cynara Cardunculus.--The gardeners blanch the stalks as
they do celery; and they are eaten raw with oil, pepper, and vinegar;
or, if fancy directs, they are also either boiled or stewed.



428. CHERVIL. Scandix Cerefolium.--This plant is so much used by the
French and Dutch, that there is scarcely a soup or salad but what
chervil makes part of it: it is grateful to the taste. See article
oenanthe crocata in the Poisonous Plants.



429. CIVES. Allium Schoenoprasum.--This is an excellent herb for salads
in the spring: it is also useful for soups, &c. &c. It is perennial, and
propagated by its roots, which readily part at any season.



430. CLARY. Salvia Sclarea.--The seeds are sown in autumn. It is
biennial. The recent leaves dipped in milk, and then fried in butter,
were formerly used as a dainty dish; but now it is mostly used as a
pot-herb, and for making an useful beverage called Clary Wine, viz.--Put
four pounds of sugar to five gallons of water, and the albumen of three
eggs well beaten; boil these together for about sixteen minutes, then
skim the liquor; and when it is cool, add of the leaves and blossoms two
gallons, and also of yeast half a pint; and when this is completed, put
it all together into a vessel and stir it two or three times a-day till
it has done fermenting, and then stop it close for two months:
afterwards draw it into a clean vessel, adding to it a quart of good
brandy. In two months it will be fit to bottle.



431. COLEWORT. Brassica oleracea var.--This is a small variety of the
common cabbage, which is sown in June, and planted out for autumn and
winter use. These are often found to stand the severe frosts of our
winter when the large sort of cabbages are killed; but its principal use
with gardeners is, to have a crop that will occupy the land after the
beans and pease are over, and perhaps Colewort is the most advantageous
for such purposes.



432. CORN SALAD. Valeriana Locusta.--An annual, growing wild in
Battersea fields, and many other parts of this kingdom.

It is usually sown in August, and stands the winter perfectly well; it
is very similar to lettuce, and is a good substitute for it in the
spring and winter seasons.



433. COSTMARY Tanacetum Balsamita.--Is used as a herb in salad. This is
a perennial plant of easy culture.



434. CRESS. Lepidium sativum.--There are two varieties of cress, the
curled and common. This is an ingredient with mustard in early salads.



435. CRESS, AMERICAN. Erysimum Barbarea.--This is cultivated for salads,
and is much esteemed. It is increased by sowing the seeds in the spring.
This is only good in the winter and spring seasons.



436. CUCUMBERS. Cucumis sativus.--Many sorts of cucumbers are cultivated
by gardeners. The most esteemed are,

The Southgate Cucumber. The Long Prickly. The Long Turkey. The White
Spined.

The early crop is usually sown in hot-beds in the spring, and is a crop
on which most gardeners have always prided themselves, each on his best
mode of management of this crop. They will also grow if sown in April,
and planted out in the open ground.

The short prickly cucumber is grown for gerkins.



437. DILL. Anethum graveolens.--This is similar to fennel, and used in
pickling. It is esteemed useful as a medicinal herb also; which see.



438. ENDIVE. Cichorium Endivia.--Of this we have three varieties in
cultivation.

The Green Curled. The White Curled. The Batavian, or Broad-leaved.

These are sown usually in June and July, and planted out for use in the
autumn and winter. Endive is well known as forming a principal part of
our winter salads; for which purpose, it is usual with gardeners to
blanch it, by tying the plants up together, and laying them in dry
places.



439. ESCHALOT. Allium ascalonium.--This species of allium is very
pungent: its scent is not unpleasant, but is very strong, and, in
general, it is preferred to the onion for making soups and gravies. It
is propagated by planting the bulbs in September and October: they are
fit to take up in May and June, when they are dried and kept for use.



440. FENNEL. Anethum Foeniculum.--The use of this plant is so well knwon
in the kitchen, as to render an account of it useless. It is propagated
by sowing seeds in the spring.



441. GARLICK. Allium sativum.--This is used in the art of cookery in
various ways, for soups, pickles, &c. It is cultivated by planting the
small cloves or roots in the month of October. It is fit to pull up in
spring; and the roots are dried for use.



442. GOURD. Cucurbita Melopepo.--The inhabitants of North America boil
the squash or melon gourds when about the size of small oranges, and eat
them with their meat. The pulp is used with sour apples to make pies. In
scarcity it is a good substitute for fruit.



443. KOHLRABBI, or TURNEP-ROOTED CABBAGE. Brassica Rapa var.--We have
two kinds of this in cultivation; but although these are both much eaten
in Germany, they are not esteemed with us: in fact, we have so many
varieties of the cabbage kind all the year round for culinary purposes,
that nothing could much improve them. In countries further north than we
are, this is probably an acquisition, as, from its hardiness, it is
likely to stand the frost better than some of the more delicate
varieties.



444. LEEKS. Allium Porrum.--There are two kinds of leeks: the Welsh and
London.

Leeks are used principally in soups; they partake much of the nature of
onions, but for this purpose are in general more esteemed. This plant
has been so long cultivated in this country, that its native place is
not known.

The seeds are sown in the spring, and it is in use all the winter.



445. LETTUCE. Lactuca sativa.--The varieties of lettuce are many. They
are,

Green Coss. White do. Silesia do. Brown do. Egyptian do. Brown Dutch.
White Cabbage. Imperial. Hammersmith Hardy. Tennis-ball.

These are sown every summer month. The brown and Egyptian coss are sown
in August, and commonly stand the winter; and in the spring are fit for
use.



446. LOVE-APPLE. Solanum Lycopersicum.--The Portuguese and Spaniards are
so very fond of this fruit, that there is not a soup or gravy but what
this makes an ingredient in; and it is deemed cooling and nutritive. It
is also called Tomatas, or Tomatoes.

The green fruit makes a most excellent pickle with capsicums and other
berries. It is annual, and raised in hot-bed, and planted out.



447. MARJORAM, WINTER. Origanum vulgare.--This is used as a sweet herb,
and is a good appendage to the usual ingredients in stuffing, &c. It is
a perennial plant, and propagated by planting out its roots in the
spring of the year.



448. MARJORAM, SWEET. Origanum Marjorana.--This is also used for the
same purpose as the last mentioned. It is an annual, and not of such
easy culture as the last, requiring to be raised from seeds in an
artificial heat. It is usually dried and kept for use.



449. MARYGOLD. Calendula officinalis.--An annual plant usually sown in
the spring. The petals of the flowers are eaten in broths and soups, to
which they impart a very pleasant flavour.



450. MUSHROOM. Agaricus campestris.--Is cultivated and well known at our
tables for its fine taste and utility in sauces. These plants do not
produce seeds that can be saved; they are therefore cultivated by
collecting the spawn, which is found in old hot-beds and in meadow
lands.

Various methods have been lately devised for raising mushrooms
artificially: but none seem to be equal to those raised in beds, as is
described in all our books of gardening. Raising this vegetable in close
rooms by fire heat has been found to produce them with a bad flavour;
and they are not considered so wholesome as those grown in the open air,
or when that element is admitted at times freely to the beds.



451. MUSTARD, WHITE. Sinapis alba.--This is sown early in the spring; to
be eaten as salad with cress and other things of the like nature; it is
of easy culture. A salad of this kind may be readily raised on a piece
of thick woollen-cloth, if the seeds are strewed thereon and kept damp;
a convenient mode practised at sea on long voyages. Cress and rap may be
raised in the same manner.



452. ONION. Allium oleraceum.--The kinds of onions in cultivation are,

The Deptford. The Reading. The White Spanish. The Portugal. The Globe,
and The Silver skinned.

All these varieties are usually sown in the spring of the year, and are
good either eaten in their young state, or after they are dried in the
winter. The silver skinned kind is mostly in use for pickling. The globe
and Deptford kinds are remarkable for keeping late in the spring. A
portion of all the other sorts should be sown, as they are all very
good, and some kinds will keep, when others will not.



453. ONION, WELSH. Allium fistulosum.--This is sown in August for the
sake of the young plants, which are useful in winter salads, and are
more hardy than the other cultivated sorts.



454. PARSLEY. Petroselium vulgare.--A well known potherb sown in the
spring; and the plants, if not suffered to go to seed, will last two
years. See aethusa Cynapium, in Poisonous Plants.



455. PARSNEP. Pastinaca sativa.--This is a well known esculent root, and
is raised by sowing the seeds in the spring.



456. PEA. Pisum sativum.--This is a well known dainty at our tables
during spring and summer. The varieties in cultivation are,

Turner's Early Frame. Early Charlton. Golden Hotspur. Double Dwarf.

These are usually sown in November and December, and will succeed each
other in ripening in June, if the season is fine, and afford a crop all
that month.

The Dwarf Marrow-fat. The Royal Dwarf. The Prussia Blue. The Spanish
Dwarf.

These varieties are usually sown in gardens when it is not convenient to
have them grow up sticks, being all of a dwarf kind.

The Tall Marrow-fat. The Green Marrow-fat. The Imperial Egg Pea. The
Rose, or Crown Pea. The Spanish Morotto. Knight's Marrow Pea. The Grey
Rouncival. The Sickle Pea.

This last variety has no skin in the pods. These are used as kidney
beans, as also in the usual way. These varieties are of very large
growth, and are only to be cultivated when there is considerable room,
and must be supported on sticks placed in the ground for that purpose.
The grey pea is usually eaten when in a dry state boiled. Hot grey peas
used to be an article of common sale among our itinerant traders in
London streets, but it has been dropped for some years. One or other of
the different kinds of the larger varieties should be put into the
ground every three weeks from March to the 1st week in June, and a crop
is thereby insured constantly till the beginning of October.

It should be remarked, that peas, as well as all vegetable seeds, are
liable to sport and become hybrid sorts; some of which are at times
saved for separate culture, and are called, when found good, by
particular names; so that every twenty or thirty years many of the kinds
are changed. Thus Briant, in his Flora Diaetetica, enumerates fourteen
varieties, a few only of which bear the same name as those now in the
list of the London seedsmen.



457. POMPION. Cucurbita Pepo.--This is of the gourd species, and grows
to a large size. It is not much in use with us: but in the south of
Europe the inhabitants use the pulp with some acid fruits for pastry,
and it is there very useful. It is also sometimes used in a similar
manner here with apples. Almost all the gourd species are similar in
taste and nutriments when used this way.



458. PURSLANE. Portulaca oleracea.--Two kinds of Purslane, the green and
the golden, are cultivated. These are eaten with vinegar, &c. the same
as other salad oils, and are a fine vegetable in warm weather. The seeds
are usually sown in the spring.



459. RADISH. Raphanus sativus.--The varieties in cultivation are,

The Early Scarlet. The Early Purple Short-top. The Salmon Radish. The
White Turnip Radish. The Red Turnip Radish. The Black Spanish.

The above are sown almost every month in the year, and when the weather
is fine, every good garden may have a supply all the year of those
useful and wholesome vegetables.

The black Spanish radish is a large rooted variety usually sown in
August, and is eaten in the winter season.

The poor labouring man's fare, which is usually eaten under the hedge of
the field of his employment, is often accompanied with a dried onion;
and was this root more known than it generally is, it would yield him,
at the expense of two-pence, with a little labour in his cottage garden,
an equally pleasant and more useful sauce to his coarse but happy meals.
I have observed many instances of this oeconomy amongst the labouring
classes in my youth, but fear it is not quite so commonly made use of in
the present day.



460. RADISH, HORSE. Cochlearia Armoracea.--The root of this vegetable is
a usual accompaniment to the loyal and standard English dishes, the
smoking baron and the roast surloin; with which it is most generally
esteemed.

It should not be passed unnoticed here, that this very grateful and
wholesome root is not at all times to be eaten with impunity. One or two
instances of its deleterious effects have been witnessed by my much
esteemed friend Dr. Taylor, the worthy Secretary at the Society of Arts,
and which he has communicated to me. I shall insert his own words,
particularly as it may be the means of preventing the botanical student
from falling into the same error, after arriving with the usual good
appetite, from his recreative task of herborizing excursions. "Some
gentlemen having ordered a dinner at a tavern, of which scraped
horse-radish was one; some persons in company took a small quantity, and,
dipping it in salt, ate of it: these were soon seized with a suppression
of urine, accompanied with inflammation of the kidneys, which shortly
after proved fatal to one of the company. The Doctor was consulted; but
not knowing exactly the cause of the complaint, of course was at a loss
to apply a remedy in time. But another circumstance of the like nature
having come under his notice, and being apprized of it, by a well
applied corrective medicine he recovered the patient. It should,
therefore, be made a general observation, under such circumstances, and
those are not the most unpleasant we meet with in our researches, 'never
to eat horse-radish on an empty stomach.'"



461. RAMPION. Campanula Rapunculus.--This plant is remarkable for its
milky juice. In France, it is cultivated for its roots, which are boiled
and eaten with salads; but in England it is little noticed, except by
the French cooks, who use it as an ingredient in their soups and
gravies. It is propagated by planting its roots in the spring.



462. RHAPONTIC RHUBARB. Rheum Rhaponticum.--The radical leaf-stalks of
this plant being thick and juicy, and having an acid taste, are
frequently used in the spring as a substitute for gooseberries before
they are ripe, in making puddings, pies, tarts, &c. If they are peeled
with care, they will bake and boil very well, and eat agreeably.



463. ROCAMBOLE. Allium sativum.--The rocambole is merely the bulbs on
the top of the flower-stalk of the garlic, it being a viviparous plant.
The flavour of this being somewhat different, is used in the kitchen
under the above name.



464. SAGE. Salvia officinalis.--Of this we have two varieties, green and
red. The latter is considered the best for culinary purposes: it is the
well-known sauce for geese and other water-fowl. It is propagated by
cuttings in the spring.



465. SALSAFY. Tragopogon porrifolium.--A biennial, sown in March, and is
usually in season during winter. The roots are the parts used, which are
very sweet, and contain a large quantity of milky juice: it is a good
vegetable plain boiled, and the professors of cookery make many fine
dishes of it.



466. SAVORY, SUMMER. Satureja hortensis.

467. SAVORY, WINTER. Satureja montana.

Both sorts are used for the same purposes, as condiments among other
herbs for stuffing, and are well known to cooks. The former is an
annual, and raised by sowing the seeds in March and April. The other,
being perennial, is propagated either by the same means or by cuttings
in the spring of the year. It is also dried for winter use.



468. SAVOY CABBAGE. Brassica oleracea, (var.)

The Green Savoy. The White or Yellow Savoy.

A well-known species of cabbage grown for winter use, and is one of our
best vegetables of that season. It is raised by sowing the seeds in May,
and planting the plants in any spot of ground in July after a crop of
peas or beans. Savoys stand the frost better than most other kinds of
cabbages with close heads.



469. SCORZONERA. Scorzonera tingitana.--The roots of this are very
similar to salsafy, and its culture and use nearly the same.



470. SEA KALE. Crambe maritima.--This grows wild on our sea-coasts,
particularly in Devonshire, where it has long been gathered and eaten by
the inhabitants thereabouts. It was used also to be cultivated; but was
in general lost to our gardens, till my late partner, Mr. Curtis, having
paid a visit to his friend Dr. Wavell at Barnstaple, found it at that
gentleman's table; and on his return he collected some seeds, and
planted a considerable spot of ground with it at Brompton in 1792; at
which time it was again introduced to Covent-Garden, but with so little
successs, that no person was found to purchase it, and consequently the
crop was useless.

This celebrated botanist, however, published a small tract on its uses
and culture, which met with a considerable sale, and introduced it again
to general cultivation.

The seeds should be sown in March, and the following year the plants are
fit for forming plantations, when they should be put out in rows about
three feet apart, and one foot in the row. The vegetable is blanched
either by placing over the crowns of the root an empty garden-pot, or by
earthing it up as is usually done with celery. It is easily forced, by
placing hot dung on the pots; and is brought forward in January, and
from thence till May.

It has been noticed of sea-kale, that, on eating it, it does not impart
to the urine that strong and unpleasant scent which asparagus and other
vegetables do.



471. SKIRRETS. Sium Sisarum.--The roots of this plant are very similar
to parsneps, both in flavour and quality; they are rather sweeter, and
not quite so agreeable to some palates. It is a biennial sown in March,
and used all the winter.



472. SORREL, COMMON. Rumex Acetosa.--Bryant says the Irish, who are
particularly fond of acids, eat the leaves with their milk and fish; and
the Laplanders use the juice of them as rennet to their milk. The
Greenlanders cure themselves of the scurvy, with the juice mixed with
that of the scurvy-grass. The seeds may be sown, or the roots planted,
in spring or autumn; it is not in general cultivation, but is to be
found abundantly wild in meadows, &c.



473. SORREL, ROUND-LEAVED, or FRENCH. Rumex scutatus.--The leaves of the
plant have more acidity in them than the common; and although not in
general use, it is one of the best salad-herbs in the early part of the
year: it is propagated in the same mode as the common sort.



474. SPINACH, Spinacia oleracea.---Two sorts of this vegetable are
cultivated. The Round-leaved, which is very quick in its growth, is sown
for summer use; and if the seeds are put into the ground every three
weeks, a constant succession is obtained while the weather is warm; but
frost will soon destroy it.

The Prickly Spinach is not so quick in growth, and is hardy enough to
stand our winters: it is therefore sown in August, and succeeds the
round-leaved sort; and is a good vegetable all our winter months.



475. TARRAGON. Artemisia Dracunculus.--The leaves of this make a good
ingredient with salad in the spring; and it also makes an excellent
pickle. It is propagated by planting the small roots in spring or
autumn, being a perennial.



476. THYME. Thymus vulgaris.--This is a well-known potherb used in
broths and various modes of cookery: it is propagated by seeds and
cuttings early in the spring.



477. TRUFFLES. Lycoperdon Tuber.--Not in cultivation. The poor people in
this country find it worth their while to train up dogs for the purpose
of finding them, which, by having some frequently laid in their way,
become so used to it, that they will scrape them up in the woods; hence
they are called Truffle-dogs. The French cooks use them in soups, &c. in
the same manner as mushrooms. The truffle is mostly found in beech
woods: I have mentioned this, because it is very generally met with at
table, although it is not in cultivation.



478. TURNEPS. Brassica Rapa.--The varieties in use for garden culture
are, the Early Dutch, the Early Stone, and the Mouse-tail Turnep. The
culture and uses of the turnep are too well known to require any
description.

The country people cut a raw turnep in thin slices, and a lemon in the
same manner: and by placing the slices alternately with sugar-candy
between each, the juice of the turnep is extracted, and is used as a
pleasant and good remedy in obstinate coughs, and will be found to
relieve persons thus afflicted, if taken immediately after each fit.
Although this is one of the remedies my young medical friends may be led
to despise, yet I would, nevertheless, advise them to make use of it
when need occasions.

The yellow turnep is also much esteemed as a vegetable; but is dry, and
very different in taste from any of the common kinds.



*       *       *       *       *



SECTION X.--CULINARY PLANTS NOT IN CULTIVATION.



The following section cannot be too closely studied by people in all
ranks of life. Many of our most delicate vegetables are found growing
wild; and in times of scarcity, and after hard winters, many articles of
this department will be found highly acceptable to all, and the
condition of the poorer classes would be bettered by a more intimate
knowledge of those plants. In fact, these and the medicinal plants ought
to be known to every one: and in order to facilitate the study of them,
I have been thus particular in my description of the different kinds.



479. AGARIC, ORANGE. Agaricus deliciosus.--This agaric well boiled and
seasoned with pepper and salt, has a flavour similar to that of a
roasted muscle. In this way the French, in general, make use of it. It
is in high perfection about September, and is chiefly to be found in dry
woods.



480. ALEXANDERS. Smyrnium Olustratum.--If the poorer people were aware
of the value of this plant, which is now quite neglected, it might be
turned to good account as an article of food, and that, in all
likelihood, of the most wholesome kind.

Bryant thinks it was much esteemed by the monks, and states that it has,
ever since the destruction of the abbeys in this country, remained in
many places growing among the rubbish; hence the reason of its being
found wild in such places.



481. ALEXANDERS, ROUND-LEAVED. Smyrnium perfoliatum.---It is said that
the leaves and stalks boiled are more pleasant to the taste than the
other kind of Alexanders.



482. ARROWHEAD. Sagittaria sagittifolia.--The roots of this plant are
said to be very similar to the West-India arrow-root. They are sometimes
dried and pounded, but are reported to have an acrid unpleasant taste;
but this might perhaps be got rid of by washing the powder in water.



483. BLACKBERRY. Rubus fruticosus.--The berries of this plant are well
known in the country; but if too many be eaten, they are apt to cause
swelling in the stomach, sickness, &c.



484. BRIONY, BLACK. Tamus communis.--Although this is considered a
poisonous plant, the young leaves and shoots are eaten boiled by the
common people in the spring.



485. BURDOCK. Arctium Lappa.--Mr. Bryant in his Flora Diaetetica says
that many people eat the tenders talks of this plant boiled as
asparagus.



486. BURNET. Sanguisorba officinalis.--The young leaves form a good
ingredient in salads. They have somewhat the flavour of cucumbers.



487. BUTTERWORT. Pinguicula vulgaris.--The inhabitants of Lapland and
the north of Sweden give to milk the consistence of cream by pouring it
warm from the cow upon the leaves of this plant, and then instantly
straining it and laying it aside for two or three days till it acquires
a degree of acidity.

This milk they are extremely fond of; and once made, they need not
repeat the use of the leaves as above, for a spoonful or less of it will
turn another quantity of warm milk, and make it like the first, and so
on, as often as they please to renew their food.--Lightfoot's Flor.
Scot. p. 77.



488. CHAMPIGNON. Agaricus pratensis.--There is little or no smell to be
perceived in this plant, and it is rather dry; yet when boiled or stewed
it communicates a good flavour, and is equal to the common mushroom.



489. CHANTARELLE. Agaricus Chantarellus.--This agaric, when broiled with
pepper and salt, has a taste very similar to that of a roasted cockle,
and is considered by the French a great delicacy. It is found
principally in woods and old pastures, and is in good perfection about
the middle of September.



490. CHARLOCK. Sinapis arvensis.--The young plant is eaten in the spring
as turnep-tops, and is considered not inferior to that vegetable. The
seeds of this have sometimes been saved and sold for feeding birds
instead of rape; but being hot in its nature, it has been known to cause
them to be diseased.



491. CHICKWEED. Alsine media.--This is a remarkably good herb boiled in
the spring; a circumstance not sufficiently attended to.



492. CLOUD-BERRY. Rubus Chamaemorus.--This plant grows wild in some parts
of the north of England: the fruit has nearly the shape of the currant,
and is reckoned in Norway, where it grows abundantly, a favourite dish.



493. COTTON-THISTLE. Onopordon Acanthium.--The tender stalks of this
plant, peeled and boiled, are by some considered good; but it has a
peculiar taste which is not agreeable to all.

Bryant in his Flora Diaetetica says that the bottoms of the flowers are
eaten as artichokes.



494. COW-PARSNEP. Heracleum Sphondylium.--The inhabitants of Kamschatka
about the beginning of July collect the foot-stalks of the radical
leaves of this plant, and, after peeling off the rind, dry them
separately in the sun; and then tying them in bundles, they lay them up
carefully in the shade. In a short time afterwards, these dried stalks
are covered over with a yellow saccharine efflorescence tasting like
liquorice, and in this state they are eaten as a delicacy.

The Russians, not content with eating the stalks thus prepared, contrive
to get a very intoxicating spirit from them, by first fermenting them in
water with the greater bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum), and then
distilling the liquor to what degree of strength they please; which
Gmelin says is more agreeable to the taste than spirits made from corn.
This may, therefore, prove a good succedaneum for whisky, and prevent
the consumption of much barley, which ought to be applied to better
purposes. Swine and rabbits are very fond of this plant.---Lightfoot's
Fl. Scot.



495. DANDELION. Leontodum Taraxacum.--This is a good salad when blanched
in the spring. The French, who eat more vegetables than our country
people do, use this in the spring as a common dish: it is similar to
endive in taste.



496. DEWBERRY. Rubus caesius.--The dewberry is very apt to be mistaken
for the blackberry; but it may be easily distinguished by its fruit
being not so large, and being covered with blue bloom similar to that
seen on plums: it has a very pleasant taste, and is said to communicate
a grateful flavour to red wine when steeped in it.



497. EARTH-NUT. Bunium Bulbocastanum.--The roots are eaten raw, and
considered a delicacy here, but thought much more of in Sweden, where
they are an article of trade: they are eaten also stewed as chesnuts.



498. ELDER. Sambucus nigra.--The young shoots of elder are boiled with
other herbs in the spring and eaten; they are also very good pickled in
vinegar. Lightfoot says, in some countries they dye cloth of a brown
colour with them.



499. FAT-HEN. Chenopodium viride et album.--These are boiled and eaten
as spinach, and are by no means inferior to that vegetable.



500. FUCUS, SWEET. Fucus saccharatus.--This grows upon rocks and stones
by the sea-shore. It consists of a long single leaf, having a short
roundish foot-stalk, the leaf representing a belt or girdle. This is
collected and eaten the same as laver, as are also the two following
kinds.



501. FUCUS, PALMATED. Fucus palmatus.--This plant also grows by the
sea-side, and has a lobed leaf.



502. FUCUS, FINGERED. Fucus digitatus.--This is also to be found by the
sea-side, growing upon rocks and stones; it has long leaves springing in
form of fingers when spread.



503. GOOD KING HENRY. Chenopodium Bonus-Henricus.--The leaves and stalk
of this plant are much esteemed. The plant was used to be cultivated,
but of late years it has been superseded by the great number of other
esculent vegetables more productive than this. The young shoots blanched
were accounted equal to asparagus, and were made use of in a similar
manner.



504. HEATH. Erica vulgaris.--Formerly the young tops are said to have
been used alone to brew a kind of ale; and even now, I am informed, the
inhabitants of Isla and Jura (two islands on the coast of Scotland)
continue to brew a very potable liquor, by mixing two-thirds of the tops
of heath with one of malt.--Lightfoot's Fl. Scot.



505. HOPS. Humulus Lupulus.--Independently of the great use of hops in
making beer, and for medicinal uses, where the plant grows wild, it
affords the neighbours a dainty in the spring months. The young shoots,
called hop-tops, when boiled, are equal in flavour to asparagus, and are
eagerly sought after for that purpose.



506. LADIES-SMOCK. Cardamine pratensis.--This is good as a salad herb.



507. LAVER. Fucus esculentus.--This is collected by sailors and people
along the sea-coasts; is eaten both raw and boiled, and esteemed and
excellent antiscorbutic. The leaves of this Fucus are very sweet, and,
when washed and hanged up to dry, will exude a substance like that of
sugar.



508. MAPLE. Acer Pseudo-platanus.--By tapping this tree it yields a
liquor not unlike that of the birch-tree, from which the Americans make
a sugar, and the Highlanders sometimes an agreeable and wholesome wine.
--Lightfoot's Fl. Scot.



509. MARSH MARIGOLD. Caltha palustris.--The flower-buds, before opening,
are picked, and are considered a good substitute for capers.



510. MEADOW-SWEET. Spiraea Filipendula.--The roots of this, in Sweden,
are ground and made into bread.



511. MILK-THISTLE. Carduus marianus.--The young leaves in the spring,
cut close to the root with part of the stalks on, are said to be good
boiled.



512. MOREL. Phallus esculentus.--The morel grows in wet banks and moist
pastures. It is used by the French cooks, the same as the truffle, for
gravies, but has not so good a flavour: it is in perfection in May and
June.



513. MUSHROOM, VIOLET. Agaricus violaceus.--This mushroom requires more
broiling than all the rest; but when well done and seasoned, it is very
good. It is found in dry woods, old pastures, &c. where it grows to a
large size.



514. MUSHROOM, BROWN. Agaricus cinnamomeus.--The whole of this plant has
a nice smell, and when stewed or broiled has a pleasant flavour. It is
to be found as the one above, and is fit for use in October.



515. ORPINE. Sedum telephium.--The leaves are eaten in salads, and are
considered equal to purslane.



516. OX-TONGUE, COMMON. Picris Echioides.--The leaves are said to be
good boiled.



517. PEAS, EARTH-NUT. Orobus tuberosus.--The roots of this, when boiled,
are said to be nutritious. The Scotch Highlander chews the root as a
substitute for tobacco.



518. PILEWORT. Ranunculus Ficaria.--The young leaves in spring are
boiled by the common people in Sweden, and eaten as greens. The roots
are sometimes washed bare by the rains, so that the tubercles appear
above ground; and in this state have induced the ignorant in
superstitious times to fancy that it has rained wheat, which these
tubercles sometimes resemble.



519. SALEP. Orchis Morio.--The powder of these roots is used for a
beverage of that name. This is imported chiefly from Turkey. It grows in
this country, although it is never noticed: the roots are smaller than
those imported, but will answer the purpose equally well.



520. SALTWORT. Salicornia europaea.--This is gathered on the banks of the
Thames and Medway, and brought to London, where it is sold as samphire.
It makes a very good pickle, but by no means equal to the true kind.



521. SAMPHIRE. Crithmum maritimum.--This has long been in much esteem as
a pickle: it grows on the high cliffs on the Kentish coast, where people
make a trade of collecting it by being let down from the upper part in
baskets. A profession of great danger.



522. SCURVY-GRASS. Cochlearia officinalis.--The leaves are hot and
pungent, but are considered very good, and frequently eaten between
bread and butter.



523. SAUCE ALONE. Erysimum Alliaria.--This is very good boiled with
salt-meat in the spring, when other vegetables are scarce. It is
valuable to the poor people; and is, in general, a common plant under
hedges.



524. SEA BINDWEED. Convolvulus Soldanella.--This plant is to be found
plentifully on our maritime coasts, where the inhabitants plucks the
tender stalks, and pickle them. It is considered to have a cathartic
quality.



525. SEA-PEAS. Pisum maritimum.--These peas have a bitterish
disagreeable taste, and are therefore rejected when more pleasant food
is to be got. In the year 1555 there was a great famine in England, when
the seeds of this plant were used as food, and by which thousands of
families were preserved.



526. SEA-WORMWOOD. Artemisia maritima.--Those who travel the country in
searching after and gathering plants, if they chance to meet with sour
or ill-tasted ale, may amend it by putting an infusion of sea-wormwood
into it, whereby it will be more agreeable to the palate, and less
hurtful to the stomach.--Threlkeld. Syn. Pl. Hibern.

This is an ingredient in the common purl, the usual morning beverage of
our hardy labouring men in London.



527. SEA-ORACH, GRASS-LEAVED. Atriplex littoralis.--This plant is eaten
in the same manner as the Chenopodium.



528. SEA-BEET. Beta maritima.--This is a common plant on some of our
sea-coasts. The leaves are very good boiled, as are also the roots.



529. SILVER-WEED. Potentilla anserina.--The roots of this plant taste
like parsneps, and are frequently eaten in Scotland either roasted or
boiled.

In the islands of Tiras and Col they are much esteemed, as answering in
some measure the purposes of bread, they having been known to support
the inhabitants for months together during a scarcity of other
provisions. They put a yoke on their ploughs, and often tear up their
pasture-grounds with a view to get the roots for their use; and as they
abound most in barren and impoverished soils, and in seasons when other
crops fail, they afford a most seasonable relief to the inhabitants in
times of the greatest scarcity. A singular instance this of the bounty
of Providence to these islands.--Lightfoot's Fl. Scot.



530. SOLOMON'S-SEAL. Convallaria Polygonatum.--The roots are made into
bread, and the young shoots are eaten boiled.



531. SPATLING-POPPY. Cucubalus Behen.--Our kitchen-gardens scarcely
afford a better-flavoured vegetable than the young tender shoots of this
when boiled. They ought to be gathered when they are not above two
inches long. If the plant was in cultivation, no doubt but what it would
be improved, and would well reward the gardener's trouble: it sends
forth a vast quantity of sprouts, which might be nipped off when of a
proper size; and there would be a succession of fresh ones for at least
two months.

It being a perennial too, the roots might be transplanted into beds like
those of asparagus.--Bryant's Fl. Diaetetica, p. 64.



532. SPEEDWELL. Veronica spicata.--This is used by our common people as
a substitute for tea, and is said to possess a somewhat astringent
taste, like green tea.



533. SPOTTED HAWKWEED. Hypochaeris maculata.--The leaves are eaten as
salad, and are also boiled.



534. STINGING-NETTLE. Urtica dioica.--The young shoots in the spring are
eaten boiled with fat meat, and are esteemed both wholesome and
nutritive.



535. SHRUBBY STRAWBERRY. Rubus arcticus.--The fruit of this plant is
very similar in appearance to a strawberry: its odour is of the most
grateful kind; and its flavour has that delicate mixture of acid and
sweet, which is not to be equalled by our best varieties of that fruit.



536. SWEET CICELY. Scandix odorata.--The leaves used to be employed in
the kitchen as those of cervil. The green seeds ground small, and used
with lettuce or other cold salads, give them an agreeable taste. It also
grows in abundance in some parts of Italy, where it is considered as a
very useful vegetable.



537. WATER-CRESS. Sisymbrium Nasturtium.--A well known herb in common
use, but is not in cultivation, although it is one of our best salads.



538. WILLOW-HERB. Epilobium angustifolium.--The young shoots of these
are eaten as asparagus.



*       *       *       *       *



SECTION XI.--PLANTS USEFUL IN DYEING.



There is no department of the oeconomy of vegetables in which we are more
at a loss than in the knowledge of their colouring principles; and as
this subject presents to the student an opportunity of making many
interesting and useful experiments, I trust I shall stand excused, if I
enter more fully into the nature of it than I have found it necessary to
do in some of the former sections.

The following list of plants, which is given as containing colours of
different kinds, are the same as have been so considered for many years
past: for, latterly, little has been added to our stock of knowledge on
this head. It may however be proper to observe, that a great number of
vegetables still contain this principle in a superior degree, and only
want the proper attention paid to the abstracting it.

Most of our dyeing drugs are from abroad; and even the culture of
madder, which was once so much grown by our farmers, is now lost to us,
to the great advantage of the Dutch, who supply our markets. But there
is no reason why the agriculturist, or the artisan, should be so much
beholden to a neighbouring nation, as to pay them enormous prices for
articles which can be so readily raised at home; and, according to the
general report of the consumers, managed in a way far superior to what
it generally is when imported.

Let the botanical student therefore pay attention to this particular;
for it is a wide field, in which great advantages may be reaped, either
in this country or in any other part of the world where he may hereafter
become an inhabitant.

The art of dyeing, generally considered, is kept so great a secret, that
few persons have had the opportunity of making experiments. The
extracting colours from their primitive basis is a chemical operation,
and cannot be expected in this place; but as some persons may be
inclined to ascertain these properties of vegetables, I shall go just so
far into the subject as to give an idea of the modes generally used; and
to state the principles on which the colouring property is fixed when
applied to the purposes of dyeing cloth.

In the article Madder, page 32, I mentioned having made an extract
similar to the Adrianople red. For which purpose, a sufficient quanitity
of the roots should be taken fresh out of the ground, washed clean from
the dirt, bruised in a mortar, and then boiled in rain-water till the
whole becomes tinged of a red colour, then put into a cloth and all the
colouring matter pressed out. This should again be put into hot water in
a clean glazed earthen-pan, to which should be added a small quantity of
water in which alum had been dissolved, and the whole stirred up
together; then immediately add a lump of soda or pot-ash, stirring the
whole up, when an effervescence will take place, the allum that had
united with the juice of the madder will be found to become neutralized
by the pot-ash, and the result will be a precipitate of the red fecula.
This may be washed over in different waters, and either put by for use
in a liquid state, or filtered and dried in powder or cakes. Most
vegetable colours will not, however, admit of being extracted by water,
and it is necessary to use an acid for that purpose: vinegar is the most
common. But in making the extract from roots with acids, great care
should be taken that they are sufficiently cleared from mould, sand,
&c.; for, if the same should contain either iron, or any metallic
substance, its union with the acid will cause a blackness, and of course
spoil the tint. In a similar mode are all the different colouring
principles extracted, either from leaves, flowers, fruits, or woods. The
preparation of woad is a curious process on similar principles; which
see in page 31.

Weld, or dyers weed, is generally used after it is dried. The whole
plant is ground in a mill, and the extract made by boiling it. It is
then managed with alum and acids agreeably to the foregoing rules, which
are necessary for throwing out the colour.



Instructions how Substances may be tried, whether they are serviceable
in Dyeing, from Hopson's Translation of Weigleb's Chemistry.



"In order to discover if any vegetable contains a colouring principle
fit for dyeing, it should be bruised and boiled in water, and a bit of
cotton, linen, or woollen stuff, which has previously been well cleaned,
boiled in this decoction for a certain time, and rinsed out and dried.
If the stuff becomes coloured, it is a sign that the colour may be
easily extracted; but if little or no colour be perceived, we are not
immediately to conclude that the body submitted to the trial has no
colour at all, but must first try how it will turn out with the addition
of saline substances. It ought, therefore, to be boiled with pot-ash,
common salt, sal ammoniac, tartar, vinegar, alum, or vitriol, and then
tried upon the stuff: if it then exhibit no colour, it may safely be
pronounced to be unfit for dyeing with. But if it yields a dye or
colour, the nature of this dye must then be more closely examined, which
may be done in the following manner:--

Let a saturated decoction of the colouring substance be well clarified,
distributed into different glass vessels, and its natural colour
observed. Then to one portion of it let there be added a solution of
common salt; to the second, some sal ammoniac; and to the third, alum;
to the fourth, pot-ash; to the fifth, vitriolic or marine acid; and to
the sixth, some green vitriol: and the mixtures be suffered to stand
undisturbed for the space of twenty-four hours. Now in each of these
mixtures the change of colour is to be observed, as likewise whether it
yields a precipitate or not.

If the precipitate by the pure acid dissolve in an alkaline lixivium
entirely, and with a colour, they may be considered as resino-
mucilaginous particles, in which the tingeing property of the
body must be looked for, which, in its natural state, subsists in an
alkalino-saponaceous compound. But if the precipitate be only partly
dissolved in this manner, the dissolved part will then be of the nature
of a resinous mucilage, which in the operation has left the more earthy
parts behind. But if nothing be precipitated by the acids, and the
colour of the decoction is rendered brighter, it is a mark of an
acido-mucilaginous compound, which cannot be separated by acids. In this
there are mostly commonly more earthy parts, which are soon made to
appear by the addition of an alkali.

When, in the instances in which green vitriol has been added, a black
precipitate is produced, it indicates an astringent earthy compound, in
which there are few mucilaginous particles. The more the colour verges
to black, the more of this acid and mucilaginous substance will be found
in it.

The mixture of alum with a tingeing decoction shows by the coloured
precipitate that ensues from it, on the one hand, the colour it yields,
and on the other hand, by the precipitate dissolving either partly or
entirely in a strong alkaline lixivium, whether or not some of the earth
of alum has been precipitated together with the colouring particles.
Such substances as these must not, in general, be boiled with alum,
although this latter ingredient may be very properly used in the
preparation of the stuff.

When a tingeing decoction is precipitated by an alkaline lixivium, and
the precipitate is not redissolved by any acid, for the most part
neither one nor the other of these saline substances ought to be used,
but the neutral salts will be greatly preferable. In all these
observations that are made with respect to the precipitation effected by
means of different saline substances, attention must be paid at the same
time to the change of colour which ensues, in order to discover whether
the colour brightens, or entirely changes.

When the colour of a decoction is darkened by the above-mentioned
additions without becoming turbid, it shows that the colouring matter is
more concentrated and inspissated. When the colour is brightened, a
greater degree of solution and attenuation has taken place in the
colouring matter in consequence of the addition. If the colour becomes
clearer, and after a little time some of the tingeing substance is
separated, it shows that part of the colour is developed, but that
another part has been set loose from its combination by the saline
substance.

But if the colouring matter is separated in great abundance by the
saline addition, (the colour being brightened at the same time,) it may
be considered as a sign that the colouring substance is entirely
separated from the decoction, and that only an inconsiderable part, of a
gummy nature, remains behind united with the additaments, which is in a
very diluted state.--This is an effect of the solution of tin, as also
sometimes of the pure acids.

If, indeed, a portion of the colouring substance be separated by a
saline addition, but the rest of the colouring decoction becomes
not-withstanding darker, it shows that the rest of the colouring
particles have been more concentrated, and hence have acquired a greater
power of tingeing. With regard to the proportion of the addition, the
following circumstances may serve by way of guide:

When the colour of a decoction is darkened by the addition, without any
precipitate being produced, no detriment can easily arise from using a
redundancy of it, because the colour will not be further darkened by it.
But if the colour be required to be brighter, the trial must first be
made, which is the proportion by which the colour is darkened the most,
and then less of it must be employed.

When the colour of a decoction is brightened by an addition without a
precipitation ensuing, this addition can never be used in a larger
quantity without hurting the colouring particles; because the colouring
particles would be made too light, and almost entirely destroyed.--Such
is the consequence of too large an addition of the solution of tin or of
a pure acid.

When the addition produces a brighter colour, and part only of the
colouring substance is separated without a further addition occasioning
a fresh separation, somewhat more of it than what is wanted may be added
to produce the requisite shading; because experience shows that, by this
means, a greater quantity of tingeing particles is united with the
woolly fibres of the cloth, and is capable of being, as it were,
concentrated in them: for which purpose, however, these barks must be
boiled down. This effect is chiefly observed with sal ammoniac and wine
vinegar.

When by an addition which causes a separation of the colouring substance
the colour becomes brighter in proportion the more there is used of it,
it must be employed in a moderate quantity only; because otherwise, more
and more of the colouring substance will be separated, and its tingeing
power diminished. But when a colour is rendered dark at first by an
addition, and afterwards, upon more of the same substance being added,
becomes brighter, and this in proportion to the quantity that is added,
it will be found that the darkening power has its determined limits; and
that, for producing the requisite degree of darkness, neither too much
nor too little must be taken.

---

To the before-mentioned principles also, the different proofs bear a
reference, by which the fixity and durability of the colour with which a
stuff has been dyed may be tried. Of these, some may be called natural,
other artificial. The natural proof consists in exposing the dyed stuff
to the air, sun, and rain. If the colour is not changed by this exposure
in twelve or fourteen days, it may be considered as genuine; but if it
is, the contrary is allowed. This proof, however, is not adapted to
every colour; because some of them resist it, and yet will fade in
consequence of the application of certain acids; others, on the
contrary, that can not resist the natural proof remain unchanged by the
latter. Colours, therefore, may be arranged in three classes; and to
each of these a particular kind of artificial proof allotted. The first
class is tried with alum, the second with soap, and the third with
tartar.

For the proof with alum: Half an ounce of this is dissolved in one pound
of boiling water in an earthenware vessel; into this is put, for
instance, a drachm of yarn or worsted, or a piece of cloth of about two
fingers breadth; this is suffered to boil for the space of five minutes,
and is then washed in clean water. In this manner are tried crimson,
scarlet, flesh-colour, violet, ponceau, peach-blossom colour, different
shades of blue, and other colours bordring upon these.

For the proof with soap: Two drachms of this substance are boiled in a
pint of water, and the small piece of dyed stuff that is to be tried is
put into it, and likewise suffered to boil for the space of five
minutes. With this all sorts of yellow, green, madder-red, cinnamon, and
similar colours, are tried.

In the same manner is made the proof with tartar; only this should be
previously pounded very small, in order that it may be more easily
dissolved. With this all colours bordering upon the fawn are tried.

From the above we discover that the art of applying and fixing colours
in dyeing depends on the chemical affinity between the cloth and the
dyeing principle: and accordingly as this is more or less strong, so is
the facility with which the substance is coloured, and on this the
deepness of the dye depends: for frequently one kind of cloth will be
found to receive no colour at all, whilst another will receive from the
same composition a deep tinge. Cotton, for instance, receives scarcely
any tinge from the same bath that will dye woollen a deep scarlet. Wool
is that which appears to have the strongest affinity to colouring
matter; next to it is silk; then linen; and cotton the weakest, and is
therefore the most difficult of all to dye perfectly. Thus, if a piece
of linen cloth be dipped into a solution of madder, it will come out
just tinged with the colour; but if a piece of the same be previously
dipped into a solution of alum or copperas, and dried previously to
being dipped in the madder, the alum will become so far impregnated with
the colouring principle, that the cloth will receive a perfect dye, and
be so fixed that it cannot be separated by any common means. Thus it
will be observed, that the art of dyeing permanent colours depends on
this intermediate principle, which is termed a mordant. These mordants
are very numerous; and on a knowledge of them appears to rest the
principal secret of dyeing. The following mode is, however, a very
convenient one for makig experiments on fixing the colouring principles
of any vegetable extract: To have several pieces of cloth, woollen,
cotton, silk, and linen, dipped in the different mordants, and by
keeping a small vessel filled with the colouring solution on a fire in a
state a little below boiling, by cutting small pieces of each, and
immersing them in the colour, and examining and comparing with each
other. Experiments of this kind are well worth the attention of persons;
for, when we refer to this department, we shall find very few plants
which are either now, or ever have been, cultivated for this purpose,
although it is well known that so many contain this principle. I have
inserted the following, as being known to contain the different colours
mentioned; but there are many other plants equally productive of this
principle that remain quite unnoticed at present.



539. ACANTHUS mollis. BEAR'S-BREECH.--This gives a fine yellow, which
was in use among the ancients.



540. ACTAEA spicata. BANEBERRY.--The juice of the berries affords a deep
black, and is fixed with alum.



541. ANCHUSA officinalis. YELLOW ANCHUSA, or BLUE-FLOWERED BUGLOSS.--The
juice of the corolla gives out to acids a beautiful green.



542. ANTHEMIS tinctoria.--The flowers afford a shining yellow.



543. ANTHYLLIS vulneraria. KIDNEY-VETCH.--The whole plant gives out a
yellow, which is in use for colouring the garments of the country-
people.--Linn.



544. ARBUTUS uva-ursi. BEAR'S-BERRY.--The leaves boiled in an acid will
dye a brown.



545. ASPERULA tinctoria. WOODROOF.--The roots give a red similar to
madder.



546. ANEMONE Pulsatilla. PASQUE-FLOWER.--The corolla, a green tincture.



547. ARUNDO Phragmites. COMMON REED-GRASS.--The pamicle, a green.



548. BERBERIS vulgaris. BARBERRIES.--The inner bark, a yellow.



549. BROMUS secalinus. BROME-GRASS.--The panicle, a green.



550. BIDENS tripartita. HEMP AGRIMONY..--The herb, a good yellow.



551. BETULA alba. BIRCH.--The leaves, a yellow.



552. BETULA nana. DWARF-BIRCH.--The leaves, a yellow.



553. BETULA Alnus. ALDER.--The bark affords a brown colour; which with
the addition of copperas becomes black.



554. CALENDULA officinalis. COMMON MARIGOLD.--The radius of the corolla,
if bruised, affords a fine orange. The corolla dried and reduced to
powder will also afford a yellow pigment.



555. CALTHA palustris. MARSH-MARIGOLD.--The juice of the corolla, with
alum, gives a yellow.



556. CAMPANULA rotundifolia. ROUND-LEAVED BELL-FLOWER.--A blue pigment
is made from the corolla; with the addition of alum it produces a green
colour.



557. CARPINUS Betulus. HORNBEAM.--The bark, a yellow.



558. CHAEROPHYLLUM sylvestre. COW-PARSLEY.--The umbels produce a yellow
colour, and the juice of the other parts of the plant a beautiful green.



559. CARTHAMUS tinctorius. SAFFLOWER.--The radius of the corolla,
prepared with an acid, affords a fine rose-coloured tint.



560. CENTAUREA Cyanus. BLUE-BOTTLE.--The juice of the corolla gives out
a fine blue colour.



561. COMARUM palustre. MARSH-CINQUEFOIL.--The dried root forms a red
pigment. It is also used to dye woollens of a red colour.



562. CUSCUTA europaea. DODDER.--The herb gives out a lightish red.



563. CRATAEGUS Oxycantha. HAWTHORN.--The bark of this plant, with
copperas, is used by the Highlanders to dye black.



564. DATISCA cannabina. BASTARD-HEMP.--This produces a yellow; but is
not easily fixed, therefore it presently fades to a light tinge.



565. DELPHINIUM Consolida. BRANCHING LARKSPUR.--The petals bruised yield
a fine blue pigment, and with alum make a permanent blue ink.



566. FRAXINUS excelsior. MANNA.--The bark immersed in water gives a blue
colour.



567. GALIUM boreale. CROSS-LEAVED BEDSTRAW.--The roots yield a beautiful
red, if treated as madder.



568. GALIUM verum. YELLOW BEDSTRAW.--The flowers treated with alum
produce a fine yellow on woollen. The roots, a good red.



569. GENISTA tinctoria.--The flowers are in use among the country-people
for dyeing cloth yellow.



570. GERANIUM sylvaticum. MOUNTAIN CRANESBILL.--The Icelanders use the
flowers of this plant to dye a violet colour.



571. HIERACIUM umbellatum. HAWKWEED.--The whole herb bruised and boiled
in water gives out a yellow dye.



572. HUMULUS Lupulus. HOP.--The strobiles are used for dyeing; but
although they yield a yellow colour, the principal use is as a mordant.



573. HYPERICUM perforatum. PERFORATED ST. JOHN'S WORT.--The flowers dye
a fine yellow.



574. IRIS germanica. GERMAN IRIS.--The juice of the corolla treated with
alum makes a good permanent green ink.



575. ISATIS tinctoria. WOAD.--The leaves steeped in water till the parts
are decomposed, produces a fine blue fecula, which is made into cakes,
and sold to the woollen-dyers. For its culture, see p. 32.



576. LICHEN Roccella. ORCHIL.--The fine purple called orchil is
extracted from this moss.



577. LITHOSPERMUM officinale. GROMWELL.--The roots afford a fine red,
which is used by the young girls in Sweden to colour their faces.



578. LYCOPODIUM complanatum. CLUB-MOSS.--The juice of this plant
extracted by an acid forms a most beautiful yellow.



579. LYCOPUS europaeus. WATER-HOREHOUND.--The juice of this gives out a
black colour, and is sometimes used by the common people for dyeing
woollen cloth. The gypsies are said to use the juice of this plant to
colour their faces with.



580. LYSIMACHIA vulgaris. LOOSESTRIFE.--The juice of the whole herb is
used to dye woollen yellow.



581. MYRICA Gale. SWEET GALE.--The whole shrub tinges woollen of a
yellow colour.



582. NYMPHAEA alba. WHITE WATER-LILY.--The Highlanders make a dye with it
of a dark chesnut colour.--Light. Fl. Sc.



583. ORIGANUM vulgare. WILD MARJORAM.--The tops and flowers contain a
purple colour, but it is not to be fixed.



584. PHYTOLACCA decandra. VIRGINIAN POKEWEED.--The leaves and berries
produce a beautiful rose-colour, but it is very fugacious.



585. PRUNUS domestica. PLUM.--The bark is used by the country people to
dye cloth yellow.



586. PYRUS Malus. APPLE,-The bark of this plant, also, produces a yellow
colour.



587. QUERCUS Robur. OAK.--The juice of the oak mixed with vitriol forms
a black ink; the galls ar employed for the same purpose.



588. RESEDA Luteola. DYER'S WEED, or WELD.--The most usual plant from
which the yellow dye is extracted. For its culture, see p. 32.



589. RHAMNUS Frangula. BUCKTHORN.--The bark produces a slight yellow,
and the unripe berries impart to wool a green colour.



590. RHAMNUS catharticus. PURGING BUCKTHORN.--The bark yields a most
beautiful yellow colour; and the ripe berries in the autumn produce a
brilliant scarlet.



591. RHUS Cotinus. VENUS'S SUMACH.--The bark of the stalks produces a
yellow colour; the bark of the roots produces a red.



592. RHUS coriaria. ELM-LEAVED SUMACH.--This plant is possessed of the
same qualities as the one above.



593. RUBIA tinctorum.--The root produces a red colour. For its culture,
see p. 32.



594. RUMEX maritima. DOCK.--The whole herb gives out a yellow colour.



595. SALIX pentandra. WILLOW.--The leaves produce a yellow colour.



596. SCABIOSA succisa. DEVIL'S BIT SCABIUS.--The dried leaves produce a
yellow colour.



597. SERRATULA tinctoria. SAW-WORT.--The whole herb produces a yellow
tincture.



598. SENECIO Jacobaea. RAGWORT.--The roots, stalks, and leaves, before
the flowering season, give out a green colour which can be fixed on
wool.



599. STACHYS sylvatica. HEDGE-HOREHOUND.--The whole herb is said to dye
a yellow colour.



600. THALICTRUM flavum. YELLOW MEADOW-RUE.--The roots and leaves both
give out a fine yellow colour.



601. THAPSIA villosa. DEADLY CARROT.--The umbels are employed by the
spanish peasants to dye yellow.



602. TORMENTILLA erecta. ERECT TORMENTIL.--This root is red, and might
probably be usefully employed.



603. TRIFOLIUM pratense. MEADOW-CLOVER.--The inhabitants of Scania
employ the heads to dye their woollen cloth green.



604. URTICA dioica. NETTLE.--The roots of bettles are used to dye eggs
of a yellow colour against the feast of Easter by the religious of the
Greek church, as are also madder and logwood for the same purpose.



605. XANTHIUM strumarium. LESSER BURBOCK.--The whole herb with the fruit
dyes a most beautiful yellow.



*       *       *       *       *



SECTION XII.---PLANTS USED IN RURAL OECONOMY.



The following few plants are such as are used for domestic purposes
which do not fall under any of the foregoing heads, and I therefore have
placed them together here.



606. CONFERVA.--This green thready substance has the power of rendering
foetid water sweet; for which purpose, when water is scarce, it is
usually put into water-tubs and reservoirs.



607. CORYLUS Avellana. HAZEL NUT.--The young shoots of hazel put into
casks with scalding water, render them sweet if they are musty, or
contain any bad flavour.



608. CROCUS vernus. SPRING CROCUS.--Is well kown as a spring flower,
producing one of the most cheerful ornaments to the flower-garden early
in the spring. It affords a great variety in point of beauty and colour,
and is an article of considerable trade among the Dutch gardeners, who
cultivate a great number of varieties, which every year are imported
into this and other countries.



609. EQUISETUM hyemale. DUTCH RUSH.--Of this article great quantities
are brought from Holland for the purpose of polishing mahogany. The
rough parts of the plant are discovered to be particles of flint.



610. ERIOPHORUM polystachion. COTTON GRASS.--The down of the seeds has
been used, instead of feathers, for beds and cushions; and the foliage
in the north of Scotland is considered useful as fodder.



611. GALIUM verum. YELLOW LADIES' BEDSTRAW.--The foliage affords the
dairy-maid a fine rennet for making cheese.



*       *       *       *       *



SECTION XIII.--POISONOUS PLANTS GROWING IN GREAT BRITAIN.



"On the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die."



I have found it necessary to be particular in my description of the
articles in this section, as I find that, although the knowledge of
Botany has in some measure increased, yet, in general, we are not better
acquainted with the Poisonous Vegetables than we were thirty years ago.
Many and frequent are the accidents which occur in consequence of
mistakes being made with those plants; but it in general happens that,
from feelings easily appreciated, persons do not like to detail such
misfortunes; which not only hides the mischief, but prevents, in a great
measure, the antidotes becoming so well known as for the good of society
we could wish they were. This I experienced in my researches after
several facts which I wished to ascertain regarding this subject.
However, whilst we have in common use such plants as Foxglove, Hemlock,
and Henbane, and which are now so generally sold in our herb-shops,
people who sell them ought to be particularly careful not to let such
fall into the hands of ignorant persons, and thereby be administered
either in mistake or in improper quantities. Our druggists and
apothecaries are careful in not selling to strangers the more common
preparations of Mercury, or Arsenic, drugs which in themselves carry
fear and dismay in their very names; yet we can get any poisonous
vegetables either in the common market, or of herb-dealers, which are
more likely to be abused in their application than other poisons which
are of not more dangerous tendencies.

The effects of Vegetable Poisons on the human frame vary according to
circumstances. The most usual are: that of disturbing the nervous
function, producing vertigo, faintness, delirium, madness, stupor, or
apoplexy, with a consequent loss of understanding, of speech, and of all
the senses; and, frequently, this dreadful scene ends in death in a
short period.

It is, however, fortunate that these dangerous plants, which either grow
wild, or are cultivated in this country, are few in number; and it is
not less so, that the most virulent often carry with them their own
antidote, as many of them, from their disagreeable taste, produce nausea
and sickness, by which their mischief is frequently removed; and when
this is not the case, it points out that the best and most effectual one
is the application of emetics: and it may be almost considered a divine
dispensation, that a plant, very common in all watery places, should be
ready at hand, which has from experience proved one of the most active
drugs of this nature, and this is the Ranunculus Flammula, Water-
Spearwort. The juice of this plant, in cases of such emergency, may be
given in the quantity of a table-spoonful, and repeated every three
minutes until it operates, which it usually will do before the third is
taken into the stomach.

After the vomiting is over, the effects often remain, by part of the
deleterious qualities being absorbed by the stomach; and as it often
happens, in such cases, that medical assistance may not be at hand, I
shall, under the head of each class, give their proper antidote, which
should be in all cases applied as soon as possible, even before medical
assistance is procured. And it should not be forgotten that, in dreadful
cases where the medicine cannot be forced down through the usual
channel, recourse should be had to the use of clysters.

Under each of the following heads I shall describe such cases as have
come under my notice; as they may be useful for comparison: and shall
put under each of the more dangerous the Plantae affines, describing as
accurately as possible the differences.



*       *       *       *       *



BITTER NAUSEOUS POISONS.



These are much altered by vegetable acids in general, and especially by
oxymuriatic acid; but they still retain much of their poisonous quality,
which appears to be rendered more active by alkalies. The tanning
decoctions of nut-galls, acacia, and other strong astringents, Venice
treacle, wine, spiritous liquors, and spices, are useful.



623. CHELIDONIUM majus. CELANDINE.--The yellow juice of this plant is
extremely acrid and narcotic. It is not at all like any plant used for
culinary purposes, and therefore there is not any great danger likely to
arise from its being confounded with any useful vegetable.



624. CICUTA virosa. COWBANE.--Two boys and six girls, who found some
roots of this plant in a water-meadow, ate of them. The two boys were
soon seized with pain of the pericardia, loss of speech, abolition of
all the senses, and terrible convulsions. The mouth closely shut, so
that it could not be opened by any means. Blood was forced from the
ears, and the eyes were horribly distorted.

Both the boys died in half an hour from the first accession of the
symptoms.

The six girls, who had taken a smaller quantity of the roots than the
boys, were likewise seized with epileptic symptoms; but in the interval
of the paroxysms, some Venice-treacle dissolved in vinegar was given to
them; in consequence of which they vomited, and recovered: but one of
them had a very narrow escape for her life. She lay nine hours with her
hands and feet outstretched, and cold: all this time she had a
cadaverous countenance, and her respiration could scarcely be perceived.
When she recovered, she complained a long time of a pain in her stomach,
and was unable to eat any food, her tongue being much wounded by her
teeth in the convulsive fits.

Plantae affines.

Celery is smaller than this plant.

Parsley is also smaller in all its parts.

Alexanders differs from it, as a plant not of so high growth.

Angelica may be mistaken for this, but has a more agreeable scent.

All the water parsneps may be confounded with it: but these are known by
the smallness of the umbels; and they are generally in bloom, so that
this circumstance is a good criterion.

Care should at all times be taken, not to make use of any umbelliferous
plants growing in water, as many of them are, if not altogether
poisonous, very unwholesome.



625. COLCHICUM autumnale. MEADOW-SAFFRON.--Baron Stoerch asserts, that
on cutting the fresh root into slices, the acrid particles emitted from
it irritated the nostrils, fauces, and breast; and that the ends of the
fingers with which it had been held became for a time benumbed; that
even a single grain in a crumb of bread taken internally produced a
burning heat and pain in the stomach and bowels, urgent strangury,
tenesmus, colic pais, cephalalgia, hiccup, &c. From this relation, it
will not appear surprising that we find several instances recorded, in
which the Colchicumproved a fatal poison both to man, and brute animals.
Two boys, after eating this plant, which they found growing in a meadow,
died in great agony. Violent symptoms have been produced by taking the
flowers. The seeds, likewise, have been known to produce similar
effects.



626. OENANTHE crocata. HEMLOCK. WATER DROPWORT.--Eleven French prisoners
had the liberty of walking in and about the town of Pembroke; three of
them being in the fields a little before noon, found and dug up a large
quantity of this plant with its roots, which they took to be wild
celery, to eat with their bread and butter for dinner. After washing it
a while in the fields they all three ate, or rather tasted of the roots.

As they were entering the town, without any previous notice of sickness
at the stomach or disorder in the head, one of them was seized with
convulsions. The other two ran home, and sent a surgeon to him. The
surgeon first endeavoured to bleed, and then to vomit him; but those
endeavours were fruitless, and the soldier died in a very short time.

Ignorant yet of the cause of their comrade's death, and of their own
danger, they gave of these roots to the other eight prisoners, who all
ate some of them with their dinner: the quantity could not be
ascertained. A few minutes after, the remaining two who gathered the
plant were seized in the same manner as the first; of which one died:
the other was bled, and a vomit forced down, on account of his jaws
being as it were locked together. This operated, and he recovered; but
he was for some time affected with a giddiness in his head; and it is
remarkable, that he was neither sick nor in the least disordered in his
stomach. The others being bled and vomited immediately, were secured
from the approach of any bad symptoms. Upon examination of the plant
which the French prisoners mistook for wild celery, Mr. Howell discovered
it to be this plant, which grows very plentifully in the neighbourhood
of Haverfordwest.

Although the above account, which Mr. Wilmer has so minutely described,
seems well attested, and corroborated by the above gentleman, yet I was
informed by the late Mr. Adams, comptroller of the Customs at Pembroke,
that the Oenanthe does not, that he could find, grow in that part of the
country; but that what the above unfortunate French officers did
actually eat was the wild Celery, which grows plentifully in all the wet
places near that town. I take the liberty of mentioning this
circumstance; as it will serve to keep in mind the fact, that celery,
when found wild, and growing in wet places, shold be used cautiously, it
being in such situations of a pernicious tendency. For such whose
curiosity may lead them to become acquainted with the Oenanthe crocata,
it grows in plenty near the Red House in Battersea fields on the Thames'
bank. The water-courses on the marsh at Northfleet have great quantities
of the Apium graveolens growing in them.

Plantae affines.

Cultivated celery differs from it when young, first in the shape and
size of its roots. The Oenanthe is perennial, and has a large root, which
on being cut is observed to be full of juice, which exudes in form of
globules. The celery, on the contrary, has roots in general much
smaller, particularly when in a wild state.

The leaves of celery have somewhat the same flavour, but are smaller;
the nerves on the lobes of the leaves are also very prominent, and
somewhat more pointed.

When the two plants are in bloom, a more conspicuous difference is
apparent in the involucrum and seeds, the character of which should be
consulted.

It may be mistaken for Parsley; but it is both much larger in foliage
and higher in growth; it is also different from it in the shape of the
roots.

These are the two plants most likely to be confounded with it. But the
student should also consult the difference existing between this plant
and the following, which, although somewhat alike in appearance, may be
confounded.

Angelica.

Chervil.

Alexanders.

Hemlock.

Skirret.

Cow Parsley.

Lovage.

Wild Parsnep.

Fool's Parsley.

Hamburgh Parsley.



627. PRUNUS Lauro-cerasus. THE COMON LAUREL.--The leaves of the laurel
have a bitter taste, with a flavour resembling that of the kernels of
the peach or apricot; they communicate an agreeable flavour to aqueous
and spirituous fluids, either by infusion or distillation. The distilled
water applied to the organs of smelling strongly impresses the mind with
the same ideas as arise from the taste of peach blossoms or apricot
kernels: it is so extremely deleterious in its nature, and sometimes so
sudden in its operation, as to occasion instantaneous death; but it more
frequently happens that epileptic symptoms are first produced. This
poison was discovered by accident in Ireland in the year 1728: before
which, it was no uncommon practice there, to add a certain quantity of
laurel water to brandy, or other spirituous liquors, to render them
agreeable to the palate. At that time three women drank some
laurel-water; and one of them a short time afterwards became violently
disordered, lost her speech, and died in about an hour.

A gentleman at Guildford, some few years back, also, by making an
experiment as he intended on himself, was poisoned by a small dose: he
did not survive the taking it more than two hours.

In consequence of the above poisonous principle existing in the laurel,
it has been recommended to persons to be cautious hwo they make use of
the leaves of that shrub, which is a usual practice with cooks for
giving flavour to custards, blanch-mange, and other made-dishes, lest
the narcotic principle should be also conveyed, to the detriment of the
health of persons who eat of them.

And the same may be said of the kernels of all stone-fruits; for the
flavours given to noyau, ratafia, and other liquors which are highly
prized by epicures, are all of them derived from the same principle as
laurel-water, and which, on chemical investigation, is found to be
prussic acid. This exists in considerable quantities in the bitter
almond, and which when separated proves to be the most active poison
known, to the human as well as all other animal existence. This
principle, and its mode of extraction, should not be made more public
than the necessity of scientific research requires. We cannot with
propriety accuse either this tree or the laurel as being poisonous,
because the ingenuity of mankind has found out a mode of extracting this
active acidulous principle, and which is so very small in proportion to
the wholesome properties of the fruit, as not to be suspected of any
danger but for this discovery. As well might we accuse wheat of being
poisonous, because it yields on distillation brandy, which has been
known to kill many a strong-bodied fellow who has indulged in this
favourite beverage to excess. An eminent chemist informs me, that he has
made experiments with the oxalic acid, and found that when this was also
concentrated, it has similar effects; insomuch that no animal can
contain a grain of it if taken into the throat or stomach: and thus
might we also be led to consider the elegant, and in itself harmless,
wood-sorrel, as a poisonous plant.



*       *       *       *       *



ACRID POISONS.



These should be attacked by strong decoctions of oak-bark, gall-nuts,
and Peruvian bark; after which soft mucilaginous matters should be used,
as milk, fat broth, or emulsions.



628. ACONITUM Napelhus. BLUE MONKSHOOD.--This is a very poisonous plant;
and many instances have been adduced of its dangerous effects.

It has probably obtained the name of Wolfsbane, from a tradition that
wolves, in searching for particular roots which they in part subsist
upon in winter, frequently make a mistake, and eat of this plant, which
proves fatal to them.

A weaver in Spitalfields, having supped upon some cold meat and salad,
was suddenly taken ill; and when the surgeon employed upon this
occcasion visited him, he found him in the following situation:--"He was
in bed, with his head supported by an assistant, his eyes and teeth were
fixed, his nostrils compressed, his hands, feet, and forehead cold, no
pulse to be perceived, his respiration short, interrupted, and
laborious."

Soon after he had eaten of the above, he complained of a sensation of
heat affecting the tongue and fauces; his teeth appeared loose; and it
was very remarkable, although a looking-glass was produced, and his
friends attempted to reason him out of the extravagant idea, yet he
imagined that his face was swelled to twice its usual size. By degrees
the heat, wich at first only seemed to affect the mouth and adjacent
parts, diffused itself over his body and extremities: he had an
unsteadiness and lassitue in his joints, particularly of the knees and
ancles, with an irritable twitching of the tendons, which seemed to
deprive him of the power of walking; and he thought that in all his
limbs he perceived an evident interruption to the circulation of the
blood. A giddiness was the next symptom, which was not accompanied with
nausea. His eyes became watery, and he could not see distinctly; a kind
of humming noise in his ears continually disturbed him, until he was
reduced to the state of insensibility before described.

Plantae affines.

Although the mischief which is recited above occurred from the root
having been purchased at market, I do not know of any vegetable in
common use likely to be confounded with this. It might by chance be
mistaken for the smaller tubers of Jerusalem artichoke.

In foliage it comes near to the other species of Aconitum, and to the
perennial Larkspurs.

However, as this is a plant much grown in pleasure-grounds on account of
its beautiful blue flowers, great care should be taken not to use any
roots taken from such places that cannot be well ascertained.



629. ACONITUM Lycoctonum. YELLOW WOLFSBANE.--Every part of this plant is
accounted poisonous. In fact, I think it is proper that all the species
should be considered as such, and never be made use of, either in
medicine or otherwise, without great care in their administration.



630. ACTAEA spicata. BANEBERRY.--This plant is also considered as a
deadly poison; but we have no authentical accounts of its mischievous
effects, although Parkinson has mentioned it in these words:--

"The inhabitants of all the mountaines and places wheresoever it
groweth, as some writers say, do generally hold it to be a most
dangerous and deadly poison, both to man and beast; and they used to
kill the wolves herewith very speedily."

This is not a common plant, growing only in some particular situa-tions,
as near Ingleborough in Yorkshire.



631. RHUS Toxicodendron. POISON-ASH.-The juice of the leaves of this
plant is so very acrid as often to corrode the skin, if the leaves are
gathered when the dew is on them. Great care should certainly be taken
in the giving such a medicine internally, as also in its preparation, it
being usually administered in a dried state.

Planta affinis.

Rhus radicans differs from this in having a more trailing habit of
growth; otherwise it is scarcely different, so little so, as to baffle a
distinction being made by description alone.



*       *       *       *       *



STUPEFYING POISONS.



The substances that deaden the effects of the poisons of this class are
vegetable acids, which should be thrown into the stomach in large
quantities. After the operation of emetics, cream of tartar is also
considered of great use, as also oxymuriatic acid, infusions of
nut-gall, oak bark; warm spices are considered also of use, for they may
separate some part of the deleterious matter, as is shown by their
effect when mixed with decoction of these plants; acerb and astringent
wines are also of great use.



632. AETHUSA Cynapium. FOOL'S PARSLEY.--Fool's Parsley seems generally
allowed to be a plant which possesses poisonous qualities. Baron Haller
has taken a great deal of pains to collect what has been said concerning
it, and quotes many authorities to show that this plant has been
productive of the most violent symptoms; such as anxiety, hiccough, and
a delirium even for the space of three months, stupor, vomiting,
convulsions, and death.

Where much parsley is used, the mistress of the house therefore would do
well to examine the herbs previous to their being made use of; but the
best precaution will be, always to sow that variety called Curled
parsley, which cannot be mistaken for this or any other plant. We might
also observe, that the scent is strong and disagreeable in the aethusa:
but this property, either in the plant or the poison, is not at all
times to be trusted in cases of this nature.

Plantae affines.

Parsley. The lobes of the leaves are larger in this plant, and are not
quite so deep a green. The leaves of fool's parsley are also finer
cleft, and appear to end more in a short point.

Celery, being much larger, cannot easily be confounded with it.

Chervil. Fool's parsley, when young, differs from this plant but very
little, being much the same in size, and the laciniae of the leaves of a
similar form. Chervil, however, is much lighter in colour, and the
flavour more pleasant, both to the taste and smell.

Hemlock is commonly a larger plant; and, exclusive of the generic
distinctions, may be generally known by its spotted stalk.

When fool's parsley is in bloom, it is readily known by the length of
the involucrum.



633. ATROPA Belladonna. DEADLY NIGHTSHADE.--Some boys and girls
perceiving in a garden at Edinburgh the beautiful berries of the deadly
nightshade, and unacquainted with their poisonous quality, ate several.
In a short time dangerous symptoms appeared; a swelling of the abdomen
took place; they became convulsed. The next morning one of them died,
and another in the evening of the same day, although all possible care
was taken of them.

Another case is related by Dr. Lambert, who was desired to visit two
children at Newburn, in Scotland, who the preceding day had swallowed
some of the berries of the deadly nightshade. He found them in a
deplorable situation. The eldest (ten years of age) was delirious in
bed, and affected with convulsive spasms: the younger was not in a much
better condition in his mother's arms. The eyes of both the children
were particularly affected. The whole circle of the cornea appeared
black, the iris being so much dilated as to leave no vestige of the
pupil. The tunica conjunctiva much inflamed. These appearances,
accompanied with a remarkable kind of staring, exhibited a very
affecting scene. The symptoms came on about two hours after they had
eaten the berries: they appeared at first as if they had been
intoxicated, afterwards lost the power of speaking, and continued the
whole night so unruly, that it was with much difficulty they were kept
in bed. Neither of these ever recovered.



634. DATURA Stramonium. THORN-APPLE.--The seeds and leaves of the
thorn-apple received into the human stomach produce first a vertigo, and
afterwards madness. If the quantity is large, and vomiting is not
occasioned, it will undoubtedly prove fatal. Boerhaave informs us, that
some boys eating some seeds of the thorn-apple which were thrown out of
a garden, were seized with giddiness, horrible imaginations, terrors,
and delirium. Those that did not soon vomit, died.



635. HYOSCYAMUS niger. HENBANE.--Henbane is a very dangerous poison. The
seeds, leaves, and root, received into the human stomach, are all
poisonous.

The root in a superior degree produces sometimes madness; and if taken
in large quantity, and the stomach does not reject it by vomiting, a
stupor and apopleptic symptoms, terminating in death, are the usual
consequences.

A case of the bad effects of the roots of this plant, which occurred in
Ireland, is mentioned by Dr. Threlkeld. In the winter season, some men
working in a garden threw up some roots which were supposed to be
Skirrets, and those were cooked for dinner. About two hours after they
were eaten, a person who partook of them was taken with an unusual
lassitude, as if being much fatigued, heat and dryness both in the mouth
an the throat, a giddiness accompanied with dimness of sight, and a
partial stoppage in his urine. Several others who had eaten at the same
table, as also servants who had partaken, were subjected to the like
influence. Medical assistance being at hand, by the use of emetics they
were relieved; but it was many days before the whole of them had
recovered from those dreadful symptoms.

Two children having both eaten of the berries of this plant, the one a
boy (who recovered) being taken ill, vomitted, and was supposed to have
thrown them off his stomach: the other, a little girl, died in
convulsions the next morning. As mothers and kindred souls do not like
names to be made public in these cases, I cannot help feeling some
desire to suppress a publicity of a fact in which a near and dear
relative was materially interested. In justice, however, to the public,
I must mention that I can vouch for the fact, and trust it may not pass
without notice, so far as to let the berries be supposed anything but
wholesome.

Plantae affines.

The idea of Skirrets being confounded with this plant, is, I think,
erroneous, if it has leaves on, as they are not pinnated, and very
different from it. When the Hyoscyamus is in bloom, it has
curiously-formed flowers of an uncommonly disgusting hue. The scent of
this plant, on bruising it, and its general appearance, render it almost
impossible that any one should mistake it. The roots, in the winter
season, when destitute of leaves, may, however, be mistaken for those of
Parsnep, Parsley, Skirret, and many others of similar shape, and of
which it is out of our power to give a distinguishing character.



636. LACTUCA virosa. STRONG-SCENTED WILD LETTUCE.--The juice of this
plant is a very powerful opiate, and care should be taken how it is made
use of. I have not heard of any dangerous effects having been produced
by it. The strong and disagreeable scent and bitter nauseous taste will
most likely always operate as a preservative to its being used for food;
and as a medicine, it is hoped its use will be confined to the judicious
hand of a medical botanist.

Plantae affines.

All the kinds of garden lettuce; but it may be distinguished by its
spines on the back of the leaves. It may be remarked, that the milky
juice of all lettuce has similar properties to the above; but the juice
is not milky till such time as the plant produces seed-stalks, and then
the taste in general is too nauseous for it to be eaten.



637. SOLANUM Dulcamara. BITTERSWEET.--The berries of this plant have
been sometimes eaten by children, and have produced very alarming
effects. It is common in hedges, and should be at all times as much
extirpated as possible.



638. SOLANUM nigrum. DEADLY NIGHTSHADE.--Webfer has given us an account
of some children that were killed in consequence of having eaten the
berries of this plant for black currants. And others have spoken of the
direful effects of the whole plant so much, that, from the incontestable
proofs of its deleterious qualities, persons cannot be too nice in
selecting their pot-herbs, particularly those who make a practice of
gathering from dunghills and gardens Fat-Hen, &c. as there is some
distant similitude betwixt these plants, and their places of growth are
the same.--Curtis's Fl. Lond. fasc. 2.

Plantae affines.

All the Chenopodia grow with this plant wild, and are somewhat alike in
appearance; but the Solanum may at all times be distinguished by its
disagreeable strong scent.



*       *       *       *       *



FOETID POISONS.



These come near to the Stupefying Poisons; but they are not treated in
the same manner; for ether, wine, or acids combined with spirits, appear
the properest things to destroy their deleterious properties: spices are
then indicated, except for savine, which requires instead thereof acids.



639. CONIUM maculatum. HEMLOCK.--Two soldiers quartered at Waltham Abbey
collected in the fields adjoining to that town a quantity of herbs
sufficient for themselves and two others for dinner when boiled with
bacon. These herbs were accordingly dressed, and the poor men ate of the
broth with bread, and afterwards the herbs with bacon: in a short time
they were all seized with vertigo. Soon after they were comatose, two of
them became convulsed, and died in about three hours.

Plantae affines.

Parsley differs from this except in size and colour of the leaves.

Celery is also much like this plant, and particularly so if found wild;
but which, for reasons given before, should never be collected to be
eaten.

Fool's parsley is very like it; and when the hemlock is in a small
state, and this plant luxuriant, I have been in some doubt as to
pointing out a perfect difference, especially when they are not in
fructification. The spots on hemlock form generally a distinguishing
mark.



640. DIGITALIS purpurea. FOXGLOVE.--A few months ago, a child was ill of
a pulmonary complaint, and the apothecary had desired the nurse to
procure a small quantity of Coltsfoot and make it a little tea; and
accordingly the good woman went to a shop in London, where she procured,
as she supposed, three pennyworth of that herb, and made a decoction, of
which she gave the patient a tea-cupful; a few minutes after which she
found symptoms of convulsions make their appearance, and sent for the
apothecary: but who, unfortunately, was so totally ignorant of botany as
not to know the plant, but supposing it to be Coltsfoot, after the
infant died, took his leave, without ay remark further, than that the
disorder which occasioned its death had arisen from some accidental and
unusual cause. The nurse, however, did not feel perfectly satisfied of
this fact, and carried the remainder of the herb to Apothecaries-Hall;
and having applied there for information, was referred to Mr. Leffler, a
gentleman who had from his botanical researches that season obtained the
Sloanean prize; who told her the mistake. He also went and saw the body,
and investigated the whole case in a way that has done that young
gentleman great credit; and from him I have been favoured with this
account. Had the medical attendant but known the difference between the
two plants when he was called in first, there was a chance of the child
being saved to its distressed parents. And here was certainly a striking
instance of medical men neglecting so far the study of botany, as not to
know one of the most useful as well as one of the most dangerous plants
of the present Pharmacopoeia.



641. HELLEBORUS foetidus. BEARSFOOT.--The country-people are in the habit
of chopping up the leaves of this plant and giving it to children for
removing worms; but it is a dangerous medicine, and should be made use
of with great caution. It is also recommended as a medicine for the same
purpose in horses. As much of the chopped leaves as will lie on a
crown-piece, given amongst a feed of corn for three days, and remitted
three days, and repeated thus for nine doses, has been known to remove
this disease.

"I heard a melancholy story of a mother in this city; viz. that a
Country Colleagh gave some of this plant to her two sons, one of six,
the other of four years of age, to kill worms; and that before four in
the afternoon they were both corpses."-Dr. Threlkeld, in a short account
of the plants in the neighbourhood of Dublin.



642. JUNIPERUS Salvina. SAVINE.--The expressed juice of this plant is
very poisonous, and often known to produce the most violent effects. It
is sometimes used by persons for expelling worms in children, but should
be used with great caution; for, if the quantity taken into the stomach
is more than it can digest, all the dreadful effects of the poisons of
this class are certain to be the immediate consequence.



643. SCROPHULARIA aquatica. WATER-BETONY.--Every part of this plant is
said to be violently narcotic; but its very disagreeable strong scent
and extremely bitter taste render it not likely to be used in mistake
for any culinary vegetable; and although we know what its effects are
from report, we do not think it of so dangerous a tendency as some of
our poisonous vegetables.



*       *       *       *       *



DRASTIC POISONS.



These purge both upwards and downwards with great violence by means of
their acrid poisonous resin, which also violently affects the throat and
passages. Although alkalies have been recommended in this case, in order
to divide this resin, and that a solution of soap is proper, yet the
vegetable acids are also very useful, and have a great effect in
diminishing the purgative effect. Besides this, it appears still more
advantageous to give astringents: Venice treacle, decoctions of bark or
cascarilla, pomegranate rind, and balaustines; all which certainly
precipitate this drastic principle.



644. ASCLEPIAS syriaca. SYRIAN DOGSBANE.--All the species of Asclepias
have a white acrid juice which is considered poisonous. It is observed
to be very acrid when applied to any sensible part of the mouth or
throat.



645. BRYONIA alba. WILD VINE, or WHITE BRYONY.--The berries of this
plant, when hanging on the hedges, have the appearance of white grapes,
and have been eaten by children. They are known to produce dreadful
effects; but it frequently happens that they produce nausea on the
stomach, by which they operate as an emetic of themselves.



646. EUPHORBIA Lathyris. CAPER SPURGE.--A plant common in old gardens,
but not indigenous. The seed-vessels are much in shape of caper-buds:
hence its name. People have been in the habit of pickling these berries,
from which some dangerous symptoms have arisen; it is probable that the
vinegar may have been the means of checking its bad effects. It should,
however, never be used as food.



647. EUPHORBIA amygdaloides. WOOD SPURGE.--The juice of this plant has
been known to produce very dangerous swellings in the mouth and throat
of persons who have occasionally put it into their mouths. We do not
know that it is very dangerous; and nothing is likely to tempt any
persons to use it as food or otherwise.



648. MERCURIALIS perennis. DOG'S MERCURY.--This plant is of a soporific
deleterious nature, and is said to be noxious to both man and beast.
Many instances are recorded of its fatal effects.

Mr. Ray acquaints us with the case of a man, his wife, and three
children, who were poisoned by eating it fried with bacon: and a
melancholy instance is related in the Philosophical Transactions, Number
CCIII., of its pernicious effects upon a family who ate at supper the
herb boiled and fried. It produced at first nausea and vomiting, and
comatose symptoms afterwards; two of the children slept twenty-four
hours; when they awoke, they vomited again, and recovered. The other
girl could not be awakened during four days; at the expiration of which
time she opened her eyes and expired.

Plantae affines.

It appears that the different species of Chenopodium have been mistaken
for this plant. I do not see myself any very near likeness: but as all
the species of Chenopodium have been called English Mercury, it is
possible that the name may have been the cause of the mistake.



649. MERCURIALIS annua. ANNUAL DOG'S MERCURY.--Persons who are in the
habit of gathering wild herbs to cook, should be careful of this. It
grows plentifully in all rich grounds, and is common with Fat Hen and
the other herbs usually collected for such purposes in the spring, and
from which it is not readily distinguished: at least, I cannot describe
a difference that a person ignorant of botany can distinguish it by.



650. PERIPLOCA graeca.--This is an ornamental creeping plant, and
commonly grown in gardens for covering verandas, and other places for
shade.

I once witnessed a distressing case. A nurse walking in a garden
gathered flower of this plant, and gave it to a child which she had in
her arms. The infant having put it to its mouth, it caused a
considerable swelling and inflammation, which came on so suddenly, that,
had it not been that one of the labourers had met with a similar
accident, no one would have known the cause. The child was several days
before it was out of danger, as the inflammation had reached the throat.



651. VERATRUM album. WHITE HELLEBORE.--The roots of this plant, and also
of the Veratrum nigrum, have been imported mixed with the roots of
yellow gentian, and have proved poisonous.--Lewis's Materia Medica.



*       *       *       *       *



POISONOUS FUNGI.



The deleterious effects of these generally show themselves soon after
they are in the stomach. Vomiting should be immediately excited, and
then the vegetable acids should be given; either vinegar, lemon-juice,
or that of apples; after which, give ether and antispasmodic remedies,
to stop the excessive bilious vomiting. Infusions of gall-nut, oak-bark,
and Peruvian bark, are recommended as capable of neutralizing the
poisonous principle of mushrooms. It is however the safest way not to
eat any of these plants until they have been soaked in vinegar. Spirit
of wine, and ether, extract some part of their poison; and tanning
matter decomposes the greatest part of it.


Agaricus bulbosus.
-------- necator.
-------- mamosus.
-------- piperitus.
-------- campanulatus.
-------- muscarius.

These are kown to be poisonous. But the fungi should all be used with
great caution; for I believe even the Champignon and Edible mushroom to
possess deleterious qualities when grown in certain places.



       *       *       *       *       *



SECTION XIV.--PLANTS NOXIOUS TO CATTLE.



The foregoing lists of poisonous plants are most of them of less
dangerous tendency to cattle than to the human species: for although
many of them may be mistaken for wholesome, yet, when they are growing
wild, it will be observed, that the discriminating powers of the brute
creation in this point are so correct, that very few have been known to
be eaten by them.

The following are a few of a different class, which, as not containing
any thing particularly disagreeable to the taste of cattle, are
frequently eaten by them to their injury.

The agricultural student should make himself perfectly acquainted with
those.



652. CICUTA virosa. COWBANE.--Linnaeus observes, that cattle have died in
consequence of eating the roots. It is fortunate that this plant is not
very plentiful: it is poisonous to all kinds of cattle except goats. The
flower of this plant is not unlike that of water-parsneps, which cows at
some seasons will eat great quantities of.



653. BEAR'S GARLICK. Allium ursinum.

654. CROW GARLICK. Allium vineale.

These plants very frequently occur in meadow-land, and have property of
giving a strong garlick flavour to the milk yielded by cows that feed
there; and which is often also communicated to the butter.



655. DARNELL GRASS. Lolium temulentum.--This grass has the faculty of
causing poultry or birds to become intoxicated, and so much so that it
causes their death.



656. LOUSEWORT. Pedicularis palustris.--This plant, which abounds in wet
meadows, is said to produce a lousy disease in cows if they eat of it.



657. MAYWEED. Anthemis cotula.--This is altogether of such an acrid
nature, that the hands of persons employed in weeding crops and reaping,
are often so blistered and corroded as to prevent their working. It also
has been known to blister the mouths and nostrils of cattle when feeding
where it grows.



658. COLCHICUM autumnale. MEADOW-SAFFRON.--This is a common plant in
pasture-land in Worcestershire, Herefordshire, and other counties. Many
are the instances that have occurred of the bad effects of it to cattle.
I have this last autumn known several cows that died in consequence of
eating this plant.



659. MELILOT. Trifolium officinale.--This plant when eaten by cows
communicates a disagreeable taste to milk and butter.



660. ROUND-LEAVED SUN-DEW. Drosera rotundifolia.--Very common on marshy
commons, and is said to be poisonous to sheep, and to give them the
disease called the rot.



661. SEA BARLEY-GRASS. Hordeum maritimum.--This grass has been known in
the Isle of Thanet and other places to produce a disease in the mouths
of horses, by the panicles of the grass penetrating the skin.



662. WATER-HEMLOCK. Phellandrium aquaticum.--Linnaeus informs us that the
horses in Sweden by eating of this plant are seized with a kind of
palsy, which he supposes is brought upon them, not so much by any
noxious qualities in the plant itself, as by a certain insect which
breeds in the stalks, called by him for that reason Curculio
paraplecticus [Syst. Nat. 510]. The Swedes give swine's dung for the
cure.



663. YEW. Taxus baccata.--This is poisonous to cattle: farmers and other
persons should be careful of this being thrown where sheep or cattle
feed in snowy weather. It is particularly dangerous to deer, for they
will eat of it with avidity when it comes in their way.



*       *       *       *       *



SECTION XV.--PLANTS NOXIOUS IN AGRICULTURE.



Annual Weeds, or such as grow wild in Fields, and that do not produce
any Food for Cattle.

Many weeds are troublesome to the farmer amongst his crops; but which,
by affording a little fodder at some season or other, in some degree
compensate for their intrusion. But as the following are not of this
description, they ought at all times to be extirpated: for it should be
recollected, that the space occupied by such a plant would, in many
instances, afford room for many ears of wheat, &c.

The following are annuals, and chiefly grow among arable crops, as corn,
&c. As these every year spring up from seeds, it is a very difficult
matter for the farmer to prevent their increase, especially since the
practice of fallowing land has become almost obsolete. It is a fact
worthy notice, that the seeds of most of the annual weeds will lie in
the ground for many years, if they happen to be place deep: so that all
land is more or less impregnated with them, and a fresh supply is
produced every time the land is ploughed. It is therefore proper that
annual weeds of every description should be prevented as much as
possible can be from going to seed, for one year's crop will take
several seasons to eradicate. The only effectual mode we are acquainted
with of getting rid of annual weeds is, either by hoeing them up when
young, or by cutting the plants over with any instrument whilst in
bloom; for it should be observed, that those never spring from the roots
if cut over at that period of their growth, which oftentimes may be
easily accomplished.

I once observed a crop of burnet, in which Bromus secalius (Lob Grass)
was growing, whose spike stood a considerable height above the crop, and
several acres of which a boy or woman might have cut over in a short
space of time: but it was not so: the grass seeds and burnet were
suffered to ripen together, and no means could be devised to separate
the two when threshed. For this reason the burnet seeds never could find
a market, and consequently the trouble of saving it, as well as the
crop, was lost to the grower. I mention this as an instance of many that
frequently occur. How many times do we see with crops of winter tares
wild oats seeding in them? or Carduus mutans standing so high above
those crops that they might be thus extirpated with great ease?

It may be observed, that it is in culture of this nature where annual
seeds multiply. A regular crop of wheat will, by its thickness on the
ground, retard their growth by smothering them; but the other gives them
every facility, and particularly autumnal-sown crops.



664. Blue-bottle    -    -    -    Centaurea Cyanus.
665. White-blite    -    -    -    Chenopodium album.
666. Charlock       -    -    -    Sinapis arvensis.
667. Chickweed      -    -    -    Alsine media.
668. Cockle         -    -    -    Agrostemma Githago.
669. Cleavers       -    -    -    Galium Aparine.
670. Corn Marigold  -    -    -    Chrysanthemum segetum.
671. Corn Crowfoot  -    -    -    Ranunculus arvensis.
672. Corn Chamomile -    -    -    Matricaria Chamomilla.
673. Weak-scented do     -    -    ---------- inodora.
674. Grass, Lob     -    -    -    Bromus secalinus.
675. -----  Bearded Oat  -    -    Acena fatua.
676. -----  Field Foxtail     -    Alopecurus agrestis.
677. -----  Darnel  -    -    -    Lolium temulentum.
678. Groundsel, common   -    -    Senecio vulgaris.
679. Wall Barley    -    -    -    Hordeum murinum.
680. Mallow, common -    -    -    Malva sylvestris.
681. Mayweed, stinking 	 -    -    Anthemis Cotula.
682. Melilot        -    -    -    Trifolium officinale.
683. Mustard, white -    -    -    Sinapis alba.
684. -------, hedge -    -    -    Erysimum Barbarea.
685. Nettle, Stinging, small  -    Urtica urens.
686. ------, Dead   -    -    -    Lamium albium.
687. Nipplewort     -    -    -    Lapsana communis.
688. Orach, wild    -    -    -    Atriplex hastata.
689. -----, spreading 	 -    -    -------- patulata.
690. Pilewort       -    -    -    Ranunculus ficaria.
691. Persicaria, spotted-leaved    Polygonum Ficaria.
692. ----------, pale-flowered     --------- pensylvanicum.
693. ----------, climbing     -    --------- Convolvulus.
694. Pheasant-eye   -    -    -    Adonis autumnalis.
695. Poppy, common red 	 -    -    Papaver Rhoeas.
696. Poppy, long rough-headed -    Papaver Argemone.
697. Radish, wild   -    -    -    Raphanus Raphanistrum.
698. Shepherd's Needle   -    -    Scandix Pecten Veneris.
699. Spearwort      -    -    -    Ranunculus Flammula.
700. Spurry, Corn   -    -    -    Spergula arvensis.
701. Thistle, Spear -    -    -    Carduus lanceolatus.
702. -------  Star  -    -    -    Centaurea Calcitrapa.
703. ------- Marsh  -    -    -    Carduus palustris.
704. ------- Dwarf  -    -    -    ------- acaulis.
705. Tine Tare, smooth-podded -    Ervum tetraspermum.


       *       *       *       *       *


Creeping-rooted Weeds.



The following are such as are perennial, and are of the most troublesome
nature, being xtremely difficult to get rid of in consequence of their
creeping roots. It unfortunately appens that, where the land is the most
worked, and the roots the more broken thereby, the more the crop of
weeds increases on the land. Therefore, the only effectual mode of
extirpating plants of this nature, is by picking out the roots after the
plough, or by digging them up at every opportunity by some proper
instrument.

Where weeds of this nature occur, there is too often thought to be more
labour than profit in their extirpation. And although this is an
argument of some propriety, where a farmer is tenant at will, or where
his strength is not proportionate to the land: yet if land is worth any
thing at all, that, whatever it may be, is lost, if it is suffered thus
to become barren. And as prevention is in most cases considered
preferable to cure, more care ought to be taken than generally is, of
all our hedges and waste pieces of land by road sides, &c. Many of these
plants are found growing in such places, and their seeds are of that
nature that they are calculated to fly to considerable distances,--a
contrivance in nature to fertilize the ground in her own way; but which,
as agriculturists, it is the business of men to check.



706. Bindweed, small    -    -    Convolvulus arvensis.
707. Bindweed, large    -    -    ----------- sepium.
708. Bistort       -    -    -    Polygonum bistorta.
709. Brakes        -    -    -    Pteris aquilina.
710. Clown's Woundwort  -    -    Stachys palustris.
711. Cammock       -    -    -    Ononis arvensis.
712. Coltsfoot     -    -    -    Tussilago Farfara.
713. Crowfoot, creeping -    -    Ranunculus repens.
714. Goutweed      -    -    -    Aegopodium Podagraria.
715. Grass, Garden Couch     -    Triticum repens.
716. -----, Couchy-bent      -    Agrostis stolonifera.
717. -----, Couch Oat, or Knot    Avena elatior.
718. -----, Creeping-soft    -    Holcus mollis.
719. Horsetail, Corn    -    -    Equisetum arvense.
720. Persicaria, willow-leaved    Polygonum amphibium.
721. Rest Harrow   -    -    -    Ononis spinosa.
722. Sow-Thistle, Corn  -    -    Sonchus arvensis.
723. Spatling Poppy     -    -    Cucubalus Behen.
724. Stinging-Nettle, large  -    Urtica dioica.
725. Silverweed    -    -    -    Potentilla anserina.
726. Sneezewort    -    -    -    Achillea Ptarmica.
727. Thistle, melancholy     -    Carduus heterophyllus.
728. -------, cursed    -    -    ------- arvensis.
729. Water Horehound    -    -    Lycopus europaeus.



       *       *       *       *       *



Perennial Weeds.



This enumeration of noxious plants contains principally those which,
although they are very troublesome, are more easy of extirpation than
the last: for although the most of them are perennial, yet, as their
roots do not spread as those of the above list do, they are to be
effectually removed by taking up the plants by their roots. It should,
however, be always noticed, that it is to little account to endeavour to
clear any land of such incumbrances, if any waste places which are
separated only by a hedge are allowed to grow these things with
impunity; for the seeds will invariably find their way. The contrivance
of nature in their formation is a curious and pleasant subject for the
philosophical botanist; at the same time it is one of those curses which
was impelled on human labour.



730. Butter-bur    -    -    -    Tussilago Petasites.
731. Burdock       -    -    -    Arctium Lappa.
732. Bugloss, small     -    -    Lycopis arvensis.
733. Crowfoot, round-rooted  -    Ranunculus bulbosus.
734. --------, tall     -    -    Ranunculus acris.
735. Dock, curdled -    -    -    Rumex crispus.
736. ----, broad-leaved -    -    ----- obtusifolius.
737. ----, sharp-pointed     -    ----- acutus.
738. Fleabane, common   -    -    Inula dysenteria.
739. Garlick, crow -    -    -    Allium vineale.
740. -------, bear -    -    -    ------ ursinum.
741. Grass, turfy hair  -    -    Aira caespitosa.
742. -----, meadow soft -    -    Holcus lanatus.
743. -----, carnation   -    -    Carex caespitosa.
744. Knapweed, common   -    -    Centaurea nigra.
745. --------, great    -    -    --------- Scabiosa.
746. Mugwort       -    -    -    Artemisa vulgaris.
747. Meadow-sweet  -    -    -    Spiraea ulmaria.
748 Ox-eye Daisy Chrysanthemum    Leucanthe-mum
749. Plantain, great    -    -    Plantago major.
750. Ragwort, common    -    -    Senecio Jacobaea.
751. -------, marsh     -    -    ------- aquaticus.
752. Rush, common  -    -    -    Juncus conglomeratus.
753. ----, blueish -    -    -    ------ glaucus.
754. ----, flat-jointed -    -    ------ squarrosus.
755. ----, round-jointed     -    ------ articulatus.
756. ----, bulbous -    -    -    ------ bulbosus.
757. Scabious, common   -    -    Scabiosa avensis.
758. Thistle, milk -    -    -    Carduus marianus.
759. -------, meadow    -    -    ------- pratensis.



       *       *       *       *       *



SECTION XVI.-EXOTIC TREES AND SHRUBS.



The fashionable rage for planting ornamental trees and shrubs having so
much prevailed of late years, that we meet with them by the road sides,
&c. almost as common as we do those of our native soil, I have therefore
enumerated them in this section.

Our limits will not admit of giving any particular descriptions of each;
but as persons are often at a loss to know what soil each tree is known
to thrive in best, we have endeavoured to supply that information; which
will be understood by applying to the following



ABBREVIATED CHARACTERS.

c.m. read common garden mould.
b.m.   -  bog mould.
l.     -  loam.
b.l.   -  bog and loam, the greater part bog.
l.b.   -  loam and bog, the greater part loam.
s.     -  sheltered situation.
a.     -  annual.
bi.    -  biennial.
p.     -  perennial.
shr.   -  tree or shrub.
c.     -  creeper.
w.     -  adapted to covering walls.

As the soils recommended may not be generally understood; a little
attention to the following rules will enable persons to discover what is
fit for their purposes.

Loam--the kind best adapted to the purpose of growing plants, is of a
moderately close texture, between clay and sand, differing from the
former in want of tenacity when wet; and not becoming hard when dry; nor
is it loose and dusty like the latter; but in both states possesses
somewhat of a saponaceous quality. It varies in colour from yellow to
brown, and is commonly found in old pastures: it may also be remarked,
that where any perennial species of Clover (Trifolium) are found wild,
it is almost a certain indication of a fertile loam, and such as
contains the proper food of plants in abundance.

Bog-mould--is frequently found on waste lands, where Heaths (Ericae) are
produced: it is composed of decayed vegetable matter and white sand. The
best sort is light when dry, of a black colour, and easily reduced to
powder. Care should be taken to distinguish it from Peat, which is hard
when dry, destitute in a great measure of the sand, and mostly of a red
colour. This contains in great quantities sulphureous particles and
mineral oil, which are known to be highly destructive to vegetation.

The mould formed from rotten leaves is a good substitute for bog-mould
if mixed with sand, and is often made use of for the same purposes.
These earths should be dug from the surface to the depth of a few inches
and laid in heaps, that the roots, &c. contained therein may be
decomposed: and before they are used should be passed through a coarse
screen, particularly if intended for plants in pots.

As loam has been found to contain the greatest portion of the real
pabulum of plants, it has long been used for such as are planted in
pots; and the component parts of bog-earth being of a light nature, a
mixture of the two in proper proportions will form a compost in which
most kinds of plants will succeed. Attention should be paid to the
consistence of the loam; as the more stiff it is, the greater portion of
the other is necessary.



DIANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

1 JASMINUM officinale. w.          Common white Jasmine        c.m.
2 -------- v. argen. variegat. w.  Silver-striped ditto        c.m.
3 -------- v. aureo variegat. w.   Gold-striped ditto          c.m.
4 -------- fruticans, w.           Yellow ditto                c.m.
5 -------- humile, w.              Dwarf yellow ditto          b.l.
6 Phillyrea media, w.              Privet-leaved Phillyrea     c.m.
7 --------- v. virgata             Twiggy ditto                c.m.
8 --------- v. pendula             Pendulous ditto             c.m.
9 --------- oleaefolia             Olive-leaved ditto          c.m.
10 -------- buxifolia              Box-leaved ditto            c.m.
10 -------- angustifolia           Narrow-leaved ditto         c.m.
12 -------- v. rosmarinifolia      Rosemary-leaved ditto       c.m.
13 -------- brachiata              Dwarf ditto                 c.m.
14 -------- v. latifolia           Broad-leaved ditto          c.m.
15 -------- v. laevis              Smooth broad-leaved ditto   c.m.
16 -------- v. spinosa             Prickly broad-leaved ditto  c.m.
17 -------- v. obliqua             Hex-leaved ditto            c.m.
18 Chionanthus virginicus          Fringe Tree                 b.m.
19 Syringa vulgaris                Blue lilac                  c.m.
20 ------- v. alba                 White ditto                 c.m.
21 -------- persica                Persian ditto               c.m.
22 -------- v. lacinita            Cut-leaved ditto            c.m.
23 -------- latifolia              Broad-leaved ditto          c.m.


TETRANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

24 Cephalanthus occidentalis       Button-wood                 b.l.
25 Houstonia coccinea              Scarlet Houstonia           b.l.s.
26 Buddlea globosa                 Globe-flowered Buddlea      b.l.s.
27 Cornus florida                  Great-flowering Dog-wood    c.m.
28 ------ mascula                  Cornelian Cherry            c.m.
29 ------ sericea                  Blue-berried ditto          c.m.
30 ------ alba                     White-berried ditto         c.m.
31 ------ stricta                  Upright ditto               c.m.
32 ------ sibirica                 Siberian ditto              c.m.
33 ------ paniculata               Panicled ditto              c.m.
34 ------ alternifolia             Alternate-leaved ditto      c.m.
35 ------ v. virescens             Green-twigged ditto         c.m.
36 Ptelea trifoliata               Shrubby Bean-trefoil        c.m.
37 Elaeagnus angustifolia          Narrow-leaved Oleaster      c.m.
38 -------- v. latifolia           Broad-leaved ditto          c.m.


TETRANDRIA DIGYNIA.

39 Hamamelis virginica             Witch Hazel                 c.m.


TETRANDRIA TETRAGYNIA.

40 Ilex opaca                      Carolina Holly              b.l.
41 ---- v. angustifolia            Narrow-leaved ditto         b.l.
42 ---- primoides                  Deciduous ditto             b.l.
43 ---- Cassine                    Dahoon ditto                l.
44 ---- vomitoria                  South Sea Tea Tree          l.


PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

45 Azalea pontica                  Yellow Azalea               b.s.
46 ------ nudiflora                Red ditto                   b.s.
47 ------ v. coccinea              Scarlet ditto               b.s.
48 ------ v. carnea                Flesh-coloured ditto        b.s.
49 ------ v. alba                  Early white ditto           b.s.
50 ------ v. bicolor               Red and white ditto         b.s.
51 ------ v. papilionacea          Variegated ditto            b.s.
52 ------ v. partita               Downy ditto                 b.s.
53 ------ v. aurantia              Orange ditto                b.s.
54 ------ v. viscosa               Late white ditto            b.s.
55 ------ v. vittata               White striped ditto         b.s.
56 ------ v. fissa                 Narrow petalled ditto       b.s.
57 ------ v. floribunda            Cluster-flowered ditto      b.s.
58 ------ v. glauca                Glaucus-leaved ditto        b.s.
59 ------ v. scabra                Rough-leaved ditto          b.s.
60 Lonicera dioica. c.             Glaucous Honeysuckle        c.m.
61 -------- sempervirens. c.       Trumpet ditto               l.
62 -------- grata. c.              Evergeen Honeysuckle        c.m.
63 -------- implexa. c.            Minorca ditto               l.
64 -------- nigra                  Black-berried ditto         c.m.
65 -------- tatarica               Tartarian ditto             c.m.
66 -------- pyrenaica              Pyrenean ditto              c.m.
67 -------- Alpigena               Red-berried ditto           c.m.
68 Lonicera caerulea               Blue-berried ditto          c.m.
69 -------- Symphoricarpos         St. Peter's Wort            c.m.
70 -------- Diervilla              Yellow-flowered Honeysuckle c.m.
71 -------- Caprifolium c.         Italian white ditto         c.m.
72 -------- v. rubra c.            Italian early red ditto     c.m.
73 -------- Periclym. v. serotina c. Late red ditto            c.m.
74 -------- v. quercifolia         Oak-leaved ditto            c.m.
75 -------- v. belgica             Dutch ditto                 c.m.
76 Lycium barbarum. w.             Willow-leaved Boxthorn      c.m.
77 ------ europaeum. w.            European ditto              c.m.
78 Sideroxylon lycoides            Willow-leaved Iron-wood     b.l.
79 Rhamnus latifolius              Broad-leaved ditto          c.m.
80 ------- alpinus                 Alpine ditto                b.m.
81 ------- theezans                Tea ditto                   c.m.
82 ------- alnifolius              Alder-leaved ditto          c.m.
83 ------- Paliurus                Christ's Thorn              c.m.
84 ------- volubilis. c.           Supple-jack Tree            c.m.
85 ------- Ziziphus                Shining-leaved ditto        c.m.
86 ------- Alaternus               Common Alaternus            c.m.
87 ------- fol. argen. var.        Silver-striped ditto        c.m.s.
88 ------- fol. aureo var.         Gold-striped ditto          c.m.s.
89 ------- v. angustifolius        Jagged-leaved ditto         c.m.
90 Celastrus scandeus              Climbing Staff-Tree         c.m.
90 Ceanothus americanus            New Jersey Tea Tree         c.m.
92 Euonymus latifolius             Broad-leaved Spindle-Tree   c.m.
93 -------- verrucosus             Warted ditto                c.m.
94 -------- atro-purpureus         Purple-flowered ditto       c.m.
95 -------- americanus             Evergreen ditto             c.m.
96 Itea virginica                  Virginian Itea              b.l.
97 ---- buxifolia                  Box-leaved ditto            b.l.
98 Ribes glandulosum               Glandulous Currant          c.m.
99 ----- petraeum                  Rock ditto                  c.m.
100 ---- floridum                  Large-flowered ditto        c.m.
101 ---- diacanthum                Two-spined Gooseberry       c.m.
102 ---- oxyacanthoides            Hawthorn-leaved ditto       c.m.
103 ---- canadense                 Canadian ditto              c.m.
104 ---- Cynosbatea                Prickly-fruited Currant     c.m.
105 ---- prostratum                Procumbent ditto            c.m.
106 ---- alpinum                   Alpine ditto                c.m.
107 Hedera quinquefolia. w.        Virginian Creeper           c.m.
108 ----- Helix v. latifolia       Broad-leaved Ivy. c.        c.m.
109 Vitis vitifera. c.             Common Grape                c.m.
110 ----- Labrusca. c.             Downy-leaved ditto          c.m.
111 ----- vulpina. c.              Fox Grape                   c.m.
112 ----- laciniata. c.            Parsley-leaved Vine         c.m.
113 ----- arborea. c.              Pepper Vine                 c.m.


PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA.

114 Periploca graeca. c.           Virginian Silk-Tree         c.m.
115 Salsola prostrata              Trailing Saltwort           c.m.
116 Ulmus americana                American Elm                c.m.
117 ----- v. alba                  White American ditto        c.m.
118 ----- v. pendula               Drooping ditto              c.m.
119 ----- nemoralis                Twiggy ditto                c.m.
120 ----- pumila                   Dwarf ditto                 c.m.
121 ----- crispa                   Curled-leaved ditto         c.m.
122 Bupleurum fruticosum           Shrubby Hare's-ear          c.m.


PENTANDRIA TRIGYNIA.

123 Rhus Typhinum                  Virginian Sumach            c.m.
124 ---- glabrum                   Smooth ditto                c.m.
125 ---- Vernix                    Varnish Tree                c.m.
126 ---- copallinum                Lentiscus-leaved Sumach     c.m.
127 ---- radicans. c.              Upright Poison Ash          c.m.
128 ---- Toxicodendron. c.         Trailing or officinal ditto c.m.
129 ---- Cotinus                   Venus's Sumach              c.m.
130 ---- Coriaria                  Elm-leaved ditto            c.m.
131 Viburnum Tinus                 Laurustinus                 c.m.
132 -------- fol. variegat.        Striped-leaved ditto        c.m.
133 -------- lucidum               Shining-leaved ditto        c.m.
134 -------- strictum              Upright ditto               c.m.
135 -------- nudum                 Oval-leaved Viburnum        c.m.
136 -------- cassinoides           Thick-leaved ditto          l.s.
137 -------- nitidum               Shining-leaved ditto        b.l.
138 -------- laevigatum            Cassioberry Bush            b.l.
139 -------- prunifolium           Thick-leaved Viburnum       c.m.
140 -------- Lentago               Pear-leaved ditto           c.m.
141 -------- dentatum              Tooth-leaved ditto          c.m.
142 -------- v. pubescens          Downy-leaved ditto          c.m.
143 ------- -acerifolium           Maple-leaved ditto          c.m.
144 -------- Opulus v. americana   American Gelder Rose        c.m.
145 -------- v. rosea              Snow-ball ditto             c.m.
146 -------- alnifolium            Alder-leaved ditto          c.m.
147 Sambucus canadensis            Canadian Elder              c.m.
148 -------- nigra v. laciniata    Cut-leaved ditto            c.m.
149 -------- racemosa              Clustered-flowered ditto    c.m.
150 Staphylea trifolia             Three-leaved Bladder-Nut    c.m.
151 Tamarix germanica              German Tamarisk             c.m.


PENTANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.

152 Aralia spinosa                 Angelica Tree               b.l.


PENTANDRIA POLYGYNIA.

153 Zanthorhiza Apifolium          Parsley-leaved Zanthorhiza  b.


HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

154 Prinos verticillatus           Whorl-leaved Winter-berry   b.l.
155 ------ glaber                  Smooth ditto                b.l.
156 ------ lanceolatus             Lanceolate-leaved ditto     b.l.
157 ------ laevigatus              Spear-leaved ditto          b.l.
158 Berberis canadensis            Canadian Barberry           b.l.
159 -------- cretica               Cretan ditto                b.l.
160 -------- sibirica              Siberian ditto              b.l.


HEPTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

161 Aesculus Hippocastanum         Common Horse Chesnut        c.m.
162 ------- flava                  Yellow-flowered ditto       c.m.
163 ------- Pavia                  Scarlet-flowered ditto      c.m.
164 ------- parviflora             Small-flowered ditto        c.m.


OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

165 Koelreuteria paniculata        Panicled Koelreuteria       b.l.
166 Vaccinium stamineum            Green-twigged Bleaberry     b.m.
167 --------- diffusum             Shining-leaved ditto        b.m.
168 --------- fuscatum             Brown ditto                 b.m.
169 --------- angustifolium        Narrow-leaved ditto         b.m.
170 --------- frondosum            Obtuse-leaved ditto         b.m.
171 --------- venustum             Red-twigged ditto           b.m.
172 --------- resinosum            Clammy ditto                b.m.
173 --------- amoenum              Broad-leaved ditto          b.m.
174 --------- virgatum             Twiggy-leaved ditto         b.m.
175 --------- tenellum             Gale-leaved ditto           b.m.
176 --------- macrocarpon          Large-fruited ditto         b.m.
177 --------- nitidum              Shining-leaved ditto        b.m.
178 --------- ligustrinum          Privet-leaved ditto         b.m.
179 --------- pumilum              Dwarf ditto                 b.m.
180 Erica ciliaris                 Ciliated Heath              b.m.s.
181 ----- mediterranea             Mediterranean ditto         b.m.s.
182 ----- australis                Spanish ditto               b.m.s.
183 ----- herbacea                 Herbaceous ditto            b.m.
184 ----- arborea                  Tree ditto                  b.m.s.
185 Daphne alpina                  Alpine Daphne               b.l.
186 ------ pontica                 Two-flowered ditto          b.l.s.
187 ------ Cneorum                 Trailing ditto              b.l.
188 ------ Tartonraira             Silver-leaved Daphne        b.l.s.
189 ------ collina                 Hairy ditto                 b.l.s.
190 ------ Gnidium                 Flax-leaved ditto           b.l.s.
191 Dirca palustris                Marsh Leatherwood           b.m.


OCTANDRIA DIGYNIA.

192 Polygonum frutescens           Shrubby Polygonum           b.s.


ENNEANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

193 Laurus Benzoin                 Benjamin Tree               c.m.
194 ------ nobilis                 Sweet Bay                   c.m.
195 Sassafras                      Sassafras Tree              b.l.


DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

196 Sophora japonica               Japan Sophora               c.m.
197 Cercis Siliquastrum            European Judas Tree         c.m.
198 ------ canadensis              American ditto              c.m.
199 Guilandina dioica              Canadian Bonduc             c.m.
200 Ruta graveolens                Common Rue                  c.m.
201 ---- montana                   Mountain ditto              c.m.
202 Kalmia latifolia               Broad-leaved Kalmia         b.s.
203 ------ angustifolia            Narrow-leaved ditto         b.s.
204 ------ v. carnea               Pale-flowered ditto         b.s.
205 ------ glauca                  Glaucus-leaved ditto        b.s.
206 Ledum palustre                 Marsh Rosemary              b.s.
207 ----- v. decumbens             Dwarf ditto                 b.s.
208 ----- latifolium               Labrador Tea                b.s.
209 ----- buxifolium               Box-leaved Ledum            b.s.
210 Rhodora canadensis             Canadian Rhodora            b.m.
211 Rhodorendron ferrugineum       Rusty-leaved Rhododendron   b.m.
212 ------------ dauricum          Dauric ditto                b.m.
213 ------------ hirsutum          Hairy ditto                 b.m.
214 ------------ ponticum          Pontic ditto                b.m.
215 ------------ fol. variegat.    Striped-leaved ditto        b.m.
216 ------------ cataubiense       Large ditto                 b.m.
217 ------------ maximum           Large-leaved ditto          b.m.
218 ------------ punctatum         Dotted ditto                b.m.
219 Andromeda mariana              Maryland Andromeda          b.m.
220 --------- v. oblonga           Oval-leaved ditto           b.m.
221 --------- ferruginea           Rusty-leaved ditto          b.m.
222 --------- polyfolia, v. major  Broad-leaved rusty ditto    b.m.
223 --------- paniculata           Panicled ditto              b.m.
224 --------- arborea              Tree ditto                  b.m.
225 --------- racemosa             Branching ditto             b.m.
226 --------- axillaris            Notch-leaved ditto          b.m.
227 --------- coriacea             Thick-leaved ditto          b.m.
228 --------- acuminata            Acute-leaved ditto          b.m.
229 --------- calyculata           Globe-flowered ditto        b.m.
230 --------- v. latifolia         Broad Box-leaved ditto      b.m.
231 --------- v. angustifolia      Narrow-leaved ditto         b.m.
232 --------- Catesbaei            Catesby's ditto             b.m.
233 Epigaea repens                 Creeping Epigaea            b.s.
234 Gualtheria procumbens          Procumbent Gualtheria       b.s.
235 Arbutus Unedo                  Common Strawberry Tree      b.l.
236 ------- v. fl. rubro           Scarlet-flowered ditto      b.l.
237 ------- v. flore pleno         Double-flowered ditto       b.l.
238 ------- v. angustifolia        Narrow-leaved ditto         b.l.
239 ------- v. crispa              Curled-leaved ditto         b.l.
240 ------- Andrachne              Eastern ditto               b.l.
241 Clethra alnifolia              Alder-leaved Clethra        b.l.
242 ------- v. pubescens           Pubescent ditto             b.l.
243 Styrax officinale              Officinal Styrax            b.l.
244 ------ grandifolium            Large-leaved ditto          l.
245 ------ laevigatum              Smooth-leaved ditto         l.


DECANDRIA DIGYNIA.

246 Hydrangea arborescens          Tree Hydrangea              c.m.
247 --------- hortensis            Changeable-flowered ditto   c.m.
248 --------- glauca               Glaucous-leaved ditto       b.l.
249 --------- radiata              Rayed-flowered ditto        b.l.


DODECANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

250 Halesia tetraptera             Wing-seeded Snow-drop Tree  c.m.


DODECANDRIA TRIGYNIA.

251 Euphorbia spinosa              Shrubby Euphorbia           b.l.
252 Aristotelia Macqui             Shining-leaved Aristotelia  b.s.


ICOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

253 Philadelphus coronarius        Common Syringa              c.m.
254 ------------ nanus             Dwarf ditto                 c.m.
255 Punica Granatum. w.            Pomegranata                 l.w.s.
256 ------ flore pleno. w.         Double-flowered ditto       l.w.s.
257 ------ flore luteo. w.         Yellow-flowered ditto       l.w.s.
258 ------ flore albo. w.          White-flowered ditto        l.w.s.
259 ------ nana. w.                Dwarf ditto                 l.w.s.
260 Amygdalus Persica              Peach Tree                  c.m.
261 --------- v. flore pleno       Double-flowering ditto      c.m.
262 --------- v. Nectarina         Nectarine                   c.m.
263 --------- nana                 Rough-leaved Almond         c.m.
264 --------- pumila               Dwarf ditto                 c.m.
265 --------- communis             Common ditto                c.m.
266 --------- fol. variegat.       Striped-leaved ditto        c.m.
267 --------- chinensis            Chinese ditto               c.m.
268 --------- orientalis           Silvery-leaved ditto        c.m.
269 --------- sibirica             Siberian ditto              c.m.
270 Prunus virginiana              Virginian Bird-Cherry       c.m.
271 ------ caroliniana             Carolinian ditto            c.m.
272 ------ lusitanica              Portugal Laurel             c.m.
273 Lauro-Cerasus                  Common Laurel               c.m.
274 ----- Maheleb                  Perfumed Cherry             c.m.
275 ----- Armeniaca                Apricot Tree                c.m.
276 ----- pumila                   Dwarf Bird-Cherry           c.m.
277 ----- pendula                  Weeping Cherry              c.m.
278 ----- pennsylvanica            Pennsylvanian Bird-Cherry   c.m.
279 ----- nigra                    Black ditto                 c.m.
280 ----- cerasifera               Mirobalum Plum-Tree         c.m.
281 ----- rubra                    Cornish Bird-Cherry         c.m.
282 ----- Cerasus, v. flore pleno  Double-flowering ditto      c.m.
283 ----- domestica                Common Plum                 c.m.
284 ----- v. flore pleno           Double-flowering ditto      c.m.
285 ----- sibirica                 Siberian ditto              c.m.


ICOSANDRIA DIGYNIA.

286 Crataegus Crus galli           Cockspur Thorn              c.m.
287 -------- v. pyracanthifolia    Pyracanthus-leaved ditto    c.m.
288 -------- salicifolia           Willow-leaved ditto         c.m.
289 -------- Aria, v. suecica      Swedish White Beam Tree     c.m.
290 -------- coccinea              American Hawthorn           c.m.
291 -------- sanguinea             Bloody ditto                c.m.
292 -------- cordata               Maple-leaved ditto          c.m.
293 -------- pyrifolia             Pear-leaved ditto           c.m.
294 -------- elliptica             Oval-leaved ditto           c.m.
295 -------- glandulosa            Hollow-leaved ditto         c.m.
296 -------- flava                 Yellow-berried ditto        c.m.
297 -------- parviflora            Gooseberry-leaved ditto     c.m.
298 -------- punctata              Great-fruited ditto         c.m.
299 -------- v. aurea              Great Yellow-fruited ditto  c.m.
300 -------- Azarolus              Parsley-leaved ditto        c.m.
301 -------- monogynia, v. coc.    Scarlet Thorn               c.m.
302 -------- tomentosa             Woolly-leaved ditto         c.m.
303 -------- odoratissima          Sweet-scented ditto         c.m.


ICOSANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.

304 Mespillus Pyracantha           Evergreen Thorn             c.m.
305 --------- Chamae Mespillus     Bastard Quince              c.m.
306 --------- canadensis           Snowy Service               c.m.
307 --------- Cotoneaster          Dwarf Mespilus              c.m.
308 --------- arbutifolia          Arbutus-leaved ditto        c.m.
309 --------- fructu rubro         Red-fruited ditto           c.m.
310 --------- fructu albo          White-fruited ditto         c.m.
311 --------- tomentosa            Woolly ditto                c.m.
312 --------- Amelanchier          Alpine ditto                c.m.
313 --------- pennsylvanica        Pennsylvanian ditto         c.m.
314 Pyrus Pollveria                Woolly-leaved Pear-tree     c.m.
315 ----- spectabilis              Chinese Apple-tree          c.m.
316 ----- prunifolia               Large Siberian Crab         c.m.
317 Pyrus baccata                  Small Siberian Crab         c.m.
318 ----- coronaria                Sweet-scented ditto         c.m.
319 ----- angustifolia             Narrow-leaved ditto         c.m.
320 ----- Cydonia                  Common Quince               c.m.
321 ----- salicifolia              Willow-leaved Crab          c.m.
322 ----- praecox                  Early-flowering ditto       c.m.
323 Spiraea laevigata              Smooth-leaved Spiraea       c.m.
324 ------ salicifolia             Willow-leaved ditto         c.m.
325 ------ v. paniculata           Panicled ditto              c.m.
326 ------ v. latifolia            Broad-leaved ditto          c.m.
327 ------ tomentosa               Woolly-leaved ditto         c.m.
328 ------ Hypericifolia           Hypericum-leaved ditto      c.m.
329 ------ crenata                 Crenated ditto              c.m.
330 ------ chamaedrifolia          Germander-leaved ditto      c.m.
331 ------ thalictroides           Meadow Rue leaved ditto     l.
332 ------ Opulifolia Guelder      Rose leaved ditto           c.m.
333 ------ sorbifolia Mountain     Ash-leaved ditto            b.m.
334 ------ sibirica                Siberian ditto              c.m.


ICOSANDRIA POLYGYNIA.

335 Rosa Lutea                     Single Yellow Rose           l.
336 ---- bicolor                   Red and Yellow Austrian ditto l.
337 ---- sulphurea                 Double Yellow ditto          l.s.
338 ---- blanda                    Hudson's Bay ditto           l.
339 ---- cinnamonema. fl. pl.      Double cinnamon ditto        c.m.
340 ---- pimpinellifolia           Small Burnet-leaved ditto    c.m.
341 ---- spinosissima v.           Striped-flowered Scotch Rose c.m.
342 ---- v. ruberrima              Red Scotch ditto             c.m.
343 ---- v. flore pleno            Double Scotch ditto          c.m.
344 ---- v. altissima              Tall Scotch ditto            c.m.
345 ---- v. versicolor             Marbled Scotch ditto         c.m.
346 ---- carolina                  Single Burnet-leaved ditto   c.m.
347 ---- v. flore-pleno            Double Burnet-leaved ditto   c.m.
348 ---- v. pimpinellifolia        Single Pennsylvanian ditto   c.m.
349 ---- v. pimpinellifol. fl. pl. Double Pennsylvanian ditto   b.m.
350 ---- v. diffusa                Spreading Carolina ditto     c.m.
351 ---- v. stricta                Upright Carolina Rose        c.m.
352 ---- villosa, v. flore pleno   Double Apple-bearing ditto   c.m.
353 ---- provincialis              Common Provins ditto         c.m.
354 ---- v. ruberrima              Scarlet Provins ditto        c.m.
355 ---- v. pallida                Blush Provins ditto          c.m.
356 ---- v. alba                   White Provins ditto          c.m.
357 ---- v. multiflora             Rose de Meaux                c.m.
358 ---- v. bicolor                Rose de Pompone              c.m.
359 ---- v. humilis                Rose de Rheims               c.m.
360 ---- v. prolifera              Childing's Provins ditto     c.m.
361 ---- v. lusitanica             Blandford or Portugal ditto  c.m.
363 ---- v. ----------             Rose St. Francis             c.m.
363 Rosa provincialis v. ----      Shailer's Provins ditto      c.m.
364 ---- ferox                     Hedgehog ditto               c.m.
365 ---- brancteata                Ld. Macartney's White Rose   c.m.
366 ---- centifolia                Dutch Hundred-leaved ditto   c.m.
367 ---- v. rubicans               Blush Hundred-leaved ditto   c.m.
368 ---- v. Singletoniae           Singleton's Hundred-leaved do. c.m.
369 ---- v. holosericea            Single Velvet ditto          c.m.
370 ---- v. holoserica fl. pl.     Double Velvet ditto          c.m.
371 ---- v. sultana                Sultan Rose                  c.m.
372 ---- v. stebennensis           Stepney ditto                c.m.
373 ---- v. ------------           Lisbon ditto                 c.m.
374 ---- v. ------------           Bishop ditto                 c.m.
375 ---- v. ------------           Cardinal ditto               c.m.
376 ---- v. ------------           Blush Royal ditto            c.m.
377 ---- v. ------------           Petit Hundred-leaved ditto   c.m.
378 ---- v. ------------           Pluto ditto                  c.m.
379 ---- v. ------------           Monstrous Hundred-leaved do. c.m.
380 ---- v. ------------           Fringe ditto                 c.m.
381 ---- v. ------------           Plicate ditto                c.m.
382 ---- v. ------------           Two-coloured Hund.-leaved do. c.m.
383 ---- v. ------------           Shell ditto                  c.m.
384 ---- parvifolia                Burgundy Rose                b.m.
385 ---- gallica                   Red officinal Rose           c.m.
386 ---- v. versicolor             Rosa mundi                   c.m.
387 ---- v. marmorea               Marbled Rose                 c.m.
388 ---- v. Royal                  Virgin ditto                 c.m.
389 ---- v. major                  Giant ditto                  c.m.
390 ---- damascena                 Red Damask ditto             c.m.
391 ---- v. rubicans               Blush Damask ditto           c.m.
392 ---- v. versicolor             York and Lancaster ditto     c.m.
393 ---- v. menstrualis            Red Monthly ditto            c.m.
394 ---- v. menstrualis alba       White Monthly ditto          c.m.
395 ---- v. Belgica                Blush Belgic ditto           c.m.
396 ---- v. -------                Great Royal ditto            c.m.
397 ---- v. -------                Blush Monthly ditto          c.m.
398 ---- v. -------                Red Belgic ditto             c.m.
399 ---- v. -------                Goliah Rose                  c.m.
400 ---- v. -------                Imperial Blush ditto         c.m.
401 ---- multiflora                Many-flowered ditto          c.m.
402 ---- sempervirens. c.          Evergreen Rose               c.m.
403 ---- turbinata                 Frankfort ditto              c.m.
404 ---- rubiginosa v. Semidoule   Sweet Briar                  c.m.
405 ---- v. muscosa                Mossy ditto                  c.m.
406 ---- v. sempervirens           Manning's Blush ditto        c.m.
407 ---- v. flore pleno            Double Red ditto             c.m.
408 ---- v.                        Royal ditto                  c.m.
409 ---- muscosa                   Moss Provence Rose           c.m.
410 ---- moschata                  Single Musk ditto            c.m.
411 Rosa v. flore pleno            Double Musk Rose             c.m.
412 ---- alpina                    Alpine Rose                  c.m.
413 ---- v. rubro                  Red Alpine ditto             c.m.
414 ---- canina, v. flore pleno    Double Dog-rose              c.m.
415 ---- pendulina                 Rose without Thorns          c.m.
416 ---- alba                      Single White Rose            c.m.
417 ---- v. flore pleno            Double White ditto           c.m.
418 ---- v. prolifera              Cluster Maiden's Blush ditto c.m.
419 ---- v. major                  Great Maiden's Blush ditto   c.m.
420 ---- procera                   Tall Rose                    c.m.
421 ---- americana                 American Yellow ditto        c.m.
422 Rubus occidentalis             American Bramble             c.m.
423 ----- odoratus                 Flowering ditto              c.m.
424 ----- fruticosus inermis. c.   Bramble without Thorns       c.m.
425 ----- v. laciniata. c.         Cut-leaved Bramble           c.m.
426 ----- v. flore pleno           Double-flowered ditto        c.m.
427 Calycanthus floridus           Carolina Allspice            l.
428 ----------- v. oblongus        Long-leaved ditto            l.
429 ----------- praecox. w.        Early-flowered Chinese ditto l.s.


POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

430 Tilia americana                Broad-leaved American Lime   c.m.
431 ----- v. corallina             Red-twigged ditto            c.m.
432 ----- pubescens                Pubescent ditto              c.m.
433 ----- alba                     White-leaved ditto           c.m.
434 Cistus populifolius            Poplar-leaved Cistus         l.s.
435 ------ v. minor                Small Poplar-leaved ditto    l.s.
436 ------ laurifolius             Laurel-leaved ditto          l.s.
437 ------ Ladaniferus             Gum Cistus                   c.m.
438 ------ monspeliensis           Montpellier Cistus           l.s.
439 ------ laxus                   Waved-leaved ditto           l.s.
440 ------ salvifolius             Sage-leaved ditto            l.s.
441 ------ incanus                 Hoary ditto                  l.s.
442 ------ albidus                 White-leaved ditto           l.s.
443 ------ crispus                 Curled-leaved ditto          l.s.
444 ------ halimifolius            Sea Purslane-leaved ditto    l.s.
445 ------ halimifol. v. angustifol. Narrow-leaved Cistus       l.s.
446 ------ umbellatus              Umbelled-flowered ditto      l.s.
447 ------ roseus                  Red-leaved ditto             l.s.
448 ------ marifolius              Marum-leaved ditto           l.s.
449 ------ Tuberaria               Plantain-leaved ditto        l.s.
450 ------ apenninus               Apennine ditto               c.m.
451 ------ mutabilis               Changeable ditto             l.s.


POLYANDRIA DIGYNIA.

452 Fothergillia alnifolia         Alder-leaved Fothergillia    b.s.


POLYANDRIA DIGYNIA.

453 Liriodendron Tulipifera        Common Tulip Tree            c.m.
454 Magnolia grandiflora           Laurel-leaved Magnolia       b.l.s.
455 -------- v. obovata            Broad-leaved ditto           b.l.s.
456 -------- v. lanceolata         Long-leaved ditto            b.l.s.
457 -------- v. ferruginea         Ferrugineous ditto           b.l.s.
458 -------- glauca                Swamp ditto                  b.l.s.
459 -------- acuminata             Blue-flowering ditto         b.l.s.
460 -------- tripetala             Umbrella Tree                b.l.s.
461 -------- auriculata            Large-leaved ditto           b.l.s.
462 -------- purpurea              Purple Chinese ditto         b.l.s.
463 Annona triloba                 Trifid-fruited Custard Apple b.l.s.
464 Atragena alpina. c.            Alpine Atragena              b.l.
465 -------- austriaca. c.         Austrian ditto               b.l.
466 Clematis cirrhosa. c.          Evergreen Virgin's Bower     b.l.
467 -------- florida. c.           Large-flowered ditto         b.l.
468 -------- flore pleno           Double ditto                 c.m.
469 -------- viticella. c.         Purple-flowered ditto        b.l.
470 -------- v. fl. pleno. c.      Double Purple-flowered ditto c.m.
471 -------- crispa. c.            Curled-flowered ditto        b.l.
472 -------- orientalis. c.        Eastern ditto                b.l.
473 -------- virginiana. c.        Virginian ditto              c.m.
474 -------- flammula. c.          Sweet-scented ditto          c.m.


DIDYNAMIA GYMNOSPERMIA.

475 Teucrium flavum                Yellow Teucrium              l.s.
476 Satureja montana               Winter Savory                c.m.
477 Hyssopus officinalis           Common Hyssop                c.m.
478 Lavandula Spica                Lavender                     c.m.
479 --------- v. flore albo        White-flowered ditto         c.m.
480 --------- Stoechas             French ditto                 c.m.s.
481 Phlomis fruticosa              Jerusalem Sage               c.m.
482 Thymus vulgaris                Common Thyme                 c.m.
483 ------ v. fol. variegat.       Silver Thyme                 c.m.
484 ------ vulgaris. latifolia     Broad-leaved Thyme           c.m.
485 ------ Zygis                   Linear-leaved ditto          c.m.


DIDYNAMIA ANGIOSPERMIA.

486 Bignonia Catalpa               Common Catalpa               c.m.
487 -------- radicans              Great trumpet Flower         c.m.
488 -------- v. minor              Small ditto                  c.m.
489 -------- capreolata            Four-leaved ditto            l.s.
490 Vitex Agnus                    Castus Chaste Tree           c.m.
491 ----- v. latifolia             Broad-leaved ditto           c.m.


TETRADYNAMIA SILICULOSA.

492 Vella Pseudo-cytisus           Shrubby Vella                l.s.


MONADELPHIA POLYANDRIA.

493 Hibiscus Syriacus              Althaea Frutex               c.m.
494 -------- v. ruber              Red-flowered ditto           c.m.
495 -------- v. albus              White-flowered ditto         c.m.
496 -------- v. fol. variegat.     Striped-leaved ditto         c.m.
497 -------- v. flore pleno        Double White-flowered ditto  c.m.
498 Stuartia Malacodendron         Common Stuartia              b.l.s.
499 -------- marilandia            Maryland ditto               b.l.s.
500 Gordonia pubescens             Loblolly Bay                 b.l.s.


DIADELPHIA OCTANDRIA.

501 Polygala Chamaebuxus           Box-leaved Milkwort          b.m.


DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

502 Spartium Junceum               Spanish Broom                c.m.
503 -------- flore pleno           Double-flowered ditto        l.s.
504 -------- decumbens             Trailing Broom               c.m.
505 -------- Scorpius              Scorpion ditto               c.m.
506 -------- multiflorum           Portugal White ditto         c.m.
507 -------- patens                Woolly-podded ditto          c.m.
508 -------- purgans               Purging ditto                c.m.
509 -------- radiatum              Starry ditto                 b.m.
510 Genista candicans              Evergreen genista            c.m.
511 ------- triquetra              Triangular ditto             c.m.
512 ------- sagittalis             Jointed ditto                l.
513 ------- sibirica               Siberian ditto               c.m.
514 ------- germanica              German ditto                 l.
515 ------- hispanica              Spanish ditto                l.
516 ------- lusitanica             Portugal ditto               l.
517 Amorpha fruticosa              Bastard Indigo               c.m.
518 Ononis rotundifolia            Round-leaved Rest-Harrow     l.
519 ------ fruticosa               Shrubby ditto                l.
520 Glycine frutescens             Shrubby Kidney-bean Tree     c.m.
521 Cytisus Laburnum               Common Laburnum              c.m.
522 ------- v. latifolium          Scotch ditto                 c.m.
523 ------- alpinus                Alpine Cytisus               c.m.
524 ------- nigricans              Black ditto                  c.m.
525 ------- divaricatus            Divaricated ditto            c.m.
526 ------- sessifolius            Sessile-leaved ditto         c.m.
527 ------- hirsutus               Hairy Evergreen ditto        c.m.s.
528 ------- purpureus              Purple-flowered ditto        b.l.
529 ------- austriacus             Austrian ditto               l.
530 ------- supinus                Trailing ditto               l.
531 ------- capitatus              Large Yellow-flowered ditto  c.m.
532 ------- biflorus               Two-flowered ditto           c.m.
533 Robinia Pseudo-Acacia          Common Acacia                c.m.
534 ------- hispida                Rose Acacia                  c.m.
535 Robinia glutinosa              Glutinous Acacia             c.m.
536 ------- Caragana               Caragana ditto               c.m.
537 ------- Altagana               Siberian ditto               l.
538 ------- Chamlagu               Shining-leaved ditto         l.
539 ------- spinosa                Thorny ditto                 l.
540 ------- Halodendron            Salt Tree                    l.
541 ------- frutescens             Shrubby Robinia              l.
542 ------- pygmea                 Dwarf ditto                  l.
543 ------- jubata                 Bearded ditto                l.
544 Colutea arborescens            Common Bladder Senna         c.m.
545 ------- cruenta                Eastern ditto                c.m.
546 ------- Pococki                Pocock's ditto               c.m.
547 Coronilla Emeris               Scorpion Senna               c.m.
548 Astralagus tragacantha         Goat's Thorn                 l.


POLYADELPHIA POLYANDRIA.

549 Hypericum calycinum            Great-flowered St. John's-wort c.m.
550 --------- hircinum             Foetid ditto                 c.m.
551 --------- v. minus             Lesser Foetid ditto          c.m.
552 --------- elatum               Tall ditto                   c.m.
553 --------- prolificum           Proliferous ditto            c.m.
554 --------- olympicum            Olympian ditto               l.s.
555 --------- Kalmianum            Kalmia-leaved ditto          c.m.


SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA AEQUALIS.

556 Santolina Chamaecyparissus     Lavender cotton              c.m.
557 --------- rosmarinifolius      Rosemary-leaved ditto        c.m.


SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA SUPERFLUA.

558 Gnaphalium Stoechas            Narrow-leaved Everlasting    l.s.
559 Baccharis halimifolia          Groundsel tree               c.m.
560 Cineraria maritima             Sea Rag-wort                 l.s.


GYNANDRIA PENTANDRIA.

561 Passiflora caerulea. c.        Blue Passion Flower          c.m.s.


GYNANDRIA HEXANDRIA.

562 Aristolochia Sipho. c.         Tree Birthwort               l.


MONOECIA TRIANDRIA.

563 Axyris Ceratoides              Shrubby Axyris               l.s.
564 Comptonia asplenifolia         Fern-leaved Gale             b.s.


MONOECIA TETRANDRIA.

565 Aucuba japonica                Blotched-leaved Aucuba       l.b.s.
566 Betula populifolia             Poplar-leaved Birch          c.m.
567 ------ nigra                   Black ditto                  c.m.
568 ------ papyracea               Paper ditto                  c.m.
569 ------ pumila                  Hairy-leaved Dwarf ditto     b.m.
570 ------ oblongata               Oblong-leaved ditto          c.m.
571 ------ laciniata               Cut-leaved Alder             c.m.
572 ------ incana                  Glaucous-leaved Alder        c.m.
573 ------ v. angulata             Elm-leaved ditto             c.m.
574 Buxus balearicus               Minorca Box                  l.s.
575 ----- semperv. v. variegat.    Striped-leaved ditto         c.m.
576 ----- v. angustifolia          Narrow-leaved ditto          c.m.
577 Morus alba                     White Mulberry               c.m.
578 ----- nigra                    Black ditto                  c.m.
579 ----- papyracea                Paper ditto                  c.m.
580 ----- rubra                    Red ditto                    c.m.


MONOECIA PENTANDRIA.

581 Iva frutescens                 Bastard Jesuit's-Bark Tree   c.m.


MONOECIA POLYANDRIA.

582 Quercus Phellos                Willow-leaved Oak            l.
583 ------- v. serioea             Dwarf Willow-leaved ditto    l.
584 ------- Ilex                   Evergreen Oak                c.m.
585 ------- v. serrata             Sawed-leaved Evergreen ditto c.m.
586 ------- v. oblonga             Oblong-leaved Evergreen do.  c.m.
587 ------- Suber                  Cork tree                    c.m.
588 ------- virens                 Live Oak                     c.m.
589 ------- Prinos                 Chesnut-leaved Oak           l.s.
590 ------- v. oblonga             Long-leaved ditto            l.
591 ------- aquatica               Water Oak                    l.
592 ------- v. heterophylla        Various-leaved Water Oak     l.
593 ------- v. elongata            Long-leaved Water ditto      l.
594 ------- v. indivisa            Entire-leaved Water ditto    l.
595 ------- v. attenuata           Narrow-leaved Water ditto    l.
596 ------- nigra                  Black Oak                    c.m.
597 ------- rubra                  Red ditto                    c.m.
598 ------- v. coccinea            Scarlet ditto                c.m.
599 ------- v. montana             Mountain Red ditto           c.m.
600 ------- discolor               Downy-leaved ditto           c.m.
601 ------- alba                   White Oak                    c.m.
602 ------- aegilops               Large prickly-cupped ditto   l.
603 ------- Cerris                 Turkey Oak                   c.m.
604 Fagus pumila                   Chinquapin Chesnut           l.s.
605 ----- ferruginea               Copper Beech                 c.m.
606 ----- sylvatica v. purpurea    Purple ditto                 c.m.
607 ----- v. asplenifolia          Fern-leaved ditto            c.m.
608 Carpinus virginiana            Virginian Hornbeam           c.m.
609 Carpinus Ostrya                Hop Hornbeam                 c.m.
610 Corylus rostrata               American Cuckold Nut         c.m.
611 ------- Colurna                Constantinople ditto         c.m.
612 Platanus orientalis            Palmated Plane Tree          c.m.
613 -------- v. acerifolia         Maple-leaved ditto           c.m.
614 -------- v. undulata           Waved-leaved ditto           c.m.
615 -------- occidentalis          Lobed-leaved ditto           c.m.
616 Liquidamber Styraciflua        Maple-leaved Gum Tree        l.


MONOECIA MONADELPHIA.

617 Pinus pinaster                 Pinaster                     c.m.
618 ----- Inops                    Jersey Pine                  l.
619 ----- resinosa                 Pitch ditto                  l.
620 ----- halepensis               Aleppo Pine                  l.
621 ----- Pinea                    Stone Pine                   l.
622 ----- Taeda                    Frankincense ditto           l.
623 ----- v. rigida                Three-leaved ditto           l.
624 ----- v. variabilis            Two and three-leaved ditto   l.
625 ----- v. alopecuroides         Fox-tail ditto               l.
626 ----- v. Cembra                Siberian stone ditto         c.m.
627 ----- Strobus                  Weymouth ditto               c.m.
628 ----- Cedrus                   Cedar of Lebanon             c.m.
629 ----- Larix                    Red Larch                    c.m.
630 ----- v. pendula               Black Larch                  c.m.
631 ----- Picea                    Silver Fir                   c.m.
632 ----- Balsamea                 Balm of Gilead Fir           c.m.
633 ----- canadensis               Hemlock Spruce Fir           c.m.
634 ----- nigra                    Black ditto                  c.m.
635 ----- alba                     White ditto                  c.m.
636 ----- Abies                    Red or Common ditto          c.m.
637 ----- sylvestris v. tatarica   Tartarian Pine               l.
638 ----- v. montana               Mountain ditto               l.
639 ----- v. divaricata            Hudson's Bay ditto           l.
640 ----- v. maritima              Sea Pine                     l.
641 Thuja occidentalis             American Arbor-Vitae         c.m.
642 ----- orientalis               Chinese ditto                c.m.
643 Cupressus sempervirens         Upright Cypress              c.m.
644 --------- v. horizontalis      Male Spreading ditto         c.m.
645 --------- disticha             Deciduous ditto              c.m.
646 --------- v. nutans            Long-leaved Deciduous ditto  l.
647 --------- thyoides             Arbor-Vitae-leaved ditto     c.m.
648 --------- pendula              Cedar of Goa                 l.s.


DIOECIA DIANDRIA.

649 Salix phylicaefolia            Phylica-leaved Willow        c.m.
650 ----- babylonica               Weeping Willow               c.m.
651 ----- retusa                   Blunt-leaved ditto           c.m.
652 Salix incubacea                Spreading Willow             c.m.
653 ----- ulmifolia                Elm-leaved ditto             c.m.
654 ----- hastata                  Halbert-leaved ditto         c.m.
655 ----- myrtilloides             Myrtle-leaved ditto          c.m.
656 ----- Lapponum                 Lapland ditto                c.m.
657 ----- tristis                  Narrow-leaved American ditto c.m.


DIOECIA TRIANDRIA.

658 Empetrum rubrum                Red Crow Berry               b.m.
659 Hippophaë canadensis           Canada Sea Buck-thorn        b.l.s.
660 Myrica cerifera                Candleberry Myrtle           b.l.
661 ------ v. latifolia            Broad-leaved ditto           b.l.


DIOECIA PENTANDRIA.

662 Pistachia Terebinthus          Pistachia Nut Tree           l.s.
663 Xanthoxylum Clava              Herculis Tooth-ach Tree      c.m.


DIOECIA HEXANDRIA.

664 Smilax aspera. c.              Rough Bindweed               l.b.
665 ------ lanceolata. c.          Spear-leaved ditto           l.b.
666 ------ rotundifolia. c.        Round-leaved ditto           l.b.
667 ------ Bona Nox. c.            Ciliated ditto               l.b.
668 ------ laurifolia. c.          Laurel-leaved ditto          l.b.
669 ------ sassaparilla. c.        Sassaparilla ditto           l.b.
670 ------ tamnoides. c.           Briony-leaved ditto          l.b.
671 ------ caduca. c.              Deciduous ditto              l.b.


DIOECIA OCTANDRIA.

672 Populus dilatata               Lombardy Poplar              c.m.
673 ------- balsamifera            Tacamahac ditto              c.m.
674 ------- candicans              White-leaved ditto           c.m.
675 ------- laevigata              Smooth-leaved ditto          c.m.
676 ------- monilifera             Canadian ditto               c.m.
677 ------- graeca                 Athenian ditto               c.m.
678 ------- heterophylla           Various-leaved ditto         c.m.
679 ------- angulata               Carolina ditto               c.m.


DIOECIA DECANDRIA.

680 Coriaria myrtifolia            Myrtle-leaved Sumach         c.m.


DIOECIA DODECANDRIA.

681 Menispermum canadense. c.      Canada Moon-seed             l.b.
682 ----------- carolinianum. c.   Carolina ditto               l.b.


DIOECIA MONADELPHIA.

683 Juniperus thuifera             Spanish Juniper              c.m.
684 --------- Sabina               Common Savin                 c.m.
685 --------- v. tamariscifolia    Tamarisk-leaved ditto        c.m.
686 Juniperus v. fol. variegat.    Variegated Savin             c.m.
687 --------- virginiana           Red Cedar                    c.m.
688 --------- repens               Creeping ditto               c.m.
689 --------- Oxycedrus            Brown-berried ditto          l.b.s.
690 --------- phoenicea            Phoenicean ditto             l.b.s.
691 --------- bermudiana           Bermudian ditto              l.b.s.
692 --------- communis v. suecica  Swedish ditto                c.m.
693 --------- montana              Alpine ditto                 l.b.
694 Ephedra monostachya            Shrubby Horse tail           l.b.
695 ------- distachya              Greater ditto                l.b.
696 Cissampelos smilacina          Smilax-leaved Cissampelos    l.b.


DIOECIA SYNGENESIA.

697 Ruscus Hypoglossum             Broad-leaved Alexandrian Laurel c.m.
698 ------ Hypophyllum             Double-leaved ditto          b.m.
699 ------ racemosus               Common ditto                 b.m.


POLYGAMIA MONOECIA.

700 Atriplex Halimus               Sea Purslane                 c.m.
701 Acer tataricum                 Tartarian Maple              c.m.
702 ---- rubrum                    Scarlet ditto                c.m.
703 ---- v. pallidum               Pale ditto                   c.m.
704 ---- saccharinum               Sugar Maple                  c.m.
705 ---- platanoides               Plane-leaved ditto           c.m.
706 ---- v. laciniatum             Cut-leaved ditto             c.m.
707 ---- montanum                  Mountain ditto               c.m.
708 ---- pensylvanicum             Pennsylvanian ditto          c.m.
709 ---- monspessulanum            Montpellier ditto            c.m.
710 ---- creticum                  Cretan ditto                 c.m.
711 ---- Negundo                   Ash-leaved ditto             c.m.
712 ---- Opalus                    Italian ditto                c.m.


POLYGAMIA DIOECIA.

713 Gleditsia triacanthos          Three-thorned Acacia         c.m.
714 --------- v. horrida           Strong-spined ditto          c.m.
715 --------- v. monosperma        Single-seeded ditto          c.m.
716 Fraxinus rotundifolia          Round-leaved Ash             c.m.
717 -------- excelsior v. crispa   Curled-leaved ditto          c.m.
718 -------- v. diversifolia       Various-leaved ditto         c.m.
719 -------- v. pendula            Weeping Ash                  c.m.
720 -------- v. striata            Striped-barked ditto         c.m.
721 -------- v. variegata          Blotch-leaved ditto          c.m.
722 -------- Ornus                 Flowering ditto              c.m.
723 -------- americana             American ditto               c.m.
724 -------- chinensis             Chinese ditto                c.m.
725 -------- rotundifolia          Round-leaved ditto           c.m.
726 Diospyrus Lotus                Date Plum Tree               c.m.
727 Diospyrus virginiana           Virginian Plum Tree          c.m.
728 Nyssa integrifolia             Mountain Tupello             l.b.
729 ----- denticulata              Water ditto                  l.b.


POLYGAMIA TRIOECIA.

730 Ficus Garica                   Common Fig-Tree              c.m.


       *       *       *       *       *



FOREIGN HARDY HERBACEOUS PLANTS.



In enumerating the foregoing, as well as the plants of the present
section, I have had more than one object in view; being desirous to put
in only such plants as were ornamental or curious, at the same time to
insert none but what are perfectly hardy; yet, independently of this, to
make it sufficiently general, to give to such persons who might wish to
study plants scientifically, a sufficient number for examples in every
genus. For this purpose I have retained a portion of the Umbelliferous
and other plants. Although not to be distinguished for their general
beauty or appearance, yet they are calculated to afford the student the
best plants for comparison, and for that reason I have arranged them
according to the Linnaean System.



DIANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

 1 Veronica sibirica          Siberian Speedwell           c.m.
 2 -------- virginica         Virginian ditto              c.m.
 3 -------- spuria            Bastard ditto                c.m.
 4 -------- maritima          Blue-flowered Sea ditto      c.m.
 5 -------- longifolia        Long-leaved ditto            c.m.
 6 -------- incana            Hoary ditto                  c.m.
 7 -------- incicisa          Cut-leaved ditto             c.m.
 8 -------- Allioni           Creeping ditto               c.m.
 9 -------- Teucrium          Hungarian ditto              c.m.
10 -------- urticaefolia      Nettle-leaved ditto          c.m.
11 -------- orientalis        Oriental ditto               c.m.
12 -------- candida           White-leaved ditto           c.m.
13 -------- multifida         Multifid ditto               c.m.
14 -------- latifolia         Broad-leaved ditto           c.m.
15 Verinoca prostrata         Trailing Sea Speedwell       c.m.
16 -------- austriaca         Austrian ditto               c.m.
17 -------- pinnata           Wing'd-leaved ditto          c.m.
18 -------- paniculata        Panicled ditto               c.m.
19 -------- Gentianoides      Gentian-leaved ditto         c.m.
20 Gratiola officinalis       Hedge-Hyssop                 c.m.
21 Verbena urticaefolia       Nettle-leaved Vervain        c.m.
22 Lycopus virginicus         Virginian Lycopus            c.m.
23 Monarda fistulosa          Hollow-stalked Monarda       l.
24 ------- didyma             Scarlet ditto                l.
25 ------- purpurea           Purple ditto                 l.
26 Salvia lyrata              Lyre-leaved Sage             l.b.
27 ------ virgata             Twiggy-branched ditto        c.m.
28 ------ sylvestris          Spotted-stalked ditto        c.m.
29 ------ nemorosa            Spear-leaved ditto           c.m.
30 ------ austriaca           Austrian ditto               c.m.
31 ------ Disermas            Long-spiked ditto            c.m.
32 ------ verticillata        Whorl-flowered ditto         c.m.
33 ------ glutinosa           Yellow-flowered ditto        c.m.
34 ------ lineata             Flax-leaved ditto            l.b.
35 Collinsonia canadensis     Nettle-leaved Collinsonia    c.m.


TRIANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

36 Valeriana Phu              Garden Valerian              c.m.
37 Ixia chinensis             Chinese Ixia                 l.b.
38 Galdiolus communis         Common red Corn-Flag         c.m.
39 --------- byzantinus       Larger ditto                 c.m.
40 Iris susiana               Chalcedonian Iris            l.b.
41 ---- florentina            Florentine ditto             c.m.
42 ---- germanica             German ditto                 c.m.
43 ---- lurida                Dingy ditto                  c.m.
44 ---- sambucina             Elder-scented ditto          c.m.
45 ---- dalmatica             Dalmatian ditto              c.m.
46 ---- variegata             Variegated-flowered ditto    c.m.
47 ---- biflora               Two-flowered ditto           l.b.
48 ---- pumila                Dwarf ditto                  c.m.
49 ---- sibirica              Siberian ditto               c.m.
50 ---- squalens              Brown-flowered ditto         c.m.
51 ---- versicolor            Various coloured ditto       c.m.
52 ---- spuria                Spurious ditto               c.m.
53 ---- ochroleuca            Pale Yellow ditto            c.m.
54 ---- graminea              Grass-leaved ditto           c.m.
55 ---- ephium                Spanish Bulbous ditto        c.m.
56 ---- ephioides             English Bulbous ditto        c.m.
57 ---- persica               Persian ditto                l.b.
58 ---- halophila             Long-leaved ditto            c.m.
59 ---- subbiflora            One- and Two-flowered ditto  c.m.
60 ---- virginica             Virginian ditto              c.m.
61 Iris aphylla               Naked-stalked Iris           c.m.
62 ---- flexuosa              Bending-stalked ditto        c.m.
63 Commelina erecta           Upright Commelina            c.m.


TETRANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

64 Scabiosa alpina            Alpine Scabious              c.m.
65 -------- leucantha         Snowy ditto                  c.m.
66 -------- sylvatica         Broad-leaved ditto           c.m.
67 -------- ochroleuca        Pale white ditto             c.m.
68 Crucianella anomala        Anomalous Crucianella        c.m.
69 Asperula Taurina           Broad-leaved Woodroof        c.m.
70 Plantago maxima            Broad-leaved Plantain        c.m.
71 -------- v. rosea          Rose ditto                   c.m.
72 -------- altissima         Tall ditto                   c.m.
73 -------- asiatica          Asiatic ditto                c.m.
74 Sanguisorba media          Short-spiked Burnet-saxifrage c.m.
75 -------- canadensis        Canadian ditto               c.m.


PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

76 Anchusa angustifolia       Narrow-leaved Bugloss        c.m.
77 Pulmonaria angustifolia    Narrow-leaved Lungwort       l.b.
78 ---------- virginica       Virginian ditto              l.b.
79 Borago orientalis          Eastern Borage               l.b.
80 Symphytum orientale        Eastern Comfrey              l.b.
81 --------- asperrimum       Siberian ditto               c.m.
82 Hydrophyllum virginicum    Virginian Water-leaf         l.b.
83 ------------ canadense     Canadian ditto               l.b.
84 Lysimachia Ephemeron       Willow-leaved Loose-strife   l.
85 ---------- stricta         Bulb-bearing ditto           b.s.
86 ---------- ciliata         Ciliated ditto               c.m.
87 Plumbago europaea          European Lead-wort           c.m.
88 Phlox paniculata           Panicled Lychnidea           c.m.
89 ----- undulata             Wave-leaved ditto            c.m.
90 ----- suaveolens           White-flowered ditto         c.m.
91 ----- carolina             Carolina ditto               c.m.
92 ----- maculata             Spotted-stalked ditto        c.m.
93 ----- glaberrima           Smooth-stalked ditto         c.m.
94 Convolvulus americanus     American Bind-weed           c.m.
95 Polemonium reptans         Creeping Greek Valerian      c.m.
96 Campanula persicifolia     Peach-leaved Campanula       l.
97 --------- pyramidalis      Pyramidal ditto              l.
98 --------- lilifolia        Lily ditto                   c.m.
99 --------- rapunculoides    Nettle-leaved ditto          c.m.
100 -------- americana        American ditto               l.
101 -------- versicolor       Various-coloured ditto       l.b.
102 -------- sibirica         Siberian ditto               l.b.
103 Phyteuma spicata          Spike-flowered Horn-Rampion  c.m.
104 Triosteum perfoliatum     Fever Wort                   l.b.
105 Verbascum ferrugineum     Rusty-leaved Mullein         l.
106 -------- phoeniceum       Purple-flowered ditto        l.
107 Hyoscyamus Scopolia       Nightshade-leaved Henbane    b.
108 Physalis Alkekengi        Winter Cherry                c.m.
109 Atropa Mandragora         Mandrake                     l.s.
110 Viola montana             Mountain Violet              c.m.
111 Tabernamonta Amsonia      Alternate-leaved Taberna montana
112 ------------ angustifolia Narrow-leaved ditto          l.s.


PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA.

113 Apocynum venetum          Spear-leaved Dog's-bane      c.m.
114 -------- androsaemifolium Fly-catching ditto           l.b.
115 -------- cannabium        Hemp-leaved ditto            c.m.
116 Asclepius syriaca         Syrian Swallow-wort          c.m.
117 --------- amoena          Oval-leaved ditto            c.m.
118 --------- incarnata       Flesh-coloured ditto         c.m.
119 --------- sibirica        Siberian ditto               l.b.
120 --------- Vincetoxicum    Officinal ditto              c.m.
121 --------- exaltata        Tall ditto                   l.b.
122 --------- tuberosa        Orange Apocynum or ditto     l.b.
123 --------- nigra           Black ditto                  c.m.
124 Heuchera americana        American Spanicle            c.m.
125 Gentiana lutea            Yellow Gentian               l.b.
126 -------- saponaria        Soapwort-leaved ditto        l.b.
127 --------- cruciata        Cross-wort ditto             l.b.
128 Eryngium planum           Flat-leaved Eryngo           l.
129 -------- amethystinum     Amethystian ditto            l.
130 -------- Bourgati         Cut-leaved ditto             l.
131 -------- alpinum          Alpine ditto                 l.
132 Astrantia major           Great Black Masterwort       c.m.
133 Ferrula communis          Gigantic Fennel              l.
134 ------- nodiflora         Knotted ditto                l.
135 Laserpitium latifolium    Broad-leaved Laser-wort      l.
136 Heracleum elegans         Elegant-leaved Cow Parsnep   c.m.
137 Ligusticum laevisticum    Common Lovage                c.m.
138 ---------- peloponnese    Hemlock-leaved ditto         c.m.
139 Angelica archangelica     Garden Angelica              c.m.
140 Sium Falcaria             Creeping-rooted Skirret      l.b.
141 Phellandrium Mutellina    Mountain Phellandrium        l.b.
142 Chaerophyllum bulbosum    Bulbous-rooted Chaerophyllum c.m.
143 ------------ hirsutum     Hairy ditto                  c.m.
144 ------------ aromaticum   Sweet-scented ditto          c.m.
145 Sesseli montanum          Long-leaved Meadow-saxifrage c.m.
146 Thapsia villosa           Deadly carrot                c.m.
147 Smyrnium aureum           Golden Alexanders            l.b.


PENTANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.

148 Aralia racemosa           Berry-bearing Aralia         c.m.
149 Aralia nudicaulis         Naked-stalk'd Atalia         l.b.
150 Statice Cephalotes        Large single-stalk'd Statice l.
151 ------- speciosa          Plaintain-leaved ditto       l.
152 ------- tatarica          Tartarian ditto              l.


HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

153 Tradescantia virginica    Virginian Spider-wort        c.m.
154 Narcissus angustifolius   Narrow-leaved Narcissus      c.m.
155 --------- biflorus        Two-flowered ditto           c.m.
156 --------- majalis         Late-flowering white ditto   c.m.
157 Narcissus incomparabilis  Peerless Daffodil            c.m.
158 --------- major           Large ditto                  c.m.
159 --------- orientalis      Oriental ditto               c.m.
160 --------- Tazetta         Polyanthus Narcissus         c.m.
161 --------- odorus          Sweet-scented ditto          c.m.
162 --------- Jonquilla       Jonquil                      c.m.
163 --------- hispanicus      Spanish-white ditto          c.m.
164 --------- Bulbocodium     Hoop Petticoat ditto         l.b.
165 --------- minor           Lesser daffodil              c.m.
166 Amaryllis lutea           Yellow Amaryllis             l.
167 Allium victorialis        Long rooted Garlick          c.m.
168 ------ sphaerocephalon    Small round-headed ditto     c.m.
169 ------ descendens         Purple-headed ditto          c.m.
170 ------ nutans             Nodding ditto                c.m.
171 ------ senescens          Narcissus-leaved Garlick     c.m.
172 ------ multibulbosum      Broad-leaved ditto           c.m.
173 ------ flavum             Yellow Garlick               c.m.
174 ------ Moly               Yellow Moly                  c.m.
175 ------ tartaricum         Tartarian Garlick            c.m.
176 ------ subhirsutum        Hairy ditto                  c.m.
177 ------ pallens            Pale-flowered ditto          c.m.
178 Lilium candidum           White Lilly                  c.m.
179 ------ bulbiferum         Orange ditto                 c.m.
180 ------ pomponium          Pomponian ditto              b.m.
181 ------ chalcedonium       Scarlet Martagon ditto       c.m.
182 ------ superbum           Superb ditto                 b.m.
183 ------ martagon           Common Martagon ditto        c.m.
184 ------ canadense          Canada-Martagon ditto        b.m.
185 ------ tigrinum           Tiger Lily                   l.b.
186 ------ philadelphicum     Philadelphia Lily            b.m.s.
187 ------ Catesbaei          Catesby's Lily               b.m.s.
188 Fritillaria imperialis    Crown Imperial               c.m.
189 ----------- persica       Persian Fritillary           l.
190 ----------- pyrenaica     Pyrenean Fritillary          c.m.
191 Uvularia perfoliata       Perfoliate Uvularia          l.b.
192 -------- amplexifolia     Heart-leaved ditto           l.b.
193 -------- grandiflora      Large-flowered ditto         c.m.
194 Erythronium Dens Canis    Dog's-tooth Violet           c.m.
195 Tulipa sylvestris         Italian Yellow Tulip         c.m.
196 ------ Gesneriana         Common Garden ditto          c.m.
196 Hypoxis erecta            Upright Hypoxis              c.m.
197 Ornithogalum nutans       Nodding Star of Bethlehem    c.m.
198 ------------ pyrenaicum   Pyrenean ditto               c.m.
199 ------------ latifolium   Broad-leaved ditto           c.m.
200 Scilla peruviana          Peruvian-Hyacinth            c.m.
201 ------ campanulata        Spansh Squill                c.m.
202 ------ bifolia            Two-leaved ditto             l.b.
203 ------ praecox            Siberian ditto               l.b.
204 ------ italica            Italian ditto                c.m.
205 ------ amoena             Early-flowering ditto        c.m.
206 Asphodelus luteus         Yellow Asphodel              c.m.
207 ---------- ramosus        Branching ditto              c.m.
208 Anthericum ramosum        Branching Anthericum         c.m.
209 ---------- Liliago        Grass-leaved ditto           c.m.
210 ---------- Liliastrum     St. Bruno's Lily             c.m.
211 Convallaria verticillata  Verticillate Solomon's Seal  l.
212 ----------- racemosa      Branching ditto              l.
213 ----------- stellata      Starry ditto                 l.
214 Hyacinthus orientalis     Garden Hyacinth              c.m.
215 ---------- romanus        Roman ditto                  l.
216 ---------- cernuus        Nodding ditto                c.m.
217 ---------- Muscaria       Musk ditto                   c.m.
218 ---------- monstrosus     Feathered ditto              c.m.
219 ---------- comosus        Purple-Grape or Tassel ditto c.m.
220 ---------- botryoides     Blue-Grape ditto             c.m.
221 ---------- racemosus      Starch ditto                 c.m.
222 Aletris Uvaria            Orange-flowered Aletris      l.s.
223 Yucca gloriosa            Superb Adam's Needle         l.s.
224 ----- filamentosa         Thready ditto                c.m.
225 Hemerocallis flava        Yellow Day Lily              c.m.
226 ------------ coerulea     Blue ditto                   l.s.
227 ------------ alba         White ditto                  l.s.
228 ------------ fulva        Tawny ditto                  c.m.
229 ------------ graminea     Grass-leaved ditto           c.m.


HEXANDRIA TRIGYNIA.

230 Rumex Patentia            Patience Dock                c.m.
231 ----- italicus            Italian ditto                c.m.
232 ----- alpinus             Alpine ditto                 c.m.


HEXANDRIA TETRAGYNIA.

233 Saururus cernuus          Lizard's Tail                c.m.
234 -------- lucidus          Shining-leaved ditto         c.m.


OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

235 Oenothera fruticosa       Shrubby Oenothera            c.m.
236 Oenothera Misouriensis    Misour Oenothera             l.b.
237 --------- Fraseri         Fraser's ditto               l.b.
238 --------- angustifolia    Narrow-leaved Shrubby ditto  c.m.
239 Epilobium angustissimum   Narrowest-leaved Willow-herb c.m.
240 --------- Dodonaei        Dodonaeus's ditto            l.b.


OCTANDRIA TRIGYNIA.

241 Polygonum divaricatum     Divaricated Polygonum        c.m.
242 --------- scandens        Climbing ditto               c.m.
243 --------- undulatum       Waved-leaved ditto           c.m.
244 --------- ochreatum       Spear-leaved ditto           c.m.
245 --------- virginicum      Virginian ditto              c.m.


ENNEANDRIA TETRAGYNIA.

246 Rheum Rhaponticum         Rhapontic Rhubarb            c.m.
247 ----- undulatum           Waved-leaved ditto           c.m.
248 ----- palmatum            Palmated-leaved ditto        c.m.
249 ----- tataricum           Tartarian ditto              c.m.
250 ----- hybridum            Bastard ditto                c.m.
251 ----- compactum           Compact ditto                c.m.


DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

252 Sophora flavescens        Siberian Sophora             l.b.
253 ------- alopecuroides     Fox-tail ditto               l.b.
254 ------- australis         Blue Australian ditto        l.b.
255 ------- alba              White ditto                  l.b.
256 Cassia marilandica        Maryland Cassia              l.
257 Dictamnus rubra           Fraxinella                   c.m.


DECANDRIA DIGYNIA.

258 Saxifraga crassifolia     Oval-leaved Saxifrage        c.m.
259 --------- cordifolia      Heart-leaved ditto           c.m.
260 --------- Geum            Kidney-leaved ditto          c.m.
261 --------- geranoides      Crane's-bill-leaved ditto    c.m.
262 --------- pensylvanica    Pennsylvanian ditto          l.b.
263 --------- hieracifolia    Hawkweed-leaved ditto        c.m.
264 Gypsophila paniculata     Panicled Gypsophila          c.m.
265 ---------- altissima      Tall ditto                   c.m.
266 Dianthus barbatus         Common Sweet William         c.m.
267 -------- hybridus         Mule Pink                    c.m.
268 -------- superbus         Superb ditto                 c.m.


DECANDRIA TRIGYNIA.

269 Cucabulus viscosus        Clammy Bladder Campion       c.m.
270 --------- tataricus       Tartarian ditto              c.m.
271 --------- stellatus       Starry ditto                 l.b.
272 Silene longiflora         Long-flowered Catchfly       c.m.


DECANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.

273 Sedum majus               Great Stonecrop              c.m.
274 ----- Aizoon              Yellow ditto                 c.m.
275 Agrostemma coronaria      Common Rose Campion          c.m.
276 ---------- Flos Jovis     Umbell'd ditto               c.m.
277 Lychnis chalcedonia       Scarlet Lychnis              c.m.
278 Cerastium repens          Creeping Mouse-ear Chickweed c.m.
279 --------- dioicum         Spanish ditto                c.m.
280 --------- tomentosum      Wooly-leaved ditto           c.m.
281 --------- sufruticosum    Shrubby ditto                c.m.
282 --------- strictum        Upright ditto                c.m.


DECANDRIA DECAGYNIA.

283 Phytolacca decandra       Branching Phytolacca         l.b.


DODECANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

284 Lythrum virgatum          Fine-branched Willow-herb    c.m.


DODECANDRIA DIGYNIA.

285 Agrimonia odorata         Sweet-scented Agrimony       c.m.
286 --------- repens          Creeping ditto               c.m.
287 --------- Agrimonoides    Three-leaved ditto           c.m.


DODECANDRIA TRIGYNIA.

288 Euphorbia coralloides     Coral-stalk'd Spurge         l.
289 --------- pilosa          Hairy ditto                  l.
290 --------- Esula           Gromwell-leaved ditto        l.
291 --------- falcata         Sickle-leaved ditto          l.
292 --------- Cyparissias     Cypress ditto                c.m.
293 --------- palustris       Marsh ditto                  l.b.
294 --------- verrucosa       Warted ditto                 l.
295 --------- multicorymbosa  Flax-leaved ditto            c.m.


DODECANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.

296 Spiraea Aruncus           Goat's-beard Meadow Sweet    c.m.
297 ------ lobata             Lobe-leaved ditto            l.
298 ------ trifoliata         Three-leaved ditto           l.b.


ICOSANDRIA POLYGYNIA.

299 Fragaria monophylla       One-leaved Strawberry        c.m.
300 -------- virginiana       Virginian ditto              c.m.
301 -------- grandiflora      Pine ditto                   c.m.
302 -------- chiliensis       Chili or White ditto         c.m.
303 Potentilla pensylvanica   Pensylvanian Cinquefoil      c.m.
304 ---------- recta          Upright ditto                c.m.
305 ---------- hirta          Hairy ditto                  c.m.
306 ---------- mutlifida      Cut-leaved ditto             c.m.
307 ---------- norwegica      Norway ditto                 c.m.
308 Potentilla grandiflora    Great-flowered Cinquefoil    c.m.
309 ---------- monspeliensis  Montpelier ditto             c.m.
310 Geum virginicum           Virginian Avens              c.m.
311 ---- strictum             Upright ditto                c.m.
312 ---- potentilloides       Cinquefoil ditto             c.m.
313 ---- montanum             Mountain ditto               c.m.


POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

314 Actea racemosa            American Herb-Christopher    c.m.
315 Podophyllum peltatum      Duck's-foot, or May-apple    c.m.
316 Chelidonium laciniatum    Cut-leaved Celandine         c.m.
317 Papaver orientale         Oriental Poppy               c.m.


POLYANDRIA DIGYNIA.

318 Paeonia coralloides       Female Paeony                l.
319 ------ humilis            Dwarf ditto                  l.
320 ------ albiflora          White-flowered ditto         l.
321 ------ officinalis        Common or Male ditto         c.m.
322 ------ tenuiflora         Fine-leaved ditto            c.m.
323 ------ fimbriata          Fringed-flowered ditto       c.m.
324 ------ anomala            Siberian ditto               c.m.


POLYANDRIA TRIGYNIA.

325 Delphinium intermedium    Palmate-leaved Bee Larkspur  c.m.
326 ---------- hybridum       Bastard ditto                l.
327 ---------- elatum         Common ditto                 c.m.
328 ---------- exaltatum      American ditto               c.m.
329 ---------- grandiflorum   Large-flowered ditto         c.m.
330 Aconitum Lycoctonum       Great Yellow Wolf's-bane     c.m.
331 --------- Napellus        Common Blue Wolf's-bane      c.m.
332 --------- pyrenaicum      Pyrenean ditto               c.m.
333 --------- japonicum       Japan ditto                  l.b.
334 --------- Anthora         Wholesome ditto              c.m.
335 --------- variegatum      Variegated ditto             c.m.
336 --------- ochroleucum     Tall ditto                   c.m.
337 --------- album           White-flowered ditto         l.
338 --------- volubile        Twining ditto                l.b.
339 --------- uncinatum       Hook-seeded ditto            c.m.
340 --------- Cammarum        Purple ditto                 c.m.


POLYANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.

341 Aquilegia canadensis      Canadian Columbine           c.m.
342 --------- montana         Mountain ditto               l.
343 --------- sibirica        Siberian ditto               l.
344 --------- viridiflora     Green-flowered ditto         l.


POLYANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.

345 Anemone pratensis         Meadow Anemone               l.b.
346 Anemone coronaria         Common Garden ditto          l.
347 ------- sylvestris        Snow-drop ditto              c.m.
348 ------- virginiana        Virginian ditto              c.m.
349 ------- pensylvanica      Pensylvanian ditto           c.m.
350 Clematis recta            Upright Virgin's-Bower       c.m.
351 -------- ochroleuca       Yellow ditto                 l.
352 -------- viorna           Leathery-flowered ditto      l.
353 -------- integrifolia     Intire-leaved ditto          c.m.
354 Thalictrum aquilegifolium Feathered Columbine          c.m.
355 ---------- simplex        Simple-stalked ditto         c.m.
356 ---------- lucidum        Shining-leaved Meadow Rue    c.m.
357 ---------- nigricans      Black-flowered ditto         c.m.
358 ---------- elatum         Tall ditto                   c.m.
359 ---------- foetidum       Stinking ditto               c.m.
360 ---------- purpurascens   Purple-stalked ditto         c.m.
361 ---------- medium         German ditto                 c.m.
362 ---------- atropurpureum  Dark-purple-flowered ditto   c.m.
363 ---------- rugosum        Rough-leaved ditto           c.m.
364 ---------- dioicum        Dioicous ditto               c.m.
365 ---------- sibiricum      Siberian ditto               c.m.
366 ---------- tuberosum      Tubrous-rooted ditto         c.m.
367 ---------- angustifolium  Narrow-leaved ditto          c.m.
368 ---------- contortum      Twisted-stalked ditto        c.m.
369 ---------- Cornuti        Canadian ditto               c.m.
370 Thalictrum speciosum      Glaucous-leaved Meadow Rue   c.m.
371 Ranunculus aconitifolius  Fair Maids of France         c.m.
372 ---------- platanifolius  Plane-leaved Ranunculus      c.m.
373 ---------- illyricus      Illyrian ditto               l.b.
374 ---------- asiaticus      Common Persian ditto         c.m.
375 Trollius asiaticus        Asiatic Globe-flower         l.b.s.
376 -------- americanus       American ditto               l.b.s.
377 Helleborus niger          Christmas Rose               l.s.
378 ---------- lividus        Livid Hellebore              l.b.s.


DIDYNAMIA GYMNOSPERMA.

379 Teucrium lucidum          Shining-leaved Germander     c.m.
380 -------- multiflorum      Many-flowered ditto          c.m.
381 Hyssopus nepetoides       Square-stalked Hyssop        l.
382 Nepeta pannonica          Hungarian Cat-Mint           c.m.
383 ------ incana             Hoary ditto                  c.m.
384 ------ violacea           Violet-flowered ditto        c.m.
385 ------ Nepetella          Small ditto                  c.m.
386 ------ nuda               Spanish ditto                c.m.
387 ------ tuberosa           Tuberous-rooted ditto        c.m.
388 Sideritis hyssopifolia    Hyssop-leaved Iron-wort      l.
389 --------- scordioides     Crenated ditto               l.
390 --------- hirsuta         Hairy ditto
391 Mentha crispa             Curled-leaved Mint           c.m.
392 Mentha niliaca            White Mint                   c.m.
393 ------ auriculata         Ear-leaved ditto             c.m.
394 Lamium Orvala             Balm-leaved Archangel        l.
395 ------ rugosum            Wrinkled-leaved ditto        c.m.
396 ------ garganicum         Wolly ditto                  c.m.
397 ------ molle              Pellitoria-leaved ditto      c.m.
398 Betonica stricta          Danish Betony                c.m.
399 ------- incana            Hoary ditto                  c.m.
400 ------- orientalis        Oriental ditto               c.m.
401 ------- hirsuta           Hairy ditto                  c.m.
402 Stachys circinata         Blunt-leaved Stachys         c.m.
403 ------- lanata            Woolly-leaved ditto          c.m.
404 ------- cretica           Cretan ditto                 c.m.
405 ------- recta             Upright ditto                c.m.
406 Marrubium supinum         Procumbent Base Horehound    c.m.
407 --------- hispanicum      Spanish ditto                c.m.
408 --------- peregrinum      Saw-leaved ditto             c.m.
409 Phlomis tuberosa          Tuberous-rooted Phlomis      c.m.
410 ------- Herba venti       Rough-leaved ditto           l.b.
411 Origanum hybridum         Bastard ditto                l.b.
412 -------- heracloticum     Winter ditto                 c.m.
413 Thymus virginicus         Virginian Thyme              l.
414 Melissa grandiflora       Great-flowered Balm          c.m.
415 ------- graeca            Grecian ditto                c.m.
416 Dracocephalum virginicum  Virginian Dragon's-head      l.
417 ------------- ruyschianum Hyssop-leaved ditto          c.m.
418 ------------- sibiricum   Siberian ditto               c.m.
419 Scutellaria albida        Hairy Skull-cap              c.m.
420 ----------- integrifolia  Entire-leaved ditto          l.b.
421 ----------- lupulina      Great-flowered ditto         l.b.


DIDYNAMIA ANGIOSPERMIA.

422 Chelone glabra              White-flowered Chelone     l.b.
423 ------- obliqua             Red ditto                  l.b.
424 ------- ruelloides          Scarlet ditto              l.b.
425 ------- formosa             Tall ditto                 l.b.
426 Antirrhinum purpureum       Purple Toad-flax           c.m.
427 ----------- genistifolium   Broom-leaved ditto         l.
428 ----------- triornithophorum  Whorl-leaved ditto       l.b.
429 Scrophularia betonicaefolia  Betony-leaved Figwort     l.
430 ------------ orientalis     Oriental ditto             l.
431 Digitalis lutea             Yellow Foxglove            c.m.
432 --------- ambigua           Great ditto                c.m.
433 --------- ferruginea        Iron-coloured ditto        c.m.
434 Dodartia orientalis         Eastern Dodartia           l.
435 Penstemon pubescens         American Penstemon         l.b.
436 -------- Iaevigatum         Smooth-leaved ditto        l.b.
437 Mimulus ringens             Oblong-leaved Monkey-flower  l.
438 Mimulus guttatus            Yellow Monkey-flower       l.b.
439 Acanthus mollis             Smooth Bear's-Breech       c.m.
440 -------- spinosa            Prickly ditto              c.m.


TETRADYNAMIA SILICULOSA.

441 Myagrum perenne             Perennial Gold-of-Pleasure c.m.
442 Cochlearia Draba            Draba-leaved Scurvy-Grass  c.m.
443 Iberis sempervirens         Evergreen Candy-Tuft       c.m.
444 Alyssum saxatile            Shrubby Madwort            c.m.
445 Lunaria rediviva            Perennial Honesty          c.m.


TETRADYNAMIA SILIQUOSA.

446 Sisymbrium strictissimum    Spear-leaved Sisymbrium    c.m.
447 Hesperis matronalis         Single Garden Rocket       c.m.
448 Bunias orientalis           Oriental Bunias            c.m.


MONADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

449 Geranium aconitifolium      Aconite-leaved Crane's-bill c.m.
450 -------- angulosum          Angular-stalked ditto      c.m.
451 -------- maculatum          Spotted ditto              c.m.
452 -------- macorhizum         Long-rooted ditto          c.m.
453 -------- palustre           Marsh ditto                l.
454 -------- reflexum           Reflexed-flowered ditto    c.m.
455 -------- striatum           Striped-flowered ditto     c.m.
456 -------- lividum            Wrinkled ditto             c.m.


MONADELPHIA POLYANDRIA.

457 Althaea cannabina           Hemp-leaved Marsh-Mallow   c.m.
458 Lavatera thuringiacea       Large-flowered Lavatera    c.m.
459 Alcea rosa                  Common Holyoak             c.m.
460 Hibiscus palutris           Marsh Hibiscus             l.b.
461 Kitiabella vitifolia        Vine-leaved Kitiabella     c.m.


DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

462 Ononis antiquorum           Tall Rest-Harrow           l.
463 Lupinus perennis            Perennial Lupine           l.b.
464 Glycine Apios               Tuberous-rooted Glycine    l.
465 Orobus Lathyroides          Upright Bitter-Vetch       c.m.
466 ------ angustifolius        Narrow-leaved ditto        l.b.
467 ------ niger                Black-flowered ditto       c.m.
468 ------ vernus               Spring ditto               l.
469 Lathyrus tuberosus          Tuberous-rooted Lathyrus   c.m.
470 -------- heterophyllus      Various-leaved ditto       c.m.
471 -------- pisiformis         Siberian ditto             c.m.
472 Vicia pisiformis            Pale-flowered Vetch        c.m.
473 Glycyrrhiza echinata        Prickly-leaved Liquorice   c.m.
474 ----------- glabra          Common ditto               c.m.
475 Coronilla varia             Purple Coronilla           c.m.
476 Hedysarum canadense         Canada Saintfoin           c.m.
477 Galega officinalis          Officinal Goat's-rue       c.m.
478 ------ montana              Mountain ditto             l.b.
479 Phaca alpina                Alpine Phaca, or Bastard-Vetch l.b.
480 Astralagus alopecuroides    Foxtail Milk-Vetch         l.b.
481 --------- virescens         Green-flowered ditto       c.m.
482 --------- galegiformis      Goat's-rue-leaved ditto    c.m.
483 --------- Cicer             Bladder-podded ditto       l.b.
484 --------- Onobrichis        Purple-spiked ditto        c.m.
485 Trifolium hybridum          Bastard Trefoil, or Clover c.m.
486 --------- rubens            Long-spiked ditto          c.m.
487 --------- alpestre          Oval-spiked ditto          c.m.
488 --------- Lupinaster        Bastard Lupine             c.m.
489 Lotus maritimus             Sea Bird's-foot Trefoil    c.m.
490 Medicago Karstiensis        Creeping-rooted Medick     c.m.
491 -------- prostrata          Procumbent ditto           c.m.


POLYADELPHIA POLYANDRIA.

492 Hypericum calycinum         Great-flowered St. John's-wort c.m.s.
493 --------- perfoliatum       Perfoliate ditto           c.m.s.
494 --------- Ascyron           Red-leavedditto            c.m.s.


SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA AEQUALIS.

495 Scorzonera hispanica        Spanish Viper's-grass      c.m.
496 Sonchus sibiricus           Siberian Sow-thistle       c.m.
497 Prenanthes purpurea         Purple Prenanthes          l.
498 Hieracium amplexicaule      Heart-leaved Hawkweed      c.m.
499 --------- pyrenaicum        Pyrenean ditto             c.m.
500 Crepis pontica              Roman Crepis               c.m.
501 Catananche caerulea         Blue Catananche            c.m.
502 Serratula praealta          Tall Saw-wort              c.m.
503 --------- coronata          Lyre-leaved ditto          c.m.
504 --------- spicata           Spike-flowered ditto       b.l.
505 Carduus canus               Hoary Thistle              c.m.
506 ------- ciliatus            Ciliated ditto             c.m.
507 ------- tuberosus           Tuberous-rooted ditto      c.m.
508 ------- serratuloides       Saw-wort ditto             c.m.
509 Cnicus oleraceus            Pale-flowered Cnicus       c.m.
510 ------ ferox                Prickly ditto              c.m.
511 ------ centauroides         Centaury ditto             c.m.
512 Cynara Scolymus             French Artichoke           c.m.
513 Carthamus corymbosus        Umbelled Carthamus         l.b.
514 Carline acaulis             Stemless Carline           l.b.s.
515 Cacalia hastata             Spear-leaved Cacalia       c.m.
516 ------ suaveolens           Sweet-scented ditto        c.m.
517 ------ saracenica           Creeping-rooted ditto      c.m.
518 Eupatorium maculatum        Spotted Eupatorium         c.m.
519 ---------- altissimum       Tall ditto                 c.m.
520 Eupatorium trifoliatum      Three-leaved Eupatorium    c.m.
521 ---------- perfoliatum      Perfoliate ditto           l.b.
522 ---------- Ageratoides      Nettle-leaved ditto        b.l.
523 Chrysocoma linosyris        German Goldy-locks         c.m.
524 ---------- biflora          Two-flowered ditto         c.m.


SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA SUPERFLUA.

525 Tanacetum macrophyllum      Various-leaved Tansy       c.m.
526 --------- Balsamita         Cost-Mary                  c.m.
527 Artemisia Abrotanum         Common Southernwood        c.m.
528 --------- santonicum        Tartarian ditto or Wormseed c.m.
529 --------- pontica           Roman ditto                c.m.
530 --------- Dracunculus       Tarragon                   c.m.
531 Conyza linifolia            Flax-leaved Flea-bane      c.m.
532 Tussilago paradoxa          Downy-leaved Coltsfoot     c.m.
533 --------- lobata            Lobated ditto              c.m.
534 --------- alba              White ditto                c.m.
535 Senecio luridus             Dingy-coloured Groundsel   c.m.
536 ------- coriaceus           Thick-leaved ditto         c.m.
537 Dahlia superflua            Purple Dahlia              c.m.
538 ------ v. rosea                                        c.m.
539 ------ frustranea           Red ditto                  c.m.
540 ------ v. lutea             Yellow ditto               c.m.
541 ------ v. violacea          Violet ditto               c.m.
542 Boltonia asteroides         Aster-leaved Boltonia      c.m.
543 Aster hyysopifolius         Hyssop-leaved Aster        c.m.
544 ----- dumosus               Purple-flowered ditto      c.m.
545 ----- ericoides             Heath-leaved ditto         c.m.
546 ----- multiflorus           Many-flowered ditto        c.m.
547 ----- linearifolus          Linear-leaved ditto        c.m.
548 ----- foliolosus            Many-leaved ditto          c.m.
549 ----- salicifolius          Willow-leaved ditto        c.m.
550 ----- linifolius            Flax-leaved ditto          c.m.
551 ----- rigidus               Rough-leaved ditto         c.m.
552 ----- acris                 Biting ditto               c.m.
553 ----- umbellatus            Umbel'd ditto              c.m.
554 ----- novae anglicae        New England ditto          c.m.
555 ----- grandiflorus          Great-flowered ditto       c.m.
556 ----- patens                Spreading ditto            c.m.
557 ----- aestivus              Labrador ditto             c.m.
558 ----- undulatus             Wave-leaved ditto          c.m.
559 ----- concolor              Woolly ditto               c.m.
560 ----- Amellus               Italian ditto              c.m.
561 ----- sibiricus             Siberian ditto             c.m.
562 ----- flexuosus             Bending-stalk'd ditto      c.m.
563 ----- divaricatus           Divaricated ditto          c.m.
564 ----- longifolius           Long-leaved ditto          c.m.
565 ----- cordifolius           Heart-leaved ditto         c.m.
566 Aster corymbosus            Purple-stalk Aster         c.m.
567 ----- paniculatus           Smooth-stalked panicled ditto c.m.
568 ----- puniceus              Small Purple-stalked ditto c.m.
569 ----- laevis                Smooth ditto               c.m.
570 ----- novi belgii           New-Holland ditto          c.m.
571 ----- Tradescanti           Tradescant's ditto         c.m.
572 ----- pendulus              Pendulous ditto            c.m.
573 ----- diffusus              Diffuse red-flowered ditto c.m.
574 ----- divergens             Spreading downy-leaved ditto c.m.
575 ----- tardiflorus           Spear-leaved ditto         c.m.
576 ----- spectabilis           Showy ditto                c.m.
577 ----- mutabilis             Variable ditto             c.m.
578 ----- macrophyllus          Broad-leaved-white ditto   c.m.
579 ----- fragilis              Brittle ditto              c.m.
580 ----- junceus               Slender-stalked ditto      c.m.
581 ----- elegans               Elegant ditto              c.m.
582 ----- glaberrimus           Smooth ditto               c.m.
583 ----- lucidus               Shining ditto              c.m.
584 ----- sessiliflorus         Sessil-flowered ditto      c.m.
585 ----- altissimus            Tallest ditto              c.m.
586 Solidago viminea            Twiggy Golden Rod          c.m.
587 -------- mexicana           Mexican ditto              c.m.
588 -------- sempervirens       Narrow-leaved Evergreen do. c.m.
589 -------- elliptica          Oval-leaved ditto          c.m.
590 -------- stricta            Willow-leaved ditto        c.m.
591 -------- latifolia          Broad-leaved ditto         c.m.
592 -------- laevigata          Fleshy-leaved ditto        c.m.
593 -------- caesia             Maryland ditto             c.m.
594 -------- lateriflora        Red-stalked ditto          c.m.
595 -------- altissima          Tall ditto                 c.m.
596 -------- arguta             Sharp Notched ditto        c.m.
597 -------- canadensis         Canadian ditto             c.m.
598 -------- procera            Great ditto                c.m.
599 -------- reflexa            Reflexed ditto             c.m.
600 -------- lanceolata         Grass-leaved ditto         c.m.
601 -------- serotina           Upright ditto              c.m.
602 -------- nemoralis          Woolly-stalked ditto       c.m.
603 -------- bicolor            Two-cloured ditto          c.m.
604 -------- aspera             Rough-leaved ditto         c.m.
605 -------- flexicaulis        Crooked-stalked ditto      c.m.
606 -------- ambigua            Angular-stalked ditto      c.m.
607 -------- rigida             Hard-leaved ditto          c.m.
608 Cineraria sibirica          Heart-leaved Cineraria     c.m.
609 Inula squarrosa             Net-leaved Inula           c.m.
610 ----- salicina              Willow-leaved ditto        l.b.
611 ----- ensifolia             Sword-leaved ditto         c.m.
612 Helenium autumnale          Smooth Helenium            c.m.
613 Chrysanthemum corymbosum    Large White Chrysanthemum  c.m.
614 Chrysanthemum indicum       Purple Indian Chrysanthemum c.m.
615 ------------- millefoliatum Tansy-leaved ditto         c.m.
616 ------------- v. -----      a Quilled White.
617 ------------- v. -----      b Double White.
618 ------------- v. -----      c Bright Yellow.
619 ------------- v. -----      d Straw-coloured
620 ------------- v. -----      e Quilled Straw-coloured.
621 ------------- v. -----      f Purple Quilled.
622 ------------- v. -----      g Lilac-coloured.
623 ------------- v. -----      h Spanish brown.
624 ------------- v. -----      i Copper-coloured.
625 ------------- v. -----      j Quilled Lilac.
626 Achillea alpina             Alpine Millefoil or Maudlin  c.m.
627 -------- cristata           Slender-branched ditto       c.m.
628 -------- serrata            Saw'd-leaved ditto           c.m.
629 -------- impatiens          Impatient ditto              c.m.
630 -------- santolina          Lavender-Cotton-leaved ditto c.m.
631 -------- tanacetifolia      Tansy-leaved ditto           c.m.
632 -------- nobilis            Showy ditto                  c.m.
633 -------- abrotanifolia      Southernwood-leaved ditto    c.m.
634 Buphthalmum grandiflorum    Great-flowered Ox-eye        l.
635 ----------- salicifolium    Willow-leaved ditto          l.


SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA FRUTRANEA.

636 Helianthus multiflorus      Perennial Sun-flower         c.m.
637 ---------- tuberosus        Jerusalem Artichoke          c.m.
638 ---------- divaricatus      Rough-leaved Sun-flower      c.m.
639 ---------- decapetalus      Ten-petal'd ditto            c.m.
640 ---------- altissimus       Tall ditto                   c.m.
641 ---------- giganteus        Gigantic ditto               c.m.
642 Rudbeckia laciniata         Broad-jagged-leaved Rudbeckia c.m.
643 --------- digitata          Narrow-jagged-leaved do.     c.m.
644 --------- fulgida           Bright purple do.            l.b.
645 --------- purpurea          Common purple do.            l.b.
646 Coreopsis verticillata      Whorl-leaved Coreopsis       c.m.
647 --------- tripteris         Three leaved ditto           c.m.
648 --------- aurea             Hemp-leaved ditto            c.m.
649 Coreopsis procera           Tall Coreopsis               c.m.
650 --------- alternifolia      Alternate-leaved ditto       c.m.
651 --------- auriculata        Ear-leaved ditto             c.m.
652 --------- minima            Least ditto                  l.b.
653 Centaurea Cenaureum         Great Centaury               c.m.
654 --------- alpina            Alpine ditto                 l.b.
655 --------- montana           Mountain ditto               c.m.
656 --------- sempervirens      Evergreen ditto              c.m.
657 --------- sibirica          Siberian ditto               c.m.
658 --------- phrygia           Austrian ditto               c.m.
659 Centaurea glastifolia       Woad-leaved Centaury         l.b.
661 --------- rhapontica        Swiss ditto                  l.b.
662 --------- sonchifolia       Sow-thistle-leaved ditto     l.b.
663 --------- aurea             Great Yellow ditto           l.b.


SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA NECESSARIA.

664 Silphium scabrum            Rough-leaved Silphium        c.m.
665 -------- terebinthinum      Broad-leaved ditto           c.m.
666 -------- perfoliatum        Perfoliate ditto             c.m.
667 -------- connatum           Round-stalked ditto          c.m.
668 -------- Asteriscus         Hairy-stalked ditto          c.m.
669 -------- trifoliatum        Three-leaved ditto           c.m.


SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA SEGREGATA.

670 Echinops Ritro              Small Globe Thistle          c.m.
671 -------- sphaerocephalus    Great ditto                  c.m.


SYNGENESIA MONOGAMIA.

672 Lobelia Cardinalis          Scarlet Cardinal flower      l.
673 ------- siphylitica         Blue ditto                   l.


GYNANDRIA TRIANDRIA.

674 Sisyrinchium striatum       Striated Sisyrinchium        l.


GYNANDRIA POLYANDRIA.

675 Arum Dracunculus            Long-sheathed Arum           c.m.
676 ---- venosum                Varied ditto                 c.m.


MONOECIA PENTANDRIA.

677 Parthenium integrifolium    Intire-leaved Parthenium     c.m.
678 Urtica nivea                Snowy Nettle                 c.m.


DIOECIA HEXANDRIA.

669 Smilax herbacea             Herbaceous Smilax            b.l.s.


DIOECIA DODECANDRIA.

680 Datisca cannabina           Bastard Hemp                 c.m.


DIOECIA MONADELPHIA.

681 Napaea laevis               Smooth Napaea                l.b.
682 ----- scabra                Rough ditto                  c.m.


POLYGAMIA MONOECIA.

683 Veratrum album              White Hellebore              l.b.s.
684 -------- nigrum             Dark-flowered Veratrum       l.b.s.


       *       *       *       *       *


SECTION XVIII.-HARDY ANNUAL FLOWERS.



These are cultivated by sowing their seeds, in the months of March or
April, in the places where they are to remain and flower during the
summer months.



   ENGLISH NAMES.                LATIN NAMES.

1 Alyssum sweet                Alyssum halimifolium
2 Alkekengi                    Physalis Alkakengi
3 Arctotus annual              Arctotus anthemoides
4 Argemone or Devil's Fig      Argemone mexicana
5 Asphodel annual              Anthericum anuum
6 Aster                        China quilled
7 ----- red                    Aster chinensis
8 ----- white                  Aster chinensis
9 ----- purple                 Aster chinensis
10 ---- superb                 Aster chinensis
11 ---- Bonnet                 Aster chinensis
12 ---- striped                Aster chinensis
13 Balm Moldavian              Dracocephalon moldavicum
14 ---- white                  Dracocephalon moldavicum
15 ---- hoary                  Dracocephalon moldavicum
16 Belvidera                   Chenopodium Scoparium
17 Bladder Ketmia              Hibiscus trionum
18 Candytuft purple            Iberis umbellata
19 --------- white             Iberis umbellata
20 --------- Normandy          Iberis umbellata
21 Caterpillar                 Scorpiurus vermiculata
22 Catchfly pendulous          Silene pendula
23 -------- Lobel's            Armeria
24 Cyanus major                Centaurea Crupina
25 ------ minor                Centaurea Cyanus
26 Clary purple topped         Salvia Hormium
27 ----- Red ditto             Salvia Hormium
28 Chrysamthemum white-quill'd Chrysamthemum coronarium
29 -----------   yellow ditto  Chrysamthemum tricolor
30 Hawkweed red                Crepis rubra
31 -------- yellow             Crepis barbata
32 Hedgehogs                   Medicago polymorpha, v. intertexta
33 Honeywort great             Cerinthe major
34 --------- small             Cerinthe minor
35 Indian Corn                 Zea mays
36 Jacobaea                    Senecio elegans
37 Larkspur Tall Rocket        Delphinium Ajacis
38 -------- Dwarf Rocket       Delphinium Ajacis
39 -------- Rose Larkspur      Delphinium Ajacis
40 -------- Branching ditto    Delphinium Ajacis
41 Lavatera Red                Lavatera trimestris
42 -------- white              Lavatera trimestris
43 Lobel's Catchfly red        Silene armeria
44 ---------------- white      Silene armeria
45 Love-lies-bleeding          Amaranthus caudatus
46 Lupine yellow               Lupinus luteus
47 ------ straw-coloured       Lupinus luteus
48 ------ large blue           Lupinus hirsutus
49 ------ small ditto          Lupinus varius
50 ------ rose                 Lupinus pilosus
51 ------ blue Dutch           Lupinus var
52 ------ white                Lupinus albus
53 Mallow-curled               Malva crispa
54 Marigold French             Tagetes patula
55 -------- African            Tagetes erecta
56 -------- small cape         Calendula pluvialis
57 -------- great Cape         Calendula hybrida
58 -------- starry             Calendula stellata
59 Mignionette                 Reseda odorata
60 Nasturtium great            Tropaeolum majus
61 ---------- small            Tropaeolum minus
62 Nettle Roman                Urtica pilulifera
63 Nigella Roman               Nigella Romana
64 ------- Spanish             Nigella Hispanica
65 ------- small               Nigella sativa
66 Nolana Trailing             Noalan prostrata
67 Noli-me-Tangere             Impatiens Noli-me-Tangere
68 Oenothera purple            Oenothera purpurea
69 Pea sweet purple            Lathyrus odoratus
70 --------- scarlet           Lathyrus odoratus
71 --------- white             Lathyrus odoratus
72 --------- black             Lathyrus odoratus
73 --------- striped           Lathyrus odoratus
74 --------- painted lady      Lathyrus odoratus
75 Pea jointed-podded          Lathyrus articulatus
76 --- Anson's                 Lathyrus magellanicus
77 --- Painted Lady Crown      Lathyrus sativus
78 --- Tangier scarlet         Lathyrus tingitanus
79 --- purple                  Lathyrus tingitanus
80 --- red-winged              Lotus tetragonolobus
81 --- yellow ditto            Lotus tetragonolobus
82 Persicaria red              Polygonum orientale
83 ---------- white            Polygonum orientale
84 Poppy carnation             Papaver somniferum
85 ----- dwarf                 Rhoeas
86 Quaking-grass               Briza maxima
87 Saltwort Rose               Salsola rosacea
88 Scabious starry             Scabiosa stellata
89 Snails                      Medicago scutella
90 Soapwort                    Saponaria Vaccaria
91 Stock purple 10-week        Cheiranthus annuus
92 ----- scarlet 10-week       Cheiranthus annuus
93 ----- white 10-week         Cheiranthus annuus
94 ----- white Prussian        Cheiranthus annuus
95 ----- purple ditto          Cheiranthus annuus
96 Stock Virginian white       Cheiranthus maritimus
97 --------------- red         Cheiranthus annuus
98 Stramonium purple           Datula Tatula
99 ---------- white            Datula stramonium
100 Spinage strawberry         Blitum virgatum
101 Sunflower tall             Helianthus annuus
102 --------- dwarf            Helianthus annuus
103 --------- double           Helianthus annuus
104 Sultan sweet purple        Centaurea moschata
105 ------ white               Centaurea moschata
106 ------ yellow              Centaurea suaveolens
107 Toadflax three-leaved      Antirrhinium triphyllum
108 Trefoil crimson            Trifolium incarnatum
109 Venus's Looking-glass      Campanula speculum
110 -----Navelwort             Cynoglossum linifolium
111 Xeranthemum yellow shining Xeranthemum lucidum
112 ----------- white          Xeranthemum annuum
113 ----------- purple double  Xeranthemum annuum
114 Zinnia yellow              Zinnia pauciflora
115 ------ red                 Zinnia multiflora
116 ------ elegant             Zinnia elegans
117 ------ violet-coloured     Zinnia tenniflora
118 ------ whorl-leaved        Zinnia verticillata


      *       *       *       *       *


SECTION XIX.-BIENNIAL FLOWERS.


Biennial Flowers, i.e. such as do not bloom the same year they are
raised from seeds.

These should be sown in the month of May or June, and let remain in the
place till the month of September, when they should be planted into
beds, and in the following spring placed out where they are to flower.



1 Canterbury Bells                 Campanula media
2 Iron-coloured Foxglove           Digitalis ferruginea
3 Hollyoak                         Alcea rosa
4 Honesty                          Lunaria rediviva
5 Stocks red Brompton              Cheiranthus incanus
6 ------ white ditto               Cheiranthus incanus
7 ------ purple ditto              Cheiranthus incanus
8 ------ Queen                     Cheiranthus incanus
9 ------ Twickenham                Cheiranthus incanus
10 Wallflower	                   Cheiranthus fruticulosus


       *       *       *       *       *


SECTION XX.-TENDER ANNUAL FLOWERS.


Such as are usually sown in hot-beds in the months of February or March,
and grown in the stove or green-house after the removal of the plants in
the summer months, for which purpose they are very ornamental.



ENGLISH NAMES                          LATIN NAMES

1 Amaranthus three-coloured            Amaranthus tricolor
2 ---------- two-coloured              ---------- bicolor
3 ---------- globe white               Gomphrena globosa
4 ---------- purple                    Gomphrena globosa
5 Balsam                               Impatiens Balsamita
6 ------ scarlet                       Impatiens coccinea
7 Striped double white
8 Browallia blue                       Browallia elata
9 --------- white                      Browallia elata
10 Cacalia scarlet                     Cacalia coccinea
11 Capsicum large red                  Capsicum annuum
12 -------- yellow                     Capsicum annuum
13 -------- small red horn             Capsicum annuum
14 -------- yellow ditto               Capsicum annuum
15 -------- cherry                     Capsicum annuum
16 -------- Cayenne                    Capsicum annuum
17 Calceolaria wing-leaved             Calceolaria pinnata
18 Convolvulus large-flowered          Convolvulus major
19 ----------- minor                   ----------- tricolor
20 Cockscomb dwarf                     Celosia cristata
21 --------- tall                      Celosia cristata
22 --------- branching                 Celosia cristata
23 --------- buff or yellow            Celosia cristata
24 Egg plant white                     Solanum Melongena
25 --------- purple                    Solanum Melongena
26 Impomaea Scarlet                    Impomaea coccinea
27 ------- wing-leaved                 ------- Quamoclit
28 Ice plant                           Mesembryanthemum crystallinum
29 Love apple                          Solanum Lycopersicum
30 Sensitive plant                     Mimosa pudica
31 Stramonium double purple            Datura Metel
32 ---------- Double white             ------ v. flore albo


       *       *       *       *       *


SECTION XXI.-FOREIGN ALPINE PLANTS.

ADAPTED TO THE DECORATION OF ROCK-WORK.



The following list comprises a number of plants of great beauty and
interest; but, being in general too small for the open borders, are only
to be preserved either in pots; planted in rock-work, or in such other
places where they are not overgrown by plants of larger size. There are
many others of a similar kind that we grow in gardens, but which, being
difficult to keep, we have thought fit not to insert; as persons who try
to cultivate such in the open ground have in general the mortification
to find that they do not compensate for the care and trouble necessary
for preserving them.



1 Ancistrum lucidum             Shining Ancistrum         b.l.
2 --------- laevigatum          Smooth ditto              b.l.
3 --------- latebrosum          Hairy ditto               b.l.
4 Veronica aphylla              Naked-stalked Speedwell   b.l.
5 -------- bellidoides          Daisy-leaved ditto        b.l.


TRIANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

6 Trichonema Bulbocodium        Crocus-leaved Trichonema  b.l.


TETRANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

7 Asperula crassifolia          Thick-leaved Woodroofe    b.l.
8 Houstonia caerulea            Blue Houstonia            l.
9 Mitchella repens              Creeping Mitchella        l.
10 Plantago alpina              Alpine Plantain           l.
11 -------- subulata            Awl-leaved ditto          l.
12 Cornus canadensis            Herbaceous Dog-wood       b.
13 Alchemilla pentaphylla       Five-leaved Lady's Mantle b.l.
14 ---------- argentata         Silvery-leaved ditto      b.l.


PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

15 Cynoglossum Omphaloides      Blue Venus's Navelwort    b.l.
16 Aretia vitaliana             Primrose aretia           l.
17 Androsace villosa            Hairy Androsace           l.
18 Primula cortusoides          Bear's-ear Primrose       b.l.
19 ------ villosa               Hairy Primula             b.l.
20 ------ nivea                 Snowy ditto               b.l.
21 ------ marginata             Margined ditto            b.l.
22 ------ Auricula              Common Yellow Auricula    b.l.
23 ------ lonigfolia            Long-leaved ditto         b.l.
24 ------ helvetica             Swiss ditto               b.l.
25 Primula integrifolia         Entire-leaved Auricula    b.l.
26 Cortusa Mathioli             Siberian Bear's-ear Sanicle b.
27 Soldanella alpina            Alpine Soldanella         b.l.
28 Dodecatheon Meadia           American Cowslip          b.l.
29 Cyclamen Coum                Round-leaved Cyclamen     l.
30 -------- hederaefolium       Ivy-leaved ditto          l.
31 Lysimachia dubia             Purple Loosestrife        l.
32 Phlox pilosa                 Hairy Lychnidea           l.
33 ----- ovata                  Oval-leaved ditto         l.
34 ----- suffruticosa           Shrubby ditto             l.
35 ----- stolonifera            Creeping ditto            l.
36 ----- subulata               Awl-leaved ditto          l.
37 ----- setacea                Bristly ditto             l.
38 Convulvulus lineatus         Dwarf Bindweed            l.
39 Campanulla pulla             Dark-flowered Bell-flower b.l.
40 ---------- carpatica         Carpasian ditto           b.l.
41 ---------- pumila            Purple-dwarf ditto        b.l.
42 ---------- v. alba           White-dwarf ditto         b.l.
43 ---------- nitida            Shining-leaved ditto      b.l.
44 ---------- barbata           Bearded ditto             b.l.
45 ---------- azurea            Azure-coloured ditto      b.l.
46 Phyteuma hemisphaerica       Small Rampion             b.l.
47 Verbascum Myconi             Borage-leaved Mullein     l.


PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA.

48 Gentiana acaulis             Gentianella               l.
49 -------- asclepiadea         Swallow-wort Gentian      l.
50 Bupleurum petraeum           Rock Thorough-wax         l.


PENTANDRIA TRIGYNIA.

51 Telephium Imperati           True Orphine              l.


PENTANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.

52 Statice cordata              Heart-leaved Thrift       l.
53 ------- flexuosa             Zigzag ditto              l.
54 Linum flavum                 Yellow Flax               l.
55 ----- austriacum             Austrian ditto            l.


HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

56 Convallaria bifolia          Two-leaved Lilly of the Valley l.b.


HEXANDRIA TRIGYNIA.

57 Trillium cernuum             Drooping-flowered Trillium b.
58 -------- sessile             Sessile-flowered ditto    b.
59 Helonias bullata             Spear-leaved Helonias     b.
60 -------- asphodeloides       Grass-leaved ditto        b.


OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

61 Rhexia mariana               Hairy Rexia               b.
62 Oenothera rosea              Rose-flowered Tree Primrose l.b.
63 --------- pumila             Dwarf Yellow ditto        l.b.
64 Epilobium cordifolium        Heart-leaved Willow-herb  b.l.


OCTANDRIA DIGYNIA.

65 Moehringia muscosa           Mossy Moehringia          l.


DECANDRIA DIGYNIA.

66 Saxifraga Cotyledon          Pyramidal Saxifrage       l.
67 --------- Aizoon             Margined ditto            c.m.
68 --------- ligulata           Strap-leaved ditto        c.m.
69 --------- rosularis          Rose-leaved ditto         c.m.
70 --------- mutata             House-leek ditto          c.m.
71 --------- Androsace          Blunt-leaved ditto        c.m.
72 --------- caesia             Gray ditto                c.m.
73 --------- pilosa             Hairy ditto               c.m.
74 --------- sarmentosa         Creping ditto             c.m.
75 --------- cuneifolia         Wedge-leaved ditto        c.m.
76 --------- aspera             Rough-leaved ditto        c.m.
77 --------- rotundifolia       Round-leaved ditto        c.m.
78 --------- ajugaefolia        Ground Pine-leaved ditto  c.m.
79 --------- sibirica           Siberian Pine-leaved ditto c.m.
80 --------- adscendens         Ascending Saxifrage       c.m.
81 --------- viscosa            Clammy ditto              c.m.
82 Tiarella cordifolia          Heart-leaved Tiarella     c.m.
83 Mitella diphylla             Two-leaved Mitella        c.m.
84 Gypsophila repens            Creeping Gypsophila       l.b.
85 ---------- prostrata         Trailing ditto            l.b.
86 Saponaria acymoides          Basil-leaved Soap-wort    l.
87 -------- superbus            Feathered ditto           l.
88 -------- pungens             Pungent ditto             l.
89 -------- alpinus             Alpine ditto              l.
90 -------- capitatus           Headed-flowered ditto     l.
91 -------- glaucus             Glaucous ditto            l.
92 -------- virgineus           Maiden ditto              l.


DECANDRIA TRIGYNIA.

93 Silene anemoena              Siberian Catchfly         l.
94 ------ alpestris             Mountain ditto            l.
95 ------ rupestris             Rock ditto                l.
96 ------ saxifraga             Saxifrage ditto           l.
97 ------ vallesia              Downy ditto               l.
98 Stellaria scapigera          Naked-stalk'd Stitch-wort l.
99 Arenaria tetraquetra         Square Sand-wort          l.
100 ------- balearica           Small ditto               l.
101 ------- saxatilis           Rock ditto                l.
102 ------- striata             Striated ditto            l.
103 ------- grandiflora         Great-flowered ditto      l.
104 ------- liniflora           Flax-flowered ditto       l.


DECANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.

105 Sedum Aizoon                Yellow Stonecrop          c.m.
106 ----- Anacampseros          Evergreen Orpine          c.m.
107 ----- hybridum              Bastard Sedum             c.m.
108 ----- populifolium          Poplar-leaved ditto       c.m.
109 ----- virens                Green ditto               c.m.
110 ----- glaucum               Glaucous ditto            c.m.
111 ----- deficiens             Round-leaved ditto        c.m.
112 ----- hispanicum            Spanish ditto             l.
113 Lychnis quadridentata       Small-flowering Lychnis   l.b.


DODECANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

114 Asarum canadense            Canadian Asarabaca        l.b.


DODECANDRIA DIGYNIA.

115 Sempervivum globiferum      Globular House-leek       l.
116 ----------- arachnoideum    Cobweb ditto              l.
117 ----------- hirtum          Hairy ditto               l.
118 ----------- montanum        Mountain ditto            l.
119 ----------- cuspidatum      Prickly-leaved ditto      l.
120 ----------- sediforme       Stone-crop-leaved ditto   l.


ICOSANDRIA POLYGYNIA.

121 Rubus arcticus              Dwarf Bramble             l.b.
122 Potentilla sericea          Silky Cinquefoil          l.b.
123 ---------- multifida        Multifid ditto            l.
124 ---------- bifurca          Bifid ditto               l.
125 ---------- tridentata       Trifid-leaved ditto       l.
126 Geum potentilloides         Cinquefoil Avens          l.
127 ---- reptans                Creeping ditto            l.


POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

128 Sanguinaria canadensis      Canada Puccoon            l.b.
129 Papaver nudicaule           Naked-stalked Poppy       l.
130 Cistus grandiflorus         Great-flowered Cistus     l.


POLYANDRIA POLYGYNIA.

131 Anemone Hepatica            Common Liverwort          c.m.
132 ------- hortensis           Star Anemone              l.b.
133 ------- dichotoma           Forked ditto              l.b.
134 Adonis vernalis             Spring Adonis Flower      c.m.
135 Ranunculus amplexicaulus    Plaintain-leaved Crow-foot l.b.
136 ---------- alpestris        Alpine ditto              l.b.
137 ---------- glacialis        Two-flowered ditto        l.b.
138 Isopyrum thalictroides      Thalictrum-leaved Isopyrum c.m.


DIDYNAMIA GYMNOSPERMA.

139 Teucrium multiflorum        Many-flowered Germander   c.m.
140 -------- pyrenaicum         Pyrenean ditto            c.m.
141 Dracocephalum denticulatum  Tooth-leaved Dragon's-head c.m.
142 ------------- austriacum    Austrian ditto            b.l.
143 ------------- grandiflorum  Great-flowered ditto      l.
144 Scutellaria alpina          Alpine Skull-cap          l.
145 ----------- grandiflora     Large-flowered ditto      l.
146 Prunella laciniata          Cut-leaved Self-heal      c.m.
147 -------- grandiflora        Large-flowered ditto      c.m.
148 -------- hyssopifolia       Hyssop-leaved ditto       c.m.
149 -------- latifolia          Broad-leaved ditto        c.m.


DIDYNAMIA ANGIOSPERMA.

150 Erinus alpinus              Alpine Erinus             l.b.


TETRADYNAMIA SILICULOSA.

151 Draba aizoides              Hairy-leaved Willow-grass l.b.
152 Lepidium alpinum            Mountain Pepper-wort      l.b.
153 Iberis saxatilis            Rock Candy-tuft           l.b.
154 Alyssum montanum            Mountain Mad-wort         l.
155 ------- utriculatum         Bladder-podded ditto      l.
156 ------- deltoideum          Purple-flowered ditto     l.
157 ------- campestre           Small yellow ditto        l.


TETRADYNAMIA SILIQUOSA.

158 Cardamine asarifolia        Heart-leaved Lady's Smock l.
159 --------- bellidifolia      Daisy-leaved ditto        l.
160 --------- trifolia          Three-leaved ditto        l.b.
161 Cheiranthus alpinus         Alpine Stock              l.
162 Arabis alpina               Alpine Wall-Cress         l.
163 ----- lucida                Shining-leaved ditto      l.
164 ----- bellidifolia          Daisy-leaved ditto        l.
165 ----- sibirica              Siberian ditto            l.b.


MONADELPHIA PENTANDRIA.

166 Erodium Reichardi           Dwarf Erodium             c.m.


DIADELPHIA HEXANDRIA.

167 Fumaria cucullaria          Naked-stalked Fumitory    l.
168 ------- nobilis             Great-flowered ditto      l.
169 Fumaria cava                Hollow-rooted Fumitory    l.
170 ------- solida              Solid-rooted ditto        l.
171 ------- spectabilis         Scarlet ditto             l.


DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

172 Hedysarum obscorum          Creeping-rooted Hedysarum l.b.
173 Astragalus pilosus          Hairy Milk-Vetch          l.
174 ---------- falcatus         Sickle-podded ditto       l.
175 ---------- uliginosus       Marsh ditto               l.
176 ---------- monspessulanus   Montpelier ditto          l.
177 ---------- exscapus         Stalkless ditto           l.
178 ---------- campestris       Field ditto               l.


SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA AEQUAIS.

179 Leontodon aureum            Golden Dandelion          l.


POLYGAMIA SUPERFLUA.

180 Artemisia glacialis         Creeping Wormwood         c.m.
181 Gnaphalium plantagineum     Plaintain-leaved Everlasting l.
182 Erigeron philadelphicum     Philadelphia Erigeron     l.
183 -------- purpureum          Purple ditto              l.b.


SYNGENESIA MONOGAMIA.

184 Lobelia minuta              Least Cardinal Flower
185 Viola palmata               Palmated Violet           b.
186 ----- cucullata             Hollow-leaved ditto       l.
187 ----- canadensis            Canadian ditto            l.b.
188 ----- striata               Striated ditto            l.b.
189 ----- pubescens             Downy ditto               l.b.
190 ----- biflora               Two-flowered ditto        l.b.
191 ----- grandiflora           Great-flowered ditto      l.b.
192 ----- calcarata             Alpine ditto              l.b.
193 ----- cornuta               Pyrenean ditto            l.b.
194 ----- obliqua               Oblique-leaved ditto      l.b.
195 Tussilago alpina            Alpine Colt's-foot        c.m.
196 Senecio abrotanifolia       Southernwood-leaved Grounsel c.m.
197 Aster alpinus               Alpine Star-wort          l.b.
198 Doronicum bellidiastrum     Daisy-leaved Leopard's-Bane l.b.
199 Bellis lusitania            Portugal Daisy            l.b.
200 Bellium minutum             Bastard Daisy             l.b.
201 Anthemis Pyrethrum          Pellitory of Spain        l.b.
202 Achillea tomentosa          Woolly Milfoil            l.b.
203 -------- Clavannae          Silvery-leaved ditto      l.b.


GYNANDRIA DIANDRIA.

204 Cypripedium album           White Ladies-Slipper      b.


GYNANDRIA TRIANDRIA.

205 Sisyrinchum anceps          Small Sisyrinchum         c.m.
206 Arum tenuifolium            Fine-leaved Arum          c.m.


CRYPTOGAMIA FILICES.

207 Polypodium marginale        Margin-flowered Polypody  b.l.
208 ---------- auriculatum      Eared ditto               b.l.
209 Onoclea sensibilis          Sensitive Fern            b.
210 Equisetum filiforme         Fine Horse-tail           l.


       *       *       *       *       *


APPENDIX



BRITISH PLANTS CULTIVATED FOR ORNAMENTAL PURPOSES.


1. ALISMA Plantago. I cannot pass over this beautiful aquatic without
giving it a place amongst the ornamental plants with which our country
abounds. In pieces of water this is of considerable interest both as to
flowers and foliage, and no place of the kind should ever be destitute
of such a beauty. It is of easy culture; the plant taken from its place
of growth and sunk into the water with a stone to keep it in its place,
is a ready and easy mode of planting it, and there is no fear when once
introduced but it will succeed.



2. ANDROMEDA polifolia. This is a beautiful little shrub, and grown in
gardens for the sake of its flowers; it is also an evergreen. This plant
will not succeed unless it is planted in bog earth,--for a description
of which see page 152 of this volume.



3. AQUILEGIA vulgaris. COLUMBINE.--We have scarcely a plant affording
more beauty or greater variety than this. It is commonly, when found
wild, of a blue colour, but when the seeds are sown in the garden a
variety of tints is produced. It is a perennial, but easily raised from
seed, which should be sown in the spring.



4. ANTHEMIS maritima. A double-flowering variety of this plant used to
be common in the gardens near London, but is now scarce: it is very
beautiful, and constantly in bloom during summer. It is propagated by
planting the roots in the spring and autumn.



5. ANTIRRHINUM linaria, v. Peloria.--I cannot pass over this singular
and beautiful flower without notice. There is a fine figure of it in the
Flora Londinensis: it is very ornamental, and the structure of the bloom
is truly interesting. It is easily propagated by planting the roots in
the spring months, but it is not common.



6. ANTIRRHINUM majus. SNAPDRAGON.--This is also a plant deserving the
attention of the lover of flowers: it is capable of culture into many
very beautiful and interesting varieties.



7. BELLIS perennis. DAISY.--This plant affords us many very beautiful
varieties for the flower garden. The large Red Daisy and all the other
fine kinds are only this plant improved by culture.



8. BUTOMIS umbellatus. This is an aquatic, and well adapted to ornament
pieces of water. Its beautiful flowers in the summer months are inferior
to scarcely any plants growing in such places, and its foliage will form
protection for any birds, &c., which are usually kept in such places. It
is easily propagated by planting it in such places.



9. CALTHA palustris. MARSH MARIGOLD.--This fine yellow flower is also
made double by culture, and finds a place in the flower garden.



10. CHEIRANTHUS fruticulosus. WALLFLOWER.--Is a plant possessing great
beauty, and very interesting on account of its fine scent. We have this
plant also improved by culture, making many fine double varieties. It is
a biennial, and easily raised from seeds, which should be sown in June.
The double varieties are cultivated by cuttings of the branches.



11. CYPRIPEDIUM Calceolus. LADIES SLIPPER.--A flower of the most
uncommon beauty, but is now become scarce; it is a native of the woods
near Skipton in Yorkshire, but has been so much sought for by the lovers
of plants as to become almost extinct. It is difficult to propagate; but
when the plants have been for some years growing, will admit of being
parted, so that it may be increased in that way: it will not bear to be
often removed, and should be left to grow in the same place for several
years without being disturbed. It succeeds best in bog earth or rotten
leaves.



12. DELPHINIUM Ajacis. LARKSPUR.--This is also an annual flower,
affording a pleasing variety in the flower garden in the summer months.
For it culture, see p. 188.



13. DIANTHUS Caryophyllus. THE CARNATION.--All our fine varieties of the
carnation are the produce of this plant.

The common single variety produces seed in great abundance, but the
improved double varieties are sparing in produce: the fine kinds of this
flower are reared by layers put down about the month of July; they may
also be propagated by cuttings, but the other is the most eligible and
certain mode.



14. EPILOBIUM angustifolium. A plant of singular ornament. There is also
a white variety of this found in gardens.



15. ERICA vulgaris. There is now in cultivation in the gardens a
double-flowering variety of this plant, which is highly interesting and
of singular beauty. It grows readily in bog earth, and is raised by
layers.



16. ERICA Daboeica. IRISH HEATH.--A plant of singular beauty and of easy
culture; and being of small growth and almost constantly in bloom, has
also obtained a place in the shrubbery.



17. FRITILLARIA Meleagris. A very ornamental bulbous plant, of which the
Dutch gardeners have many improved varieties, varying in the colour and
size of the blossoms: these are usually imported in August, and should
be immediately planted, as the bulbs will not keep long when out of
ground, unless they are covered with sand.



18. GALANTHUS nivalis. SNOWDROP.--The first of the productions of Flora
which reminds us of the return of spring after the dark and dreary days
of winter. This plant is also made double by cultivation, but is not
handsomer than the common wild one. The best time for planting the bulbs
of Snowdrops is in the month of September.



19. GENTIANA verna. VERNAL GENTIAN.--A delightful little plant of the
finest blue colour the Flora exhibits in all her glory: its scent is
also delightful: it is somewhat scarce and difficult to procure; but if
more generally known, few gardens would be destitute of such a treasure.
It is of tolerably easy culture, and grows well in loam: it is small,
and is best kept in a pot.



20. GENTIANA Pneumonanthe. MARSH GENTIAN.--Is also a beautiful plant,
and grows well in any moist place. From its beautiful blue flowers it is
well adapted to the flower garden; it delights in bog earth.



21. GERANIUM phaeum. BLACK-FLOWERED GERANIUM.--This is a perennial, and
makes a fine ornamental plant for the shrubbery: it will grow in any
soil and situation.



22. GLAUCUM Phoeniceum. PURPLE HORN POPPY.--An annual flower of
singular beauty, and deserving a place in the flower garden.



23. GNAPHALIUM margaritaceum. AMERICAN CUDWEED.--This plant affords
beautiful white flowers, which drying and keeping their colour, it is
worth attention on that account, as it affords a pleasing variety with
the different Xeranthema, and others of the like class in winter.



24. HIERACUM aurantiacum. GRIM-THE-COLLIER.--This is an old inhabitant
of our gardens, and affords a pleasing variety.



25. HOTTONIA palustris. WATER VIOLET.--This is a plant of singular
beauty in spring; it is an aquatic, and makes a fine appearance in our
ponds in the time of its bloom.



26. IBERIS amara. CANDYTUFT.--An annual flower of considerable beauty
and interest. We have several varieties of this sold in the seed-shops.



27. IMPATIENS NOLI ME TANGERE.--A very curious flower which is grown as
an annual. The construction of the seed-vessel causing the seeds to be
discharged with an elastic force is a pleasing phaenomenon.



28. LATHYRUS sylvestris.--EVERLASTING PEA.--This is also a great
ornament, and frequently found in gardens; it grows very readily from
seeds sown in the spring of the year.



29. LEUCOJUM aestivum. SUMMER SNOW FLAKE.--This is a very noxious plant
in the meadows where it grows wild. I have seen it in the neighbourhood
of Wooking in Surrey quite overpower the grass with its herbage in the
spring, and no kind of that animal that we know of will eat it.

It is however considered an ornamental plant, and is often found in our
flower gardens. It is of easy culture: the roots may be planted in any
of the autumn or winter months.



30. MALVA moschata. MUSK MALLOW.--This makes a fine appearance when in
bloom, for which purpose it is often propagated in gardens: its scent,
which is strong of vegetable musk, is also very pleasant.



31. MELLITIS mellyssophyllum. MELLITIS grandiflora. BASTARD BALM.--Both
these plants are very beautiful, and are deserving a place in the flower
garden: they are of easy culture, and will grow well under the shade of
trees, a property that will always recommend them to the notice of the
curious.



32. MENYANTHES Nymphoides. ROUND-LEAVED BOG BEAN.--This is a
beautiful aquatic, and claims a place in all ornamental pieces of water.



33. NARCISSUS poeticus. NARCISSUS Pseudo Narcissus.--These are much
cultivated in gardens for the sake of the flowers. The florists have by
culture made several varieties, as Double blossoms which are great
ornaments. The season for planting the bulbs of Narcissus of all
kinds is the month of October: they will grow well in any soil, and
thrive best under the shade of trees.



34. NUPHAR minima is also beautiful, but it is not common. It
will form an ornament for pieces of water.



35. NYMPHAEA alba. NYMPHAEA lutea.--These are aquatics, and scarcely
any plant is more deserving of our attention. The fine appearance of the
foliage floating on the surface, which is interspersed with beautiful
flowers, will render any piece of water very interesting: it should also
be observed that gold-fish are found to thrive best when they have the
advantage of the shade of these plants. It is difficult in deep water to
make them take root, being liable to float on the surface, in which
state they will not succeed. But if the plants are placed in some
strong clay or loam tied down in wicker baskets and then placed in the
water, there is no fear of their success: they should be placed where
the water is sufficiently deep to inundate the roots two feet or a
little more.



36. OPHRYS apifera. BEE ORCHIS.--There are few plants that are more
generally admired than all the Orchideae for their singular beauty and
uncommon structure. The one in question so very much resembles the
humble-bee in appearance, that I have known persons mistake this flower
for the animal. It is unfortunate for the amateurs of gardening that
most plants of this tribe are difficult of propagation, and are not of
easy culture. I have sometimes succeeded with this and other species, by
the following method:--to take up the roots from their native places of
growth as early as they can be found, and then procure some chalk and
sift it through a fine sieve, and also some good tenacious loam; mix
both in equal quantities in water; a large garden-pot should then be
filled with some rubble of chalk, about one third deep, and then the
above compost over it, placing the roots in the centre, at the usual
depth they grew before. As the water drains away, the loam and chalk
will become fixed closely round the bulbs, and they will remain alive
and grow. By this method I have cultivated these plants for some years
together.

In this way all those kinds growing in chalk may be made to grow; but
such as the Orchis moryo, maculata, and pyramidalis, may be grown in
loam alone, planted in pots in the common way. Care should be taken that
the pots in which they are planted are protected from wet and frost in
the winter season.



37. ORNITHOGALUM latifolium and umbellatum are also ornamental, and are
often cultivated for their beautiful flower. The season for planting the
bulbs is about the month of September.



38. PAPAVER somniferum. GREATER POPPY. PAPAVER Rhoeas. CARNATION POPPY.
--These are made by culture into numerous varieties, and are very
beautiful; but the aroma, which is pregnant with opium, renders too many
of them unpleasant for the garden.



39. POLEMONIUM coeruleum. GREEK VALERIAN, or JACOB'S LADDER.--Is also a
beautiful perennial, and claims the notice of the gardener. Its
variety, with white flowers, is also ornamental. It is raised
from seeds, which are sold in plenty in our seed-shops.



40. PRIMULA officinalis. COWSLIP. PRIMULA vulgaris. PRIMROSE. PRIMULA
elatior. OXLIP. PRIMULA farinose. BIRD'S EYE.--All well known ornaments
of numerous varieties, double and single. The third species is the
parent of the celebrated Polyanthus. The last is also an interesting
little plant with a purple flower. It grows best in bog earth.



41. ROSA rubiginosa. SWEET BRIAR.--This lovely and highly extolled shrub
has long claimed a place in our gardens. We have several varieties with
double flowers, which are highly prized by the amateurs of gardening.



42. SAXIFRAGA umbrosa. LONDON PRIDE.---A beautiful little plant for
forming edgings to the flower garden, or for decorating rock-work.



43. SAXIFRAGA oppositifolia. PURPLE SAXIFRAGE.--Perhaps we have few
flowers early in the spring that deserve more attention than this. It
blooms in the months of February and March, and in that dreary season,
in company with the Snow-drop, Crocus, and Hepaticas, will form a most
delightful group of Flora's rich production. The Saxifrage is a native
of high mountains, and it can only be propagated by being continually
exposed to the open and bleakest part of the garden: it succeeds best in
pots. It should be parted every spring, and a small piece about the size
of a shilling planted in the centre of a small pot, and it will fill the
surface by the autumn. The soil bestsuited to it is loam.



44. SEDUM acre. STONE CROP. SEDUM rupestre. ROCK GINGER.--All the
species of Sedums are very ornamental plants, and are useful for
covering rocks or walls, where they will generally grow with little
trouble. The easiest mode of propagating and getting them to grow on
such places is first to make the place fit for their reception, by
putting thereon a little loam made with a paste of cow-dung; then
chopping the plants in small pieces, and strowing them on the place: if
this is done in the spring, the places will be well covered in a short
time.



45. STATICE Armeria. THRIFT.--This plant is valuable for making edgings
to the flower garden. It should be parted, and planted for this purpose
either in the months of August and September, or April and May.



46. STIPA pinnata. FEATHER GRASS.--We have few plants of more interest
than this; its beautiful feathery bloom is but little inferior to the
plumage of the celebrated Bird of Paradise. It is frequently worn in the
head-dress of ladies.



47. SWERTIA perennis. MARSH SWERTIA.--This is a beautiful little plant,
and worth the attention of all persons who are fond of flowers that will
grow in boggy land. It is a perennial, and of easy culture.



48. TROLLIUS europaeus. GLOBE FLOWER.--This is also a fine plant:
when cultivated in a moist soil its beautiful yellow flowers afford a
pleasing accompaniment to the flower border and parterre in the spring
of the year. It is easily raised by parting its roots.



49. TULIPA sylvestris.--This beautiful flower is also an inhabitant of
our flower-gardens; it is called the Sweet-scented Florentine Tulip. It
has a delightful scent when in bloom, and is highly worthy the attention
of amateurs of flower gardens. It should be planted in September, and
will grow in almost any soil or situation.



50. TYPHA latifolia. TYPHA angustifolia. TYPHA minor.--These are all
very fine aquatics, and worth a place in all pieces of water; the
foliage forms a fine shelter for water-fowl.



51. VIOLA tricolor. HEART'S-EASE.--Is an annual of singular beauty, and
forms many pleasing and interesting varieties.



52. VIOLA odorata must not be passed over among our favourite native
flowers. This is of all other plants in its kind the most interesting.
It forms also several varieties; as Double purple, Double white, and the
Neapolitan violet. The latter one is double, of a beautiful light blue
colour, and flowers early; it is rather tender, and requires the
protection of a hot-bed frame during winter. It is best cultivated in
pots.



53. VINCA minor. LESSER PERIWINKLE.--This is also a beautiful little
evergreen, of which the gardeners have several varieties in cultivation;
some with double flowers, others with white and red-coloured corols,
which form a pleasing diversity in summer.



54. VINCA major. GREAT PERIWINKLE.-I know of no plant of more beauty,
when it is properly managed, than this. It is an evergreen of the most
pleasing hue, and will cover any low fences or brick-work in a short
space of time. The flowers, which are purple, form a pleasing variety in
the spring months.



*       *       *       *       *



MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES



53. BETA vulgaris. I have noticed this plant before, both as to its
culinary uses and for feeding cattle: but having received a
communication from a friend of mine who resides in the interior of
Russia, relative to his establishment for extracting sugar from this
root, I cannot omit relating it here, as it appears to be an interesting
part of agricultural oeconomy.

"I have here two extensive fabrics for the purpose of making sugar from
the Red Beet, and we find that it yields us that useful article in great
abundance; i. e. from every quarter of the root (eight bushels
Winchester measure) I obtain ten pounds weight of good brown sugar; and
this when refined produces us four pounds of the finest clarified lump
sugar, and the molasses yield good brandy on distillation. This is not
all; for while we are now working the article the cows are stall-fed on
the refuse from the vats after mashing; and those animals give us milk
in abundance, and the butter we are making is equal to any that is made
in the summer, when those animals are foraging our best meads."--
Dashkoff, in the government of Orel, 1500 miles from St. Petersburgh,
Jan 7, 1816.

The above account, which is so extremely flattering, may no doubt lead
persons to imagine that the culture of the beet for the same purpose in
this country might be found to answer: and as it is our aim in this
little work to give the best information on these subjects without
prejudice, I shall beg leave to make use of the following observation,
which is not my own, but one that was made on this subject by a Russian
gentleman, whom I have long had the honour of enumerating among my best
friends; and who is not less distinguished for his application both to
the arts and oeconomy, than he is for his professional duties, and his
readiness at all times to communicate information for the general good.

"The land where the Beet is grown is of an excellent quality, very deep
and fertile, and such as will grow any crop for a series of years
without manure. Such soils are seldom found in this country but what may
be cultivated to more advantage. In such land, and such alone, will this
vegetable imbibe a large quantity of the saccharine fluid; for it would
be in vain to look for it in such Beet roots as have been grown on poor
land made rich by dint of manure.

"It may also be a circumstance worth remarking, that although the sugar
thus obtained is very good for common use, it by no means answers the
purpose of the confectioner, as it is not fit for preserving; and for
this purpose the cane sugar alone is used; so that although great merit
may attach to the industry of a person who in times of scarcity can
produce such an useful article as sugar from a vegetable so easily
grown, yet when cane sugar can be imported at a moderate rate, it will
always supersede the use of the other."



56. PYRUS malus. THE APPLE.--This useful fruit, now growing so much to
decay in this country, which was once so celebrated for its produce, is
grown in great perfection in all the northern provinces of France; and
she supplied the London markets with apples this season, for which she
was paid upwards of 50,000 l.; and can most likely offer us good cyder
on moderate terms.

The French people, ever alive to improvement and invention, having
discovered a mode of extracting sugar in considerable quantity from this
fruit, I shall transcribe the particulars of it.

On the Preparation of Liquid Sugar from Apples or Pears. By M. DUBUC.
(Ann. de Chim. vol. lxviii.)--"Several establishments have been made in
the South of France for making sugar from grapes; it is therefore
desired to communicate the same advantage to the North of France, as
apples and pears will produce sugar whose taste is equally agreeable as
that of grapes, and equally cheap.

"Eight quarts of the full ripe juice of the Orange Apples was boiled for
a quarter of an hour, and forty grammes of powdered chalk added to it,
and the boiling continued for ten minutes longer. The liquor was
strained twice through flannel, and afterwards reduced by boiling to one
half of its former bulk, and the operation finished by a slow heat until
a thick pellicle rose on the surface, and a quart of the syrup weighed
two pounds. By this method two pounds one ounce of liquid sugar was
obtained, very agreeable in flavour, and which sweetened water very
well, and even milk, without curdling it.

"Eight quarts of the juice of apples called Doux levesque, yielded by
the same process two pounds twelve ounces of liquid sugar.

"Eight quarts of the juice of the sour apples called Blanc mollet,
yielded two pounds ten ounces of good sugar.

"Eight quarts of the juice of the watery apples called Girard, yielded
two pounds and a half.

"Twenty-five chilogrammes, or fifty-pounds of the above four apples,
yielded nearly fourty-two pounds of juice; which took three ounces of
chalk and the white of six eggs, and produced more than six pounds of
excellent liquid sugar.

"In order to do without the white of eggs, twenty pounds of the juice of
the above apples were saturated with eleven drachms of chalk, and
repeatedly strained through flannel, but it was still thick and
disagreeable to the taste; twelve drachms of charcoal powder were then
added, and the whole boiled for about ten minutes, and then strained
through flannel; it was then clear, but higher-coloured than usual;
however, it produced very good sugar. Six quarts of apple-juice were
also treated with seven drachms of chalk, and one ounce of baker's
small-coal previously washed until it no longer coloured the water, with
the same effect.

"Eight quarts of apple juice, of several different kinds and in
different stages of ripeness, of which one-third was still sour, were
saturated with twelve drachms of chalk, and clarified with the whites of
six eggs; some malate of lime was deposited in small crystals towards
the end, and separated by passing the syrup very hot through the
flannel. Very near two pounds of sugar were obtained.

"Ten pounds of bruised apples, similar to the last, were left to
macerate for twenty-four hours, and four quarts of the juice were
treated with five drachms of chalk and the white of an egg: it yielded
one pound six ounces of liquid sugar; so that the maceration had been of
service.

"Twenty-four pounds of the pear called Pillage, yielded nine quarts of
juice, which required eighteen drachms of chalk and the whites of two
eggs, and yielded about twenty-four ounces of sugar, which was less
agreeable to the taste than that of ripe apples.

"Six quarts of juice from one part of the above pears, and two of ripe
apples, (orange and girard,) treated with eight drachms of chalk and the
whites of two eggs, yielded twenty-six ounces of very fine-tasted sugar,
superior to the preceding.

"Six quarts of juice, of an equal quantity of apples and pears, treated
with ten drachms of chalk and thirteen of prepared charcoal, deposited
some malate of lime, and yielded a sugar rather darker than the
preceding, but very well tasted.

"Cadet de Vaux says, that apple juice does not curdle milk, and that a
small quantity of chalk added to it destroys some part of the saccharine
principle. But eight quarts of juice from ripe apples called orange,
which was evidently acid, as it curdled milk and reddened infusion of
turnsole and that of violet, were treated with four drachms of chalk and
the white of an egg: it yielded twenty-two ounces of syrup, between
thirty-two and thirty-three degrees of the hydrometer, which did not
curdle milk. Another eight quarts of the same juice evaporated to
three-fourths of its volume, and strained, yielded twenty-three ounces
of clear syrup, which curdled milk, and was browner than that of the
neutralized juice, and approached towards treacle in smell and taste.
Perhaps the apple called Jean-hure, used by Mr. Cadet, possesses the
valuable properties of furnishing good sugar by mere evaporation. It is
necessary to observe, that unless the fire is slackened towards the end
the syrup goes brown, and acquires the taste and smell of burnt sugar.

"A hundred weight of apples yield about eighty-four pounds of juice,
which produce nearly twelve pounds of liquid sugar. Supposing,
therefore, the average price of apples to be one franc twenty cents
(tenpence) the hundred-weight, and the charge amounts to forty cents
(four-pence), good sugar may be prepared for three or four sols (two-
pence) per pound [Footnote: A gramme, fifteen grains English.-A drachm,
one-eighth of an ounce.]. The only extra apparatus necessary is a couple
of copper evaporating pans."--Retrospect, vol. vi. p. 14.

The distressed state of our orchards in the Cider counties has lately
much engaged the attention of all persons who are accustomed to travel
through them; and no one can possibly view the miserable condition of
the trees, without being forcibly struck with their bad appearance: the
principal case of which, I am sorry to say, has arisen from
mismanagement [Footnote: Vide Observations on Orchards, lately published
by the author of this work.]; and it certainly does in a great measure
tarnish the laurels of our boasted agriculturists, when we find such
great quantities of this useful fruit produced in France, that very
country which we have been taught to believe so greatly behind us in the
general oeconomy of life.



57. SPERGULA arvensis.--This plant has been recommended as a crop for
feeding cattle, and is stated to be cultivated for that purpose in some
parts of Germany and Flanders: but I believe we have many other plants
better calculated for the purpose here.



58. VIOLA odorata.--This is a very useful plant in medicine, affording
a syrup which has long been used in the practice. It is however
discarded from the London Pharmacopoeia.



59. URTICA canadensis. CANADIAN HEMP NETTLE.--During the late war,
when, from unfortunate circumstances and misunderstandings amongst the
potentates of Europe, the commercial intercourse was checked, great
speculations were made among the people to discover substitutes for such
articles as were of certain demand; and one of the principal was of
course the article Hemp, which, although it can be partially cultivated
in this country, is a plant of that nature that we should find the
article at a most enormous price were we dependent on our own supply
alone. The great growth that supplies all the markets in the world is
Russia, where land is not only cheap, but of better quality than here;
but with which country we were once unhappily deprived of the advantage
of trade. This caused persons to seek for substitutes: and I once saw
one that was made from bean-stalks, not to be despised; but it is
probable that none has reached so high in perfection as that produced
from the plant above named. A person has grown and manufactured this
article in Canada, and has exhibited some samples in London, which it is
said have obtained the sanction of government, and that the same person
is now engaged in growing in North America a considerable quantity of
this article. As this, therefore, is a subject of great interest to us
as a maritime nation, I shall insert the following account that is given
of this plant. I am, however, quite unacquainted with its culture or
manufacture, and cannot pledge myself for the accuracy of the detail.

"PERENNIAL HEMP. Cultivation.--Affects wet mellow land, but may be
cultivated with advantage on upland black mould or loam, if moist and of
middling good quality. Manure will assist the produce. It may be planted
from the beginning of October to the latter end of March, in drills
about fifteen inches asunder and nine inches distance in the drills.

"Propagation.--Sow the seeds in a bed in the month of March, and
transplant the roots next autumn twelvemonth, as above directed; or
divide the old roots, which is the quickest way of obtaining a crop.

"Time of Harvesting.--If a fine quality of Hemp is desired, mow the
crop when it is in full bloom; but should a greater produce of inferior
quality be more desirable, it should stand until the seeds are nearly
ripe. It should remain in the field about a week after it is mown, and
when sufficiently dry gathered in bundles and stacked as Hemp.

"Separation of Hemp from the Pulps.--Rot it in water, as practised with
Hemp.

"The Perennial Hemp grows to the height of from four to six feet.

"The root inclines horizontally with numerous fleshy fibres at the
extremity.

"The buds many, and resembling the buds of the Lily of the Valley.

"It is the Urtica canadensis of Kalm, one of which was brought over and
planted by the side of this plant, and we could not find any difference."



60. LAPSANA communis. NIPPLE-WORT.--This plant is considered by the
country people as a sovereign remedy for the piles. The plant is
immersed in boiling water, and the cure is effected by applying the
steam arising therefrom to the seat of the disease; and this, with
cooling medicine and proper regimen, is seldom known to fail in curing
this troublesome disease.



61. DAPHNE laureola. WOOD LAUREL.--The leaves of this plant have little
or no smell but a very durable nauseous acrid taste. If taken internally
in small doses, as ten or twelve grains, they are said to operate with
violence by stool and sometimes by vomit, so as not to be ventured on
with safety, unless their virulence be previously abated by long
boiling, and even then they are much to precarious to be trusted to. The
flowers are of a different nature, being in taste little other than
mucilaginous and sweetish, and of a light pleasant smell. The pulpy part
of the berries appears also to be harmless. The bark macerated in water
has of late been much employed in France as a topical application to the
skin for the purpose of excoriating and exciting a discharge.



62. RUMEX acutus. SHARP-POINTED DOCK.--The root of this plant has long
been used in medicine, and considered as useful in habitual costiveness,
obstructions of the viscera, and in scorbutic and cutaneous maladies; in
which case both external and internal applications have been made of it.
A decoction of half or a whole drachm of the dry roots has been
considered a dose.--Lewis's Mat. Medica.



63. ELYMUS arenarius. ELYMUS geniculatus. LIME GRASS.--The foliage of
these grasses make excellent mats and baskets; and where they grow in
quantity afford a livelihood to many industrious persons who manufacture
these articles.



64. SALSOLA Kali. GLASS-WORT, or KELP. Soda and Barilla are yielded by
this plant. The ashes of this vegetable yield an alkaline salt, which is
of considerable use for making glass, soap, &c. The small quantity grown
in this country is by no means equal to the demand, and Spain has the
advantage of trade in this article, where the plant grows wild in the
greatest abundance. An impure alkali similar to these is obtained from
the combustion of other marine plants, as the Fuci, &c. by the people in
Scotland.



65. BORAGO officinalis. BORAGE--A fine cooling beverage is made from
this herb, called Cool Tankard. It is merely an infusion of the leaves
and flowers put into water, with the addition of wine, nutmeg, &c. &c.



*       *       *       *       *



OBSERVATIONS on the BLEEDING TREES, and procuring the Sap for making
Wine, and brewing Ale.

In the article BIRCH TREE, (p. 34, No. 107, of this volume,) we have
mentioned the abstracting the sap for the purpose of making wine; and as
this is practicable, and may be obtained in some places at little
expense and trouble, I shall take the liberty of transcribing the
following curious paper on the subject.

"To obtain the greatest store of sap in the shortest time from the body
of a tree, bore it quite through the pith, and the very inner rind on
the other side, leaving only the bark unpierced on the north-east side.
This hole to be made sloping upwards with a large auger, and that under
a large arm near the ground. This way the tree will in a short time
afford liquor enough to brew with; and with some of these sweet saps,
one bushel of malt will make as good ale as four bushels with ordinary
water. The Sycamore yields the best brewing sap.

"The change of weather has a great effect on the bleeding of plants.
When the weather changes from warm to cold, Birch ceases to bleed, and
upon the next warmth begins again: but the contrary obtains in the
Walnut-tree, and frequently in the Sycamore, which upon a fit of cold
will bleed plentifully, and, as that remits, stop. A morning sun after
frost will make the whole bleeding tribe bleed afresh.

"From the latter end of January to the middle of May trees will bleed.
Those that run first, are the Poplar, Asp, Abele, Maple, Sycamore. Some,
as Willows and the Birch, are best to tap about the middle of the
season, and the Walnut towards the latter end of March.

"When a large Walnut will bleed no longer in the body or branches, it
will run at the root, and longer on the south or sunny side than on the
north or shady side.

"A culinary fire will have the same or greater effect than the sun, and
immediately set trees a-bleeding in the severest weather. Branches of
Maple or Willow cut off at both ends, will bleed and cease at pleasure
again and again as you approach them to or withdraw them from the fire,
provided you balance them in your hand, and often invert them to prevent
the falling and expence of the sap; but at length they cease.

"A Birch will not bleed however deeply the bark only may be wounded: it
is necessary to pierce into the substance of the wood."--Dr. Tonge in
Phil. Trans. No. 43.


THE END





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