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Title: Your Plants - Plain and Practical Directions for the Treatment of Tender - and Hardy Plants in the House and in the Garden
Author: Sheehan, James
Language: English
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Literature in Agriculture (CHLA), Cornell University)



  YOUR PLANTS.

  PLAIN AND PRACTICAL DIRECTIONS
  FOR THE TREATMENT OF
  TENDER AND HARDY PLANTS
  IN THE
  HOUSE AND IN THE GARDEN.


  BY
  JAMES SHEEHAN.


  NEW YORK:
  ORANGE JUDD COMPANY,
  1919

  Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1884, by the
  ORANGE JUDD COMPANY,
  In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.


       *       *       *       *       *


  CONTENTS.


                                                                   PAGE.

  CHAPTER I.
  How to Make a Lawn                                                   7

  CHAPTER II.
  Soil for Potting--Artificial Fertilizers                            10

  CHAPTER III.
  Selecting and Sowing Seeds                                          12

  CHAPTER IV.
  Making and Planting Flower Beds                                     14

  CHAPTER V.
  Watering Plants--Is Cold Water Injurious?                           16

  CHAPTER VI.
  Atmosphere and Temperature.--Insects                                19

  CHAPTER VII.
  Wintering Plants in Cellars                                         21

  CHAPTER VIII.
  The Law of Color in Flowers                                         22

  CHAPTER IX.
  The Relation of Plants to Health                                    23

  CHAPTER X.
  Layering                                                            25

  CHAPTER XI.
  Propagation of Plants from Cuttings                                 26

  CHAPTER XII.
  Grafting                                                            29

  CHAPTER XIII.
  Hanging Baskets, Wardian Cases and Jardinieres                      31

  CHAPTER XIV.
  Aquatics--Water Lilies                                              35

  CHAPTER XV.
  Hardy Climbing Vines.--Ivies                                        37

  CHAPTER XVI.
  Annual Flowering Plants--Pansy Culture                              39

  CHAPTER XVII.
  Fall or Holland Bulbs                                               42

  CHAPTER XVIII.
  Tropical Bulbs.--Tuberoses                                          44

  CHAPTER XIX.
  Roses, Cultivation, and Propagating                                 46

  CHAPTER XX.
  Japan and other Lilies.--Calla Lilies                               50

  CHAPTER XXI.
  Geraniums, the Best Twelve Sorts                                    53

  CHAPTER XXII.
  Azaleas; How to Cultivate Them                                      53

  CHAPTER XXIII.
  Camellias.--Orange and Lemon Trees                                  55

  CHAPTER XXIV.
  Fuchsias, Training and Management                                   57

  CHAPTER XXV.
  Cactuses--Night Blooming Cereus.--Rex Begonias                      59

  CHAPTER XXVI.
  Rockeries--How to Make Them                                         62

  CHAPTER XXVII.
  Budding                                                             64

  CHAPTER XXVIII.
  Pruning                                                             68

  CHAPTER XXIX.
  Miscellaneous Notes                                                 72

  CHAPTER XXX.
  Sentiment and Language of Flowers                                   76



INTRODUCTION.


In the winter of the year 1880, while the author was in attendance upon
a large horticultural meeting in a neighboring city, which was attended
by nearly all the leading florists and nurserymen in Western New York,
the idea of writing this work was first suggested to him.

An intelligent lady, present at that meeting, widely known for her skill
and success as an amateur florist, in conversation with the writer made
the following remarks: "I have in my library at least a dozen different
works on floriculture, some of them costly, all of which I have read
over and over again, often having to pore over a large volume of almost
useless matter, in order to find information on some points I was
looking for.

"It has occurred to me that some one ought to write a work on flowers,
for the use of amateurs, that would contain in a brief space all the
requisite information ordinarily needed by those who cultivate flowers
in and about their homes. I predict that such a work could not fail to
meet and merit a general demand."

In writing this little volume, I have earnestly endeavored to carry out,
as near as I could, the above suggestions. How far I have succeeded in
accomplishing this end, my readers must judge.

I trust that "Your Plants" will be useful and instructive in the field
it was designed to occupy--that of a help to amateurs in the successful
cultivation of plants and flowers in the house and garden.

   JAMES SHEEHAN.
  _Geneva, N. Y., October, 1884._



YOUR PLANTS.



CHAPTER I.

HOW TO MAKE A LAWN.


A smooth lawn is a great attraction of itself, even if there is not a
tree or shrub upon it. When it is once made, a lawn is easily kept in
order, yet we seldom see a good one. There are three things to be taken
into consideration in securing a fine lawn. First, location; Second,
quality of the soil; Third, the kinds of seed to be sown.


LOCATION.

This is the most important matter relating to a good lawn. In selecting
a site upon which to build, not the least consideration should be the
possibility of having a fine lawn, one that will cost as little as
possible to keep in a nice and attractive condition. The nearer level
the land is, the better. If a house is built on an elevation back from
the road, a sloping lawn has a good effect. Where the land is rolling
and hilly, it should be graded into successive terraces, which, though
rather expensive, will look well. Low lands should be avoided as much as
possible in selecting a site on which it is intended to make a good
lawn. Low land can be improved by thorough under-drainage. If the land
is wet on which we design making a lawn, we should first thoroughly
underdrain it by laying tiles two rods apart, and two feet below the
surface. Large-growing trees should never be planted on the lawn, grass
will not thrive under them. Fruit trees, like the apple, cherry, and
peach, are exceedingly out of place on a fine lawn. The finest yard we
ever saw had not a tree on it that exceeded ten feet in hight. Flowering
shrubs, low-growing evergreens, a few weeping and deciduous trees of
moderate size, with flower-beds neatly planted, make an attractive
door-yard.


SOIL.

This is the mother of all vegetation. Nothing, not even grass, will
flourish on a poor soil. The quality of the soil varies in different
localities. We often find a fine sward on a stiff clay soil, and also on
a light gravelly one. The soil best adapted to the growth of a good
sward, is a sandy loam with a gravelly bottom. In making new lawns,
there is sometimes more or less grading to be done, and often where a
knoll has been cut off the sub-soil is exposed, and it will not do to
sow the seed upon these patches until the spots have been thoroughly
covered with manure which is to be worked in. If a new lawn of any
extent is to be made, it should first be plowed deep, and if uneven and
hilly, grade it to a level surface. The surface should have a heavy
dressing of manure, which should be lightly plowed under, and then the
surface should be dragged several times until fine, and then rolled with
a heavy roller. The seed may now be sown, after which it should be
rolled again. The spring is the best time to do this work, although if
the fall be dry, it will answer nearly as well to do it at that time.
The dryer the ground in preparing it for the seed, and for the sowing of
the same, the better. In preparing a small plot of ground for a lawn,
the spade, hand-rake, and small roller may be used in place of the
larger implements.


SEED.

Much difficulty is often experienced in obtaining a good mixture of
grass seed for the lawn, and different mixtures are recommended and sold
for sowing lawns, some of which are entirely worthless. Great pains
should be taken to have nothing but first-class seeds, which should be
obtained direct of some responsible dealer. The finest sward we ever saw
was made from the following mixture:

  10 quarts Rhode Island Bent-grass.
   4   "    White Clover.
   8   "    Kentucky Blue-grass.
   6   "    Red-top Grass.

Sow at the rate of six bushels to the acre. Grass seed can be sown in
the fall any time from the first of October to the first of December. If
the seed be sound, a good sward may be expected the following summer,
and a good turf may be expected from spring sown seeds if the season is
not too dry. The dryer the ground is when the seeds are sown, the
better. To keep the lawn in a flourishing condition, fresh and green all
summer, it will need a top-dressing of well-rotted manure applied in the
fall, at least once every two years. Grass roots derive their
nourishment close to the surface, hence the great advantage of
top-dressing. In some localities where the frost "heaves" the sod to any
extent during the winter, it will be advantageous to roll it down in the
spring with a heavy roller, doing it just after a heavy rain. When the
ground is soft and pliable, this will make the surface smooth, and in
proper condition for the lawn-mower to pass over it.

Frequent mowing will thicken the sward. It is not necessary to sow oats,
as some do, to shade the ground until the seeds have started, that is an
"old fogy" notion, and is now obsolete.



CHAPTER II.

SOIL FOR POTTING.--ARTIFICIAL FERTILIZERS.


Good, fresh, rich soil, is an element that is indispensable to the
growth of healthy, vigorous plants. A plant cannot be thrifty if grown
in soil that has become musty and stale with long continued use; it must
have fresh soil, at least once a year.

Perhaps the best soil for general potting purposes, and the kind most
extensively used by florists, is a mixture of equal parts of decayed
sods, and well-rotted stable manure, and occasionally, especially if the
sod is clayey, a little sand is added. The sods for this purpose may be
obtained from along the road-side, almost anywhere, while good stable
manure is always readily obtainable. Select some out-of-the-way place in
the lot, or garden, and gather the sods in quantity proportioned to the
amount of potting to be done. Lay down a course of the sods, and on top
of this, an equal course of well-rotted manure, and so on, alternately,
until the heap is finished; the last layer being sod. This heap should
be turned over carefully, two or three times a year, breaking up the
sods finely with a spade, or fork. The whole mass will become thoroughly
mixed, rotted, and fit for use in a year from the time the heap was
made. For those who have a large number of plants, we think it will pay
to adopt this method of preparing soil for them, instead of purchasing
it of the florist at twenty-five cents or more per bushel. Some florists
sport a great variety of different soils, which are used in the growing
of plants of different natures, requiring, as they claim, particular
kinds of soil.

Whatever of truth, if any, there is in this view, it has never been
demonstrated to our mind. All kinds of plants have a common requirement
in respect to soil, and the differences in growth of various species is
attributable to climate and other causes than that of soil. At least
that has been our experience.


ARTIFICIAL FERTILIZERS.

This question is frequently asked! Do you recommend the use of
artificial fertilizers for house plants, and does it benefit them? I
invariably answer yes, if used judiciously. The use of good special
fertilizers will help the growth of some kinds of plants, which, without
such aid, would scarcely meet our expectations. The term artificial
fertilizers, applies to all manurial applications, save those produced
by domestic animals.

I have always believed, however, that when any fertilizer is needed,
good, well-rotted stable-manure should have the preference over all
artificial fertilizers. Where this manure cannot be readily obtained, or
used conveniently, then special fertilizers can be employed as
substitutes with good results. In applying manure in the liquid form to
plants, use an ounce of guano to every gallon of water, and apply it to
those plants that are in a healthy growing condition, about once every
two weeks. It is a mistake to try to stimulate into growth, by the use
of fertilizers, those plants which give every indication of being sickly
or stunted; they will make such a plant sicker, if they do not kill it
outright. If guano is used in potting soil, it should be in the
proportion of one pound to every bushel of soil.



CHAPTER III.

SELECTING AND SOWING SEEDS.


All individuals of the vegetable world are so created as to reproduce
themselves from seed or its equivalent. Every plant that grows seems to
possess the power to perpetuate its kind. All kinds of flowering plants
can be grown from the seed, providing good, sound seeds are obtained,
and they are placed under the proper influences to make them germinate
and grow.

The amateur cultivator has many difficulties to contend with in raising
plants from seed. Some times it is difficult to obtain pure, sound
seeds, but these should always be secured if possible, taking great
pains in selecting varieties, and in obtaining them of some reliable
dealer. If we sow seeds, and they fail to germinate, our first thought
is to censure the dealer or raiser of the seed for lack of integrity in
his business, while in reality the fault may be our own, and due to
careless sowing.

Those who raise seed for the market take great pains to produce none but
good, sound seeds, and in nine cases out of ten, where seeds fail to
germinate and grow, the fault is with those who sow them, and not on
account of poor quality of seed. This we know from experience.

Three things are absolutely essential in the sowing of seeds, in order
to have that success which we all desire to attain:

First; care should be taken to obtain fresh, pure seeds, without which
all our after work with them will be in vain.

Second; the soil in which to sow them should be a fine, mellow loam,
free from stones and other coarse materials.

Thirdly; sowing the seed. The general custom is to sow in drills. The
depth at which seeds should be sown must of course be regulated
according to their fineness, or coarseness.

Seeds that are exceptionally fine, like those of Lobelias, Petunias,
Ferns, and other very tiny seeds, ought never to be covered deeper than
the sixteenth of an inch, with very fine soil sifted on them through a
fine sieve; the soil should then be lightly patted down with the back of
a shovel. This will prevent the seeds from shriveling before they start
to germinate.

Seeds like those of the Pansy, Verbena, etc., require a covering of a
quarter to a half inch of soil, while those like the Nasturtium,
Ricinus, etc., may be covered to the depth of an inch.

The regular florist has facilities for raising plants from seed that
most amateurs do not possess, but we will give a few suggestions that
will enable those who desire to start their own plants, to do it
successfully by the aid of the directions here given.

A cheap and simple method is, to take four plain boards, of an equal
length, say three feet long, and ten inches deep, and nail together to
form a square frame. Then place this frame upon a bed of rich soil,
prepared for the purpose in some sheltered, warm spot. The bed should be
just wide enough to be enclosed within the frame. Within this enclosure
sow your seeds, and cover with a glass sash. Seeds can be started in
March in this frame, and afford plants for setting out in April and May.

A bank of earth, or manure, may be thrown around the outside of the
frame to keep it snug and warm. After sowing the seed in this frame,
shade it for four or five days by placing a cloth over the sash, this
will prevent too much heat and light until the seeds have commenced to
germinate, after which it can be removed without injury.



CHAPTER IV.

MAKING AND PLANTING FLOWER-BEDS.


People of the present day can scarcely be contented with tall, waving
timothy in the front door-yard, and the rickety board-fence that
enclosed a scene of almost primitive rusticity--the state of things in
our "forefathers' days."

In place of the timothy growing to hay in the front yard, we now see
fine, smoothly-cut lawns of refreshing greenness; and fences of pickets,
wire, and rustic iron, have supplanted the ancient board fences. In
place of the tall-growing Sunflower and Hollyhock that sprung up here
and there at random, we now see beds of choice and beautiful flowers
artistically arranged and carefully cultivated by loving hands.

All is system now about the door-yard and premises, where once were
neglect and confusion.

Every home should have one or more beds planted with attractive flowers.
It would be a difficult matter to give specific instructions as to
planting these beds, as every one has his own peculiar tastes in such
matters, which is sometimes governed by surroundings, locality, etc.

There are some general rules however, observed by gardeners in planting
flower-beds that it would be well to observe.

The following notes on planting flower-beds were handed us some time
ago. We do not know the name of the writer, but have strong reason to
believe them to be from the pen of the late James Vick.

"There are a great variety of opinions as regards the most effective way
of planting flower-beds. Some prefer to mix plants of different colors
and varieties, others prefer the ribbon-style of planting, now so
generally in use in Europe. If the promiscuous style is adopted, care
should be taken to dispose the plants in the beds, so that the tallest
will be at the back of the bed; if the leader is against a wall or
background of shrubbery, the others should graduate to the front,
according to the hight. In open beds, on the lawn, the tallest plants
should be in the centre, the others grading down to the front, on all
sides, interspersing the colors so as to form the most effective
contrast in shades.

"But for grand effect, nothing, in our estimation, can ever be obtained
in promiscuous planting, to equal that resulting from planting in
masses, or ribbon lines. In Europe lawns are cut so as to resemble rich,
green velvet; on these the flower-beds are laid out in every style one
can conceive of; some are planted in masses of blue, yellow, crimson,
white, etc., separate beds of each harmoniously blended on the carpeting
of green.

"Then again, the ribbon-style is used in large beds, in forms so various
that allusion can here be made to only a few of the most conspicuous. In
a circular bed, say twenty feet in diameter, the bordering can be made
of blue Lobelia, attaining a hight of six inches; next plant Mrs.
Pollock Geranium, or Bijou Zonal Geraniums, growing about nine inches
high. If you plant Mrs. Pollock, on the next row to it plant Mountain of
Snow (silvered-leaved geranium), next a circle of Red Achyranthes; there
are several varieties of this plant. Next Centaurea candidissima (Dusty
Miller); the centre being a mound of Scarlet Salvias.

"Narrow beds along the margins of walks can be formed of low-growing
plants, such as the White Lobelia, Gypsophila, or Silvered Alyssum, for
the front line, followed next by the Tom Thumb Tropæolum; then as a
centre, or third line, Fuchsia Golden Fleece; as a second margined-line
on the other side, Silver-leaved Geraniums with scarlet flowers,
followed by a line of blue Lobelia.

"Shaded stars have a fine effect on a lawn; cut a star and plant it with
either Verbenas, Petunias, Phlox Drummondii, or Portulaca. The ends of
the stars should be white, and shaded to the centre."

A whole volume might be written on the subject of gardening, without
exhausting its variety or interest, but we take it for granted that our
readers will exercise their own tastes, or call on some competent
gardener to give advice in the premises.



CHAPTER V.

WATERING PLANTS.--IS COLD WATER INJURIOUS?


Probably the most important matter to be observed in growing
house-plants is that of watering them. The cultivator should know just
when to water, and to give it where it will do the most good. Amateur
florists often exhibit much poor judgment in watering. It is the habit
of some to keep the soil about their plants constantly soaked with
water, and they wonder why they are not thrifty or healthy. These
cultivators do not stop to consider that such treatment is unnatural,
and will have an effect contrary to what is desired. There are those who
resort to the opposite extreme, and keep their plants all the time in a
perishing condition of dryness, which is even worse than if they were
watered to death. If we will observe how judiciously Nature distributes
the sunshine and shadow, the periodical rains, and the refreshing dews,
we will learn an important lesson. A pot, or other receptacle in which
plants are grown, should be porous; glazed, or painted pots, ought never
to be used, where plain, unglazed pots can be obtained; all non-porous
pots of tin and similar material, should be discarded. Plants growing
in them can never compare in health with those that have the advantage
of plain porous pots. There should be a hole of sufficient size in the
bottom of each pot, to allow the water to drain off, and to pass away as
soon as possible. Placing a few pieces of broken crocks, or charcoal, in
the bottom of the pots will facilitate a rapid drainage, as good
drainage is essential to the growth of strong, and healthy plants. When
plants require water, it will be indicated by a light, dry appearance of
the top of the soil, and if watered when in this condition, it will do
the most good. Give water only when in this condition, and then
copiously, giving them all they will soak up at the time, then withhold
water until the same indication of their want of it again appears, then
apply it freely. Unless plants are in a very dry atmosphere, as in a
warm parlor in winter, they will seldom require watering. In summer they
should be closely watched, and if exposed to wind and sun, they will
require daily watering, to keep them in a flourishing state. When plants
are suffering from drouth, it will be indicated by the drooping of the
leaves, and they will frequently turn yellow, and drop off prematurely;
this can be avoided by timely attention each day.

In summer, watering in the cool of the evening will be followed by the
best results, for it will give the plants time to take up and assimilate
the moisture necessary to their life, and being completely charged with
water, they will be prepared for the hot sun and drying winds of the
following day.


IS COLD WATER INJURIOUS TO PLANTS?

Those who study works on horticulture by different writers, will
discover many opposing views in respect to the modes of caring for, and
the treatment of plants. The proper temperature for water when applied
to plants, has been frequently discussed by different writers; some
contend that cool water, just drawn from a well or cistern, should never
be showered upon plants, but that it should first be heated to the
temperature of the room in which the plants are standing. Others, with
equal zeal, claim that cold water will not injure the plants in the
least, contending that the water will assume the right temperature
before injury is done the plant. Now which is right? We have
experimented in this matter to a considerable extent, in order to
satisfy ourselves as to which of these two views is correct. In the
month of December I took from my collection twelve large geraniums and
placed them by themselves in the conservatory; six of these I watered
with cold water, drawn from a hydrant pipe at the temperature of 45°,
and the other six were supplied with water from a barrel standing in the
conservatory, and was of the same temperature of the house, that is from
60° to 80°. The plants watered with the cold water gave little if any
bloom throughout the winter, while the six watered from the barrel grew
finely, and bloomed profusely.

Always water your plants in winter time with lukewarm water, if you
would have a profusion of flowers, and thrifty-growing plants. The water
should be of the same temperature as the room or place where the plants
are. There is no theory about it, it is a practical fact, all talk to
the contrary notwithstanding.



CHAPTER VI.

ATMOSPHERE AND TEMPERATURE.--INSECTS.


The proper regulation of the atmosphere as to moisture and temperature,
is one of the most important points to be observed in cultivating plants
in the parlor, or window-garden. Plants will not flourish, bloom, and be
healthy, in a dry, dusty atmosphere, even though the best of care
otherwise may be bestowed upon them; hence it is that those who attempt
to raise plants in their dwellings meet with so little success. There is
an immense contrast between the atmosphere of a well regulated
green-house and that of an ordinary dwelling. In the green-house, the
atmosphere is moist and well-tempered to the healthful growth of plants;
while that of the parlor or sitting-room is invariably dry and dusty,
and plants will not flourish in it as they would in the conservatory. If
the dwelling be heated by coal, there is more or less gas constantly
discharged into the air of the room, which is of itself enough to
destroy vegetation, or make it sickly. Houses heated by steam, are
better adapted to the cultivation of plants.

All plants will not flourish in the common temperature of a living-room;
some require a low temperature, and others need a warmer one. The
following plants require a temperature of from 70° to 80° in the
day-time, and 55° to 60° at night Begonias, Coleuses, Calceolarias,
Bouvardias, Ferns (tropical), Hibiscuses, Poinsettias, Tuberoses,
Heliotropes, Crotons, Hoyas, Cactuses, all kinds, Caladiums, Cannas,
Palms, Orange and Lemon Trees, Geraniums, etc.

The following will do well in an atmosphere ranging from 50° to 60° by
day, and 40° to 45° by night: Camellias, Azaleas, Oleanders, Roses,
Carnations, Callas, Ivies, Abutilons, Jessamines, Holland-bulbs,
Lily-of-the-Valley, Primroses, Violets, Verbenas, Chrysanthemums, etc.
Plants will flourish better in the kitchen, where the steam and moisture
from cooking are constantly arising, and tempering the atmosphere, than
in a dry, dusty sitting-room; hence it is that we find "Bridget"
sometimes cultivating a few plants in her kitchen window, that are
envied by the mistress of the house, because they are so much finer than
those in her parlor or sitting-room.

If a pan of water is set upon a stove in a room where plants are
growing, it will help to materially relieve the dryness of the
atmosphere. But most all kinds of house-plants will do fairly in a
uniform temperature, from 70° by day to 55° by night. Careful
observation of the habits and requirements of different kinds of plants,
as they come under our care, will greatly assist the cultivator, and in
a short time he will be so conversant with their various habits as to
know just how to properly treat each and every plant in his collection.


INSECTS UPON PLANTS.

The little green insects so frequently seen on house-plants, are called
aphis (plural aphides), plant-lice, or green-fly. They feed upon the
tender growth of plants, especially the new leaves, and will rapidly sap
and destroy the life of any plant if allowed to remain undisturbed. In
the spring these insects abound in great numbers on the plants in
green-houses and parlors, or wherever they may be growing, and the
remedy should be promptly applied. The greatest enemy to the green-fly
is tobacco smoke, made by burning the stems, the refuse of the
cigar-maker's shops; allowing the smoke to circulate among the leaves to
which the insects are attached, will readily exterminate them. Place the
infested plant under a barrel, an ordinary cracker barrel will do, and
put under it a pan of burning tobacco, slightly moistened with water.
Leave the plant in the smoke for fifteen or twenty minutes, after which
remove it. If one "smoking" fails to destroy the insects, repeat the
dose three or four times, once each day, until they are completely
exterminated.

A strong solution, or "tea," made from soaking tobacco stems in water,
and syringing the same over the plants, will effectually destroy the
little pests, and not injure the plant in the operation.



CHAPTER VII.

WINTERING PLANTS IN CELLARS.


Many plants, such as Agaves (Century Plants), Oleanders, large Cactuses,
etc., that have grown too large to be accommodated in the sitting-room
or conservatory; can be successfully wintered in any moderately dry,
frost-proof cellar. After placing these large plants in the cellar, it
will not be necessary to give them any water, the object being to keep
them dormant all winter, which can be done by keeping the soil as dry as
possible, but not so dry as to allow the plants to shrivel, or become
withered. Large plants of the kinds mentioned, often form desirable
ornaments during the summer time, but it is impracticable, in most
cases, to bring them into the house in winter, but they can be kept for
years by cellaring through the winter as stated. Large Geraniums, Salvia
and Heliotrope roots, and even Tea Roses, and Carnations, can be kept
moderately well in the cellar by trenching them in dry, or moderately
moist sand. Thus many choice specimens of these plants that we are loth
to pull up and threw away when winter approaches, can be successfully
kept over until the next season. It is a needless expense to purchase a
stock of new plants for the garden every year, when we can winter many
of the old ones in this simple and inexpensive manner. The leaves of all
deciduous plants should be removed before they are put away in this
manner. The foliage should remain on the Oleanders and Carnations.



CHAPTER VIII.

THE LAW OF COLOR IN FLOWERS.


The public are so often duped by a set of travelling frauds, who make it
their business to represent themselves as being the sole proprietor or
agent of some "wonderful" kinds of plants, bulbs, or seeds, which
possess the virtue of being remarkably distinct from anything ever seen
or heard of before, that many over-credulous ladies or gentlemen fall
victims to the unprincipled sharks. Did you ever see any one who could
sell rose bushes that would certainly bear blue roses, or plants of the
Verbena that produce yellow blossoms, or Tuberose bulbs bearing scarlet
flowers? If you have not, you have something to learn, and many have
paid dearly for experiences of this kind.

There is a natural law of color in flowers, that the varieties of a
species invariably present a certain range of colors. To attempt to
introduce a new and distinct color, as for example a blue rose, into a
family where the colors are always white, red, and yellow, is an
impossibility, and any one who claims to do this, may be set down as a
swindler.

Much credit is due Mr. Peter Henderson, an eminent florist and seedsman
of New York City, for the vigorous methods employed by him in exposing
frauds of this kind, whenever his attention has been called to them. We
quote from an article written by Mr. Henderson on this subject, some
years ago: "It has long been known among the best observers of such
matters, that in certain families of plants, particular colors prevail,
and that in no single instance can we ever expect to see blue, yellow,
and scarlet colors in varieties of the same species. If any one at all
conversant with plants, will bring any family of them to mind, it will
at once be seen how undeviating is this law. In the Dahlia we have
scarlet and yellow, but no approach to the blue, so in the Rose,
Hollyhock, etc. Again in the Verbena and Salvia, we have scarlet and
blue, but no yellow. If we reflect, it will be seen that there is
nothing out of the order of nature in this arrangement; why then should
we expect nature to step outside of what seems to be her fixed laws, and
give us a blue rose, etc." A word to the wise, we take it, is sufficient
in view of the foregoing facts.



CHAPTER IX.

THE RELATION OF PLANTS TO HEALTH.


Plants at present are more generally cultivated in-doors than formerly,
and they may be seen in almost every home. The cultivation of plants in
dwellings is decidedly a modern custom--at least to the extent to which
it is now practised. One who now contemplates building a dwelling house,
plans to have included with the other conveniences of a first-class
home, a suitable window for house plants. As the cultivation of plants
in dwelling houses increases, the question is raised by some: "Are not
plants injurious to health, if growing in the apartments in which we
live and sleep?" We know of persons who would not sleep in a room in
which a number of plants were growing, giving as the reason that the
amount of carbonic acid gas given off by the plants, is detrimental to
health. Now this view is either true or it is not true. We have made a
particular study of this matter, and speak from experience. Over ten
years of my life had been spent in the green-house, among all kinds of
plants; I have frequently slept all night among them, and I have never
observed it to be in any way detrimental to my health, but, on the
contrary, I have never felt better than when among plants. Gardeners, as
a class, those who have spent their lives among plants, show, so far as
we have observed, a longevity equal to, if not exceeding that of any
other class who are engaged in any of the vocations usually regarded as
healthy. We must admit, however, that we have never known of a case of
chronic rheumatism to be benefited in the least by working in
hot-houses, on account of the perpetual dampness of the air. On the
other hand, we know of a number of persons afflicted with various other
diseases, who have been noticeably benefited by working among plants:
perhaps it was owing to the health-giving bodily exercise required by
the work, rather than the supposed health-giving effects of the plants
themselves; we think the result was due to both. An eminent physician
cites a case in which his sister, aged fifty years, was afflicted with
tubercular consumption, her death, as the natural result of such a
terrible disease being expected at any time, but being an ardent lover
of plants and flowers, she was daily accustomed to move among her
plants, of which she possessed a large number, in her sleeping room as
well as many others in beds outside. Her friends reproved her for
sleeping in the same room with her plants; but the years came and went,
and she was still found moving among her flowers in her eightieth year,
surviving those, who many years before predicted her immediate demise,
as the result of her imprudence. Who will say but what the exhalation
from her numerous plants increasing the humidity of the atmosphere in
which she lived, prolonged her life? The above is but one of many cases,
in which tubercular consumption has been arrested and sometimes wholly
cured by the sanitary effects produced by working among plants for a
considerable time. We know of cases in which druggists, ministers, and
students from school, compelled to relinquish their chosen vocations on
account of failing health, have resorted to the nursery or hot-house. In
almost every case restoration to vigorous health was the result.

We contend, therefore, that this old superstition that house plants are
injurious to health, is nothing but a myth. The amount of carbonic acid
gas at night discharged from two dozen large plants, will not equal that
exhaled by one infant sleeper, as has been demonstrated by scientific
men. Because a few old cronies stick to the absurdity that "plants are
awful sickenin' things," it is no reason why sensible people should be
at all alarmed by it.



CHAPTER X.

LAYERING.


Layering is a simple method by which plants may be multiplied. Moss
Roses, nearly all kinds of hardy vines, like the Wistaria, Clematis,
Honeysuckle, Ivy, and many others, are easily multiplied in this manner,
together with most of our hardy shrubs. Many of our tenderer plants like
Chrysanthemums, Verbenas, Heliotropes, etc., layer finely, by first
bending the branches down to the ground, and partially covering them
with sand or soil. Pots may be plunged in the ground so that the limbs
will not require to be bent much in layering them. In layering
hard-wooded plants like the Rose or Clematis, it is customary to cut a
slight gash on the underside of each limb to be laid down, just cutting
inside of the bark; this will arrest the flow of sap, and new roots will
form at this point. Where vines are layered, such as the Grape, a simple
twisting of the vine until the bark is cracked, will answer in place of
cutting, and we believe it is just as well. It should be understood,
however, that in layering, the entire shoot is not to be covered; a good
portion of the tip of the shoot should be in sight, and only the middle
of the branch be under ground, and securely fastened down by means of a
peg. All layering should be done while the wood is young; just ripe
enough to bend without snapping off, and all hardy vines and shrubs are
in condition to layer from the first to the middle of June. For tender
plants any month during the summer will answer for the operation. Most
tender plants will root in a month or six weeks. Examine the layers in
the fall, and if rooted, remove them; if not, they should remain
undisturbed for another season.



CHAPTER XI.

PROPAGATION OF PLANTS FROM CUTTINGS.


In the propagation of plants from cuttings or otherwise, the amateur,
with limited facilities, of course cannot compete with the trained and
experienced propagator, who makes the rearing of plants his business,
devoting his whole attention to that special branch. Many men have
devoted the greater part of a lifetime to experiment and study, as to
the best and most practicable methods for the successful propagation of
plants. There are, however, common and ordinary methods for propagating
plants from cuttings, that the most inexperienced can practice with a
measure of success. All florists root their cuttings in sand, and that
obtained from the beach of some fresh water lake is the best for the
purpose, being free from gravel and clay, and will not hold water long.
If lake sand cannot be easily obtained, common building sand will answer
by thoroughly washing it with several waters to free it from clay, etc.
I can recommend to the reader no more simple and practical method of
propagating plants on a small scale, than the following, from the pen of
an experienced florist, which expresses my own views exactly:

     "Take a pan, or dish, at least three inches deep--the circumference
     of which may be as large as you wish, fill to within one half inch
     of the top with sand. The cuttings are to be inserted in the sand,
     which is made very wet, of the consistency of mud. The pan should
     then be placed on the window case, where it will receive the full
     light of the sun, which will not injure the cuttings in the least,
     providing the sand is kept constantly wet, being careful to never
     allow it to become dry for a moment, otherwise the plants will be
     lost.

     "'Is there no drainage from the pan necessary?' none, the
     atmosphere will evaporate the water fast enough to prevent any
     stagnation during the brief time required for the cuttings to take
     root."

Success in propagating in this way, depends altogether upon keeping the
sand wet like mud until the cuttings in it are "struck" or rooted, and
this may be easily determined--with the hand gently try to lift the
cutting, you will know if it is rooted by the hold maintained on the
sand, if not, it will come out. A little experience in feeling with the
hand in this way, will enable you to readily determine whether the
cutting is rooted or not.

I have no doubt that the following table, which I have carefully
prepared from my own extensive experience in regard to length of time
required by different plants to take root from cuttings, will be of
interest to all who desire to propagate plants in this manner. I am
supposing now, in the following table, that all the conditions and
facilities are such as are generally found in a first-class propagating
house, with bottom heat, etc.:

                                             _Days._
  Ageratums                                   6 to 8
  Amaranthus                                  6 "  8
  Alyssum                                    10 " 12
  Abutilon                                   12 " 15
  Azalea                                     60 " 90
  Begonias                                   12 " 15
  Bouvardias                                 20 " 30
  Clematis                                   30 " 40
  Carnations                                 20 " 30
  Cuphea (cigar plant)                        6 "  8
  Chrysanthemums                             12 " 15
  Centaurea                                  30 " 40
  Coleus (all kinds)                          6 "  8
  Dahlias                                    15 " 20
  Eupatoriums                                15 " 20
  Echeverias                                 30 " 40
  Geraniums                                  12 " 15
  Hibiscus                                   20 " 30
  Heliotrope                                 12 " 15
  Lobelia                                    12 " 15
  Lantanas                                   12 " 15
  Lavender                                   20 " 30
  Mignonette                                 15 " 20
  Myosotis                                   12 " 20
  Nasturtium                                 10 " 12
  Primroses                                  30 " 40
  Pyrethrums                                 15 " 20
  Poinsettia                                 30 " 40
  Petunias                                   20 " 30
  Roses                                      30 " 40
  Oleander                                   30 " 40
  Verbenas                                    6 "  8
  Vinca                                      12 " 15

All hardy shrubs, taken when the wood is green and young, may be
propagated in like manner. The summer is the time to take off the wood
for such cuttings.



CHAPTER XII.

GRAFTING.


Grafting is a simple art, that both old and young should become
acquainted with and be able to perform. In my garden there had stood,
for a number of years, away in a corner by itself, a wild apple tree,
which had sprung up from the seed; it always bore fruit, but of a
worthless character, so sour and insipid that even the swine refused to
devour it when it was thrown to them. I became tired of seeing this
tree, and resolved to change its nature. I went to work, being a
nurseryman, and procured cions of ten or a dozen different sorts of
apple trees, and took the first favorable opportunity in the spring to
graft my old and useless apple tree. When I had finished grafting, I
found that I had inserted here and there on the different branches,
fifty cions, all of which, with the exception of three, lived, grew,
bore fruit, each "after its own kind," Baldwins, Greenings,
Gravensteins, Spitzenbergs, etc., and it is now the most desirable tree
in the garden; I completely transformed the nature of the tree. Any one
who understands grafting can do the same thing. Apple, Pear, Plum, and
Cherry trees can be successfully top-grafted in the manner spoken of
above, and the month of April is the best time to perform the operation.
The outfit necessary to perform the operation of grafting is a small
hand-saw, a hatchet, a wedge, grafting-knife, and wax to cover the
wound.

If the tree be a large one, and you wish to change the sort entirely,
begin by sawing off all those limbs that, being removed, will leave
enough to graft upon, and not spoil the symmetry of the tree. With the
hand-saw saw off the limbs to be grafted about midway, then with the
hatchet or wedge, cleave an opening in the remaining end of the limb,
and entirely across, and deep enough to receive the cion; insert an iron
in the cut to hold it open until the cion is placed, then withdraw the
iron, and the graft will be held fast.

The cions to be inserted should be cut before ascending the tree to
graft, and, together with the wax, can be carried in a small basket for
the purpose. If the diameter of the limb to be grafted is more than an
inch, it is best to insert two grafts, placed so that each cion will
stand near the edge of the cut, in juxtaposition with the bark of the
limb. Immediately after setting the graft, plaster the cut over with a
heavy coat of wax, being careful to leave no crack or crevice open
through which it would be possible for air or water to enter. Each cion,
in wedge-grafting, is cut in the shape of a wedge; the whole cion need
not be over three to four inches in length. The following is a good
receipe for making grafting-wax: One and a half pound of bees-wax, six
pounds of resin, and one and a half pound rough beef tallow; put all
into a pot, and boil one half hour, keeping it stirred; pour it out into
a tub of cold water, and when it is sufficiently stiff it should be
gathered into balls. When wanted for use the balls should be laid in
warm water, which will readily soften the wax; work the wax with the
hands thoroughly before using. Wedge-grafting is by no means the only
way to graft, although it is about the only method of grafting large
trees. There are from ten to twenty other modes of grafting, the
difference being in the manner of cutting the cion, and in fitting it to
the stock. To go into detail in regard to them would occupy too much
space in these limited pages. Any one, with a little practice, can learn
to cut a cion, and to graft with success.



CHAPTER XIII.

HANGING BASKETS.--WARDIAN CASES AND JARDINIERES.


Hanging Baskets for plants are made of different materials, and in a
great variety of forms. Some are made of wire, others of clay, and
ornamented with fancy mouldings, etc. Very pretty baskets in rustic
style are made by covering the outside of a wooden bowl with fantastic
knots and roots; this makes a pleasing basket, but we know of none so
desirable as the old style semi-globular wire basket, when properly
filled.


DIRECTIONS FOR FILLING HANGING BASKETS.

To fill a wire basket, first obtain some of the green moss to be found
on the lower portion of the trunks of trees in almost any shady piece of
woods. This is to be used as a lining to the basket, turning the green
side out, and entirely covering the inside of the wire form with the
moss. Before filling the basket with soil, place a handful of charcoal
or gravel in the bottom, which will hold the moisture. Fill the basket
with rich, loose loam, such as will not harden by frequent waterings.

Plants that are peculiarly suitable for hanging baskets are quite
numerous, and from them a selection may be made that will please the
most exacting taste.

It is a mistake to crowd too many plants into a basket, if they grow
they will soon become root-bound, stunted, and look sickly. If the
hanging basket be of the ordinary size, one large and choice plant
placed in the centre with a few graceful vines to droop over the edges,
will have a better effect when established and growing, than if it were
crowded with plants at the time of filling. Hanging baskets being
constantly suspended, they are exposed to draughts of air from all
sides, and the soil is soon dried out, hence careful watching is
necessary in order to prevent the contents from becoming too dry. If the
moss appears to be dry, take the basket down and dip it once or twice in
a pail of water, this is better than sprinkling from a watering-pot. In
filling hanging baskets, or vases of any kind, we invariably cover the
surface of the soil with the same green moss used for lining, which,
while it adds materially to the pleasing appearance of the whole, at the
same time prevents the soil from drying out or becoming baked on the
surface.

The following is a list of choice plants suitable for hanging-baskets.
Those marked thus (+) are fine for the centre, those marked thus (*)
have handsome foliage, and this mark (**) indicates that the plants have
flowers in addition to handsome foliage:

  **Begonia glaucophylla scandens.
   +Oxalis.
  **Begonia Rex, very fine.
   *Fittonia
   +Cuphea platycentra (Cigar Plant).
   +Pandanus (Screw Pine).
   +Dracæna (Young's).
   +Neirembergia.
   +Centaurea gymnocarpa.
  **Geraniums, Mrs. Pollock and Happy Thought.
   *Tradescantia discolor.
   *Peperomias.
  **Gloxinias.
   *Fancy Ferns.
   +Ageratum (John Douglass, blue).
   +Achyranthes.
  **Variegated Hydrangea.
   *Ficus Parcelli.
  **Gesnerias.
   *Variegated Grasses, etc., etc.

  TRAILING PLANTS.

  **Fuchsia, microphylla.
    Sedum (Stone Crop).
  **Ivy-leaved Geraniums.
    German Ivy.
    Indian Strawberry Vine.
    Kenilworth Ivy.
    Lycopodium.
    Moneywort.
  **Trailing Blue Lobelia.
   *Cissus discolor.
  **Lysimachia (Moneywort).
  **Tropæolums.
  **Torrenia Asiatica.
  **Mesembryanthemums (Ice Plant).
  **Cobæa scandens.
  **Pilogyne suavis.
   +Lygodium scandens (Climbing Fern).


WARDIAN CASES--JARDINIERES, ETC.

A Wardian Case consists of a base, which is generally an oblong box,
covered with a square glass frame, under which certain plants can be
successfully grown. This is now considered by many to be a desirable
ornament in the window-garden during the winter months. When neatly and
artistically filled with suitable plants, a Wardian Case becomes a thing
of beauty. These cases can be easily and cheaply made by any one
possessed of ordinary mechanical skill. The base or box should be oblong
in shape, at least eight inches deep, and lined inside with zinc or
tin-plate, securely soldered to prevent the water and soil from staining
the wood. A case made in this manner will endure a number of years
without decaying. Over the case a square glass frame should be made to
fit snugly; it should be from eighteen inches to two feet high, so as to
allow the plants that are to grow under it plenty of room. When the case
and frame are finished, the whole should be mounted upon a stand, or
legs can be made with the case, under which are casters, by which to
move it about easily. Before planting, make a small funnel hole through
the bottom of the box, to allow the surplus water to escape rapidly, and
before putting in the soil, cover the bottom of the box two inches deep
with broken crocks or charcoal, or even gravel, to facilitate a rapid
drainage, a matter absolutely essential to the healthy growth of the
plants. Fill the box within an inch of the top with fine, rich, peaty
loam, and all will be ready to receive the plants. Those suitable for
growing in a case of this kind, should be such as will live and thrive
in a moist, still atmosphere, and are of slow growth; all rampant,
rank-growers must be discarded as being wholly unsuitable, as they would
soon become of such proportions that they could not be confined in so
limited a space. The following plants are eminently suited for Wardian
Cases, Jardinieres, etc.; Fittonias (Gymnostachyum), Fancy Caladiums,
Tradescantias, Cissus discolor, Gesnerias, some varieties of Crotons,
Dwarf-growing Begonias, Fancy Ferns, Lycopods, etc., etc., are very
suitable for this purpose. In arranging the plants in the case,
particular care should be taken to have them so placed that the
tallest-growing ones will be in the centre, and grading downward,
according to size, the Lycopods being on the bottom. The whole surface
of the soil may be covered with the trailing Lycopodium; by placing
small pieces here and there, it will soon spread over the entire
surface, making a beautiful ground work of purplish-green. Small,
highly-colored sea-shells, and beautifully-colored pebbles, are
scattered about among the plants, to enhance the beauty of the whole.
After the case has been filled the soil should be thoroughly soaked with
lukewarm water. Remove the case to a shady place for three or four days,
to allow the plants to recuperate, after which it can be placed in the
full light with safety. The lid or top should be lifted whenever there
is excessive moisture on the inside, which will be indicated by the
moisture trickling down on the inside of the glass. As a rule the plants
should have fresh air, by lifting the lid for a few minutes each day,
but beware of all cold draughts, or too much exposure to chilly
atmospheres. Ordinarily, once a month is often enough to water, this
must be governed by the circumstances, but they should never be allowed
to become dry, remembering that as warmth, moisture, and a still
atmosphere are secured, success will be certain.



CHAPTER XIV.

AQUATICS--WATER LILIES.


The native Water Lilies that abound in many of our lakes, ponds, and
rivers, are more or less familiar to all. They grow up year after year
through the placid waters, unfolding their blossoms of spotless purity
to the silent stars, and after a short while, disappear, to return at
another favorable season. The American Water Lily, _Nymphæa odorata_,
has flowers of a yellowish-white, and an odor that is peculiar and
pleasant. The size of the flowers averages three to four inches across.
This is by no means the only aquatic lily, for we have in cultivation
quite a number of other choice and striking species quite different in
leaf and flower from _N. odorata_. Among the most noticeable of these
is, _N. rubra_, a native of India, which has flowers of a rosy-red,
measuring from eight to ten inches in diameter, with scarlet stamens;
the large leaves of this Water Lily turn to a gorgeous crimson color in
the fall. There are also _N. Devonensis_, bearing flowers of a brilliant
red, which often measure from twelve to fourteen inches across, are
star-shaped, and very beautiful. _N. cærulea_, a native of Egypt, has
light blue flowers, and light green leaves; the flowers are very
fragrant. _N. flava_ has yellowish flowers, sometimes beautifully
variegated with brown. There is quite a number of other interesting
species, but those already mentioned are the best. The cultivation of
Water Lilies is very simple, they can be grown with success in tubs or
tanks, or in little artificial ponds, constructed to accommodate them. A
hogshead sunk in the ground in the open air, in some sunny location,
will answer to grow them in. Fill a hogshead half full of the compost
recommended for aquatics, then set the plants in the compost, press
down firmly, and fill the cask with pure water. If possible connect a
flow and waste pipe with the barrel, to keep the water fresh, as this is
highly essential in growing these plants in this manner.

A Mr. Sturtevant, we believe, now of Burlington Co., N. J., is an
enthusiast on the cultivation of Water Lilies, and no doubt an excellent
authority, He has written some valuable hints on the culture of
aquatics, from which we are tempted to quote. He says, "I will add here
a few words on the possibilities of aquatic gardening. One argument in
favor of cultivating tropical lilies in the open air is, that larger
leaves and flowers are obtained, and in case of the colored kinds,
greater depth of color than when under glass." And again, "Let us
suppose that you wish to have an aquatic garden, fifty, sixty, or a
hundred feet in diameter. We will not build it in the stiff form of a
circle or oval. There is a small bay, across which we will throw a
rustic bridge to a peninsula: somewhere on the margin we will build a
rustic summer-house."

       *       *       *       *       *

"Now let us suppose that all has been planted, and come to mid-summer
perfection. Some morning, before the night-blooming lilies (there are
varieties that bloom only in the night), have taken their mid-day sleep,
let us ascend the tower, and take a view of the picture." He graphically
describes the beauty of this miniature Eden, with all its rare and
beautiful tropical plants, which certainly must be enchanting for any
who love the beautiful. It is surprising that many people of ample
means, and with good facilities for growing aquatics, and who have a
taste for flowers, do not take more interest in domesticating these
plants. Any one who keeps a gardener can have a very fine show of these
beautiful flowers, and a comparatively small outlay will bring good
results in a short time. Let those who can, try it.


SOIL FOR GROWING AQUATIC PLANTS.

The best soil for growing aquatics, is that obtained from the bed of a
pond, or a slow, swampy stream, but when this is not readily obtainable,
a mixture of equal parts of good, rich garden loam and stable manure
will be almost as good. Some use a mixture of muck and bog peat, from
which they claim very satisfactory results in growing aquatics; either
we think can be used with good success.



CHAPTER XV.

HARDY CLIMBING VINES.--IVIES.


Hardy Climbing Vines seem to be in large demand in different sections of
the country, either for training upon trellises as single specimens, or
for training upon the side of the building, piazza, portico, or to
screen unsightly places, etc. We select from a large number of hardy
climbing vines the following sorts, which we think are the most
desirable:

  Wistaria, Chinese (blue and white).
  Honeysuckles, Belgian.
  Clematis Jackman's (purple).
  Clematis Henry's (pure white).
  Clematis, _viticella rubra grandiflora_ (red).
  Virginia Creeper, _Ampelopsis quinquefolia_ (strong grower).
  Japan Creeper, _Ampelopsis tricuspidata_, or _Veitchii_, of most catalogues.
  Bignonia, Trumpet-Flower.
  Rose, Baltimore Belle (white).
  Rose, Queen of the Prairies (pink).

All of the above named vines are strong, vigorous growers, perfectly
hardy, and with the exception of the two Creepers, are handsome
bloomers.


IVIES--GROWING AND TRAINING.

  "A dainty plant is the Ivy green,
  That creepeth o'er ruins old."--Boz.

The Ivy is one of the oldest and most venerable of all climbing shrubs,
and is preëminently the poet's vine. In some of the older countries,
especially in England, where the climate is particularly favorable to
its growth, the Ivy is very attractive, and is said to reach the
greatest perfection there. Travellers who have journeyed through that
country, describe the old Ivy as clinging closely to, and completely
covering the walls of ancient castles, and churches, and often it runs
rampant over the fields, mounting stone walls, clinging to trees, etc.
The Ivy in our climate is entirely hardy, enduring the severest winters
without any protection. If the vine is allowed to grow over the walls of
a dwelling, either on the inside, in a living-room, or on the outer
walls of the building, is not only beautiful as an ornament of the home,
but beneficial; in a sanitary point of view it is regarded as useful.
Some plants of Ivy growing in the living and sleeping rooms, will do
more to keep the atmosphere of the apartments pure and wholesome, than
anything we can possibly imagine, and I recommend their more extensive
cultivation in malarial localities. The Ivy may be easily cultivated
from slips or layers. In soil, sand, or even in pure water, cuttings
will root, and they will take up with almost any kind of soil, but that
which can be easily kept loose, is preferable. The Ivy is partial to
shade, and if it never saw the sun it would make no difference, as it
would grow and flourish just the same. There is no sight more attractive
in a window-garden than a fine Ivy vine trained up the casement, over
the wall and ceiling; its dark, rich, glossy leaves, and thrifty look,
make it an object to be admired. If grown in pots in the house, the soil
will soon become exhausted, if the plant is growing rapidly, and it
should be changed or enriched with decayed manure at least once each
year, care being taken not to disturb the roots to a great extent. It is
a mistake to allow Ivies too much pot-room, they will do better if the
roots are considerably confined. Soap-suds or liquid manure if applied
once a mouth when the plants are growing, will promote a luxuriant
growth. When dust accumulates on the leaves, as it will, if grown
in-doors, wash it off with a damp cloth or sponge; if this is long
neglected, you need not be surprised if you soon discover the leaves to
be covered with red-spider or scale-lice. Cold water is the best wash,
when washing be sure and treat the underside of the leaves as well as
the upper surface. I would recommend the "English Ivy" as being the best
sort for general cultivation.



CHAPTER XVI.

ANNUAL FLOWERING PLANTS.--PANSY CULTURE.


Annuals flower the same season the seeds are sown, perfect their seeds,
and then die. "There is," says James Vick, "No forgotten spot in the
garden, none which early flowering bulbs or other spring flowers have
left unoccupied, that need remain bare during the summer. No bed but
what can be made brilliant with these favorites, for there is no
situation or soil in which some of these favorites will not flourish.
Some delight in shade, others in sunshine; some are pleased with a cool,
clay bed, while others are never so comfortable as in a sandy soil, or
burning sun. The seed, too, is so cheap as to be within the reach of
all, while a good collection of bedding plants would not come within the
resources of many, and yet very few beds filled with expensive bedding
plants look as well as a good bed of our best annuals, like Phlox,
Petunia, or Portulaca, and for a vase or basket many of our annuals are
unsurpassed. To annuals, also, we are indebted mainly for our brightest
and best flowers in the late summer and autumn months.

"Without the Phlox and Petunia, and Portulaca and Aster, and Stock, our
autumn gardens would be poor indeed, and how we would miss the sweet
fragrance of the Alyssum, Mignonette, and Sweet Pea, if any ill-luck
should befall them, or deprive us of these sweet favorites!" Annuals are
divided into three classes, hardy, half-hardy, and tender. The hardy
annuals are those that, like the Larkspur, Candytuft, etc., may be sown
in the autumn, or very early in the spring in the open ground. The
half-hardy annuals should not be sown in the open ground until all
danger of frost is over. The Balsams and Marigolds belong to this class.
The tender annuals generally require starting in a green-house, or
hot-bed, to bring them to perfection, and should not be set in the open
ground until the weather is fine and warm, some time in June. From a
perplexing number to be found in plant catalogues, we select the
following twelve sorts of annuals as being the most desirable for the
garden; they are a galaxy of gems, indeed:

  Asters,
  Balsams,
  Phlox Drummondii,
  Double Petunias,
  Pansies,
  Double Sweet Alyssum,
  Double White Pyrethrum,
  Dwarf Ageratum,
  Verbenas,
  Salvias,
  Double Stocks,
  Celosias (Coxcomb).

Sow the seed in the open ground the latter part of May, and the first of
July most of the sorts will be in bloom, and they will continue to
bloom until arrested by frosts.


PANSY CULTURE.

Pansies are old and popular favorites, they embrace varieties with
variously-colored flowers, from almost jet black, to pure white and
yellow. They are easily grown from seed. The general custom is to sow
Pansy seed in the fall, but we are in favor of spring sowing. We have
tried sowing seed at both seasons, and find that plants grown from
spring-sown seed bloom more freely throughout the hot months of summer,
while plants raised by fall sowing become exhausted, and cease flowering
much sooner. Seed sown in March, in light, rich soil, will make fine
blooming plants the same season. Pansies are hardy, if they have good
protection with a litter of leaves or straw, or any light covering,
which should be removed very early in the spring, or as soon as danger
of heavy frosts is over. Plants remaining in ground through the winter,
if proper care is given them, will bloom very early in the spring, as
soon as the frost is out of the ground. We have even seen the frail
blossoms peeping up through the snow, but the plants become exhausted
and cease flowering before mid-summer. It is possible to have them bloom
throughout the entire winter by taking up old plants from the open
ground in October, and carefully planting them in a tight, cold frame in
a sheltered location, covering the frame with glazed sash. This is often
done by florists whose trade demands the flowers at that season of the
year, and especially early in spring. Treated thus, they flower
abundantly. The same can be done with Violets. Pansies require a partial
shade and a good, rich, loamy soil, and an occasional watering through
the dry season will help them.



CHAPTER XVII.

FALL OR HOLLAND BULBS.


That class of bulbs known as Fall, or Holland Bulbs, includes Hyacinths,
Crocuses, Jonquils, Tulips, Narcissuses, Snow-drops, and several less
known kinds. These bulbs are grown in Holland in immense quantities, the
soil and climate of that country being peculiarly favorable to them, and
they are annually imported into this country in great numbers. The fall
is the time to set them out; any time from the first of October, to the
middle of December. Tulips, Jonquils, Narcissuses, and Hyacinths, should
be planted four inches deep, and eight inches apart each way; the
Snow-drops and Crocuses two inches deep, and six inches apart.

All of the above named bulbs are entirely hardy, and will stand in the
ground without any surface protection through the severest winters. Some
go to the trouble of covering the surface with leaves or other litter
for protection, but this is entirely unnecessary. A very pretty effect
may be had, where one has a large number of bulbs, by selecting the
different colors and planting each color in a row by itself, so that
when they blossom, it will be in ribbon-lines of red, white, blue, or
yellow, as the case may be. Or, if one has a large number of beds of
different shapes, cut so as to form a design of some kind, each section
may be planted with a different color (Hyacinths are the best for this
work), and when all come into bloom in April, the effect will be most
charming. We tried this "massing" of the differently colored bulbs one
year, in a "design" of one hundred different sections of all conceivable
shapes. Planting the bulbs so that, when in blossom, the whole would
present a harmonious effect. It would be hard to conceive of a more
attractive sight than that presented by all those bulbs in full bloom
in early April, when every thing else looked barren and cheerless. They
were admired by every one who saw them. Bulbs of this character bloom
and pass away in season to allow room for other plants to be set out.
These may be set between the rows of bulbs, and not disturb them in the
least. Any of the above named bulbs are especially desirable for house
culture in winter. Make an oblong box, say four feet in length, fifteen
inches wide, and twelve deep, fill this with fine, rich loam, then plant
a row of Hyacinths in the centre, and on each side of this plant a row
of either Snow-drops or Crocuses, water thoroughly, and set away in a
dark, cool place. In three weeks remove the box into the full light, and
water freely, they will grow and bloom throughout the winter. If the box
can be set near a front window, it will make a pretty display while the
bulbs are in bloom.

These bulbs can be started in pots, or glasses filled with water, and
treated in the same manner as stated above. Place a single bulb of
Hyacinth in each pot or glass. Four-inch pots filled nearly to the top
with soil, and the bulbs set in and pressed down, so that nothing but
the crown is above ground, are all that is necessary. The same bulbs can
be used a number of years, but they are not so good as fresh ones, which
should be obtained each year if possible. After the bulbs are through
blooming, they may be left in the soil in which they grew through the
winter, and removed to a dry place to rest, in preparation for starting
them another fall. If fresh bulbs are desired for this purpose, the old
ones may be planted out in the open ground, where they will again renew
their strength, and bloom annually for a number of years. They are
multiplied from the seed and from offshoots.



CHAPTER XVIII.

TROPICAL BULBS.--TUBEROSES.


Gladioluses, Tuberoses, Cannas, and Caladiums, come under this head, and
are the best known of this class of bulbs. They are not hardy, and the
slightest frost will injure them more or less. It is customary to allow
tender bulbs of this kind to rest during the winter, the same as one
would an onion. They can be safely kept through the winter under the
staging of the green-house, in a dry, frost-proof cellar, where there is
plenty of light, or in any other place where potatoes can be safely
stored. Tropical bulbs of all kinds are much benefited by planting them
in good, light, loamy soil, well enriched with well-rotted stable
manure. They may be planted out in the open ground as soon as it can be
worked in the spring, and all danger from heavy frosts is over. Any of
the above named bulbs of ordinary size, should be planted at least from
three to four inches deep, and from six to eight inches deep when the
bulbs are of extra size. I am in favor of planting these bulbs in the
open ground much earlier than most gardeners are in the habit of doing.
Experience has shown me that the earlier in spring those summer bulbs
are set out in the open ground, the better. Just as soon as the ground
is in good condition to work, spade it up deeply, and plant the bulbs;
the roots will soon begin to develop in the cool ground, before the tops
start to grow, which is the true principle in growing all plants. They
will thus receive a fine start before hot weather sets in. We have had
Tuberoses and Gladioluses to bloom much earlier than usual, and much
more continuously throughout the summer and fall, as the result of
planting them as soon as the ground can be worked in the spring. If a
continuation of bloom is desired, the bulbs should be planted at
successive intervals of not less then three weeks; this will give a
sucession of bloom throughout the entire season. In the fall remove the
bulbs from the ground as soon as the tops have been touched by frost,
cutting the stalk off to within a couple of inches of the base, and
setting the bulbs away to rest for the winter.


TUBEROSES.

No collection of garden flowers is complete without the Tuberose. For
the spotless purity of its flowers, and for incomparable fragrance, it
has no superior. It is very easy to grow them successfully. Bulbs
intended for fall blooming, should be planted in the open ground from
the first to the middle of May; plant them about two inches deep. They
will do well in any good, rich garden soil, if the soil is occasionally
moved around them with the rake or hoe, after they are up and growing.
Such treatment will cause the bulbs to grow rapidly, and the flower
trusses, when they come into bloom, will consequently be much larger and
finer. As the Tuberose is not hardy in our Northern climates, the bulbs
should be dug up in the fall, the tops or stalks removed to within two
or three inches of the bulbs, which should then be laid away in some
dry, warm place, a dry and frost-proof cellar will do, or better yet,
store them if possible, under the staging of a green-house. In the
spring, before planting, remove all the young offsets from around the
parent bulb; there are usually a number of young shoots clinging to it,
and as the old bulb blooms but once, and only once, it is henceforth
good for nothing, save for the production of more bulbs, if desired.

The young offshoots of the first season's growth will not become
blooming bulbs until the third year, but if you have quite a number of
young bulbs, say twenty-five or fifty, there will naturally be a number
that will bloom in rotation, from year to year, and give some bloom
each season. Some enterprising florists have Tuberoses nearly the whole
year round. In order to do this, the bulbs must be "started" in pots;
the bulbs are potted in the usual manner, so that the top, or crown of
the bulb, when potted, will just show above the soil, and they should be
kept rather dry until they show signs of growing, when they can be
watered freely and set in a warm place. Of course bulbs intended for
winter blooming must rest, or be kept from growing during the summer,
and bulbs to be in bloom in April or May, must be started in January or
February in pots. Tuberoses are rapidly productive; ten old bulbs having
been known to produce one hundred young offshoots in one season. There
are many "fine points" in growing Tuberoses, but the instruction here
given will enable any one to grow them successfully.



CHAPTER XIX.

ROSES--CULTIVATION AND PROPAGATING.


The Rose is preëminently the Queen of Flowers. It has no rival in the
floral kingdom, and will always stand at the head in the catalogue of
Flora's choicest gems. To it alone belongs that subtle perfume that
captivates the sense of smell, and that beauty of form and color so
pleasing to the eye. Add to all this, it is one of the easiest plants to
cultivate, as it will grow and flower in almost any soil or climate,
requiring but little care and attention as compared with many other
favorites of the garden. There has been great improvement made in Roses
in the last twenty years by skillful cultivators in this country and in
Europe, and from a few common sorts formerly grown, many hundred choice
and desirable varieties have been produced, and to-day the choice
cultivated varieties are very numerous. These differ in respect to
hardiness, habit of growth, and peculiar characteristics of blooming,
and for these reasons cultivators have grouped them into several
distinct classes, each class differing in certain characteristics from
the others.


TEA ROSES.

The Roses best adapted for in-door culture belong to the class known as
Tea Roses; these are tender, of a bushy growth, and if properly treated,
will bloom the year round; the flowers have a strong tea-scent.

Tea Roses can be cultivated out-of-doors with success, but they must be
taken up in the fall and removed in-doors. We know it is the custom of
some gardeners to lay the bushes down in the fall, and cover them with
earth and leaves; while in some cases this may preserve them, it cannot
be depended on as a rule. To keep up a steady bloom, pinch off all
flowers as soon as they begin to fade. It is best to not let the buds
open fully while on the bush, but they should be cut in the bud, and
placed in a vase of water, where they will expand and keep for a long
while. All dead leaves and flower stems should be carefully removed, and
the surface of the soil in the pots should be stirred up occasionally
with a stick, this will keep the plants in a growing condition, and if
they can be kept growing, they will bloom continuously.

The following varieties of Tea Roses are in every respect among the best
for house culture:

_Bon Silene._--Flowers purplish-carmine; highly scented.

_Niphetos._--Pure white, magnificent long buds; an incessant bloomer.

_Perle de Jardins._--Sulphur-yellow, full and double; a splendid rose.

_La France_ (Bourbon).--Bright lilac-rose, fine form; perpetual bloomer,
half hardy.

_Hermosa_ (Bourbon).--Light rose-color, cupped-shaped; a most perpetual
bloomer.


HYBRID PERPETUAL, AND MOSS ROSES.

Both of the above classes are entirely distinct from either the Tea,
Noisette, or Bourbon Roses; they are entirely hardy, exceedingly
free-bloomers in their season--from June to July; their flowers have a
delightful perfume, and are noted for the richness and variety of their
colors. They require to be closely pruned annually. The spring is the
most desirable time to prune. They should have a top-dressing of manure
every fall. The ground should be kept well shaded around their roots in
summer. They require a strong, rich soil to make them flower well. These
roses are not desirable for house culture. The following are among the
best varieties of the Hybrid Perpetual, or Remontant Roses:

_Gen. Jacqueminot._--Brilliant crimson-scarlet; magnificent buds.

_La Reine._--Deep rosy-pink; an ideal rose.

_Coquette des Alps._--White; blooms in clusters.

_Black Prince._--Blackish-crimson; large, full, and globular.

_Victor Verdier._--Rich deep-rose; elegant buds.


MOSS ROSES.

Of this class we need not speak in detail to any who have ever seen its
delicate moss-covered buds, and inhaled their delightful odor. They are
perfectly hardy, and can be wintered without any protection. They are
called perpetual, but this is a misnomer, for we know but one variety of
Moss Rose that approaches it, that is the _Salet_ Moss. The rest are no
more so than are the so-called Hybrid Perpetuals.

Moss Roses should be severely pruned in spring, removing all the old
wood.

_Salet_, deep pink; _White Perpetual_, pure white; and _Crested_,
rose-color, are the most desirable sorts.


PROPAGATING THE ROSE.

The Rose is somewhat difficult to propagate from cuttings, and it takes
from three to four weeks for them to root under the best conditions.
Moss Roses are generally multiplied by layering (see "Layering"), and by
budding on the common Manetti or Multiflora stocks. The following will
be found to be a very practicable and simple method of propagating roses
on a small scale, and is attended with very little trouble or expense:
In the fall place sand in a box, or cold frame, to the depth of eight
inches. Take from the bushes the number of cuttings it is desired to
propagate, making them with two or three points or eyes; insert them in
the sand (which should be previously packed as solid as can be), then
water thoroughly. As the cuttings are to remain in this frame all
winter, it should be provided with a glass sash, and the whole covered
with leaves and manure. It need not be banked up until freezing weather.
If rightly done, we may expect at the least fifty per cent of the
cuttings to come from their winter bed finely rooted. They should then
be potted, and after growing awhile, planted out, and some of them will
bloom the first season.



CHAPTER XX.

JAPAN AND OTHER LILIES.--CALLA LILIES.


If we call the rose the "Queen of Flowers," what royal title shall we
bestow upon the beautiful Japan Lilies? We sometimes think it would be
proper to name the Rose the King, for its commanding aspect, and the
grandly beautiful Lily, the Queen of the floral kingdom. But, be this as
it may, we have only to gaze upon a collection of Japan Lilies when in
full bloom, and inhale their delicious odor, that perfumes the whole
atmosphere, to be convinced of their superiority over all other flowers.
Surely Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these.

There are many different species and varieties of Lilies, but none
approach those known as Japan Lilies in the beauty and variety of their
flowers, and their exquisite fragrance. They are perfectly hardy, and
the fall is the proper time to plant them. If good strong bulbs are set
out in the ground in October or November, planted about eight inches
deep, they will throw up strong shoots the following summer, and bloom
freely. The flowers increase in size and beauty with the age of the
bulb, and this should be left to grow undisturbed in the same spot for
five or six years; afterwards, if desired, the bulbs can be dug up, the
offshoots removed, and the old bulbs reset, and they will do better than
ever. Any of the young bulbs that have been removed can be planted out
in the ground, and in a few years will form good blooming bulbs. The
time to perform this work is in the fall. Although entirely hardy
without protection, it will benefit these lilies very much, if during
the winter, they are covered with a coarse litter, leaves or any other
good covering. This should be raked off early in the spring, as manure
of any kind seems to injure them when they come in contact with it. The
soil in which they do best is a light, sandy loam, well drained. The
lily flourishes best in sunny locations. The following is a description
of the leading varieties:

LILIUM AURATUM.--This is the well-known Gold-banded Lily, and most
decidedly the finest of all the Japan Lilies.

L. CANDIDUM.--The old White Lily (not Japan) of the gardens; a splendid
sort; elegant, large, pure white flowers, in clusters; blooms earlier
than the others, but not the first year; it is one of the most beautiful
Lilies.

L. CITRINUM.--Very rare and beautiful; large, elegantly formed flowers;
color, pale yellow, exquisitely tinged with blush.

L. LONGIFLORUM.--Exceedingly beautiful; very long trumpet-shaped
flowers, pure snow white.

L. SPECIOSUM RUBRUM.--One of the finest of Japan Lilies; bright crimson
and white spotted; splendid large flower, borne in clusters, stem two to
three feet.

L. TIGRINUM--SINGLE TIGER LILY.--This splendid Lily is one of the best
in the list; the stem is tall; the flowers large and elegantly formed;
blooms in large clusters; color, brilliant orange scarlet with intense
black spots; remains in bloom a long time.

L. UMBELATUM.--Very showy, brilliant red, variegated flowers in
clusters.


THE CALLA LILY.

The Calla Lily, or "The Lily of the Nile," is an old and popular
favorite, and is found in window-garden collections everywhere. It is a
native of the tropics, where it is said it grows to an enormous size; a
single flower often measuring one to two feet in diameter. The Calla
will attain its highest perfection if planted in a rich, mucky soil,
obtained from a swamp or bog. It also requires an abundance of water
during the growing season. Callas, like all other bulbous plants, must
have a season of rest. If required to bloom during the winter or spring
months, they must be rested in the summer season, if this is not done we
must not expect to have any success in flowering them. The blooming
season can be reversed if desired, by resting in winter. Without
allowing them at least three months of rest, it is useless to expect to
flower them successfully. By "resting," we mean to withhold water, and
allow the leaves and stalks to die down completely to the bulb. Then
turn the pot on its side under a tree or grape-arbor, and let the soil
dry up completely; this will kill the stalk but not injure the bulb.


HOW TO PREPARE CALLAS FOR WINTER BLOOMING.

After three months of this rest; or about the first of October, we
"dump" out the plant, shake off all the old soil from the bulb or bulbs,
and re-pot in fine, rich soil, using pots one size larger than those
used the previous year; place the plants in a cool, shady spot, and
water freely. Let them remain for two or three weeks, until new roots
have formed, after which all danger is passed, and they can be removed
into full light and heat. When growing, water freely. An application of
strong liquid-manure once a week will add greatly to the growth of the
plants, and to the number of blossoms produced. A very pretty effect can
be obtained by arranging the plants about a fountain or pond where they
will bloom freely throughout the summer season, presenting a tropical
appearance. They will also grow well by standing the pots completely in
the water.



CHAPTER XXI.

GERANIUMS--THE BEST TWELVE SORTS.


There is no flower that can surpass the Geranium for profusion of bloom,
brilliancy and variety of color, and general adaptability for house
culture. The following are the best twelve sorts:


DOUBLE VARIETIES.

Madam Ballet, pure white; Jewel, dark crimson; Asa Gray, salmon, very
free bloomer; Madam Lemoine, light pink, large trusses; Bishop Wood,
rich scarlet, approaching to carmine; Charmieux, scarlet; Casimer
Perrier, a very near approach to yellow


SINGLE VARIETIES.

New Life, variegated, crimson, and white; Gen. Grant, dazzling scarlet;
Pauline Lucca, pure white, with pink-eye; Chief Justice, the darkest of
all Geraniums, immense trusses; Pinafore, salmon, with white eye; La
Vienne, pure white, pale stamens, splendid; Master Christine, light
pink, elegant for bedding.



CHAPTER XXII.

AZALEAS; HOW TO CULTIVATE THEM.


Comparatively few of these charming plants are to be seen outside of
green-houses and private conservatories, we know not for what reasons,
unless it be the erroneous idea that they cannot be successfully grown
unless one has the facilities of the florist. I think there is no class
of plants more easy of culture, when the manner of treating them is once
understood, than Azaleas. As they are decidedly winter-flowering plants,
generally coming into bloom from December to March and April, they must
be treated as such. They should have the same kind of treatment during
the summer as recommended for Camellias, allowing them to rest in some
cool, shady spot out-of-doors, during which period the flowering shoots
will grow that are to give the bloom through the winter months. They can
be taken into the house any time in the fall before freezing weather,
and they will thrive well in an atmosphere suited to the generality of
plants, although to bring the bloom out to the best, an atmosphere of
55° is needed.

There are over one hundred distinct varieties, ranging from pure white
to lilac-purple, scarlet and pink, and when in full bloom the entire
plant might be easily mistaken for a large bouquet, so literally covered
is it with dazzling blossoms.

One or two varieties of Azaleas should grace every collection; almost
every florist keeps them in stock, and the price asked is but a small
consideration compared with the amount of pleasure one will derive by
having them in full bloom himself.

Florists hardly ever attempt to multiply the Azaleas from cuttings, on
account of the hardness of the wood, but the common mode of multiplying
them is by grafting on the stock of the Wild Azalea, plants being easily
and quickly obtained through this method. The Azalea will flourish best
with a rich, mucky loam, a rather shady locality, and an abundance of
water.



CHAPTER XXIII.

CAMELLIAS.--ORANGE AND LEMON TREES.


Dear reader, did you ever see a large Camellia plant in full blossom? If
you have not, I will risk my reputation by saying that all other flowers
within my knowledge, barring the rose, dwindle into insignificance when
compared with it. It excels the finest rose in doubleness and form of
its flowers, and puts the virgin lily to shame for spotless purity and
whiteness; if it only possessed fragrance, it would be unquestionably
the Queen of the floral world. What I shall have to say in regard to
this plant, I hope will have the effect of introducing it into many
homes where it has hitherto been little known. Few outside of
professional florists have undertaken to cultivate the Camellia, for the
reason, we suppose, that it is thought to be quite an impossibility to
raise and bloom it successfully outside of a green-house; this is a
mistake, although many believe it otherwise. I contend that Camellias
can be as easily and as successfully grown in the window-garden as the
Rose or Geranium.

Camellias bloom in the winter, and at no other season of the year.
Plants should be purchased of the florist in the fall or early in
winter, and such plants as have flower-buds already formed; those
plants, if kept in the right atmosphere, will bloom profusely, but they
must have an atmosphere of 50° until the buds are all expanded, after
which there will be no danger of the flowers blasting. As soon as the
bloom has all passed off, the plants should be taken from their cool
quarters, and placed with the other plants in a warm temperature, and
watered freely, to encourage a vigorous growth previous to removing them
out-of-doors in the spring. As soon as all danger of heavy frosts is
over in the spring, the plants should be taken from the house and
removed to some shady location, under a grape-arbor, in a pit or frame
covered with shades; here leave them standing in the pots "plunging" the
pots in earth or sand to prevent too rapid drying out.

The summer is the period in which the flower-buds are formed that bloom
in winter; the plants should be kept growing, and watered freely
throughout the summer. They must be left out-of-doors as long as the
weather will permit, but, on the approach of frost, take the plants into
the house, and let them stand in a cool room, where the temperature is
not over 50°. This is the critical time, for if they are removed into a
warm temperature of 70° or 80°, the buds will all blast and drop off,
and no flowers will be produced.

If the plants are large and well-budded, a succession of bloom will be
yielded throughout the entire winter. There are a number of varieties,
embracing colors from red, pink, variegated, etc., to the purest
waxy-white. The Double White Camellia Japonica, the white sort, is the
most valuable for its bloom, the flowers being sometimes four to five
inches in diameter, exceedingly double, with the petals imbricated, and
of a waxy texture, and are highly prized by florists, who often charge
as high as one dollar per flower for them. They are invaluable for
funeral occasions, when pure white flowers are required. Plants are
multiplied by either grafting or budding them on the common stock; it is
almost impossible to raise plants from cuttings; they are slower than
the Azalea to take root.


ORANGE AND LEMON TREES.

Both Orange and Lemon trees can be easily raised by sowing the seeds in
good, rich soil, and after the seedlings become of sufficient size, a
foot to fifteen inches high, they should be budded or grafted, otherwise
blossoms and fruit cannot be expected. In the tropical climes, where
these fruits are grown, there are varieties that spring up from the
seeds of sweet oranges, called naturals; these yield a fruit that is
edible, but is of an insipid taste. In no case can we obtain edible
fruit of either Oranges or Lemons, budded or unbudded, in northern
climates. The best time to bud these trees is when the seedlings are
about a year old. They can be budded in the same manner as other trees,
and as a rule, the buds take readily if the stock is in the right
condition. Some graft them, but buds take better than grafts, and grow
more rapidly. If the budding is successful, and the bud looks fresh and
green in two weeks after it has been inserted, the union has taken
place. The stock may then be cut off within two inches of the bud, and
after the bud has started to grow, cut the stub still lower down, close
to the bud. One bud in each stock is better than three or four. The soil
best adapted to these trees is a rich, mucky loam. They should have
plenty of pot room when growing, and, if possible, a warm, moist
atmosphere.



CHAPTER XXIV.

FUCHSIAS--TRAINING AND MANAGEMENT


We confess to have a special liking for the Fuchsias, and think no
assortment of house plants is complete without one or two varieties of
these beautiful flowers. They are easily propagated, either from
cuttings or by layers, and the amount of bloom one strong, healthy plant
is capable of producing under favorable circumstances, is truly
wonderful. Upon one plant of Fuchsia speciosa, started from a cutting of
a single eye in March, we counted at one time, in the December
following, one hundred and fifty perfect blossoms. The plant stood in an
eight-inch pot, and measured four feet in hight. Some kinds do better as
house plants than others, among the best are _F. speciosa_, _F.
fulgens_, and the Rose of Castile, and I would particularly recommend
these sorts as superior to all others for the window-garden. The right
kind of soil has everything to do with success in growing fine Fuchsias;
it should be of a light peaty quality, with one-third cow manure, and
thoroughly mixed together until well decayed. They also relish an
abundance of water; and if they have, while growing, an application of
liquid manure once or twice a week, it will be beneficial; never allow
the roots to become potbound, but when the roots begin to form a mat on
the outside of the ball of earth, it is time to shift the plant into a
pot of the next larger size, and so on as the plant requires it. This is
a very important point, and should not be overlooked if strong, healthy
plants are expected.

Fuchsias are especially desirable for training on trellises. They can be
trained over an upright trellis, and have a very pretty effect, but the
best form is that of an umbrella. Secure a strong, vigorous plant, and
allow one shoot to grow upright until about two feet high, then pinch
off the top of the shoot. It will branch out and form a head, each shoot
of which, when sufficiently long, may have a fine thread or hair-wire
attached to the tip, by which to draw it downward; fasten the other end
of the wire or thread to the stem of the plant, and all the shoots will
then be pendent. When each of these branches has attained a length of
eight inches, pinch off the tip, and the whole will form a dense head,
resembling an umbrella in shape, and the graceful flowers pendent from
each shoot will be handsome indeed. Remember to keep the stock clear of
side-shoots, in order to throw the growth into the head.

If properly taken care of, most Fuchsias will bloom the year round, but
some kinds can be especially recommended for winter blooming, among them
are _F. speciosa_, flesh-colored, with scarlet corolla; _F.
serratifolia_, orange-scarlet corolla, greenish sepals; Meteor, deep-red
corolla, light-pink sepals. The following are the finest in every
respect that the market affords: Mrs. Bennett, pink; Sir Cohn Campbell,
double blue; Rose of Castile, single violet; Elm City, double scarlet;
Carl Holt, crimson; Tower of London, double blue; Wave of Life, foliage
yellow, corolla violet; _F. speciosa_, single, flesh-colored, and _F.
fulgens_, long red corolla.



CHAPTER XXV.

CACTUSES.--NIGHT-BLOOMING CEREUS.--REX BEGONIAS.


For singularity and grotesqueness of form, as well as for the
exceptional conditions under which they grow to the best advantage, no
class of plants is more remarkable than the _Cactaceæ_. Of these, about
a thousand species have been described by botanists; nearly all are
indigenous to the New World, though but a small proportion are in
cultivation. Cactuses delight in a dry, barren, sandy soil. They are
naturally children of the desert. It is said by travellers that many of
the species bear edible fruit, resembling somewhat in taste the
gooseberry. So much for the peculiarities of the Cactus family in its
native localities, but how can we succeed in cultivating the plants with
satisfactory results in the window-garden?

There are two simple methods of treatment that Cactuses should receive,
namely: First, keep the soil about them constantly dry, and keep them
in a warm place. Secondly, the soil should be of a poor quality, mixed
with a little brick dust, and they should never be allowed too much pot
room. If either of these two points are observed in the treatment of
Cactuses, there will be no difficulty in keeping them in a flourishing
condition all the time.


THE NIGHT-BLOOMING CEREUS.

The Night-blooming Cereus is an interesting plant, and excites much
admiration when in flower, as it blooms at night-time only, the flowers
closing up when exposed to the day-light. They are magnificent flowers
when in full blow, but, unhappily, are short-lived, a flower never
opening a second time. The plant belongs to the Cactus Family, and
requires the same general treatment. There are a number of
night-flowering species and varieties, but the one especially known as
the Night-blooming Cereus is _Cereus grandiflorus_, which, when in full
bloom, presents a rare sight. Some of the flowers of the night-blooming
kinds are exceedingly fragrant, notably _Cereus triangularis_, a single
flower of which, when in fall bloom, will fill the air of a room with
its pleasant odor. These plants can be made to bloom freely by keeping
the soil quite dry, and allowing them very little pot-room, as they
depend more upon the atmosphere than the soil for their growth. We have
known large plants of _Cereus grandiflorus_, to produce as many as
twenty-five fine blossoms each in the course of a season. We have found
that liquid manure, if applied to these plants about once a month, and
when the soil about them is very dry, will work wonders in their growth,
and when a rapid growth can be obtained, there will be no trouble in
having an abundance of flowers at regular intervals. Care must be taken
not to have the liquid too strong. A small quantity of brick dust,
mixed with the soil in which they are growing, will be beneficial. These
species of Cereus are easily propagated by cuttings, which will root
readily in sand of any kind. Being of a slender habit of growth, and
rather rampant, they should have some sort of support, and it is
advisable to either train them to a trellis, or upon wires, or a string
stretched over and along the window sash. We have had a number of
flowers of a pure feathery white, _C. grandiflorus_, that were over
fifteen inches in diameter; this is the best of the night-flowering
species.


PROPAGATING REX BEGONIAS.

Those Begonias, known as belonging to the Rex division, are very
beautiful, and also very distinct in both leaf and flower from all other
species and varieties. The leaves are noted for their peculiar shape and
markings, making them very valuable as ornamental house plants. They are
easily multiplied from the leaf with its stalk. To propagate these, the
leaf, or leaves, including the stalk, should be taken off close to the
plant. Insert the stem of the leaf in sand, and deep enough to allow the
leaf to lie flat upon the surface of the sand. It will take them about
from two to three weeks to root, after which they should be potted in
good, rich soil. It will take sometime to start them into a growth, but
they grow very rapidly when they begin, and in two years will make large
plants.



CHAPTER XXVI.

ROCKERIES--HOW TO MAKE THEM.


Many have a taste for forming grotesque pieces of rock work, selecting
therefor such oddly-shaped and variously-colored rocks as may be
gathered near the locality; these are generally piled in the form of a
pyramid in a conspicuous place on the lawn, and if nicely arranged,
cannot be surpassed in attractiveness, and are in pleasing contrast with
the flower-beds and shrubbery. Some prefer to have merely the bare rocks
heaped into a pile, which will appear grotesque and rugged; others set
out suitable plants, and train vines to creep over them. We think the
latter the best method, where common rocks are used, but if one is
fortunate enough to live in a locality where a large number of
variously-colored rocks can be obtained, their natural colors when
arranged will make them highly attractive. One of the finest pieces of
work of this kind we ever saw, was formed of a number of rocks gathered
from almost every country on the globe, each stone having a peculiar
tint of its own. On the top of this valuable pile was a rare specimen of
Red Rock obtained from Siberia, in the region of eternal frost.


HOW TO MAKE A ROCKERY.

Having selected a site in a partly shaded spot, we will then proceed to
form a mound of earth which may be drawn to the spot for the purpose if
necessary. Upon and around this mound the rocks are to be placed, one
layer thick, leaving here and there between them a small crevice in
which to plant vines, or to drop a few seeds. The top of the heap may be
left open, to allow of setting out, either in a pot or planted out in
the earth, a choice specimen plant. Among the plants the most
appropriate for the centre are: _Eulalia Japonica variegata_, and
_Zebrina_. A variegated Agave may appropriately occupy the place, or
some of the tall native wild ferns. A narrow circle may be cut around
the base of the rockery, six or eight inches wide; after this is spaded
up a row of blue Lobelia may be planted around the whole circle. Instead
of the Lobelia, a row of _Echeveria secunda glauca_, or of the
Mountain-of-Snow Geranium would look very finely. It may be well to
mention here a number of the plants most appropriate for rockeries. Who
is not familiar with the Moneywort, with its low-trailing habit and
small yellow flowers? It is peculiarly adapted for rockeries. Portulaca,
Paris Daisy (_Chrysanthemum frutescens_), _Myosotis_ (Forget-me-not),
are among the most popular plants for rockeries. The small Sedum or
Stone Crop (_Sedum acre_), is an interesting and useful little plant,
growing freely on rock or rustic work. As vines are much used for such
places, we will mention as the best hardy vines for this purpose
Veitch's _Ampelopsis_ (_A. tricuspidata_), English or Irish Ivy, and the
so-called running Myrtle. The above are entirely hardy and will stand
any amount of freezing without injury.

The following vines, although not hardy, are much used for rockeries:
Thunbergias, Tropæolums, Kenilworth Ivy, and the German Ivy (_Senecio
scandens_). Where a rockery is formed in the midst of a pond of water,
as is often done, plants of the kind mentioned will not flourish so well
as those of a semi-aquatic nature, such as Caladiums, Callas, some
Ferns, Cannas, and Lycopodiums, all of which will flourish in moist
places.



CHAPTER XXVII.

BUDDING.


Budding as an art is simple, useful, and easily acquired by any one with
a little practice. More can be learned practically about budding in a
few hours spent with a skillful nurseryman while he is performing the
operation, than could be derived from anything we might write on the
subject. We are aware that we shall not be able to state in this brief
chapter what will be new or instructive to experienced gardeners or
nurserymen. This is not our aim, what may be old to them is likely to be
new to thousands of amateur gardeners. In another part of this book will
be found a chapter on grafting; this, though differently performed, is
analogous in its results to budding, and many amateurs not infrequently
speak of them in the same terms. To graft a cion, one end is carefully
cut in the shape of a wedge, and inserted in a cleft where it is to
grow; on the other hand, in budding, we use but a single eye, taken from
a small branch, and insert it inside of the bark of the stock or tree we
wish to bud. From this one eye, we may in time look for a tree laden
with precious fruit. To be more explicit, and by way of illustration, we
will imagine a seedling apple tree, a "natural," to have grown up in our
garden. If left alone, the fruit of that seedling tree would probably be
worthless, but we don't propose to risk that, and will proceed to bud it
with some kind more worthy of room in a garden. When the proper season
for budding fruit arrives, generally from the first to the latter part
of July, will be the time to bud, if the stock is growing thriftily. A
keen-bladed budding knife made for the purpose, a "cion" or "stick" of
the variety to be budded, some twine (basswood bark is the best), make
up the needed outfit for this operation. If the seedling is large, say
five or six feet high, it should be top-budded, putting in a bud or two
in each of the thriftiest branches. If the stock is not over one to two
feet high, a single bud a few inches from the ground will be the best
way to make a good tree of it. At the spot where we have decided to
insert the bud, we will make a short, horizontal cut, then downwards a
short, perpendicular "slit," not over an inch long, and just penetrating
through the bark; open the slit, care being taken not to scratch the
wood within, then insert the bud at the top of the cut, and slide it
down to its proper place inside of the bark, the top of the bud being in
juxtaposition with the horizontal cut above. Considerable skill is
required to cut a bud properly, and two methods are practised, known as
"budding with the wood in," and "budding with the wood out." The former
consists in cutting a very little wood with the bud, a little deeper
than the bark itself, and in the latter the wood is removed from the
bud, leaving nothing but the bare bark. Unquestionably the surest way
for a young budder is to remove the wood, cutting a pretty deep bud, and
then in making the cross cut let it be only as deep as the bark, and by
giving it a twitch the bud will readily leave the wood. I will say,
however, that most nurserymen insist on budding with the wood, which it
is claimed is the surest and best way to bud. We have tried both ways
for years, and have been able to discover no difference, excepting where
the buds are quite green at the time of budding, when it is best to have
a little wood with the bud to sustain it. Plums should invariably be
budded with the wood out.

After the bud has been properly set, it should be firmly tied with a
broad string, making the laps close enough to entirely cover the slip,
leaving the eye of the bud uncovered. Various kinds of strings for tying
buds are used by nurserymen, but the basswood bark, which is made into
broad, ribbon-like strips, seems peculiarly adapted for the purpose, and
we advise its use where one has any considerable amount of budding to
do. It usually takes from three to four weeks for a bud to callous and
form a union with the stock; at the expiration of this time the strings
should be taken off; we would except only those cases where the stock is
growing, when if the strings pinch the stock too closely, they can be
removed some time sooner.

The stock or stocks can now be left until the following spring, when the
top should be cut away to within an inch or less of the bud; this will
assist the roots to throw all their energy into the bud.


TOP-BUDDING TREES.

The top-budding of fruit and ornamental trees is much practised
now-a-days by orchardists and fruit-growers generally, and sometimes
with marked success.

A famous horticulturist of Geneva, N. Y., some years ago planted a large
number of Lombard plum trees, which he fondly expected to see come into
bearing while quite young, and be early compensated for his labor and
expense in planting them. He waited a number of years without seeing his
hopes realized; his patience at last became exhausted, and starting, lie
top-budded them all with the Bradshaw plum, which grew rapidly, and bore
abundantly in a couple of years, and last season he received eight
dollars per bushel for the fruit in the Philadelphia market. It is a
well known fact among fruit-growers that some rank-growing varieties of
fruit trees, as for instance the Keiffer Hybrid Pear, do not produce
fruit so early, or in such abundance as some less thrifty-growing
varieties, such as the _Beurre Clairgeau_, but by top-budding the
latter-named sort on to a thrifty specimen of the former, we have a tree
that will bear fruit almost every year.

Nothing will take better from the bud than the rose; some elegant tree
roses can be grown by simply training up a shoot of any common or wild
rose to a sufficient hight, about five feet, and then top-budding it
with three or four choice hybrids, as the _Gen. Jacqueminot_, _La
Reine_, _Coquette des Alps_, and _Black Prince_, and those gems of the
floral kingdom, when in blossom, will form a variety of dazzling
beauties, the effect of which will not only be charming to the eye, but
novel as well. I once removed from the door-yard a large rose bush of
the _Crimson Boursault_ variety, which had a number of large limbs on,
into a corner of the conservatory, and there budded into it fifty
different choice varieties of Roses of all classes: Hybrids, Teas,
Noisettes, Bourbons, China, and Bengal varieties. The effect of all
these different Roses, when in full blow the following summer was
amazing; a perfect galaxy of the "Queen of Flowers."

A similar operation is possible for any skillful amateur florist to
perform who has the facilities of a hot-house.

Budding can only be done when, ripe buds can be obtained, and when the
stock to be budded is in a growing and thrifty condition, so that when
opening the bark of the stock, the same peels freely, and opens readily
at the touch of the knife. We will append here a brief table showing at
what months of the summer different trees may be budded:

  Apples       July 10th to 12th.
  Pears        July 10th to 12th.
  Plums        July 10th to 12th.
  Cherries     July 20th to Aug. 1st.
  Quinces      July 20th to Aug. 1st.
  Peaches      July 20th to Aug. 1st.
  Nectarines   Aug. 10th to 20th.
  Apricots     Aug. 10th to 20th.

Most all sorts of ornamental trees, including Roses, in the ordinary
season; namely, from July to August 1st.



CHAPTER XXVIII.

PRUNING.


If we plant trees or shrubs upon our grounds with the hope of making
them more attractive, and at the same time indulge in the common and
mistaken idea that, if we only plant them that nature will take care of
their future, and grow them into handsome and shapely trees and
shrubs--we labor in vain. It is not uncommon to see in the centre of
refinement and culture every where, sadly neglected door-yards; these
are filled with rampant bushes, and wide-spreading evergreens; such
yards have more of a "cemetery look" than should belong to the
surroundings of a cheerful home.

With a little pruning in the proper season, these unshapely bushes might
become things of beauty, and not only look better, but will do better,
if given a severe trimming in the spring. Hedges of Privet, Purple
Barberry, and Japan Quince, look much prettier along the walk than the
old-fashioned fences, which are now being rapidly done away with.

They should be kept pruned low as to not allow them to grow over two
feet high.

The proper time for trimming hedges of all kinds is in mid-summer, after
the shrubs have made a thrifty growth; we would advise an annual pruning
in order to have the hedge looking finely.

It is a bad plan to allow a hedge of any kind, especially an evergreen
one, to run a number of years without trimming. If a hedge is neglected
so long, and then severely pruned, it will look stubby and shabby for a
year or two after. With a pair of sharp hedge-shears, a person having a
straight eye will make a good job of the trimming every time.

The spring is the time of the year in which to do the pruning of all
kinds of plants, vines, and shrubs, that are out of doors, as they are
then dormant. Some prefer to prune grape vines in the fall, just after
they have ripened and shed their leaves. We think it unsafe to prune
anything too severely in the fall, especially the grape vine. Much
experience has taught us to select the month of March as the time of the
year most suitable for performing the operation.

Every one who has a garden should possess a pruning knife with a long
blade, curved at the end, for the operation. Armed with this implement,
let us take a walk upon the lawn, and down into the garden, while the
snow is still white upon the ground. The first thing that we meet as we
enter the garden, is the large grape trellis, with its mass of tangled
brown canes, a perfect mat of long vines and curling tendrils. How are
we to attack this formidable network of vines in order to do anything
with them? The first thing to be done is to sever all the cords and ties
that fasten the vines to the trellis, and allow them to fall to the
ground for convenience in trimming them. Spread the vines out full
length upon the ground, and beginning at one of its arms, cut each shoot
of the previous season's growth back to two eyes; if the canes are too
numerous some may be cut out entirely. After all the "arms" of each vine
have been pruned in this manner, the vine can be returned to the arbor
and tied up as before. If there is a prospect of cold weather let the
vines lie upon the ground, as they will be less liable to "bleed," or to
suffer from the cold. This is the simplest way we know of to trim grape
vines, and any amateur gardener can do it if he tries this manner.
Walking a little further, we come upon some rose bushes: there are too
many branches among them, and too much old wood, and some that is
entirely dead. With our knife we will remove at least one half of this
excess of wood, leaving as much young wood of the previous season's
growth as possible by thinning out the old limbs and dead wood severely.
Here is one Moss Rose bush, the stems appear as brown and looking as
seared as a berry; it is apparently winter killed, and by cutting into
it we find that to be the case; the roots are in all probability sound,
and we will cut the stems down to the ground and cover the place with a
forkful of stable manure; if the roots are alive it will grow and bloom
the coming summer. Here is a large standard Rose with a fine top, we
will head this back short, cutting each stem to an eye or two of the
bottom. Proceeding to the lawn we run across some weeping deciduous
trees, among them is a large Kilmarnock Weeping Willow, its beautiful
pendant branches fairly reach the ground, and switch the snow as they
sway to and fro. Nothing more beautiful could be imagined. We would head
this back close, and it should be done every spring and most of the old
wood thinned out. This large climbing Rose that clings so close to the
piazza, should be trimmed about in the same way as we did the grape
vine, and also this large Clematis Jackmanii should be cut to the ground
and allowed to start up anew in the spring. Here is a clump of shrubbery
among which we see the _Weigela_, _Spiræas_, _Purple Fringe_, _Deutzia
crenata_, _Hydrangea paniculata grandiflora_, the Syringa, and a number
of other favorite shrubs. These will all need more or less cutting back
and trimming, and now is a good time to do it. We know one gentleman who
boasted the finest display of Roses in his county, who was in the habit
of cutting his Rose bushes down to the ground every spring, and when
they began to grow he had dug in around each one an abundance of well
rotted compost, "and," said he, "I have never seen the day, from June
to October, that I could not pluck a large bouquet of the choicest
Hybrid Perpetual roses, while my next door neighbor, who also had rose
bushes, could find no flower after June." I will say that this gentleman
was in the habit of cutting his roses once a day, and never allowing the
flowers to fade on the bush, which is an excellent plan to keep up a
perpetuity of bloom.



CHAPTER XXIX.

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES.


TREE ROSES.

In planting tree roses received from the nursery or elsewhere, be sure
and set them deep; the stem, for six or eight inches above the collar,
should be under ground. If wet moss be tied about the stem and head of
the tree after it has been planted, and the moss kept wet for a week or
two after planting, or until the buds begin to start, it will, in nine
cases out of ten, save the tree. The moss maybe removed after the growth
begins. If planted in the fall, the body and top should be well wrapped
up in straw.


THE LAWN.

If one has a fine lawn and desires to keep it so, he should never work
upon or mow it when the turf is wet or soggy. The impression made by the
feet in walking over the sod while in this state, will leave the surface
rough and uneven afterwards. Do not water the grass or plants while the
sun is shining hot, as it will scorch the leaves and make them turn
yellow. All weeds, such as dandelions, plantain, etc., growing up
through the grass, should be carefully and thoroughly dug out by the
roots with a knife or pointed spade; if allowed to remain, they will
soon become so numerous as eventually to kill out the grass and give to
the lawn an appearance of neglect.


LAWN VASES.

The earth in vases of plants that stand out in exposed places, will
rapidly dry out; if shells or fine gravel is laid over the surface of
the soil, they will prevent it from "baking" after watering, and hold
the moisture much longer than without. Try it.


PLANTING TREES.

The spring is preferable to the fall for setting out trees and shrubs of
all kinds. In the Northern States they should be set out about the first
of April, to give the roots time enough to become established before
warm weather starts the leaves.

Of thousands of trees and shrubs that we have planted at this season,
comparatively few failed to live and grow, providing they were in good
condition at the time of planting. Young trees should not be headed back
the year they are set out, but the roots may be trimmed a little,
cutting off all that are bruised and broken. The hole in which a tree or
shrub is to be set, should be ample enough to receive all the roots
without cramping them into a ball, as is the habit of some who plant
trees, the soil filled in about the roots should be fine, but not the
sub-soil, which should be replaced by richer earth. Never allow manure
to come in direct contact with the roots at the time of planting. It is
very injurious, but it may be applied on the surface as a mulch, with
safety.


BOTANICAL NAMES.

All species of plants belong to some particular genus, and bear a
botanical, as well as a common name, by which they are distinguished.
Those who have studied botany will know the exact botanical name of the
plants in most collections. We sometimes see persons making themselves
ridiculous by a pretended display of knowledge on matters of
horticulture and botany, giving or pretending to give the botanical name
of every plant one may happen to mention. The following anecdote will
apply to such: Mr. Sidney Smith, the famous English writer, was once
visiting the conservatory of a young lady who was proud of her plants
and flowers, and used (not very accurately) a profusion of botanical
names. "Madam," he said, "have you the _Psoriasis septennis_?" "No," she
said, very innocently, "I had it last winter, and I gave it to the
Archbishop of Canterbury, and it came out beautifully in the spring."
_Psoriasis septennis_, is the medical name for the "Seven year Itch!"


FROZEN PLANTS.

Tender plants that have become frozen, or but slightly touched by frost,
can be saved, if taken before they commence to thaw out; sprinkle or dip
the affected part in cold water, and then remove the plant or plants
into a dark place to remain for a day, then bring them to the light. We
have saved whole beds of tender plants from death by early frosts in the
autumn, by getting up long before sunrise, drenching the leaves with
water, and then covering the plants with a sheet or blanket.


CUTTING GRASS.

It is so easy to mow the lawn with the light-running modern lawn-mower,
that many fine lawns are injured by too frequent mowings. We should not
follow any set time for mowing, but be governed by the growth of the
grass and the weather. When hot weather approaches, the grass should be
cut less often, for too close cutting will expose the roots, and if the
weather be dry and hot for a considerable period, the grass as a
consequence will wither prematurely.


AN ARCH.

A very simple thing sometimes will look the most attractive. By driving
two limber poles into the ground by the side of each of two gate posts,
and bringing the two ends of the poles together, and fasten them
securely, a respectable arch can be made. At the foot of each pole plant
a _Clematis Jackmanii_, and train them to run up their poles; they will
grow rapidly, and in a short time the arch will be covered with
beautiful purple stars. This Clematis is entirely hardy, and can be used
for the same purpose every year by cutting it close to the ground in the
fall when done growing.


BLOOM.

When watering plants avoid wetting the foliage as much as possible, as
they will not bloom as freely as if the leaves were dry. Geraniums are
known to bloom a great deal more freely where the roots are confined to
a small space, and the soil about them kept rather dry; especially is
this so with the double sorts.

Geraniums may be grafted successfully; the short growers, like Mrs.
Pollock, Mountain of Snow, and Happy Thought, can be top-grafted on to
the strong-growing kinds, like Gen. Grant, Madam Lemoine, and other
strong-growers. If half a dozen sorts are grafted on a single stock,
they will, when in bloom, appear as a curiosity.


MILDEW.

Mildew is a microscopic fungus, that is parasitic upon cultivated
plants. Roses, Bouvardias, and especially grape vines, are subject to
its attacks. If not arrested, mildew will soon strip a plant of its
foliage. Whenever a whitish dust, as if flour had been sprinkled upon
them, appears upon the leaves, particularly those of the Rose, and its
leaves curl up, it is evident that the plant is attacked by mildew, and
some remedy must be at once applied to prevent the spread of the
trouble. Several excellent remedies are used by florists and gardeners
for the prevention and cure of mildew. None of these are more effective
than the following, which, if applied in time, before the disease has
become so bad as to be beyond help, will very surely arrest it. Take
three pounds each, of Flowers of Sulphur and Quick-lime, put these
together and add sufficient hot water to slake the lime. When the lime
is slaked, add six gallons of water, and boil down to two gallons. Allow
the lime to settle, and pour off the clear liquid and bottle it for use.
To treat plants affected by mildew, add one gill of the liquid, prepared
as above, to six gallons of water, and mix well together. This is to be
freely syringed upon the plants every other day. It will not only arrest
mildew, but prevent it. Sudden changes of temperature, as cool nights
following warm days, tend to the production of mildew, and with house
plants, these sudden changes should be carefully guarded against.



CHAPTER XXX.

SENTIMENT AND LANGUAGE OF FLOWERS.


  Amaranth                   Immortality.
  Amaryllis                  Beautiful, but timid.
  Aster, double              Variety.
  Aster, German              Afterthought.
  Arbutus                    Thee only do I love.
  Acacia                     Friendship.
  Apple Blossom              Preference.
  Asphodel                   Remembered after death.
  Arbor Vitæ                 Unchanging friendship.
  Alyssum                    Worth beyond beauty.
  Anemone                    Your love changes.
  Azalea                     Pleasant recollections.
  Argeratum                  Worth beyond beauty.
  Balsam                     Impatience.
  Blue Bell                  Constancy.
  Balm                       Pleasantry.
  Bay-leaf                   I change but in death.
  Bachelor's                 Button   Hope.
  Begonia                    Deformed.
  Bitter Sweet               Truth.
  Buttercup                  Memories of childhood.
  Brier, Sweet               Envy.
  Calla                      Feminine Modesty.
  Carnation                  Pride.
  Clematis                   Mental Excellence.
  Cypress                    Disappointment, Despair
  Crocus                     Happiness.
  Columbine                  I cannot give thee up.
  Cresses                    Always cheerful.
  Canterbury Bell            Constancy.
  Cereus, Night-blooming     Transient beauty.
  Candytuft                  Indifference.
  Chrysanthemum              Heart left desolate.
  Clover, White              I promise.
  Clover, Four-leaved        Be mine.
  Crown Imperial             Authority.
  Camellia                   Spotless purity.
  Cissus                     Changeable.
  Centaurea                  Your looks deceive me.
  Cineraria                  Singleness of heart.
  Daisy, Field               I will think of it.
  Dahlia                     Dignity.
  Daffodil                   Unrequited love.
  Dandelion                  Coquetry.
  Everlasting                Always remembered.
  Everlasting Pea            Wilt thou go with me.
  Ebony                      Blackness.
  Fuchsia                    Humble love.
  Foxglove                   Insincerity.
  Fern                       Sincerity.
  Fennel                     Strength.
  Forget-me-not              For ever remembered.
  Fraxinella                 Fire.
  Geranium, Ivy              Fond of dancing.
  Geranium, Oak              A melancholy mind.
  Geranium, Rose             I prefer you.
  Geranium, Scarlet          Stillness.
  Gladiolus                  Ready armed.
  Golden Rod                 Encouragement.
  Gillyflower                Promptness.
  Hyacinth                   Benevolence.
  Honeysuckle                Devoted love.
  House Leek                 Domestic economy.
  Heliotrope                 I adore you.
  Hibiscus                   Delicate beauty.
  Hollyhock                  Ambition.
  Hydrangea                  Vain glory.
  Ice Plant                  Your looks freeze me.
  Ivy                        Friendship.
  Iris, German               Flame.
  Iris, Common Garden        A message for thee.
  Jonquil                    Affection returned.
  Jessamine, White           Amiability.
  Jessamine, Yellow          Gracefulness.
  Larkspur                   Fickleness.
  Lantana                    Rigor.
  Laurel                     Words though sweet may deceive.
  Lavender                   Mistrust.
  Lemon Blossom              Discretion.
  Lady Slipper               Capricious beauty.
  Lily of the Valley         Return of happiness.
  Lilac, White               Youth.
    "    Blue                First emotions of love.
  Lily, Water                Eloquence.
  May Flower                 Welcome.
  Marigold                   Sacred affection.
  Marigold and Cypress       Despair.
  Mandrake                   Rarity.
  Mignonette                 Your qualities surpass your charms.
  Morning Glory              Coquetry, Affectation.
  Mock Orange                Counterfeit.
  Myrtle                     Love in absence.
  Mistletoe                  Insurmountable.
  Narcissus                  Egotism.
  Nasturtium                 Patriotism.
  Oxalis                     Reverie.
  Orange Blossom             Purity.
  Olive                      Peace.
  Oleander                   Beware.
  Primrose                   Modest worth.
  Pink, White                Pure love.
    "   Red                  Devoted love.
  Phlox                      Our hearts are united.
  Periwinkle                 Sweet memories.
  Pæony                      Ostentation.
  Pansy                      You occupy my thoughts.
  Poppy                      Oblivion.
  Rhododendron               Agitation.
  Rose, Bud                  Confession of love.
    "    "  White            Too young to love.
    "   Austrian             Thou art all that is lovely.
    "   Leaf                 I never trouble.
    "   Monthly              Beauty ever new.
    "   Moss                 Superior merit.
    "   Red                  I love you.
    "   Yellow               Infidelity.
  Rosemary                   Remembrance.
  Sensitive Plant            Modesty.
  Snow-Ball                  Thoughts in heaven.
  Snow-Drop                  Consolation.
  Sumach                     Pride and poverty.
  Sweet William              Gallantry.
  Syringa                    Memory.
  Sunflower                  Lofty thought.
  Tuberose                   Purity of mind.
  Thyme                      Activity.
  Tulip, var                 Beautiful eyes.
  Tulip, Red                 Declaration of love.
  Tritoma                    Fiery temper.
  Verbena                    Sensibility.
     "    Purple             I weep for you.
     "    White              Pray for me.
  Violet, Blue               Faithfulness.
     "    White              Purity, candor.
  Woodbine                   Fraternal love.
  Wall Flower                Fidelity in misfortune.
  Wistaria                   Close friendship.
  Wax Plant                  Artificial beauty.
  Yucca                      Your looks pierce me.
  Yew                        Sadness.
  Zinnia                     I mourn your absence.


       *       *       *       *       *


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=Farm Grasses of the United States of America=

By WILLIAM JASPER SPILLMAN. A practical treatise on the grass crop,
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varieties, the seed and its impurities, grasses for special conditions,
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the grasses grown on American farms. Every phase of the subject is
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inches. Cloth. $1.0


=The Book of Corn=

By HERBERT MYRICK, assisted by A. D. SHAMBIA, E. A. BURNETT, ALBERT W.
FULTON, B. W. SNOW, and other most capable specialists. A complete
treatise on the culture, marketing and uses of maize in America and
elsewhere for farmers, dealers and others. Illustrated. 372 pages. 5 x 7
inches. Cloth. $1.50


=The Hop--Its Culture and Care, Marketing and Manufacture=

By HERBERT MYRICK. A practical handbook on the most approved methods in
growing, harvesting, curing and selling hops, and on the use and
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=Tobacco Leaf=

By J. B. KILLEBREW and HERBERT MYRICK. Its Culture and Cure, Marketing
and Manufacture. A practical handbook on the most approved methods in
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The contents of this book are based on actual experiments in field,
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506 pages and 150 original engravings. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $2.00


=Bulbs and Tuberous-Rooted Plants=

By C. L. ALLEN. A complete treatise on the history description, methods
of propagation and full directions for the successful culture of bulbs
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=Fumigation Methods=

By WILLIS G. JOHNSON. A timely up-to-date book on the practical
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=Diseases of Swine=

By Dr. R. A. CRAIG, Professor of Veterinary Medicine at the Purdue
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=Spraying Crops--Why, When and How=

By CLARENCE M. WEED, D.Sc. The present fourth edition has been rewritten
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=Successful Fruit Culture=

By SAMUEL T. MAYNARD. A practical guide to the cultivation and
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=Plums and Plum Culture=

By F. A. WAUGH. A complete manual for fruit growers, nurserymen, farmers
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=Fruit Harvesting, Storing, Marketing=

By F. A. WAUGH. A practical guide to the picking, storing, shipping and
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232 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.00


=Systematic Pomology=

By F. A. WAUGH, professor of horticulture and landscape gardening in the
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=Feeding Farm Animals=

By Professor THOMAS SHAW. This book is intended alike for the student
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Upward of 500 pages. Cloth. $2.00


=Profitable Dairying=

By C. L. PECK. A practical guide to successful dairy management. The
treatment of the entire subject is thoroughly practical, being
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=Practical Dairy Bacteriology=

By Dr. H. W. CONN, of Wesleyan University. A complete exposition of
important facts concerning the relation of bacteria to various problems
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Equally useful to the teacher, student, factory man and practical
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=Modern Methods of Testing Milk and Milk Products=

By L. L. VANSLYKE. This is a clear and concise discussion of the
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=Animal Breeding=

By THOMAS SHAW. This book is the most complete and comprehensive work
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=Forage Crops Other Than Grasses=

By THOMAS SHAW. How to cultivate, harvest and use them. Indian corn,
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=Soiling Crops and the Silo=

By THOMAS SHAW. The growing and feeding of all kinds of soiling crops,
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=The Study of Breeds=

By THOMAS SHAW. Origin, history, distribution, characteristics,
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=Clovers and How to Grow Them=

By THOMAS SHAW. This is the first book published which treats on the
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=Land Draining=

A handbook for farmers on the principles and practice of draining, by
MANLY MILES, giving the results of his extended experience in laying
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=Barn Plans and Outbuildings=

Two hundred and fifty-seven illustrations. A most valuable work, full of
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=Irrigation Farming=

By LUTE WILCOX. A handbook for the practical application of water in the
production of crops. A complete treatise on water supply, canal
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=Forest Planting=

By H. NICHOLAS JARCHOW, LL. D. A treatise on the care of woodlands and
the restoration of the denuded timberlands on plains and mountains. The
author has fully described those European methods, which have proved to
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various kinds of soil and sub-soil, whether on mountain or valley.
Illustrated. 250 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.50


=The Nut Culturist=

By ANDREW S. FULLER. A treatise on the propagation, planting and
cultivation of nut-bearing trees and shrubs adapted to the climate of
the United States, with the scientific and common names of the fruits
known in commerce as edible or otherwise useful nuts. Intended to aid
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labor. Cloth, 12mo. $1.50


=Cranberry Culture=

By JOSEPH J. WHITE. Contents: Natural history, history of cultivation,
choice of location, preparing the ground, planting the vines, management
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keeping, profit and loss. Illustrated. 132 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth.
$1.00


=Ornamental Gardening for Americans=

By ELIAS A. LONG, landscape architect. A treatise on beautifying homes,
rural districts and cemeteries. A plain and practical work with numerous
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followed. Illustrated. 390 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.50


=Grape Culturist=

By A. S. FULLER. This is one of the very best of works on the culture of
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planting, training, grafting, etc. 282 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.50


=Gardening for Young and Old=

By JOSEPH HARRIS. A work intended to interest farmers' boys in farm
gardening, which means a better and more profitable form of agriculture.
The teachings are given in the familiar manner so well known in the
author's "Walks and Talks on the Farm." Illustrated. 191 pages. 5 x 7
inches. Cloth. $1.00


=Money in the Garden=

By P. T. QUINN. The author gives in a plain, practical style
instructions on three distinct, although closely connected, branches of
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pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.00


=Greenhouse Construction=

By PROF. L. R. TAFT. A complete treatise on green-house structures and
arrangements of the various forms and styles of plant houses for
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plants exclusively. The construction of hotbeds and frames receives
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engraved for this work, make every point clear to the reader and add
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inches. Cloth. $1.50


=Greenhouse Management=

By L. R. TAFT. This book forms an almost indispensable companion volume
to Greenhouse Construction. In it the author gives the results of his
many years' experience, together with that of the most successful
florists and gardeners, in the management of growing plants under glass.
So minute and practical are the various systems and methods of growing
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careful study of this work and the following of its teachings, failure
is almost impossible. Illustrated. 382 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.50


=Fungi and Fungicides=

By PROF. CLARENCE M. WEED A practical manual concerning the fungous
diseases of cultivated plants and the means of preventing their ravages.
The author has endeavored to give such a concise account of the most
important facts relating to these as will enable the cultivator to
combat them intelligently. 90 illustrations. 222 pages. 5 x 7 inches.
Paper, 50 cents; cloth, $1.00


=Mushrooms. How to Grow Them=

By WILLIAM FALCONER. This is the most practical work on the subject ever
written, and the only book on growing mushrooms published in America.
The author describes how he grows mushrooms, and how they are grown for
profit by the leading market gardeners, and for home use by the most
successful private growers. Engravings drawn from nature expressly for
this work. 170 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.00


=Rural School Agriculture=

By CHARLES W. DAVIS. A book intended for the use of both teachers and
pupils. Its aim is to enlist the interest of the boys of the farm and
awaken in their minds the fact that the problems of the farm are great
enough to command all the brain power they can summon. The book is a
manual of exercises covering many phases of agriculture, and it may be
used with any text-book of agriculture, or without a text-book. The
exercises will enable the student to think, and to work out the
scientific principles underlying some of the most important agricultural
operations. The author feels that in the teaching of agriculture in the
rural schools, the laboratory phase is almost entirely neglected. If an
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it fills a useful purpose, and eventually prepares for successful work
upon the farm. The successful farmer of the future must be an
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material needed for performing the experiments is simple, and can be
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Illustrated. 300 pages. Cloth. 5 x 7 inches. $1.00


=Agriculture Through the Laboratory and School Garden=

By C. R. JACKSON and Mrs. L. S. DAUGHERTY. As its name implies, this
book gives explicit directions for actual work in the laboratory and the
school garden, through which agricultural principles may be taught. The
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inches. 462 pages. Cloth. Net $1.50


=Soil Physics Laboratory Guide=

By W. G. STEVENSON and I. O. SCHAUB. A carefully outlined series of
experiments in soil physics. A portion of the experiments outlined in
this guide have been used quite generally in recent years. The exercises
(of which there are 40) are listed in a logical order with reference to
their relation to each other and the skill required on the part of the
student. Illustrated. About 100 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $0.50


=The New Egg Farm=

By H. H. STODDARD. A practical, reliable manual on producing eggs and
poultry for market as a profitable business enterprise, either by itself
or connected with other branches of agriculture. It tells all about how
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inches. Cloth. $1.00


=Poultry Feeding and Fattening=

Compiled by G. B. FISKE. A handbook for poultry keepers on the standard
and improved methods of feeding and marketing all kinds of poultry. The
subject of feeding and fattening poultry is prepared largely from the
side of the best practice and experience here and abroad, although the
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=Poultry Architecture=

Compiled by G. B. FISKE. A treatise on poultry buildings of all grades,
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special construction; all practical in design, and reasonable in cost.
Over 100 illustrations. 125 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $0.50


=Poultry Appliances and Handicraft=

Compiled by G. B. FISKE. Illustrated description of a great variety and
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Over 100 illustrations. Over 125 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $0.50


=Turkeys and How to Grow Them=

Edited by HERBERT MYRICK. A treatise on the natural history and origin
of the name of turkeys; the various breeds, the best methods to insure
success in the business of turkey growing. With essays from practical
turkey growers in different parts of the United States and Canada.
Copiously illustrated 154 pages 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.00





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This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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