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Title: An Account of Timbuctoo and Housa Territories in the Interior of Africa
Author: Shabeeny, Abd Salam
Language: English
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by the Bibliothèque nationale de France



                            AN ACCOUNT
                               OF
                       TIMBUCTOO AND HOUSA,
                  TERRITORIES IN THE INTERIOR OF
                             Africa,

                  By: EL HAGE ABD SALAM SHABEENY;

                              WITH
                _NOTES, CRITICAL AND EXPLANATORY._
                        TO WHICH IS ADDED,
                      LETTERS DESCRIPTIVE OF
              TRAVELS THROUGH WEST AND SOUTH BARBARY,
                AND ACROSS THE MOUNTAIN'S OF ATLAS;
                              ALSO,
                  FRAGMENTS, NOTES, AND ANECDOTES;
             SPECIMENS OF THE ARABIC EPISTOLARY STYLE,
                             &c. &c.

"_L'Univers est une espèce de livre, dont on n'a lu que la première
        page, quand on n'a vu que son pays._" LE COSMOPOLITE.

                     By; JAMES GREY JACKSON,

    RESIDENT UPWARDS OF SIXTEEN YEARS IN SOUTH AND WEST BARBARY,
          IN A DIPLOMATIC AND IN A COMMERCIAL CAPACITY.



                            LONDON:
        PRINTED FOR LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN,
                       PATERNOSTER-ROW.
                             1820.


Printed by A. and R. Spottiswoode,
Printers Street, London.



                               TO
                    HIS MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY
                        GEORGE THE FOURTH,
                          _&c. &c. &c._
                            THIS WORK
                               IS
                        WITH PERMISSION,
                     RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED,

                               BY

                         HIS MAJESTY'S
                      MOST DUTIFUL SUBJECT
                          AND SERVANT,
                       JAMES GREY JACKSON.



INTRODUCTION.


The person who communicated the following intelligence respecting
Timbuctoo and Housa, is a Muselman, and a native of Tetuan, whose father
and mother are personally known to Mr. Lucas, the British Consul. His
name is Asseed El Hage Abd Salam Shabeeny. His account of himself is,
that at the age of fourteen years he accompanied his father to
Timbuctoo, from which town, after a residence of three years, he
proceeded to Housa; and after residing at the latter two years, he
returned to Timbuctoo, where he continued seven years, and then came
back to Tetuan.

Being now in the twenty-seventh year of his age, he proceeded from
Tetuan as a pilgrim and merchant, with the caravan for Egypt to Mecca
and Medina, and on his return, established himself as a merchant at
Tetuan, his native place, from whence he embarked on board a vessel
bound for Hamburgh, in order to purchase linens and other merchandize
that were requisite for his commerce.

On his return from Hamburgh in an English vessel, he was captured, and
carried prisoner to Ostend, by a ship manned by Englishmen, but under
Russian colours, the captain of which pretended that his Imperial
mistress was at war with all Muselmen. There he was released by the good
offices of the British consul, Sir John Peters[a], and embarked once
more in the same vessel, which, by the same mediation, was also
released; but as the captain either was or pretended to be afraid of a
second capture, El Hage Abd Salam was sent ashore at Dover, and is
now[b], by the orders of government, to take his passage on board a
king's ship that will sail in a few days.

In the following communications, Mr. Beaufoy proposed the questions, and
Mr. Lucas was the interpreter.

Shabeeny was two years on his journey from Tetuan to Mekka, before he
returned to Fas. He made some profit on his merchandise, which consisted
of haiks[c], red caps, and slippers, cochineal and saffron; the returns
were, fine Indian muslins[d] for turbans, raw silk, musk, and
_gebalia_[e], a fine perfume that resembles black paste.

He made a great profit by his traffic at Timbuctoo and Housa; but, _he
says_, money gained among the Negroes[f] has not the blessing of God on
it, but vanishes away without benefit to the owner; but, acquired in a
journey to Mecca, proves fortunate, and becomes a permanent acquisition.

On his return with his father from Mecca, they settled at Tetuan, and
often carried cattle, poultry, &c. to Gibraltar; his father passed the
last fifteen years of his life at Gibraltar, and died there about the
year 1793. He was born at Mequinas; his family is descended from the
tribe of Shabban[g], which possesses the country between Santa Cruz and
Wedinoon. They were entitled to the office of pitching the Emperor's
tent, and attending his person. They can raise 40,000 men, and they were
the first who accompanied Muley Hamed Dehebby[h] in his march to
Timbuctoo.

     [Footnote a: Confirmed by Sir John Peters.]

     [Footnote b: In the year 1795.]

     [Footnote c: The haiks are light cotton, woollen, or silk garments,
     about five feet wide and four yards long, manufactured at Fas, as
     are also the red caps which are generally made of the finest Tedla
     wool, which is equal to the Spanish, and is the produce of the
     province of that name, (for the situation of which see the map of
     the empire of Marocco, facing page 55.) The slippers are also
     manufactured from leather made from goat-skins, at Fas and at
     Mequinas. The cochineal is imported from Spain, although the
     opuntia, or the tree that nourishes the cochineal-fly, abounds in
     many of the provinces of West Barbary, particularly in the province
     of Suse. The saffron abounds in the Atlas mountains in Lower Suse,
     and is used in most articles of food by the Muhamedans.]

     [Footnote d: Muls.]

     [Footnote e: _Gebalia_ resembles frankincense, or Gum Benjamin, and
     is used for fumigations by the Africans.]

     [Footnote f: Being idolaters.]

     [Footnote g: Shâban is (probably) a tribe of the Howara Arabs, who
     possess the beautiful plains and fine country situated between the
     city of Terodant and the port of Santa Cruz. There is an emigration
     of the Mograffra Arabs, who are in possession of the country
     between Terodant and the port of Messa. The encampments of an
     emigration of the Woled Abusebah (vulgarly called, in the maps,
     _Labdessebas_) Arabs of Sahara, occupy a considerable district
     between Tomie, on the coast, and Terodant. The coast from Messa to
     Wedinoon is occupied by a trading race of Arabs and Shelluhs, who
     have inter-married, called _Ait Bamaran_. These people are very
     anxious to have a port opened in their country, and some sheiks
     among them have assured me, that there is a peninsula on their
     coast conveniently situated for a port. _This circumstance is well
     deserving the attention of the maritime and commercial nations of
     the world._]

     [Footnote h: The youngest son of the Emperor Muley Ismael conducted
     the expedition here alluded to, about the year of Christ 1727. For
     an account of which see the Appendix, page 523.]

He considers himself now as settled at Tetuan, where he has a wife and
children. He left it about twelve months ago, with three friends, to go
to Hamburg (as before mentioned.) They were confined forty-seven days at
Ostend, were taken the second day of their voyage; the English captain
put them ashore at Dover against their inclination, and proceeded to
Gibraltar with their goods: this was in December, 1789.

THE CONTINENT.

The continent of Africa, the discovery of which has baffled the
enterprise of Europe, (unlike every other part of the habitable world,)
still remains, as it were, a sealed book, at least, if the book has been
opened, we have scarcely got beyond the title-page.

Great merit is due to the enterprise of travellers. The good intention
of the African Association, in promoting scientific researches in this
continent, cannot (by the liberal) be doubted. But something more than
this is necessary to embark _successfully_ in this gigantic undertaking.
I never thought that the system of solitary travellers would produce any
beneficial result. The plan of the expedition of Major Peddie and
Captain Tuckie was still more objectionable than the solitary plan, and
I have reason to think, that no man possessing any personal knowledge of
Africa, ever entertained hopes of the success of those expeditions.
Twenty years ago I declared it as MY decided opinion, that the only way
to obtain a knowledge of this interesting continent, is through the
medium of commercial intercourse. The more our experience of the
successive failure of our African expeditions advances, the more
strongly am I confirmed in this opinion. If we are to succeed in this
great enterprise, we must step out of the beaten path--the road of
error, that leads to disappointment--the road that has been so fatal to
all our ill-concerted enterprises; we must shake off the rust of
precedent, and strike into a new path altogether.

Do we not lack that _spirit of union_ so expedient and necessary to all
great enterprises? Is not the public good sacrificed to
self-aggrandisement and individual interest.--Let the African
Institution unite its funds to those of the African Association, and
co-operate with the efforts of that society! Let the African Company
also throw in their share of intelligence. The separated and sometimes
discordant interests of all these societies, if united, might effect
much. The _united_ efforts of such societies would do more in a year
towards the civilization of Africa, and the abolition of slavery, than
they will do in ten, unconnected as they now are. _Concordia parva res
crescunt_.--When each looks to particular interests, we cannot expect
the result to be the general good.

It is probable that the magnificent enterprises of the Portuguese and
Spaniards, would, ere this, have colonised and converted to
Christianity, all the eligible spots of idolatrous Africa, if their
attention to this grand object had not been diverted by the discovery of
America, and their establishments in Brazil, Mexico, &c.

I was established upwards of sixteen years in West and South Barbary;
territories that maintain an uninterrupted intercourse with all those
countries that Major Houghton, Hornemann, Park, Rontgen, Burckhardt,
Ritchie, and others have attempted to explore. I was diplomatic agent to
several maritime nations of Europe, which familiarised me with all ranks
of society in those countries. I had a perfect knowledge of the
commercial and travelling language of Africa, (the Arabic.) I
corresponded _myself_ with the Emperors, Princes, and Bashaws in this
language; my commercial connections were _very_ extensive, amongst all
the most respectable merchants who traded with Timbuctoo and other
countries of Sudan. My residence at Agadeer, or Santa Cruz, in Suse,
afforded me eligible opportunities of procuring information respecting
the trade with Sudan, and the interior of Africa. A long residence in
the country, and extensive connections, enabled me to discriminate, and
to ascertain who were competent and who were not competent to give me
the information I required. I had opportunities at my leisure of
investigating the motives that any might have to deceive me; I had time
and leisure also to investigate their moral character, and to ascertain
the principles that regulated their respective conduct. Possessed of all
these sources of information, how could I fail of procuring correct and
authentic intelligence of the interior of Africa; yet my account of the
two Niles has been doubted by our fire-side critics, and the desultory
intelligence of other travellers, who certainly did not possess those
opportunities of procuring information that I did, has been substituted:
but, notwithstanding this unaccountable scepticism, my uncredited
account of the connection of the two Niles of Africa, continues daily to
receive additional confirmation from all the African travellers
themselves. And thus, TIME, (to use the words of a [j]learned and most
intelligent writer), "which is more obscure in its course than the Nile,
and in its termination than the Niger," is disclosing all these things:
so that I now begin to think that the before-mentioned critics will not
be able much longer to maintain their theoretical hypothesis.[k]

     [Footnote j: Vide the Rev. C. C. Colton's Lacon, sect. 587. p. 260,
     261.]

     [Footnote k: See various letters on Africa, in this work, p. 443.]

The talents, the extraordinary prudence and forbearance, the knowledge
of the Arabic language, and other essential qualifications in an African
traveller, which the ever-to-be-lamented Burckhardt so eminently
possessed, gave me the greatest hopes of his success in his arduous
enterprise, until I discovered, when reading his Travels, that he was
_poor and despised, though a Muselman_.

There is too much reason to apprehend that he was suspected, if not
discovered by the Muselmen, or he would not have been _secluded from
their meals_ and society: the Muselmen never (_sherik taam_) eat or
divide food with those they suspect of deception, nor do they ever
_refuse to partake of food with a Muselman_, unless they do suspect him
of treachery or deception; this principle prevails so universally among
them, that artful and designing people have practised as many deceptions
on the Bedouin under the cloak of hospitality, as are practised in
Christian countries under the cloak of religion! I cannot but suspect,
therefore, from the circumstance before recited, that the Muselmism of
Burckhardt was seriously suspected, and that his companions only waited
a convenient opportunity in the Sahara for executing their revenge on
him for the deception.

The very favourable reception that my account of Marocco met with from
the British public; the many things therein stated, which are daily
gaining confirmation, although they were doubted at the period of their
publication, have contributed in no small degree, to the production of
the following sheets, in which I can conscientiously declare, that truth
has been my guide; I have never sacrificed it to ambition, vanity,
avarice, or any other passion.

The learned, I am flattered to see, are now beginning to adopt my
orthography of African names; they have lately adopted _Timbuctoo_ for
the old and barbarous orthography of _Timbuctoo_; they have, however,
been upwards of ten years about it. In ten years more, I anticipate that
_Fez_ will be changed into _Fas_, and _Morocco_ into _Marocco_, for this
plain and uncontrovertible reason,--because they are so spelled in the
original language of the countries, of which they are the chief cities.
Since the publication of my account of Marocco, I have seen Arabic words
spelled various ways by the same author (I have committed the same error
myself); but in the following work I have adopted a plan to correct this
prevailing error in Oriental orthography, which, I think, ought to be
followed by every Oriental scholar, as the only correct way of
transcribing them in English; viz. by writing them exactly according to
the original Arabic orthography, substituting _gr_ (not _gh_, as
Richardson directs) for the Arabic guttural غ  grain, and _kh_
for the guttural _k_ or خ --

_Note._ We should be careful not to copy the orthography of Oriental or
African names from the French, which has too often been done, although
their pronunciation of European letters is very dissimilar from our own.



                              CONTENTS.

_An Account of a Journey from Fas to Timbuctoo, performed about the year
1787, by El Hage Abd Salam Shabeeny._                             Page 1

Route to Timbuctoo.--Situation of the City.--Population.--Inns
or Caravanseras, called Fondaks.--Houses.--Government.--Revenue.--Army.
Administration of Justice.--Succession to Property.--Marriage.--Trade.
Manufactures.--Husbandry.--Provisions.--Animals.--Birds.--Fish.--Prices
of different Articles.--Dress.--Time.--Religion.--Diseases.--Manners
and Customs.--Neighbouring Nations.

_Journey from Timbuctoo to Housa_                                     37

The River Neel or Nile.--Housa.--Government.--Administration
of Justice--Landed Property,--Revenues.--Army.--Trade.--Climate.
Zoology.--Diseases.--Religion.--Persons.--Dress.--Buildings.--Manners.
Gold.--Limits of the Empire.

_Letters, containing an Account of Journies through various Parts of
West and South Barbary, at different Periods, personally performed by
J.G. Jackson._                                                         55

LETTER I. (To James Willis, Esq., late British Consul for Senegambia.)
On the Opening of the Port of Agadeer, or Santa Cruz, in the Province of
Suse; and of its Cession by the Emperor Muley Yezzid to the Dutch. _ibid._

LETTER II. (To the same.) The Author's Arrival at Agadeer or Santa
Cruz.--He opens the Port to European Commerce.--His favourable Reception
on landing there.--Is saluted by the Battery.--Abolishes the degrading
Custom that had been exacted of the Christians, of descending from on
Horseback, and entering the Town on Foot, like the Jews.--Of a Sanctuary
at the Entrance of the Town, which had ever been considered Holy Ground,
and none but Muhamedans had ever before been permitted to enter the
Gates on Horseback.                                                    58

LETTER III. (To the same.) The Author makes a Commercial Road down the
Mountain, to facilitate the Shipment of Goods.--The Energy and
Liberality of the Natives, in working gratuitously at it.--Description
of the Portuguese Tower at Tildie.--Arab Repast there.--Natural Strength
of Santa Cruz, of the Town of Agurem, and the Portuguese Spring and Tank
there.--Attempt of the Danes to land and build a Fort.--Eligibility of
the Situation of Santa Cruz, for a Commercial Depot to supply the whole
of the Interior of North Africa with East India and European
Manufactures.--Propensity of the Natives to Commerce and Industry, if
Opportunity offered.                                                   62

LETTER IV. (To the same.) Command of the Commerce of Sudan.            67

LETTER V. From Mr. Willis to Mr. Jackson                               69

LETTER VI. From the same to the same                                   71

LETTER VII. (To James Willis, Esq.) Emperor's March to Marocco.--Doubles
the Customs' Duties of Mogodor.--The Governor, Prince Abdelmelk, with
the Garrison and Merchants of Santa Cruz, ordered to go to the Court at
Marocco.--They cross the Atlas Mountains.--Description of the Country
and Produce.--Dangerous Defile in the Mountains through which the Author
passed.--Chasm in the Mountain.--Security of Suse from Marocco,
originating in the narrow Defile in the Mountains of Atlas.--Extensive
Plantations of Olives.--Village of Ait Musie.--Fruga Plains.--Marocco
Plains.--Fine Corn.--Reception at Marocco, and Audience with the
Emperor.--Imperial Gardens at Marocco.--Prince Abdelmelk's magnificent
Apparel reprobated by the Sultan.--The Port of Santa Cruz shut to the
Commerce of Europe, and the Merchants ordered to Marocco.--The Prince
banished to the _Bled Shereef_, or Country of Princes; viz. Tafilelt, of
the Palace at Tafilelt.--Abundance of Dates.--Face of the
Country.--Magnificent Groves of Palm or Date-trees.--Faith and Integrity
of the Inhabitants of Tafilelt.--Imperial Gardens at Marocco.--Mode of
Irrigation.--Attar of Roses, vulgarly called Otto of Roses (_Attar_
being the Word signifying a Distillation.).--State of Oister Shells on
the Top of the Mountains of Sheshawa, between Mogodor and Marocco, being
a Branch of the Atlas.--Description of the Author's Reception on the
Road from Marocco to Mogodor.--Of the Elgrored, or Sahara of Mogodor.   73

LETTER VIII. From Mr. Willis to Mr. Jackson                             84

Extract of a Letter from His Excellency J.M. Matra, British Envoy to
Marocco, &c. to Mr. Jackson.                                            85

LETTER IX. (To James Willis, Esq.) Custom of visiting the Emperor on his
Arrival at Marocco.--Journey of the Merchants thither on that
Occasion.--No one enters the Imperial Presence without a Present.--Mode
of travelling.--The Commercio.--Imperial Gardens at Marocco.--Audience
of the Sultan.--Amusements at Marocco.--Visit to the Town of
Lepers.--Badge of Distinction worn by the Lepers.--Ophthalmia at
Marocco.--Its probable Cause.--Immense Height of the Atlas, East and
South of Marocco.--Mode of visiting at Marocco.--Mode of Eating.--Trades
or Handicrafts at Marocco.--Audience of Business of the Sultan.--Present
received from the Sultan.                                                86

LETTER X. From Mr. Willis to Mr. Jackson                                 99

LETTER XI. From the same to the same                                    101

LETTER XII. From the same to the same                                   103

LETTER XIII. (To James Willis, Esq.) Journey from Mogodor to Rabat, to
Mequinas, to the Sanctuary of Muley Dris Zerone in the Atlas Mountains,
to the Ruins of Pharaoh, and thence through the Amorite Country to
L'Araich and Tangier.--Started from Mogodor with Bel Hage as (_Tabuk_)
Cook, and Deeb as (_Mule Lukkerzana_) Tent-Master.--Exportation of Wool
granted by the Emperor.--Akkermute depopulated by the Plague.--Arabs,
their Mode of hunting the Partridge.--Observations respecting the River
Tansift.--Jerf El Eudie, or the Jews' Pass.--Description of Saffy, and
its Port or Road.--Woladia calculated to make a safe harbour.--Growth of
Tobacco.--Mazagan described.--Azamor the Abode of Storks.--Saneet
Urtemma a dangerous Country.--Dar El Beida, Fedalla, and Rabat
described.--Mausoleum of the Sultan Muhamed ben Abd Allah at Rabat.--Of
Sheila, a Roman Town.--Of the Tower of Hassan.--Road of
Rabat.--Productive Country about Rabat.--Salee.--The People inimical to
Christians.--The Dungeon where they confined Christian Slaves.--Ait
Zimurh, notorious Thieves.--Their Mode of Robbing.--Their Country
disturbed with Lions.--Arrival at Mequinas.--Some Account of that City
and its Imperial Palace.--Ladies of Mequinas extremely
beautiful.--Arrival at the renowned Sanctuary of Muley Dris or Idris
Zerone.--Extraordinary and favourable Reception there by the Fakeers of
the Sanctuary.--Slept in the Adytum.--Succour expected from the English
in the Event of an Invasion by Bonaparte.--Prostration and Prayer of
Benediction by the Fakeers at my Departure from the Sanctuary.--Ruins of
Pharaoh near the Sanctuary.--Treasures found there.--Ite Amor.--

The Descendants of the Ancient Amorites.--Character of these
People.--Various Tribes of the Berebbers of Atlas.--El Kassar
Kabeer.--Its Environs, a beautiful Country.--Forest of
L'Araich.--Superior Manufacture of Gold Thread made at Fas, as well as
Imitations of Amber.--Grand Entry of the British Ambassador into
Tangier.--Our Ignorance of African Matters.--The Sultan's Comparison of
the Provinces of his Empire to the various Kingdoms of Europe.       105

LETTER XIV. (From His Excellency James M. Matra to Mr. Jackson.)
Respecting the Result of the British Embassy to the Emperor of Marocco
at Old Fas.                                                          128

LETTER XV. (To James Willis, Esq.) European Society at Tangier.--Sects
and Divisions among Christians in Muhamedan Countries counteracts the
Propagation of Christianity, and casts a Contempt upon Christians
themselves.--The Cause of it.--The Conversion of Africa should be
preceded by an Imitation of the divine Doctrine of Christ among
Christians themselves.                                               129

LETTER XVI. (To the same.) Diary of a Journey from Tangier to Mogodor,
showing the Distances from Town to Town, along the Coast of the Atlantic
Ocean; useful to Persons travelling in that Country.                 132

LETTER XVII. (To the same.) An Account of a Journey from Mogodor to
Saffy, during a Civil War, in a Moorish Dress, when a Courier could not
pass, owing to the Warfare between the two Provinces of Haha and
Shedma.--Stratagem adopted by the Author to prevent Detection.--Danger
of being discovered.--Satisfaction expressed by the Bashaw of Abda,
Abdrahaman ben Nassar, on the Author's safe Arrival, and Compliments
received from him on his having accomplished this perilous Journey.  134

LETTER XVIII. (To the same.) Journey to the Prince Abd Salam, and the
Khalif Delemy in Shtuka.--Encamped in his Garden.--Mode of living in
Shtuka.--Audience of the Prince.--Expedition to the Port of Tomie, in
Suse.--Country infested with Rats.--Situation of Tomie.--Entertainment
at a Douar of the Arabs of Woled Abbusebah.--Exertions of Delemy to
entertain his guests.--Arabian Dance and Music.--Manner and Style of
Dancing.--Eulogium of the Viceroys and Captains to the Ladies.--Manners
of the latter.--Their personal Beauty.--Dress.--Desire of the Arabs to
have a Commercial Establishment in their Country.--Report to the Prince
respecting Tomie.--Its Contiguity to the Place of the Growth of various
Articles of Commerce.--Viceroy's Offer to build a House, and the
Duties.--Visit to Messa.--Nature of the Country.--Gold and Silver
Mines.--Garden of Delemy.--Immense Water-melons and Grapes.--Mode of
Irrigation.--Extraordinary People from Sudan at Delemy's.--Elegant
Sword.--Extensive Plantations.--The Prince prepares to depart for
Tafilelt.                                                             137

LETTER XIX. (To the same.) Journey from Santa Cruz to Mogodor, when no
Travellers ventured to pass, owing to Civil War and Contention among the
Kabyles.--Moorish Philanthropy in digging Wells for the Use of
Travellers.--Travelled with a trusty Guide without Provisions, Tents,
Baggage, or Incumbrances.--Nature of the Warfare in the Land.--Bitter
Effects of Revenge and Retaliation on the happiness of Society.--Origin
of these civil Wars between the Families and Kabyles.--Presented with
Honey and Butter for Breakfast.--Patriarchal Manner of living among the
Shelluhs compared to that of Abraham.--Aromatic Honey.--Ceremony at
Meals, and Mode of Eating.--Travelled all Night, and slept in the open
Air;--Method of avoiding the Night-dew, as practised by the
Natives.--Arrival at Mogodor.                                         150

_An Account of the Rise, Progress, and Decrease of the Plague that
ravaged West and South Barbary, in 1799, faithfully extracted, from
Letters written before and during its Existence, by the House of James
Jackson & Co., or by James G. Jackson, at Mogodor, to their
Correspondents in Europe._                                            156

Letter from His Excellency James M. Matra to Mr. Jackson.             163

An Account of a peculiar Species of Plague which depopulated West and
South Barbary in 1799 and 1800, to the Effects of which the Author was
an eye-witness.                                                       166

Cases of Plague.                                                      180

Observations respecting the Plague that prevailed last Year in West
Barbary, which was imported from Egypt; communicated by the Author to
the Editor of the Quarterly Journal of Literature, Science, and the
Arts, edited at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, No. 15,
published October, 1819.                                              186

_Journey from Tangier to Rabat, through the Plains of Seboo, in Company
with Doctor Bell and the Prince Muley Teib and an Army of Cavalry_.   191

Officiated as Interpreter between the Prince and Dr. Bell.--Description
of Food sent to us by the Prince.--The Plains of M'sharrah Rummellah, an
incomparably fine and productive Country.--The Cavalry of the
Amorites;--their unique Observations on Dr. Bell: their mean opinion of
his Art, because he could not cure Death.--Passage of the River Seboo on
Rafts of inflated Skins.--Spacious tent of Goat's Hair erected for the
Sheik, and appropriated to the Use of the Prince.--Description of the
magnificent Plains of M'sharrah Rummellah and Seboo.--Arabian
Royalty.--Prodigious Quantity of Corn grown in these Plains.--Matamores,
what they are.--Mode of Reaping.--

The Prince presents the Doctor with a Horse, and approves of his
Medicines.--The Prince and the Doctor depart south-eastwardly, and the
Author pursues his Journey to Rabat and Mogodor.                      191

_Of the excavated Residences of the Inhabitants of Atlas: the Acephali,
Hel Shoual, and Hel el Kitteb_.                                       198

The Discovery of Africa not to be effected by the present System of
solitary Travellers; but by a grand Plan, with a numerous Company;
beginning with Commerce, as the natural Prelude to Discovery, the
Fore-runner of Civilization, and a preliminary Step, indispensable to
the Conversion of the native Negroes to Christianity.

_Cautions to be used in Travelling_.                                  202

Danger of Travelling after Sun-set.--The Emperor holds himself
accountable for Thefts committed on Travellers, whilst travelling
between the rising and the setting Sun.--Emigration of
Arabs.--Patriarchal Style of Living among the Arabs; Food, Clothing,
domestic Looms, and Manufactures.--Riches of the Arabs calculated by the
Number of Camels they possess.--Arabian Women are good Figures, and have
personal Beauty; delicate in their Food; poetical Geniuses; Dancing and
Amusements; Musical Instruments; their Manners are courteous.

_Abundance of Corn produced in West Barbary_.                         208

Costly Presents made by Spain to the Emperor.--Bashaw of Duquella's
Weekly Present of a Bar of Gold.--Mitferes or Subterranneous
Depositaries for Corn.

_Domestic Serpents of Marocco_                                        213

_Manufactures of Fas_.                                                214

Superior Manufactory of Gold Thread.--Imitation of precious
Stones.--Manufactory of Gun-barrels in Suse.--Silver-mine.

_On the State of Slavery in Muhamedan Africa_.                        219

_The Plague of Locusts_.                                              221

Their incredible Destruction.--Used as Food.--Remarkable Instance of
their destroying every Green Herb on one Side of a River, and not on the
other.

_On the Influence of the great Principle of Christianity on the Moors_.
                                                                      224

Of the Propagation of Christianity in Africa.--Causes that prevent
it.--The Mode of promoting it is through a friendly and commercial
Intercourse with the Natives.--Exhortation to Great Britain to attend to
the Intercourse with Africa.--Danger of the French colonizing Senegal,
and supplanting us, and thereby depreciating the Value of our West-India
Islands.

_Interest of Money._                                                  237

Application of the Superflux of Property or Capital.

_Plan for the gradual Civilisation of Africa._                        247

On the Commercial Intercourse with Africa, through the Sahara and
Ashantee.

_Prospectus of a Plan for forming a North African or Sudan Company: to
be instituted for the Purpose of establishing an extensive Commerce
with, and laying open to British Enterprise, all the Interior Regions of
North Africa._                                                        251

Appendix to the foregoing Prospectus, being an Epitome of the Trade
carried on by Great Britain and the European States in the
Mediterranean, indirectly with Timbuctoo, the Commercial Depot of North
Africa, and with other States of Sudan.                               254

Letter from Vasco de Gama, in Elucidation of this Plan.               258

Letter on the Commercial Intercourse with Africa, in further Elucidation
of this Plan.                                                         264

Impediments to our Intercourse with Africa.                           266

_Architecture of the Mosques.--Funeral Ceremonies of the Moors,--Gardens
at Fas._                                                              271

_Fragments, Notes, and Anecdotes, illustrating the Nature and Character
of the Country._                                                      276

Introduction,--Trade with Sudan.--Wrecked Ships on the Coast,
278.--Wrecked Sailors.--Timbuctoo Coffee.--Sand Baths.--Civil War common
in West Barbary, 279.--Policy of the Servants of the Emperor.--El Wah El
Grarbee, or the Western Oasis, 280.--Prostration, the Etiquette of the
Court of Marocco, 281.--Massacre of the Jews, and Attack on
Algiers.--Treaties with Muhamedan Princes, 283.--Berebbers of Zimurh
Shelleh--The European Merchants at Mogodor escape from Decapitation,
284.--The Body of the Emperor Muley Yezzid disinterred, 286. Shelluhs;
their Revenge and Retaliation, 291.--Travelling in Barbary.--Anecdote
displaying the African Character, and showing them to be now what they
were anciently, under Jugurtha, 293.--Every Nation is required to use
its own Costume, 296.--Ali Bey (El Abassi), Author of the Travels under
that Name, 297.--The Emperor's Attack on Dimenet, in the Atlas,
305.--Moral Justice, 306.--Contest between the Emperor and the Berebbers
of Atlas.--Characteristic Trait of Muhamedans, 308.--Political
Deception, 309.--Etiquette of the Court of Marocco, 310.--Customs of the
Shelluhs of the Southern Atlas.--Connubial Customs, 313.--Political
Duplicity, 314.--Etiquette of Language at the Court of Marocco,
315.--Food, viz. Kuscasoe, Hassua, El Hasseeda, 317--The Woled
Abbusebah, a whole Clan of Arabs, banished from the Plains of Marocco,
317.--The Koran called the Beloved Book.--Arabian Music,
318.--Sigilmessa.--Mungo Park at Timbuctoo.--Troglodyte, 319,--Police of
West Barbary, 320.--Muley Abdrahaman ben Muhamed, an Anecdote of,
322,--Anecdote of Muley Ismael, 323.--Library at Fas, 324.--Deism,
325--Muhamedan Loyalty.--Cairo, 326.--Races of Men constituting the
Inhabitants of West and South Barbary, and that part of Bled el Jereed,
called Tafilelt and Sejin Messa, east of the Atlas, forming the
territories of the present Emperor of Marocco: the Moors--the
Berebbers--the Shelluhs, 327.--The Arabs--the Jews--Douars,
328.--Various Modes of Intoxication, 329.--Division of Agricultural
Property, 331.--Mines.--Nyctalopia, Hemeralopia, or Night-blindness,
called by the Arabs _Butelleese_; and its Remedy, 332.--Vaccination,
336.--Game, 338.--Agriculture.--Mitferes, 339.--Laws of Hospitality,
340.--Punishment for Murder.--Insolvency Laws, 343.--Dances,
344.--Circumcision.--Invoice from Timbuctoo to Santa Cruz,
345.--Translation of a Letter from Timbuctoo, 346.--Invoice from
Timbuctoo to Fas, 347.--Translation of its accompanying Letter from
Timbuctoo, 348.--Food of the Desert,--Antithesis, a favourite Figure
with the Arabs, 349.--Arabian Modes of Writing, 350.--Decay of Science
and of Arts among the Arabs, 352.--Extraordinary Abstinence experienced
in the Sahara.                                                        353

_Languages of Africa._                                                355

Various Dialects of the Arabic Language.--Difference between the
Berebber and Shelluh Languages.--Specimen of the Mandinga
Language.--Comparison of the Shelluh Language with that of the Wah el
Grarbie, or Oasis of Ammon, and with the original Language of the Canary
Islands, and similitude of Customs.

_Titles of the Emperor of Marocco._                                   382

Style of addressing him.                                              383

_Specimens of Muhamedan Epistolatory Correspondence._                 384

LETTER I. Translation of a Letter from Muley Ismael, Emperor of Marocco,
to Captain Kirke, at Tangier, Ambassador from King Charles the Second,
A.D. 1684.                                                         _ibid_

LETTER II. From the same to Sir Cloudesley Shovel, on board the Charles
Galley, off Sallee, A.D. 1684.                                        387

LETTER III, Captain Shovel's Answer, September 1684.                  389

LETTER IV. Translation of Muley Ismael, Emperor of Marocco's Letter to
Queen Anne, A.D. 1710, from the Harl. MSS. 7525.                      392

LETTER V. Translation of a Letter from the Sultan Seedi Muhamed ben
Abdallah, Emperor of Marocco, to the European Consuls resident at
Tangier, delivered to each of them by the Bashaw of the Province of El
Grarb, A.D. 1788.                                                     394

LETTER VI. From Muley Soliman ben Muhamed, Emperor of Marocco, &c. &c.
to His Majesty George the Third, literally translated by J.G. Jackson,
at the Request of the Right Hon. Spencer Perceval, after lying in the
Secretary of State's Office here for several Months, and being sent
ineffectually to the Universities, and after various Enquiries had been
made on Behalf of the Emperor to the Governor of Gibraltar, the Bashaw
of El Grarb, and the Alkaid of Tangier, to ascertain if any Answer had
been returned to His Imperial Majesty.                                395

LETTER VII. Translation of a Firman of Departure, literally translated
from the original Arabic, by J.G. Jackson.                            398

LETTER VIII. From Hulaku the Tartar, Conqueror of the East, to Al Malek
Annasar, Sultan of Aleppo, A.D. 1259.                                 399

LETTER IX. Translation of a Letter from the Emperor Muley Yezzid, to
Webster Blount, Esq. Consul General to the Empire of Marocco, from their
High Mightinesses, the States General of the Seven United Provinces,
written soon after the Emperor's Proclamation, and previous to the
Negociation for the opening of the Port of Agadeer or Santa Cruz to
Dutch Commerce.                                                       402

LETTER X. Translation of a Letter from the Emperor Yezzid to the
Governor of Mogodor, Aumer ben Daudy, to give the Port of Agadeer to the
Dutch, and to send there the Merchants of that Nation.                402

LETTER XI. Epistolary Diction used by the Muhamedans of Africa in their
Correspondence with all their Friends who are not of the Muhamedan
Faith, A.D. 1797.                                                     404

LETTER XII. Translation of a Letter from the Sultan Seedi Muhamed,
Emperor of Marocco, to the Governor of Mogodor, A.D. 1791, A.H. 1203. 405

_Doubts having been made, in the Daily Papers, concerning the Accuracy
of the two following Translations of the Shereef Ibrahim's Account of
Mungo Park's Death, the following Observations by the Author are laid
before the Public, in Elucidation of those Translations._             406

The Shereef Ibrahim's Account of Mungo Park's Death (The Author's
Translation).                                                         409

Observation.                                                          410

Extract from the Times, May 3, 1819.--Mungo Park.                     412

The Shereef Ibrahim's Account of Mungo Park's Death (Mr. Abraham
Saleme's Translation).                                                413

Letter to the Editor of the British Statesman, on the Errors in Mr.
Saleme's Translation of the Shereef Ibrahim's Account of the Death of
Mungo Park.                                                           415

_Letters respecting Africa, from J.G. Jackson and other._             419

On the Plague. To James Willis, Esq. late Consul to Senegambia.       419

Death of Mungo Park.                                                  424

Death of Mr. Rontgen, in an Attempt to explore the Interior of Africa.
                                                                      425

Of the Venomous Spider.--Charmers of Serpents.--Disease called
Nyctalopia, or Night-blindness.--Remedy for Consumption in
Africa.--Western Branch of the Nile, and Water Communication between
Timbuctoo and Egypt.                                                  429

Offer to discover the African Remedy for Nyctalopia or Night-blindness,
in a Letter addressed to the Editor of the Literary Panorama.         432

Letter to the same.                                                   433

Critical Observations on Extracts from the Travels of Ali Bey and Robert
Adams, in the Quarterly Journal of Literature, Science, and the Arts,
edited at the Royal Institution of Great Britain. Vol. I. No. 2, p. 264.
                                                                      435

On the Junction of the Nile of Egypt with the Nile of Timbuctoo, or of
Sudan.                                                                443

Strictures respecting the Interior of Africa, and Confirmation of
Jackson's Account of Sudan, annexed to his Account of the Empire of
Marocco, &c.                                                          446

Animadversions on the Orthography of African Names (by Catherine Hutton).
                                                                      455

Hints for the Civilization of Barbary, and Diffusion of Commerce, by
Vasco de Gama.                                                        457

Plan for the Conquest of Algiers, by Vasco de Gama.                   461

Letter from El Hage Hamed El Wangary, respecting a Review of Ali Bey's
Travels, in the "Portfolio," an American Periodical Work.             464

On the Negroes (by Vasco de Gama).                                    465

Cursory Observations on Lieutenant Colonel Fitzclarence's Journal of a
Route across India, through Egypt, to England.                        467

On the Arabic Language, as now spoken in Europe, Asia, and Africa.    471

Cursory Observations on the Geography of Africa, inserted in an Account
of a Mission to Ashantee, by T. Edward Bowdich, Esq. showing the Errors
that have been committed by European travellers on that Continent, from
their Ignorance of the Arabic Language, the learned and the general
travelling Language of that interesting Part of the World.            474

Commercial Intercourse with the Interior of Africa.                   493

The Embassage of Mr. Edmund Hogan, one of the sworne Esquires of Queen
Elizabeth, from Her Highness, to Muley Abdelmelech, Emperour of Marocco,
and King of Fez and Sus, in the Yeare 1577. Written by Himselfe.      494

Letter from the Author to Macvey Napier, Esq. F.R.S.L., and E.         505

Observations on an Historical Account of Discoveries and Travels in
Africa, by the late John Leyden, M.D. by Hugh Murray, Esq. F.R.S.E.   508

Cursory Observations on African Names.                                509

Letter to the Author from Hugh Murray, Esq. F.R.S.E.                  513

On the Two Niles of Africa, or the Niger and the Nile.                514

APPENDIX.

_Historical Fragments in Elucidation of the foregoing pages._         519

First Expedition on Record to Timbuctoo--Timbuctoo and Guago captured by
Muley Hamed (Son of Muley Abdelmelk, commonly called Muley Melk, or
Muley Moluck) in the Sixteenth Century (about the Year 1580).         519

A Library of 3000 Arabic Manuscripts taken by the Spaniards.--Contests
among Christians reprimanded.                                         520

Muley El Arsheed (a Second Expedition to Timbuctoo and Sudan).        521

Third Expedition to Timbuctoo and Sudan.                              523


       *       *       *       *       *

DIRECTIONS TO THE BINDER.


Map of the Tracks across the Sahara to Timbuctoo, _to face_.            1

Map of the Empire of Marocco.                                          55


[Illustration]

1

                               AN
                      ACCOUNT OF A JOURNEY
                              FROM
                        FAS TO TIMBUCTOO,
            PERFORMED IN OR ABOUT THE YEAR 1787, A.C.
                               BY
                  _EL HAGE ABD SALAM SHABEENY_.


     The Moors always prefer the spring and summer for travelling,
     because they suffer very much from the severe cold of the mornings
     in winter. They generally leave Fas in the beginning of April to
     proceed to Timbuctoo, and they leave Timbuctoo to return to Fas in
     the month of January.

     The Mecca caravan takes its departure from Fas the beginning of
     March.

     In travelling, the Moors hire their camels from stage to stage.
     Shabeeny's first stage was from Fas[1] to Tafilelt, which is
     generally performed in about twenty days.

         [Footnote 1: This is a journey of crooked and rugged roads
         across the Atlas mountains, where they often sojourn in spots
         which invite the traveller, so that it takes a longer time to
         perform it than the distance would indicate.]
2
     The hire of every camel was from ten to twelve ducats, at five
     shillings sterling per ducat; as this route is through a very
     mountainous country, and the travelling is very bad, the charges
     were proportionally high; the weight which every camel carried was
     between four and five quintals, the camels in this country being
     strong and very large.[2]

     Tafilelt is the place of general meeting of all the merchants who
     go to Timbuctoo.[3]

     The territory of Tafilelt contains no towns, but abounds in
     fortresses with mud-walls[4], which the natives call El Kassar, and
     which contain from three to four hundred families; in these
     fortresses there is a public market (in Arabic, _soke_) every week,
     where the inhabitants purchase provisions, &c.

     The natives of Tafilelt are descendants of the shereefs[5] or
     princes of Marocco, and are therefore of the Imperial family.

         [Footnote 2: This charge of carriage by the camels from Fas to
         Tafilelt, is equal to 55s., sterling per camel; to 1-1/2d. per
         mile for each camel, and to one farthing and one third per
         quintal of merchandise per mile.]

         [Footnote 3: That is for all who go from the Emperor of
         Marocco's dominions, north of the river Morbeya, which is
         called El Garb, or the North Western Division.]

         [Footnote 4: These mud walls are made in cases, and the mode of
         erecting them is called _tabia_. See Jackson's Account of the
         Empire of Marocco, &c. &c. 2d or 3d edition, page 298.]

         [Footnote 5: Hence it is called _Bled Shereef_, i.e. the
         Country of Princes.]
3
     Shabeeny's next stage was to Draha[6], which he reached in six
     days. The expense per camel was about six ducats, or thirty
     shillings sterling. The district of Draha abounds in the small hard
     date[7], which is very fine; from four to six drahems[8] (equal to
     two to three shillings sterling) is the price of a camel load of
     these dates.

     The province of Draha is larger than that of Tafilelt, its
     circumference being about four or five days' journey. The
     natives[9] of Draha are very dark, approaching to black, in their
     complexion: this province abounds in fortresses, like those of
     Tafilelt.

         [Footnote 6: A province at the foot of the mountains of Atlas,
         south of Marocco, for which see the Map of West Barbary, in
         Jackson's Account of the Empire of Marocco, &c. &c. p. 1.]

         [Footnote 7: This date is called by the natives _bouskree:_ it
         contains a larger quantity of saccharine juice than any other
         date. This province also produces a date called _bûtube_, which
         is the best that grows, and is called _sultan de timmar_, i.e.
         the king of dates. It is not used as an article of commerce,
         but is sent as presents to the great, and costs nearly double
         the price of those of any other quality: the quality mostly
         used for foreign commerce, is the Tafilelt date, called _timmar
         adamoh_, which is sold by the grocers in London. This species
         is, however, considered very unwholesome food, and accordingly
         is never eaten by the Filellies, or inhabitants of Tafilelt,
         but is food for the camels. The district of Tafilelt abounds in
         dates of all kinds: there are not less than thirty different
         kinds; and the plantations of dates belonging to the princes of
         Tafilelt are very extensive, insomuch that the annual produce
         of one plantation is often sold for a thousand dollars, or 220£
         sterling. Half a dollar, or five drahems per camel load of
         three quintals.]

         [Footnote 8: A drahem is a silver coin, ten of which are equal
         to a Mexico dollar.]

         [Footnote 9: Their colour is darker than new copper, but not
         black, It may be compared to the colour of _old_ mahogany, with
         a black hue. The natives of Draha are proverbially stupid.]
4
     The caravans have not, as in the journey to Mecca, their sheiks[10]
     or commanders. From Fas to Tafilelt they had no chief, but as there
     are generally a few old, rich, and respectable men in the caravan,
     its direction and government are committed to their care.

         [Footnote 10: The _sheik akkabar_, or chief of the accumulated
         caravan, is generally a _shereef_ or prince.]

     From Tafilelt, which, as before observed, is the country of the
     shereefs, they are guided by such of the trading shereefs as
     accompany the caravan, and who have always great respect paid them,
     till they arrive at Timbuctoo. The caravan increases as it proceeds
     in its journey: at Fas it consisted of about thirty or forty; at
     Draha, of from 300 to 400 camels. From Draha, at the distance of
     three days' travelling, they found water by digging, and on the
     next morning they entered the _Sahara_, which, for the first twenty
     days is a plain sandy desert resembling the sea. In this desert,
     when they pitch their tents at night, they are obliged frequently
     to shake the sand from their tops, as they would otherwise be
     overwhelmed before the morning.

     Some part of this desert is hard, and the camels do not sink deep
     into it; in others the sand is very loose, which fatigues the
5    camels exceedingly. In travelling, the caravan is directed by the
     stars at night, and by the sun in the day, and occasionally by the
     smell of the earth, which they take up in their hands. For the
     first twenty days after they enter this wilderness they have no
     water; during this period, the caravan is obliged to carry water in
     goat-skins[11], as not a drop is to be found by digging. On this
     account, about a third part of the camels are employed in carrying
     water, and even with this quantity the camels are often left for
     three or four days without any. They never use mules in this part
     of the journey; they neither find the _sheh_[12], nor the thorny
     plant so common in the deserts of Africa.

     The country on the borders of this desert, to the right and left,
     is inhabited by roving Arabs, at the distance of three or four days
     from the track which the caravan pursues; and is said to be partly
     plain, and in part hilly, with a little grass, and a few shrubs;
     when the cattle of these Arabs have consumed what grows in one
     spot, their owners remove to another. The caravan, though it
     generally consisted of about 400 men well armed, seeks its route
     through the most unfrequented part of the desert, from a dread of
     the attacks of the Arabs. The hottest wind is that from the
     east-south-east, and is called _Esshume_[13]; the coldest is that
     which blows from the west-north-west. To alleviate the great
     drought which travellers feel in the desert, they have recourse to
     melted butter.[14]

         [Footnote 11: These goat-skins, when containing water, are
         called by the Arabs _kereb_, or _ghireb_, plur. _kerba_, or
         _ghirba_, sing.]

         [Footnote 12: The _sheh_ is the wormseed plant, the thorny
         plant here alluded to is the wild myrtle.]

         [Footnote 13: _Esshume_, or the hot wind. For a particular
         description of this extraordinary wind, see Jackson's Account
         of the Empire of Marocco, &c. &c. 2d or 3d edition, page 283
         and 284.]

         [Footnote 14: This is old butter kept several years in a
         _matamore_, or subterraneous cavern. It is called by the Arabs
         of the desert, _bûdra_; and much virtue is ascribed to it when
         it has attained a certain age: a small quantity swallowed,
         quickly diffuses itself through the system.]

6    After passing this desert of twenty days, they enter a country
     which varies in its appearance, particular spots being fertile[15]
     (called El Wah). Here they meet with _sederah_[16], a kind of wild
     myrtle, in great quantities. This plant is called by the natives,
     _gylan:_ its height is about that of a man; the camels feed upon
     it. Between these shrubs there is a very small quantity of grass in
     particular spots. In this part of the desert they meet with
     extensive strata of stones: though the surface is generally sand,
     yet at the depth of eight or ten inches, they meet with a yellow or
     reddish earth; and about four feet deeper, with another kind of
     earth of various colours, but most commonly of a brownish cast;
7    about five or six feet under this they find water, which springs
     up very slowly, and at the bottom of this water you meet with a
     light sand. Sometimes the water is sweetish, frequently brackish,
     and generally warm. This last desert is about twenty days' journey,
     and is a vast plain without any mountains. They meet with no Arabs
     in this part, but the country on the right and left of their route,
     at the distance of from three to eight days' journey, is inhabited
     by Arabs, who are governed by their own (_sheiks_) chiefs, and are
     perfectly independent.

         [Footnote 15: El Wah. For a full explanation of this term, see
         Jackson's Account of the Empire of Marocco, 3d edition, p.
         283.]

         [Footnote 16: _Sederah_, thorny shrubs of all kinds are so
         called.]

     From Akka to Timbuctoo, a journey of forty-three days, they meet
     with no trees, except the _sederah_, no rivers, towns, or huts.
     From Draha, which is a country abounding in camels, to Timbuctoo,
     the charge per camel is from sixteen to twenty-one ducats.[17] That
     so long a journey is performed at so small[18] an expense, is owing
     to the abundance of camels in Draha. The caravan generally contains
     from 300 to 400 men, of whom a great part prefer walking to the
     uneasy motion of the camels.

         [Footnote 17: From Fas to Tafilelt, 20 days, for 11 ducats per
         camel.

             Tafilelt to Draha,     6 do.       6 do.       do.

             Draha to Timbuctoo,   48 do.       18-1/2 do.  do.

                                   ---            ----

                                   69 days, for 35-1/2 ducats per camel
         load, which is about the rate of one farthing per quintal per
         mile. This does not include the expense of camels for the
         conveyance of merchants, servants, &c. or of provisions or
         water, but merely of those carrying goods. A full account of
         these caravans, and their mode of crossing the Sahara, will be
         found in Jackson's Marocco, ch. 13.]

         [Footnote 18: The expense is now (A.C. 1818) smaller, as the
         ducat, by a coinage which is depreciated, has fallen to 3s. 6d.
         sterling.]
8
     SITUATION OF THE CITY OF TIMBUCTOO.

     On the east side of the city of Timbuctoo, there is a large forest,
     in which are a great many elephants. The timber here is very large.
     The trees on the outside of the forest are remarkable for having
     two different colours; that side which is exposed to the morning
     sun is black, and the opposite side is yellow. The body of the tree
     has neither branches nor leaves, but the leaves, which are
     remarkably large, grow upon the top only: so that one of these
     trees appears, at a distance, like the mast and round top of a
     ship. Shabeeny has seen trees in England much taller than these:
     within the forest the trees are smaller than on its skirts. There
     are no trees resembling these in the Emperor of Marocco's
     dominions. They are of such a size that the largest cannot be
     girded by two men. They bear a kind of berry about the size of a
     walnut, in clusters consisting of from ten to twenty berries.
     Shabeeny cannot say what is the extent of this forest, but it is
     very large. Close to the town of Timbuctoo, on the south, is a
     small rivulet in which the inhabitants wash their clothes, and
     which is about two feet deep. It runs in the great forest on the
     east, and does not communicate with the Nile, but is lost in the
     sands west of the town. Its water is brackish; that of the Nile is
9    good and pleasant. The town of Timbuctoo is surrounded by a
     mud-wall: the walls are built tabia-wise[19] as in Barbary,
     viz. they make large wooden cases, which they fill with mud, and
     when that dries they remove the cases higher up till they have
     finished the wall. They never use stone or brick; they do not know
     how to make bricks. The wall is about twelve feet high, and
     sufficiently strong to defend the town against the wild Arabs, who
     come frequently to demand money from them. It has three gates; one
     called Bab Sahara, or the gate of the desert, on the north:
     opposite to this, on the other side of the town, a second, called
     Bab Neel, or the gate of the Nile: the third gate leads to the
     forest on the east, and is called Beb El Kibla.[20] The gates are
     hung on very large hinges, and when shut at night, are locked, as
     in Barbary; and are farther secured by a large prop of wood placed
     in the inside slopingly against them. There is a dry ditch, or
     excavation, which circumscribes the town, (except at those places
     which are opposite the gates,) about twelve feet deep, and too wide
10   for any man to leap it. The three gates of the town are shut
     every evening soon after sun-set: they are made of folding doors,
     of which there is only one pair. The doors are lined on the outside
     with untanned hides of camels, and are so full of nails that no
     hatchet can penetrate them; the front appears like one piece of
     iron.

         [Footnote 19: The tabia walls are thus built: They put boards
         on each side of the wall supported by stakes driven in the
         ground, or attached to other stakes laid transversely across
         the wall; the intermediate space is then filled with sand and
         mud, and beat down with large wooden mallets, (as they beat the
         terraces) till it becomes hard and compact; the cases are left
         on for a day or two; they then take them off, and move them
         higher up, repeating this operation till the wall is finished.]

         [Footnote 20: El Kibla signifies the tomb of Muhamed: in most
         African towns there is a Kibla-gate, which faces Medina in
         Arabia.]

     POPULATION.

     The town is once and a half the size of Tetuan[21], and contains,
     besides natives, about 10,000[22] of the people of Fas and Marocco.
     The native inhabitants of the town of Timbuctoo may be computed at
     40,000, exclusive of slaves and foreigners. Many of the merchants
     who visit Timbuctoo are so much attached to the place that they
     cannot leave it, but continue there for life. The natives are all
     blacks: almost every stranger marries a female of the town, who are
     so beautiful that travellers often fall in love with them at first
     sight.

         [Footnote 21: That is about four miles in circumference. Tetuan
         contains 16,000 inhabitants; but, according to this account,
         Timbuctoo contains 50,000, besides slaves, a population above
         three times that of Tetuan: now, as the houses of Timbuctoo are
         more spacious than those of Tetuan, it is to be apprehended
         that Shabeeny has committed an error in describing the size of
         Timbuctoo.]

         [Footnote 22: Who go there for the purposes of trade.]

     INNS, OR CARAVANSERAS.

     When strangers arrive they deposit their merchandise in large
     warehouses called fondacs; and hire as many rooms as they choose,
11   having stables for their camels, &c. in the same place. These
     fondacs[23] are private property, and are called either by the
     owner's name, or by that of the person who built them. The fondac,
     in which Shabeeny and his father lived, had forty apartments for
     men, exclusive of stables; twenty below and twenty above, the place
     having two stories. The staircase was within the inclosure, and was
     composed of rough boards; while he staid, the rooms were constantly
     occupied by natives and strangers; they hired rooms for three
     months, for which they paid thirty okiat, or fifteen shillings
     sterling per month. These fondacs are called Woal[24] by the
     negroes. The money was paid to the owner's agent, who always lives
     in the fondac for this purpose, and to accommodate strangers with
     provisions, &c. At their arrival, porters assisted them and
     procured every thing they wanted; but when they were settled they
     hired a man and a woman slave to cook and to clean their rooms, and
     to do every menial office. Slaves are to be bought at all hours:
     the slave-merchants keep a great number ready for sale.

         [Footnote 23: It is probable that Adams, the American sailor,
         (if he ever was at Timbuctoo,) saw one of these fondacs that
         belonged to the king, and mistook it for his palace.]

         [Footnote 24: Ten okiat, or drahems, make a Mexico dollar. The
         name of the king of Timbuctoo, in 1800 A.C. was Woolo. Many of
         the fondacs are rented of him.]

     HOUSES.

     In the houses little furniture is seen; the principal articles
12   (those of the kitchen excepted) are beds, mats on the floor, and
     the carpets; which cover the whole room. The rooms are about
     fourteen feet by ten; the kitchen and wash-house are generally to
     the right and to the left of the passage; the necessary is next the
     wash-house.[25]

         [Footnote 25: Being more convenient for the Muhamedan
         ablutions.]

     GOVERNMENT.

     Timbuctoo is governed by a native black, who has the title of
     sultan. He is tributary to the sultan of Housa, and is chosen by
     the inhabitants of Timbuctoo, who write to the king of Housa for
     his approbation. Upon the death of a sultan, his eldest son is most
     commonly chosen. The son of a concubine cannot inherit the throne;
     if the king has no lawful son (son of his wife) at his decease, the
     people choose his successor from among his relations. The sultan
     has only one lawful wife, but keeps many concubines: the wife has a
     separate house for herself, children, and slaves. He has no
     particular establishment for his concubines, but takes any girl he
     likes from among his slaves. His wife has the principal management
     of his house. The sultan's palace is built in a corner of the city,
     on the east; it occupies a large extent of ground within an
     inclosure, which has a gate. Within this square are many buildings;
     some for the officers of state. The king often sits in the gate to
     administer justice, and to converse with his friends. There is a
13   small garden within it, furnishing a few flowers and vegetables for
     his table; there is also a well, from which the water is drawn by a
     wheel.[26] Many female slaves are musicians. The king has several
     sons, who are appointed to administer justice to the natives.
     Except the king's relations, there are no nobles nor any privileged
     class of men as in Barbary[27]: those of the blood-royal are much
     respected. The officers of state are distinguished by titles like
     those of Marocco; one that answers to an Alkaid, _i. e._ a captain
     of 700, of 500, or of 100 men; another like that of Bashaw. The
     king, if he does not choose to marry one of his own relations,
     takes a wife from the family of the chiefs of his council; his
     daughters marry among the great men. The queen-dowager has
     generally an independent provision, but cannot marry. The
     concubines of a deceased king cannot marry, but are handsomely
     provided for by his successor.

         [Footnote 26: A wheel similar to the Persian wheel, worked by a
         mule or an ass, having pots, which throw the water into a
         trough as they pass round, which trough discharges the water
         into the garden, and immerges the plants.]

         [Footnote 27: The privileged class of men in Barbary, are the
         Fakeers; but no one in Barbary is noble but the King's
         relations, who are denominated shereefs.]

     REVENUE.

     The revenue arises partly from land and partly from duties upon all
     articles exposed to sale. The king has lands cultivated by farmers
14   who are obliged to supply his household and troops; the surplus
     after the support of their own families is deposited in
     matamores[28], these are stores to be used in time of scarcity: the
     matamores are about six feet deep. The king often gives gold-dust,
     slaves, &c. to his favorites, but the royal domains are never
     given. Lands not very fruitful are common pastures. Moors pay no
     duties; they say they will not bring goods if compelled to pay
     duty, but the natives must pay; the duties are collected by the
     king's officers, they are four per cent. upon each article _ad
     valorem_. At the gate of the desert, goods brought by foreigners
     pay nothing, but goods brought in by the gate of the Nile, (which
     is the gate of the Negroes,) pay a tax: another part of the revenue
     is two per cent, in kind on the produce of the land; but the people
     of Barbary do not pay even this for what land they cultivate. The
     property of those who die without heirs goes to the king, but when
     a foreigner dies the king takes no part of his property; it is kept
     for his relations. Timbuctoo being a frontier town remits no
     revenue to Housa; the king of Housa sends money to Timbuctoo to pay
     the garrison.

         [Footnote 28: Subterraneous excavations, or rooms in the form
         of a cone, which have a small opening like a trap-door; when
         these matamores are full of grain, they are shut, and the air
         being excluded, the grain deposited in them will keep sound
         twenty or thirty years. I have been in matamores in West and in
         South Barbary, that would contain 1000 saas of wheat, or nearly
         2000 bushels Winchester measure. They are from six to sixteen
         feet deep, and of various conical forms.]
15
     ARMY.

     The troops are paid by the king of Housa, and are armed with pikes,
     swords, cutlasses, sabres, and muskets; the other natives use the
     bow and arrow. At Timbuctoo, in time of war, there are about 12,000
     or 15,000 troops, 5000 of which receive constant daily pay in time
     of peace, and are clothed every year; they are all infantry except
     a few of the king's household. Sometimes he subsidises the friendly
     Arabs, and makes occasional presents to their chiefs[29]; these
     Arabs can furnish him with from 80,000 to 40,000 men.

         [Footnote 29: Of the Brabeesh clan; see the Map.]

     ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE.

     Punishments are the bastinado, imprisonment, and fine. He
     recollects but one prison. If a native stabs another, he is obliged
     to attend the wounded man until he recovers; if he dies, the
     offender is put to death. The offender must pay a daily allowance
     to the wounded man for his support; if the wound appears dangerous,
     the culprit is immediately imprisoned; if the wounded man recovers,
     the offender must pay a fine and suffer the bastinado. There are
     four capital punishments: beheading, hanging, strangling and
     bastinadoing to death. Beheading is preferred; it is thus
     performed: the criminal sits down, and a person behind gives him a
     blow or push on the back or shoulder, which makes him turn his
     head, and while his attention is thus employed, the executioner
16   strikes it off. Hanging and strangling are seldom used; and
     bastinadoing to death, is only inflicted when the crime is highly
     aggravated. Capital crimes are murder, robbery with violence, and
     stealing cattle. Small offences, as stealing slaves and other
     articles, are punished by the bastinado. The landed estates of
     criminals are never forfeited.[30] The police is so good, that
     merchants reside there in perfect safety. There are no exactions or
     extortions practised by government, as in Barbary, nor even any
     presents asked for the king. A debtor proving his inability, cannot
     be molested[31]; but to the extent of his means he is always
     liable; on refusing to pay, he may be imprisoned; but upon proving
     his insolvency before the judge, he is discharged, though always
     liable if he should have means at any future time. Watchmen patrole
17   in the night with their dogs; others are stationed in particular
     places, as the market-place and the _kasserea_, or square, where
     the merchants have their shops. Guards are placed at the king's
     palace. Capital crimes are tried by the king: smaller offences by
     inferior magistrates. The council sit with the king, every man
     according to his rank; it consists of the principal officers of his
     household; he asks _their_ opinion, but unless they are unanimous,
     decides according to his own. There are always five or six judges
     sitting in the king's court for the general administration of
     justice. The king is understood to have no power of altering the
     laws: if the council are unanimous, the king never decides against
     them.[32]

         [Footnote 30: But go to the next heir.]

         [Footnote 31: This is the written Muhamedan law: the insolvent
         is always liable, but cannot be arrested or imprisoned whilst
         he remains insolvent, but continues always liable for the debt
         if he afterwards becomes solvent. The present Emperor of
         Marocco has lately published an edict. Hearing that his Jew
         subjects in London frequently became bankrupts, or made
         compositions with their creditors, has enacted, that all,
         persons in his dominions who live by buying and selling, shall
         pay their just debts; but if unable, their brethren, or
         relations shall pay their creditors for them. If _they_ are
         unable, the insolvent is to receive a beating every morning at
         sunrise, to remind him of his defalcation. This law was enacted
         at Fas in 1817, and since then, I am informed, no bankruptcy
         has happened in that great commercial city.]

         [Footnote 32: This is a custom derived from Muhamedan
         governments.]

     A slave is entirely at his master's disposal, who may put him to
     death without trial; yet the slave may complain to the council of
     ill-usage, and if the complaint be well-founded, his master is
     ordered to sell him. The slaves are always foreign; a native cannot
     be made a slave. There are three reasons for which a slave may be
     entitled to freedom: _want of food, want of clothes, and want of
     shoes_: an old slave is frequently set at liberty, and returns to
     his own country. The children of slaves are the property of their
     master. Slaves cannot marry without the consent of their masters.
     The master of the female slave generally endeavours to buy the male
     to whom she is attached.[33]

         [Footnote 33: Many conscientious Muhamedans, in purchasing
         slaves, calculate how many years' service their purchase money
         is equal to. Thus, if a man pays a servant twenty dollars
         a-year for wages, and he gives 100 dollars for a slave, he
         retains the slave five years, when, if his conduct has been
         approved, he often discharges him from servitude. The period
         for liberating slaves in this manner is however quite optional,
         and admits of great latitude; neither is there any compulsion
         in the master. I have known instances of a slave being
         liberated after a few years of servitude; and his master's
         confidence has been such that he has advanced him money to
         trade with, and has allowed him to cross the desert to
         Timbuctoo, waiting for the repayment of his money till his
         return. This is often the treatment of Muhamedans to slaves!
         how different from that practised by the Planters in the West
         India Islands!!!]
18
     SUCCESSION TO PROPERTY.

     Upon the decease of a native, the first claim is that of his
     creditors; the next is that of his widow, who is entitled to the
     dower[34] promised by her husband to her father, if, not already
     paid, and to one-eighth of the remainder; the rest is divided among
     the children. A son's share is double that of a daughter. If they
     agree, the land may be sold, if not, it must be divided as above.
     Of lands and houses, nothing is sold till the children arrive at
     the age of discretion; when each is entitled to his share, the rest
     being unsold till the others are of age in turn. This age is not
19   fixed at so many years, but the period of discretion is determined
     by the relations, upon oath, before a magistrate: there is hardly
     any man that knows his own age. The father may dispose of his
     property by will, as far as regards the property of his children,
     but he cannot divest his wife of her rights; if a wife dies without
     a will, her children succeed. Wills are not written; the guardian
     appointed by the father takes care of the property of the deceased,
     and employs in trade, and lends out the money for the benefit of
     his children. Relations succeed if there are no children; and if
     there are no relations, the king takes all but the wife's share.
     The wife's relations are not considered as the husband's relations.
     Children of concubines inherit equally with those of the wife. If a
     man have two children by a concubine, she becomes free at his
     death, otherwise she remains a slave. She is entitled, having
     children, to an eighth of the property.

         [Footnote 34: The husband always stipulates to pay the father
         of his wife a certain sum: this is the Muhamedan dower.]

     MARRIAGE.

     A man agrees to pay a certain price to the father of his wife, and
     witnesses are called to support the proof of the contract: the girl
     is sent home, and at night a feast is made by the husband for his
     male friends; by the wife for her female friends.

     Rape is punished by death. Adultery is not punishable by the law,
     nor is it a ground for divorce. A husband may always put away his
20   wife, but if without sufficient legal ground, he must pay her
     stipulated dower. Abusive language is a sufficient ground of
     divorce, but adultery is not. The dower is the price originally
     agreed upon with the father; and if it has been already paid (which
     it seldom is), she has no further claim upon the husband, though
     put away without sufficient ground. Her clothes, jewels, &c. given
     to her by her relations are her own property. A father generally
     gives the daughter in jewels, &c. a present double the value of
     that given him by the husband. A man can have but one wife, but may
     keep concubines. Seduction and adultery are not cognisable by law.
     The law says, "a woman's flesh is her own, she may do with it what
     she pleases." Prostitutes are common. A man may marry his niece,
     but not his daughter.

     The people of Timbuctoo are not circumcised.

     TRADE.

     Timbuctoo is the great emporium for all the country of the blacks,
     and even for Marocco and Alexandria.

     The principal articles of merchandise are tobacco, kameemas[35],
     beads of all colours for necklaces, and cowries, which are bought
21   at Fas by the pound.[36] Small Dutch looking glasses, some of which
     are convex, set in gilt paper frames. They carry neither swords,
     muskets, nor knives, except such as are wanted in the caravan. At
     the entrance of the desert they buy rock-salt[37] of the Arabs, who
     bring it to them in loads ready packed, which they carry as an
     article of trade. In their caravan there were about 500 camels, of
     which about 150 or 200 were laden with salt. The camels carry less
     of salt than of any other article, because (being rock-salt) it
     wears their sides. They pay these Arabs from twenty to fifteen
     ounces[38] of Barbary money per load. An ounce of Barbary is worth
     about _6d._, and a ducat is worth about _5s._ sterling. They sell
     this salt at Timbuctoo upon an average at 50 per cent. profit; it
     is more profitable than linen. They take no oil from Barbary to
     Timbuctoo as they are supplied from other places with fish-oil used
     for lamps but not for food; they make soap with the oil. The
     returns are made in gold-dust, slaves, ivory, and pepper; gold-dust
     is preferred and is brought to Timbuctoo from Housa in small
     leather bags. He bought one of these bags of gold-dust and pieces
     of rings for 90 Mexican dollars, and sold it at Fas for 150. The
     merchants bring their gold from Timbuctoo in the saddle-bags, in
22   small purses of different sizes one within the other. The bag which
     Shabeeny purchased was bought at Housa, where it sells for seven or
     eight ducats cheaper than at Timbuctoo. On articles from Marocco
     they make from thirty to fifty per cent. clear profit. Cowries and
     gold-dust are the medium of traffic. The shereefs and other
     merchants generally sell their goods to some of the principal
     native merchants, and immediately send off the slaves, taking their
     gold-dust with them into other countries. The merchants residing at
     Timbuctoo have agents or correspondents in other countries; and are
     themselves agents in return. Timbuctoo is visited by merchants from
     all the neighbouring black countries. Some of its inhabitants are
     amazingly rich. The dress of common women has been often worth 1000
     dollars. A principal source of their wealth is lending gold-dust
     and slaves at high interest to foreign merchants, which is repaid
     by goods from Marocco and other countries, to which the gold-dust
     and slaves are carried. They commonly trade in the public market,
     but often send to the merchant or go to his house. Cowries in the
     least damaged are bad coin, and go for less than those that are
     perfect. There are no particular market days; the public market for
     provisions is an open place fifty feet square, and is surrounded by
     shops.[39] The Arabs sit down on their goods in the middle, till
23   they have sold them. The pound weight of Timbuctoo is about two
     ounces heavier than the small pound of Barbary, which weighs twenty
     Spanish dollars; they have also half and quarter pounds; by these
     weights is sold milk, rice, butter, &c. as well as by the measure.
     The weights are of wood or iron under the inspection of a
     magistrate called in Barbary _m'tasseb, i.e._ inspector of weights
     and measures, and if the weights are found deficient, he punishes
     the offender immediately; they have also a quintal or cwt. They
     have a wooden measure called a _m'hoad_[40], equal to the small
     _m'hoad_ of Barbary, where a _m'hoad_ of wheat weighs about 24 lb.
     Both the weights and measures are divided into 1/2, 1/4, 1/8 and
     1/16.

         [Footnote 35: _Kameema_ is the Arabic word for the linen called
         _plattilias_. They are worth 50 Mexico dollars each, at
         Timbuctoo.]

         [Footnote 36: Called, in Amsterdam, _Velt Spiegels_, and in
         Timbuctoo, _Murrâih de juah_.]

         [Footnote 37: This salt is bought at Tishet, at Shangareen, and
         at Arawan, in the south part of Sahara; for which see the Map
         of Northern and Central Africa, in the new Supplement to the
         Encyclopædia Britannica, Article _Africa_.]

         [Footnote 38: _Okia_ is the Arabic name for this piece of
         money.]

         [Footnote 39: Similar to the corn-market at Mogodor.]

         [Footnote 40: The _m'hoad_ is no longer used in Barbary. There
         is a _krube_, of which sixteen are equal to a _saa_, which,
         when filled with good wheat, weighs 100 lbs. equal to 119 lbs.
         English weight.]

     MANUFACTURES.

     The black natives are smiths, carpenters, shoemakers, tailors, and
     masons, but not weavers. The Arabs in the neighbourhood are
     weavers, and make carpets resembling those of Fas and of Mesurata,
     where they are called telisse[41]; they are of wool, from their own
     sheep, and camels' hair. The bags for goods, and the tents, are of
     goats' and camels' hair; there are no palmetto trees in that
     country. Their thread[42], needles, scissors, &c. come from Fas:
24   most of their ploughs they buy of the Arabs near the town, who are
     subject to it. Some are made in the town. These Arabs manufacture
     iron from ore found in the country, and are good smiths. They make
     iron bars of an excellent quality. They tan leather for soles of
     shoes very well, but know nothing of dressing leather in oil: the
     upper leather comes from Fas[43]; their wooden combs[44] and spoons
     come from Barbary; they have none of ivory or horn. No lead is
     brought from Barbary; he thinks they have lead of their own. The
     best shoes are brought from Fas.

         [Footnote 41: _Telissa_, sing.; _Telisse_, plur.]

         [Footnote 42: To Fas they are brought from England through
         Gibraltar and Mogodor.]

         [Footnote 43: Leather is also imported from Marocco, and from
         Terodant in South Barbary.]

         [Footnote 44: Wooden combs are imported from Marseilles to
         Mogodor.]

     HUSBANDRY.

     The country is well cultivated, except on the side of the desert.
     They have rice, _el bishna_[45], and a corn which _they_ call
     _allila_[46], but in Barbary it is called _drâh_: this requires
     very rich ground. They make bread of _el bishna_: they have no
     wheat or barley. Property is fenced by a bank and a ditch. Dews are
     very heavy. Lands are watered by canals cut from the Nile; high
     lands by wells, the water of which is raised by wheels[47] worked
25   by cattle, as in Egypt. They have violent thunder-storms in summer,
     but no rains: the mornings and evenings, during winter, are cold;
     the coldest wind is from the west, when it is as cold as at Fas.
     The winter lasts about two months, though the weather is cool from
     September to April. They begin to sow rice in August and September,
     but they can sow it at any time, having water at hand: he saw some
     sowing rice while others were reaping it. _El bishna_ and other
     corn is sown before December. _El bishna_ is ripe in June and July;
     as are beans. _Allila_ may be sown at all seasons; it requires
     water only every eight or ten days. Their beans are like the small
     Mazagan beans, and are sown in March; the stalk is short, but full
     of pods. The _allila_ produces a small, white, flattish grain.

         [Footnote 45: _El Bishna_. This is the Arabic name for Indian
         corn.]

         [Footnote 46: _Allila_, a species of millet.]

         [Footnote 47: A wheel similar to the Persian wheel, as before
         described in the note, page 13.]

     PROVISIONS.

     Rice is their principal food, but the rich have wheaten flour from
     Fas[48], and make very fine bread, which is considered a luxury.
     Bread is also made from the _allila_. They roast, boil, bake, and
     stew, but make no _cuscasoe_. Their meals are breakfast, dinner,
     and supper. They commonly breakfast about eight, dine about three,
     and sup soon after sunset. They drink only water or milk with their
     meals, have no palm wine or any fermented liquor; when they wish to
26   be exhilarated after dinner, they provide a plant of an
     intoxicating quality called _el hashisha_[49], of which they take a
     handful before a draught of water.

         [Footnote 48: And also from Marocco.]

         [Footnote 49: _El Hashisha_. This is the African hemp plant: it
         is esteemed for the extraordinary and pleasing voluptuous
         vacuity of mind which it produces on those who smoke it: unlike
         the intoxication from wine, a fascinating stupor pervades the
         mind, and the dreams are agreeable. The _kief_ is the flower
         and seeds of the plant: it is a strong narcotic, so that those
         who use it cannot do without it. For a further description of
         this plant, see Jackson's Marocco, 2d or 3d edit. p. 131 &
         132.]

     ANIMALS.

     Goats are very large, as big as the calves in England, and very
     plentiful; sheep are also very large. Cattle are small; many are
     oxen. Milk of camels and goats is preferred to that of cows. Horses
     are small, and are principally fed upon camels' milk; they are of
     the greyhound[50] shape, and will travel three days without rest.
     They have dromedaries[51] which travel from Timbuctoo[52] to
     Tafilelt in the short period of five or six days.

         [Footnote 50: These horses are the desert horse, or the
         _shrubat er'reeh_. See Jackson's Marocco, 2d or 3d edition, p.
         94. to 96.]

         [Footnote 51: These are _El Heirie_, (or _Erragual_), for a
         particular description of which see Jackson's Marocco, p. 91.
         to 93.]

         [Footnote 52: A distance of upwards of 1200 British miles.]
27
     BIRDS.

     They have common fowls, ostriches, and a bird larger than our
     blackbird[53]; also storks, which latter are birds of passage, and
     arrive in the spring and disappear at the approach of winter;
     swallows, &c.

         [Footnote 53: The starling.]

     FISH.

     They have many extremely good in the Nile; one of the shape and
     size of our salmon[54]; the largest of these are about four feet
     long. They use lines and hooks brought from Barbary, and nets, like
     our casting nets, made by themselves. They strike large fish with
     spears and fish-gigs.

         [Footnote 54: The _shebbel_, a species of salmon, a very
         delicate fish, but so rich that it is best roasted, which the
         Arabs do in a superior manner.]

     PRICES OF DIFFERENT ARTICLES.

     Sheep from ten to sixteen cowries. Cowries[55] are much valued, and
     form an ornament of head-dress even for the richest women; they are
     highly valued as ornaments. Goats are cheaper than sheep; the best
     from eight to twelve cowries. Fowls from four to six cowries each.
     Antelopes are very scarce and dear. Camels from thirty to sixty
     cowries, according to their size and condition. Ostriches, of which
     vast numbers are brought to market, are very cheap; the
     fore-feathers[56] are often carried to Tafilelt and Marocco, the
28   inferiors are thrown away. A good slave is worth ten, fifteen, or
     twenty ducats of five shillings each; at Fas, they are worth from
     sixty to a hundred ducats: females are the dearest. Slaves are most
     valuable about twelve years old. They have fish-oil for lamps, but
     use neither wax nor tallow for candles. The fish-oil is a great
     article of trade, and is brought from the neighbourhood[57] of the
     sea by Genawa[58] to Housa, and thence to Timbuctoo; dearer at
     Timbuctoo than at Housa, and dearer at Housa than at Genawa.

         [Footnote 55: Cowries are called _El Uda_, and are sold in
         Santa Cruz and in South Barbary, at twenty Mexico dollars per
         quintal.]

         [Footnote 56: Called _Ujuh_.]

         [Footnote 57: Probably from the coast of Guinea, with which
         Housa carries on an extensive trade.]

         [Footnote 58: _i.e._ Guinea; Genawa being the Arabic name for
         the coast of Guinea.]

     DRESS.

     The sultan wears a white turban of very fine muslin, the ends of
     which are embroidered with gold, and brought to the front; this
29   turban comes from Bengala.[59] He wears a loose white cotton shirt,
     with sleeves long and wide, open at the breast; unlike that of the
     Arabs, it reaches to the small of the leg; over this a _caftan_[60]
     of red woollen cloth, of the same length; red is generally
     esteemed. The shirt (_kumja_) is made at Timbuctoo, but the caftan
     comes from Fas, ready made; over the caftan is worn a short cotton
     waistcoat, striped white, red, and blue; this comes from Bengala,
     and is called _juliba_.[61] The sleeves of the caftan are as wide
     as those of the shirt; the breast of it is fastened with buttons,
     in the Moorish style, but larger. The _juliba_ has sleeves as wide
     as the caftan. When he is seated, all the sleeves are turned up
     over the shoulder[62], so that his arms are bare, and the air is
     admitted to his body.

         [Footnote 59: _i.e._ Bengal.]

         [Footnote 60: A _caftan_, or coat, with wide sleeves, no
         collar, but that buttons all down before.]

         [Footnote 61: It is not the cotton cloth which comes from
         Bengal that is named _Juliba_, but the fashion or the cut of
         it.]

         [Footnote 62: The Moorish fashion.]

     Upon his turban, on the forehead, is a ball of silk, like a pear;
     one of the distinctions of royalty. He wears, also, a close red
     skull-cap, like the Moors of Tetuan, and two sashes, one over each
     shoulder, such as the Moors wear round the waist; they are rather
     cords than sashes, and are very large; half a pound of silk is used
     in one of them. The subjects wear but one; they are either red,
     yellow, or blue, made at Fas. He wears, like his subjects, a sash
     round the waist, also made at Fas; of these there are two
     kinds,--one of leather, with a gold buckle in front, like those of
     the soldiers in Barbary; the other of silk, like those of the
     Moorish merchants. He wears (as do the subjects) breeches made in
     the Moorish fashion, of cotton in summer, made at Timbuctoo, and of
     woollen in winter, brought ready made from Fas. His shoes are
     distinguished by a piece of red leather, in front of the leg, about
     three inches wide, and eight long, embroidered with silk and gold.
30
     When he sits in his apartment, he wears a dagger with a gold hilt,
     which hangs on his right side: when he goes out, his attendants
     carry his musket, bow, arrows, and lance.

     His subjects dress in the same manner, excepting the distinctions
     of royalty; viz. the pear, the sashes on the shoulders, and the
     embroidered leather on the shoes.

     The sultana wears a caftan, open in front from top to bottom, under
     this a slip of cotton like the kings, an Indian shawl over the
     shoulders, which ties behind, and a silk handkerchief about her
     head. Other women dress in the same manner. They wear no drawers.
     The poorest women are always clothed. They never show their bosom.
     The men and women wear ear-rings. The general expense of a woman's
     dress is from two ducats to thirty.[63] Their shoes are red, and
     are brought from Marocco.[64] Their arms and ankles are adorned
     with bracelets. The poor have them of brass; the rich, of gold. The
     rich ornament their heads with cowries. The poor have but one
     bracelet on the leg, and one on the arm; the rich, two. They also
     wear gold rings upon their fingers. They have no pearls or precious
     stones. The women do not wear veils.

         [Footnote 63: Equal to from two to thirty Mexico dollars.]

         [Footnote 64: They are manufactured at Marocco.]
31
     DIVERSIONS.

     The king has 500 or 600 horses; his stables are in the inclosure;
     the saddles have a peak before, but none behind. He frequently
     hunts the antelope, wild ass, ostrich, and an animal, which, from
     Shabeeny's description, appears to be the wild cow[65] of Africa.
     The wild ass is very fleet, and when closely pursued kicks back the
     earth and sand in the eyes of his pursuers. They have the finest
     greyhounds in the world, with which they hunt only the
     antelope[66]; for the dogs are not able to overtake the ostrich.
     Shabeeny has often hunted with the king; any person may accompany
     him. Sometimes he does not return for three or four days: he sets
     out always after sunrise. Whatever is killed in the chace is
     divided among the strangers and other company present; but those
     animals which are taken alive are sent to the king's palace. He
     goes to hunt towards the desert, and does not begin till distant
     ten miles from the town. The antelopes are found in herds of from
     thirty to sixty. He never saw an antelope, wild ass, or ostrich
     alone, but generally in large droves. The ostriches, like the
     storks, place centinels upon the watch: thirty yards are reckoned a
     distance for a secure shot with the bow. The king always shoots on
32   horseback, as do many of his courtiers, sometimes with muskets, but
     oftener with bows. The king takes a great many tents with him.
     There are no lions, tigers, or wild boars near Timbuctoo. They play
     at chess and draughts, and are very expert at those games: they
     have no cards; but they have tumblers, jugglers, and
     ventriloquists, whose voice appears to come from under the armpits.
     He was much pleased with their music, of which they have
     twenty-four different sorts. They have dances of different kinds,
     some of which are very indecent.

         [Footnote 65: The _Aoudad_; for a particular description of
         which, see Jackson's Marocco, Chapter V., Zoology, p. 84.]

         [Footnote 66: The Gazel, or Antelope, outruns at first the
         greyhound; but after running about an hour the greyhound gains
         on him.]

     TIME.

     They measure time[67] by days, weeks, lunar months, and lunar
     years; yet few can ascertain their age.

     [Footnote 67: The hour is an indefinite term, and assimilates to
     our expression of a good while; it is from half an hour by the dial
     to six hours, and the difference is expressed by the word _wahad
     saa kabeer_, a long hour; and _wahad saa sereer_, a little hour;
     also by the elongation of the last syllable of the last word.]

     RELIGION.

     They have no temples, churches, or mosques, no regular worship or
     sabbath; but once in three months they have a great festival, which
     lasts two or three days, sometimes a week, and is spent in eating
     and drinking. He does not know the cause; but thinks it, perhaps, a
     commemoration of the king's birth-day; no work is done. They
33   believe in a Supreme Being and another state of existence, and have
     saints and men whom they revere as holy. Some of them are
     sorcerers, and some ideots, as in Barbary and Turkey; and though
     physicians are numerous, they expect more effectual aid in sickness
     from the prayers of the saints, especially in the rheumatism. Music
     is employed to excite ecstasy in the saint, who, when in a state of
     inspiration, tells (on the authority of some departed saint,
     generally of Seedy Muhamed Seef,) what animal must be sacrificed
     for the recovery of the patient: a white cock, a red cock, a hen,
     an ostrich, an antelope, or a goat. The animal is then killed in
     the presence of the sick, and dressed; the blood, feathers, and
     bones are preserved in a shell and carried to some retired spot,
     where they are covered and marked as a sacrifice. No salt or
     seasoning is used in the meat, but incense is used previous to its
     preparation. The sick man eats as much as he can of the meat, and
     all present partake; the rice, or what else is dressed with it,
     must be the produce of charitable contributions from others, not of
     the house or family; and every contributor prays for the patient.

     DISEASES.

     The winds of the desert produce complaints in the stomach, cured by
34   medicine. They have professed surgeons and physicians. The bite of
     a snake is cured by sucking the wound. They have the jlob[68]
     violently, for which sulphur from Terodant in Suse is taken
     internally and externally. This disorder is sometimes fatal. They
     are afflicted also with fevers and agues. Bleeding is often
     successful; the physicians prescribe also purgatives and emetics.
     Ruptures are frequent and dangerous; seldom cured, and often fatal.
     They tap for the dropsy. He never heard of the venereal disease
     there. Head-aches and consumptions also prevail. The physicians[69]
     collect herbs and use them in medicine.

         [Footnote 68: Probably the itch, called El Hack in Barbary.]

         [Footnote 69: The physicians have a very superior and general
         knowledge of the virtues of herbs and plants.]

     MANNERS AND CUSTOMS.

     The nails and palms of the hands are stained red with henna[70],
     cultivated there: the Arabs tatoo their hands and arms, but not the
     people of Timbuctoo. These people are real negroes; they have a
     slight mark on the face, sloping from the eye; the Foulans have a
     horizontal mark; the Bambarrahees a wide gash from the forehead to
     the chin. Tombs are raised over the dead; they are buried in a
     winding-sheet and a coffin: the relations mourn over their graves,
     and pronounce a panegyric on the dead. The men and women mix in
35   society, and visit together with the same freedom as in Europe.
     They sleep on mattresses, with cotton sheets and a counterpane; the
     married, in separate beds in the same room. They frequently bathe
     the whole body, their smell would otherwise be offensive; they use
     towels brought from India. At dinner they spread their mats and sit
     as in Barbary. They smoke a great deal, but tobacco is dear; it is
     the best article of trade. Poisoning is common; they get the poison
     from the fangs of snakes, but, he says, most commonly from a part
     of the body near the tail, by a kind of distillation. Physic, taken
     immediately after the poison, may cure, but not always; if deferred
     two or three days, the man must die: the poison is slow, wastes the
     flesh, and produces a sallow, morbid appearance. It causes great
     pain in the stomach, destroys the appetite, produces a consumption,
     and kills in a longer or shorter time, according to the strength of
     constitution. Some who have taken remedies, soon after the poison,
     live 8 or 10 years; otherwise the poison kills in 4 or 5 days.
     Physicians prescribe an emetic, the composition of which he does
     not know.

         [Footnote 70: A decoction of the herb henna produces a deep
         orange die. It is used generally by the females on their hands
         and feet: it allays the violence of perspiration in the part to
         which it is applied, and imparts a coolness.]

     NEIGHBOURING NATIONS.

     There are no Arabs between Timbuctoo and the Nile; they live on the
36   other side[71], and would not with impunity invade the lands of
     these people, who are very populous, and could easily destroy any
     army that should attempt to molest them. The lands are chiefly
     private property. The Foulans are very beautiful. The Bambarrahs
     have thick lips and wide nostrils. The king of Foulan is much
     respected at Timbuctoo; his subjects are Muhamedans, but not
     circumcised.[72] They cannot be made slaves at Timbuctoo; but the
     Arabs steal their girls and sell them; not for slavery, but for
     marriage.

     Girls are marriageable very young; sometimes they have children at
     ten years old.

         [Footnote 71: North of the town.]

         [Footnote 72: All true Muhamedans are circumcised, so that they
         must partake of Paganism if uncircumcised.]

37


                             JOURNEY
                              FROM
                       TIMBUCTOO TO HOUSA.

     Shabeeny, after staying three years at Timbuctoo, departed for
     Housa: and crossing the small river close to the walls, reached the
     Nile in three days, travelling through a fine, populous, cultivated
     country, abounding in trees, some of which are a kind of oak,
     bearing a large acorn[73], much finer than those of Barbary, which
     are sent as presents to Spain. Travelling is perfectly safe. They
     embarked on the Nile in a large boat with one mast, a sail, and
     oars; the current was not rapid: having a favourable wind, on his
     return, he came back in as short a time as he went. The water was
38   very red and sweet.[74] The place where they embarked is called
     Mushgreelia; here is a ferry, and opposite is a village. As the
     current is slow, and they moored every night, they were eight or
     ten days sailing down the stream to Housa. They had ten or twelve
     men on board, and when it was calm, or the wind contrary, they
     rowed; they steered with an oar, the boat having no rudder. He saw
     a great many boats passing up and down the river; _there are more
     boats_[75] _on this river between Mushgreelia and Housa than
     between Rosetta and Cairo on the Nile of Egypt_. A great many
     villages are on the banks. There are boats of the same form as
     those of Tetuan and Tangiers, but much larger, built of planks, and
     have ribs like those of Barbary; instead of pitch or tar, they are
     caulked with a sort of red clay, or bole. The sail is of canvas of
     flax (not cotton) brought from Barbary, originally from Holland; it
     is square. They row like the Moors, going down the stream.

         [Footnote 73: Called El Belûte. These acorns are much prized by
         the Muhamedans, and are considered a very wholesome fruit.]

         [Footnote 74: The word hellue, in Arabic, which signifies
         literally, sweet, here implies that the water was pure and
         good.]

         [Footnote 75: See Jackson's Marocco, page 314, 2d or 3d
         edition.]

     There is a road by land from Timbuctoo to Housa, but on account of
     the expense it is not used by merchants: Shabeeny believes it is
     about 5 days' journey. If you go this way, you must cross the river
     before you reach Housa. They landed at the port of Housa, distant a
     day and a half from the town; their merchandise was carried from
     this port on horses, asses, and horned cattle; the blacks dislike
     camels; they say, "_These are the beasts that carry us into
     slavery_."
39
     The country was rich and well cultivated; they have a plant bearing
     a pod called mellochia, from which they make a thick vegetable
     jelly.[76] There is no artificial road from Timbuctoo to the Nile;
     near the river the soil is miry. Shabeeny travelled from Timbuctoo
     to Housa in the hot weather when the Nile was nearly full; it
     seldom falls much below the level of its banks; he travelled on
     horseback from Timbuctoo to the river, and slept two nights upon
     the road in the huts of the natives. One of the principal men in
     the village leaves his hut to the travellers and gives them a
     supper; in the mean time he goes to the hut of some friend, and in
     the morning receives a small present for his hospitality.[77]

         [Footnote 76: The pod of the mellochia, which grows near Sallee
         and Rabat, is of an elongated conical form, about two inches
         long.]

         [Footnote 77: This is a common custom in West and South
         Barbary; they always clear a tent for the travellers.]

     THE RIVER NEEL OR NILE.

     The Neel El Kebeer[78], (that is, the Great Nile,) like the Neel
40   Masser or Nile of Egypt, is fullest in the month of August, when it
     overflows in some places where the banks are low; the water which
     overflows is seldom above midleg; the banks are covered with reeds,
     with which they make mats. Camels, sheep, goats, and horses, feed
     upon the banks, but during the inundation are removed to the
     uplands. The walls of the huts both within and without are cased
     with wood to the height of about three feet, to preserve them from
     the water; the wells have the best water after the swelling of the
     river. The flood continues about ten days; the abundance of rice
     depends on the quantity of land flooded. He always understood that
     the Nile empties itself in the sea, the salt sea or the great
     ocean. There is a village at the port of Housa where he landed, the
     river here is much wider than where he embarked, and still wider at
     Jinnie. He saw no river enter the Nile in the course of his voyage.
     It much resembles the Nile of Egypt, gardens and lands are
     irrigated from it. Its breadth is various; in some places he thinks
     it narrower than the Thames at London, in others much wider; at the
     landing place they slept in the hut of a native, and next morning
     at sunrise set off for Housa, where they arrived in twelve hours
     through a fine plain without hills; the country is much more
     populous than between Timbuctoo and the Nile. Ferry boats are to be
     had at several villages.

         [Footnote 78: Properly Enneel. El is the article; but when it
         precedes a word beginning with a letter called a labial, it
         takes the sound of that letter. This error is committed
         throughout a book, lately published, entitled Specimens of
         Arabic Poetry, by J.D. Carlyle, Professor of Arabic in the
         University of Cambridge, 2d edition p. 53, Abdalsalam, instead
         of Abdassalum; p. 59, Ebn Alrumi, instead of Ebn Arrumi; and p.
         65, Alnarhurwany, for Annarhurwany, &c. &c.]
41
     HOUSA.

     They did not see the town till they came within an hour from it, or
     an hour and a half; it stands in a plain. Housa is south-east[79]
     of Timbuctoo, a much larger city and nearly as large as London. He
     lived there two years, but never saw the whole of it. It has no
     walls; the houses are like those of Timbuctoo, and form irregular
     lanes or streets like those of Fas or Marocco, wide enough for
     camels to pass with their loads. The palace is much larger than
     that of Timbuctoo; it is seven or eight miles in circumference and
     surrounded by a wall; he remembers but four gates, but there may be
     more; he thinks the number of guards at each gate is about 50; it
     is in that part of the town most distant from the Nile. The houses
     are dark coloured and flat roofed. He thinks Cairo is about
     one-third larger than Housa; the streets are much wider than those
     of Timbuctoo; the houses are covered with a kind of clay of
     different colours but never white. They have no chalk or lime in
     the country.

         [Footnote 79: Rather south-east by east.]

     GOVERNMENT.

     If the king has children, the eldest, if a man of sense and good
     character, succeeds; otherwise, one of the others is elected. The
42   grandees of the court are the electors. If the eldest son be not
     approved, they are not bound to elect him; he has, however, the
     preference, and after him the other sons; but the choice of the
     council must be unanimous, and if no person of the royal line be
     the object of their choice, they may elect one of their own body.
     The members of the council are appointed by the king; he chooses
     them for their wisdom and integrity, without being limited to rank:
     the person appointed cannot refuse obedience to the royal mandate.
     The council consists of many hundreds. The governor who controls
     the police lives in the centre of the town.

     THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE

     Is very similar to that of Timbuctoo, except that the king is
     perfectly despotic; and though he consults his council, he decides
     as he thinks proper. The governor administers justice in small
     affairs; but, in important cases, he refers the parties to the king
     and council, of which he is himself a member. No torture, is ever
     inflicted. The governor employs a great number of officers of
     police at a distance from the town. If robberies are committed, the
     person robbed must apply to the chief of the district, who must
     find or take into custody the offender, or becomes himself liable
     to make compensation for the injury sustained.[80]

         [Footnote 80: This is also the law in West Barbary. When a
         robbery is committed, the district where it has been committed
         is made liable for double the amount; the half goes to the
         person robbed, and the other half to the treasury. The good
         effects of this law is admirable, insomuch that it has almost
         annihilated robbery: but when one has actually been committed,
         the energy and exertion of every individual is directed to
         discover the depredator, and they seldom fail to discover him.
         The fear of the penalty also makes them very cautious who they
         admit among them; and very inquisitive respecting the character
         and vocation of all, strangers in particular, who sojourn in
         their country!!]
43
     LANDED PROPERTY.

     They have a class of men whose peculiar business it is to adjust
     all disputes concerning land; the office is hereditary; _the
     offender_ pays the compensation, and also the fees of these
     officers; _the innocent_ pays nothing. When lands are bought, these
     officers measure them. There is a plant resembling a large onion,
     which serves as a land-mark; if these are removed, (which cannot be
     easily done without discovery) reference is had to the records of
     the sale, of which every owner is in possession; they express the
     sum received; the quantity, situation, and limits of the land.
     These are given by the seller, and are written in the language and
     character of the country, very different from the Arabic. The same
     letters are used at Timbuctoo. They write from right to left. The
     character[81] was perfectly unintelligible to Shabeeny. Children,
44   whose father is dead, succeed to the same portion of their
     grandfather's property as their father would, had _he_ out outlived
     _his_ father, though there are other issue of the grandfather. The
     rules of succession are the same as at Timbuctoo.

         [Footnote 81: Possibly the ancient Carthaginian character.]

     Persons of great landed property, of which there are many, employ
     agents or stewards; they let the lands, and the rents are paid
     sometimes in kind, and sometimes in gold-dust and cowries. Houses
     are let by the month. He paid four Mexico dollars per month; but a
     native would not have paid above two for the same house. A man who
     has five Mexico dollars[82] a month, is esteemed in easy
     circumstances; those, however, who have 30 or 40 per month, are
     common.

         [Footnote 82: Ten dollars worth of rice is sufficient for the
         daily food of a man a twelve-month.]

     REVENUES.

     The king has 2 per cent. on the produce of the land. The revenues
     arise from the same sources as at Timbuctoo, but are much larger.
     Foreign merchants pay nothing, as the Housaeens think they ought to
     be encouraged. The revenue is supposed to be immense.

     ARMY.

     He cannot precisely tell the number of troops, but believes the
     king can raise 70,000 to 80,000 horse, and 100,000 foot. The horses
45   are poor and small, except a few kept for the king's own use. He
     has no well-bred mares. Their arms are the same as at Timbuctoo;
     the muskets, which are matchlocks, are made in the country. They
     are very dexterous in throwing the lance. Gunpowder is also
     manufactured there; the brimstone is brought from Fas; the charcoal
     they make; and he believes they prepare the nitre.[83] Their arrows
     are feathered and barbed; the bows are all cross-bows, with
     triggers; the arrows, 20 to 40 in a quiver, are made of hides, and
     hang on the left side. The king never goes to war in person. The
     soldiers have a peculiar dress; their heads are bare; but the
     officers have a kind of turban; the soldiers have a shirt of coarse
     white cotton, and yellow slippers; those of the officers are red.
     Some have turbans adorned with gold. They carry their powder in a
     leather purse; the match, made of cotton, is wound round the gun;
     they have flint and steel in a pouch, and also spare matches.

         [Footnote 83: The saltpetre and brimstone are probably derived
         from Terodant in Suse, where both abound.]

     THE TRADE

     Is similar to that of Timbuctoo; in both places foreign merchants
     always employ agents, or brokers, to trade to advantage; a man
     should reside sometime before he begins. Ivory is sold by the
     tooth; he bought one, weighing 200 lb. for five ducats (1_£. 5s._);
     he sold it in Marocco for 25 ducats, per 100 lb.; it is now[84]
     worth 60.

         [Footnote 84: A.D. 1795.]
46
     The king cannot make any of his subjects slaves. They get their
     cotton from Bengala.[85] They have no salt, it comes from a great
     distance, and is very dear. Goods find a much better market at
     Housa than at Timbuctoo. There are merchants at Housa from Timboo,
     Bornoo, Moshu, and India; the travelling merchants do not regard
     distance. From Timboo and other great towns he has heard, and from
     his own knowledge can venture to assert, that they bring East India
     goods. Gold-dust, ivory, and slaves are the principal returns from
     Housa. The people of Housa have slaves from Bornoo, Bambarra,
     Jinnie, Beni Killeb[86] (sons of dogs), and Beni Aree (sons of the
     naked); they are, generally, prisoners of war, though many are
     stolen when young, by people who make a trade of this practice. The
     laws are very severe against this crime; it requires, therefore,
     great cunning and duplicity; no men of any property are ever guilty
     of it. The slave stealers take the children by night out of the
     town, and sell them to some peasant, who sells them to a third, and
     so from hand to hand, till they are carried out of the country; if
     this practice did not exist, there would be few slaves for the
     Barbary market. Beyond the age of fourteen or fifteen, a slave is
47   hardly saleable in Barbary. Few merchants bring to Housa above two
     or three slaves at a time; but there are great numbers of merchants
     continually bringing them. His own slave was a native of Bambarra,
     and was brought very young to Timbuctoo. Slaves are generally
     stupid; but his, on the contrary, was very sensible; he understood
     several languages, particularly Arabic; he bought him as an
     interpreter; he would not have sold publicly for above twenty
     ducats; but he gave 50 for him; his master parting with him very
     reluctantly. He bought two female slaves at Housa, at 15 ducats
     each.[87] The value of slaves has since then doubled in Barbary; he
     does not know the present[88] price at Timbuctoo. At Timbuctoo not
     ten slaves in the hundred bought there, are females; when bought,
     the merchant shuts them up in a private room, but not in chains,
     and places a centinel at the door: when the confidence of any of
     them is supposed to be gained, they are employed as centinels.
     Housa having a great trade, is much frequented by people from
     Bambarra, Foulan, Jinnie, and the interior countries.

     Manufactures and husbandry are similar to those at Timbuctoo.

         [Footnote 85: Bengal, or the East Indies.]

         [Footnote 86: Properly Ben Ekkilleb, or Hel Ekkileb, i.e. the
         canine-race. These are described to be swift of foot and low of
         stature, having a language peculiar to themselves.]

         [Footnote 87: About the 1790th year of the Christian era.]

         [Footnote 88: In the year 1795.]

     CLIMATE.

     The hot winds blow from the east; the summer is hotter than in
48   Marocco, and hotter at Timbuctoo than at Housa. The cold winds are
     from the west: the morning fog is great. He never saw it rain at
     Housa, in the course of two years; he says it never rains there.
     Scarcity is never known. A considerable part of their provisions is
     brought from the banks of the Nile; the river, when overflowing,
     never reaches above half way from its common channel towards Housa.
     They have excellent wells in their houses, but no river near the
     town.

     ZOOLOGY.

     He saw no camels at Housa, but heard, they use them to fetch gold,
     and cover their legs with leather, to guard them from snakes. They
     have dogs and cats, but no scorpions or snakes in their houses.
     Lice, bugs, and fleas abound. He saw no wild animals or fowl in the
     neighbourhood of Housa.

     DISEASES.

     Physicians agree with the patient for his cure. No cure no pay. The
     prevailing diseases are colds and coughs.

     RELIGION.

     The same as at Timbuctoo; the poorer classes, as in most countries,
     have many superstitious notions of spirits, good and bad, and are
     alarmed by dreams, particularly, the slaves, some of whom cannot
     retain their urine in the night, as he thinks, from fear of
49   spirits, they take them often upon trial when they buy them, and if
     they have this defect, a considerable deduction is made in the
     price. A man possessed by a good spirit is supposed to be safe
     amidst 10,000 shot. A man guilty of a crime, who in the opinion of
     the judge is possessed by an evil spirit, is not punished! He never
     heard of a rich man being possessed.

     PERSONS.

     They are of various sizes, but the tallest man he ever saw was at
     Housa. The city being very large, he seldom had an opportunity of
     seeing the king, as at Timbuctoo. He saw him but twice in two
     years, and only in the courts of justice; he was remarkable for the
     width of his nostrils, the redness of his eyes, the smoothness of
     his skin, and the fine tint of his perfectly black complexion.

     DRESS.

     Like that of Timbuctoo, their turbans are of the finest muslin. The
     sleeves of the soldiers are small, those of the merchants wide. The
     former have short breeches, the latter long. The officers dress
     like the merchants, each according to his circumstances. The caftan
     is of silk, in summer, brought from India; instead of the silk
     cords worn by the king of Timbuctoo, the king of Housa wears two
     silk sashes, three fingers broad, one on each shoulder; they are
50   richly adorned with gold; in one hangs his dagger, and when he
     rides out, his sword in the other; he wears not the silk pear in
     his turban, as does the king of Timbuctoo. The front of his turban
     is embroidered with gold.

     BUILDINGS.

     The houses are like those at Timbuctoo, but many much larger. They
     have no wind or water-mills, but they have stone mills, turned by
     horses.

     MANNERS.

     They never bow. An inferior kisses the hand of a superior; to an
     equal he nods the head, gives him his hand and asks him how he
     does. The women do the same.

     The general body are honest and benevolent, the lower class is
     addicted to thieving. They are very careful of children, to prevent
     their being stolen. Snakes do not frequent cultivated lands, so
     that animals are not there in danger from them. The people of
     Timbuctoo and Housa resemble each other in their persons and in
     their manners. They castrate bulls, sheep, and goats, but never
     horses. Supper is the principal meal. They do not use vessels of
     brass or copper in cookery; they are all of earthenware. At sunset
     the watchmen are stationed in all parts of the town, and take into
     custody all suspected or unknown persons. They have lamps made of
     wood and paper; the latter comes from Fas. Women of respectability
51   are attended by a slave when they walk out or visit, which they do
     with the same freedom as in Europe. The women ride either horses or
     asses, they have no mules; the men commonly prefer walking, they
     are strong and seldom sensible of fatigue, which he attributes to
     their having a rib more than white men. Some bake their own bread,
     others buy it, as in England. They make leavened bread of
     allila[89] and bishna; the cattle-market is within the city, in a
     square, appropriated to this purpose. There are a great many rich
     men, some by inheritance, others by trade. Every morning the doors
     of the rich are crowded with poor, the master sends them food,
     rice, milk, &c. They have names for every day. They make their own
     pipes for smoking, the tubes are of wood. They have songs, some
     with chorus, and some sung by two persons in alternate stanzas.
     They have the same feasts once a quarter as at Timbuctoo. The king
     has but one wife, but many concubines. The favourite slaves of the
     queen of Housa are considered as superior to the queen of
     Timbuctoo.

         [Footnote 89: Millet and Indian corn.]

     GOLD.

     The ground where it is found is about sixteen miles from Housa.
     They go in the night with camels whose legs and feet are covered to
     protect them against snakes, they take a bag of sand, and mark with
52   it the places that glitter with gold; in the morning they collect
     where marked, and carry it to refiners, who, for a small sum,
     separate the gold. There are no mountains or rivers near the spot,
     it is a plain without sand, of a dark brown earth. Any person may
     go to seek gold; they sell it to the merchants, who pay a small
     duty to the king. The produce is uncertain; he has heard that a
     bushel of earth has produced the value of twelve ducats, three
     pounds sterling, of pure gold. They set out from Housa about two
     o'clock in the afternoon, arrive about sun-set, and return the next
     day seeking for gold during the whole night.

     LIMITS OF THE EMPIRE

     Beyond Timboo, on the north side of the Nile, are very extensive.
     Afnoo is subject to the king of Housa, no slaves can be made from
     thence. Darfneel is near Afnoo; the latter is on the north side of
     the river, nearer to its source, and a great way from Timbuctoo. No
     Arabs are found on the banks of the Nile. He supposes the
     circumference of the empire to be about twenty-five days' journey;
     has heard that many other large towns are dependent upon it, but
     does not remember their names.

     The neighbouring countries are Bambarra, Timboo, Mooshee, and
     Jinnie; all negroes. He has heard of Bernoo[90] as a great empire.
53
     On the 31st of March, 1790, Shabeenee gave further information, in
     the presence of Lord Rawdon[91], Mr. Stuart, and Mr. Wedgewood. Mr.
     Wedgewood proposed the questions, and Mr. Dodsworth interpreted.
     The following is some of the information, omitting what has been
     noticed already.

     Between Timbuctoo and Housa, there is a very good trade. Timbuctoo
     is tributary to the king of Housa. The imports into Timbuctoo[92]
     are spices, corn, and woollens from Barbary, and linens from the
     sea-coast.

         [Footnote 90: Ber Noh, or Bernoh, _i.e._ the country of Noah,
         is said by the Africans, to be the birth-place of the patriarch
         Noah.]

         [Footnote 91: Now the Marquis of Hastings.]

[Footnote 92: For a more detailed account of the imports
to Timbuctoo, see Jackson's Account of Marocco, &c.]

     The written character is very large, perhaps half an inch long. The
     empire is divided into provinces; the provinces into districts. The
     king appoints the governors of both; but the son of the deceased
     governor is understood to have the preference.

     They make their pottery by a wheel, but do not glaze it. The wheel
     turns upon a pivot placed in a hole in the ground: at top and
     bottom are two pieces of wood like a tea-table; the lower, which is
     largest, is turned by the foot, and the upper forms the vessel.
     When they make a large pot, they put on the top a larger piece: the
     pots are dried in the sun or burnt in the fire. The iron mines are
     in the desert; the iron is brought in small pieces by the Arabs,
54   who melt and purify it. They cannot cast iron. They use charcoal
     fire, and form guns and swords with the hammer and anvil. The
     points of their arrows are barbed with iron; the crossbows have a
     groove for the arrow. No man can draw the bow by his arm alone,
     they have a kind of lever; the bow part is of steel brought from
     Barbary, and is manufactured at Timbuctoo. They do not make steel
     themselves.

     They inoculate for the small-pox; the pus is put into a dried
     raisin and eaten. "_Rooka Dindooka_" is a kind of oath, and means,
     by God. They believe only one God. After dinner they use the Arabic
     expression, El Hamd Ulillah; praise to be to God.[93]

     They believe the immortality of the soul, and that both men and
     women go to paradise; that there is no future punishment; the
     wicked are punished in this world. Happiness, after death, consists
     in being in the presence of God. They are not circumcised. A
     divorce may take place while a woman is pregnant, but she cannot
     marry again till delivered. As soon as a woman is divorced,
     midwives, women brought up to that profession, examine her to see
     whether she is pregnant.

         [Footnote 93: This is the Arabic, or Muhamedan grace after
         meat; the grace before meat is equally sententious, viz.
         Bismillah, i.e. in the name of God.]

[Illustration: map of West Barbary]

55

                              LETTERS
                            CONTAINING
                     AN ACCOUNT OF JOURNIES
                    THROUGH VARIOUS PARTS OF
                     WEST AND SOUTH BARBARY,
                      AT DIFFERENT PERIODS,
                  PERFORMED PERSONALLY BY J.G.J.



     LETTER I.

     _On the opening of the Port of Agadeer, or Santa Cruz in Suse, and
     of its Cession by the Emperor Muley Yezzid, to the Dutch._

     TO JAMES WILLIS, ESQ.

     (Late British Consul for Senegambia) Eversholt, near Woburn,
     Bedfordshire.

     Mogodor, 28th February, 1792.

     The emperor has consented to the proposition of the Dutch
     government, to open the port of Agadeer, or Santa Cruz, in the
     province of Suse, to the commerce of that nation; and I have
     finally resolved to establish a house there, so soon as the sultan
     Yezzid's order respecting that port shall reach the hands of Alkaid
     Aumer ben Daudy, the governor of this port. There are various
     political intrigues in agitation, to deter me from going personally
56   to establish the commerce of this most desirable and long-neglected
     port of Santa Cruz. The governor anticipates a considerable
     diminution in the treasury of Mogodor; and the merchants of this
     place anticipate a great diminution of the various articles of
     produce of this fine country, seeing that the principal articles of
     exportation from the empire of Marocco are produced in the province
     of Suse, and in the neighbourhood of Santa Cruz.

     The stream of commerce will, therefore, necessarily be converted
     from Mogodor to Santa Cruz. The merchants of Fas also, who have
     their establishments and connections at Timbuctoo, and in other
     parts of Sudan, will resort to Santa Cruz in preference to Mogodor,
     for all European articles calculated for the markets of Sudan, the
     former port being in the neighbourhood of the desert, or Sahara,
     and at a convenient distance from Akka in Lower Suse, the general
     rendezvous of the akkaba, (or accumulated caravans,) destined for
     the interior regions of Africa or Sudan. This akkaba starts
     annually for Timbuctoo, consisting of 2000 or 3000 camels, loaded
     with merchandise from Fas, Tetuan, Sallee, Mogodor, Marocco,
     Tafilelt, Draha, and Terodant. The port of Santa Cruz is hence
57   aptly denominated _Beb Sudan_, i.e. the gate or entrance of Sudan.
     The port of Santa Cruz was formerly farmed by the emperor[94] Muley
     Ishmael, to some European power, for 50,000 dollars a-year, as I
     have been informed; others say it was purchased of him by his own
     Jewish subjects, for the purposes of trade. However this may have
     been, no advantage was ever taken of the favourable opportunity
     then offered, of opening and securing to Europe an extensive and
     lucrative trade with the various countries of Sudan or Nigritia.

     I can account for this omission only by supposing that the interior
     of Africa was then less known than even it now is; and that the
     merchants then established at Santa Cruz, had there sufficient
     advantages in commerce to engage their attention, without examining
     into this immense undiscovered mine of wealth!

         [Footnote 94: Great-grandfather of Muley Soliman, the present
         emperor, who is denominated Soliman ben Muhamed ben Abdallah
         ben Ismael.]
58

     LETTER II.

     _The Author's arrival at Agadeer or Santa Cruz.--He opens the Port
     to European Commerce.--His favourable Reception on landing
     there.--Is saluted by the Battery.--Abolishes the degrading Custom
     that had been exacted of the Christians, of descending from on
     Horseback, and entering the Town on Foot, like the Jews.--Of a
     Sanctuary at the Entrance of the Town, which had ever been
     considered Holy Ground, and none but Muhamedans had ever before
     been permitted to enter the Gates on Horseback._

     TO THE SAME.

     Santa Cruz, 7th March, 1792.

     _The emperor's[95] letter ordering the port of Santa Cruz to be
     opened to the Dutch_, having reached Mogodor, and having received
     my instructions from Webster Blount, Esq. Dutch consul-general to
     this empire, to act as agent for him at that port, until my
     appointment be ratified and confirmed by the States General, of
     which he informs me there is no doubt, I proceeded hither in the
     Snell Zee Post, Dirk Morris, master; and after being becalmed off
     (Affernie) Cape de Geer, I arrived here the third morning after my
     departure from Mogodor. I sent my horses by land; and on our
59   approach to the shore, I discovered them approaching the mountain
     on which Santa Cruz stands. Soon after we came to anchor in the
     road, the boats came off, and the battery, which is situated about
     half-way up the mountain on the western declivity, saluted me with
     8 guns, (the Muhamedans always saluting with an even number.) This
     compliment being unexpected, we were about half an hour preparing
     to return it, when we saluted the battery with 9 guns. The captain
     of the port received me with great courtesy, and was ordered by the
     bashaw El Hayanie, governor of Santa Cruz, to pay the most
     unqualified attention to my wishes. I landed amidst an immense
     concourse of people, assembled on the beach to witness the
     re-establishment of their port, most of whom were without shoes,
     and very ill clad.

         [Footnote 95: See specimens of Arabic epistolary
         correspondence, Appendix, Letter 9th.]

     The most hearty exclamations of joy and approbation were manifested
     by the people when I landed; a merchant was come to establish, once
     more, that commerce by which the fathers of the present generation
     had prospered; and their sons appeared to know full well the
     advantages that again awaited their industry, which for 30 years
     had not been exercised. I mounted my horse on the beach, amidst the
     general acclamations of the people, and ascended the mountain, on
     the summit of which is the town. On my arrival at the gate, I was
     courteously received by the bashaw's sons; who, however, informed
60   me that the entrance of Santa Cruz was ever considered holy ground,
     and that Christians, during its former establishment, always
     descended and entered the town on foot, intimating at the same time
     that it was expected I should do the same. I had been before
     cautioned by Mr. Gwyn, the British consul at Mogodor, not to
     expostulate at this request, as it would certainly be required of
     me to conform to ancient usages. But I knew too well the
     disposition of the people, and the great desire that pervaded all
     ranks to have the port established; I therefore turned my horse,
     and told the bashaw's sons, that I was come, with the blessing of
     God, to bring prosperity to the land, to make the poor rich, and to
     improve the condition and multiply the conveniences of the opulent;
     that I came to establish commerce for _their_ advantage, not for
     mine; that it was indifferent to me whether I returned to Mogodor
     or remained with them. The sons of the bashaw became alarmed, and
     entreated me, with clasped hands, to wait till they should report
     to the bashaw my words and observations. I consented, and soon
     after they returned with their father's earnest request that I
     should enter a-horseback: old customs, said the venerable old
     bashaw when, immediately afterwards, I met him in the street; old
     customs are abolished, enter and go out of this town a-horseback or
     a-foot, we desire the prosperity of this port, and that its
     commerce may flourish; _All the people of Suse hail you as their
61   deliverer, God has sent you to us to turn the desert into_ (jinen
     afia) _a fruitful garden; come, and be welcome, and God be with
     you._

     I was conducted to the best house in the town, a house which
     belonged to our predecessor, Mr. Grover; and I was informed, that
     if any demur had been made by the bashaw respecting my entrance
     through the sanctuary or holy ground, it might have caused an
     immediate insurrection; so anxious and impatient were all ranks of
     people for the new establishment of this eligible port of Suse.

     The privilege thus established, of riding in and out of the town, I
     continued; and I procured it immediately afterwards for all
     Christians! even masters of ships and common sailors.
62

     LETTER III.

     _The Author makes a Commercial Road down the Mountain, to
     facilitate the Shipment of Goods.--The Energy and Liberality of the
     Natives, in working gratuitously at it.--Description of the
     Portuguese Tower at Tildie.--Arab Repast there.--Natural Strength
     of Santa Cruz, of the Town of Aguzem, and the Portuguese Spring and
     Tank there.--Attempt of the Danes to land and build a
     Fort.--Eligibility of the Situation of Santa Cruz, for a Commercial
     Depot to Supply the whole of the Interior of North Africa with East
     India and European Manufactures.--Propensity of the Natives to
     Commerce and Industry, if Opportunity offered._

     TO THE SAME.

     Santa Cruz, 20th March, 1792.

     The road up the mountain of Santa Cruz was so dangerous and
     impassable, that I undertook to repair it; accordingly, I agreed
     with a Shilluh to make it safe and convenient for transporting
     goods for shipment; and such was the eager desire of the people for
     the establishment of the port, that hundreds brought stones and
     assisted gratuitously in the construction of this road; so that
     what would have cost in England thousands of pounds, was here
     completed for a few hundred dollars.

     The natives of this long-neglected territory were too acute not to
     perceive the field of wealth that was thus opened to their
63   industry; they were convinced, from the traditions of their
     fathers, of the incalculable benefits that would arise from a
     commercial reciprocity; and they were determined to cultivate the
     opportunity that was now offered to put them in possession of those
     commercial advantages which their fathers had enjoyed before: the
     benefits of which they had often related to their children, when
     they talked of the prosperity and riches of the country during the
     reign of Muley Ismael, when this port was before open to foreign
     commerce. Agreeably to these well-founded anticipations, the genial
     influence of commerce began, soon after my arrival, to manifest
     itself throughout all ranks and denominations of men; _the whole
     population visibly improved in their apparel and appearance; new
     garments were now becoming common, and were every where substituted
     for the rags and wretchedness before witnessed on landing here._

     About four miles east of Santa Cruz, in a very romantic valley
     surrounded by mountains, are found the ruins of a Portuguese tower.
     _Tildie_, which is the name of this place, abounds in plantations
     of the most delicious figs, grapes of an enormous size and
     exquisite flavour, citrons, oranges, water-melons, walnuts,
     apricots in great abundance, and peaches, &c. &c.

     I invited a party of Arabs to accompany me to this delightful
     retreat, where we dined: the Arabs killed two sheep; one they
     roasted whole on a wooden spit, made on the spot; the other they
64   baked whole in an oven made for the purpose, in the following
     manner: A large hole was dug in the ground; the inside was
     plaistered with clay; after which they put fire in the hole till
     the sides were dry; they then put the sheep in, and the top was
     covered by clay in the form of an arch, fashioned and constructed
     by the hand only; they afterwards made a large trough round this
     temporary oven, and filled it with wood, to which they set fire.
     The sheep was about three hours preparing in this manner, and it
     was of exquisite flavour; the roasted mutton also was equally well
     flavoured. No vegetables were served with this repast; for I had
     desired that the fare should be precisely according to their own
     custom; I therefore declined interfering with the arrangement of
     the food. This mode of cooking is in high estimation with
     travellers. These people never eat vegetables with their meat. When
     they see Europeans eat a mouthful of meat, and then another of
     vegetables, they express their surprise, observing that the taste
     of the vegetables destroys the taste of the meat; and _vice versa_,
     that the taste of the meat destroys the flavour of the vegetables!

     The town of Santa Cruz, built on the summit of a branch of the
     Atlas, by the Portuguese, is enclosed by a strong wall, fortified
     with bastions mounting cannon; it is about a mile in circumference.
     Half way down the mountain, on the western declivity, opposite the
     sea, stands a battery, which defends the town, towards the north,
65   south, and west, at the foot of the mountain. Westward, on the
     shore of the sea, stands a town, called by the Shelluhs, (the
     natives of this country,) Agurem. There is a copious spring of
     excellent water at Agurem, built and ornamented by the Portuguese,
     when they had possession of this country, and called by them
     _Fonté_, which name the town still retains, and is so called by
     Europeans. The royal arms of Portugal are seen, carved in stone,
     over the tank. Santa Cruz is supplied with spring-water from here,
     having none but rain-water in the town, which is collected in the
     rainy season, and preserved in subterraneous apartments, called
     mitferes[96], one of which is attached to every respectable house,
     and contains sufficient for the consumption of the family during
     the year. The natural position of Santa Cruz is extremely strong,
     perhaps not less so than Gibraltar, though not on a peninsula; and
     it might, in the hands of an European power, be made impregnable
     with very little expense; it might also be made a very convenient
     and most advantageous depot for the establishment of an extensive
66   commerce with the whole of the interior of North Africa. An attempt
     of this kind was made about forty or fifty years since, by the
     Danes, who anchored with several ships, and landed a mile south of
     Agurem; and with stones, all ready cut, and numbered, erected on an
     eminence[97], by the dawn of the following day, a battery of twelve
     guns. But by a stratagem of the bashaw El Hayanie, who at that time
     was bashaw of Suse, they were rendered unable to retain possession
     of their fort; their plans were accordingly disconcerted, and the
     adventurers retreated, and returned to their ships.

         [Footnote 96: The mitfere under my house at Santa Cruz,
         contained, when full, four hundred pipes of water. At the
         termination of the rainy season in March, it was generally
         about two-thirds full, supplied from the flat roof or terras
         during the rainy season. There was always much more than we
         could consume, accordingly great quantities were distributed
         among the poor, about the close of the season, or the autumn
         previous to the next rainy season.]

         [Footnote 97: Called Agadeer Arba.]

     At the south-east extremity of the wall of Santa Cruz there is a
     round battery, which protects the town from west to east; and might
     be made to protect the valley to the east of the mountain. This
     battery, with a little military skill, might be made to protect
     every access to the town, not protected by the battery before
     mentioned, which is situated about half way up the western
     declivity of the mountain, and which commands or secures the fonte,
     or spring, against an attack from any hostile force.
67

     LETTER IV.

     _Command of the Commerce of Sudan._

     TO THE SAME.

     Santa Cruz, May 5, 1792.

     If Great Britain were to purchase the port of Santa Cruz of the
     emperor, for a certain annual stipend, we should be enabled to
     command the whole commerce of Sudan, at the expense of Tunis,
     Tripoli, Algiers, and Egypt; not at the expense of Marocco, because
     an equivalent, or what the emperor would consider as such, would be
     given in exchange for it; and we should then supply all those
     regions with merchandise, at the first and second hand, which they
     now receive through four, five, and six. We should thus be enabled
     to undersell our Moorish competitors, and thus draw to our
     commercial depot, all the gold-dust, gold-bars, and wrought-gold,
     gum-sudan, (commonly called in England, Turkey gum-arabic), ostrich
     feathers, and other articles the produce of Sudan; besides the
     produce of Suse, viz. gum-barbary, sandrac, euphorbium, and
     ammoniac, almonds, olive oil, wine, &c., together with the richest
     fruits of every kind. These we should take in barter for our
     manufactures.
68
     The road of Santa Cruz is very safe, and the best in the empire of
     Marocco; it is defended from the fury of the tremendous gales that
     visit this coast in December and January, and which invariably blow
     from the south, by a projection of land that extends gradually from
     the river Suse to cape Noon, very far westward into the ocean.
     During my residence of several years at this summit of Atlas, not
     one ship was wrecked or lost; there is plenty of water, and good
     anchorage for ships of the line.

     A thousand European troops, directed by a vigilant and experienced
     captain, might take the place by a _coup de main_; and the natives,
     (after a proper explanation and assurance that trade was the object
     of the capture,) would probably become allies of the captors, and
     would supply in abundance all kind of provisions. They esteem the
     English, and denominate them their brothers.[98] They sorely regret
     the loss of trade occasioned by the emperor's restrictions, and
     would gladly promote the cultivation of commerce if they had an
     opportunity. They have been from time immemorial a trading
     generation.

         [Footnote 98: _N'henna û l'Ingleez Khowan_, they say, "we and
         the English are brothers."]
69

     LETTER V.

     FROM MR. WILLIS TO MR. JACKSON.

     My dear sir,

     I have this moment received your favour, dated yesterday, and am
     extremely sorry I had not the pleasure of seeing you before your
     departure. We might have taken a farewell dinner together. You will
     most highly oblige me by communicating to me all the intelligence
     you can collect concerning the interior of Africa, more especially
     of Timbuctoo; its trade, government, geographical situation, and
     the manners and customs of its inhabitants. If you could send me
     too, any of its products or manufactures, which may appear to you
     curious or interesting, or may serve to shew the state of knowledge
     and civilisation in the country, and the progress they may have
     made in the arts, in manufactures or commerce, you will confer upon
     me a singular favour; the expense of which I will readily repay,
     and which I shall be happy to return whenever I can be of use to
     you. If ever this region of Africa, which excites so strongly our
     curiosity, should be laid open to us, you are, of all the men with
     whom I am acquainted, the best qualified, and the most likely to
     lead the way to this important discovery. I request you to favour
70   me with your correspondence; let me hear from you as frequently as
     possible, without ceremony, and as one who wishes to be considered
     as an old friend. When peace returns, I shall certainly take my
     station in Senegambia[99], where we may then be fellow-labourers in
     the same vineyard. There is no news yet of Park; perhaps you would
     like to know how he proceeds; and as I expect to hear of him by the
     return of my ship, I will inform you, if you wish it; and, in
     short, will keep up a regular correspondence on my part, if you
     will do the same on your's. Pray, in what ship do you go? Perhaps,
     if you would give me encouragement, I might venture into a little
     commercial speculation to Santa Cruz. I heartily wish you a
     pleasant voyage, health, and success; and am, with great regard,

     My dear Sir,

     Very truly your's,

     J. WILLIS.

     August 12,1796.

         [Footnote 99: Mr. James Willis had the appointment of consul at
         Senegambia, and was then waiting an opportunity of proceeding
         thither.]
71

     LETTER VI.

     FROM THE SAME TO THE SAME.

     My dear sir,

     I duly received your letter from Gibraltar, and have made known to
     Government the expediency of sending a person to Marocco, to oppose
     the influence of the French and Spaniards; but I cannot yet say
     with certainty whether the measure will be adopted or not; if it
     should, you may rely upon my attention to your interest. I have
     given your name to the secretary of state, and have spoken of you
     with that distinction, which I think, without any flattery, your
     qualifications justly deserve.

     Peace still appears to be at a great distance, since the late
     negociations; yet, as nothing is so uncertain as an event of this
     kind, it may come upon us, (as the last peace did) like a thief in
     the night, when we least expect it. You will have, I have no doubt,
     frequent opportunities of procuring information concerning
     Timbuctoo, and other places in the interior of Africa. Your
     knowledge of the language, customs, and commerce of that continent,
     give you advantages which few possess upon this ground; and I
     assure you, every kind of information will be greedily received
72   here, concerning those regions; especially that which relates to
     their commerce, civilisation, customs, geography, and language.

     I request as a favour that you would write me as often as possible;
     exclusive of the interest I take in all that relates to the
     politics and commerce of Africa, (particularly of the interior,) to
     hear of your own individual welfare, will give me the sincerest
     pleasure.

     I remain, my dear Sir,

     Your's very sincerely,

     J. WILLIS.

     No. 67. Harley-street, London, 2d February, 1796.

     We have no letters from Mr. Park, since he left the river Gambia;
     but we have heard from others, that he had proceeded in safety
     above two-thirds of the journey. We expect soon to hear of his
     return. If he succeeds, his fame and fortune will be worthy of
     envy.
73

     LETTER VII.

     _Emperor's March to Marocco.--Doubles the Customs' Duties of
     Mogodor.--The Governor, Prince Abd El Melk, with the Garrison and
     Merchants of Santa Crux, ordered to go to the Court at
     Marocco.--They cross the Atlas Mountains.--Description of the
     Country and Produce.--Dangerous Defile in the Mountains through
     which the Author passed.--Chasm in the Mountain.--Security of Suse
     from Marocco, originating in the narrow Defile in the Mountains of
     Atlas.--Extensive Plantations of Olives.--Village of Ait
     Musie.--Fruga Plains.--Marocco Plains.--Fine Corn.--Reception at
     Marocco, and Audience with the Emperor.--Imperial Gardens at
     Marocco.--Prince Abd El Melk's magnificent Apparel, reprobated by
     the Sultan.--The Port of Santa Cruz, shut to the Commerce of
     Europe, and the Merchants ordered to Mogodor.--The Prince banished
     to the _Bled Shereef_ or Country of Princes, viz., Tafilelt, of the
     Palace at Tafilelt.--Abundance of Dates.--Face of the Country.
     --Magnificent Groves of Palm or Date-trees.--Faith and Integrity of
     the Inhabitants of Tafilelt.--Imperial Gardens at Marocco.--Mode of
     Irrigation.--Attar of Roses, vulgarly called Otto of Roses (Attar
     being the Word signifying a Distillation.)--State of Oister Shells,
     on the Top of the Mountains of Sheshawa, between Mogodor and
     Marocco, being a Branch of the Atlas.--Description of the Author's
     Reception on the Road from Marocco to Mogodor.--Of the Elgrored, or
     Sahara of Mogodor._

     TO JAMES WILLIS, ESQ.

     Santa Cruz, March 15, 1797.

     When the emperor Soliman proceeded from Fas with a numerous army to
74   the south, he doubled the export and import duties at Mogodor,
     viz., from six to twelve per cent., payable in kind. Those of Santa
     Cruz remained as before, but so soon as his imperial majesty
     reached Marocco, he sent orders for the prince Abd El Melk, who is
     his nephew and governor of Santa Cruz, with the garrison, together
     with the merchants, to proceed to Marocco; accordingly we all
     departed, the prince having first engaged a revered (fakeer) saint
     to accompany the army across the Atlas mountains, the fastnesses of
     which it appeared no army would be permitted to pass, without the
     protection of this fakeer. We departed about noon, and passed
     through the plains of the Arab province of Howara[100], a very fine
     country; we pitched our tents at sunset, near a sanctuary, where we
     had all kinds of provisions sent to us, in great abundance: we
     continued our journey the following morning through the plains, and
     about the middle of the day we reached the foot of Atlas.

     This country abounds in extensive plantations of olives, almonds,
     and gum trees; some plants of the (_fashook_) gum ammoniac are here
     discovered. Vines producing purple grapes of an enormous size and
     exquisite flavour: (_dergmuse_) the Euphorbium plant is discovered
     in rocky parts of the mountains; and great abundance of worm-seed
75   and stick-liquorice.[101] The indigo plant (_Enneel_) is found
     here; as are also pomegranates, of a large size and a most
     exquisitely sweet flavour, and oranges. Ascending the Atlas, after
     five hours' ride, we reached a table-land, and pitched our tents
     near a sanctuary. The temperature of the air is cooler here, and
     the trees are of a different character; apples, pears, cherries,
     walnuts, apricots, peaches, plums, and rhododendrums, were the
     produce of this region. The next morning at five o'clock, the army
     struck their tents, and after ascending seven hours more, we met
     with another change in vegetation. Leguminous plants began to
     appear; pines of an immense size, ferns, _the belute_, a species of
     oak, the acorn of which is used as food, and is preferred to the
     Spanish chesnut; elms, mountain-ash, _seedra_ and _snobar_, the two
     latter being a species of the juniper. After this we passed through
     a fine campaign country of four hours' ride: we were informed that
     this country was very populous; but our fakeer and guide avoided
     the habitations of men. We now began again to ascend these
     magnificent and truly romantic mountains, and in two hours
     approached partial coverings of snow. Vegetation here diminishes,
     and nothing is now seen but firs, whose tops appear above the snow;
     the cold is here intense; and it is remarkable, that, the pullets'
     eggs that we procured in the campaign country just described, were
     nearly twice the size of those of Europe. Proceeding two hours
76   further, we came to a narrow pass, on the east side of which was an
     inaccessible mountain, almost perpendicular, and entirely covered
     with snow; and on the west, a tremendous precipice, of several
     thousand feet in depth, as if the mountain had been split in two,
     or rent asunder by an earthquake: the path is not more than a foot
     wide, over a solid rock of granite. Here the whole army dismounted,
     and many prostrated in prayer, invoking the Almighty to enable them
     to pass in safety; but, however, notwithstanding all possible
     precaution, two mules missed their footing, and were precipitated
     with their burdens into the yawning abyss. There is no other pass
     but this, and that of Belawin, which is equally dangerous for an
     army; so that the district of Suse, which was formerly a kingdom,
     might be defended by a few men, against an invading army from
     Marocco of several thousands, by taking a judicious position at the
     southern extremity of this narrow path and tremendous precipice,
     which is but a few yards in length. Proceeding northward through,
     this defile, we continued our journey seven hours, (gradually
     descending towards the plains of Fruga, a town of considerable
     extent, distant about fifteen miles from the mountains.) Proceeding
     two hours further, making together nine hours' journey, the army
     pitched their tents, and we encamped on another table-land, on the
     northern declivity of Atlas, at the entrance of an immense
     plantation of olives, about a mile west of a village, called Ait
77   Musie, a most luxuriant and picturesque country. The village of Ait
     Musie contains many Jews, whose external is truly miserable; but
     this appearance of poverty is merely political, for they are a
     trading and rich people, for such a patriarchal country. The olive
     plantations at this place, and in many other parts of this country,
     do honour to the agricultural propensity of the emperor Muley
     Ismael, who planted them. They cover about six square miles of
     ground; the trees are planted in right lines, at a proper distance;
     the plantation is interspersed with openings, or squares, to let in
     the air. These openings are about a square acre in extent.

         [Footnote 100: migration from this tribe attacked and took the
         city of Assouan, in Egypt, some years ago. Vide Burckhardt's
         Travels in Nubia.]

         [Footnote 101: This root abounds all over Suse, and is called
         by the natives _Ark Suse, i.e._ the foot of Suse: the worm-seed
         is called sheh.]

     In travelling through the various provinces of South and West
     Barbary, these extensive plantations of olives are frequently met
     with, and particularly throughout Suse. It appeared that they were
     all planted by the emperor Muley Ismael, whose indefatigable
     industry was proverbial. Wherever that warrior (who was always in
     the field) encamped, he never failed to employ his army in some
     active and useful operation, to keep them from being devoured by
     the worm of indolence, as he expressed it. Accordingly wherever he
     encamped, we meet with these extensive plantations of olive trees,
     planted by his troops, which are not only a great ornament to the
     country, but produce abundance of fine oil. The olive plantations
     at Ras El Wed, near Terodant in Suse, are so extensive, that one
78   may travel from the rising to the setting sun under their shade,
     without being exposed to the rays of the effulgent African sun.

     We remained encamped at Ait Musie[102] three days, amusing
     ourselves by hawking with the prince's falconer, and hunting the
     antelope. Early in the morning of the fourth day, we descended the
     declivity of the Atlas, and travelling eight hours, we reached the
     populous town of Fruga, situated in the same extensive plain
     wherein the city of Marocco stands. From this village to Marocco, a
     day's journey, the country is one continued corn-field, producing
     most abundant crops of wheat and barley, the grain of which is of
     an extraordinary fine quality, and nearly twice the size of the
     wheat produced at the Cape of Good Hope.

         [Footnote 102: Here the prince sent couriers to the emperor, to
         announce his approach.]

     On our approach to the metropolis, the emperor sent the princes
     that were at Marocco to welcome the prince Abd El Melk. They were
     accompanied by 100 cavalry, who saluted our prince with the Moorish
     compliment of running full gallop and firing their muskets. These
     princes, who were relations of Abd El Melk, son of Abd Salam, shook
     hands with him respectively, and then kissed their own. This is the
     salutation when friends of equal rank meet. We entered the city of
     Marocco at the _Beb El Mushoir_, which is the gate situated near
     the palace and place of audience, towards the Atlas mountains. The
79   next day I had an audience of the emperor, who received me in (the
     _Jenan En neel_) the garden of the Nile, a small garden adjoining
     the palace, containing all the fruits and plants from the Nile[103]
     of Egypt. The (_worde fillelly_) Tafilelt-rose grows in great
     luxuriance in this garden, resembling that of China; the odour is
     very grateful and strong, perfuming the air to a considerable
     distance. This is the rose, from the leaves of which the celebrated
     (_attar el worde_) _i.e._ distillation of roses is made, vulgarly
     called in Europe, _otto_ of roses.

         [Footnote 103: This orthography, _Nile_, has been imported from
         France; with the French it is pronounced as we pronounce Neel;
         and this is the intelligible pronunciation in Africa.]

     The emperor declared the port of Santa Cruz to be shut; and that no
     European merchant of any nation should continue there. He gave me
     my choice, either to quit the country, or establish a house at
     Mogodor. I entreated a short time to consider which I should
     choose, which was readily granted.

     The prince Abd El Melk was magnificent in his apparel, the Emperor
     dressed very plain; these were two incompatible propensities, the
     latter had probably heard of the prince's extravagance in this
     respect, and chose to moralise with him by comparing his own
     parsimonious and plain apparel to _his_ costly attire; and
     insinuating that the iron buckle to his belt answered every purpose
     of a gold one, reprimanded the prince for the extravagance and
     vanity of his wardrobe, and acquainted his Highness that the port
80   of Santa Cruz should no longer remain open to European commerce.
     The prince remained some days after this notification at Maroco; an
     annual stipend was allowed him and he was sent to (the _Bled
     Shereef, i.e._ the country of princes, viz.) Tafilelt, and had
     apartments allotted him in the Imperial Palace at that place, which
     is very magnificent and extensive. It is built of marble collected
     for the most part from the _Kaser Farawan_ or ruins of Pharaoh, an
     ancient city now in ruins, contiguous to the sanctuary of Muley
     Dris Zerone, east of the city of Mequinas, on the western declivity
     of the Atlas; this marble was transported across the mountains of
     Atlas on camels, a distance of fifteen journies to Tafilelt. The
     inhabitants of this part of Bled Eljereed live principally on
     dates, which abound so in this country that the fruit of one
     plantation is commonly sold for 1000 dollars, producing 1500 camel
     load of dates, or 4500 quintals; there are thirty-five species of
     this rich fruit, of which the _butube_ is unquestionably the best
     and the most wholesome; it is rich, of a fine flavour, and sweet as
     honey: the _buscré_ is also good; but so dry and full of saccharine
     matter that it resembles a lump of sugar. Undoubtedly if this
     country were in the hands of Europeans they would extract sugar,
     perhaps as much as 150 lb. from a camel load of dates weighing 300
     lb. The _adamoh_ is the date that is imported to this country; it
     is the best for keeping, but at Tafilelt they use it only for the
     cattle, considering it an unwholesome kind and heavy of digestion.
81   The country from the eastern declivity of Atlas to Tafilelt, and to
     the eastward of Tafilelt, even unto Seginmessa is one continued
     barren plain of a brown sandy soil impregnated with salt, so that
     if you take up the earth it has a salt flavour; the surface also
     has the appearance of salt, and if you dig a foot deep, a brackish
     water ooses up. On the approach, to within a day's journey of
     Tafilelt, however, the country is covered with the most magnificent
     plantations and extensive forests of the lofty date, exhibiting the
     most elegant and picturesque appearance that nature, on a plain
     surface, can present to the admiring eye. In these forests there is
     no underwood, so that a horseman may gallop through them without
     impediment. Wheat is cultivated near the river, and honey is
     produced of an exquisite quality. The faith and honour of the
     (filelly) inhabitants of Tafilelt is proverbial; a robbery has not
     been known within the memory of man; they use neither locks nor
     keys, having no need of either!

     Having had my audience of leave of the Emperor, I prepared to
     proceed to Mogodor, but before I describe the country through which
     we passed thither, it may not perhaps be uninteresting to give some
     account of the Imperial gardens at Marocco, which are three, the
     _Jenan Erdoua_, the _Jenan El Afia_, and the _Jenan En. neel_: the
     last is confined to plants brought from the Egyptian Nile. The
     _Jenan El Afia_, and the _Jenan Erdoua_, contain oranges, citrons,
82   vines, figs, pomegranates, water and musk melons, all of exquisite
     flavour. The orange and fig trees are here as large as a middling
     sized English oak. Roses are so abundant at Marocco that they grow
     every where, and have a most powerful perfume, insomuch that one
     rose scents a large room; all other flowers are in abundance, and
     many that are nursed with care in English hot-houses are seen in
     the Marocco plains growing spontaneously. These gardens, as well as
     others throughout the country, are watered by the Persian or
     Arabian wheel, with pitchers fixed to it, which discharge the water
     into a trough or tank; as the pitchers rise and turn over their
     contents into this tank, the water is communicated to the garden
     and inundates the plants. Departing from Marocco to Mogodor, the
     first day's journey is through the plains of Sheshawa, a fine
     campaign country abounding in corn; the mountains of Sheshawa,
     which are higher than any in Great Britain, have strata of oyster
     and other shells at the top of them. We encamped at the foot of
     these mountains; I had the curiosity to examine the depth of these
     strata of shells, and found them several feet deep, and extending
     all the way down the mountains. The rivers Sheshawa and Wed Elfees
     water these plains. The next day's journey brought us to a
     sanctuary, where we met very good entertainment, that is, such as
     the country affords, plenty of good provisions and hospitable
     treatment.
83
     The next evening we encamped at a place called _Dar El Hage
     Croomb_, a very picturesque situation, where we were hospitably
     entertained; the Sheik coming to drink tea with me, related the
     history of his ancestors and traced his descent through many
     generations of warriors, whose dextrous management of the lance was
     the burden of the story. The next day, after travelling about six
     hours, we arrived at the extremity of the productive country, and
     entered _El Grored_, or the desert of sandy hills, which divide the
     rocky peninsula of Mogodor, from the cultivated land; this Sahara
     consists of loose sand-hills very fatiguing to the horses, and
     although not more than three miles in width, we were an hour and a
     half in crossing them, before we entered the gate of Mogodor.
84

     LETTER VIII.

     FROM MR. WILLIS TO MR. JACKSON.

     Harley-Street, London,

     My Dear Sir, 12th December, 1797.

     I thank you warmly for your intelligence concerning the interior of
     Africa, and beg you will continue to favour me with all the
     information you can collect upon this subject. Mr. Park has been
     almost as far as Jinnie, but did not reach Timbuctoo; he is now on
     his way to England, in an American ship, via America. We are
     anxious for his arrival, which may be expected in the course of the
     present month; and all the Africani are extremely curious to hear
     the detail of his most interesting journey, which we hope will
     produce some authentic knowledge, of a considerable part of those
     regions, that have hitherto baffled all the ardour and energy of
     European enquiry, though they have always excited the curiosity of
     the most eminent and enlightened men, both in past and present
     times.

     I thank you also for the commercial intelligence you have sent me.

     Do you know whether the emperor of Marocco has any collection of
     books? If he has, probably some ancient books, of great value,
     might be found among them.
85
     I should consider it as a very great obligation if you could
     procure, and send me any book or manuscript in the character and
     language of Timbuctoo. We are informed that, besides the Arabic,
     they have a character of their own, perfectly different.

     I remain, my dear Sir,
     Sincerely your's,

     J. WILLIS.

     _Extract of a Letter to Mr. Jackson, from His Excellency J.M.
     Matra, British Envoy to Marocco, &c._

     Tangier, November 8, 1797.

     I have not yet received any answer from Sir Joseph Banks to the
     letter from you, which I sent to him. Should you be able to obtain
     any information from Timbuctoo[104], or of the interior of this
     country, which would gratify one's curiosity, I will be very
     thankful for a slice of it.

     I am ever, dear Jackson,
     Most faithfully your's,
     JAMES M. MATRA.

         [Footnote 104: All _my information_ respecting Timbuctoo, will
         be found in Jackson's Account of Marocco, Chapter XIII.]
86

     LETTER IX.

     _Custom of visiting the Emperor on his Arrival at Marocco.--Journey
     of the Merchants thither on that occasion.--No one enters the
     imperial Presence without a Present.--Mode of travelling.--The
     Commercio.--Imperial Gardens at Marocco.--Audience of the
     Sultan.--Amusements at Marocco.--Visit to the Town of
     Lepers.--Badge of Distinction worn by the Lepers.--Ophthalmia at
     Marocco.--Its probable Cause.--Immense Height of the Atlas, east
     and south of Marocco.--Mode of visiting at Marocco.--Mode of
     eating.--Trades or Handicrafts at Marocco.--Audience of Business of
     the Sultan.--Present received from the Sultan_.

     TO JAMES WILLIS, ESQ.

     Mogodor, 1788.

     The emperor having departed from Mequinas where he passed the
     winter, to Marocco, his summer residence, it becomes an incumbent
     duty for all loyal subjects, to pay their respects to him. All the
     bashaws of provinces, south of the river Morbeya, which divides the
     northern part of his dominions from the southern, as well as all
     the alkaids or governors of towns and districts under the authority
     of the bashaws of the provinces, are expected to show their
     loyalty, by obtaining permission to present themselves to the
     imperial presence; when they give an account of the state of the
87   district which they respectively govern. The bashaw of each
     province communicates with the emperor, and determines which of the
     alkaids[105] shall have the honour of presenting themselves. On
     these occasions, that is, when the emperor comes to Marocco, it is
     customary for the merchants of Mogodor to perform the journey to
     the metropolis[106] of the south, and to present his imperial
     majesty with a present; indeed, it is not the etiquette of this
     court for any one to demand an audience (which the lowest subject
     in the realm may claim) without being prepared to present
     something; so that the poor may have an audience by presenting half
     a dozen eggs, or any similar trifle, such as some fruit or flowers;
     but no one enters the imperial presence (_khawie_, as they term it,
     _i. e._) empty-handed. The routine is this: The European merchants,
     together with the house of Guedalla and Co., who are native Jews,
     are called _el commercio;_ the commercio, therefore, solicit the
     honour of presenting themselves to the emperor, to offer their
     congratulations on his arrival; this is acceded to, and the
     minister, who is denominated the _talb cadus_, a term designating a
     man who disperses orders and communications to every one, writes a
88   letter to the commercio, expressive of the emperor's disposition to
     see them, and requesting them to repair to his presence: a guard is
     given by the alkaid of Mogodor, and a present _ought_ to be
     selected of such articles as are not to be bought at the markets of
     the country. A present consisting of such articles, previously
     ordered from Europe, and judiciously selected, is better calculated
     to gratify the emperor, than ten times the value injudiciously
     collected. The merchants accordingly prepared themselves to proceed
     to Marocco; some rode mules, some horses, for there are no
     carriages in this country; and every individual had his tent and
     servants with him. We travelled three days through a fine country,
     and reached the city of Marocco the fourth day, in the afternoon,
     travelling eight hours each day, at the rate of four miles an hour.
     On our approach to the city, we sent an express to the _talb
     cadus_, who, by the imperial order, appropriated the emperor's
     garden, _jinnen el afia_, for our reception, the pavilion in which
     was appropriated to our service; we preferred, however, in this
     delightful climate, sleeping in our tents, which we were permitted
     to pitch in this beautiful garden. We dined in the _coba_, or
     pavilion. The (_talb cadus_) minister paid us a visit, to say that
     the emperor requested we would take the following day to rest from
     our journey, and at eight o'clock on the following morning, he
     would receive us; the present was accordingly prepared, which was
89   carried by four-and-twenty men; every article (the bulky ones
     excepted) being enveloped in a Barcelona silk handkerchief. The
     emperor was in the (_m'ushoir_) place of audience, on that side of
     the city which faces the mountains of Atlas. At our presentation we
     did not prostrate ourselves, but bowed, in the European manner; the
     emperor said, bono el commercio, a Spanish phrase which he uses in
     interviews with Europeans, and which is equivalent to his saying,
     you are welcome, merchants. To this we replied, _Allah iberk amer
     seedi_, God bless the life of my master. The emperor asked if we
     were recovered from the fatigue of our journey, and was quite
     affable; he then said, communicate with the effendi[107], and
     whatever you want shall be granted to you; for I am disposed to
     encourage and (_amel el k'here_) to do good to my merchants. The
     master of the audience then came to us, and signified that we might
     depart; we made our obeisance, and returned to our habitation. This
     was the audience of introduction, which is always short; the second
     audience is for business; and the third is the audience of
     departure. We remained encamped in the imperial garden a fortnight
     before we had another audience; in the mean time we amused
     ourselves in riding about the country, and in visiting some of the
90   most respectable inhabitants, among whom was the _cadus_, who has a
     noble mansion, replete with every convenience, and a garden in the
     centre of it. The rooms of this house were long and narrow, with a
     pair of high doors in the centre of the room, through which alone
     the light is admitted; the floors were paved with small glazed
     tiles, about two inches square, very neatly fitted, and of
     different colours; the walls were the same, a mode of building
     which in this warm climate imparts a grateful coolness; the
     ceilings are painted in the Araberque style, with brilliant
     colours. The roofs are of terras, and flat, having an insensible
     declivity, just sufficient to give the rain that falls a course,
     which falling into the pipes, is received in the (_mitfere_) a
     subterraneous cistern, which supplies the family with water the
     whole year, till the rainy season returns again.

         [Footnote 105: In each province, or bashawick, there are
         several alkaids or governors of districts.]

         [Footnote 106: The city of Fas is the metropolis of the north,
         as Marocco is of the south. Mequinas is the court town of the
         north, and resembles the Hague, where few reside but such as
         are employed in the service of the crown.]

         [Footnote 107: This word was used by the seed, or emperor, in
         the presumption that it is understood by Europeans; but _cadus_
         is the Arabic term.]

     There is near to the walls of Marocco, about the north-west point,
     a village, called (_Deshira el Jeddam_) i.e. the Village of Lepers.
     I had a curiosity to visit this village; but I was told that any
     other excursion would be preferable; that the Lepers were totally
     excluded from the rest of mankind; and that, although none of them
     would dare to approach us, yet the excursion would be not only
     unsatisfactory but disgusting. I was, however, determined to go; I
     mounted my horse, and took two horse-guards with me, and my own
     servant. We rode through the Lepers' town; the inhabitants
91   collected at the doors of their habitations, but did not approach
     us; they, _for the most part_, showed no external disfiguration,
     but were generally sallow; some of the young women were very
     handsome; they have, however, a paucity of eyebrow, which, it must
     be allowed, is somewhat incompatible with a beauty; some few had no
     eyebrows at all, which completely destroyed the effect of their
     dark animated eyes. They are obliged to wear a large straw hat,
     with a brim about nine inches wide; this is their _badge of
     separation_, a token of division between the clean and unclean,
     which when seen in the country, or on the roads, prevents any one
     from having personal contact with them. They are allowed to beg,
     and accordingly are seen by the side of the roads, with their straw
     hat badge, and a wooden bowl before them, to receive the charity of
     passengers, exclaiming (_attanie m'ta Allah_) "bestow on me the
     property of God;" (_kulshie m'ta Allah_) "all belongs to God!"
     reminding the passenger that he is a steward of, and accountable
     for the appropriation of his property; that he derives his property
     from the bounty and favour of God. When any one gives them money,
     they pronounce a blessing on him; as (_Allah e zeed kherik_) "may
     God increase your good," &c. The province of Haha abounds in
     lepers; and it is said that the Arganic[108] oil, which, is much
     used in food throughout this picturesque province, promotes this
     loathsome disease!

         [Footnote 108: This oil, which is excellent, and generally used
         for frying fish, should be thus prepared, according to the
         learned Doctor Barata, who was pensioned physician to the
         _Commercio_ of Mogodor, by which preparation it becomes
         perfectly wholesome, and deprived of any leprous or other bad
         quality: Take a quart of Argan oil, and put in it a large onion
         cut in slices; when it boils add a piece of crumb of bread,
         equal in size to an onion, then let it boil a few minutes more,
         take it off, let it cool, and strain the oil through a sieve,
         and bottle it for daily use.]
92
     The chain of Atlas, east of Marocco, continually covered with snow,
     gives a pleasant coolness to the air of the city, in the summer
     season, particularly in the morning and evening; the coolness is
     generally said, however, to produce ophthalmia.[109] These
     mountains are immensely high, and their magnitude makes them appear
     not more than five miles from the city. It is, however, a day's
     journey to the foot of them, after which the ascent is so gradual,
     that it takes two days more to reach the snow. This part of the
     chain of Atlas, east of the city of Marocco, is seen at sea, twenty
     miles west of Mogodor, which latter place is about 120 miles from
93   Marocco; it is 35 miles from the city of Marocco to the foot of
     Atlas; and it is two days' journey from the foot of Atlas to the
     snow, which constantly covers the summit of these immense
     mountains. They are thus seen at a distance of 245 miles:

              20 miles from land at sea.
             120     do.    Mogodor to Marocco.
              35     do.    Marocco to the foot of
                              the mountains.
              70     do.    the foot of Atlas to the snow.
             ---
     Seen at 245 miles distance.
             ---

         [Footnote 109: Ophthalmic disorders prevail among the Jews of
         Marocco, but are seldom seen among the Moors. The Jews live in
         great filth at Marocco; the dung-hills and ruins are in some
         places as high as the houses. The Muhamedan doctrine does not
         allow the Moors to neglect personal cleanliness, which, among
         these people, is a cardinal virtue; and this, I presume, is the
         cause of their being, in a great measure, exempt from
         ophthalmia, whereas the Jews, on the contrary, are generally
         affected with it.]

     In this calculation, the direct distance in the ascent of the
     mountain, is less than the travelling distance; but without taking
     notice of the distance from the border of the snow to the summit of
     this lofty mountain, which is said to be another day's journey, the
     one may balance the other: we may therefore calculate 70 miles as
     the direct longitudinal distance, although I am persuaded it is
     much more from the foot to the summit of that part of the Atlas
     which is visible at sea.

     H.T. Colebrooke, Esq., in a paper inserted in the Asiatic
     Transactions, vol. xii. asserts, that it requires an elevation of
     28,000 feet, for an object to be visible at the distance of 200
94   geographical miles; now 245 English miles are equal to 211-1/2
     geographical miles; consequently, if Mr. Colebrooke be correct, the
     summit of Atlas, east of Marocco and Dimenet, which is seen at a
     distance of 211-1/2 geographical miles, must be 29,610 feet high,
     or above five miles and a half.

     Again, the chain of Atlas in Lower Suse, which lies east of Elala,
     and which is constantly covered with snow, is situated three days'
     journey, horse travelling, east-south-east from Elala, in Lower
     Suse; Elala is three days' journey from Santa Cruz, horse
     travelling, making together 180 miles: add for distance from the
     foot of the Elala mountains to the snow, 60 miles, and the Atlas in
     Lower Suse will be seen at the distance of 240 miles, or 207
     geographical miles.

       Thus, from Santa Cruz to the     }
     foot of the Atlas mountains, in the} 180 miles.
     district of Elala, in Lower Suse   }

       Add for distance from the foot   }
     of the Elala mountains to the      }  60
     snow                               }
                                     ---
       So that the Atlas in Lower Suse, }
     being seen at a distance of        } 240

     Or 207 geographical miles, must have an altitude of 28,980 feet.

     On the north side of the city of Marocco is a gate called _Beb El
     Khummes_, and near it is held, every Thursday, a market called soke
     _El Khummes_; at which immense quantities of horses, camels, mules,
     asses, oxen, sheep, goats, wheat and barley are sold; oils, gums,
95   almonds, dates, raisins, figs, bees' wax, honey, skins, &c. &c.
     &c.; also, slaves, male and female. Such a horse as would cost in
     London 50_l._, sells here for 50 dollars; a good mule sells for the
     same, viz. 50 dollars; a bull, 12 dollars; a cow, 15 dollars;
     sheep, a dollar and a half, each; a goat, a dollar. Very fine large
     grained wheat, which increases one-fifth in the grinding, sells at
     one dollar per saa, or about half a dollar per Winchester bushel.
     The slaves are conducted through the market by the auctioneer
     (_delel_), who exclaims, occasionally, (_khumseen reeal aal
     zeeada_, i.e.) "50 dollars on the increase," till he finds no one
     will advance; when he goes to the owner and declares the price
     offered; the owner then decides if he will sell or not; if he
     sells, the money is paid immediately, but if not, he takes his
     slave away with him, and tries him again the next market-day, or
     waits in expectation that this wretched article of trade will rise
     in value.

     A stranger passing through Marocco would consider it an irregular
     miserable town; but the despotic nature of the government induces
     every individual to secrete or conceal his opulence; so that the
     houses of the gentry are surrounded with a shabby wall, often
     broken or out of repair, at a considerable distance from the
     dwelling house, which does not appear, or is invisible to the
     passenger. Some of these houses are very handsome, and are
     furnished with couches, circular cushions to sit on, and other
96   furniture, in all the luxury of the East. When a visitor or a guest
     enters one of these houses, slaves come in with perfumes burning,
     in compliment to the visitor. Coffee and tea are then presented in
     small cups, having an outer cup to hold that which contains the
     liquor, instead of a saucer; the sugar being first put into the
     pot. The coffee or tea being poured out, already sweetened with
     sugar, a negro boy generally takes his station in one corner of a
     spacious room, pours out the liquor, and sends it to the guests by
     another boy. The tea table is a round stand, about twelve inches
     from the ground, at which the tea boy sits down on a leather
     cushion, cross legged.

     When dinner is served, the food is in a large dish or bowl, on a
     round stand, similar to that above described; three, four, or more
     sit round it; a servant comes to the company with a ewer and
     napkin; each person wash their right hand, and eat with their
     fingers; in the higher circles, rose-water is used instead of
     plain; if soup is served, they eat it with wooden spoons; in this
     respect the emperor himself sets them the example, who reprobates
     the use of the precious metals with food.

     When the Moors sit down to eat; high and low, rich and poor, (for I
     have partaken of food with all ranks, from the prince to the
     plebeian,) they invariably invoke God's blessing, previous to the
     repast, and offer thanks at the conclusion. Their first grace is,
     invariable, short, and comprehensive; _bis'm illah_, "In the name
97   of God." The after grace is, _El Ham'd û littah_, "Praise be to
     God."

     A very excellent dish is generally eaten in this country, called
     _cuscasoe_; it is made with flour, granulated into particles the
     size of a partridge shot, which is, put over a steamer, till the
     steam has sufficiently passed through it, so as to produce the
     effect of boiling; it is then taken off, broken, and returned to
     steam a second time; in the meantime, a chicken or some meat is
     boiling in the saucepan, under the steamer, with onions, turnips,
     and other vegetables; when the _cuscasoe_ has been steamed a second
     time, it is taken off, coloured with saffron, and mixed with some
     butter, salt, and pepper, and piled up in a large round bowl or
     dish, garnished with the chicken or meat and vegetables. This is a
     very nutritious, wholesome, and palatable dish, when well cooked.
     It is in high estimation with the Arabs, Moors, Brebers, Shelluhs,
     and Negroes. When they sit down to eat, each person puts his
     fingers into the dish before him; and in respectable society, it is
     remarkable how dextrously they jerk the food into their mouths,
     which never come into contact with their hands; so that this mode
     of eating is scarcely objectionable, certainly not obnoxious, as
     some travellers have represented it; but who probably had
     associated with the lower ranks of society, who, indeed, are not
     particular in these observances.
98
     All kind of trades are carried on at Marocco: jewellers,
     goldsmiths, blacksmiths, coppersmiths, tanners, &c. &c.; but that
     which is the most honourable, is a shoe-maker, because Muhamed
     himself was one. At Mequinas they make excellent shoes, of leather
     impervious to water, for 1_s._ 8_d._ per pair.

     The time now approached for our audience of business, and we had
     represented to the _Talb Cadus_, that the export duties on some
     articles were too heavy, viz. on wax, almonds, and olive oil; also
     on certain imports, viz. iron, steel, and Buenos Ayres hides; but
     no diminution was obtained, except in the duty of bees' wax. The
     emperor gave hopes of an exportation of grain, and desired us to
     write to Europe for ships to come and load wheat, barley, Indian
     corn, caravances, beans, lentils, and millet. We were favourably
     received; the emperor asked several questions respecting Europe,
     and informed us we should return to Mogodor in a few days. Three
     days after this audience we were ordered to meet the emperor in the
     _Jenan En neel_, where we had our audience of leave, and the
     emperor gave each of us a fine horse, chosen by ourselves out of
     his own stable; and we took our leave and departed for Mogodor the
     following evening. We slept encamped under the magnificent and
     lofty date trees, in the neighbourhood of the city, the first
     night.
99

     LETTER X.

     FROM MR. WILLIS TO MR. JACKSON.

     Harley-street, London,

     My dear Sir,                                 September 10, 1798.

     I write to acknowledge the receipt of your favour. I know no man
     better qualified than yourself for the station of an African
     consul; and really think, that to assist you in obtaining such a
     post, is to render service to my country, as well as to yourself.
     Your information concerning the interior of Africa, and especially
     concerning Timbuctoo, appears to me to be more accurate, authentic,
     and extensive than that of any other person I have met with;
     considerably more so than that of any of the correspondents of the
     African association. Mr. Park, of whose return you are informed,
     has brought home no addition to the stock of our knowledge of that
     important place; though I think his geographical communications are
     highly valuable, particularly as they regard the river and course,
     &c. of the Niger. This celebrated river will, I think, in time be
     the channel of communication between Europe and the interior of
     Africa. It seems to penetrate into that continent, in its widest
     and most interesting part; if it should be navigable through its
     entire course, we might hereafter make it the instrument of the
     most important discoveries, and the channel of the most valuable
100  commerce. I shall be much obliged to you for information concerning
     this river, particularly as to its termination. I suspect it
     discharges itself into some interior sea or vast lake, like the
     Caspian; unless, like the Burrampooter, after various and extensive
     windings, it may return towards its source, and fall into the
     Atlantic.

     You will have heard of the landing of a French army in Egypt, under
     Buonaparte; the French are enterprising, and if they should
     penetrate from the eastward, while we advance from the west, the
     interior of the African continent may at length be laid open.

     I remain, my dear Sir,
     Your's sincerely,

     J. WILLIS.
101

     LETTER XI.

     FROM THE SAME TO THE SAME.

                                                Harley-street, London,
                                                         June 10.1800.
     My dear Sir,

     I did not receive, till the 22d November, your favour, dated 1st
     September last, for which I beg you to receive my best thanks. I
     have transmitted an extract of it to Lord Moira, Sir Joseph Banks,
     and to a friend of mine, who is a member of parliament, and has
     great influence with his majesty's ministers; in order that he may
     lay it before the secretary of state, in such a manner as to draw
     his attention to it in the most impressive and effectual manner;
     but I much fear that the pressure of the war, and its consequent
     effects; the arrangements of finance, &c. will preclude their
     immediate support to objects which they consider as of very
     subordinate importance. The time is certainly highly favourable for
     the cultivation of the friendship of the emperor, and of other
     Muhamedan sovereigns; now that the British arms have preserved the
     principal empire of the Moslems, by the victory at Aboukir, and the
     defense of Acre; in consequence of which, Egypt has been recovered,
     and one of the sacred gates of the Caaba again opened to the
102  Mussulmen. This appears to be an event of the highest consideration
     to the Muhamedans of Africa, since it is by Grand Cairo, that the
     western pilgrims communicate with Mecca.

     I suppose you have received the narratives, published by Park and
     Browne, of their respective journies and discoveries in the
     interior of your continent; they have done much, but much more
     still remains to be done; and above all, the discovery of Timbuctoo
     and its commercial relations.

     There is a captain Wild, now either at Tunis or Algiers, preparing
     himself for this journey, (as I am informed,) a man of intrepidity,
     judgment, and enterprise; whom Sir Joseph Banks writes me, he hopes
     to engage in the employment of the African association.

     I assure you that I consider you, as the only European that
     possesses any substantial and interesting information concerning
     that part of interior Africa, which we are most solicitous to
     investigate; and, therefore, set a high value upon whatever you are
     so good as to communicate. I am also of opinion, that your plans
     may very probably be adopted by administration, when the return of
     peace shall leave their minds at liberty to attend to it.
103

     LETTER XII.

     FROM THE SAME TO THE SAME.

                                               Harley-street, London,
                                               5th May, 1801.
     My dear Sir,

     I wrote you at considerable length on the 1st of June last, and
     assure you that none of your letters, received prior to that date,
     have remained unanswered. I have now to acknowledge the receipt of
     your several favours, and beg you to accept my best thanks, for
     your very curious and valuable present of the gold ring from
     Wangara, which has been shown to several persons of great
     distinction, and even to the king himself. _It is universally
     considered as a great curiosity_; and I have taken care to make it
     known that you are the person to whom I am indebted, for the first
     _Wangarian_ jewel that has ever been seen in England. I have also
     shown your letter, containing your judicious opinions upon the
     course of the Niger[110], and other geographical points, to Sir
     Joseph Banks and Major Rennell; and have invariably represented you
     to them, and to others, as the person possessing eminently the best
     information concerning the interior of Africa; an object which
     draws at present the earnest attention, both of the learned and the
104  great, and which our late victories in Egypt, render more
     peculiarly interesting.

         [Footnote 110: See Jackson's account of Marocco, last chapter.]

     I think, with you, it is probable there is a communication by water
     between Jinnie and Egypt; but I should rather imagine there is some
     large lake or Mediterranean sea, like the Caspian, for instance,
     into which the Niger may discharge itself from the west, and a
     branch of the Nile from the east. This idea seems to reconcile the
     opinions of ancient geographers, with those resulting from modern
     discoveries. If we should be able to effect the complete conquest
     of Egypt, and to retain that kingdom, much light will probably soon
     be acquired upon these interesting subjects.
105

     LETTER XIII.

     _Journey from Mogodor, to Rabat, to Mequinas, to the Sanctuary of
     Muley Dris Zerone in the Atlas Mountains, to the Ruins of Pharaoh,
     and thence through the Amorite Country to L'Araich and
     Tangier.--Started from Mogodor with Bel Hage as my_ (Tabuk) _Cook,
     ana Deeb as my_ (Mûle Lukkerzana) _Tent Master.--Exportation of
     Wool granted by the Emperor.--Akkermute depopulated by the
     Plague.--Arabs, their Mode of hunting the Partridge.--Observations
     respecting the River Tansift.--Jerf El Eûdie, or the Jews'
     Pass.--Description of Saffy, and its Port or Road.--Woladia
     calculated to make a safe Harbour.--Growth of Tobacco.--Mazagan
     described.--Azamor the Abode of Storks.--Saneet Urtemma a dangerous
     Country.--Dar El Beida, Fedalla, and Rabat described.--Mausoleum of
     the Sultan Muhamed ben Abd Allah at Rabat.--Of Shella, a Roman
     Town.--Of the Tower of Hassan.--Road of Rabat.--Productive Country
     about Rabat.--Salee.--The People inimical to Christians.--The
     Dungeon where they confined Christian Slaves.--Ait Zimurh,
     notorious Thieves.--Their Mode of Robbing.--Their Country disturbed
     with Lions.--Arrival at Mequinas.--Some Account of that City and
     its imperial Palace.--Ladies of Mequinas extremely
     beautiful.--Arrival at the renowned Sanctuary of Muley Dris
     Zerone.--Extraordinary and favourable Reception there by the
     Fakeers of the Sanctuary.--Slept in the Adytum.--Succour expected
     from the English in the Event of an Invasion by
     Bonaparte.--Prostration and Prayer of Benediction by the Fakeers at
106  my Departure from the Sanctuary.--Ruins of Pharaoh near the
     Sanctuary.--Treasures found there.--Ite Amor.--The Descendants of
     the Ancient Amorites.--Character of these People.--Various Tribes
     of the Berebbers of Atlas.--El Kassar Kabeer.--Its Environs, a
     beautiful Country.--Forest of L'Araich.--Superior Manufacture of
     Gold Thread made at Fas, as well as Imitations of Amber.--Grand
     Entry of the British Ambassador into Tangier.--Our Ignorance of
     African Matters.--The Sultan's Comparison of the Provinces of his
     Empire to the various Kingdoms of Europe._

     TO JAMES WILLIS, ESQ.

                                                              Tangier,
                                                     8th August, 1801.
     Dear sir,

     My journey to meet His Excellency James M. Matra, the British
     ambassador to the Court of Marocco, was undertaken principally to
     obtain permission to ship a large quantity of wool which I had in
     my possession, the exportation of which had been recently
     prohibited. I thought I could not select a more seasonable time
     than when our ambassador was at court; accordingly, I started from
     Mogodor (the morning after I dispatched two vessels for Europe) on
     the 4th June last, at four o'clock, P.M. My journey was first to
     Rabat; thence, across the country, to Fas and Mequinas; thence to
     the renowned and revered sanctuary of Muley Dris Zerone, on the
     declivity of the mountains of Atlas, east of Mequinas; thence to
     _Kassar Farawan_ (the ruins of Pharaoh), and through the warlike
107  province of the Ait Amor, to L'Araich, Arzilla, and to Tangier.

     I took with me two of the finest horses in the country, to ride
     alternately. Two mules and three camels carried my baggage, tents,
     &c. Muhamed of Diabet, commonly called _Deeb_, I engaged as
     tent-master; this is the man that astonished Aly Bey El Abassy,
     when he shot the fish in the river, as recorded by that interesting
     traveller. I engaged a most excellent fellow as cook, a man who had
     performed many journies in a similar capacity with the princes; he
     was acquainted with the roads, the country, and the character of
     the people; the camel-drivers and muleteers completed our party.
     We arrived at Tela at nine o'clock in the evening, being a journey
     of five hours. We remained at Tela the whole of the following day,
     and started on the 6th June at seven o'clock; arrived, at ten
     o'clock, at Akkermute, a town in ruins, in the plains west of
     _Jebbel El Heddeed_ (the iron mountains), which was depopulated by
     the plague about fifty years since. Passing through the plains of
     Akkermute, towards the river Tensift, we saw a party of Arabs
     hunting partridges; we did not stop to see this novel sport, but I
     was informed that the dogs were directed by the huntsmen to the
     spot where the birds settled, which roused them; they then pursued
     them again, and after rousing them several times without
     intermission, the birds become fatigued and exhausted by continual
108  flying, and the dogs then run them down and seize on them. In six
     hours from Akkermute, at four o'clock, P.M., we reached the river
     Tensift, which brings its water from the Atlas, east of Marocco,
     meandering through the plains and passing about three miles north
     of that city.

     We pitched our tents under the walls of the (_Luksebba_) castle, on
     the south bank of the river.

     We started the next morning at six o'clock, and travelling through
     a fine country, we came to a narrow pass on the declivity of a
     lofty mountain called Jerf El Eudie, a most picturesque country,
     and arrived at the port of Saffy at eleven o'clock. Saffy has no
     harbour, but a road where ships are obliged to put to sea whenever
     the south-wind blows; the town was fortified when in possession of
     the Portuguese, and is situated in a declivity between two hills,
     so that during the rainy season the waters come down so rapidly
     that they sometimes overflow the lower apartments of the houses and
     commit considerable damage. On the 8th June we started from Saffy
     at nine o'clock, and arrived at the sanctuary of Seedi Cuscasoe at
     five o'clock, P.M.; and proceeding on, we reached El Woladia at
     nine, and pitched our tents. This place might be made a secure
     harbour for the whole British navy, by blowing up a rock which
     impedes the narrow passage at the entrance of a long and extensive
     bay. From hence we started at half-past five o'clock in the
     morning; we proceeded northwards along the coast till eleven
109  o'clock, when we reached the beautiful and abundant valley, the
     Woolga; travelling on through the country, leaving the sea to the
     left, we arrived at six o'clock at the Douar, (an encampment of
     Arabs,) called _Woled Aisah, i.e._ "Sons of Jesus," situated in the
     productive province of Duquella. The environs of the Douar of Woled
     Aisah abound in plantations of tobacco, of a superior quality,
     equal to the Havannah. The next morning, viz. on the 10th June, we
     struck our tents at six o'clock, and travelling three hours we
     arrived, at nine, at the _Jerf el Saffer_ (the Yellow Cliff): three
     hours more brought us to Tet, and an hour more to Mazagan, which we
     reached at one o'clock. Mazagan is the Portuguese name; the Moorish
     name is El Burreja. This is a very strong place, having several
     stout bastions; there is a magnificent (_mitfere_) cistern of
     water, built by the Portuguese, supported by many pillars of great
     strength of the Tuscan order. The water in the neighbourhood of
     Mazagan is very salubrious; this country is full of springs. The
     inhabitants have a good healthy colour, very different from the
     inhabitants of the plains of the province of Duquella, which being
     supplied by water from wells only, of from 100 to 200 feet deep,
     have a sallow and sickly appearance. It may, in Europe, appear
     extraordinary that the quality of water should produce such a
     manifest difference in the complexion of the inhabitants, but when
     we consider that these people drink no wine, spirits, or malt
110  liquor, the paradox will immediately vanish. After viewing the
     mitfere, or cistern, and batteries at Mazagan, we mounted at four
     o'clock, and arrived at Azamor at seven o'clock P.M., pitched the
     tents in a large spacious fondaque, or caravansera, in the centre
     of the town. We were annoyed during the night by thousands of
     storks, the cluttering of whose bills would not permit us to sleep.
     This town is in the centre of a beautiful country. On the 11th
     June, at noon, we pursued our journey, and reached Sancet Urtemma
     at eight o'clock P.M. This is a dangerous country, infested with
     robbers, who, from the undulating face of the country, have many
     modes of escape; we, therefore, retired into a solitary retreat,
     and lay on our arms, without sleep, all night. At six o'clock next
     morning, being the 12th June, we started, and arrived at Dar el
     Beida at twelve. Here I was hospitably entertained by the agents of
     the Spanish house of the Cinquo Gremos of Madrid, who were
     established here for the purpose of shipping corn to Spain. We left
     Dar el Beida, at half-past three, and reached Fedalla at half-past
     seven. This is a fine productive country, abounding in grain as
     well as Dar el Beida. On the 13th we started at four o'clock, and
     reached El Mensoria at seven; stopped and dined, mounted at ten
     A.M. and arrived at Rabat at seven o'clock, P.M. after a journey
     from Mogodor, of 80-1/2 hours of actual travelling, or 242 English
     miles.[111]

         [Footnote 111: Calculated at the rate of three miles an hour,
         including stoppages and refreshments.]
111
     Rabat is the largest town on the coast of the empire, it is walled
     round; its circumference is about four miles; an aqueduct conveys
     abundance of water to the town from a distance of several miles.
     The mausoleum of the sultan Muhamed, father to the present sultan
     Soliman, is in the town of Rabat, it is a neat building, surrounded
     by a colonade; here is a lamp continually burning, and a
     _muden_[112], who is a fakeer, is continually proclaiming the
     omnipotence of God, and that Muhamed is the prophet. "_La Allah,
     ila Allah, wa Muhamed rassul Allah._" There is a very strong
     battery towards the sea, at the mouth of the river, which is bomb
     proof. The city wall is high, and is strengthened by several
     bastions mounting cannon: towards the land, about a mile from
     Rabat, there is a spring, reported to have been discovered by the
     Romans, and near it is the Roman town of Shella, which none but
     musulmen are permitted to enter. In it are said to be the tombs of
     two sultans, but most probably of Roman generals. Kettles or pans
     of coins are continually found by the people who dig the ground at
     this place, and the coins found are Roman. Some European travellers
     enhanced the price of these coins so much, by their eagerness to
     purchase them, that they offered more than double their intrinsic
112  value, so that the Jews imitated them so well that they deceived
     even these antiquaries. There are several mosques in this town, but
     that which attracts particularly the notice of travellers, is the
     _sma Hassan, i.e._ the tower of Hassan, situated about a mile from
     Shella, on the south banks of the river Buregreg, so called from
     its being in the province of Beny Hassan, it is an old tower built
     in a superior manner by an architect of Grenada, the same that
     built the tower at Marocco, called _Jamaa Lifenar_, one at
     Timbuctoo, and that at Seville; it is about 200 feet high,
     perfectly square, and a person may ride up to the top on horseback,
     having a gradual ascent, and seven chambers one above the other:
     the cement with which it is made is so hardened that no pickaxe can
     destroy it. It was represented to the sultan Muhamed that the
     apartments in this tower were the haunts of vice and immorality,
     and the sultan ordered the floor or terras, by which visitors
     ascend, to be broken; it was found, however, impossible to destroy
     it, wherefore the workmen were ordered to desist, and the entrance
     was blocked up with loose stones. This tower I ascended with my
     friend the Comte de Fourban, nephew to the duke de Crillon, who
     conducted the famous siege of Gibraltar, and whose machinations
     were so admirably defeated by the immortal governor of that
     garrison, General Elliott, Lord Heathfield. The Comte had ruined
     his constitution by being immolated in a dungeon in France, during
113  the reign of Robespierre, where he remained during fifteen months,
     oftentimes seated on steps in water up to his ankles. The Comte was
     a very generous and liberal man, an emigrant French nobleman,
     protected by the British consul at the court of Morocco. The
     disorder contracted by ill usage and confinement in prison, brought
     on a disease which, after applying various remedies to no purpose,
     carried him off, and he died at Rabat. The house of the French
     consul and those of some other European consuls who formerly
     resided here, are conveniently situated on the southern banks of
     the river Buregreg, which divides Rabat from Salee. Ships of one
     hundred tons, that do not draw much water, may pass the bar and
     load close to these houses; but larger vessels must come to anchor
     in the offing, and take in their cargoes by boats. The country
     about Rabat and Salee is wonderfully abundant in all the finest
     grain, leguminous plants, fruits, vegetables, and cattle; the
     orange, lemon, Seville, or bitter orange, and citron plantations
     are here very extensive and extremely productive. Several ships
     might be loaded here with oranges in October and November, before
     the gales of the latter half of December and the month of January
     set in. One hundred fine large oranges may be had for a drahim, a
     silver coin worth 6_d._ sterling. The orange plantations of Rabat
     are of incalculable extent; the trees are as large as a
     middling-sized oak; the vineyards and cotton plantations are
     likewise most abundant; and nothing can exceed the good quality of
114  the grapes, figs, oranges, citrons, apricots, peaches, and
     water-melons; the quality of the latter is peculiarly _sweet_, they
     are called _Dilla Seed Billa_; the seed of which might be
     advantageously transported to our new colony, the Cape of Good
     Hope. The vineyards of Rabat are very extensive; the vines are
     cultivated in the Arabian system, on the ground, which is a light
     sandy soil: the immense numbers of turtle-doves that are in these
     vineyards is such, that a bad sportsman cannot fail killing a dozen
     or two at every shot; they rise just before you in thousands, and
     the foulahs, or vine cultivators, express their gratitude to the
     Christians who go to shoot them. These birds, from being
     unmolested, are so tame and so abundant, that they destroy an
     incalculable quantity of the best fruit.

         [Footnote 112: The muden is the man who ascends the tower of
         the Mosque and announces prayer.]

     On the 14th, the Comte de Fourban accompanied me, and we crossed
     the river, in the ferry, to visit Salee. The inhabitants of this
     town are inimical to Christians: we viewed the subterraneous cavern
     where the Sallee rovers formerly confined their Christian slaves:
     it resembled a mitfere or large subterraneous granary; it had two
     grates to let in the air; it appeared perfectly dry, but no one was
     in it. The Comte observed that it was far preferable to the prison
     where he was confined in France, during the reign or usurpation of
     Robespierre. The air of Salee and Rabat, and the adjacent country,
115  is strongly perfumed, morning and evening, with the sweet odour of
     the orange-flower, of which they make immense quantities of
     delectable comfits.

     On the morning of the 15th, we pursued our journey to Mequinas,
     passing through a very fine country, inhabited by a Kabyl of
     Berebbers, called Ait Zemurh. We halted, at four o'clock P.M. at a
     circular Douar of these Berebbers, in a fine campaign country. The
     next morning, at five o'clock, we struck the tents, and proceeded
     through a dangerous country, infested by artful robbers, and the
     occasional depredations of the lion and other wild beasts, whose
     roaring we heard at a distance. We saw several square buildings,
     which our guides informed us were built by the Berebbers, for the
     purpose of destroying the lion. The patient hunter will conceal
     himself in one of these buildings, which are about five feet by
     seven, and will wait whole days for an opportunity to get a shot at
     the lion: these noble beasts are here said to be the largest in all
     Africa. After travelling this day ten hours, we pitched our tents
     at another circular encampment of the Zimurite[113] Berebbers.
     These people drive in stakes and place thorny bushes round their
     encampment, eight feet high, and fill up the entrance every night
     with thorns, as the fiercest lions of Africa abound in the adjacent
     forests, and sometimes attack their habitations, accordingly they
116  keep a large fire all night to deter the lions and other wild
     beasts from approaching. About two hours after midnight, my grey
     horse, who was an old campaigner, neighed and awoke us; this gave
     the alarm, and my people were presently on the alert, and perceived
     two men approaching our tents, crawling naked along the ground,
     which was of the same colour with their bodies. We did not wish to
     take them, fearing that the people of the Douar would espouse the
     cause of their countrymen, but my people gave the alarm, and
     exclaimed "_Erd abellek asas_," i.e. "Be watchful, guards!" We then
     saw these marauders jump up, and run away as fast as they could;
     keeping watch the rest of the night: we were advised to take no
     notice of this circumstance. The people of Ait Zimurh are professed
     robbers: they would not allow us to pitch our tents _within_ their
     circular encampment, a privilege universally granted to strangers
     and travellers. I thought this very unhospitable; being totally
     different from any thing I had ever before witnessed in this
     country, where hospitality generally exceeds all bounds. I have no
     doubt that the people of the Douar were in league with the robbers;
     I considered my escape, the next day, when I was apprised of the
     danger of the country I had confided in, quite providential, and I
     have no doubt but these people would delude any one that would
     trust to their honour: they reminded me of the ancient Africans, as
     described by Sallust, in the wars of Jugurtha.

         [Footnote 113: The Zimurites, or Ait Zimure, are probably the
         descendants of the Zemarites: for which see 1 Chron. i. 16.]
117
     We struck our tents at five o'clock, and travelled very fast to get
     out of these treacherous habitations; for we learned that, the
     preceding night, Alkaid L'Hassan Ramy, a Negro captain of the
     emperor's army, passed this Douar, and was robbed of his bridles,
     saddles, and tent equipage, with which the thieves made off,
     without being discovered. I afterwards met Alkaid L'Hassan Ramy at
     Mequinas; and he appeared quite astonished that I should have
     escaped being robbed at the above Douar, calling the whole Kabyl a
     set of lawless thieves. On the 17th, we started at five o'clock,
     and arrived at Mequinas at nine o'clock, performing the journey
     from Rabat to Mequinas in twenty-two hours, being sixty-six miles.
     The city of Mequinas is the court-town of the northern division of
     the empire: the imperial palace at this place is above two miles in
     circumference. At the corners are erected (_Coba's_) square
     buildings or pavilions, containing one room up stairs, where the
     emperor frequently transacts business. This palace was built by the
     sultan Muley Ismael: it is very neat, and consists for the most
     part of moresque architecture; the marble columns and other
     decorations were brought from (_Kasser Farawan_) the ruins of
     Pharaoh, about a day's journey to the eastward. There is a superior
     garden of choice fruit within the wall which surrounds the palace,
     and in the latter are many elegant apartments, ornamented
     _À-la-mauresque_. The ladies of Mequinas are so extremely handsome,
118  that I cannot say I saw one plain young woman, although I visited
     several families; nay, I can say, without offense to truth, that I
     did not see one that was not comely and handsome. I was most
     hospitably entertained wherever I went. On the 18th June, at eight
     o'clock A.M. we started for Fas; when we had approached the latter
     city, we met a messenger, with the prince Muley Abdsalam's
     secretary, from the emperor to his excellency J.M. Matra, the
     British ambassador to the court of Marocco, who informed me that
     his excellency had just terminated his embassy, had waited for my
     arrival two days, and was on his return to Tangier. Presuming,
     therefore, that the ambassador had negociated my business for me, I
     turned to the north-east, travelled all day without halting, till
     eight o'clock in the evening, when we arrived at the renowned
     sanctuary[114] of Muley Dris Zerone, on the declivity of North
     Atlas; a most magnificent, beautiful, and picturesque country,
     abounding in all the necessaries and luxuries of life. This
     sanctuary was never before, nor since, visited by any Christian. It
     was here that the standard of Muhamed was first planted in
     North-western Africa, by the fakeer and prince Muley Dris, the
     founder. A favourable combination of circumstances, of which I
     availed myself, enabled me to procure not only an asylum, but a
119  most hospitable and kind reception and entertainment in this
     renowned sanctuary; and I actually slept in the _Horem_ or Adytum
     itself, which honour I obtained by a present, appropriated to the
     circumstance, and sent to the chief fakeer of the sanctuary,
     accompanied with some observations expressed in a manner which was
     agreeable to the holy fraternity. When I entered the _Horem_ of
     this renowned sanctuary, where I slept alone, its silence reminded
     me of the silence of death, which formed one of the ancient
     mysteries of Egypt. The chief of the fakeers met me in the portico,
     and cordially shook hands with me, calling me his brother. At this
     time there was a rumour that Bonaparte was preparing to invade the
     country; and indeed he had intimated as much, the English were
     therefore courted; it was even hoped and expected by the emperor
     that they would in such an event become his allies, and give him
     succour. The next morning, I gave the fakeer some wax candles
     accompanied with observations emblematical of the present, which
     was so favourably received, that no less than nine saints
     prostrated themselves at the place of prayer, which is at the
     entrance of the town, as I passed out to pursue my journey,
     uttering with audible voices a (_fâtha_) prayer of benediction,
     invoking on me the protection of Almighty God, and a blessing on
     the English nation; also that God would avert every danger from the
     embassy, and restore them in safety to their native land. I am
120  perfectly aware that, in recording this extraordinary circumstance,
     persons who have visited this country, and have remarked the
     rancour that generally exists with the lower orders against
     Christians, may doubt my veracity, so unprecedented a circumstance
     it is for a Christian to be admitted into a _Horem_! the most
     respected also and the most sacred in the empire! My answer to such
     is, that the circumstance is so incredible, that I should not have
     presumed to lay it before the British public, if I had not two most
     respectable witnesses, _now living_ in West Barbary, who can and
     will corroborate my report; these two men are Bel Hage, a Muselman,
     who had been the prince's cook, and who officiated as mine during
     the journey, and Muhamed, commonly called Deeb, of Diabet, a
     village near Mogodor, the same man whose dexterity Aly Bey, in his
     travels, alludes to, when he shot a fish in the river near Mogodor.

         [Footnote 114: The town, in the centre of which stands the
         sanctuary, contains about 5000 inhabitants.]

     Half an hour's journey after leaving the sanctuary of Muley Dris
     Zerone, and at the foot of Atlas, I perceived to the left of the
     road magnificent and massive ruins; the country for miles around is
     covered with broken columns of white marble, the ruins appeared to
     be of the Egyptian, and massive style of architecture. There were
     still standing two porticos, about thirty feet high and twelve feet
     wide, the top of which was one entire stone. I attempted to take a
     view of these immense ruins, which have furnished marble for the
121  imperial palaces at Mequinas and at Tafilelt; but I was obliged to
     desist, seeing some persons of the sanctuary following the
     cavalcade. Pots and kettles of gold and silver coins are
     continually dug up from these ruins. The country, however, abounds
     in serpents, and we saw many scorpions under the stones that my
     conductor Deeb turned up. These ruins are said by the Africans to
     have been built by one of the Pharaohs: they are called "_Kasser
     Farawan_" i.e. the ruins of Pharaoh.[115] Here begins the territory
122  of the Brebber Kabyl, the Amorites or Ite-amor, said to be the
     descendants of the ancient[116] Amorites, whose country was
     situated east of Palestine. These people retain their ancient
     warlike spirit, but they are a faithless tribe, and intolerable
     thieves, unlike the other Kabyles (who are, at least, faithful to
     one of their own Kabyl); but these marauders are exceedingly
     mistrustful of their own brethren, so that their habitations
     consist of two or three tents only, in one encampment; and even
     these are sometimes at variance with each other. The lamentable
123  result of this mistrustful and marauding spirit, is wretched and
     universal poverty. Their country is a succession of gentle
     undulating hills, without trees or plantations of any kind. The
     late sultan Muhamed used to compare the provinces or races of men
     in his empire, to the nations of Europe, the English he called
     warriors, the French faithless, the Spaniards quiet and
     inoffensive, the Romans, i.e. the people of Italy, treacherous, the
     Dutch a parsimonious and trading people; the other powers of
     Europe, having no consul at Marocco, nor merchants in the country,
     are known only by name: accordingly, in allusion to the warlike
     spirit of the English, he would call the Ait Amor, "the English of
     Barbary;" Temsena, the French; Duquella, the Spanish; Haha, the
     Italians; and Suse, the Russians. When the sultan Muhamed began a
     campaign, he never entered the field without the warlike Ait Amor,
     who marched in the rear of the army; these people received no pay,
     but were satisfied with what plunder they got after a battle; and
     accordingly, this principle stimulating them, they were always
     foremost on any contest, dispute, or battle. They begin the
     campaign almost in a state of nudity, and seldom return to their
     homes without abundance of apparel, arms, horses, camels, and
     money; but this property quickly disappears, and these people are
     soon again reduced to their wonted misery and nudity, and become
124  impatient for another campaign of plunder. When the present sultan,
     Soliman, came from Mequinas, in the year of the plague (1799), a
     division of his army passed near Mogodor, and the encampments of
     the Ait Amor, or Amorites occupied the whole of the country from
     the river to the Commerce Garden, a distance of three miles. It is
     very probable that some other of the tribes bordering on Palestine,
     may have emigrated in remote times, and may have taken their abode
     on the Atlas mountains. There are above twenty (kabyls) tribes
     of[117] Berebbers occupying the mountains of Atlas, as Ait-Girwan,
     Zian, Ait-Ziltan, Ait-Amor, Ait-Ebeko, Ait-Kitiwa, Ait-Attar,
     Ait-Amaran, and many more whose names I do not now recollect. We
     travelled seven hours through the Amorite country, and pitched our
     tents in the north part of the plains of Msharrah Rummellah. Fire
     being lit, the Moors sat round to warm themselves, and confidently
     animadverted on the prosperity that would necessarily attend our
     journey, after having met with such a hospitable and favoured
     reception at the renowned sanctuary before mentioned.

         [Footnote 115: In reply to those learned sceptics who have
         studied books; but not men, and the manners of different
         countries; who believe nothing but what they have seen; and who
         say that Pharaoh never came so far west; I reply, that our
         knowledge of African history is extremely imperfect. In fact,
         we now know as certainties, various articles of which no record
         is to be found in any ancient writer; for the affairs of
         Africa, which, of late, have so deservedly excited the
         attention of the learned, were as little known to the ancients
         as they are to the moderns; insomuch that not a word is to be
         found in any ancient record or history extant, of those curious
         astronomical representations, the Zodiacs, which adorn the
         ceilings of the temples in _Egypt_, nor of the paintings which
         cover the silent and solemn repositories of their dead. Even
         the royal sepulchres, surpassing all the efforts of art
         hitherto known, in brilliancy of colours and decorative
         sculptures, are recorded by no historian! Neither in any
         history, _known to Europe_, is there any allusion to the
         Egyptian custom of placing books, i.e. rolls of manuscript, in
         the mummy coffins with the bodies of the deceased. For much of
         the knowledge collected respecting Africa, we are indebted to
         the catacombs of Egypt, and we must not hope to know much more,
         whilst our ignorance of the Arabic language is so manifest; we
         must travel far out of the precincts of Greek and Latin lore,
         before we shall procure correct histories of African affairs!
         Our knowledge of Hebrew, in Europe I apprehend, is almost as
         much confined and as imperfect as that of Arabic! By the
         assistance, however, of the latter, what store of learning
         might we not expect from complete Arabic translations of many
         of the Greek and Latin authors, _viz._ of the _complete_ works
         of Livy, Tacitus, and many others. I recollect conversing with
         Abdrahaman ben Nassar, bashaw of Abda, (a gentleman deeply
         versed in Arabian literature,) about the close of the last
         century, who mentioned circumstances, which gave me reason to
         suppose that there is extant a complete Arabic translation of
         Livy as well as of Tacitus, as the bashaw assured me there was,
         and that he had read them, and they were to be found in the
         recondite chests of the Imperial library at Fas, in which it is
         more than probable that there are many valuable transcripts in
         Arabic of ancient authors, quite lost to erudite Europe! A
         knowledge of the Arabic language in this country is so
         indispensable, and is held in such high estimation, that every
         one who does not understand it, is denominated _ajemmy_, _i.e._
         barbarian or European.--St. Paul in the same spirit says, I
         Corinth. ch. xiv. v. 11., "He that speaketh unintelligibly, is
         unto us a barbarian."]

         [Footnote 116: See Genesis, xv. 16. Deuteron. xx. 17. Judges,
         i. 34.]

         [Footnote 117: Some persons consider several tribes of these
         Berebbers to be colonies of the ancient Phenicians.]

     On the morning of the 20th June, we struck our tents at six
     o'clock, and pursued our journey to L'Araich, and soon entered the
     territory that belongs to the agriculturists of El Kassar Kabeer, a
125  beautiful country not unlike that of Ait-Amor in appearance, but
     bearing the evidences of agricultural industry. Here we discovered
     magnificent and extensive plantations of olives, immense
     citron-trees, orange-groves, and spacious vineyards, peaches,
     apricots, greengages, and walnuts were also the produce of this
     country, besides excellent wheat of a large and long transparent
     grain like amber, yielding, when ground into flour, from fifteen to
     twenty per cent. increase, in quantity. Anxious now to overtake His
     Excellency the ambassador, for the purpose of being present at his
     entry into Tangier, we accelerated our pace, with a view of coming
     up with him at L'Araich. We arrived at the forest of L'Araich at
     dusk, and travelled through it all night till five o'clock next
     morning.

     Having travelled incessantly twenty-three hours without halting,
     being much fatigued, I desired Deeb to take a little rest with me
     in an adjacent field, and we sent on Bel Hage with the baggage to
     L'Araich, to wait our arrival at the ferry. We pursued our journey
     at seven o'clock, and entered the town at nine. On reaching the
     ferry, Bel Hage introduced a courier, who had been dispatched to me
     from Fas, by a friend of mine, who informed me how much he, and
     many of my Moorish friends had been disappointed, that I did not
     enter that city, where I understood preparations had been made for
     my entertainment, in the odoriferous gardens of the merchants of
126  Fas. The courier brought me a present of gold wire and gold thread,
     of the manufacture of Fas, and some gold ornaments of filligrane
     work from Timbuctoo, of the manufacture of Jinnie. It is more than
     probable that the Fasees learned the art of manufacturing gold
     thread from the Egyptians: it is much superior to that which is
     imported into Barbary from Marseilles. The ladies ornament their
     cambric dresses with it, and the Fas gold-thread never loses its
     colour by washing, but the French does; the Fas gold thread wears
     also much better, and is more durable; the change of colour may
     possibly originate from the great proportion of alloy in the gold
     of the French manufacture, whereas that of Fas, according to an
     imperial edict, must be of a certain fineness, approaching to pure
     gold; the gold wire of which it is made being first assayed by the
     (_M'tasseb_) supervisor of manufactures. Great quantities of gold
     thread are used in the elegant shawls and sashes of silk and gold
     made at Fas, the better kind of which are reserved for princes and
     bashaws, in which they use, as before observed, the Fas thread
     only. They manufacture also at Fas, a very correct imitation of
     amber-beads, impossible to be discriminated by the best judges, but
     by rubbing the artificial amber, and then applying it to a bit of
     cotton; the latter does not adhere, but the natural amber attracts
     the cotton as a magnet does iron; and this is the discriminating
     criterion whereby to distinguish them.
127
     But, to return to our journey, we found the ambassador had passed
     the preceding day, we therefore crossed the river, and travelled on
     till nine o'clock at night, when, after being a-horseback
     thirty-four hours, refreshed only by two hours' sleep, we came up
     with the ambassadors, Cafila, and guard, in a fine open campaign
     country, half-way between Tangier and Arzilla; and soon after I
     received a courier from Sir Pieter Wyk, Swedish consul-general to
     the empire residing at Tangier, with a very friendly invitation to
     his house and table, which being the first offer and from a sincere
     and worthy friend, I with pleasure accepted it, and returned the
     express immediately. On the morning of the 22d June, I breakfasted
     at five o'clock with the ambassador, and, discussing with him my
     business, I learned that he had terminated it to my satisfaction.
     We started together at seven o'clock, and moved slowly on towards
     Tangier, it having been ordered by the emperor, that the English
     ambassador's entry into that town should be marked with every
     possible honour and attention. An hour before we reached Tangier,
     the governor, with the whole garrison, came out to salute and greet
     the ambassador, the cavalry running full gallop, and firing their
     muskets, as is the custom with them in all rejoicings. At half-past
     eleven the cannon of Tangier began to announce the ambassador's
     arrival, and continued, not a royal salute, but every gun in
     Tangier was discharged; and at twelve o'clock we entered the gates.
128

     LETTER XIV.

     _Result of the British Embassy_.

     FROM HIS EXCELLENCY J.M. MATRA TO MR. J.

                                 Old Fez, Sunday night, June 14, 1801.

     Dear Jackson;

     After a most unpleasant and tedious negotiation of nine days, I
     have just finished my business. I march off early to-morrow
     morning, and am much employed in packing up, translating, and
     copying of papers.

     The letter I solicited for you is just brought to me, mixed with
     Mr. Foxcroft's business, and the provision for the shipping in
     Mogadore; but the Talb promises to bring me a separate one very
     early in the morning, when I will inclose it to you.

     _Through the interest of Muly Abdel-melk-ben Driss, the orders were
     some time since sent to Mogadore, to reduce your new duty to the
     old standard of Seedi Muhamed_.

     I have been treated by the emperor like a prince, and with a
     friendly personal attention I had no idea of; but my business has
     been marvellously tormented. Of that, as we are to meet soon, I
     will say no more. I am half dead.

     God bless you.
     J. MATRA.
129

     LETTER XV.

     _European Society at Tangier.--Sects and Divisions among Christians
     in Muhamedan Countries counteracts the Propagation of Christianity,
     and casts a Contempt upon Christians themselves.--The Cause of
     it.--The Conversion of Africa should be preceded by an Imitation of
     the divine Doctrine of Christ among Christians themselves, as an
     Example eligible to follow_.

     TO JAMES WILLIS, ESQ.

     It is not only the duty, but it is the manifest policy of
     Christians who reside in Muhamedan countries, to preserve that
     peace and harmony that is so often inculcated by our divine Master:
     there should be no followers of Paul or of Apollos, of the Pope or
     of Luther, but Christians altogether should forget sects, and
     become followers of Christ, by practising his divine and luminous
     doctrine. This principle, strictly adhered to, would have greater
     effect in propagating the Christian doctrine, than the united
     efforts, however arduous, of all the missionaries in Africa. We
     should first begin by reforming the manners of those Christians who
     are established in Muhamedan countries, holding responsible
     situations, so as to show the Muhamedans, by their harmony and good
     will, the advantages of the benign influence of the great Christian
     principle, "Love thy neighbour as thyself." Until the disgraceful
130  animosity lamentably prevalent between the Catholic and Protestant,
     the Lutheran, Calvinist, and other sects of Christians be
     annihilated, it cannot be expected by any reasonable and reflecting
     mind, that essential progress can be made in the propagation of
     Christianity in Africa, at least in the Muhamedan part of it. We
     must purify our own actions, and set a laudable example of chaste
     and virtuous conduct, as a prelude to the conversion of the people
     of this continent. The Africans, viz. the Arabs, Berebbers,
     Shelluhs, Moors, and Negroes are, _generally_ speaking, shrewd,
     acute, discerning races of men; and it cannot be supposed by any
     but insane enthusiasts, that the doctrines of Christ can be
     propagated in those countries, until an example be set for their
     imitation better than their own practice, and more conformable to
     the true Christian doctrine than any that has hitherto been offered
     for their imitation.

     Tangier is the residence of the consuls-general of all the nations
     of Europe, who send occasionally ambassadors to the Court of
     Marocco; and these gentlemen generally act as envoys or ministers,
     as well as consuls. The English, French, Dutch, American, Spanish,
     Portuguese, Swedish, and Danish consuls reside here, some with
     their families, some without. I had not been long here before I
     perceived that the Moors of Tangier manifested an extraordinary
     contempt for Christians, the general respect which is shown to them
     at Mogodor, is unknown here. The reason is evident: the families of
131  these gentlemen were at variance with each other, and the
     respective ladies did not visit one another. This circumstance was
     too well known to the Moors, and materially contributed to create
     among those people that contempt for the Christians, which,
     perhaps, is due to all, whatever be their _professed_ doctrines,
     who have not charity enough, in the correct acceptation of the
     word, to maintain harmony in their own community. I was shocked to
     see so many amiable families at variance. I will not declare if it
     was pride, ambition, or contention for pre-eminence that produced
     this want of harmony; but it is most certain, that Christians,
     whose destiny it is to reside among Muhamedans, should have more
     than ordinary care to preserve that philanthropic disposition to
     each other, which carries with it a high recommendation,
     particularly in a country like _West Barbary_, where the gate of
     every tent is open to the largest, most disinterested, and
     unqualified hospitality, and where the sheik of every douar
     considers it his first and indispensable duty to provide food and
     rest to the needy traveller, and to the stranger at his gate.
132

     LETTER XVI.

     _Diary of a Journey from Tangier to Mogodor, showing the Distances
     from Town to Town, along the Coast of the Atlantic Ocean; useful to
     Persons travelling in that Country_.

     TO THE SAME.

     Mogodor, 1801.

     If you should ever come to this country, and have occasion to
     travel through it, the following journal of a journey from Tangier
     to Mogodor may be of service to you, in ascertaining the distances
     from one port to another, &c.

     Departed from Tangier for Mogodor,
     July 15, 1801, at 9 o'clock, A.M.               Hours.

     Arrived at Arzilla, at 7, P.M.                   10

     Mounted at 7, A.M.; arrived at L'Araich,
     at 2, P.M.                                        7

     Started at 5, A.M.; arrived at Ras Doura,
     at 3, P.M.                                       10

     Mounted at 6, A.M.; travelled three hours;
     came to a plain, level country, and arrived
     at Sallée, at 10 o'clock, P.M.                   16

     Crossed the river in the ferry, and remained
     at the French Consul's Hotel, at
     Rabat, three days. Mounted at 9; arrived
     at El Mensoria, at 9, P.M.                       12
133
     Mounted at 6, A.M.; arrived at Dar El
     Beida, at half-past 2, P.M.                       8-1/2

     Proceeded without halting, and arrived at
     the Douar of Woled Jeraar, at 9, P.M.
     and pitched our tents.                            7

     Mounted at 5, A.M.; arrived at Azamore,
     at 7, P.M.                                       14

     Mounted at 7, A.M.; travelled southward,
     leaving Mazagan to the right, and arrived
     at the Douar of Woled Aisah, at
     1 o'clock, P.M. and pitched our tents.            6

     Departed at 7, A.M.; arrived at El Woladia,
     at 6, P.M.                                       11

     Mounted at 8; arrived at Saffy, at 5.             9

     Started at 1, P.M.; rode six hours to the
     river Tansift; slept at the Sanctuary
     near the river.                                   6

     Rose at midnight, struck the tents, and
     mounted at 1 o'clock, A.M. arrived at
     the Sanctuary of Seedi Buzurukton, at
     11.                                              10

     Dined, slept, and started again at 4
     o'clock, P.M. and entered Mogodor at
     half-past 7 o'clock.                              3-1/2

                                                     130

     Average rate of travelling, (including stoppages,) three miles per
     hour, 390 miles in 130 hours.
134

     LETTER XVII.

     _An Account of a Journey from Mogodor to Saffy, during a Civil War,
     in a Moorish Dress, when a Courier could not pass, owing to the
     Warfare between the two Provinces of Haha and Shedma.--Stratagem
     adopted by the Author to prevent Detection.--Danger of being
     discovered.--Satisfaction expressed by the Bashaw of Abda,
     Abdrahaman ben Nassar, on the Author's safe Arrival, and
     Compliments received from him on his having accomplished this
     perilous Journey_.

     TO THE SAME.

                                                         Mogodor, 1802.

     Having arranged all my affairs, I awaited an opportunity to depart
     for England. A Spanish vessel was lying at the port of Saffy,
     nearly ready to sail, bound to Cadiz; but how to reach the former
     port was the difficulty; the provinces of Shedma and Haha, through
     which I must necessarily pass, were at war against each other, and
     an army of several thousand men were encamped at Ain el Hajar, a
     spring near the road, between Mogodor and Saffy; so that all
     communication was cut off, insomuch that it was dangerous, even for
     a courier, to attempt to pass from one port to the other. I was
     extremely anxious to reach Europe, and I determined to go to Saffy
     by land. I accordingly sent for a trusty Arab, whose character for
135  fidelity I had often before proved. I asked him if he would
     undertake to conduct me to Saffy. He required a day to consider of
     it. He then resolved to attempt it, provided I would adopt the
     dress of an Arab, and accompany him: I agreed; and we started from
     Mogodor at 4 o'clock; P.M. We passed into a convenient recess, to
     change my dress, which being done, we mounted our horses and rode
     away; we had not gone two hours, before some scouts of the army
     came galloping towards us. Billa (my trusty guide, who was a native
     of Shedma, and a man of considerable influence in that province)
     and his friend rode off with speed to meet them, and having
     satisfied them that we were about business relating to the army,
     they returned, and Billa's friend joining me, we inclined our steps
     towards the sea, whilst Billa kept guard at a distance; and,
     reaching a convenient and solitary retreat, we halted there till
     dark; when retracing our steps for a few miles, it was concerted
     that I should pass as a wounded man retiring from the army to have
     my wounds examined and dressed. Billa was so well acquainted with
     the roads, and all the bye-passes of the country, that, travelling
     fast over the plains, not on the roads, we soon reached to the
     northward of the encampments of Shedma. We passed several
     straggling parties from the army, who saluted us with (_Salem u
     alikume_) "Peace be to you;" to which we replied ("_Alikume
236  assalam_") "To you peace;" and Billa added "_Elm'joroh_," i.e. a
     wounded man. In the old bed of the river Tansift, now full of
     bushes of white broom, I narrowly escaped being discovered: as the
     day was breaking, a party of Arabs suddenly turned a corner, and I
     had just time to cover my mouth and chin with my (_silham_) cloak,
     before they gave the salutation, or they would have discovered me
     (being without a beard) to be a Christian; we passed the river,
     however, perfectly safe, and were then soon in the province of
     Abda, when all danger was at an end; we entered the town of Saffy,
     at two o'clock in the afternoon. The Bashaw of Abda, _Abdrahaman
     ben Nassar_, a renowned warrior, who had been at the head of an
     army of 60,000 horse, in opposition to the Emperor, Muley Soliman,
     received me with his accustomed urbanity and hospitality, and asked
     me if I had come to Saffy through the air, or by sea. I replied, I
     had come by neither, but by land. "How is it possible," said he,
     "that you could come by land, when even a courier could not pass.
     Did you meet with no impediment?--you astonish me: but praise be to
     God, that you have arrived safe, and you are welcome."
137

     LETTER XVIII.

     _Journey to the Prince Abd Salam, and the Khalif Delemy, in
     Shtuka.--Encamped in his Garden.--Mode of living in
     Shtuka.--Audience of the Prince.--Expedition to the Port of Tomie,
     in Suse.--Country infested with rats.--Situation of
     Tomie.--Entertainment at a Douar of the Arabs of Woled
     Abbusebah.--Exertions of Delemy to entertain his Guests.--Arabian
     Dance aud Music.--Manner and Style of Dancing.--Eulogium of the
     Viceroys and Captains to the Ladies.--Manners of the latter.--Their
     personal Beauty.--Dress.--Desire of the Arabs to have a Commercial
     Establishment in their Country.--Report to the Prince respecting
     Tomie.--Its Contiguity to the Place of the Growth of various
     Articles of Commerce.--Viceroys offer to build a House, and the
     Duties.--Contemplated Visit to Messa.--Nature of the Country.--Gold
     and Silver Mines.--Garden of Delemy.--Immense Water-melons and
     Grapes.---Mode of Irrigation.--Extraordinary People from Sudan at
     Delemy's.--Elegant Sword.--Extensive Plantations.--The Prince
     prepares to depart for Tafilelt_.

     TO THE SAME.

                                               Santa Cruz, June 7, 1794.

     I received a letter from the[118] Prince Muley Abdsalam, who lately
     went from Santa Cruz to the Khalif of Suse, Alkaid Muhamed ben
     Delemy, whose castle is in Shtuka. The prince wished to see me on
138  some commercial business that had been suggested to him by the
     khalif or viceroy. We (that is, Signor Andrea de Christi, a native
     of Italy, and a Dutch merchant established at Santa Cruz, and
     myself) prepared our tents and servants, and departed for Shtuka
     early in the morning. We passed through a fine campaign country,
     occupied by a tribe of the Woled Abbusebah Arabs, and arrived, late
     at night, at (_Luksebba_) the castle of Delemy, who was also sheik
     of an emigration of the Arabs called Woled Abbusebah, and of
     another emigration of Arabs called Woled Deleim, who had taken up
     their abodes in Shtuka. When we arrived, our reception was in the
     true style of Arabian hospitality. Delemy had prepared and had
     pitched tents in a large garden adjoining his castle, wherein we
     resided. Our own tents were pitched in the Mushoir, or place of
     audience, a spacious plain, enclosed by a wall, where the sheik
     gave audience to the various kabyls of Suse. The following day we
     had an audience of the prince, who requested me to accompany Delemy
     to a port of Suse, which had been formerly frequented by European
     ships, which took in water there, and ascertain if it were a port
     convenient for a commercial establishment. The name of this seaport
     was called Tomie by the Portuguese, who formerly had an
     establishment there; but by the Arabs, _Sebah Biure_, i.e. the
     Seven Wells, because there were seven wells of excellent water
139  there: three of them, however, when we visited this port, were
     filled up and useless. We left Delemy's castle in the afternoon,
     about two or three o'clock, and we went at a pace called by the
     Arabs _el herka_[119], over a plain country infested with rats, and
     the haunts of serpents, our horses continually stumbling over the
     rat-holes. We were, to the best of my recollection, about four
     hours going. We found Tomie, an open road, not altogether
     calculated to form an advantageous commercial establishment. Its
     situation with respect to the sea being somewhat objectionable. We
     sat down near one of the wells, and after Delemy and his guards had
     amused themselves with (_lab el borode_) running full gallop and
     firing, we drank Hollands till we became gay. The sun had just set,
     when we mounted our horses to return. After an hour's _herka_, we
     approached a douar of the Woled Abbusebah Arabs, who, seeing their
     sheik, came forward and kissed his stirrups, entreating him to pass
     the night with them, which, it appeared, would have been contrary
     to the etiquette of Arabian hospitality to refuse. Delemy,
     therefore, asked us if we would consent to sleep there; and,
     apologising for not conducting us to our own beds that night, again
     intimated, that it was, in a manner, incumbent on him, not to
     refuse. We, therefore, consented to stop. This noble-spirited Arab,
140  anxious to entertain us, and justly conceiving that the beds and
     habits of these Arabs were very different from what we had been
     accustomed to, sought to beguile the time, and accordingly
     endeavoured to engage some ladies belonging to the douar to dance,
     but they positively declined dancing before Christians. Delemy
     expostulated with them, representing the propriety of doing so,
     before the prince's guests; but the ladies apologised, by declaring
     that their splendid dancing dresses were not made up. Delemy,
     however, with the true energy of an Arab, was determined that he
     would make our abode here as pleasant as possible, and desirous
     also to show us the spirit of Arabian dancing, he went himself,
     accompanied by two of his friends, to a douar, at some miles'
     distance, and, after much persuasion, he prevailed on six young
     ladies to come and dance. In about two hours, the sheik returned,
     and informed us, that knowing that beds in the desert would not
     suit our customs, he had engaged some young girls to amuse us with
     dancing during the night, assuring us at the same time that they
     excelled in that graceful art, and he had no doubt they would amuse
     us. The tents were cleared and lighted; two sheep were killed, and
     the _cuscasoe_ was preparing, when the ladies arrived. The music
     consisted of an instrument similar to a flageolet, (_tabla_) a
     kettle-drum, and a sort of castanets of steel, an _erbeb_, or
     fiddle with two strings, played with a semicircular bow. The tunes
141  were gay and sprightly, and the damsels tripped along on the light
     fantastic toe in a very superior and elegant style. They danced
     without men; advancing gently at first, apparently without taking
     the foot off the ground, but gradually advancing; after which they
     performed some steps similar to those in the Spanish bolera; and,
     turning round on the toe, they danced a most elegant _shawl_ dance,
     equal to what was danced at the Opera in London by Parisot, but
     without the horizontal movement, or any motion that could offend
     the chastest eye. This unique national dance was encouraged from
     time to time by the approbation of twelve captains of the viceroy's
     guard, warriors of fame in arms, who were Arabs of the Woled
     Deleim, and who were seated in a circle, with us, round the
     dancers, expressing their delight and gratification in witnessing
     such superior grace and elegance, exclaiming--

     "Afakume el Arabe, makine fal el Arabe,
     El Hashema, u zin, u temara, fie el Arabe."
     "Bravo, O Arabs! there is none equal to the Arabs:
     Excellent is the modesty, beauty, and virtue of the Arabs."

         [Footnote 118: Elder Brother of the present Emperor of Marocco,
         Muley Soliman.]

         [Footnote 119: A pace similar to that which European cavalry go
         when charging.]

     These eulogiums were not lost on the ladies, who increased the
     spirit of the dance. When this amusement had continued about three
     hours, the cuscasoe, meat, and vegetables were brought in, as a
     supper. The Moors ate plentifully; but the abstemious Arabs ate
     very little; the ladies partook of sweet cakes and dates; they very
142  seldom chew meat, but when they do, they think it gross to swallow
     it, they only press the juices from the meat, and throw away the
     substance. The manners of these damsels were elegant, accompanied
     with much suavity and affability, but very modest and unassuming
     withal: indeed, they were all individuals, as I afterwards learned,
     belonging to respectable and ancient Arab families, who could not
     resist the exhortations of their sheik to amuse and entertain his
     guests. The manners of these Arabs, their elegant forms, sparkling
     black eyes, long black eye-lashes, which increased the beauty of
     the eye, adding character to the countenance, seemed to make an
     indelible impression on the whole party. The ladies wore robes of
     Indian muslin, girdles of gold thread, interwoven with silk of the
     Fas manufacture; and their shawls of silk and gold were displayed
     in various elegant devices. We were given to understand by Delemy's
     captains, on our return to the sheik's castle, that we had been
     entertained with extraordinary honours: we certainly were highly
     gratified, and my friend Signor Andrea declared he had never seen
     better dancing at Venice, his native place. Among the Arabs was an
     old man of ninety, who appeared very desirous of an European
     establishment at Tomie. He related several anecdotes of his life;
     and, among others, the money he had gained, by purchasing goods of
     vessels which came forty or fifty years before to Tomie for water,
     with which he said he used to exchange gums and almonds, feathers
143  and ivory, for linens, cloths, and spices. I am disposed to think
     these vessels were Portuguese; for this coast is but little known
     to the English. The ladies having returned home, we prepared to
     leave this douar early in the morning; and with no small regret did
     I quit this abode of simple and patriarchal hospitality; a pleasing
     contrast was here formed to the dissipation and pleasure of
     civilised life--to the life of fashionable society, where the
     refinements of luxury have multiplied their artificial wants beyond
     the proportion of the largest fortunes, and have brought most men
     into the class of the necessitous, inducing that churlish habit of
     the mind, in which every feeling is considered as a weakness, which
     terminates not in self, unlike those generous sympathies of the
     Arabs, where every individual seems impelled to seek, as they
     express it, (_ê dire el khere fie nes_) "to do good to men." The
     effect of luxury, dissipation, and extravagance, (where the fortune
     is not large enough to support them,) tends to render man selfish
     upon principle, and extinguishes all genuine public spirit, that
     is, all real regard to the interests and good order of society;
     substituting in its place, the vile ambition and rapacity of the
     demagogue, which, however, assumes the name of patriotism. This
     contrast between the temperance and sobriety of these Bedouin or
     primitive Arabs, and the luxury and dissipation of civilised life,
     was the more remarkable, when we observed among this rude people
     such extraordinary and mutual exercise of benevolence, manly and
144  open presence, honesty and truth in their words and actions.--On
     our return to Delemy's castle, in Shtuka, the Prince asked me, what
     observations I had made respecting Tomie; I told his Royal Highness
     that it was an open roadstead, and not a convenient place for ships
     to lie. The Prince appeared pleased at this report; but Delemy had
     rendered to Muley Abdsalam so many essential services, that the
     latter could not, in courtesy, refuse him any thing. When Delemy
     found that my report to the Prince did not realise his
     expectations, offers were made to me, supported by every possible
     encouragement, to form a commercial establishment at Tomie, which,
     as was observed, being advantageously situated for trade, being in
     the neighbourhood of the gum, almond, and oil countries, would
     offer advantages to the merchants which they could not expect at
     Santa Cruz, or Mogodor. Accordingly, I was urged to send to Europe
     for ships, with assurances that the duty on all imports, as well as
     exports, should be only two per cent. _ad valorem_. A house was
     offered to be built for me, according to any plan I might choose to
     suggest, free of expense. The people were desirous of having a
     commercial establishment in their country, and would have done any
     thing to accomplish this object. The extensive connections which I
     had throughout Suse, Sahara, and even at Timbuctoo, would have
     facilitated my operations; but my connections in England were not
     such as to enable me to engage advantageously in this enterprise, I
     was obliged, therefore, though reluctantly, to decline it,
145  although, if otherwise situated, I might have realised an
     independent fortune in two or three years at Tomie, besides having
     a most favourable opportunity of opening a trade with Timbuctoo,
     and other territories of Sudan.

     I now felt a strong inclination to visit the port of Messa, which
     was reported to have been about two centuries before, a
     considerable port of trade, and the capital of Suse, when that
     country was a separate kingdom, and the state-prisoners were
     banished to Sejin-messa[120], (commonly called Segelmessa in the
     maps;) as the state prisoners of Marocco have been from time
     immemorial, and are to this day sent to Tafilelt, which territory
     lies contiguous to, and west of Sejin-messa. We started for Messa
     in the morning, and reached the town in the afternoon. Delemy sent
     a strong guard with me for protection, with an injunction to his
     friend the _fakeer_ of Messa, to treat me as his friend and guest,
     and to do whatever he could to gratify my curiosity in every
     respect. The country about Messa is very picturesque, and
     productive: the river also abounds with romantic scenery, it has a
     sandbar at its entrance to the ocean, which is dry at low water;
     but it was once navigable several miles up, as was reported to me.
     On the south bank of the river, about two miles from the sea, is a
146  gold-mine, in the territory of a tribe hostile to Delemy, but the
     influence of the Fakeer, who is held in reverential awe, enabled us
     to examine it without danger. What they told us was the entrance,
     was filled with immense large pieces of rock-stone; and I was
     informed, that when the Christians left the place, (the Portuguese,
     no doubt,) they placed these stones at the entrance of the mine, to
     prevent the natives from getting access to it. In the bed of the
     river, near the sea, is a mine of silver; the ore is in very small
     particles, like lead-coloured sand, intermixed with mud. I sent a
     small quantity of this to England to be analysed; and it produced,
     as I was informed, just enough to pay the expenses of analysation.
     I sent also several specimens of gold and silver ore, which I
     collected in various parts of Suse; but I apprehend that sufficient
     attention was not paid to them, and they also scarcely paid for the
     analysation. I sent also to the Honourable Mr. Greville, brother to
     the late Earl of Warwick, a great many basaltick and other stones,
     collected in the mountains of Barbary, which that gentleman
     considered valuable. After remaining two days at Messa, I returned
     to Shtuka. I was again urged to form an establishment at Tomie;
     but, limited as my connection was in England, I did not feel
     competent to the undertaking, and was obliged, reluctantly indeed,
     but finally, to decline it.

         [Footnote 120: Sejin Messa signifies the prison of Messa.]

     The garden of Delemy, where we encamped, is stocked with very fine
147  vines from the mountains of Idautenan,[121] a mountainous and
     independent country, a few miles north of Santa Cruz; these grapes
     were of the black or purple kind, as big as an ordinary-sized
     walnut, and very sweet flavoured, as much superior to the finest
     Spanish grapes, as the latter are superior to the natural grown
     grapes of England. Large pomegranates, exquisitely sweet, the
     grains very large, and the seed small, brought from Terodant; figs,
     peaches, apricots, strawberries, oranges, citrons of an enormous
     size, water-melons, weighing fifty pounds each, four of which were
     a camel load, together with culinary vegetables of every
     description. This garden was watered by a well, having what is
     called a Persian wheel, worked by a horse, having pots all round
     the perpendicular wheel, which, as they turn round, discharge their
     contents into a trough, which communicated to the garden, and laid
148  the beds under water. This is the general mode of irrigation
     throughout west and south Barbary, as well as in Sudan.

         [Footnote 121: The mountains of Idautenan divide the province
         of Haha from Suse: they are exempt from _Ska u Laskor_, that
         is, two per cent. on live stock, and 10 per cent. on produce
         which is the regular impost on the country. They are a brave
         race of Shelluhs, inhabiting a table-land in the mountains that
         is a perfect terrestrial paradise. There is but one person in
         Europe besides myself who has ever been in this country. Sheik
         Mûluke, the sheik of Idautenan, is a generous noble-spirited
         independent character. When an emperor dies, the sheik sends
         Muley Ismael's firman, emancipating the district from all
         impost or contribution to the revenue, for some military
         service rendered by this district to the ancestor of Ismael,
         and the succeeding emperors invariably confirm their
         emancipation of Idautenan.]

     The Prince was very anxious to be of service to Delemy, who had
     ingratiated himself with the former, by signalising himself in
     feats of arms. He had been also a main pillar to the throne, and I
     sincerely regretted that the combination of circumstances did not
     permit me to accept the liberal and advantageous offers made to me.

     Delemy's renown had spread far to the south, even unto Sudan: from
     the latter country he was visited by some people, who wore circular
     rings of pure gold, through the cartilage of the nose. The rings
     were two or three inches in diameter; and when these people ate,
     they turned them up over the nose. Delemy had received a present,
     from some king of Sudan, of a very elegant sword, ornamented with
     diamonds, rubies, and emeralds, he showed me this sword, which was
     evidently manufactured in Europe; he told me, he had been offered
     5000 dollars for it; but he had been informed that it was worth
     double that sum.

     I was invited by the Khalif of Suse to visit the immensely
     extensive plantations of olives at Ras el Wed, near Terodant,
     through which a man may proceed a whole day's journey without
     exposure to the sun: also he offered to accompany me to the eastern
     part of Shtuka, where the produce of bitter and sweet almonds is
     equally abundant, and the plantations equally extensive with those
149  of the olive at Ras el Wed; but I had seen plantations of both on a
     smaller scale at Ait-Musie, Fruga, and other parts of this empire;
     and therefore the sight would have been no novelty, except in
     extent. I understood these plantations were on the same plan and
     principle with those I had seen, leaving at certain distances,
     square openings, to admit the air, for the better promotion of the
     growth and increase of the fruit and produce of the trees.

     The Prince was preparing to depart through Draha, and Bled el
     Jereed, to Tafilelt; and we had our audience of leave previous to
     his departure.
150

     LETTER XIX.

     _Journey from Santa Cruz to Mogodor, when no Travellers ventured to
     pass, owing to civil War and Contention among the Kabyles.--Moorish
     Philanthropy in digging Wells for the Use of Travellers.--Travelled
     with a trusty Guide without Provisions, Tents, Baggage, or
     Incumbrances.--Nature of the Warfare in the Land. Bitter Effects of
     Revenge and Retaliation on the Happiness of Society.--Origin of
     these civil Wars between the Families and Kabyles.--Presented with
     Honey and Butter for Breakfast.--Patriarchal Manner of living among
     the Shelluhs compared to that of Abraham.--Aromatic
     Honey.--Ceremony at Meals, and Mode of eating.--Travelled all
     Night, and slept in the open Air;--Method of avoiding the
     Night-dew, as practised by the Natives.--Arrival at Mogodor_.

     TO THE SAME.

                                             Santa Cruz, April 7, 1795.

     The province of Haha was in arms; caffilahs, and travellers could
     not pass; but it was expedient that I should go to Mogodor. Men of
     property in this country, influenced by a philanthropic spirit,
     often expend large sums in digging wells in districts, through
     which caffilahs pass, on their road from one country to another. I
     knew one of these philanthropists who was at Santa Cruz, and who
     had recently benefited the province of Haha, by having dug a well
151  in the Kabyl of Benitamer, a mountainous district in Haha; I sent
     for him, and as he was under obligations to me for various services
     I had rendered to him and his family, he consented to accompany me
     to Mogodor, through the disturbed province of Haha; and he assured
     me, that his influence throughout that province was such, that, by
     travelling quick, and without any baggage, tents, or incumbrances,
     he did not doubt of conducting me safe to Mogodor. I agreed to go
     with him, without servants, tents, or bedding, being determined to
     reconcile myself, under present circumstances, to the accommodation
     the country might afford. We started from Santa Cruz at sun-set;
     travelling through Tamaract, to the river Beni Tamur. We continued
     our journey till we arrived, at the dawn of day, at the foot of
     immense high mountains, called Idiaugomoron. Here my companion and
     guide L'Hage Muhamed bu Zurrawel, pointed out to me two castellated
     houses, about two miles distant from each other; the
     family-quarrels of these people had produced such animosity, that
     the inhabitants of neither house could with safety go out, for fear
     of being overpowered and killed by those of the other; so that
     wherever they went, they were well armed, but dared not go far.
     These two families were preparing for a siege, which often happens
     in this province. Thus the inhabitants of one house attack another,
     and sometimes exterminate or put to death the whole family, with
     their retainers. The province of Haha was thus in a state of the
152  most lamentable civil war, originating from these family-quarrels
     and domestic feuds. The heathen and anti-christian principle of
     revenge and retaliation, is here pursued with such bitter and
     obstinate animosity, that I have known instances of men
     relinquishing their vocation, to go into a far country to revenge
     the blood of a relation after a lapse of twenty years, and pursue
     the object of his revenge, for some murder committed in his family,
     perhaps forty or fifty years before.

     To a British public, blessed with the benign influences of the
     Christian doctrine, it is perhaps necessary that I should elucidate
     this retaliative doctrine by an example:--Two men quarrel, and
     fight; they draw their kumäyas (curved daggers about 12 inches
     long), which all the people of Haha wear, as well as all the clans
     or kabyles of Shelluhs; and if one happens to give his antagonist a
     _deadly_ wound, it becomes an indispensable duty in the next of kin
     to the person killed or murdered, (though perhaps it can hardly be
     termed a murder, as it is not committed, like an European duel, in
     cold blood, but in the moment of irritation, and at a period when
     the mind is under the influence of anger,) to seek his revenge by
     watching an opportunity to kill the survivor in the contest. If the
     former should die, his next of kin takes his place, and pursues his
     enemy, whose life is never safe; insomuch that, whole kabyles, when
     this deadly animosity has reached its acme, have been known to quit
153  their country and emigrate into the Sahara; for when the second
     death has been inflicted, it then becomes the incumbent duty of the
     next of kin of the deceased to seek his revenge: they call this
     justifying blood. This horrible custom has the most lamentable
     influence on the happiness of human life; for there will sometimes
     be several individuals seeking the life of one man, till this
     principle, pervading all the ramifications of relationship and
     consanguinity, produces family-broils, hostility, and murder, _ad
     infinitum!!_ We stopped at a friend of L'Hage Muhamed, who
     presented us with honey and butter, thin shavings of the latter
     being let to fall into a bowl of honey for breakfast. This bowl was
     served up with flat cakes kneaded without leaven, and baked on hot
     stones; these are converted from corn into food in less than half
     an hour; they are in shape similar to our crumpets or pancakes. We
     were pressed by this Shelluh to stay and dine with him, which being
     agreed to, he sent a shepherd to his flock to kill a fat young kid,
     which was roasted with a wooden spit, before the vital heat had
     subsided, which was very tender, and of an exquisite flavour. The
     bread or cakes above described appear to be similar to what the
     women kneaded for the guests in the patriarchal ages: indeed, the
     customs of these people, as well as those of the Arabs, is
     precisely the same as they were in the patriarchal ages, and which
     are delineated in the 18th chapter of Genesis, 1st to the 8th
     verse.
154
     The honey of this province is very fine: it has an aromatic
     flavour, derived from the wild thyme and other aromatic herbs on
     which the bees feed. Among these people every meal is preceded with
     a washing of their hands with water, which is brought round for the
     purpose in a brass pan; each guest dips his right hand in the pan,
     and a napkin is presented to wipe them; they then break the bread,
     and, after saying grace, which is universally this,--_bismillah_,
     i.e. "in the name of God," each guest takes a bit of bread, dips it
     in the honey and butter, and eats it. It is reckoned uncourteous or
     vulgar to bite the bread; therefore the piece broken off is
     sufficient for a mouthful, so that there is nothing that should
     offend a delicate appetite in this antique mode of eating. We
     remained several hours with our hospitable Shelluh friend; and we
     departed, after taking a little sleep, at four o'clock in the
     afternoon. Travelling all night, we arrived, at the dawn of day, at
     a large house in Idaugourd; the Shelluh to whom it belonged brought
     us carpets, and we slept under the wall of his house till the sun
     arose. The people of this country prefer sleeping in the open air
     to a room, and they have an excellent mode of securing themselves
     from the heavy dews of the night, by covering their heads and faces
     with a thin woollen hayk or garment, which they throw over their
     heads and faces. When I have had the Arabs of Sahara (who have
     conducted the caffilahs from Timbuctoo) at my house at Santa Cruz,
155  I gave them a long narrow room, 48 feet long, which was called
     (_beet assuda_) the apartment of Sudan, to sleep in; but they
     invariably came out at night, and placed their carpets and mats, as
     beds, outside of the room, and slept under the balustrade, in
     preference to the confinement, as they called it, of a room.

     We rose at sun-rise, passed through the picturesque district of
     Idaugourd and the Woolja, and entered Mogodor at four o'clock, P.M.

156

                            AN ACCOUNT
                             OF THE
                 RISE, PROGRESS, AND DECREASE
                               OF
                           THE PLAGUE
               _That ravaged Barbary in_ 1799;
                  FAITHFULLY EXTRACTED FROM
      LETTERS WRITTEN BY THE HOUSE OF JAMES JACKSON
              AND CO., OR BY JAMES G. JACKSON,
                    MERCHANTS AT MOGODOR,
      TO THEIR CORRESPONDENTS IN EUROPE, DURING THE
                            EPIDEMY.

       *       *       *       *       *

     _Fragments respecting the Plague_.

     When the Emperor's army proceeded from Fas to Marocco in the summer
     of 1799, a detachment of which passed by Mogodor, consisting of
     20,000 horse and 10,000 foot, it had the plague with it; so that,
     wherever it passed, the plague uniformly appeared three days after
     its arrival at the respective douars near which it encamped; those
     who died were buried in the tents, and the people of the provinces
     knew little about it.

     A large _akkaba_[122], consisting of upwards of 1700 camels,
157  arrived 23d August, 1799, at Akka from Timbuctoo, laden with
     gum-sudan, ostrich-feathers, and gold dust, which had brought also
     many slaves; this _akkaba_ had deposited its merchandize at Akka,
     till the plague should disappear and the country become healthy; as
     the people of that territory, unlike Muhamedans in general, will
     hold no communication with the infected, nor will they admit any
     one from these parts.

         [Footnote 122: An _akkaba_ is an accumulated caravan.]

                                               Mogodor, April 31, 1799.

     A violent fever now rages at Fas: some assert it to be the plague,
     but that is Moorish report, and little to be depended on; the
     European consuls at Tangier, and the Spanish ambassador, who,
     having terminated his embassy, has lately left Mequinas, mention it
     as an epidemical disorder.

     May 20. The small-pox rages violently throughout this country, and
     is of a most virulent kind: its origin is ascribed to the famine
     that has of late pervaded this country, and which was produced by
     the incredible devastation of the devouring locusts; the dregs of
     olives, after the oil had been extracted, has been the only food
     that could be procured by many thousands.

                                                Mogodor, June 14, 1799.

     Various reports reach us daily from _the city of Marocco_,
     respecting the epidemy that prevails there, some say 200 die, some
158  say 100, others limit the daily mortality to 50, in a population,
     according to the imperial register, of 270,000.

     When any _light_ rain falls, as is the case at Marocco at this
     season of the year, the mortality increases. Mr. Francisco Chiappe,
     an Italian merchant, is just arrived from Marocco, and is
     performing quarantine, by his own desire, at the Emperor's
     garden.[123] This gentleman reports, that the greater portion of
     the people die of fear, from hunger, or bad food, or from the
     small-pox, which latter has raged at Marocco the last month or two;
     but he had not been able to ascertain, so various were the reports,
     whether it was the plague or not. The emperor's army, a division of
     which passed through this country, and encamped at the river, about
     two miles south of this port, had the distemper with it. We have
     been assured, that the soldiers who died, were immediately buried
     within the tents, so that, by this stratagem, the mortality was not
     perceived by the public; it was apprehended that, if the mortality
     were known, the kabyls, through which the army passed from Mequinas
     to Marocco, would not have supplied the troops with provision. This
     detachment consisted of 20,000 horse and 10,000 foot. No disorder
     has yet appeared here, nor in the adjacent provinces of Shedma and
     Haha.

         [Footnote 123: A garden in the province of Haha, five miles
         from Mogodor, that was presented to the European merchants by
         the late sultan, Seedy Muhamed ben Abdallah.]
159
     July 5. We dispatched the Spanish brig yesterday; but she is still
     at anchor in the road, waiting for passengers, who fly from hence
     with precipitation, from fear of the fever or plague, which
     prevails at Fas and at Marocco, and which, it is reported, has made
     its appearance at the port of Saffy. We have, however, nothing of
     the kind here yet, though we expect we shall not escape the general
     scourge.

     July 13. The epidemy in the interior provinces has greatly
     augmented, insomuch, that the demand for linen to bury the dead
     rapidly increases, and the stock is almost exhausted. This article
     has risen to an unprecedented price. All the relatives of L'Hage
     Abdallah have fallen victims to the epidemy. This gentleman is
     consequently in possession of very considerable property; and (if
     he be not also carried off) there will be no fear of our recovering
     the debt he owes you.

     We cannot ascertain if the disorder prevails in the outer town, and
     in the Jews' quarter, or not; it is certain, however, that eight or
     ten die daily of the small-pox, and as many more of fevers and
     other disorders, as report proclaims.

     July 25. We are so much engaged in making arrangements against the
     epidemy, which is now confidently reported to us to be the plague,
     of a most deadly species, that we have only time to refer you to
     the captain of the Aurora, to whom we have communicated every
160  particular, and who is extremely anxious to be off for England. The
     deaths in this town, which contained a population of 10,000,
     according to the imperial register, are from forty to fifty each
     day.

     Aug. 1. As the plague now rages violently here, no one thinks of
     business or the affairs of this world; but each individual
     anticipates that he will be next called away. I send the inclosed,
     to be forwarded to Mr. Andrea de Christo, at Amsterdam, to announce
     to him the sudden death of his partner, Mr. J. Pacifico, who is
     lately dead of the plague. I paid him a visit a few hours before
     his death; I met there Don Pedro de Victoria, who was smoking a
     segar; he offered me one, and urged me to smoke it. I believe that
     the smoke of tobacco is anti-pestilential; this, added to the
     precaution of avoiding contact, and inhalation of the breath of the
     person infected, appears to be quite sufficient to secure a person
     from infection.

     Aug. 1. (Translation of a letter to Mr. Andrea de Christi, merchant
     at Amsterdam.) We are sorry that the subject of this letter is so
     melancholy. All our domestics have left us; the plague rages so
     violently here, that the daily mortality is from sixty to seventy,
     among which we are sorry to announce the death of your partner, Mr.
     J. Pacifico, who died two days since.

     August 23. The best gum is selling at Akka for six dollars a
     quintal: they will not bring it here, fearing the infection. A
161  large Brazil ship has been wrecked off Cape Noon, her cargo,
     consisting for the most part of silks and linens, is estimated at
     half a million of dollars. The Arabs of Sahara convert the most
     beautiful lace into bridles for their horses, by twisting it; and
     superior silk stockings are selling at Wedinoon at a dollar per
     dozen pair. The plague is rapidly diminishing from 100 deaths to 20
     or 30 per day. Meeman Corcoes is dead, as well as most of the
     principal tradesmen of Marocco and Fas; whole families have been
     swept off, and there is none left to inherit their property.
     Immense droves of horses, mules, and cattle of every description
     stray in the plains without owners.

     September 5. The plague continues to decrease; and in another month
     we expect to be quite free from it. Signor Conton died this morning
     of the epidemy; yesterday afternoon he was apparently quite well,
     and paid me a visit. He wished me to shake hands with him, which I
     declined, alleging as an excuse, that I would dispense with that
     custom till the plague should pass over. He drank a glass of wine,
     and appeared cheerful and in good health. I have had fixed in my
     dining room, a table that extends from one end to the other. I walk
     or sit on one side of the table, my visitors on the other. I am
     only cautious to avoid personal contact. All the houses of the
     other merchants are closely barricaded or bolted. A fumigating pot
162  of gum sandrac stands at the entrance of my house, continually
     burning, which diffuses an agreeable perfume, but is not, as I
     apprehend, an antidote to the epidemy.

     October 1. We have to apprise you of the decease of L'Hage Abdallah
     El Hareishy, most of whose relations are dead. His brother is the
     only one of the family besides himself that remains: he has
     inherited considerable property, and thence will be enabled to pay
     your bill on him in our favour.

     October 29. The plague appears to have ceased in this town. All the
     merchants have opened their houses; but the disorder continues in
     the provinces, from whence there is little or no communication with
     the town. The kabyls seem to be wholly engaged in burying their
     dead, in arranging the affairs of their respective families, in
     dividing the property inherited by them, and in administering
     consolation to the sick.

     Nov. 11. The plague having committed incalculable ravages
     throughout this country, had put a stop to all commerce, which now
     begins to revive, in proportion as that calamity subsides. Linens
     are selling to great advantage, a cargo would now render 60 per
     cent. profit, clear of all charges.

     Nov. 29. The deadly epidemy that has lately visited us, and which
163  at one period carried off above 100 each day, has now confined its
     daily mortality to two or three; some days none. When, however, the
     Arabs of Shedma, and the Shelluhs of Haha come to town, and bring
     the clothes of their deceased relations for sale, the epidemy
     increases to three, four, and five a day; then, in three or four
     days, it declines again to its former number, one, two, or three.
     We have reason to expect, that, before the vessels which we expect
     from London shall arrive, the plague will have subsided entirely.

     Mogodor, Dec. 12. 1799. The plague or mortality of this town is now
     reduced to three or four weekly.

     OBSERVATION.

     After the plague had subsided, a murrain attacked the cattle, and
     great numbers of all kinds died; so that they became reduced in the
     same proportion as the race of man had been reduced before.

     _Letter from His Excellency James M. Matra to Mr. Jackson_.

                                            Gibraltar, 28th Oct. 1799.

     Dear Jackson;

     Within a few days of each other, I received your packets of the
164  21st of September, and 8th instant. Their inclosures are of course
     taken care of. Your letter about Soke Assa was received, and sent
     home to government ages ago.

     I never could understand the drift of the people either at Tangier
     or Mogodor, in asserting that my report of the plague was
     political. God knows, that our politics in Barbary are never
     remarkable for refinement: they are, if any thing, rather too much
     in the John Bull style; and the finesse they gave me such credit
     for, was absolutely beyond my comprehension, as I never could
     discover what advantage a genuine well-established plague in
     Barbary could be to our country. Of its existence I had not the
     shadow of doubt, for more than eight months before it was talked
     of; and when Doctor Bell was going that way, I begged of him to be
     particular in his enquiries, which he, as usual, neglected. When
     John Salmon[124] was up, he was _very particular_, and _I_ of
     course was laughed at. _Here_ I saw politics, and told all the
     gentlemen, that when Salmon[125] arrived at Tariffa, then, and not
     till then, we should have the plague in Barbary; and just so it
     turned out.

         [Footnote 124: John Salmon was Spanish envoy to the emperor of
         Marocco, and was at this time up at Fas, _i.e._ on his
         embassy.]

         [Footnote 125: Arrived at Tariffa, and so secured his admission
         into Spain on his return from his embassy.]
165
     I am confident, if my advice had been taken, the disease might have
     been checked in the beginning; for it was almost three quarters of
     a year confined to _old_ Fas. I wrote in the most pressing manner
     to Ben Ottoman[126], who never believed me. A few days before he
     was seized with it, he wrote me a melancholy letter for advice, and
     pathetically lamented that he had not listened to me in time; and I
     suppose that even Broussonet[127] believed me when he embarked. I
     hope your opinion that it diminishes with you will prove well
     founded; but I fear its ravages are only suspended by the great
     heats; besides, you should recollect that people cannot die twice,
     and with a population so diminished, you must not expect so many as
     formerly on your daily dead-list. Mrs. M., who desires her
     remembrance to you, is well, but barring plague, would rather be at
     Tangier than Gibraltar; so would I.

     Ever truly thine,

     J. MATRA.

         [Footnote 126: The emperor's prime-minister, or _talb cadus_ at
         that time.]

         [Footnote 127: Dr. Broussonet, French consul. This gentleman
         was intendant of the botanical garden at Montpelier: he, with
         another doctor embarked for Europe just as the plague began to
         appear at Mogodor in the year 1799.]
166

     _Some Account of a peculiar Species of Plague which depopulated
     West Barbary in 1799 and 1800, and to the Effects of which the
     Author was an eye-witness._

     From various circumstances and appearances, and from the character
     of the epidemical distemper which raged lately in the south of
     Spain, there is every reason to suppose, it was similar to that
     distemper or plague which depopulated West Barbary; for, whether we
     call it by the more reconcileable appellation of the epidemy, or
     yellow fever, it was undoubtedly a plague, and a most destructive
     one; for wherever it prevailed, it invariably carried off, in a few
     months, one-half, or one-third, of the population.

     It does not appear how the plague originated in Fas in the year
     1799.[128] Some persons, who were there at the time it broke out,
     have confidently ascribed it to infected merchandise imported into
     that place from the East; whilst others, of equal veracity and
     judgment, have not scrupled to ascribe it to the locusts which had
     infested West Barbary during the seven preceding years, the
     destruction of which was followed by the (_jedrie_) small-pox,
167  which pervaded the country, and was generally fatal. The _jedrie_
     is supposed to be the forerunner of this species of epidemy, as
     appears by an ancient Arabic manuscript, which gives an account of
     the same disorder having carried off two-thirds of the inhabitants
     of West Barbary about four centuries since. But however this
     destructive epidemy originated, its leading features were novel,
     and its consequences more dreadful than the common plague of
     Turkey, or that of Syria, or Egypt. Let every one freely declare
     his own sentiments about it; let him assign any credible account of
     its rise, or the causes that introduced so terrible a scene. I
     shall relate only what its symptoms were, what it actually was, and
     how it terminated, having been an eye-witness of its dreadful
     effects, and having seen and visited many who were afflicted, and
     who were dying with it.

         [Footnote 128: See the Author's observations, in a letter to
         Mr. Willis, in Gentleman's Magazine, February, 1805.]

     In the month of April, 1799, a dreadful plague, of a most
     destructive nature, manifested itself in the city of Old Fas, which
     soon after communicated itself to the new city. This unparalleled
     calamity, carried off one or two the first day, three or four the
     second day, six or eight the third day, and increasing
     progressively, until the mortality amounted to two in the hundred
     of the aggregate population, continuing _with unabating violence_,
     ten, fifteen, or twenty days; being of longer duration in old than
     in new towns; then diminishing in a progressive proportion from one
168  thousand a day to nine hundred, then to eight hundred, and so on
     until it disappeared. Whatever recourse was had to medicine and to
     physicians was unavailing; so that such expedients were at length
     totally relinquished, and the people, overpowered by this terrible
     scourge, lost all hopes of surviving it.

     Whilst it raged in the town of Mogodor, a small village, _Diabet_,
     situated about two miles south-east of that place, remained
     uninfected, although the communication was open between them: on
     the _thirty-fourth day_, however, after its first appearance at
     Mogodor, this village was discovered to be infected, and the
     disorder raged with great violence, making dreadful havock among
     the human species for _twenty-one_ days, carrying off, during that
     period, one hundred persons out of one hundred and thirty-three,
     the original population of the village, before the plague visited
     it; none died after this, and those who were infected, recovered in
     the course of a month or two, some losing an eye, or the use of a
     leg or an arm.

     Many similar circumstances might be here adduced relative to the
     numerous and populous villages dispersed through the extensive
     Shelluh province of Haha, all which shared a similar or a worse
     fate. Travelling through this province shortly after the plague had
     exhausted itself, I saw many uninhabited ruins, which I had before
     witnessed as flourishing villages; on making enquiry concerning the
169  population of these dismal remains, I was informed that in one
     village, which contained six hundred inhabitants, four persons only
     had escaped the ravage. Other villages, which had contained four or
     five hundred, had only seven or eight survivors left to relate the
     calamities they had suffered. Families which had retired to the
     country to avoid the infection, on returning to town, when all
     infection had apparently ceased, were generally attacked, and died;
     a singular instance of this kind happened at Mogodor, where, after
     the mortality had subsided, a corps of troops arrived from the city
     of Terodant, in the province of Suse, where the plague had been
     raging, and had subsided; these troops, after remaining three days
     at Mogodor, were attacked with the disease, and it raged
     exclusively among them for about a month, during which it carried
     off two-thirds of their original number, one hundred men; during
     this interval the other inhabitants of the town were exempt from
     the disorder, though these troops were not confined to any
     particular quarter, many of them having had apartments in the
     houses of the inhabitants of the town.

     The destruction of the human species in the province of Suse was
     considerably greater than elsewhere; Terodant, formerly the
     metropolis of a kingdom, but now that of Suse, lost, when the
     infection was at its acme, about eight hundred each day; the
170  ruined, but still extensive city of Marocco[129], lost one thousand
     each day; the populous cities of Old and New Fas diminished in
     population twelve or fifteen hundred each day[130], insomuch, that
     in these extensive cities, the mortality was so great, that the
     living having not time to bury the dead, the bodies were deposited
     or thrown altogether into large holes, which, when nearly full,
     were covered over with earth. All regulations in matters of
     sepulture before observed were now no longer regarded; things
     sacred and things prophane had now lost their distinction, and
     universal despair pervaded mankind. Young, healthy, and robust
     persons of full stamina, were, for the most part, attacked first,
     then women and children, and lastly, thin, sickly, emaciated, and
     old people.

         [Footnote 129: I have been informed that there are still at
         Marocco, apartments wherein the dead were placed; and that
         after the whole family was swept away the doors were built up,
         and remain so to this day.]

         [Footnote 130: There died, during the whole of the above
         periods, in the city of Marocco, 50,000; in Fas, 65,000; in
         Mogodor, 4500; and in Saffy, 5000; in all 124,500 souls!]

     After this violent and deadly calamity had subsided, we beheld a
     general alteration in the fortunes and circumstances of men; we saw
     persons who before the plague were common labourers, now in
     possession of thousands, and keeping horses without knowing how to
     ride them. Parties of this description were met wherever we went,
171  and the men of family called them in derision _el wuratu_, the
     inheritors.[131] Provisions also became extremely cheap and
     abundant; the flocks and herds had been left in the fields, and
     there was now no one to own them; and the propensity to plunder, so
     notoriously attached to the character of the Arab, as well as to
     the Shelluh and Moor, was superseded by a conscientious regard to
     justice, originating from a continual apprehension of dissolution,
     and that the _el khere_[132], as the plague was now called, was a
     judgment of the Omnipotent on the disobedience of man, and that it
     behoved every individual to amend his conduct, as a preparation to
     his departure for paradise.

         [Footnote 131: _Des gens parvenus_, as the French express it;
         or upstarts.]

         [Footnote 132: The good, or benediction.]

     The expense of labour at the same time increased enormously[133],
     and never was equality in the human species more conspicuous than
     at this time; when corn was to be ground, or bread baked, both were
     performed in the houses of the affluent, and prepared by
     themselves, for the very few people whom the plague had spared,
     were insufficient to administer to the wants of the rich and
     independent, and they were accordingly compelled to work for
     themselves, performing personally the menial offices of their
     respective families.
172
         [Footnote 133: At this time I received from Marocco a caravan
         of many camel-loads of bees-wax, in serrons containing 200 lbs.
         each; I sent for workmen to place them one upon another, and
         they demanded one dollar per serron for so moving them.]

     The country being now depopulated, and much of the territory
     without owners, vast tribes of Arabs emigrated from their abodes in
     the interior of Sahara, and took possession of the country
     contiguous to the river Draha, as well as many districts in Suse;
     and, in short, settling themselves, and pitching their tents
     wherever they found a fertile country with little or no population.

     The symptoms of this plague varied in different patients, the
     variety of age and constitution gave it a like variety of
     appearance and character. Those who enjoyed perfect health were
     suddenly seized with head-aches and inflammations; the tongue and
     throat became of a vivid red, the breath was drawn with difficulty,
     and was succeeded by sneezing and hoarseness; when once settled in
     the stomach, it excited vomitings of black bile, attended with
     excessive torture, weakness, hiccough, and convulsion. Some were
     seized with sudden shivering, or delirium, and had a sensation of
     such intense inward heat, that they threw off their clothes, and
     would have walked about naked in quest of water wherein to plunge
     themselves. Cold water was eagerly resorted to by the unwary and
     imprudent, and proved fatal to those who indulged in its momentary
     relief. Some had one, two, or more buboes, which formed themselves,
173  and became often as large as a walnut, in the course of a day;
     others had a similar number of carbuncles; others had both buboes
     and carbuncles, which generally appeared in the groin, under the
     arm, or near the breast. Those who were affected[134] with a
     shivering, having no buboe, carbuncle, spots, or any other exterior
     disfiguration, were invariably carried off in less than twenty-four
     hours, and the body of the deceased became quickly putrified, so
     that it was indispensably necessary to bury it a few hours after
     dissolution. It is remarkable, that the birds of the air fled away
     from the abode of men, for none were to be seen during this
174  calamitous period; the hyænas, on the contrary, visited the
     cemeteries, and sought the dead bodies to devour them. I
     recommended Mr. Baldwin's[135] invaluable remedy of olive oil,
     applied according to his directions; several Jews, and some
     Muselmin[136], were induced to try it, and I was afterwards visited
     by many, to whom I had recommended it, and had given them written
     directions in Arabic how to apply it: and I do not know any
     instance of its failing when persevered in, even after the
     infection had manifested itself.

         [Footnote 134: _M'drob_ is an idiom in the Arabic language
         somewhat difficult to render into English; it is well known
         that the Muhamedans are predestinarians, and that they believe
         in the existence of spirits, devils, &c.; their idea of the
         plague is, that it is a good or blessing sent from God to clear
         the world of a superfluous population--that no medicine or
         precaution can cure or prevent it; that every one who is to be
         a victim to it is (_mktube_) recorded in the Book of Fate; that
         there are certain Genii who preside over the fate of men, and
         who sometimes discover themselves in various forms, having
         often legs similar to those of fowls: that these Genii are
         armed with arrows: that when a person is attacked by the
         plague, which is called in Arabic _l'amer_, or the destiny or
         decree, he is shot by one of these Genii, and the sensation of
         the invisible wound is similar to that from a musquet-ball;
         hence the universal application of _M'drob_ to a person
         afflicted with the plague, i.e. he is shot; and if he die,
         _ufah ameruh_, his destiny is completed or terminated (in this
         world). I scarcely ever yet saw the Muselman who did not affirm
         that he had at some time of his life seen these Genii; and they
         often appear, they say, in rivers.]

         [Footnote 135: Late British Consul in Egypt.]

         [Footnote 136: Muselman, sing.: Muselmin. plur.]

     I have no doubt but the epidemy which made its appearance at Cadiz,
     and all along the southern shores of Spain, immediately as the
     plague was subsiding in West Barbary, was the same disorder with
     the one above described, suffering, after its passage to a
     Christian country, some variation, originating from the different
     modes of living, and other circumstances; for nothing can be more
     opposite than the food, dress, customs, and manners of Muhamedans
     and Christians, notwithstanding the approximation of Spain to
     Marocco. We have been credibly informed, that it was communicated
     originally to Spain, by two infected persons, who went from Tangier
     to Estapona, a small village on the opposite shore; who, after
     eluding the vigilance of the guards, reached Cadiz. We have also
     been assured that it was communicated by some infected persons who
175  landed in Spain, from a vessel that had loaded produce at L'Araiche
     in West Barbary. Another account was, that a Spanish privateer,
     which had occasion to land its crew for the purpose of procuring
     water in some part of West Barbary, caught the infection from
     communicating with the natives, and afterwards proceeding to Cadiz,
     and spread it in that town and the adjacent country.

     It should be observed, for the information of those who may be
     desirous of investigating the nature of this extraordinary
     distemper, that, from its character and its symptoms, approximating
     to the peculiar plague, which (according to the before mentioned
     Arabic record) ravaged and depopulated West Barbary four centuries
     since, the Arabs and Moors were of opinion it would subside after
     the first year, and not appear again the next, as the Egyptian
     plague does; and agreeably to this opinion, it did not re-appear
     the second year: neither did St. John's day, or that season, affect
     its virulence; but about that period there prevails along the coast
     of West Barbary, a trade-wind, which, beginning to blow in the
     month of May, continues throughout the months of June, July, and
     August, with little intermission. It was apprehended that the
     influence of this trade-wind, added to the superstitious opinion of
     the plague ceasing on St. John's day, would stop, or at least
     sensibly diminish the mortality; but no such thing happened: the
     wind did set in, as it invariably does, about St. John's day; the
176  disorder, however, increased at that period, rather than
     diminished. Some persons were of opinion, that the infection
     maintained its virulence till the last; that the decrease of
     mortality did not originate from a decrease of the _miasma_, but
     from a decrease of population, and a consequent want of subjects to
     prey upon; and this indeed is a plausible idea; but admitting it to
     be just, how are we to account for the almost invariable fatality
     of the disorder, when at its height, and the comparative innocence
     of it when on the decline? for _then_, the chance to those who had
     it, was, that they would recover and survive the malady.

     The old men seemed to indulge in a superstitious tradition, that
     when this peculiar kind of epidemy attacks a country, it does not
     return or continue for three or more years, but disappears
     altogether, (after the first year,) and is followed the seventh
     year by contagious rheums and expectoration, the violence of which
     lasts from three to seven days, but is not fatal. Whether this
     opinion be in general founded in truth I cannot determine; but in
     the spring of the year 1806, which was the seventh year from the
     appearance of the plague at Fas in 1799, a species of influenza
     pervaded the whole country; the patient going to bed well, and, on
     rising in the morning, a thick phlegm was expectorated, accompanied
     by a distressing rheum, or cold in the head, with a cough, which
     quickly reduced those affected to extreme weakness, but was seldom
     fatal, continuing from three to seven days, with more or less
     violence, and then gradually disappearing.
177
     During the plague at Mogodor, the European merchants shut
     themselves up in their respective houses, as is the practice in the
     Levant; I did not take this precaution, but occasionally rode out
     to take exercise on horseback. Riding one day out of the town, I
     met the Governor's brother, who asked me where I was going, when
     every other European was shut up? "To the garden," I
     answered.--"And are you not aware that the garden and the adjacent
     country is full of (_Jinune_) departed souls, who are busy in
     smiting with the plague every one they meet?" I could not help
     smiling, but told him, that I trusted to God only, who would not
     allow any of the _Jinune_ to smite me unless it were his sovereign
     will, and that if it were, he could effect it without the agency of
     _Jinune_. On my return to town in the evening, the beach, from the
     town-gate to the sanctuary of Seedi,[137] Mogodole was covered with
     biers. My daily observations convinced me that the epidemy was not
     caught by approach, unless that approach was accompanied by an
     inhaling of the breath, or by touching the infected person; I
     therefore had a separation made across the gallery, inside of my
     house, between the kitchen and dining parlour, of the width of
     three feet, which is sufficiently wide to prevent the inhaling the
178  breath of a person. From this partition or table of separation I
     took the dishes, and after dinner returned them to the same place,
     suffering none of the servants to come near me; and in the
     accounting-house, I had a partition made to prevent the too near
     approach of any person who might call on business; and this
     precaution I firmly believe to be all that is necessary, added to
     that of receiving money through vinegar, and taking care not to
     touch or smell infectious substances.

         [Footnote 137: A sanctuary a mile south-east of the town of
         Mogodor, from whence, the town receives its name.]

     Fear had an extraordinary effect in disposing the body to receive
     the infection; and those who were subject thereto, invariably
     caught the malady, which was for the most part fatal. At the
     breaking out of the plague at Mogodor, there were two medical men,
     an Italian and a Frenchman, the latter, a man of science, a great
     botanist, and of an acute discrimination; they, however, did not
     remain, but took the first opportunity of leaving the place for
     Teneriffe, so that the few Europeans had no expectation of any
     medical assistance except that of the natives. Plaisters of gum
     ammoniac, and the juice of the leaves of the _opuntia_, or _kermuse
     ensarrah_, _i.e._ prickly pear, were universally applied to the
     carbuncles, as well as to the buboes, which quickly brought them to
     suppuration: many of the people of property took copious draughts
     of coffee and Peruvian bark. The _Vinaigre de quatre voleurs_, was
179  used by many, also camphor, smoking tobacco, or fumigations of gum
     Sandrac; straw was also burned by some, who were of opinion, that
     any thing which produced abundance of smoke, was sufficient to
     purify the air of pestilential effluvia.

     During the existence of the plague, I had been in the chambers of
     men on their death-bed: I had had Europeans at my table, who were
     infected, as well as Moors, who actually had buboes on them; I took
     no other precaution than that of separation, carefully avoiding to
     touch the hand, or inhale the breath; and, notwithstanding what may
     have been said, I am decidedly of opinion that the plague, at least
     this peculiar species of it, is not produced by any infectious
     principle in the atmosphere, but caught solely by touching infected
     substances, or inhaling the breath of those who are diseased; and
     that it must not be confounded with the common plague of Egypt, or
     Constantinople, being a malady of a much more desperate and
     destructive kind. It has been said, by persons who have discussed
     the nature and character of the plague, that the cultivation of a
     country, the draining of the lands, and other agricultural
     improvements, tend to eradicate or diminish it; but, at the same
     time, we have seen countries depopulated where there was no morass,
     or stagnate water for many days' journey, nor even a tree to impede
     the current of air, or a town, nor any thing but encampments of
     Arabs, who procured water from wells of a great depth, and
180  inhabited plains so extensive and uniform, that they resemble the
     sea, and are so similar in appearance after, as well as before
     sun-rise, that if the eye could abstract itself from the spot
     immediately surrounding the spectator, it could not be ascertained
     whether it were sea or land.

     I shall now subjoin a few cases for the further elucidation of this
     distemper, hoping that the medical reader will pardon any
     inaccuracy originating from my not being a professional man.

     Case I.--One afternoon, I went into the kitchen, and saw the cook
     making the bread; he appeared in good health and spirits; I
     afterwards went into the adjoining parlour, and took up a book to
     read; in half an hour the same man came to the door of the room,
     with his eyes starting from his head, and his bed-clothes, &c. in
     his hands, saying, "open the gate for me, for I am (_m'dorb_)
     smitten." I was astonished at the sudden transition, and desired
     him to go out, and I would follow and shut the gate. The next
     morning he sent his wife out on an errand, and got out of bed, and
     came to the gate half-dressed, saying that he was quite recovered,
     and desired I would let him in. I did not, however, think it safe
     to admit him, but told him to go back to his house for a few days,
     until he should be able to ascertain that he was quite well; he
     accordingly returned to his apartments, but expired that evening,
     and before day-break his body was in such a state, that his feet
181  were actually putrified. His wife, by attending on him, caught the
     infection, having a carbuncle, and also buboes, and was confined
     two months before she recovered.

     Case II.--L'Hage Hamed O Bryhim, the old governor of Mogodor, had
     twelve or more children, and four wives, who were all attacked, and
     died (except only one young wife); he attended them successively to
     the grave, and notwithstanding that he assisted in performing the
     religious ceremony of washing the body, he never himself caught the
     infection; he lived some years afterwards, and out of the whole
     household, consisting of wives, concubines, children, and slaves,
     he had but one person left, which was the before-mentioned young
     wife: this lady, however, had received the infection, and was
     confined some time before she recovered.

     Case. III.--Hamed ben A---- was smitten with the plague, which he
     compared to the sensation of two musket balls fired at him, one in
     each thigh; a giddiness and delirium succeeded, and immediately
     afterwards a green vomiting, and he fell senseless to the ground; a
     short time afterwards, on the two places where he had felt as if
     shot, biles or buboes formed, and on suppurating, discharged a
     foetid black pus; a (_jimmera_) carbuncle on the joint of the arm
     near the elbow was full of thin ichor, contained in an elevated
     skin, surrounded by a burning red colour; after three months'
     confinement, being reduced to a skeleton, the disorder appeared to
182  have exhausted itself, and he began to recover his strength, which
     in another month was fully reestablished. It was an observation
     founded on daily experience, during the prevalence of this
     disorder, that those who were attacked with a nausea at the
     stomach, and a subsequent vomiting of green or yellow bile,
     recovered after suffering in various degrees, and that those who
     were affected with giddiness, or delirium, followed by a discharge
     or vomiting of black bile, invariably died after lingering one,
     two, or three days, their bodies being covered with small black
     spots similar to grains of gun-powder; in this state, however, they
     possessed their intellects, and spoke rationally till their
     dissolution.

     When the constitution was not disposed, or had not vigour enough to
     throw the miasma to the surface in the form of biles, buboes,
     carbuncles, or blackish spots, the virulence is supposed to have
     operated inwardly, or on the vital parts, and the patient died in
     less than twenty-four hours, without any exterior disfiguration.

     Case IV.--It was reported that the Sultan had the plague twice
     during the season, as many others had; so that the idea of its
     attacking like the small-pox, a person but once in his life, is
     refuted: the Sultan was cured by large doses of Peruvian bark
     frequently repeated, and it was said that he found such infinite
     benefit from it, that he advised his brothers never to travel
     without having a good supply. The Emperor, since the plague, always
     has by him a sufficient quantity of quill bark to supply his
     emergency.
183
     Case V.--H.L. was smitten with the plague, which affected him by a
     pain similar to that of a long needle (as he expressed himself)
     repeatedly plunged into his groin. In an hour or two afterwards, a
     (_jimmera_) carbuncle appeared in the groin, which continued
     enlarging three days, at the expiration of which period he could
     neither support the pain, nor conceal his sensations; he laid
     himself down on a couch; an Arabian doctor, applied to the
     carbuncles the testicles of a ram cut in half, whilst the vital
     warmth was still in them; the carbuncle on the third day was
     encreased to the size of a small orange; the before-mentioned
     remedy was daily applied during thirty days, after which he
     resorted to cataplasms of the juice of the (_opuntia_) prickly
     pear-tree, (_feshook_) gum ammoniac, and (_zite el aud_) oil of
     olives, of each one-third; this was intended to promote
     suppuration, which was soon effected; there remained after the
     suppuration a large vacuity, which was daily filled with fine hemp
     dipped in honey; by means of this application the wound filled up,
     and the whole was well in thirty-nine days.

     Case VI.--El H--t--e, a trading Jew of Mogodor, was sorely
     afflicted; he called upon me, and requested some remedy; I advised
     him to use oil of olives, and having Mr. Baldwin's mode of
184  administering it[138], I transcribed it in the Arabic language, and
     gave it to him; he followed the prescription, and assured me, about
     six weeks afterwards, that (with the blessing of God) he had
     preserved his life by that remedy only; he said, that after having
     been anointed with oil, his skin became harsh and dry like the
     scales of a fish, but that in half an hour more, a profuse
     perspiration came on, and continued for another half hour, after
     which he experienced relief: this he repeated forty days, when, he
     was quite recovered.

         [Footnote 138: Mr. Baldwin observed, that, whilst the plague
         ravaged Egypt, the dealers in oil were not affected with the
         epidemy; and he accordingly recommended people to anoint
         themselves with oil every day as a remedy.]

     Case VII.--Moh--m'd ben A---- fell suddenly down in the street; he
     was conveyed home; three carbuncles and five buboes appeared soon
     after in his groin, under the joint of his knee, and arm-pits, and
     inside the elbow; he died in three hours after the attack.

     Case VIII.--L.R. was suddenly smitten with this dreadful calamity,
     whilst looking over some Marocco leather; he fell instantaneously;
     afterwards, when he had recovered his senses, he described the
     sensation as that of the pricking of needles, at every part wherein
     the carbuncles afterwards appeared: he died the same day in
     defiance of medicine.

     Case IX.--Mr. Pacifico, a merchant, was attacked, and felt a
     pricking pain down the inside of the thick part of the thigh, near
     the sinews; he was obliged to go to bed. I visited him the next
     day, and was going to approach him, but he exclaimed, "Do not come
185  near for although I know I have not the prevailing distemper, yet
     your friends, if you touch me, may persuade you otherwise, and that
     might alarm you; I shall, I hope, be well in a few days." I took
     the hint of Don Pedro de Victoria, a Spanish gentleman, who was in
     the room, who, offering me a sagar, I smoked it, and then departed;
     the next day the patient died. He was attended during his illness
     by the philanthropic Monsieur Soubremont, who did not stir from his
     bed-side till he expired; but after exposing himself in this
     manner, escaped the infection, which proceeded, as he thought, from
     his constantly having a pipe in his mouth.

     Case X.--Two of the principal Jews of the town giving themselves
     up, and having no hope, were willing to employ the remainder of
     their lives in affording assistance to the dying and the dead, by
     washing the bodies and interring them; this business they performed
     during thirty or forty days, during all which time they were not
     attacked: when the plague had nearly subsided, and they began again
     to cherish hopes of surviving the calamity, they were both smitten,
     but after a few days' illness recovered, and are now living.

     From this last case, as well as from many others similar, but too
     numerous here to recapitulate, it appears that the human
     constitution requires a certain miasma, to prepare it to receive
     the pestilential infection.

     _General Observation._--When the carbuncles or buboes appeared to
186  have a blackish rim round their base, the case of that patient was
     desperate, and invariably fatal. Sometimes the whole body was
     covered with black spots like partridge-shot; such patients always
     fell victims to the disorder, and those who felt the blow
     internally, showing no external disfiguration, seldom survived more
     than a few hours.

     The plague appears to visit this country about once in every twenty
     years[139]: the last visitation was in 1799 and 1800, being more
     fatal than any ever before known.

         [Footnote 139: This opinion is confirmed by the plague, being
         now (1820) in Marocco just twenty years since the last plague.
         65,000 persons have been lately carried off by this disease in
         the cities of Old and New Fas.]

       *       *       *       *       *

     _Observations respecting the Plague that prevailed last Year in
     West Barbary, and which was imported from Egypt; communicated by
     the Author to the Editor of the Quarterly Journal of Literature,
     Science, and the Arts, edited at the Royal Institution of Great
     Britain, No, 15, published in October, 1819._

     His Majesty's ship, which was lying in the port of Alexandria, when
     Colonel Fitzclarence passed through Egypt, from India, on his way
     to England, convoyed to Tangier a vessel which had on board two of
     the sons of Muley Soliman, emperor of Marocco; on their arrival at
     Tangier, the princes immediately landed and proceeded to their
     father at Fas; but it was discovered by the governor or alkaid of
187  Tangier, that during the passage some persons had died; and
     accordingly the alkaid would not suffer any of the passengers to
     land, except the princes, until he should have received orders from
     the Emperor how to act; he accordingly wrote to Fas, for the
     imperial orders, and in the mean time the princes arrived, and
     presented themselves to the emperor: the latter wrote to the
     alkaid, that as the princes had been suffered to land, it would be
     unjust to prohibit the other passengers from coming ashore also. He
     therefore ordered the alkaid to suffer all the passengers, together
     with their baggage, to be landed, and soon afterwards the plague
     appeared at Fas, and at Tangier. Thus the contagion which is now
     ravaging West Barbary was imported from Egypt. It does not appear
     that the mortality is, or has been, during its acme at Fas, any
     thing comparable to what it was during the plague that ravaged this
     country in 1799,[140] and which carried off more than two-thirds of
     the population of the empire.

         [Footnote 140: It has been asserted by a physician who has
         lately written, _Observations on contagion, as it relates to
         the plague and other epidemical diseases_, reviewed in article
         20th of the _British Review_, and _London Critical Journal_,
         published in May last, that I have asserted that the deaths
         during the prevalence of that disorder in West Barbary in 1799,
         amounted to 124,500; but on a reference to my account of
         Marocco, Timbuctoo, &c., 2d or 3d edition, note, page 174, it
         will appear, that this mortality was that of two cities, and
         two sea-ports only, viz., the cities of Fas and Marocco, and
         the ports of Saffy and Mogodor; the mortality, however, was
         equally great in the imperial cities of Mequinas and Terodant,
         and in the sea-port towns of Tetuan, Tangier, Arzilla,
         L'Araich, Salee, Rabat, Dar el Bieda, Azamore, Mazagan, and
         Santa Cruz, or Agadeer; and considerably greater among the
         populous and numerous encampments of the Arabs, throughout the
         various provinces of the empire; not to mention the incredible
         mortality in the castles, towns, and other walled habitations
         of the Shelluh province of Haha, the first province, travelling
         from the shores of the Mediterranean, where the people live in
         walled habitations, the seaports excepted.]
188
     Whence proceeds this difference? Is it a different species of
     plague, and not so deadly a contagion? Or is it because the remedy
     of _olive_ oil, applied and recommended generally by me, and by
     some other Europeans during the plague of 1799, is now made public
     and generally administered? This is an inquiry well deserving the
     attention of scientific men. And His Majesty's ministers might
     procure the information from the British consul at Tangier, or from
     the governor of Gibraltar: perhaps the truth is, that the contagion
     is of a more mild character.

     With regard to the remedy of olive oil applied[141] internally, I
     should, myself, be disposed to doubt its efficacy unless M. Colaço,
189  the Portuguese consul at L'Araich, is competent to declare, _from
     his own knowledge and experience_, that this remedy has been
     administered effectually by him to persons having the plague, who
     did not _also use the friction with oil_. I say, till this can be
     ascertained, I think the remedy of oil applied _externally_, should
     not be forsaken; as _it has been proved during the plague in
     Africa, in 1799, to be infallible_, and therefore indispensable to
     people whose vocation may lead them to associate with, or to touch
     or bury the infected. For the rest, such persons as are not
     compelled to associate with the infected, may effectually avoid the
     contagion, however violent and deadly it may be, by avoiding
     contact. I am so perfectly convinced of this fact, from the
     experience and observation I have made during my residence at
     Mogodor, whilst the plague raged there in 1799, that I would not
     object to go to any country, although it were rotten with the
     plague, provided my going would benefit mankind, or serve any
     useful purpose; and I would use no fumigation, or any other remedy
     but what I actually used at Mogodor in 1799. I am so convinced from
     my own repeated and daily experience, that the most deadly plague
     is as easy to be avoided BY STRICTLY ADHERING TO THE PRINCIPLE OF
     AVOIDING PERSONAL CONTACT AND INHALATION, AND THE CONTACT OF
     INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES, that I would ride or walk through the most
190  populous and deeply-infected city, as I have done before, without
     any other precaution than that of a segar in my mouth, when, by
     avoiding contact and inhalation, I should most assuredly be free
     from the danger of infection!!

         [Footnote 141: Mr. Colaço, having lately observed that oil was
         used externally to anoint the body, as a preservative against
         the plague; conceived the idea of administering this simple
         remedy _internally_ to persons already infected; numerous
         experiments were made by this gentleman, who administered from
         four to eight oz. olive oil at a dose; and out of 300
         individuals already infected, who resorted to this remedy, only
         twelve died.]

     When these precautions are strictly observed, I maintain, (in
     opposition to all the theoretical dogmas that have lately been
     propagated) that there is no more danger of infection with the
     plague, than there is of infection from any common cold or rheum.

191

                   JOURNEY FROM TANGIER TO RABAT
                   _THROUGH THE PLAINS OF SEBOO_,



     To accompany Dr. Bell, in Company with the Prince Muley Teib and an
     Army of Cavalry.

     _Officiated as Interpreter between the Prince and Dr.
     Bell.--Description of Food sent to us by the Prince.--The Plains of
     M'sharrah Rummellah, an incomparable fine and productive
     Country.--The Cavalry of the Amorites,--their unique Observations
     on Dr. Bell.--their mean Opinion of his Art, because he could not
     cure Death.--Passage of the River Seboo on Rafts of inflated
     Skins.--Spacious Tent of Goat's Hair erected for the Sheik, and
     appropriated to the Use of the Prince.--Description of the
     magnificent Plains of M'sharrah Rummellah and Seboo.--Arabian
     Royalty.--Prodigious Quantity of Corn grown in these
     Plains.--Matamores, what they are.--Mode of Reaping.--The Prince
     presents the Doctor with a Horse, and approves of his
     Medicines.--The Prince and the Doctor depart south-eastwardly, and
     the Author pursues his Journey to Rabat and Mogodor._

     I happened to be at Tangier when the (_shereef_) prince Muley Teib
     was collecting an army to join that of the emperor, which was on
     the banks of the river Morbeya, (see the map of West Barbary, p.
     55,) in Shawiya. Doctor Bell, who had then recently arrived from
     Gibraltar, to attend the prince, whose lungs were affected, was to
192  accompany his Royal Highness; and, as I had nothing to detain me in
     Tangier, and was going to Rabat, I engaged to accompany the doctor,
     and offered to officiate as interpreter between him and the prince
     till our arrival at Rabat; after which I should leave him, and
     proceed to Mogodor. The Doctor readily assented to my proposition,
     because it is considered more respectable in this country, where
     the Jews are reprobated and despised, to have for an interpreter a
     Christian; the prince also, when he heard that I had thus offered
     my services, expressed himself much gratified, and I received a
     very polite message from him. The next day we started from Tangier,
     in the morning at ten o'clock. The army halted east of Arzilla, in
     the plains: the prince sat down under the shade of a tree to
     dinner, Dr. Bell and myself under another tree, about 100 yards
     distant. The Prince sent us a capon stewed _à-la-mauresque_ with
     saffron, the exquisite flavour of which proved that he had an
     excellent cook with him. We departed in half an hour; and the tents
     were pitched at sunset, in a campaign country, between Arzilla and
     L'Araich. The Ait-Amor or Amorites who formed a part of this army,
     a wild, uncontrolled race of Berebbers, saw the attention that was
     paid by the shereef to the doctor, and after dinner they were
     determined to see what sort of a fellow this doctor was, whom the
     shereef treated so familiarly. They galloped their high-mettled
     horses up to the doctor; and stopping short to examine him, made a
193  reflection on him and returned. The doctor observed the wild and
     tattered appearance of these excellent horsemen. There was nothing
     evil-minded in them; but their observations were remarkable. The
     Doctor wore powder, a custom unknown in this country: one party
     would say, "He has got lime in his head to kill the vermin;"
     another would observe that "He was old or grey-headed." The Doctor
     was fond of his bottle, and some said _skurren bel akkaran_, i.e.
     "The[142] son of a cuckold is drunk." Others would bawl out, _Wa
     Tebeeb washka't dowie elmoot_, i.e. "O, doctor, canst thou cure
     death?" To which he replied, "No."--"Then," returned they, "thou
     art no doctor!" On the following morning at sun-rise we proceeded,
     and reached L'Araich at twelve o'clock; we did not enter the town,
     but dined in the plains, and proceeding afterwards out of the main
     road, we directed our course south-east, till we reached a most
     beautiful and very extensive plain, called M'sharrah Rummellah.
     This plain was covered with numerous and immense flocks of sheep
     and horned cattle, and is many times more extensive than Salisbury
     plain. We pitched our tents near a very extensive and populous
     douar of Arabs. We departed the next morning at sun-rise, and
     reached the plains of the river Seboo about two o'clock in the
     afternoon; which plains are a continuation of those of M'sharrah
194  Rummellah; the army were engaged the remaining part of the day and
     the whole night crossing the river Seboo, on rafts made of inflated
     cow-hides, covered with planks and straw. The river is here about
     twenty yards wide, but very deep and rapid; the Arabs had a long
     and spacious sheik's tent pitched for the reception of the prince,
     about forty feet long and fifteen wide, somewhat similar to the
     hull of a ship reversed, having the long side open to the sun.
     These tents are the palace of the sheik of the Arabs, and are
     erected on great occasions only, such as that of the emperor, or a
     prince passing through their territory. The plains of M'sharrah
     Rummellah are one hundred and fifty British miles in circumference,
     perfectly flat, without a stone, a tree, a hedge, or a ditch; with
     the majestic river Seboo passing through the centre of the plain.
     The soil of this territory, which, in the hands of Europeans, might
     be made a terrestrial paradise, is a rich, productive, decomposed
     vegetable earth, which extends, as we perceived from various
     chasms, to the depth of several feet from the surface. It produces
     incredible quantities of the finest wheat, of a hard grain, very
     large and long, clear as amber, and yielding a prodigious increase
     of flour, so that a saa of wheat[143] produces a saa and a sixth of
195  flour. The prince, Muley Teeb, seated on an eminence in this
     spacious tent, resembled what we should imagine the patriarch
     Abraham to have been, entertaining his friends; or Saul upon his
     throne, with his javelin in his hand. He had twelve lanciers, six
     on each side of him in a row, standing with their lances erect, the
     Prince having one in his hand. It appears that this is the Arabian
     etiquette; and the Arabs appeared much gratified that the prince
     had personified their sheik, with all the paraphernalia of royalty.
     His Royal Highness whose mind seemed moved with the beauty of this
     country, sent for the Doctor and myself, and asked us if we had
     ever seen such a country before. We frankly confessed we had not.
     The prince smiled, and said, that the (_sehell_) plain we were on,
     although extremely populous, and full of douars, could grow
     seventeen times as much corn as the inhabitants could consume; that
     there was then corn enough in the matamores[144] of this plain, to
     supply (_El garb kamel_) the whole of El garb, i.e. the country
     north of the river Morbeya.[145]

         [Footnote 142: Intoxication is a damnable vice with these
         people; and when they remark drunkenness, they invariably add
         an opprobrium to the observation.]

         [Footnote 143: A saa of wheat is little less than two
         Winchester bushels. The wheat is very heavy, and this measure
         weighs 100 lb., equal to 119 lb. English.]

         [Footnote 144: The matamores are subterraneous depositories for
         corn, in which they preserve the wheat sound and good thirty
         years; but when a matamore is once opened, it is expedient to
         consume the corn immediately, otherwise it contracts what is
         called the matamore twang. These depositories are indispensable
         in countries exposed to drought, scarcity, or locusts, and
         _should be adopted in our colony of South Africa_. The art of
         constructing them is very peculiar, and I devoted some time in
         learning it.]

         [Footnote 145: See the map of West Barbary.]

196
     We took our leave of the Prince, who appeared much gratified with
     the hospitable entertainment of the Arabs, and with their
     patriarchal style of living, and sent us an enormous dish of
     cuscasoe, coloured with saffron.

     Encamped in the centre of this plain, when the sun had set, and the
     twilight came on, we could have imagined ourselves in the midst of
     the ocean. Not a cloud was in the sky, nor a hill on the land, to
     intercept the uniformity of the horizon; the moon shone so bright,
     that we could read by its light, and the universal novelty of the
     scene resembled enchantment.

     On this rich land they use no dung: they reap the corn about a foot
     from the ground, and burn the stubble. The produce is greater even
     than that of the _new-dyke land_, on the banks of the river Ems, in
     North Holland. The allotments of land are ascertained by a large
     stone, placed at each corner of the square, when the reapers reach
     these stones, they desist from proceeding or reaping the corn of
     other proprietors. We rose early in the morning, and found the air
     of this terrestrial paradise strongly perfumed with millions of
     odoriferous flowers, that were growing spontaneously throughout the
     plains. Walking with Dr. Bell through the Prince's camp, we saw a
     beautiful grey horse. The doctor admired it. I recommended him to
     ask the Prince for it, he was not acquainted with the customs of
197  this country, and ridiculed my observation. "If you wish to have
     that horse, Doctor," said I, "I will engage that the Prince will
     get it for you. I represented immediately to His Royal Highness,
     that the Doctor had taken a liking to the horse, and would wish to
     buy it. Not buy it," said the Prince; "he will receive it as a
     present from me. Tell him, he deserves seven horses for the benefit
     he has done me: all doctors that I have heretofore had have taken
     twenty-four hours to give me ease; he relieves me in one. Tell him
     so," said the prince, "and that he (_massab ala genibuna_) is in
     the number of my dearest friends. (_e jeek elkhere attibib u
     asselem_), Good be with you, doctor, and peace be with you." Thus
     ended the negociation for the horse. I found afterwards that it
     belonged to a sheik of the Arab province of Beni Hassen, who
     regretted parting with it, but the Prince gave him the value of it,
     and much courtesy withal. We struck our tents next morning at
     eleven o'clock, and, travelling southward, the Prince received an
     express from the Emperor to join his imperial army forthwith:
     accordingly the Prince and his doctor departed south-east, and I
     took leave of them, and pursued my journey to Rabat.

198

                                OF
                     THE EXCAVATED RESIDENCES
                              OF THE
                       INHABITANTS OF ATLAS:
                               THE
            _ACEPHALI, HEL SHUAL, AND HEL ELKILLEB:_



     _The Discovery of Africa not to be effected by the present System
     of solitary Travellers; but by a grand Plan, with a numerous
     Company; beginning with Commerce, as the natural Prelude to
     Discovery, the Fore-runner of Civilization, and a preliminary Step,
     indispensable to the Conversion of the native Negroes to
     Christianity._

     The inhabitants of the snowy or upper regions of the Atlas live,
     during the months of November, December, January, February, and
     half of March, in caves or excavations in the mountains; the snow
     then disappears, and they begin to cultivate the earth.

     I have repeatedly heard reports of the (_Helel Killeb_,[146])
     dog-faced race; of the (_Hel Shual_,) tailed race; and of the race
199  having one eye,[147] and that in the breast. It is extremely
     difficult to ascertain the origin of these reports, which are so
     involved in metaphor that the signification is not intelligible to
     Europeans; their existence is not doubted, however, in Africa. Of
     the _Hel El Killeb_ some ignorant people affirm that the Almighty
     transformed one of the tribes of the Jews into these people, and
     that these are their descendants; others report them to be a
     mongrel breed, between the human and ape species; their strength is
     said to be very great. The Africans assert with considerable
     confidence, which is corroborated, that the Hel Shual have a tail
     half a cubit long; that they inhabit a district in the Desert at an
     immense distance south-east of Marocco; that the Hel El Killeb[148]
200  are in a similar direction; that the latter are diminutive, being
     about two or three cubits[149] in height; that they exclaim _bak,
     bak, bak_, and that they have a few articulate sounds, which they
     mutually understand among themselves; that they are extremely swift
     of foot, and run as fast as horses. The Arimaspi of Herodotus are
     called by the Arabs _Hel Ferdie_, these are represented by the
     Arabs of the Desert as living at the foot of the lofty mountains of
     the Moon, near Abyssinia: the male and female are equally without
     hair on their head, having large chins and nostrils, like the ape
     species; they are said to have a language of their own; their
     costume is a _jelabea_,[150] and a belt, without shoes or head
     dress; their country is said to abound in gold. It is "a
     consummation devoutly to be wished," that our knowledge of Africa
     should increase so as to enable us to unravel the mystery of these
     doubtful reports, to ascertain the degree of credit that is due to
     these mysterious traditions. These desiderata, however, can hardly
201  be expected, whilst the present injudicious plans for the discovery
     of Africa are persevered in. We must, if we desire to discover
     effectually the hidden recesses and reported wonders of this
     continent, adopt plans and schemes very different from any that
     have hitherto been suggested; we must adopt _a grand system upon an
     extensive scale_, a system directed and moved by a person competent
     to so great an undertaking. The head or director of such an
     expedition should be master of the general travelling and
     trafficking language of Africa, the modern Arabic: he should
     moreover be acquainted with the character of the people, their
     habits, modes of life, religious prejudices, and fanaticism. A
     grand plan, thus directed, could hardly fail to secure the command
     of the commerce of Africa to Great Britain. Then the discovery of
     the inmost recesses would follow the path of commerce, and that
     continent, which has baffled the researches of the moderns as well
     as of the ancients, would lay open its treasures to modern Europe,
     and civilisation would be the natural result. Then would be the
     period to attempt the conversion of the Negroes to Christianity;
     and the standard of peace and good will towards men might be
     successfully planted on the banks of the _Nile El Kabeer_, or _Nile
     Assudan_, the Great Nile, or Nile of Sudan, or Nigritia, commonly
     called the Niger.

         [Footnote 146: Apollonius Rhodius calls these people ημικυγες
         or half-dogs.]

         [Footnote 147: The ingenious author of Philosophic Researches
         concerning the Americans, speaking of a race which appear to
         resemble the Acephali of Herodotus, or the race of men having
         one eye, and that in their chest, says, "There is in Canibar a
         race of savages who have hardly any neck, and whose shoulders
         reach up to their ears. This monstrous appearance is
         artificial, and to give it to their children they put enormous
         weights upon their heads, so as to make the vertebræ of the
         neck enter, if we may so say, the channel bone, (clavicule.)
         These barbarians, from a distance, seem to have their mouth in
         the breast; and might well enough, in ignorant and enthusiastic
         travellers, serve to revive the fable of the Acephali, or men
         without heads." (See Larcher's Notes on Herodotus's Melpomene,
         cap. 191.)--Saint Augustin, whose veracity is scarcely to be
         doubted, declared in his thirty-third sermon, intituled _"A ses
         Frères dans le Désert"--Avoir vu en Ethiopie des hommes et des
         femmes sans tête avec des grands yeux sur le poitrine._]

         [Footnote 148: We have heard of a pig-faced lady; if there is
         such a person, there might also be a pig-faced gentleman, and
         these might generate a pig-faced race; and if a pig-faced race,
         why not a dog-faced race?]

         [Footnote 149: Seven Cubits make four English yards.]

         [Footnote 150: The best description I can give of a _jelabea_
         is this: Take a large sack and cut a hole in the bottom, big
         enough to admit the head; then cut the two bottom corners off
         to admit the arms: this garment will then resemble the
         _jelabea_.]

202

                             CAUTIONS
                     TO BE USED IN TRAVELLING.



     _Danger of travelling after Sun-set.--The Emperor holds himself
     accountable for Thefts committed on Travellers, whilst travelling
     between the rising and the setting Sun.--Emigration of
     Arabs.--Patriarchal Style of living among the Arabs; Food,
     Clothing, domestic Looms, and Manufactures.--Riches of the Arabs
     calculated by the Number of Camels they possess.--Arabian Women are
     good Figures, and have personal Beauty; delicate in their Food;
     poetical Geniuses; Dancing and Amusements; Musical Instruments;
     their Manners are courteous_.

     Travellers in West and South Barbary should never be out after
     sun-set: it is not safe to travel in many parts of the country
     during the night. The emperor holds himself accountable for thefts
     committed between the rising and the setting sun; so that, if a
     traveller be robbed of property, the value should be ascertained,
     and an application being made to the bashaw of the province where
     the robbery was committed it will be restored forthwith; but if
     there be any demur, an application should be made to the Emperor,
     personally, if possible, but if not, by letter; and the district is
     immediately ordered to pay double the loss, one half to the person
     robbed, and the other half to the Imperial treasury.
203
     These robberies, however, rarely occur; for the bashaws of the
     provinces and the alkaids of the douars feel it a duty incumbent on
     them to protect all travellers and strangers; so that they would,
     in the event of a robbery being committed, expose themselves to a
     severe reprimand from the emperor, and an intimation that they
     were, by suffering such irregularity, incompetent to their
     situation, and would be liable to a heavy fine, or a discharge from
     their office, for _neglect of vigilance_, which, in this country,
     is considered _very reprehensible_.

     Travelling through the province of Suse, I once witnessed the
     emigration of an extensive douar of Arabs, amounting to about 200
     families. They were just leaving their habitation, where they had
     been encamped only a few months: it was a fine grazing country; the
     camels, horses, mules, asses, oxen and cows, were all laden with
     the tents and baggage of these wanderers. On enquiring the cause of
     this emigration, I was told that the inhabitants were infested with
     musquitoes and fleas to such a degree, that they had all
     unanimously resolved to emigrate to another place, which they had
     fixed upon, and that they would reach it by night. These wandering
     Arabs, without any fixed habitation, are of a restless,
     ungovernable spirit: they never cultivate the earth, as do the
     Arabs of the plains of Marocco, but live, for the most part, on
     camels' milk, occasionally killing a camel or a goat for food;
204  grazing their camels in the adjacent country: they live in the true
     Patriarchal style, and seek the means of supplying all their wants
     within themselves. To effect this purpose, they barter a few of
     their camels for wool, and thus supply themselves with that article
     for clothing, which is made in every (_keyma_) Arab tent, by the
     women, at their own respective looms; each female being the
     manufacturer for her own family. The cloth is wove in pieces of
     seven cubits long and about two and a half broad, of the natural
     colour of the wool: these pieces of cloth are afterwards converted
     into cloaks, mantles, and tunics. Those who choose to indulge in
     the luxury of dress, by wearing linen, or turbans, send a few
     goat-skins, collected from the goats that have served them
     occasionally for food, to Mogodor, or Marocco, or barter them with
     some Jews for linen or shoes, and thus supply all their wants; so
     that their resources considerably exceed their wants, for some of
     them have several thousand camels which cost them nothing. These
     animals browse on the bushes in the environs of their habitations,
     and are continually increasing and multiplying. They never kill any
     animal for food until full grown: this custom, from which the Arab
     never departs, is manifestly calculated to increase property,
     which, being invested in camels, is transportable, without trouble
     or expense, wherever they choose.

     The Arabs are gay and cheerful; the brow of care is rarely seen
205  among them. The more children they have, the greater the blessing.
     They turn their hands in early youth to some useful purpose: so
     soon as they can walk they attend the camels, or are put to some
     domestic occupation; thus forming a useful link in the chain of
     their patriarchal society. The independence of these Arabs is
     depicted in their physiognomy; they are oppressed by no cankering
     care, no anxiety, no anticipation of distress. The food and
     clothing of the Arab is always at hand; fuel is not required in
     this warm country; and a glass of cool water is all that is desired
     to allay the thirst. This simple and abstemious mode of living is
     congenial to the human constitution; accordingly they enjoy
     uninterrupted health: sickness is so uncommon with them that to be
     old and to be sick are synonymous terms. They think one cannot
     happen without the other. Some of the women of these people, whilst
     young, are extremely delicate, handsome, and have elegant figures.
     They account it gross to swallow food, that would, they say, fatten
     them like their Moorish neighbours; they therefore masticate it
     only. Their physiognomy is very interesting and animated; their
     features are regular; large black expressive eyes; a ready wit,
     poetic fancy, expressing themselves in poetic effusions, in which,
     from constant habit, some of them have become such adepts, that
     they with facility speak extempore poetry; those who are unable to
206  converse in this manner are less esteemed. Their evening amusements
     consist in dancing and music, vocal and instrumental. Generally,
     throughout all the Arab provinces, but particularly in Suse, among
     the Mograffra Arabs, the Woled Abbusebah, and Woled Deleim, the
     whole country is in a blaze of light of a summer's evening; music,
     dancing, and rejoicing, is heard in every direction. Their music
     consists of a kettle-drum, a flute or reed, similar to what Homer
     describes as the instrument of the ancient shepherds, a rhabeb or
     two-stringed fiddle, played with a semicircular bow, a tamboureen,
     and brass castanets. They play in precise time; and the ladies
     arrange themselves at the entrance of the sheik's tent. It is
     pleasant to observe the beauty of their fine-formed feet, uninjured
     by tight shoes, and free from corns and all excrescences. They
     dance some dances barefooted, making very short steps, scarcely
     raising the foot from the ground, in a peculiar manner. They have
     elegant and circular ankles; and their light motions fascinate the
     eyes of the spectators and the admiring strangers, who occasionally
     exclaim, (_Allah éhrduh alikume ia Elarb_) "the protection of God
     be upon you, O Arabs!" (_makine fal Elarb_,) "there are none
     comparable to the Arabs!" They have a very elegant shawl-dance: in
     the management of the shawl they display singular grace, and
     practise elegant figures, sometimes concealing their faces,
207  sometimes showing their brilliant eyes through an opening in the
     shawl. The manners of these ladies is courteous, but chaste;
     perfectly modest, but without reserve; and the other sex pay them
     courteous attention.

208

                        ABUNDANCE OF CORN
                           PRODUCED IN
                          WEST BARBARY.



     _Costly Presents made by Spain to the Emperor.--Bashaw of
     Duquella's weekly Present of a Bar of Gold.--Mitferes or
     Subterraneous Depositories for Corn_.

     The empire of Marocco, west of the Atlas, during the reign of Seedi
     Muhamed ben Abdallah, father of the present Emperor Soliman, was
     one continued corn-field. At that time the exportation was free to
     all parts of the world. It is impossible to conceive the abundance
     produced in this prolific land, none but those who have actually
     seen the standing corn in the ear, and have seen it reaped, can
     form any correct idea of its prodigious increase. The plains of
     Rahamena, of Shawiya, of Temsena, of Abda, and Duquella, those
     immense plains of M'sharrah Rummellah, of Ait-Amor, and many
     others, form each, separately, extensive fields of corn, farther
     than the eye can reach. To give an idea of the quantity produced in
     the plains near Dar El Beida, it will be sufficient to say, that
     250 sail of ships, from 150 to 700 tons, were loaded at that port
     in one year of Seedy Muhamed's reign. At the other ports on the
209  shores of the Atlantic, viz. at Arzilla, L'Araich, Meheduma, Rabat,
     Azamor, Mazagan, Saffy, and Mogodor, were shipped a quantity,
     almost equal in proportion to what was shipped at Dar-El-Beida, so
     that the duties at one dollar per fanegue, of 80 lb. weight on the
     exportation of wheat, barley, Indian corn, caravances, beans, and
     seeds, in one year, according to the imperial registers, amounted
     to 5,257,320 Mexico dollars.[151] Besides which, presents to an
     incalculable amount were made from time to time by Spain and
     Portugal, particularly by the former, to keep the Emperor in good
     humour, and to prevent him from prohibiting the exportation of
     grain, of which however there was little chance, as his Imperial
     Majesty was always diligent in the accumulation of treasure, and
     let no opportunity pass of encouraging the agriculture of his
     dominions. This system gave general occupation to the Arabs, or
     agriculturists, and enriched them so universally, that the
     diffusion of wealth among them, produced other incalculable sources
     of revenue, insomuch that it was customary for Muhamed Ben Amaran,
     Bashaw of Duquella, to present to the Emperor at Marocco, every
     Friday, (the Muhamedan sabbath), as he returned home from the
     mosque, a massive bar of pure gold of Timbuctoo, valued at some
210  thousand dollars; which was considered as the fee by which he held
     his bashawick. The Arabs who are the agriculturists of the
     before-mentioned plains, besides the corn exported, lay up immense
     quantities in subterraneous caverns, constructed by a curious
     process, well deserving the attention of the colonists of South
     Africa; these repositories are called mitferes[152], they are
     constructed in a conical form, and will contain from 200 to 2000
     quarters of corn.[153] It is expedient, in their construction, to
     exclude the atmospheric air; and the soil, in which they are
     constructed, should be essentially conservative, the air being
     never changed, is constantly of the same temperature, very dry, and
     not subject to the variations of humidity, which affect the
     external air: this, with other necessary precautions being
     observed, they will preserve the corn twenty or thirty years
     perfectly sound. In countries, (like that of the Cape of Good
     Hope,) subject to drought, inundations, or locusts, these mitferes,
     or catacombs are indispensable, as they preserve corn as a reserve
     stock, in the event of scarcity, or famine, produced by any of the
     before mentioned calamities, or providential visitations. It is
211  more than probable that this singular art of constructing mitferes,
     was derived in ancient times from the catacombs of Egypt, and that
     Joseph might have preserved Pharaoh's corn[154] upwards of seven
     years, in similar magazines. The Emperor Seedi Muhamed, who
     possessed considerable talent, and had a perfect knowledge of the
     disposition and character of his subjects, used to say in the
     (_em'shoer_,) place of audience, before all the people, in the
     latter part of his reign:--"You complain of my decrees; but when I
     am departed from this world, you shall seek for one day of Seedi
     Muhamed's reign, but you shall not find it." This prediction has
     been literally verified throughout the respective reigns of his
     sons Muley Yezzed, and Muley El Hesham, and even his son the
     present Emperor has often manifested an anti-commercial system, and
     has accordingly (probably by the advice of the Fakeers belonging to
     the divan) prohibited the exportation of most articles of clothing,
     and provision, such as wool, Fas manufactures, corn, olive oil,
     raisins, &c.[155]

         [Footnote 151: Barley and wheat imported from different ports
         of England and from the Continent into London (which is more
         than is imported into Great Britain) in 1818, was 6,179,330
         quintals or saas of Barbary, which are equal to 7,415,390
         fanegues $.]

         [Footnote 152: Genesis, xli. 9.--"And Joseph gathered corn as
         the sand of the sea very much."]

         [Footnote 153: I descended into a mitfere in the Arab province
         of Duquella, and remained there whilst the Arab explained to me
         the mode of constructing them; this was near the douar of Woled
         Aisah (see the map): it had just been emptied, and produced
         3450 saas or quintals.]

         [Footnote 154: Genesis, xli. 48.]

         [Footnote 155: The result of this anti-commercial system is,
         that corn is dearer than it was during the exportation. Many
         millions of acres of the finest and most productive land lies
         fallow for want of a market for its produce; indeed, the
         produce has sometimes been so low for want of a market, that I
         have known instances of the corn having been left standing, not
         being worth the expense of reaping. Now this prohibition
         undoubtedly will appear to many intelligent readers bad policy
         in his Imperial Majesty, but it is nevertheless consistent
         policy. The _sine qua non_ of the court of Marocco is to keep
         the inhabitants poor. It is asserted by the political
         economists of this country, that the Arab should not have more
         than sufficient to feed and clothe him; every thing beyond this
         turns to evil, and is an incentive to rebellion: the superflux,
         they maintain, should go to (_Beit el melh d'el muselmen_,) the
         Muselman treasury.]

     A wine company, consisting of gentlemen of practical experience in
     that branch of business, might form a most beneficial establishment
212  at Santa Cruz, whither the grapes of Edautenan are brought to
     market, and other grapes from the Arab countries, of exquisite
     quality and flavour, infinitely superior in richness, size, and
     flavour to those of Spain and Portugal, or any part of Italy;
     indeed, I have no hesitation in declaring, (without fear of
     contradiction,) that this country produces the finest grapes,
     oranges, and pomegranates in the world, and in the greatest
     abundance. I have myself tasted at Marocco, at a Hebrew Rabbi's
     table, excellent imitations of burgundy, claret, champagne,
     madeira, and rhenish, or old hock, all the produce of grapes reared
     in the plains of that city, and in the adjacent mountains. The port
     of Santa Cruz, if purchased of the Emperor by the English, would,
     besides securing the trade to Sudan, and the interior of Africa,
     supply the London market with abundance of all these excellent
     wines.
213

     DOMESTIC SERPENTS OF MAROCCO.

     Every house in Marocco has, or ought to have, a domestic serpent: I
     say ought to have, because those that have not one, seek to have
     this inmate, by treating it hospitably whenever one appears; they
     leave out food for it to eat during the night, which gradually
     domiciliates this reptile. These serpents are reported to be
     extremely sagacious, and very susceptible. The superstition of
     these people is extraordinary; for rather than offend these
     serpents, they will suffer their women to be exposed during sleep
     to their performing the office of an infant. They are considered,
     in a house, emblematical of good, or prosperity, as their absence
     is ominous of evil. They are not often visible; but I have seen
     them passing over the beams of the roof of the apartments. A friend
     of mine was just retired to bed at Marocco, when he heard a noise
     in the room, like something crawling over his head, he arose,
     looked about the room, and discovered one of these reptiles about
     four feet long, of a dark colour, he pricked it with his sword, and
     killed it, then returned to bed. In the morning he called to him
     the master of the house where he was a guest, and telling him he
     had attacked the serpent, the Jew was chagrined, and expostulated
     with him, for the injury he had done him: apprehensive that evil
     would visit him, he intimated to his guest, that he hoped he would
     leave his house, as he feared the malignity of the serpent; and he
     was not reconciled until my friend discovered to him that he had
     actually killed the reptile.

214

                          MANUFACTURES OF FAS.

     _Superior Manufacture of Gold-thread.--Imitation of precious
     Stones.--Manufactory of Gun-barrels in Suse.--Silver-mine._



     The manufactures of West Barbary, are of various kinds. They excel,
     in the city of Fas, in the manufacture of woollens, cottons, silks,
     and gold-thread. The wool and cotton are made into _hayks_, which
     are pieces of cloth five feet wide, and about three and a half, or
     four yards long, used to throw loosely over the dress, when they go
     out into the external air: it resembles the Roman toga, and when
     _tastefully adjusted_, gives an elegance to the Moorish costume.
     These _hayks_ are manufactured in most of the private families of
     Fas; the women employ themselves about them, and sell them to the
     merchants. They are sometimes made of cotton mixed with silk, and
     also altogether of silk. They make also pieces of silk of various
     bright colours, called _bulawan_; the sky-blue, dark-blue, scarlet,
     and yellow, are vivid colours, produced by their mode of dying the
     silk before it is manufactured. They manufacture their silks from
     _Bengal raw silk_, which they call _emfitla_. The _bulawan_ is
215  striped, or chequered, pink, blue, yellow, scarlet, and green: it
     resembles what is called, in England, Persian, but it is much
     stronger, and more[156] durable, though equally light. The silk
     sashes, called _hazam_, are made in large quantities, and are
     deserving of imitation in Europe; they are very substantial, but of
     the same superior colours with the _bulawan_. They are made
     generally half a yard wide, and three yards long: these sell at
     Fas, from two to fifty dollars each. The superior kind made for the
     ladies of the _horam_[157], or emperor's seraglio, for the ladies
     of the bashaws, and for those of the great and opulent, are
     intermixed with a beautiful gold-thread, much superior to any that
     is manufactured in Europe, insomuch, that the gold-thread imported
     from Leghorn and Marseilles is used only in such _hazams_ as are
     made for exportation to Sudan, Draha, or Bled-el-Jereed, but those
     made for the great and opulent, for home consumption, are
     manufactured with the gold thread of the Fas manufacture. Whether
     these expert artificers learned the mystery of gold beating, and
     gold wire drawing, by which they obtain gold-thread, from the
216  Egyptians, I am not competent to say; but _they_ say they derived
     it in ancient times from the Arabs, as well as the art of cutting,
     polishing, and setting precious stones. They make a composition in
     imitation of amber, which cannot, by the keenest eye, be
     distinguished from the natural amber, the latter, however, by[158]
     friction attracts cotton, but the manufactured amber does not; this
     is the only criterion by which they ascertain the true from the
     false amber. They also compose artificial stones with equal
     sagacity; the topaz, the emerald, and the ruby they imitate to
     perfection. The wool with which they make shawls almost equal in
     appearance to those of Kashmere, is procured from the sheep of the
     province of Tedla, and is finer than the Spanish Merino. They might
     manufacture shawls of goats' hair, equal to those of Kashmere, from
     the goats of the eastern declivity of the Atlas, whose hair is like
     silk: these goats are called (_el maize Felelley_,) i.e. Tafilelt
     goats.[159] There can be no doubt, if our intercourse with Marocco
217  had not been impeded by a general ignorance of the language of that
     country, that we might long since have received from the
     manufacturers of Fas, shawls of Tafilelt goat-hair, equal to the
     finest of the Kashmere manufacture. There is a very extensive
     manufactory of red woollen caps at Fas, the contexture of which is
     well deserving investigation. There is also a manufactory of gun
     locks and barrels; the former appear to have reached the acmé of
     the art, the latter are not so good as those which they procure
     from Europe: so that a Spanish or an English barrel, and a Fas
     lock, is considered a complete gun. Such articles of manufacture as
     require a complication of machinery and power to produce they
     import from Europe, except only when the market is bare, and then
     necessity compels them to attempt their construction. The (_hayk
     Filelly_,) i.e. Tafilelt hayk, is a fine elegant woollen cloth,
     thin as a muslin. The Emperor Seedi Muhamed ben Abdallah patronised
     this manufacture of his native country, and never wore any other.
     The art of manufacturing leather is carried to great perfection at
     Mequinas: shoes of the thinnest leather are there made impervious
     to water. The manufactures at Marocco and Terodant are similar to
     those of Fas, with the exception of that of gold-thread, and the
     cutting and polishing of precious stones. The preparation of
     leather at Marocco surpasses any thing known in Europe: lion and
     tiger skins they prepare white as snow, and soft as silk. There are
218  two plants that grow in the Atlas mountains, the leaves of which
     they use in the manufacture of leather; they are called _tizra_,
     and _tasaya_. Whether these render the leather impervious, I am not
     competent to say; every inquiry that I have made at Marocco
     respecting this beautiful manufacture, has been unsatisfactory. I
     have always found the manufacturers very guarded, and extremely
     jealous; but I have often thought that two or three of our leather
     manufacturers, well versed in their art, and withal of penetrating
     minds, might contrive to extract the secret from them. In the
     mountains of Idaultit, in Lower Suse, they have iron-mines, and
     they make gun-barrels and gun-locks equal to what are made at Fas.
     The temptations to agriculture, however, are such, that sufficient
     only for the consumption of their own _kabyl_ are manufactured;
     which is done rather from a principle of self-defense, and from the
     _amor patriæ_, than with a view to gain. The silver from the mines
     of Elala, comes to the Santa Cruz market pure, and in round lumps,
     weighing about two ounces each. I have bought it for its weight in
     Spanish dollars; but it is generally taken to the Mint for sale.
     Ores of gold from the mines of South Barbary, and silver dust from
     the bed of the river at Messa, collected personally by me, I sent
     to England to be assayed: the person who got them assayed,
     reported, that the metal yielded was scarcely sufficient to pay the
     charges of assaying; so that the speculation was abandoned.

         [Footnote 156: The spirit of avarice does not sufficiently
         prevail to induce the manufacturer to make imperfect articles
         for the purpose of sale only. Moreover, they are restrained
         from deception by an officer, who inspects the quality of
         manufactures, and does not suffer an imperfect article to be
         sold.]

         [Footnote 157: This word is called by Europeans _haram_ or
         seraglio; but haram thus applied, is a barbarism: it signifies
         _vicious_. Horam is the correct pronunciation: it signifies a
         place of safety, that admits of no intrusion.]

         [Footnote 158: Thales, the chief of the seven wise men of
         Greece, detected the existence of electricity in amber about
         600 years before the Christian era. He was the first who
         observed _attraction_ to be the distinguishing property of
         amber; and he was so forcibly struck with this singular
         discovery, that he was almost led to suppose that it possessed
         animation. The term electricity is derived from the Greek word
         ηλεκτρον, amber. See Remarks on Electricity and Galvanism, by
         M. La Beaume, p. 29.]

         [Footnote 159: There was a breed of these goats on the island
         of Mogodor, kept there by the emperor's orders. This island is
         the state-prison of the empire.]

219

                       ON THE STATE OF SLAVERY
                         IN MUHAMEDAN AFRICA.



     The state of slavery in this country is very different from that
     which is experienced by the unfortunate men who are transported
     from Africa to work under our Christian brethren in the West India
     islands. No man, who is sufficiently erudite to read the Koran can
     be (_abd_) a slave in a Muhamedan country. It is incumbent on a
     good mûselman to give such his liberty, that the propagation of the
     (_Deen el Wâsah_[160]) mûselman faith, be not impeded. A man who
     has served his master faithfully[161] seven years, sometimes gets
     liberated. This liberation, however, is not compulsory; but
     conscientious mûselmen, of good moral character, often adopt this
     enlarging system. I have, however, met with many Moors, who, on
     offering liberty to their slaves, the latter have declined it,
     preferring to continue in obeisance; a clear proof that their
     servitude is not very severe. All slaves, without exception, are
     brought to this country from the various territories of Sudan, by
     the akkabars, kaffilas, or caravans, that traverse Sahara. They are
     all pagans or idolaters (from the interior regions). They are worth
220  from ten to twenty dollars at Timbuctoo; and at Marocco and Fas
     they sell for, from seventy to one hundred dollars. They are
     received into the Moorish families as domestic servants, and soon
     forget their idolatrous superstitions, and become (nominally at
     least) Muhamedans. After which, many learn to read the Koran, and
     becoming observers of ablution and prostration, often procure their
     liberation; for if any one should neglect to liberate such a slave,
     his brethren in Muhamed will urge him to it, as a good and
     charitable work, becoming a true, mûselman.[162]

         [Footnote 160: So called by Muhamedans: _literally_ means the
         liberal of _wide doctrine_, alluding to that of the Arabian
         Prophet.]

         [Footnote 161: Jeremiah, xxxiv. 14.]

         [Footnote 162: The etymology of _muselman_ is, a man of peace;
         from _salem_, peace.]

     The man who wrote the letter from Timbuctoo, giving his master at
     Mogodor an account of Mungo Park, having visited Kabria, which
     letter I read, and reported its contents on my arrival in England
     from Mogodor, about the year 1807, to my Lord Moira (now the
     Marquis of Hastings), to Sir Joseph Banks, and to Sir Charles
     Morgan, was a liberated negro of Seed el Abes Buhellel, a Fas
     merchant, whose father had an establishment at Timbuctoo. When
     Buhellel liberated this negro, he had such confidence in him, that
     he advanced to him, on his own personal credit, goods to a
     considerable amount, with which he crossed Sahara, and took them to
     Timbuctoo for a market. It were to be desired, for the sake of
     _humanity_, that our West-India planters would take a lesson on
     this subject from the Moors, whose conduct, in this particular, is
     worthy of imitation.

221

                      THE PLAGUE OF LOCUSTS.

     _Their incredible Destruction.--Used as Food.--Remarkable Instance
     of their destroying every Green Herb on one Side of a River, and
     not on the other._



     In the autumn of 1792, (Jeraad) locusts began to appear in West
     Barbary. The corn was in ear, and therefore safe, as this devouring
     insect attacks no hard substance. In (the _liahli_,) the period of
     heavy rains comprised between the forty longest nights, _old
     style_, they disappeared; so that one or two only were seen
     occasionally: but so soon as the _liahli_ had passed, the small
     young green locust began to appear, no bigger than a fly. As
     vegetation increased, these insects increased in size and quantity.
     But the country did not yet seem to suffer from them. About the end
     of March, they increased rapidly. I was at (_Larsa Sultan_) the
     emperor's garden, which belongs to the Europeans, and which was
     given to the merchants of Mogodor by the emperor Seedi Muhamed ben
     Abdallah, in the kabyl of Idaugourd, in the province of Haha, and
     the garden flourished with every green herb, and the fruit-trees
     were all coming forward in the productive beauty of spring. I went
     there the following day, and not a green leaf was to be seen: an
222  army of locusts had attacked it during the night, and had devoured
     every shrub, every vegetable, and every green leaf; so that the
     garden had been converted into an unproductive wilderness. And,
     notwithstanding the incredible devastation that was thus produced,
     not one locust was to be seen. The gardener reported, that (_sultan
     jeraad_) the king of the locusts had taken his departure eastward
     early in the morning; the myriads of locusts followed, so that in a
     quarter of an hour not one was to be seen. The depredations of
     these devouring insects was too soon felt, and a direful scarcity
     ensued. The poor would go out a locusting, as they termed it: the
     bushes were covered; they took their (_haik_) garment, and threw it
     over them, and then collected them in a sack. In half an hour they
     would collect a bushel. These they would take home, and boil a
     quarter of an hour; they would then put them into a frying-pan,
     with pepper, salt, and vinegar, and eat them, without bread or any
     other food, making a meal of them. They threw away the head, wings,
     and legs, and ate them as we do prawns. They considered them
     wholesome food, and preferred them to pigeons. Afterwards, whenever
     there was any public entertainment given, locusts was a standing
     dish; and it is remarkable that the dish was always emptied, so
     generally were they esteemed as palatable food.

     A few years after the locusts appeared, I performed a journey from
223  Mogodor to Tangier. The face of the country appeared like a newly
     ploughed field of a brown soil; for it was completely covered with
     these insects, insomuch that they had devoured even the bark of the
     trees. They rose up about a yard, as the horses went on, and
     settled again; in some places they were one upon another, three or
     four inches deep on the ground; a few were flying in the air, and
     they flew against the face, as if they were blind, to the no small
     annoyance of the traveller. It is very remarkable, that on reaching
     the banks of the river[163] Elkos, which we crossed, there was not,
     on the north side of that river, to my great astonishment, one
     locust any where to be seen; but the country was flourishing in all
     the luxuriance of verdure, although the river was not wider than
     the Thames at Windsor. This extraordinary circumstance was
     accounted for by the Arabs, who said that not a locust would cross
     the river, till (_sultan jeraad_) the king of the locusts should
     precede and direct the way.

         [Footnote 163: See the Map of the empire of Marocco.]

224

                          ON THE INFLUENCE
                               OF THE
                  GREAT PRINCIPLE OF CHRISTIANITY
                           _ON THE MOORS_.
                           (Mat. vii. 12.)

     _Of the Propagation of Christianity in Africa.--Causes that prevent
     it.--The Mode of promoting it is through a friendly and commercial
     Intercourse with the Natives.--Exhortation to Great Britain to
     attend to the Intercourse with Africa.--Danger of the French
     colonizing Senegal, and supplanting us, and thereby depreciating
     the Value of our West-India Islands._



     That it is a Christian duty to attempt, by lenient measures, to
     propagate the Christian religion among the Idolaters and Muhamedans
     of Africa, I think cannot be doubted; but this propagation will not
     spread to any considerable extent until, (in that country,) the
     morals of Christians in general shall approach nearer than they
     actually do to the standard of Christian perfection. It is,
     however, most certain that there never was a more promising, or a
     more favourable opportunity of subverting paganism in Africa, and
     establishing Christianity on its ruins, than at this present
     period; and I think the best method to effect this desirable
     purpose is through the medium of commerce, which must, in that
     continent, necessarily precede science and civilisation. It is well
225  known, by all men of penetration who have resided in Muhamedan
     countries, that the principles of the religion of Muhamed are not
     so repugnant to Christianity as many, nay, most persons have
     imagined. Various causes, however, tend to increase the hostility
     that exists between the two religions. First, it is augmented by
     the fakeers, and by political men, who are ever active in bringing
     to their aid superstition and enthusiasm, to increase the
     hostility. Secondly, it is augmented by the very little intercourse
     which they have with Christians, originating, for the most part, in
     our ignorance of the Arabic language, an ignorance which has been
     lamented by the emperor[164] Seedy Muhamed ben Abdallah himself.
     Thirdly, the hostility of these two religions is augmented by a
     very ancient tradition, that the country will be invaded by the
     Christians, and converted to Christianity, that this event will
     happen on a Friday (the Muhamedan sabbath), during the time that
     they are at the (_silla dohor_) prayers at half past one o'clock,
226  P.M.; so that throughout the empire they close the gates of all the
     towns on this day, at this period of time, till two o'clock, P.M.:
     when the prayers are over, and the people go out of the mosques,
     the gates are again thrown open. This tradition, which is
     universally believed, acts on the minds of the whole community, and
     fans the embers of hostility already lighted between Christians and
     Muhamedans, bringing to the recollection of the latter the hostile
     intentions of the former to invade and take their country from
     them, when an opportunity shall offer. On the other hand, what
     tends to reconcile the two creeds is, the influence that European
     commerce, and the principles of the Christian doctrine, have had on
     the muselmen of Africa. This influence extends as far as the
     commerce with Europeans extends. Wherever the Europeans negociate
     with the Moors, the great principle of the Christian doctrine is
     known and discussed,--that principle which surpasses every doctrine
     propagated by the Grecian philosophers, or the wise men of the
     East,--that truly noble, liberal, and charitable principle, "Do as
     you would be done by," influences the conduct of the better
     educated muselmen who have had long intercourse and negociations
     with Christians; and they do not fail to retort it upon us,
     whenever _our conduct_ deviates from it. Thus, the minds of
     muselmen, wherever European commerce flows, are tinctured with this
     great principle of the Christian doctrine. And, to an accurate
227  observer of mankind, it will appear that this principle, from its
     own intrinsic beauty, has in many superseded the muselman
     retaliative system of morality, originating in the Mosaic law,--"An
     eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth." For I have heard
     muselmen, in their individual disputes with one another, advance
     this precept as a rule of conduct. If, therefore, this divine
     principle be recognised by muselmen, who have had intercourse and
     commercial negociations with Europeans, in defiance of the
     obstacles to this doctrine suggested by the fakeers and political
     men; what might we not expect from the due cultivation of an
     extensive commerce, upon a grand national scale, with this
     interesting continent? Might we not expect a gradual diffusion of
     the principles of Christianity among the muselmen, as well as among
     the pagans and idolaters, of Africa? I would venture to assert,
     that in the event of the British government engaging, with energy
     and determination, to cultivate a commercial intercourse and
     extensive connection with Africa, that the negroes, and possibly
     even the Muhamedans, might gradually be converted to Christianity.
     This event would take a long time to accomplish, but its gradual
     progress, most probably, would be more rapid than was the progress
     of Muhamedanism during the life of the Arabian prophet.

         [Footnote 164: When this Emperor, for the purpose of satisfying
         his people that he administered retributive justice, ordered
         two teeth of an English merchant to be drawn, he repented so
         much of what he had done, that he offered to make any amends
         that the merchant might require, expressing his wish that he
         had an English consul with whom he could converse colloquially,
         without the inconvenience of an interpreter; and for this
         purpose the Emperor, after granting him considerable favours,
         urged him to accept of the British consulship; adding, that he
         himself would secure him the appointment, and that he would
         then refuse nothing, but whatsoever the English should ask of
         him, they should have.]

     Associations have been formed in this philanthropic country,
     through the medium of extensive subscriptions, for the civilisation
228  of Africa, and the abolition of the slave trade: the greatest merit
     is due to the individuals who have subscribed to such institutions;
     their motives have been unexceptionable, but we grossly deceive
     ourselves, and the whole is an illusion! The French, as it were,
     have taken the staff out of our hands; and whilst we are in vain
     endeavouring to abolish the trade in slaves, _by the capture of
     slave-ships at sea_[165], they are insidiously cultivating the
     growth of cotton, coffee, sugar, indigo, and other colonial
     produce, on the banks of the Senegal river; insomuch that if we
     shall continue thus supinely to disregard their important African
     agricultural operations, the result in a few years will probably
     be, that they will be able to undersell us in West-India produce,
     in the markets of continental Europe; for they can cultivate, with
     free negroes at Senegal, colonial produce at considerably less
     expense than our West-India cultivation. The voyage, also, is not
     half the distance; so that the continental market for the sale of
     West-India produce will be shortly supplied from Senegal, from
229  whence it is more than probable that colonial produce will be
     imported to Europe at little more than half the expense of
     importing it from the West Indies: thus Great Britain may be driven
     out of the market for colonial produce, except for what may be
     sufficient for her own domestic supply.

         [Footnote 165: Many naval officers concur in thinking, that to
         suppress the slave trade, by interrupting the ships, would
         employ all the navy of Great Britain; and entail a war-expense
         on the nation; besides the enormous expense that will be
         necessarily incurred by the various commissions dispatched to
         Sierra Leone, Havannah, &c. &c. for the adjudication of
         slave-causes. To which may be added, our expensive presents to
         Spain and Portugal, to induce those powers to coalesce in the
         abolition; which there is too much reason to apprehend will be
         evaded by the subjects of those powers.]

     This has been a favourite scheme of the French, who have now begun
     to taste the fruits of it: they have had it in view and in
     operation _ever since we gave them possession of Senegal_. It was
     the system of her late Emperor, Bonaparte, suggested to him by the
     arch and brilliant genius of Talleyrand, to indemnify the loss of
     St. Domingo.

     Moreover, the French, who are cultivating the territory of Senegal
     with indefatigable industry, will be, in a few years, not only able
     to supply the continental markets of Europe with colonial produce,
     but they will become masters of North Africa, establish another
     Ceuta at the African promontory of the Cape de Verd, and, in the
     event of a war, annoy incalculably our East-India trade, and
     enhance the price of East-India produce in the British dominions;
     whilst they will, by the aid of the Americans, who will be always
     ready to assist them, form a depot for East-India goods at the Cape
     de Verd, and from thence introduce them into Africa and France, to
     the almost total exclusion of Great Britain. If we are to prevent
     these events from taking place, we must adopt different measures
230  from what we have adopted; we must move in a very different sphere
     from that in which we have been accustomed to move; we must be much
     more energetic, more vigilant, and more active than we have been,
     with respect to African matters. It is presumed that these
     suggestions are well deserving the consideration of His Majesty's
     ministers. May they view with the eye of an eagle and the wisdom of
     the serpent the insidious encroachments that are thus making on our
     colonial markets!!

     The Africans, by which term I mean the natives, viz. the Moors, the
     Arabs, the Berebbers, the Shelluhs, and the Negroes, (not the Jews,
     who, although numerous in this country, yet, as they are and have
     been ever since their Theocratical Government, a distinct race, and
     their customs and manners well known, I do not include them in the
     term Africans, although from their birth they are entitled to the
     appellation,)--the Africans, I say, are seldom met with in closed
     rooms, but are constantly in the open air, transacting their
     business in _dwarias_, which are detached rooms, or apartments,
     with three sides, the fourth being supported by pillars; this
     custom of living continually in or exposed to the external air
     renders them strong and healthy, wherefore their bodies, by an
     _antiperistasis_, have the natural heat repelled and kept within,
     increasing by this action their appetite for food, which is always
     strong. They live in a frugal manner, seldom eating but of one
231  food: the prevailing dish throughout North Africa is cuscasoe, a
     granulated paste, cooked by steam, and garnished with vegetables,
     and chickens, or mutton; this is a very nutritive, palatable, and
     wholesome dish. They are not incumbered at their meals with a
     variety of dishes; but a large bowl, or spacious plate, is
     introduced on a round table, supported by one pillar, like the
     _Monopodia_ of the ancients, rather larger than the bowl or dish,
     and about six inches high. Half a dozen Moors sit round this
     repast, on cushions or on the ground, cross-legged; a position
     which they remain in with perfect ease and pliability from custom
     and the loose dress they wear. When the company have seated
     themselves, a slave or a servant comes round to the guests, to
     perform the ceremony of (_togrêda_) washing of the hands; a brass
     bason or pan, which they call _tas_, is brought round to all the
     company, the slave holding it by his left hand, while, with the
     right hand, he pours water on the hands of the guests from a
     (_garoff_) pitcher, in the form of an Etruscan vase, having
     (_zeef_) a towel thrown over his shoulder to dry their hands. This
     ceremony is performed before and after meals. The master of the
     feast, before they begin to eat, pronounces (_Bismillah_) the grace
     before meat, which signifies, "In the name of God;" after the
     repast, he says (_El Ham'd û lillah_) "Praise be to God." Each
     guest eats with the fingers of his right hand, none ever touching
     the food with their left. If a piece of meat, or a joint of a fowl
232  or chicken is to be divided, two of the guests take hold of it, and
     pull it till it is divided. This is somewhat repugnant to an
     European's ideas of delicacy; but if we consider that the hands are
     previously washed, and that they never come in contact with the
     mouth in decent or respectable society, there is not so insuperable
     an objection to this way of eating as might otherwise appear. Each
     person in eating the granulated flour or cuscasoe, puts his two
     fore-fingers into the dish before him, and by a dextrous turn of
     the hand converts the quantity taken up into the form of a ball,
     which he, with a peculiar dexterity, jirks into the mouth. The
     Africans never drink till they have done eating; when dinner is
     over, a large goblet, or _poculum amicitiæ_, of pure water is
     passed round, and each person drinks copiously; the washing is then
     repeated, and the repast is terminated. Afterwards coffee is
     introduced, without milk: the cup is not placed in a saucer, nor do
     they hand you a spoon, for the sugar is mixed in the coffee-pot;
     the cup is presented in an outer cup of brass, which preserves the
     fingers from being burned. They use no bells in their tents; but
     the slaves or servants are called by the master when wanted, one
     generally standing in the corner of the tent to superintend the
     others. The pipe is sometimes introduced after the coffee, but this
     is by no means a general custom, except among the negroes. The pipe
     is of rose-wood, of jasmin, or of rhododendrum wood: great
233  quantities of the latter are conveyed across the Sahara, for
     pipe-tubes for the negroes of Timbuctoo, and other territories of
     Sudan, bordering on the Nile el Abeed, or Nile of the Negroes
     (Niger).

     Passing through this territory of encampments, when travellers are
     disposed to sleep at a douar, one of the party presents himself at
     the confines of the encampment, and exclaims (_Deef Allah_) "The
     guest of God." The sheik of the douar is immediately apprised of
     the circumstance; and after investigating the rank of the
     travellers, he enquires if they have tents with them; if they have
     not, he has his own or (_kheyma deâf_) the guest's tent
     appropriated for the travellers. If they have their own tents,
     which persons of respectability generally have, the sheik comes and
     directs the servants where to pitch them; the camels and mules are
     disburdened, and the sheik declares (_atshie m'hassub alia_) "For
     all this baggage I hold myself accountable." Europeans travelling
     in this country generally follow their own customs: accordingly,
     among the English, tea is ordered; a most delectable refreshment
     after a fatiguing journey on horseback, exposed to the scorching
     rays of the African sun. If the sheik and a few of his friends are
     invited to tea, which these Arabs designate by (_elma skoon û el
     hadra_) hot water and conversation, they like it very sweet, and
     drink half-a-dozen cups at least. Nothing ingratiates travellers
     with these people so much as distributing a few lumps of sugar
234  among them: sugar, honey, or any thing sweet, being with these
     Arabs emblematical of peace and friendship. Some of the women of
     the Arabs are extremely handsome; in all the simplicity of nature
     "when unadorned adorned the most." To fine figures they unite
     handsome profiles, good and white teeth, and large, black,
     expressive, intelligent eyes, like the eyes of a gazel; dark
     eye-brows, and dark long eye-lashes, which give a peculiar warmth
     and softness to the eye. They concern themselves little about time,
     and will sometimes come to converse after midnight with the
     Europeans. When the guard of the tent informs them they cannot go
     in, that the Christian is a-bed and undressed, they are not less
     astonished than we are to see them sleeping in the open air at
     night, on the ground, with their clothes on. When candles are
     brought into the tent at night, the servant wishes the company a
     good evening: he says "_M'sah elkhere_," the literal meaning of
     which is "_Good be with you this evening_;" which salutation it is
     courteous to return, even to a slave; and if any one, however great
     his rank, were not to return it, he would be considered a bad
     muselman, a disaffected and inhospitable barbarian. The morning
     salutation is (_Alem Allah sebak_,) "May your morning be
     accompanied with the knowledge of God;" or, (_Sebah el khere_, or
     _sebahk b'elkhere_) "Good morning to you," or "May your morning be
     good." Equals meeting, touch hands, and then each kisses his own
235  respectively; they then say, (I now speak of the middle order of
     society,) "And how are you, and how have you been: how long it is
     since I saw you! and how are you, and how are your children; (_ûhel
     Dar'kume_,) and the people of your family, how are they, certainly
     you are well:" and so they will go on, sometimes for a quarter of
     an hour, repeating the same thing. If an inferior meets a superior,
     he kisses his hand or his garment and retires, when there is a
     greater disparity of rank, the inferior kisses the stirrup of the
     superior; or prostrates himself if the superior is a prince, a
     fakeer, or a bashaw.

     Another salutation among respectable individuals is, by each
     placing his right hand on his heart, indicating that part to be the
     residence of the friend!

     The Jews of this country retain the customs of their ancestors more
     pure and unmixed than those in other countries.

     When a Jew dies he is interred the same day, or the day after at
     farthest. The female relations and the friends of the deceased
     assemble round the corpse, and utter bitter lamentations, tearing
     their faces and their hair in a most woeful manner; they disfigure
     their faces with their finger-nails, till they bleed, and during
     the whole time keep stamping or moving their legs, beating time, as
     it were, with their feet; these lamentations are continued, with
     occasional intermission, till the body of the deceased is carried
236  away for interment. The performers of these bitter lamentations
     appear to have all the marks of hideous grief inscribed on their
     faces, but most of them feel no real concern; some of the girls,
     young and handsome, near akin to the deceased, are ambitious to
     disfigure themselves, and they lacerate their pretty faces most
     lamentably. The more wounds these bear on their cheeks the greater
     is their grief considered to be. But the corpse being removed the
     mourners regale themselves with _Mahaya_, or African brandy, and
     make up for their lamentations, by converting their bitter strains
     into conviviality.

     There is a strange resemblance between this custom and that
     practised by the inhabitants of New Zealand; insomuch that we might
     imagine the latter to be one of the lost tribes of this
     extraordinary people. It is true that we have no record of such a
     perfection of navigation as to enable us to conjecture how a tribe
     of Jews could reach New Zealand: but many things remain in great
     obscurity even in this enlightened age; and we have had no
     historical record transmitted to us from the ancients of many
     extraordinary discoveries that recently have been made in Egypt.

237

                        INTEREST OF MONEY.

         _Application of the Superflux of Property or Capital._



     In this country the law allows no interest of money; the
     consequence is, that the country is overwhelmed with usurers, who
     exact, generally, an oath of secrecy, and lend money on pledges of
     valuable and convertible merchandise: the interest paid on these
     negociations is most exorbitant; I have known five, six, eight,
     ten, and even twelve per cent, per month paid for the use of money!
     There is no paper money in this country; but a bank might be
     established at Mogodor, for the convenience of internal trade: the
     _sine qua non_ of the bank should be, AN ADEQUATE CAPITAL. The
     advantages that would necessarily result from an establishment of
     this kind are incalculable; the paper of a bank, _thus
     established_, would be current in a short time, UNDER JUDICIOUS AND
     INTELLIGENT MANAGEMENT, in all the territories of Sudan, through
     the heart of Africa, through Bambâra, Timbuctoo, Houssa, Cashna,
     Wangara, Bernôh, Fas, and Marocco, and various other countries. The
238  immense advantages of the carriage of paper through the Desert and
     through Sudan, _convertible_ into cash at every commercial city,
     port, or district in a country like this, would greatly facilitate
     the operations of commerce; this must be evident to every political
     economist acquainted with the nature of commercial negociations in
     Africa.

     The superflux of coin, consisting principally of Mexico dollars,
     and doubloons, (over and above the quantum necessary for the
     circulating medium of commercial negociations,) is either buried
     under ground by the owner, or converted into jewels for the ladies
     of his family; there is a general propensity to these subterraneous
     hordes; the bulk of the people, the lower classes in particular,
     have an idea that they will enjoy in the next world what they save
     in this; which opinion is not extraordinary, when we consider how
     many cases there are, wherein we see the sublimest capacity
     prostrate at the shrine of an _early imbibed_ superstition. Many of
     these erring philosophers, therefore, attentive to the accumulation
     of riches, retire from this sublunary world with an immense
     immolated treasure, wherewith to begin, as they imagine, their
     career in the world to come!

     "We," they say, "convert our superflux to jewels and costly apparel
     for our females, and we have the gratification of seeing them well
     apparelled and agreeably ornamented. Moreover, a great part of our
     possessions is appropriated to the sacred rites of hospitality,
239  which you Christians know not how to practise; for you worship the
     idol of ostentation; you invite your friends to dinner; you incur
     an intolerable and injudicious expense, and provide a multiplicity
     of dishes to pamper their appetites, sufficient for a regiment of
     muselmen; when nature and national beings, which men were born to
     be, require only one dish. Moreover, your sumptuous entertainments
     are given to those only who do not want; therefore is it an
     ostentatious and a wanton waste! We, on the contrary, that is to
     say, every good Muselman, gives one-tenth of his property to the
     poor; and moreover much of his substance is appropriated to the
     support, not of the rich and independent, who do not want it, but
     to (_deefan_) strange guests who journey from one country to
     another; insomuch that, with us, a poor man may travel by public
     beneficence and apt hospitality from the shores of the
     Mediterranean to the borders of Sahara, without a fluce[166] in
     (_hashituh_) the corner of his garment.[167] A traveller, however
     poor he may be, is never at a loss for a meal, several meals, and
     even for three days entertainment, wherever he travels through our
     country; and if any man were to go to a douar in any of the Arab
240  provinces of our Sovereign's empire, and not receive the
     entertainment and courtesy of a brother, that douar would be
     stamped with a stigma of indelible disgrace! Pardon us, therefore,
     if we say, you have not such hospitality in your country, although
     the great principle of (_Seedna Aisa_) our Lord Jesus, is
     charity." [168] I should, however, observe that this hospitality is
     shown almost exclusively to Muhamedans.

         [Footnote 166: A fluce is a copper coin, one hundred of which
         are equal to sixpence English.]

         [Footnote 167: In the corner of his garment:--The Africans have
         no pockets; they carry their money in the corner of their
         garment, and tie it with a knot to secure it.]

         [Footnote 168: The Muhamedans acknowledge Jesus Christ to have
         been a Prophet that worked miracles; the indelible proof of his
         mission.]

     Respecting women and horses, speaking of the treatment of them in
     England, they remark, that "England is a paradise for women, who
     are there exalted beyond the fitness of things; and it is
     (_gehennum_) a hell for horses, for those poor ill-treated animals
     in the hackney coaches and carts, need only to be seen to be
     pitied; the hard blows which they receive from their cruel masters
     are calculated to impress our minds with an opinion that we are in
     a land of barbarians, whereas you call yourselves a civilised
     people: You say you are such; your actions deny the fact, and we
     judge by actions, not by words or self-commendations. When,
     therefore, you pride yourselves on your superiority and
     civilisation the whole is a delusion; and when we hear you set
     forth these absurd pretensions, we are compelled to commiserate our
     common race, and to exclaim, Alas, poor human nature!" This is the
241  verbatim reply that a very intelligent but irritated Muselman made
     to my animadversions on the absurdity of burying treasure. This
     gentleman's father had been ambassador from the Emperor of Marocco
     to Great Britain, and to France; and had seen much of French,
     Spanish, and English manners, among the higher orders of society in
     those countries.

     Too much cannot be said in commendation of this generous,
     open-hearted philanthropy of the Arabs, here described: but the
     intelligent reader will understand, that it applies particularly to
     the Arabs, or cultivators of the plains, in the empire of Marocco;
     and, in its large and unlimited extent, to the Bedouin or roving
     Arabs of the Sahara, and of Lower Suse, from whose (_kabyles_)
     clans, the Arabs cultivators are early emigrations; almost all of
     them having their original stock in the Sahara. It is also
     confined, almost exclusively, to Muhamedans, and does not, like the
     divine doctrine of Jesus Christ, with universal benevolence embrace
     all mankind, without distinction of party, sect, or nation;--a
     doctrine which has lately been put in considerable practice in our
     own country, by institutions supported by voluntary subscriptions
     for the destitute, for foreigners in distress, and for negroes; by
     institutions in aid and support of all needy persons labouring
     under sickness, or having need of surgical aid; by institutions for
     the encouragement of industry, for the refutation of vice and
242  immorality; by institutions that reflect immortal honour on this
     country, and cast a lustre on the respective individuals who have
     contributed to all these heart-approving institutions, which are
     calculated to afford relief to almost every description of
     suffering humanity!!

     Itinerant (_tebeebs_) doctors travel through the country to
     administer to the sick; which, however, are seldom found. They
     carry over their shoulders a leathern bag, containing their
     surgical apparatus, which consists of a lancet, a scarifying knife,
     and a caustic knife, or knife for burning: they scarify the neck,
     the forehead, or the wrists. The caustic knife is an instrument of
     very general application. They convert all gun-shot and other
     wounds, as well as sores, into burns, by heating the knife in the
     fire, and gently touching the circumference of the wound with it.
     This produces acute pain; but the Africans bear pain heroically:
     they say that this method prevents inflammation and festering. They
     perform, by caustic, extraordinary cures. I imagine this method
     would not agree with an European body, pampered with a variety of
     high food and luxurious living.

     The inhabitants of this country break their fast with (_el hassûa_)
     barley-gruel; they grind the barley to the size of sparrow-shot,
     this they mix with water, and simmer over a slow fire two or three
     hours. This food is esteemed extremely wholesome, and is
243  antifebrile. The Emperor takes this before he drinks tea in a
     morning: his father, Seedi Muhamed ben Abdallah, also, who drank
     none but fine hyson tea, never would drink that beverage till he
     had first laid a foundation of _el hassûa_.

     The Arabs and Shelluhs, with whom _el hassûa_ is generally used,
     urge its salubrity, by reporting that a physician alighted in a
     strange country, and when he arose in the morning, after performing
     his matins, he seated himself with some of the inhabitants, and,
     conversing, asked them how they lived, and with what food they
     broke their fast? "With _el hassûa_," was the reply: "Then,"
     rejoined Esculapius, (_Salam û alikume_,) "Peace be with you; for
     if you eat _el hassûa_ in the morning you have no need of a
     doctor:" and he immediately departed.

     When I established the port of Santa Cruz, and opened it to
     European commerce, the gratitude and hospitality of the Arabs and
     Shelluhs of the province of Suse, was demonstrated in every way: so
     rejoiced were they to see their port, after an inactivity of thirty
     years, again re-established. If I rode out to visit any part of the
     country, the women, on my approach to a douar, would come out to a
     great distance with bowls of milk on their heads; others with bowls
     of honey, with thin scrapings of butter in them, and bread or
244  cakes[169], similar to pancakes, baked in five minutes, on stones
     heated with the embers of charcoal. These greetings I received by
     tasting every bowl of milk, and dipping a bit of bread in the honey
     and eating it. The milk thus presented is emblematical of peace and
     amity; the honey of welcome: to refuse eating or tasting what is
     thus presented, is considered, among this patriarchal people, a
     great breach of good manners, an inexcusable want of courtesy,
     which they say none but a _kaffer_[170] would commit. They would
     then say, _Birk eeaudee, birk attajar u straha_, "Alight, I pray
     thee, alight, merchant! and rest yourself."

         [Footnote 169: See a similar custom in Genesis, xxiii. 5--8.]

         [Footnote 170: Kaffer is the Arabic term for Infidel. All the
         idolatrous Negro nations are, by Muhamedans, denominated
         Kaffer, (or Caffres). Sing. Kâffer--plural Kaffer.]

     In these halcyon days, these grateful people never knew when to
     cease offering presents. They sat on the ground in the refulgent
     meridian sun, and when I dismounted to walk to the shade of a tree,
     to partake of their hospitality, they would exhort me to shun the
     shade, (_lie ê drab'k elbird_) for fear it should give me cold.
245  These Bedouin[171] Arabs of Suse and Sahara are the descendants of
     the ancient Arabs, whose bold and figurative language is the same
     that was spoken in Arabia twelve centuries ago, in the time of
     Muhamed.

         [Footnote 171: The Arabs of the vast plains of the empire of
         Marocco, who live in douars, or encampments, are emigrations
         from the original stock or clan in Sahara; who are the pure or
         Bedouin Arabs. Being established in the beautiful and
         productive plains of West and South Barbary, they soon forget
         their Bedouin customs, change their wandering, plundering
         habits, and become cultivators, and stationary; for the immense
         produce of their labour in these plains, which require no dung,
         nor any preparation but the plough, soon rewards their
         industry, so as to determine them to continue this new mode of
         life.]

     Passing early one morning by a douar, in the territory of
     Howara,[172] I was invited to join a party to hunt the wild boar.
     The plains of Howara, between the city of Terodant and Santa Cruz,
     abound with boars: we started, in a few hours, seven of these
     animals, two of which were taken and killed. The dogs best
     calculated for this sport are what they call _sereet telt_, or the
     third race of greyhounds, which is a very strong dog. One of these,
     I observed, attacked the boars by the nape of the neck, and never
     left his hold till the other dogs came up to the attack: although
     the boar would toss him about in all directions, he never left his
     hold. The Arabs of Suse are very dextrous and active at this sport:
     they hunt with javelins; some have guns, which they fire when
     opportunity offers, but they never expend their powder and shot
     (_batâl_) vainly, as they express it, but always make sure of their
246  mark. I could not but admire this celebrated (_slogie_) greyhound;
     which the Arab to whom it belonged observing, insisted on my taking
     it home to Santa Cruz, adding, that whenever I wished to hunt, to
     let him know, and he would accompany me. I offered him a present of
     money for the dog, which is what I never had refused before in the
     provinces north of Suse; but he declined the offer, saying he was
     more than recompensed already by the establishment of the port of
     Santa Cruz. "Myself, my family, my kabyl," said he, "hail you as a
     father; (_e moot alik_) they will die in your cause." No favour
     could have equalled that of re-establishing the commerce of
     Agadeer. These circumstances serve to show what reception might be
     expected from these people, if the British Government would
     negociate with the Emperor for the purchase of the port of Agadeer,
     or Santa Cruz, preparatory to the establishment of a commerce with
     Timbuctoo, and other regions of Sudan.

         [Footnote 172: In the 815th year of the Hejira, an emigration
         from the Howara Arabs attacked, took possession of, and
         destroyed the city of Assouan, in Egypt.]

247

                               PLAN
                             FOR THE
                  GRADUAL CIVILISATION OF AFRICA.

       _On the Commercial Intercourse with Africa, through the
                       Sahara and Ashantee._



     To cultivate an extensive commercial intercourse with Africa, I
     have already observed, that the best method, the simplest, and that
     which is, from contingent circumstances, the most likely to
     succeed, is the plan which I have pointed out in the following
     prospectus. I shall now offer several reasons why this plan is
     superior to any other hitherto suggested.

     The riches of the Arabs of Sahara generally, as well as of that
     part which I have contemplated as a convenient spot for
     establishing a colony, and for opening a communication with Sudan,
     consists exclusively in camels. The independence of a man is there
     ascertained by the number of camels he possesses; it is not said,
     how many thousand dollars has he? or, what quantity of gold does he
     possess? or, what land has he? but, how many camels does he own?
     The master of these, aptly denominated, ships of the Desert, is
248  urged by interest to let on hire his camels, as the master of a
     ship of the ocean is urged by interest to seek freight for his
     ship. And it is observed, that the ferocious appearance among the
     Arabs, (which is too often assumed,) subsides in proportion to the
     intercourse they have with merchants, who negociate with them for
     the transport of their goods. Thus, at the _depôts_ for camels
     between the cultivated country and the Desert, viz. at _Akka,
     Tatta, Ufran,_ and _Wedinoon_, the ferocity of the Arabs is greatly
     lost in the commercial spirit and endeavour to let their camels on
     hire to the merchants. The Mograffra, the Woled Abbusebah, and the
     Tejakant Arabs, therefore, who possess the Sahara, from the shores
     of the Atlantic to the confines of Timbuctoo, would act in concert
     with the colony, and would have a joint interest in promoting their
     commercial views. The Brabeesh Arabs who receive, occasionally,
     tribute from Timbuctoo, would also find it expedient to promote the
     commerce of Sudan, and the prosperity of Timbuctoo; both which
     would necessarily be united to their own interest, and would
     provide a demand for their camels.

     If the profits of this commerce, when once established and secured
     to the British, were to be cent. per cent., the whole would remain
     a bonus to the colony. There would be no shereef of Fezzan, or
     bashaw of Tripoli, to take their share of the profits, in any
     shape, in exchange for the privilege of being suffered to pass
249  through their country. But, on the contrary, the Arabs of the
     Mograffra and other tribes would find it so evidently their
     interest and advantage to be friendly with us, that we might
     absolutely have the entire command of the Desert, from the shores
     of the Atlantic to the city of Timbuctoo, which would eventually
     throw such a weight of power into our hands, as to make even that
     city itself, in a manner, tributary to us.

     A plan of this kind should be executed _upon a grand national
     scale_, and be pursued with discretion and perseverance.

     An attempt to penetrate to Timbuctoo, through Ashantee, and
     establish a commerce through that country, might meet with
     temporary success; but I apprehend that we should labour under the
     same inconveniences, and be subject to the same arbitrary imposts
     and exactions, whether in the shape of duties, part of the profits,
     or otherwise, as we should, by opening a communication through
     Tripoli. There would be a present or douceur to the king of
     Ashantee; others to the princes of the adjoining territories; and,
     finally, (taking the character of this king to be as represented by
     the late traveller in that country, Mr. Bowdich), might we not
     reasonably anticipate that, on the first dispute respecting the
     division of the profits, the king of Ashantee would order all the
     English out of his country, and, to terminate the dispute, plunder
     them of their property? But, perhaps the establishment of a colony
     in Ashantee, _conjoined_ to one in Sahara, might not be
250  objectionable. We should then have two routs to the grand emporium
     of central Africa: if one failed, the other would remain open for
     our countrymen to recover their property and to return by; and
     thus, in establishing a commercial intercourse with the interior of
     Africa, through two routes, we should secure, at the same time, our
     retreat, by one of them, and not remain at the mercy of the
     barbarous king of Ashantee, or any other African potentate, who
     might be urged, from jealousy or avarice, to sacrifice our people,
     when once he had them in his power!

251

                        PROSPECTUS OF A PLAN
                           FOR FORMING A
                  NORTH AFRICAN OR SUDAN COMPANY,

     To be instituted for the purpose of establishing an extensive
     Commerce with, and laying open to British Enterprise, all the
     Interior Regions of North Africa.


       *       *       *       *       *

     OBJECTS OF THE SOCIETY.

     1_st_. To lay open the interior regions of North Africa to British
     enterprise--to supply those vast and unexplored countries with
     British manufactures, with East-India goods, and with colonial
     produce.

     2_dly_, To encourage our manufactories, by opening a new market
     calculated to improve the revenue of the country, to provide
     employment for the labouring poor, and to enrich the mercantile
     community; _the genial influence of which sources of prosperity
     will necessarily diffuse itself through all classes_.

     3_dly_, To facilitate, through the medium of commerce (_the only
     medium by which it can possibly be effected_), the exploration of
     the interior regions of Africa, (_which have remained to this day a
     sealed book, notwithstanding the many adventurous expeditions that
252  have been undertaken_,) by opening a communication with the natives
     of that vast and little-known continent, and BY CALLING TO OUR AID
     THE CO-OPERATION OF THE NATIVE CHIEFS, BY HOLDING OUT TO THEM THE
     BENEFITS WHICH THEY WILL DERIVE FROM COMMERCIAL INTERCOURSE AS A
     REWARD FOR THEIR ASSISTANCE AND EXERTIONS IN PROMOTING THIS
     DESIRABLE OBJECT.

     For these purposes it is proposed--

     That the funds to be raised be one hundred thousand pounds, in
     shares of one hundred pounds each. Ten shares to constitute a
     director.

     The spot proposed to be fixed on as the point of communication, and
     commercial depôt, between Great Britain and the interior of Africa
     is SAFE AND HEALTHY: it will afford a _direct communication with
     Timbuctoo and the interior regions of Sudan_, without being subject
     to the uncertainty of securing the favour and protection of the
     various sultans and sheiks of the respective territories of the
     interior, through which the merchants and traders may pass--a
     measure which would have been indispensable in every plan that has
     hitherto been suggested for the discovery of those interesting
     regions.

     The plan now to be adopted, on the contrary, will be subject to
     none of those impediments and uncertainties; but the merchants and
     travellers will pass through territories where they need fear no
     hostility, but will be received with hospitality and attention by
     the natives, who will give them every assistance and accommodation
253  in their progress through their country.

     Connected with this plan, a school for instructing the British
     youth in African Arabic, so as to initiate them in the rudiments of
     that language previously to their departure for Africa, might be
     established, under the direction of JAMES GREY JACKSON, professor
     of African Arabic, &c.

     The present scheme has been many years in contemplation, but no
     favourable opportunity of making it thus public having hitherto
     occurred, it is now offered to the public, in consequence of the
     energies lately manifested by France and by America for African
     colonisation, and also by Holland.

     The projectors, for the honour of their own country, are anxious
     that Great Britain may not, through supineness, suffer this
     important discovery to be wrested from her by any foreign power,
     but that she should _at least share the glory_ due to this
     important achievement, the completion of which would _immortalize
     the prince who should cherish it to its maturity_.

     Capitalists, and gentlemen resident in Great Britain, desirous of
     further information on this subject, may address themselves to
     JAMES GREY JACKSON, whose residence, at any time, may be known at
     Messrs. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, London.

     TO THE BRITISH PUBLIC.

                                               London, 31st March, 1819.

     The above plan is ingenuously, liberally, and disinterestedly
254  submitted to the consideration of British capitalists and merchants
     of respectability. The advantages to be derived from such an
     establishment as is here contemplated, if not evident to Great
     Britain, is clearly visible to Holland, to France, and to America.

     The projector, therefore, without mentioning the offers that have
     been made to him by a foreign maritime power, and _without
     courting_ the suffrages of British merchants in support of this
     plan, has it in contemplation, (_provided no attention is paid to
     it in England_,) to lay this eligible scheme open to a foreign
     power. If, therefore, the projector should accept employment in
     this undertaking from a foreign power, it will be in the
     conviction, that _it is more to the interest of mankind in general,
     and to Europe in particular_, that this plan for opening an
     _extensive, lucrative, and beneficial commerce with Africa_, (which
     would necessarily lead to its civilisation,) should be known to,
     and adopted by, _a foreign power_, than that this vast and
     little-known continent should, (to the indelible disgrace of
     civilised Europe,) _still continue to remain_ an useless and an
     undiscovered country to the present generation!

     JAMES GREY JACKSON.

     _Appendix to the foregoing Prospectus, being an Epitome of the
     Trade carried on by Great Britain and the European States in the
     Mediterranean, indirectly with Timbuctoo, the Commercial Depôt of
     North Africa, and with other States of Sudan_.

     Marseilles, Genoa, Leghorn, and other commercial ports of France
255  and Italy, as well as of Spain, send to Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli,
     and Egypt, _for the markets of Sudan_, manufactured silks, damask,
     brocade, velvets, raw silk, combs of box and ivory, gold-thread,
     paper, manufactured sugar, cochineal, and various other
     merchandise.

     Great Britain sends to the Barbary ports in the Mediterranean, and
     to Mogodor on the Atlantic Ocean (which are afterwards conveyed to
     Timbuctoo), for distribution at the several markets of Sudan--

     _East India Goods, viz._--Gum benjamin, cassia, cinnamon, mace,
     nutmegs, cloves, ginger, black pepper, Bengal silk, China silks,
     nankeens, blue linens, long cloths, and muslins (mulls).

     _West India Produce_.--Pimento, tobacco, coffee, cocoa, and
     manufactured sugar.

     _Linens_.--Dimities, plattilias, creas, rouans, Britannias,
     cambrics, and Irish linens.

     _Hardware_.--Iron nails, copper ditto, brass ditto, sword blades,
     dagger ditto, guns, gunpowder, knives, &c. &c.

     _Cloths_.--Superfine, of plain brilliant colours, not mixtures, and
     cassimeres. And various other articles of merchandise.

     Immense quantities of salt are also sent to Timbuctoo, which is for
     the most part collected at the mines of Tishet and Shangareen, (see
     the map of northern and central Africa, in the New Supplement to
     the Encyclopaedia Britannica,) through which the caravan would pass
     to Timbuctoo.
256
     The following are the articles purchased by the Moors and Arab
     traders, and are the returns brought back to Barbary from Sudan;
     viz.

     Gold dust, and trinkets of pure Wangara gold, of various fashions,
     of the manufacture of Housa and Jinnie.--_B'Kore Sudan_ (fumigation
     of Sudan), a kind of frankincense highly esteemed by the Africans.
     Ostrich feathers (the finest in the world). Elephants' Teeth.
     _Korkidan_, so called by the Arabs, being the horns of the
     rhinoceros: these are a very costly article, and are in high
     estimation among the muselmen, for sword-hilts and dagger-handles.
     _Guza Sarawie_ (Grains of Paradise). Gum Copal Assafoetida, and a
     great variety of drugs for manufacturing uses, and various roots
     for dyeing. Ebony. Camwood. Sandal wood. Indigo, equal to that of
     Guatimala: to which may be added, the command of the gum trade of
     Senegal.

     All the foregoing merchandise being first landed at Alexandria,
     Tripoli, Tunis, Algiers, and Tetuan, and other Barbary ports in the
     Mediterranean, _as well as at Mogodor on the western coast of
     Africa_, are afterwards sold to the Muhamedan merchants, who sell
     them with a very good profit to other Moors. These goods frequently
     go through three, four, and five hands, before they reach the
     consumer in Sudan, subject to a profit gained by each holder of
     from twenty to thirty per cent.; the last purchaser, who conveys
257  them through the Desert, however, expects, and generally obtains,
     from fifty to sixty per cent. profit on them, to which he considers
     himself entitled, from the fatigue and privations of his passage
     through the Desert, during a journey through a country, for the
     most part barren, of above fifteen hundred miles in length; through
     various kingdoms and principalities, subject to a charge for
     (_statta_) convoy at the exit and entrance of each respective state
     or district on each side of the Sahara, as well as in the Sahara
     itself.

     But, according to the plan here suggested to the commercial
     community, all these various articles, instead of passing through
     five several hands, would now pass through only two hands, viz.
     through those of the shippers in England, and those of their agents
     established on _the western coast of Africa_, who would sell them
     directly to the Timbuctoo trader, which latter, instead of having
     several principalities and kingdoms to pass through (at the exit
     from each of which, as well as at the entrance of them, he would
     have a charge for protection or convoy, called _statta_, levied on
     the goods), would have no convoy-charge, or statta, to pay; he
     would have but ten hundred, instead of fifteen or sixteen hundred
     miles to go, being about two-thirds of the distance of the road
     from Tunis or Tripoli, through Fezzan, to Timbuctoo.

     N.B. There is an immense bank near the contemplated depôt, or port
258  (abounding in fish, which now supplies the _wahs_, or cultivated
     spots in the desert, as well as the territories on the southern
     confines thereof), which produces fish sufficient to supply the
     whole of the interior of Africa, as well as the shores of the
     Mediterranean, &c. &c.

     _Letter from Vasco de Gama, in elucidation of this Plan_.

     Sir,

     The Society of Encouragement for National Industry in France, has
     granted prizes for various discoveries in the arts and sciences;
     but I wish government, or some society of our own country, would
     offer a liberal prize for the best mode of colonising Africa, and
     for meliorating the condition of the inhabitants of that vast and
     little known continent. A well-digested plan for the discovery of
     this continent might be followed by the most desirable events. The
     efforts of the African Association have, to say the least, been
     lamentably disastrous; little good can be anticipated from the
     efforts of solitary or scientific travellers in a country where
     science is not cultivated, and where the travellers know little or
259  nothing of the[173] general language of Africa, or of the manners
     and dispositions of the natives.

         [Footnote 173: The general language of North Africa is the
         Western Arabic, with a knowledge of which language, a traveller
         may make himself intelligible wherever he may go; either in the
         negro countries of Sudan, in Egypt, Abyssinia, Sahara, or
         Barbary.]

     A knowledge therefore of the _African Arabic_ appears indispensable
     to this great undertaking; and it should seem that a commercial
     adventurer is much more likely to obtain his object than a
     scientific traveller, for this plain reason,--because it is much
     easier to persuade the Africans that we travel into their country
     for the purposes of commerce and its result--_profit_, than to
     persuade them that we are so anxious to ascertain the course of
     their rivers!

     Accordingly, it was aptly observed by the Negroes of Congo, when
     they learned that Captain Tuckey came not to trade nor to make war;
     _"What then come for? only to take walk and make book?"_

     I do not mean now to lay down a plan for the colonisation of
     Africa, or for opening an extensive commerce with that vast
     continent, but I would suggest the propriety of the method by which
     the East India Company govern their immense territories. _I would
     wish to see an African Company formed on an extensive scale, with a
     large capital_. I am convinced that such a company would be of more
     service to the commerce of this country than the present India
     trade, where the natives, _without being in want_ of our
     manufactures, surpass us in ingenuity. But the Africans, on the
     contrary, _are in want_ of our manufactured goods, and give immense
260  sums for them. According to a late author, who has given us the
     fullest description[174] of Timbuctoo[175] and its vicinity, a
     _Plattilia_ is there worth fifty Mexico dollars, or twenty _meezens
     of gold_, each meezen being worth two and a half Mexico dollars; _a
     piece of Irish linen_ of ordinary quality, and measuring
     twenty-five yards, is worth seventy-five Mexico dollars; and a
     quintal of _loaf sugar_ is worth one hundred Mexico dollars. Now if
     we investigate the parsimonious mode of traversing the Desert, we
     shall find that a journey of 1500 English miles is performed from
     Fas to Timbuctoo at the rate of forty shillings sterling per
     quintal, so that loaf sugar (a weighty and bulky article) can be
     rendered from London at Timbuctoo through Tetuan and Fas, including
     the expense of a land-carriage of 1500 miles at about 6£. per
     quintal, thus:

     Refined sugar on board in London for     _s. d._
      per cwt.                                70  0

     Duty on importation in any part of
     Marocco, ten per cent.                    7  0

     Freight, &c. five per cent.               3  6

     Land carriage across the Desert on camels
     to Timbuctoo                             40  0
                                              -----
                                          s. 120  6
                                              -----

         [Footnote 174: See new Supplement to the Encyclopedia
         Britannica, article Africa, page 98.]

         [Footnote 175: See the account of Timbuctoo appended to
         Jackson's account of Marocco, published by Cadell and Davies,
         London, Chap, 18.]

261
     So that if 100 lb. of loaf sugar rendered, at Timbuctoo cost
     120_s_. 6_d_ and sells there for 100 Mexico dollars at 4_s_. 6_d_.
     each, or for 22£. 5_s_. there will result a profit of 270 per cent.

     The profit in fine goods, such as the linens before mentioned, is
     still more considerable, not being subject to so heavy a charge for
     carriage. The immense quantity of[176] gold dust and gold bars that
     would be brought from Timbuctoo, Wangara, Gana, and other
     countries, in exchange for this merchandise, would be incalculable,
     and has, perhaps, never yet been contemplated by Europeans!!--In
     the same work, above quoted, 3d edition, page 289, will be found a
     list of the various merchandise exportable from Great Britain,
     which suit the market of the interior of Africa or Sudan: and also
     a list of the articles which we should receive in return for those
     goods.

         [Footnote 176: The Kings, David and Solomon, extracted from
         Africa to enrich the temple of Jerusalem upwards of
         800,000,000£. sterling, a sum sufficient to discharge the
         national debt; see Commercial Magazine for May 1819, page 6.;
         which is eight times as much gold as the mines of Brazil have
         produced since their discovery in 1756. See Commercial Magazine
         for the same month, page 44.]

     Plans to penetrate to the mart of Timbuctoo (which would supply
     Housa, Wangara, Gana, and other districts of Sudan with European
     merchandize) have been formed; but if a treaty of commerce were
     made with any of the Negro kings, these plans would be subject to
     various impediments.
262
     The goods, in passing through hostile territories, (these
     sovereigns living in a state of continual warfare with each other,)
     would be subject to innumerable imposts; _it would therefore be
     expedient to form a plan whereby the goods should reach Timbuctoo
     through an eligible part of the Desert_: but some persons who have
     been in the habit of trading for gum to _Portandik_, have declared
     the inhabitants of Sahara to be a wild and savage race, untractable
     and not to be civilised by commerce, or by any other means. This I
     must beg leave to contradict: the Arabs of Sahara, from their
     wandering habits, are certainly wild, and _they are hostile to all
     who do not understand their language_; but if two or three
     Europeans capable of holding colloquial intercourse with them, were
     to go and establish a factory on their coast, and then suggest to
     them the benefit _they would derive_, being the _carriers_ of such
     a trade as is here contemplated, their ferocity would be
     transferred forthwith into that virtue in the practice of which
     they so eminently excel all other nations, _hospitality_; and the
     most inviolable alliance might be formed with such a people. I
     speak not from the experience of books, but from an actual
     intercourse, and from having passed many years of my youth among
     them.
263
     An advantageous spot might be fixed upon on the western coast, in
     an independent district, where our alliance would be courted, from
     which the Kafila[177] or Akkaba would have to pass through only one
     tribe with perfect safety, and subject to no impost whatever;
     neither would they be subject to any duty on entering the town of
     Timbuctoo, as they would enter at the _Beb Sahara_, or gate of the
     Desert, which _exempts them_ from duty or impost.

         [Footnote 177: Caravan.]

     That civilisation would be the result of commerce, and that the
     trade in slaves would decrease with the increase of our commerce
     with these people, there can be little doubt; and, independent of
     the advantages of an extensive commerce, the consolation would be
     great to the Christian and to the Philosopher, of having converted
     millions of brethren made in the perfection of God's image, and
     endowed with reason, from barbarism to civilisation, if not to
     Christianity!!!

     Let us hope, then, that some of the intelligent readers of your
     luminous and interesting pages will direct their attention to this
     great national object, and produce ah eligible and well-digested
     plan for the cultivation of a mutual intercourse _through the
     medium qf commerce with Africa_, and for the civilisation of that
     hitherto neglected continent.

     VASCO DE GAMA.

     _Eton, 28th May, 1819_.
264

     _On Commercial Intercourse with Africa_.

     (TO THE EDITOR OF THE MONTHLY MAGAZINE.)

     Sir,

     The plan of your correspondent, for opening a commercial
     intercourse with the interior of Africa, appears to me so direct
     and simple, that I am only surprised it has not been thought of
     before. The Moors are the merchants of Africa; the chain of
     communication that runs from the states of Barbary to the negro
     kingdoms, and from the shores of the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea.
     To judge of the humanity of these people from the accounts of
     shipwrecked sailors, whom they have dragged into slavery, and then
     liberated for money, would be not less fallacious than to estimate
     the character of the English nation from the plunderers of the
     wrecks on their coast. From such accounts, the name of Moor has
     inspired us with horror; and Park's detention at the camp of Ali,
     one of their chiefs, has contributed to confirm it. Park, however,
     so far from endeavouring to conciliate his captors, endeavoured, by
     his own confession, to appear as contemptible as possible in their
     eyes; and yet, with this disadvantage, the greater part of the
     miseries he endured proceeded from the climate and the irritation
     of his own mind.

     The Arabs of Sahara are the carriers of merchandize throughout
     North Africa, and the Moors are in the constant habit of selling
265  gum to the French on the Senegal. The French say they are
     perfidious; but they give no proof of it that I have seen. I have
     met with a French traveller, who owns that his countrymen deceive
     them either in the weight or measure of the gum they purchase.

     Bruce found a friend in every Moorish merchant, and integrity and
     intelligence in all. And where should these qualities be found in a
     country like the interior of Africa, in which learning has no place
     but among merchants?

     So much for the proposed carriers of English goods to Timbuctoo.
     Now for the road. The fertile parts of Africa are hot and humid,
     unwholesome and dangerous; and the kings are often at war with each
     other. Park experienced both these evils; and the wonder was, not
     so much that he perished on his second journey, as that he returned
     from his first. The Desert is dry and heathful. It is sprinkled
     with fertile spots, which form a succession of known
     resting-places, and the distance between each requires a certain
     number of days to travel. The Moors are at home in Sahara; and,
     when they go long journeys, the fertile spots are their inns. The
     road from the coast of Sahara is also the shortest that has yet
     been pointed out to Timbuctoo.

     If the means of executing the plan appear sufficient, it is not
     necessary to say any thing in favour of the object: the exchange of
     British manufactures for gold, speaks for itself. But there is no
266  time to be lost. The French settlement of Galam is advantageously
     situated for commerce with Timbuctoo: a Frenchman has already
     travelled from Galam to that city, I believe on a commercial
     speculation, and he has returned safe.

     CATHERINE HUTTON.

     _Impediments to our Intercourse with Africa_.

     When we consider the maritime strength of Great Britain; her
     command of the ocean; the vicinity to Europe of West Barbary, one
     of the finest countries in the world; the rich and valuable produce
     which is cultivated in this country;--when we consider that our
     garrison of Gibraltar is in its vicinage, and but a few hours' sail
     from it, we are naturally astonished that our communication with
     this country is so limited. That we have less commercial
     communication with Barbary, than we have with countries that do not
     open to us any thing like the commercial advantages that this
     country offers, though they are thousands of miles from us. It
     appears relevant, therefore, to inquire, whence originates this
     impeded intercourse? There are two great impediments to our free
     intercourse with Sudan through Marocco: viz., a general ignorance
     of the Arabic language, as spoken in the latter country; and the
     repugnancy of the Muhamedan religion to that of Christ. With
     respect to the first of these impediments, it is remarkable that
     this learned language is so little known in Europe,--this language,
267  the most prevalent in the world, a language which is spoken or
     understood almost without intermission from the western shores of
     Africa on the Atlantic ocean, to the confines of China,--a language
     understood, wherever Muhamedans are to be found, throughout all the
     populous and commercial regions of Africa, from the Western Ocean
     to the Red Sea, and from the Mediterranean to the country of
     Kaffers,[178] in the vicinage of the Cape of Good Hope. With
     respect to the second of these impediments, the repugnancy of the
     Muhamedan religion to that of Christ, it may justly be observed,
     that this is not really so great as we are apt to imagine; the
     moral principles of Muhamedans being not unlike those of the former
     Christians, being in fact a composition of Hebrew and Christian
     morality. They acknowledge Jesus Christ to be a prophet, and tell
     us, that, in this respect, they are on the safe side, as we impute
     no Divine authority to Muhamed. But a most violent repugnance to
     Christians has been propagated by the (_Fakeers_) Muselmen saints,
     or holy men. They have industriously circulated the belief of an
     old superstitious prediction which they have on record, viz. that
     the Christians will invade the Muhamedan countries, take their
268  cities and towns, and establish the Christian religion on the ruins
     of that of Muhamed, and take possession of the country. These
     reports, propagated, as before observed, by the (_Fakeers_)
     Muhamedan saints, among the lower orders, have kindled a high
     degree of rancour and animosity, (equal to that which the Catholics
     formerly indulged towards their protestant brethren,) which will
     never be extinguished until a friendly alliance and extensive
     commercial intercourse be established with them; which alone can
     soften this rancour and animosity into peace and amity. This
     animosity has been increased also by the rancorous anti-christian
     disposition manifested towards these people by the writings of
     Roman catholic priests and others.[179] If these uncharitable
     opinions of each other could be eradicated, the blessings that
     would result to the Africans would be incalculable; a reciprocal
     exchange of good offices might pave the way to purchase of the
     Emperor of Marocco the port of Agadeer or Santa Cruz, aptly
     denominated, from its contiguity to the Sahara (_Beb Sudan_) "the
     gate of Sudan," which, in the hands of the English, would be the
     key to the whole of the interior of Africa, and an effectual link
269  in our chain of communication with the interior of that
     undiscovered continent; it would moreover secure to us the entire
     commerce of those extensive and populous regions, to the exclusion
     of our Moorish competitors of Cairo, Alexandria, Tripoli, Tunis,
     Algiers, and other ports of Barbary, who supply the people of Sudan
     with European merchandise at the fourth, fifth, and sixth hand.

         [Footnote 178: _Kaffer (or Caffre_) is an Arabic word which
         signifies infidels or unbelievers (in Muhamed); the very name
         has been given by Muhamedans, and therefore it is to be
         presumed that the Muhamedans approximate the countries
         contiguous to the Cape.]

         [Footnote 179: See Martin Martinius. Abraham Ecchellensis.
         Maccarius, Theolog. Polemic. Peter Cevaller. Robert de Retz,
         translator of the Koran. See also the support of this assertion
         in Jackson's Account of the Empire of Marocco, enlarged
         edition, published by Cadell and Davies, Strand, from p. 196.
         to 208.]

     The abolition of the slave-trade cannot be effected until we shall
     have substituted some commerce with the Negro countries, equivalent
     at least, or that shall be more than equivalent to it, otherwise
     the negro sovereigns of Sudan will never be induced to relinquish
     so great a source of profit. Every naval officer in His Majesty's
     service knows, that if we were to have thirty sail of the line
     continually off the coast of Guinea, it would not be sufficient to
     annihilate this abominable traffic, or to deter people from
     embarking in a trade that yields such extraordinary profits. This
     being admitted, as it certainly will be by every intelligent man,
     it follows, that the system now in operation by the British
     government for the abolition of the slave-trade, will be attended
     only with an unnecessary expense to this country, without the
     possibility of effecting the desired object; but, on the contrary,
     judging from recent events, there is every reason to presume, that
     this detestable commerce will increase, as it has continued to
     increase, these last two or three years, in spite of all our
270  operations to prevent it; the Spaniards alone having imported into
     the island of Cuba more slaves in 1818 and 1819, than in the four
     preceding years. The result has been, that that island has
     produced, in 1819, more than double the produce of the former year;
     their waste lands, accordingly, are in progressive cultivation,
     and, if they go on thus improving, that island, in a few years
     hence, will produce coffee and sugar sufficient for the supply of
     all the markets of Europe.

     Finally, Slavery will never give way to any thing but civilisation;
     the civilisation of Africa can never be accomplished but through a
     great and extensive commercial intercourse, a commerce that will
     _enrich the negroes, and enable them, by a supply of arms, to
     contend with and gain an ascendancy over their Muhamedan
     oppressors_, who want no other pretext for attacking them, than
     that of their being idolaters, which idolatry, it is asserted,
     authorises the Muselman to make them slaves. Thus, _the abolition
     of slavery must depend on the Africans themselves_; and although it
     is in our power to supply them with the means for _their
     emancipation_, yet it is absurd to suppose that we can effect it by
     our naval operations. If all the great sovereigns of Europe were to
     agree to make the trading in slaves piracy, they would not prevent
     it. WE cannot emancipate them; _that only can be accomplished by
     their own energy_, awakened in them by commercial intercourse, and
     its accompanying civilisation.
271
     Much might be done if all the African societies were to unite their
     interest, knowledge, and abilities for this desired object. If the
     African Company would unite their energies with the African
     Association, and with the African Institution, such an union would
     promote the civilisation of the African continent, and the
     conversion of the Negroes to Christianity.

     ARCHITECTURE OF THE MOSQUES.

     The architecture of this country is of the Gothic character. The
     mosques are built somewhat like our churches: the body of the
     mosques are covered with green glazed tiles; the steeples are
     invariably an exact square, the sides being ten or twelve feet, not
     tapering as those of Coventry, but the top having the same
     dimensions as the base. At the top is erected a smaller square,
     with a flag-staff similar to a gallows, to which is suspended every
     day at noon, a white flag, the signal of preparation for prayers;
     but on Fridays, the Muhamedan Sabbath, a dark-blue one is
     substituted for the same purpose. Some of the mosques are paved
     with white and black chequered marble, some are tessellated
     pavements, consisting of white, blue, and green glazed tiles, about
     two inches square, a very pretty mode of paving, extremely clean,
     and has a very cool appearance; others are terrassed, which is lime
272  and small stones beaten down with wooden mallets. They excel in the
     art of making terras. The houses are all flat roofed, so as to
     resist the heaviest rains: the declivity of the terrasses is so
     imperceptible, that it is just sufficient to give the rains a
     tendency to the great conduit or pipe that leads to the mitfere
     underneath the house, which is underground, and has a terras
     bottom, impervious to the water. Here is collected water sufficient
     for the family or household during the year; the lime that washes
     into the mitfere from the terrassed roof, purifies the water, and
     preserves it from worms and other insects. They have no ornaments
     in their mosques; but the place where the Mufti or Fakeer reads
     prayers, is covered with mats or carpets; the rest of the floor is
     bare, and the respective individuals prostrate themselves on the
     bare floor, or on an antelope's or _Elhorreh_[180] skin, or the
     skin of a lion or tiger, prepared in a superior manner by the
     tanners at Marocco, the leather of which is made soft as silk, and
     white as snow.

         [Footnote 180: For a description of this curious animal, see
         Jackson's Marocco, page 83, Chapter on Zoology.]

     The bodies of the dead are never laid in the mosques or near them,
     but are invariably carried out of the town, to some coba[181] in
273  the vicinity. The bodies of the dead are washed, and covered with
     lawn, and placed on an oblong wooden machine, resembling a box
     without a cover, called a _kiffen;_ it has four legs about six
     inches long, to uphold it from the ground, and two horizontal
     projections at each end, to place on the shoulders of four men,
     generally the nearest relations of the deceased, who thus carry the
     body to the grave, chaunting with the whole company, amounting
     sometimes to some hundreds, _La Allah, ila Allah wa Muhamed Rassule
     Allah_, "There is no God but God, and Muhamed is the prophet of
     God." This repetition may appear extraordinary to the English
     reader; but let it be observed that the Muhamedans never use the
     pronoun for the name of the Omnipotent, but invariably the noun.
     The body is taken out of the bier, and laid in the ground, the face
     upwards, without any coffin or box, the legs towards Mecca, and
     then covered with earth, so that it might, at the resurrection,
     rise with its eyes towards (_El Kaaba_) Muhamed's mausoleum. No
     money is paid for the ground, nor is any expense paid for a
     monument: a stick or a stone stands erect at the head, and another
274  at the feet. If the deceased lived a moral, inoffensive, and
     exemplary life, the public, at its own expense, oftentimes erects
     (_kaba_) a cubical building with a dome at the top to the departed,
     and he is thence denominated (_fakeer_) a saint.

         [Footnote 181: A coba is a cubical building, about forty or
         fifty feet square, having a dome on the top, inhabited by a
         fakeer; the ground adjacent to this building is consecrated for
         the dead, but is never inclosed. The living reverence the dead
         by never, riding over these grounds; but travellers, in passing
         stop and repeat a fatha. When the ground has been consecrated
         to the dead, and the _coba_ has an inhabitant, who must be a
         sanctified person, he immediately assumes the name of fakeer or
         priest, and the building, and cemetery attached to it, becomes
         a _zowia_ or sanctuary.]

     The palaces of this country generally consist of a perfect square
     wall, containing from two to forty acres of land, or more; for the
     imperial palace at Mequinas covers about two square miles of
     ground. At each corner of the square is a cubical building, with an
     angular top, of green glazed tiles, having four windows, one in
     each side; in the centre of the square is the palace, surrounded by
     a colonnade one or two stories high. The pavement is either
     tessellated or of chequered marble; some of the walls of the rooms
     are also tessellated with arabesque, borders, the ceilings are
     painted with gay colours, viz. scarlet, sky-blue, green, yellow,
     and orange, in arabesque, and some of them are very elegant. The
     houses of the opulent are diminutive imitations of the palaces. The
     house of (_the Talb Câduse_) the minister of the Sultan Seedi
     Muhamed ben Abd Allah at Marocco, is a building, elegantly neat.
     Abd Rahamen ben Nassar's house at Mogodor, is well deserving the
     investigation of an European architect, and his magnificent new
     house at Saffee, is a model of a particular style of architecture.
     Some of the houses of the princes and the military at Mequinas are
275  handsome buildings, and many of the houses of the opulent merchants
     at Fas, who have their commercial establishments at Timbuctoo, and
     other countries of Sudan, are extremely neat and truly unique,
     having beautiful gardens in the interior, ornamented with the
     choicest and most odoriferous flowers and shrubs; with fountains of
     running water, clear as crystal, delectable to behold in this warm
     climate, and such as are not to be seen in any part of Europe.

276

                        FRAGMENTS, NOTES,
                              AND
                          ANECDOTES;

     _Illustrating the Nature and Character of the Country_.



     INTRODUCTION.

     In recording the following Anecdotes and Fragments the naked truth
     is stated, without the embellishments of language, or the labour of
     rhetoric, which the wiser part of mankind have always approved of
     as the most instructive way of writing; and all such as are
     acquainted with books will readily agree with me, that many authors
     stretch, even to the prejudice of truth, from an affectation of
     elegance of style.

     The following facts, therefore, will form the materials for a
     history, rather than a history itself.

     The study of the _language and customs of the Arabs is the best
     comment upon the Old Testament_. The language of the modern Jews is
     little to be regarded; their dispersion into various nations,
277  having no fixed habitation, being _wholly_ addicted to their own
     interest, their conformation to the respective customs of the
     various nations through which they are dispersed; have caused them,
     in a great measure, to forget their ancient customs and original
     language, except what is preserved in the Bible and in the exercise
     of their religion. Whereas the Arabs have continued in the constant
     possession of their country many centuries, and are so tenacious of
     their customs and habits, that they are, at this day, the same men
     they were three thousand years ago. Accordingly, many of their
     customs, at this day, remind us of what happened among their
     ancestors in the days of Abraham.

     _Trade with Sudan_.

     1795, June 14th. Two (_Akkabas_) accumulated caravans of Gum Sudan,
     called in England "Turkey[182] Gum Arabic," have reached the Arab
     encampment of Dikna, not far from the northern confines of the
     Sahara; and will be at Santa Cruz, in the province of Suse, in a
     fortnight.

         [Footnote 182: This gum is conveyed from Sudan to Alexandria,
         in Egypt; there it is shipped off for Smyrna, or
         Constantinople, and from thence imported into England.]

     _Wrecked Ships_.

278  A large ship, supposed to be Spanish, bound to Lima, has been
     wrecked near Cape Noon; the cargo consists of lace, silks, linens,
     superfine cloths, and is estimated by the Jews, at Wedinoon, to be
     worth half a million of dollars.

     _Wrecked Ships on the Coast_.

     Extract of a Letter from James Jackson, and Co. at Mogodor, to
     their correspondents in London. January, 1801.

     The wine and dollars per the Perola de Setubal, wrecked on the
     coast of Suse, have been recovered from the Arabs, by Alkaid Hamo,
     the governor of Santa Cruz; and we have just received them safe by
     a boat. If this vessel had been wrecked on the coast of Cornwall,
     it is more than probable that the cargo would have been plundered.
     We have presented the governor with twenty dollars, for his
     extraordinary energy, exertions, and great merit in the recovery of
     the whole of this property.

     The Prosperous, Captain Driver, a southwhaler, was wrecked near
     Cape Noon, in 1790; the crew was redeemed by me, and brought to my
     house at Santa Cruz, after being upwards of two years in captivity
     in the Desert: and I sent them all from Santa Cruz to Mogodor on
     mules, where, after remaining about two months, the Bull-dog sloop
     of war came down from Gibraltar for them, and they were sent off to
     her by the imperial order.
279
     _Wrecked Sailors_.

     English seamen that are so unfortunate as to be wrecked on the
     coast of Sahara, are generally better treated than the French,
     Italian, or Spanish, because there is a greater probability of a
     ransom; and because it is well known that the English admit no
     slaves in their own country.

     _Timbuctoo Coffee_.

     Coffee grows spontaneously in the vicinage of Timbuctoo, _south of
     the Nile Elabeed_. I sent a quantity to Mr. James Willis, formerly
     Consul for Senegambia: it was of a bitter taste, which is the
     general character of this grain before it is improved by
     cultivation.

     _Sand Baths_.

     The Arabs bury the body erect in sand, up to the chin, as a remedy
     for several disorders, particularly syphilis.

     _Civil War common in West Barbary_.

     In the provinces of Haha and Suse, particularly in the mountainous
     districts, intestine wars frequently prevail: kabyl against kabyl,
     village against village, house against house, family against
280  family. In these lamentable wars, which so continually disturb the
     peace of society, retaliation is considered an incumbent duty on
     every individual who may have lost a relation, so that the embers
     of hostility are thus incessantly fanned; and this lamentable
     revenge pervades whole clans, to the utter destruction of every
     humane and philanthropic propensity, converting the human race to a
     degradation below the beasts of the field.

     _Policy of the Servants of the Emperor_.

     The Bashaws, and others holding responsible situations in the
     empire, are continually purchasing a good name and good report at
     court, by courtesy to and by feeing the ministers of the Emperor to
     report favourably of them, whenever opportunity may offer.
     Incredible sums are sometimes expended in this way.

     _El_[183] _Wah El Grarbee, or the Western Oasis_.

     The prince, Muley Abd Salam, elder brother of the reigning Emperor,
     Muley Soliman, purchased, on his return from the pilgrimage to
281  Mecca, a domain in (Santariah[184]) the Oasis of Ammon or Siwah, as
     a retreat; and being appointed by his father Seedi Muhamed, viceroy
     of the province of Suse[185], he was enabled to give succour to the
     Shelluhs, inhabitants of that province, on their pilgrimage to
     Mecca, and to entertain them with the comforts of hospitality on
     their passage through the Desert. This was the more agreeable to
     these Shelluhs, because, after passing a long journey of some
     thousands of miles through Sahara, they reached, at Santariah, not
     only a territory yielding every comfort and necessary of life, but
     a country wherein their own prince had authority, and wherein their
     own native language is spoken and understood.

         [Footnote 183: In the Lybian Desert there are three _Wahs_ (or
         _Oasises_, as we call them): the greater, called _El Wah El
         Kabeer_; the lesser, called _El Wah Segrer_; and the Oasis of
         Ammon, called _El Wah El Grarbie_, i. e. the Wah of the West.]

         [Footnote 184: The Wah of the West is also called by the
         Mograbines _Santariah_.]

         [Footnote 185: See the map of West Barbary.]

     When this prince's father, the emperor Seedi Muhamed died[186], the
     prince Abdsalam engaged Alkaid Hamed ben Abdsaddock, late governor
     of Mogodor, to go to Santariah, and sell this domain for him; which
     he accordingly did. It is more than probable that the Shelluhs of
     Siwah are an _emigration_ from Suse.

         [Footnote 186: About twenty-eight years since.]

     _Prostration, the etiquette of the Court of Marocco_.

282  An ambassador from Great Britain was sent to the court of Marocco,
     during the reign of Seedi Muhamed, father of the present emperor,
     Soliman. On his arrival at Fas, (where the court was at that time
     held,) the (_Mule M'shoer_) Master of the Audience, who was the
     (_Sherreef_) Prince Muley Dris, came up to the ambassador and
     informed him, that it was customary for all persons coming into the
     imperial presence to take off their shoes, and to prostrate
     themselves. To these ceremonies the ambassador objected, alleging
     that he was received by the king his master with his shoes on; and
     that he presumed the Emperor, on a proper representation being made
     to him, would not exact from him greater obedience than he paid to
     his own sovereign. The master of the audience reported the
     interpretation of the ambassador's remarks to his imperial master.
     The emperor paused, and (insinuating that the ambassador was
     somewhat presumptuous in placing a Christian king on a par with a
     Muselman emperor) commanded the prince to dismiss the ambassador
     for that time, till the following day. In the interim, the Emperor
     urged the master of the audience to make diligent inquiry how the
     Christians conducted themselves in the act of prayer before the
     Almighty God; and whether they then uncovered their feet, and
     prostrated themselves, as Muhamedans did. The morning following,
     the master of audience procured the necessary information
     respecting this point, and acquainted the Emperor that the English
283  Christians, like the Jews, prayed erect; but that they uncovered
     their heads, and bowed at the name of Jesus of Nazareth. "Go,
     then," replied the emperor, "and let the ambassador be presented to
     me without uncovering his feet, and without prostration; for I
     cannot require more obeisance from a foreigner, than he himself
     pays to Almighty God."

     _Massacre of the Jews_, _and Attack on Algiers_.

     In the year 1806, when Algiers was attacked by the Arabs of the
     mountains, and by the inhabitants of the plains, the Jews of the
     city were massacred. It was suggested to the present Emperor of
     Marocco that a favourable opportunity now offered to subdue
     Algiers, and add it to the empire: but the Emperor replied, "That
     it was wiser to secure and keep together all those provinces that
     his father had left him, than to endeavour by _uncertain and
     expensive_ warfare to extend his dominions, by invading a
     neighbouring nation."

     _Treaties with Muhamedan Princes_.

     Treaties of peace and commerce between the Muselmen princes and
     Christian powers, are regarded by the former no longer than it is
284  expedient to their convenience. Muselmen respect treaties no longer
     than it is their apparent interest so to do. When an ambassador
     once expostulated with his imperial majesty for having infringed on
     a treaty made, an emperor of Marocco replied--"Dost thou think I
     am a Christian, that I should be a _slave_ to my word?"

     _Berebbers of Zimurh Shelleh_.

     This kabyl of Berebbers inhabit the plains west and south-west of
     Mequinas. They are a fine race of men, well-grown, and good
     figures; they have a noble presence, and their physiognomy
     resembles the ancient Roman. The laws of hospitality, however, are
     disregarded among them: they will plunder travellers who sojourn
     with them, whenever they have an opportunity.

     _The European Merchants at Mogodor escape from Decapitation_.

     The late emperor, Muley Yezzid, proceeded from Mequinas to Marocco,
     with an army of thirty thousand cavalry, to take the field against
     the rebellious Abdrahaman ben Nassar, bashaw of the province of
     Abda, acting conjointly with the bashaw of the province of
     Duquella, who had collected an army of eighty thousand men, of
285  which fifty thousand were horse. The Emperor, on his arrival at
     Marocco, was exasperated against the kabyls of the south; and was
     informed that the merchants of Mogodor had supplied his rebel
     subject, Abdrahaman, with ammunition. Enraged at this report, which
     the exasperated state of his mind prompted him to believe, he
     issued an order to the Governor of Mogodor, implicating the greater
     part of the European merchants of that port of high treason, and
     ordered their decapitation. This order was brought by one Fenishe,
     a relation of Tahar Fenishe; who had been, some years before,
     ambassador from Marocco to the court of St. James's. The Governor,
     however, suspecting that the order had been issued in a moment of
     irritation, delayed its execution, in the hope that it might be
     countermanded; or, in hope that the result of a battle would render
     it unnecessary to be put in execution.--Soon afterwards, news
     arrived at Mogodor that the two armies had met, had fought, and the
     Emperor had vanquished his antagonists, who had more than double
     his force, but was himself dangerously wounded. This induced the
     governor still further to delay the execution; having now
     ascertained that the order was obtained by a stratagem of malicious
     and ill-disposed people. The next day news came that the Emperor
     suffered extremely from a ball in the upper part of the thigh,
286  which the surgeons could not extract. The Emperor, in a fit of
     frenzy, from pain or passion, took his (_kumaya_) dagger, cut open
     the wound to the ball, and expired soon after. Thus were the
     merchants of Mogodor saved providentially from an untimely death.

     _The Emperor Muley Yezzid's Body disinterred_.

     When the united armies of Abda and Duquella were vanquished and
     dispersed by the Imperial troops, in the neighbourhood of Marocco,
     the report became general that the Emperor was wounded. It is
     asserted that several men in ambush had orders to wait their
     opportunity to fire at the Emperor, when he should approach; and
     when the Emperor did approach the bush wherein these men lay
     concealed, they all fired. It appears, however, that only one shot
     had effect. The Emperor finding himself wounded, instead of being
     discouraged, was reanimated to the combat, and entered into the
     midst of it; a soldier by his side observed to him, that he was
     wounded, and whilst expressing his hope that it was not dangerous,
     the Emperor, with one stroke of his sabre, cut off his head! Even
     after the death of this redoubted warrior, the people trembled,
     doubting the truth of his decease. Abdrahaman went personally to
     Marocco and had the body disinterred to ascertain the fact,
     suspecting that the report of his death might be a stratagem; but
287  having ascertained it, he returned to Saffy, and his brother Muley
     Esslemmah was immediately proclaimed by Abdrahaman. Doubts of the
     Emperor's death still pervaded the minds of men: it was reported
     that he had been seen in the Atlas Mountains, in Draha, in Suse. At
     length a person somewhat resembling him in person, appeared between
     Wedinoon and Ait Bamaran (see the map): the panic took; and men
     from all parts of the country, who had known the Emperor, hastened
     to Wedinoon to ascertain the fact. Many who were too curious were
     shot by order of this pretender, to prevent the possibility of
     their returning to give notice of the imposture. The immense number
     of persons who now believed him to be Yezzid was incalculable; his
     party increased and multiplied, and he soon had thousands of
     followers who supported his cause. The infatuation of the vulgar
     and the bulk of the community was astounding; for the renowned
     Muley Yezzid, like his Majesty George IV., was the first horseman
     in his empire, and the most accomplished gentleman: whereas
     Buhellesa[187], for so he was called in derision, was so bad a
     horseman that he generally rode a mule.

         [Footnote 187: So called from his generally riding a mule, with
         a large stuffed saddle, rising high before and behind, covering
         the whole of the mule's back, and forming a very secure seat.
         This enormous and ponderous saddle-mattras is called _Hellesa_;
         and as the Pretender rode on it, he was called _Bû Hellesa_;
         that is the father of a _Hellesa_.]
288
     This man was reported to be an adept in the occult sciences; and it
     was both reported and credited, that the occult art enabled him to
     multiply corn and provision for the army to any quantity he might
     want. I was established at Santa Cruz, which was three days'
     horse-travelling from Buhellesa's standard; the (_Shereef,_) Prince
     Abdsalam, brother to Yezzid, was then resident there, and Viceroy
     of Suse. It was the Prince Abdsalam's desire to destroy this
     pretender; for his army and followers exceeded now thirty thousand
     men, the Prince sent to Muhamed ben Delemy, khalif of Suse, and
     sheik of the Duleim Arabs, whose castle was about thirty miles
     south of Santa Cruz. Delemy and the Prince were sworn friends: the
     latter proposed to him to give battle to Buhellesa, and so prevent
     the empire from being usurped. Neither Delemy nor the Prince had
     funds to raise an army; so that neither of them knew what steps to
     take. _Delemy, however, with the true spirit of a Bedouin Arab,
     supported his friend in his adversity,_ and promised to exert
     himself to counteract the operations of the arch-hypocrite
     Buhellesa. Collecting the sheiks of the various kabyls of Suse, he
     made an energetic harangue to them; and discussed with them the
     expediency of their uniting together, to repel the impostor. The
     sheiks were all loyal, and well affected to Muley Abd Salam; whose
289  government of Suse, by his khaliff Delemy, added to the
     hospitalities with which the Prince entertained the people of Suse
     at his domain, the _Wah el Grabie_, or the Oasis of Ammon, called
     _Santariah_, ingratiated Muley Abd Salam so much in their favour
     and esteem, that they all unanimously (_passed l'âad_[188]) joined
     hands, and determined, each individually, to raise his respective
     kabyl to support the cause of Muley Abd Salam. In a short time they
     raised an army among themselves of ten thousand horse, and
     determined to attack Buhellesa, so soon as he should begin to move
     forwards, and before he should reach Terodant, in his way to
     Marocco; for there he had a strong party, which would augment his
     forces. The hero Delemy, who was as valiant a soldier as Muley
     Yezzid himself, and as expert and dextrous in the management of the
     horse, determined therefore, with less than half the force of his
     antagonist, to attack him, before he should be able to gather more
     strength. The army of the sheiks joined, and proceeded towards
     Wedinoon. At night they learned that Buhellesa, with an army of
290  22,000 men, mostly horse, having been apprised of Delemy's
     preparations and movements, had proceeded through Ait Bamaran
     towards Shtuka, and that he intended to attack Delemy's castle. On
     hearing this, the army halted for an hour, and returned towards
     Shtuka again. In the morning they came up with Buhellesa, who was
     encamped about four hours south of Delemy's castle. The march of
     Delemy's troops, all hardy warriors and men of valour, was so
     rapid, that Buhellesa was taken by surprise. The battle lasted
     seven hours; during which Delemy's brother was wounded and
     unhorsed, in the midst of the enemy's troops: but being unknown,
     and in a similar dress with the rest, he recovered himself by the
     assistance of some friends, sent to him by his brother the khalif,
     and was enabled to rejoin his own troops. Buhellesa was so hard
     pressed, that he made his retreat into a house: on being attacked
     there, his pistol missed fire, and he was overcome. They
     immediately cut off his head and his arms, when his army dispersed,
     most of them making the best of their way to Wedinoon. That same
     night, the man of Shtuka, who first attacked Buhellesa, was
     dispatched with his head and feet to Muley Abd Salam, at Santa
     Cruz.

         [Footnote 188: The _L'aad_ of the Arabs is a joining of hands,
         without Shaking: the palms of the right hands of the parties
         coming in contact with each other, and the thumbs over each
         other. This is a solemn obligation among them; a calling God to
         witness their resolution of mutual assistance, offensive and
         defensive; a swearing to stand by each other till death; an
         obligation that nothing can dissolve; such a pledge, that if a
         man were to break it, he would be execrated and rejected from
         society!]

     The reported approach of Buhellesa, with so strong a force, had
     urged me to ship all the property I could collect; and I was on the
291  beach early the following morning, directing the shipment of my
     property; when taking a ride along the beach, I met an Arab, with a
     basket before him, and a foot sticking out of it. "_Salam u alik_,"
     I exclaimed, "And what have you got there?"--"_Alik Salam_," said
     the Arab, "I have got Buhellesa's head and feet here: I killed him
     myself; and the khalif Delemy has sent me with them to the Prince.
     Dost thou think the Prince will reward me?"--"Certainly," said I,
     "for such an essential service." The Prince gave the Arab one
     hundred duckets[189]; the guns were fired; and the head and feet
     were hung over an embrasure of the round battery, facing the south.
     Thus terminated the career of Buhellesa.

     A short time after this, I was on a visit to Delemy, and he
     accompanied me to the field of battle; which was an undulating
     plain, not unlike that of Waterloo: and the house to which
     Buhellesa made his escape, was not unlike the hotel de la Belle
     Alliance on the plains of Waterloo, having, however, a flat roof.

         [Footnote 189: Worth 5_s._ each, but equal to 100_l_., or more,
         in that country.]

     _Shelluhs: their Revenge and Retaliation._

     A Shelluh, of the province of Suse, had been a servant in the house
292  of Mr. Hutchison, British Consul at Mogodor fifteen years; but it
     happened to be twenty years since a relation of his, in Suse, had
     been killed, to whom he was the next of kin but one: but the next
     of kin dying, it devolved upon him to seek retaliation; no
     opportunity, however, having occurred, he determined to go to Suse
     to fulfil this his calling. Now above twenty years had elapsed
     since the death or murder of the relation of Bel Kossem, the
     Consul's servant. This man, foregoing the eligibility of his place,
     apprised the Consul of his intention to leave him. Mr. Hutchison,
     who esteemed him not a little for his long and faithful services,
     was astonished to hear of his determination to depart; and,
     apprehending that he might want an increase of pay, he offered to
     increase it: but Bel Kossem told him that an imperious duty
     devolved on him to revenge the blood of his ancestor. Accordingly
     he received his wages, and departed forthwith for Suse. A few
     months afterwards he found an opportunity of killing his enemy,
     which being done, it was expected that this Shelluh would now
     return to Mogodor, and resume his place again; but by a parity of
     reasoning, it devolved to the next of kin of the man recently
     killed to seek revenge for his murdered relation, but Bel Kossem,
     to avoid the like fate, went into a distant country. This duty of
     revenging death, is rigidly pursued among the Shelluhs, so that one
     murder often produces ten, or even twenty deaths; each revenging
     his relation or next of kin.
293
     _Travelling in Barbary._

     It is extremely difficult, whilst travelling in this country, to
     ascertain from the natives the distance of any (_douar_) encampment
     of Arabs: the general answer to such a question is (_wahud saa_),
     "an hour," but this is a very indefinite term, being used for a
     distance from two to twelve miles, or more; therefore, as these
     people have no definite notions of time or distance, the only way
     of ascertaining distances, is by knowing the rate at which the
     caravan goes, which is a regular pace, and consulting your watch;
     by this means, the distance of any journey, however long, may be
     accurately ascertained.

     _Anecdote displaying the African Character, and showing them to be
     now what they were anciently, under Jugurtha._

     A Muhamedan was sent to prison, for having killed a man; and after
     remaining there some time, it was expected that the Emperor's order
     would come to have him shot, or to have his right hand cut off,
     with which it was presumed he killed his enemy. A friend of the
     prisoner, willing to liberate him, that he might escape the
     punishment that awaited him, engaged a person well acquainted with
     the prison to procure his enlargement; accordingly he promised him
294  a sum of money, if he would effect this purpose. It was agreed that
     the money should be paid. The liberator was then to prove to the
     man advancing the money, that he had accomplished his purpose. The
     night in which his liberation was to be attempted was fixed on;
     ropes were ready to enable the prisoner to escape over the
     prison-wall. In the mean time the next of kin of the man who had
     been murdered, sought the blood of the prisoner, and was persuaded
     by the man that had engaged to liberate the prisoner, that the
     latter was not in prison, that he had made his escape, but that the
     former would undertake to put him in his power, so as to enable him
     to accomplish his revenge. This was agreed to, and accordingly a
     sum of money was paid as a remuneration for the service. All
     matters were arranged, and the person who paid the money was
     desired to be on the rock, near the prison, outside of the town
     wall, at two o'clock in the morning, and there he would find his
     enemy. The person who made the first engagement was directed to be
     at the same spot at three o'clock. In the mean time the liberation
     was effected at two o'clock, and the prisoner was informed that his
     friend would meet him under the rock at three o'clock, to conduct
     him to a place secure from discovery. Soon after two o'clock, the
     next of kin to the person whom the prisoner had killed came and
295  plunged a dagger into his heart; afterwards came the other man, and
     saw the body of his friend, whom he recognized. On expostulating
     with the liberator, the latter replied, "I have executed my
     engagement to liberate your friend; I am entitled to my reward:
     what has happened to him since his liberation is no concern of
     mine; see you to that. But I should inform you, that soon after his
     liberation, I saw a man approach, and fearing that I was
     discovered, I ran and hid myself under a rock. In a short time I
     returned and found your friend weltering in his blood. When I
     approached him, he had just time before he expired to name to me
     his murderer, who, he said, was the next of kin to the man he had
     himself killed."--Note, The Shelluhs consider it a duty incumbent
     on them, each, individually to revenge the blood of their family;
     that they are bound to seek the murderer, if possibly he can be
     found. Such is their invariable attention to this principle of
     revenging blood for blood, that I have known instances of men who
     have relinquished eligible appointments, to go into distant
     countries, several years after a murder has been committed, to
     revenge the death of a relation, after becoming, by intervening
     death, the next of kin of the murdered person.

     The lamentable effects of this fatal retaliation is such, that one
     death often produces twenty murders, and afterwards involves whole
     kabyls in intestine wars.
296
     It is remarkable, that the more duplicity they use in these horrid
     transactions, the more merit is ascribed to the agent; who is
     praised in proportion to the extent of his ingenuity, or duplicity,
     as was the case with the liberator above mentioned.

     _Every Nation is required to use its own Costume._

     The Jews in West and South Barbary, have a predilection for the
     European costume, in preference to their own, the former being
     respected, the latter not: moreover the character of a _merchant_
     is highly respected by the Moors, and the European dress is a kind
     of passport to a man as such. One day, the Emperor seeing in the
     place of audience, at a great distance, a gentleman, apparently an
     European ambassador, ordered the master of the audience to go and
     see who he was, and what nation he represented; but it being
     discovered that he was a Marocco Jew, his scarlet and gold dress
     was torn from him, and a _burnose_, (a large black cloak, the
     costume of the Jews of the lower order,) was put over him, when he
     was buffetted and kicked out of the place of audience. The Emperor
     was exasperated at this circumstance, which he considered a vain
     deception: he ordered his secretary to write to all the ports in
     his dominions, to desire that Jews should wear the _burnose_, that
297  Christians only should wear the European costume, and Moors and
     Arabs theirs; so that thus every individual might be known by their
     respective dress. On this occasion, an opulent Hebrew merchant at
     Mogodor felt so much the insults he was exposed to, from wearing
     the Jewish costume, that he actually paid several thousand dollars
     to obtain the privilege he had formerly enjoyed, which, in
     consequence of his being an opulent man, and a foreign merchant,
     was granted to him.

     The name of this gentleman would here be mentioned to gratify the
     curious; but as it might give umbrage to his family, and as the
     intention here is only to describe the character and manners of the
     country, there is, I conceive no necessity for stating
     personalities.

     _Ali Bey (El Abassi), Author of the Travels under that Name._

     This extraordinary character visited Marocco about the year 1805 or
     1806. He pretended to be a native of Aleppo, called in Arabic
     _Hellebee_, and was known by the name of Seed Hellebee, which
     signifies "the gentleman of Aleppo." Europeans, as well as himself,
     since his return to Europe, have converted this name into Ali Bey,
     of the family of the Abassides. This gentleman possessed abilities
     of no ordinary degree, he was supplied with money in abundance by
298  the Spanish government. He had not been long at Mogodor, when his
     munificence began to excite the suspicion of the governor, as well
     as the admiration and applause of the populace. Adopting the
     costume of the country, he professed himself to be a Muselman; and
     as a pretext for not speaking the[190] Arabic language, he
     pretended that he had gone from Aleppo, the place of his nativity,
     to England when very young, and had forgotten it. He had, as he
     declared, considerable property in the Bank of England. Being
     desirous of collecting all the information possible respecting the
     country, he procured two young Spanish renegado musicians, who
     played on the guitar, and sung Arabic airs and songs, with which he
     affected to be highly delighted, these musicians, however, served
     his purpose in another way; for, being apprehensive of creating
     suspicion by direct enquiries, he prevailed on these renegadoes to
     procure the information he desired, by giving them from time to
     time several questions to which they procured direct answers, as
     reported by the natives.

         [Footnote 190: He afterwards learned the Arabic language, and I
         believe spoke it tolerably well when he quitted this country
         and proceeded to Mekka.]

     One day he gave a _fête champêtre_ at (_L'arsa Sultan_), the[191]
299  Sultan's garden, situated near a very picturesque rivulet, and
     contiguous to springs of excellent water, which being collected in
     a large tank, was conveyed by an aqueduct, which extended the
     length of the garden, to immerge or irrigate the various beds of
     flowers and plants. On his return home, as he was crossing the
     river near the village of Diabet, a Shelluh shot a large fish as it
     was passing the shallows, Seed Hellebee, or Seed Ali Bey admired
     the dexterity of the Shelluh, (who, from his quickness, was
     nicknamed Deib, i.e. the fox,) and desired him to take the fish to
     his house at Mogodor, which he accordingly did, and received from
     Ali Bey's secretary a handful of dollars. This Shelluh was a keen
     sportsman, and seldom or never missed his shot: he generally
     accompanied me in my shooting excursions, and he told me this
     circumstance himself, adding, that Ali Bey was such a liberal man,
     that, where any other gentleman gave a dollar, he gave a handful.
     It was in this manner that Ali Bey purchased his popularity.

         [Footnote 191: This garden is in the province of Haha, about
         five miles S.S.E. of Mogodor, and belongs to the European
         Commerce, to whom it was presented by the Late Emperor Seedi
         Muhamed ben Abdallah.]

     The governor of Mogodor, Alkaid Muhamed ben Abdsaddock now began to
     suspect, not only the faith of this _soi disant_ Muhamedan, but
     that he had some design unavowed; and desirous of ascertaining to
     what nation of Christendom he belonged, the governor engaged
     Monsieur Depras, a respectable French merchant of Mogodor, who
     understood several languages, to ascertain if he was a Frenchman,
300  and if not, who and what he was. The governor, in order to enable
     M. Depras to converse with Ali Bey, invited them both to tea; this
     introduction being effected the next day, Depras called on Ali Bey,
     and conversed with him during an hour in the French language, which
     he spoke so well, that the former thought there was no doubt of his
     being a Frenchman. But soon after this, the Spanish Consul was
     announced, and being introduced, Seed Ali Bey changed his discourse
     to Spanish, which he also spoke so correctly, that Depras now
     altered his opinion, and conceiving him to be a Spaniard, took his
     leave. He then reported to the governor what he had seen and heard,
     that he spoke French and Spanish so fluently, that he really did
     not know whether he was a Frenchman or a Spaniard.

     Ali Bey continued to live in a most sumptuous and costly style, and
     afterwards resolved to visit Marocco. On his journey thither, he
     was particularly inquisitive respecting the population, produce,
     names and residencies of the (sheiks) chiefs of Haha and Shedma,
     through which provinces he passed. On his arrival at Marocco, he
     still continued his magnificent establishment and sumptuous mode of
     living; distributing money to the people bountifully, on the most
     trifling occasions, which mode of conduct procured him universal
     popularity among the lower orders. This soon excited the suspicions
301  of Alkaid Bushta, the governor of Marocco, who ingenuously informed
     him, that such liberality was fit only for a Christian country, and
     that he was mistaken if he flattered himself that it would be
     tolerated at Marocco, and actually desired him to adopt a different
     and a more parsimonious system, if he wished to be quiet; alleging,
     that his munificence exceeded that of his Imperial Majesty, which
     was highly indecorous; but afterwards finding little attention was
     paid to his injunction, he published a decree throughout the city,
     that any one that should be found asking for, or receiving money
     from Ali Bey, should have a very severe bastinado! After residing
     some time at Marocco, he expressed a desire to visit the Atlas
     mountains, which appear a few miles east of Marocco, but which are,
     in fact, a whole day's journey; their immense size and height
     making them to appear so much nearer than they really are. Ali Bey
     apprehending the hostility of Alkaid Bushta, he procured an
     imperial order to visit the Atlas, but Bushta opposed it, and would
     not, he said, permit him, he being governor of Marocco, without
     having himself directly from the Emperor a permission to that
     purpose. He then represented to the Emperor the impolicy of
     allowing him to go and examine that country; and the imperial order
     was immediately countermanded.

     People now began to imagine that he was an agent of Bonaparte; and
     their suspicion that he was a Christian spread far and near. It was
302  discovered also that he had corns on his feet, excrescences unknown
     to Muselmen, whose shoes are made tight over the instep, and loose
     over the toes, so that the latter being unconfined and at liberty,
     they never have corns.

     Notwithstanding all these suspicions, the courtesy and suavity of
     the manners of Ali Bey had such influence on the imperial mind,
     that Muley Soliman gave him a beautiful garden to reside in,
     wherein there was a (_kôba_) pavilion. Ali Bey, finding his
     influence considerable, erected with architectural taste several
     edifices, suited, as he thought, to the imperial _gusto_, in which
     he succeeded so well that his Imperial Majesty, when he returned
     the next year to Marocco, resided almost exclusively in one of the
     pavilions which he had erected.

     The splendour of the imperial favour did not however continue long;
     for Ali Bey began now to be suspected by the Emperor himself, and
     it was bruited that his renegadoes had acted treacherously towards
     him.

     Ali Bey's knowledge of astronomy was peculiarly gratifying to the
     Emperor. He could not altogether withdraw from him his attention.
     The Emperor urged him to take unto himself a wife, and become an
     useful member of society; but Ali objected, alleging various
     motives for refusing. He was however at length prevailed on to
     comply with the imperial injunction, and the Emperor gave him a
303  young girl to marry. It was anticipated that his new wife was a
     political one, and would betray him to be an uncircumcised dog. The
     wife, however, became extremely attached to him, and no information
     could be procured from her to favour the plot that had been laid
     for him. Various suspicions having increased respecting him, the
     Emperor finally resolved that he should quit his territory; and an
     order was issued that himself, his wife, and slaves should be
     escorted to the port of L'Araich, and there embark for Europe. When
     the military guard, however, had reached the port of L'Araich, the
     boat being ready, Ali Bey was desired to embark, when, not
     suspecting any stratagem, the boatmen pushed off, leaving his
     disconsolate wife on the beach, bewailing his abrupt departure. The
     lady appeared deeply affected with this sudden and unexpected
     separation; and jumping out of the litter tore her dishevelled
     hair, and distributed it to the winds, and with loud shrieks, which
     pierced the air, demonstrated to him how sorely she lamented his
     premature departure, and violent separation. His principal slave
     was sold, by order of the Emperor's minister, to Seed Abdel'mjeed
     Buhellel, a merchant of Fas, who was lately in London, and the
     money was given to his wife.

     During his residence at Fas, he predicted an eclipse, and, having
     foretold to the people of that city, that it would happen at such a
304  time, they waited for the event with considerable curiosity. Now
     his knowledge of futurity had spread abroad with demonstrations of
     amazement; the eclipse happened precisely at the time he had
     predicted, which established his fame as an (_alem min alem_), a
     man wiser than the wise.

     During the latter part of his residence in West Barbary, a report
     prevailed that Bonaparte was preparing an immense army to invade
     and subjugate the country. Ali Bey was not only suspected to be his
     secret agent, but some persons were even ridiculous enough to
     declare that he was Bonaparte himself in disguise; and accordingly
     he was denominated _Parte_, for they would not add _Bona_, as that
     word signifies good, in the _lingua franca_ of Barbary, and
     Bonaparte, they said was not good, but a devil incarnate; so they
     called him Parte. Last year I met in London the Moor who had
     purchased Ali Bey's slave, and he told me that his son by the
     before-mentioned wife lives at Fas; that he is a very amiable and
     intelligent youth, about fifteen or sixteen years of age; and that
     he is very poor, and would have starved, but for the charity and
     protection of the highly respected fakeer of the city of Fas, Muley
     Dris, under whose roof he resides, and is indebted to him for
     protection and patronage. This man would be an acquisition to the
     African Association, and means might be adopted to engage him in
305  their service to explore Sudan.

     _The Emperor's Attack of Diminet, in the Atlas_.

     The emperor Seedi Muhamed ben Abdallah levied a powerful army, and
     took the field against Diminet, in the mountains of Atlas, east of
     Marocco. The people of Diminet, and the territory of Berebbers,
     east of that country, had also levied a strong force to defend
     themselves. The Diminets were taken by surprise; for they had not
     had intimation of an attack from Marocco. The Emperor himself, with
     a few attendants disguised in the Berebber dress, advanced a few
     miles ahead of the army. A party of mountaineers had received
     orders from their sheik, (when the latter was informed that the
     Emperor's army was coming against them,) to seek the Emperor, and
     endeavour to kill him. They mistook the Emperor and his party for
     Berebbers, as His Majesty spoke the language correctly, and had in
     the early part of his life lived among them. "Where is the
     Emperor's guard?" the mountaineers enquired; "for we are in search
     of them: we hear he is coming to attack us, in our inaccessible
     mountains; but we will be beforehand with him, and dispatch him
     before he reaches us. Dost thou know where he is, or where his
     guard is." "We do know," replied the Emperor; "for, about an hour
     behind us, we passed a few men on horseback, among whom was the
     Emperor; but the army is a long way behind: if you make speed, you
     will soon pass him, and it will be an easy matter for you to put
306  the whole party to the sword, for they are not a dozen altogether."
     The Berebbers, elated with this news, communicated from a party
     whom they mistook for brethren of the neighbouring kabyl, rode off
     at speed to seek their enemy, and in a short time found themselves
     surrounded by the Emperor's army, who were scattered about in
     ambush. These Berebbers were all secured, and were threatened with
     torture if they would not discover where the army of their brethren
     was, and what was their plan. The party discovered the plan and the
     place of their encampment, which was not far off in recesses of the
     mountain, and received a promise of remuneration if found correct.
     By this discovery, the imperial army was enabled to surprise the
     rebels; the latter were dispersed, and their houses burned. Thus
     were they prevented from _harassing_ the Emperor's army, which is
     their ordinary mode of warfare. To subjugate these people would be
     impossible: it has often been attempted, but never succeeded. The
     only lien the Emperor can get of them is, by having at court about
     his person their sheik, whom he then makes answerable for the
     obedience of the kabyl.

     _Moral Justice_.

     The imperial army being encamped in Temsena, on the confines of
307  Tedla, (see the map,) an Arab chieftain found that a friend of the
     Emperor came into his _keyma_[192] at night, and took liberties
     with his wife. The Arab suspected that he was (_shereef_) a prince,
     and therefore did not dare to kill him, but preferred a complaint
     to the Emperor. The Emperor was vexed to hear of such a gross
     breach of hospitality, and asked what time he made his visits? "At
     one hour after midnight," the Arab replied. Then, said the Emperor,
     "when he comes, do you let me know by giving the watch-word to this
     man, and he will then know what to do; and depend thou on my seeing
     justice done to thee for the aggression." The marauder came; the
     Arab repaired to the guard of the imperial tent, and gave the word;
     the guard apprised the emperor, as he was directed, who personally
     repaired to the tent of the Arab, and, being convinced of the fact,
     ran the man through with his lance; this was done without a light.
     The body was brought before the tent, and it was discovered to be
     an officer of the imperial guard. The Emperor, on seeing that it
     was not a shereef (a prince) prostrated himself in fervent prayer
     for a considerable time. The courtiers who were all assembled by
     this time to witness this extraordinary occurrence, wondered what
     could induce the Emperor to be so fervent in prayer; which his
     majesty observing, told them, "that he went alone to the tent,
308  thinking that nobody but a shereef would have dared to commit such
     a breach of hospitality, in so open a manner; therefore he killed
     him without having a light, lest, on discovering him to be a
     prince, personal affection might give way to justice; but that when
     he discovered that it was not a relation, he returned thanks to God
     Almighty, that, in his determination to have justice administered,
     he had not killed his own son!"

         [Footnote 192: _Keyma_ is the name for an Arab's tent; they are
         made of goats' hair, and are black.]

     _Contest between the Emperor and the Berebbers of Atlas_.

     March 10, 1797. The Sultan Soliman proceeds with a powerful army
     against the warlike province of Shawiya, the rebellious Arabs'
     retreat. The imperial army takes some of the women who are renowned
     for personal charms. The army can get no food; and, being in danger
     of starving, returns to Salee. The Arabs promise submission, in
     hopes of having the women restored; but the Emperor's officers
     violate them. The Arabs swear vengeance (_alia l'imin_[193]) by
     their right hand. The emperor attacks them again, is repulsed, and
     returns to Fas.

         [Footnote 193: _Alia l'imin_, swearing by the right hand, is a
         sacred oath; and those who take it will not swerve from its
         obligation, which is peremptory.]

     _Characteristic Trait of Muhamedans_.

     One of the Emperor's ministers, when an English fleet was cruising
309  off Salee, and just after some impost had been levied on the
     merchandise already purchased and warehoused by the Christian
     merchants, suggested the impolicy at that moment, of harsh measures
     against Europeans: the Emperor, in a jocose manner, asked what harm
     he could suffer from the fleets of Europeans? "They could destroy
     your Imperial Majesty's ports," replied the minister. "Then I would
     build them again for one-half what it would cost them to destroy
     them. But if they dared to do that, I could retaliate, by sending
     out my cruisers to take their trading ships, which would so
     increase the premiums of insurance (for the (_kaffers_) infidels
     insure all things on earth, trusting nothing to God[194]), that
     they would be glad to sue for peace again."

         [Footnote 194: The Muhamedans abuse the Christians for their
         mistrust of Providence, exemplified in their insuring ships,
         merchandise, &c.]

     _Political Deception_.

     When an embassy is going to the Emperor, the alkaid of the escort
     endeavours to make the present, which necessarily accompanies every
     embassy, as bulky and conspicuous as possible, that the Arabs of
     the kabyls through which they pass, may be dazzled and astounded
     with the great appearance of the presents, which the alkaid
     proclaims to consist chiefly of money, or treasure. The Arabs
     accordingly observed, on Mr. Matra's (the British consul) presents,
     that the English, who had conquered Bonaparte in Egypt, and were
     masters of the ocean and seas, yet were tributary to the Sultan.
     This idea is industriously propagated by the officers of the
     Emperor's court. "Thinkest thou," they ohserved, "that these
     Christians give such large presents with a free-will? Certainly
     not! They are compelled to do so. The (_Romee_) Europeans are too
     fond of money to give it away in such loads,--even the English,
     thou seest, are tributary to the Seed." [195]

         [Footnote 195: A higher title among the _true Arabs_ than
         Emperor: it implies conjointly, Emperor, Father of the People,
         Protector, and Brother.]

     _Etiquette of the Court of Marocco_.

     The European commerce of Mogodor went to pay their respects to the
     Emperor Seedi Muhamed, on his arrival, from Fas, at Marocco, as is
     customary. The Emperor's son, Muley El Mamune, was master of the
     audience, and ordered the commerce to advance into the imperial
     presence; and standing barefooted, as is the custom before the
     Emperor, he requested the merchants to take off their shoes, as
     _he_ had done; but they expostulated, and said it was not their
     custom. The Prince, however, stopped them, and would not allow them
     to approach the imperial presence without first submitting to this
     ceremony. Seedi Muhamed, observing the impediment, and knowing the
311  cause, but willing at the same time to initiate the young prince in
     the custom of foreign countries, called his son to him, and said,
     "What do muselmen do, when they enter the _Jamaa_?"[196] "Revere
     the holy ground, by entering barefooted," replied the prince.--"And
     what do the Christians, when they enter their church?"--"They take
     off their hats," rejoined the Prince. (_Allah e berk Amer
     Seedi_,[197]) "God bless your Majesty's life."--"Then, what would
     you more of these my merchants, than that they pay me, even the
     same respect that they pay when they pray to _Allah_. Let them
     approach uncovered, with their shoes on, which they never take off,
     but to go to bed to rest".

         [Footnote 196: An Arabic or Korannick word, signifying, the
         congregation of prayer, or mosque.]

         [Footnote 197: A term invariably used at court, in addressing
         the Emperor.]

       *       *       *       *       *

     The province of Ait Atter, or the Atterites, in Lower Suse, is
     considered as an independent province, and it pays no tribute. They
     have a great dislike to _kadis_[198], _talbs_, and attornies,
     alleging that they only increase disputes between man and man,
     which is not at all necessary; all disputes are, therefore, decided
     by the sheik, who is not a logical wrangler, but decides according
312  to the simplest manner. The following decree of their sheik is on
     record:--

     "Four men conjointly bought a mule, which for elucidation, we will
     call A, B, C, and D: each claimed a leg. D's leg was the off-hind
     one. In a few days this leg began to swell: it was agreed to cure
     it by (_el keeh_) burning it with a hot iron, (a common remedy in
     this country.) This done, the mule was turned out, and went into a
     field of barley. Some spark was attached to the hoof, and set fire
     to the corn, which was consumed. The proprietors of the barley
     applied to the sheik for justice; and A, B, C, and D, the owners of
     the mule, were summoned to appear. The sheik, finding the leg which
     caused the barley to be burnt, belonged to D, ordered him to pay
     the value of the barley. D expostulated, and maintained that he had
     no right to pay; for, if it had not been for A, B, and C's portions
     of the mule, the barley would have remained. "How so?" replied the
     sheik. "Because," quoth D, "the leg which belongs to me cannot
     touch the ground; but it was brought to the corn-field by the legs
     of A, B, and C, which were the efficient cause of the ignition of
     the barley. The sheik reversed his decree, and ordered A, B, and C
     to pay the damage, and D got off without expense.

         [Footnote 198: _Kadis_, i.e. judges. _Talbs_, i.e. record
         writers. _Kadi_ is generally spelt by the Europeans of the
         south _Cadi_, because they have no K in their alphabet: the
         Arabs have no C; the letter is _Kaf_ or K, not C.]

313
     _Customs of the Shelluhs of the Southern Atlas, viz. of Idaultit_
     (_in Lower Suse_.)

     The mountains of Idaultit are inhabited by a courageous and
     powerful people, strict to their honour and word, unlike their
     neighbours of Elala. They make verbal contracts between themselves,
     and never go to law, or record their contracts or agreements,
     trusting implicitly to each other's faith and honour. If a man goes
     to this country to claim a debt due, he cannot receive it while
     there, but must first leave the country, and trust to the integrity
     of the Idaultitee, who will surely pay when convenient, but cannot
     bear compulsion or restraint. They do not acknowledge any sultan,
     but have a divan of their own, called _Eljma_, who settle all
     disputes between man and man. These people cultivate the plains,
     when there is no khalif in Suse; but when there is, they retire to
     the fastnesses in their mountains, and defy the arm of power;
     satisfying themselves with the produce of the mountains.

     _Connubial Customs_.

     The (_shereef_) Prince Muley Bryhim, son of the present Emperor
     Soliman, was married to the daughter of the bashaw Abdrahaman ben
     Nassar, who was powerful and rebellious, and prevented the Emperor
     for some time from proceeding to the south. This couple was married
314  in 1803. The bashaw died the same year; and in 1805 she was
     divorced, and sent by the Emperor to Mogodor, with orders to a
     sheik of Shedma to marry her, it being considered a degradation for
     a prince to be united to the daughter of a rebellious subject. This
     happened in January, 1806. The widow of the late Prince Muley
     Abdrahaman, who rebelled against his father, and who was elder
     brother to the Emperor Soliman, has been recently sent by the
     Emperor to Bu Azar, a negro bashaw, and governor of the city of
     Terodant, in Suse, to marry her. These marriages are promoted by
     the royal decree, to prevent the females from contaminating the
     royal blood by illicit connection, if they remain divorced, without
     a new husband.

     _Political Duplicity_.

     A fakeer having interceded in behalf of a state prisoner, his
     friend, who was confined in the island of Mogodor (the state prison
     of the empire, except for princes, who are sent to Tafilelt), the
     Emperor assured him he would release him; and urged the fakeer to
     proceed to Mogodor, and wait there his Majesty's arrival. The
     fakeer departed, and soon after his arrival at Mogodor, he learned
     that the Emperor was not going there; but the alkaid of Mogodor
     showed him a letter from the Emperor, ordering him to retain the
     prisoner in safe keeping, and not attend to what the fakeer should
     say. This system of breaking engagements and promises, is too often
315  denominated policy. "Dost thou think I am a Christian," said an
     emperor to a prince who was expostulating with him for not
     fulfilling his engagements,--"Dost thou think I am a Christian, to
     be a slave to my word?"

     Senor P. a Spanish merchant, received a letter from the Emperor,
     directed to the (_alkaid_) governor of Rabat, ordering him to show
     Senor P. every attention, and to assist him if he should be
     desirous of establishing a house at Rabat. Senor P. left the court
     at Mequinas, well satisfied with his letter; but a few days after
     his arrival, the alkaid told him he must embark and quit the
     country in twenty-four hours, by the Emperor's order, which he
     showed to Senor P. who could read Arabic. He was obliged to embark
     immediately.

     _Etiquette of Language at the Court of Marocco_.

     If the Emperor should enquire about any person that has recently
     died, it is not the etiquette to mention the word "death,"--a
     muselmen is supposed never to die;--the answer is _Ufah Ameruh_,
     "his destiny is closed," or "he has completed his destiny." To
     which the following answer is invariably given--_Allah ê Erhammoh_,
     "God be merciful to him." If a Jew's death is announced to any
     muselman prince, fakeer, or alkaid, the expression is, _Maat hashak
     asseedi_, "He is dead, Sir." _Ashak_ is an Arabic idiom, the exact
     meaning of which cannot easily be conveyed in English; but it may
316  be assimilated to--"Pardon me for mentioning in your presence a
     name contemptible or gross (as Jew)." Thus, for further elucidation
     to the enquirer after the peculiarities of language, _Kie 'tkillem
     ma el Kaba hashak asseedi_,--"He is talking with a prostitute--your
     pardon, Sir, for the grossness of the expression."

     If a man goes to the alkaid, to make a complaint against any one
     for doing any indecent act, and in relating the circumstance he
     omits the word _hashak asseedi_, the persons present will interrupt
     him thus,--_Kul hashak b'adda_, "Say _hashak_ before you proceed."
     Blood, dung, dirt, pimp, procuress, prostitute, traitor, &c. &c.
     are words that (in correct company) are invariably followed by the
     qualifying word _hashak_.

     If a Christian is dead, the expression is _Mat el kaffer, or Mat el
     karan, or Mat bel karan_, "The infidel is dead, the cuckold, or
     the son of a cuckold is dead."

     _Food_.

     _Kuscasoe_ is, flour moistened with water, and granulated with the
     hand to the size of partridge-shot. It is then put into a steamer
     uncovered, under which fowls, or mutton, and vegetables, such as
     onions, and turnips, are put to boil: when the steam is seen to
     pass through the _kuscasoe_ it is taken off and shook in a bason,
     to prevent the adhesion of the grains; and then put in the steamer
     again, and steamed a second time. When it is taken off, some
317  butter, salt, pepper, and saffron, are mixed with it, and it is
     served up in a large bowl. The top is garnished with the fowl or
     mutton, and the onions and turnips. When the saffron has made it
     the colour of straw, it has received the proper quota. This is,
     when properly cooked, a very palatable and nutritious dish.

     _Hassua_ is gruel boiled, and then left over the fire two hours. It
     is made with barley not ground into flour, but into small particles
     the size of sparrow-shot. It is a very salubrious food for
     breakfast, insomuch that they have a proverb which intimates that
     physicians need never go to those countries wherein the inhabitants
     break their fast with _hassua_.

     _El Hasseeda_ is barley roasted in an earthen pan, then powdered in
     a mortar, and mixed with cold water, and drank. This is the
     travelling food of the country--of the Arab, the Moor, the
     Berebber, the Shelluh, and the Negro; and is universally used by
     travellers in crossing the Sahara: the Akkabas that proceed from
     Akka and Tatta to Timbuctoo, Houssa, and Wangara, are always
     provided with a sufficient quantity of this simple restorative to
     the hungry stomach.

     _The Woled Abbusebah, a whole Clan of Arabs, banished from the
     Plains of Marocco_.

     This populous, powerful, and valiant kabyl, during the former part
     of the reign of the Sultan Seedi Muhamed ben Abdallah, father of
318  the present Emperor Soliman, occupied the plains west of the city
     of Marocco (being an emigration from the Bedouin tribe of the same
     name in the Sahara); but their depredatory disposition made
     travelling through their territory unsafe; wherefore the Emperor,
     after endeavouring in vain to make an example of them, issued a
     decree that they should all to a man leave his dominions, and they
     were driven by his army out of their country to the south, and
     entered the Sahara. The whole kabyl was thus outlawed, so that they
     were plundered and killed as they passed through the plains of
     Fruga, Ait Musie, Haha, and Suse, by the natives of those countries
     respectively. Not half the number that emigrated, (which was some
     thousands,) reached the original clan in the Sahara.

     _The Koran, called also El Kateb el Aziz_.

     The word Koran conveys the same signification as _Bible_: it means
     "the reading" or "the book;"--_kora_, "to read; "_el Kateb el
     Aziz_, i.e. "the dear or beloved book," meaning thereby the
     _Koran_.

     _Arabian Music_.

     The Sultan Seedi Muhamed, after hearing the musical band of the
     Marquis de Vialli, ambassador from Venice, expressed his
     gratification at the music of the Italians, and laconically
     observed that it possessed more harmony than that of any other
     nation, excepting his own.
319
     _Sigin Messa_. (_Sigilmessa_.)

     The country of Sigin Messa, called in the maps Sigilmessa, was the
     state prison of the kingdom of Suse, when it formed a part of the
     empire of Muley el Monsore, in the twelfth century of the Christian
     era. Messa, a port in Suse, was then a large city, and the capital
     of the kingdom of Suse. The state prisoners were sent to a place of
     safe keeping, which was east of Tafilelt, and was therefore called
     Sigin Messa, i.e. the prison of Messa.

     _Mungo Park at Timbuctoo_.

     In the month of March, 1806, a letter was received at Mogodor by
     Seedi L'Abes Buhellal Fasee, from his liberated slave at Timbuctoo.
     This letter was in Arabic, and the following is an extract
     literally translated from it by myself:--

     "A boat arrived a few days since from the West at Kabra, having two
     or three Christians in it. One was (_rajel kabeer_) a tall man, who
     stood erect in the boat, which displayed (_shinjuk bied_) a white
     flag. The inhabitants of Kabra did not, however, understand the
     signal to be emblematic of peace, and no one went to the boat,
     although it remained at anchor before Kabra the whole day, till
     night. In the morning it was gone."

320  _Troglodytæ_.

     The Shelluhs of the Atlas, south-east of Santa Cruz, in Suse,
     during the rainy season, from November till February inclusive,
     live in caves and excavations in the rocks and earth; laying up
     provisions sufficient for that period, until the snow begins to
     melt. The Berebbers of North Atlas have followed the same custom
     from time immemorial.

     _Police of West Barbary_.

     When the present Emperor came to the throne, he gave indefatigable
     attention to the police. He wished, he said, to make the roads safe
     for travellers, from the Desert, or Sahara, to the shores of the
     Mediterranean. He was vigilant in discovering thefts, and rigorous
     in punishing them. If any one was robbed, he had only to report it
     to the Emperor, who would forthwith order the douar where the
     robbery was committed to restore the sum stolen, and to pay a fine
     to the treasury of the same amount. By adhering strictly to this
     system, he improved the revenue, and made travelling perfectly
     safe; so that one may travel now (1805), without danger, with
     property or money, from one end of the empire to the other. Before
     this system of policy was renewed, (for it is an old law of the
     land,) travellers with property were obliged to have a _statta_:
     thus, if a caravan was going from Terodant or Marocco to Fas, it
     took a _statta;_ that is, two men, natives of the district of
321  Rahamena, who accompanied the caravan in safety to the confines of
     their territory; they then received a remuneration, and delivered
     over the caravan to two men of Abda, who conducted it to the border
     of Duquella: it was then delivered into the hands of two Duquella
     Arabs; and so it went through the different provinces till it
     reached Fas, under the protection, through each province, of a
     _statta_, each of which _statta_ receives a remuneration. So that,
     by the time of arrival at Fas, the merchandise was sometimes
     subject to a charge of 8 or 10 per cent. for _statta_ or convoy
     through the various provinces.

     Before the Emperor Soliman thus established his authority, caravans
     of gums, almonds, ostrich feathers, gold-dust, &c. &c. from Suse,
     were sometimes twenty days going from Santa Cruz to Mogodor, a
     distance of less than one hundred miles, the _statta_ being changed
     and paid at the entrance of every kabyl, of which there are twelve
     in the province of Haha alone; the camels being also changed at
     every change of _statta_, increased the charge on the merchandise
     to an immoderate amount. It would be a great acquisition to
     England, if His Majesty were to negociate with the Emperor of
     Marocco for the port of Santa Cruz; for the province of Suse
     produces in abundance olive oil, almonds, and gums; worm-seed,
     annis-seed, cummin-seed, and orchilla; oranges, grapes,
     pomegranates, figs, melons, &c. This port was farmed, during the
     reign of Muley Ismael, for an annual stipend. It is the key to
322  Sudan, and a communication might be opened on an extensive scale
     from hence with Timbuctoo, Housa, Wangara, and other regions of
     Sudan, so as to supply, in a few years, the whole of the interior
     of Africa with British and East-India manufactures.

     _Muley Abdrahaman ben Muhamed_.

     This prince, who was elder brother of the present Emperor Soliman,
     had accumulated considerable treasure in executing the office of
     (_khalif_) viceroy of the provinces of Duquella, Abda, and Shedma.
     His father, jealous of his son's power, when supported by a command
     of treasure, had recourse to the usual means of transferring it to
     the imperial treasury. It is held as law in this country, that
     little is sufficient for every purpose of life. When property
     becomes accumulated, it is alleged that more than a sufficiency is
     derogatory of the principles laid down in the Koran, and ought to
     revolve to the national treasury, there to be deposited as a fund
     in reserve against the invasion of the country by the Europeans, an
     event, which they are quite sure, from an ancient tradition, will
     happen at no very distant period.

     Abdrahaman, however, equally avaricious with his father, objected
     to deliver up his treasure; which so irritated the Sultan, that he
     ordered a party of his negro soldiers to go to the Prince's house
     and seize every thing valuable. These men, in their thirst for
     plunder, out-ran their discretion, as it appears; for they
323  proceeded to examine the ladies in the Horem, putting their base
     hands on their persons, under the pretence of discovering if they
     had concealed their jewels and gold. This outrage roused the
     Prince's indignation and he lost no time in absenting himself for
     ever from his father's dominions, for this insult on his
     dignity.--"If my father," said the Prince, "had taken my treasure,
     it would have passed from my hands to his; but to permit the
     ignoble hands of slaves to offer me such an indignity, is more than
     I can or will suffer." Abdrahaman therefore emigrated to the
     province of Lower Suse, on the confines of Sahara, where he
     remained encamped, ready, upon any alarm, at a moment's notice, to
     penetrate into the Desert. He had always two _heiries_ ready
     saddled at the gate of his (_keyma_) tent; one for carrying his
     treasure, viz. gold dust and jewels, and the other for himself to
     ride, on any emergency. Many fakeers were sent from the Sultan to
     the Prince; with the most solemn assurances of his reconciliation,
     and with urgent solicitations to him to return; but the Prince
     never forgave or forgot the insult.

     _Anecdote of Muley Ismael_.

     Muley Ismael compared his subjects to a bag full of rats.--"If you
     let them rest," said the warrior, "they will gnaw a hole in it:
324  keep them moving, and no evil will happen." So his subjects, if
     kept continually occupied, the government went on well; but if left
     quiet, seditions would quickly arise. This sultan was always in the
     tented-field: he would say, that he should not return to his palace
     until the tents were rotten. He kept his army incessantly occupied
     in making plantations of olives, or in building: rest and rebellion
     were with him synonymous terms.

     Before the Portuguese transplanted their African colonies to South
     America, they had penetrated far into West Barbary; they frequently
     made incursions into the country from Mazagan to Marocco, and
     eastward of that city. They had a church near Diminet, on the
     declivity of the Atlas, about thirty-five miles east of Marocco,
     which is still existing: it is a kind of sanctuary; the Berebbers
     say it is haunted; they will not approach it. There is said to be
     an inscription on the building in Roman characters, over the
     entrance; but I never could ascertain what it is.

     _Library at Fas_.

     When the present Emperor came to the throne there was a very
     extensive and valuable library of Arabic manuscripts at Fas,
     consisting of many thousand volumes. Some of the more intelligent
     literary Moors are acquainted with events that happened formerly,
325  during the time of the Roman power, which Europeans do not possess.
     Abdrahaman ben Nassar, bashaw of Abda, was perfectly acquainted
     with Livy and Tacitus, and had read those works from the library at
     Fas. It is more than probable that the works of these authors, as
     well as those of many other Romans and Greeks, are to be found
     translated into the Arabic language, in the hands of private
     individuals in West and in South Barbary. This library was
     dispersed at the accession of Muley Soliman, and books commenting
     on the Koran only were retained; the rest were burned or dispersed
     among the natives.

     _Deism_.

     Deism was very prevalent throughout the empire. When the present
     Emperor Soliman came to the throne, the deists went about in large
     numbers, exclaiming, _La Allah ila Allah_, "There is no God but
     God." The Emperor soon silenced these people, by proclaiming that
     if any should be found uttering this truth, without adding,
     "Muhamed is his prophet," should ([199]_ekul lassah_) be beat. The
     sect soon disappeared.

         [Footnote 199: This punishment is inflicted by two men, one on
         each side; the culprit is stretched naked on the ground, and
         beat on the back unmercifully, with sticks two yards long, and
         as thick as a finger.]
326
     _Muhamedan Loyalty_.

     An alkaid of a district in the province of Abda, when that province
     submitted to the Emperor, went to His Majesty, taking with him the
     fruit of his government, viz. 100,000 dollars. He prostrated
     himself before the Emperor, and announced that he had brought this
     money to the Muselman treasury, being what he had collected since
     the death of the Emperor's father. "I have lived splendidly, and
     have never wanted any thing, or I should have brought Your Majesty
     much more treasure." "You have been," said the Emperor, "a faithful
     servant, and you shall be rewarded." He was promoted to a
     government, and had many opportunities of refunding his loss. A
     large sum was returned to him for his fidelity.

     _Cairo_.

     The city of El Kahira is called by Europeans Cairo. When Kairo was
     founded, in the 359th year of the Hejra, the planet Mars was in
     ascension; and it is Mars who conquers the universe: "therefore,"
     said Moaz, (the son of El Mansor) to _his_ son, "I have given it
     the name of El-Kahira."[200]

         [Footnote 200: El Kahira is the Arabic for the planet Mars, and
         signifies _victorious_.]
327
     _Races of Men constituting the Inhabitants of West and South
     Barbary, and that Part of Bled el Jereed, called Tafilelt and Sejin
     Messa, east of the Atlas, forming the Territories of the present
     Emperor of Marocco_.

     _The Moors_, who inhabit the towns on the coast, and the cities of
     Fas, Mequinas, Marocco, and Terodant; who speak a corrupt Arabic
     language.

     _The Berebbers_, who appear to be the Aborigines, and who retain
     precisely the same character that was anciently given of the
     Mauritanians by Sallust. These people inhabit the mountains of
     Atlas, north of the city of Marocco, and have a language peculiar
     to themselves. They are a hardy race of warriors, as artful as they
     are indefatigable in war; when attacked by the imperial troops,
     they defend themselves valiantly; and, by stratagem and device,
     often surprise and defeat the Emperor's best troops, the _abeed
     Seedy Bukaree_. They call the Negro and Arab troops of the Emperor,
     (_mâden el grudder_), a mine of deceit, and never trust to their
     vows and promises, even if they swear by the Koran. They are a
     restless turbulent race, and have never been conquered. They have
     adopted the Muhamedan doctrines.

     _The Shelluhs_, or inhabitants of the Atlas, who dwell in houses in
     the mountains south of Marocco, in the province of Haha, and in
328  part of Suse. These are a weaker race, not so athletic and robust
     as the Berebbers. Their language has been represented to be similar
     to that of the Berebbers, but that is evidently a mistake; I have
     travelled through their country, and through the country of the
     Berebbers, and have conversed with hundreds, nay, I may say, with
     thousands of them: I have no hesitation in declaring them to be a
     different race. Their language, costume, and habits differ; the
     Shelluhs, however, possess the same art and duplicity with the
     Berebbers.

     _The Arabs_, who live in _douars_ of tents, and inhabit the immense
     plains west of the Atlas, are the agriculturists of the country.
     They form the principal population of this terrestrial paradise;
     they are for the most part emigrations from the Sahara, several
     centuries ago, and speak the true Arabic language. These are a fine
     race of men, possessing, in a superlative degree, some of the
     noblest qualities of the human race. To these may be added

     _The Jews_, who wear a distinguishing costume, and a black cap;
     they are all engaged in trade, and form one-seventh of the
     population of the walled habitations. They are held in great
     contempt, and are treated very rudely by the Arabs, and therefore
     are seldom met with among the encampments of that people.

     A _douar_ is a village of tents; these tents are made of goats' and
     camels' hair; they are made by the females, are of a close texture,
329  extremely warm, and impervious to the rain: thus they are cool in
     the summer, and warm in the rainy season. In countries exposed to
     the attacks of neighbouring kabyles, they are arranged in a
     circular form, covering sometimes several acres of ground, having a
     large keyma or Arab tent in the centre of the circle, which serves
     for a _jamma_, or meeting for morning and evening prayers, and at
     other times for an _emdursa_, or seminary, where the Muhamedan
     youth are taught to read the Koran, and to write, as they call it,
     (_Sultan men Elsen_) the sultan of languages, or language of
     languages. The tent-pegs of the respective tents are indented
     within each other, so that the cattle cannot go out or in;
     moreover, a hedge of thorny bushes encircles the whole, secured by
     staves drove into the ground. The camels, horses, mules, horned
     cattle, sheep, and goats, are all inclosed in a division of the
     circular area during the night, and a fire is kept all night, to
     keep off the lions and wild beasts. The incessant barking of dogs,
     which are very numerous among the Arabs, prevent the travellers
     unaccustomed to these habitations from sleeping.

     _Various Modes of Intoxication_.

     All nations have some method of getting rid of reason, for the
     purpose of indulging in the vacuum and temporary independence
     produced by intoxication. We, of Europe, have recourse to wine to
     effect this purpose: the opulent indulge in the libations of
330  claret, burgundy, and champagne; the middling classes have recourse
     to brandy, rum, and gin; but the African effects this purpose at
     far less expense. A muselman procures ample temporary relief from
     worldly care for a mere trifle: he buys at the (_attara_), drug
     shop, for a penny, a small pipe of _el keef or hashisha_; this
     completely effects his purpose. The leaves of this drug, which is a
     kind of hemp, are called _el hashisha_; the flower of the plant is
     called _el keef_, and is much more powerful in its inebriating
     quality than the _hashisha_, but a pipe of the latter will have as
     powerful an effect as two or three bottles of wine. It is said,
     that when the patient is under the influence of pleasant
     imaginations, the fume of this drug increases the sensation into
     the most pleasing delirium, engendering the most luxuriant images,
     and promoting a voluptuous vacuum. But when the person's ill fate
     tempts him to taste it in a melancholy mood, it protracts the
     gloomy moments, and gives the woes of life a longer duration: he
     utters sighs and lamentations, he apprehends nothing but misery and
     misfortune, till the effect of the drug is exhausted, and he awakes
     from his dream of woe.

     _Division of Agricultural Property_.

     Agricultural property is ascertained by a large stone laid at each
     corner of a plantation of corn, a direct line is drawn from stone
321  to stone at the season of reaping; it has, perhaps, never been
     known, that these partitions have been removed for the purpose of
     encroachment; a mutual confidence, and a point of honour renders
     this mode of discriminating the respective property of individuals
     adequate to every purpose of hedge or ditch.

     _Mines_.

     The mountains that separate the province of Suse from that of
     Draha, abound in iron, copper, and lead. Ketiwa, a district on the
     declivity of Atlas, east of Terodant, contains also mines of lead
     and brimstone; and saltpetre also, of a superior quality, abounds
     in the neighbourhood of Terodant. In the same mountains, about
     fifty or sixty miles south-west of Terodant, there are mines of
     iron of a very malleable quality, equal to that of Biscay in Spain,
     from which the people of Tagrasert manufacture gun-barrels, equal
     to those made in Europe. At Elala in Suse, in the same ridge of
     mountains, are several rich mines of copper, some of which are
     impregnated with gold: they have also a rich silver mine, the metal
     of which latter is cast in round lumps, weighing two or three
     ounces each piece. I have bought of this silver at Santa Cruz, and
     have paid Spanish dollars for it, weight for weight; it is very
     pure. Mines of antimony and lead ore are also found in Suse,
332  impregnated with gold, some specimens of which I sent to England to
     be analyzed; but being informed that it yielded gold sufficient
     only to pay the expenses of purifying, I gave no farther attention
     to it, although I have had reason to think, since then, that an
     importation of the ore would amply pay the importer.

     _Nyctalopia, Hemeralopia, or Night-blindness, called by the Arabs
     Butelleese; and its Remedy_.

     During my residence at Santa Cruz, I had a cousin with me who was
     afflicted with this disorder. When the sun sat his blindness came
     on, and continued till the rising sun. This youth was so afflicted,
     during a month, with this disorder, that he could scarcely see his
     way with a candle in his hand, so that it was quite painful to see
     him groping about. An Arab of the Woled Abbusebah Kabyl, who retain
     much of the science and art of their ancestors, and whose
     prosperity I had promoted at Santa Cruz, by facilitating his
     commercial adventures, communicated to me a simple remedy for this
     disorder; I put no faith in it, for it was so simple that I was
     disposed to think it an illusion. He called on me, however,
     repeatedly, and finding I had not applied it, he brought it one
     morning himself, and urged me to try it, I did so; and that same
     evening the eyes of the youth were almost well, and his sight was
333  completely restored the following night. This ophthalmic affection,
     in an Arabic translation of Hippocrates, is called _Butelleese;_
     another translation of ancient date calls it _Shebkeret:_ the name,
     however, by which it is known at the present day in Africa, is
     _Butelleese:_ the Latins called it _Lusciosus_, which word denotes
     precisely the disease, viz. one who sees imperfectly in the morning
     and evening twilight, but whose vision is clear at broad day-light.
     _Lusciosus ad lucernam non videt. Vesperi non videre quos lusciosos
     appellant_. Plaut. Mil. Gl. ii. 3.

     This ophthalmia has been by some denominated _hen-blindness_, from
     the circumstance of hens' eyes being thus affected, when they are
     unable to see to pick up small grains in the dusk of the evening. I
     have frequently seen fowls thus affected soon after going to sea,
     from the coast of Africa, after which they decline and grow sick. A
     quantity of small gravel should be spread in their coops at sea,
     which prevents this disorder, and will sometimes cure it. At the
     commencement of this complaint, the circumstance that first engages
     the patient's attention is the dimness of his eye-sight at
     twilight: the nocturnal dimness of vision was such, in the instance
     before-mentioned, that the youth could scarcely see, even with a
     candle in his hand, which he described, as seen by him, as if it
     were misty, or as glimmering in a thick fog. There was no external
     disfiguration visible in the eyes, but they appeared as usual.
334
     What the cause of this disorder was I am unable to say; but I have
     often suspected that it was contracted from the shining of the sun
     on the white terras of the house where my cousin used to go of a
     morning to shoot _tibeebs_, a bird somewhat resembling the European
     sparrow. This youth was rather of a weak or delicate constitution.
     I did not repeat the above remedy, as the boy's eyes continued
     well, without any defect in the vision at any time of the day or
     night, till seven-and-twenty days had elapsed, when the disorder
     returned. I procured the remedy again, and he took it; it had the
     same effect as before; he took it again, and then continued well
     for a month. It again returned a third time, and was cured by one
     single administration, after which it entirely disappeared, and
     never returned. Some time after this, I was informed that the
     British fleet in the Mediterranean was affected with this disorder;
     that one-tenth, or more, of the crews of our ships had laboured
     under it; and, on my return to England, I was urged to represent to
     His Majesty's ministers, that I had an infallible remedy for the
     disorder. I was referred to Doctor Harness, of the Transport Board.
     I waited on the Doctor, and afterwards corresponded with him. He
     appeared very desirous of knowing the remedy; but he was not at
     liberty to grant me any remuneration for it. I, however, offered to
     discover it, on being reimbursed the sum which the remedy cost me,
335  on experimental proof being produced of its infallibility; which
     proposition was rejected by the Transport Board in August, 1812,
     who informed me at the same time, that the Lords Commissioners of
     the Admiralty did not judge proper to grant the sum required by me
     for the discovery of the remedy for Nyctalopia, which, I should
     add, was between 500_l_. and 600_l_. The remedy, therefore, remains
     a secret to this day.

     A celebrated electrician and galvanist having conversed with me
     lately respecting this remedy for Nyctalopia, suggested to me the
     probability, that the same remedy might be effectual also in _gutta
     serena_, as both those disorders are known to proceed from a defect
     in the optic nerve. This opinion he corroborated, by quoting, in
     confirmation of it, the opinion of a well-known author. The
     electrician perceiving my incredulity, or more properly, my
     ignorance of the wonderful connection that exists between the
     intestines and the head, was prompted, as I verily believe, by a
     philanthropic disposition; and actually proved to me,
     experimentally, the influence which the eyes have on the
     intestines, and _vice versa_. A patient with a _gutta serena_, who
     had been, as he informed me, twelve months under the hands of a
     celebrated oculist, was recommended by the latter, as a last
     resource, to try galvanism. He had received no benefit whatever
     whilst under the direction of the oculist above alluded to, but his
     intestines were intolerably deranged by the effects of the mercury
336  which he had taken. This gentleman galvanised his eyes, and the
     man, who is a gunsmith, told me, that when he first went to have
     the operation performed, he could not see the red border round the
     hearth-rug in the front parlour, but when he returned into that
     room, after having been galvanised, he assured me he saw it
     plainly. He moreover declared that his bowels had been, and then
     were, in a very deranged state, from the effects of the mercury
     which he had taken, but that he felt incredible relief after having
     been galvanised, and that, two or three days afterwards, they were
     quite restored to health and strength. Being thus satisfied with
     the influence that so wonderfully exists between the intestines and
     the eyes, I am now making arrangements with the same gentleman, to
     administer the remedy for the benefit, _as we hope_, of patients
     afflicted with _gutta serena_. But I now declare to the public a
     third time, that the remedy is simple, safe, and effectual, and
     that I am ready and desirous of administering it to any one who may
     choose to apply for it, who is afflicted with the disorder, with my
     positive assurances, that it will effect a cure in eight-and-forty
     hours at the utmost, but probably in twenty-four.

     _Vaccination._

     Intelligence received from West Barbary was instrumental in
337  promoting the adoption of vaccination. In the latter years of the
     last century, the small-pox pervaded West and South Barbary. Mr.
     Matra, the British consul-general to the Empire of Marocco, wrote
     to me at that period officially, to procure him every information
     possible, and to inform him if I could discover if cattle in this
     country were subject to the small-pox. I made every inquiry without
     delay, and I reported to His Excellency, (who was ambassador as
     well as consul), that I had ascertained that the horses, mules,
     asses, and oxen were subject in this country to the small-pox, of
     which there could be no doubt, as the name given to the disorder in
     the beasts of the field, was the same as that which designated the
     small-pox in the human species, viz. JEDRIE. In consequence of this
     information, confirmed afterwards by other enquiries, His
     Excellency wrote to England on the subject, and, I believe, sent
     some vaccine pus home; soon after which Dr. Jenner began his
     experiments on vaccine inoculation, which have since been adopted
     throughout Europe, and in great part of Asia and America. Although
     I was thus instrumental in the propagation of vaccine inoculation,
     yet I never asked for or received any remuneration; but I feel a
     satisfaction in having been thus instrumental of good to mankind,
     in this new and eligible system of inoculation, by means of which
     human life has been preserved; for, according to Sir Gilbert
338  Blane's late statement, 23,134 lives have been saved during the
     last 15 years by vaccination.

     _Game_.

     All kinds of game are plentiful in South and in West Barbary; viz.
     _el gror_, a bird somewhat similar to the English partridge, but
     unknown in Europe. I shot some of these birds for Doctor Brussonet,
     the naturalist, who was intendant of the national garden of botany
     at Montpelier, which that gentleman prepared in the oven, and sent
     to the National Institute at Paris. He informed me this bird was a
     non-descript. Hares, antelopes, woodcocks, snipes, plovers,
     bustards. There is an abundance of partridges, red ducks as large
     as geese, ducks, wigeon, and teal; curlews, in immense quantities,
     are found in the flat parts of the country on the coast; immense
     quantities of doves, wild pigeons, wood-pigeons, and large
     sand-larks. Every person is at liberty to shoot; but the princes
     and the great, consider field-sports beneath their dignity, except
     hawking, and hunting the wild boar, the lion, and the tiger. The
     Muhamedans do not prefer game to other food. When they have shot a
     bird, they immediately cut its throat, that the blood may flow
     freely; otherwise it is not lawful to eat it. Game is never seen in
     the public markets. When they shoot for Europeans, they dispense
     with the ceremony of cutting the throat of the game. They reproach
     the Christians for eating such food, which they call (_m'jeefa_)
     "strangled."
339
     _Agriculture.--Mitferes._

     The agriculturists, in all the Arab provinces throughout this
     empire, have subterraneous caverns or apartments, generally in the
     form of a cone, for the preservation of their corn during a
     scarcity or famine. During my residence in this country, I have
     investigated the method, and have learned the art of constructing
     these depositories of grain. They season them before the corn is
     deposited. They should not be constructed in a clay soil. In these
     _mitferes_, throughout the Arab provinces of Duquella, Temsena,
     Shawiya, &c. they preserve the corn sound during thirty years. I
     have been present at the opening of them after the corn had been
     deposited twenty-one years. It was perfectly sound. When these
     depositories are opened, each family takes a portion of the grain,
     so as to distribute the whole immediately; otherwise, in a few
     months, if not consumed, it acquires a peculiar bad flavour, which
     is called the _mitfere_ _twang_. To prevent this, an Arab, on
     opening one of these depositaries, lends corn to all his
     neighbours, and in his turn he receives it back again, when they
     respectively open theirs. It is unnecessary to expatiate on the
     expediency of constructing _mitferes_ in a country oftentimes
     visited by locusts, the plague, drought, or inundation. There would
     be a manifest policy in establishing similar granaries in our
340  colony in South Africa, where I understand they are visited by
     locusts, and where the soil is similar to that of West and South
     Barbary. All the valuable gums that Barbary now supplies Europe
     with, and also many articles of commerce not yet known at the Cape,
     might be procured from Barbary, and if transplanted to that colony,
     would undoubtedly thrive, from the similarity of climate and soil.

     _Laws of Hospitality_.

     The territory of the Emperor of Marocco, west of the mountains of
     Atlas, and from the shores of the Mediterranean to the confines of
     the Shelluh province of Haha, is one continual corn-field,
     inhabited by Arabs living in douars or encampments: much of the
     ground, however, lies fallow. These encampments are fixed generally
     at a considerable distance from the track of travellers, so that a
     person unacquainted with this circumstance, would be disposed to
     imagine the country thinly inhabited. The tents in safe countries,
     where there is no fear of wild beasts, are pitched in a straight
     line; but where lions or other ferocious animals are found, the
     tents are disposed in a circular form; and thorny bushes are placed
     round the douar, to prevent the visits of these unwelcome guests.
     The Arabs are the agriculturists of the country, and are for the
     most part emigrations from the original stock in Sahara. These
     people have preserved from time immemorial the practice of open and
341  unrestrained hospitality. Their prophet confirmed these
     propensities; and hospitality has been ever since, the predominant
     virtue of the Arab. Accordingly, Muhamedans are entitled, through
     their various journeys, to be entertained three days wherever they
     sojourn. A traveller, therefore, when he chooses to rest from the
     fatigue of his journey, goes to one of these douars and exclaims
     (_Deef Allah_) "the guests of God." The sheik then comes forth from
     his tent to receive him or them: (_Kheyma Deâf_) the travellers' or
     guests' tent is appropriated to the stranger; food is brought to
     him, agreeably to his rank in life, but always simple, good, and
     wholesome. Here he may remain, if he chooses, for three days,
     without being considered an intruder, and free of all expense
     whatsoever. If he wishes to exceed the three days allowed by the
     Muhamedan law, he must prove his poverty; which being done, he may
     be entertained for a further period of time: but this latter is
     quite optional; no man is compelled to entertain and provide food
     for strangers and travellers, without remuneration, above three
     days.

     This hospitality extends not generally to all mankind, but to
     Muhamedans only. A Christian or a Jew would be expected to pay a
     trifle for his entertainment; although, in travelling through the
     province of Suse, the Arabs have absolutely refused to take any
     remuneration from me; but, that is not generally the case, nor
342  ought such conduct to be expected: in the instances
     before-mentioned, these people considered themselves so much
     benefited by the opening of the port of Santa Cruz, that they
     thought they could not do enough for me. I was, therefore, every
     where received in that province with the most cordial marks of
     disinterested hospitality.

     The laws of hospitality are sacred and inviolable. This I will
     elucidate, by relating a circumstance that happened while I was at
     Marocco. The Emperor was dissatisfied with the conduct of four
     sheiks of Suse: they had not discharged the duties of their public
     vocation, but had abused their office; the Emperor had issued
     orders to arrest them, but by some means they got intelligence of
     the orders; they therefore immediately ordered their horses, and
     decamped in the evening from Marocco: they knew they should not be
     safe any where from the Emperor's grasp, but under the protection
     of the Khalif Muhamed ben Delemy, whom, however, they had in some
     manner injured; nevertheless, knowing the noble character of the
     man, they were resolved to try their fate; accordingly, they made
     haste to reach the gates of his castle in Shtuka, before the
     Emperor might discover their departure. They arrived, and
     exclaiming _Deef Allah_, they were admitted. Delemy told them, that
     although they had not behaved friendly to him, he would protect
     them. His gates, he said, were always open to the children of
343  adversity, and they might depend on his protection. The Emperor
     soon discovered, by diligent enquiry, what route they had taken,
     and His Imperial Majesty urged Delemy to deliver them up; but the
     latter expostulated, and observing that he should not deserve the
     name of an Arabian sheik, if he degraded himself by giving up those
     who had claimed his protection, in his own country: and he actually
     granted them protection several months; till, at length, finding
     they could not escape the hand of power, by any plan but that of
     going into the Sahara, Delemy agreed to see them safe out of the
     Emperor's dominions, and accompanied them to Akka, and beyond that
     place, till they reached the Sahara, where, being perfectly safe,
     he took his leave of them, and they exchanged _Salems_.

     _Punishment for Murder._

     If a man commits murder, the friends of the murdered claim redress
     of the alkaid, if in a town,--of the bashaw of the province, if in
     the country. If the murderer is discovered, he is taken into
     custody, to suffer death, unless the relations of the murdered man
     choose to compromise with the relations of the murderer: in which
     case, a sum of money is paid to the former, and the matter is thus
     settled.

     _Insolvency Laws._

     An insolvent cannot be detained in prison after his insolvency is
     ascertained. He gives up his property to his creditors; but if he
344  should afterwards become a man of substance, his creditors can
     claim the amount of their debts, deducting what they have already
     received.

     _Dances_.

     The dances of the Arabs are peculiar to themselves. The youths
     dance without females, and the females without youths. On all
     marriages and rejoicings, music and dancing continue till the dawn
     of day. Among the encampments of Arabs, in the summer season, the
     whole country, at night, is in a blaze of light. The kettle-drum,
     the triangle, the shepherd's pipe, and the _erbeb_ an instrument
     resembling the fiddle, with two strings, form the band of music.

     The youths form a double row of six or eight in each, and carry
     themselves erect, with their arms hanging down close to their side;
     moving obliquely to the right, then to the left, without taking
     their feet from the ground, but moving their heels, then their toes
     on the ground, advancing or gliding slowly along; keeping exact
     time with the music: they then vault in the air, perform somersets
     and various feats of agility. They sing also with great taste and
     judgment, and some of them have excellent voices, being selected
     for the purpose of affording entertainment to the spectators. The
     ladies dance also in a similar manner, but without the vaulting and
     somersets. They have a very elegant shawl-dance, which some of them
     dance with great taste, and with much graceful movement.
345
     _Circumcision._

     The circumcision of male children is the general practice of
     Islaemism; it is also used among some of the[201] _Khaffers_ or
     _Cafers_ of North, Central, and South Africa. Circumcision is not a
     practice ascribed to a principle of cleanliness, or any other
     cause, but ancient usage. The period of performing this operation
     among the Arabs is at the age of eight years.

         [Footnote 201: _Khaffer_ (singular number) is an Arabic term,
         applied to all who are not Muhamedans; all Pagans, Jews, and
         Christians, are called _Khaffer_, _K'fer_ (plural) _Kaffir
         billa_, an atheist: hence Caffraria, the name of the country
         near the Cape of Good Hope.]

     _Invoice from Timbuctoo to Santa Cruz._

     Transport of ([202]_Alk Sudan_) gum of Sudan, bought at Timbuctoo,
     on account of Messrs. James Jackson and Co. by their agent, L'Hage
     Muhamed O----n, and dispatched to Akka by the spring (_akkaba_)
     accumulated caravan, in February, 1794.

     M. Doll

     200 camel loads of gum-sudan, each
     weighing 250 lb. net, bought at
     Timbuctoo, at four Mexico dollars
     per load,                                         800
346
     _Charges._--Cow-skins to pack it in, sticks
     to stow it on the camels, &c.                      25

     200 camels hired to Akka, at 18 Mexico
     dollars each,                                    3600

     Stata, _i.e._ convoy through the Sahara,
     from Timbuctoo to Arawan, at 20
     cents per camel,                                   40

     Do. from Arawan to East Tagrassa, at
     20 cents per camel,                                40

     Do. from East Tagrassa to Akka, at
     40 cents per camel,                                40

     20 per cent., or one-fifth, on the first
     cost, to be allowed to the purchaser
     on safe arrival at Akka,                          160
                                                      ----
                                                      4705

         [Footnote 202: This gum is the produce of an enormous tree of
         Sudan, which flourishes near Timbuctoo, Housa, Wangara, and
         Bernoh (or Bernou) it is transported by the caravans to
         Alexandria in Egypt, to Tripoli, Tunis, and Algiers. From the
         African ports in the Mediterranean it is shipped to Smyrna and
         Constantinople, and from thence to England, under the
         denomination of Turkey gum; some goes to Mogodor and Tetuan,
         and thence to London.]

347
     The adventure is subject to this charge, provided it arrive safe at
     Akka, not otherwise, as also to encourage the agent at Timbuctoo,
     to exert himself in procuring trusty guides and competent statas,
     which he would not do, without having a certain interest in the
     safe delivery.

     _N.B._ No stata is necessary from Akka to Santa Cruz, but the hire
     is 3 dollars per camel.

     _Translation of a Letter from Timbuctoo, which accompanied the
     foregoing Consignment._

     Praise be to God alone; for there is nothing durable but the
     kingdom of heaven.

     To the Christian merchant, Jackson, at Agadeer. Peace be to those
     who follow the right way.

     This being premised, know that I have sent you by this akkabah, two
     hundred camel load of gum-sudan, agreeable to the account herewith
     transmitted. The stata will be paid by my friend, L'Hage Aly, sheik
     of Akka, whom I request you will reimburse according to the account
     which I have sent to you by him; and if he goes to Agadeer, be
     kind, friendly, and hospitable to him on my account, for he stands
     high in my esteem; and peace be with you.

     Written at Timbuctoo, 10th of the month Muharram, year of the Hejra
     1208, (corresponding with 15th Feb. A.C. 1794). By your friend,

     L'HAGE MUHAMED O----N.
     God be merciful to him.


     _Invoice from Timbuctoo to Fas_.

     Transport of gold, gum, and cottons, from Timbuctoo to Fas,
     consigned to L'Hage Seyd and L'Hage Abdrahaman Elfellely, Timbuctoo
     merchants at Fas, by (_akkaba el Kheriffy_) the autumnal caravan.
     Dispatched 29th Duelhaja el Hurem, year 1204, corresponding with
     10th October, A.C. 1790.

     500 skins (_Tibber Wangâree_) gold dust of Wangara, each skin
     containing 4 ounces, bought on their account, in barter for 800
     Flemish plattilias.

     100 (_Sibikat deheb Wangaree_). Wangara gold in bars, weighing 20
     ounces each, bought in exchange for 400 pieces (_Shkalat_) Irish
     cloth, averaging 44 cubits each piece (7 cubits are equal to 4
     English yards).
348
     10 bed-covers, 9 cubits long, 4 wide, chequered pattern, blue and
     white cotton, with scarlet silk between the chequers, manufactured
     at Timbuctoo, bought in barter for 100 lb. sugar, 30 loaves.

     50 camel-load gum-sudan, weighing net 120 quintals.

     _Charges_.--Hire of 50 camels to Akka, at 18 dollars each.

     Stata to ditto, 1 dollar per load, to be paid by Sheik Aly ben
     A----r.

     _Copy of the Letter accompanying the foregoing Remittance._

     Praise be to God alone; for there is neither beginning nor
     strength, without God, the eternal God.

     To my friends, L'Hage Zeyd and L'Hage Abdrahaman Elfellely. Peace
     be with ye, and the mercy of the High God; and after that, know,
     that I have sent to our agents at Akka, by the autumnal caravan, 50
     camel loads of gum-sudan, being 100 skins; in each skin of gum I
     have packed 5 skins of gold dust, and 1 bar of gold. L'Hage Tahar
     ben Jelule will deliver to our agent at Akka, for you, 10 very
     handsome cotton covers for beds, of Sudan manufacture. May all this
     arrive safe, with the blessing of God. I will inform you by the
     spring caravan what merchandize to send here next autumn. I refer
     you to a long letter, which I have sent to you by L'Hage Tahar.
     Peace be with you, and the blessing of God be upon you.
349
     Written at Timbuctoo, the 29th Duelhaja El Huram, year 1204.

     L'HAGE HAMED ELWANGARIE.
     [203]God protect him.

         [Footnote 203: The Muhamedans, in signing their name, always
         invoke the protection, mercy, or providence of God upon
         themselves.]

     _Food of the Desert._

     The people, whose interest induces them to cross the desert, (for
     there are no travellers from curiosity in this country,) obviate
     the objection to salt provisions, which increases the propensity to
     drink water, by taking with them melted butter, called _smin_; this
     is prepared without salt. They also cut beef into long pieces,
     about six inches long, and one inch square, without fat; these are
     called _el kuddeed_, which are hung on a line, exposed to the air
     till dry; they then cut them into pieces, two inches long; these
     are put into (_buckul_) an earthen pot; they then pour the _smin_
     into the _buckul_ till it is covered. This meat and butter, besides
     being palatable, is comprised in a small compass, and feeds many.
     When this butter has been thus prepared and kept twelve or fifteen
     years, it is called _budrâ_, and is supposed to contain penetrating
     active medicinal qualities. I have seen some thirty years old.

     _Antithesis, a favourite Figure with the Arabs._

     Mahmoud, sultan of Ghezna in the beginning of the eleventh century,
350  though the son of a slave, was very powerful. He sent to the khalif
     Alkader, requesting a title suited to his exalted dignity. The
     latter hesitated; but fearing the power of the sultan, sent him at
     the expiration of a year the ambiguous title, _Uly_, i.e. a prince,
     a friend, a slave. Mahmoud penetrated the khalif's meaning, and
     sent him immediately 100,000 pieces of gold, with a wish to know
     whether a letter had not been omitted. Alkader received the
     treasure, and took the hint, instantly dispatching letters patent
     in full form, creating him _Uäly_ which signifies, without
     equivocation, a sovereign independent prince.

     _Arabian Modes of Writing_.

     The Arabs have various modes of writing, the principal of which is
     that used by the Koreish, the most learned of all the Western
     tribes, and is denominated the _Niskhi_, or upright character: if
     this is understood, the others may be easily comprehended. This is
     the character in which the Koran was originally written. In the
     seventh century, the Arabs adopted the invention of Moramer ben
     Morra, a native of Babylonian Irak, which was afterwards improved
     by the Kufik. The Kufik and the Niskhi are synonymous. Richardson,
     in his Arabic Grammar, p. 4. say, "The Mauritannick character,
     which is used by the Moors of Marocco and Barbary, descendants of
351  the Arabians, differs in many respects _considerably_ from the
     other modes of writing." But this is incorrect; for the
     Mauritannick alphabet, excepting in the order of the letters, is
     precisely the same with the Oriental, as now written and spoken,
     with the exception only of the letters _Fa_ and _Kaf_, and the
     formation even of these characters are alike. The punctuation only,
     differs in the West, that is, west of the Egyptian Nile. The
     Western punctuation of _Fa_, is one point below the letter, and the
     punctuation of the letter _Kaf_ is one point above. In the East,
     the former letter has one point above, the latter has two. This is
     the only difference between the Eastern and the Western alphabets.
     Richardson, (see his Grammar, page 5,) also says, that "the purest
     Arabic is spoken at Grand Cairo," but this is not correct: the
     language of Grand Cairo and of Tunis, Tripoli, Algiers, and Marocco
     are much alike, but none of them are the pure Koraisch or Korannick
     Arabic, which is only spoken at Mekka, and among some of the tribes
     of Bedouins in the West. The language of the Woled Abbusebah, of
     the Howara, and of the Mograffra is the pure Arabic. Finally, in a
     note in Richardson's Grammar, page 18, it is said, "Some of our
     European writers, and amongst others Voltaire, substitute _Koran_
     for _Alcoran_, but perhaps improperly, as D'Herbelot and other
     learned Orientalists, write uniformly _l'Alcoran, il Alcorano_, the
     Alcoran." We have been too apt to copy the orthography of Oriental
     names from the French, whose pronunciation of the Roman or European
352  characters differs from ours. There cannot be a doubt that
     D'Herbelot is incorrect. The word _Koran_ (for there is no _c_ in
     the Arabic language) is derived from the verb _Kora_, to read;
     _koran_, reading: _Al_ is the article; but, in this instance,
     D'Herbelot uses this article twice, which is certainly erroneous,
     for _l'_ is the French article in the word in question, and _al_ is
     the Arabic article; whereas _one_ article only should precede a
     noun. _L'Alcoran_ and the _Alcoran_ are therefore equally
     incorrect; for the word in French should be _Le Coran_; in English,
     _the Koran_; therefore Voltaire was correct. I have thought it
     expedient to make these observations, because standing in
     Richardson's Grammar on the authority of _learned orientalists_,
     they are calculated to mislead the Arabic student.

     _Decay of Science and the Arts among the Arabs_.

     The literary fire of the Arabs and Persians has been extinguished
     upwards of 300 years; but before that period, the encouragement to
     learning in the East was unprecedented, and has never been equalled
     by any European nation either before or since that period. Kadder
     Khan, king of Turquestan, was the greatest support to science. When
     he appeared abroad, he was preceded by 700 horsemen, with silver
     battle-axes, and was followed by an equal number bearing maces of
     gold. He supported with magnificent appointment a literary academy
353  in his palace, consisting of 100 men of the highest reputation.
     Amak, called Abu Näib El Bokari, who was the chief poet, exclusive
     of a great pension and a vast number of slaves, had, in attendance
     wherever he went, thirty horses of state richly caparisoned, and a
     retinue in proportion. The king before-mentioned used to preside at
     their exercises of genius, on which occasions, by the side of his
     throne were always placed four large basons filled with gold and
     silver, which he distributed liberally to those who excelled.

     Lebid suspended over the gate at Mecca a sublime poem; Muhamed
     placed near it the opening of the second chapter of the Koran,
     which was conceived to be something divine, and it gained the prize
     of the _Ocadh_ assembly.

     The remains of this custom of suspending over gates Arabic poems,
     is perceived at this day among the western Moors. The gates or
     entrances to Mogodor, Fas, Mequinas, Marocco, &c. have writing over
     them, which is a kind of Arabic short-hand, that none but the
     learned understand; these writings, however, are not moveable,
     being engraven on a square table on the stone itself.

     _Extraordinary Abstinence experienced in the Sahara_.

     The Arabs or inhabitants of the Sahara, can support the most
     extraordinary abstinence. Occasions occur, wherein they will travel
354  several days without food. After suffering a privation of a day or
     two, they tie their (_hazam_) belt round their loins, every morning
     tighter than the preceding day, thereby preventing, in some
     measure, that action of the bowels which promotes appetite. A
     Saharawan will thus go five or six days without food of any kind,
     in which case, when he reaches a habitation, or a (_wah_)
     cultivated spot in the Desert, he will drink about half-a-pint of
     camel's milk; this remains on the stomach but a short time: he then
     takes another draught, which, with some, remains and gives
     nourishment, but with others _it_ is also rejected by the stomach;
     _a third draught is then taken, which restores the exhausted
     traveller!_ I have been assured, that instances have been known in
     Sahara, wherein a man has been without food of any kind for seven
     days, and has afterwards been restored by the foregoing regimen!

355

                          LANGUAGES OF AFRICA.

     _Various Dialects of the Arabic Language.--Difference between the
     Berebber and Shelluh Languages.--Specimen of the
     Mandinga.--Comparison of the Shelluh Language with that of the
     Canary Islands, and Similitude of Customs_.



     Yareb, the son of Kohtan[204], is said to have been the first who
     spoke Arabic, and the Muhamedans contend that it is the most
     eloquent language spoken in any part of the globe, and that it is
     the one which will be used at the day of judgment. To write a long
     dissertation on this copious and energetic language, would be only
     to repeat what many learned men have said before; a few
     observations, however, may not be superfluous to the generality of
     readers. The Arabic language is spoken by a greater proportion of
     the inhabitants of the known world than any other: a person having
     a practical knowledge of it, may travel from the shores of the
     Mediterranean Sea to the Cape of Good Hope, and notwithstanding
     that in such a journey he must pass through many kingdoms and
     empires of blacks, speaking distinct languages, yet he would find
356  men in all those countries versed in Muhamedan learning, and
     therefore acquainted with the Arabic; again, he might cross the
     widest part of the African continent from west to east, and would
     every where meet with persons acquainted with it, more particularly
     if he should follow the course of the great river called the Neel
     El Abeed, on the banks of which, from Jinnie and Timbuctoo, to the
     confines of lower Egypt, are innumerable cities and towns of Arabs
     and Moors, all speaking the Arabic. Again, were a traveller to
     proceed from Marocco to the farthest shore of Asia, opposite the
     islands of Japan, he would find the Arabic generally spoken or
     understood wherever he came. In Turkey, in Syria, in Arabia, in
     Persia, and in India, it is understood by all men of education; and
     any one possessing a knowledge of the Korannick Arabic, might, in a
     very short time, make himself master of all its various dialects.

         [Footnote 204: This Kohtan is the Joktan, son of Eber, brother
         to Phaleg, mentioned in Genesis. Chapter x, verse 25.]

     The letters of this language[205] are formed in four distinct ways,
     according to their situation at the beginning, middle, or end of
     words, as well as when standing alone; the greatest difficulty,
     however, to be overcome, is the acquiring a just pronunciation,
     (without which no living language can be essentially useful;) and
     to attain which, the learner should be able to express the
     difference of power and sound between what may be denominated the
357  synonymous letters, such as ط and ث with ت and ع with ا and ص with
     س and ض and ظ with د and ة with ح and ق with ى and خ and غ with ر.

         [Footnote 205: The Oriental punctuation is here adopted.]

     Besides these, there are other letters, whose power is extremely
     difficult to be acquired by an European, because no language in
     Europe possesses sounds similar to the Arabic letters خ غ ع, nor
     has any language, except, perhaps, the English, a letter with the
     power of the Arabian ث. Those who travel into Asia or Africa
     scarcely ever become sufficiently masters of the Arabic to speak it
     fluently, which radical defect proceeds altogether from their not
     learning, while studying it, the peculiar distinction of the
     synonymous letters. _No European, perhaps, ever knew more of the
     theory of this language than the late Sir William Jones, but still
     he could not converse with an Arabian;_ a circumstance of which he
     was not conscious until he went to India. This great man, however,
     had he been told that his knowledge of this popular eastern
     language was so far deficient, that he was ignorant of the separate
     powers of its synonymous letters, and consequently inadequate to
     converse intelligibly with a native Arab, he would certainly have
     considered it an aspersion, and have disputed altogether that such
     was the fact. Considering how much we are indebted to the Arabians
358  for the preservation of many of the works of the ancients, which
     would otherwise have never, perhaps, been known to us, it is really
     surprising, that their language should be so little known in
     Europe. It is certainly very difficult and abstruse, (to learners
     particularly,) but this difficulty is rendered insurmountable by
     the European professors knowing it only as a dead language, and
     _teaching it without due attention to the pronunciation of the
     before mentioned synonymous letters, a defect which is not likely
     to be remedied, and which will always subject the speaker to
     incessant errors_.

     To shew the Arabic student the difference between the Oriental and
     Occidental order of the letters of the alphabet, I shall here give
     them opposite each other.

        Oriental.    Occidental

     1 Alif   1 --  ا Alif  ا

     2 ba.    ب  -- 2 ba ب

     3 ta     ت   -- 3 ta. ت

     4 thsa   ث   -- 4 tha ث

     5 jim    ج  -- 5 jim ج

     6 hha ح -- 6 hha ح

     7 kha خ -- 7 kha خ

     8 dal د -- 8 dal د

     9 dsal ذ -- 9 dth'al ذ

     10 ra ر -- 10 ra ر

     11 za ز -- 11 zain ز
359
     12 sin س -- 12 ta ط

     13 shin ش -- 13 da ظ

     14 sad ص -- 14 kef ێ

     15 dad ض -- 15 lam ل

     16 ta ط -- 16 mim م

     17 da ظ -- 17 nune ن

     18 ain ع -- 18 sad ص

     19 gain غ -- 19 dad ض

     20 fa ف -- 20 ain ع

     21 kaf ق -- 21 g'rain غ

     22 kef ك -- 22 fa ڢ

     23 lem ل -- 23 kaf ف

     24 mim م -- 24 sin س

     25 nun ن -- 25 shin ش

     26 waw و -- 26 hha ه

     27 he ه -- 27 wow و

     28 ya ي -- 28 ia ي

     29 lam-alif: ligature lam + alif = لأ لإ لآ‎

     Besides this difference of the arrangement of the two alphabets,
     the Arabic student will observe that there is also a difference in
     the punctuation of two of the letters: thus--

     Oriental. Occidental.

     fa ف         fa ڢ

     kaf ق        kaf ف

360
     Among the Western Arabs, the ancient Arabic figures are used, viz.
     0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9: they often write 100 thus, 1..--200,
     2..

     To explain the force of the synonymous letters on paper would be
     impossible; the reader, however, may form some idea of the
     indispensable necessity of knowing the distinction by the few words
     here selected, which to one unaccustomed to hear the Arabic
     language spoken, would appear similar and undistinguishable.


     ENGLISH.                     ARABIC,                    ARABIC.

                Rendered as near to European pronunciation
                          as the English Alphabet
                                will admit.

     A horse                       Aoud                     [Arabic:]

     Wood                          Awad                     [Arabic:]

     To repeat                     Aoud                     [Arabic:]

     Fish                          Hout                     [Arabic:]

     A gun                         Mokhalla                 [Arabic:]

     A foolish woman               Mokeela                  [Arabic:]

     A frying pan                  Makeela                  [Arabic:]

     A lion                        Seban                    [Arabic:]

     Morning                       Seban                    [Arabic:]

     Seventh                       Seban                    [Arabic:]
361
     Hatred                        Hassed                   [Arabic:]

     Harvest                       Hassed                   [Arabic:]

     Learning                      (Alem, or El Alem)       [Arabic:]

     A flag                        El Alem                  [Arabic:]

     Granulated paste              Kuscasoe                 [Arabic:]

     The dish it is made in        Kuscas                   [Arabic:]

     Heart                         Kul'b                    [Arabic:]

     Dog                           Kil'b                    [Arabic:]

     Mould                         Kal'b                    [Arabic:]

     Captain                       Rice                     [Arabic:]

     Feathers                      Rish                     [Arabic:]

     Mud                           G'ris                    [Arabic:]

     Smell                         Shim                     [Arabic:]

     Poison                        Sim[206]                 [Arabic:]
362
     Absent                        G'raib                   [Arabic:]

     Butter-milk                   Raib                     [Arabic:]

     White                         Bead                     [Arabic:]

     A black                       El Abd                   [Arabic:]

     Eggs                          Baid                     [Arabic:]

     Afar off                      Baid                     [Arabic:]

     A pig                         Helloof                  [Arabic:]

     An oath                       Hellef                   [Arabic:]

     Feed for horses               Alf                      [Arabic:]

     A thousand                    Elf                      [Arabic:]

         [Footnote 206: The African Jews find it very difficult in
         speaking, to distinguish between _shim_ and _sim_, for they
         cannot pronounce the _sh_,  ش  but sound it like _s_
         س ; the very few who have studied the art of reading
         the language, have, however, conquered this difficulty.]

     It is difficult for any one who has not accurately studied the
     Arabic language, to imagine the many errors which an European
     commits in speaking it, when self taught, or when taught in Europe.
     This deficiency originates in the inaccuracy of the application of
     the guttural and synonymous letters.

     The ain ع and the غ grain cannot be
363  accurately pronounced by Europeans, who have not studied the
     language grammatically when young. The aspirated _h_, and the hard
     _s_, in the word for _morning_ (sebah), are so much like their
     synonymes, that few Europeans can discern the difference; the one
     is consequently often mistaken for the other; and I have known a
     beautiful sentence absolutely perverted through an inaccuracy of
     this kind. In the words rendered _Hatred_ and _Harvest_, the two
     synonymes of س and ص or _s_ hard and _s_
     soft, are indiscriminately used by Europeans in their Arabic
     _conversations_, a circumstance sufficient to do away the force and
     meaning of many a sentence.

     The poetry as well as prose of the Arabians is well known, and has
     been so often discussed by learned men, that it would be irrelevant
     here to expatiate on the subject; but as the following description
     of the noblest passion of the human breast cannot but be
     interesting to the generality of readers, and, without any
     exception, to the fair sex, I will transcribe it.

     "Love [Arabic:] beginneth in contemplation, passeth to meditation;
     hence proceeds desire; then the spark bursts forth into a flame,
     the head swims, the body wastes, and the soul turns giddy. If we
     look on the bright side of love, we must acknowledge that it has at
     least one advantage; it annihilates pride and immoderate self-love;
364  true love, whose aim is the happiness and equality of the beloved
     object, being incompatible with those feelings.

     "Lust is so different from true love [arabic], and so far from a
     perfection, that it is always a species of punishment sent by God,
     because man has abandoned the path of his pure love."

     In their epistolary writing, the Arabs have generally a regular and
     particular style, beginning and ending all their letters with the
     name of God, symbolically, because God is the beginning and end of
     all things. The following short specimen will illustrate this:

     Translation of a letter written in the Korannick Arabic by Seedy
     Soliman ben Muhammed ben Ismael, Sultan of Marocco, to his Bashaw
     of Suse, &c. &c.

     "Praise be to the only God! for there is neither power, nor
     strength, without the great and eternal God."

     L.S.

     Containing the Emperor's name and
     titles, as Soliman ben Muhamed
     ben Abdallah, &c, &c.

     "Our servant, Alkaid Abdelmelk ben Behie Mulud, God assist, and
     peace be with thee, and the mercy and grace of God be upon thee!"

     "We command thee forthwith to procure and send to our exalted
     presence every Englishman that has been wrecked on the coast of
     Wedinoon, and to forward them hither without delay, and diligently
365  to succour and attend to them, and may the eye of God be upon
     thee!" [207]

         [Footnote 207: When they write to any other but Muhamedans,
         they never salute them with the words, "Peace be with thee,"
         but substitute--"Peace be to those who follow the path of the
         true God," _Salem ala min itaba el Uda_.]

     "26th of the (lunar), month Saffer, year of the Hejra 1221. (May,
     1806.)"

     The accuracy of punctuation in the Arabic language is a matter that
     ought to be strictly attended to.

     The foregoing observations will serve to prove the insufficiency of
     a knowledge of this language, as professed or studied in Great
     Britain when unaccompanied with a practical knowledge. These
     observations may apply equally to the Persian language.[208]

         [Footnote 208: "One of the objects I had in view in coming to
         Europe, was to instruct young Englishmen in the Persian
         language. I however met with so little encouragement from
         persons in authority, that I entirely relinquished the plan. I
         instructed, however, (as I could not refuse the recommendations
         that were brought to me,) an amiable young man, Mr. S------n,
         and thanks be to God, my efforts were crowned with success! and
         that he, having escaped the instructions of _self-taught_
         masters, has acquired such a knowledge of the principles of
         that language, and so correct an idea of its idiom and
         pronunciation, that I have no doubt, after a few years'
         residence in India, he will attain to such a degree of
         excellence, as has not yet been acquired by any other
         Englishman." Vide Travels of Mirza Abu Taleb Khan, vol. i. p.
         200.]

     If the present ardour for discovery in Africa be persevered in, the
     learned world may expect, in the course of a few years, to receive
366  histories and other works of Greek and Roman authors, which were
     translated into the Arabic language, when Arabian literature was in
     its zenith, and have ever since been confined to some private
     libraries in the cities of the interior of Africa, and in Arabia.

     Having said thus much with regard to the Arabic of the western
     Arabs, which, with little variation, is spoken throughout all the
     finest districts of North Africa, I shall proceed to say a few
     words respecting the other languages spoken north of Sahara: these
     are the Berebber and its dialects, viz. the Zayan and Girwan, and
     Ait Amor; the Shelluh of Suse and South Atlas, all which, though
     latterly supposed by some learned men to be the same, differ in
     many respects; any one possessing a knowledge of the Berebber
     language might, with little difficulty, make himself understood by
     the Zayan of Atlas, the Girwan, or the Ait Amor; but the Shelluh is
     a different language, and each so different from the Arabic, that
     there is not the smallest resemblance, as the following specimen
     will demonstrate:

     BEREBBER.   SHELLUH.   ARABIC.    ENGLISH.
     Tumtoot      Tayelt    Ishira     A girl
     Ajurode      Ayel      Ishire     A boy
     Askan        Tarousa   Hajar      A thing
     Aram         Algrom    Jimmel     Camel
     Tamtute      Tamraut   Murrah     A woman
     Ishiar       Issemg'h  L'Abd      A slave
     Aouli        Izimer    Kibsh      A sheep
     Taddert      Tikimie   Dar        House
367  Ikshuden     Asroen    Lawad      Wood
     Eekeel       Akfai     Hellib     Milk
     Tifihie      Uksume    El Ham     Meat
     Buelkiel     Amuran    Helloof    A hog
     Abreede      Agares    Trek       A road
     Bishee       Fikihie   Ara        Give me
     Adude        Asht      Agi        Come
     Alkam        Aftooh    Cire       Go
     Kaym         Gäuze     Jils       Sit down
     Imile        Imeek     Serire     Little

     _Specimen of the Difference between the Arabic and Shelluh
     Languages._

     SHELLUH.             ARABIC.              ENGLISH.
     Is sin Tamazirkt     Wash katarf          Do you understand
                            Shelluh              Shelluh?
     Uree sin             Man arf huh          I do not understand it.
     Matshrult            Kif enta             How are you?
     Is tekeete           Wash gite min        Are you come from
       Marokshe             Marockshe            Marocco?
     Egan ras             Miliah               Good
     Maigan               Ala'sh               Wherefore?
     Misimmink            As'mek               What is your name?
     Mensh kat dirk       Shall andik          How much have you got?
     Tasardunt            Borella              A mule
     Romi                 Romi                 An European
     Takannarit           Nasarani             A Christian
368  Romi                 Kaffer               An infidel
     Misem Bebans         Ashkune mula         Who is the owner?
     Is'tkit Tegriwelt    Washjite min         Are you come from
                            Tegriwelt            Cape Ossem?
     Auweete Imkelli      Jib Liftor           Bring the dinner
     Efoulkie             Meziana              Handsome
     Ayeese               El aoud              A horse
     Tikelline            El Baid              Eggs
     Amuran               Helloof              Hog
     Tayuh                Tatta                Camelion
     Tasamumiat           Adda                 Green lizard
     Tenawine             Sfune                Ships.

     Marmol says, the Shelluhs and Berebbers write and speak one
     language, called Killem Abimalick[209]; but the foregoing specimen,
     the accuracy of which may be depended on, clearly proves this
     assertion to be erroneous, as well as that of many moderns who have
     formed their opinion, in all probability, on the above authority.
     Now, although the Shelluh and Berebber languages are so totally
     dissimilar, that there is not one word in the foregoing vocabulary
     which resembles its corresponding word in the other language, yet,
369  from the prejudice which Marmol's authority has established, it
     will still be difficult, perhaps, to persuade the learned that such
     an author could be mistaken on such a subject. My account therefore
     must remain for a future age to determine upon, when the languages
     of Africa shall be better known than they are at present; for it is
     not a few travellers occasionally sent out on a limited plan, that
     can ascertain facts, the attainment of which requires a long
     residence, and familiar intercourse with the natives. Marmol had
     also misled the world, in saying that they write a different
     language; the fact is, that when they write any thing of
     consequence, it is in the Arabic; but any trifling subject is
     written in the Berebber words, though in the Arabic character. If
     they had any peculiar character in the time of Marmol, they have
     none now; for I have conversed with hundreds of them, as well as
     with the Shelluhs, and have had them staying at my house for a
     considerable time together, but never could learn from any, that a
     character different from the Arabic had ever been in use among
     them.

         [Footnote 209: Killem Abimalick signifies the Language of
         Abimalick; this is evidently an error of Marmol, the Shelluh
         language is denominated _Amazirk_; the Berebber Language is
         denominated _Killem Brebber_.]

     In addition to these languages, there is another spoken at the
     Oasis of Ammon, or Siwah, called in Arabic [Arabic:] El Wah El
     Grarbie, which appears to be a mixture of Berebber and Shelluh, as
     will appear from the list of Siwahan words given by Mr.
370  Horneman[210], in his Journal, page 19, part of which I have here
     transcribed, to show the similitude between those two languages,
     whereby it will appear that the language of Siwah and that of the
     Shelluhs of South Atlas, are one and the same language.

     ENGLISH.            SIWAHAN.        SHELLUH.
     Sun                 Itfuckt         Atfuct.
     Head                Achfé           Akfie
     Camel               Lgum            Arume
     Sheep               Jelibb          Jelibb
     Cow                 Tfunest         Tafunest
     Mountain            Iddrarn         Iddra[211]
     Have you a horse?   Goreck Ackmar   Is derk Achmar?[212]
     Milk                Achi            Akfie
     Bread               Tagor           Tagora[213]
     Dates               Tena            Tenia (sing.)Tena (plural.)

     South of the Desert we find other languages spoken by the blacks;
     and are told by Arabs, who have frequently performed the journey
     from Jinnie to Cairo, and the Red Sea, that thirty-three different
371  Negro languages are met with in the course of that route, but that
     the Arabic is spoken by the intelligent part of the people, and the
     Muhamedan religion is known and followed by many; their writings
     are uniformly in Arabic.

         [Footnote 210: In reading Mr. William Marsden's observations on
         the language of Siwah, at the end of Horneman's Journal, in
         page 190, I perceive that the short vocabulary inserted
         corresponds with a vocabulary of the Shelluh language, which I
         presented to that gentleman some years past.] [Footnote 211:
         Plural Iddrarn.]

         [Footnote 212: Or, Is derk ayeese?]

         [Footnote 213: This is applied to bread when baked in a pan, or
         over the embers of charcoal, or other fire; but when baked in
         an oven it is called Agarom (g guttural.)]

     It may not be improper in this place, seeing the many errors and
     mutilated translations which appear from time to time, of Arabic,
     Turkish and Persian papers, to give a list of the Muhamedan moons
     or lunar months, used by all those nations, which begin with the
     first appearance of the new moon, that is, the day following, or
     sometimes two days after the change, and continue till they see the
     next new moon; these have been mutilated to such a degree in all
     our English translations, that I shall give them, in the original
     Arabic character, and as they ought to be spelt and pronounced in
     the English character, as a clue whereby to calculate the
     correspondence between our year and theirs. They divide the year
     into 12 months, which contain 29 or 30 days, according as they see
     the new moon; the first day of the month Muharam is termed [arabic]
     Ras Elame, i.e. the beginning of the year.

     As we are more used to the Asiatic mode of punctuation, that will
     be observed in these words.

     Muharam                  [Arabic]
     Asaffer                  [Arabic]
372  Arabia Elule             [Arabic]
     Arabea Atthenie          [Arabic]
     Jumad Elule              [Arabic]
     Jumad Athenie            [Arabic]
     Rajeb                    [Arabic]
     Shaban                   [Arabic]
     Ramadan                  [Arabic]
     Shual                    [Arabic]
     Du'elkada                [Arabic]
     Du Elhajah               [Arabic]

     The first of Muharram, year of the Hejra 1221, answers to the 19th
     March of the Christian æra, 1806.

     Among the various languages spoken south of the Sahara, we have
     already observed that there are thirty-three different ones between
     the Western Ocean and the Red Sea, following the shores of the Nile
     El Abeed, or Niger: among all these nations and empires, a man
     practically acquainted with the Arabic, may always make himself
     understood, and indeed, it is the language most requisite to be
     known for every traveller in these extensive regions.

     The Mandinga is spoken from the banks of the Senegal, where that
     river takes a northerly course from the Jibel Kuthera to the
373  kingdom of Bambarra; the Wangareen tongue is a different one; and
     the Housonians speak a language differing again from that.

     _Specimen of the difference between the Arabic and Mandinga
     language; the words of the latter extracted from the vocabularies
     of Seedi Muhamed ben Amer Sudani._

     ENGLISH.  MANDINGA.           ARABIC.

     One            Kalen               Wahud
     Two            Fula                Thanine
     Three          Seba                Thalata
     Four           Nani                Arba
     Five           Lulu                Kumsa
     Six            Uruh                Setta
     Seven          Urn'klu             Sebba
     Eight          Säae                Timinia
     Nine           Kanuntée            Taseud
     Ten            Dan                 Ashra
     Eleven         Dan kalen           Ahud ash
     Twelve         Dan fula            Atenashe
     Thirteen       Dan seba            Teltashe
     Nineteen       Dankanartée         Tasatasli
     Twenty         Mulu                Ashreen
     Thirty         Mulu nintau         Thalateen
     Forty          Mulu fula           Arbä'in
     Fifty          Mulu fula neentan   Kumseen
     Sixty          Mulu sebaa          Setteen
     Seventy        Mulu sebaa  nintan  Sebä'in.
374  Eighty         Mulu nani           T'aramana'een
     Ninety         Mulu nani neentaan  Tasa'een
     One hundred    Kemi                Mia
     One thousand   Uli                 Elf

     This              Neen                Hadda
     That              Waleem              Hadduk
     Great             Bawa                Kabeer
     Little            Nadeen              Sereer
     Handsome          Nimawa              Zin
     Ugly              Nuta                Uksheen (k guttur.)
     White             Kie                 Bead
     Black             Feen                Khal
     Red               Williamma           Hummer
     How do you do?    Nimbana mcuntania   Kif-enta
     Well              Kantée              Ala-khere
     Not well          Moon kanti          Murrede
     What do you want  Ala feta matume     Ash-bright
     Sit down          Siduma              Jils
     Get up            Ounilee             Node
     Sour              Akkumula            Hamd
     Sweet             Timiata             Helluh
     True              Aituliala           Hack
     False             Funiala             Kadube
     Good              Abatee              Miliah
     Bad               Minbatee            Kubiah
     A witch           Bua                 Sahar
     A lion            Jatta               Sebaâ
375  An elephant       Samma               El fel
     A hyæna           Salua               Dubbah
     A wild boar       Siwa                El kunjer
     A water horse     Mali                Aoud d'Elma
     A horse           Suhuwa              Aoud
     A camel           Kumaniun            Jimmel
     A dog             Wallee              Killeb
     Hel el Killeb     Hel Wallee          Hel El Killeb
     or the dog-faced
     race.

     A gazel           Tankeen             Gazel (g guttural)
     A cat             Niankune            El mish
     A goat            Baâ                 El mâize
     A sheep           Kurenale            Kibsh
     A bull            Nisakia             Toôr
     A serpent         Saâ                 Hensh
     A camelion        Mineer              Tatta
     An ape            Ku'nee              Dzatute
     A fowl or chicken Susee               Djez
     A duck            Beruee              El Weese
     A fish            Hihu                El hout
     Butter            Tulu                Zibda
     Milk              Nunn                El hellib
     Bread             Mengu               El khubs (k guttur.)
     Corn              Nieu                Zra
     Wine              Tangee              Kummer (k guttur.)
     Honey             Alee                Asel
     Sugar             Tobabualee          Sukar
     Salt              Kuee                Mil'h
     Ambergris         Anber               Anber
376  Brass             Tass                Tass
     Silver            Kudee               Nukra
     Gold-dust         Teber               Tiber
     Pewter            Tass ki             Kusdeer
     A bow             Kula                El kos
     An arrow          Binia               Zerag
     A knife           Muru                Jenui
     A spoon           Kulia               Mogerfa
     A bed             El arun             El ferrashe
     A lamp            El kundeel          El kundeel
     A house           Su                  Ed dar
     A room            Bune                El beet
     A light-hole      Jinnee              Reehâha
     or window
     A door            Daa                 Beb
     A town            Kinda               Midina
     Smoke             Sezee               Tkan (k guttural)
     Heat              Kandia              Skanna (k guttural)
     Cold              Nini                Berd
     Sea               Bedu baha           Bahar
     River             Bedu                Wed
     A rock            Berri               Jerf
     Sand              Kinnikanni          Rummel
     The earth         Binku               Dunia
     Mountain          Kuanku              Jibbel
     Island            Juchüi              Dzeera
     Rain              Sanjukalaeen        Shta
     God               Allah               Allah
     Father            Fa                  Ba
     Mother            Ba                  Ma
     Hell              Jahennum            Jehennume
377  A man             Kia                 Rajil
     A woman           Musa                Murrah
     A sister          Bum musa            Kat (k guttural)
     A brother         Bum kia             Ka
     The devil         Buhau               Iblis
     A white man       Tebabu              Rajil biad
     A singer          Jalikea             Runai (r guttural)
     A singing woman   Jalimusa            Runaiah (r guttural)
     A slave           June                Abeed
     A servant         Bettela             Mutalem

     Having now given some account of the languages of Africa, we shall
     proceed to animadvert on the similitude of language and customs
     between the Shelluhs of Atlas and the original inhabitants of the
     Canary Islands. The words between inverted commas, are quotations
     from Glasse's History of the Discovery and Conquest of the Canary
     Islands.

     "The inhabitants of Lancerotta and Fuertaventura are social and
     cheerful;" like the Shelluhs of Atlas; "they are fond of singing
     and dancing; their music is vocal, accompanied with a clapping of
     hands, and beating with their feet;" the Shelluhs resemble them in
     all these respects; "Their houses are built of stone, without
     cement; the entrance is narrow, so that but one person can enter at
     a time."

378  The houses of the Shelluhs are sometimes built without cement, but
     always with stone; the doors and entrances are low and small, so
     that one person only can enter.

     "In their temples they offered to their God milk and butter."

     Among the Shelluhs milk and butter are given as presents to princes
     and great men; the milk being an emblem of good will and candour.

     "When they were sick (which seldom happened) they cured themselves
     with the herbs which grew in the country; and when they had acute
     pains, they scarified the part affected with sharp stones, and
     burned it with fire, and then anointed it with goat's butter.
     Earthen vessels of this goat's butter were found interred in the
     ground, having been put there by the women, who were the makers,
     and took that method of preparing it for medicine."

     The custom of the Shelluhs on such occasions is exactly similar;
     the butter which they use is old, and is buried under ground many
     years in (_bukul_) earthen pots, and is called _budra_: it is a
     general medicine, and is said to possess a remarkably penetrating
     quality.

     "They grind their barley in a hand-mill, made of two stones, being
     similar to those used in some remote parts of Europe".

     In Suse, among the Shelluhs, they grind their corn in the same way,
     and barley is the principal food.

     "Their breeches are short, leaving the knees bare;" so are those
     worn by the Shelluhs.
379
     "Their common food was barley meal roasted and mixed with goat's
     milk and butter, and this dish they call Asamotan."

     This is the common food of the Shelluhs of Atlas, and they call it
     by a similar name, Azamitta.

     The opinion of the author of the History and Conquest of the Canary
     Islands, is, that the inhabitants came originally from Mauritania,
     and this he founds on the resemblance of names of places in Africa
     and in the islands: "for," says he, "Telde[214], which is the name
     of the oldest habitation in Canaria, Orotaba, and Tegesta, are all
     names which we find given to places in Mauritania and in Mount
     Atlas. It is to be supposed that Canaria, Fuertaventura, and
     Lancerotta, were peopled by the Alarbes[215], who are the nation
     most esteemed in Barbary; for the natives of those islands named
     milk _Aho_, and barley _Temecin_, which are the names that are
     given to those things in the language of the Alarbes of Barbary."
     He adds, that--

     "Among the books of a library that was in the cathedral of St. Anna
     in Canaria, there was found one so disfigured, that it wanted both
     the beginning and the end: it treated of the Romans, and gave an
380  account, that when Africa was a Roman province, the natives of
     Mauritania rebelled and killed their presidents and governors, upon
     which the senate, resolving to punish and make a severe example of
     the rebels, sent a powerful army into Mauritania, which vanquished
     and reduced them again to obedience. Soon after the ringleaders of
     the rebellion were put to death, and the tongues of the common
     people, together with those of their wives and children, were cut
     out, and then they were all put aboard vessels with some grain and
     cattle, and transported to the Canary islands." [216]

         [Footnote 214: Telde or Tildie is a place in the Atlas
         mountains, three miles east of Agadeer; the castle is in
         ruins.]

         [Footnote 215: The Alarbes, this is the name that the
         inhabitants of Lower Suse and Sahara have, _El Arab_ or Arabs.]

         [Footnote 216: One Thomas Nicols, who lived seven years in the
         Canary Islands, and wrote a history of them, says, that the
         best account he could get of the origin of the natives, was,
         that they were exiles from Africa, banished thence by the
         Romans, who cut out their tongues for blaspheming their gods.]

     The following vocabulary will show the similarity of language
     between the natives of Canaria and the Shelluhs (inhabitants of the
     Atlas mountains south of Marocco).

     LANCEROTTA AND           SHELLUH OR       ENGLISH.
     FUERTAVENTURA DIALECT.   LYBIAN TONGUE.

     Temasin                  Tumzeen          Barley
     Tezzezes                 Tezezreat        Sticks
     Taginaste                Taginast         A palm-tree
     Tahuyan                  Tahuyat          A blanket,
                                               covering, or petticoat.
     Ahemon                   Amen             Water
381  Faycag                   Faquair          Priest or lawyer
     Acoran                   M'koorn          God
     Almogaren                Talmogaren       Temples
     Tamoyanteen              Tigameen         Houses
     Tawacen                  Tamouren         Hogs
     Archormase               Akermuse         Green figs
     Azamotan                 Azamittan        Barley meal fried in oil
     Tigot                    Tigot            Heaven
     Tigotan                  Tigotan          The Heavens
     Thener                   Athraar          A mountain
     Adeyhaman                Douwaman         A hollow valley
     Ahico                    Tahayk           A hayk, or coarse garment
     Kabeheira                Kabeera          A head man or a powerful
     Ahoren                    ----            Barley meal roasted
     Ara                       ----            A goat
     Ana                       ----            A sheep
     Tagarer                   ----            A place of justice

     Benehoare, the name of the natives of Palma.

     Beni Hoarie, a tribe of Arabs in Suse between Agadeer and
     Terodant.[217]

         [Footnote 217: For further particulars, see Glasse's History of
         the Canary Islands, 4to. page 174.]

382

                              TITLES
                                OF
                     THE EMPEROR OF MAROCCO,
                    STYLE OF ADDRESSING HIM,
                               AND
            SPECIMENS OF EPISTOLARY CORRESPONDENCE.


       *       *       *       *       *


                  _THE TITLES OF THE EMPEROR_
                              ARE

     Servant of God.

     Commander, Captain, or Leader of the (Mumeneen) _Faithful_ [i.e. in
     Muhamed], _upheld by the Grace of God_.

     _Prince of Hassenee_. Ever supported by God.

     _Sultan of Fas, of Maroksh_ [Marocco], _of Suse, and of Draha, and
     of Tafilelt and Tuat, together with all the kabyles_ [tribes] _of
     the West, and of the Berebbers of Atlas, &c._

     The Sultan calls his soldiers (_ketteffee_) "my shoulders or
     support, or strength;" his subjects he calls his sons (_woledee_),
     and himself the father of his people.

     N.B. The Hejra, or Muhamedan æra began A.D. 622. The Muhamedan
     years are lunar, 33 of which are about 32 solar years.

383

                             THE STYLE
                         USED BY MUSELMEN,
                  _IN ADDRESSING THE EMPEROR,_
                          IS AS FOLLOWS:

     "Sultan of exalted dignity, whom God preserve. May the Almighty
     protect that royal purity, and bestow happiness, increase of
     wealth, and prosperity on the nation of believers [i.e. in
     Muhamed], whose welfare and power is attributed entirely to the
     favour and benevolence of the Exalted God."

     The Sultan is head of the ecclesiastical, military, and civil law,
     and is universally considered by his subjects God's Vicegerent, or
     Lieutenant on Earth. All letters written to his Imperial Majesty,
     are begun with the praise of God, and with the acknowledgment, (in
     opposition to idolatry,) that there is neither beginning nor power
     but what proceeds from God, the eternal God, (_La hule û la kûa ela
     billa, Allah el adeem_.)

384

                            SPECIMENS
                               OF
               _MUHAMEDAN EPISTOLARY CORRESPONDENCE._

       *       *       *       *       *


     _The following Letters are literal translations from the original
     Arabic, and, although not of great importance, yet it is some
     satisfaction to the enquiring mind, to observe the various modes of
     address, and to note the style of Epistolary Correspondence
     practised by the Muhamedans, which is so different from that which
     is used among European and other nations._


       *       *       *       *       *

     LETTER I.

     _From Muley Ismael, Emperor of Marocco, to Captain Kirke at
     Tangier; Ambassador from King Charles the Second, dated 7th Du
     Elkadah, in the 1093d Year of the Hejra, (corresponding to the 27th
     October, A. D, 1682_.)

     Praise be to God, the most High alone! and the blessing of God be
     upon those who are for his prophet.

     From the shereef[218], the servant of God, who putteth his trust in
385  God, the commander of the faithful, who is courageous in the way of
     the omniscient God.

         [Footnote 218: Shereef is a general term in the Arabic for a
         prince, king, or emperor, signifying royal blood.]

     L.S.

     Ismael Son of a shereef; God illumine
     and preserve him.

     God assist his commanders, and give victory to his forces and
     armies, Amen! To the captain of Tangier, Kirke, _peace be to those
     who follow the right way[219]_; this by way of preface. Your letter
     came to the lofty place of our residence, and we understand what
     your discourse contained. As for the asking a cessation of arms by
     sea; know, that it was not treated of between us till this present
     time. Neither did we make truce with you concerning any thing but
     Tangier alone. When you came to our illustrious house, we treated
     with you about that matter for four years, and if you had sojourned
     there yourself, no Muselman would ever have gone into that town
     hostilely against you, but merely as a peaceable merchant.

         [Footnote 219: This is a sentence which frequently occurs in
         the Koran, but when used in epistolary correspondence with
         Christians (for it is never used by Muhamedans between
         themselves), it bears the appearance of a salutation, but the
         allusion is to Muhamedans, who _these people think_ are the
         only men who follow the true path or right way; it is, however,
         a compliment to all who _think themselves_ in the right way.]

     As to a cessation of arms by sea, it was not negociated by us,
     neither did we discourse about it; but, when you desired it of us,
386  we wrote to your Master in England, saying, If you desire a
     cessation of arms by sea, and are willing to receive a firm peace
     from us, send us two understanding men, of the chief of the Divan
     of England, by whom the peace of all the Christians here may be
     confirmed; and, when they shall arrive at the lofty place of our
     residence, and sit before us, whatsoever they shall hear from us,
     by way of agreement, shall be acceded to! And we have given you
     security, at sea, for four months, viz. from the time we sent you
     our letter to Tangier, till the day that there shall come an answer
     from your Master, and until the arrival of the two ambassadors
     aforementioned, after the aforesaid manner. As for those men who in
     thy letter thou didst say were taken at sea: I neither know nor
     have heard any thing of them. Your discourse about that matter
     having been with Aly ben Abdallah, and he administered justice (to
     you) upon the Muselmen who had taken these men prisoners for the
     sake of him, for whom you made your complaint to us; and he
     returned the Christians to you, and imprisoned the sailors for
     capturing them. Now, if there shall happen to be a peace between me
     and you at sea, as there is for four years by land, through your
     mediation, and by reason of your coming to us, I will hang them,
     and blot out their footsteps, and be revenged on them with the most
     severe revenge.

     Our servant Muhamed ben Hadu Aater, who came from your presence,
     told us that lions are scarce in your country, and that they are in
387  high estimation, with you. When your servant came to us, he found
     we had two small young lions, wherefore by him we send them to you.
     And know, that we have received by our servants from your Master,
     _three_ coach-horses, now a coach requires _four_ horses to draw
     it, wherefore you must needs send us another good one of the same
     kind and size, that they may draw the coach with four horses.
     Oblige us in this by all means. Farewell: we depend upon it.

     Written 7th of the sacred month _Du El Kadah_, in the year of the
     Hejra, ninety-three and a thousand, (A.D. 1682.)


     LETTER II.

     _From the same Muley Ismael to Sir Cloudesly Shovel, on board the
     Charles Galley, off Salee, written Aug. 26. A.D. 1684, year of the
     Hejra 1095_.

     L.S.

     I, servant of God, and Emperor of
     Marocco and King of Mauritania,
     whom God preserve in all
     his undertakings, &c.

     I Salute you and the rest of the captains.

     As for the captives you have taken, they belong to several places,
     and are not all my subjects; and what I do is out of charity, as
     they are Muhamedans, being forced to go to sea for want of
     maintenance. As for those that are my soldiers, they go to sea to
388  fight and to die in my quarrels; but, those _Moors_ that _you_ have
     taken, are inconsiderable and of no account.

     Henceforward I shall have ships as big as yours, if not bigger,
     hoping to take some of your ships and captains, and cruise for you
     in your English seas, as you do for us in these.

     I have written letters to the King of England, in which are kind
     expressions: And when you had Tangier, all things were given to you
     as you wanted, and all done out of kindness; and now that you have
     left Tangier for the Moors, whatever His Majesty of Great Britain
     wants, either by sea or by land, it shall be granted, so that there
     be a peace betwixt the two crowns; for which I pass my word and
     faith.

     Now, _I have written several letters to his Majesty of Great
     Britain, to which I have received as yet no answer_; but, when it
     (the answer) reaches my hands, I hope there will be a good
     accommodation between us.

     You have taken several of our ships and destroyed others, and you
     are cruising on our coast, which is not the way to make a good
     peace, neither the actions of honesty in you.

     God be praised that you have quitted Tangier and left it to us, to
     whom it did belong: from henceforward we shall keep it well
     supplied with stores, for it is the best port of our dominions.

     As for the captives you have taken, you may do as you please with
389  them, heaving them into the sea, or otherwise destroying them. The
     English merchants that are here resident, shall satisfy all their
     debts, which being done, none of them shall remain in my country.


     LETTER. III.

     _Captain Shovel's Answer_.

     May it please Your Majesty,

     We, the King of England's captains, return Your Majesty humble
     thanks for your kind wishes to us. Your Majesty by this may know,
     that we have received your letter, and by it we understand, that
     Your Majesty is informed that most of these people that are taken
     are not your subjects. We perceive by this, as well as in other
     things, how grossly Your Majesty has been deceived by those people
     you trust; else, we doubt not, but that, long before this, our
     Master, whom God preserve, and Your Majesty had accommodated all
     differences, and we should have had a firm peace.

     Of those fifty-three slaves that are here, (excepting two or
     three,) they are all Moors of their own country, as they themselves
     can make appear; but, if they are to be disowned because they are
     poor, the Lord help them!! Your Majesty tells us, that we may throw
     them overboard, if we please: all this we very well know; but we
     are Christians, and they bear the form of men, which is reason
390  enough for us not to do so.

     As to Tangier, our Master kept it twenty-one years; and the world
     is sensible, that in spite of all your force, he could, if he had
     pleased, have continued to keep it to the world's end; for, he
     levelled your walls, filled up your harbour, and demolished your
     houses, in the face of your Alkaid and his army; and when he had
     done, he left your[220] barren country (without the loss of a man)
     for your own people to starve in: but our departure from thence,
     long before this, we doubt not, but you have repented of. When you
     tell us of those mighty ships Your Majesty intends to build and
     send to our coast, you must excuse us if we think ourselves the
     better judges; for we know, as to shipping, what you are able to
     do.

         [Footnote 220: The gallant and magnanimous captain was better
         acquainted with the coast than with the country, which is any
         thing but barren.]

     If you think fit to redeem those slaves, at 100 dollars a-piece,
     they are at Your Majesty's service, and the rest shall be sent to
     you; or, if you think fit to give us so many English in exchange,
     we shall be well satisfied; but we think you will hardly comply
     with that, for the poorest slave that ever our Master redeemed out
     of _your_ country, cost him 200 dollars; and some of these five
     times that sum, for he freely extended his charity to all, and
     never forgets his people _because they are poor_.
391
     It is great wonder to us, that you should tax us with unjust
     proceedings in taking your ships in time of truce, when Your
     Majesty may remember that, during the time your ambassador was in
     England, your corsairs took about twenty sail of my Master's ships;
     and this very year, you have fitted out all the force in your
     kingdom to sea, who have taken several of our ships, and at the
     same time pretend to a truce for peace! But some of your ships, for
     their unjust dealings, have had their reward, and the rest, when
     they shall come to sea, we doubt not but God Almighty will put them
     into our hands.

     If Your Majesty think fit to send proposals to my Master concerning
     peace, I shall take care for the speedy and safe conveyance of the
     same. I desire Your Majesty's speedy answer; for I do not intend to
     stay long before Salee.

     Wishing Your Majesty long life and happiness, I subscribe myself,
     Your Majesty's

     Most obedient and humble Servant,

     CLOUDESLY SHOVEL.

                                                       Sept. 1684 A.D.

392

     LETTER IV.

     _A literal Translation of Muley Ismael, Emperor of Marocco's Letter
     to Queen Anne, in the year of our Lord 1710, extracted from the
     Harl. MSS. 7525_.

     L.S.

     In the name of the most
     merciful God.

     He that depends upon God goeth straight to the right way. From the
     servant of God, the Emperor of the believers, who maketh war for
     the cause of the Lord of both worlds, Ismael ben Assherif Al
     Hassanee to the Queen of the English, nay of England, and the
     mistress of the great parliament thereof, happiness to every one
     that followeth the right way, and believes in God, and is so
     directed.

     This premised, we have heard from more than one of the comers and
     goers from thy country, that thou hast seized our Armenian servant,
     a person of great esteem. We sent him to thee, to compose a
     difference between us and thee, and we wrote to thee concerning
     him, that thou shouldst use him well. Then, after this, we heard
     that thou didst set him at liberty: And wherefore didst thou seize
     him? Hath he exceeded any covenant, or hath he made any covenant
     with thee and broke it? We should not have sent him to thee, but on
393  account of our knowledge and assurance of his understanding and
     integrity; and when he resolved upon his journey into your country,
     we gave him directions to dispatch some of our affairs. Wherefore
     we wrote unto thee concerning him, and said, If thou hast any
     necessity or business with us, he will convey it to us from thee.
     And we said unto thee, Speak with him, and whatsoever thou sayest
     unto him, he will communicate unto us, without addition or
     diminution.

     As for what our servant Alkaid Ali ben Abdallah did to ----, the
     Christian, thy servant, by God we know nothing of it, nor gave him
     any permission as to any thing that passed between them; and, at
     the instant that we heard that he had taken thy man, we commanded
     him to set him at liberty forthwith; and since then we have never
     manifested any favour to Alkaid Ali, nor was our mind ever right
     towards him afterwards till he died.

     Our Christian servant, the merchant, Bayly, told us, that thou
     hadst a mind to an ostrich, and we gave him two, a male and a
     female, which shall come to you, if God will. And, lo! a secretary,
     our servant, (who is much esteemed by us,) when he cometh he shall
     bring what goods he hath collected with him, if it please God. And
     we are in expectation of thy messenger the ambassador; and if he
     comes, he shall see nothing from us but what is fair; and we will
     deliver to him the Christians, and do what he pleases, if God will.
     Wherefore be kind to our servant, with respect.
394
     Written the first of the Glorious Ramadan, in the year of the Hejra
     1125 (corresponding with A.D. 1710).


     LETTER V.

     _Translation of an Arabic Letter from the Sultan Seedi Muhamed[221]
     ben Abdallah, Emperor of Marocco, to the European Consuls resident
     at Tangier, delivered to each of them, by the Bashaw of the
     province of El Grarb, on 1st day of June, 1788, corresponding with
     the year of the Hejra, 1202_.

         [Footnote 221: Father of the present Sultan Soliman ben
         Muhamed.]

     L.S.

     Mohamed ben Abdallah, ben
     Ismael, Sultan ben, Sultan,
     &c.

     In the name of God, for there is no power or strength but from God.

     To all the Consuls at Tangier.

     Peace (be) to those who follow the right path.

     By this you will learn that we are in peace and friendship with all
     the Christian powers until the month of May of the next year, (of
     the Hejra, 1203,) and such nations as shall then be desirous to
     continue in peace and friendship with us, are to write a letter to
     us, when the month of May comes, to inform us if they are in peace
     and friendship with us, then we shall be the same with them; but,
     if any Christian nation desire to go to war with us, they will let
395  us know before the month above-mentioned; and we trust God will
     keep us in his protection against them; and thus I have said all I
     had to say.

     2d day of Shaban, year of the Hejra 1202, (corresponding with 7th
     May, 1788.)


     LETTER VI.

     _Letter from Muley Soliman ben Muhamed, Emperor of Marocco, &c. &c.
     to His Majesty George III. literally translated from the original
     Arabic, by James Grey Jackson, at the request of the Right Hon.
     Spencer Perceval, after lying in the Secretary of State's Office
     here for several months, and being then sent ineffectually to the
     Universities for translation, and after various enquiries had been
     made on behalf of the Emperor, to the Governor of Gibraltar, the
     Bashaw of El Garb, and the Alkaid of Tangier, to ascertain if any
     answer had been returned to his Imperial Majesty._

     In the name of God! the all-merciful and commiserating God, on whom
     is our account, and we acknowledge his support; for there is
     neither beginning nor power but that which proceeds from God, the
     High Eternal God.

     From the servant of God, the commander of the faithful [in Muhamed]
     upheld and supported by the Grace of God.

     Soliman the son of Muhamed, the son of Abdallah, the son of Ismael,
     Prince of [the house or dynasty of Hassan][222] who was ever upheld
396  by the power of God, Sultan of Fas and Marocco, and Suse, and
     Draha, and Tafilelt, and Tuat, together with all the territories of
     the West.

     [Footnote 222: The words between brackets are not in the original,
     but implied.]

     L.S.

     Soliman, son of Mohamed, son
     Abdallah, God illumine and support
     him!

     To our dearly beloved and cherished, exalted by the power of God,
     the Sultan[223] George the Third, Sultan of the territories of the
     United Kingdom of Great Britain, Ireland, Duke of Mecklenburg
     Strelitz, Prince, descended from the dynasty of the Sultans of Rome
     and Palestine, &c.

     This premised, we inform you, that we make diligent inquiry about
     you, desiring heartily that you may be at all times surrounded by
     health and prosperity. We wish you to increase in friendship with
     us, that our alliance may be more strongly cemented than
     heretofore, even stronger than it was in the days of our ancestors,
     whom God guard and protect.

     Now therefore we make known to you, that your physician, Doctor
     Buffé, has been in our royal presence, [which is] exalted by the
     bounty of God, and we have been well pleased with his medical
     knowledge and diligent attention, and moreover with the relief he
     has given to us.

397  We have therefore to entreat of you to give him your royal order to
     return to Gibraltar, in our neighbourhood, well provided with all
     good and necessary medicines; that he, residing at Gibraltar, may
     be ready to attend quickly our royal presence, whenever we may be
     in need of his [medical] assistance. We trust you will return him
     without procrastination to our throne, seeing that he has been of
     essential service to us.

     We recommend you to exalt Dr. Buffé, in your favour and esteem on
     our account, and we will always be your allies and friends. May you
     ever be well and in prosperity! Peace be with you, 4th of the month
     Jumad El Lule in the year [of the Hejra] 1221, (corresponding with
     5th July, 1806, A.D.)

         [Footnote 223: This perhaps is the only letter extant, wherein
         a Muselman Prince gives the title of Sultan to a Christian
         king.]


     LETTER VII.

     In Muhamedan countries, an insolvent man continues liable to his
     creditors till the day of his death, unless the debt is discharged;
     but he can claim by law his liberation from prison, on making oath,
     and bringing proof of his insolvency: but then if he succeed
     afterwards and become possessed of property, he is compelled to pay
     the debts formerly contracted; so that an European should be
     cautious how he contracts debts with the Moors, lest the
     misfortunes that commerce is liable to should oblige him to remain
     all his life in the country. A letter, similar to the following,
398  should be procured by every European, about to quit the country, to
     prevent the extortion of the alkaid, who might, as has often
     happened before, throw impediments in the way for the purpose of
     extorting presents, &c.

     _Translation of a Firman of Departure, literally translated from
     the Original Arabic, by James Grey Jackson._

     L.S.

     Soliman ben Muhamed, ben
     Abdallah, ben Ismael Sultan,
     &c.

     Praise be to God alone.

     Our servants El Hage Mohamed o Bryhim, and Seid Mohamed Bel Akkia,
     peace and the mercy of God be with you! This premised, I command
     you to suffer the Christian merchant, Jackson, to embark for his
     own country, if it appears to you that no one pursues him in law
     [for debt,] as I wrote to you on this subject in my last letter: if
     no one claims of him any right by law, allow him to go, and do not
     impede him.[224] God protect you, and peace be with you. 3d day of
     Saffer, the good year 1220 of the Hejra, (A.C. 1805.)

         [Footnote 224: This repetition of the principal subject in
         Arabic correspondence, is a mode of impressing on the mind more
         forcibly, the subject intended to be impressed, and is commonly
         practised by the best Arabian, and African writers; it also
         frequently occurs in the inspired writings. See Psalms lxxv, l.
         lxxvii, 1. &c.]


     LETTER VIII.

     As a specimen of the lofty style of writing so much in use among
399  the Eastern authors, I shall add the summons which Hulacu the
     Tartar conqueror of the East, (who took Bagdad, and entirely
     subverted the government of the Saracens,) sent to Al Mâlek
     Annâsar, sultan of Aleppo, in the year of the Hejra 657, (of Christ
     1259.)

     Let Al Mâlek Annâsar know, that we sat down before Bagdad in the
     655th year (of the Hejra,) and took it by the sword of the most
     high God: and we brought the master of it before us, and demanded
     two things of him; to which he, not answering, brought deserved
     punishment upon himself. As it is written in your Koran, "_God doth
     not change the condition of a people, till their own minds are
     changed_." He took care of his wealth, and fate brought him to what
     he is come to. He chose to exchange precious lives for pieces of
     money made of vile metal; which is plainly the same that God says
     _They found_ [the reward of] _what they had done present with
     them_.[225] For we have attained by the power of God, what we
     desired; and by the help of the most high God we shall increase.
     Nor is there any doubt of our being the army of God upon his earth.
     He created us, and gave us power over every one upon whom his anger
     rests. Wherefore, let what is past be to you an example, and what
     we have mentioned a warning. Fortifications are nothing in our
400  hands, nor doth the joining of battle avail you any thing; nor will
     your intreaties be heard or regarded. Take warning therefore by
     others, and surrender entirely to us, before the veil be taken off,
     and [_the punishment of_] sin light upon you. For we shall have no
     mercy upon him that complains, nor be moved by him that weeps. We
     have wasted countries, we have destroyed men, we have made children
     orphans, and the land desolate. It is your business to run away;
     ours to pursue; nor can you escape our swords, nor fly from our
     arrows. Our horses are racers; our arrows strike home; our swords
     pierce like lightning; our fortifications are like mountains, and
     our numbers like the sand. Whosoever surrenders comes off safe:
     whosoever is for war, repents it. If you will obey our command, and
     come to our terms, your interest and ours shall be the same; but if
     you be refractory and persist in your error, blame not us, but
     yourselves. God is against you, ye wicked wretches: look out for
     something to screen you under your miseries, and find somebody to
     bear you company in your affliction. We have given you fair
     warning, and fair warning is fair play. You have eaten things
     forbidden[226], you have been perfidious in your treaties. You have
     introduced new heresies, and thought it a gallant thing to commit
401  sodomy. Prepare yourselves therefore for scorn and contempt. Now
     you will find what you have done; for they that have done amiss,
     will now find their state changed. You take it for granted, that we
     are infidels. We take it for granted, that you are _villains_; and
     _He_ by whose hand all things are disposed and determined, hath
     given us the dominion over you. The greatest man you have is
     despicable among us; and what _you_ call rich, is a beggar. We
     govern the world from east to west, and whosoever is worth any
     thing is our prey; and we take every ship by force. Weigh therefore
     what is fit to be done, and return us a speedy answer, before
     _infidelity_[227] shall have kindled its fire, and scattered its
     sparks among you, and destroy you all from off the face of the
     earth. We have awakened you by sending to you: make haste with an
     answer, lest punishment come upon you unawares.

         [Footnote 225: A quotation from the Koran. The Tartar was a
         deist, and quotes the Koran in derision.]

         [Footnote 226: The Muhamedans, whose religion is a compound of
         Judaism and Christianity, have borrowed many customs from
         either, they abstain like the Jews from swine's flesh, &c.]

         [Footnote 227: As the Muhamedans charge every nation that doth
         not believe Muhamed to have been a prophet with infidelity, so
         the Tartar (who was a Deist) returns it upon them.]
402

     LETTER IX.

     _Translation of a Letter from the Emperor Muley Yezzid, to Webster
     Blount, Esq. Consul General to the Empire of Marocco, from their
     High Mightinesses the States-General, of the Seven United
     Provinces. Written soon after the Emperor's Proclamation, and
     previous to the Negotiation for the opening of the Port of Agadeer,
     to Dutch Commerce._

     "Praise be to God alone; for there is neither beginning nor power
     without God."

     L.S.

     Yezzid ben Muhamed, Sultan ben Sultan, (i.e. Emperor and Son of an
     Emperor.)

     "To the Consul Blount. Peace be with those who follow the right
     way, or the way of the true God: and this being premised, know that
     I have received your letter, and that we are with you, (the Dutch
     nation,) in peace and amity and good faith, and peace be with you.
     22 Ramadan, year of the Hejra 1204, (A.C. 1792.)"

     Translated literally by the Author, from the original Arabic in his
     possession.


     LETTER X.

     _Translation of a Letter from the Emperor Yezzid, to the Governor
     of Mogodor, Aumer ben Daudy, to give the Port of Agadeer to the
     Dutch, and to send there the Merchants of that Nation._

     "Praise be to God alone; for there is neither beginning nor power
     without God, the eternal God."
403
     L.S.

     Yezzid ben Muhamed, Sultan
     ben Sultan.

     "Our servant (or agent) Alkaid Aumer ben Daudy, peace be unto you,
     with the mercy and blessing of God: this premised, I command that
     all the duties you have collected be sent to me speedily by my
     brother[228] Muley Soliman, who will (_berik_) discharge you by
     receipt for every thing you deliver to him, for he is our
     representative. We are preparing to go to the siege of Ceuta, with
     the acquiescence of the High God, by whose power we hope to enter
     it, and take it. And we command you to send the Alkaid M'saud El
     Hayanie to my port of Agadeer, with all things necessary for his
     journey, assisting him with every possible succour, and send with
     him twenty Benianters[229], who must be sailors skilful in the
     management of boats; and the Christian merchants of the Dutch
     nation will go to Agadeer, and establish their houses there; for I
     have given that port to the Dutch to trade there: and send with
     them Talb Aumer Busedra, and the eye of God be upon you, and peace
     be with you."

         [Footnote 228: The duties were at this time collected in kind;
         viz. one tenth of every thing imported from Europe: and the
         present Emperor Muly Soliman was deputed to convey them to the
         camp before Ceuta, to his brother, the Emperor Muley Yezzid,
         whose army was besieging that fortress.]

         [Footnote 229: _Benianters_, are a kabyle of Shelluhs of Suse,
         who are employed to work, and row the boats, and land the goods
         at Mogodor.]

404

     Seventh day of Arrabea Ellule, year (Hejra) 1205.[230]

     Translated by the Author, from the original Arabic in his
     possession.

     "Be vigilant with respect to the matter of the establishment of
     Agadeer, and of M'saud El Hayanie." [231]

         [Footnote 230: Corresponding with A.C. 1793.]

         [Footnote 231: The Emperors of Marocco, and the Arabian writers
         in general thus repeat the principal subject of a letter or
         discourse, to impress it more forcibly on the mind.]


     LETTER XI.

     _Epistolary Diction used by the Muhamedans of Africa, in their
     Correspondence with all their Friends who are not of the Muhamedan
     faith_.

     "Praise be to God alone; for there is neither beginning nor
     strength without God, the eternal God.

     "From the servant of the great God, El Hage Abdrahaman El Fellely,
     to my friend Consul Jackson, peace be to those who follow the right
     way, or who pursue the right path; and then, O my friend, I have
     received your letter, and I have taken good notice of its contents,
     &c. &c."

     The letter, after explaining matters of business, concludes thus:--

     "Do not leave me without news from you; and peace be with you, and
     peace from me to our friend L'hage Muhamed Bu Zeyd; and peace from
     me to Seed Muham'd bel Hassen, and to the Fakeer Seed Abdallah, and
405  praise be to God, I am very well, and prosperous."

     "Written 15th day of Shaban, year of the Hejra 1209, (1797, A.C.)"

     The style in which letters are addressed is generally as follows:--

     "This shall arrive, God willing, to the hands of Consul Jackson, at
     Agadeer. May God prosper it."


     LETTER XII.

     _Translation of a Letter from the Sultan, Seedi Muhamed Emperor of
     Marocco, to the Governor of Mogodor_.

     "Praise be to God alone,

     "I order my servant Alkaid Muhamed ben Amran, to deliver the
     treasure and the merchandise to the Christian merchants at Mogodor,
     which is in the possession of the Jews, Haim Miram, and Meemon ben
     Isaac Corcos, and others of the Jews, friends of the Christian
     merchants. God assist you, and peace be with you. 23d of the month
     Jumad Ellule, year of the Hejra 1203.

     "By order of the Sultan, empowered by God. Written by Talb El
     Huderanie."

     The courier who receives the letter is ordered by the minister whom
     to deliver it to. It is then inclosed in a blank leaf or sheet of
     paper, without any address, and not sealed. It is presumed, that
     the courier or messenger will not dare to open it, or discover the
     contents to any one; such a breach of confidence might cost him his
     head, if discovered.
406
     _Doubts having been made in the Daily Papers, concerning the
     accuracy of the two following Translations of the Shereef Ibrahim's
     account of Mungo Park's Death; the following Observations, by the
     Author, are laid before the Public in elucidation of those
     Translations_.

     The following is a copy of a letter, supposed to be a description
     of Mungo Park's death; brought to England from Ashantee in Africa,
     by Mr. Bowdich; and that gentleman assured me, about six months
     after his arrival in England, and a few days previous to the
     publication of his interesting account of a mission to Ashantee,
     that he had by every means in his power endeavoured, but
     ineffectually, to get this manuscript _decyphered_ and translated
     into English; that he had sent it to several persons, who had
     retained it in their hands a considerable time, but had returned it
     without a decypher, or even a complete translation. When delivered
     into my hands, I transmitted him a _decypher_, and a translation
     immediately. The following is my translation, which, in that
     gentleman's account of Ashantee, is coupled with another
     translation, _not perspicuous, but unintelligible_; for which see
     Bowdich's "Account of a Mission to Ashantee," Appendix, No. 2.

     The original Arabic document, of which I have given a decypher in
407  the work before mentioned, is, (for the information of gentlemen
     desirous of referring to the same,) deposited in the British
     Museum. There are also, in the same work on Ashantee, several
     papers decyphered by me, of certain routes in Africa. Now I think
     it expedient here, to declare to the public, that whenever the
     British Government, the Court of Admiralty, or private individuals,
     have stood in need of translations, and decyphers from the Arabic,
     they have invariably found it expedient, ultimately, to apply to me
     for the same, after having, however, endeavoured ineffectually to
     procure their information at the Universities, the Post Office, and
     elsewhere: but as this declaration may appear to many incredible, I
     will mention three instances in elucidation of this my assertion,
     which, as they are all on record, will place this fact beyond
     doubt.

     1st. A vessel under Marocco colours, was, during last war, taken by
     a British cruiser, and sent or brought into Plymouth, or other
     port, in England. The captain and the ship were detained a
     considerable time here; the former, at length, whose patience
     became exhausted, expostulated at his detention, and insisted on
     being released, if no interpreter in this commercial nation could
     be found competent to translate his passport. _Mr. Slade, an
     eminent proctor in Doctors' Commons_, then applied to me, after a
     detention of, I believe, two months, and I translated the passport.
408  Mr. Slade very liberally told me, that whatever I chose to charge
     for this service, which he had _sought in vain to accomplish_,
     should be gratefully paid. I charged five guineas; and it was
     instantly paid. The passport consisted of two lines and a half.
     This was in the Court of Admiralty. Mr. Slade, who is an honourable
     and respectable man, will of course not hesitate to corroborate the
     accuracy of this statement.

     2d. A letter was written by the present Sultan Soliman, emperor of
     Marocco, &c. to our late revered sovereign, George III., in a more
     courteous style than is usual for Muhamedan potentates to write to
     Christian kings; with liberal offers on the part of the Sultan,
     courting an augmentation of friendly intercourse, &c. This letter
     (contrary to the usual courtesy of European courts) was neglected
     some months, no answer being returned to it. It was sent to the
     Universities for translation, but ineffectually; then to the Post
     Office; and, at the expiration of some months, it was accidentally
     transmitted to me, through the hands of the Right Honourable
     Spencer Perceval, at that time Chancellor of the Exchequer, and I
     delivered, at the request of that gentleman, a translation of it in
     English. This letter was ten or fifteen times as long as the
     passport before mentioned, and I charged thirty pounds for the
     service. But the Treasury thought ten pounds a sufficient
     remuneration, which I accepted!!
409
     This service was rendered to the British government, and I have
     letters and documents in my possession, which corroborate this
     fact.

     3d. Was the translation of an Arabic manuscript, respecting Mungo
     Park's death; delivered gratuitously to a private individual, viz.
     Mr. Bowdich, before mentioned; to satisfy the curiosity of my
     country, whose interest was excited respecting the fate of that
     enterprising and indefatigable African traveller. Mr. Bowdich, who
     is an honourable man, will undoubtedly confirm the truth of this
     statement, to any gentleman who may be desirous of ascertaining the
     fact.

     _The Shereef Ibrahim's account of Mungo Park's Death_.

     (THE AUTHOR'S TRANSLATION.)

     "In the name of God, the Merciful and Clement!

     "This narrative proceeds from the territory in Husa, called Eeaurie
     or Yeaurie. We observed an extraordinary event or circumstance, but
     we neither saw nor heard of the river which is called Kude. And as
     we were sitting we heard the voice of children; and we saw a
     vessel, the like to which in size we never saw before. And we saw
     the king of Eeaurie send cattle and sheep, and a variety of
     vegetables, in great abundance. And there were two men and one
     woman, and two slaves; and they tied them in the vessel. There were
410  also in the vessel two white men, of the race called Christians:
     and the Sultan of Eeaurie called aloud to them, to come out of the
     vessel, but they would not. They proceeded to the country of Busa,
     which is greater than that of the Sultan of Eeaurie. And as they
     were sitting in the vessel, they hung[232], or were stopped by the
     cape, or head-land of Kude."

         [Footnote 232: Probably by an impetuous current.]

     "And the people of the sultan of Busa called to them, and poured
     their arms into the vessel; and the vessel reached the head-land or
     cliff, and became attached or fixed to the head of the mountain or
     projection in the river, and could not pass it. Then the men and
     women of Busa collected themselves hostilely together, with arms of
     all descriptions; and the vessel being unable to clear the
     head-land, the man in the vessel killed his wife, and threw the
     whole of her property into the river; they then threw themselves
     into the river through fear. The news of this occurrence was then
     conveyed to the Sultan Wawee, until it reached, by water, the
     territory of Kanjee, in the country of the Sultan Wawee. And we
     buried it in its earth; and one of them we saw not at all in the
     water. And God knows the truth of this report from the mouth of the
     Shereef Ibrahim. The end."

411  OBSERVATION.

     After giving the foregoing translation, it behoves me to inform the
     intelligent reader, that I wrote a letter to Mr. Bowdich,
     communicating to him my observations on several notes, transmitted
     to him by Sir William Ouseley, on the manuscript of which the
     foregoing is a translation, in which I informed him, that in
     decyphering the Arabic manuscript, I had observed the Oriental or
     Asiatic punctuation; knowing that Mr. Bulmer had not letters with
     the occidental punctuation. Several observations I made, respecting
     the Arabic manuscripts which could not be elucidated here without
     the Arabic type. I shall, therefore, omit them, and conclude by
     observing, that in translating this manuscript, two gentlemen
     (Arabic scholars) had translated _akkadan Fie Asfeena_, "two maids
     in the ship;" which words I have translated, "were tied or bound in
     the vessel:" the word _akkadan_ being the preterite of the verb
     _akkad_, to bind. I was not surprised to hear that _one_ translator
     had made such an interpretation; knowing that incredible errors
     have been frequently committed by professed Professors in the
     Hebrew language as well as in the Arabic. But when I heard, as I
     did, that another Arabic scholar had given a similar
     interpretation, I must confess that I was not a little surprised.
     However, a circumstance soon after unravelled the mystery; for I
     discovered that these two gentlemen, at a loss no doubt to
412  ascertain the meaning of _akkadan_, had referred to Richardson's
     Arabic Dictionary, wherein the word is quoted to signify, in a
     figurative sense, a virgin. _In a figurative sense!_ In translating
     an ill-written, illiterate, and ungrammatical manuscript, these two
     translators had had recourse to _rhetorical figures_, and actually
     substituted a trope for what was a verb, generally used in the
     West, signifying "to bind!"

     As it has been asserted in the following extract, that my
     translation of the foregoing manuscript differs _only in a trifling
     degree_ from that of Mr. Abraham Salamé, I here insert my answer to
     that assertion, leaving the intelligent reader to determine,
     whether they are alike or materially different.

     _Extract from The Times, 3d May, 1819_.

     MUNGO PARK.

     The death of this enterprising traveller is now placed beyond any
     doubt. Many accounts of it have been received, and although varying
     as to the circumstances attending it, yet all agreeing that it has
     taken place. One statement was given to Mr. Bowdich, while on his
     mission to the King of the Ashantees, in 1817, by a Moor, who said
     that he was an eye-witness; and the same gentleman procured an
     Arabic manuscript declaratory of Mr. Park's death. This manuscript
     has been deposited with the African Association, formed for the
413  purpose of extending researches in that part of the world. Two
     translations have been made of this curious document; one by Mr.
     Salamé, an Egyptian, who accompanied Viscount Exmouth in his attack
     on Algiers, as interpreter; and the other by Mr. Jackson, formerly
     consul at one of the Barbary courts. The following is Mr. Salamé's
     translation, from which, however, _the one by Mr. Jackson only
     differs in a trifling degree_. The words in italics have been
     inserted by Mr. Salamé, in order to render the reading more
     perfect, and are not in the original:--

     _A literal Translation of a Declaration written in a corrupted
     Arabic, from the Town of Yaud, in the Interior of Africa_.

     "'In the name of God, the merciful and the munificent. This
     declaration is issued from the town called Yaud, in the county of
     Kossa. We (the writer) do witness the _following_ case (statement.)
     We never saw, nor heard of the sea (river) called Koodd; but we sat
     to hear (understood) the voice (report) of some persons, _saying_,
     'We saw a ship, equal to her we never saw before; and the King of
     Yaud had sent plenty of every kind of food, with cows and sheep;
     _there_ were two men, one woman, two male slaves, and two maids in
     the ship; _the_ two white men _were_ derived from the race (sect)
414  of Nassri (Christ, or Christianity.) The King of Yaud asked them to
     come out to him (to land); but they refused coming out (landing);
     and they went to the _King_ of the country of Bassa, who is greater
     than the King of Yaud; and _while_ they _were_ sitting in the ship,
     and gaining a position (rounding) over the Cape of Koodd, and
     _were_ in society with the people of the King of Bassa, the ship
     reached (struck) a head of mountain, which took (destroyed) _her_
     away, and the men and women of Bassa all together, with every kind
     of arms (goods); and the ship could find no way to avoid the
     mountain; and the man who _was_ in the ship, killed his wife, and
     threw all his property into the sea (river), and _then_ they threw
     themselves _also_, from fear. Afterwards they took one _out of the_
     water till the news reached the town of Kanji, the country of the
     King of Wawi; and the King of Wawi heard of it; he buried him in
     his earth (grave), and the other we have not seen; perhaps he is in
     the bottom of the water. And God knows best.' Authentic from the
     mouth of Sherif Abraham.--Finis.'

     "In addition to the foregoing, another corroboration has been
     obtained. Lieut. Col. Fitzclarence, when on his voyage down the
     Mediterranean on board the _Tagus_ frigate, Capt. Dundas, with
     despatches from the Marquis of Hastings, learnt from the governor
     to the two sons of the Emperor of Marocco, who had been on a
     pilgrimage to Mecca, and were then returning home, that he (Hadjee
415  Tahib) had been at Timbuctoo in 1807, and had heard of _two white_
     men, who came from the sea, having been near that place the year
     before; and that they sold beads, and had no money to purchase
     grain. This person added, that they went down the _Nile_ to the
     eastward, and that general report stated that they _died of the
     climate_. There can be little doubt but the _two white_ men here
     alluded to were Mr. Park and his companion, Lieutenant Martyn, who
     were at Sandsanding in Nov. 1805, and could, in the following year,
     have been near Timbuctoo. Sandsanding is the place from whence the
     last dispatches were dated by Mr. Park; and Amadi Fatouma, who was
     his guide afterwards, was sent to learn his fate, and returned with
     an account of Mr. Park being drowned. The statement of this person
     was, however, of such a nature as to excite suspicions of its
     correctness; and hopes were entertained that Mr. Park had not met
     with such an untimely fate. Fourteen years have now almost elapsed
     since the date of his last dispatches; and this circumstance is of
     itself sufficient to demonstrate, that he is to be added to the
     catalogue of those who have perished in their attempts to explore
     the interior of Africa.--_Englishman_."

     TO THE EDITOR OF THE BRITISH STATESMAN.

     Sir;--Seeing in your Paper of yesterday a translation of the Arabic
416  manuscript respecting Mr. Mungo Park's death, which is deposited
     with the African Association, and _decyphered and transcribed by
     me_ in Mr. Bowdich's account of a Mission to Ashantee, p. 480, and
     perceiving that the errors in _that translation_ are thus
     propagated to the public through the medium of the London Papers;
     which although perhaps of little consequence to the general reader,
     yet, as they are of importance to the critic, and to the
     investigator of African affairs, I shall take the liberty of
     offering a few observations on the subject.

     The following passage, in the translation above alluded to, might
     have passed the public eye without animadversion as the language of
     a foreigner, (as we have understood Mr. Salamé to be,) but from the
     intelligent Editor of a London daily paper, might we not have
     expected more correct phraseology?[233]

         [Footnote 233: "The phrases thus objected to by our learned
         Correspondent, were contained in the translations furnished to
         us in common with other papers, and not the language of the
         Editor. Indeed, this appears to be admitted by our
         Correspondent himself, in the apparently very just comments he
         has thus favoured us with.--EDITOR."]

     "The ship reached a head of mountain which took her away, and the
     men and women of Bassa, altogether with every kind of arms, and the
     ship could find no way to avoid the mountain."

     I have no hesitation in declaring to be incorrect the first two
417  lines of Mr. Abraham Salamé's translation, inserted in your paper
     of yesterday, which runs thus:--

     "_This declaration is issued from the town called YAUD, in the
     country of KOSSA_."

     My translation of this passage, inserted in Mr. Bowdich's account
     of a Mission to Ashantee, page 478, runs thus:--

     "_This narrative proceeds from the territory in HAUSA called
     ECAUREE_."

     No one, I presume, will say that there is not a _manifest_
     difference between these two translations--between _the town called
     Yaud, in the country of Kossa_, and the _territory of Hausa, called
     Ecauree_.

     One of these translations must therefore necessarily be incorrect.
     The Arabic manuscript decyphered and transcribed by me, is inserted
     in Mr. Bowdich's work, page 480. Those who may feel interested in
     ascertaining which is the correct and precise translation, are
     requested to refer to the transcript above-mentioned, or to the
     original manuscript, in the possession of the African Association.
     As for myself, I presume I am right; and would submit the decision
     to the judgment of either Sir Gore Ousley, or to that of Sir
     William, or to the opinion of any Arabic scholar, to decide this
     question.

     If, Mr. Editor, you had an Arabic type, to save the trouble of
     referring to the original, I should ask the Arabic scholar if it
     were possible for any man to translate the following passage in
418  that document:--"Bled Hausa eekalu Ecuree"--"the town called Yaud,
     in the country of Cossa;" whilst I should maintain that it would
     admit of no other translation but the following, viz.--"the country
     of Hausa, called Ecauree."

     If you think this elucidation of the translation of the Manuscript
     of Park's death sufficiently interesting to the public to deserve a
     place in your intelligent paper, it is very much at your service.

     From, Sir,

     Your most obedient servant,

     JAMES GREY JACKSON,

     Professor of African Languages, and formerly British Consul and
     Agent for Holland, Sweden, and Denmark, at Santa Cruz, South
     Barbary.[234]

     _Circus, Minories,                                  May 4._ 1819.

         [Footnote 234: See BRITISH STATESMAN, May 6th, 1819.]

419

                     LETTERS RESPECTING AFRICA,
                               FROM
                     _J.G. JACKSON AND OTHERS._



     _On the Plague._

     To JAMES WILLIS, Esq. late Consul to Senegambia.

     London, October 30, 1804.

     My dear Sir,

     Your letter reached my hands yesterday; but I am afraid I shall not
     be able to satisfy you in every enquiry which you have made
     relative to the plague in Barbary in 1799. I have, however, no
     doubt but the plague which has prevailed in Spain has originated
     from it. Some of the following observations may probably be of
     service to you.

     It does not appear to be ascertained how the plague originated in
     Fas in the year 1799. Some persons have ascribed it to infected
     merchandise received at Fas from the East; whilst others maintain
     that the locusts which had infested Western Barbary during seven
     years, destroying the crops, the vegetables, and every green thing,
     even to the bark of the trees, produced such a scarcity, that the
420  poor could obtain scarcely any thing to eat but the locusts; and
     living on them for several months, till a most abundant crop
     enabled them to satisfy the cravings of nature, they ate abundantly
     of the new corn, which producing a fever, brought on the contagion.
     At this time the small-pox pervaded the country, and was generally
     fatal. The small-pox is thought to be the forerunner of this
     species of contagion, as appears by an ancient Arabic manuscript,
     which gives a full account of the same disorder having carried off
     two-thirds of the inhabitants of West Barbary about four hundred
     years since; but, however the dreadful epidemy originated, the
     leading features of the disorder were novel, and more dreadful than
     the common plague of Turkey, or that of Syria or Egypt, as the
     following observations will demonstrate.

     In the month of April, 1799, a plague of the most dreadful kind
     manifested itself at the city of Old Fas, which soon after
     communicated itself to the new city. About this time the Emperor
     Muley Soliman ben Muhamed was preparing a numerous army, and was on
     the eve of departure to visit his Southern dominions, and to take
     possession of the province of Abda, which had not acknowledged him
     as Emperor, but was, as well as the port of Saffy, in a state of
     rebellion. The Emperor left Fas early in the summer, and proceeded
     to Sallee, Mazagan, and Saffee; thence to Marocco and Mogodor. Now
     the plague began to kindle in all the Southern provinces, first
     carrying off one or two the first day, three or four the second
421  day, six or eight the third day, and increasing progressively till
     it amounted to a daily mortality of two in a hundred of the whole
     population; continuing _with unabated violence_, ten, fifteen,
     twenty days, being of longer duration in old than in new towns;
     then diminishing in a progressive proportion from one thousand
     a-day, to nine hundred, to eight hundred and so continuing to
     decrease till it disappeared.

     When it raged at the town of Mogodor, a small village (Deabet)
     situated two miles South-east of Mogodor remained uninfected,
     although the communication was open between these two places. On
     the thirty-fourth day after its first appearance at Mogodor, this
     village received the infection, where, after committing dreadful
     havock among the human species for twenty-one days carried off one
     hundred persons out of one hundred and thirty-three, the population
     of the village before the plague visited it. After this, none died;
     but those who were infected recovered, some losing the use of a
     leg, or an arm, or an eye.

     Many similar circumstances might be mentioned relative to the
     numerous villages scattered about the extensive province of Haha,
     all which shared the like, or a worse fate. Travelling through this
     province after the plague had disappeared, I saw many ruins, which
     had been flourishing villages before the plague. Making enquiry
     concerning the population of these dismal remains of the
422  pestilence, I was informed, that one village contained six hundred
     inhabitants; that only four had escaped. Others, which had
     contained four and five hundred, had left seven or eight to lament
     the calamities they had suffered.

     Whenever any families retired to the country, to avoid the
     infection; on returning to town, when apparently all infection had
     disappeared, they were generally attacked, and died. The
     destruction of the human species in the province of Upper and
     LowerSuse was much greater than elsewhere. The capital city of this
     province (Tarodant) lost, when the infection was at its _acmé_,
     about eight hundred each day; the city of Marocco lost one thousand
     each day; the cities of Old and New Fas from twelve to fifteen
     hundred each day; insomuch, that, in these large towns, the
     mortality was such, that the living had not time to bury the dead:
     they were therefore thrown altogether into large holes, which were
     covered over when full of dead bodies.

     Young and healthy robust persons were generally attacked first;
     then women and children; lastly, thin, sickly, and old people.
     _After the plague had totally subsided, we saw men, who had been
     common labourers, enjoying their thousands, and keeping horses,
     without knowing how to ride them. Provisions became extremely
     cheap, for the flocks and herds had been left in the fields, and
     had nobody now to own them. Day-labour increased enormously. Never
423  was equality in the human species more evident than at this time_.
     _When corn was to be ground, or bread made, both were done in the
     houses of the rich, and prepared by themselves; for the very few
     poor people whom the plague had spared were insufficient for the
     wants of the affluent, and they were consequently obliged to work
     for themselves_. The country being now depopulated, vast tribes of
     Arabs from the Desert poured into Suse and Draha; settling
     themselves on the river Draha and in Suse, and wherever they found
     little or no population.

     The symptoms of the disorder varied in different patients; in some
     it manifested itself by a sudden shivering, in others by delirium,
     succeeded by a violent thirst. Cold water was drank eagerly by the
     imprudent, and generally proved fatal. Some had one, two, or three,
     some more biles, generally in the groin, under the arm, or near the
     breast; some had more. Some had no biles, nor any outward
     disfiguration; these were invariably carried off in less than
     twenty-four hours. I recommended Mr. Baldwin's remedy[235], applied
     according to his directions; and I do not know one instance of its
     failing, when properly applied, and sufficiently persevered in.

         [Footnote 235: Of unction of the body with olive oil.]

     I have no doubt but the epidemy, which has been ravaging Spain
     lately, is the same disorder with the one above described. We have
     been told that it was communicated originally to Spain by two
424  infected persons, who went from Tangier to Estapona, and eluded the
     vigilance of the guards. We have been assured that it was
     communicated by some persons infected, who landed in Spain from a
     vessel that had loaded produce at Laraich, in West Barbary. We have
     also been informed that a Spanish privateer, which had occasion to
     land its crew for water in some part of West Barbary, caught the
     infection, and afterwards went to Cadiz and communicated it to the
     town.

     JAMES G. JACKSON.

     _Death of Mungo Park_.

     May, 1812.

     The doubts which may have existed of the fate of this eminent man
     are now removed, by the certain accounts lately received from
     Goree, of his having perished, through the hostility of the
     natives, on one of the branches of the Niger. The particulars have
     been transmitted to Sir Joseph Banks, by Governor Maxwell, of
     Goree, who received them from Isaco[236], a Moor, sent inland by
     the Governor, for the purpose of enquiry. In a letter to Mr.
     Dickson, of Covent-garden, brother-in-law to Mr. Park, Sir Joseph
     thus writes:--

     "I have read Isaco's translated journal; by which it appears, that
425  the numerous European retinue of Mungq Park quickly and miserably
     died, leaving, at the last, only himself and a Mr. Martyn.
     Proceeding on their route, they stopped at a settlement, from
     which, according to custom, they sent a present to the chief whose
     territory they were next to pass. This present having been
     treacherously withheld, the chief considered it, in the travellers,
     as a designed injury and neglect. _On their approaching, in a
     canoe, he assembled his people on a narrow channel of rocks[237],
     and assailed them so violently with arrows, that some of the rowers
     were killed_. This caused Mr. Park and Mr. Martyn to make an effort
     by swimming to reach the shore; in which attempt they both were
     drowned. The canoe shortly afterwards sunk, and only one hired
     native escaped. Every appurtenance also of the travellers was lost
     or destroyed, except a sword-belt which had belonged to Mr. Martyn,
     and which Isaco redeemed, and brought with him to Goree."

         [Footnote 236: Isaco was a Jew, not a Moor.--J.G.J.]

         [Footnote 237: There is a remarkable confirmation of this
         quotation from Sir Joseph's letter in Mr. _Jackson's_
         translation of the Arabic manuscript of Mungo Park's death, for
         which see Bowdich's Account of a Mission to Ashantee, p. 480.;
         also Annals of Oriental Literature, No. I.]

     _Death of Mr. Rontgen, in an Attempt to explore the Interior of
     Africa_.

     May, 1812.

     The young German gentleman of the name of Rontgen, who left England
426  about a twelve-month since for Africa, in order to prosecute
     discoveries in the interior of that country, has, it is said, been
     murdered by the Arabs, before he had proceeded any great distance
     from Mogodor, where he spent some time perfecting himself in the
     Arabic language. He was a promising young man, and an enthusiast in
     the cause in which he was lost, and supposed to understand the
     Arabic language better than any European who ever before entered
     Africa. At an early age he formed the plan of going to that
     country, and gave up his connections and a competency in Germany,
     to prosecute his intentions. His father was a character well known
     in Europe, who raised himself from obscurity to the greatest
     celebrity by his talent for mechanics. He was at one time worth a
     million, but was ruined by the French revolution.

     _The following Letter from James Willis, Esq. late Consul to
     Senigambia, is extracted from the Gentleman's Magazine for May,
     1812_.

     COMMERCIAL INTERCOURSE WITH AFRICA.

     May 5. 1812.

     At a time when our ancient rivals and enemies are exerting all
     their powers to destroy the British commerce, and have nearly
     effected their gigantic schemes of cutting off all communication
     between Great Britain and the various ports, states, and kingdoms
     of Europe; at such a time when we are in imminent danger of losing
427  the markets of a quarter of the globe, it becomes essentially
     important to discover other channels for our commerce, and other
     markets for our manufactures.

     In this point of view, the information lately communicated to the
     public by Mr. James Grey Jackson, in his "Travels in Africa,"
     becomes highly interesting to the statesman as well as to the
     merchant. From the account which he has given of the city of
     Timbuctoo, and its commercial relations, there is great reason to
     conclude, that if we could find means to open and maintain a safe
     and easy communication with that great emporium, and with the rich,
     fertile, and populous regions in its vicinity, we might acquire a
     market for our manufactures, that would in time compensate for the
     loss of that of Europe.

     In the warehouses of Timbuctoo, are accumulated the manufactures of
     India and of Europe; and from thence the immense population that
     dwells upon the banks of the Niger is supplied. There is no doubt
     that we could furnish the articles they want, upon much lower terms
     than they can obtain them at present; and, in return, we should
     furnish the best market they could have for their gold, ivory,
     gums, and other rich products, and raw materials.

     Now, it certainly appears to me, and I think it must appear to
     every man who takes the trouble of investigating the subject, that,
     provided Government would give proper support to the enterprise,
     this important communication might easily be established. _For this
428  purpose, nothing more is necessary than to take a fortified station
     upon the African coast, somewhere about the 29th degree of north
     latitude, near the confines of the Marocco dominions, to serve as a
     safe magazine or emporium for merchandize. From this station it
     would be easy to maintain a direct correspondence with the opulent
     merchants of Timbuctoo; regular caravans might be established to
     depart at fixed periods; the protection of the Arabs can at all
     times be purchased at stipulated prices, which may be considered as
     premiums of insurance, or as a tax for convoy_, and thus in a
     little time these caravans might carry out merchandize, to and from
     Timbuctoo, with as much regularity and safety, and with less
     expense, than our fleets convey our goods to and from the West
     Indies.

     The expense of such a fortified station as is here proposed, would
     be very moderate, in comparison with the advantages it would
     produce; and it would be easy to draw out a plan for it; but I do
     not think it would be proper to go into a detail here,--_"non est
     hic locus."_

     It has been well observed, that commerce is the key of Africa; and
     I shall only add, that if the plan I have suggested were carried
     into execution, these interesting regions of Africa, that have
     heretofore baffled the attempts of curiosity and enterprise, and
     remained for so many ages a "sealed book" to the inhabitants of
     Europe, would soon be explored and laid open. This is an object
429  that cannot be indifferent to a prince, who has so evidently
     evinced a desire to patronise science, and who is undoubtedly
     desirous to encourage, to facilitate, and to increase, still
     further the vast geographical discoveries which have added such
     lustre to the reign of his august father.

     To return to Mr. Jackson's book. This work contains, besides the
     information that more directly concerns the statesman and the
     merchant, much interesting matter for the natural and moral
     philosopher, as well as for the general reader. The author makes no
     pretension to fine writing; his style is plain, unaffected, and
     perspicuous, and there is as much new, authentic, and important
     matter in the book, as in the hands of the French writers of
     African travels, (Golberry, Vaillant, and Savary, for instance,)
     would have been spread over three times the space. Upon the whole,
     it is the most valuable work of the kind that has appeared for many
     years. I hope the author will reap the reward which his labours
     have so well deserved.

     JAMES WILLIS.

     _Of the Venomous Spider.--Charmers of Serpents.--Disease called
     Nyctalopia, or Night-blindness.--Remedy for Consumption in
     Africa.--Western Branch of the Nile, and Water Communication
     between Timbuctoo and Egypt_.

     Sir,

     The venomous spider (_Tendaraman_). This beautiful reptile is
     somewhat similar to a hornet in size and colour, but of a rounder
430  form; its legs are about an inch long, black, and very strong; it
     has two bright yellow lines, latitudinally crossing its back; it
     forms its web octagonally between bushes, the diameter being two or
     three yards; it places itself in the centre of its web, which is so
     fine, as to be almost invisible, and attaches to whatever may pass
     between those bushes. It is said to make always towards the head,
     before it inflicts its deadly wound. In the cork forests, the
     sportsman, eager in his pursuit of game, frequently carries away on
     his garments the _tenderaman_, whose bite is so poisonous, that the
     patient survives but a few hours.

     Charmers of serpents (_Aisawie_).--These _Aisawie_ have a
     considerable sanctuary at Fas. They go to Suse in large bodies
     about the month of July to collect serpents, which they pretend to
     render harmless by a certain form of words, incantation, or
     invocation to _Seedy ben Aisah_, their tutelary saint. They have an
     annual feast, at which time they dance and shake their heads
     quickly, during a certain period, till they become giddy, when they
     run about the towns frantic, attacking any person that may have a
     black or dark dress on; they bite, scratch, and devour any thing
     that comes in their way. They will attack an _unjumma_, or portable
     fire, and tear the lighted charcoal to pieces with their hands and
     mouths. I have seen them take the serpents, which they carry about,
     and devour them alive, the blood streaming down their clothes. The
431  incredible accounts of their feats would fill a volume; the
     following observations may suffice to give the reader an idea of
     these extraordinary fanatics. The _buska_ and the [238]_el effah_
     are enticed out of their holes by them; they handle them with
     impunity, though their bite is ascertained to be mortal; they put
     them into a cane basket, and throw it over their shoulders: these
     serpents they carry about the country, and exhibit them to the
     people. I have seen them play with them, and suffer them to twist
     round their bodies in all directions, without receiving any injury
     from them. I have often enquired how they managed to do this, but
     never could get any direct or satisfactory answer; they assure you,
     however, that faith in their saint, and the powerful influence of
     the name of the divinity, (_Isim Allah_,) enables them to work
     these miracles: they maintain themselves in a miserable way, by
     donations from the spectators before whom they exhibit. This art of
     fascinating serpents was known by the ancient Africans, as appears
     from the _Marii_ and _Psilii_, who were Africans, and showed proofs
     of it at Rome.

         [Footnote 238: For a description of these deadly serpents, see
         Jackson's Account of Marocco, &c. chapter on Zoology.]

     _Bu Telleese Nyctalopia_.--This ophthalmic disease is little known
     in the northern provinces; but in Suse and Sahara it prevails. A
     defect of vision comes on at dusk, but without pain; the patient is
432  deprived of sight, so that he cannot see distinctly, even with the
     assistance of candles. During my residence at Agadeer, a cousin of
     mine was dreadfully afflicted with this troublesome disease, losing
     his sight at evening, and continuing in that state till the rising
     sun. A Deleim Arab, a famous physician, communicated to me a
     sovereign remedy, which being extremely simple, I had not
     sufficient faith in his prescription to give it a trial, till
     reflecting that the simplicity of the remedy was such as to
     preclude the possibility of its being injurious, it was applied
     inwardly; and twelve hours afterwards, to my astonishment, the
     boy's eyes were perfectly well, and continued so during twenty-one
     days, when I again had recourse to the same remedy, and it effected
     a cure, on one administration, during thirty days, when it again
     attacked him; the remedy was again applied with the same beneficial
     effect as before.

     _Offer to discover the African Remedy for Nyctalopia, or Night
     Blindness_.

     (TO THE EDITOR OF THE LITERARY PANORAMA.)

     Sir,

     Having read your animadversions on the additional matter introduced
     in my second edition of an "Account of Marocco, Timbuctoo," &c.
     (see Literary Panorama for April last, p. 713.) wherein you
433  conceive that I am reprehensible for not having discovered publicly
     the remedy alluded to as an infallible cure to the _Butellise_ or
     _Nyctalopia_, I should observe that I was not apprised, (till I
     read those animadversions,) that this was a disorder incident to
     the inhabitants in Europe, or that it affected our seamen on the
     Mediterranean station. But, if that be the case, and it should be
     found expedient and beneficial to the interests of Great Britain,
     that this remedy should be divulged for the alleviation of our
     meritorious seamen in His Majesty's service, I am willing to make
     the discovery to any respectable medical man who may be appointed
     by Government as physician or surgeon on the Mediterranean station.

     JAMES G. JACKSON.

     May 18. 1812.

     TO THE EDITOR OF THE LITERARY PANORAMA.

     Circus, Minories,                                June 21. 1815.

     Sir,

     I request you will contradict in your next publication the
     assertion of my _decease_, which is calculated to injure
     considerably my interests abroad as a merchant. (Vide your Review
     of Parke's Travels, page 377.) In answer to this unfounded
     information, which has been propagated in your review of last
     month, I have to acquaint you that I am not only in the land of the
     living, but in excellent health, and waiting to hear the testimony
434  of some stranger or European traveller (since the Africans are not
     to be relied on), who shall establish the fact of _the junction of
     the Nile of Sudan with that of Egypt; or at least, the
     approximation of these two mighty streams_. And notwithstanding
     _the_ insidious reflections and censures passed on the native
     Africans, from whom I gathered much of the information communicated
     to the public in my account of Marocco, it must be allowed by all
     liberal-minded men, that a native is more likely to give an
     accurate account of his country than a foreigner; and a residence
     of sixteen years in a country may be allowed to give a man of
     common observation experience enough to select judiciously such
     intelligence as might be relied on; and I have no hesitation in
     declaring it to be my unalterable opinion, that _so soon as a
     traveller shall have returned from the interior of Africa, many of
     my assertions respecting those regions will be confirmed_, and that
     information founded on the testimony of unprejudiced and
     disinterested Africans, will be found not so contemptible as some
     learned persons have imagined.

     JAMES G. JACKSON.
435

     _Critical Observations on Abstracts from the Travels of Ali Bey,
     and Robert Adams, in the Quarterly Journal of Literature, Science,
     and the Arts, edited at the Royal Institution of Great Britain,
     Vol. I. No. II. page 264_.

                                                 London, Dec. 19. 1817.

     In the discussion on Aly Bey's Travels, in the Journal of Science
     and the Arts, above mentioned, p. 270. are the following words:--

     "Aly Bey has added, in a separate chapter, all the information he
     received, respecting a mediterranean sea, from a merchant of
     Marocco, of the name of Sidi Matte Buhlal, who had resided many
     years at Timbuctoo, and in other countries of Sudan or Nigritia,
     the most material of which was, that Tombut is a large town, very
     trading, and inhabited by Moors and Negroes, and was at the same
     distance from the Nile Abid, (or Nile of the Negroes, or Niger,) as
     Fez is from Wed Sebu, that is to say, _about three hundred English
     miles_."

     As this passage is quoted from Aly Bey, by the first literary
     society of Great Britain, and is, therefore, calculated to create a
     doubt of the accuracy of what I have said, respecting the distance
     of the Nile El Abeed from Timbuctoo, in the enlarged editions of my
     account of Marocco, &c. page 297. I consider it a duty which I owe
436  to my country and to myself, not to let this sentence pass through
     the press without submitting to the public my observations on the
     subject.

     Sidi Matte Buhlal is a native of Fas: the name is properly Sidi El
     Mattie Bû Hellal. This gentleman is one out of twenty authorities
     from whom I derived the information recorded in my account of
     Marocco, respecting Timbuctoo and the interior of Africa; his whole
     family, which is respectable and numerous, are among the first
     Timbuctoo merchants that have their establishments at Fas. I
     should, however, add, that among the many authorities from whom I
     derived my information relative to Timbuctoo, there were two
     muselmen in particular,--merchants of respectability and
     intelligence, who came from Timbuctoo to Santa Cruz, soon after _I
     opened that port to Dutch commerce, in the capacity of agent of
     Holland, by order of the then Emperor of Marocco, Muley Yezzid_,
     brother and predecessor of the present Emperor Soliman. These two
     gentlemen had resided at Timbuctoo, and in other parts of Sudan,
     fifteen years, trading during the whole of that period with
     Darbeyta, on the coast of the Red Sea, with Jinnie, Housa, Wangara,
     Cashna, and other countries of the interior, from whom, and from
     others, equally intelligent and credible, I procured my information
     respecting the _mediterranean sea in the interior of Africa, called
     El Bahar Assudan, i.e. the Sea of Sudan_, situated fifteen days'
437  journey east of Timbuctoo. These two muselmen merchants had amassed
     considerable fortunes at Timbuctoo, and were on their journey to
     Fas, their native place; but in consequence of a civil war at that
     time raging throughout West Barbary, particularly in the province
     of Haha, through which it was indispensable that they should pass,
     on their way to Fas, they sojourned with me two months; after which
     they departed for Fas with a caravan.

     These intelligent Moors gave me much information respecting
     Timbuctoo, and the interior countries where they had resided; they
     sold me many articles of Sudanic manufacture, among which were
     three pieces of fine cotton cloth, manufactured at Timbuctoo, and
     some ornaments of pure gold _in or molu_, of exquisite workmanship,
     of the manufacture of Jinnie; one of these pieces of Timbuctoo
     manufacture, of cotton interwoven with silk, of a square
     blue-and-white pattern, dyed with _indigo of Timbuctoo_, I had the
     honour to present to the British Museum, in April, 1796[239], where
     it is now deposited.

         [Footnote 239: This piece of cloth, about two yards wide and
         five long, I had the honour of offering to Sir Joseph Banks,
         who declined receiving it; but at the same time suggested that
         it was a manufacture deserving public notice, and would be
         considered an acceptable present by the British Museum.]

     I have been led into this digression from certain insinuations that
     have been[240] insidiously propagated, reflecting on the accuracy
438  of my statements respecting the interior of Africa; and I must add,
     that I always have felt, and still feel confident, that in
     proportion as we shall become more acquainted with the interior of
     this unexplored continent, my account will be so much the more
     authenticated: my confidence in this opinion, (however dogmatical
     it may appear,) is founded on the original and intelligent sources
     of my information; on a long residence and general acquaintance
     with all the principal inhabitants of West Barbary, whose
     connections lay in Sudan, and at Timbuctoo; in a competent
     knowledge and practical acquaintance with the languages of North
     Africa, and a consequent ability to discriminate the accuracy of
     the sources of my intelligence.

         [Footnote 240: See my letter to the editor of the Monthly
         Magazine, for March, 1817; page 125.]

     This being premised, I now proceed to offer to the public my
     animadversions on the above quotation from the Journal of Science
     and the Arts.

     I have actually crossed the Wed Sebu, or the River Sebu, alluded to
     in the above quotation, which passes through the Berebber Kabyl of
     Zimure Shelleh; I have crossed the same river several times at the
     city of Mequinez, and also at Meheduma, where it enters the
     Atlantic Ocean, in lat. 34° 15' north, and from this experimental
     knowledge of the course of that river, I can affirm, with
     confidence, that it is not inaccurately laid down in my map of West
     Barbary[241], and that it is not three hundred English miles from
439  Fas, but only six English miles from that city. I can also assert,
     from incontestable testimony, that Tombut, or Timbuctoo, is[242]
     not three hundred miles from the Nile El Abeed, but only about
     twelve English miles from that stream, the latter being south of
     the town.

         [Footnote 241: For which see page 55.]

         [Footnote 242: Vide Jackson's enlarged Account of Marocco, &c.
         p. 297.]

     Respecting the following passage in the above quoted Journal of
     Science and the Arts, p. 272, "This river contains the fierce
     animals called _Tzemsah_, which devour men," I shall only observe,
     that _Tzemsah_ is the word in Arabic which denominates the
     _crocodile_. Farther on, in the same page, we have the words,--"We
     must suppose that the Joliba makes at this spot a strange winding,
     which gives to the inhabitants of Marocco the opinion they
     express." This supposed winding is actually asserted to exist, and
     is denominated by the Arabs[243] _El Kose Nile_, i.e. the arch or
     curve of the Nile, and is situated between the cities of Timbuctoo
     and Jinnie.

         [Footnote 243: Idem, note, p. 305.]

     I should here adduce some further testimony respecting the course
     of the Nile El Abeed; but as the quotation from Aly Bey in the
     above Journal of Sciences and the Arts, page 271. asserts it to be
     towards the east, and again, in page 272. declares it to be towards
     the west, such incoherence, I presume, requires no confutation. I
     consider that it originates from Moorish inaccuracy.
440
     The _La Mar Zarak_ of Adams, if any such river exists, may be a
     corruption of _Sagea el Humra_, i.e. the Red Stream, a river in the
     southern confines of Sahara, nearly in the same longitude with
     Timbuctoo. This river the late Emperor of Marocco, Muley Yezzid,
     announced as the southern boundary of his dominions; but from the
     accounts which I have had of it, it was not of that magnitude which
     Adams ascribes to the Mar Zarak, nor was it precisely in the
     neighbourhood of Timbuctoo, when I was a resident in South Barbary:
     rivers, however, _which pass through sandy or desert districts_,
     often change their courses in the space of twenty-four hours, by
     the drifting of the moving sands impelled by the wind; instances of
     which I have myself often witnessed.

     If this river proceeded from the Desert, it might have had the name
     of _El Bahar Sahara_, i.e. the River of Sahara; the word _La Mar_
     is a lingua franca, or corrupt Spanish word, signifying the sea,
     and might have been used to this poor sailor by a native to make it
     the more intelligible to him. Many Spanish words having crept into
     the Arabic vocabulary, and are occasionally used by those Africans
     who have had intercourse with Europeans.

441  The next passage for animadversion is as follows:--

     "The state in which he represented Timbuctoo, and its being the
     residence of a Negro sovereign, instead of a muselman."

     The state in which he has represented Timbuctoo, is, I think,
     extremely inaccurate; and being a slave, it is more than probable,
     that he was placed in a Fondaque[244], or Caravansera, belonging to
     the King, which he _mistook_ for his palace; but that his narrative
     should be deemed inaccurate, because he has described the town of
     Timbuctoo to be under the sovereignty of a Negro prince, is to me
     incomprehensible.

         [Footnote 244: Vide Jackson's enlarged Account of Marocoo, &c.
         p. 298.]

     The various sources of information that I have investigated,
     uniformly declare that sovereign to be a Negro, and that his name
     in the year 1800, was Woolo. This account, it appears, is confirmed
     by Adams, who says,[245] Woolo was King of Timbuctoo in 1810, and
     that he was then old and grey-headed. Some years after the above
     period, Riley's Narrative, epitomised in Leyden's Discoveries and
     Travels in Africa, vol. i., _speaking of the King of Timbuctoo,
     says, this sovereign is a very large, old, grey-headed black man_,
     called _Shegar_, which means Sultan. This, however, I must observe
     is a misinterpretation of the word _Shegar_, which is an
     African-Arabic word, and signifies _red or carrotty_, and is a word
     applicable to his physiognomy; but certainly not to his rank:--_Abd
442  Shegar_, a carrotty or red Negro. If these two testimonies, since
     1800, be correct, then the _anachronism_ of which I am accused in
     the New Supplement to the Encyclopedia Britannica, (title Africa,)
     is misapplied.

         [Footnote 245: Since publishing this letter, Mr. Bowdich, in
         his Account of Ashantee, pages 194, 195, says, Woolo was King
         of Timbuctoo in 1807, or ten years before Mr. Bowdich was at
         Ashantee.]

     Many of this king's civil officers, however, in 1800, were
     muselmen; but the military were altogether Negroes.

     However fervent the zeal of Muhamedanism may be at Timbuctoo, it is
     not, I imagine, sufficient to convert the Negroes, who have not the
     best opinion of the Muhamedan tenets. The Negroes, however, are
     disposed to abjure idolatry for any other form of religion that
     they can be persuaded to think preferable, or that holds out a
     better prospect; a convincing proof of which has been seen by the
     readiness of the Africans of Congo and Angola, to renounce their
     idolatry for the Christian faith, by the conversion of thousands to
     that faith by the indefatigable zeal of the catholic missionaries,
     when the Portuguese first discovered those countries, and which, if
     the Sovereign of Portugal had persevered with that laudable zeal
     with which he began to promote the conversion of the Africans, the
     inhabitants of those extensive and populous countries might, at
     this day, have been altogether members of the Christian church!!
443
     _On the Junction of the Nile of Egypt with the Nile of Timbuctoo,
     or of Sudan_.

     TO THE EDITOR OF THE MONTHLY MAGAZINE.[246]

         [Footnote 246: Inserted in March, 1817.]

     Sir,

     London, Jan. 25. 1817.

     Having read some annotations, in the Journal of a Mission to the
     Interior of Africa, by Mungo Park, in 1805, which are calculated to
     persuade some persons, that my Account of the Interior of Africa is
     not altogether authentic, I feel myself called upon to offer some
     cursory observations to the public, in refutation of those
     aspersions. (Vide Appendix, No. IV. to Mungo Park's Second Journey,
     in 1805, pages 114. and 115.)

     Although I assert, on the concurrent testimony of the best informed
     and most intelligent natives of Sudan, that there exists a
     [247]water communication between Timbuctoo and Cairo, I do not
     maintain that the [248]Nile of Sudan falls into the [249]Nile of
     Egypt, but that it hath a communication with it, or with some river
444  that connects itself with the Nile of Egypt, which opinion is
     confirmed by Mr. Hornemann, on African authority.

         [Footnote 247: Vide Jackson's Marocco, second or third edition,
         page 310.]

         [Footnote 248: (_Nile el Kabeer_) the Great Nile, (_Bahar el
         Abeed_, or _Nile el Abeed_) the Nile of Slaves or Negroes,
         (_Nile Sudan_) the Nile of Sudan or Nigritia, are the various
         names applied to the river that passes by Timbuctoo, and
         through the interior of Sudan, from west to east.]

         [Footnote 249: _Nile Masser_ is the name applied to the Nile of
         Egypt.]

     It is very probable that this junction is formed by a stream that
     flows westward towards Wangara through the country called [250]
     Bahar Kulla, and Lake Dwi, from the source of the Nile of Egypt, or
     from that part of the Jibbel Kumri, or Lunar Mountains, which form
     the southern boundary of Donga.

     If this be so, the junction of the Nile el Abeed, of Timbuctoo, and
     the Bahar el Aheäd of Donga[251], (or more properly the Bahar el
     Abeed,) is established, and the water communication between
     Timbuctoo and Cairo is proved; admitting, however, that the Negroes
     reported by me to have performed the[252] voyage by water, took
     their boat or canoe ashore, to ascend the cataracts, in the country
     between Wangara and Donga.

         [Footnote 250: _Bahar Kulla_ is an Arabic term, signifying the
         sea altogether, implying an alluvial country, (probably forming
         a part of the mediterranean sea of central Africa). See Major
         Rennel's Map in the Proceedings of the African Association,
         vol. i. 8vo. page 209. lat. N. 10°, long. 18°.]

         [Footnote 251: Vide Major Kennel's Map in the Proceedings of
         the African Association, 8vo. edition, vol. i. page 209.]

         [Footnote 252: Vide Jackson's Marocco, second or third edition,
         page 312.]

     Mr. Park's annotator, in the spirit of controversy with which he
     appears to be endued, may say, the fact of this stream running to
445  the west towards Wangara, cannot be admitted, because Mr. Browne
     saw a ridge of mountains extending in that direction; but Mr.
     Browne did not ascertain that this was an uninterrupted ridge; the
     river might therefore pass through some chasm similar to that which
     I have seen in crossing the Atlas Mountains, or through some
     intermediate plain.

     The annotator further says[253], "It is needless to comment upon
     such hearsay statements, received from an African traveller." This
     assertion being calculated to impress on the public mind, that I
     founded my hypothesis respecting the junction of the Niles of
     Africa on the simple and single statement of one individual African
     traveller; I feel it incumbent on me thus publicly to declare, that
     _the junction alluded to is founded on the universal and concurrent
     testimony of all the most intelligent and well informed native
     African travellers_ (for the most part natives of Sudan), not one
     of whom differed in this opinion, but unanimously declared it to be
     an uncontroverted fact, that the waters of the Nile of Egypt joined
     the waters of the Nile el Abeed, which passes near Timbuctoo to the
     east; and that there exists, without a doubt, a water communication
     between Cairo in Egypt, and Timbuctoo in Sudan. Now, if, as M. de
     Bailly observes, "_la vérité se fait connaître par le concours des
446  témoignages_," it must be admitted, by men of liberal sentiments,
     that it is somewhat more than a hearsay statement; and what better
     foundation can there possibly be for the truth of any geological
     fact, than the concurrent testimony of the best-informed natives of
     the country described?

         [Footnote 253: Vide Appendix, No. IV. to Park's Second Journey
         page 115.]

     With respect to precision being unfavourable to authenticity[254],
     I consider this a new dogma; and if I were disposed to confute it,
     (but it carries with it its own confutation,) I should point out
     many hearsay evidences, precisely recorded in my Account of
     Marocco, which have been confirmed already by Ali Bey (El Abassy)
     and many others; but "_non est hic locus_."

     J.G. JACKSON.

         [Footnote 254: Vide Appendix, No. II. to Park's Second Journey
         page 103.]

     _Strictures respecting the Interior of Africa, and Confirmation of
     Jackson's Account of Sudan, annexed to his Account of the Empire of
     Marocco, &c._

                                                 London, 16th Jan, 1818.

     It is a satisfaction to perceive (after a lapse of eight or nine
     years since the publication of my account of Marocco and the
     interior of Africa), that in proportion as we are becoming better
     acquainted with the interior of that continent, my account becomes
     more authenticated, notwithstanding the attempts that have been so
447  insidiously made to invalidate it.

     The various hypotheses, for the most part founded in theory, that
     have within the last seven years, been adopted respecting the
     course of the _Nile el Abeed_ (Niger), are beginning now to fall to
     the ground, and the learned and judicious editor of the Supplement
     to the New Encyclopedia Britannica, founding his opinions, as it
     should seem, upon the facts that have been corroborated respecting
     the interior of Africa, has actually adopted my opinion;[255] viz.

     That there is an union of waters between the Nile of Egypt, and
     that of Sudan[256]; where the common receptacle is, I have not
     ventured to declare, but it is probable that it may be in the Bahar
     Kulla[257], in Wangara, or in the [258]Sea of Sudan; the opinion
     that the junction is formed in the Sea of Sudan is supported by the
     Shereef Imhammed, who saw the Nile at Cashna, and declared that it
     was so rapid there from east to west, that vessels could not stem
     it.

         [Footnote 255: See my letter to the Editor of the Monthly
         Magazine, vol. xliii. March, 1817, page 125.]

         [Footnote 256: It is incorrect to say, that the word _Nile_ is
         applied, in Africa, to any great river: the name, I can with
         confidence declare, is never applied to any river in North
         Africa, except the Nile of Egypt, and that of Sudan; whoever
         has propagated this opinion has mistaken the matter altogether.
         See Proceedings of the African Association, vol. i. page 540.]

         [Footnote 257: See Major Rennell's Map of North Africa, lat.
         north 6°, long, west 18°, &c.]

         [Footnote 258: See Jackson's enlarged Account of Marocco,
         Timbuctoo, &c. page 310.]

448  Again: Parke's intelligence, in his second journey, demonstrates an
     union of waters in the (Baseafeena[259]) Sea of Sudan; for he says,
     the current was said to be sometimes one way, and sometimes
     another; which I will take the liberty to interpret thus:--

     That the current from the Eastern Nile, was westward into the Sea
     of Sudan, and the current of the Western Nile was eastward into the
     same sea of Sudan: thus the current would be sometimes one way, and
     sometimes another, making the Sea of Sudan the common receptacle
     for the Eastern as well as for the Western Nile.

     Ptolemy's Sea of Nigritia is undoubtedly the same with my Sea of
     Sudan; _Lybia Palus_[260] being the Latin denomination, as _Bahar
     Sudan_ is the Arabic for the interior lake called the Sea of Sudan;
     but whether this sea of Sudan will ultimately prove to be
     situated[261] as I have described it, fifteen journies[262] east of
     Timbuctoo, or 450 English miles, or as Ptolemy has described it, or
     in the intermediate distance between the two extremes, must be left
     for future travellers to ascertain.

         [Footnote 259: Another name for the Sea of Sudan, as will
         hereafter appear.]

         [Footnote 260: See Ptolemy's Map of North Africa.]

         [Footnote 261: See Jackson's enlarged Account of Marocco, page
         310.]

         [Footnote 262: Fifteen journies horse travelling, which are the
         journies here alluded to, at thirty miles a-day, is 450 British
         miles.]

     The enterprising and indefatigable, the patient and persevering
     genius of Burkhardt, deriving incalculable advantages from a long
449  residence in the eastern regions of Africa, may probably decree him
     to be the person to clear up this long-contested geographical
     point, unless the fascination of Arabian manners, or some Utopia in
     the interior regions of that continent, should wean him from the
     desire to re-visit his native country.

     This intelligence of Park may be considered some corroboration of
     what I have maintained respecting the union of waters between the
     Eastern and Western Niles.[263]

     The following testimonies are some confirmation of my report
     respecting decked vessels, &c. in the interior of Africa.[264]

     Dr. Stetzen, a German physician residing at Alexandria[265], says,
     that he has received intelligence from a pilgrim, on his way to
     Mecca, a native of _Ber Noh,_ or _Bernou_[266], that the river
     within a mile of the city is as large as the Egyptian Nile, and
     overflows its banks; _it is navigated by vessels of considerable
     dimensions, carrying sails and oars._

         [Footnote 263: See Monthly Magazine, March, 1817, page 125.]

         [Footnote 264: See Jackson's enlarged Account of Marocco, &c.
         page 309.]

         [Footnote 265: For full particulars, see New Supp. to Ency.
         Brit. article "Africa."]

         [Footnote 266: This Bernou, or according to the Arabic
         orthography, _Ber Noh_, is asserted by the Arabs to be the
         birth-place of the Patriarch Noah.]

     Mr. Barnes states, that the Niger discharges itself into a large
     lake; that he has heard from the Black traders that there are white
450  inhabitants upon the borders of this lake; and has been told, by
     people who have seen them, that they dress in the style of Barbary
     Moors, and wear turbans, but do not speak Arabic. See Report of
     Committee of Council.[267]

         [Footnote 267: See Jackson's enlarged Account of Marocco, &c.
         p, 309.]

     Park, in his second journey, was informed, that "one month's travel
     south of Baedo, through the kingdom of Grotto, will bring the
     traveller to the country of the Christians, who have their houses
     on the banks of the _Ba Seafeena_[268], which they describe as
     incomparably larger than the lake Dehebby (Dibbie)."--This is
     another corroboration of the accuracy of my account of the interior
     of Africa; but before I dismiss this subject, I should observe,
     that from the general ignorance of the African Arabic, an important
     circumstance respecting this _Ba Seafeena_, is not yet (it appears)
     discovered. It is this:--the words _Ba Seafeena_, or, according to
     the correct Arabic orthography, _Bahar Sefeena_, literally
     translated into English, signifies the Sea of Ships, and is
     evidently only another name for the Sea of Sudan, declaring it to
     be a sea wherein ships are found!

         [Footnote 268: See New Supp. to Ency. Brit. article "Africa."]

     Here then are two topographical facts first asserted by me, among
     the moderns, to exist in the heart of Africa, and since confirmed
     by Ali Bey, Park, and Dr. Sietzen, or, as the enlightened editor of
     the Supplement to the New Encyclopedia Britt. observes,

451  "We have thus three independent testimonies[269] from opposite
     quarters, meeting exactly in the same point; nor does there, as far
     as we know, exist any evidence _at all respectable_ to the
     contrary."

         [Footnote 269: The testimonies here alluded to are Hornman,
         Park, and Jackson.]

     It now remains for me to declare (that as opinions have been
     industriously propagated tending to discredit my account of
     Marocco, and the interior of Africa,) that nothing has been set
     down therein, until I had previously investigated the
     qualifications of the narrators, their means of knowledge, and
     whether the respective vocations of the several narrators made it
     their interest to disguise or misrepresent the truth of their
     communications; and, after ascertaining these important points, I
     have generally had recourse to other testimonies, and have seldom
     recorded any thing until confirmed by three or four _concurrent_
     evidences: on this _pyramidical basis_ is founded the intelligence
     in my account of Marocco, and of the interior of Africa, annexed to
     that account.

     This assertion is to be understood in respect to intelligence that
     I could not ascertain by ocular demonstration.

     Finally, my description of the black heartheaded serpent, called
452  Bouska[270], has been doubted; but a late traveller[271] has
     confirmed the accuracy of my account; even of this extraordinary
     animal.--In Riley's Narrative of his Shipwreck on the
453  Coast of Sahara is given an account of an exhibition by two
     _Isawie_[272], who do not appear to have been adepts in the art of
454  fascinating these serpents; for I have frequently seen them manage
455  and charm the _Bouska_ much more adroitly than those who exhibited
     at Rabat before Riley, although its bite is more deadly, and its
     strength considerably greater, than that of the _El Effah!_

         [Footnote 270: See Jackson's enlarged Account of Marocco, &c.
         p. 109.]

         [Footnote 271: "I paid two dollars for a station, and I looked
         into the room without interruption. It was about twenty feet
         long, and fifteen broad, paved with tiles and plastered within.
         The windows had also been secured by an additional grating made
         of wire, in such a manner as to render it impossible for the
         serpents to escape from the room: it had but one door, and that
         had a hole cut through it six or eight inches square: this hole
         was also secured by a grating. In the room stood two men, who
         appeared to be Arabs, with long bushy hair and beards; and I
         was told they were a particular race of men, that could charm
         serpents.

         "A wooden box, about four feet long and two wide, was placed
         near the door, with a string fastened to a slide at one end of
         it; this string went through a hole in the door. The two
         serpent-eaters were dressed in haiks only, and those very small
         ones. After they had gone through their religious ceremonies
         most devoutly, they appeared to take an eternal farewell of
         each other: this done, one of them retired from the room, and
         shut the door tight after him. The Arab within seemed to be in
         dreadful distress. I could observe his heart throb, and his
         bosom heave most violently: and he cried out very loudly,
         "_Allah houakiber_", three times; which is, as I understood it,
         _God have mercy on me_.[273]

         "The Arab was at the farthest end of the room: at that instant
         the cage was opened, and a serpent crept out slowly; he was:
         about four feet long, and eight inches in circumference; his
         colours were the most beautiful in nature, being bright, and
         variegated with a deep yellow, a purple, a cream colour, black
         and brown, spotted, &c. As soon as he saw the Arab in the room,
         his eyes, which were small and green, kindled as with fire; he
         erected himself in a second, his head two feet high; and
         darting on the defenseless Arab, seized him between the folds
         of his haik, just above his right hipbone, hissing most
         horribly; the Arab gave a horrid shriek, when another serpent
         came out of the cage. This last was black, very shining, and
         appeared to be seven or eight feet long, but not more than two
         inches in diameter: as soon as he had cleared the cage, he cast
         his _red fiery eyes_ on his intended victim, thrust out his
         forked tongue, _threw himself into a coil, erected his head,
         which was in the centre of the coil_, three feet from the
         floor, and flattening out the skin above his head and eyes, in
         the form, and nearly of the size of a human heart, and
         springing like lightning on the Arab, struck its fangs into his
         neck near the jugular vein, while his tail and body flew round
         his neck and arms in two or three folds. The Arab set up the
         most hideous and piteous yelling, foamed and frothed at the
         mouth, grasping the folds of the serpent, which were round his
         arms with his right hand, and seemed to be in the greatest
         agony, striving to tear the reptile from around his neck, while
         with his left he seized hold of it near its head, but could not
         break its hold: by this time the other had turned itself around
         his legs, and kept biting all around the other parts of his
         body, making apparently deep incisions: the blood, issuing from
         every wound (both in his neck and body,) streamed all over his
         haik and skin. My blood was chilled in my veins with horror at
         this sight, and it was with difficulty my legs would support my
         frame.

         "Notwithstanding the Arab's greatest exertions to tear away the
         serpents with his hands, they turned themselves still tighter,
         stopped his breath, and he fell to the floor, where he
         continued for a moment, as if in the most inconceivable agony,
         rolling over, and covering every part of his body with his own
         blood and froth, until he ceased to move, and appeared to have
         expired. In his last struggle, he had wounded the black serpent
         with his teeth, as it was striving, as it were, to force its
         head into his mouth, which wound Footnote: seemed to increase
         its rage. At this instant I heard the shrill sound of a
         whistle, and looking towards the door saw the other Arab
         applying a call to his mouth: the serpents listened to the
         music, their fury seemed to forsake them by degrees, they
         disengaged themselves leisurely from the apparently lifeless
         carcase, and creeping towards the cage, they soon entered it,
         and were immediately fastened in.

         "The door of the apartment was now opened, and he without ran
         to assist his companion: he had a phial of blackish liquor in
         one hand, and an iron chissel in the other: finding the teeth
         of his companion set, he thrust in the chissel, forced them
         open, and then poured a little of the liquor into his mouth;
         and holding the lips together, applied his mouth to the dead
         man's nose, and filled his lungs with air: he next anointed his
         numerous wounds with a little of the same liquid, and yet no
         sign of life, appeared. I thought he was dead in earnest; his
         neck and veins were exceedingly swollen; when his comrade
         taking up the lifeless trunk in his arms, brought it out into
         the open air, and continued the operation of blowing for
         several minutes before a sign of life appeared; at length he
         gasped, and after a time recovered so far as to be able to
         speak. The swellings in his neck, body, and legs gradually
         subsided, as they continued washing the wounds with clear cold
         water and a sponge, and applying the black liquor occasionally;
         a clean haik was wrapped about him, but his strength seemed so
         far exhausted that he could not support himself standing, so
         his comrade laid him on the ground by a wall, where he sunk
         into a sleep. This exhibition lasted for about a quarter of an
         hour from the time the serpents were let loose until they were
         called off, and it was more than an hour from that time before
         he could speak. I thought I could discover that the poisonous
         fangs had been pulled out of these formidable serpents' jaws,
         and mentioned that circumstance to the showman, who said, that
         they had indeed been extracted; and when I wished to know how
         swellings on his neck and other parts could be assumed, he
         assured me, that though their deadly fangs were out, yet that
         the poisonous quality of their breath and spittle would cause
         the death of those they attack; that after a bite from either
         of these serpents, no man could exist longer than fifteen
         minutes: and that there was no remedy for any but those _who
         were endowed by the Almighty with power to charm, and to manage
         them_; and that he and his associates were of that favoured
         number! The Moors and Arabs call the thick and beautiful
         serpent _El Effah_, and the long black and heartheaded one _El
         Bouskah_.

         "I afterwards saw engravings of these two serpents in
         _Jackson's Marocco_; which are very correct resemblances. They
         are said to be very numerous on and about the south foot of the
         Atlas mountains and border of the Desert, where these were
         caught when young, and where they often attack both men and
         beasts."--Vide _Riley's Shipwreck and Captivity in the Great
         Desert_, p. 550.]

         [Footnote 272: Disciples of Seedy ben Isa, whose sanctuary is
         at Fas, and who possess the art of fascinating serpents.]

         [Footnote 273: N.B. This is a misinterpretation of the Arabic
         words here used, which, literally translated, signify, _God
         alone, is great!_--J.G.J.]

     _Animadversions on the Orthography of African Names_.

     (TO THE EDITOR OF THE MONTHLY MAGAZINE, INSERTED MAY, 1818.)

     Sir,

     Bennet's-hill,                                          Feb. 1818.

     I should be much surprised to find that Jackson's account of what
     he has heard is doubted, if I did not remember that Bruce's account
456  of what he had seen was disbelieved. Nothing human can appear to me
     more deserving of implicit credit than the intelligence the former
     of these writers gives respecting Timbuctoo. He has not seen it, it
     is true. I have not seen Lisbon; but, if I had, and were to sit
     down to write an account of it, some things would be necessary to
     be described, with regard to which I should feel a degree of
     uncertainty; and, having given an account of Lisbon, if I were to
     visit it again, I should find others on which I had been mistaken.
     But let me arrange in my own mind the information I want respecting
     Lisbon; let me make enquiries of twenty intelligent persons who
     have resided there; let me carefully compare their different
     accounts, and who shall doubt the accuracy of the result?

     Mr. Jackson has had an opportunity of acquiring information
     respecting Timbuctoo that no other European ever had, by having the
     direction of commerce in a city frequented by Timbuctan merchants;
     a city, the port of which is called, in Arabic, _Bab Sudan_, the
     Gate of Sudan. Mr. Jackson was qualified to make use of this
     advantage to an extent that no other European ever was, by a
     practical, and even critical knowledge of the general language of
     the country,--the African Arabic. To these Mr. Jackson added an
     ardent spirit of research, an industry which neglected no
     opportunity, a caution to compare, a judgment to discriminate, and
457  a firmness to decide. Who, that weighs these things, can doubt the
     accuracy of his intelligence respecting Sudan? I even regard his
     orthography as the standard of correctness, and am surprised that
     any person should continue to write Timbuctoo instead of Timbuctoo,
     or Fez instead of Fas.

     I am inclined to believe that Adams has been at Timbuctoo, though I
     do not consider it as proved; but, supposing that he has, and that
     I wished to become acquainted with that city, would I apply for
     information to an illiterate slave, who was confined within narrow
     precincts? Or would I rely upon the united testimony of twenty
     persons of education, who had each a wider field of observation?

     I have read "Jackson's Account of Marocco" twice through, at
     different periods, with great attention; and I do most heartily
     join in the confidence expressed by the enlightened and judicious
     author, that, in proportion as the interior of Africa shall be more
     known, the truth of his account of it will be made evident.

     CATHERINE HUTTON.

     _Hints for the Civilisation of Barbary, and Diffusion of Commerce_.

                                                         March 16, 1818.

     Algiers, and the territory belonging to it, is governed by despotic
     Turks, the refuse of the Ottoman troops; who maintain their power
458  over the Moors and Arabs of the plains (who are the cultivators of
     the country), and over the Berebbers (who are the aborigines of the
     country), or inhabitants of the mountains of Atlas, which terminate
     this sovereignty on the south, and divide Algiers from
     Bled-al-Jereed. The first principle of this barbarous and
     sanguinary government, according io an African adage, is to
     "_Maintain the arm of power, by making streams qf blood flow,
     without intermission, around the throne!_" This country,--the
     government of which reflects disgrace on Christendom, which has
     been, during many ages the scourge of Christian mariners, and of
     all who navigate the Mediterranean Sea,--has often been conquered.
     The Romans reduced Numidia and Mauritania into Roman provinces.
     This beautiful garden of the world was afterwards conquered by the
     Vandals; then by the Greeks, during the reign of Justinian, under
     Belisarius; and, finally, three times by the Arabs, viz. in the
     647th year of Christ, by Abdallah and Zobeer; in the year 667, by
     Ak'bah for the Kalif Moawiah; and in the year 692, by Hassan, the
     governor of Egypt, for the Kalif Abd Elmelik. Not one of the armies
     of these warriors ever exceeded 50,000 men.

     After these general conquests, the partial conquests of the
     Portuguese and Spaniards, about the end of the fifteenth and
     beginning of the sixteenth century, were effected by a mere handful
     of men; and, in 1509, the latter rendered the kingdom of Algiers
     tributary to them: but, afterwards, they lost it by the ferocity of
459  their chiefs, and by the fanaticism of their soldiers and priests;
     and, finally, by their perfidy and intolerance, they made
     themselves enemies to the various (_Kabyles_) tribes of Mauritania,
     and thereby lost their conquest.

     The repeated insults, offered by these ruffians to civilised
     Europe, cannot be efficiently punished by a bombardment; a measure
     which punishes many innocent subjects for the insults offered by
     their government. No one acquainted with the character of the
     natives of Barbary will maintain, that the destruction of a few
     thousands of the peaceable inhabitants, or the burning of many
     houses, is a national calamity in the eyes of a Muselman chief; who
     would himself commit the same ravage and destruction that was so
     gallantly effected by the British fleet, under Lord Exmouth, for
     half the money it cost to accomplish it.

     When Lord St. Vincent was off Cadiz with the British fleet, and
     could not obtain the object which he sought of the Emperor of
     Marocco; his Lordship, after refusing to comply with the Emperor's
     request, communicated to his Lordship by the Emperor's envoy, or
     agent, Rais Ben Embark, told the Rais to inform his Emperor, that,
     if he did not change his conduct very soon, he would begin a war
     with him, and such a war as he had neither seen nor read of before.
     When the Rais reported this to the Emperor Soliman, he enquired
     what kind of war an admiral could wage against him; some one of the
460  divan observed, that he would destroy the ports on the coast;
     adding, that it would cost a certain large sum of money to effect
     that destruction. Upon which the Emperor exclaimed, that, for half
     that amount, he would himself destroy all these ports.--This affair
     happened in September, 1798.

     There is a prophecy in Barbary, that, from time immemorial, has
     been generally credited by the inhabitants. It has been transmitted
     to them by some fakeer, that the land of the Muselmen will be
     wrested from them by the Christians; and there is an impression,
     that the period when this event will take place is not far distant.
     They also believe that this event will happen on a Friday (the
     Muselman Sabbath), whilst they are occupied at their devotions at
     the _Dohor_, service of prayer. Accordingly, at this period,--viz.
     from twelve till half-past one o'clock,--the gates of all the
     town's on the coast are shut and bolted every Friday. This attack,
     forsooth, is to happen whilst they are occupied at prayer, because
     they are so infatuated with an opinion of their own valour, that
     they will not believe that Christians would presume to attack them
     openly, when armed and prepared for the combat. It should seem that
     these people begin now seriously to anticipate the near approach of
     this predestined conquest, and have accordingly entered into a kind
     of holy alliance, offensive and defensive: to which, it is said,
     the Emperor of Marocco, and the Deys of Tunis and Tripoli, have
     acceded; and that this holy alliance is crowned by the Ottoman
     Emperor.
461
     It is more than probable, that the Dey of Algiers, goaded by the
     blow inflicted by Lord Exmouth,--which has increased his hatred to
     Christians, and has inflamed his desire of revenge,--will not fail
     to seek every opportunity (according to the known principles of
     Muhamedanism), of retaliating and insulting the Europeans, whenever
     a favourable opportunity may offer, even at the risk of another
     bombardment. This opinion has been confirmed by his late conduct;
     and by the activity that has been manifested in the fortifications,
     in increasing their military force, in building and equipping new
     vessels, to infest the Mediterranean with their abominable
     piracies; all which proceedings demonstrate the hostile intentions
     of the Dey beyond all doubt.

       *       *       *       *       *

     _Plan for the Conquest of Algiers._

     The inhabitants of the plains are bigoted to the Muhamedan tenets;
     but they would readily exchange the iron rod that rules them for a
     more mild and beneficial form of government. A well-disciplined
     European army of 50,000 men, would assuredly effect their complete
     conquest without much difficulty: such an army, directed by a
     Wellington, would perform wonders, and astound the Africans. After
     the conquest, an energetic, decisive, but beneficent form of
     government, would be necessary, to retain the country, and to
462  conquer and annihilate the repugnancy which these people entertain
     to our religious tenets. A system of rule formed on the principles
     of the English constitution,--directed by good policy, benevolence,
     and religious toleration,--would not fail to reconcile these
     hostile tribes, and attach them to rational government. The
     Berebbers would readily assimilate to such a government; and,
     although by nature a treacherous race, they would rejoice to see
     the country in possession of a government which, they would
     perceive, strove to promote the welfare and prosperity of the
     mountaineers, as well as the inhabitants of the plains; and their
     own interest would thus gradually subdue the antipathy resulting
     from religious prejudices.

     A general knowledge of the African Arabic would be essentially
     necessary; and I think a school might be established in England, on
     the Madras system, for initiating youths (going out to Africa) in
     the rudiments of that language. This would be attended with most
     important advantages; and might be accomplished in a very short
     time. The conquest of Algiers being thus effected, that of the
     neighbouring states would follow, without difficulty, by a
     disciplined army of European troops; keeping the principle ever in
     view, of conciliating the natives, without swerving from an
     energetic and decisive mode of government.

     The advantages that would necessarily result from a successful
     attack upon Africa, would be--
463
     1. An incalculable demand for spices, and East India manufactures
     of silk and cotton.

     2. A similar demand for coffees, and for sugars, manufactured and
     unmanufactured; as well as for other articles of West India
     produce.

     3. An incalculable demand for all our various articles of
     manufacture.

     On the other hand, we should obtain from this fine country,--

     1. An immense supply of the finest wheat, and other grain, that the
     world produces.

     2. We should be able to open a direct communication with the
     interior regions of Africa,--which have baffled the enterprise of
     ancient and modern Europe: the fertile and populous districts which
     lie contiguous to the Nile of Sudan, throughout the whole of the
     interior of Africa, would become, in a few years, as closely
     connected to us, by a mutual exchange of benefits, as our own
     colonies; and such a stimulus would be imparted to British
     enterprise and industry, as would secure to us such stores of gold
     as would equal the riches of Solomon, and immortalize the prince
     who should cherish this great commerce to its maturity.

     VASCO DE GAMA.
464

     (TO THE EDITOR OF THE EUROPEAN MAGAZINE.)


                                                       Liverpool,
                                                       Dec. 17. 1818.
     Sir,

     In "_The Portfolio_," a Monthly Miscellany for May, 1817, published
     at Philadelphia, there is rather an interesting review of Ali Bey's
     travels. The writer says, "Ali Bey has rectified various errors in
     the common maps of Marocco. The river Luccos, for instance, flows
     to the South, and not to the North of Alcasser; and the city of
     Fas, according to Ali Bey, is situated in 34° 6' north latitude,
     and not as laid down in the Maps of Arrowsmith, Rennell, Delille,
     Golberri, &c."--If, however, he had given himself the trouble to
     consult the map of West Barbary, in Jackson's Account of Marocco,
     &c. &c. (which is by far the most accurate extant, and whose
     geographical orthography has been adopted in all the best modern
     English maps,) he would have seen that Fas is in 34° north
     latitude; that the river Elkos, or Luccos, is described in that
     map, (which was published several years before Ali Bey's travels,)
     as running south of Alcasser.

     In describing the funeral cry at Marocco, the editor, or reviewer,
     impresses his reader with an idea that this funeral cry is that of
     the Moors, whereas it is no such thing: it is the practice of the
     Jews only in West Barbary to cry "Ah! Ah!" and lacerate their faces
465  with their finger nails; after which they wash, drink brandy, and
     enjoy themselves.

     The large sea in the interior of Africa, described by Ali Bey to be
     without any communication with the Ocean, had been described
     (_years before Ali Bey's travels were published_) by Jackson, in
     his Account of Marocco, &c. &c. third edition, p. 309, and called
     first by him _Bahar Sudan_, and represented as a sea having decked
     vessels on it. Mr. Park, in his Second Journey, calls this sea the
     Bahar Seafina, without, however, informing the public, or knowing,
     that the Bahar Sefeena is an Arabic expression implying a sea of
     ships, or a sea where ships are found; and the situation he places
     it in coincides exactly with Jackson's prior description. There are
     thus three concurrent testimonies of the situation of the Bahar
     Sudan, or Sea of Sudan, _first noticed by Jackson_, and since
     confirmed by Ali Bey and Park.[274]

     EL HAGE HAMED EL WANGARY.

         [Footnote 274: There is an able discussion of this subject in
         the New Supplement to the Encyclopedia Britannica, article
         "Africa," p. 104, and 105.]

     _On the Negroes_.

     (TO THE EDITOR OF THE EUROPEAN MAGAZINE.)

     Sir,

                                                    Eton, 5th Dec. 1818.

     Many maintain that the Negroes are a docile and tractable race, and
     more easily to be governed than Europeans; others maintain, that
466  they are liars, thieves, vindictive, and a demoralised race. That
     they are vindictive, no one who is acquainted with their character
     will deny; but are not most barbarous and uncivilised nations the
     same? What are the Muhamedans and Pagans? The latter, who form
     nearly two-thirds of the population of the earth, are generally of
     the same character, and the vindictive character of the former is
     notorious.

     Propagate among the Negroes the benign principles of the Christian
     doctrine, and they will gradually (as those principles are
     inculcated) become good subjects, and useful members of society. It
     is that religion which will bring forth their latent and social
     virtues--a religion, the moral principles of which are the
     admiration even of its enemies, the Muhamedans themselves: a
     religion which exalts the human character above the brutes, and
     brings forth its beauties as the brilliancy of the diamond is
     brought forth by the hand of the polisher.

     Destroy their witchcraft and idolatry, and on their ruins inculcate
     the divine doctrines of Christ, and we shall soon see that they
     will possess sentiments that exalt the human character, and that
     nothing has contributed more to their mental degradation than the
     cruel treatment of their masters in the European colonies of the
     West.

     VASCO DE GAMA.
467

     _Cursory Observations on Lieutenant-Colonel Fitzclarence's Journal
     of a Route across India, through Egypt, to England_.

                                                    Eton, 7th May, 1819.

     It is remarkable, that in proportion as our mass of information
     respecting the interior of Africa increases, the truth of Mr. James
     Grey Jackson's account of that country, in the appendix to his
     account of Marocco, &c. receives additional confirmation. Some
     literary sceptics have been so far prejudiced against this author's
     report as to doubt its veracity altogether; but let us see how far
     the interesting report of Lieut.-Colonel Fitzclarence, in his
     journal of a route across India, through Egypt, to England, lately
     published, corroborates Mr. Jackson's description of Timbuctoo,
     published so long since as 1809.

     It is to be lamented, that Jackson's African orthography is not
     altogether adopted: with the superior and practical knowledge which
     he evidently possesses of the African Arabic language, it cannot, I
     presume, be doubted by the learned and impartial, that his
     orthography is correct; and, judging from what has already
     transpired, I do not hesitate to predict, that his African
     orthography, from an evidence of its accuracy, will, in a few
     years, be adopted throughout; although the learned world have been
     ten years in correcting _Tombuctoo_ into _Timbuctoo_; the latter
468  being Mr. Jackson's orthography in his account of Marocco,
     Timbuctoo, &c. published in 1809.

     The late account of Mr. Bowdich's mission to Ashantee has been the
     first to corroborate this author in this respect; and
     Lieut.-Colonel Fitzclarence has confirmed it with this additional
     observation, in his Journal of a Route, &c. page 493: "Upon
     enquiring about _Timbuctoo_ the Hage laughed at our pronunciation,
     the name of the city being _Timbuctoo_." The next improvement in
     African geographical orthography, will probably be the conversion
     of Fez into _Fas_ (for there is absolutely no more reason for
     calling it Fez than there has been for calling Timbuctoo,
     Timbuctoo), this word being spelled in Arabic with the letters _Fa,
     Alif_, and _Sin_, which cannot be converted into any other
     orthography but _Fas_; the same argument would hold with various
     other words spelled correctly by this author, an accurate
     elucidation of which might encroach too much upon your valuable
     pages. I shall therefore briefly state, that in page 480 of Colonel
     Fitzclarence's Journal, the name of the Moorish gentleman to whose
     care the sons of the Emperor of Marocco, Muley Soliman, were
     confided, is stated to be El Hadge Talib ben Jelow: this is
     incorrect orthography, there is no such name in the Arabic language
     as _Jelow_, it is a barbarism; ben Jelow signifies ben Jelule, and
     the proper name is _El Hage Taleb ben Jelule_.

469  Behur Soldan is evidently another barbarism or corruption of the
     Arabic words _Bahar Sudan: vide_ Jackson's Account of Marocco,
     Timbuctoo, &c. page 309, published by Cadell and Davies.

     It has been observed by an intelligent French writer, that "_Le
     pluspart des hommes mesurant leur foi par leur connoissance acquise
     croyent à fort peu de choses_." In confirmation of this opinion,
     many intelligent men, at the time of the publication of Jackson's
     Account of Marocco, Timbuctoo, &c. doubted the existence of the
     _Heirie_, as described by him; but in proportion as our knowledge
     of Africa improves, we see that the truth of these wonders is
     confirmed: and Colonel Fitzclarence mentions one that travelled
     four days in one; but we should not be surprised to hear, before
     this century shall terminate, that an Englishman had travelled from
     Fas to Timbuctoo on a Heirie, accompanied by an accredited agent of
     the Emperor of Marocco, in ten or fifteen days!

     It appears by this ingenious traveller's Journal of a Route, &c.
     page 493, that all religions are tolerated at Timbuctoo. This is a
     confirmation of what is reported by Jackson, in the Appendix
     annexed to his Account of Marocco, &c. page 300.

     The fish in the river of Timbuctoo, the Neel El Abeed or Neel of
     Sudan, is described by Colonel Fitzclarence as resembling salmon:
470  this is a corroboration of Jackson, who says, the _shebbel_ abound
     in the Neel of Sudan, and the shebbel is the African salmon. See
     appendix to Jackson's Account of Marocco, &c. page 306.

     In page 494, Colonel Fitzclarence says, the Nile at Kabra is a
     quarter of a mile wide; Jackson says it is as wide as the Thames at
     London. See Appendix to Jackson's Marocco, &c. page 305.

     In page 496 of the Colonel's narrative, an account is given of the
     rate of travelling through the Desert; which, allowing for an
     arbitrary difference, in the resting days, corroborates Jackson's
     Account, page 286.

     In page 497, El hage Taleb ben Jelule's report to the Colonel, of
     an account of two white men, (undoubtedly Mungo Park and another,)
     who were at Timbuctoo in 1806, is a remarkable confirmation of the
     account brought by Mr. Jackson from Mogodor in January, 1807, and
     reported by him to the Marquis of Hastings, to Sir Joseph Banks,
     and to Sir Charles Morgan, which is inserted in the Morning Post
     and other papers, about the middle of August, 1814.

     I am, Sir,

     Your most obedient servant,

     VASCO DE GAMA.
471

     _On the Arabic Language, as now spoken in Turkey in Europe, in
     Asia, and in Africa_.

                                                  London, May 10, 1819.

     In this enlightened age, when our intercourse is increasing with
     nations remote from our own, and possessing different religions,
     languages, laws, and customs; when the ambassadors of the Muhamedan
     potentates of Europe, Asia, and Africa, are resident in our
     metropolis, all understanding _the Arabic language_; when, with a
     knowledge of this language, a person may travel and hold colloquial
     intercourse with the inhabitants of Turkey, with the greater part
     of Asia, and with Africa; and, lastly, when we consider the
     valuable and immense stores of Arabian literature, of the best
     periods which still remain unexplored, is it not remarkable under
     all the exciting circumstances above enumerated, that in this
     powerful and opulent country, there should not be found, with all
     our boasted learning and eagerness of research, three or four
     Englishmen capable of writing and conversing intelligibly in that
     beautiful and useful language? The extent of this disgraceful
     ignorance would be scarcely credible, were there not proofs beyond
     doubt, that our principal seats of learning are as deficient in
472  this knowledge as the public in general[275], and that letters or
     public documents written in that language, have been in vain sent
     to them for translation. What I have long considered as chiefly
     tending to diminish the desire of acquiring this language, is an
     opinion dogmatically asserted, and diligently propagated, that the
     Arabic of the East and West are so different from each other, as
     almost to form distinct languages, and to be unintelligible to the
     inhabitants of either of those regions respectively; but, having
     always doubted the truth of this assertion, I have endeavoured,
     from time to time, _during the last ten years_, to ascertain
     whether the Arabic language spoken in Asia be the same with that
     which is spoken in Africa, (westward to the shores of the Atlantic
     ocean,) but without success, and even without the smallest
473  satisfactory elucidation, until the arrival in London last winter,
     of the most _Reverend Doctor Giarve, Bishop of Jerusalem_, who has
     given such incontestible proofs of his proficiency in the Arabic
     language, that his opinion on this important point cannot but be
     decisive; accordingly, on presenting to the reverend Doctor some
     letters from the Emperor of Marocco to me, desiring that he would
     oblige me with his opinion, whether the Arabic in those letters was
     the same with that spoken in Syria, the Rev. Doctor replied in the
     following perspicuous manner, which, I think, decides the question:
     _"I can assure you, that the language and the idiom of the Arabic
     in these letters from the Emperor of Marocco to you, is precisely
     the same with that which is spoken in the East."_

         [Footnote 275: See page 408. respecting a letter sent to our
         late revered Sovereign, by the Emperor of Marocco. In
         consequence of the inattention to that letter, the Emperor
         determined never to write again to a Christian king in the
         Arabic language; and, with regard to Great Britain, I believe
         he has faithfully ever since kept his word! Some time before
         this letter was written, I being then in Marocco, the Emperor's
         minister asked me if the Emperor his master were to write an
         Arabic letter to the _Sultan George Sultan El Ingleez_, (these
         were his expressions,) whether there were persons capable of
         translating it into English: I replied, that there were men at
         the Universities capable of translating every learned language
         in the known world; and accordingly the letter above alluded to
         was written in Arabic, and addressed to His Majesty. This
         letter was written by the Emperor himself, which I am competent
         to declare, having letters from him in my possession, and being
         acquainted with his hand-writing and style.]

     It is, therefore, thus ascertained, that the Arabic language spoken
     in the kingdom of Tafilelt, of Fas, of Marocco, and in Suse or
     South Barbary, is precisely the same language with that which is
     now spoken in Syria, and Palestine in Asia; countries distant from
     each other nearly 3000 miles, and from information since obtained,
     there appears to be no doubt that the Arabic language spoken by the
     Arabs in Arabia, by the Moors and Arabs in India and Madagascar, by
     the Moorish nations on the African shores of the Mediterranean, are
     one and the same language with that spoken in Marocco, subject only
     to certain provincial peculiarities, which by no means form
474  impediments to the general understanding of the language, no more,
     or not so much so, as the provincial peculiarities of one county of
     England differ from another!!

     Unwilling to encroach too much on your valuable pages, I will
     leave, for the subject of my next letter, the inconceivable
     misconstructions and errors into which the ignorance of this
     language has led European travellers in Africa, of which I shall
     state some examples in a recent publication respecting Africa.

     I am, Sir,

     Your most obedient Servant,

     JAMES G. JACKSON.


     _Cursory Observations on the Geography of Africa, inserted in an
     Account of a Mission to Ashantee, by T. Edward Bowdich, Esq.
     showing the Errors that have been committed by European Travellers
     on that Continent, from their Ignorance of the Arabic Language, the
     learned and the general travelling Language of that interesting
     part of the World_.

                                                          June 17, 1819.

     The Niger, after leaving the lake Dibber, was invariably described
     as dividing in two large streams.--_Vide_ "Bowdich's Account of a
     Mission to Ashantee," p. 187.

     The Lake Dibber is called in the proceedings of the African
     Association Dibbie, but the proper appellation is _El Bahar Tibber,
     _or_ El Bahar Dehebbie_. The Bahar Tibber signifies the sea of gold
475  dust; the _Bahar Dehebbie_ signifies the sea or water abounding in
     gold. Jinnee, which is on or near the shore of this lake, (I call
     it a lake because it is fresh water,) abounds in gold, and is
     renowned throughout Africa for the ingenuity of its artificers in
     that metal, insomuch that they acknowledge the superiority of
     Europeans in all arts except that of gold work. There are some
     specimens of Jinnee gold trinkets, very correctly delineated in the
     recent interesting work of "Lieutenant-Colonel Fitzclarence's
     Journal of a Route across India, through Egypt to England," p. 496.

     Page 187, "Yahoodie, a place of great trade."

     This place is reported to be inhabited by one of the lost tribes of
     Israel, possibly an emigration from the tribe of Judah. Yahooda, in
     African Arabic, signifies Judah. Yahoodee signifies Jew. It is not
     impossible, that many of the lost tribes of Israel may be found
     dispersed in the interior regions of Africa, when we shall become
     better acquainted with that Continent; it is certain, that some of
     the nations that possessed the country eastward of Palestine when
     the Israelites were a favoured nation, have emigrated to Africa.

     An emigration of the Amorites[276] are now in possession of the
     declivity of the Atlas Mountains, westward of the sanctuary[277] of
     Muley Driss, and in the neighbourhood of the ruins of Pharaoh; they
476  live in encampments, consisting of two, three, or four tents each:
     they resemble the Arabs of the Desert in their predatory
     excursions. I speak from practical knowledge, having twice
     travelled through their country, and visited their encampments.

         [Footnote 276: They are called _Ite-amor_, Amorite.]

         [Footnote 277: _Vide_ Jackson's Account of Marocco, chap. viii.
         enlarged edition.]

     Page 189. "Mr. Beaufoy's Moor says, that below Ghinea is the sea
     into which the river of Timbuctoo discharges itself."

     This might have been understood to signify the Sea of Sudan, if the
     Moor had not said below Ghinea, (by which is meant Genowa, or as we
     call it Guinea,) which implies, that the _Neel El Abeed_ (Niger)
     discharges itself in the sea that washes the coast of Guinea; this,
     therefore, corroborates Seedi Hamed's, or rather Richard's
     hypothesis.

     Page 190. "This branch of the Niger passing Timbuctoo, is not
     crossed until the third day going from Timbuctoo to Houssa."

     This quotation from "Dapper's Description of Africa," is
     corroborated by L'Hage Abdsalam, Shabeeni, whose narrative says,
     "Shabeeni, after staying three years at Timbuctoo, departed for
     Houssa, and crossing the small river close to the walls, reached
     the Neel in three days, travelling through a fine, populous, and
     cultivated country."

     The confusion of rivers, made mere equivocal by every new
     hypothesis, receives here additional ambiguity. If there were (as
     Mr. Bowdich affirms) three distinct rivers near Timbuctoo; viz. the
477  Joliba, the Gambarro, and the Niger, (_i. e_. the _Neel El Abeed_)
     how comes it that they have not been noticed by Leo Africanus, who
     resided at Timbuctoo; by Edrissi, who is the most correct of the
     Arabian geographers; or whence is it, that these rivers have not
     been noticed by the many Moorish travelling merchants who have
     resided at Timbuctoo, and whom I have repeatedly questioned
     respecting this matter[278], or whence is it that Alkaid L'Hassen
     Ramy, a renowned chief of the Emperor of Marocco's army, with whom
     I was well acquainted, and who was a native of Houssa, knew of no
     such variously inclined streams. This being premised, I am
     certainly not disposed to relinquish the opinion I brought with me
     from Africa in the year 1807, viz. that the _Neel El Abeed_ is the
     only mighty river that runs through Africa from west to east; but I
     admit that its adjuncts, as well as itself, have different names;
     thus, in the manuscript of Mr. Park's death, a copy of which is
     inserted in "Mr. Bowdich's Account of Ashantee," it is called Kude;
     many hundred miles eastward it is called Kulla, from the country
478  through which it passes; but Kude and Kulla are different names,
     and ought not to be confounded one with the other; neither ought
     Quolla (_i. e._, the Negro pronunciation of Kulla) to be confounded
     with Kude, the former being the Negro term for the same river, in
     the same manner as Niger is the Roman name for the _Neel Elabeed_,
     which is the Arabic name for the same river. There is a stream
     which proceeds from the Sahara, the water of which is _brackish_;
     this stream hardly can be called a river, except in the rainy
     season. It passes in a south-westerly direction near Timbuctoo, but
     does not join the _Neel Elabeed_. I could mention several
     intelligent and credible authorities, the report of respectable
     merchants, who have resided, and, who have had establishments at
     Timbuctoo, in confirmation of this fact; but as the authorities
     which I should adduce would be unknown, even by name, to men of
     science in Europe, I would refer the reader to the interesting
     narrative of an intelligent Moorish merchant, who resided three
     years at Timbuctoo, and who was known to the committee of the
     African Association; this travelling merchant's name is L'Hage
     Abdsalam Shabeeny, and his narrative, a manuscript of which (with
     critical and explanatory notes by myself) I have in my possession,
     has the following observation:[279]--"Close to the town of
     Timbuctoo, on the south, is a small rivulet in which the
479  inhabitants wash their clothes, and which is about two feet deep;
     it runs into the great forest on the east, and does not communicate
     with the Nile, but is lost in the sands west of the town: its water
     is brackish; that of the Nile is good and pleasant."

         [Footnote 278: The Arabs who conduct the _cafelahs_ or caravans
         across the Sahara, are often seen at Agadeer or Santa Cruz, and
         sometimes even at Mogodor; and if there was a river penetrating
         to the north through the Sahara, would it not have been noticed
         by them? Is it possible that such a prominent feature of
         African geography, as a river of sweet water passing through a
         desert, could fail of being noticed by these people, who are,
         in their passage through the Desert, continually in search of
         water?]

         [Footnote 279: See page 8.]

     Page 199. Mr. Murray recently observes, "Joliba seems readily
     convertible into Joli-ba, the latter syllable being merely an
     adjunct, signifying river; this I was also given to understand."

     This is an etymological error. The Joliba is not a compound word,
     if it were it would be Bahar Joli, not Bajoli, or Joliba; thus do
     learned men, through a rage for criticism, and for want of a due
     knowledge of African languages, render confused, by fancied
     etymologies, that which is sufficiently clear and perspicuous.

     Page 191. "The river of Darkulla mentioned by Mr. Brown."

     This is evidently an error: there is probably no such place or
     country as Darkulla. There is, however, an alluvial country
     denominated _Bahar Kulla_, (for which see the map of Africa in the
     Supplement of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, p. 88. lat. N. 8°,
     long. E. 20°). I apprehend this Darkulla, when the nations of
     Europe shall be better acquainted with Africa and its languages,
     will be discovered to be a corruption of _Bahar Kulla_, or an
     unintelligible and ungrammatical term: _Dëaar Kulla_ is
     grammatical, and implies a country covered with houses! _Dar Kulla_
480  is an ungrammatical and an incorrect term, which being literally
     translated into English, signifies _many house_. This being
     premised, we may reasonably suppose, that _Bahar Kulla_ is the
     proper term which, as I have always understood, forms the junction
     of the Nile of the west with the Nile of the east, and hence
     forming a continuity[280] of waters from Timbuctoo to Cairo.

         [Footnote 280: See my letter in the Monthly Magazine for March,
         1817, page 128.]

     191. In this geographical dissertation the word Niger is still
     used, which is a name altogether unknown in Africa, and calculated
     to contuse the geographical enquirer. As this word is
     unintelligible to the natives of Africa, whether they be Arabs,
     Moors, Berebbers, Shelluhs, or Negroes, ought it not to be expunged
     from the maps?

     P. 192. In the note in this page, "Jackson's Report of the source
     of the _Neel el Abeed_, and the Source of the Senegal," is
     confirmed by the Jinnee Moor.--See Jackson's Appendix to his
     Account of Marocco, enlarged edition, p. 311.

     "It is said, that thirty days from Timbuctoo they eat their
     prisoners!" Does not this allude to Banbugr[281], and has not this
491  word been corrupted by Europeans into Bambarra. See Mr. Bowdich's
     MS. No. 3, p. 486; Banbugr, who eat the flesh of men. Jackson's
     translation.

         [Footnote 281: The Gr in Banbugr, is the Arabic letter, grain.
         Richardson, in his Arabic Grammar, renders this letter gh;
         which demonstrates, that his knowledge of the Arabic was only
         scholastic, not practical. It has no resemblance or affinity to
         gh, and would be unintelligible if so pronounced to an Arab.]

     Page 193. The government of Jinnee appears to be Moorish; because
     _Malai Smaera_, which should be written _Mulai Smaera_, signifies
     in the Arabic language, the _Prince Smaera_: the term does not
     belong to Negroes, but exclusively to Muhamedans. _Malai Bacharoo_
     is a Negro corruption of the word; it should be _Mulai_, or _Muley
     Bukaree_; i.e. the _Abeed Mulai Bukaree_, or _Abeed Seedi Bukaree_.
     They are well known among the Negroes of Sudan; the Negroes of this
     race form the present body-guard of the Emperor of Maroceo's
     troops, consisting of 5000 horse. They are dexterous in the
     management of the horse, are well-disciplined troops, and are the
     only military in the Emperor's army that can cope with the
     Berebbers of the Atlas.

     Note, p. 194. Dapper's description of Africa is here quoted in
     confirmation of the decay of Timbuctoo; and Jackson is accused of
     extravagance. The latter I shall pass over, it being an assertion
     unsupported by any substantial testimony; but immediately
     afterwards is the following passage.

     "The three last kings before Billa (_i.e. Billabahada_) were
     Osamana, (_i.e._ Osaman; Osamana being the feminine gender,)
     Dawoloo, and Abass. Mr. Jackson says there was a King Woolo
     reigning in 1800; and a Moor who had come from Timbuctoo to
     Comassee ten years ago (viz. about 1807, or ten years before Mr.
482  Bowdich visited Ashantee), did not know King Woolo was dead, as he
     was reigning at the time he left Timbuctoo."

     With regard to Dapper's assertion, it should be remembered, that if
     Timbuctoo was decaying in his time, that is about the period that
     Muley Ismael ascended the throne of Marocco, viz. in 1672; it
     revived very soon after, that is before the close of the 17th
     century. This powerful and warlike prince had the address to
     establish and to maintain a very strong garrison at Timbuctoo; and
     accordingly, during his long reign of fifty-five years, viz. from
     1672 to 1727, Timbuctoo carried on a constant, extensive, and
     lucrative trade with Marocco, Tafilelt, and Fas, in gold dust,
     gum-sudan, ostrich-feathers, ivory, and slaves, &c.
     _Akkabahs_[282], and _cafilahs_, or caravans, were going
     continually from Timbuctoo to Tafilelt, Marocco, Fas, and Terodant.
     Travelling across the Desert was then as safe as it is now in the
     plains of Marocco, or on the roads in England; the only months
     during which the caravans did not travel were July and August,
     because the _Shûme_, or hot wind of the Desert, prevails during
     these two months. It is reported, that Muley Ismael was so rich in
     gold, that the bolts of the gates of his palaces, and his kitchen
     utensils, were of pure gold. Timbuctoo continued to carry on a most
483  lucrative trade with Marocco, &c.; during the Feign of the Emperor
     Muley Abd Allah, son and successor of Ismael, and also during the
     reign of Seedy[283] Muhamed ben Abd Allah, who died about the year
     1795, a sovereign universally regretted, and hence aptly
     denominated the father of his people: since the decease of
     Seedy[284] Muhamed ben Abd Allah, the father of the reigning
     emperor, Muley Soliman, the trade of Sudan has rapidly decreased,
     because the policy of the present emperor is, to discourage
     commerce, but to encourage the agriculture and the manufactures of
     his own country, so as to make them sufficient for itself, and
     independent of foreign supplies!

         [Footnote 282: An Akkabah is an accumulation of many _cafilahs_
         or caravans.]

         [Footnote 283: It should be observed, that an emperor having
         the name of the Arabian prophet, is called Seedy; but having
         any other name, he is called Muley; the former signifies
         master, the latter, prince.]

         [Footnote 284: If therefore the trade with Timbuctoo declined
         in Leo's time, _i.e._ A.D. 1570, it unquestionably revived in
         Ismael's reign, and also continued with but little diminution
         during the reign of his son Abd Allah, and his grandson
         Muhamed.]

     Da Woolo is a reverential term, and is synonymous with Woolo,
     signifying King Woolo.

484  Park says, Mansong was king of Timbuctoo in 1796, and in 1805,
     implying that he reigned from 1796 to 1805. The Moor before
     mentioned, who came from Timbuctoo to Comassie in 1807, told Mr.
     Bowdich, that Woolo was then reigning at Timbuctoo. Isaaco says,
     Woolo was predecessor to Mansong; consequently, according to this
     Jew, Woolo was king before the year 1796; therefore, if Mr. Park's
     testimony be correct, Woolo must have been predecessor and
     successor to Mansong; otherwise, Mr. Park was incorrect in saying
     that Mansong was king of Timbuctoo in 1796, and in 1805. Adams
     says, Woolo was king of Timbuctoo in 1810, and was old and
     grey-headed. Riley's narrative also confirms his age and grey
     hairs. With regard to my testimony, viz. that Woolo was king[285]
     of Timbuctoo in 1800, I had it from two merchants of veracity, who
     returned from Timbuctoo in 1800, after residing there 14 years:
     they are both alive now, and reside at Fas; their names I would
     mention, were I not apprehensive that it might lead to a reprimand
     from the emperor, and create jealousy for having communicated
     intelligence respecting the interior of the country. I should not
     have entered into this detail _in confirmation of my assertion that
     Woolo was king of Timbuctoo in_ 1800, if the editor of the
     Supplement to the Encyclopedia Britannica (article Africa), had not
     asserted, that I have committed an anachronism in asserting, that
     he was king in that year; thereby insinuating that Park was right,
     and that I was wrong.

         [Footnote 285: See my Letter on the Interior of Africa, in the
         Anti-Jacobin Review for January, 1818, p. 453.]

485  Page 195. The Editor of Adams's Narrative is, I apprehend,
     incorrect in asserting, that the name Fatima affords no proof that
     the queen, or the wife of Woolo, was a Muhamedan. Fatima is
     incontestably an Arabian proper name; and it would be considered
     presumption in a Negress unconverted to Muselmism, to assume the
     name of Fatima. She must, therefore, have been necessarily a
     Mooress, or a converted Negress; the name has nothing to do with a
     numeral, as Mr. Bowdich suggests, and above all not with the
     _numeral five_, for that is a number ominous of evil in Africa, and
     as such, would never have been bestowed as a name on a beloved
     wife.

     Page 196. Note of W. Hutchison, "The four greatest monarchs known
     on the banks of the Quolla, are Baharnoo, Santambool, Malisimiel,
     and Malla, or Mallowa."

     Baharnoo should be written _Ber Noh_; i.e. the country of Noah the
     patriarch; it is called in the maps Bernoo, and the whole passage
     is calculated greatly to confuse African geography. The information
     is unquestionably derived from Negro authority, and that not of the
     most authentic kind. Santambool is the Negro corruption of
     _Strambool_, which is the Arabic name for Constantinople:
     _Malisimiel_ is the Negro corruption of Muley Ismael.[286] The
     first signifies the empire of Constantinople; the second signifies
     the empire of Muley Ismael, who was emperor of Marocco in the early
     part of the 18th century, and whose authority was acknowledged at
486  Timbuctoo, where he maintained a strong garrison, and held the
     adjacent country in subjection, where his name is held in reverence
     to this day. This being premised, it follows of course, that one of
     these four great monarchies here alluded to, viz. that of
     Santambool is certainly not on the Quolla, unless the Quolla be
     considered the same river with the Egyptian Nile, and that Egypt be
     considered a part of the empire of Santambool; then, and then only,
     can it be said, that the empire of Santambool is situated on the
     Quolla.

         [Footnote 286: See Jackson's Marocco, chap. xiii. p. 295, and
         note, p. 296.]

     Page 198. Two large lakes were described close to the northward of
     Houssa; one called Balahar Sudan, and the other Girrigi Maragasee;
     the first of these names is a Negro corruption, or an European
     corruption of the term _Bahar Sudan_[287]; the other is a Negro
     name of another, if not of the same lake or sea. The situation of
     the _Bahar Sudan_ is described by me in the 13th chapter, in my
     account of Marocco, to be fifteen journeys east of Timbuctoo, and
     the _Neel El Abeed_ passes through it. I had this information from
     no less than seven Moorish merchants of intelligence and veracity;
     the same is confirmed by Ali Bey[288], the Shereef Imhammed, Park,
     and Dr. Seitzen; all these authorities must therefore fall to the
487  ground if Mr. Bowdich's report is to overturn these testimonies,
     which has placed it three degrees of latitude north of the _Neel El
     Abeed_, or [289]_Neel Assudan_, and in the Sahara[290],
     _unconnected with any river_! I doubt if any, but a very ignorant
     Pagan Negro (for the Muhamedan Negroes are more intelligent), would
     have given the Sea of Sudan this novel situation.

         [Footnote 287: See Jackson's Marocco, chap. xiii.]

         [Footnote 288: For an elucidation of these opinions, see my
         Letter on the Interior of Africa, in the European Magazine,
         Feb. 1818, page 113.]

         [Footnote 289: Neel Sudan and Neel Assudan are synonymous, the
         _as_ being the article.]

         [Footnote 290: See Mr. Bowdich's Map, in his Account of a
         Mission to Ashantee.]

     Page 200. The Quolla appears to be the Negro pronunciation of the
     Arabic name _Kulla_; i.e. the _Bahar Kulla_, to which the _Neel
     Assudan_ is said to flow. _Bahar Kulla_ is an Arabic word
     signifying the sea altogether, or an alluvial country. The _Neel
     Assudan_ here joins the waters of a river that proceed westward
     from the Abysinian Nile, and hence is formed the water
     communication between Cairo[291] and Timbuctoo.

         [Footnote 291: See Jackson's Account of Marocco, enlarged
         edition, p. 313. See also his Letter to the Editor of the
         Monthly Magazine for March, 1817. p. 125.]

     Page 201. Quolla Raba, or Kulla Raba, signifies the Kulla forest,
     as the Negroes express it; the Arabs call it _Raba Kulla_, i.e. the
     forest of _Kulla_, If any further proof of the accuracy of this
     interpretation be necessary, it maybe added, that the position
     agrees exactly with Major Rennell's kingdom of _Kulla_, for which
     see the Major's map in proceedings of the African Association, vol.
     i. page 209, lat. N. 9°, long. W. 10°.
488
     Page 203. The lake Fittri is a lake, the waters of which are said
     to be filtered through the earth, as the name implies. The Nile is
     here said to run under ground. The Arabs and Moors have a
     tradition, that the waters of Noah's flood rested here, and were
     absorbed and filtered through the earth, leaving only this large
     lake. I never understood this sea to be identified with the Bahar
     Heimed[292]; i.e. the Hot or Warm Sea. The Hot Sea and the Filtered
     Sea are distinct waters; the former lies about mid-way, in a right
     line between Lake Fittri and Lake Dwi. (See Laurie and Whittle's
     Map of Africa, published in 1813.) This is another inaccuracy of
     Mr. Hutchison; who appears, indeed, to have collected information
     from natives, without considering what title they had to
     credibility. Another error is added to the note in page 203 and
     204, viz. what he calls sweet beans are unquestionably dates, which
     have not the least affinity in taste, shape, growth, or quality, to
     beans. The Arabic name correctly converted into European letters,
     is _timmer_, not _tummer_. The Arabic words designating sweet
     beans, is _Elfool El Hellue_. The passage signed William Hutchison
     here alluded to, is this: "The Arabs eat black rice, corn, and
     _sweet beans called tummer_."

         [Footnote 292: _Heimed_ is an Arabic term, signifying that
         degree of heat which milk has when coming from the cow or
         goat.]

     Note, page 204. I do not know whence the Quarterly Review has
489  derived its information respecting the derivation of the word Misr
     (a corruption of Massar); the word Massar is compounded of the two
     Arabic words Ma and Sar; i.e. Mother of Walls. Possibly some Arabic
     professor versed in bibliographic lore, to favor a darling
     hypothesis, has transmuted Massar into Misr, to strengthen the
     plausibility of the etymology of Misr from Misraem!!

     Note, page _205_. _Bahar bela ma_ is an Arabic expression,
     importing it to be a country once covered with water, but now no
     longer so. In the note in this page, I recognise the word Sooess to
     designate the Isthmus of Suez. The Bahar Malee, and the Sebaha
     Bahoori, are Negro corruptions of the Arabic words _Bahar El
     Maleh_, and _Seba Baharet_: the former does not apply particularly
     to the Mediterranean, but _is a term applicable to any sea or ocean
     that is salt_ (as all seas and oceans assuredly are); the latter
     term signifies literally, the Seven Seas or Waters: neither is this
     a term applicable to the Mediterranean, but to any sea supplied by
     seven rivers, as the Red Sea: these, therefore, are evidently other
     inaccuracies of Mr. Hutchison. I apprehend Mr. Hutchison's Arabic
     tutor at Ashantee was not an erudite scholar. The term, and the
     only term in Africa, applicable to the Mediterranean Sea, is the
     _Bahar Segrer_ (literally the Small Sea); and _El Bahar El Kabeer_
     (is the Atlantic Ocean, or literally the Great Sea); the latter is
     sometimes figuratively called the _Bahar Addolum_, i.e. the Unknown
     Sea, or the Sea of Darkness.
490
     Note, p. 206. Is it possible that the author doubts that Wangara is
     east of Timbuctoo? It should seem that he did, as he quotes Mr.
     Hutchison as authority for making it to contain Kong, a mountainous
     district many journeys south of the _Neel Assudan_. Mr. Park's
     testimony is also called in support of this opinion, but they are
     both erroneous. Wangara is as well known in Africa to be east of
     Timbuqtoo, as in England York is known to be North of of London.

     Oongooroo is a barbarous Negro corruption of Wangara; therefore,
     this note, if suffered to pass through the press unnoticed, would
     be calculated to confuse, not to elucidate, African geography;
     neither can it be called, according to Mr. Horneman's orthography,
     Ungura: the name is _Wangara_ which cannot be converted accurately
     into any word _but_ Wangara. Ungura Oongooroo, &c. are corruptions
     of the proper name, originating in an imperfect, and but an oral
     knowledge of the African Arabic.

     Page 210. I apprehend the reason why Wassenah was not known at
     Ashantee by the traders, is because it was out of their trading
     track. I have no doubt of the existence of Wassenah or Massenah
     (for when the names of African towns and countries are recorded, we
     should not be particular about a letter or two, when we find so
     many orthographical variations are made by different authors);
     neither is there any reason (that I know of) to doubt the
491  description of Wassenah given in Riley's Narrative; but it is not
     extraordinary, that this place should be unknown at Ashantee, if
     there were no commerce or communication between these countries
     respectively; it is certain, that the Africans neither know, seek,
     or care, for places or countries with which they have no trade or
     communication.

     It appears well deserving of observation (for the purpose of
     rendering Arabic names intelligible to future African travellers),
     that Mr. Bowdich has demonstrated that, what is called in our maps,
     1. Bambarra, 2. Gimbala, 3. Sego, 4. Berghoo, 5. Begarmee, being
     written in the Arabic language, with the guttural letter _grain_,
     would be quite unintelligible, if pronounced to an African _as they
     are written_ by our letters, the nearest approximation to the
     Arabic words would be as follows, taking _Gr_ for the nearest
     similitude that our alphabet affords to the guttural letter [Arabic
     غ ] _grain_.

     Correct Pronunciation. African Orthography. Called in the Maps.

     1. Banbug'r            [Arabic]              Bambara.

     2. Grimbala            [Arabic]              Gimbala.

     3. Shagr'u             [Arabic]              Sego.

     4. Bergr'u             [Arabic]              Berghoo.

     5. Bagrarmee           [Arabic]              Begarmee.
492
     The African traveller should be precise in his attention to the
     sound of these words, otherwise he will be quite unintelligible to
     the Africans, and to the Muhamedans.

     Richardson, in his Arabic Grammar, is certainly incorrect, when he
     says, the letter غ _grain_ should be pronounced _gh_. No
     one acquainted _practically_ with the Arabic language, could
     possibly be of this opinion; _gh_ having no more resemblance to the
     sound of the letter غ _grain_, than _g_ has to _h_: and
     every traveller going to Africa with this erroneous opinion, will,
     undoubtedly, be unintelligible to the Africans.

     Finally, the Arabic document, if it may be permitted to call it
     Arabic, facing page 128 of this interesting work of Mr. Bowdich, is
     a most miserable composition of _Lingua franca_, or corrupt
     Spanish, of unintelligible jargon, consisting of many words quite
     unintelligible to the Africans, whether Negroes or Moors, or
     others. The language of this document, although it has some Arabic
     words in it, is worse, if possible, than the scrawl in which it is
     written; neither is it a correct translation of the English which
     precedes it. But purporting to be a letter issued from the
     _accredited servants of the King of the English_, it is certainly a
     disgrace to the country from whence it issues, and a rare specimen
     of our knowledge of the Arabic language.

     JAMES GREY JACKSON.
493

     _Commercial Intercourse with the Interior of Africa._

     TO THE EDITOR OF THE JOURNAL OF TRADE, &c.

     Sir,                                         Eton, June 30, 1818.

     The last expedition from Sierra Leone, in addition to many others
     sent out for the purpose of _exploring the interior of Africa_,
     having failed, and the enterprising and persevering Mr. Burckhardt,
     having frustrated the well grounded hopes of the African
     Association, by his having paid the debt of nature, it is not
     improbable that His Majesty's government _will now direct their
     attention with energy to the only plan that can possibly make that
     interesting and extraordinary country a jewel in the British
     crown_.

     This important discovery, which would immortalise the prince, who
     should cherish it to its maturity, _can be effected only through
     the medium of commerce_. But it should be attempted not only with
     energy and decision, but with _dispatch_, before the enterprising
     and commercial spirit of a foreign power (seeing how abortive our
     efforts have been), shall snatch from us the glorious opportunity
     now offered of _laying open the interior regions of Africa_ to the
     commercial enterprise of Great Britain.

     I am, Sir, Your most obedient servant,

     VASCO DE GAMA.

494

     The following curious Memoir was composed by Edmund Hogan, in the
     reign of Queen Elizabeth, and lately found amongst the papers of
     one of his descendants.

     (A TRUE COPY.)

     "_The Embassage of Mr. Edmund Hogan, one of the Sworne Esquires of
     her Ma't's Person, from her Highnesse to Muley Abdelmelech,
     Emperour of Morocco, and King of Fes and Sus, in the Yeare 1577.
     Written by himselfe_.

     "I Edmund Hogan, being appointed Embassadour from the Queens Ma'tie
     to the above-named Emperour and King Muley Abdelmelech, departed
     with my company and servants from London the 22d April, 1577, being
     imbarked in the good ship called the Gallion, of London, and
     arrived in Azafi, a port of Barbary, the 21st of May next
     following. Immediately I sent Leonell Egerton ashoare with my
     letters directed to John Williams and John Bampton, who dispatched
     a courier to Morocco to know the Kings pleasure for my repaire to
     the court, which letters came to theire hands on the Thursday
     night. They with all speed gave the King understanding of it, who
     being glad thereof, speeded the next day certaine captaines, with
     souldiera and tents, with other provision, to Azafi; so that upon
     Whitsunday at night, the said captaines, with John Bampton, Robert
495  Washborne, and Robert Lion, and the Kings officers, came late to
     Azafi. In the meane time I remained aboard, and caused some of the
     goods to be discharged, for lightning of the ship; and I wrote in
     my letter that I would not lande 'till I knew the Kings pleasure.
     The 26th day, being Saturday, the Mark-speed arrived in the roade
     about two of the clock in the afternoone. The 27th day, being
     Whitsunday, came aboard the Gallion, John Bampton, and others,
     giving me to understand how much the King rejoyced of my safe
     arrivall, coming from the Queens Ma'tie; and how that for my safe
     conduct to the court he had sent four captaines, and an hundred
     souldiers well appointed, with a horse furnished, which he used
     himself to ride on, with all other furniture accordingly; they
     wished me also to come on land in the best order I could, as well
     for my self as my men, which I did, having to the number of ten
     men, whereof three were trumpeters. The ships being four, appointed
     themselves in the best order they could, for the best shew, and
     shott off all theire ordinance to the value of twenty marks in
     powder. At my coming, ashoare, I found all the souldiers well
     appointed on horseback, the captaines and the Govern'r of the towne
     standing as neer the water side as they could, with a jennet of the
     Kings, and rec'd me from the boate, declaring how glad his Ma'tie
     was of my safe arrivall, coming from the Queens Ma'tie my
496  Mistresse, and that he had sent them to attend upon me, it being
     his pleasure that I should tarrie there on shoare five or six dayes
     for my refreshing; so being mounted upon the jennet, they conducted
     me through the towne into a faire fielde upon the sea side, where
     there was a tent provided for me, and all the ground spread with
     Turkie carpets, and the castle discharged a peale of ordinance, and
     all things necessarie were brought into my tent, where I both tooke
     my table and lodging, and had other convenient tents for my
     servants. The souldiers inviron'd the tents, and watched about us
     day and night as long as I lay there, altho' I sought my speedier
     dispatch. On the Wednesday towards night, I tooke my horse, and
     travelled ten miles to the first place of water that wee could
     finde, and there pitched our tents 'till the next morning, and so
     traveled till ten of the clock, and then pitched our tents 'till
     four, and so traveled as long as day light would suffer, about
     twenty-six miles that day. The next day being Fryday, I traveled in
     like order but eight and twenty miles at the most; and by a
     [293]river, being about six miles within sight of the Citty of
     Morocco, wee pitched bur tents. Imediately after came all our
     English Merchants, and the French, on horseback, to meete me; and
     before night there came an Alcayde from the King with fiftie men,
     and divers mules laden with victuall and banket for my supper,
497  declaring unto me how glad the King shewed himselfe to hear of the
     Queens Ma'tie, and that his pleasure was I should be received into
     his countrey as never any Christian the like; and desired to know
     what time the next day I would come into his Citie, because he
     would that all the Christians, as also his Nobilitie, should meete
     me; and willed John Bampton to be with him early in the morning,
     which he did. About seven of the clock, being accompanied with the
     French and English Merchants, and a great number of souldiers, I
     passed towards the Citie, and by that time I had traveled two
     miles, there met me all the Christians of the Spaniards and
     Portugals to receive me, which I know was more by the Kings
     commandment then of any good wills of themselves; for some of them,
     although they speake me faire, hung downe theire heads like dogs,
     and especially the Portugals; and I countenanced them accordingly.
     So I passed on, 'till I came within two English miles of the Citie;
     and then John Bampton returned, shewing me that the King was so
     glad of my coming, that he could not devise to doe too much, to
     shew the good will that he did owe to the Queens Ma'tie and her
     Realme; His counsellors met me without the gates; and at the entrie
     of the gates, his footmen and guard were placed on both sides of my
     horse, and so brought me to the King's palace. The King sate in his
     chaire, with his Counsell about him, as well the Moores as the
498  Alkaids; and, according to his order given unto me before, I there
     declared my message in Spanish, and made deliverie of the Queens
     Ma't's letters, and all that I spake at that present in Spanish, he
     caused one of his Alkaids to declare the same to the Moores present
     in the Arabic tongue; which done, he answered me againe in Spanish,
     yeelding to the Queens Ma'tie great thankes, and offering himselfe
     and his countrey to be at her Graces comandment; and he comanded
     certaine of his counsellors to conduct me to my lodging, not being
     farr from the Court. The house was faire, after the fashion of that
     countrey, being dayly well furnished with all kinde of victuall at
     the Kings charge. The same night he sent for me to the court, and I
     had conference with him about the space of two houres; where I
     throughly declared the charge co'mitted unto me from her Ma'tie,
     finding him conformable, willing to pleasure, and not to urge her
     Ma'tie with any demands, more then conveniently she might willingly
     consent unto, hee knowing that out of his countrey the Realme of
     England might be better served with lackes, then he in comparison
     from us. Further, he gave me to understand, that the King of Spain
     had sent unto him for a licence that an Embassadour of his might
     come into his countrey, and had made great meanes, that if the
     Queens Ma'tie of England sent any unto him, that he would not give
     him any credit or entertainment; albeit (said he) I know what the
499  King of Spaine, and what the Queene of England and her realme is;
     for I neither like of him, nor of his religion, being so governed
     by the Inquisition, that he can doe nothing of himselfe. Therefore,
     when he cometh upon the licence which I have granted, he shall well
     see how little account I will make of him and Spaine, and how
     greatly I will extoll you for the Queenes Ma'tie of England; he
     shall not come to my presence as you have done, and shall dayly,
     for I minde to accept of you as my companion, and one of my house,
     whereas he shall attend twentie dayes after he hath done his
     message. After the end of this speech, I delivered Sir Thomas
     Gresham's letters; when as he tooke me by the hand, and led me
     downe a long court to a palace, where there ranne a faire fountaine
     of water, and there sitting himselfe in a chaire, he comanded me to
     sitt downe in another, and there called for such simple musicians
     as he had. Then I presented him with a greate base lute, which he
     most thankfully accepted, and then he was desirous to hear of the
     musicians; and I tolde him, that there was great care had to
     provide them, and that I did not doubt but upon my returne they
     should come with the first ship. He is willing to give them good
     entertainment, with provision of victuall, and to let them live
     according to theire law and conscience, wherein he urgeth none to
     the contrary. I finde him to be one that liveth greatly in the fear
500  of God, being well exercised in the Scriptures, as well in the Old
     Testament, as also in the New, and he beareth a greater affection
     to our nation then to others, because of our religion, which
     forbiddeth worship of idols; and the Moores called him the
     Christian King. The same night, being the first of June, I
     continued with him till twelve of the clock, and he seemed to have
     so good likeing of me, that he tooke from his girdle a short
     dagger, being sett with 200 stones rubies and Turkies, and did
     bestowe it upon me; and so I, being conducted, returned to my
     lodging for that time. The next day, because he knew it to be
     Sunday, and our Sabboth day, he did let me rest; but on the Monday
     in the afternoone he sent for me, and I had conference with him
     againe, and musick. Likewise on the Tuesday, by three of the clock,
     he sent for me into his garden, finding him layed upon a silk bed,
     complaining of a sore leg; yet, after long conference, he walked
     into another orchard, whereas having a fair banketing house, and a
     great water, and a new gallie in it, he went aboard the gallie, and
     tooke me with him, and passed the space of two or three houres,
     shewing the great experience he had in gallies, wherein (as he
     said) he had exercised himselfe eighteene yeares in his youth.
     After supper he shewed me his horses, and other co'modities that he
     had about his house; and since that night I have not seene him, for
     that he hath kept in with his sore legg; but he hath sent to me
501  dayly. The 18th of June, at six of the clock at night, I had againe
     audience of the King, and I continued with him, till midnight,
     having debated, as well for the Queenes co'mission, as for the
     well-dealing with her merchants for their traffick here in these
     parts, saying, he would do much more for the Queenes Ma'tie and the
     Realme; offering that all English ships with her subjects may with
     good securitie enter into his ports and dominions, as well in trade
     of merchandize, as for victuall and water, as also in time of warr
     with any of her enemies, to bring in prizes, and to make sales as
     occasion should serve, or else to depart againe with them at theire
     pleasure. Likewise for all English ships that shall passe along his
     Coast of Barbary, and threw the Streights into the Levant seas, and
     so to the Turks dominions, and the King of Algiers, as his owne;
     and that he would write to the Turke, and to the King of Algiers,
     his letters for the well using of our ships and goods. Also, that
     hereafter no Englishman that by any meanes may be taken captives,
     shall be sold within any of his dominions; whereupon I declared
     that the Queenes Ma'tie, accepting of these his offers, was pleased
     to confirme the intercourse and trade of our Merchants within this
     his countrey, as also to pleasure him with such commodities as he
     should have need of, to furnish the necessities and wants of his
     country in trade of merchandize, so as he required nothing contrary
     to her honour and law, and the breach of league with the Christian
502  Princes her neighbours. The same night I presented the King with
     the case of combes, and desired his Ma'tie to have speciall regard
     that the ships might be Iaden back againe, for that I found little
     store of salt-peter in readinesse in John Bampton's hands; he
     answered me, that I should have all the assistance therein that he
     could, but that in[294] Sus he thought to have some store in his
     house there, as also that the Mountainers had made much in a
     readinesse; I requested that he would sende downe, which he
     promised to doe. The eighteenth day I was with him againe, and so
     continued there till night; and he shewed me his house, with
     pastime in ducking with water spaniels, and baiting bulls with his
     English doggs. At this time I moved him againe for the sending
     downe to Sus, which he granted to doe; and the 24th day there
     departed Alcayde Mammie, with Lionell Egerton, and Rowland Guy, to
     Sus; and carried with them, for our accounts and his company, the
     Kings letters to his brother Muly Hammet, and Alcayde Shavan, and
     the Viceroy. The 23d day the King sent me out of Morocco to his
     garden called Shersbonare, with his guard and Alcayde Mamoute; and
     the 24th at night I came to the Court to see a Morris-dance, and a
     play of his Alkaids; he promised me audience the next day, being
503  Tuesday, but he putt it off 'till Thursday; and the Thursday at
     night I was sent for to the King after supper, and then he sent
     Alcayde Rodwan and Alcayde Gowry to conferr with me; but, after a
     little talk, I desired to be brought to the King for my dispatch.
     And being brought to him,. I preferred two bills of John Bampton's,
     which he had made for provision of salt-peter, also two bills for
     the quiet traffique of our English Merchants, and bills for sugars
     to be made by the Jewes, as well for the debts past, as hereafter,
     and for good order in the Ingenios. Also I moved him againe for the
     salt-peter, and other dispatches, which he referred to be agreed
     upon by the two Alcaydes. But the Fryday, being the 20th, the
     Alcaydes could not intend it, and upon Saturday Alcayde Rodwan fell
     sick; so on Sunday wee made meanes to the King, and that afternoone
     I was sent for to conferre upon the bargaine with the Alcaydes and
     others; but did not agree. Upon Tuesday I wrote a letter to the
     King for my dispatch; and the same afternoone I was called againe
     to the Court, and referred all things to the King, accepting his
     offer of salt-peter. That night againe the King had me into his
     gallie, and the spaniels did hunt the duck. The Thursday I was
     appointed to weigh the 300 quintals grosse of salt-peter,, and that
     afternoone the Tabybe came unto me to my lodging, shewing me that
     the King was offended with John Bampton for divers causes. The
504  Sunday night late, being the 7th July, I got the King to forgive
     all to John Bampton, and the King promised me to speake againe with
     me upon Monday. Upon Tuesday I wrote to him againe for my dispatch,
     and then he sent Fray Lewes to me, and said, that he had order to
     write. Upon Wednesday I wrote againe; and he sent me word that I
     should come and be dispatched, so that I should depart upon Fryday
     without faile, being the 12th July. So the Fryday after, according
     to the Kings order and appointment, I went to the Court; and
     whereas motion and petition was made for the confirmac'on of the
     demands which I had preferred, they were all granted, and likewise
     which were on the behalfe of our English Merchants requested, were
     with great favour and readinesse yeilded unto. And whereas the
     Jewes there resident, were to our men in certaine round sum'es
     indebted, the Emperor's pleasure and co'mandment was, that they
     should without further excuse or delay pay and discharge the same.
     And thus at length I was dismissed with great honour and speciall
     countenance, such as hath not ordinarily bene shewed to other
     Embassadors of the Christians. And touching the private affairs
     intreated upon betwixt her Ma'tie and the Emperour, I had letters
     from him to satisfie her Highnesse therein. So to conclude, having
     received the like honourable conduct from his Court, as I had for
     my part at my first landing, I imbarked myself with my foresaid
505  company; and arriving not long after in England, I repaired to her
     Ma'ties Court, and ended my embassage to her Highnesses good
     liking, with relation of my service performed."

         [Footnote 293: The Tensift.]

         [Footnote 294: Great quantities of superior saltpetre are
         produced at Terodant in Suse.]

     _Letter from the Author to Macvey Napier, Esq. F.R.S.L. and E._

     Sir,                                   London, 17th January, 1818.

     Having read, with considerable satisfaction, your very able and
     judicious dissertation respecting Africa, in the new Supplement to
     the Encyclopedia Britannica, I will take the liberty to offer some
     animadversions that have occurred to me in the perusal of that very
     interesting article.

     _Bahr Kûlla_ I conceive to be an immerged country, of considerable
     extent, similar to Wangara; for the name, which is Arabic, implies
     as much. The correct orthography, translated literally into English
     is _Bahr Kûlha_, which signifies the sea, wholly or altogether,
     implying, therefore, an alluvial country.

     Respecting goat-skins dyed red or yellow, these are not brought by
     caravans from central Africa to Marocco, but are manufactured at
     Marocco, Fas, Mequinas, and Terodant the metropolis of Suse, from
     which manufactories they are conveyed to the interior regions for
     sale. Goat-skins, with the hair, in the raw state only, are
     exported from Mogodor to England.
506
     When Moore asserted that there was no such river as the Niger, he
     evidently meant that the _natives of Africa_ knew it not by that
     name; which is undoubtedly correct; for the word being an European
     word, it would not be known in Africa: but its translation into
     Arabic is _Bahar El Abeed_, i. e. the river of Negroes. Edrissi
     called it Niger, from the same motive, viz. because it was so named
     by _Europeans_, and by them only.

     I conceive that the hypothesis which has been credited by some,
     viz. that there is no receptacle for the two Niles, between Cashna
     and Timbuctoo, must now necessarily fall to the ground; since the
     sea of Sudan, first declared by me to be between Cashna and
     Timbuctoo, and since confirmed by Ali Bey, and by Park, in his
     second journey, can (as I apprehend) no longer be doubted: and it
     is not improbable that this is the common receptacle of the Nile of
     the West and the Nile of the East. This hypothesis is strengthened
     by the testimony of the Shereef Imhammed, who has said, that he
     himself saw the Nile, at Cashna, flowing so rapidly westward, that
     vessels could not stem the current. If this be true, the [295]_Ba
     Sea Feena_ of Park, which is only another name for the _Sea of
     Sudan_, must lie west of Cashna, and, probably, about the same
507  point that it is stated by me to be situated, viz. fifteen journeys
     of horse-travelling, or from 400 to 450 British miles east of
     Timbuctoo.

         [Footnote 295: The Arabic orthography is _Bahar S'feena_ which
         being literally translated into English, signifies the Sea of
         Ships.]

     The word _Djinawa_ is the African word that denominates Guinea, but
     I cannot imagine that it was ever intended to signify Gana. (See
     Supplement to Encyclopædia Britannica, p. 104.)

     You say there are, in Africa, two rivers to which the name of
     _Niger_ has been given: this is evidently an error, but possibly of
     the press only. There are, however, two rivers in Africa to which
     the name of _Neel_ has been given.

     The Proceedings of the African Association, vol. i. p. 540, declare
     that the Nile is a name applied in Africa to any great river; but
     as this assertion is calculated to produce confusion in the
     geographical elucidation of the interior of that continent, and as
     it certainly is not the fact, I must here beg leave to contradict
     it, and declare that there are absolutely but two rivers in Africa,
     that bear the name Neel or Nile, viz. the Neel El Kabeer, Neele
     Sudan, or Neel El Abeed, i.e. the great Nile, the Nile of Sudan or
     the Nile of the Negroes; and Neele Masser, i.e. the Nile of
     Egypt.[296]

         [Footnote 296: _Nile_ is a French term, and loses its proper
         pronunciation and is unintelligible when pronounced by an
         Englishman to an African; but if written _Neel_, and pronounced
         by an Englishman, it is intelligible.]

     If my knowledge of the African Arabic can be of any service in
508  giving you the signification or correct orthography of African
     words, in the event of your favouring the public with a future
     edition of your New Supplement to the Encyclopædia Britannica, any
     information that I can communicate to you will be very much at your
     service; and you may in this and in any other respect that regards
     Africa freely command my services.


     _Observations on an Historical Account of Discoveries and Travels
     in Africa, by the late John Leyden, M.D., by Hugh Murray, Esq.
     F.R.S.E._

     TO HUGH MURRAY ESQ. F.R.S.E.

     Sir,
                                                      London, Feb. 1818.

     You have certainly rendered to your country a service, in the
     publication of "The Travels and Discoveries in Africa, of the late
     John Leyden," the perusal of which has been to me a fund of
     instruction and entertainment; it is a most valuable work, and such
     a one as was wanted by the literary world, inasmuch as the
     judicious collection of the matter forms a most valuable epitome of
     African knowledge, collecting what was before distributed into many
     folios.

     I anticipate that the information in this work, communicated to the
     public, will soon be circulated, and you will be called upon to
     supply a second edition. In the mean time, I take the liberty of
     submitting to your perusal a few cursory observations which I have
509  made during the perusal of it, on the accuracy of which you may
     assuredly rely. These apply for the most part to Arabian words,
     which have been by the moderns, as well as the ancients variously
     corrupted and mutilated. Desirous (for the information of those who
     really seek after African knowledge) that this book will pass
     through many editions. I am, &c.

     JAMES GREY JACKSON.

     _Cursory Observations_.

     "The _Ludaia_, are not inhabitants of _Ludama_, they are a very
     numerous and warlike tribe of Arabs, inhabiting the Sahara, of
     which there are two or three emigrations or encampments in
     different and distant parts of Sahara; the Emperor of Marocco has
     some thousands of them in his army, and they are esteemed (next to
     the negroes, called Abeed Seedy Bukaree) his best troops. See the
     Map of the tracts from Fas and Arguin to Timbuctoo, facing page 1.
     Lat. N. 24°. long. W. 3°.

     "This serpent is the _Bûska_, described in Jackson's enlarged
     Account of Marocco, &c. p. 109. Providence has afforded to man an
     opportunity of evading the attack of this deadly animal; for when
     it coils itself up, and by the strength of its tail darts forward
     fifteen or twenty yards at once, the person attacked, by watching
     vigilantly its motions, evades the attack, by moving only a short
     distance from the right line, in which it is prepared to dart
510  forwards; neither can the _Bûska_ govern itself in the extent of
     its movement, but necessarily goes as far as its strength will
     permit, and then coils itself up again in a circular form, again
     erects its head, and darts a second time to its object. I have
     conversed with Arabs, who have been attacked by this monster, and
     they have assured me, that, by vigilantly watching its motion, and
     the direction of its head, when preparing to dart forward, they may
     escape its attack.[297]

     "It is not correct to assert that _Nasari is a general term_,
     applied to infidels in Muhamed; it is applied to Christians only.
     _Kaffer is the general term_ applied to all who have not faith in
     the Arabian Prophet.[298]

     "That which you call the Talk Tree, is the tree which produces the
     Barbary gum; the name is _talh_.[299]"

         [Footnote 297: Vide Leyden's Africa, p. 306.]

         [Footnote 298: Ibid, p. 429.]

         [Footnote 299: Ibid. 204.]

     "The _Keydenah_.--This is the Sudanic name for the tree which
     produces the Argan nut, or olive, the _kernel_ of which resembles a
     bitter almond, and from _it_, not from the shell, they extract the
     oil, so celebrated for frying fish, and for burning; a pint of
     which will afford light as long as two pints of olive oil.

     "The She plant, or properly Sheh is not wild thyme, nor does it
     resemble it, it is the wormseed plant, the seed of which is an
511  article of exportation, from the ports of Marocco, The sheh
     resembles the absynthum. The wild thyme is called _zatar_, also an
     article of exportation from the ports of the Marocco empire.[300]

     "The _Alsharra_ signifies the Book of Laws of Muhamed.[301]

     "_Gebel Ramlie_ should be written _Jibbel Rummelie_, i.e. the Sandy
     Mountain.[302]

     "The Elwah [303]Elgarbie is inhabited by the Maggrebee Arabs. My
     late friend, Muley Abd Salam, elder brother to Muley Soliman, the
     reigning Emperor of Marocco, had a very large estate in this Wah,
     called Santariah. In the 1793d year of the Christian era, he sent
     his friend and servant Alkaid Muhammed ben Abd Saddack, late
     governor of Mogodor, to effect the sale of this estate. He was
     absent on this embassy two years and three months.[304]

     "_Sheb_ is the Arabic for alum, the correct orthography is
     _Shib_.[305]

     "_Marybucks_ should be _Marabet_, i.e. Priests, or Holy
     Muhamedans.[306]

     "The primitive plough is used in all the African countries
     inhabited by the Arabs, or their descendants; the negroes, however,
     use the hoe." [307]

         [Footnote 300: Vide Leyden's Africa, p. 312.]

         [Footnote 301: Ibid, p. 334.]

         [Footnote 302: Ibid, p. 398.]

         [Footnote 303: Let the African traveller be careful to
         pronounce these g's guttural خ]

         [Footnote 304: Ibid, p. 399.]

         [Footnote 305: Ibid. ibid.]

         [Footnote 306: Ibid. p. 225.]

         [Footnote 307: Ibid. p. 227.]
512
     "The Mouselmines is a French corruption of the term Muselman, i.e.
     Mohamedans.

     "Mongearts, i.e. Moguert, the g guttural.

     "Ouadelim, i.e. Wooled Deleim, or the sons of Deemy.

     "Labdessebah, i.e. Woled Abbusebah, 'the sons of Abbusebah.'[308]

     "Wed de Non, i.e. Wedinoon.

     "The herb, with a decoction of which they dye their nails and
     hands, is called by the Arabs _El Henna_: it imparts a coolness and
     softness to the hands, and diminishes the excessive perspiration
     incident to warm climates.[309]

     "Hooled ben Soliman ought to be Woled ben Soliman, 'the sons of the
     sons of Soliman;' and Benioled, should be Ben El Waled, 'the sons
     of Elwaled.'[310]

     "The small beautiful species of deer, is the _El Horreh:_ it is an
     inhabitant of the confines of the Saharah; it is said never to lie
     down. It produces the anti-poison called bezoar stone, (called in
     the Arabic _Bide El Horrek_, i.e. the testicle of the Horreh.) This
     is an article of commerce at Santa Cruz, and Wedinoon. The back and
     sides of the skins of these animals are of a red brown, and of a
     vivid white underneath." [311]

         [Footnote 308: Vide Leyden's Africa, p. 262.]

         [Footnote 309: Ibid. p. 291.]

         [Footnote 310: Ibid. p. 299.]

         [Footnote 311: Ibid. p. 303.]

513
     TO JAMES GREY JACKSON, ESQ.

     Sir,

                                                Edinburgh, May 3. 1818.

     I have lately been favoured with two communications from you:--the
     one a letter to Mr. Napier, editor of the Encyclopædia Britannica,
     on the subject of the article _Africa_, of which I was the author,
     and which Mr. Napier, therefore, put into my hands; the other, a
     letter direct to myself, on the subject of my edition of "Leyden's
     Discoveries in Africa." I fully intended to have answered them
     before now, but the pressure of other business, with the wish to
     bestow upon them the leisurely consideration which they merited,
     has hitherto prevented me. I feel much gratified by the favourable
     opinion which you express of what I have done on this subject, and
     much obliged to you for your communications, and offers of further
     information. I experienced very much the disadvantage arising from
     a want of knowledge of the languages of North Africa, with which
     you appear to have a _very extensive acquaintance. Indeed, several
     of the etymologies which you have given, are very interesting_. I
     was particularly pleased to receive that of the term _Ba Sea
     Feena_, though I cannot conceal that it tends to strengthen the
     doubts which I have entertained of its applying to the sea on the
     Gold Coast. The distance, the direction southwards, the Christians,
     the motion one way and another, and even the ships, are all
514  circumstances which would agree. There are arguments, however,
     against it; and it is certain that Park did not so understand it.
     Do you think there is any chance that the Bahr Soudan could be the
     Gulf of Guinea?

     If you are acquainted with any circumstances which could tend to
     confirm or refute the narrative of Sidi Hamet, as given by Riley,
     or throw light upon Riley's general credibility; or if you have
     ever heard any report of such a city as _Wassanah_, I should feel
     particularly obliged to you for communicating such information: and
     whenever I find myself at a loss, I shall gladly avail myself of
     the liberality with which you show yourself disposed to impart the
     knowledge of which you have become possessed.

     I shall communicate this letter to Mr. Napier; and it is but fair
     to mention, that, from the circumstances already stated, I am
     solely responsible for the too long delay which has taken place in
     answering your letter to him, as well as that to myself.

     HUGH MURRAY.

     _On the Niger and the Nile._

                                              London, 7th April, 1820.

     In the 25th number of the Quarterly Review, (article Park's
     Travels,) the hypothesis there laid down as almost indisputable, is
515  the non-continuity of the two Niles of Africa, or (according to the
     European phraseology of the day) of the Niger and the Nile.

     This hypothesis founded on the opinion of Major Rennel, carries
     with it no evidence whatever, but the speculative theory of that
     learned geographer. The identity or connection of the two Niles,
     and the consequent water communication between[312] Cairo and
     Timbuctoo receives (supposing the Quarterly Review to be correct),
     as our intelligence respecting Africa increases, additional
     confirmation: and even the Quarterly Reviewer, who denominated the
     opinion recorded by me, the gossipping stories of Negroes, (_vide_
     Quarterly Review, No. 25, p. 140.) now favours this opinion!

     The Quarterly Reviewer appreciates Burckhardt's information on this
     subject, and depreciates mine, _although both are derived from the
     same sources of[313] intelligence, and confirm one another_: the
     reviewer says, Mr. Burckhardt has revived a question of older date;
     viz. "that the Niger of Sudan and the Nile of Egypt are one and the
     same river: this general testimony to a physical fact can be shaken
     only by direct proof to the contrary."

         [Footnote 312: _Vide_ Jackson's enlarged Account of Marocco, p.
         310.]

         [Footnote 313: _i. e_. Intelligence from natives of Africa.]

     This is all very well: I do not object to the Quarterly Reviewer
     giving up an opinion which he finds no longer tenable; but when I
     see in the same review (No. 44, p. 481.) the following words,--"we
516  give no credit whatever to the report received by Mr. Jackson, of a
     person (several Negroes[314], it should be) having performed a
     voyage by water from Timbuctoo to Cairo," I cannot but observe with
     astonishment, that the Reviewer believes Burckhardt's report, that
     they are the same river, when, at the same time he does not believe
     mine.

         [Footnote 314: _Vide_ Jackson's enlarged Account of Marocco, p.
         312.]

     Is there not an inconsistency here, somewhat incompatible with the
     impartiality which _ought_ to regulate the works of criticism? I
     will not for a moment suppose it to have proceeded from a spirit of
     animosity, which I feel myself unconscious of deserving. But the
     reviewer further says, the objection to the identity of the Niger
     and the Nile, is grounded on the incongruity of their periodical
     inundations, or on the rise and fall of the former river not
     corresponding with that of the latter. I do not comprehend whence
     the Quarterly Reviewer has derived this information; I have always
     understood the direct contrary, which I have declared in the
     enlarged editions of my account of Marocco, page 304, which has
     been confirmed by a most intelligent African traveller, Ali Bey,
     (for which see his travels, page 220.)

     I may be allowed to observe, that although the Quarterly Reviewer
     has changed his opinion on this matter, I have invariably
     maintained mine, founded as it is on the concurrent testimony of
     the best informed and most intelligent native African travellers,
517  and I still assert, on the same foundation, _the identity of the
     two Niles, and their continuity of waters_.

     I have further to remark what will most probably ere long prove
     correct; viz. that the _Bahar Abiad_[315], that is to say, the
     river that passes through the country of Negroes, between Senaar
     and Donga, is an erroneous appellation, originating in the general
     ignorance among European travellers of the African Arabic, and that
     the proper name of this river is Bahar Abeed, which is another term
     for the river called the Nile-el-Abeed, which passes south of
     Timbuctoo towards the east (called by Europeans the Niger).

     It therefore appears to me, and I really think it must appear to
     every unbiassed investigator of African geography, that every iota
     of African discovery, made successively, by Hornemann[316],
     Burckhardt, and others, tends to confirm _my water communication
     between Timbuctoo and Cairo_, and the theorists and speculators in
     African geography, who have heaped hypothesis upon hypothesis,
     error upon error, who have raised splendid fabrics upon pillars of
     ice, will ere long close their book, and be compelled, by the force
     of truth and experience, to admit the fact stated about twelve
     years ago by me in my account of Marocco, &c. viz. _that the Nile
518  of Sudan and the Nile of Egypt are identified by a continuity of
     waters, and that a water communication is provided by these two
     great rivers from Timbuctoo to Cairo_; and moreover, that the
     general African opinion, _that the Neel-el-Abeed_ (Niger)
     _discharges itself into the_ (Bahar el Mâleh) _Salt Sea, signifies
     neither more nor less than that it discharges itself at the Delta
     in Egypt, into the Mediterranean Sea_!

     JAMES GREY JACKSON.

         [Footnote 315: Bahar Abiad signifies White River; Bahar Abeed
         signifies River of Negroes.]

         [Footnote 316: _Vide_ my letter in Monthly Magazine on this
         subject for March, 1817, p. 124.]



                              APPENDIX

            BEING HISTORICAL FRAGMENTS IN ELUCIDATION OF
                        THE FOREGOING PAGES.

_First Expedition on Record to Timbuctoo.--Timbuctoo and Guago captured
by Muley Homed, (son of Muley Abdelmelk, commonly called Muley
Melk[317], or Muley Moluck,) in the 16th Century, (about the Year
1580_.)

     [Footnote 317: See the Spectator, No. 349.]

Muley Abdelmelk, commonly called Muley Moluck, in 1577, A.C. fought the
celebrated battle with Don Sebastian, King of Portugal, near Alkassar,
which is at a short distance from L'Araich, wherein Don Sebastian was
killed; and Abdelmelk being, before the battle, extremely ill, his son
Muley Hamed went to his litter, to communicate to the Emperor his
father, that the Moors had gained the victory, when he found his father
dead and cold. Muley Hamed concealed this event till the battle was
over; and was then proclaimed Emperor, and reigned twenty-six years: he
cultivated the arts and sciences, mathematics and astronomy, which last
was of essential service to him in crossing the Sahara to Timbuctoo and
Guago; during which perilous journey the compass is so indispensable,
that there is no certainty of travelling without it. He lost some
thousands in this expedition; but if gold could recompense the waste of
human life, he was rewarded for his journey of abstinence and privation
across the Sahara, for he brought from Guago seventy-five quintals, and
from Timbuctoo sixty quintals, of gold-dust, making together one hundred
and thirty-five quintals, or 16,065 lb. English avoir-du-poids weight of
gold.

_A Library of Arabic Manuscripts taken by the Spaniards,--Contests among
Christians reprimanded._

Muley Sidan, son of Muley Hamed, disputed the throne of Marocco, A.C.
1611, with three brothers, one of whom was supported by the Spaniards,
whose succour was purchased by his delivering into their hands the port
of L'Araich, soon after which they gained a naval victory over the
forces of Sidan, which was very disastrous to the Africans; for the
Spaniards, besides other plunder, got possession of 3000 Arabic books,
on theology, philosophy, and medicine. Sidan, however, notwithstanding
this disaster, maintained his right to the crown. He was of a liberal
and charitable mind. He protected and granted to the Christians various
privileges; but _he ordered that Christians of all sects, and
denominations should live in peace one with another_.

One day, some (_Userah_) Christian slaves of Provence, in France, who
were Catholics, had a controversial dispute with others from Rochelle,
who were Calvinists. This dispute ended in a violent contest,
accompanied with blows on either side; this scene excited the curiosity
of the Muselmen, who were surprised to see Christians thus fight among
themselves on points of their own law! The report of this battle was
carried to Sidan, who ordered all these slaves to be brought before him.
He condemned some to a bastinado, which was inflicted in his presence.
He then addressed them thus:--"I command you all, on pain of death, not
to dispute in future on the various dogmas of your law: every one has
the presumption to think _himself_ right; and as I allow every
individual in my dominions to follow the religion that he chooses for
himself; _slaves ought to have among themselves the same toleration_".

_Muley El Arsheed, (a second Expedition to Timbuctoo and Sudan.)_

This Sultan preceded the renowned Muley Ismael, on the throne of
Marocco: he united to great ability the most ferocious disposition, and
was continually inebriated.--He crossed the Sahara to Timbuctoo, with a
numerous army, about the year of Christ 1670; proceeding to _Suse_, he
laid siege to the Sanctuary of _Seedi Aly ben Aidar_, near _Ilirgh_:
Seedi Aly, making his escape in disguise, fled to Sudan, whither he was
followed by Muley El Arsheed, who, on his arrival on the confines of
Sudan, between Timbuctoo and Jinnie, was met by a numerous host of
Negroes, commanded by a black sultan: the Emperor demanded Aly ben
Aidar; but the sultan of Bambarra replied, that, as he had claimed his
protection, it would be an infringement on the laws of hospitality to
deliver him up, adding, that he desired to know if the views of El
Arsheed were hostile or not; to which the latter replied, after
endeavouring in vain to procure the person of Aly, that he was not come
hostilely, but was about to return, which he forthwith did: and the
Bambareen sultan, having received from Aly two beautiful renegade
virgins, was so much flattered with the present, that he promised him
any thing that he should ask; whereupon, he requested permission to go
to Timbuctoo, and to settle there with his numerous followers; which
being granted, he proceeded thither, and having established a Moorish
garrison, resided there several, months, and afterwards returned to
Barbary, bringing with him many thousand Bambareen negroes: but, on his
reaching Suse, he heard of the death of Muley El Arsheed, and having
then no farther occasion for these negroes, he dismissed them. They went
to various parts of the country, serving the inhabitants in order to
procure daily subsistence; but the arch-politician Muley Ismael, who had
then recently been proclaimed as his successor, ordered them to be
collected together, and incorporated in his negro army, which was,
however, before this, very numerous, consisting for the most part of
blacks, brought away from Sudan by Muley El Arsheed the preceding year.
The Sultan Ismael also seized this opportunity of establishing his
authority at Timbuctoo, and he met with little or no opposition in
putting that place under contribution. Having sent fresh troops to
occupy the Moorish garrison there, the inhabitants were glad to make a
contribution, in exchange for the protection and power which it afforded
them; for previous to this, they had been subject to continual
depredations, from the Arabs of the adjacent country, to whom they had
been compelled to pay tribute, as a security for their caravans, which
were constantly passing the country of these Arabs, who are of the race
of Brabeesh. In the year 1727, A.C. when Ismael died, it is reported
that he possessed an immense quantity of gold, of the purity of which,
his gold coins, to be seen at this day at Timbuctoo, bear testimony; it
is also said, that the massive bolts of his palaces were of pure gold,
as well as the utensils of his kitchens. After his decease, however, the
tribute was discontinued, and the Moorish garrison at Timbuctoo,
intermarrying with the natives, and dispersing themselves in the
neighbouring country, has given to Timbuctoo that tincture of Muselman
manners, which they are known to possess; their descendants forming, at
this period, a considerable portion of the population of Timbuctoo.

_Third Expedition to Timbuctoo and Sudan_.

Muley Ismael died of an abscess in 1727, and was succeeded by his
youngest son Muley Hamed Dehebby, a most avaricious prince, whose
treasure, collected in his government during the life of his father,
amounted to ten millions; to which was now added his father's treasury,
amounting to fifty millions, besides jewels and diamonds to a much
larger amount.

Dehebby[318], sanguinary and cruel when sober, was mild, affable, and
humane when intoxicated: unlike Muselmen, he believed not in
predestination, but had always several surgeons and doctors in his
suite, and consulted them with the most unlimited confidence when ill.
He decorated the palace of Marocco: in one of the apartments of the
seraglio, of which he had had painted, in a superior style, the twelve
signs of the zodiac; for which his ignorant and bigoted subjects accused
him of having conspired against the Deity, in imitating, by gross and
ill-formed images, the works of the Almighty. This prince was an
intolerable drunkard; so that the Marabets and chiefs of the empire
called Abdelmelk to the throne, whom they enabled to take possession of
Mequinas. This prince, anticipating the revenge of Dehebby, proposed to
deprive him of his eye-sight; but the Marabets and chiefs opposed this
resolution and replied to him in the following words:--"It is not for
his crimes that we have deposed thy brother, but for his continual
intoxication, which prevented him from watching over the government and
his officers: he has therefore only been guilty of weakness, which is
not a punishable crime." Abdelmelk dared not push his point, but was
contented to send his brother to the (_Bled Shereef_), country of
princes, i.e. Tafilelt. Before Dehebby was dethroned, he marched with a
numerous army across Sahara, to Timbuctoo, of which he took possession,
and brought home immense quantities of gold.

     [Footnote 318: His proper name was Muley Hamed ben Ismael, the name
     Dehebby is figurative of his riches in gold.]

1730.--Muley Hamed Dehebby dying, should have been succeeded by his son
Muley Bouffer; but money and intrigue gave power to Abdallah, a son of
Muley Ismael, who was proclaimed in spite of the efforts of his nephew,
whom he attacked at Terodant, the capital of Suse. Bouffer was taken,
together with a Marabet, his confidential friend and counsellor.
Abdallah ordered them both to be brought before him.--"Thou art young,"
said he to his nephew; "thou hadst imprudently undertaken more than thou
couldst accomplish; and in consideration of thy youth and inexperience,
I pardon thee, but I will be revenged of thy counsellor." Then turning
himself to the Marabet, "Thou, art a rebel," said he. "Didst thou
imagine that thy sacred character, which thou hast abused against thy
(_Seed_) Lord or King would prevent him from punishing thee? Let us see
if thy sanctity will turn the edge of my sword."--In uttering these
words, he struck off the saint's head.



                               I N D E X.

       *       *       *       *       *


A.

ABDELMELK, the prince, moral reflection on his expensive apparel,
79. Is sent to Tafilelt,                                             80.
_Abolition_ of Slavery depends on the Africans themselves, not on
our naval force or operations,                                      270.
_Abstinence_ experienced in the Sahara, 353. Means used to support
it. Effects of,                                                     354.
_Abbuselah Woled_, Arabs of,                                        138.
_Abdrahaman ben Nassar_, bashaw of Abda, interview with,            136.
_Abdsalam_, prince, departs for Tafilelt, through Draha and Bled el
jereed,                                                             149.
_Abeed_, 481. Seedi Bukaree, emperor's body guard,                  481.
_Aboukir_, battle of, its consequence to muselmen,                  101.
_Acephali_,                                                         198.
_Africa_, plan for the discovery of,                                201.
_African_ Association, Institution, &c. recommended to unite their
energies and operations to cultivate a commercial intercourse with
Africa, 228. The same recommended an a large scale, 249. African
Company, a plan for, 251. African Association, disastrous
expeditions of, 258. An union of the African interests beneficial,
271. African duplicity exemplified, 293. African Association might
find the son of Ali Bey an acquisition in promoting their views,    304.
_African_ names, how pronounced,                                    491.
_Agadeer_, or Santa Cruz, port of, opened to Dutch commerce, 55.
Apprehensions at Mogodor from the establishment of Santa Cruz, 56.
Conveniently situated for the markets of Sudan. Denominated the gate
of Sudan, 56. Port of, farmed by Muley Ismael, 57. Author's arrival
at, to open the port to European commerce. Wretched state of its
inhabitants. Honourable reception of the author there, 59.
Disgraceful custom abolished by the author, 60. Propensity to
commerce among the people of Suse. Sanctuary at the entrance of the
town. Privilege of riding in and out of the town established by the
author, for Christians of all denominations, 61. Commercial road
made by the author down the mountain to facilitate the shipment of
merchandise, 62. The spirit of the natives in working at it. Happy
influence of commerce and industry on the people. Portuguese tower
in the neighbourhood, 63. Description of the town, 64. Strength of,
and convenient situation for a depôt, 65. Mitferes, depositaries for
water, 65. Attempt of the Danes to establish a colony in its
vicinage, at Agadeer Arba. Battery at, 66. Safe road for shipping.
Inhabitants friendly to the English, 67. Port of, shut by the
Emperor, and the garrison and merchants ordered to go to Marocco,
and from thence to quit the country or establish at Mogodor, 79.
Negociation for the port of, from the emperor,                      246.
_Agricultural_ property, division of, 330. Agriculture,             339.
_Aisawie_, or charmers of serpents described,                       430.
_Ait Attar_, or Attarites, an independent kabyl or clan,            311.
_Akka_, 7. Depôt for camels,                                        248.
_Akkaba_, kaffilas, or caravans to Timbuctoo, where eligible to be
established,                                                        263.
_Akkaba_, what,                                                     345.
_Akkad_, its signification,                                         411.
_Alk Sudan_, what,                                                  345.
_Altitude_ of the Atlas mountains,                               93, 94.
_Ali Bey_, an account of; 297. Suspicions entertained respecting
him. His magnificent mode of living. Excites the suspicion of the
governor of Marocco, 300. He is prevented from visiting the Atlas
mountains, 301. He is favoured by the emperor, 302. Stratagem
practised to ascertain what religion he followed. Ordered to embark
at Laraich. Is separated from his wife. Her conduct. He predicts an
eclipse, 303. Passes for a learned man. Suspected to be an agent of
Bonaparte. His son resides at Fas, patronised by the Marabet Muley
Dris or Idris,                                                      304.
_Algiers_, attack of, recommended to the Emperor of Marocco,        283.
_Almonds_, plantations of,                                           74.
_Ambassador_, British, the author's interview with. Great
honor shown to him on his entry into Tangier,                       127.
_Amber_, manufactured imitation of, at Fas,                    126. 216.
_Amaranites_, or Ait Amaran, a tribe of Berebbers,                  124.
_Amak_, the poet, his sumptuous style of living,                    353.
_Amorites_, of the,                                                 475.
------, or Ait Amor, 122. Descendants of the ancient Amorites, 124.
Anecdotes of,                                                       193.
_Amusements_ of Europeans at Marocco,                                89.
_Anachronism_ of the author misapplied,                             442.
_Angola_, natives of, how converted to Christianity,                442.
_Anti-commercial_ system,                                           211.
_Antiperistasis_ of the Africans, how promoted,                     230.
_Antimony_ mines,                                                   331.
_Anecdote_ of an Emperor,                                           307.
_Anecdotes_, fragments, and notes,                                  276.
_Antithesis_, a favourite figure with the Arabs,                    349.
_Apparel_ of the emperor, plain and simple,                          79.
_Arabs_, cookery of, 64. Riches of, in what they consist, 247. Dance
and music, 140. Abstinence of, 141. Beauty of their women, 142.
Patriarchal life of, 143. 196. Arab royalty personified, 195.
Customs of, 244. Of Sahara, hostile to those who do not understand
their language, 262. The manners of, resemble those of the
patriarchal ages, 276. The study of their language and customs the
best comment on the Old Testament, 276. Their territory and origin,
328. Decay of science and arts among,                               352.
------, sheiks of, hold themselves accountable for the property,
baggage, &c. of travellers,                                         233.
_Arabic_ document distributed by Mr. Bowdich in Africa, to the
natives, unintelligible,                                            492.
------, language, on the, 471. The language of Palestine resembles
that of West Barbary,                                               473.
----------, general utility of, a practical knowledge of in Africa,
258. On the language, 357. Arabian music, 318. Arabic grammar,
errors in Richardson's, 351. Pure Arabic, where spoken, 351. Arabian
modes of writing, 350, Errors committed by professors of, who have
not a practical knowledge of the language,                           39.
----------, universality of the,                                    473.
------, translations of documents in, furnished to government by the
author,                                                             407.
------, manuscripts, 3000 taken by the Spaniards,                    520.
------, interpreter, the author officiates as, with the prince Muley
Teib,                                                               192.
_Architecture_ described, 90. Gothic prevails,                      271.
_Argan_ tree, and oil of,                                           510.
------, trees, oil of the, productive of leprosy if not properly
prepared,                                                            91.
_Ashantee_, intercourse through, with Timbuctoo objectionable, and
why,                                                                249.
_Atlas_, foot of, a productive country, 74. Table land in, and
produce of, 75. Narrow defile or pass, 76. Calculated altitude of,   93.
_Attarites_, or Ait Attar, a tribe of Berebbers,                    124.
_Audiences_ of the emperor, introductory, of business, of leave or
departure,                                                           89.
_Author's_ intelligence respecting the interior of Africa,
considered valuable,                                                 99.
------, travels in disguise,                                         136.
_Azamore_,                                                          110.

B.

_Bab_ Sudan,                                                        456.
_Badge_ of distinction worn by the lepers,                           91.
_Bahar_ Segrer, the Mediterranean designated by that term,          489.
------, Sudan, corroborative testimony of its situation,  450, 451, 465.
----------, situation of,                                           436.
------, Kulla, explanation of the term, 444. Ditto of Bahar Sudan,  448.
------, El Kabeer, or Bahar Addolum, Atlantic Ocean designated by
that name,                                                          489.
------, El Abeed, not Bahar El Abiad,                               517.
_Ba_ Scafeena, of Park, synonymous with the sea of Sudan,      450, 465.
----------, of Park, synonymous with the sea of Sudan, properly
called Bahar S'feena,                                               506.
_Bank_, in West Barbary, recommended,                               237.
_Banks_, Sir Joseph's letter to Mr. Dickson, respecting the death of
Mungo Park, a passage in it confirmed only in Mr. Jackson's
translation of the Shereef Ibrahim's account of that traveller's
death, brought by Mr. Bowdich from Ashantee, but not in Mr. Salemé's
translation, 425. The author's translation,                         409.
_Barbary_, conquered by the Romans, by the Vandals, by the Greeks,
by the Arabs, 458. Partial conquest of by the Portuguese and
Spaniards,                                                          458.
--------, travelling in,                                            293.
_Bashaw_ of Abda, interview with,                                   136.
_Bedouins_, emigration of. Camel's milk, their food, 203. Domestic
looms of. Manufactures of. Custom of, 204. Mode of living. Extempore
poetry of, 205. Manners of,                                         206.
_Beef_, mode of preserving for food in the desert,                  349.
_Berebbers_, their contest with the emperor, 308. Their territory
and language, 327. Names of their clans or tribes, 124. Specimen of
their language,                                                     367.
_Bernou_, etymology of,                                             449.
_Bism illak, and El Ham'd û lillah_, signification of,              231.
_Bonaparte_, his system respecting Africa,                          229.
_Bouska_, exhibition of that monstrous serpent,                     451.
_Brimstone_ mines,                                                  331.
_British_ public, address to,                                       253.
_Buffé_, Dr. his medical success at Marocco, 396. He is recommended
to his majesty George the Third, and his majesty is requested, by
the emperor, to return him to Gibraltar, to reside there as the
emperor's physician,                                                397.
_Buhellessa_, the pretender, described, 287. He is an adept in the
occult sciences, 288. He marches with 22,000 men to attack Delemy's
castle, 289. He is vanquished and beheaded, 290. His army dispersed,
his head and feet sent to the Prince Muley Abdsalam, at Santa Cruz,
290. The prince rewards the man who killed the usurper: the author
visits the field of battle, which resembled the plains of Waterloo, 291.
_Buregreg_ river,                                                   113.
_Burkhardt_, anticipation respecting,                               449.
_Butellise_, or night-blindness, described,                         332.
--------, or nyctalopia, an ophthalmia that affects our seamen in
the Mediterranean,                                                  433.
_Butter_, melted, food in the desert,                                 6.

C.

_Camel_, the ship of the desert,                                    247.
_Caffer_, or Khaffer, signification of,                             345.
_Cairo_, derivation of the name,                                    326.
_Canary_ language resembles the shelluh of Atlas,                   381.
_Caravans_ accumulate as they proceed to the confines of Sahara,      4.
_Cape_ of Good Hope, how to preserve, and to improve its produce,
                                                               339, 340.
_Cape de Verd_, compared to Ceuta,                                  229.
_Ceuta_, preparation for the siege of, by the emperor Muley
Yezzid,                                                             403.
_Christians_, harmony among, necessary to precede the conversion
of Africa,                                                          131.
_Christian_ religion, how to propagate it in Africa,                224.
--------, impediments to its propagation,                           225.
--------, the influence of its principles in Africa,                227.
_Civilisation_ of Africa, the necessary result of commerce, and the
only plan by which an expectation of the conversion of the natives
to Christianity can possibly be indulged,                           263.
----------, of Africa, through commerce, the only effectual means of
abolishing the slave trade,                                         270.
_Civil_ war prevalent in West and in South Barbary,                 279.
_Characteristic_ trait of Muhamedans,                               308.
_Christians_, ordered by the emperor, on pain of death, to live
peaceably with one another,                                         520.
_Christ_ acknowledged by muselmen,                                  240.
_Circumcision_, when performed among Muhamedans,                    345.
_Cobas_ described,                                                  272.
_Colonial_ produce, consequences of the cultivation of, in Senegal
by the French,                                                      228.
_Commercial_ intercourse with Africa favourable to the propagation
of Christianity,                                                    227.
----------, Recommended on a large scale,                 249. 251. 259.
_Commercial_ adventurer in Africa more likely to succeed than a
scientific one,                                                     259.
_Commerce_, the key of Africa,                                      428.
_Communication_ with Africa to be effected by the medium of
commerce,                                                           493.
_Connubial_ customs,                                                313.
_Copper_ mines,                                                     331.
_Corn_, abundant at Dar el Beida and at Fedalla,                    110.
     Abundance of, in West Barbary,                            208. 340.
_Couriers_, confidence reposed in them,                             405.
_Coffee_ of Timbuctoo,                                              279.
_Consuls_ of the European powers, their residence,                  130.
_Congo_, Africans of, how converted to the Christian faith,         442.
_Continental_ markets of Europe, contemplation how they will be
supplied with colonial produce,                                     229.
_Cuscusoe_, or more properly Kuskasoe, an excellent food, mode of
preparing it,                                                        97.
_Customs_, Muhamedan,                                               230.
_Cuba_, slave-trade and produce of, increased,                      270.
_Customs_ of the shelluhs of Idaultit, and laws of, remarkable,     313.
_Customs_, ceremonies at funerals,                                  465.

D.

_Dances_ of the Arabs described, music of,                     140. 344.
_Dates_ abundant at Tafilelt,                                        80.
_Dar el Beida_, a corn country,                                     110.
_Dead_, bodies of the, never interred in towns or in the mosques,   272.
     Ceremony of interment,                                         273.
_Deism_,                                                            325.
_Deef Allah_, what,                                                 341.
_Decay_ of science and the arts among the Arabs,                    352.
_Delel_, i.e. auctioneer of slaves at Marocco,                       95.
_Deleim_, woled Arabs,                                              138.
_Decked_ vessels in the interior of Africa,                         449.
_Delemy_, sheik of the Deleim Arabs,                                138.
     Invites the author and his companion, Signor Andrea de Christo,
     to pass the night at a douar of the Woled Abbusebah Arabs,     139.
     Garden of, described,                                          147.
     Renown of,                                                     148.
     A main pillar to the throne of Marocco,                        148.
     Receives an exhortation from the prince Abdsalam to give battle
     to the usurper Buhellessa,                                     288.
     Dextrous in the management of a horse,                         289.
_Desert_, rate of travelling through,                               470.
_Dews_ of the night, how they secure themselves against,
     when sleeping,                                                 154.
_Deef Allah_, custom of uttering,                                   233.
_Dimenet_, in the Atlas, attacked by the emperor,                   305.
_Difference_ between the oriental and occidental Arabic alphabets,  351.
_Djinawa_, definition of the name,                                  507.
_Distances_ from port to port, along the coast, calculated,         132.
_Discovery_ of Africa, plan for,                                    200.
_Disgrace_ of inhospitality,                                        240.
_Doctors_, itinerant, their apparatus,                              242.
_Douars_, or villages of tents, described,                          328.
_Draha_, province of,                                                 2.
     Hire of camels from Tafilelt to,                                 2.
     Dates, the names of the different species,                       3.
     Plantations of,                                                  3.
     Inhabitants of nearly black,                                     2.
     Character of them,                                            2. 7.
_Drahim_, what,                                                       3.
_Driss Zerone Muley_, renowned sanctuary of,                        118.
     Author's hospitable reception there, and admission to the
     adytum,                                                        119.
_Duplicity_ of the Africans exemplified,                       293. 314.

E.

_East_ India trade, our, how likely to be affected by French
colonisation, in Senegal,                                           229.
_Ebekoaits_, or Ait Ebeko, a tribe of Berebbers,                    124.
_Effah el_, exhibition of that venomous serpent,                    453.
_Elephants_,                                                          8.
_Elegant_ females,                                                  142.
_Emperor_ admits an ambassador without prostration, and why,        282.
--------, Yezzid is wounded, and dies,                              285.
     His body exhumated,                                            286.
     Compared to his majesty George the Fourth,                     287.
_Emperor_, anecdote of one,                                         307.
     His contest with the Berebbers,                                308.
     Letter from him to his bashaw of Suse respecting English seamen
     wrecked on the western coast of Africa,                        364.
     Titles of H.I.M.,                                              382.
     Style of addressing him,                                       382.
_Emperor's_ letters,        384, 387, 392, 394, 395, 398, 402, 403, 405.
----, plan of reconciling catholics with protestants,               520.
----, table, simplicity of the furniture of,                         96.
----, audience of business of the,                                   98.
     Audience of leave in the garden of the Nile,                    98.
_Embassy_, British, to Marocco, result of,                          128.
_Encroachments_ of the French anticipated on our colonial arkets,   230.
_Encyclopedia_ Britannica, misapplication of an anachronism,        442.
     The editor of has adopted the author's opinion respecting
     the course of the Niger,                                       447.
_Epistolary_ correspondence,                                        382.
_Epistolary_ diction used by Muhamedans,                            404.
_Equity_, case of,                                                  312.
_Esshume_, See _Shume_.
_Euphorbium_ plant,                                                  74.
_European_ merchants at Mogador in danger of being decollated
     by order of the emperor, on a charge of high-treason,          284.

F.

_Fas_, bankrupts, how treated at,                                    16.
     Is the metropolis of the north,                                 87.
     Talb Cadus,                                                     87.
----, gold thread manufactured at, of a superior quality,           126.
     Manufactures, various of,                                      126.
----, houses of the merchants of, described, and gardens at,        275.
     Library at,                                                    324.
_Fakeers_, or muselmen-saints excite hostility between Christians
     and Muhamedans,                                                267.
_Fedalla_, corn country,                                            110.
_Fig-trees_, very large,                                             82.
_Food_,                                                             316.
     Food of the desert,                                            349.
----, of the Arabs similar to that used in the days of Abraham,     243.
_Fourban_, Comte de, anecdote of,                              112, 113.
_Fragments_, notes, and anecdotes,                                  276.
_French_ army, landing of, in Egypt,                                100.
_Fruits_ of all kinds abundant at Salee and Rabat,             114, 125.
_Fruga_, town of,                                                76, 78.

G.

_Game_, plentiful. Not sold in the public market. Custom
     on shooting it,                                                338.
     Strangled, what game so called,                                338.
_Garrison_ of Tangier salutes the ambassador,                       127.
_Garb el_, what, so called,                                           2.
_Garden_, imperial, the merchants encamped at Marocco in,            88.
     Names and produce of,                                           81.
_Geography_ of Africa, on the,                                      474.
_George_ IV. compared to the Emperor Muley Yezzid,                  287.
----, a patron to science and the arts,                             429.
_Genoa_, its indirect commerce with Timbuctoo,                      254.
_Girwan ait_, or Girwanites, a tribe of Berebbers,                  124.
_Gold dust_, gold bars, wrought gold,                                67.
----, and bars, consignment of, to Fas from Timbuctoo,              347.
_Gold thread_, superior manufactory of, at Fas,                     215.
----, of a superior quality, manufactured at Fas,                   126.
_Government_, offer to it, to discover the remedy for nyctalopia,   335.
_Great Britain_, its indirect commerce with Timbuctoo,              255.
_Grored el_, or sandy desert of Mogodor,                             83.
_Gum_ Sudan,                                                         67.
     Gum Barbary,                                                    67.
     Gum Euphorbium,                                                 74.
     Gum sandrac. Gum ammoniac,                                      67.
----, called in England, Turkey gum Arabic,                         345.
_Gun-barrels_, manufacture of,                                      331.
_Gutta serena_, probable remedy for the cure of,               335, 336.
Galvanism, beneficial in,                                           336.

H.

_Hawking_, and hunting the boar, sports followed by princes,        338.
_Hassûa el_, described,                                             242.
_Heirie_, Jackson's account of, confirmed by Colonel Fitzclarence,  489.
_Hel shual_, and Hel elkilleb, what,                                198.
     Hel ferdie, what,                                              200.
_Hemeralopia_, or night-blindness described,                        332.
_Henna_, an herb with which the Arabian, Moorish, Shelluh, Berebber,
     and Jewish women dye their feet, hands, and hair, and why,     512.
_Hire_ of camels from Akka to Santa Cruz,                           346.
_Hogan's_ embassy to the emperor of Marocco, from queen Elizabeth,  489.
_Honey_ of Haha,                                                    153.
_Hospitality_ of the Arabs, cultivators of west and south
      Barbary,                                                 131. 239.
----------, laws of, 340. Disinterested hospitality shown to the
      author, 342. Inviolability of the laws of, among the Bedouin
      Arabs,                                                        343.
_Howara_, an Arab clan, take possession of Assouan in Egypt,         74.
-------, Arabs, hunting the boar with. They took the city
      of Assouan in Egypt, about four centuries ago,                245.
_Houses_ at Marocco and elsewhere described,                        274.
_Housa_, travelling there safe, 37. Great traffic on the Nile of
Sudan. Niles, how denominated, 39. Description of the country
adjacent to, 40. Situation and size of the palace of, and
description of the city of, 41. Government of; administration of
justice at, 42. Landed property, 43. Revenues of; army, 44. Trade,
45. Climate, zoology, diseases, religion, 48. Persons; dress, 49.
Buildings; manners, 50. Gold, 51. Limits of the Empire of; pottery;
Timbuctoo tributary to it, 53. Small-pox, inoculation for,           54.
_Hutton_, Catherine, her observations on an intercourse with
      Africa,                                                       264.
_Hulacu_, the Tartar, conqueror of the east. His letter to the
sultan of Aleppo,                                                   399.
_Hypotheses_, various, respecting the Niger,                        447.

I.
_Jackson's_ report corroborated,                                    467.
_Idautenan_, independence of, 147. Superior grapes of,              147.
     The country described,                                         147.
_Idiaugomoron_,                                                     151.
_Idaultit_, customs of,                                             313.
_Jedrie_, the African name for the small-pox in horses, mules,
     asses, and oxen,                                               337.
_Jelabia,_ garment so called, described,                            200.
_Jerf el suffer_, the yellow cliff,                                 109.
_Jew_, great present made by one for the privilege of wearing
     the European costume,                                          297.
_Jews_, a distinct race from the Africans, rendered so from
     their particular laws and customs, &c.                         230.
------, funeral cry of, 464. Funeral ceremonies of,                 235.
------, massacre of, at Algiers, 283. How estimated in the empire
     of Marocco,                                                    328.
_Jinnie_, manufacture of gold filligrane at,                        126.
_Impediments_ to our knowledge of Africa. What they are,            266.
_Inactivity_, or want of vigilance severely reprehensible in the
     officers of the Marocco government,                            203.
_Incorrect_ orthography of African names,                           468.
_Indigo_ plant,                                                      74.
_Interest_ of money,                                                237.
_Intercourse_, commercial, with Africa, recommended to be adopted
     on a grand national scale,                                249. 263.
_Interest_ of the Arabs of Sahara; how it would be united with a
     colony on the coast,                                           248.
_Information_ from Africans respecting Africa, not contemptible,    434.
_Insolvency_ laws,                                             343. 397.
_Intoxication_, various modes of,                                   329.
_Invoice_ from Timbuctoo to Santa Cruz, 345. Ditto from ditto to
    Fas,                                                            347.
_Invasion_ of the country by Christians, a tradition of,            225.
_Invocation_ for the author's welfare made by the Fakeers of the
     sanctuary of Muley Dris Zerone,                                119.
----------, for the welfare of the British embassy.
_Journey_, in disguise, at a critical period,                       135.
_Journies_, viz. from Mogodor to Rabat; to Mequinas; to the
     sanctuary of Muley Dris Zerone; and to the ruins of Pharaoh;
     through the country of Amorites to L'Araich and Tangier,       105.
_Irrigation_, wheel for,                                             13.
_Iron_ mines,                                                       331.
_Isa_ Seedy ben, fascinators of serpents,                           455.
_Isawie_ (fascinators of serpents) their performance,               453.
_Justice_, moral,                                                   306.

K.

_Kaaba_, Muhamed's mausoleum, so called,                            273.
_Kadder Khan_, king of Turkostan, a great support to science,       352.
_Kaffer_, the application of this term,                             510.
------, (or Caffre) its signification,                         267. 345.
_Kassar Kabeer el_, a beautiful country,                            124.
_Kereb_, what,                                                        5.
_Key_ of Africa is commerce,                                        428.
_Keyma_, its definition,                                            307.
_Khalif Delemys_, noble conduct to the prince Abdsalsm,             288.
_Kibla_, i. e. the tomb of Muhamed,                                   9.
_Kiffen_, signification of,                                         273.
_King_ George IV. compared to the late emperor of Marocco, Muley
     Yezzid, 287. A patron to science and the arts,                 429.
_Kitiwa ait_, or Kituvites, a tribe of Berebbers,                   124.
_Koba_, or coba,                                                     88.
_Koran_, called the beloved book. Etymology of the word,            318.
     Incorrectly called the Alcoran, l'Alcoran, or il Alcorano,     351.
     Written in good language,                                      353.

L.

_L'âad_ of the Arabs described,                                     289.
_Language_, etiquette of, at the court of Marocco,                  315.
_Languages_ of Africa,                                              355.
_L'Araich_, forest of. Ferry of,                                    125.
_Laws_ of insolvency,                                               343.
_Lead_ mines, 331. Lead-ore mines,                                  331.
_Leather_ superior manufactory of, at Mequinas and Marocco,         217.
     Articles used in the manufacture of leather,                   218.
_Leghorn_, its indirect commerce with Timbuctoo,                    255.
_Leper's_ town or village near Marocco, 90. Mendicant lepers,        91.
_Library_ at Fas,                                                   324.
_Lions_, country abounding in. Mode of destroying them. Preservation
     against,                                                       115.
_Liquorice_ root, abundant in Suse,                                  74.
_Locusts_, their incredible devastation described, 221. Mode of
collecting them, 222. Used as food; method of preparing them; much
esteemed as food, 222. Remarkable instance of these insects having
devoured every blade of grass south of the river Elkos, but not
north of that river,                                                223.
_Love_, Arabian definition of,                                      363.
_Loyalty_ of the sheiks of Suse, 288. Of Muhamedans,                326.
_Ludaia_ are not Ludama,                                            507.
_Lybia_ palus and sea of Sudan synonymous,                          448.

M.

_Majesty_, His, George IV. patron of science and the arts,          429.
     Compared to the late emperor Yezzid,                           287.
_Mandinga_ language compared with the Arabic,                       373.
_Manufactures_ of Fas; superior manufacture of gold-thread there,   214.
_Marabets_, what,                                                   511.
_Marabet_, punishment of one,                                       524.
_Market_ called Soke Elkhummes,                                      94.
_Marocco_, emperor's march to, 73. Country abundant in
corn of a superior quality, 78. Reception at salutations
of the Moors, 78. Gate called Beb el Lushoir; its situation,
78. Garden of the Nile, an imperial garden, 79.
Tafilelt rose flourishes at Marocco; its powerful perfume;
otto of roses, 79. Roses; various flowers abundant;
Persian wheel in general use throughout the country, 82.
Divisions of the empire of, 86. The summer residence
of the emperor, 86. The metropolis of the south, 87.
Town or village of lepers at, 90. Policy of concealing
the appearance of wealth at, 95, Furniture of houses at,
95. Customs at, 95. All trades carried on at,                        98.
--------, etiquete of the court of, 310, Emperor dispenses
     with,                                                          311.
_Marseilles_, its commerce indirectly with Timbuctoo,               254.
_Massacre_ of the Jews at Algiers,                                  283.
_Matamores_, what, 14.                                              195.
_Matra_, J.M., his excellency the British ambassador, treated
     by the emperor like a prince,                                  128.
--------, his intelligence respecting vaccine pus,                  337.
_Mauritannick_ writing, what,                                       351.
_Mazagan_, 109. Country of, and inhabitants described,              109.
_Mekka_ caravan, i.                                                   4.
_Mendicant_ lepers, their exclamation,                               91.
_Mensoria el_,                                                      110.
_Mequinas_, city of the court-town; travelling, mode of;             88.
     Imperial palace at, 117. Beauty of the ladies of,              118.
--------, superior leather and shoes made at,                        98.
_Merchandize_, consignment of, from Timbuctoo to Fas,               348.
----------, the various, the produce of Sudan,                      256.
_Messa_, visit to the port of, 145. Gold and silver mines of,       146.
_Minister's_ house at Marocco, a noble one,                          90.
--------, suggestions recommended to their attention,               230.
_Mitfere_, or cistern, magnificent, at Mazagan,                     109.
_Mitferes_, what, 90. Expediency of,                                210.
--------, described, magazines for grain, 339. Custom observed when
     opened,                                                        339.
_Mogodor_, duties at, doubled, 74. Merchants of, present themselves
     to the emperor,                                                 87.
--------, duties at, reduced to the old standard through the
     influence of Muley Abd el Melk ben Dris,                       128.
--------, merchants in danger of being beheaded,                    284.
_Monopodia_ of the ancients compared to a Moorish table,            281.
_Months_, or moons, Muhamedan, their names,                         371.
_Money_, interest of,                                               237.
_Moors_,                                                              1.
---------, their language and residence,                            327.
_Moorish grace_ at meals,                                            96.
----------customs,                                                  281.
_Morbeya_, river of, divides the northern from the southern division
     of the empire,                                                  86.
_'Msharrah Rummellah_, plains of,                                   124.
     Described,                                                     195.
_'Mtasseb_, what,                                                   126.
_Muden_, what,                                                      111.
_Muhamedan princes_, treaties with,                                 283.
--------------loyalty,                                              326.
--------------, their claims to hospitality,                        341.
--------------customs,                                              349.
_Mules_, not used in the desert,                                      5.
_Muley_ Abdsalam's domain in the oasis of Ammon,                    280.
--------Yezzid, the emperor, compared to his Majesty, George IV.,   287.
---------Abdrahaman, anecdote of,                                   322.
---------Ismael, anecdote of,                                       323.
---------Ismael, emperor of Marocco, his letter to captain Kirke at
     Tangier, ambassador from Charles II,, dated      A.D. 1682.    384.
---------Ismael, his letter to sir Cloudesly Shovel at Salée,       387.
     Sir Cloudesly's answer,                                        389.
---------Ismael, emperor of Marocco, his letter to queen Anne,      392.
---------Yezzid, emperor of Marocco, his letter to the Dutch
     consul,                                                        402.
---------Ismael's, emperor, gold coins at Timbuctoo,                522.
---------Hamed, son of Muley Moluck, an account of his expedition
     to Timbuctoo, &c.                                              519.
---------Sidan, loses 3000 Arabic books,                            520.
     Muley El Arsheed, his expedition to Timbuctoo,                 521.
     Muley Hamed Dehebby, commonly called Deiby, his expedition
     to Timbuctoo,                                                  523.
_Mungo Park_ at Timbuctoo,                                          319.
_Murder_, punishment for,                                           343.
_Mushoir_, or place of audience,                                     89.
_Music_, and Arab dance,                                            141.

N.

_Nasari_, the application of the term,                              510.
_Nassar_, Abdrahaman Ben, the bashaw of Abda, interview with,       136.
_Nations_, the respective costumes of, enjoined,                    296.
_Negro_ languages, thirty-three different ones spoken,              370.
_Negroes_, opinion respecting, 466. Mental degradation of,
     imputable, in some measure, to the cruel treatment of
     them in the West India islands,                                466.
_Neel_, a name applied to two rivers in Africa only,                507.
_Nile_, at Kabra, its width,                                        471.
----, the correct orthography in English is Neel,                    79.
_Niger_, contemplated result of the discovery of its course and
     termination, 99. Opinion concerning its course,                103.
_Nile el Kabeer_, Nile Assudan, synonymous with Niger,              201.
----, or Nile of Sudan, discharges itself in a lake,                449.
------, and the Nile, 515. Theory respecting, 515. The author's
      opinion of this river never varied,                           516.
------, or Neel el Abeed, discharges itself into the Mediterranean
     sea at the Delta, in Egypt,                                    518.
_Nile_, this word is improperly spelled,                            507.
_Niles_, anticipation of the confirmation of their junction,        434.
_Nile_ Abid, or Neel el Abeed, error respecting its situation,      435.
_Niles_, junction of, where supposed to take place, 444. Not
     doubted in Africa, but supported by the general testimony
     of the natives,                                                445.
_Nile_, the word applied only to two rivers in Africa,              447.
_Nishki_, manner of writing, 350. Synonymous with the Kufie.
_North_ African, or Sudan Company, plan for one,                    251.
_Nyctalopia_, or night-blindness,                                   332.
----------, description of, and remedy, 432. Offer to discover the
     remedy,                                                        432.
----------, an ophthalmia, that affects our seamen in the
     Mediterranean, 433. Offer to discover the remedy for to
     government,                                                    433.

O.

_Oasis_, western,                                                   280.
_Oil_ of olives, 67. Oil organic,                                    91.
_Olive_ plantations of Ras el Wed,                                   77.
_Ophthalmia_, disorders at Marocco prevail among the Jews,           92.
_Opinions_ of the Africans respecting Jews, Christians, and
     themselves,                                                    315.
_Oranges_ of Rabat, superior in quality, and low in price,          114.
_Oranges_,                                                           75.
     Orange-trees, very large,                                       82.
_Ostrich's_ feathers,                                                67.
_Ostriches_ presented by the Emperor Muley Ismael to Queen Anne,    593.

P.

_Palace_, imperial, at Tafileet, magnificent,                        80.
_Palaces_ described,                                                274.
     Architecture of,                                               274.
_Partridges_, mode of hunting among the Arabs,                      107.
_Park_, Mungo, at Timbuctoo,                                        319.
----, his arrival at Timbuctoo confirmed,                           470.
----, the author's translation of the Shereef Ibrahim's
     account of that traveller's death,                             409.
     Mr. Abraham Saleme's translation of the same document,         413.
_Persian_, or Arabian wheel described, mode of irrigation,          147.
_Pharaoh_, ruins of,                                            80. 121.
_Philanthropists_ dig wells for public accommodation,               150.
_Physicians_ fly at the approach of the plague,                     165.
_Piracy_, if the slave-trade were made piracy it would not
     abolish the traffic,                                           270.
_Plague_, fragments respecting,                                     156.
     Progress of,                                                   157.
     Decrease,                                                      161.
     The plague political,                                          164.
     Emperor's minister attacked by it, writes to the British consul
     for advice,                                                    165.
----, supposed origin of,                                           166.
     The author an eye-witness of it, and visited the infected,     167.
     Progress of,                                                   167.
     Remarkable instance of a village in the neighbourhood of
     Mogador being free from the epidemy thirty-four days
     after it appeared at Mogador, although the communication
     was open between the two places,                               168.
     Haha, destruction in, by the plague,                           169.
     Peculiarities of,                                              169.
     Destruction of the plague in Suse,                             169.
     General depopulation caused by it,                             170.
     Consequences of, on the survivors,                             171.
     Gradations in society overturned by the plague,                171.
     Emigrations from Sahara consequent to the plague,              172.
     Symptoms, various of,                                          173.
     Olive oil, external application of, infallible, supposed origin
     of,                                                            174.
     Superstitious opinion respecting the plague,                   175.
     Author's precaution against, 177.
     Fear, its effect in communicating the infection,               178.
     Remedies used,                                                 178.
     How caught, 179. Plague cases of,                              180.
_Plague_, avoided, by adhering to the principle of avoiding
personal contact and inhalation, 189. Olive oil, infallible
remedy for,                                                         189.
------, 419. Remedy for,                                            423.
_Plough_, primitive, used by the Arabs,                             511.
_Pomegranates_,                                                      75.
_Policy_ of the court of Marocco,                         211, 212, 280.
------, adopted by the emperor to secure the allegiance of
     the Berebbers,                                                 306.
------, of West Barbary,                                            320.
_Poculum amicitiæ_, goblet compared to,                             232.
_Political_ economy of the emperor, in not going to war with
     Algiers,                                                       283.
--------, deception,                                           309, 314.
_Portugal_, sovereign of, his zeal in converting the Africans to
     the Christian doctrine,                                        443.
_Portuguese_ penetrated far into West Barbary,                      324.
_Portfolio_, monthly miscellany, observations on,                   464.
_Precision_, unfavourable to truth, according to Mungo Park's
     annotator,                                                     446.
_Present_ to the emperor, etiquette of delivering it, presentation
     to,                                                             89.
------, received from the emperor,                                   98.
_Prince_, Muley Teib, conduct of, to Dr. Bell. Satisfied with
     the doctor's medicines,                                        197.
_Property_, agricultural division of,                               330.
_Prognosticated_ prosperity from the prayers of benediction of
     the marabats or fakeers of the sanctuary of Muley Dris Zerone.
_Prostration_ practised at the court of Marocco,                    281.
_Protection_ among the Arabs a sacred duty when claimed,            343.
_Punishment_ for murder,                                            343.
_Pyramidical_ basis on which is founded the intelligence in
     Jackson's Account of Marocco, &c.,                             451.

Q.

_Quarterly_ journal, of literature, science, and the arts,
     error of,                                                 435, 438.
_Queen_ Elizabeth, embassy to the emperor of Marocco,               494.

R.

_Rabat_, arrival at, 110. Town described. Aqueduct. Mausoleum
of the Sultan Muhamed at, described. Battery
     of, bomb-proof. Bastions. Roman spring at. Old Roman
     town of Sheila at, described. Old Roman coins,                111.
     Mosques, tower of Hassan, similar to one at Timbuctoo,
     &c. described,                                                112.
_Rabat_ and Salee, abundant countries,                             113.
_Religions_, of all kinds, tolerated at Timbuctoo.
_Repast_, or dinner, sent by the prince Muley Teib,                192.
_Retaliation_ for murder, an incumbent duty on tha individuals
     of a family,                                                  295.
_Revenge_ of the Shelluhs, described,                              152.
--------, of the Shelluhs for murder rigidly pursued,              291.
_Richardson_, incorrect in calling the Arabic guttural letter,
     _grain_, ghain,                                               492.
_Richardson's_ Arabic grammar, some errors in,                     351.
_Riches_ of the Arabs, in what it consists,                        247.
_Rivers_, in sandy districts, change their courses,                440.
_Robbery_, singular mode of,                                       116.
_Rontgen_, African traveller, death of,                            425.

S.

_Santa Cruz_, the port of, delivered to the Dutch,                 403.
--------, See _Agadeer_.
-------, or Agadeer, the key to Sudan,                             268.
-------, invoice from Timbuctoo to,                                345.
------- opened to Dutch commerce by the author,                    436.
_Sanctuary_ of Muley Dris Zerone,                                   80.
_Saffy_, its road for shipping described,                          108.
     Situation and description of,                                 108.
_Sahara_, north part described, no water,                            4.
     South part described,                                           7.
     Water carried in goat-skins,                                    5.
     Sheiks of, independent,
--------, Arabs of, prefer sleeping in the open air,               155.
_Salee_, dungeon of, for Christian captives,                       114.
------, and Rabat, the adjacent country productive,                113.
_Salutations_, peculiar character of their,                        235.
_Saneet Urtemma_, a dangerous country,                             110.
_Sand_ baths,                                                      279.
_Science_ and the arts, decay of, among the Arabs,                 352.
_Sebu_, river, situation of,                                       438.

_Sejin Messa_, etymology of the name, vulgarly called
     Segilmessa,                                                   145.
_Senegambia_,                                                       70.
_Serpents_, charmers of, described,                                430.
--------, domestic, of Marocco,                                    213.
_Servants_ of the emperor, policy of,                              280.

_Shegar_, signification of, and misinterpretation,                 441.
_Sheh_, the Arabic name for worm-seed,                               5.
------, the plant designated,                                      510.
_Shella_, an old Roman town,                                       112.
_Shelluh_, revenge of, described,                                  152.
------, repast, described. Patriarchal cakes of,                   153.
     Customs of,                                              154. 313.
------, language, specimen of,                                     366.
_Shelluhs_, revenge and retaliation,                               291.
------, their territory described,                                 327.
_Sheshawa_, plains of,                                              82.
     Mountains of, strata of oyster-shells at the top of,           82.
     River of,                                                      82.
_Shume el_, the hot wind of Sahara so denominated,                   5.
_Shoemaker_, an honourable trade,                                   98.
_Shovel_, Sir Cloudesley, his letter to the emperor of Marocco.
_Sigen Messa_, face of that country,                                81.
_Silver_ mines of Elala,                                           218.
------, mine,                                                      331.
_Siwah_, language of, similar to the Shelluh,                      370.
_Slavery_, state of, in Africa,                                    219.
     Cannot be abolished but by commerce,                          269.
_Slaves_, mode of selling them,                                     95.
_Slave_ trade, not to be abolished by any naval force however
     formidable,                                                   269.
_South_ Africa, policy of constructing mitferes there,             339.
How that colony might be improved in the value of its produce,     340.
----------, colony of, policy and expediency of building
     mitferes there,                                               339.
     How to improve that colony,                                   340.
_Storks_, abundance of, at Azamore,                                110.
_Style_ used in addressing the emperor,                            383.
_Subterraneous_ hordes, propensity to,                             238.
_Sudan_, gum of,                                                    67.
------, trade with,                                                277.
------, company, plan for one,                                     251.
------, command of the commerce of, how to be obtained,             67.
------, produce of,                                                 67.
_Sugar_, figurative of friendship,                                 234.
_Sulphur_ mines,                                                   331.
_Sultan_ Muhamed's letter to the European consuls,                 394.
     To the governor of Mogodor,                                   405.
--------, Soliman's letter to his majesty George III.,             395.
_Superstitious_ tradition,                                         460.
_Suse_, province of, inaccessible to an invading army from
     the north,                                                     76.
_Synonymous_ words in sound,                                       362.

T.

_Tabia_ walls, what, 2. Mode of building them.
_Tafilelt_, 1. A rendezvous for caravans; kassars of; hire of
camels from Fas to; a country of princes, 2. Market
at, 2. Palace, imperial, magnificent at, 80. Dates
abundant at, 80. Magnificent plantations and extensive
forests of, 81. Faith and honour of the natives proverbial;
robberies unknown there,                                            81.
_Talleyrand_, his favourite African scheme,                        229.
_Talh-tree_ defined,                                               510.
_Tangier_ garrison, salute to the British ambassador on his
     entry there,                                                  127.
_Tas_, what it is,                                                 231.
_Tatta_, a depôt for camels,                                       248.
_Tendaraman_, venomous spider described,                           429.
_Tensift_, river of,                                               108.
_Tildie_, repast, Arab, at; Portuguese tower at, 63. Cookery
     of the Arabs at,                                               64.
_Timbuctoo_, situation of, and charge of travelling to, 7.
City of; river close to it, 8. Population of; extent of;
caravanseras of; slaves at, 10. Houses; government, 11.
Revenue of, 12. Moors pay no duty at, but negroes
do, 14. Subject to Housa, 14. Army of; subsidies;
administration of justice at; punishments, 15. Good
police of, 16. Insolvent debtors at; slaves entitled to
freedom at; property, succession to and distribution of;
rational treatment of slaves at; wills not written, 18.
Laws of inheritance; marriage; rape; adultery, 19.
Trade and articles sold at, 20. Manufactures, 23. Measures,
23. Husbandry, 24. Sowing season; provisions, 25.
Animals; birds, 26. Fish; prices of various articles, 27.
Costume, 28. Diversions, 31. Time, measurement of;
Religion, 32. Diseases, 33. Manners and customs, 34.
Neighbouring nations,                                               35.
--------, opportunity of opening a trade with, why declined,       145.
--------, how likely to be made tributary to Great
Britain, 249. Circuitous commerce of, explained,                   256.
Direct and eligible route to, through Sahara from the
     shores of the Atlantic Ocean,                                 257.
--------, value of merchandize at, 260. Immense profit
actually made in, 261. Immense quantities of gold
to be procured from Sudan, 261. Goods entering the
city at the gate of the desert pay no duty, 263. Timbuctoo
coffee, 279. Invoice from, 345. 347. Letter from,             346. 348.

_Timbuctoo_, Mungo Park at,                                        319.
----------, warehouses of, contain the manufactures, of India
     and Europe,                                                   427.
     Communication with, plan for opening,                         428.
----------, intelligence respecting, whence derived,               436.
----------, cotton manufacture, made in the city of, interwoven
     with silk, of a chequered pattern, deposited in the
     British Museum,                                               437.
     Situation of, in respect to the Neel el abeed,                439.
     Under the sovereignty of a negro prince,                      441.
     Fish at, resembling salmon,                                   469.
--------, first expedition to and conquest of,                     519.
--------, second expedition to,                                    521.
--------, third expedition to,                                     523.
_Titles_ of emperor,                                               382.
_Togreda_, ceremony of, how performed,                             231.
_Tomie_, or Sebah Biure, port of; the author visits it by the
     prince's request,                                             138.
     Arab dance and festivity in the neighbourhood of,             141.
     Music of,                                                     140.
_Trade_ with Sudan,                                                277.
_Travellers_, solitary or scientific, little expectations from,
                                                                   258.
_Travelling_ in Barbary,                                           293.
_Treaties_ with Muhamedan princes,                                 283.
_Troglodyte_,                                                      319.

U.

_Uffran_, a depôt for camels,                                      248.
_Uly_ and Ualy, material difference between these two terms,       350.
_Unity_ among Christians a necessary prelude to the conversion
     of Africa. The several sects of Christians should
     unite, instead of being divided, as an expedient measure
     necessary to precede the conversion of Africa,                129.
_Union_ of waters between Timbuctoo and Cairo,                     447.

V.

_Vaccination_, intelligence transmitted from West Barbary
     instrumental in the propagation of,                           337.
     23,134 lives saved by vaccination,                            338.
_Vasco de Gama's_ observations on intercourse with Africa,         258.
_Vincent_, Lord St. his message to the Emperor of Marocco,         459.
_Vines_, the grapes of which are of an extraordinary size,          74.

W.

_Water_ communication between Timbuctoo and Cairo,                 443.
     This opinion is confirmed by Mr. Hornmann,                    444.
------, communication between Cairo and Timbuctoo, the
     opinion respecting, receives additional confirmation,         517.
------, melons at Salee and Rabat peculiarly sweet,                114.
------, carried through the Sahara in goat's skins.
_Wah el_, what,                                                      6.
_Wahs_ of Sahara, how supplied with fish,                          257.
     Western oasis,                                                280.
_Wangara_, jewel from,                                             103.
_Wassenah_, or Massenah, conjecture why not known at Ashantee,     491.
_Wed el fees_, river of,                                            82.
_Whedinoon_, a depôt for camels.
_Wheat_, superior at Marocco,                                       95.
------, a superior kind or quality,                                125.
_Wild_ myrtle grows in the Sahara,                                   6.
_Wine_ Company recommended,                                        212.
_Woled Aisah_, encampment of Arabs. Produce of that country,       109.
_Wool_, exportation of, granted by the emperor.
_Woladia el_, an eligible place for a naval depôt,                 108.
_Woolja_, not Woolga,                                              109.
_Woled Abbusebah_, a whole clan of Arabs, banished from the
     plains near Marocco, and plundered, killed or dispersed,      318.
_Woolo_, king of Timbuctoo,                                        484.
_Wormseed_,                                                         74.
_Wrecked ships_,                                                   277.
     How treated,                                                  278.
     Wrecked sailors,                                              279.
_Wyk_, Sir Pieter, Swedish consul, his courier sent to the
     author,                                                       127.

Y.

_Yezzid Muley_, gives the port of Santa Cruz to the Dutch,         436.
----------, emperor of Marocco, compared to his majesty
     George the Fourth,                                            287.
     His letter to the Dutch consul,                               402.
     His letter to the governor of Mogador, giving to the Dutch the
     port of Santa Cruz,                                           402.

Z.

_Zealand_, New, customs of, compared to those of the Jews,         236.
_Zeal_ of Mohamedans not sufficient to convert the negro nations
     of Africa,                                                    442.
_Zeef_, what it is,                                                231.
_Zemurh ait's_, or Zemurhites, a kabyl of Berebbers,               115.
_Zion ait's_, or Zianites, a tribe, or kabyl of Berebbers,         124.
_Ziltanait_, or Ziltanites, a tribe of Berebbers,                  124.
_Zimurh_ shelluh, Berebbers of, their character,                   284.



THE END.


Printed by A. and K. Spottiswoode,
Printers-Street, London.



_Works by the same Author_.

An account of the EMPIRE OF MAROCCO and the DISTRICTS OF SUSE AND
TAFILELT, compiled from Miscellaneous Observations made during a
long residence in, and various Journies through, these Countries.

TO WHICH IS ADDED,

An Account of SHIPWRECKS ON THE WESTERN COAST OF AFRICA, and an
Account of Timbuctoo, the great Emporium of Central Africa;
illustrated with ACCURATE MAPS and a variety of highly finished
PLATES. Third edition. _Considerably enlarged with new and
interesting matter_.

Sold by Cadell and Davies, London; and by W. Blackwood, Edinburgh.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Preparing for the press_.


A GRAMMAR of the ARABIC LANGUAGE.

No accurate Grammar of the Arabic Language has ever yet issued from
the British Press!--It is extraordinary that the many professors of
_that bold and figurative language of the East_, have never yet
favoured the public with such a desirable work.--An attempt will now
be made, by the above author, to supply in England this deficiency
in Oriental Literature.





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