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Title: Shepp's Photographs of the World
Author: Shepp, Daniel B., Shepp, James W.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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SHEPP'S PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE WORLD.

CONSISTING OF

Panoramic Views of Cities--Street Scenes--Public Buildings--Cathedrals--
Mosques--Churches--Temples--Observatories--Castles--Palaces--Homes of
Noted People--Private Apartments of Presidents, Queens, Kings, Emperors,
Monarchs and Rulers--Harems--Universities--Colleges--Active Volcanoes--
Mountain Scenery--Lake Scenery--Lochs--Fjords--Falls--River Scenery--
Cañons--Geysers--Bridges--Parks--Fountains--Theatres--Obelisks--Towers--
Memorials--Tombs--Caves--Cemeteries--Pyramids--Ruins of Castles--Ruins
of Temples--Ruins of Ancient Cities--Tropical Scenery--Towns--Villages--
Huts,

Together with a large array of instantaneous photographs, showing
the every-day life of the people in the various countries of the
world.

COLLECTED FROM

EUROPE, ASIA, AFRICA, AUSTRALIA, NORTH AMERICA, SOUTH AMERICA AND
THE PACIFIC ISLANDS,

REPRESENTING

THE WORLD AS IT EXISTS TO-DAY.

Also, direct copies of all the original famous paintings and statuary,
by the world's old masters and modern artists, taken from the leading
galleries, including the

FRENCH SALON, LOUVRE AND LUXEMBOURG GALLERIES, PARIS; AND VERSAILLES
GALLERY, VERSAILLES, FRANCE; THE DRESDEN GALLERY, DRESDEN, GERMANY;
THE UFFIZI AND PITTI GALLERIES, FLORENCE, ITALY; AND THE VATICAN
GALLERY, ROME.

Forming the largest and most valuable collection of works of art
in the world.

----

CAREFULLY ARRANGED AND APPROPRIATELY EXPLAINED BY

JAMES W. SHEPP AND DANIEL B. SHEPP.

----

SOLD BY SUBSCRIPTION ONLY.

----

GLOBE BIBLE PUBLISHING CO.,

NO. 705 CHESTNUT STREET, PHILADELPHIA, PENNA.



PREFACE

[Illustration: I]n all ages, men have been eager to tell and to
hear new things; and before books were printed, travellers wandered
abroad, bringing home wonderful stories of unknown lands.

In the construction of this publication, the object is not to tell
stories or relate experiences, but to exhibit, by carefully taken
photographs, the great sights of the world as they exist to-day.

The art of teaching with pictures is very old. The ancient Egyptians
used emblems and designs to record the various incidents of their
history, traces of which are still found on obelisks and ruined
temples.

Wood illustrations were also introduced many years ago; and as
time rolled on, marked improvements were made in the art of
wood-engraving. Notwithstanding the fact that they have not the
power of truly representing the original objects they intend to
portray, they are still largely used for illustrating printed books
and papers.

Over a century ago, the art of photography was made known to the
world by Scheele, a Swedish chemist; since then, many improvements
have been made in this art, until now, by the photo-electro process,
an exact photograph can be transferred on a copper plate, without
losing a single line or shade, and from this plate, photographs
can be printed, such as appear in this book.

Owing to the increasing popularity of the graphic and pictorial
methods of imparting information, the photographic camera was employed
to secure photographs of the greatest things of the world as seen
to-day, both for instruction and entertainment.

We forget knowledge acquired by common conversation, and descriptions
of places and things; but when we observe them, and their forms
are conveyed to our minds through the medium of our eyes, they
are indelibly impressed upon the memory.

The object, then, of this Publication is to present photographs
of all the great sights of the world, from every corner of the
globe, carefully reproducing them by the photo-electro process,
and adding a few lines of explanation to every picture, so that
any one can comprehend each subject.

To make this collection, every country was carefully ransacked,
starting in Ireland, with the famous Blarney Castle and Lakes of
Killarney in the south, and extending to the Giant's Causeway in
the north, said by an old legend to have been built by giants to
form a road across the channel to Scotland.

Passing through Scotland, we photographed its hills, castles, lochs,
bridges and cities. Throughout Wales and England, we represent their
busy seaport and manufacturing towns; the home of Shakespeare,
the Bard of Avon; Windsor Castle, far-famed for its beauty and
battlements; Greenwich Observatory, from which the longitude of the
world is computed; Hampton Court, a relic of royalty; and London,
the metropolis of the world, with over six million people, its
crowded streets, imperial buildings, historic abbeys, famous towers
and monuments.

The Netherlands and Denmark are represented by the dykes and windmills,
Copenhagen, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Antwerp, Brussels, the battlefield
of Waterloo; Russia, the land of the Czar, by Moscow, The Kremlin;
St. Petersburg, the Winter Palace. Thence our photographers travelled
across the steppes to Lapland, Finland, Poland, and over the tundras
to sterile Siberia, inflicting its cruel tortures on unhappy exiled
prisoners.

Germany, that romantic country of northern Europe, affords Berlin;
Potsdam, its Royal Palaces; Dresden and its Picture Galleries;
Frankfort-on-the-Main, the former home of Luther, the reformer,
and Rothschild, the financial king of the world; the picturesque
Rhine, lined with its historic castles.

France furnishes for our collection Paris, the proudest city of the
whole world, ever gay, its pretty boulevards, monuments, towers,
bridges, historic buildings, the Louvre and Luxembourg Galleries,
and their treasures of painting and sculptures; Versailles, its
royal palaces, the largest in the world; the palace at Fontainbleau,
buried in the midst of that imperial forest, the home where Napoleon
ruled and abdicated; the cities of the interior and those of the
ever-delightful Riveria, from Marseilles to Monte Carlo, the latter
both lovely, hideous, serene, sensational, beautiful and damnable.

Through Spain and Portugal, every object of interest was photographed,
from the wild and thrilling scenery of the Pyrenees in the north
to that bold headland rock of Gibraltar in the south, and from
the calm Mediterranean in the east to the turbulent waters of the
Atlantic on the west.

Of Switzerland, we exhibit its snow-capped peaks of perpetual ice
and snow; Mont Blanc, Matterhorn and Jungfrau; its placid lakes;
mountain passes, like shelves cut in rock; its bridges of ice and
variety of wild scenery that is seen nowhere but in Switzerland.

Through sunny Italy we gathered photographs from lakes Lugano,
Maggiore and Como with perpetual spring, in the north, to the fiery
crater of Mount Vesuvius in the south; Venice, the "Queen of the
Adriatic;" Genoa, the home of Columbus; Pisa, its leaning tower;
Florence, the "flower of cities," with its galleries of statues
and paintings that the wealth of nations could not purchase; and
Rome, that mighty city by the Tiber, that once ruled the world,
and is still the abode of the Pope; St. Peters and its ruins; yet
now calm, peaceful and powerless.

Austria, where the Catholic bows his head to every shrine, favored
us with its sublime mountain scenery; the picturesque Tyrol; the
blue Danube, famous in history and song; and Vienna, the home of the
Emperor and the former abode of Maria Theresa, strangely fascinating
and unlike any other city in the whole world. Turkey, the land of
the Sultan and the followers of Mahomet, with its strange people
and curious habits, is represented by Constantinople, with its
mosques and minarets, from the top of which the Mussulman sings
out his daily calls for prayer, Ali! Ali!--there is but one God,
and Mahomet is his prophet; its streets, gates and squares; the
Bosphorus and Golden Horn.

Classic Greece, once the centre of art and learning, adorns our
collection with Athens, the Acropolis and Parthenon, the latter
almost completely and shamefully bereft of those famous marbles,
chiseled by Phidias nearly five hundred years before Christ.

In ancient Egypt we photographed the Suez Canal; Alexandria, the
former city of Cleopatra; Cairo, the home of the Khedive and his
harems; the Sphynx and Pyramids, the latter the tombs of the selected
Ptolemies; the river Nile, fed by the melting snows from the mountains
of the Moon, and pouring its waters over this ancient valley with
a regularity as though the ruined temples on its banks give it
command.

Palestine, the Holy Land, made famous in the history of the Christian
Church, added Jeruselem, the City of David; Bethlehem, the cradle
of Christ; Jordan, where He was baptized; the Sea of Galilee, on
whose shores He preached to the multitude; Nazareth, from which
He was called a Nazarene; Gethsemane, where He suffered; Calvary,
where He was crucified.

Asia furnished Mecca, that eternal city to which Mahomet's disciples
make their weary pilgrimages; Hindoostan, from Bombay to Calcutta;
the grottos of Illora; the caverns of Salcette; the Hindoo priests,
chanting the verses of the Vedas; the ruins of the city of the
great Bali, the domes of the pagodas; glacier views, snow bridges,
rattan bridges in the Himalayas; the sacred caves of Amurnath,
to which pilgrimages are made by the Hindoos; Srinugurr and its
floating gardens; curious bridges; bazaars for the sale of the
world-renowned Cashmere shawls, the winding river Jheulm, with
its many curves, suggesting the pattern or design for these famous
wraps; Darjeeling and Mussorie, celebrated hill sanitariums, in
the heart of the Himalayas, much frequented by tourists during
summer; Melapore, where St. Thomas was martyred and where Christ,
perhaps, lived during His absence from Judea, drawing from the
books of the Brahmins, the most perfect precepts of His divine
teachings; the subterranean caverns of Candy; the splendor of the
Valley of Rubies; Adam's Peak; the footmark of Buddha; the fairy-like
view of the Straits of Sunda.

Our photographers also traversed the Celestial Empire, South America,
Central America, Mexico, Greenland, Iceland, Alaska, Canada and
the United States, from the Golden Gate in the west to the Rocky
Coast of New England in the east, and from the Lake Cities in the
north to the Cotton States in the south. Through every country and
every clime, north, south, east and west, wherever was located a
point of interest, an historic castle, a famous monument, a grand
cathedral, a world's wonder, a great city, a crowded avenue, an imperial
building, a pretty picture, an exquisite statue, a picturesque river,
an inspiring grandeur of nature, a curious cavern, a lofty peak, a
deep valley, a strange people, the same was reflected through the
camera and added to this book.

The result of this collection entailed therefore the expenditure
of a vast amount of money and labor, as may be supposed; and the
only wish of the publishers is, that it may afford pleasure and
instruction to those that view the result of their labors.



CONTENTS.

IRELAND.
  Blarney Castle
  Lakes of Killarney
  Dublin (Instantaneous)
  Giant's Causeway

SCOTLAND.
  Municipal Buildings, Glasgow
  Loch Lomond
  Forth Bridge
  Balmoral Castle
  Clamshell Cave, Island of Staffa
  Edinburgh (Instantaneous)

ENGLAND.
  Liverpool (Instantaneous)
  Lime Street, Liverpool (Instantaneous)
  Manchester (Instantaneous)
  Warwick Castle, Warwick
  Shakespeare's House, Stratford-on-Avon
  Brighton
  Osborne House, Isle of Wight
  Hampton Court Palace, Hampton Court
  Greenwich Observatory, Greenwich

  WINDSOR CASTLE.
    Windsor Castle
    Green Drawing Room

  LONDON.
    Midland Grand Hotel and St. Pancras Station
    The Strand (Instantaneous)
    Cheapside (Instantaneous)
    St. Paul's Cathedral
    The Bank of England (Instantaneous)
    Tower of London
    London Bridge (Instantaneous)
    Westminster Abbey
    Houses of Parliament
    Trafalgar Square
    Buckingham Palace
    Rotten Row (Instantaneous)
    Albert Memorial

BELGIUM.
  Antwerp

  BRUSSELS.
    Panoramic View of Brussels
    Palace of the King
    Bourse (Instantaneous)
    City Hall
    Cathedral of Ste. Gudule
    The Forbidden Book. Painting, Ooms

HOLLAND.
  Scheveningen
  Amsterdam (Instantaneous)
  Windmill

NORWAY.
  Christiansand
  Bergen
  Naerdfjord, Gudvnagen
  North Cape

RUSSIA.
  Moscow
  Winter Palace, St. Petersburg

GERMANY.
  The Cathedral, Cologne
  Bingen
  Ehrenbreitstein
  Frankfort-on-the-Main
  Martin Luther's House, Frankfort-on-the-Main
  Ariadne on the Panther, Statuary, Dannecker
  University Building, Leipsic

  BERLIN.
    Royal Palace
    Berlin, Unter den Linden
    Statue of Frederick the Great
    The Brandenburg Gate
    Monument of Victory

  POTSDAM.
    The Historic Windmill

  DRESDEN GALLERY.
    Madonna di San Sisto, Painting, Raphael
    Magdalene, Painting, Battoni,

FRANCE.
  PARIS.
    Bird's-eye View of Paris
    Place de la Concorde (Instantaneous)
    Madeleine (Instantaneous)
    Opera House (Instantaneous)
    Great Boulevards
    July Column
    Statue of the Republic
    Vendome Column
    Royal Palace
    Hotel de Ville
    Cathedral of Notre Dame
    Palace of Justice
    Arc of Triumph
    Dome des Invalides
    Tomb of Napoleon
    Eiffel Tower
    Pantheon
    Louvre Buildings

  LOUVRE GALLERY.
    Venus de Milo, Statuary, Unknown
    Tomb of Phillippe Pot, Statuary, Renaissance
    Peacemaker of the Village, Painting, Greuze

  LUXEMBOURG GALLERY.

    The Last Veil, Statuary, Bouret
    Arrest in the Village, Painting, Salmson
    A Mother, Statuary, Lenoir
    Joan of Arc, Statuary, Chapu
    Paying the Reapers, Painting, Lhermitte
    Ignorance, Painting, Paton

  VERSAILLES.
    Royal Palace
    Royal Carriage

  VERSAILLES GALLERY.
    Last Victims of the Reign of Terror, Painting, Muller
    Napoleon at Austerlitz, Painting, Vernet
    Napoleon, Painting, Gosse

  FONTAINEBLEAU.
    Royal Palace
    Throne Room
    Apartment of Tapestries
    Apartment of Mme. de Maintenon

SOUTHERN FRANCE.
  Nice
  Monaco
  Monte Carlo
  Gaming Hall, Monte Carlo

SPAIN.
  Madrid
  Seville
  Bull Fight, Seville (Instantaneous)
  Toledo
  Gibraltar

PORTUGAL.
  Lisbon

SWITZERLAND.
  Kirchenfeld Bridge, Berne
  Clock Tower, Berne
  Peasant Woman
  Interlaken and the Jungfrau
  Grindelwald
  A Thousand Foot Chasm
  Brunig Pass
  Lucerne
  Rigi
  Rigi-Kulm
  Pilatus
  Simplon's Pass
  Zermatt and the Matterhorn
  Chamounix and Mont Blanc
  Engleberg
  St. Gotthard Railway
  Axenstrasse

AUSTRIA.
  VIENNA.
    Panorama of Vienna
    Hotel Metropole
    Church of St. Stephen
    Theseus, Statuary, Canova,
    Schönbrunn

TURKEY.
  CONSTANTINOPLE.
    Galata Bridge (Instantaneous)
    Mosque of St. Sophia
    Interior of the Mosque of St. Sophia
    Street Scene (Instantaneous)
    Mosque of Ahmed
    Turkish Lady
    Street Merchants
    Sultan's Harem

GREECE.
  Acropolis, Athens
  Parthenon, Athens

ITALY.
  MILAN.
    Grand Cathedral and Square
    Corso Venezia

  TURIN.
    Exposition Buildings
    Duke Ferdinand of Genoa

  GENOA.
    General View of Genoa
    Statue of Columbus

  PISA.
    Leaning Tower

  VENICE.
    Palace of the Doges
    Grand Canal
    Cathedral of St. Mark
    Street Scene in Venice
    The Rialto (Instantaneous)

  FLORENCE.
    The Cathedral
    Vecchio Bridge
    Monk
    Loggia dei Lanzi
    Uffizi Buildings

  LOGGIA DEI LANZI.
    Rape of Polyxena, Statuary, Fedi

  UFFIZI GALLERY.
    Wild Boar, Bronze
    The Grinder, Statuary, 16th Century

  ROME.
    Appian Way and Tomb of Cecilia Metella
    Pyramid of Cestius and St. Paul Gate
    Roman Forum
    Forum of Trajan
    Baths of Caracalla
    Colosseum
    Interior of Colosseum
    Pantheon
    Bridge of St. Angelo and Tomb of Hadrian
    St. Peter's and Vatican
    Interior of St. Peter's
    Romulus and Remus

  VATICAN GALLERY.
    Transfiguration, Painting, Raphael
    La Ballerina, Statuary, Canova
    Laocoonte, Statuary

  NAPLES.
    Toledo Street (Instantaneous)

  MOUNT VESUVIUS.
    Crater

  POMPEII.
    Street of Tombs
    Civil Forum

  ISLAND OF CAPRI.
    General View and Landing

  ISLAND OF ISCHIA.
    Castello

EGYPT.
  ALEXANDRIA.
    Harbor
    Place of Mehemet Ali

  CAIRO.
    Citadel
    Mosque of Mohammed 'Ali
    Street Scene
    Palace of Gezireh

  On Camel-Back
  Pyramids of Gizeh
  Corner View of the Great Pyramid
  The Sphynx
  In Central Africa

  SUEZ CANAL.
    Landing on Suez Canal (Instantaneous)
    Post Office, Suez

PALESTINE.
  Yaffa or Jaffa

  JERUSALEM.
    General View of Jerusalem
    Wailing Place of the Jews
    Street Scene

  Garden of Gethsemane
  Bethlehem
  Dead Sea
  Nazareth
  Jacob's Well

SYRIA.
  Beyrouth
  Great Mosque, Damascus
  Ba'albek
  Mecca

INDIA.
  Kalbadevie Road, Bombay
  Benares
  Tropical Scenery
  Heathen Temple
  Royal Observatory

CHINA.
  Wong Tai Ken

SANDWICH ISLANDS.
  Typical Scene

ALASKA.
  Sitka
  Totem Poles

CANADA.
  Parliament Buildings

UNITED STATES.

  SAN FRANCISCO.
    Golden Gate
    Market Street, San Francisco

  YOSEMITE VALLEY.
    General View
    Glacier Point
    Mirror Lake
    Big Tree

  SALT LAKE CITY.
    Great Mormon Temple

  YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK.
    Pulpit Terrace
    Obsidian Cliff
    Mammoth Paint Pots
    Old Faithful Geyser
    Yellowstone Lake and Hot Springs
    Yellowstone Falls
    Grand Cañon of the Yellowstone

  COLORADO.
    Animas Cañon
    Grand Cañon of the Arkansas River
    Mountain of the Holy Cross
    Manitou and Pike's Peak
    Summit of Pike's Peak
    Gateway to the Garden of the Gods
    Cathedral Spires

  Life in Oklahoma
  Indian Wigwam, Indian Territory
  State Street, Chicago, Ill.
  Niagara Falls, N. Y.
  Bunker Hill Monument, Boston, Mass.

  NEW YORK.
    Park Row
    Brooklyn Bridge
    Elevated Railroad
    Statue of Liberty

  PHILADELPHIA.
    Chestnut Street
    Market Street

  ST. AUGUSTINE, FLA.
    Fort San Marco
    Ponce de Leon

  WASHINGTON, D. C.
    The Capitol
    White House

[Illustration: BLARNEY CASTLE, IRELAND.--Here are observed the
ruins of a famous old fortress, visited by thousands of tourists
every year, on account of a tradition which has been attached for
centuries to one of the stones used in building the castle. Its
walls are 120 feet high and 18 feet thick; but it is principally
noted for the "Blarney Stone," which is said to be endowed with the
property of communicating to those who kiss its polished surface,
the gift of gentle, insinuating speech. The triangular stone is 20
feet from the top, and contains this inscription: Cormack MacCarthy,
"Fortis me fieri fecit A. D. 1446."]

[Illustration: LAKES OF KILLARNEY, IRELAND.--These are three connected
lakes, near the centre of County Kerry. The largest contains thirty
islands, and covers an area of fifteen square miles. The beautiful
scenery along the lakes consists in the gracefulness of the mountain
outlines and the rich and varied colorings of the wooded shores.
Here the beholder falters, and his spirit is overawed as in a dream,
while he contemplates the power and grandeur of the Creator. The
lakes are visited by thousands of tourists annually. The above
photograph gives a general view of them.]

[Illustration: DUBLIN, IRELAND.--Dublin, the capital and chief
city of Ireland, is the centre of the political, ecclesiastical,
educational, commercial, military and railroad enterprises of the
kingdom. It is the residence of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland,
and it claims a high antiquity, having been in existence since the
time of Ptolemy. In the ninth century it was taken by the Danes,
who held sway for over two hundred years. In 1169 it was taken back
by the English, and seven years later, its history began to be
identified with that of Ireland. The city is divided into two parts
by the Liffey, which is spanned by nine bridges. This photograph
represents Sackville street, one of its principal thoroughfares.]

[Illustration: GIANT'S CAUSEWAY, IRELAND.--The Giant's Causeway
derives its name from a mythical legend, representing it to be
the commencement of a road to be constructed by giants across the
channel from Ireland to Scotland. It is a sort of pier or promontory
of columnar basalt, projecting from the north coast of Antrim,
Ireland, into the North Sea. It is divided by whin-dykes into the
Little Causeway, the Middle or "Honeycomb Causeway" here represented,
and the Grand Causeway. The pillars vary in diameter from 15 to 20
inches, and in height, from 10 to 20 feet. It is a most curious
formation.]

[Illustration: MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS, GLASGOW, SCOTLAND.--Glasgow
is one of the best governed cities in Great Britain, and has a
broad, bold and enlightened policy that conduces to the health,
comfort and advancement of its citizens. This photograph represents
its municipal buildings and a statue of Sir Walter Scott. The building
is large and imposing, and of a mixed style of architecture. It
was erected in 1860, at a cost of nearly half a million dollars,
and has a tower 210 feet high. The Post Office, Bank of Scotland,
Town Hall, Exchange and Revenue Buildings are close by.]

[Illustration: LOCH LOMOND, SCOTLAND.--Here is presented the largest
and, in many respects, the most beautiful of the Scottish Lakes; it
is nearly twenty-five miles long, and from one to five miles wide.
Its beauty is enhanced by the numerous wooded islands, among which
the steamer threads its way. Some of the islands are of considerable
size, and, by their craggy and wooded features, add greatly to the
scenic beauty of the lake. Loch Lomond is unquestionably the pride
of Scottish Lakes. It exceeds all others in extent and variety of
scenery.]

[Illustration: FORTH BRIDGE, SCOTLAND.--This bridge, crossing the
Firth of Forth, is pronounced the largest structure in the world,
and is the most striking feat yet achieved in bridge-building. It
is 8296 feet long, 354 feet high, and cost $12,500,000. It was
begun in 1883, and completed in 1890. It is built on the cantilever
and central girder system, the principle of which is that of "stable
equilibrium," its own weight helping to balance it more firmly
in position. Each of the main spans is 1700 feet long, and the
deepest foundations are 88 feet. The weight of the metal in the
bridge is 50,000 tons.]

[Illustration: BALMORAL CASTLE, SCOTLAND.--The above-named castle,
the summer residence of Queen Victoria, is most beautifully and
romantically situated in the Highlands of Scotland. The Queen has
two other residences, one on the Isle of Wight, and the other at
Windsor; but the Highland home is the most pleasant and attractive.
The surrounding country is rich in deer, grouse and every other kind
of game. The place is always guarded by soldiers, and no one is
allowed to come near the castle, unless by special permission. The
cairns which crown most of the hills, are memorials of friends of
Her Majesty. The property covers forty thousand acres, three-fourths
of which is a deer forest.]

[Illustration: CLAMSHELL CAVE, ISLAND OF STAFFA, SCOTLAND.--The
above cave is located on the Island of Staffa, in the Atlantic
Ocean, not far from the mainland. It is one of those remarkable
islands whose wonders have been known to the world for but little
over a hundred years. The name of the island signifies _columns
or staves_. At one time the coast was visited by violent volcanic
actions, the effects of which may still be traced. Staffa is a
little over a third of a mile in circumference, and presents a most
interesting field of study for geologists.]

[Illustration: EDINBURGH, SCOTLAND.--Edinburgh, the capital of
Scotland, and one of the most romantically beautiful cities in
Europe, is finely situated near the Firth of Forth. It is the seat
of the administrative and judicial authorities of Scotland, and is
renowned for its excellent university and schools. Its authentic
history begins in 617, when King Edwin established a fortress on
the Castle Rock. It consists of the picturesque Old Town, familiar
to all readers of Walter Scott, and of the New Town, started in
1768. This photograph represents Princess Street, the principal
thoroughfare of the New Town, Scott's Monument, and Castle Rock,
the ancient seat of Scottish Kings.]

[Illustration: LIVERPOOL, ENGLAND.--Liverpool, the second city and
principal seaport of England, is situated on the right bank of the
Mersey, three miles from the sea, and one hundred and eighty-five
miles from London. The town was founded by King John in 1207, and
its growth for several centuries was very slow. In 1840 regular
steamboat communications were opened between it and New York, which,
no doubt, established the modern pre-eminence of Liverpool. The
importation of raw cotton from the United States forms the great
staple of its commerce. The docks which flank the Mersey for a
distance of seven miles, and give employment to thousands of workmen,
are its most characteristic and interesting sights.]

[Illustration: LIME STREET, LIVERPOOL, ENGLAND.--Situated on the
north-east side of the River Mersey, near its mouth, stands the
above city, extending for miles along its banks. Liverpool is noted
for the magnificence of its docks, which are constructed on the
most stupendous scale, and said to cover, including the dry docks,
over two hundred acres, and fifteen miles of quays. Its principal
avenue is Lime Street, represented by the above picture. The large
building in the centre is the Terminal Hotel, of the London and
Northwestern Railway, which starts from the rear of the building.]

[Illustration: MANCHESTER, ENGLAND.--Manchester is the chief industrial
town of England, and the great metropolis of the manufacturers
of cotton, silk, worsted, chemicals and machinery. Most of the
streets of the older parts of the city are narrow, but those in
the new parts are wide and attractive. The above picture represents
Piccadilly Street, which is one of the principal thoroughfares.
This avenue is bordered by magnificent shops, and always crowded
with pedestrians, omnibuses and other vehicles. The statue in the
centre is that of the Duke of Wellington. Piccadilly has a very
animated appearance.]

[Illustration: WARWICK CASTLE, WARWICK, ENGLAND.--Warwick, a quaint
old town with 12,000 inhabitants, is situated on a hill rising
from the River Avon, and is a place of great antiquity, having
been originally a British settlement, and afterward occupied by
the Romans. Legend goes back for its foundation to King Cymbeline,
and the year one. On a commanding position, overlooking the Avon,
stands Warwick Castle, the ancient and stately home of the Earl of
Warwick. The Castle, which is one of the finest and most picturesque
feudal residences in England, dates from Saxon times.]

[Illustration: SHAKESPEARE'S HOUSE, STRATFORD-ON-AVON, ENGLAND.--Of
all the ancient castles and monuments throughout England, the house
of William Shakespeare at Stratford-on-Avon is perhaps the most
interesting and popular. The chief literary glory of the world
was born here, April 23, 1564, which gives his home an ancient
and noted history. The house has undergone various vicissitudes
since his time, but the framework remains substantially unaltered.
The rooms to the right on the ground floor contain interesting
collections of portraits, early editions of his productions, his
school-desk and signet-ring. The garden back of the house contains
a selection of the trees and flowers mentioned in his plays.]

[Illustration: BRIGHTON, ENGLAND.--This town, situated on the English
Channel, forty-seven miles from London, extends three miles along
the coast, and is fronted by a sea wall sixty feet in height, which
forms a magnificent promenade. The town has elegant streets, squares
and terraces, built in a style equal to the best in the metropolis.
Its fisheries furnish large quantities of fish to the London market.
In the time of George III., it was a mere fishing-village; but
since his day, it has become the most fashionable watering-place
in England.]

[Illustration: OSBORNE HOUSE, ISLE OF WIGHT, ENGLAND.--This is
the residence of the Queen of England; it was completed in 1845,
and is located near Cowes. The latter town is on the north coast
of the Isle of Wight, directly opposite to the mouth of Southampton
Water. The port between them is the chief one of the island, and
the headquarters of the Royal Yacht Squadron. Behind the harbor
the houses rise picturesquely on gentle wooded slopes, and numerous
villas adorn the vicinity. Magnificent residences and castles are
located near by, of which the above picture is a fair representation.]

[Illustration: HAMPTON COURT PALACE, HAMPTON COURT, ENGLAND.--This
palace was built by Cardinal Wolsey, the favorite of Henry VIII., and
was afterwards presented to the King. It was subsequently occupied
by Cromwell, the Stewarts, William III., and the first two monarchs
of the House of Hanover. Since the time of George II., Hampton
Court has ceased to be a royal residence, and is now inhabited
by various pensioners of the Crown. The various rooms that were
formerly occupied by the royalty, are now devoted to the use of
an extensive picture-gallery.]

[Illustration: GREENWICH OBSERVATORY, GREENWICH, ENGLAND.--Greenwich
Observatory is situated six miles from London Bridge, on a hill
one hundred and eighty feet high, in the centre of Greenwich Park.
It marks the meridian from which English astronomers make their
calculations. The correct time for the whole of England is settled
here every day at one o'clock P. M.; a large colored ball descends
many feet, when the time is telegraphed to the most important towns
throughout the country. A standard clock, with the hours numbered
from one to twenty-four, and various standard measures of length
are placed outside the entrance, pro bono publico.]

[Illustration: WINDSOR CASTLE, ENGLAND.--This favorite seat of
the sovereigns of Great Britain, twenty miles from London, at the
town of Windsor, was frequently extended under succeeding monarchs,
until finally, in the reign of Queen Victoria, when it was completed
at a total cost of $4,500,000, it became one of the largest and
most magnificent royal residences in the world. The Saxon kings
resided on this spot long before the castle was founded by William
the Conqueror. In its vaults are buried the sovereigns of England,
including Henry VIII. and Charles I. The interior of the castle is
richly and profusely decorated, and filled with pictures, statuary,
bronze monuments and other works of art.]

[Illustration: GREEN DRAWING-ROOM, WINDSOR CASTLE, ENGLAND.--Windsor
Castle, the residence of the Queen, is one of the largest and most
magnificent royal residences in the world. The interior of the
drawing-room, which is fitted up at an expense of many hundred
thousand dollars, gives a person a fair conception of the elaborate
and artistic display to be witnessed in numerous other apartments.
The interior, beautified with colored marble, mosaics, sculpture,
stained-glass, precious stones, and gilding in extraordinary profusion
and richness, places it among the finest castles in all Europe.]

[Illustration: MIDLAND GRAND HOTEL AND ST. PANCRAS STATION, LONDON,
ENGLAND.--The roof of this station is said to be the most extensive
in the world, being seven hundred feet long, two hundred and forty
feet span, and one hundred and fifty feet high. The hotel is the
terminus of the railway by the same name, and is one of the largest
in London. Travelers arriving at the metropolis of the world, by
almost any of the large railway lines, can secure hotel accommodations
at the end of their journey in the Railway Hotel.]

[Illustration: THE STRAND, London, England.--This street has been
so named from its skirting the bank of the river, which is concealed
here by the buildings. It is very broad, contains many handsome
shops, and is the great artery of traffic between the city and the
West End, and one of the busiest and most important thoroughfares
in London. It was unpaved down to 1532. At that period many of the
mansions of the nobility and hierarchy stood here, with gardens
stretching down to the Thames. The buildings on the left are the
new Law Courts.]

[Illustration: CHEAPSIDE, LONDON, ENGLAND.--This street is in the
very heart of the "city" and is especially noted for its so-called
"cheap shops," where is offered for sale every variety of articles,
from a locomotive to a toothpick. The street is constantly so crowded
with vehicles, that pedestrians are often delayed from fifteen to
twenty minutes in crossing from one side to the other. It affords
much pleasure to stroll along Cheapside and watch the crowds of
pedestrians and vehicles pass up and down the avenue. The buildings
lining Cheapside have an imposing appearance, and are of uniform
architecture.]

[Illustration: ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL, LONDON, ENGLAND.--Conspicuous, on
a slight eminence in the very heart of London, stands the above-named
cathedral, the most prominent building of the city. It is claimed that
in Pagan times a temple of Diana occupied the site of St. Paul's.
The present church was begun in 1675, opened for divine service
in 1697, and completed in 1710. The bulk of its cost, amounting
to nearly $4,000,000, was defrayed by a tax on coal. The church
resembles St. Peter's at Rome, and is in the form of a Latin cross,
five hundred feet long and one hundred and eighteen feet wide.]

[Illustration: THE BANK OF ENGLAND, LONDON, ENGLAND.--This irregular,
isolated, one-story building, covering an area of four acres, and
located in the central part of London, is the largest and most
powerful institution in the world. It is the only bank in London
which has the power to issue paper money; its average daily business
is over $10,000,000. It employs 900 people, and usually carries in
its vaults from $75,000,000 to $100,000,000, while there are from
100 to 125,000,000 dollars of the bank's notes in circulation. On
the right is the Stock Exchange, giving 1000 stock brokers daily
employment.]

[Illustration: TOWER OF LONDON, LONDON, ENGLAND.--This celebrated
fortress is located on the Thames in the eastern portion of London.
Some of the most interesting events in the history of the Old World
are clustered around these ancient relics. Some say the tower was
commenced by Julius Cæsar, while most writers affirm that William
the Conqueror commenced it in 1078. The tower-walls enclose about
twelve acres, on the outside of which is a deep ditch or moat,
formerly filled with water. The tower was for a time a residence for
the Monarchs of England; afterwards a prison for State criminals.]

[Illustration: LONDON BRIDGE, LONDON, ENGLAND.--Centuries ago the
Saxons and Romans erected various wooden bridges over the Thames,
on the site of the present London Bridge; but they were all carried
away by floods, or destroyed by fire. This bridge was begun in
1825 and completed in 1831 at a cost of $10,000,000. The bridge,
928 feet long and 54 feet wide, is borne by five granite arches,
that in the centre having a span of 152 feet. The lamp-posts on
the bridge are cast of the metal of French cannons captured in
the Peninsular War. About 15,000 vehicles and 100,000 pedestrians
cross the bridge daily.]

[Illustration: WESTMINSTER ABBEY, LONDON, ENGLAND.--The Abbey,
built in the form of cross, four hundred feet long and two hundred
feet wide, is of Gothic design, and was founded in 610 A. D.

 "That antique pile,
  Where royal heads receive the sacred gold;
  It give them crowns, and does their ashes keep;
  There made like gods, like mortals there they sleep,
  Making the circle of their reign complete.
  These sons of Empire, where they rise, they set."]

[Illustration: HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT, LONDON, ENGLAND.--These edifices
form a single pile of buildings of the richest Gothic style. They
cover over eight acres, contain one hundred stair-cases, eleven
hundred apartments, and cost $15,000,000. They are perhaps the
most costly national structure in the world. The Queen enters on
the opening and prorogation of Parliament through the Victoria
Tower, which is three hundred and forty feet high. The imposing
river-front of the edifice is nine hundred and forty feet long,
and adorned with statues of English monarchs, from William the
Conqueror to Queen Victoria.]

[Illustration: TRAFALGAR SQUARE, LONDON, ENGLAND.--Here is one of
the finest open places in London. This great square, which is a
centre of attraction, was dedicated to Lord Nelson, and commemorates
his glorious death in the battle of Trafalgar, October 22, 1805,
gained by the English fleet over the combined armaments of France
and Spain. In the centre of the Square, rises to the memory of the
great hero, a massive granite column, one hundred and fifty-four
feet high, and crowned with a statue of Nelson. At the foot of the
pedestal is inscribed his last command, "England expects every
man will do his duty."]

[Illustration: BUCKINGHAM PALACE, LONDON, ENGLAND.--The above palace,
being now the Queen's residence and occupying the site of Buckingham
House, was erected in 1703 by the Duke of Buckingham, and purchased
by George III. His successor remodeled it in 1825, but it remained
vacant until 1837, when it was occupied by Queen Victoria, whose
residence it has since continued to be. The palace now forms a
quadrangle, and is three hundred and sixty feet long. It contains a
sculpture-gallery, a library, green drawing-room, throne-room, grand
saloon, state ball-room, picture-gallery and private apartments.]

[Illustration: ROTTEN ROW, LONDON, ENGLAND.--Rotten Row is the
finest portion of Hyde Park, irrespectively of the magnificent
groups of trees and expanses of grass for which English parks stand
pre-eminent. The Park is surrounded by a handsome and lofty iron
railing, and provided with nine carriage entrances. In the spring
and summer the fashionable world rides, drives or walks through the
Row; and in the drives are seen unbroken files of elegant equipages
and high-bred horses in handsome trappings moving continually,
presided over by sleek coachmen and powdered lackeys, and occupied
by some of the most beautiful and exquisitely dressed women in
the world.]

[Illustration: ALBERT MEMORIAL, LONDON, ENGLAND.--This magnificent
monument to Albert, the late Prince Consort, was erected by the
English nation at a cost of $600,000. On a spacious platform, to
which granite steps ascend on each side, rises a basement adorned
with reliefs in marble, representing artists of every period, poets.
musicians, painters and sculptors. In the centre of the basement
sits the colossal bronze-gilt figure of Prince Albert. The canopy
terminates at the top in a Gothic spire, rising in three stages and
surmounted by a cross. The monument is one hundred and seventy-five
feet high, and gorgeously embellished with bronze and marble statues,
gildings, colored stones and mosaic.]

[Illustration: ANTWERP, BELGIUM.--Antwerp, the capital of a province
of its own name, stands on the right bank of the Scheldt. It is
strongly fortified; its walls and other defenses completely encompass
the city on the land sides, having more than twelve miles of massive
ramparts. The appearance of Antwerp is exceedingly picturesque, an
effect produced by its numerous churches, convents, magnificent
public buildings, its elaborate and extensive fortifications, the
profusion of beautiful trees, and by the stately antique-looking
houses which line its older thoroughfares. Of the docks, dock-yards
and basins, constructed by Bonaparte at an expense of $10,000,000,
the last only remains. Its harbor is one of the finest in the world.]

[Illustration: PANORAMIC VIEW OF BRUSSELS, BELGIUM.--Brussels,
the capitol of Belgium and the residence of the royal family, is
situated nearly in the centre of the Kingdom. The above picture
presents a general view of the city, the tile roofs of the houses,
with the Palace of Justice looming up in the background. This stately
edifice, completed in 1883, was erected at an expense of over
$10,000,000. This high tower of marble forcibly suggests the mighty
structures of ancient Egypt or Assyria, and the vast amount of
energy spent in their erection.]

[Illustration: PALACE OF THE KING, BRUSSELS, BELGIUM.--The above
edifice originally consisted of two buildings, which were erected
during the last century. These were connected by an intervening
structure, and adorned in 1827 with a Corinthian colonnade. It is
one of the principal and notable buildings of the City of Brussels.
The interior contains a number of apartments handsomely fitted up,
and a great variety of ancient and modern pictures. A flag hoisted
on the palace announces the presence of the King.]

[Illustration: BOURSE, BRUSSELS, BELGIUM.--In the central portion
of the City of Brussels on the Boulevard Anspach, rises the Bourse
or New Exchange, an imposing pile in Louis XIV. style. Its vast
proportions and almost excessive richness of ornamentation combine
to make the building worthy of being the commercial centre of an
important metropolis; but it has been sadly disfigured by the
application of a coat of paint, necessitated by the foible nature
of the stone. The principal façade is embellished with a Corinthian
colonnade, to which there is an ascent of twenty steps.]

[Illustration: CITY HALL, BRUSSELS, BELGIUM.--This is by far the
most interesting edifice in the city, and one of the noblest and
most beautiful buildings of the kind in Belgium. It is of irregular,
quadrangular form, one hundred and ninety-eight feet in length, and
one hundred and sixty-five feet in depth, and encloses a court.
The principal façade is of Gothic style, and the graceful tower,
which, however, for some unexplained reason does not rise from
the centre of the structure, is three hundred and seventy feet in
height. The entire building dates back to the fourteenth century,
and is still occupied by municipal offices.]

[Illustration: CATHEDRAL OF STE. GUDULE.--In the central part of
the City of Brussels, overlooking its lower section, is the above
edifice, one of the most imposing and most ancient Gothic churches
in Belgium. It consists of a nave and aisle, having a retro-choir,
and deep bays, resembling chapels. It was built in 1220, and has
been in constant use for 670 years. While the elements of time are
crumbling its outside surface, leaving an abundance of disintegrated
matter at the base of its walls, its interior is adorned with fine
paintings and kept in apparently good order.]

[Illustration: THE FORBIDDEN BOOK (BY OOMS), ACADEMY OF FINE ARTS,
BRUSSELS, BELGIUM--This striking painting by that celebrated artist,
is a pleasing commingling of many colors, which, of course, are lost
in the photograph. The picture represents a private library, the
father and daughter eagerly devouring the contents of the Bible.
Unexpected foot-steps are heard; hence the frightened look of both,
for, in those days, reading the Bible was punished by death. The
painting is a subject study for the earnest Bible-reader.]

[Illustration: SCHEVENINGEN, HOLLAND.--This famous and popular
summer resort is annually visited by thousands of people. The sand
is firm and smooth, and the place possesses a great advantage over
other watering-places on the North Sea, having The Hague and woods
in close proximity, the latter affording pleasant and shady walks.
What appear like wooden posts driven in the sand in the above picture,
are wicker-basket chairs, with roofs to keep off the sun. Scores
of canvas tents line the shore, and thousands of people lie on
the beach from early morning until late at night.]

[Illustration: AMSTERDAM, HOLLAND.--This is the largest and most
important city in Holland, and constitutionally its capital. It
stands on a soft, wet ground, under which, at a depth of fifty
feet, is a bed of sand. Into this sand piles are driven, on which
buildings are reared, a fact which gave rise to the jest of Erasmus
of Rotterdam, that he knew a city whose inhabitants dwelt on tops
of trees like rooks. The city is surrounded by grassy meadows.
Amsterdam ranks much higher as a trading than as a manufacturing
town. The photograph represents St. Antoine Street.]

[Illustration: WIND-MILL, HOLLAND.--Millions wonder that a country
so situated as Holland can exist; and the stranger is almost unable
to decide whether land or water predominates. Those broken and
compressed coasts, those deep bays and great rivers, the lakes
and canals crossing each other, all combine to give the idea of
a country that may at any time disintegrate and disappear. In the
thirteenth century the sea broke the dykes in northern Holland
and formed the Zuyder Zee, destroying many villages and causing
the death of eighty thousand people. To drain the lakes, and save
the country from destructive inundations, the Hollanders press
the air into their service, which is represented by the above
wind-mill.]

[Illustration: CHRISTIANSAND, NORWAY.--Christiansand is the largest
town on the south coast of the Scandinavian peninsula, and the
residence of one of the five Norwegian Bishops. It is beautifully
situated at the mouth of the Otteraa, on the Christiansand Fjord.
The town is named after Christian IV., by whom it was founded in
1641, and is regularly laid out with streets intersecting at right
angles. It possesses an excellent harbor, at which all the coasting
steamers of that country, and those from England, Germany and Denmark,
arrive regularly.]

[Illustration: BERGEN, NORWAY.--Bergen is one of the oldest and
most picturesque cities in Norway. The general aspect of the town
is modern, though traces of its antiquity are not wanting. The
older part adjoins the spacious harbor called Vaagen, and spreads
over the rocky heights at the base of the Florfjeld and over the
peninsula of Mordanes. Fish has always been the staple commodity
of the city, and it is still the greatest fish market in Norway.
The above picture represents the harbor, with vegetable-peddlers
and their portable stalls in the foreground.]

[Illustration: NIERDFJORD, GUDVNAGEN, NORWAY.--One of the grandest
and most picturesque of the many Fjords on the broken coast of
Norway, is represented here. Enormous waterfalls, formed by the
melting snows and ice, are seen along the steep precipices of the
high mountains on every side. The mountains on both sides of this
inland sea, rise to the height of several thousand feet. The steamer
in the foreground is one of the many that make weekly trips between
Christiansand and Hammerfest, the latter being the most northern
town in the world. During the summer season, these steamers are
crowded with tourists to their utmost capacity. This fact evinces
the grandeur of the place, and the interest it must afford to
travellers.]

[Illustration: NORTH CAPE, NORWAY.--This cape (71° 10' N. Lat.),
consisting of a dark gray slate-rock, furrowed with deep clefts,
rising abruptly from the sea, is usually considered the most northern
point of Europe; its height is about nine hundred and seventy feet.
The northern sun, creeping at midnight (the time this photograph was
taken) along the horizon, and the immeasurable ocean in apparent
contact with the skies, form the grandest outlines and the most
sublime pictures to the astonished beholder. Here, as in a dream,
the many cares and anxieties of restless mortals seem to culminate.]

[Illustration: MOSCOW, RUSSIA.--Moscow, which was at one time the
capital of all Russia and home of the Czar, was founded nearly seven
hundred and fifty years ago. The principal event in its history
is the burning of it in 1812, for the purpose of dislodging the
French from their winter quarters during the French and Russian
war. The city is built with strange irregularities, having streets
and numerous paltry lanes opening all at once into magnificent
squares. It has a great number of churches and monasteries, and
a university with 1000 students. This photograph represents the
principal portion of the city and the river Moskva, on whose bank
it is situated, with the Kremlin in the distance, piercing the
air with its lofty spires.]

[Illustration: WINTER PALACE, ST. PETERSBURG, RUSSIA.--This magnificent
palace is fronted with a large number of Corinthian columns, which
give it a formidable yet beautiful appearance. On the top, along the
front and sides, it is adorned by a number of statues representing
various emblems and figures in Russian history. The most beautiful
apartment of the edifice is the Salle Blanche, or white saloon,
where the court fêtes are held. The room contains the crown jewels
of Russia, and is decorated in pure white and gold. The effect
is most dazzling.]

[Illustration: THE CATHEDRAL, COLOGNE, GERMANY.--This building
justly excites the admiration of every beholder, and is probably
the most magnificent Gothic edifice in the world. It stands on a
slight eminence, sixty feet above the Rhine. As early as the ninth
century, an Episcopal church occupied the site, but the inhabitants
regarded it to be unworthy, as compared with the prosperity of the
city, and consequently started a new one. The foundation-stone
of the present structure was laid on August 14, 1248. On the 15th
of October, 1880, the completion of the Cathedral was celebrated
in the presence of William I.]

[Illustration: BINGEN, GERMANY.--Bingen, a Hessian town of Prussia,
with a population of 7100, is situated at the confluence of the
Nahe and Rhine rivers. The Romans erected a castle here in 70,
when a battle was fought between them and the Gauls. Bingen carries
on a large trade in wine, starch and leather. The town is in a
beautiful and highly picturesque country, and is visited by thousands
of tourists during the summer season. On an island in the Rhine is
the Mansethum, or "Rat Tower," a structure erected in the thirteenth
century. Bingen is celebrated in song, poetry, story and history.]

[Illustration: EHRENBREITSTEIN, GERMANY.--This small town, with
five thousand three hundred inhabitants, prettily situated in a
valley, is crowned with the fortresses of Ehrenbreitstein and
Asterstein, which are connected with Coblenz by a bridge of boats,
about four hundred yards in length. The majestic fortress of
Ehrenbreitstein rises opposite the influx of the Moselle, and is
situated on a precipitous rock, three hundred and eighty-five feet
above the Rhine, inaccessible on three sides, and connected with
the neighboring heights on the north side only. The view from the
top is one of the finest on the Rhine. It embraces the fertile
Rhine Valley from Stolzenfels to Andernach.]

[Illustration: FRANKFORT-ON-THE-MAIN, GERMANY.--The above city,
formerly one of the few independent towns of Germany, now belongs
to Prussia. Old watch-towers in the vicinity indicate its ancient
extent. The city lies on a spacious plain bounded by mountains,
on the right bank of the navigable river Main. On the left bank
lies Sachenhausen, a suburb connected with Frankfort by four stone
bridges and one suspension bridge. In a commercial, and particularly
a financial, point of view, Frankfort is one of the most important
cities of Germany.]

[Illustration: MARTIN LUTHER'S HOUSE, FRANKFORT-ON-THE-MAIN,
GERMANY.--Here is a historic relic which justly excites the admiration
of the beholder. This is where Martin Luther lived for a time after
he had nailed to a church-door in Wittenberg the theses in which
he contested the doctrine at the root of the detestable traffic
carried on for the Pope by Tetzel and his accomplices. This brought
to the front a man who had certainly many faults, but who amply
made up for them by his force of intellect and the loftiness of
his aims.]

[Illustration: ARIADNE ON THE PANTHER, BETHMANN'S MUSEUM,
FRANKFORT-ON-THE-MAIN, GERMANY.--This exquisite piece of sculpture
is the masterpiece of Dannecker, a sculptor of Stuttgart, who is
likewise famous for his bust of Schiller. Of the many subjects
sculptured by Dannecker, Ariadne, especially, has a peculiar charm
of novelty, which has made it a European favorite in a reduced
size. It is perhaps the contrast between the delicacy of the female
human form and the subdued rude force of the panther she rides,
that attracts the admiration.]

[Illustration: UNIVERSITY BUILDING, LEIPSIC, GERMANY.--Leipsic
is one of the great commercial cities of Germany, the centre of
the German book-trade, the seat of the supreme law-courts of the
German Empire, and contains one of the most ancient and important
universities in Europe. The interior of the city consists of lofty
and closely built houses, dating chiefly from the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries, and is surrounded by five handsome suburbs,
beyond which is a series of villages, almost adjacent to the town.
The above picture represents one of the University buildings.]

[Illustration: ROYAL PALACE, BERLIN, GERMANY.--This palace, six
hundred and fifty feet long, three hundred and eighty feet wide,
and rectangular in form, rises in four stories to the height of
one hundred feet, while the dome on the right is two hundred and
thirty feet high. In the time of Frederick the Great, it served
as a residence for all the members of the royal family, contained
all the royal collections, and was the seat of several government
officials. Now it is used for reception rooms, and a dwelling for
royal officials. The exterior of the palace is massive and imposing;
the interior is beautifully embellished.]

[Illustration: BERLIN, GERMANY.--Berlin, the capital of Prussia
and the home of the emperor, with its large and beautiful buildings
and its regularity of streets, ranks among the finest cities in
Europe. The most noted street is that called "Unter den Linden,"
the city's pride, a broad and imposing thoroughfare, resembling the
boulevards of Paris. It contains four rows of trees, ornamented at
one end by the Brandenburg Gate, and at the other by the equestrian
statue of Frederick the Great, well represented by this photograph.
The palace of the king, different gardens, the aquarial museum and
many other noted buildings border on "Unter den Linden," which is
nearly a mile long, and thronged all day with pedestrians.]

[Illustration: STATUE OF FREDERICK THE GREAT, BERLIN, GERMANY.--This
impressive and masterly work was erected in 1851 at one end of
the "Linden," and is probably the grandest monument of its kind
in Europe. The great King is represented on horse-back, with his
coronation-robes and walking-stick. The pedestal is divided into
four sections. The upper one contains allegorical figures and scenes
in Frederick's life, with the figures Moderation, Justice, Wisdom
and Strength at the corners; the second section contains figures
of the King's officers, and the lower section, the names of other
distinguished men.]

[Illustration: THE BRANDENBURG GATE, BERLIN, GERMANY.--The Brandenburg
Gate, forming the entrance to Berlin, from the Thiergarten, was erected
in 1793 in imitation of the Propylæa at Athens. It is 85 feet high
and 205 feet wide, and has five different passages, separated by
massive Doric columns. It is at the one end of "Unter den Linden,"
and its middle passage is reserved for royal carriages only. The
material is sandstone, and it is surmounted by a Quadriga of Victory
from copper, taken to Paris by Napoleon in 1807, but restored in
1814. On the side are two wings resembling Grecian Temples, one
of which is a pneumatic post-office and the other a guard-house.
Both combine in their construction, strength, elegance and beauty.]

[Illustration: MONUMENT OF VICTORY, BERLIN, GERMANY.--This monument,
rising to a height of two hundred feet, stands on a circular terrace,
approached by eight granite steps in the Thiergarten. It was dedicated
on September 2, 1873, to commemorate the great victories of 1870
and 1871. The massive square pedestal is adorned with reliefs in
bronze. Above, in the flutings of the column, which consists of
yellow, grayish sandstone, are placed three rows of Danish, Austrian
and French cannon, captured in the different battles fought with
those nations.]

[Illustration: THE HISTORIC WINDMILL, POTSDAM, GERMANY.--Potsdam
is almost entirely surrounded by a fringe of royal palaces, parks
and pleasure-grounds. Here is located the palace of Sanssouci.
Adjacent to the palace is the famous windmill, now royal property,
which its owner refused to sell to the King, meeting threatened
violence by an appeal to the judges of its supreme court.]

[Illustration: MADONNA DI SAN SISTO (BY RAPHAEL), DRESDEN GALLERY,
DRESDEN, GERMANY.--This masterpiece of Raphael, was photographed direct
from the original painting, worth $400,000. It is an altar-piece,
representing the Virgin and Child in clouds, with St. Sixtus on
the right, St. Barbara on the left, and the cherubs beneath. A
curtain has just been drawn back, and the Virgin issues, as it
were, from the depth of Heaven, her large serene eyes seeming to
embrace the whole world in their gaze. The most striking feature
of the painting is the expression of naive innocence depicted on
the faces of the cherubs.]

[Illustration: MAGDALENE (BY BATTONI), DRESDEN GALLERY, DRESDEN,
GERMANY.]

[Illustration: BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF PARIS, FRANCE.--Paris, the largest
city in the French Republic, and its capital, covers an area of
thirty square miles, with a population of about 2,000,000. The
river Seine, which flows through the centre of the city, is spanned
by twenty-eight bridges, of which the seven principal are shown on
this photograph. The city is noted for its fine parks, magnificent
churches, colossal buildings, and wide boulevards, of which the Champs
Elysees is the most famous. Paris is the centre of the political,
artistic, scientific, commercial and industrial life of the nation.]

[Illustration: PLACE DE LA CONCORDE, PARIS, FRANCE.--Place de la
Concorde, one of the most beautiful and extensive public parks
in Paris, being considered, by the best authorities, the finest
in the world, is bounded by the Seine, Champs Elysees, Tuileries
and Rue de Rivoli. Numerous historical associations are connected
with the place. The guillotine did much bloody work here during
1793-4-5; upwards of 2800 people perished by it. Foreign troops
frequently bivouacked on the square when Paris was in their power.
The Obelisk of Luxor, a Monolith or single block of reddish granite
76 feet high, was presented to Louis Phillipi by Mohamed Ali and
erected in the centre of the Place. It adds very much to the interest
of the park.]

[Illustration: MADELEINE, PARIS, FRANCE.--The foundation of this
church was laid by Louis XV. in 1764. The Revolution found the
edifice unfinished, and Napoleon I. ordered the building to be
completed as a "Temple of Glory." Louis XVIII., however, returned
to the original intention of making it a church. The edifice was
finally completed in 1842, and the amount of money expended was
upwards of $2,500,000. It stands on a basement, surrounded by massive
Corinthian columns. The building, which is destitute of windows,
is constructed exclusively of stone, light being admitted through
sky-lights in the roof.]

[Illustration: OPERA HOUSE, PARIS, FRANCE.--This is a most sumptuous
edifice, completed in 1874, and covering an area of nearly three
acres. Nothing can surpass the magnificence of the materials with
which it is decorated, and for which almost all Europe has made
contributions. Sweden and Scotland yielded a supply of green and
red granite; from Italy were brought the yellow and white marbles;
from Finland, red porphyry; from Spain, "brocatello;" and from
France, other marbles of various colors. The cost of the site was
over $2,000,000, and that of the building nearly $8,000,000.]

[Illustration: GREAT BOULEVARDS, PARIS, FRANCE.--The splendid line
of streets, known as the Great Boulevards, which extend on the
north side of the Seine, from the Madeleine at one end, to the
Bastile at the other, was originally the line of fortifications or
bulwarks of the City of Paris. In 1670, the city having extended
northward far beyond the fortifications, the moats were filled up,
the walls destroyed and the above Boulevards formed. This photograph
represents the Grand Hotel at the corner of the Place de l'Opera.]

[Illustration: JULY COLUMN, PARIS, FRANCE.--The above monument
was erected after the Revolution of July, 1830, in honor of the
heroes who fell on that occasion, and solemnly dedicated in 1840.
The total height of the monument is one hundred and fifty-four feet,
resting on a massive round sub-struction of white marble, originally
intended for Napoleon's Elephant, which he had planned to erect in
bronze on this spot; but his plans were never consummated. On the
sub-struction rises a square basement, on each side of which are
four bronze medallions, symbolical of Justice, the Constitution,
Strength and Freedom.]

[Illustration: STATUE OF THE REPUBLIC, PARIS, FRANCE.--This national
statue is made of bronze, and was erected in 1883. The stone pedestal,
fifty feet in height, is surrounded with seated bronze figures
of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity. The statue, thirty-two feet
high to the top of the olive branch, makes a striking and imposing
appearance. In front is a brazen lion, with the urn of universal
suffrage. On the stone pedestal are hewn the words, "To the Glory
of the Republic of France, to the City of Paris, 1883." This statue
was the model for the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor.]

[Illustration: VENDOME COLUMN, PARIS, FRANCE.--Here is an imitation
of Trajan's column at Rome. It is one hundred and forty-two feet
high, and thirteen feet in diameter, and was erected by the order
of Napoleon I., from 1806 to 1810, to commemorate his victories in
1805, over the Russians and Austrians. The figures on the spiral
column represent memorable scenes, from the breaking up of the
camp at Boulogne, to the battle of Austerlitz. The metal of these
figures was obtained by melting 1200 Russian and Austrian cannons.
The top is a statue of Napoleon.]

[Illustration: ROYAL PALACE, PARIS, FRANCE.--The above palace,
erected by Cardinal Richelieu in 1634, was occupied after his death
by Anne of Austria, the widow of Louis XIII., with her sons Louis
XIV., and Philip of Orleans, then in their minority. In 1815 the
Orleans family regained possession of the Palais Royal; and it was
occupied by Louis Philippe to 1830. Shortly before the outbreak of
the revolution of July, he gave a sumptuous ball here in honor of
Neapolitan notabilities then visiting Paris. In 1871, the Communists
set the Palais Royal on fire, but it has since been carefully restored.]

[Illustration: HOTEL DE VILLE, PARIS, FRANCE.--The above edifice, in
many respects one of the finest buildings in Paris, may be regarded
as an enlarged reproduction of the original building, with richer
ornamentation and more convenient arrangements. It has played a
conspicuous part in the different revolutions, having been the usual
rallying place of the Democratic party. Here was also celebrated
the union of the July Monarchy with the Bourgeoisie, when Louis
Philippe presented himself at one of the windows in August, 1830,
and, in view of the populace, embraced Lafayette.]

[Illustration: CATHEDRAL OF NOTRE DAME, PARIS, FRANCE.--Founded in
1163, but not completed until the thirteenth century. Since then
the building has been frequently altered. During the Revolution
the Cathedral was sadly desecrated. The side chapels were devoted to
orgies of various kinds. In 1802 it was again re-opened by Napoleon
as a place of divine worship. During 1871 Notre Dame was desecrated
by the Communists. The treasury was rifled, and the building used
as a military depot. When the insurgents were compelled to retreat,
they set fire to the church, but fortunately little damage was
done.]

[Illustration: PALACE OF JUSTICE, PARIS, FRANCE.--This palace,
occupying the site of the ancient palace of the kings of France,
was presented by Charles VIII., in 1431, to the Parliament or Supreme
Court of Justice. The palace was so much injured by fire in 1618
and in 1776, that nothing of it now remains except the two round
domes which are seen on the right of the picture. The bridge seen
in connection with the avenue in the foreground, spans the Seine,
having been built by Napoleon, while the avenue itself leads to
the Exchange.]

[Illustration: ARC OF TRIUMPH, PARIS, FRANCE.--This is the finest
triumphal arch in existence. It is situated at one end of the Champs
Elysees, on an eminence, and can be seen from nearly every part of
the city. Twelve magnificent avenues radiate from it, nearly all
of them sloping upward to the arch. It was commenced by Napoleon
I. in 1806, and completed by Louis Philippe in 1836, at a cost of
$2,000,000.]

[Illustration: DOME DES INVALIDES, PARIS, FRANCE.--The beautiful
gilded dome, three hundred and forty feet high, which surmounts the
church of the Invalides, and which can be seen at a great distance,
is built on the north side of the Seine, and forms a part of the
Hotel des Invalides. The Hotel des Invalides, founded in 1670 by
Louis XIV., for aged veterans, covers an area of thirty-one acres.
Immediately under the gilded dome, is a crypt below the floor,
containing the tomb of Napoleon.]

[Illustration: TOMB OF NAPOLEON, PARIS, FRANCE.--This tomb is situated
beneath the Dome des Invalides, in an open circular crypt, twenty
feet in depth and thirty-six feet in diameter. The walls are of
polished granite, adorned with ten marble reliefs. On the mosaic
pavement rises the Sarcophagus, thirteen feet long, six and one-half
feet wide, and fourteen and one-half feet high, a huge block of
reddish-brown granite weighing sixty-seven tons, and costing $30,000.
At the further end of the crypt appears Napoleon's last request:
"I wish that my ashes rest on the banks of the Seine, in the midst
of the French people, whom I loved so well." To these words, as
well as to the tomb of the great leader, every Frenchman reverts
with pride.]

[Illustration: EIFFEL TOWER, PARIS, FRANCE.--This enormous monument
surpasses anything of the kind hitherto erected. From all parts
of the city its graceful head may be seen, completely dwarfing
into insignificance every public building and spire that Paris
contains. It has three platforms. The first, of vast extent and
comfortably arranged for many hundred visitors at a time, contains
cafés and restaurants. The second is 376 feet from the ground, and
the third, 863 feet. The total height of the Tower is 985 feet,
being the loftiest monument in the world.]

[Illustration: PANTHEON, PARIS, FRANCE.--This structure standing
on the highest ground in the City of Paris, occupies the site of
the tomb of Ste. Genevieve, the patron saint of Paris. The present
edifice was completed in 1790. The new church was dedicated to
Ste. Genevieve, but in 1791 the Convention resolved to convert it
into a kind of memorial temple, which they named the "Pantheon."
In 1885 it was secularized for the obsequies of Victor Hugo. The
edifice is of most imposing dimensions, in the form of a Greek
cross. The building resembles the Pantheon in Rome.]

[Illustration: LOUVRE BUILDINGS, PARIS, FRANCE.--Here are presented
the most important public buildings in Paris, both architecturally
and on account of the treasures of art they contain. The oldest
part of the Louvre has been the scene of many historical events.
It is divided into two different sections, the ground floor being
devoted to an Egyptian museum. The other apartments contain the
Asiatic museum, collections of ancient sculpture, collections of
Renaissance sculpture, collections of modern sculpture, a picture
gallery, a saloon of the ancient bronzes, and a collection of Greek
and other antiquities.]

[Illustration: VENUS DE MILO, LOUVRE GALLERY, PARIS.--This statue
of Aphrodite, which was found on the Island of Melos, now Milo,
at the entrance to the Greek Archipelago, was sold to the French
Government for 6000 francs, and is now not for sale for its weight
in gold. It is exhibited in the Louvre and represents one of the most
celebrated treasures of the Gallery. Aphrodite is here represented,
not only as a beautiful woman, but as a goddess, as is seen by
her powerful and majestic form and the noble expression of the
head, indicating her independence of human needs and the placid
self-competence of her divine character. It is one of the masterpieces
which constitute the great marvel of antiquity.]

[Illustration: TOMB OF PHILLIPPE POT, LOUVRE GALLERY, PARIS, FRANCE.]

[Illustration: PEACEMAKER OF THE VILLAGE (BY GREUZE), LOUVRE GALLERY,
PARIS, FRANCE.--This painting was executed by the renowned French
artist when nearly at the zenith of his powers, and is only one of
the many giant masterpieces by this celebrated painter. Greuze,
when quite young, showed considerable talent, which was encouraged
by a Lyonese artist. At the advice of the latter, he drifted to
Paris and produced several Biblical subjects, followed by others of
the same class. He left France for Italy, but returned soon after
and produced the above painting in 1759-61, followed by others,
with increasing success.]

[Illustration: THE LAST VEIL (BY BOURET), LUXEMBOURG GALLERY, PARIS,
FRANCE]

[Illustration: ARREST IN THE VILLAGE (BY SALMSON), LUXEMBOURG GALLERY,
PARIS, FRANCE.]

[Illustration: A MOTHER (BY LENOIR), LUXEMBOURG GALLERY, PARIS,
FRANCE.]

[Illustration: JOAN OF ARC (BY CHAPU), LUXEMBOURG GALLERY, PARIS,
FRANCE--Known in France as Jeanne d'Arc, the maid of Orleans was
born about 1411. In 1428, when Orleans, the key to the south of
France, was infested by the English, she rode at the head of an
army, clothed in a coat of mail, armed with an ancient sword, and
carrying a white standard of her own design, embroidered with lilies,
and having on the one side the image of God holding the world in
His hand, on the other a representation of the annunciation. The
siege of the town was broken, but she was often accused of being
a heretic and sorcerer, and was burned at the stake May 30, 1431.]

[Illustration: PAYING THE REAPERS (BY LHERMITTE), LUXEMBOURG GALLERY,
PARIS, FRANCE.--This famous painting, from which the photograph is a
direct copy, represents a farm scene. The laborers have just finished
their day's work. The man with the scythe, rolled-up sleeves and open
shirt, is a genuine representation of an honest and industrious
laborer. The expression on his face shows a tired look, but a spirit
of contentment gently steals over his face, which nearly all true
and honest country people possess after a day's hard labor.]

[Illustration: IGNORANCE (BY J. COMERRE PATON), LUXEMBOURG GALLERY,
PARIS, FRANCE.--This is one of the most celebrated paintings by
this popular artist. The outlines of the girl are perfect. The
graceful curves of the arms, the sweet expression of the face and
the tender look of the eyes are all charmingly beautiful. The tiny
cap, the loose garment, the uncovered feet, the bare arms, and
the comfortable position of the girl, all add to her beauty. In
the photograph the blended colors of the original painting are
lost, yet the subject can be well studied from this copy.]

[Illustration: ROYAL PALACE, VERSAILLES, FRANCE.--This palace presents
a most imposing appearance; the principal façade is no less than
one-fourth of a mile long. The building dates back, for the erection
of its various parts, to several different periods, and was the
royal residence of the various rulers of France. It has remained
uninhabited since it was sacked by a Parisian mob, which included
many thousand women. The various halls and rooms are now devoted
to the use of most interesting picture galleries.]

[Illustration: ROYAL CARRIAGE, VERSAILLES, FRANCE.--In the Museum
of Carriages at Versailles is a collection of royal vehicles from
the time of the first Emperor to the baptism of the Prince Imperial
in 1856, besides sledges of the time of Louis XIV., and sedan chairs.
The royal carriage in the picture is that of Charles X., afterwards
used by Napoleon on various occasions, the letter "N" being still
seen on the drapery adorning the seat. The carriage is valued at
$200,000, and considered one of the finest vehicles of its kind
in the world.]

[Illustration: LAST VICTIMS OF THE REIGN OF TERROR (BY MULLER)
VERSAILLES GALLERY, VERSAILLES, FRANCE.--The French Revolution,
more commonly termed the "Reign of Terror," is perhaps unparalleled
in the history of civilized countries. Hundreds of citizens were
guillotined, and when that process proved too slow, they were shot
down by platoon-fire. The picture represents a prison scene crowded
with "suspects." The officer to the right, with a list of condemned
criminals, calls out the names of those to be put to death, each
one fearing that his or her name will be next called to join the
procession to the guillotine on the Place de la Concorde. The photograph
presents a view of the last victims of that terrible war.]

[Illustration: NAPOLEON AT AUSTERLITZ (BY VERNET), VERSAILLES GALLERY,
VERSAILLES, FRANCE.--The conqueror here views the progress of the
battle between the French troops, numbering 90,000 men, and the
allied forces of fully 80,000. Napoleon, on his white horse, receives
reports from his generals in the field, while with his field-glass
he watches the advancing columns of both sides. This decisive battle
was witnessed by three Emperors, those of France, Russia and Austria,
and resulted in a glorious victory for Napoleon and the French. A
treaty of peace followed between France and Austria; but it was
of short duration, for the dangerous ambition of Napoleon could
not fail to force all European nations into alliance.]

[Illustration: NAPOLEON (BY GOSSE), VERSAILLES GALLERY, VERSAILLES,
FRANCE.--The above represents the "Little Corporal" on July 7,
1807, at Tilsit, a commercial town of Eastern Prussia, ratifying
the treaty with Russia and Prussia. Russia needed rest, and Napoleon
was not sorry to pause. It was the highest point of the Emperor's
renown. His hand was felt throughout all Europe; it seemed as if
England alone were beyond his power.]

[Illustration: ROYAL PALACE, FONTAINEBLEAU, FRANCE.--This palace,
situated on the south-west side of the town, is said to occupy
the site of a former fortified chateau, founded in 1162. It was
Francis I., however, who converted the mediæval fortress into a
palace of almost unparalleled extent and magnificence. The exterior
is less imposing than that of some other contemporaneous edifices,
as the building, with the exception of several pavilions, is only
two stories in height. It was a favorite residence of Napoleon.]

[Illustration: THRONE ROOM, FONTAINELEAU PALACE, FRANCE.--This
magnificent hall, with a ceiling in relief, containing a chandelier
in rock-crystal, and wainscoated in the reign of Louis XIV., is
perhaps the most sumptuous apartment of the palace. From here Napoleon
almost ruled the world. The canopy of the throne rises by graceful
folds to the rim of the high crown. The bees and the letter "N"
on the chair, and on either side of the throne, are symbolic of
Napoleon. It was in this same room where the Emperor declared his
divorce from Josephine.]

[Illustration: APARTMENT OF TAPESTRIES, FONTAINEBLEAU PALACE,
FRANCE.--This room is embellished with tapestry from Flanders,
woven into the myth of Psyche. The ceiling is in relief, the
old-fashioned mantel-piece dating back to the sixteenth century,
while the vases and clock are the finest Sevres ware. The table in
the centre is the same one on which Napoleon signed his abdication
before taking his parting leave from his old Guard on the 20th of
April, 1814, to go into exile at Elba. The floor of inlaid polished
wood has been much worn by the feet of travelers passing through
the palace daily.]

[Illustration: APARTMENT OF MME. DE MAINTENON, FONTAINEBLEAU PALACE,
FRANCE.--Madame de Maintenon was the second wife of Louis XIV.,
although no written proof of such a marriage is extant; but, that
it took place, is nevertheless certain. As a wife, she was wholly
admirable; she had to entertain a man that would not be amused,
and was obliged to submit to a terribly strict court etiquette
of absolute obedience to the King's inclinations. This she always
did cheerfully, and never complained of weariness or illness. Her
apartments still appear as they did when occupied by her.]

[Illustration: NICE, FRANCE.--Superbly situated on the shores of
the Mediterranean is the City of Nice. In winter it is the rendezvous
of invalids and others from all parts of Europe, who seek refuge
here from the bleak and vigorous atmosphere of the North. The season
begins with the races early in January, and closes with a great
regatta at the beginning of April; but visitors abound from October
until May. In summer the place is deserted.]

[Illustration: MONACO.--This principality of Europe, French in
language, but Italian in tradition, is located in the southern part
of France, on the Mediterranean Sea. Its area is six square miles,
and consists principally of the town of Monaco and its suburbs,
which stand on a high promontory. Monaco has a fine palace, a new
cathedral, a college, a noted casino, where gambling is licensed to
pay with its profits the state expenses; it has also manufactories
of spirits, fine pottery, bricks, perfumery, and objects of myth.
The principality is now virtually under French control.]

[Illustration: MONTE CARLO, FRANCE.--This place is a health-resort
in winter and a sea-bathing place in summer; but the chief attraction
to many is the "tapis vert" at the Casino. Monte Carlo belongs
politically to the diminutive principality of Monaco; the former,
as seen in the picture, is picturesquely situated on a small level
at the foot of a high range of mountains, skirting the Mediterranean.
The building to the left with turrets is the Casino. The population
of the place is almost entirely transient.]

[Illustration: GAMING HALL, MONTE CARLO, FRANCE.--Every portion of
the interior of the Casino, of which the gaming-rooms are a part,
is luxuriously fitted up. The ceilings are elaborately frescoed,
while the walls and niches are adorned with works of art. Admission
to the above room is obtained free upon presentation of a visiting
card at the office. The games in progress from 11 A. M. until 11
P. M., are generally roulette, and patronized by men and women of
all ages and from all countries. For the student of human nature,
the gambling halls present an excellent opportunity to study mankind.]

[Illustration: MADRID, SPAIN.-General view. This city is finely
situated on a wide plain of the Guadalquivir. It contains an abundance
of wealth and power, and is famous for its oranges and women. The
city is very old, its history dating back as far as 600. It is
noted for being the birthplace of many distinguished Spaniards.
Magellan, the famous navigator, sailed from here in 1519, to discover
Magellan Strait. The winter season is very mild and pleasant, and
there is not a day in the whole year in which the sun does not
shine.]

[Illustration: SEVILLE, SPAIN.--On the left bank of the Guadalquiver,
in a level country as productive as a garden, stands the city of
Seville. It is highly picturesque in its combination of buildings
and with a river navigable to its very limits; it is astir with
life and commerce. From the earliest time, this city has been the
chief outlet for the wealth of Spain. In the poorer portions of
the town, the open places are converted into market-stands, as seen
above. Across the river, spanned by a bridge, is a Gypsy quarter
of Triana.]

[Illustration: BULL FIGHT, SEVILLE, SPAIN.--This photograph represents
the great bull-ring of the city, with a capacity for eighteen thousand
people and crowded with spectators to witness the great national
amusement. A general holiday prevails on such occasions. Every
one, rich and poor, possessing a grain of taste for bloody scenes
and striking spectacles, can be found in the Amphitheatre on such
occasions. The show generally lasts for several hours, during which
several bulls, more horses, and not unfrequently, men are killed
in the combat.]

[Illustration: TOLEDO, SPAIN.--This city is situated on a rocky
height, forty-one miles south-west of Madrid; its climate is very
cold in winter and hot in summer. The Cathedral of Toledo, the
metropolitan church of Spain, founded in 587, is four hundred feet
in length, and two hundred and four feet in width, with a lofty
tower and spire. Toledo has long been famous for its manufactories
of sword-blades, and great skill is still shown in tempering the
m. It was taken by the Goths in 467, and by the Moors in 714; it
was retained by the latter until 1085, when it was permanently
annexed to the crown of Castile.]

[Illustration: GIBRALTAR, SPAIN.--This remarkable fortress, which
is a strongly fortified rock at the southern extremity of Spain, and
forms the key to the Mediterranean, is connected with the continent
by a low sandy isthmus, one and one-half miles long, and three-fourths
of a mile wide. The highest point of the rock is about one thousand
four hundred feet above the sea level. Vast sums of money and immense
labor have been spent in fortifying this stronghold. The water
for the supply of the town and garrison is collected during the
rainy season, the roofs of the houses gathering all the falling
rain.]

[Illustration: LISBON, PORTUGAL.--This interesting city is situated
on the Tagus, near the Atlantic Ocean. The length of the city is four
miles, and its breadth about two miles. Lisbon is nobly situated for
commerce, and has the finest harbor in the world. The earthquake
of 1755, traces of which are still visible, destroyed a considerable
portion of it, and killed about sixty thousand of its inhabitants.
This photograph is a correct representation of the better portion
of the city and harbor.]

[Illustration: KIRCHENFELD BRIDGE, BERNE, SWITZERLAND.--The above
structure is a huge iron bridge, seven hundred and fifty-one feet
long, built in 1882-1883, across the river Aare, from the town
proper to Helvetia Platz, where a new quarter of the town is being
built by an English company. In the foreground are the terrace-like
hot-houses and gardens of the peasants, who earn their livelihood
by supplying the inhabitants of Berne with vegetables from their
little farms. From the top of the bridge, in clear weather, the
Bernese Alps can be seen better than from any other point in the
Oberland.]

[Illustration: CLOCK TOWER, BERNE, SWITZERLAND.]

[Illustration: PEASANT WOMAN, SWITZERLAND.--Here is a photograph
of a Swiss girl on her way to church. She presents a true type of
her sex, being well-developed, refined and accomplished. These
peasants are fond of georgeous apparel, and on holidays and Sundays
present a very pleasing spectacle. Their head-dress is particularly
striking, consisting of a cap adorned with fine stiff lace, so
arranged as to form a sort of fan at the back of the head. They
all dress in similar costumes, which are both comfortable and
attractive.]

[Illustration: INTERLAKEN AND THE JUNGFRAU, SWITZERLAND.--The low
land between lakes Thun and Brienz, is called "Brodeli." These lakes
once probably formed a single sheet of water, but were gradually
separated by deposit carried from the mountain-sides. On this piece
of land, "between the lakes," lies Interlaken. The town is a favorite
summer resort and is noted for its mild and equal temperature. The
above picture gives a general idea of the place, with the Jungfrau
nine miles in the distance.]

[Illustration: GRINDELWALD, SWITZERLAND.--Grindelwald is a large
village of widely-scattered houses, in the heart of the Alps and
near the snow-fields. It is an excellent starting-point for mountain
excursions, and also a favorite summer resort, the situation being
sheltered and healthful. The place owes its reputation chiefly to
its glaciers close by. Three gigantic mountains bound the valley.
In years when ice is scarce, these glaciers serve as ice-quarries.]

[Illustration: A THOUSAND FOOT CHASM, GRINDELWALD, SWITZERLAND.--The
above picture represents a chasm over a thousand feet in depth,
with an almost perpendicular wall of rock rising on both sides.
It has been cut down to its present level by the waters of the
melting snows and ice on the mountain above, and strongly impresses
the beholder with the power of the wheel of time. The stream in
the foreground is only one of the many that rise into the dashing
torrents within a hundred yards from their source in the Alpine
country.]

[Illustration: BRUNIG PASS, SWITZERLAND.--There is, perhaps, no
other country in the world that can boast of such expensive and
magnificent public roads as Switzerland. This picture represents
the over-hanging rock of the Brunig Pass, on the way from Lucerne
to Interlaken. High up, along the mountain-side, the road winds
its way, affording to the beholder a magnificent panorama of the
distant snow-fields above, and the green valleys and placid lakes
below.]

[Illustration: LUCERNE, SWITZERLAND.--The above is the capital
of the canton of Lucerne, and one of the three seats of the Swiss
Diet on the Rense, located twenty-five miles from Zurich by rail.
It is highly picturesque, enclosed by a wall and watch-towers.
The principal edifices are a cathedral and other fine churches,
several convents, a town hall, an arsenal with ancient armor, two
hospitals, an orphan asylum, jail, theatre, and covered bridges
adorned with ancient paintings. It is a very attractive summer
resort, the above picture showing its principal promenade.]

[Illustration: RIGI, SWITZERLAND.--The Rigi is a group of mountains
about twenty-five miles in circumference, lying between lakes Lucerne,
Zug and Lowerz. The north side is precipitous, but the south side
consists of broad terraces and gentle slopes, covered with fresh,
green pastures, which support upwards of four thousand head of
cattle; it is planted toward the base with fig, chestnut and almond
trees. The photograph represents the Rigi inclined railway.]

[Illustration: RIGI-KULM, SWITZERLAND.--The summit of the Rigi,
owing to its isolated position, commands an extensive view, three
hundred miles in circumference, that is unsurpassed for beauty
in Switzerland. In 1816 a very modest hotel was erected on the
Kulm by private subscriptions, and in 1848 it was superseded by
the oldest of the three houses on the Kulm. Since then the number
of inns has been steadily increasing, and the Rigi is now one of
the most popular Swiss resorts, and is visited by thousands of
tourists yearly.]

[Illustration: PILATUS, SWITZERLAND.--This lofty mountain rises
boldly in a rugged and imposing mass, almost isolated from the
surrounding heights. Pilatus was formerly one of the best known
Swiss mountains, but in later years it was supplanted by the Rigi.
An inclined railway extends from the base to the summit, and is
said to be one of the boldest undertakings of its kind ever carried
through. Many legends are connected with Pilatus. One of the oldest
is, that when Pontius Pilate was banished from Galilee he fled
hither, and, in the bitterness of his remorse, drowned himself in
the lake.]

[Illustration: SIMPLON'S PASS, SWITZERLAND.--This is the first
Alpine route after Brenner, constructed by order of Napoleon I. A
good walker may easily outstrip the "diligence" in ascending from
either side, especially if he takes short cuts. At the highest
point of the Simplon is a large building, with a lofty flight of
stairs, founded by Napoleon, for the reception of travelers, and
subject to the same rules as that of the Great St. Bernard. This
famous mountain-road is seen in the foreground passing through the
town of Simplon, a little village in the very heart of the Alps.]

[Illustration: ZERMATT AND THE MATTERHORN, SWITZERLAND.--The former
lies in a green valley, with pine-clad slopes, while to the left
rises the huge rock-pyramid of the Matterhorn. In no other locality
is the traveler so completely admitted into the heart of the Alpine
world as here. The Matterhorn was ascended for the first time on
the 14th of July, 1865, but the ascent is now frequently made.
The rock has been blasted at the most difficult points, and a rope
attached to it, so that the most formidable difficulties have been
removed; but even now the ascent is seldom made by any but proficient
climbers.]

[Illustration: CHAMOUNIX AND MONT BLANC.--This Alpine valley is
much frequented in summer, owing to its immediate proximity to Mont
Blanc. It is inferior in picturesqueness to some other portions
of Switzerland, but superior in grandeur of its glaciers, in which
respect it has no rival but Zermatt. The picture shows the little
village of Chamounix, with its few hotels and peasant homes in the
valley below, and the perpetual ice and snow in the background,
seemingly but a few minutes' walk away, yet requiring a good two
hours' journey on mule-back. Apparent Alpine distances are very
deceptive.]

[Illustration: ENGLEBERG, SWITZERLAND.--Engleberg is loftily and
prettily situated in the great mountain region of the Alps, with
a population of about two thousand inhabitants. The church which
appears nearest the mountain, is quite ancient, but contains famous
modern pictures. The snow-covered mountains, five miles in the
distance, change the climate in summer, so that the tourist can
wear an overcoat with comfort. The winters are very severe, and on
account of the deep snows, the inhabitants are sometimes compelled
to remain indoors for eight weeks. The houses and barns are generally
under one roof.]

[Illustration: ST. GOTTHARD RAILWAY, SWITZERLAND.--The railway here
passes through beautiful landscapes, richly wooded with walnut and
chestnut trees, on the left bank of the Ticino. Numerous Campaniles
in the Italian style, crowning the hills, have a very picturesque
effect. The peaks above are covered with snow. From the cliffs
on every side, fall cascades. Huge masses of rock lie scattered
about. Three tunnels of the railway are seen in the picture, the
latter making a descent of three hundred feet by means of two
loop-tunnels, one below the other, in cork-screw fashion.]

[Illustration: AXENSTRASSE, SWITZERLAND.--This famous road extends
nine miles along the Lake of Uri, from Brunnen to Fluelen, and is
noted for the remarkable boldness displayed in its construction.
It is to a great extent hewn out of solid rock, cut like a shelf
into the side of the mountain, with occasional pillars to hold the
thousands of tons of rock above, and a strong balustrade to guard
travelers from tumbling over the abrupt precipice into the lake
many feet below. It is the great highway leading from Switzerland
to Italy, and is regarded as one of the most picturesque roads in
the world.]

[Illustration: PANORAMA OF VIENNA, AUSTRIA--The capital of the
Empire of Austria and residence of the Emperor, is situated in a
plain surrounded by distant mountains, the Danube Canal flowing
through a portion of the city. It was originally a Celtic settlement,
dating back to 14 A. D. The streets of the present city are narrow,
generally well-paved and enclosed by very lofty houses. A great
number of old passages through the courts of houses, by means of
which pedestrians may often make a short cut, are still seen. In
the last quarter of a century, Vienna has acquired an importance
as a seat of art.]

[Illustration: HOTEL METROPOLE, VIENNA, AUSTRIA.--On a branch of
the Danube, flowing through the heart of the City of Vienna, stands
the Hotel Metropole, an enormous building, admirably adapted for
travelers. The picture shows a prominent feature in the street
architecture of Vienna; and the Metropole is only one of the many
private and public buildings of colossal dimensions which have
sprung up within the last few years. The interiors of all these
structures are generally decorated throughout with painting and
sculpture, which shows the perfection attained by the Vienese in
the fine arts.]

[Illustration: CHURCH OF ST. STEPHEN, VIENNA, AUSTRIA.--This is
the most important edifice in the Austrian capital, dating back
in its construction to the thirteenth century. It is constructed
of solid limestone, and built in the form of a Latin cross. Below
the church are extensive catacombs, consisting of three vaults,
filled with bones and skulls. Centuries ago, the sovereigns of
Austria were buried in these vaults. The Tower, built between 1860
and 1864, affords an extensive view, embracing the river Danube
and the battle-fields of Loban, Wagram and Essling.]

[Illustration: THESEUS (BY CANOYA), VOLKSGARTEN, VIENNA, AUSTRIA.--In
the centre of this pleasure ground stands the Temple of Theseus,
containing Canova's fine marble group of the victory of Theseus
over Centaur, originally destined by Napoleon I. for Milan. The
figures are of heroic size. The victorious Theseus is represented
as seated on the lifeless body of the monster, and the exhaustion
that visibly pervades his whole frame, proves the terrible nature
of the conflict in which he has been engaged.]

[Illustration: SCHONBRUNN, AUSTRIA.--This sumptuous edifice, the
summer palace of the Austrian Emperor, was completed by Maria Theresa
in 1775. The building has a most imposing appearance. The gardens in
the rear are open to the public. To the left of the principal avenue
are the Roman ruins, the Obelisk and the "Schöne Brunnen" (beautiful
fountain), from which the palace derives its name. Statues, vases
and other objects of taste of the period are scattered about the
ground. Extensive parks are attached to the palace.]

[Illustration: GALATA BRIDGE, CONSTANTINOPLE, TURKEY.--Along the
north shore of the Golden Horn spreads the quarter known as Galata,
rising up to the crest of the hill, and including the massive tower
that crowns it. Beyond and above Galata, Pera stretches forward
along the ridge that runs parallel with the shore. These places are
connected with Constantinople by two bridges crossing the Golden
Horn. One of these bridges is represented in the above picture.
Unlike those of most other countries, people do not keep on the
sidewalks, but wander along in any portion of the street. The scene
on the Bridge of Galata affords an interesting subject for study.]

[Illustration: MOSQUE OF ST. SOPHIA, CONSTANTINOPLE, TURKEY.--This
is the finest and most important ecclesiastical building of the
city. The first stone of the building was laid in 532. No fewer
than ten thousand workmen are said to have been engaged under the
direction of one hundred master builders, and when the work was
completed, it had cost the imperial treasury $5,000,000. The dome
rises to the height of one hundred and eighty feet, and is one
hundred and seven feet in diameter. To render it as light as possible,
it was constructed of pumice stone and Rhodian bricks. Not long
after its completion, the dome was shaken by an earthquake, but
was immediately restored.]

[Illustration: INTERIOR OF THE MOSQUE OF ST. SOPHIA, CONSTANTINOPLE,
TURKEY.--The whole interior of this noted structure is lined with
costly marble. To add to its splendor, the temples of the ancient
gods at Heliopolis and Ephesus, at Delos and Baalbec, at Athens and
Cyzicus, were plundered of their columns. To secure the building
from ravages of fire, no wood was employed in its construction
except for the doors. The visitor cannot fail to be impressed by
the bold span of the arches and the still bolder sweep of the dome,
while his eye is at once bewildered and charmed by the rich, if
not altogether harmonious, variety of decorations, from the many
colored pillars down to the mosaics and inscriptions on the walls.]

[Illustration: STREET SCENE, CONSTANTINOPLE, TURKEY.--The American
traveler upon entering this city is almost bewildered at the many
novelties that confront him before he reaches his hotel. Nothing
strikes him more forcibly than the awful silence that pervades so
large a place. The only sound heard is an occasional cry of some
vender, with a large wooden tray on his head, selling sweetmeats,
sherbet, fruit or bread. Dogs at intervals disturb the pedestrian.
Hundreds of them lie in the middle of the street, and only move
when aroused by blows. At ten o'clock at night, the city is as
silent as death.]

[Illustration: MOSQUE OF SULTAN AHMED, CONSTANTINOPLE, TURKEY.--Of
all the mosques in the Ottoman Empire, this is the principal one.
It is not as richly decorated as St. Sophia, but it is the only
one that possesses six minarets. It is located on a square called
the Hippodrome, named after the spot that was in former years used
for circus purposes. The exterior view gives it a magnificent
appearance. The place is one of the chief objects of interest in
the city. The crumbling monument in the foreground is a relic of
antiquity.]

[Illustration: TURKISH LADY, CONSTANTINOPLE, TURKEY.]

[Illustration: STREET MERCHANTS, CONSTANTINOPLE, TURKEY.]

[Illustration: SULTAN'S HAREM, CONSTANTINOPLE, TURKEY.--This photograph
represents an odalisque, one of the beautiful inmates of the harem
of the Sultan of Turkey. The photographer who took this picture
found her most courteous and obliging, and able to converse fluently
in English, French and German. Abdul Mezed, who ruled Turkey during
the Crimean War, had 1200 wives and odalisques in his harem. When
a Turkish Sultan wishes to show especial honor to a subject, he
makes him a present of one of the cast-off wives. To refuse the
gift would be to invite death. The harem is continually recruited
by the gifts of those who wish to carry favor with the Sultan,
and these comprise slaves of every nationality.]

[Illustration: ACROPOLIS, ATHENS.--The natural centre of all the
settlements in the Attic plain within the historical period was
the Acropolis, a rocky plateau of crystalline limestone, rising
precipitously to a height of two hundred feet. The semi-mythical
Pelasgi, of whom but a few isolated traces have been found in Attica,
are said to have leveled the top, increased the natural steepness
of the rock on three sides, and fortified the only accessible part
by nine gates. It was the earliest seat of the Athenian kings,
who here sat in judgment and assembled their councils, as well as
of the chief sanctuaries of the State.]

[Illustration: PARTHENON, ATHENS, GREECE.--This structure is the
most perfect monument of ancient art, and even in ruins presents
an imposing and soul-stirring appearance, occupying the culminating
point of the Acropolis. It was erected by Pericles and opened for
public worship in 433 B.C. The crowning glory of the Parthenon
was its magnificent sculpture, ascribed to Phidias, registering
the highest level ever attained in plastic art. The Parthenon was
used as a Christian Church in the fifth century. In 1460 it became
the Turkish Mosque, and in 1670 the stately edifice was blown into
ruins.]

[Illustration: GRAND CATHEDRAL AND SQUARE, MILAN, ITALY.--This
is the focus of the commercial and public life of the city, and
is now enclosed by imposing edifices on every side. The celebrated
Cathedral, the eighth wonder of the world, is next to St. Peter's
in Rome, the largest church in Europe. It covers an area of fourteen
thousand square yards, and holds about forty thousand people. The
building is in cruciform shape, with double aisles and transept.
The interior is supported by fifty-two pillars, each twelve feet
in diameter. The floor consists of mosaic, in marble of different
colors.]

[Illustration: CORSO VENEZIA, MILAN, ITALY.--The principal shopping
street of the city, and the favorite promenade of the Milanese is
here represented. The buildings have a modern aspect, with little
balconies at almost every window, which are often adorned with
plants, flowers and creeping vines. The street, which is well paved,
is wide, extending almost from house to house. The pavements are
very narrow, consisting of only four smooth slabs of stone, laid
side by side. The shop-windows are decorated in the most tempting
style with the wares of the various merchants. The picture was
secured in the early morning, giving the street a deserted look,
which at all other times is crowded with people.]

[Illustration: EXPOSITION BUILDINGS, TURIN, ITALY.--The city of
Turin was the capital of the county of Piedmont in the Middle Ages,
and in 1418 it became subject to the Dukes of Savoy, who frequently
resided here. From 1859 to 1865 it was the capital of Italy, and
the residence of the King. It lies on an extensive plain on the
banks of the River Po. Turin was the chief centre of those national
struggles which led to a unification of Italy. The removal of the
seat of government to Florence seriously impaired the prosperity
of the city for a time, but it long since recovered, and celebrated
its commercial success in 1884 by the exhibition.]

[Illustration: DUKE FERDINAND OF GENOA, TURIN, ITALY.--In the centre
of the piazza Solferino stands the equestrian statue of Duke Ferdinand
of Genoa, commanding-general at the battle of Novara. The statue was
executed by Balzico, and is remarkable for the life-like expression
of the wounded horse, with extended nostrils and gasping breath,
sinking under the burden of his gallant rider. This piazza is one
of the prettiest spots of Turin. Private residences face it on
every side, with sloping lawns relieved by beds of flowers.]

[Illustration: GENOA, ITALY.--Genoa, with a population of about
200,000, is located in the northern portion of the Peninsula, and
is the principal seaport of Italy. The city is in the form of a
crescent, and its gradual ascent from the shore, renders its appearance
beautiful and attractive. It is enclosed by a double line of
fortifications, which places it among the leading fortified cities
in Europe. A beautiful light-house on the west side, 300 feet in
height, stands like a sentinel on the edge of the bay. In the older
portions of the city, the streets are only ten feet wide and are
lined with high buildings on both sides.]

[Illustration: STATUE OF COLUMBUS, GENOA, ITALY.--In the front
of the principal railway station, rises the statue of Columbus,
who was born at Genoa in 1435. The statue is in the centre of the
spacious Piazza Acquaverde, embosomed in palm-trees. The pedestal
is adorned with ships' prows. At the feet of the statue, which
leans on an anchor, kneels the figure of America. The surrounding
allegorical figures represent Religion, Science, Geography, Strength
and Wisdom. Between these, are reliefs from the history of Columbus,
with the inscription, "A Christoforo Colombo la Patria."]

[Illustration: LEANING TOWER, PISA, ITALY.--Pisa is principally
noted for its famous "Leaning Tower," begun in 1174, and built of
white marble; it is 178 feet high, and fronted with 207 columns.
It is 50 feet in diameter, and leans 13 feet from the perpendicular.
The foundation being made insufficiently solid, it began to incline
before it was one-third completed. The Cathedral on the right was
begun in 1604, and consecrated in 1618 by Pope Gelasius; it contains
the famous chandelier which Galileo saw swinging, and which led to
his invention of the pendulum of the clock. The Baptistry, close
by, is noted for its marvelous echo.]

[Illustration: PALACE OF THE DOGES, VENICE, ITALY.--This magnificent
edifice, founded in 800, and destroyed five times, has as often been
re-erected in grander style. The palace is flanked with colonnades,
forming two pointed arcades on the south and west. The upper portion
of the building is constructed of red and white marble. The interior
presents a noble specimen of Venetian art. Many famous masters
are here represented, the subjects either portraying the glory of
Venice, or being of a religious order. The Bridge of Sighs connects
the palace with the prison adjoining, which contains a series of
gloomy dungeons, a torture chamber and a place of execution for
political criminals.]

[Illustration: GRAND CANAL, VENICE, ITALY.--This canal, the main
artery of the traffic of Venice, nearly two miles in length, and
thirty-three to sixty-six yards in width, intersects the city from
north-west to south-east, dividing it into two unequal parts.
Steam-launches, hundreds of gondolas and other vessels are seen
gliding in every direction. Handsome houses and magnificent palaces
rise on the banks, for this is the street of the _Nobili_, the ancient
aristocracy of Venice. A barge, with a military band, navigates
the canal every Sunday evening. A trip on the canal is extremely
interesting; the posts are painted with the heraldic colors of
their proprietors.]

[Illustration: CATHEDRAL OF ST. MARK, VENICE, ITALY.--Facing the
piazza of St. Mark, which is in the heart of Venice and the grand
focus of attraction, rises the magnificent Cathedral of St. Mark,
decorated with almost oriental splendor. The building dates back
to the tenth and eleventh centuries, and portions of the materials
used in its construction have been brought from almost every country
in Europe. The ceiling of the interior is richly adorned with mosaics
in the form of various noted paintings. Behind the High Altar repose
the remains of St. Mark, while further back stand four spiral columns
said to have belonged to the Temple of Solomon. The building to
the right is the Ducal Palace.]

[Illustration: VENICE, ITALY.--The capital of the Province of Venice,
is situated on the lagoons, a long breast of lowlands in the Adriatic.
For a time it was the first maritime and commercial power of the
world, and one of the finest cities in Europe, but now it is nothing
but a vast museum. The eighty islands on which Venice is built,
are divided by wide and narrow canals, while small foot-paths wind
throughout the city, occasionally crossing a canal, as is seen
by the bridge in the above picture. Venice is popularly known as
the "Queen of the Adriatic."]

[Illustration: THE RIALTO, VENICE, ITALY.--This famous bridge,
one hundred and fifty-eight feet long and forty-six feet wide,
rests on twelve hundred posts. It was erected from 1588 to 1591.
Its sides are lined with little shops, extending from a fish-market
at one end, past jewelry-shops in the centre of the structure, down
to a fruit-market at the other side. It always presents a busy
appearance, and is considered a marvel of engineering skill, and
one of the finest bridges in the world. The picture represents the
annual parade on the Grand Canal, with the Rialto in the background,
which is always the rallying centre on such occasions.]

[Illustration: THE CATHEDRAL, FLORENCE, ITALY.--This stately edifice,
erected from 1294 to 1462, on the site of the earlier church of
St. Reparata, is a striking example of Italian architecture. The
church was finally consecrated in 1436, but the lantern on the
top of the dome was not completed until 1462. The building is one
hundred and eighty-five and one-half yards long, and one hundred
and fourteen yards wide; the dome is three hundred feet high. The
bell-tower, a square structure adjoining the cathedral, two hundred
and ninety-two feet in height, is regarded as one of the finest
existing works of its kind. It consists of four stories of richly
decorated and colored marbles.]

[Illustration: VECCHIO BRIDGE, FLORENCE, ITALY.--Florence is situated
on both banks of the Arno, but by far the greatest part of the city
lies on the right bank. The bridge in the picture dates back to
the fourteenth century, and is flanked on both sides with shops
which have belonged to gold-smiths ever since their erection. It
forms one of the principal bridgeways between the city proper and
that portion of Florence which stands on the south bank of the
Arno, and has always been considered one of the greatest sights
of the town.]

[Illustration: MONK, ITALY.--Monasticism primarily meant the state
of dwelling alone; and then, by an easy and natural transition, it
came to denote a life of poverty, celibacy and divine obedience
under fixed rules of discipline. The radical idea of the term, in
all its varieties of age, creed and country, is the same, namely,
retirement from society in search of some ideal life, which society
cannot supply, but which is thought attainable by self-denial and
withdrawal from the world. The picture represents an Italian monk
in funeral attire.]

[Illustration: LOGGIA DEI LANZI, FLORENCE, ITALY.--This magnificent
open-vaulted hall is one of the kind with which it was usual to
provide both public and private patrons of Florence, in order that
the inmate might enjoy the open air or participate in public
demonstrations, without being obliged to descend to the street.
The style of architecture shows a falling off from the Gothic,
while the works of sculpture, representing Faith, Hope and Charity,
Temperance and Fortitude, exhibit an incipient leaning toward
Renaissance forms. Every afternoon the Loggia is crowded with the
poorer people of Florence, who seek a cool spot in the open air.]

[Illustration: UFFIZI BUILDINGS, FLORENCE, ITALY.--This gallery
originated with the Medici collections and was afterwards so improved
with the numerous additions by the Lorraine Family, that it is
now one of the best in the world, both for value and extent. The
Portico of the Uffizi Gallery, seen on both sides of the open court,
contains niches, which are adorned with marble statues of celebrated
Tuscans. At the farthest end of the court, rises the Vecchio Palace,
a castle-like building, with huge projecting battlements, being
originally the seat of the Signora, and subsequently used as a
casino.]

[Illustration: RAPE OF POLYXENA (BY FEDI), LOGGIA DEI LANZI, FLORENCE,
ITALY.--Polyxena, according to Greek legend, was the daughter of
Priam, King of Troy. Having by her grace and beauty captivated
Achilles, the Grecian hero, she was betrothed to him. But Achilles
was slain by Paris, son of Priam; and after his death and the
destruction of Troy, his manes appeared to the returning Greeks,
and demanded of them the sacrifice of Polyxena. The Greeks consented,
and Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles, sacrificed her on his father's
grave. This work of art is of modern execution. It was placed in
the Loggia in 1866.]

[Illustration: WILD BOAR, UFFIZI GALLERY, FLORENCE, ITALY.]

[Illustration: THE GRINDER, UFFIZI GALLERY, FLORENCE, ITALY.--This
magnificent statue was found in Rome in the sixteenth century.
It has never been exactly ascertained what it represents, but it
is supposed to be a Scythian whetting his knife to flay Marsyas.]

[Illustration: APPIAN WAY and TOMB OF CÆCILIA METELLA, ITALY.--This
military road, paved with stone blocks, and extending from Brindisi
to Rome, was constructed by Appius Claudius Cæcus, 312 B.C. Even
at the present time its proud ancient title is that of the "Queen
of Roads," and it is remembered as being the way on which St. Paul
came to Rome. The tomb of Cæcilia Metella, which forms an interesting
and conspicuous object, is a circular structure sixty-five feet in
diameter, erected in honor of the daughter of Metellus Creticus,
wife of the younger Crassus, son of the triumvir.]

[Illustration: PYRAMID OF CESTIUS AND ST. PAUL GATE, ROME, ITALY.--The
pyramid enclosed by Aurelian within the city and wall is the tomb of
Caius Cestius, who died in the year 12 B. C. The Egyptian pyramidical
form was not unfrequently adopted by the Romans in their tombs.
That of Cestius is built of brick and covered with marble blocks.
Immediately to the right of the pyramid is the gate of St. Paul,
leading on to the church of St. Paul beyond. Midway between the
gate and church, legend says, St. Peter and St. Paul took leave
of each other on their last journey.]

[Illustration: ROMAN FORUM, ROME, ITALY.--After the Sabine tribes
were amalgamated into a single state, they chose the Forum as its
centre; and it was there that some of the most noted events in the
history of the Roman Empire transpired. After the Samnite War, which
resulted in the extension of Rome's supremacy over all Italy, the
Forum became too small for its multifarious business; and therefore
underwent many changes. After its destruction, during the Dark Ages,
its remains were gradually buried beneath the rubbish and debris
of some former centuries, but have recently been excavated.]

[Illustration: FORUM OF TRAJAN, ROME, ITALY.--This forum, which
adjoined that of Augustus, contained a collection of magnificent
edifices, and is said to have been designed by Apollodorus of Damascus.
Trajan's forum must have measured two hundred and twenty yards in
width, and was probably of still greater length; it was considered
the most magnificent in Rome. On the north side of the Basilica
rises Trajan's Column, one hundred and forty-seven feet high,
constructed entirely of marble. Around the column runs a spiral
band, covered with admirable reliefs from Trajan's War with the
Dacians. Beneath this monument Trajan was interred; on the summit
stood his statue, now replaced by St Peter's.]

[Illustration: BATHS OF CARACALLA, ROME, ITALY.--These ancient baths
were begun in 212 by Caracalla, and completed by Alex. Severus, and
they could accommodate 1600 bathers at one time. The magnificence
of these baths was unparalleled; numerous statues, including the
Farnese Bull, Hercules and Flora at Naples, have been found here; and
the uncovered walls still bear testimony to the technical perfection
of the structure. The establishment was quadrangular in form, and
surrounded by a wall.]

[Illustration: COLOSSEUM, ROME, ITALY.--The Colosseum, originally
called the Amphitheatrum Flavium and completed by Titus in 80 A.D.,
was the largest theatre and one of the most imposing structures in
the world. It was inaugurated by 100 days' gladiatorial combats, in
which 5000 wild animals were killed. It contained seats for 87,000
spectators. Only one-third of the gigantic structure now remains,
yet the ruins are still stupendously impressive. The Colosseum has
ever been a symbol of the greatness of Rome, and gave rise in the
eighth century to a prophetic saying of the pilgrims: "While stands
the Colosseum, Rome shall stand; when falls the Colosseum, Rome shall
fall; and when Rome falls, with it shall fall the world!"]

[Illustration: INTERIOR OF COLOSSEUM, ROME, ITALY.--The arches
of the first tier are marked by Roman numbers, as they formed so
many entrances, through which, by means of internal stairways, the
upper balconies were reached. The Arena had two openings enclosed
by railings of bronze, through which the gladiators and wild beasts
entered. Above was the Podium, a place intended for the Emperors
and their families, for the magistrates, the senators, the priests
and the vestals. Thousands of Christians in this place suffered
martyrdom, by becoming the prey of wild beasts. The picture presents
the imposing spectacle of the interior of this monument at the
present day.]

[Illustration: PANTHEON, ROME, ITALY.--This is the only ancient
edifice at Rome which is still in perfect preservation, as regards
the walls and vaulting. The original statues and architectural
decorations have long since been replaced by modern and inferior
works, but the huge circular structure with its vast colonnade
still presents a strikingly imposing appearance. The walls are
twenty feet in thickness and were originally covered with marble
and stucco. The height and diameter of the dome are each one hundred
and forty feet. The opening of the dome at the top is thirty feet
in diameter, and through this aperture the ancients supposed the
gods to descend. The building is supposed to have been constructed
in the first century B. C.]

[Illustration: BRIDGE OF ST. ANGELO AND TOMB OF HADRIAN, ROME,
ITALY.--This bridge is of most ancient construction. It was built
by Hadrian in 136 A. D., to connect his tomb with the city. Ten
colossal angels, formerly much admired, and executed in 1688, testify
to the low ebb of plastic art at that period. The tomb was built
by Emperor Hadrian for himself and his successors. The massive
circular tower stands on a square basement on the banks of the
Tiber. The bronze statue of St. Michael, the Archangel, which is
seen on the summit, gives the tower its present name, Castello
S. Angelo.]

[Illustration: ST. PETER'S AND VATICAN, ROME, ITALY.--St. Peter's
is fronted by an elliptical piazza, enclosed by imposing colonnades,
and is the largest and most beautiful Catholic Cathedral in the
world; it was founded by Constantine and erected where St. Peter
is said to have suffered martyrdom. Its erection and improvements
cost over $50,000,000. The great Obelisk in the centre of the piazza,
having no hieroglyphics, was brought from Heliopolis. The Vatican
on the right is the Pope's residence, and is elegantly fitted up,
being adorned with paintings and statues by the world's greatest
masters.]

[Illustration: INTERIOR OF ST. PETER'S, ROME, ITALY.--This most
marvellous church in the world was built on the place where stood
the temple of Jupiter Vaticanus. The first church here is said to
have been built A. D., 90. It was a memorial chapel to St. Peter,
and was, according to tradition, erected on the spot where the
saint was buried. Constantine built a Basilica on the site. The
present structure, the glory of Michael Angelo, was begun about
1503. The picture shows the high altar with the statue of St. Peter
to the very right.]

[Illustration: ROMULUS AND REMUS SUCKING THE WOLF, CAPITOL MUSEUM,
ROME, ITALY.--Thus wrote Virgil ("AEN." VIII-630):

  "By the wolf were laid the martial twins,
   Intrepid on her swelling dugs they hung;
   The foster dam lolled out her fawning tongue;
   She sucked secure; while bending back her head,
   She licked their tender limbs, and formed them as they fed."]

[Illustration: TRANSFIGURATION (BY RAPHAEL), VATICAN GALLERY, ROME,
ITALY.--The last great work and masterpiece of this celebrated
artist, unfinished at his death and completed by Clement VIII., was
preserved in St. Peter's until 1797. The upper part is by Raphael's
own hand; Christ hovers between Moses and Elias; Peter, James and
John are prostrate on the ground, and dazzled by the light. The
figures to the left, in an attitude of adoration, are St. Lawrence
and St. Stephen. The lower half, where the other disciples are
requested to heal the possessed boy, was partly executed by Raphael's
pupils.]

[Illustration: LA BALLERINA (BY CANOVA), ROME, ITALY.--Here is
another of the masterpieces of this famous master-sculptor. It
is hewn out of a solid block of marble, and comes under the head
of "grace and elegance," one of the divisions of Canova's works.
This subject is a most striking one. Like all his other subjects
of grace, it is in all its details, an expression of attitude,
delicacy of finish and elegance. The profile is charming, the twist
of the hair natural, and the lines and curves of the arms perfect,
while the drapery is next to real.]

[Illustration: LAOCOONTE, VATICAN GALLERY, ROME, ITALY.--This famous
group represents Laocoon and his two sons, who were strangled by
serpents at the command of Apollo. According to Pliny, it was executed
by three Rhodians, and placed in the Palace of Titus. It was discovered
under Julius II., in 1506, near Sette Sale, and was termed by Michael
Angelo a "marvel of art." The work is admirably preserved, with the
exception of the three uplifted arms, which have been incorrectly
restored. The dramatic suspense of the moment, and the profoundly
expressive attitude of the heads, denote the perfection of the
Rhodian school of art.]

[Illustration: TOLEDO STREET, NAPLES, ITALY.--This famous city is
beautifully situated on the Bay of Naples, with Mount Vesuvius in
the distance. Its charming position has given rise to the phrase
"See Naples and die." It was founded by the Greeks, and here Virgil
spent his time in study, his tomb being one of the points of interest
for travelers. The city is still surrounded by a wall. It has often
suffered from earthquakes and eruptions. The manufactures are numerous,
of which macaroni and vermicelli are of first importance. The photograph
represents Toledo Street, which intersects the city from south to
north, and with its immense amount of well-conducted business,
presents a very interesting sight.]

[Illustration: CRATER OF MOUNT VESUVIUS, ITALY.--This volcano,
with a crater of nearly a quarter of a mile in circumference, rises
in lonely majesty from the Bay of Naples, and varies in height from
3900 to 4900 feet, according to the varied eruptions. Vesuvius
in the time of Nero manifested itself by a fearful earthquake,
damaging Herculaneum and Pompeii. An eruption occurred in 79 A.D.
by which the two cities named, were lost to the world for seventeen
centuries. Another most terrific eruption occurred in 1631, by
which a stone weighing twenty-five tons was thrown a distance of
fifteen miles, and streams of lava poured from the summit, destroying
over three thousand people.]

[Illustration: STREET OF TOMBS, POMPEII, ITALY.--This photograph
exhibits a suburb of Pompeii named Pagus Augustus Felix, in honor
of Augustus; it lay outside the city walls. It consisted chiefly
of one main street, which has been partly excavated. This is the
so-called Street of Tombs. The ancient custom of burying the dead
by the side of a high road is well known. It has been ascertained
that rows of graves, similar to those discovered here, exist beyond
other gates of Pompeii. The Street of Tombs is, in point of situation,
the most beautiful part of the town.]

[Illustration: CIVIL FORUM, POMPEII, ITALY.--The ancient market-place
in the central part of Pompeii was destroyed by the eruption of Mount
Vesuvius in 79 A. D. The Forum has been excavated during the present
century, and found to be five hundred and fifteen feet long and one
hundred and seven feet wide; it is surrounded by granite columns
of the Doric order. From the discoveries made, it is supposed that
the Forum was far from complete when the eruption occurred. The
smoking mountain is still seen in the distance, while the ruins
of the ancient market stand prominent in the foreground of this
photograph. The Forum is a most interesting spot, and is familiar
to all readers of "The Last Days of Pompeii."]

[Illustration: ISLAND OF CAPRI, ITALY.--This is a small mountainous
island of oblong form; its picturesque outline forms one of the
most charming points in the view of the Bay of Naples. The highest
point is the Monte Solarno, nineteen hundred and twenty feet above
the level of the sea. The island, which contains five thousand
inhabitants and the two small towns of Capri and Anacapri, yields
fruit, oil and excellent red and white wines in abundance. The
inhabitants receive their support mainly from strangers who visit
the island yearly to the number of thirty thousand. The above picture
shows the principal landing-place of Capri.]

[Illustration: CASTELLO, ISLAND OF ISCHIA, ITALY.--The climate of
these charming islands is genial, the sky rarely overcast, the winters
mild, the inhabitants bounteously supplied with the necessaries of
life, and the sick with healing springs. Trees, shrubs and all
kinds of plants thrive luxuriantly in this volcanic soil. Here
and there are observed groves of young oaks and chestnuts. The
inhabitants are distinguished by a peculiar costume, dialect and
figure. Fashion is unknown; not one of the islands can boast of a
horse or carriage. Castello, in the foreground, is a most curious
volcanic formation.]

[Illustration: HARBOR, ALEXANDRIA, EGYPT.--The perfectly flat coast
of Egypt, and even Alexandria itself, are not visible to the steam-boat
passenger until very shortly before the vessel enters the harbor.
The latter consists of an outer breakwater, forming an obtuse angle
nearly two miles in length. A second pier, nearly a mile in length,
protects an inner harbor covering nearly five hundred acres of water,
twenty-seven feet deep. No fewer than thirty thousand artificial
blocks, weighing twenty tons each, and two million tons of natural
blocks of stone were used in the construction of these magnificent
harbor works.]

[Illustration: PLACE OF MEHEMET ALI, ALEXANDRIA, EGYPT.--The site
of this open square is embellished with trees and fountains. It
became a scene of destruction during 1882. In the centre rises the
equestrian statue of Mohammed' Ali, the founder of the reigning
dynasty of Egypt. The Mohammedan religion forbids the pictorial or
plastic representations of the human form. The erection of this
monument was long opposed by the Ulama, or chief professor of divine
and legal learning. The buildings on both sides are shops. That
at the further end is the English church.]

[Illustration: CITADEL, CAIRO, EGYPT.--This citadel affords a
magnificent view of the city and surrounding country. It was erected
in 1166, and built by stones taken from the small pyramids at Gizeh,
the site having been selected, according to Arabian history, owing
to the fact that meat could be kept here fresh twice as long as
in any other part of Cairo. The fortress commands the city, yet
its site is unfavorable, as a commanding height close by compelled
its surrender during the wars of 1805.]

[Illustration: MOSQUE OF MOHAMMED' ALI, CAIRO, EGYPT.--The "Alabaster
Mosque," whose lofty and graceful minarets are so conspicuous from the
distance, form one of the landmarks of Cairo. In plan, it represents the
Turkish mosques, built on the model of Hagia Sofla, at Constantinople.
The execution of the design displays but little artistic taste,
and the treatment of the material is somewhat unsatisfactory. The
alabaster used for the incrustation of the masonry consists partly
of blocks and partly of slabs. The beautiful yellow-tint stone soon
fades when exposed to the sun.]

[Illustration: STREET SCENE, CAIRO, EGYPT.--Most of the streets in
the old part of the town are unpaved, inaccessible to carriages,
and often excessively dirty. They present an inexhaustible field
of amusement and delight, admirably illustrating the whole world
of oriental fiction. The lanes separating the rows of houses in
the Arabian quarter are so narrow that the projecting balconies of
harems, with their gratings, often nearly meet. Rickety, tumbling
houses of every variety of oriental architecture strike the beholder
at every turn, as is illustrated above.]

[Illustration: PALACE OF GEZIREH, CAIRO, EGYPT.--This palace is
located on the Nile, at one end of a park by the same name. Its
external appearance is simple. All the distinguished guests who
were invited to attend the ceremony of the opening of the Suez
Canal were entertained here. The building is State property and
rarely occupied. The interior is furnished in the most sumptuous
and elaborate manner. The onyx mantel-pieces, with mirrors, cost
each $15,000. Portions of the palace are fitted up in suites of
apartments for visitors, each consisting of bed-room, dressing-room
and sitting-room.]

[Illustration: ON CAMEL-BACK, EGYPT.--To people accustomed to all
the comforts and luxuries of the world, who have never experienced
desert tent-life, nor traveled through countries where there are
no people to consult, it is hard to convey an idea of oriental
camel-back traveling. The "ship of the desert" is a most faithful
animal, and loved by his master as much as a child; but his back
affords a very uncomfortable seat. The long backward and forward
motion recalls to the rider the swells of the sea. The above picture
is a perfect specimen of hundreds of such caravans during the traveling
season.]

[Illustration: PYRAMIDS OF GIZEH, EGYPT.--Here are represented the
great Pyramids of Gizeh, occupying a plateau gradually ascending
from east to west, parts of which are very precipitous at places.
The three pyramids are so situated on this plateau as to face the
four points of the compass, although the magnet shows a deviation
toward the west. The Sphinx is situated close by. Numerous tombs,
almost all in ruins, surround these pyramids, and extend over the
plateau to the east. They are sometimes hewn in the form of grottoes
in the external rocky slope.]

[Illustration: THE SPHYNX, EGYPT.--

 "Since what unnumbered year,       "No faithless slumber snatching,
  Hast thou kept watch and ward,     Still couched in silence brave,
  And o'er the buried Land of Fear,  Like some fierce hound long watching,
  So grimly held thy guard?"         Above her master's grave."

[Illustration: LANDING ON SUEZ CANAL, EGYPT.--The Suez Canal, which
connects the Red Sea with the Mediterranean, was completed in 1863.
During the time of construction, which lasted five years, 25,000
men were employed, and 1600 camels to supply them with water. The
cost of constructing the canal was $95,000,000, part of which was
raised by shareholders, and the balance by the Khedive. This picture
represents a landing stage and one of the English trading vessels
sailing between England and India. A number of camels and Arabs
are seen on a ferry-boat, ready to be taken across the Canal, the
latter furnishing the great highway for all European vessels sailing
to or from the Orient.]

[Illustration: POST-OFFICE, SUEZ, EGYPT.--The site of this town
is naturally an absolute desert, and, until the water of the Nile
was introduced by the fresh water canal in 1863, the water-supply
of Suez was brought across the head of the gulf from the "wells
of Moses," on the Arabian coast, or else carried on camels, after
an hour's journey, from the fortified brackish of Bir Suweis. In
spite of its favorable position for commerce, the place was quite
small prior to the time of the canal, and even to-day the canal
carries traffic past Suez rather than to it. The picture shows
the post-office square.]

[Illustration: IN CENTRAL AFRICA.--No country in the world creates
more interest among the civilized nations than does Africa. In the
far interior, where African explorers have failed to find traces
of the outer world, every variety of savage humanity exists. These
uncivilized people, who know nothing of the progress of nations,
live in tribes, preying upon each other's settlements, whenever
opportunity presents itself. The above picture represents the typical
natives of the Dark Continent.]

[Illustration: YAFFA OR JAFFA, PALESTINE.--Jaffa is a small town
lying on the coast of the Mediterranean, at the foot of a rock
one hundred and sixteen feet in height. This town is very ancient,
and a road runs directly from it to Jerusalem. The houses are built
of tuff-stone, and the streets are generally very narrow and dirty,
and, after the slightest rain, exceedingly muddy. The town walls are
falling to decay, and the interior of the town is uninteresting.
Tradition points out the place as the one in which Napoleon is
said to have caused plague-patients to be poisoned, and in which
St. Peter once fished; but the authenticity of it seems to proceed
from a confusion of ideas.]

[Illustration: JERUSALEM, PALESTINE.--Here is a place of overwhelming
interest, but at first sight sadly disappointing. Little is seen
of the ancient City of Zion and Moriah, the far-famed capital of
the Jewish Empire, in the narrow, crooked and ill-paved streets of
the modern town. The combination of wild superstitions, with the
merest formalism which is everywhere observed, and the fanaticism
and jealous exclusiveness of the numerous religious communities of
Jerusalem, form the chief modern characteristics of that memorable
city which was once the fountain-head from which the knowledge of
the true God was wont to be vouchsafed to mankind, and which has
exercised the greatest influence on religious thought throughout
the world.]

[Illustration: WAILING-PLACE OF THE JEWS, JERUSALEM, PALESTINE.--Outside
of the enclosure of Mosque El Aksa, at Jerusalem, is the noted
wailing-place of the Jews. A large number of them, including old and
young, male and female, gather here on Friday, kiss the stones and
water them with their tears. They bewail the downfall of Jerusalem,
and read from their well-worn Hebrew Bibles and prayer-books the
Lamentations of Jeremiah. The following few words are an exact
copy from their litany: "For the Palace that lies desolate, we sit
in solitude and mourn." They present a curious spectacle.]

[Illustration: STREET SCENE, JERUSALEM, PALESTINE.--The above photograph
represents one of the fourteen stations of the "street of pain,"
over which Christ is said to have carried the cross on His way
to Golgotha. The place where Christ was laid upon the cross, the
house of Dives, the rich man, where Simon of Cyrene took the cross
from Christ, the house against which Christ is said to have leaned,
or near which He fell a second time, and the place where Christ
is said to have addressed the women that accompanied Him, are all
seen along this avenue.]

[Illustration: GARDEN OF GETHSEMANE, PALESTINE.--This holy place
is situated at the foot of Mount Olivet across the Kedron, and
noted as the scene of our Lord's agony. Jesus frequently came here,
as did also His disciples. It is a small irregular spot surrounded
by a high wall. This wall was built in 1847 by Franciscan monks,
who claimed it necessary to keep from the garden, pilgrims who
injured the olive trees. There are seven of these trees remaining
in the Garden, whose trunks, nineteen feet in circumference, are
cracked open with age, and claimed to date back to the time of
our Saviour.]

[Illustration: BETHLEHEM, PALESTINE.--"But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah,
though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee
shall He come forth unto Me that is to be ruler in Israel." In
Hebrew the word signifies the "place of bread," or, more generally,
"the place of food," and is possibly derived from the fact that the
region about Bethlehem has from very remote antiquity presented
a marked contrast to the surrounding "wilderness." We learn from
the Bible that the inhabitants of Bethlehem possessed cornfields,
vineyards and flocks of goats, and that they made cheese. The natural
products of to-day in every respect confirm this record.]

[Illustration: DEAD SEA, PALESTINE.--This sea, situated sixteen
miles from Jerusalem and visible from the Mount of Olives, occupies
that deep depression thirteen hundred feet below the Mediterranean,
which extends from the mountains of Lebanon to the Gulf of Akabah,
and is forty-six miles long and about ten miles wide. The River
Jordan and smaller streams empty their waters into it, and it has no
visible outlet. The water of the Dead Sea contains a large quantity
of mineral substances, consisting of chlorides of sodium, calcium
and magnesium, which give it a bitter taste, and render it smooth
and oily.]

[Illustration: NAZARETH, PALESTINE.--This village, situated in
Galilee about sixty-five miles from Jerusalem, is the place where
Jesus grew up from infancy. From its highest elevation the most
beautiful views of the Holy Land can be taken. The place must have
been very small in the time of Christ, as the village is not named in
the Old Testament. The population in those times was mainly Jewish,
but it now has Greek, Latin and Moslem quarters and a Protestant
mission. During the Middle Ages many Christians visited Nazareth,
but when the Turks seized Palestine in 1517, they were again driven
out.]

[Illustration: JACOB'S WELL, PALESTINE.--Jews, Christians and Muslims
agree that this is the "Well of Jacob" of Scripture. (Gen. XXXIII.,
19.) It is situated on the high road from Jerusalem to Galilee,
according perfectly with the narrative of St. John IV., 5-30. In
summer, it is often dry. It is seven and one-half feet in diameter
and lined with masonry. If, as is probable, this well was the scene
of Christ's conversation with the Samaritan woman, the tradition
had already attached to it, that this was Jacob's Well, and around
it was the field which he purchased, and where Joseph was afterwards
buried. (Joshua XXIV., 32.)]

[Illustration: BEYROUTH, SYRIA.--The above city, located on the
Mediterranean, is one of great antiquity. The city proper is an
irregular square, open towards the sea, and surrounded on the land
side by a substantial tower-flanked wall. The streets are wider
than is usual in Syrian towns, and are paved with large stones.
The houses, for the most part, are lofty and spacious. During the
hot season the wealthier inhabitants move inland. The surrounding
hills consist of reddish sand, interspersed with rock, and are
covered with a light soil.]

[Illustration: GREAT MOSQUE, DAMASCUS, SYRIA.--It is possible that
during the first century of the Christian era, a heathen temple
stood on the site of the present mosque. The building was converted
into a Christian church, and contained a casket in which the head
of John the Baptist was shown. The Christian church was destroyed,
and the present mosque erected. Antique columns were collected
in towns of Syria, and used in the decoration. The pavement and
lower walls are covered with rarest marbles. The ceiling, from
which hang six hundred golden lamps, is of wood, inlaid with gold.
The urn above the altar is said to still contain the remains of
the head of John the Baptist.]

[Illustration: BAALBEC, SYRIA.--These magnificent ruins have excited
the wonder and admiration of every beholder. In view of the fact
that the Jewish style of architecture is mingled with that of the
Doric and the Corinthian order, this building is supposed to have
been the house that Solomon built for his Egyptian wife. It may
be surpassed in classical taste by the Temple of Athens, and, in
some respects, Rome may rival it. Even in magnitude the Nile exceeds
it, but there is something about Baalbec that causes it to stand
alone, and makes it peer of all. Its origin is not known, yet it
passed through the Greek, Arab and Roman hands, and suffered assaults
by the Crusades.]

[Illustration: MECCA, SYRIA.--The pilgrimage to Mecca, which every
Muslim is bound to undertake once in his life, is a most curious
religious custom. In the neighborhood of Mecca the pilgrims undress,
laying aside even their head-gear, and put on aprons and a piece of
cloth over the left shoulder. They then perform the circuit of the
Ka'ba, kiss the black stone, hear the sermon on Mount Arafat, near
Mecca, pelt Satan with stones in the Valley of Mina, and conclude
their pilgrimage with a great sacrificial feast. The picture shows the
famous cemetery of Mecca, the bodies all buried above the ground.]

[Illustration: KALBADEVIE ROAD, BOMBAY, INDIA.--The city of Bombay,
under English rule, with a population of nearly a million inhabitants,
is one or the most flourishing cities in India, on account of its
nearness to the Suez Canal. The approach from the sea discloses
one of the finest panoramas in the world, the only European analogy
being the Bay of Naples. The town itself consists of well-built and
usually handsome native bazaars, and of spacious streets devoted
to European commerce, of which the above is one of the principal
avenues.]

[Illustration: BENARES, INDIA.--The city here represented is the
religious centre of Hindooism, and one of the oldest cities on the
globe. The bank of the Ganges is entirely lined with stone, and
there are many very fine landing-places, built by pious devotees, and
highly ornamented. The internal streets are so narrow and winding,
that there is not room for a carriage to pass; and it is difficult
to penetrate them even on horseback. The houses are built of Chanar
stone, and are lofty, none being less than two, and many five and
six, stories high.]

[Illustration: TROPICAL SCENERY, INDIA.]

[Illustration: HEATHEN TEMPLE, INDIA.]

[Illustration: ROYAL OBSERVATORY, INDIA.]

[Illustration: WONG TAI KEN, CHINA.--The people of China are a
thoroughly settled class of agriculturists and traders. They are
partially Buddhist, and have a peculiar monosyllabic, uninflected
language, with writing consisting of symbols, which represent words,
not letters. The photograph represents one of the better class,
dressed in a richly made costume after the fashion of her country.
Her feet, like all of her race, are extremely small and encased
in velvet sandals, with thick wooden shoes, which are peculiar
to these people.]

[Illustration: TYPICAL SCENE, SANDWICH ISLANDS.--The ravines and
mountain-slopes on the windward side of the larger islands contain
much forest growth, while the leeward uplands and plains are
comparatively bare. Among the most remarkable forms of vegetation
is a screw-pine and candle-nut tree, so named from the fact that
the natives string together the kernels, which are very oily, and
make candles. The natives derive their sustenance chiefly from
pork and fish, both fresh and dried, and from the banana, sweet
potato, yam, bread, fruit and cocoanut.]

[Illustration: SITKA, ALASKA.--Sitka, the capital of Alaska, is
situated on the west coast of the Baranoff Island, which is one of
the principal of the Alexander Islands. It is the second town in
size, and has a custom house, a Greco-Russian church, a hospital,
a half dozen stores, schools and several saw mills. Its principal
business is fishing, and a number of steamers ply between this
place and Portland, Oregon. The island is about seventy miles long
and fifteen miles wide, and is densely timbered.]

[Illustration: TOTEM POLES, ALASKA.--A totem is a class of material
objects which a savage regards with superstitious respect, believing
that there exists between him and every member of the class an intimate
and special relation. These poles, which rise to the height of 70
feet, are elaborately carved from top to bottom with a succession
of figures, representing the wolf, frog, bear, eagle, whale and a
variety of other animals. They are planted near Indian villages,
but it is hoped church steeples will soon tower in their places
and work a change in these strange people.]

[Illustration: PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS, OTTAWA, CANADA.--The capital
of the Dominion of Canada is situated on the Ottawa River, four
hundred and fifty miles from New York, and one hundred and twenty-six
miles from Montreal. It is one of the most flourishing cities in
Ontario, on account of the great lumber products in the surrounding
districts. The city was founded sixty-three years ago, its chief
attraction being the Government Buildings, which stand on Barrack
Hill, and are built mainly of light-colored sandstone. The style
of architecture is that of Italian Gothic. The main building is
five hundred feet long, covering nearly four acres, and involving
a cost of $4,000,000 in its construction.]

[Illustration: GOLDEN GATE, CALIFORNIA.--This forms the entrance
to San Francisco Bay, which is about seventy miles long and from
ten to fifteen wide, and is narrowed into a channel only about
one mile wide; here the waters escape in a current as the tide
ebbs and flows to and from the ocean. As one approaches from the
ocean towards the bay, the south side of the Golden Gate exhibits
a shelving point of land which terminates in a long fortification
called Fort Point. The portion of the strait between the light
house on the north and the fort on the south, is termed "The Golden
Gate," or "Chrysopylæ."]

[Illustration: SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA.--The city is the commercial
metropolis of California, and is situated nearly six miles from
the ocean on the west side of the magnificent bay from which it
derives its name. It stands on a plain which inclines towards the
bay, and has numerous hills behind it. The city is regularly laid
out, the streets crossing each other at right angles. Market Street,
which has four street-car tracks, two of which are cable lines, is
the principal business street; it runs south-west from the bay,
and divides the older from the newer portion of the city. The city
was originally called Yerba Buena ("good herbs"), and was settled
by the Spaniards about 1777, but was changed to San Francisco in
1847.]

[Illustration: YOSEMITE VALLEY, CALIFORNIA.--The Yosemite Valley
is situated one hundred and fifty miles distant, in a direct line,
a little to the southeast of San Francisco. It is six miles in
length and from half a mile to a mile in width, and sunk from two
thousand to three thousand feet in perpendicular depth below the
general level of the surrounding country. The waterfalls in and
about this valley are of great beauty and variety. The Nevada and
Vernal Falls of the Merced River, which flows through the whole
length of the valley, are wonderfully grand.]

[Illustration: MIRROR LAKE, YOSEMITE VALLEY, CALIFORNIA.--Up the
canyon of the Tenaya is situated this beautiful little lake, called
"Mirror Lake," which is an expansion of the Tenaya Fork. It is
generally visited early in the morning, for the purpose of seeing
the reflection of the overhanging rock, which is known as Mount
Watkins. Mirror Lake is one of the principal points of interest
of this marvelous depression of nature.]

[Illustration: GLAZIER POINT, YOSEMITE VALLEY, CALIFORNIA.--Glazier
Point, one of the most remarkable and striking features of nature
in the world, is composed of solid rock, thirty-two hundred feet
in perpendicular height. It is reached by a trail from the floor
of the valley, and the time generally consumed is from four to six
hours. From this great point of interest, a general view of the
whole valley can be obtained, and nothing is more soul-stirring
to the beholder than to look at the great and marvelous wonders
of nature abounding in the Yosemite Valley.]

[Illustration: BIG TREE, CALIFORNIA.--The big trees of California
are known the world over and are specifically termed the _sequoia
gigantea_, and abound only in California. They occur in groves
or patches, which are scattered over limited areas. They grow to
a great height, ranging from two hundred to three hundred feet,
and attain a circumference from seventy-five to one hundred feet.
The above is a photograph of one of the trees, showing the trunk,
through which a four-horse stage coach passes. This tree measures
twenty-five feet in diameter, and it stands in the Mariposa Grove.]

[Illustration: GREAT MORMON TEMPLE, SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH.--The
Mormon religion was founded by Joseph Smith, at Manchester, New
York, in 1830, and the same year was published "The Book of Mormon,"
in which Joseph Smith was declared to be God's "Prophet." He soon
removed, with his followers, to Kirtland, Ohio, which was to be
the seat of the New Jerusalem. Several years later the Mormon band
emigrated to Missouri, and later to Salt Lake City, Utah. After the
death of Smith, Brigham Young succeeded, until 1877, when he died
and left a fortune of $2,000,000 to seventeen wives and fifty-six
children. Here they prospered and started to build the great temple,
which is not yet quite finished.]

[Illustration: PULPIT TERRACE, YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK.-The
Yellowstone Park has in the vicinity of the Mammoth Hot Springs
many remarkable terrace-building springs, which are situated one
thousand feet above the Gardiner River, into which they discharge
their waters. The water finds its way to the surface through deep-lying
cretaceous strata, and contains a great deposit of calcareous material.
As the water flows out at the various elevations on the terraces
through many vents, it forms corrugated layers of carbonate of
lime, which is generally hard while wet, but becomes soft when dry.
While these springs are active, vegetation dies in their vicinity;
but when dry, grass and trees again grow on the crumbling calcareous
deposit.]

[Illustration: OBSIDIAN CLIFF, YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK.--This
noted and volcanic glass mountain, situated in the Yellowstone
Park, glistens like jet, is opaque and rises like basalt in almost
vertical columns, from the shore of Beaver Lake. It is unequalled
in the world, and is about two hundred feet high and one thousand
feet in length, being variegated with streaks of red and yellow.
When the carriage road was constructed over the side of the mountain
along the lake, great fires were built upon the masses of Obsidian;
and after they had been sufficiently expanded by the heat, cold
water was thrown on them, which fractured the blocks into fragments
that could be handled. Thus a glass carriage way was made one-quarter
of a mile in length, which is without doubt the only piece of glass
road in the world.]

[Illustration: MAMMOTH PAINT POTS, YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK.--Among
all the geysers and hot springs in Yellowstone Park, there is nothing
more striking to behold than the Mammoth Paint Pots, which measure
forty by sixty feet, with a mud rim on three sides from three to
four feet in height. The whitish substance in this basin, which
looks like paint, is in constant agitation, and resembles a vast bed
of mortar with numerous points of ebullition. There is a constant
bubbling up of this peculiar formation, which produces a sound
similar to a hoarse whisper. Its contents have been reduced by
the constant action to a mixed silicious clay, which in former
years consisted of different colors, but is now active only in the
white portion of its formation.]

[Illustration: OLD FAITHFUL GEYSER, YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK.--Of
all the geysers in the Yellowstone Park, this is one of the most
interesting and noted on account of the great regularity of its
eruptions, affording splendid opportunities for observation. It
is located in the Upper Geyser Basin, and is situated on a mound
of geyserite built by its own water. The eruptions begin with
preliminary splashes, and continue for several minutes, becoming
more powerful as they follow in rapid succession, when all at once
the steam and water are thrown to a height of one hundred and fifty
feet; this action occurs at intervals of every sixty-five minutes
and lasts from four to five minutes.]

[Illustration: YELLOWSTONE LAKE AND HOT SPRINGS, YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL
PARK.--This large and beautiful sheet of water is nearly one-half mile
higher than the summit of Mount Washington, N. H., and is surrounded
by snow-capped mountains. It covers an area of one hundred and fifty
square miles, and has a great depth. Trout are so plentiful that
there is little pleasure afforded in capturing them. The lake is
fed by numerous large tributaries and a score of smaller streams.
A number of boiling springs, charged with sulphur, alum and alkali,
dot its shores; and the fishermen can cook their trout by dropping
them into the boiling springs without walking from the spot where
they are caught.]

[Illustration: YELLOWSTONE FALLS, YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK.--After
the water of the Yellowstone releases itself from the deep, symmetrical
pool at the foot of the Upper Falls, the river turns to the left and
flows through high bluffs for a short distance, until its sea-green
water leaps from the top of the Great Falls, three hundred and
sixty feet deep, into the profound, abysmal solitude of the Grand
Canyon. This great mass of water breaks into fleecy columns and
sheets of glistening foam as it descends; but it strikes the pool
below with such a great concussion that it is forced upwards in
fountains of spray and clouds of mist.]

[Illustration: GRAND CAÑON OF THE YELLOWSTONE, WYOMING.--This wonderful
gorge, whose scenic beauty is not equaled anywhere, has a scene of
enchantment surpassing all expectations. From the Lower Falls it
reveals the most varied groups of crags and rock ever beheld. It
passes through a volcanic plateau, forming broken walls of barbaric
richness of coloring that almost defies description. Red, purple
and yellow predominate, and with the white foam of the rushing
river through the bottom, and the dark green of the forest upon
the plateau, form one of the grandest natural sights in earth.]

[Illustration: ANIMAS CANYON, COLORADO.--This canyon is between
Durango and Silverton, and the scenery through it is of surpassing
grandeur and beauty. The railroad follows the course of the Animas
River (to which the Spaniard gave the musical but melancholy title
of "Rio de las Animas Perdidas," or River of Lost Souls) until
the picturesque mining town of Silverton is reached. To the right
is the silvery Animas River, which frets in its narrowing bed,
and breaks into foam against the opposing boulders, beyond which
rise the hills; to the left are mountains, increasing in rugged
contour as the advance is made, and in the shadow of the rocks
all is solitary, weird and awful; the startled traveler loses all
apprehension in the wondrous beauty and grandeur of the scene.]

[Illustration: GRAND CANYON Of THE ARKANSAS RIVER, COLORADO.--There
are no words which can properly describe this great and magnificent
canyon, the crowning attraction, the wonder of wonders, the marvel
of marvels, in Colorado's scenery. This canyon is seven miles in
length, and presents the grandest scenery in the world. This photograph
represents the Royal Gorge, where the canyon is three hundred feet
deep. As it is not sufficiently wide for railroad and river to
pass through, the road is carried above the river, on a hanging
bridge, which is shown in the picture.]

[Illustration: MOUNTAIN OF THE HOLY CROSS, COLORADO.--This mountain
is without doubt the most remarkable and the most noted of the
Rockies, on account of the cross from which it received its name.
Near the top is seen the cross, formed by deep crevices in its side,
which are filled with perpetual snow and ice. The sight of wildwood,
of tree-crowned slope, of rocky heights, of silvery cascades whose
white threads of water are occasionally seen wearing away rifts
in the rocks, renders the mountain one of the most enchanting of
the many mountains in Colorado.]

[Illustration: MANITOU AND PIKE'S PEAK, COLORADO.--Manitou was
known to white men long before Major Pike discovered the peak, and
is noted for its famous soda springs, whose health-giving properties
were familiar to the Indians from time immemorial. To this favored
spot they made their pilgrimages, and in grateful recognition of
the beneficent characteristics of the waters, they named the place
in honor of the Great Spirit, and bestowed upon it the musical and
significant title, Manitou. It is visited by thousands of tourists
every season, and many make the ascent from here to the top of
Pike's Peak, which is seen in the background.]

[Illustration: SUMMIT OF PIKE'S PEAK, COLORADO.--In 1806 Major
Zebulon Pike first described this wonderful snow-capped peak, which
now bears his name, and which he called the "Great Snow Mountain."
When the mountain first dawned on his view, he was one hundred
miles east on the plains. This noted peak towers to the height
of 14,147 feet, and its top is covered with perpetual snow. This
photograph represents the U. S. Signal Station on its summit. The
top is now reached by an incline railway from Manitou, and from it
the traveler may behold one of the grandest sights in Colorado.]

[Illustration: GATEWAY TO THE GARDEN OF THE GODS, COLORADO.--Why
this wonderful valley, which has not the appearance of a garden,
was named the Garden of the Gods, no one knows; but, no doubt, by
reason of its apt alliterations, the name has become so popular
that it would be foolish to change it. There are many remains which
show that Titanic forces have been at work here. It does not require
a lively imagination to discover in the garden an endless variety
of beings, such as the lion, the seal, the elephant, birds and
reptiles of imitative forms. The most noted object is the Great
Gateway.]

[Illustration: CATHEDRAL SPIRES, COLORADO.--The stranger passing
through Manitou should not fail to visit the Garden of the Gods, in
which are located the Cathedral Spires, wonderful rock formations,
standing upright, with pinnacles several hundred feet high. The
wonderful region in which these spires are, in point of attraction,
ranks with the sunny slopes of Italy, and the rugged grandeur of
the Bernese Oberland. The scenery in this locality is so varied,
so grand, and so impressive, that contemplative pauses must be
made in order that the eye may grasp all the charming details of
the view.]

[Illustration: LIFE IN OKLAHOMA, OKLAHOMA TERRITORY.--Oklahoma
Territory is a beautiful stretch of country, abounding in vast
and fertile plains. In the eastern part, the soil is particularly
rich and well irrigated, making it almost as productive as a garden.
The territory was formerly the special domain for all the Indian
tribes, but this original race seems to be gradually becoming extinct.
The above photograph represents a scene in Oklahoma County. This
county is nearly in the centre of the territory, on the line of
it railroad which has recently been opened. Owing to its admirable
adaptability for agriculture, it is fast becoming populated. The
picture suggests the most primitive rural simplicity.]

[Illustration: INDIAN WIGWAM, INDIAN TERRITORY.--The red man, the
original inhabitant of American soil, is represented here at his
hut, with his gun and the reins of his horse in his hands. He has a
universal belief in a Supreme Being, though his religious attributes
are associated with various manifestations of natural phenomena.
He believes in the immortality of the soul, but his conceptions
of the future system of reward and punishment are confused. The
American Indians are slowly diminishing in number on account of
the progress of the white man. Their present population is about
255,000, and the greatest number are gathered upon their reservations
in Indian Territory.]

[Illustration: CHICAGO, ILLINOIS.--This city, which is now the
most important centre of commerce in the Northwestern States, is
situated at the mouth of the Chicago River, on Lake Michigan. The
first inhabitants known to have been in the locality were the
Pollawatomie Indians, and the earliest Europeans were French fur
traders, who visited the site in 1654. Fort Dearborn was built
in 1804, when the first attempt was made to settle here; but the
Indians destroyed and massacred most of the garrison in 1812. In
1816 the place was rebuilt and to-day stands as one of the leading
cities of America. The above represents State Street, one of the
principal thoroughfares, and the Palmer House, one of its leading
hotels.]

[Illustration: NIAGARA FALLS, NEW YORK.--The above falls constitute
perhaps the most striking natural wonder in the world. Above the
falls, the river is divided by Goat Island, forming the Horseshoe
Falls, with a perpendicular descent of one hundred and fifty-eight
feet. The height of the American Falls is one hundred and sixty-seven
feet. Below the cataract, the river is very deep and narrow, varying
from one hundred to three hundred yards, and flows between perpendicular
rocks, two hundred and fifty feet high, into a gorge, which is
crossed by several suspension bridges. These falls are world-famed,
and are visited by thousands of tourists from different parts of
the world.]

[Illustration: BUNKER HILL MONUMENT, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS.--On an
elevation of one hundred and ten feet, in the town of Charlestown,
one mile from Boston, towers the above-named monument to commemorate
one of the most celebrated battles of the American Revolution,
fought here on the 17th of June, 1775. The British remained master
of the field after a long and bloody contest, but their victory
was dearly bought. The monument, two hundred and twenty-one feet
in height, stands in the centre of the ground, included within
the redoubts on Breed's Hill.]

[Illustration: NEW YORK, N. Y.--The metropolis of the United States,
is considered the headquarters of the stock and money market. It is
here where the greater number of foreign vessels land and depart,
and where the majority of immigrants first step upon our shores.
The city is built on Manhattan Island, which is 13 miles long, and
from 2 to 4 miles wide. This picture represents Park Row, and the
New York Times' Building in the front, and the general Post-Office
on the right, which is a large granite structure, and an ornament to
the city. New York has a population of nearly two million people,
composed of all nationalities. This city gives to the student of
human nature an excellent opportunity to observe the life and habits
of the different nations.]

[Illustration: BROOKLYN BRIDGE, NEW YORK.--This bridge, connecting
New York with Brooklyn, is by far the largest suspension bridge yet
constructed. The work commenced in 1870, and opened for traffic
on May 24, 1883. The central span, from tower to tower, measures
fifteen hundred and ninety-five and one-half feet. In the centre
is a foot-way, fifteen and one-half feet wide, and raised twelve
feet above the other passages, affording an open view on both sides.
There are tracks on each side for cable cars, worked by a stationary
engine on the Brooklyn side, and on the outside are wagon-ways.
The entire cost was $15,500,000.]

[Illustration: ELEVATED RAILROAD, NEW YORK, N. Y.--The steam cars,
the street railway and the electric road are the three modern modes
of transportation. The motive power of the elevated railroads of New
York City is steam, and the quick facilities afforded exceed that of
any other country. These elevated railroads are sufficiently high so
as not to interfere with street traffic, stations are located every
four or five blocks apart, there is little delay, and a passenger
can ride from one end of the city to the other in a very short
time. It is said that one million people ride daily on the elevated
railroads of New York giving the company an income of $50,000 per
day. The above photograph represents the railroad at Chatham Square,
where it branches off into different directions.]

[Illustration: STATUE OF LIBERTY, NEW YORK HARBOR, N. Y.--This
magnificent monument, the work of Bartholdi, was presented by the
French Government to the people of the United States as a token of
sisterly love and respect, and as a means of still further cementing
the good feelings of the two greatest republics on the globe. The
statue stands on Bedloe's Island, in New York harbor. The torch
of liberty, held in the right hand, is illuminated at night by
a huge electric light. The pedestal on which the statue stands
was built by voluntary contributions, solicited by the New York
_World_.]

[Illustration: CHESTNUT STREET, PHILADELPHIA,
PENNSYLVANIA.--Philadelphia, the third city of the United States and
the metropolis of Pennsylvania, often called the City of Brotherly
Love, was founded in 1682 by William Penn. This picture represents
Chestnut Street, the principal retail business street and the avenue
on which the leading banking institutions are located. The building on
the right is Independence Hall, in which was declared the independence
of the United States. The liberty bell is still preserved and found
at the entrance of the building. The structure in the background
is a banking house.]

[Illustration: MARKET STREET, PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA.--Perhaps
no street in the world furnishes an avenue for so much business as
does Market Street. The street from this point, which terminates
at the Delaware River, making a total of fourteen squares, is full
of wholesale houses. There are times during the day when it is
packed with teams and pedestrians, presenting an interesting sight
for a stranger. The building on the right-hand side is considered
the largest store of its kind in the world. The cars on Market
Street are run by cable, a system introduced a few years ago.]

[Illustration: FORT SAN MARCO, ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA, U. S. A.--St.
Augustine, having the distinction of being the oldest city in the
United States, was founded by Europeans and has recently become
a popular winter watering-place. It is thirty-six miles from
Jacksonville, and stands on a sandy peninsula. Along the sea-front,
for nearly a mile, extends a granite-coped sea-wall; and, at its
northern end, stands the Fort of San Marco, a well-preserved specimen
of Spanish military architecture, built in 1756. The fort has a
moat and outworks, and its walls are twenty-one feet high. It is
in the form of a trapezium, and covers four acres.]

[Illustration: PONCE DE LEON, ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA.]

[Illustration: THE CAPITOL, WASHINGTON, D. C.]

[Illustration: WHITE HOUSE, WASHINGTON, D. C.--The official residence
of the President of the United States, is beautifully situated at
the western extremity of Pennsylvania Avenue, about a mile and a
half west of the Capitol. It is constructed of Freestone, painted
white. Its dimensions are 170 feet front and 86 feet deep. The
garden-front is very beautiful and admirably kept, the lawn sloping
down to the Potomac River. In the square in front of the Mansion,
stands the celebrated equestrian statue of General Jackson. Very
close to the White House are located the State Treasury, and Navy
and War departments.]





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