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Title: Measure for Measure - The Works of William Shakespeare [Cambridge Edition] [9 vols.]
Author: Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Measure for Measure - The Works of William Shakespeare [Cambridge Edition] [9 vols.]" ***

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[Transcriber's Note:

This text of _Measure for Measure_ is from Volume I of the nine-volume
1863 Cambridge edition of Shakespeare. The Preface (e-text 23041) and
the other plays from this volume are each available as separate
e-texts.

General Notes are in their original location at the end of the play.
Text-critical notes are grouped at the end of each Scene. All line
numbers are from the original text; line breaks in dialogue--including
prose passages--are unchanged. Brackets are also unchanged; to avoid
ambiguity, footnotes and linenotes are given without added brackets.
In the notes, numerals printed as subscripts are shown inline as
F1, F2, Q1...

Texts cited in the Notes are listed at the end of the e-text.]



  THE WORKS

  of

  WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE


  Edited by

  WILLIAM GEORGE CLARK, M.A.
  Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, and Public Orator
  in the University of Cambridge;

  and JOHN GLOVER, M.A.
  Librarian Of Trinity College, Cambridge.


  _VOLUME I._


  Cambridge and London:
  MACMILLAN AND CO.
  1863.



MEASURE FOR MEASURE.



DRAMATIS PERSONÆ[1].


  VINCENTIO, the Duke.
  ANGELO, Deputy.
  ESCALUS, an ancient Lord.
  CLAUDIO, a young gentleman.
  LUCIO, a fantastic.
  Two other gentlemen.
  PROVOST.
  THOMAS, } two friars.
  PETER,  }
  A Justice[2].
  VARRIUS[2].
  ELBOW, a simple constable.
  FROTH, a foolish gentleman.
  POMPEY, servant to Mistress Overdone[3].
  ABHORSON, an executioner.
  BARNARDINE, a dissolute prisoner.

  ISABELLA, sister to Claudio.
  MARIANA, betrothed to Angelo.
  JULIET, beloved of Claudio.
  FRANCISCA, a nun.
  MISTRESS OVERDONE, a bawd.

  Lords, Officers, Citizens, Boy, and Attendants[2].


  SCENE--_Vienna_.


  FOOTNOTES:

  1: DRAMATIS PERSONÆ] THE NAMES OF ALL THE ACTORS Ff
    (added at the end of the play).
  2: Omitted in Ff.
  3: Clowne. Ff.



MEASURE FOR MEASURE.



ACT I.


SCENE I. _An apartment in the DUKE'S palace._

  _Enter DUKE, ESCALUS, _Lords_ and _Attendants_._

_Duke._ Escalus.

_Escal._ My lord.

_Duke._ Of government the properties to unfold,
Would seem in me to affect speech and discourse;
Since I am put to know that your own science                         5
Exceeds, in that, the lists of all advice
My strength can give you: then no more remains,
But that to your sufficiency . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . as your worth is able,
And let them work. The nature of our people,                        10
Our city's institutions, and the terms
For common justice, you're as pregnant in
As art and practice hath enriched any
That we remember. There is our commission,
From which we would not have you warp. Call hither,                 15
I say, bid come before us Angelo.    [_Exit an Attendant._
What figure of us think you he will bear?
For you must know, we have with special soul
Elected him our absence to supply;
Lent him our terror, dress'd him with our love,                     20
And given his deputation all the organs
Of our own power: what think you of it?

_Escal._ If any in Vienna be of worth
To undergo such ample grace and honour,
It is Lord Angelo.

_Duke._          Look where he comes.                               25

  _Enter ANGELO._

_Ang._ Always obedient to your Grace's will,
I come to know your pleasure.

_Duke._                     Angelo,
There is a kind of character in thy life,
That to th' observer doth thy history
Fully unfold. Thyself and thy belongings                            30
Are not thine own so proper, as to waste
Thyself upon thy virtues, they on thee.
Heaven doth with us as we with torches do,
Not light them for themselves; for if our virtues
Did not go forth of us, 'twere all alike                            35
As if we had them not. Spirits are not finely touch'd
But to fine issues; nor Nature never lends
The smallest scruple of her excellence,
But, like a thrifty goddess, she determines
Herself the glory of a creditor,                                    40
Both thanks and use. But I do bend my speech
To one that can my part in him advertise;
Hold therefore, Angelo:--
In our remove be thou at full ourself;
Mortality and mercy in Vienna                                       45
Live in thy tongue and heart: old Escalus,
Though first in question, is thy secondary.
Take thy commission.

_Ang._             Now, good my lord,
Let there be some more test made of my metal,
Before so noble and so great a figure                               50
Be stamp'd upon it.

_Duke._           No more evasion:
We have with a leaven'd and prepared choice
Proceeded to you; therefore take your honours.
Our haste from hence is of so quick condition,
That it prefers itself, and leaves unquestion'd                     55
Matters of needful value. We shall write to you,
As time and our concernings shall importune,
How it goes with us; and do look to know
What doth befall you here. So, fare you well:
To the hopeful execution do I leave you                             60
Of your commissions.

_Ang._             Yet, give leave, my lord,
That we may bring you something on the way.

_Duke._ My haste may not admit it;
Nor need you, on mine honour, have to do
With any scruple; your scope is as mine own,                        65
So to enforce or qualify the laws
As to your soul seems good. Give me your hand:
I'll privily away. I love the people,
But do not like to stage me to their eyes:
Though it do well, I do not relish well                             70
Their loud applause and Aves vehement;
Nor do I think the man of safe discretion
That does affect it. Once more, fare you well.

_Ang._ The heavens give safety to your purposes!

_Escal._ Lead forth and bring you back in happiness!                75

_Duke._ I thank you. Fare you well.    [_Exit._

_Escal._ I shall desire you, sir, to give me leave
To have free speech with you; and it concerns me
To look into the bottom of my place:
A power I have, but of what strength and nature                     80
I am not yet instructed.

_Ang._ 'Tis so with me. Let us withdraw together,
And we may soon our satisfaction have
Touching that point.

_Escal._           I'll wait upon your honour.    [_Exeunt._


  NOTES: I, 1.

  SCENE I. Lords and Attendants.] Singer. Lords. Ff. and Attendants.
    Capell.
  5: _put_] _not_ Pope. _apt_ Collier MS.
  7, 8: _remains, But that_] _remains; Put that_ Rowe.
  8, 9: _But that to your sufficiency ..._]
    _But that to your sufficiency you add Due diligency ..._
      Theobald conj.
    _But that to your sufficiency you joyn A will to serve us ..._
      Hanmer.
    _But that to your sufficiency you put A zeal as willing ..._
      Tyrwhitt conj.
    _But that to your sufficiencies your worth is abled_ Johnson conj.
    _But your sufficiency as worth is able_ Farmer conj.
    _Your sufficiency ... able_ Steevens conj.
    _But that your sufficiency be as your worth is stable_ Becket conj.
    _But state to your sufficiency ..._ Jackson conj.
    _But thereto your sufficiency ..._ Singer.
    _But add to your sufficiency your worth_ Collier MS.
    _But that_ [tendering his commission] _to your sufficiency. And, as
      your worth is able, let them work_ Staunton conj.
    _But that to your sufficiency I add Commission ample_ Spedding conj.
    See note (I).
  11: _city's_] _cities_ Ff.
  16: [Exit an Attendant.] Capell.
  18: _soul_] _roll_ Warburton. _seal_ Johnson conj.
  22: _what_] _say, what_ Pope.
  25: SCENE II. Pope.
  27: _your pleasure_] F1. _your Graces pleasure_ F2 F3 F4.
  28: _life_] _look_ Johnson conj.
  28, 29: _character ... history_] _history ... character_
    Monck Mason conj.
  32: _they_] _them_ Hanmer.
  35, 36: _all alike As if we_] _all as if We_ Hanmer.
  37: _nor_] om. Pope.
  42: _my part in him_] _in my part me_ Hanmer. _my part to him_
    Johnson conj. _in him, my part_ Becket conj.
  43: _Hold therefore, Angelo:--_] _Hold therefore, Angelo:_ [Giving
    him his commission] Hanmer. _Hold therefore. Angelo,_ Tyrwhitt conj.
    _Hold therefore, Angelo, our place and power:_ Grant White.
  45: _Mortality_] _Morality_ Pope.
  51: _upon it_] _upon 't_ Capell.
  _No more_] _Come, no more_ Pope.
  52: _leaven'd and prepared_] Ff. _leven'd and prepar'd_ Rowe.
    _prepar'd and leaven'd_ Pope. _prepar'd and level'd_ Warburton.
    _prepar'd unleaven'd_ Heath conj.
  56: _to you_] om. Hanmer.
  61: _your commissions_] F1. _your commission_ F2 F3 F4.
    _our commission_ Pope.
  66: _laws_] _law_ Pope.
  76: [Exit.] F2. [Exit. (after line 75) F1.
  84: _your_] _you_ F2.


SCENE II. _A street._

  _Enter LUCIO and two _Gentlemen_._

_Lucio._ If the duke, with the other dukes, come not to
composition with the King of Hungary, why then all the
dukes fall upon the king.

_First Gent._ Heaven grant us its peace, but not the
King of Hungary's!                                                   5

_Sec. Gent._ Amen.

_Lucio._ Thou concludest like the sanctimonious pirate,
that went to sea with the Ten Commandments, but scraped
one out of the table.

_Sec. Gent._ 'Thou shalt not steal'?                                10

_Lucio._ Ay, that he razed.

_First Gent._ Why, 'twas a commandment to command
the captain and all the rest from their functions: they put
forth to steal. There's not a soldier of us all, that, in the
thanksgiving before meat, do relish the petition well that          15
prays for peace.

_Sec. Gent._ I never heard any soldier dislike it.

_Lucio._ I believe thee; for I think thou never wast
where grace was said.

_Sec. Gent._ No? a dozen times at least.                            20

_First Gent._ What, in metre?

_Lucio._ In any proportion or in any language.

_First Gent._ I think, or in any religion.

_Lucio._ Ay, why not? Grace is grace, despite of all
controversy: as, for example, thou thyself art a wicked             25
villain, despite of all grace.

_First Gent._ Well, there went but a pair of shears between
us.

_Lucio._ I grant; as there may between the lists and the
velvet. Thou art the list.                                          30

_First Gent._ And thou the velvet: thou art good velvet;
thou'rt a three-piled piece, I warrant thee: I had as lief
be a list of an English kersey, as be piled, as thou art
piled, for a French velvet. Do I speak feelingly now?

_Lucio._ I think thou dost; and, indeed, with most painful          35
feeling of thy speech: I will, out of thine own confession,
learn to begin thy health; but, whilst I live, forget to
drink after thee.

_First Gent._ I think I have done myself wrong, have
I not?                                                              40

_Sec. Gent._ Yes, that thou hast, whether thou art tainted
or free.

_Lucio._ Behold, behold, where Madam Mitigation
comes! I have purchased as many diseases under her roof
as come to--                                                        45

_Sec. Gent._ To what, I pray?

_Lucio._ Judge.

_Sec. Gent._ To three thousand dolours a year.

_First Gent._ Ay, and more.

_Lucio._ A French crown more.                                       50

_First Gent._ Thou art always figuring diseases in me;
but thou art full of error; I am sound.

_Lucio._ Nay, not as one would say, healthy; but so
sound as things that are hollow: thy bones are hollow;
impiety has made a feast of thee.                                   55

  _Enter MISTRESS OVERDONE._

_First Gent._ How now! which of your hips has the
most profound sciatica?

_Mrs Ov._ Well, well; there's one yonder arrested and
carried to prison was worth five thousand of you all.

_Sec. Gent._ Who's that, I pray thee?                               60

_Mrs Ov._ Marry, sir, that's Claudio, Signior Claudio.

_First Gent._ Claudio to prison? 'tis not so.

_Mrs Ov._ Nay, but I know 'tis so: I saw him arrested;
saw him carried away; and, which is more, within these
three days his head to be chopped off.                              65

_Lucio._ But, after all this fooling, I would not have it
so. Art thou sure of this?

_Mrs Ov._ I am too sure of it: and it is for getting
Madam Julietta with child.

_Lucio._ Believe me, this may be: he promised to meet               70
me two hours since, and he was ever precise in promise-keeping.

_Sec. Gent._ Besides, you know, it draws something near
to the speech we had to such a purpose.

_First Gent._ But, most of all, agreeing with the proclamation.     75

_Lucio._ Away! let's go learn the truth of it.

    [_Exeunt Lucio and Gentlemen._

_Mrs Ov._ Thus, what with the war, what with the
sweat, what with the gallows, and what with poverty, I am
custom-shrunk.                                                      80

  _Enter POMPEY._

How now! what's the news with you?

_Pom._ Yonder man is carried to prison.

_Mrs Ov._ Well; what has he done?

_Pom._ A woman.

_Mrs Ov._ But what's his offence?                                   85

_Pom._ Groping for trouts in a peculiar river.

_Mrs Ov._ What, is there a maid with child by him?

_Pom._ No, but there's a woman with maid by him.
You have not heard of the proclamation, have you?

_Mrs Ov._ What proclamation, man?                                   90

_Pom._ All houses in the suburbs of Vienna must be
plucked down.

_Mrs Ov._ And what shall become of those in the city?

_Pom._ They shall stand for seed: they had gone down
too, but that a wise burgher put in for them.                       95

_Mrs Ov._ But shall all our houses of resort in the suburbs
be pulled down?

_Pom._ To the ground, mistress.

_Mrs Ov._ Why, here's a change indeed in the commonwealth!
What shall become of me?                                           100

_Pom._ Come; fear not you: good counsellors lack no
clients: though you change your place, you need not
change your trade; I'll be your tapster still. Courage!
there will be pity taken on you: you that have worn your
eyes almost out in the service, you will be considered.            105

_Mrs Ov._ What's to do here, Thomas tapster? let's
withdraw.

_Pom._ Here comes Signior Claudio, led by the provost
to prison; and there's Madam Juliet.    [_Exeunt._

  _Enter PROVOST, CLAUDIO, JULIET, and _Officers_._

_Claud._ Fellow, why dost thou show me thus to the world?          110
Bear me to prison, where I am committed.

_Prov._ I do it not in evil disposition,
But from Lord Angelo by special charge.

_Claud._ Thus can the demigod Authority
Make us pay down for our offence by weight                         115
The words of heaven;--on whom it will, it will;
On whom it will not, so; yet still 'tis just.

  _Re-enter LUCIO and two _Gentlemen_._

_Lucio._ Why, how now, Claudio! whence comes this restraint?

_Claud._ From too much liberty, my Lucio, liberty:
As surfeit is the father of much fast,                             120
So every scope by the immoderate use
Turns to restraint. Our natures do pursue,
Like rats that ravin down their proper bane,
A thirsty evil; and when we drink we die.

_Lucio._ If I could speak so wisely under an arrest, I             125
would send for certain of my creditors: and yet, to say the
truth, I had as lief have the foppery of freedom as the
morality of imprisonment. What's thy offence, Claudio?

_Claud._ What but to speak of would offend again.

_Lucio._ What, is't murder?                                        130

_Claud._ No.

_Lucio._ Lechery?

_Claud._ Call it so.

_Prov._ Away, sir! you must go.

_Claud._ One word, good friend. Lucio, a word with you.            135

_Lucio._ A hundred, if they'll do you any good.
Is lechery so look'd after?

_Claud._ Thus stands it with me:--upon a true contract
I got possession of Julietta's bed:
You know the lady; she is fast my wife,                            140
Save that we do the denunciation lack
Of outward order: this we came not to,
Only for propagation of a dower
Remaining in the coffer of her friends;
From whom we thought it meet to hide our love                      145
Till time had made them for us. But it chances
The stealth of our most mutual entertainment
With character too gross is writ on Juliet.

_Lucio._ With child, perhaps?

_Claud._                    Unhappily, even so.
And the new Deputy now for the Duke,--                             150
Whether it be the fault and glimpse of newness,
Or whether that the body public be
A horse whereon the governor doth ride,
Who, newly in the seat, that it may know
He can command, lets it straight feel the spur;                    155
Whether the tyranny be in his place,
Or in his eminence that fills it up.
I stagger in:--but this new governor
Awakes me all the enrolled penalties
Which have, like unscour'd armour, hung by the wall
So long, that nineteen zodiacs have gone round,
And none of them been worn; and, for a name,
Now puts the drowsy and neglected act
Freshly on me: 'tis surely for a name.

_Lucio._ I warrant it is: and thy head stands so tickle            165
on thy shoulders, that a milkmaid, if she be in love, may
sigh it off. Send after the duke, and appeal to him.

_Claud._ I have done so, but he's not to be found.
I prithee, Lucio, do me this kind service:
This day my sister should the cloister enter                       170
And there receive her approbation:
Acquaint her with the danger of my state;
Implore her, in my voice, that she make friends
To the strict deputy; bid herself assay him:
I have great hope in that; for in her youth                        175
There is a prone and speechless dialect,
Such as move men; beside, she hath prosperous art
When she will play with reason and discourse,
And well she can persuade.

_Lucio._ I pray she may; as well for the encouragement             180
of the like, which else would stand under grievous imposition,
as for the enjoying of thy life, who I would be sorry
should be thus foolishly lost at a game of tick-tack. I'll
to her.

_Claud._ I thank you, good friend Lucio.                           185

_Lucio._ Within two hours.

_Claud._                 Come, officer, away!

    [_Exeunt._


  NOTES: I, 2.

  SCENE II.] SCENE III. Pope.
  12: First Gent. _Why, 'twas_] 1. Gent. _Why? 'twas_ Ff.
    First Gent. _Why?_ Luc. _'Twas_ Singer.
  15: _before_] _after_ Hanmer. See note (II).
  _do_] _doth_ Hanmer. _does_ Warburton.
  22-26: Lucio. _In any proportion ... language._ First Gent. _I think
    ... religion._ Lucio. _Ay, why not?... all grace._] Lucio. _Not in
    any profession ... language, I ... religion._ 2. Gent. _And why
    not?... controversy._ Lucio. _As for ... all grace._ Hanmer.
    See note (III).
  29: _lists_] _list_ Anon. conj.
  42: Here Ff have _Enter Bawde_, transferred by Theobald to line 56.
  43: SCENE IV. Pope. Bawd coming at a distance. Hanmer.
  44: _I have_] 1. Gent. _I have_ Pope (ed. 2). _He has_ Halliwell.
  48: _dolours_] Rowe. _dollours_ Ff. _dollars_ Pope.
  56: SCENE IV. Johnson.
  65: _head_] _head is_ Rowe. _head's_ Capell.
  81: SCENE V. Pope.
  88: _with maid_] _with-made_ Seymour conj.
  91: _houses_] _bawdy houses_ Tyrwhitt conj.
  96: _all_] om. Pope.
  110: SCÆNA TERTIA. Ff.
  Juliet] Ff. Gaoler. Halliwell. om. Collier MS. See note (IV).

    [Transcriber's Note:
    Pope's Scene I.VI is not mentioned, but presumably begins here.]

  113: _Lord_] om. F2 F3 F4.
  115: _offence_] _offence'_ (for _offences_) S. Walker conj.
  115, 116: _by weight The words_] Ff. _by weight; I' th' words_ Hanmer.
    _by weight. The words_ Warburton (after Davenant).
    _by weight--The sword_ Roberts conj. _by weight The word_ Halliwell.
    _by weight.--The word's_ Becket conj. _by weight--The works_
    Jackson conj. See note (V).
  117: _yet still 'tis just_] _yet 'tis just still_ S. Walker conj.
  121: _every scope_] _liberty_ Wheeler MS.
  124: _A thirsty evil_] _An evil thirst_ Davenant's version.
    _A thirsted evil_ Spedding conj.
  128: _morality_] Rowe (after Davenant). _mortality_ Ff.
  141: _denunciation_] _pronunciation_ Collier MS.
  143: _propagation_] F2 F3 F4. _propogation_ F1. _prorogation_
    Malone conj. _procuration_ Jackson conj. _preservation_ Grant White.
  147: _most_] om. Hanmer.
  148: _on_] F1. _in_ F2 F3 F4.
  151: _fault and_] _flash and_ Johnson conj. _foult or_ Id. conj.
    _foil and_ Anon. conj. _fault and_] _flash and_ Johnson conj.
    _fault or_ Id. conj. _foil and_ Anon. conj.
  _glimpse_] _guise_ Anon. conj.
  161: _nineteen_] _fourteen_ Whalley conj.
  165: _it is_] _so it is_ Hanmer (who prints line 165-167 as four
    verses ending _stands, milkmaid, off, him._
  166: _she be_] _she be but_ Hanmer.
  173: _voice_] _name_ Wheler MS.
  175: _youth_] _zenith_ Johnson conj.
  176: _prone_] _prompt_ Johnson conj. _pow'r_ Id. conj. _proue_
    Becket conj.
  177: _move_] Ff. _moves_ Rowe.
  _beside_] _besides_ Capell.
  181: _under_] F1. _upon_ F2 F3 F4. _on_ Hanmer, who prints 179-185
    as six verses ending _may, like, imposition, be, tick-tack, Lucio._
  _imposition_] _inquisition_ Johnson conj. (withdrawn).
  182: _the enjoying of_] om. Hanmer.
  _who I would_] _which I'd_ Hanmer.
  184: _her_] _her strait_ Hanmer.


SCENE III. _A monastery._

  _Enter _Duke_ and FRIAR THOMAS._

_Duke._ No, holy father; throw away that thought;
Believe not that the dribbling dart of love
Can pierce a complete bosom. Why I desire thee
To give me secret harbour, hath a purpose
More grave and wrinkled than the aims and ends                       5
Of burning youth.

_Fri. T._    May your grace speak of it?

_Duke._ My holy sir, none better knows than you
How I have ever loved the life removed,
And held in idle price to haunt assemblies
Where youth, and cost, and witless bravery keeps.                   10
I have deliver'd to Lord Angelo,
A man of stricture and firm abstinence,
My absolute power and place here in Vienna,
And he supposes me travell'd to Poland;
For so I have strew'd it in the common ear,                         15
And so it is received. Now, pious sir,
You will demand of me why I do this?

_Fri. T._ Gladly, my lord.

_Duke._ We have strict statutes and most biting laws,
The needful bits and curbs to headstrong weeds,                     20
Which for this fourteen years we have let slip;
Even like an o'ergrown lion in a cave,
That goes not out to prey. Now, as fond fathers,
Having bound up the threatening twigs of birch,
Only to stick it in their children's sight                          25
For terror, not to use, in time the rod
Becomes more mock'd than fear'd; so our decrees.
Dead to infliction, to themselves are dead;
And liberty plucks justice by the nose;
The baby beats the nurse, and quite athwart                         30
Goes all decorum.

_Fri. T._    It rested in your Grace
To unloose this tied-up justice when you pleased:
And it in you more dreadful would have seem'd
Than in Lord Angelo.

_Duke._            I do fear, too dreadful:
Sith 'twas my fault to give the people scope,                       35
'Twould be my tyranny to strike and gall them
For what I bid them do: for we bid this be done,
When evil deeds have their permissive pass,
And not the punishment. Therefore, indeed, my father,
I have on Angelo imposed the office;                                40
Who may, in the ambush of my name, strike home,
And yet my nature never in the fight
To do in slander. And to behold his sway,
I will, as 'twere a brother of your order,
Visit both prince and people: therefore, I prithee,                 45
Supply me with the habit, and instruct me
How I may formally in person bear me
Like a true friar. More reasons for this action
At our more leisure shall I render you;
Only, this one: Lord Angelo is precise;                             50
Stands at a guard with envy; scarce confesses
That his blood flows, or that his appetite
Is more to bread than stone: hence shall we see,
If power change purpose, what our seemers be.    [_Exeunt._


  NOTES: I, 3.

  SCENE III.] SCENA QUARTA Ff. SCENE VII. Pope.
  3: _bosom_] _breast_ Pope.
  10: _and witless_] F2 F3 F4. _witless_ F1. _with witless_ Edd. conj.
  _keeps_] _keep_ Hammer.
  12: _stricture_] _strictness_ Davenant's version. _strict ure_
    Warburton.
  15: _For_] _Far_ F2.
  20: _to_] F1. _for_ F2 F3 F4.
  _weeds_] Ff. _steeds_ Theobald. _wills_ S. Walker conj.
  21: _this_] _these_ Theobald.
  _fourteen_] _nineteen_ Theobald.
  _slip_] Ff. _sleep_ Theobald (after Davenant).
  25: _to_] _do_ Dent. MS.
  26: _terror_] F1. _errour_ F2 F3 F4.
  26, 27: _the rod Becomes more ... decrees_] Pope (after Davenant).
    _the rod More ... decrees_ Ff. _the rod's More ... most just
    decrees_ Collier MS.
  27: _mock'd_] _markt_ Davenant's version.
  34: _do_] om. Pope.
  37: _be done_] om. Pope.
  39: _the_] _their_ Dyce conj.
  _indeed_] om. Pope.
  42, 43: _fight To do in slander_] _sight To do in slander_ Pope.
    _fight So do in slander_ Theobald. _sight To do it slander_ Hanmer.
    _sight, So doing slander'd_ Johnson conj.
    _sight To draw on slander_ Collier MS.
    _right To do him slander_ Singer conj.
    _light To do it slander_ Dyce conj.
    _fight To do me slander_ Halliwell.
    _win the fight To die in slander_ Staunton conj.
  _never ... slander_] _ever in the fight To dole in slander_
    Jackson conj.
  43: _And_] om. Pope.
  45: _I_] om. Pope.
  47: _in person bear me_] Capell. _in person beare_ Ff.
    _my person bear_ Pope.
  49: _our_] F1. _your_ F2 F3 F4.


SCENE IV. _A nunnery._

  _Enter ISABELLA and FRANCISCA._

_Isab._ And have you nuns no farther privileges?

_Fran._ Are not these large enough?

_Isab._ Yes, truly: I speak not as desiring more;
But rather wishing a more strict restraint
Upon the sisterhood, the votarists of Saint Clare.                   5

_Lucio_ [_within_]. Ho! Peace be in this place!

_Isab._                                 Who's that which calls?

_Fran._ It is a man's voice. Gentle Isabella,
Turn you the key, and know his business of him;
You may, I may not; you are yet unsworn.
When you have vow'd, you must not speak with men                    10
But in the presence of the prioress:
Then, if you speak, you must not show your face;
Or, if you show your face, you must not speak.
He calls again; I pray you, answer him.    [_Exit._

_Isab._ Peace and prosperity! Who is't that calls?                  15

  _Enter LUCIO._

_Lucio._ Hail, virgin, if you be, as those cheek-roses
Proclaim you are no less! Can you so stead me
As bring me to the sight of Isabella,
A novice of this place, and the fair sister
To her unhappy brother Claudio?                                     20

_Isab._ Why, 'her unhappy brother'? let me ask
The rather, for I now must make you know
I am that Isabella and his sister.

_Lucio._ Gentle and fair, your brother kindly greets you:
Not to be weary with you, he's in prison.                           25

_Isab._ Woe me! for what?

_Lucio._ For that which, if myself might be his judge,
He should receive his punishment in thanks:
He hath got his friend with child.

_Isab._ Sir, make me not your story.

_Lucio._                           It is true.                      30
I would not--though 'tis my familiar sin
With maids to seem the lapwing, and to jest,
Tongue far from heart--play with all virgins so:
I hold you as a thing ensky'd and sainted;
By your renouncement, an immortal spirit;                           35
And to be talk'd with in sincerity,
As with a saint.

_Isab._ You do blaspheme the good in mocking me.

_Lucio._ Do not believe it. Fewness and truth, 'tis thus:--
Your brother and his lover have embraced:                           40
As those that feed grow full,--as blossoming time,
That from the seedness the bare fallow brings
To teeming foison,--even so her plenteous womb
Expresseth his full tilth and husbandry.

_Isab._ Some one with child by him?--My cousin Juliet?              45

_Lucio._ Is she your cousin?

_Isab._ Adoptedly; as school-maids change their names
By vain, though apt, affection.

_Lucio._                      She it is.

_Isab._ O, let him marry her.

_Lucio._                    This is the point.
The duke is very strangely gone from hence;                         50
Bore many gentlemen, myself being one,
In hand, and hope of action: but we do learn
By those that know the very nerves of state,
His givings-out were of an infinite distance
From his true-meant design. Upon his place,                         55
And with full line of his authority,
Governs Lord Angelo; a man whose blood
Is very snow-broth; one who never feels
The wanton stings and motions of the sense,
But doth rebate and blunt his natural edge                          60
With profits of the mind, study and fast.
He--to give fear to use and liberty,
Which have for long run by the hideous law,
As mice by lions--hath pick'd out an act,
Under whose heavy sense your brother's life                         65
Falls into forfeit: he arrests him on it;
And follows close the rigour of the statute,
To make him an example. All hope is gone,
Unless you have the grace by your fair prayer
To soften Angelo: and that's my pith of business                    70
'Twixt you and your poor brother.

_Isab._ Doth he so seek his life?

_Lucio._                        Has censured him
Already; and, as I hear, the provost hath
A warrant for his execution.

_Isab._ Alas! what poor ability's in me                             75
To do him good?

_Lucio._      Assay the power you have.

_Isab._ My power? Alas, I doubt,--

_Lucio._                         Our doubts are traitors,
And make us lose the good we oft might win
By fearing to attempt. Go to Lord Angelo,
And let him learn to know, when maidens sue,                        80
Men give like gods; but when they weep and kneel,
All their petitions are as freely theirs
As they themselves would owe them.

_Isab._ I'll see what I can do.

_Lucio._                      But speedily.

_Isab._ I will about it straight;                                   85
No longer staying but to give the Mother
Notice of my affair. I humbly thank you:
Commend me to my brother: soon at night
I'll send him certain word of my success.

_Lucio._ I take my leave of you.

_Isab._                        Good sir, adieu.                     90

    [_Exeunt._


  NOTES: I, 4.

  SCENE IV.] SCENA QUINTA Ff. SCENE VIII. Pope.
  5: _sisterhood, the votarists_] _sister votarists_ Pope.
  27: _For that which_] _That for which_ Malone conj.
  30: _make me not your story_] _mock me not:--your story_ Malone.
    _make me not your scorn_ Collier MS. (after Davenant).
    _make ... sport_ Singer.
  _It is true_] Steevens. _'Tis true_ Ff. om. Pope.
    _Nay, tis true_ Capell.
  31: _I would not_] Malone puts a full stop here.
  40: _have_] _having_ Rowe.
  42: _That ... brings_] _Doth ... bring_ Hanmer.
  _seedness_] _seeding_ Collier MS.
  44: _his_] _its_ Hanmer.
  49: _O, let him_] F1. _Let him_ F2 F3 F4. _Let him then_ Pope.
  50: _is_] _who's_ Collier MS.
  52: _and_] _with_ Johnson conj.
  _do_] om. Pope.
  54: _givings-out_] Rowe. _giving-out_ Ff.
  60: _his_] _it's_ Capell.
  63: _for long_] _long time_ Pope.
  68: _hope is_] _hope's_ Pope.
  70: _pith of business 'Twixt_] _pith Of business betwixt_ Hanmer.
    See note (VI).
  _pith of_] om. Pope.
  72: _so seek_] _so, Seeke_ Ff. _so? seek_ Edd. conj.
  _Has_] _H'as_ Theobald.
  71-75: Ff end the lines thus:-- _so,--already--warrant--poor--good._
    Capell first gave the arrangement in the text.
  73: _as_] om. Hanmer.
  74: _A warrant for his_] _a warrant For's_ Ff.
  78: _make_] Pope. _makes_ Ff.
  82: _freely_] F1. _truely_ F2 F3 F4.
    Enter _Provost_ inserted by Capell.



ACT II.


SCENE I. _A hall in ANGELO'S house._

  _Enter ANGELO, ESCALUS, and a _Justice, Provost, Officers_,
    and other _Attendants_, behind._

_Ang._ We must not make a scarecrow of the law,
Setting it up to fear the birds of prey,
And let it keep one shape, till custom make it
Their perch, and not their terror.

_Escal._                         Ay, but yet
Let us be keen, and rather cut a little,                             5
Than fall, and bruise to death. Alas, this gentleman,
Whom I would save, had a most noble father!
Let but your honour know,
Whom I believe to be most strait in virtue,
That, in the working of your own affections,                        10
Had time cohered with place or place with wishing,
Or that the resolute acting of your blood
Could have attain'd the effect of your own purpose,
Whether you had not sometime in your life
Err'd in this point which now you censure him,                      15
And pull'd the law upon you.

_Ang._ 'Tis one thing to be tempted, Escalus,
Another thing to fall. I not deny,
The jury, passing on the prisoner's life,
May in the sworn twelve have a thief or two                         20
Guiltier than him they try. What's open made to justice,
That justice seizes: what know the laws
That theives do pass on thieves? 'Tis very pregnant,
The jewel that we find, we stoop and take't,
Because we see it; but what we do not see                           25
We tread upon, and never think of it.
You may not so extenuate his offence
For I have had such faults; but rather tell me,
When I, that censure him, do so offend,
Let mine own judgement pattern out my death,                        30
And nothing come in partial. Sir, he must die.

_Escal._ Be it as your wisdom will.

_Ang._                            Where is the provost?

_Prov._ Here, if it like your honour.

_Ang._                              See that Claudio
Be executed by nine to-morrow morning:
Bring him his confessor, let him be prepared;                       35
For that's the utmost of his pilgrimage.    [_Exit Provost._

_Escal._ [_Aside_] Well, heaven forgive him! and forgive us all!
Some rise by sin, and some by virtue fall:
Some run from brakes of ice, and answer none;
And some condemned for a fault alone.                               40

  _Enter ELBOW, and _Officers_ with FROTH and POMPEY._

_Elb._ Come, bring them away: if these be good people
in a commonweal that do nothing but use their abuses in
common houses, I know no law: bring them away.

_Ang._ How now, sir! What's your name? and what's
the matter?                                                         45

_Elb._ If it please your honour, I am the poor Duke's
constable, and my name is Elbow: I do lean upon justice,
sir, and do bring in here before your good honour two notorious
benefactors.

_Ang._ Benefactors? Well; what benefactors are they?                50
are they not malefactors?

_Elb._ If it please your honour, I know not well what
they are: but precise villains they are, that I am sure of;
and void of all profanation in the world that good Christians
ought to have.                                                      55

_Escal._ This comes off well; here's a wise officer.

_Ang._ Go to: what quality are they of? Elbow is
your name? why dost thou not speak, Elbow?

_Pom._ He cannot, sir; he's out at elbow.

_Ang._ What are you, sir?                                           60

_Elb._ He, sir! a tapster, sir; parcel-bawd; one that
serves a bad woman; whose house, sir, was, as they say,
plucked down in the suburbs; and now she professes a hot-house,
which, I think, is a very ill house too.

_Escal._ How know you that?                                         65

_Elb._ My wife, sir, whom I detest before heaven and
your honour,--

_Escal._ How? thy wife?

_Elb._ Ay, sir;--whom, I thank heaven, is an honest
woman,--                                                            70

_Escal._ Dost thou detest her therefore?

_Elb._ I say, sir, I will detest myself also, as well as she,
that this house, if it be not a bawd's house, it is pity of her
life, for it is a naughty house.

_Escal._ How dost thou know that, constable?                        75

_Elb._ Marry, sir, by my wife; who, if she had been a
woman cardinally given, might have been accused in fornication,
adultery, and all uncleanliness there.

_Escal._ By the woman's means?

_Elb._ Ay, sir, by Mistress Overdone's means: but as she            80
spit in his face, so she defied him.

_Pom._ Sir, if it please your honour, this is not so.

_Elb._ Prove it before these varlets here, thou honourable
man; prove it.

_Escal._ Do you hear how he misplaces?                              85

_Pom._ Sir, she came in great with child; and longing,
saving your honour's reverence, for stewed prunes; sir, we
had but two in the house, which at that very distant time
stood, as it were, in a fruit-dish, a dish of some three-pence;
your honours have seen such dishes; they are not China              90
dishes, but very good dishes,--

_Escal._ Go to, go to: no matter for the dish, sir.

_Pom._ No, indeed, sir, not of a pin; you are therein in
the right: but to the point. As I say, this Mistress Elbow,
being, as I say, with child, and being great-bellied, and           95
longing, as I said, for prunes; and having but two in the
dish, as I said, Master Froth here, this very man, having
eaten the rest, as I said, and, as I say, paying for them
very honestly; for, as you know, Master Froth, I could not
give you three-pence again.                                        100

_Froth._ No, indeed.

_Pom._ Very well;--you being then, if you be remembered,
cracking the stones of the foresaid prunes,--

_Froth._ Ay, so I did indeed.

_Pom._ Why, very well; I telling you then, if you be remembered,   105
that such a one and such a one were past cure
of the thing you wot of, unless they kept very good diet, as
I told you,--

_Froth._ All this is true.

_Pom._ Why, very well, then,--                                     110

_Escal._ Come, you are a tedious fool: to the purpose.
What was done to Elbow's wife, that he hath cause to complain
of? Come me to what was done to her.

_Pom._ Sir, your honour cannot come to that yet.

_Escal._ No, sir, nor I mean it not.                               115

_Pom._ Sir, but you shall come to it, by your honour's
leave. And, I beseech you, look into Master Froth here,
sir; a man of fourscore pound a year; whose father died at
Hallowmas:--was't not at Hallowmas, Master Froth?--

_Froth._ All-hallond eve.                                          120

_Pom._ Why, very well; I hope here be truths. He, sir,
sitting, as I say, in a lower chair, sir; 'twas in the Bunch of
Grapes, where, indeed, you have a delight to sit, have you
not?

_Froth._ I have so; because it is an open room, and                125
good for winter.

_Pom._ Why, very well, then; I hope here be truths.

_Ang._ This will last out a night in Russia,
When nights are longest there: I'll take my leave,
And leave you to the hearing of the cause;                         130
Hoping you'll find good cause to whip them all.

_Escal._ I think no less. Good morrow to your lordship.

    [_Exit Angelo._

Now, sir, come on: what was done to Elbow's wife, once
more?

_Pom._ Once, sir? there was nothing done to her once.              135

_Elb._ I beseech you, sir, ask him what this man did
to my wife.

_Pom._ I beseech your honour, ask me.

_Escal._ Well, sir; what did this gentleman to her?

_Pom._ I beseech you, sir, look in this gentleman's face.          140
Good Master Froth, look upon his honour; 'tis for a good
purpose. Doth your honour mark his face?

_Escal._ Ay, sir, very well.

_Pom._ Nay, I beseech you, mark it well.

_Escal._ Well, I do so.                                            145

_Pom._ Doth your honour see any harm in his face?

_Escal._ Why, no.

_Pom._ I'll be supposed upon a book, his face is the
worst thing about him. Good, then; if his face be the worst
thing about him, how could Master Froth do the constable's         150
wife any harm? I would know that of your honour.

_Escal._ He's in the right. Constable, what say you to it?

_Elb._ First, an it like you, the house is a respected
house; next, this is a respected fellow; and his mistress is
a respected woman.                                                 155

_Pom._ By this hand, sir, his wife is a more respected
person than any of us all.

_Elb._ Varlet, thou liest; thou liest, wicked varlet! the
time is yet to come that she was ever respected with
man, woman, or child.                                              160

_Pom._ Sir, she was respected with him before he married
with her.

_Escal._ Which is the wiser here? Justice or Iniquity?
Is this true?

_Elb._ O thou caitiff! O thou varlet! O thou wicked                165
Hannibal! I respected with her before I was married to
her! If ever I was respected with her, or she with me, let
not your worship think me the poor duke's officer. Prove
this, thou wicked Hannibal, or I'll have mine action of battery
on thee.                                                           170

_Escal._ If he took you a box o' th' ear, you might have
your action of slander too.

_Elb._ Marry, I thank your good worship for it. What
is't your worship's pleasure I shall do with this wicked
caitiff?                                                           175

_Escal._ Truly, officer, because he hath some offences in
him that thou wouldst discover if thou couldst, let him continue
in his courses till thou knowest what they are.

_Elb._ Marry, I thank your worship for it. Thou seest,
thou wicked varlet, now, what's come upon thee: thou art           180
to continue now, thou varlet; thou art to continue.

_Escal._ Where were you born, friend?

_Froth._ Here in Vienna, sir.

_Escal._ Are you of fourscore pounds a year?

_Froth._ Yes, an't please you, sir.                                185

_Escal._ So. What trade are you of, sir?

_Pom._ A tapster; a poor widow's tapster.

_Escal._ Your mistress' name?

_Pom._ Mistress Overdone.

_Escal._ Hath she had any more than one husband?                   190

_Pom._ Nine, sir; Overdone by the last.

_Escal._ Nine! Come hither to me, Master Froth.
Master Froth, I would not have you acquainted with tapsters:
they will draw you, Master Froth, and you will hang
them. Get you gone, and let me hear no more of you.                195

_Froth._ I thank your worship. For mine own part, I
never come into any room in a taphouse, but I am drawn in.

_Escal._ Well, no more of it, Master Froth: farewell.
[_Exit Froth._] Come you hither to me, Master tapster.
What's your name, Master tapster?                                  200

_Pom._ Pompey.

_Escal._ What else?

_Pom._ Bum, sir.

_Escal._ Troth, and your bum is the greatest thing about
you; so that, in the beastliest sense, you are Pompey the          205
Great. Pompey, you are partly a bawd, Pompey, howsoever
you colour it in being a tapster, are you not? come,
tell me true: it shall be the better for you.

_Pom._ Truly, sir, I am a poor fellow that would live.

_Escal._ How would you live, Pompey? by being a                    210
bawd? What do you think of the trade, Pompey? is it a
lawful trade?

_Pom._ If the law would allow it, sir.

_Escal._ But the law will not allow it, Pompey; nor it
shall not be allowed in Vienna.                                    215

_Pom._ Does your worship mean to geld and splay all
the youth of the city?

_Escal._ No, Pompey.

_Pom._ Truly, sir, in my poor opinion, they will to't,
then. If your worship will take order for the drabs and            220
the knaves, you need not to fear the bawds.

_Escal._ There are pretty orders beginning, I can tell
you: it is but heading and hanging.

_Pom._ If you head and hang all that offend that way
but for ten year together,
        you'll be glad to give out a commission                    225
for more heads: if this law hold in Vienna ten year,
I'll rent the fairest house in it after three-pence a bay: if
you live to see this come to pass, say Pompey told you so.

_Escal._ Thank you, good Pompey; and, in requital of
your prophecy, hark you: I advise you, let me not find             230
you before me again upon any complaint whatsoever; no,
not for dwelling where you do: if I do, Pompey, I shall
beat you to your tent, and prove a shrewd Cæsar to you;
in plain dealing, Pompey, I shall have you whipt: so, for
this time, Pompey, fare you well.                                  235

_Pom._ I thank your worship for your good counsel:
[_Aside_] but I shall follow it as the flesh and fortune shall
better determine.

Whip me? No, no; let carman whip his jade:
The valiant heart is not whipt out of his trade.    [_Exit._       240

_Escal._ Come hither to me, Master Elbow; come hither,
Master constable. How long have you been in this place
of constable?

_Elb._ Seven year and a half, sir.

_Escal._ I thought, by your readiness in the office, you had       245
continued in it some time. You say, seven years together?

_Elb._ And a half, sir.

_Escal._ Alas, it hath been great pains to you. They
do you wrong to put you so oft upon't: are there not men
in your ward sufficient to serve it?                               250

_Elb._ Faith, sir, few of any wit in such matters: as
they are chosen, they are glad to choose me for them; I
do it for some piece of money, and go through with all.

_Escal._ Look you bring me in the names of some six
or seven, the most sufficient of your parish.                      255

_Elb._ To your worship's house, sir?

_Escal._ To my house. Fare you well. [_Exit Elbow._
What's o'clock, think you?

_Just._ Eleven, sir.

_Escal._ I pray you home to dinner with me.                        260

_Just._ I humbly thank you.

_Escal._ It grieves me for the death of Claudio;
But there's no remedy.

_Just._ Lord Angelo is severe.

_Escal._                     It is but needful:
Mercy is not itself, that oft looks so;                            265
Pardon is still the nurse of second woe:
But yet,--poor Claudio! There is no remedy.
Come, sir.    [_Exeunt._


  NOTES: II, 1.

  6: _fall_] _fell_ Warburton conj.
  8, 9, 10: _Let ... That, in the_] _Let ... whom I believe To ...
    whether in The_ Hanmer. _Let ... whom I believe To ... virtue,
    and consider This, in the_ Capell.
  12: _your_] Rowe (after Davenant) _our_ Ff.
  15: _which now you censure him_] _you censure now in him_ Hanmer.
    _which now you censure him for_ Capell.
    _where now you censure him_ Grant White.
  19: _the_] _a_ Collier MS.
  22: _justice seizes_] _justice ceizes_ Ff. _justice seizes on_ Pope.
    _it seizes on_ Hanmer.
  _know_] Pope. _knowes_ F1 F2. _knows_ F3 F4.
  23: _very_] om. Hanmer, ending lines 21, 22, 23 at _made--
    seizes on-- pregnant._
  31: _Sir_] om. Pope.
  31: After this line Ff have 'Enter Provost.'
  36: [Exit Provost] Rowe. om. Ff.
  37: [Aside] S. Walker conj.
  38: This line is printed by Ff in italics.
  39: _from brakes of ice, and_] _through brakes of vice and_ Rowe.
    _from brakes of vice, and_ Malone. _from brakes of justice,_ Capell.
    _from breaks of ice, and_ Collier.
    _from brakes, off ice and_ Knight conj.
  41: SCENE II. Pope.
  57: _they_] _you_ Rowe.
  78: _uncleanliness_] F1. _uncleanness_ F2 F3 F4.
  79: _the_] _that_ Hanmer.
  85: [To Ange. Capell.
  87: _sir_] om. F4.
  88: _distant_] F1. _instant_ F2 F3 F4.
  96: _but two_] F1. _no more_ F2 F3 F4.
  107: _very_] om. Pope.
  113: _me_] om. Pope. _we_ Grant White.
  115: _nor_] om. Pope.
  117: _into_] _unto_ Collier MS.
  120: _All-hallond_] _All-holland_ Pope.
  122: _chair, sir_] _chamber, sir_ Capell conj. _chamber_ Anon. conj.
  126: _winter_] _windows_ Collier MS.
  132: SCENE III. Pope.
  186: _you_] _ye_ F4.
  194: _hang_] _hang on_ Heath conj.
  198: SCENE IV. Pope.
  207: _in_] F1. om. F2 F3 F4.
  214: _nor_] _and_ Pope.
  216: _splay_] _spay_ Steevens.
  221: _the knaves_] F1. _knaves_ F2 F3 F4.
  222: _are_ F2 F3 F4. _is_ F1.
  225: _year_] Ff. _years_ Rowe.
  226: _year_] F1 _years_ F2 F3 F4.
  227: _bay_] _day_ Pope.
  234: _Pompey_] om. F4.
  237: [Aside] Staunton.
  241: SCENE V. Pope.
  245: _your_] Pope. _the_ Ff.
  260: _home_] F1. _go home_ F2 F3 F4.
  267: _There is_] _There's_ Pope.


SCENE II. _Another room in the same._

  _Enter PROVOST and a _Servant_._

_Serv._ He's hearing of a cause; he will come straight:
I'll tell him of you.

_Prov._             Pray you, do. [_Exit Servant._] I'll know
His pleasure; may be he will relent. Alas,
He hath but as offended in a dream!
All sects, all ages smack of this vice; and he                       5
To die for 't!

  _Enter ANGELO._

_Ang._       Now, what's the matter, provost?

_Prov._ Is it your will Claudio shall die to-morrow?

_Ang._ Did not I tell thee yea? hadst thou not order?
Why dost thou ask again?

_Prov._                Lest I might be too rash:
Under your good correction, I have seen,                            10
When, after execution, Judgement hath
Repented o'er his doom.

_Ang._                Go to; let that be mine:
Do you your office, or give up your place,
And you shall well be spared.

_Prov._                     I crave your honour's pardon.
What shall be done, sir, with the groaning Juliet?                  15
She's very near her hour.

_Ang._                  Dispose of her
To some more fitter place, and that with speed.

  _Re-enter _Servant_._

_Serv._ Here is the sister of the man condemn'd
Desires access to you.

_Ang._               Hath he a sister?

_Prov._ Ay, my good lord; a very virtuous maid,                     20
And to be shortly of a sisterhood,
If not already.

_Ang._        Well, let her be admitted.    [_Exit Servant._
See you the fornicatress be removed:
Let her have needful, but not lavish, means;
There shall be order for 't.

  _Enter ISABELLA and LUCIO._

_Prov._                    God save your honour!                    25

_Ang._ Stay a little while. [_To Isab._]
      You're welcome: what's your will?

_Isab._ I am a woeful suitor to your honour,
Please but your honour hear me.

_Ang._                        Well; what's your suit?

_Isab._ There is a vice that most I do abhor,
And most desire should meet the blow of justice;                    30
For which I would not plead, but that I must;
For which I must not plead, but that I am
At war 'twixt will and will not.

_Ang._                         Well; the matter?

_Isab._ I have a brother is condemn'd to die:
I do beseech you, let it be his fault,                              35
And not my brother.

_Prov._ [_Aside_] Heaven give thee moving graces!

_Ang._ Condemn the fault, and not the actor of it?
Why, every fault's condemn'd ere it be done:
Mine were the very cipher of a function,
To fine the faults whose fine stands in record,                     40
And let go by the actor.

_Isab._                O just but severe law!
I had a brother, then.--Heaven keep your honour!

_Lucio._ [_Aside to Isab._]
      Give't not o'er so: to him again, entreat him;
Kneel down before him, hang upon his gown:
You are too cold; if you should need a pin,                         45
You could not with more tame a tongue desire it:
To him, I say!

_Isab._ Must he needs die?

_Ang._                   Maiden, no remedy.

_Isab._ Yes; I do think that you might pardon him,
And neither heaven nor man grieve at the mercy.                     50

_Ang._ I will not do't.

_Isab._               But can you, if you would?

_Ang._ Look, what I will not, that I cannot do.

_Isab._ But might you do't, and do the world no wrong,
If so your heart were touch'd with that remorse
As mine is to him.

_Ang._           He's sentenced; 'tis too late.                     55

_Lucio._ [_Aside to Isab._] You are too cold.

_Isab._ Too late? why, no; I, that do speak a word,
May call it back again. Well, believe this,
No ceremony that to great ones 'longs,
Not the king's crown, nor the deputed sword,                        60
The marshal's truncheon, nor the judge's robe,
Become them with one half so good a grace
As mercy does.
If he had been as you, and you as he,
You would have slipt like him; but he, like you,                    65
Would not have been so stern.

_Ang._                      Pray you, be gone.

_Isab._ I would to heaven I had your potency,
And you were Isabel! should it then be thus?
No; I would tell what 'twere to be a judge,
And what a prisoner.

_Lucio._ [_Aside to Isab._] Ay, touch him; there's the vein.        70

_Ang._ Your brother is a forfeit of the law,
And you but waste your words.

_Isab._                     Alas, alas!
Why, all the souls that were were forfeit once;
And He that might the vantage best have took
Found out the remedy. How would you be,                             75
If He, which is the top of judgement, should
But judge you as you are? O, think on that;
And mercy then will breathe within your lips,
Like man new made.

_Ang._           Be you content, fair maid;
It is the law, not I condemn your brother:                          80
Were he my kinsman, brother, or my son,
It should be thus with him: he must die to-morrow.

_Isab._ To-morrow! O, that's sudden! Spare him, spare him!
He's not prepared for death. Even for our kitchens
We kill the fowl of season: shall we serve heaven                   85
With less respect than we do minister
To our gross selves? Good, good my lord, bethink you;
Who is it that hath died for this offence?
There's many have committed it.

_Lucio._ [_Aside to Isab._] Ay, well said.

_Ang._ The law hath not been dead, though it hath slept:            90
Those many had not dared to do that evil,
If the first that did the edict infringe
Had answer'd for his deed: now 'tis awake,
Takes note of what is done; and, like a prophet,
Looks in a glass, that shows what future evils,                     95
Either now, or by remissness new-conceived,
And so in progress to be hatch'd and born,
Are now to have no successive degrees,
But, ere they live, to end.

_Isab._                   Yet show some pity.

_Ang._ I show it most of all when I show justice;                  100
For then I pity those I do not know,
Which a dismiss'd offence would after gall;
And do him right that, answering one foul wrong.
Lives not to act another. Be satisfied;
Your brother dies to-morrow; be content.                           105

_Isab._ So you must be the first that gives this sentence.
And he, that suffers. O, it is excellent
To have a giant's strength; but it is tyrannous
To use it like a giant.

_Lucio._ [_Aside to Isab._] That's well said.

_Isab._ Could great men thunder                                    110
As Jove himself does, Jove would ne'er be quiet,
For every pelting, petty officer
Would use his heaven for thunder.
Nothing but thunder! Merciful Heaven,
Thou rather with thy sharp and sulphurous bolt                     115
Split'st the unwedgeable and gnarled oak
Than the soft myrtle: but man, proud man,
Drest in a little brief authority,
Most ignorant of what he's most assured,
His glassy essence, like an angry ape,                             120
Plays such fantastic tricks before high heaven
As make the angels weep; who, with our spleens,
Would all themselves laugh mortal.

_Lucio._ [_Aside to Isab._] O, to him, to him, wench!
      he will relent;
He's coming; I perceive't.

_Prov._ [_Aside_] Pray heaven she win him!                         125

_Isab._ We cannot weigh our brother with ourself:
Great men may jest with saints; 'tis wit in them.
But in the less foul profanation.

_Lucio._ Thou'rt i' the right, girl; more o' that.

_Isab._ That in the captain's but a choleric word,                 130
Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy.

_Lucio._ [_Aside to Isab._] Art avised o' that? more on't.

_Ang._ Why do you put these sayings upon me?

_Isab._ Because authority, though it err like others.
Hath yet a kind of medicine in itself,                             135
That skins the vice o' the top. Go to your bosom;
Knock there, and ask your heart what it doth know
That's like my brother's fault: if it confess
A natural guiltiness such as is his,
Let it not sound a thought upon your tongue                        140
Against my brother's life.

_Ang._ [_Aside_] She speaks, and 'tis
Such sense, that my sense breeds with it. Fare you well.

_Isab._ Gentle my lord, turn back.

_Ang._ I will bethink me: come again to-morrow.

_Isab._ Hark how I'll bribe you: good my lord, turn back.          145

_Ang._ How? bribe me?

_Isab._ Ay, with such gifts that heaven shall share with you.

_Lucio._ [_Aside to Isab._] Yon had marr'd all else.

_Isab._ Not with fond shekels of the tested gold,
Or stones whose rates are either rich or poor                      150
As fancy values them; but with true prayers
That shall be up at heaven and enter there
Ere sun-rise, prayers from preserved souls,
From fasting maids whose minds are dedicate
To nothing temporal.

_Ang._             Well; come to me to-morrow.                     155

_Lucio._ [_Aside to Isab._] Go to; 'tis well; away!

_Isab._ Heaven keep your honour safe!

_Ang._ [_Aside_] Amen:
For I am that way going to temptation,
Where prayers cross.

_Isab._            At what hour to-morrow
Shall I attend your lordship?

_Ang._                      At any time 'fore noon.                160

_Isab._ 'Save your honour!

    [_Exeunt Isabella, Lucio, and Provost._

_Ang._                   From thee,--even from thy virtue!
What's this, what's this? Is this her fault or mine?
The tempter or the tempted, who sins most?
Ha!
Not she; nor doth she tempt: but it is I                           165
That, lying by the violet in the sun,
Do as the carrion does, not as the flower,
Corrupt with virtuous season. Can it be
That modesty may more betray our sense
Than woman's lightness? Having waste ground enough,                170
Shall we desire to raze the sanctuary,
And pitch our evils there? O, fie, fie, fie!
What dost thou, or what art thou, Angelo?
Dost thou desire her foully for those things
That make her good? O, let her brother live:                       175
Thieves for their robbery have authority
When judges steal themselves. What, do I love her,
That I desire to hear her speak again,
And feast upon her eyes? What is't I dream on?
O cunning enemy, that, to catch a saint,                           180
With saints dost bait thy hook! Most dangerous
Is that temptation that doth goad us on
To sin in loving virtue: never could the strumpet,
With all her double vigour, art and nature,
Once stir my temper; but this virtuous maid                        185
Subdues me quite. Ever till now,
When men were fond, I smiled, and wonder'd how. [_Exit._


  NOTES: II, 2.

  SCENE II.] SCENE VI. Pope.

    [Transcriber's Note:
    Pope's Scene VII is not identified. Scene VIII begins at
    line 161.]

  1: _he will_] _he'll_ Pope.
  4: _but as offended_] _offended but as_ Grant White.
  5: _sects_] _sorts_ S. Walker conj.
  _of this_] _o' th'_ Hanmer.
  9: _dost thou_] om. Hanmer.
  12: _Go to_] om. Hanmer.
  14: _honour's_] om. Pope.
  17: _fitter_] _fitting_ Pope.
  22: _Well_] om. Pope.
  25: _for't_] _for it_ Pope.
  _God save_] _'Save_ Ff.
  26: _a little_] _yet a_ Pope.
  28: _Please_] _'Please_ Ff.
  _Well_] om. Pope.
  30: _And most_] _And more_ Rowe.
  32: _must not plead, but that_] _must plead, albeit_ Hanmer.
    _must now plead, but yet_ Johnson conj.
  40: _To fine_] _to find_ Theobald.
  _faults_] _fault_ Dyce.
  46: _more tame a_] _a more tame_ Rowe.
  53: _might you_] _you might_ S. Walker conj.
  55: _him._] _him?_ Ff.
  56: _You are_] _Yo art_ F2. _Thou art_ Collier MS.
  58: _back_] F2 F3 F4. om. F1.
  _Well,_] _and_ Hanmer.
  _Well, believe_] _Well believe_ Knight.
  59: _'longs_] Theobald, _longs_ Ff. _belongs_ Pope.
  73: _that were_] _that are_ Warburton.
  76: _top_] _God_ Collier MS.
  80: _condemn_] _condemns_ Rowe.
  82: _must die_] _dies_ Pope.
  83: Printed as two lines in Ff, the first ending _sudden_.
  85: _shall we serve_] _serve we_ Pope.
  92: _the first_] Ff. _the first man_ Pope.
    _he, the first_ Capell (Tyrwhitt conj.).
    _the first one_ Collier MS. _but the first_ Grant White.
    _the first he_ Spedding conj.
  _the first that_] _he who first_ Davenant's version.
  _did the edict_] _the edict did_ Keightley conj.
  95: _that shows what_] _which shews that_ Hanmer.
  96: _Either now_] _Or new_ Pope. _Either new_ Dyce.
  99: _ere_] Hanmer. _here_ Ff. _where_ Malone.
  104: _Be_] _Then be_ Pope.
  107: _it is_] _'tis_ Pope.
  108: _it is_] om. Hanmer.
  111: _ne'er_] _never_ F1.
  113: _Would_] _Incessantly would_ Hanmer.
  114: _Heaven_] _sweet Heaven_ Hanmer.
  116: _Split'st_] _splits_ F1.
  117: _but_] F1. _O but_ F2 F3 F4.
  _proud_] _weak, proud_ Malone conj.
  120: _glassy_] _grassy_ Lloyd conj.
  126: _We_] _You_ Collier MS.
  _cannot_] _can but_ Anon. conj.
  _ourself_] _yourself_ Theobald (Warburton).
  127: _saints_] _sins_ Anon. conj.
  129: _i' the right_] _i' th right_ F1 F2. _i' right_ F3 F4.
    _right_ Pope. _in the right_ Steevens.
  132: _avised_] _avis'd_ F1 F2. _advis'd_ F3 F4. _thou advis'd_ Hanmer.
  _more on't_] _more on't, yet more_ Hanmer.
  140: _your_] _you_ F2.
  142: _breeds_] _bleeds_ Pope.
  149: _shekels_] Pope. _sickles_ Ff. _cycles_ Collier conj.
    _circles_ Collier MS. See note (VII).
  150: _rates are_] Johnson. _rate are_ Ff. _rate is_ Hanmer.
  157: _Amen_] _Amen! I say_ Hanmer. See note (VIII).
  159: _Where_] _Which your_ Johnson conj.
  160: _your lordship_] _you lordship_ F2. _you_ Hanmer.
  161: _'Save_] _God save_ Edd. conj.
  161: SCENE VIII. Pope.
  163: _Ha!_] om. Pope.
  166: _by_] _with_ Capell.
  172: _evils_] _offals_ Collier MS.
  183: _never_] _ne'er_ Pope.
  186: _Ever till now_] F1. _Even till now_ F2 F3 F4.
    _Even till this very now_ Pope. _Ever till this very now_ Theobald.
    _Even from youth till now_ Collier MS.


SCENE III. _A room in a prison._

  _Enter, severally, DUKE disguised as a friar, and PROVOST._

_Duke._ Hail to you, provost!--so I think you are.

_Prov._ I am the provost. What's your will, good friar?

_Duke._ Bound by my charity and my blest order,
I come to visit the afflicted spirits
Here in the prison. Do me the common right                           5
To let me see them, and to make me know
The nature of their crimes, that I may minister
To them accordingly.

_Prov._ I would do more than that, if more were needful.

  _Enter JULIET._

Look, here comes one: a gentlewoman of mine,                        10
Who, falling in the flaws of her own youth,
Hath blister'd her report: she is with child;
And he that got it, sentenced; a young man
More fit to do another such offence
Than die for this.                                                  15

_Duke._          When must he die?

_Prov._                          As I do think, to-morrow.
I have provided for you: stay awhile,    [_To Juliet._
And you shall be conducted.

_Duke._ Repent you, fair one, of the sin you carry?

_Jul._ I do; and bear the shame most patiently.                     20

_Duke._ I'll teach you how you shall arraign your conscience,
And try your penitence, if it be sound,
Or hollowly put on.

_Jul._            I'll gladly learn.

_Duke._ Love you the man that wrong'd you?

_Jul._ Yes, as I love the woman that wrong'd him.                   25

_Duke._ So, then, it seems your most offenceful act
Was mutually committed?

_Jul._                Mutually.

_Duke._ Then was your sin of heavier kind than his.

_Jul._ I do confess it, and repent it, father.

_Duke._ 'Tis meet so, daughter: but lest you do repent,             30
As that the sin hath brought you to this shame,
Which sorrow is always towards ourselves, not heaven,
Showing we would not spare heaven as we love it,
But as we stand in fear,--

_Jul._ I do repent me, as it is an evil,                            35
And take the shame with joy.

_Duke._                    There rest.
Your partner, as I hear, must die to-morrow,
And I am going with instruction to him.
Grace go with you, _Benedicite!_    [_Exit._

_Jul._ Must die to-morrow! O injurious love,                        40
That respites me a life, whose very comfort
Is still a dying horror!

_Prov._                'Tis pity of him.    [_Exeunt._


  NOTES: II, 3.

  SCENE III.] SCENE IX. Pope. Act III. SCENE I. Johnson conj.
  7: _crimes that I may_] _several crimes that I May_ Seymour conj.
  9: Enter JULIET] Transferred by Dyce to line 15.
  11: _flaws_] F3 F4. _flawes_ F1 F2. _flames_ Warburton
    (after Davenant).
  26: _offenceful_] _offence full_ F1.
  30: _lest you do repent_] F4. _least you do repent_ F1 F2 F3.
    _repent you not_ Pope.
  33: _we would not spare_] Ff. _we'd not seek_ Pope.
    _we'd not spare_ Malone. _we would not serve_ Collier MS.
    _we'd not appease_ Singer conj.
  36: _There rest_] _Tis well; there rest_ Hammer.
  39: _Grace_] _So grace_ Pope. _May grace_ Steevens conj.
    _All grace_ Seymour conj. _Grace go with you_ is assigned to Juliet
    by Dyce (Ritson conj.).
  40: _love_] _law_ Hanmer.


SCENE IV. _A room in ANGELO'S house._

  _Enter ANGELO._

_Ang._ When I would pray and think, I think and pray
To several subjects. Heaven hath my empty words;
Whilst my invention, hearing not my tongue,
Anchors on Isabel: Heaven in my mouth,
As if I did but only chew his name;                                  5
And in my heart the strong and swelling evil
Of my conception. The state, whereon I studied,
Is like a good thing, being often read,
Grown fear'd and tedious; yea, my gravity,
Wherein--let no man hear me--I take pride,                          10
Could I with boot change for an idle plume,
Which the air beats for vain. O place, O form,
How often dost thou with thy case, thy habit,
Wrench awe from fools, and tie the wiser souls
To thy false seeming! Blood, thou art blood:                        15
Let's write good angel on the devil's horn;
'Tis not the devil's crest.

  _Enter a _Servant_._

                            How now! who's there?

_Serv._ One Isabel, a sister, desires access to you.

_Ang._ Teach her the way. O heavens!
Why does my blood thus muster to my heart,                          20
Making both it unable for itself,
And dispossessing all my other parts
Of necessary fitness?
So play the foolish throngs with one that swoons:
Come all to help him, and so stop the air                           25
By which he should revive: and even so
The general, subject to a well-wish'd king,
Quit their own part, and in obsequious fondness
Crowd to his presence, where their untaught love
Must needs appear offence.

  _Enter ISABELLA._

                          How now, fair maid?                       30

_Isab._ I am come to know your pleasure.

_Ang._ That you might know it, would much better please me
Than to demand what 'tis. Your brother cannot live.

_Isab._ Even so.--Heaven keep your honour!

_Ang._ Yet may he live awhile; and, it may be,                      35
As long as you or I: yet he must die.

_Isab._ Under your sentence?

_Ang._ Yea.
_Isab._ When, I beseech you? that in his reprieve,
Longer or shorter, he may be so fitted                              40
That his soul sicken not.

_Ang._ Ha! fie, these filthy vices! It were as good
To pardon him that hath from nature stolen
A man already made, as to remit
Their saucy sweetness that do coin heaven's image                   45
In stamps that are forbid: 'tis all as easy
Falsely to take away a life true made,
As to put metal in restrained means
To make a false one.

_Isab._ 'Tis set down so in heaven, but not in earth.               50

_Ang._ Say you so? then I shall pose you quickly.
Which had you rather,--that the most just law
Now took your brother's life; or, to redeem him,
Give up your body to such sweet uncleanness
As she that he hath stain'd?

_Isab._                    Sir, believe this,                       55
I had rather give my body than my soul.

_Ang._ I talk not of your soul: our compell'd sins
Stand more for number than for accompt.

_Isab._                               How say you?

_Ang._ Nay, I'll not warrant that; for I can speak
Against the thing I say. Answer to this:--                          60
I, now the voice of the recorded law,
Pronounce a sentence on your brother's life:
Might there not be a charity in sin
To save this brother's life?

_Isab._                    Please you to do't,
I'll take it as a peril to my soul,                                 65
It is no sin at all, but charity.

_Ang._ Pleased you to do't at peril of your soul,
Were equal poise of sin and charity.

_Isab._ That I do beg his life, if it be sin,
Heaven let me bear it! you granting of my suit,                     70
If that be sin, I'll make it my morn prayer
To have it added to the faults of mine,
And nothing of your answer.

_Ang._                    Nay, but hear me.
Your sense pursues not mine: either you are ignorant,
Or seem so, craftily; and that's not good.                          75

_Isab._ Let me be ignorant, and in nothing good,
But graciously to know I am no better.

_Ang._ Thus wisdom wishes to appear most bright
When it doth tax itself; as these black masks
Proclaim an enshield beauty ten times louder                        80
Than beauty could, display'd. But mark me;
To be received plain, I'll speak more gross:
Your brother is to die.

_Isab._ So.

_Ang._ And his offence is so, as it appears,                        85
Accountant to the law upon that pain.

_Isab._ True.

_Ang._ Admit no other way to save his life,--
As I subscribe not that, nor any other,
But in the loss of question,--that you, his sister,                 90
Finding yourself desired of such a person,
Whose credit with the judge, or own great place,
Could fetch your brother from the manacles
Of the all-building law; and that there were
No earthly mean to save him, but that either                        95
You must lay down the treasures of your body
To this supposed, or else to let him suffer;
What would you do?

_Isab._ As much for my poor brother as myself:
That is, were I under the terms of death,                          100
The impression of keen whips I'ld wear as rubies,
And strip myself to death, as to a bed
That longing have been sick for, ere I'ld yield
My body up to shame.

_Ang._             Then must your brother die.

_Isab._ And 'twere the cheaper way:                                105
Better it were a brother died at once,
Than that a sister, by redeeming him,
Should die for ever.

_Ang._ Were not you, then, as cruel as the sentence
That you have slander'd so?                                        110

_Isab._ Ignomy in ransom and free pardon
Are of two houses: lawful mercy
Is nothing kin to foul redemption.

_Ang._ You seem'd of late to make the law a tyrant;
And rather proved the sliding of your brother                      115
A merriment than a vice.

_Isab._ O, pardon me, my lord; it oft falls out,
To have what we would have, we speak not what we mean:
I something do excuse the thing I hate,
For his advantage that I dearly love.                              120

_Ang._ We are all frail.

_Isab._                Else let my brother die,
If not a feodary, but only he
Owe and succeed thy weakness.

_Ang._ Nay, women are frail too.

_Isab._ Ay, as the glasses where they view themselves;             125
Which are as easy broke as they make forms.
Women!--Help Heaven! men their creation mar
In profiting by them. Nay, call us ten times frail;
For we are soft as our complexions are,
And credulous to false prints.

_Ang._                       I think it well:                      130
And from this testimony of your own sex,--
Since, I suppose, we are made to be no stronger
Than faults may shake our frames,--let me be bold;--
I do arrest your words. Be that you are,
That is, a woman; if you be more, you're none;                     135
If you be one,--as you are well express'd
By all external warrants,--show it now,
By putting on the destined livery.

_Isab._ I have no tongue but one: gentle my lord,
Let me entreat you speak the former language.                      140

_Ang._ Plainly conceive, I love you.

_Isab._ My brother did love Juliet,
And you tell me that he shall die for it.

_Ang._ He shall not, Isabel, if you give me love.

_Isab._ I know your virtue hath a license in't,                    145
Which seems a little fouler than it is,
To pluck on others.

_Ang._            Believe me, on mine honour,
My words express my purpose.

_Isab._ Ha! little honour to be much believed,
And most pernicious purpose!--Seeming, seeming!--                  150
I will proclaim thee, Angelo; look for't:
Sign me a present pardon for my brother,
Or with an outstretch'd throat I'll tell the world aloud
What man thou art.

_Ang._           Who will believe thee, Isabel?
My unsoil'd name, the austereness of my life,                      155
My vouch against you, and my place i' the state,
Will so your accusation overweigh,
That you shall stifle in your own report,
And smell of calumny. I have begun;
And now I give my sensual race the rein:                           160
Fit thy consent to my sharp appetite;
Lay by all nicety and prolixious blushes,
That banish what they sue for; redeem thy brother
By yielding up thy body to my will;
Or else he must not only die the death,                            165
But thy unkindness shall his death draw out
To lingering sufferance. Answer me to-morrow.
Or, by the affection that now guides me most,
I'll prove a tyrant to him. As for you,
Say what you can, my false o'erweighs your true.    [_Exit._       170

_Isab._ To whom should I complain? Did I tell this,
Who would believe me? O perilous mouths,
That bear in them one and the self-same tongue,
Either of condemnation or approof;
Bidding the law make court'sy to their will;                       175
Hooking both right and wrong to the appetite,
To follow as it draws! I'll to my brother:
Though he hath fall'n by prompture of the blood,
Yet hath he in him such a mind of honour,
That, had he twenty heads to tender down                           180
On twenty bloody blocks, he'ld yield them up,
Before his sister should her body stoop
To such abhorr'd pollution.
Then, Isabel, live chaste, and, brother, die:
More than our brother is our chastity.                             185
I'll tell him yet of Angelo's request,
And fit his mind to death, for his soul's rest.    [_Exit._


  NOTES: II, 4.

  SCENE IV.] SCENE X. Pope.
  2: _empty_] om. Seymour conj.
  3: _invention_] _intention_ Pope.
  4: _Heaven_] _Heaven's_ Rowe. _Heaven is_ Capell.
  5: _his_] _its_ Pope.
  9: _fear'd_] _scar'd_ Hanmer. _sear_ Heath conj. _stale_ Anon. conj.
    See note (IX).
  10: _take_] _took_ Seymour conj.
  12: _for vain. O place,_] F4. _for vaine. O place,_ F1 F2 F3.
    _for vane. O place,_ or _for vane o' the place._ Manlone conj.
  15: _thou art blood_] _thou art but blood_ Pope.
    _thou still art blood_ Malone.
  17: _'Tis not_] _Is't not_ Hanmer. _'Tis yet_ Johnson conj.
  18: _desires_] _asks_ Pope.
  21: _both it_] _both that_ Pope. _it both_ Collier MS.
  22: _all_] om. Hanmer, who makes lines 19-23 end at
    _blood, both that, dispossessing, fitness._
  27: _subject_] F1 F2 F3. _subjects_ F4.
  28: _part_] _path_ Collier MS.
  31: SCENE XI. Pope.
  33: _demand_] _declare_ Hanmer.
  _Your brother_] _He_ Hanmer.
  34: _your honour_] _you_ Hanmer.
  45: _sweetness_] _lewdness_ Hanmer.
  46: _easy_] _just_ Hanmer.
  48: _metal_] Theobald. _mettle_ Ff.
  _means_] _mints_ Steevens conj. _moulds_ Malone conj.
  50: _'Tis ... earth_] _'Tis so set down in earth but not in heaven_
    Johnson conj.
  51: _Say_] _And say_ Pope. _Yea, say_ S. Walker conj. ending lines
    50, 51 at _heaven, then I._
  53: _or_] Rowe (after Davenant), _and_ Ff.
  58: _for accompt_] _accompt_ Pope.
  68: _Were ... charity._] _Were't ... charity?_ Hanmer.
    _'Twere ... charity._ Seymour conj.
  70: _of_] om. Pope.
  71: _make it my morn prayer_] _make't my morning prayer_ Hanmer.
  73: _your_] _yours_ Johnson conj.
  75: _craftily_] Rowe (after Davenant). _crafty_ Ff.
  76: _me_] om. F1.
  80: _enshield_] _in-shell'd_ Tyrwhitt conj.
  81: _mark me_] _mark me well_ Hanmer.
  90: _loss_] _loose_ Singer MS. _toss_ Johnson conj. _list_ Heath conj.
    _force_ Collier MS.
  94: _all-building_] Ff. _all-holding_ Rowe. _all-binding_ Johnson.
    See note (X).
  97: _to let_] _let_ Hanmer.
  103: _have_] _I've_ Rowe. _I have_ Capell. _had_ Knight.
    See note (XI).
  _sick_] _seek_ Johnson (a misprint).
  104, 105: Capell (conj.) and Collier end the first line at _must_.
  106: _at_] _for_ Johnson conj.
  111: _Ignomy in_] _Ignomie in_ F1. _Ignominy in_ F2 F3 F4.
    _An ignominious_ Pope.
  112, 113: _mercy Is nothing kin_] Ff. _mercy sure
    Is nothing kin_ Pope. _mercy is Nothing akin_ Steevens.
    See note (XII).
  117: _oft_] _very oft_ Hanmer, who ends lines 116, 117 at _me ...
    have_.
  118: _we would_] _we'd_ Steevens. This line printed as two in Ff.
  122: _feodary_] F2 F3 F4. _fedarie_ F1.
  123: _thy weakness_] _by weakness_ Rowe. _to weakness_ Capell.
    _this weakness_ Harness (Malone conj.).
  126: _make_] _take_ Johnson conj.
  127: _their_] _thy_ Edd. conj.
  135: _you be_] _you're_ Pope.
  140: _former_] _formal_ Warburton.
  143: _for it_] Pope. _for't_ Ff.
  153: Pope ends the line at _world_.
  163: _redeem_] _save_ Pope.
  171: _should_] _shall_ Steevens.
  172: _perilous_] _most perilous_ Theobald. _these perilous_
    Seymour conj. _pernicious_ S. Walker conj.
  175: _court'sy_] _curtsie_ Ff.
  179: _mind_] _mine_ Jackson conj.
  185: Inverted commas prefixed to this line in Ff.



ACT III.


SCENE I. _A room in the prison._

  _Enter DUKE disguised as before, CLAUDIO, and PROVOST._

_Duke._ So, then, you hope of pardon from Lord Angelo?

_Claud._ The miserable have no other medicine
But only hope:
I've hope to live, and am prepar'd to die.

_Duke._ Be absolute for death; either death or life                  5
Shall thereby be the sweeter. Reason thus with life:
If I do lose thee, I do lose a thing
That none but fools would keep: a breath thou art,
Servile to all the skyey influences.
That dost this habitation, where thou keep'st,                      10
Hourly afflict: merely, thou art death's fool;
For him thou labour'st by thy flight to shun,
And yet runn'st toward him still. Thou art not noble;
For all the accommodations that thou bear'st
Are nursed by baseness. Thou'rt by no means valiant;                15
For thou dost fear the soft and tender fork
Of a poor worm. Thy best of rest is sleep,
And that thou oft provokest; yet grossly fear'st
Thy death, which is no more. Thou art not thyself;
For thou exist'st on many a thousand grains                         20
That issue out of dust. Happy thou art not;
For what thou hast not, still thou strivest to get.
And what thou hast, forget'st. Thou art not certain;
For thy complexion shifts to strange effects,
After the moon. If thou art rich, thou'rt poor;                     25
For, like an ass whose back with ingots bows,
Thou bear'st thy heavy riches but a journey,
And death unloads thee. Friend hast thou none;
For thine own bowels, which do call thee sire,
The mere effusion of thy proper loins,                              30
Do curse the gout, serpigo, and the rheum,
For ending thee no sooner. Thou hast nor youth nor age.
But, as it were, an after-dinner's sleep,
Dreaming on both; for all thy blessed youth
Becomes as aged, and doth beg the alms                              35
Of palsied eld; and when thou art old and rich,
Thou hast neither heat, affection, limb, nor beauty,
To make thy riches pleasant. What's yet in this
That bears the name of life? Yet in this life
Lie hid more thousand deaths: yet death we fear,                    40
That makes these odds all even.

_Claud._                      I humbly thank you.
To sue to live, I find I seek to die;
And, seeking death, find life: let it come on.

_Isab._ [_within_] What, ho! Peace here; grace and good company!

_Prov._ Who's there? come in: the wish deserves a welcome.          45

_Duke._ Dear sir, ere long I'll visit you again.

_Claud._ Most holy sir, I thank you.

  _Enter ISABELLA._

_Isab._ My business is a word or two with Claudio.

_Prov._ And very welcome. Look, signior, here's your
sister.                                                             50

_Duke._ Provost, a word with you.

_Prov._ As many as you please.

_Duke._ Bring me to hear them speak, where I may be
concealed.    [_Exeunt Duke and Provost._

_Claud._ Now, sister, what's the comfort?                           55

_Isab._ Why,
As all comforts are; most good, most good indeed.
Lord Angelo, having affairs to heaven,
Intends you for his swift ambassador,
Where you shall be an everlasting leiger:                           60
Therefore your best appointment make with speed;
To-morrow you set on.

_Claud._            Is there no remedy?

_Isab._ None, but such remedy as, to save a head,
To cleave a heart in twain.

_Claud._                  But is there any?

_Isab._ Yes, brother, you may live:                                 65
There is a devilish mercy in the judge,
If you'll implore it, that will free your life,
But fetter you till death.

_Claud._                 Perpetual durance?

_Isab._ Ay, just; perpetual durance, a restraint,
Though all the world's vastidity you had,                           70
To a determined scope.

_Claud._             But in what nature?

_Isab._ In such a one as, you consenting to't,
Would bark your honour from that trunk you bear,
And leave you naked.

_Claud._           Let me know the point.

_Isab._ O, I do fear thee, Claudio; and I quake,                    75
Lest thou a feverous life shouldst entertain,
And six or seven winters more respect
Than a perpetual honour. Darest thou die?
The sense of death is most in apprehension;                         75
And the poor beetle, that we tread upon,
In corporal sufferance finds a pang as great
As when a giant dies.

_Claud._            Why give you me this shame?
Think you I can a resolution fetch
From flowery tenderness? If I must die,                             80
I will encounter darkness as a bride,
And hug it in mine arms.

_Isab._ There spake my brother; there my father's grave
Did utter forth a voice. Yes, thou must die:
Thou art too noble to conserve a life                               85
In base appliances. This outward-sainted deputy,
Whose settled visage and deliberate word
Nips youth i' the head, and follies doth emmew
As falcon doth the fowl, is yet a devil;
His filth within being cast, he would appear                        90
A pond as deep as hell.

_Claud._              The prenzie Angelo!

_Isab._ O, 'tis the cunning livery of hell,
The damned'st body to invest and cover
In prenzie guards! Dost thou think, Claudio?--
If I would yield him my virginity,                                  95
Thou mightst be freed.

_Claud._             O heavens! it cannot be.

_Isab._ Yes, he would give't thee, from this rank offence,
So to offend him still. This night's the time
That I should do what I abhor to name,
Or else thou diest to-morrow.

_Claud._                    Thou shalt not do't.                   100

_Isab._ O, were it but my life,
I'ld throw it down for your deliverance
As frankly as a pin.

_Claud._           Thanks, dear Isabel.

_Isab._ Be ready, Claudio, for your death to-morrow.

_Claud._ Yes. Has he affections in him,                            105
That thus can make him bite the law by the nose,
When he would force it? Sure, it is no sin;
Or of the deadly seven it is the least.

_Isab._ Which is the least?

_Claud._ If it were damnable, he being so wise,                    110
Why would he for the momentary trick
Be perdurably fined?--O Isabel!

_Isab._ What says my brother?

_Claud._                    Death is a fearful thing.

_Isab._ And shamed life a hateful.

_Claud._ Ay, but to die, and go we know not where;                 115
To lie in cold obstruction and to rot;
This sensible warm motion to become
A kneaded clod; and the delighted spirit
To bathe in fiery floods, or to reside
In thrilling region of thick-ribbed ice;                           120
To be imprison'd in the viewless winds,
And blown with restless violence round about
The pendent world; or to be worse than worst
Of those that lawless and incertain thought
Imagine howling:--'tis too horrible!                               125
The weariest and most loathed worldly life
That age, ache, penury, and imprisonment
Can lay on nature is a paradise
To what we fear of death.

_Isab._ Alas, alas!

_Claud._          Sweet sister, let me live:                       130
What sin you do to save a brother's life,
Nature dispenses with the deed so far
That it becomes a virtue.

_Isab._                 O you beast!
O faithless coward! O dishonest wretch!
Wilt thou be made a man out of my vice?                            135
Is't not a kind of incest, to take life
From thine own sister's shame? What should I think?
Heaven shield my mother play'd my father fair!
For such a warped slip of wilderness
Ne'er issued from his blood. Take my defiance!                     140
Die, perish! Might but my bending down
Reprieve thee from thy fate, it should proceed:
I'll pray a thousand prayers for thy death,
No word to save thee.

_Claud._ Nay, hear me, Isabel.

_Isab._                      O, fie, fie, fie!                     145
Thy sin's not accidental, but a trade.
Mercy to thee would prove itself a bawd:
'Tis best that thou diest quickly.

_Claud._                         O, hear me, Isabella!

  _Re-enter DUKE._

_Duke._ Vouchsafe a word, young sister, but one word.

_Isab._ What is your will?                                         150

_Duke._ Might you dispense with your leisure, I would
by and by have some speech with you: the satisfaction I
would require is likewise your own benefit.

_Isab._ I have no superfluous leisure; my stay must be
stolen out of other affairs; but I will attend you awhile.         155
                                        [_Walks apart._

_Duke._ Son, I have overheard what hath passed between
you and your sister. Angelo had never the purpose
to corrupt her; only he hath made an assay of her virtue
to practise his judgement with the disposition of natures:
she, having the truth of honour in her, hath made him that         160
gracious denial which he is most glad to receive. I am
confessor to Angelo, and I know this to be true; therefore
prepare yourself to death: do not satisfy your resolution
with hopes that are fallible: to-morrow you must die; go
to your knees, and make ready.                                     165

_Claud._ Let me ask my sister pardon. I am so out of
love with life, that I will sue to be rid of it.

_Duke._ Hold you there: farewell. [_Exit Claudio._] Provost,
a word with you!

  _Re-enter PROVOST._

_Prov._ What's your will, father?                                  170

_Duke._ That now you are come, you will be gone.
Leave me awhile with the maid: my mind promises with
my habit no loss shall touch her by my company.

_Prov._ In good time.    [_Exit Provost. Isabella comes forward._

_Duke._ The hand that hath made you fair hath made                 175
you good: the goodness that is cheap in beauty makes
beauty brief in goodness; but grace, being the soul of your
complexion, shall keep the body of it ever fair. The assault
that Angelo hath made to you, fortune hath conveyed to
my understanding; and, but that frailty hath examples for          180
his falling, I should wonder at Angelo. How will you do
to content this substitute, and to save your brother?

_Isab._ I am now going to resolve him: I had rather my
brother die by the law than my son should be unlawfully
born. But, O, how much is the good Duke deceived in                185
Angelo! If ever he return and I can speak to him, I will
open my lips in vain, or discover his government.

_Duke._ That shall not be much amiss: yet, as the matter
now stands, he will avoid your accusation; he made trial
of you only. Therefore fasten your ear on my advisings: to         190
the love I have in doing good a remedy presents itself. I
do make myself believe that you may most uprighteously
do a poor wronged lady a merited benefit; redeem your
brother from the angry law; do no stain to your own gracious
person; and much please the absent Duke, if peradventure           195
he shall ever return to have hearing of this business.

_Isab._ Let me hear you speak farther. I have spirit to
do any thing that appears not foul in the truth of my spirit.

_Duke._ Virtue is bold, and goodness never fearful. Have
you not heard speak of Mariana, the sister of Frederick the        200
great soldier who miscarried at sea?

_Isab._ I have heard of the lady, and good words went
with her name.

_Duke._ She should this Angelo have married; was affianced
to her by oath, and the nuptial appointed: between                 205
which time of the contract and limit of the solemnity, her
brother Frederick was wrecked at sea, having in that perished
vessel the dowry of his sister. But mark how heavily
this befell to the poor gentlewoman: there she lost a noble
and renowned brother, in his love toward her ever most             210
kind and natural; with him, the portion and sinew of her
fortune, her marriage-dowry; with both, her combinate
husband, this well-seeming Angelo.

_Isab._ Can this be so? did Angelo so leave her?

_Duke._ Left her in her tears, and dried not one of them           215
with his comfort; swallowed his vows whole, pretending in
her discoveries of dishonour: in few, bestowed her on her
own lamentation, which she yet wears for his sake; and he,
a marble to her tears, is washed with them, but relents not.

_Isab._ What a merit were it in death to take this poor            220
maid from the world! What corruption in this life, that it
will let this man live! But how out of this can she avail?

_Duke._ It is a rupture that you may easily heal: and
the cure of it not only saves your brother, but keeps you
from dishonour in doing it.                                        225

_Isab._ Show me how, good father.

_Duke._ This forenamed maid hath yet in her the continuance
of her first affection: his unjust unkindness, that in all
reason should have quenched her love, hath, like an impediment
in the current, made it more violent and unruly.                   230
Go you to Angelo; answer his requiring with a plausible
obedience; agree with his demands to the point; only refer
yourself to this advantage, first, that your stay with him
may not be long; that the time may have all shadow and
silence in it; and the place answer to convenience. This           235
being granted in course,--and now follows all,--we shall
advise this wronged maid to stead up your appointment, go
in your place; if the encounter acknowledge itself hereafter,
it may compel him to her recompense: and here, by
this, is your brother saved, your honour untainted, the poor       240
Mariana advantaged, and the corrupt Deputy scaled. The
maid will I frame and make fit for his attempt. If you
think well to carry this as you may, the doubleness of
the benefit defends the deceit from reproof. What think
you of it?                                                         245

_Isab._ The image of it gives me content already; and I
trust it will grow to a most prosperous perfection.

_Duke._ It lies much in your holding up. Haste you
speedily to Angelo: if for this night he entreat you to his
bed, give him promise of satisfaction. I will presently to         250
Saint Luke's: there, at the moated grange, resides this dejected
Mariana. At that place call upon me; and dispatch
with Angelo, that it may be quickly.

_Isab._ I thank you for this comfort. Fare you well,
good father.

    [_Exeunt severally._                                           255


  NOTES: III, 1.

  1: _of_] _for_ Hanmer.
  4: _I've_] _I'have_ Ff.
  5: _either_] _or_ Pope.
  8: _keep_] _reck_ Warburton. _thou art_] om. Hanmer.
  10: _dost_] Ff. _do_ Hanmer.
  20: _exist'st_] Theobald. _exists_ Ff.
  24: _effects_] _affects_ Johnson conj.
  25: _If_] _Though_ Hanmer.
  28: _unloads_] _unloadeth_ Pope.
  29: _sire_] F4. _fire_ F1 F2 F3. See note (XIII).
  31: _serpigo_] Rowe. _sapego_ F1. _sarpego_ F2 F3 F4.
  34: _all thy blessed_] _pall'd, thy blazed_ Warburton.
    _all thy blasted_ Johnson conj. _all thy boasted_ Collier MS.
  35: _as aged_] _an indigent_ Hanmer. _assuaged_ Warburton.
    _assieged_ Becket conj. _engaged_ Staunton conj.
    _enaged_ Grant White conj. _abased_ Edd. conj.
  37: _beauty_] _bounty_ Warburton.
  38: _yet_] om. Pope.
  40: _more_] _moe_ Ff. _a_ Hanmer.
  46: _sir_] _son_ Mason conj.
  49: _Look_] om. Pope.
  53: _Bring me to hear them speak_] Malone (Steevens conj.).
    _Bring them to hear me speak_ F1. _Bring them to speak_ F2 F3 F4.
    _Bring me to stand_ Capell.
  54: _concealed_] _conceal'd_ F1. _conceal'd, yet hear them_ F2 F3 F4.
    _conceal'd, yet hear them speak_ Capell. _Bring me where I
    conceal'd May hear them speak_ Davenant's version.
  55: SCENE II. Pope.
    _sister_] _good sister_ Hanmer.
  57: _most good, most good indeed_] _most good indeed_ Pope.
    _most good in speed_ Hanmer. _most good. Indeed_ Blackstone conj.
    See note (XIV).
  60: _leiger_] _ledger_ Capell. _lieger_ Staunton.
  62: _set on_] _set out_ Pope.
  64: _To_] _Must_ Hanmer.
  70: _Though_] Pope. _Through_ Ff.
  79: _can a resolution fetch_] _want a resolution fetch'd_ Hanmer.
  80: _tenderness?_] _tenderness._ Dyce (Heath conj.).
  86: _appliances_] _appliance_ Hanmer.
  88: _head_] _bred_ Grey conj.
  89: _falcon_] _falconer_ Grey conj.
  90, 91: _filth ... pond_] _pond ... filth_ Upton conj.
  91, 94: _prenzie_] F1. _princely_ F2 F3 F4. _priestly_ Hanmer.
    _precise_ Knight (Tieck conj.). _rev'rend_ Staunton.
    _saintly_ Hickson conj. _pensive_ Anon. (N. & Q.) conj.
    _frenzy!--princely_ Knight conj. _printsy_ Taylor conj.
    _pious_ Delius conj. _phrenzied_ Anon. (N. & Q.) conj.
    _primsie_ Anon. (N. & Q.) conj. _pensie_ Bullock conj.
    See note (XV).
  93: _damned'st_] _damnest_ F1.
  94: _guards_] _garb_ Collier MS.
  97: _give't_] _grant_ Hanmer. _give_ Warburton.
    _from_] _for_ Hanmer.
  103: _dear_] _dearest_ Pope.
  105: _he_] _he then_ Hanmer.
  111: _Why_] _Why,_ Hanmer.
  118: _delighted_] _dilated_ Hanmer. _benighted_ (Anon. conj.
    ap. Johnson). _delinquent_ Upton conj. _alighted_ Anon. conj.
    _delated_ Anon. conj. in Fras. Mag. See note (XVI).
  119: _reside_] _recide_ F1 (and 249).
  120: _region_] _regions_ Rowe.
  124, 125: _those that ... thought Imagine_] _those, that ... thought,
    Imagine_ Ff. _... thoughts ..._ Theobald. _those--that ...
    thought--Imagine_ Hanmer. _those whom ... thought Imagines_
    Heath conj. (after Davenant).
  127: _penury_] F2 F3 F4. _periury_ F1.
    _and_] om. Pope.
  138: _shield_] F1. _shield:_ F2 F3 F4. _grant_ Pope.
  141: _but my_] _my only_ Pope.
  145: _Nay_] om. Pope.
  148: [Going. Capell.
  149: SCENE III. Pope.
    Re-enter Duke] Capell. Duke steps in. F2. om. F1.
    Enter Duke and Provost. Rowe.
  155: [Walks apart] Capell.
  163: _satisfy_] _falsify_ Hanmer.
  168: [Exit C.] Exit. F2, after line 167, om. F1. See note (XVII).
  174: Exit ... forward] Edd. [Exit. F2 om. F1.
  176: _cheap_] _chief_ Collier MS.
  177: _in goodness_] _in such goodness_ Hanmer.
  179: _to you_] _on you_ Hanmer.
  183: _him:_] _him,_ Dyce.
  190, 191: _advisings: ... good_] Pope. _advisings,... good;_ Ff.
  192: _uprighteously_] _uprightly_ Pope.
  197: _farther_] _, father_ F4.
  204: _She_] _Her_ Pope.
    _was_] _he was_ Hanmer.
  205: _by_] om. F1.
    _and_] om. F4.
  217: _few_] F1 F2. _few words_ F3 F4.
    _her on_] _on her_ Capell conj.
  219: _a marble_] _as marble_ Anon. conj.
    _tears_] F1. _ears_ F2 F3 F4.
  228: _unkindness_] _kindness_ Pope.
  236: _granted in course,--and now_] _granted incourse, and now_ Ff.
    _granted, in course now_ Pope.
  241: _scaled_] _foiled_ Grant White.
  244: _from_] _and_ Rowe.
  255: [Exeunt severally] [Exit Ff.


SCENE II. _The street before the prison._

  _Enter, on one side, DUKE disguised as before; on the other, ELBOW,
    and _Officers_ with POMPEY._

_Elb._ Nay, if there be no remedy for it, but that you
will needs buy and sell men and women like beasts, we
shall have all the world drink brown and white bastard.

_Duke._ O heavens! what stuff is here?

_Pom._ 'Twas never merry world since, of two usuries,                5
the merriest was put down, and the worser allowed by
order of law a furred gown to keep him warm; and furred
with fox and lamb-skins too, to signify, that craft,
being richer than innocency, stands for the facing.

_Elb._ Come your way, sir. 'Bless you, good father friar.           10

_Duke._ And you, good brother father. What offence
hath this man made you, sir?

_Elb._ Marry, sir, he hath offended the law: and, sir, we
take him to be a thief too, sir; for we have found upon him,
sir, a strange picklock, which we have sent to the Deputy.          15

_Duke._ Fie, sirrah! a bawd, a wicked bawd!
The evil that thou causest to be done,
That is thy means to live. Do thou but think
What 'tis to cram a maw or clothe a back
From such a filthy vice: say to thyself,                            20
From their abominable and beastly touches
I drink, I eat, array myself, and live.
Canst thou believe thy living is a life,
So stinkingly depending? Go mend, go mend.

_Pom._ Indeed, it does stink in some sort, sir; but yet,            25
sir, I would prove--

_Duke._ Nay, if the devil have given thee proofs for sin,
Thou wilt prove his. Take him to prison, officer:
Correction and instruction must both work
Ere this rude beast will profit.                                    30

_Elb._ He must before the Deputy, sir; he has given
him warning: the Deputy cannot abide a whoremaster: if
he be a whoremonger, and comes before him, he were as
good go a mile on his errand.

_Duke._ That we were all, as some would seem to be,                 35
From our faults, as faults from seeming, free!

_Elb._ His neck will come to your waist,--a cord, sir.

_Pom._ I spy comfort; I cry bail. Here's a gentleman
and a friend of mine.

  _Enter LUCIO._

_Lucio._ How now, noble Pompey! What, at the wheels                 40
of Caesar? art thou led in triumph? What, is there none
of Pygmalion's images, newly made woman, to be had
now, for putting the hand in the pocket and extracting it
clutched? What reply, ha? What sayest thou to this tune,
matter and method? Is't not drowned i' the last rain, ha?           45
What sayest thou, Trot? Is the world as it was, man?
Which is the way? Is it sad, and few words? or how? The
trick of it?

_Duke._ Still thus, and thus; still worse!

_Lucio._ How doth my dear morsel, thy mistress? Procures            50
she still, ha?

_Pom._ Troth, sir, she hath eaten up all her beef, and
she is herself in the tub.

_Lucio._ Why, 'tis good; it is the right of it; it must be
so: ever your fresh whore and your powdered bawd: an                55
unshunned consequence; it must be so. Art going to
prison, Pompey?

_Pom._ Yes, faith, sir.

_Lucio._ Why, 'tis not amiss, Pompey. Farewell: go,
say I sent thee thither. For debt, Pompey? or how?                  60

_Elb._ For being a bawd, for being a bawd.

_Lucio._ Well, then, imprison him: if imprisonment be
the due of a bawd, why, 'tis his right: bawd is he doubtless,
and of antiquity too; bawd-born. Farewell, good Pompey.
Commend me to the prison, Pompey: you will turn good                65
husband now, Pompey; you will keep the house.

_Pom._ I hope, sir, your good worship will be my bail.

_Lucio._ No, indeed, will I not, Pompey; it is not the
wear. I will pray, Pompey, to increase your bondage: if
you take it not patiently, why, your mettle is the more.            70
Adieu, trusty Pompey. 'Bless you, friar.

_Duke._ And you.

_Lucio._ Does Bridget paint still, Pompey, ha?

_Elb._ Come your ways, sir; come.

_Pom._ You will not bail me, then, sir?                             75

_Lucio._ Then, Pompey, nor now. What news abroad,
friar? what news?

_Elb._ Come your ways, sir; come.

_Lucio._ Go to kennel, Pompey; go. [_Exeunt Elbow,
Pompey and Officers._] What news, friar, of the Duke?               80

_Duke._ I know none. Can you tell me of any?

_Lucio._ Some say he is with the Emperor of Russia;
other some, he is in Rome: but where is he, think you?

_Duke._ I know not where; but wheresoever, I wish him
well.                                                               85

_Lucio._ It was a mad fantastical trick of him to steal
from the state, and usurp the beggary he was never born
to. Lord Angelo dukes it well in his absence; he puts
transgression to't.

_Duke._ He does well in't.                                          90

_Lucio._ A little more lenity to lechery would do no
harm in him: something too crabbed that way, friar.

_Duke._ It is too general a vice, and severity must cure
it.

_Lucio._ Yes, in good sooth, the vice is of a great kindred;        95
it is well allied: but it is impossible to extirp it
quite, friar, till eating and drinking be put down. They
say this Angelo was not made by man and woman after
this downright way of creation: is it true, think you?

_Duke._ How should he be made, then?                               100

_Lucio._ Some report a sea-maid spawned him; some,
that he was begot between two stock-fishes. But it is
certain that, when he makes water, his urine is congealed
ice; that I know to be true: and he is a motion generative;
that's infallible.                                                 105

_Duke._ You are pleasant, sir, and speak apace.

_Lucio._ Why, what a ruthless thing is this in him, for
the rebellion of a codpiece to take away the life of a man!
Would the Duke that is absent have done this? Ere he
would have hanged a man for the getting a hundred bastards,        110
he would have paid for the nursing a thousand: he
had some feeling of the sport; he knew the service, and
that instructed him to mercy.

_Duke._ I never heard the absent Duke much detected
for women; he was not inclined that way.                           115

_Lucio._ O, sir, you are deceived.

_Duke._ 'Tis not possible.

_Lucio._ Who, not the Duke? yes, your beggar of fifty;
and his use was to put a ducat in her clack-dish: the Duke
had crotchets in him. He would be drunk too; that let me           120
inform you.

_Duke._ You do him wrong, surely.

_Lucio._ Sir, I was an inward of his. A shy fellow was
the Duke: and I believe I know the cause of his
withdrawing.                                                       125

_Duke._ What, I prithee, might be the cause?

_Lucio._ No, pardon; 'tis a secret must be locked within
the teeth and the lips: but this I can let you understand,
the greater file of the subject held the Duke to be wise.

_Duke._ Wise! why, no question but he was.                         130

_Lucio._ A very superficial, ignorant, unweighing fellow.

_Duke._ Either this is envy in you, folly, or mistaking:
the very stream of his life and the business he hath helmed
must, upon a warranted need, give him a better proclamation.
Let him be but testimonied in his own bringings-forth,             135
and he shall appear, to the envious, a scholar, a statesman
and a soldier. Therefore you speak unskilfully; or
if your knowledge be more, it is much darkened in your
malice.

_Lucio._ Sir, I know him, and I love him.                          140

_Duke._ Love talks with better knowledge, and knowledge
with dearer love.

_Lucio._ Come, sir, I know what I know.

_Duke._ I can hardly believe that, since you know not
what you speak. But, if ever the Duke return, as our prayers       145
are he may, let me desire you to make your answer
before him. If it be honest you have spoke, you have
courage to maintain it: I am bound to call upon you; and,
I pray you, your name?

_Lucio._ Sir, my name is Lucio; well known to the                  150
duke.

_Duke._ He shall know you better, sir, if I may live to
report you.

_Lucio._ I fear you not.

_Duke._ O, you hope the Duke will return no more; or               155
you imagine me too unhurtful an opposite. But, indeed, I
can do you little harm; you'll forswear this again.

_Lucio._ I'll be hanged first: thou art deceived in me,
friar. But no more of this. Canst thou tell if Claudio die
to-morrow or no?                                                   160

_Duke._ Why should he die, sir?

_Lucio._ Why? For filling a bottle with a tun-dish. I
would the Duke we talk of were returned again: this ungenitured
agent will unpeople the province with continency;
sparrows must not build in his house-eaves, because                165
they are lecherous. The Duke yet would have dark deeds
darkly answered; he would never bring them to light:
would he were returned! Marry, this Claudio is condemned
for untrussing. Farewell, good friar: I prithee, pray for
me. The Duke, I say to thee again, would eat mutton on             170
Fridays. He's not past it yet, and I say to thee, he would
mouth with a beggar, though she smelt brown bread and
garlic: say that I said so. Farewell.    [_Exit._

_Duke._ No might nor greatness in mortality
Can censure 'scape; back-wounding calumny                          175
The whitest virtue strikes. What king so strong
Can tie the gall up in the slanderous tongue?
But who comes here?

  _Enter ESCALUS, PROVOST, and _Officers_ with MISTRESS OVERDONE._

_Escal._ Go; away with her to prison!

_Mrs Ov._ Good my lord, be good to me; your honour                 180
is accounted a merciful man; good my lord.

_Escal._ Double and treble admonition, and still forfeit
in the same kind! This would make mercy swear and
play the tyrant.

_Prov._ A bawd of eleven years' continuance, may it                185
please your honour.

_Mrs Ov._ My lord, this is one Lucio's information
against me. Mistress Kate Keepdown was with child by
him in the Duke's time; he promised her marriage: his
child is a year and a quarter old, come Philip and Jacob:          190
I have kept it myself; and see how he goes about to abuse
me!

_Escal._ That fellow is a fellow of much license: let
him be called before us. Away with her to prison! Go
to; no more words. [_Exeunt Officers with Mistress Ov._]           195
Provost, my brother Angelo will not be altered; Claudio
must die to-morrow: let him be furnished with divines, and
have all charitable preparation. If my brother wrought by
my pity, it should not be so with him.

_Prov._ So please you, this friar hath been with him,              200
and advised him for the entertainment of death.

_Escal._ Good even, good father.

_Duke._ Bliss and goodness on you!

_Escal._ Of whence are you?

_Duke._ Not of this country, though my chance is now               205
To use it for my time: I am a brother
Of gracious order, late come from the See
In special business from his Holiness.

_Escal._ What news abroad i' the world?

_Duke._ None, but that there is so great a fever on goodness,      210
that the dissolution of it must cure it: novelty is only
in request; and it is as dangerous to be aged in any kind
of course, as it is virtuous to be constant in any undertaking.
There is scarce truth enough alive to make societies
secure; but security enough to make fellowships accurst:--         215
much upon this riddle runs the wisdom of the world. This
news is old enough, yet it is every day's news. I pray you,
sir, of what disposition was the Duke?

_Escal._ One that, above all other strifes, contended
especially to know himself.                                        220

_Duke._ What pleasure was he given to?

_Escal._ Rather rejoicing to see another merry, than
merry at any thing which professed to make him rejoice: a
gentleman of all temperance. But leave we him to his
events, with a prayer they may prove prosperous; and let           225
me desire to know how you find Claudio prepared. I am
made to understand that you have lent him visitation.

_Duke._ He professes to have received no sinister measure
from his judge, but most willingly humbles himself to
the determination of justice: yet had he framed to himself,        230
by the instruction of his frailty, many deceiving promises of
life; which I, by my good leisure, have discredited to him,
and now is he resolved to die.

_Escal._ You have paid the heavens your function, and
the prisoner the very debt of your calling. I have laboured        235
for the poor gentleman to the extremest shore of my
modesty: but my brother justice have I found so severe,
that he hath forced me to tell him he is indeed Justice.

_Duke._ If his own life answer the straitness of his
proceeding, it shall become him well; wherein if he chance to      240
fail, he hath sentenced himself.

_Escal._ I am going to visit the prisoner. Fare you well.

_Duke._ Peace be with you! [_Exeunt Escalus and Provost._

He who the sword of heaven will bear
Should be as holy as severe;                                       245
Pattern in himself to know,
Grace to stand, and virtue go;
More nor less to others paying
Than by self-offences weighing.
Shame to him whose cruel striking                                  250
Kills for faults of his own liking!
Twice treble shame on Angelo,
To weed my vice and let his grow!
O, what may man within him hide,
Though angel on the outward side!                                  255
How may likeness made in crimes,
Making practice on the times,
To draw with idle spiders' strings
Most ponderous and substantial things!
Craft against vice I must apply:                                   260
With Angelo to-night shall lie
His old betrothed but despised;
So disguise shall, by the disguised,
Pay with falsehood false exacting,
And perform an old contracting.    [_Exit._                        265


  NOTES: III, 2.

  SCENE II.] om. Ff. SCENE IV. Pope.
  Enter ... Pompey] Enter Elbow, Clowne, Officers. Ff.
  5: _usuries_] _usancies_ Collier MS.
  7: Punctuated as in Hanmer. Ff place a semicolon after _law_.
    Pope a full stop. Warburton supposes a line or two to be lost.
  _furred gown_] _furred lambskin gown_ Capell.
  8: _fox and lamb-skins_] _fox-skins_ Capell. _fox on lamb-skins_
    Mason conj.
  11: _father_] om. Johnson conj.
  22: _eat, array myself_] Theobald (Bishop conj.).
    _eat away myself_ Ff.
  24: _Go mend, go mend_] _Go mend, mend_ Pope.
  25: _does_] _doth_ Pope.
  36: _From our faults_] F1. _Free from our faults_ F2 F3.
    _Free from all faults_ F4.
  _as faults from seeming_] _as from faults seeming_ Hanmer.
    _or from false seeming_ Johnson conj.
    _or faults from seeming_ Id. conj.
  36: SCENE V. [Enter LUCIO. Pope.
  37: _waist_] Johnson, ed. 1778. _wast_ F1 F2 F3. _waste_ F4.
  40: _wheels_] _heels_ Steevens.
  43: _it_] Pope. om. Ff.
  44, 45: _this tune ... Is't not_]
    _this? tune ... method,--is't not?_ Johnson conj.
  45: _matter and method] the matter and the method_ Hanmer.
  _Is't not ... rain_] _It's not down in the last reign_ Warburton.
  46: _Trot_] _to't_ Dyce (Grey conj.). _troth_ Jackson conj.
  52: _her_] _the_ Pope.
  69, 70: _bondage: ... patiently,_] Theobald.
    _bondage ... patiently:_ Ff.
  80: SCENE VI. Pope.
  93: _general_] _gentle_ Warburton.
  95: _a great_] _great_ Rowe.
  98: _this_] Ff. _the_ Pope.
  104: _is a motion generative_] _is a motion ungenerative_ Theobald.
    _has no motion generative_ Hanmer.
    _is not a motion generative_ Capell.
    _is a motion ingenerative_ Collier MS.
    _is a notion generative_ Upton conj.
    _is a mule ungenerative_ Anon. conj.
  114: _detected_] _detracted_ Capell.
  123: _shy_] _sly_ Hanmer.
  126: _I_] om. Rowe.
  142: _dearer_] Hanmer. _deare_ F1 F2. _dear_ F3 F4.
  157: _little_] _a little_ Hanmer.
  _again._] _again?_ Ff.
  168: _this Claudio_] _this: Claudio_ Edd. conj.
  171: _He's not past it yet, and I say to thee_] Hanmer.
    _He's now past it, yet (and I say to thee)_ Ff.
    _He's now past it: yea, and I say to thee_ Capell.
  172: _smelt_] _smelt of_ Rowe.
  173: _said_] _say_ Pope.
  179: SCENE VII. Pope
  183: _swear_] _swerve_ Hanmer. _severe_ Farmer conj.
  202: _even_] F4. _'even_ F1 F2 F3.
  207: _See_] Theobald. _Sea_ Ff.
  212: _and it is as_] F3 F4. _and as it is as_ F1 F2.
  213: _undertaking. There_] _undertaking, there_ Collier.
  220: _especially_] _specially_ Pope. These two lines are printed as
    verse by Ff, ending _strifes, ... himself._
  232: _leisure_] _lecture_ Capell conj.
  234: _your function_] _the due of your function_ Collier MS.
  243: SCENE VIII. Pope.
  [Exeunt....] Capell. [Exit. F2. om. F1.
  246, 247: _Pattern ... go_] _Patterning himself to know, In grace to
    stand, in virtue go_ Johnson conj. _Pattern in himself, to show
    Grace and virtue. Stand or go_ Becket conj.
  247: _and virtue go_] _virtue to go_ Collier MS.
  249: _self-offences_] _self offences_ Collier.
  256-258: _may ... To draw_] _many ... Draw_ Harness.
  256: _likeness made in crimes_] Ff.
    _that likeness made in crimes_ Theobald.
    _that likeness shading crimes_ Hanmer.
    _such likeness trade in crimes_ Heath conj.
    _likeness wade in crimes_ Malone conj. (withdrawn).
    _likeness mate in crimes_ Leo conj.
  257: _Making practice_] _Mocking, practise_ Malone conj.
    _Make sin practise_ Jackson conj. _Masking practice_ Collier MS.
  258: _To draw_] _Draw_ Theobald. _So draw_ Staunton conj.



ACT IV.


SCENE I. _The moated grange at ST LUKE'S._

  _Enter MARIANA and a BOY._

_BOY sings._

Take, O, take those lips away,
  That so sweetly were forsworn;
And those eyes, the break of day,
  Lights that do mislead the morn:
But my kisses bring again, bring again;                              5
Seals of love, but sealed in vain, sealed in vain.

_Mari._ Break off thy song, and haste thee quick away:
Here comes a man of comfort, whose advice
Hath often still'd my brawling discontent.    [_Exit Boy._

  _Enter DUKE disguised as before._

I cry you mercy, sir; and well could wish                           10
You had not found me here so musical:
Let me excuse me, and believe me so,
My mirth it much displeased, but pleased my woe.

_Duke._ 'Tis good; though music oft hath such a charm
To make bad good, and good provoke to harm.                         15

I pray you, tell me, hath any body inquired for me here to-day?
much upon this time have I promised here to meet.

_Mari._ You have not been inquired after: I have sat
here all day.

  _Enter ISABELLA._

_Duke._ I do constantly believe you. The time is come               20
even now. I shall crave your forbearance a little: may be
I will call upon you anon, for some advantage to yourself.

_Mari._ I am always bound to you.    [_Exit._

_Duke._ Very well met, and well come.
What is the news from this good Deputy?                             25

_Isab._ He hath a garden circummured with brick,
Whose western side is with a vineyard back'd;
And to that vineyard is a planched gate,
That makes his opening with this bigger key:
This other doth command a little door                               30
Which from the vineyard to the garden leads;
There have I made my promise
Upon the heavy middle of the night
To call upon him.

_Duke._ But shall you on your knowledge find this way?              35

_Isab._ I have ta'en a due and wary note upon't:
With whispering and most guilty diligence,
In action all of precept, he did show me
The way twice o'er.

_Duke._           Are there no other tokens
Between you 'greed concerning her observance?                       40

_Isab._ No, none, but only a repair i' the dark;
And that I have possess'd him my most stay
Can be but brief; for I have made him know
I have a servant comes with me along,
That stays upon me, whose persuasion is                             45
I come about my brother.

_Duke._                'Tis well borne up.
I have not yet made known to Mariana
A word of this. What, ho! within! come forth!

  _Re-enter MARIANA._

I pray you, be acquainted with this maid;
She comes to do you good.

_Isab._                 I do desire the like.                       50

_Duke._ Do you persuade yourself that I respect you?

_Mari._ Good friar, I know you do, and have found it.

_Duke._ Take, then, this your companion by the hand,
Who hath a story ready for your ear.
I shall attend your leisure: but make haste;                        55
The vaporous night approaches.

_Mari._ Will't please you walk aside?

    [_Exeunt Mariana and Isabella._

_Duke._ O place and greatness, millions of false eyes
Are stuck upon thee! volumes of report
Run with these false and most contrarious quests                    60
Upon thy doings! thousand escapes of wit
Make thee the father of their idle dreams,
And rack thee in their fancies!

  _Re-enter MARIANA and ISABELLA._

                                  Welcome, how agreed?

_Isab._ She'll take the enterprise upon her, father,
If you advise it.

_Duke._         It is not my consent,                               65
But my entreaty too.

_Isab._            Little have you to say
When you depart from him, but, soft and low,
'Remember now my brother.'

_Mari._                  Fear me not.

_Duke._ Nor, gentle daughter, fear you not at all.
He is your husband on a pre-contract:                               70
To bring you thus together, 'tis no sin,
Sith that the justice of your title to him
Doth flourish the deceit. Come, let us go:
Our corn's to reap, for yet our tithe's to sow.    [_Exeunt._


  NOTES: IV, 1.

  SCENE I. Enter M.] Ff. M. discovered sitting. Steevens.
  5, 6: F4 omits the refrain in l. 6. Rowe omits it in both lines.
  6: _but_] _though_ Fletcher's version.
  13: _it_] _is_ Warburton.
  17: _meet_] _meet one_ Hanmer.
  19: Enter I.] Transferred by Singer to line 23.
  24: SCENE II. Pope.
  _well come_] Ff. _welcome_ Warburton.
  32, 33, 34: _There have I made my promise Upon the heavy middle
    of the night To call upon him._] S. Walker conj.
    _There have I made my promise, upon the Heavy middle of the night
    to call upon him._ Ff.
    _There on the heavy middle of the night Have I my promise made
    to call upon him._ Pope.
    _There have I made my promise to call on him Upon the heavy
    middle of the night._ Capell.
    _There have I made my promise in the heavy Middle...._ Singer.
    _There have I made my promise on the heavy Middle...._ Dyce.
    Delius and Staunton read with Ff. but print as prose.
  38: _action all of precept_] _precept of all action_ Johnson conj.
  49: SCENE III. Pope.
  52: _have_] _I have_ Pope.
  58-63: _O place ... fancies_] These lines to precede III. 2. 178.
    Warburton conj.
  60: _these_] _their_ Hanmer. _base_ Collier MS.
  _quests_] _quest_ F1.
  61: _escapes_] _'scapes_ Pope.
  62: _their idle dreams_] Pope. _their idle dreame_ Ff.
    _an idle dream_ Rowe.
  63: _Welcome, how agreed?_] _Well! agreed?_ Hanmer.
  SCENE IV. Pope.
  65: _It is_] _'Tis_ Pope.
  74: _tithe's_] _Tithes_ F1 F2 F3. _Tythes_ F4. _tilth's_ Hanmer
    (Warburton).
  _Our ... sow_] _Our tythe's to reap, for yet our corn's to sow_
    Capell conj. MS.


SCENE II. _A room in the prison._

  _Enter PROVOST and POMPEY._

_Prov._ Come hither, sirrah. Can you cut off a man's head?

_Pom._ If the man be a bachelor, sir, I can; but if he be
a married man, he's his wife's head, and I can never cut off
a woman's head.

_Prov._ Come, sir, leave me your snatches, and yield me              5
a direct answer. To-morrow morning are to die Claudio
and Barnardine. Here is in our prison a common executioner,
who in his office lacks a helper: if you will take it
on you to assist him, it shall redeem you from your gyves;
if not, you shall have your full time of imprisonment, and          10
your deliverance with an unpitied whipping, for you have
been a notorious bawd.

_Pom._ Sir, I have been an unlawful bawd time out of
mind; but yet I will be content to be a lawful hangman. I
would be glad to receive some instruction from my fellow            15
partner.

_Prov._ What, ho! Abhorson! Where's Abhorson, there?

  _Enter ABHORSON._

_Abhor._ Do you call, sir?

_Prov._ Sirrah, here's a fellow will help you to-morrow
in your execution. If you think it meet, compound with              20
him by the year, and let him abide here with you; if not,
use him for the present, and dismiss him. He cannot plead
his estimation with you; he hath been a bawd.

_Abhor._ A bawd, sir? fie upon him! he will discredit
our mystery.                                                        25

_Prov._ Go to, sir; you weigh equally; a feather will
turn the scale.    [_Exit._

_Pom._ Pray, sir, by your good favour,--for surely, sir, a
good favour you have, but that you have a hanging look,--
do you call, sir, your occupation a mystery?                        30

_Abhor._ Ay, sir; a mystery.

_Pom._ Painting, sir, I have heard say, is a mystery;
and your whores, sir, being members of my occupation,
using painting, do prove my occupation a mystery: but
what mystery there should be in hanging, if I should be             35
hanged, I cannot imagine.

_Abhor._ Sir, it is a mystery.

_Pom._ Proof?

_Abhor._ Every true man's apparel fits your thief: if it
be too little for your thief, your true man thinks it big           40
enough; if it be too big for your thief, your thief thinks it
little enough: so every true man's apparel fits your thief.

  _Re-enter PROVOST._

_Prov._ Are you agreed?

_Pom._ Sir, I will serve him; for I do find your hangman
is a more penitent trade than your bawd; he doth                    45
oftener ask forgiveness.

_Prov._ You, sirrah, provide your block and your axe
to-morrow four o'clock.

_Abhor._ Come on, bawd; I will instruct thee in my
trade; follow.                                                      50

_Pom._ I do desire to learn, sir: and I hope, if you have
occasion to use me for your own turn, you shall find me
yare; for, truly, sir, for your kindness I owe you a good
turn.

_Prov._ Call hither Barnardine and Claudio:

    [_Exeunt Pompey and Abhorson._                                  55

The one has my pity; not a jot the other,
Being a murderer, though he were my brother.

  _Enter CLAUDIO._

Look, here's the warrant, Claudio, for thy death:
'Tis now dead midnight, and by eight to-morrow
Thou must be made immortal. Where's Barnardine?                     60

_Claud._ As fast lock'd up in sleep as guiltless labour
When it lies starkly in the traveller's bones:
He will not wake.

_Prov._         Who can do good on him?
Well, go, prepare yourself. [_Knocking within._]
        But, hark, what noise?--
Heaven give your spirits comfort! [_Exit Clandio._] By and by.--    65
I hope it is some pardon or reprieve
For the most gentle Claudio.

  _Enter DUKE disguised as before._

                                    Welcome, father.

_Duke._ The best and wholesomest spirits of the night
Envelop you, good Provost! Who call'd here of late?

_Prov._ None, since the curfew rung.                                70

_Duke._ Not Isabel?

_Prov._           No.

_Duke._             They will, then, ere't be long.

_Prov._ What comfort is for Claudio?

_Duke._ There's some in hope.

_Prov._                     It is a bitter Deputy.

_Duke._ Not so, not so; his life is parallel'd                      75
Even with the stroke and line of his great justice:
He doth with holy abstinence subdue
That in himself which he spurs on his power
To qualify in others: were he meal'd with that
Which he corrects, then were he tyrannous;                          80
But this being so, he's just.    [_Knocking within._
                             Now are they come.

    [_Exit Provost._

This is a gentle provost: seldom when
The steeled gaoler is the friend of men.    [_Knocking within._
How now! what noise? That spirit's possessed with haste
That wounds the unsisting postern with these strokes.               85

  _Re-enter PROVOST._

_Prov._ There he must stay until the officer
Arise to let him in: he is call'd up.

_Duke._ Have you no countermand for Claudio yet,
But he must die to-morrow?

_Prov._                  None, sir, none.

_Duke._ As near the dawning, provost, as it is,                     90
You shall hear more ere morning.

_Prov._                        Happily
You something know; yet I believe there comes
No countermand; no such example have we:
Besides, upon the very siege of justice
Lord Angelo hath to the public ear                                  95
Profess'd the contrary.

  _Enter a MESSENGER._

                       This is his lordship's man.

_Duke._ And here comes Claudio's pardon.

_Mes._ [_Giving a paper_] My lord hath sent you this note;
and by me this further charge, that you swerve not from the
smallest article of it, neither in time, matter,
        or other circumstance.                                     100
Good morrow; for, as I take it, it is almost day.

_Prov._ I shall obey him.    [_Exit Messenger._

_Duke._ [_Aside_] This is his pardon, purchased by such sin
For which the pardoner himself is in.
Hence hath offence his quick celerity,                             105
When it is borne in high authority:
When vice makes mercy, mercy's so extended,
That for the fault's love is the offender friended.
Now, sir, what news?

_Prov._ I told you. Lord Angelo, belike thinking me remiss         110
in mine office, awakens me with this unwonted putting-on;
methinks strangely, for he hath not used it before.

_Duke._ Pray you, let's hear.

  [Transcriber's Note:
  In order to preserve the marked line breaks without losing
  readability, each line of the quoted message has been split into
  two equal halves.]

_Prov._ [_Reads_]

  Whatsoever you may hear to the
  contrary, let Claudio be executed
  by four of the clock; and in
  the afternoon Barnardine: for my                                 115
  better satisfaction, let me have
  Claudio's head sent me by five.

Let this be duly performed; with a thought that more depends on
it than we must yet deliver. Thus fail not to do your office, as
you will answer it at your peril.

What say you to this, sir?                                         120

_Duke._ What is that Barnardine who is to be executed
in the afternoon?

_Prov._ A Bohemian born, but here nursed up and bred;
one that is a prisoner nine years old.

_Duke._ How came it that the absent Duke had not                   125
either delivered him to his liberty or executed him? I
have heard it was ever his manner to do so.

_Prov._ His friends still wrought reprieves for him: and,
indeed, his fact, till now in the government of Lord Angclo,
came not to an undoubtful proof.                                   130

_Duke._ It is now apparent?

_Prov._ Most manifest, and not denied by himself.

_Duke._ Hath he borne himself penitently in prison?
how seems he to be touched?

_Prov._ A man that apprehends death no more dreadfully             135
but as a drunken sleep; careless, reckless, and fearless
of what's past, present, or to come; insensible of mortality,
and desperately mortal.

_Duke._ He wants advice.

_Prov._ He will hear none: he hath evermore had the                140
liberty of the prison; give him leave to escape hence, he
would not: drunk many times a day, if not many days entirely
drunk. We have very oft awaked him, as if to carry
him to execution, and showed him a seeming warrant for it:
it hath not moved him at all.                                      145

_Duke._ More of him anon. There is written in your
brow, provost, honesty and constancy: if I read it not truly,
my ancient skill beguiles me; but, in the boldness of my
cunning, I will lay my self in hazard. Claudio, whom here
you have warrant to execute, is no greater forfeit to the          150
law than Angelo who hath sentenced him. To make you
understand this in a manifested effect, I crave but four days'
respite; for the which you are to do me both a present and
a dangerous courtesy.

_Prov._ Pray, sir, in what?                                        155

_Duke._ In the delaying death.

_Prov._ Alack, how may I do it, having the hour limited,
and an express command, under penalty, to deliver his head
in the view of Angelo? I may make my case as Claudio's,
to cross this in the smallest.                                     160

_Duke._ By the vow of mine order I warrant you, if my
instructions may be your guide. Let this Barnardine be
this morning executed, and his head borne to Angelo.

_Prov._ Angelo hath seen them both, and will discover
the favour.                                                        165

_Duke._ O, death's a great disguiser; and you may add
to it. Shave the head, and tie the beard; and say it was
the desire of the penitent to be so bared before his death:
you know the course is common. If any thing fall to you
upon this, more than thanks and good fortune, by the Saint         170
whom I profess, I will plead against it with my life.

_Prov._ Pardon me, good father; it is against my oath.

_Duke._ Were you sworn to the Duke, or to the Deputy?

_Prov._ To him, and to his substitutes.

_Duke._ You will think you have made no offence, if the            175
Duke avouch the justice of your dealing?

_Prov._ But what likelihood is in that?

_Duke._ Not a resemblance, but a certainty. Yet since I
see you fearful, that neither my coat, integrity, nor persuasion
can with ease attempt you, I will go further than I                180
meant, to pluck all fears out of you. Look you, sir, here is
the hand and seal of the Duke: you know the character, I
doubt not; and the signet is not strange to you.

_Prov._ I know them both.

_Duke._ The contents of this is the return of the Duke:            185
you shall anon over-read it at your pleasure; where you
shall find, within these two days he will be here. This is
a thing that Angelo knows not; for he this very day
receives letters of strange tenour; perchance of the Duke's
death; perchance entering into some monastery; but, by             190
chance, nothing of what is writ. Look, the unfolding star
calls up the shepherd. Put not yourself into amazement
how these things should be: all difficulties are but easy
when they are known. Call your executioner, and off with
Barnardine's head: I will give him a present shrift and            195
advise him for a better place. Yet you are amazed; but
this shall absolutely resolve you. Come away; it is almost
clear dawn.    [_Exeunt._


  NOTES: IV, 2.

  SCENE II.] SCENE V. Pope.
  2-4: Printed as verse in Ff.
  37-42: Abhor. _Sir,.......thief_] Abhor. ***Clown.*** _Sir, it is a
    mystery._ Abhor. _Proof.--_ Clown. _Every ... thief_ (42) Hanmer.
    Pom. _Proof ... thief_ (42) Lloyd conj.
  39-42: _Every......thief_] Capell. Abh. _Every....thief_ (39).
    Clo. _If it be ... thief_ (41) Ff. Abh. _Every ... thief, Clown:
    if it be......thief_ (42) Theobald.
  45: _your_] _you_ F2.
  53: _yare_] Theobald. _y'are_ Ff. _yours_ Rowe.
  56: _The one_] _Th' one_ Ff. _One_ Hamner.
  58: SCENE VI. Pope.
  63: _He will not wake_] F1 F2. _He will not awake_ F3 F4.
    _He'll not awake_ Pope.
  64: _yourself_] _yourself_ [Ex. Claudio.] Theobald.
  65: _comfort!_ [Exit Claudio.] _By and by.--_] Capell.
    _comfort: by and by,_ Ff.
  70: _None_] F1. _Now_ F2 F3 F4.
  71: _They_] _She_ Hawkins conj. _There_ Collier MS.
  85: _unsisting_] F1 F2 F3. _insisting_ F4. _unresisting_ Rowe.
    _unresting_ Hanmer. _unshifting_ Capell.
    _unlist'ning_ Steevens conj. _resisting_ Collier conj.
    _unlisting_ Mason conj. _unfeeling_ Johnson conj.
    _unwisting_ Singer.
  86: ....Provost] ....Provost, speaking to one at the door,
    after which he comes forward. Capell.
  91: _Happily_] _Happely_ F1 F2. _Happily_ F3 F4. See note (XVIII).
  96: SCENE VII. Pope.
  _lordship's_] Pope. _lords_ Ff. om. Capell.
  96, 97: _This ... man._ Duke. _And ... pardon_] Knight
    (Tyrwhitt conj.). Duke. _This ... man._ Pro. _And ... pardon_ Ff.
  98-101: Printed as verse in Ff.
  113: _you_] om. F4.
  114: Prov. [Reads] Rowe. The letter. Ff.
  117: _duly_] _truly_ Capell (a misprint).
  131: _It is_] Ff. _Is it_ Pope.
  136: _reckless_] Theobald. _wreaklesse_ F1 F2 F3. _wreakless_ F4.
    _rechless_ Pope.
  138: _desperately mortal_] _mortally desperate_ Hanmer.
  161-165: Printed as verse in Ff. Rowe.
  167: _tie_] F1 F4. _tye_ F2 F3. _tire_ Theobald conj.
    _dye_ Simpson conj.
  168: _bared_] Malone. _bar'de_ F1 F2 F3. _barb'd_ F4.
  179: _persuasion_] Ff. _my persuasion_ Rowe.
  188: _that_] F1 F2 F3. _which_ F4.
  191: _writ_] _here writ_ Hanmer.


SCENE III. _Another room in the same._

  _Enter POMPEY._

_Pom._ I am as well acquainted here as I was in our
house of profession: one would think it were Mistress Overdone's
own house, for here be many of her old customers.
First, here's young Master Rash; he's in for a commodity
of brown paper and old ginger, nine-score and seventeen              5
pounds; of which he made five marks, ready money: marry,
then ginger was not much in request, for the old women
were all dead. Then is there here one Master Caper, at
the suit of Master Three-pile the mercer, for some four
suits of peach-coloured satin, which now peaches him a              10
beggar. Then have we here young Dizy, and young
Master Deep-vow, and Master Copper-spur, and Master
Starve-lackey the rapier and dagger man, and young Drop-heir
that killed lusty Pudding, and Master Forthlight the
tilter, and brave Master Shooty the great traveller, and            15
wild Half-can that stabbed Pots, and, I think, forty more;
all great doers in our trade, and are now 'for the Lord's
sake.'

  _Enter ABHORSON._

_Abhor._ Sirrah, bring Barnardine hither.

_Pom._ Master Barnardine! you must rise and be hanged,              20
Master Barnardine!

_Abhor._ What, ho, Barnardine!

_Bar._ [_Within_] A pox o' your throats! Who makes that
noise there? What are you?

_Pom._ Your friends, sir; the hangman. You must be                  25
so good, sir, to rise and be put to death.

_Bar._ [_Within_] Away, you rogue, away! I am sleepy.

_Abhor._ Tell him he must awake, and that quickly too.

_Pom._ Pray, Master Barnardine, awake till you are
executed, and sleep afterwards.                                     30

_Abhor._ Go in to him, and fetch him out.

_Pom._ He is coming, sir, he is coming; I hear his straw
rustle.

_Abhor._ Is the axe upon the block, sirrah?

_Pom._ Very ready, sir.                                             35

  _Enter BARNARDINE._

_Bar._ How now, Abhorson? what's the news with you?

_Abhor._ Truly, sir, I would desire you to clap into your
prayers; for, look you, the warrant's come.

_Bar._ You rogue, I have been drinking all night; I am
not fitted for 't.                                                  40

_Pom._ O, the better, sir; for he that drinks all night,
and is hanged betimes in the morning, may sleep the
sounder all the next day.

_Abhor._ Look you, sir; here comes your ghostly father:
do we jest now, think you?                                          45

  _Enter DUKE disguised as before._

_Duke._ Sir, induced by my charity, and hearing how
hastily you are to depart, I am come to advise you, comfort
you and pray with you.

_Bar._ Friar, not I: I have been drinking hard all night,
and I will have more time to prepare me, or they shall beat         50
out my brains with billets: I will not consent to die this
day, that's certain.

_Duke._ O, sir, you must: and therefore I beseech you
Look forward on the journey you shall go.

_Bar._ I swear I will not die to-day for any man's persuasion.      55

_Duke._ But hear you.

_Bar._ Not a word: if you have any thing to say to me,
come to my ward; for thence will not I to-day.    [_Exit._

_Duke._ Unfit to live or die: O gravel heart!                       60
After him, fellows; bring him to the block.

    [_Exeunt Abhorson and Pompey._

  _Re-enter PROVOST._

_Prov._ Now, sir, how do you find the prisoner?

_Duke._ A creature unprepared, unmeet for death;
And to transport him in the mind he is
Were damnable.

_Prov._      Here in the prison, father,                            65
There died this morning of a cruel fever
One Ragozine, a most notorious pirate,
A man of Claudio's years; his beard and head
Just of his colour. What if we do omit
This reprobate till he were well inclined;                          70
And satisfy the Deputy with the visage
Of Ragozine, more like to Claudio?

_Duke._ O, 'tis an accident that heaven provides!
Dispatch it presently; the hour draws on
Prefix'd by Angelo: see this be done,                               75
And sent according to command; whiles I
Persuade this rude wretch willingly to die.

_Prov._ This shall be done, good father, presently.
But Barnardine must die this afternoon:
And how shall we continue Claudio,                                  80
To save me from the danger that might come
If he were known alive?

_Duke._               Let this be done.
Put them in secret holds, both Barnardine and Claudio:
Ere twice the sun hath made his journal greeting
To the under generation, you shall find                             85
Your safety manifested.

_Prov._ I am your free dependant.

_Duke._ Quick, dispatch, and send the head to Angelo.

    [_Exit Provost._

Now will I write letters to Angelo,--
The provost, he shall bear them,--whose contents                    90
Shall witness to him I am near at home,
And that, by great injunctions, I am bound
To enter publicly: him I'll desire
To meet me at the consecrated fount,
A league below the city; and from thence,                           95
By cold gradation and well-balanced form,
We shall proceed with Angelo.

  _Re-enter PROVOST._

_Prov._ Here is the head; I'll carry it myself.

_Duke._ Convenient is it. Make a swift return;
For I would commune with you of such things                        100
That want no ear but yours.

_Prov._                   I'll make all speed.    [_Exit._

_Isab._ [_Within_] Peace, ho, be here!

_Duke._ The tongue of Isabel. She's come to know
If yet her brother's pardon be come hither:
But I will keep her ignorant of her good,                          105
To make her heavenly comforts of despair,
When it is least expected.

  _Enter ISABELLA._

_Isab._                  Ho, by your leave!

_Duke._ Good morning to you, fair and gracious daughter.

_Isab._ The better, given me by so holy a man.
Hath yet the Deputy sent my brother's pardon?                      110

_Duke._ He hath released him, Isabel, from the world:
His head is off, and sent to Angelo.

_Isab._ Nay, but it is not so.

_Duke._ It is no other: show your wisdom, daughter,
In your close patience.                                            115

_Isab._ O, I will to him and pluck out his eyes!

_Duke._ You shall not be admitted to his sight.

_Isab._ Unhappy Claudio! wretched Isabel!
Injurious world! most damned Angelo!

_Duke._ This nor hurts him nor profits you a jot;                  120
Forbear it therefore; give your cause to heaven.
Mark what I say, which you shall find
By every syllable a faithful verity:
The Duke comes home to-morrow;--nay, dry your eyes;
One of our covent, and his confessor,                              125
Gives me this instance: already he hath carried
Notice to Escalus and Angelo;
Who do prepare to meet him at the gates,
There to give up their power. If you can, pace your wisdom
In that good path that I would wish it go;                         130
And you shall have your bosom on this wretch,
Grace of the Duke, revenges to your heart,
And general honour.

_Isab._           I am directed by you.

_Duke._ This letter, then, to Friar Peter give;
'Tis that he sent me of the Duke's return:                         135
Say, by this token, I desire his company
At Mariana's house to-night. Her cause and yours
I'll perfect him withal; and he shall bring you
Before the Duke; and to the head of Angelo
Accuse him home and home. For my poor self,                        140
I am combined by a sacred vow,
And shall be absent. Wend you with this letter:
Command these fretting waters from your eyes
With a light heart; trust not my holy order,
If I pervert your course.--Who's here?                             145

  _Enter LUCIO._

_Lucio._ Good even. Friar, where's the provost?

_Duke._ Not within, sir.

_Lucio._ O pretty Isabella, I am pale at mine heart to
see thine eyes so red: thou must be patient. I am fain
to dine and sup with water and bran; I dare not for my             150
head fill my belly; one fruitful meal would set me to't.
But they say the Duke will be here to-morrow. By my
troth, Isabel, I loved thy brother: if the old fantastical
Duke of dark corners had been at home, he had lived.

    [_Exit Isabella._

_Duke._ Sir, the Duke is marvellous little beholding to            155
your reports; but the best is, he lives not in them.

_Lucio._ Friar, thou knowest not the Duke so well as I
do: he's a better woodman than thou takest him for.

_Duke._ Well, you'll answer this one day. Fare ye well.

_Lucio._ Nay, tarry; I'll go along with thee: I can tell           160
thee pretty tales of the Duke.

_Duke._ You have told me too many of him already,
sir, if they be true; if not true, none were enough.

_Lucio._ I was once before him for getting a wench
with child.                                                        165

_Duke._ Did you such a thing?

_Lucio._ Yes, marry, did I: but I was fain to forswear
it; they would else have married me to the rotten medlar.

_Duke._ Sir, your company is fairer than honest. Rest
you well.                                                          170

_Lucio._ By my troth, I'll go with thee to the lane's
end: if bawdy talk offend you, we'll have very little of it.
Nay, friar, I am a kind of burr; I shall stick.    [_Exeunt._


  NOTES: IV, 3.

  SCENE III.] SCENE VIII. Pope.
  5: _paper_] _pepper_ Rowe.
  11: _Dizy_] F2 F3 F4. _Dizie_ F1. _Dizzy_ Pope. _Dicey_ Steevens conj.
  14: _Forthlight_] Ff. _Forthright_ Warburton.
  15: _Shooty_] F2 F3 F4. _Shootie_ F1. _Shooter_ Warburton.
    _Shoo-tye_ Capell.
  17: _are_] _cry_ Anon. conj. See note (XIX).
  _now_] _now in_ Pope.
  25: _friends_] F1 F2. _friend_ F3 F4.
  32: _his_] _the_ Pope.
  49: _I_] om. F4.

    [Transcriber's Note:
    The text does not specify which occurrence of "I" is meant.
    The speech begins "Not I: I have..."]

  57: _hear_] _heave_ F2.
  59: SCENE IX. Pope.
  60: _gravel heart_] _grovelling beast_ Collier MS.
  61: Given by Hanmer to _Prov._
  69: _his_] F1. om. F2 F3 F4.
  _do_] om. Pope.
  76: _whiles_] _while_ Pope.
  83: _both Barnardine and Claudio_] _Claudio and Barnardine_ Hanmer.
    See note (XX).
  85: _the under_] Hanmer. _yond_ Ff. _yonder_ Pope.
  86: _manifested_] _manifest_ Hanmer.
  88: _Quick_] _Quick, then,_ Capell.
  96: _well-_] Rowe. _weale-_ F1 F2 F3. _weal_ F4.
  102: SCENE X. Pope.
  103: _She's come_] _She comes_ Pope.
  106: _comforts_] _comfort_ Hanmer.
  107: _Ho,_] om. Pope.
  113, 114, 115: Ff make two lines ending at _other ... patience._
    Text as proposed by Spedding.
  114, 115: _show ... patience_] _In your close patience, daughter,
    shew your wisdom_ Capell.
  114: _your wisdom_] _wisdom_ Pope.
  115: _close_] _closest_ Pope.
  119: _Injurious_] _perjurious_ Collier MS.
  120: _nor hurts_] _not hurts_ F4. _hurts not_ Rowe.
  122: _say_] _say to you_ Collier MS.
  _find_] _surely find_ Pope.
  124: _nay_] om. Pope.
  125: _covent_] Ff. _convent_ Rowe.
  126: _instance_] _news_ Pope.
  129: _If you can, pace_] Rowe. _If you can pace_ Ff. _Pace_ Pope.
    S. Walker thinks a line is lost after 131.
  129, 130: _If you can pace ... wish it, go,_ Edd. conj.
  137: _to-night_] om. Pope.
  141: _combined_] _confined_ Johnson conj. (withdrawn).
  145: _Who's_] _whose_ F1.
  146: SCENE XI. Pope.
  154: [Exit ISABELLA] Theobald. om. Ff.
  155: _beholding_] Ff. _beholden_ Rowe.
  163: _not true_] _not_ Rowe.
  172: _it_] om. F2.


SCENE IV. _A room in ANGELO'S house._

  _Enter ANGELO and ESCALUS._

_Escal._ Every letter he hath writ hath disvouched other.

_Ang._ In most uneven and distracted manner. His
actions show much like to madness: pray heaven his wisdom
be not tainted! And why meet him at the gates,
and redeliver our authorities there?                                 5

_Escal._ I guess not.

_Ang._ And why should we proclaim it in an hour before
his entering, that if any crave redress of injustice, they
should exhibit their petitions in the street?

_Escal._ He shows his reason for that: to have a dispatch           10
of complaints, and to deliver us from devices hereafter,
which shall then have no power to stand against us.

_Ang._ Well, I beseech you, let it be proclaimed betimes
i' the morn; I'll call you at your house: give notice to such
men of sort and suit as are to meet him.                            15

_Escal._ I shall, sir. Fare you well.

_Ang._ Good night.    [_Exit Escalus._

This deed unshapes me quite, makes me unpregnant,
And dull to all proceedings. A deflower'd maid!
And by an eminent body that enforced                                20
The law against it! But that her tender shame
Will not proclaim against her maiden loss,
How might she tongue me! Yet reason dares her no;
For my authority bears of a credent bulk,
That no particular scandal once can touch                           25
But it confounds the breather. He should have lived,
Save that his riotous youth, with dangerous sense,
Might in the times to come have ta'en revenge,
By so receiving a dishonour'd life
With ransom of such shame. Would yet he had lived!                  30
Alack, when once our grace we have forgot,
Nothing goes right: we would, and we would not.    [_Exit._


  NOTES: IV, 4.

  SCENE IV.] SCENE XII. Pope.
  A room ... house.] Capell. The palace. Rowe.
  2, sqq.: Angelo's speeches in this scene Collier prints as verse.
  5: _redeliver_] Capell. _re-liver_] F1. _deliver_ F2 F3 F4.
  13: A colon is put after _proclaim'd_ by Capell, who prints
    lines 13-16 as verse.
  19: _And_] om. Hanmer.
  23: _dares her no;_] Ff. _dares her:_ Pope. _dares her: no,_ Hanmer.
    _dares her No_ Warburton. _dares her? no:_ Capell.
    _dares her note_ Theobald conj. _dares her not_ Steevens conj.
    _dares her on_ Grant White (Becket conj.).
  _reason ... no_] _treason dares her?--No_ Jackson conj.
  24: _bears of a credent bulk_] F1 F2 F3.
    _bears off a credent bulk_ F4. _bears off all credence_ Pope.
    _bears a credent bulk_ Theobald.
    _bears such a credent bulk_ Collier MS.
    _here's of a credent bulk_ Singer. _bears so credent bulk_ Dyce.
    _bears up a credent bulk_ Grant White.


SCENE V. _Fields without the town._

  _Enter DUKE in his own habit, and FRIAR PETER._

_Duke._ These letters at fit time deliver me:
                                                [_Giving letters._
The provost knows our purpose and our plot.
The matter being afoot, keep your instruction,
And hold you ever to our special drift;
Though sometimes you do blench from this to that,                    5
As cause doth minister. Go call at Flavius' house,
And tell him where I stay: give the like notice
To Valentius, Rowland, and to Crassus,
And bid them bring the trumpets to the gate;
But send me Flavius first.

_Fri. P._           It shall be speeded well.    [_Exit._           10

  _Enter VARRIUS._

_Duke._ I thank thee, Varrius; thou hast made good haste:
Come, we will walk. There's other of our friends
Will greet us here anon, my gentle Varrius.    [_Exeunt._


  NOTES: IV, 5.

  SCENE V.] SCENE XIII. Pope.
  FRIAR PETER] See note (XXI).
  6: _Go_] om. Hanmer.
  _Flavius'_] Rowe. _Flavio's_ Ff.
  8: _To Valentius_] _To Valencius_ Ff. _Unto Valentius_ Pope.
    _To Valentinus_ Capell.


SCENE VI. _Street near the city-gate._

  _Enter ISABELLA and MARIANA._

_Isab._ To speak so indirectly I am loath:
I would say the truth; but to accuse him so,
That is your part: yet I am advised to do it;
He says, to veil full purpose.

_Mari._                      Be ruled by him.

_Isab._ Besides, he tells me that, if peradventure                   5
He speak against me on the adverse side,
I should not think it strange; for 'tis a physic
That's bitter to sweet end.

_Mari._ I would Friar Peter--

_Isab._                     O, peace! the friar is come.

  _Enter FRIAR PETER._

_Fri. P._ Come, I have found you out a stand most fit,              10
Where you may have such vantage on the Duke,
He shall not pass you. Twice have the trumpets sounded;
The generous and gravest citizens
Have hent the gates, and very near upon
The Duke is entering: therefore, hence, away!    [_Exeunt._         15


  NOTES: IV, 6.

  SCENE VI.] SCENE XIV. Pope.
  2: _I would_] _I'd_ Pope.
  3: _I am_] _I'm_ Pope.
  4: _to veil full_] Malone. _to vaile full_ F1 F2 F3.
    _to vail full_ F4. _t' availful_ Theobald. _to 'vailful_ Hanmer.



ACT V.


SCENE I. _The city-gate._

  _MARIANA veiled, ISABELLA, and FRIAR PETER, at their stand. Enter
    DUKE, VARRIUS, LORDS, ANGELO, ESCALUS, LUCIO, PROVOST,
    OFFICERS, and CITIZENS, at several doors._

_Duke._ My very worthy cousin, fairly met!
Our old and faithful friend, we are glad to see you.

_Ang._  } Happy return be to your royal Grace!
_Escal._}

_Duke._ Many and hearty thankings to you both.
We have made inquiry of you; and we hear                             5
Such goodness of your justice, that our soul
Cannot but yield you forth to public thanks,
Forerunning more requital.

_Ang._                   You make my bonds still greater.

_Duke._ O, your desert speaks loud; and I should wrong it,
To lock it in the wards of covert bosom,                            10
When it deserves, with characters of brass,
A forted residence 'gainst the tooth of time
And razure of oblivion. Give me your hand,
And let the subject see, to make them know
That outward courtesies would fain proclaim                         15
Favours that keep within. Come, Escalus;
You must walk by us on our other hand:
And good supporters are you.

  _FRIAR PETER and ISABELLA come forward._

_Fri. P._ Now is your time: speak loud, and kneel before him.

_Isab._ Justice, O royal Duke! Vail your regard                     20
Upon a wrong'd, I would fain have said, a maid!
O worthy prince, dishonour not your eye
By throwing it on any other object
Till you have heard me in my true complaint,
And given me justice, justice, justice, justice!                    25

_Duke._ Relate your wrongs; in what? by whom? be brief.
Here is Lord Angelo shall give you justice:
Reveal yourself to him.

_Isab._               O worthy Duke,
You bid me seek redemption of the devil:
Hear me yourself; for that which I must speak                       30
Must either punish me, not being believed,
Or wring redress from you. Hear me, O hear me, here!

_Ang._ My lord, her wits, I fear me, are not firm:
She hath been a suitor to me for her brother
Cut off by course of justice,--

_Isab._                       By course of justice!                 35

_Ang._ And she will speak most bitterly and strange.

_Isab._ Most strange, but yet most truly, will I speak:
That Angelo's forsworn; is it not strange?
That Angelo's a murderer; is't not strange?
That Angelo is an adulterous thief,                                 40
An hypocrite, a virgin-violator;
Is it not strange and strange?

_Duke._                      Nay, it is ten times strange.

_Isab._ It is not truer he is Angelo
Than this is all as true as it is strange:
Nay, it is ten times true; for truth is truth                       45
To th' end of reckoning.

_Duke._                Away with her!--Poor soul,
She speaks this in th' infirmity of sense.

_Isab._ O prince, I conjure thee, as thou believest
There is another comfort than this world,
That thou neglect me not, with that opinion                         50
That I am touch'd with madness! Make not impossible
That which but seems unlike: 'tis not impossible
But one, the wicked'st caitiff on the ground,
May seem as shy, as grave, as just, as absolute
As Angelo; even so may Angelo,                                      55
In all his dressings, characts, titles, forms,
Be an arch-villain; believe it, royal prince:
If he be less, he's nothing; but he's more,
Had I more name for badness.

_Duke._                    By mine honesty,
If she be mad,--as I believe no other,--                            60
Her madness hath the oddest frame of sense,
Such a dependency of thing on thing,
As e'er I heard in madness.

_Isab._                   O gracious Duke,
Harp not on that; nor do not banish reason
For inequality; but let your reason serve                           65
To make the truth appear where it seems hid,
And hide the false seems true.
_Duke._                    Many that are not mad
Have, sure, more lack of reason. What would you say?

_Isab._ I am the sister of one Claudio,
Condemn'd upon the act of fornication                               70
To lose his head; condemn'd by Angelo:
I, (in probation of a sisterhood,)
Was sent to by my brother; one Lucio
As then the messenger,--

_Lucio._               That's I, an't like your Grace:
I came to her from Claudio, and desired her                         75
To try her gracious fortune with Lord Angelo
For her poor brother's pardon.

_Isab._                      That's he indeed.

_Duke._ You were not bid to speak.

_Lucio._                         No, my good lord;
Nor wish'd to hold my peace.

_Duke._                    I wish you now, then;
Pray you, take note of it: and when you have                        80
A business for yourself, pray heaven you then
Be perfect.

_Lucio._  I warrant your honour.

_Duke._ The warrant's for yourself; take heed to't.

_Isab._ This gentleman told somewhat of my tale,--

_Lucio._ Right.                                                     85

_Duke._ It may be right; but you are i' the wrong
To speak before your time. Proceed.

_Isab._                           I went
To this pernicious caitiff Deputy,--

_Duke._ That's somewhat madly spoken.

_Isab._                             Pardon it;
The phrase is to the matter.                                        90

_Duke._ Mended again. The matter;--proceed.

_Isab._ In brief,--to set the needless process by,
How I persuaded, how I pray'd, and kneel'd,
How he refell'd me, and how I replied,--
For this was of much length,--the vile conclusion                   95
I now begin with grief and shame to utter:
He would not, but by gift of my chaste body
To his concupiscible intemperate lust,
Release my brother; and, after much debatement,
My sisterly remorse confutes mine honour,                          100
And I did yield to him: but the next morn betimes,
His purpose surfeiting, he sends a warrant
For my poor brother's head.

_Duke._                   This is most likely!

_Isab._ O, that it were as like as it is true!

_Duke._ By heaven, fond wretch,
      thou know'st not what thou speak'st,                         105
Or else thou art suborn'd against his honour
In hateful practice. First, his integrity
Stands without blemish. Next, it imports no reason
That with such vehemency he should pursue
Faults proper to himself: if he had so offended,                   110
He would have weigh'd thy brother by himself,
And not have cut him off. Some one hath set you on:
Confess the truth, and say by whose advice
Thou camest here to complain.

_Isab._                      And is this all?
Then, O you blessed ministers above,                               115
Keep me in patience, and with ripen'd time
Unfold the evil which is here wrapt up
In countenance!--Heaven shield your Grace from woe.
As I, thus wrong'd, hence unbelieved go!

_Duke._ I know you'ld fain be gone.--An officer!                   120
To prison with her!--Shall we thus permit
A blasting and a scandalous breath to fall
On him so near us? This needs must be a practice.
Who knew of your intent and coming hither?

_Isab._ One that I would were here, Friar Lodowick.                125

_Duke._ A ghostly father, belike. Who knows that Lodowick?

_Lucio._ My lord, I know him; 'tis a meddling friar;
I do not like the man: had he been lay, my lord,
For certain words he spake against your Grace
In your retirement, I had swinged him soundly.                     130

_Duke._ Words against me! this's a good friar, belike!
And to set on this wretched woman here
Against our substitute! Let this friar be found.

_Lucio._ But yesternight, my lord, she and that friar,
I saw them at the prison: a saucy friar,                           135
A very scurvy fellow.

_Fri. P._ Blessed be your royal Grace!
I have stood by, my lord, and I have heard
Your royal ear abused. First, hath this woman
Most wrongfully accused your substitute,                           140
Who is as free from touch or soil with her
As she from one ungot.

_Duke._              We did believe no less.
Know you that Friar Lodowick that she speaks of?

_Fri. P._ I know him for a man divine and holy;
Not scurvy, nor a temporary meddler,
As he's reported by this gentleman;
And, on my trust, a man that never yet
Did, as he vouches, misreport your Grace.

_Lucio._ My lord, most villanously; believe it.

_Fri. P._ Well, he in time may come to clear himself;              150
But at this instant he is sick, my lord,
Of a strange fever. Upon his mere request,--
Being come to knowledge that there was complaint
Intended 'gainst Lord Angelo,--came I hither,
To speak, as from his mouth, what he doth know                     155
Is true and false; and what he with his oath
And all probation will make up full clear,
Whensoever he's convented. First, for this woman,
To justify this worthy nobleman,
So vulgarly and personally accused,                                160
Her shall you hear disproved to her eyes,
Till she herself confess it.

_Duke._                    Good friar, let's hear it.

[_Isabella is carried off guarded; and Mariana
comes forward._

Do you not smile at this, Lord Angelo?--
O heaven, the vanity of wretched fools!--
Give us some seats. Come, cousin Angelo;                           165
In this I'll be impartial; be you judge
Of your own cause. Is this the witness, friar?
First, let her show her face, and after speak.

_Mari._ Pardon, my lord; I will not show my face
Until my husband bid me.                                           170

_Duke._ What, are you married?

_Mari._ No, my lord.

_Duke._ Are you a maid?

_Mari._ No, my lord.

_Duke._ A widow, then?                                             175

_Mari._ Neither, my lord.

_Duke._ Why, you are nothing, then:--neither maid,
widow, nor wife?

_Lucio._ My lord, she may be a punk; for many of them
are neither maid, widow, nor wife.                                 180

_Duke._ Silence that fellow: I would he had some cause
To prattle for himself.

_Lucio._ Well, my lord.

_Mari._ My lord, I do confess I ne'er was married;
And I confess, besides, I am no maid:                              185
I have known my husband; yet my husband
Knows not that ever he knew me.

_Lucio._ He was drunk, then, my lord: it can be no better.

_Duke._ For the benefit of silence, would thou wert so too!

_Lucio._ Well, my lord.                                            190

_Duke._ This is no witness for Lord Angelo.

_Mari._ Now I come to't, my lord:
She that accuses him of fornication,
In self-same manner doth accuse my husband;
And charges him, my lord, with such a time                         195
When I'll depose I had him in mine arms
With all th' effect of love.

_Ang._ Charges she more than me?

_Mari._                        Not that I know.

_Duke._ No? you say your husband.

_Mari._ Why, just, my lord, and that is Angelo,                    200
Who thinks he knows that he ne'er knew my body,
But knows he thinks that he knows Isabel's.

_Ang._ This is a strange abuse. Let's see thy face.

_Mari._ My husband bids me; now I will unmask.
                                           [_Unveiling._
This is that face, thou cruel Angelo,                              205
Which once thou sworest was worth the looking on;
This is the hand which, with a vow'd contract,
Was fast belock'd in thine; this is the body
That took away the match from Isabel,
And did supply thee at thy garden-house                            210
In her imagined person.

_Duke._               Know you this woman?

_Lucio._ Carnally, she says.

_Duke._                    Sirrah, no more!

_Lucio._ Enough, my lord.

_Ang._ My lord, I must confess I know this woman:
And five years since there was some speech of marriage             215
Betwixt myself and her; which was broke off,
Partly for that her promised proportions
Came short of composition; but in chief,
For that her reputation was disvalued
In levity: since which time of five years                          220
I never spake with her, saw her, nor heard from her,
Upon my faith and honour.

_Mari._                 Noble prince,
As there comes light from heaven and words from breath,
As there is sense in truth and truth in virtue,
I am affianced this man's wife as strongly                         225
As words could make up vows: and, my good lord,
But Tuesday night last gone in's garden-house
He knew me as a wife. As this is true,
Let me in safety raise me from my knees;
Or else for ever be confixed here,                                 230
A marble monument!

_Ang._           I did but smile till now:
Now, good my lord, give me the scope of justice;
My patience here is touch'd. I do perceive
These poor informal women are no more
But instruments of some more mightier member                       235
That sets them on: let me have way, my lord,
To find this practice out.

_Duke._                  Ay, with my heart;
And punish them to your height of pleasure.
Thou foolish friar; and thou pernicious woman,
Compact with her that's gone, think'st thou thy oaths,             240
Though they would swear down each particular saint,
Were testimonies against his worth and credit,
That's seal'd in approbation? You, Lord Escalus,
Sit with my cousin; lend him your kind pains
To find out this abuse, whence 'tis derived.                       245
There is another friar that set them on;
Let him be sent for.

_Fri. P._ Would he were here, my lord! for he, indeed,
Hath set the women on to this complaint:
Your provost knows the place where he abides,                      250
And he may fetch him.

_Duke._             Go do it instantly.    [_Exit Provost._
And you, my noble and well-warranted cousin,
Whom it concerns to hear this matter forth,
Do with your injuries as seems you best,
In any chastisement: I for a while will leave you;                 255
But stir not you till you have well determined
Upon these slanderers.

_Escal._ My lord, we'll do it throughly. [_Exit Duke._]
Signior Lucio, did not you say you knew that Friar Lodowick
to be a dishonest person?                                          260

_Lucio._ 'Cucullus non facit monachum:' honest in
nothing but in his clothes; and one that hath spoke most
villanous speeches of the Duke.

_Escal._ We shall entreat you to abide here till he come,
and enforce them against him: we shall find this friar a           265
notable fellow.

_Lucio._ As any in Vienna, on my word.

_Escal._ Call that same Isabel here once again: I would
speak with her. [_Exit an Attendant._] Pray you, my lord,
give me leave to question; you shall see how I'll handle           270
her.

_Lucio._ Not better than he, by her own report.

_Escal._ Say you?

_Lucio._ Marry, sir, I think, if you handled her privately,
she would sooner confess: perchance, publicly, she'll be           275
ashamed.

_Escal._ I will go darkly to work with her.

_Lucio._ That's the way; for women are light at midnight.

  _Re-enter OFFICERS with ISABELLA; and PROVOST with the DUKE in his
    friar's habit._

_Escal._ Come on, mistress: here's a gentlewoman denies
all that you have said.                                            280

_Lucio._ My lord, here comes the rascal I spoke of; here
with the provost.

_Escal._ In very good time: speak not you to him till
we call upon you.

_Lucio._ Mum.                                                      285

_Escal._ Come, sir: did you set these women on to slander
Lord Angelo? they have confessed you did.

_Duke._ 'Tis false.

_Escal._ How! know you where you are?

_Duke._ Respect to your great place! and let the devil             290
Be sometime honour'd for his burning throne!
Where is the Duke? 'tis he should hear me speak.

_Escal._ The Duke's in us; and we will hear you speak:
Look you speak justly.

_Duke._ Boldly, at least. But, O, poor souls,                      295
Come you to seek the lamb here of the fox?
Good night to your redress! Is the Duke gone?
Then is your cause gone too. The Duke's unjust,
Thus to retort your manifest appeal,
And put your trial in the villain's mouth                          300
Which here you come to accuse.

_Lucio._ This is the rascal; this is he I spoke of.

_Escal._ Why, thou unreverend and unhallow'd friar,
Is't not enough thou hast suborn'd these women
To accuse this worthy man, but, in foul mouth,                     305
And in the witness of his proper ear,
To call him villain? and then to glance from him
To the Duke himself, to tax him with injustice?
Take him hence; to the rack with him! We'll touse you
Joint by joint, but we will know his purpose.                      310
What, 'unjust'!

_Duke._       Be not so hot; the Duke
Dare no more stretch this finger of mine than he
Dare rack his own: his subject am I not,
Nor here provincial. My business in this state
Made me a looker-on here in Vienna,                                315
Where I have seen corruption boil and bubble
Till it o'er-run the stew; laws for all faults,
But faults so countenanced, that the strong statutes
Stand like the forfeits in a barber's shop,
As much in mock as mark.                                           320

_Escal._ Slander to the state! Away with him to prison!

_Ang._ What can you vouch against him, Signior Lucio?
Is this the man that you did tell us of?

_Lucio._ 'Tis he, my lord. Come hither, goodman bald-pate:
do you know me?                                                    325

_Duke._ I remember you, sir, by the sound of your voice:
I met you at the prison, in the absence of the Duke.

_Lucio._ O, did you so? And do you remember what
you said of the Duke?

_Duke._ Most notedly, sir.                                         330

_Lucio._ Do you so, sir? And was the Duke a flesh-monger,
a fool, and a coward, as you then reported him
to be?

_Duke._ You must, sir, change persons with me, ere you
make that my report: you, indeed, spoke so of him; and             335
much more, much worse.

_Lucio._ O thou damnable fellow! Did not I pluck thee
by the nose for thy speeches?

_Duke._ I protest I love the Duke as I love myself.

_Ang._ Hark, how the villain would close now, after his            340
treasonable abuses!

_Escal._ Such a fellow is not to be talked withal. Away
with him to prison! Where is the provost? Away with
him to prison! lay bolts enough upon him: let him speak
no more. Away with those giglets too, and with the other           345
confederate companion!

_Duke._ [_To Provost_] Stay, sir; stay awhile.

_Ang._ What, resists he? Help him, Lucio.

_Lucio._ Come, sir; come, sir; come, sir; foh, sir!
Why, you bald-pated, lying rascal, you must be hooded,             350
must you? Show your knave's visage, with a pox to you!
show your sheep-biting face, and be hanged an hour!
Will't not off?

    [_Pulls off the friar's hood, and discovers the Duke._

_Duke._ Thou art the first knave that e'er madest a Duke.
First, provost, let me bail these gentle three.                    355
[_To Lucio_] Sneak not away, sir; for the friar and you
Must have a word anon. Lay hold on him.

_Lucio._ This may prove worse than hanging.

_Duke._ [_To Escalus_] What you have spoke I pardon: sit you down:
We'll borrow place of him. [_To Angelo_] Sir, by your leave.       360
Hast thou or word, or wit, or impudence,
That yet can do thee office? If thou hast,
Rely upon it till my tale be heard,
And hold no longer out.

_Ang._                O my dread lord,
I should be guiltier than my guiltiness,                           365
To think I can be undiscernible,
When I perceive your Grace, like power divine,
Hath look'd upon my passes. Then, good prince,
No longer session hold upon my shame,
But let my trial be mine own confession:                           370
Immediate sentence then, and sequent death,
Is all the grace I beg.

_Duke._               Come hither, Mariana.
Say, wast thou e'er contracted to this woman?

_Ang._ I was, my lord.

_Duke._ Go take her hence, and marry her instantly.                375
Do you the office, friar; which consummate,
Return him here again. Go with him, provost.

    [_Exeunt Angelo, Mariana, Friar Peter and Provost._

_Escal._ My lord, I am more amazed at his dishonour
Than at the strangeness of it.

_Duke._                      Come hither, Isabel.
Your friar is now your prince: as I was then                       380
Advertising and holy to your business,
Not changing heart with habit, I am still
Attorney'd at your service.

_Isab._                   O, give me pardon,
That I, your vassal, have employ'd and pain'd
Your unknown sovereignty!

_Duke._                 You are pardon'd, Isabel:                  385
And now, dear maid, be you as free to us.
Your brother's death, I know, sits at your heart;
And you may marvel why I obscured myself,
Labouring to save his life, and would not rather
Make rash remonstrance of my hidden power                          390
Than let him so be lost. O most kind maid,
It was the swift celerity of his death,
Which I did think with slower foot came on,
That brain'd my purpose. But, peace be with him!
That life is better life, past fearing death,                      395
Than that which lives to fear: make it your comfort,
So happy is your brother.

_Isab._                 I do, my lord.

  _Re-enter ANGELO, MARIANA, FRIAR PETER, and PROVOST._

_Duke._ For this new-married man, approaching here,
Whose salt imagination yet hath wrong'd
Your well-defended honour, you must pardon                         400
For Mariana's sake: but as he adjudged your brother,--
Being criminal, in double violation
Of sacred chastity, and of promise-breach
Thereon dependent, for your brother's life,--
The very mercy of the law cries out                                405
Most audible, even from his proper tongue,
'An Angelo for Claudio, death for death!'
Haste still pays haste, and leisure answers leisure;
Like doth quit like, and MEASURE still FOR MEASURE.
Then, Angelo, thy fault's thus manifested;                         410
Which, though thou wouldst deny, denies thee vantage.
We do condemn thee to the very block
Where Claudio stoop'd to death, and with like haste.
Away with him!

_Mari._      O my most gracious lord,
I hope you will not mock me with a husband.                        415

_Duke._ It is your husband mock'd you with a husband.
Consenting to the safeguard of your honour,
I thought your marriage fit; else imputation,
For that he knew you, might reproach your life,
And choke your good to come: for his possessions,                  420
Although by confiscation they are ours,
We do instate and widow you withal,
To buy you a better husband.

_Mari._                    O my dear lord,
I crave no other, nor no better man.

_Duke._ Never crave him; we are definitive.                        425

_Mari._ Gentle my liege,--    [_Kneeling._

_Duke._                  You do but lose your labour.
Away with him to death! [_To Lucio_] Now, sir, to you.

_Mari._ O my good lord! Sweet Isabel, take my part;
Lend me your knees, and all my life to come
I'll lend you all my life to do you service.                       430

_Duke._ Against all sense you do importune her:
Should she kneel down in mercy of this fact,
Her brother's ghost his paved bed would break,
And take her hence in horror.

_Mari._                     Isabel,
Sweet Isabel, do yet but kneel by me;                              435
Hold up your hands, say nothing,--I'll speak all.
They say, best men are moulded out of faults;
And, for the most, become much more the better
For being a little bad: so may my husband.
O Isabel, will you not lend a knee?                                440

_Duke._ He dies for Claudio's death.

_Isab._                            Most bounteous sir, [_Kneeling._
Look, if it please you, on this man condemn'd,
As if my brother lived: I partly think
A due sincerity govern'd his deeds,
Till he did look on me: since it is so,                            445
Let him not die. My brother had but justice,
In that he did the thing for which he died:
For Angelo,
His act did not o'ertake his bad intent;
And must be buried but as an intent                                450
That perish'd by the way: thoughts are no subjects;
Intents, but merely thoughts.

_Mari._                     Merely, my lord.

_Duke._ Your suit's unprofitable; stand up, I say.
I have bethought me of another fault.
Provost, how came it Claudio was beheaded                          455
At an unusual hour?

_Prov._           It was commanded so.

_Duke._ Had you a special warrant for the deed?

_Prov._ No, my good lord; it was by private message.

_Duke._ For which I do discharge you of your office:
Give up your keys.

_Prov._          Pardon me, noble lord:                            460
I thought it was a fault, but knew it not;
Yet did repent me, after more advice:
For testimony whereof, one in the prison,
That should by private order else have died,
I have reserved alive.

_Duke._              What's he?

_Prov._                       His name is Barnardine.              465

_Duke._ I would thou hadst done so by Claudio.
Go fetch him hither; let me look upon him. [_Exit Provost._

_Escal._ I am sorry, one so learned and so wise
As you, Lord Angelo, have still appear'd,
Should slip so grossly, both in the heat of blood,                 470
And lack of temper'd judgment afterward.

_Ang._ I am sorry that such sorrow I procure:
And so deep sticks it in my penitent heart,
That I crave death more willingly than mercy;
'Tis my deserving, and I do entreat it.                            475

  _Re-enter PROVOST, with BARNARDINE, CLAUDIO muffled, and JULIET._

_Duke._ Which is that Barnardine?

_Prov._                         This, my lord.

_Duke._ There was a friar told me of this man.
Sirrah, thou art said to have a stubborn soul,
That apprehends no further than this world,
And squarest thy life according. Thou'rt condemn'd:                480
But, for those earthly faults, I quit them all;
And pray thee take this mercy to provide
For better times to come. Friar, advise him;
I leave him to your hand. What muffled fellow's that?

_Prov._ This is another prisoner that I saved,                     485
Who should have died when Claudio lost his head;
As like almost to Claudio as himself.    [_Unmuffles Claudio._

_Duke._ [_To Isabella_] If he be like your brother, for his sake
Is he pardon'd; and, for your lovely sake,
Give me your hand, and say you will be mine,                       490
He is my brother too: but fitter time for that.
By this Lord Angelo perceives he's safe;
Methinks I see a quickening in his eye.
Well, Angelo, your evil quits you well:
Look that you love your wife; her worth worth yours.               495
I find an apt remission in myself;
And yet here's one in place I cannot pardon.
[_To Lucio_] You, sirrah, that knew me for a fool, a coward,
One all of luxury, an ass, a madman;
Wherein have I so deserved of you,                                 500
That you extol me thus?

_Lucio._ 'Faith, my lord, I spoke it but according to the
trick. If you will hang me for it, you may; but I had
rather it would please you I might be whipt.

_Duke._ Whipt first, sir, and hang'd after.                        505
Proclaim it, provost, round about the city,
Is any woman wrong'd by this lewd fellow,
As I have heard him swear himself there's one
Whom he begot with child, let her appear,
And he shall marry her: the nuptial finish'd,                      510
Let him be whipt and hang'd.

_Lucio._ I beseech your highness, do not marry me to a
whore. Your highness said even now, I made you a Duke:
good my lord, do not recompense me in making me a
cuckold.                                                           515

_Duke._ Upon mine honour, thou shalt marry her.
Thy slanders I forgive; and therewithal
Remit thy other forfeits.--Take him to prison;
And see our pleasure herein executed.

_Lucio._ Marrying a punk, my lord, is pressing to death,           520
whipping, and hanging.

_Duke._ Slandering a prince deserves it.

    [_Exeunt Officers with Lucio._

She, Claudio, that you wrong'd, look you restore.
Joy to you, Mariana! Love her, Angelo:
I have confess'd her, and I know her virtue.                       525
Thanks, good friend Escalus, for thy much goodness:
There's more behind that is more gratulate.
Thanks, provost, for thy care and secrecy:
We shall employ thee in a worthier place.
Forgive him, Angelo, that brought you home                         530
The head of Ragozine for Claudio's:
The offence pardons itself. Dear Isabel,
I have a motion much imports your good;
Whereto if you'll a willing ear incline,
What's mine is yours, and what is yours is mine.                   535
So, bring us to our palace; where we'll show
What's yet behind, that's meet you all should know.

    [_Exeunt._


  NOTES: V, 1.

  The city-gate] Capell. The street. Rowe.
    A public place near the city. Warburton.
    Capell adds: A State with chairs under it.
  MARIANA ... stand.] Capell. om. Ff.
  PROVOST, OFFICERS] Malone. om. Ff.
  4: _thankings_] F1. _thankings be_ F2 F3. _thinkings be_ F4.
    _thanks be_ Pope.
  5: _We have_] _We've_ Pope.
  9: _wrong it_] F1. _wrong_ F2 F3 F4.
  13: _me_] F3 F4. _we_ F1 F2.
  14: _subject_] _subjects_ Theobald.
  19: SCENE II. Pope.
  ... come forward.] Capell. Enter ... Ff.
  21: _I would_] _I'd_ Pope.
  25: _given_] _give_ F4.
  26: Printed as two lines in Ff, ending _wrongs ... brief._
  32: Two lines in Ff, ending _you ... heere._
  _Hear me, O hear me, here!_] F3 F4.
    _Heare me: oh heare me, heere_ F1 F2. _O hear me here._ Pope.
    _O, hear me, hear me!_ Theobald.
  35: _By_] om. Pope.
  36: _and strange_] F1. om. F2 F3 F4. _and strangely_ Collier MS.
  37: _strange, but yet_] _strangely yet_ Collier MS.
  42: _it is_] om. Pope.
  47: _infirmity_] _infirmiry_ F4.
  48: _O prince, I conjure thee,_] _O, I conjure thee, Prince,_ Pope.
    _O prince, I do conjure thee,_ Capell.
  54, 55: _as absolute As_] F4. _as absolute: As_ F1 F2 F3.
  57: _believe it_] _trust me_ Pope.
  63: _e'er_] _ne'er_ Capell conj.
  _O_] om. Pope.
  64: _nor_] _and_ Pope.
  65: _inequality_] _incredulity_ Collier MS.
  65, 66: _serve To make the truth_] _Serve to make truth_ Pope.
  67: _And hide_] _Not hide_ Theobald (Warburton). _And hid,_ Phelps.
  67: _that are_] om. Hanmer.
  68: Two lines in Ff, ending _reason ... say?_
  73: _Lucio_] _Lucio being_ Hanmer.
  74: _As_] _Was_ Johnson.
  82: _your honour_] _your honour, sir_ Hanmer.
  83: _take heed_] _be sure, take heed_ Hanmer.
  _to't_] _to it_ Capell.
  84: _somewhat_] F1. _something_ F2 F3 F4.
  91: _Mended_] _Mend it_ Malone conj.
  _The matter;_] _The matter then;_ Hanmer. om. Capell.
    _The matter? now_ Collier MS.
  92: _process_] F1. om. F2 F3 F4.
  94: _refell'd_] _repell'd_ Pope.
  98: _concupiscible_] _concupiscent_ Pope.
  99: _and_] om. Pope.
  101: _but the_] om. Pope.
  102: _surfeiting_] Theobald. _surfetting_ F1 F2 F3. _forfeiting_ F4.
  107: _First_] om. Pope.
  108: _Next_] om. Pope.
  109: _vehemency_] _vehemence_ Pope.
  110-113: Hanmer ends the lines _so ... by ... one ... say._
  111: _He would_] _he'd_ Hanmer.
  123: _needs_] om. Pope.
  124: _your_] _our_ Pope.
  131: _this 's_] _this'_ F1 F2 F3. _this_ F4. _this is_ Rowe.
    See note (XXII).
  137: _Blessed_] _Bless'd_ Hanmer.
  _royal_] om. Hanmer.
  142, 143: Hanmer ends the lines _believe ... Lodowick._
  143: _that she speaks of_] F1. _which she speaks of_ F2 F3 F4.
    om. Hanmer.
  145: _temporary_] _tamperer and_ Johnson conj.
  147: _trust_] _truth_ Collier MS. _troth_ Singer.
  149: _villanously;_] _villanously he did;_ Hanmer.
  152: _strange_] _strong_ S. Walker conj.
  154: _'gainst_] F1. _against_ F2 F3 F4.
  156: _what he with_] _he upon_ Pope.
  157: _And_] _By_ Pope.
  158: _Whensoever he's convented_] _Whenever he's conven'd_ Pope.
    _Whenever he's convented_ Warburton.
  162: [Isabella, &c.] Stage direction to this effect inserted here
    by Capell. Hanmer, &c. to Johnson place it after line 166,
    where Ff have: Enter Mariana.
  166: _I'll be impartial_] _I will be partial_ Theobald.
  168: SCENE III. Pope.
  _her face_] F2 F3 F4. _your face_ F1.
  170-178: Printed as four verses by Steevens (Capell conj.).
  175: _A widow_] _Widow_ Capell.
  177: _Why_] _What_ Capell.
  _you are_] F1. _are you_ F2 F3 F4.
  186, 167: _husband Knows not_] Ff. _husband knows not_ Pope.
  195: _with such a time_] _with such, a time_ Edd. conj.
  199: _No?_ om. Hanmer.
  202: _he knows_] _he knew_ Hanmer.
  213: _my lord_] om. Hanmer.
  221: _with her, saw her, nor_] _with, saw, or_ Hanmer.
  234: _informal_] _informing_ Hanmer.
  235: _mightier_] _mighty_ Pope.
  238: _to_] _unto_ Pope. _even to_ Capell.
  242: _against_] F1. _gainst_ F2. _'gainst_ F3 F4.
  251: _Go_] om. Pope.
  255-257: _while ... you; But ... determined Upon_] Spedding conj.
    _while Will ... have Well determin'd upon_ Ff.
    _while Will ... well Determined upon_ Theobald.
    _while Will ... have Determin'd well upon_ Hanmer.
  258: SCENE IV. Pope.
  275: _would_] F1. _should_ F2 F3 F4.
  _she'll_] F1 F2 F3. _she'ld_ F4. _she'd_ Rowe.
  278: Re-enter ...] Enter Duke, Provost, Isabella. Ff (after line 276).
  289: Malone supposes a line preceding this to be lost.
  290: _and_] _then_ Collier MS.
  295: _at least_] _at least I'll speak_ Hanmer.
  296: _fox?_] F2 F3 F4. _fox;_ F1. _fox,_ Dyce.
  299: _retort_] _reject_ Collier MS.
  305: _in_] _with_ Theobald.
  307-311: Capell ends the lines: _villain? ... himself ... hence;
    ... by joint, ... unjust?_
  307: _to glance_] _glance_ Pope.
  309: _you_] _him_ Malone conj.
  310: _Joint by joint_] _Even joint by joint_] Hanmer.
  _his_] _this_ Hanmer. _your_ Collier MS.
  311: _What,_] _What? He_ Hanmer.
  311, 312: _the duke Dare no more_] Capell. _the duke dare No more_ Ff.
  311-313: Pope ends the lines: _stretch ... own ... not._
  319: _forfeits_] _forceps_ Jackson conj.
  321: Two lines in Ff.
  340: _close_] _gloze_ Collier MS.
  345: _giglets_] _giglots_ Capell.
  347: [To Provost] Capell.
  352: _hanged an hour!_] _hanged! an hour?_ Hanmer.
    _hanged--an' how?_ Johnson conj. _hanged anon!_ Lloyd conj.
  353: Stage direction inserted by Rowe.
  354: _madest_] _mad'st_ Ff. _made_ Capell.
  373: _e'er_] _ere_] F1. _ever_ F2 F3 F4. om. Hanmer, who divides
    the lines: _Come ... thou Contracted ... lord._
  378: SCENE V. Pope.
  379: _of it._] _of--_ Capell.
  381: _and_] _all_ Hanmer.
  390: _remonstrance_] _demonstrance_ Staunton (Malone conj.).
  391: _so be_] F1 F2 F3. _be so_ F4.
  394: _brain'd_] _bain'd_ Warburton.
  _But_] _But now_ Hanmer.
  398: SCENE VI. Pope.
  400: _pardon_] _pardon him_ Hanmer.
  401: _he adjudged your brother_] _a judge_ Hanmer.
  402: _Being criminal, in double violation_]
    _Being doubly criminal in violation_ Hanmer.
  403: _of promise-breach_] _in promise-breach_ Hanmer.
    _of promise_ Malone conj.
  410: _fault's thus manifested;_] Ff. _faults are manifested;_ Rowe.
    _faults are manifest;_ Hanmer. _fault thus manifested--_ Dyce.
  411: _deny, denies_] _deny 'em, deny_ Hanmer.
  413: _haste._] _haste,_ F4.
  421: _confiscation_] F2 F3 F4. _confutation_ F1.
  422: _withal_] F4. _with all_ F1. _withall_ F2 F3.
  426: [Kneeling.] Johnson.
  441: [Kneeling.] Rowe.
  452: _but_] om. Hanmer, who ends lines 448-452 at _o'ertake ...
    but ... way ... thoughts._
  456: _It was commanded so_] _'Twas so commanded_ Hanmer.
  465: _What's he?_] _And what is he?_ Hanmer. See note (XX).
  466: _would_] F1. _wouldst_ F2 F3 F4. _wish_ Capell (corrected
    in MS. to _would_).
  470: _the heat_] _heat_ Pope.
  476: SCENE VII. Pope.
  muffled] om. Ff. C. behind, and J. both muffl'd up. Capell.
  _my lord_] _my good lord_ Hanmer.
  480: _according_] _accordingly_ F4.
  482: _And_] F1. _I_ F2 F3 F4.
  484: _your hand_] _you_ Hanmer.
  489: _Is he pardon'd_] _He's pardoned_ Hanmer.
    _Is he too pardon'd_ Capell.
  490: _and say you will_] _say you'll_ Hanmer.
  491: _He is_] _And he's_ Hanmer, ending the line here.
  495: _her worth worth yours_] _her worth works yours_ Hanmer.
    _her worth's worth yours_ Heath conj.
  500: _so deserved_] _deserved so_ Pope. _so well deserv'd_
    Collier MS. _so undeserv'd_ S. Walker conj.
  507: _Is any woman_] Edd. _If any woman_ Ff. _If any woman's_ Hanmer.
  519: _executed_] _execute_ Hanmer.
  522: [Exeunt ... Lucio] Dyce.
  527-532: Johnson conjectures: Ang. _The offence pardons itself._ Duke.
    _There's more behind That is more gratulate. Dear Isabel, ..._
  537: _that's_] F2 F3 F4. _that_ F1.



NOTES.


NOTE I.

I. 1. 8, 9. The suggestion that a line has been lost in this place came
first from Theobald. It is scarcely necessary to say that there is no
mark of omission in the Folios. Malone supposes that a similar omission
has been made II. 4. 123. The compositor's eye (he says) may have
glanced from 'succeed' to 'weakness' in a subsequent hemistich.

In order to relieve the plethoric foot-note we set down in this place
some conjectures for which we are indebted to Mr Halliwell's note on the
passage.

  (1)             _Then no more remains
      To your sufficiency as your worth is able
      But that you let than work._
                              Wheler MS.

  (2)    _But task to your sufficience ..._
                              Dent. MS.

  (3)    _But that your sufficiency as your worth be able ..._
                              Monck Mason.

  (4)             _Then no more remains:
      To your sufficiency your worth be added,
      And let them work._
                              T. Hull's MS. Commentary.

  (5)    _... I let them work._
                              Chalmers.

The reading assigned in the foot-note to Steevens is found in a note to
the Edition of 1778. He afterwards changed his mind.


NOTE II.

I. 2. 15. Hanmer's reading is recommended by the fact that in the old
forms of 'graces' used in many colleges, and, as we are informed, at the
Inns of Court, the prayer for peace comes always after, and never
before, meat. But as the mistake may easily have been made by
Shakespeare, or else deliberately put into the mouth of the 'First
Gentleman,' we have not altered the text.


NOTE III.

I. 2. 22-26. In the remainder of this scene Hanmer and other Editors
have made capricious changes in the distribution of the dialogue, which
we have not thought it worth while to chronicle. It is impossible to
discern any difference of character in the three speakers, or to
introduce logical sequence into their buffoonery.


NOTE IV.

I. 2. 110. We retain here the stage direction of the Folio, '_Enter ...
Juliet, &c._' for the preceding line makes it evident that she was on
the stage. On the other hand, line 140 shows that she was not within
hearing, nor near Claudio while he spoke. We may suppose that she was
following at a distance behind, in her anxiety for the fate of her
lover. She appears again as a mute personage at the end of the play.


NOTE V.

I. 2. 115, 116. Johnson in the first Edition, 1765, says, 'I suspect
that a line is lost.' This note was omitted in the Edition of 1778.


NOTE VI.

I. 4. 70. 'To soften Angelo: and that's my pith of business.' We have
left this line as it is printed in the Folios. There is a line of
similar length and rhythm in _The Two Gentlemen of Verona_, IV. 2. 16.

  'But here comes Thurio: now must we to her window.'


NOTE VII.

II. 2. 149. A writer, 'A. E. B.' in _Notes and Queries_ (Vol. V. p. 325)
points out that in Wickliffe's bible, 'shekels' is spelt 'sickles,'
which he says ought, therefore, to be retained. There is no doubt of the
meaning; but we, in accordance with our custom, have modernized the
spelling.


NOTE VIII.

II. 2. 155-161. The printing in the Folios gives no help towards the
metrical arrangement of these and other broken lines. In the present
case we might read:

  '_Ang._ Well, come to me to-morrow.

  _Luc._                            Go to: 'tis well;
          Away!

  _Isab._     Heaven keep your honour safe!

  _Ang._                                  Amen:
          For I, &c.'

Or, considering the first two lines as prose, we might read the last:

  '_Isab._ Heaven keep your honour safe!

  _Ang._                               Amen: for I
           Am that way going to temptation
           Where prayers cross.'


NOTE IX.

II. 4. 9. 'fear'd.' Mr Collier, in _Notes and Queries_, Vol. VIII. p.
361, mentions that in Lord Ellesmere's copy of the First Folio the
reading is 'sear'd.'


NOTE X.

II. 4. 94. 'all-building.' 'Mr Theobald has _binding_ in one of his
copies.' Johnson.


NOTE XI.

II. 4. 103. 'That longing have been sick for.' Delius says in his note
on this passage, 'Das _I_ vor _have_ lässt sich nach Shaksperischer
Licenz leicht suppliren.' The second person singular of the governing
pronoun is frequently omitted by Shakespeare in familiar questions, but,
as to the first and third persons, his usage rarely differs from the
modern. If the text be genuine, we have an instance in this play of the
omission of the third person singular I. 4. 72, 'Has censured him.' See
also the early Quarto of the _Merry Wives of Windsor_, Sc. XIV. l. 40,
p. 285 of our reprint:

  'Ile cloath my daughter, and aduertise _Slender_
  To know her by that signe, and steale her thence,
  And vnknowne to my wife, shall marrie her.'


NOTE XII.

II. 4. 111-113. Mr Sidney Walker adopts Steevens' emendation, and
affirms that among all the metrical licenses used by Shakespeare, the
omission of the final syllable of the line is not one. But if the
reading of the first Folio be allowed to stand, we can find many
instances of lines which want the final syllable. The line immediately
preceding may be so scanned:

  'Ignomy in ransom and free pardon.'

And in this same scene, line 143, we have

  'And you tell me that he shall die for't.'

And in V. 1. 83:

  'The warrant's for yourself; take heed to't.'

It is conceivable that 'mercy' may be pronounced as a trisyllable; but
in all the undoubted examples of such a metrical license, the liquid is
the second of the two consonants, not the first. See, however, S.
Walker's _Shakespeare's Versification_, pp. 207 sqq.

Possibly a word may have dropt out, and the original passage may have
stood thus:

  'Ignomy in ransom and free pardon are
  Of two _opposed_ houses: lawful mercy
  Is nothing kin to foul redemption.'


NOTE XIII.

III. 1. 29. Mr Collier's copy of the second Folio has 'sire.' _Notes and
Queries_, Vol. VI. p. 141.


NOTE XIV.

III. 1. 56, 57. The metrical arrangement is uncertain here. It is not
probable that the last word of the Duke's speech, 'concealed,' should be
the first of a line which would be interrupted by his exit. Perhaps,
too, the true reading of the following line may have been:

  'As comforts all are good, most good indeed.'


NOTE XV.

III. 1. 91, 94. The word 'prenzie,' occurring, as it does, twice in this
passage, rests on such strong authority that it is better to seek to
explain than to alter it. It may be etymologically connected with
'prin,' in old French, meaning 'demure;' also with 'princox,' a
'coxcomb,' and with the word 'prender,' which occurs more than once in
Skelton: e.g.

  'This pevysh proud, this prender gest,
  When he is well, yet can he not rest.'

Mr Bullock mentions, in support of his conjecture, that 'pensie' is
still used in some north-country dialects. 'Primsie' is also found in
Burns' poems with the signification of 'demure, precise,' according to
the glossary.


NOTE XVI.

III. 1. 118. Johnson says the most plausible conjecture is 'benighted.'
It does not appear by whom this conjecture was made.


NOTE XVII.

III. 1. 168. We must suppose that Claudio, as he is going out, stops to
speak with his sister at the back of the stage within sight of the
audience.


NOTE XVIII.

IV. 2. 91. This is a case in which we have thought it best to make an
exception to our usual rule of modernizing the spelling. The metre
requires 'Haply' to be pronounced as a trisyllable. Perhaps it would be
well to retain the spelling of the first two Folios 'Happely,' and as a
general rule it would be convenient if an obsolete spelling were
retained in words used with an obsolete meaning. We have, however,
abstained from introducing on our own authority this, or any other
innovation in orthography. In IV. 3. 126, we have retained 'covent,'
which had grown to be a distinct word from 'convent,' and differently
pronounced. Shakespeare's ear would hardly have tolerated the
harsh-sounding line

  'One of our cónvent and his cónfessor.'


NOTE XIX.

IV. 3. 17. The reading 'cry' (i.e. 'crie') for 'are' was suggested by a
passage in Nashe's _Apologie for Pierce Pennilesse_, 1693, quoted by
Malone: 'At that time that thy joys were in the _fleeting_, and thus
_crying_ 'for the Lord's sake' out at an iron window.'


NOTE XX.

IV. 3. 83. In order to avoid the unmetrical line 83, as given in the
Folios and by all Editors to Johnson inclusive, the lines 82-85 have
been arranged as five, thus:

  _If ... Let ... In secret ... Ere ...     To the under_ ... Capell.
  _If ... Let ... Both ...      The sun ... The under_ ...    Steevens.
  _If ... Let ... Both ...      Ere ...     To yonder_ ...    Collier.
  _If ... Let ... Both ...      The sun ... To yond_ ...      Singer.

Perhaps the best arrangement, because requiring the least change from
the printing of the Folio, would be to put the words 'And Claudio' in a
line by themselves. Many examples of such a broken line in the middle of
a speech may be found (e.g. V. 1. 448), and it would add to the emphasis
with which the Duke commends Claudio to the Provost's care. The long
line V. 1. 465, might be similarly reduced by reading

               'His name
  Is Barnardine.'


NOTE XXI.

IV. 5. 1. Mr Spedding suggests that Act V. should begin here. Dr Johnson
says: "This play has two Friars, either of whom might singly have
served. I should therefore imagine that 'Friar Thomas,' in the first
Act, might be changed without any harm to 'Friar Peter:' for why should
the Duke unnecessarily trust two in an affair which required only one?
The name of Friar Thomas is never mentioned in the dialogue, and
therefore seems arbitrarily placed at the head of the scene."


NOTE XXII.

V. 1. 131. Mr Sidney Walker, in his _Shakespeare's Versification_, pp.
80 sqq. suggests that in this and other passages we should read
'_this_,' because '_This is_ is not unfrequently, like _That is_, &c.
contracted into a monosyllable.' For the reason assigned in Note (III)
to _The Tempest_, I. 2. 173, we have preferred the more familiar
spelling _this's_.

       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *

Sources:

The editors' Preface (e-text 23041) discusses the 17th- and
18th-century editions in detail; the newer (19th-century) editions
are simply listed by name. The following editions may appear in the
Notes. All inset text is quoted from the Preface.

  Folios:
  F1 1623; F2 (no date given); F3 1663; F4 1685.
    "The five plays contained in this volume occur in the first Folio
    in the same order, and ... were there printed for the first time."

  Early editions:
  Rowe 1709
  Pope 1715
    "Pope was the first to indicate the _place_ of each new scene;
    as, for instance, _Tempest_, I. 1. 'On a ship at sea.' He also
    subdivided the scenes as given by the Folios and Rowe, making
    a fresh scene whenever a new character entered--an arrangement
    followed by Hanmer, Warburton, and Johnson. For convenience of
    reference to these editions, we have always recorded the
    commencement of Pope's scenes."
  Theobald 1733
  Hanmer ("Oxford edition") 1744
  Warburton 1747
  Johnson 1765
  Capell 1768; _also Capell's annotated copy of F2_
  Steevens 1773
  Malone 1790
  Reed 1803

  Later editions:
  Singer, Knight, Cornwall, Collier, Phelps, Halliwell, Dyce, Staunton

       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *

Errata

In Act III, Scene 1, the overlapping line numbers are as in the
original. The two lines called 75 occur before and after a page break.

Pope's scenes I.VI and II.VII are not identified in the textual notes.

  II. 2. 149 note: ... See note (VII).
  II. 2. 157 note: ... See note (VIII).
    [_Endnote references VII, VIII reversed_]
  IV. 2. 37-42 note:  [_All asterisks are in the original._]
  V. 1. 131 note: ...See note (XXII)  [_Text has (XXI)._]

  Note XII. ... 'The warrant's for yourself; take heed to't.'
    [_close quote missing_]





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