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Title: Games and Play for School Morale - A Course of Graded Games for School and Community Recreation
Author: Sheppard, Melvin W. [Editor], Vaughan, Anna [Editor]
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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One Madison Avenue, New York City


Department of Recreation and Physical Education

Director of Recreation Community Council of Michigan

Copyrighted 1920


COMMUNITY SERVICE is the medium through which the residents of a
community get together and really become members of that community with
a consequent real interest in community welfare, prosperity and

COMMUNITY SERVICE is CITIZENSHIP. It promotes Americanization. It
denotes PROGRESSIVENESS. Any individual of the community with a real
and active interest in the community is a better citizen.

COMMUNITY SERVICE provides an opportunity for people to meet as folks,
as neighbors representing no one but themselves, and the ideas they
cherish most. The towering advantage of Community Service is that it is
the one movement to which everybody can belong.

COMMUNITY SERVICE is a community organized for service. This community
has a real existence with a soul and personality of its own. The
Community needs something to do as a community.

COMMUNITY SERVICE is an antidote for idle time. The success of a person
or a community is not determined by the number of hours they are busy,
but by what they do in their idle time.

COMMUNITY SERVICE offers every stranger who comes to a Community "the
glad hand," displays true friendship to them and shows that we as a
community care for his welfare.

COMMUNITY SERVICE promotes good will. There is no ritual for Community
Service, just as there is no ritual for friendship. Friendship is a
fact. Most men and women have a talent for it. Community Service
organizes and develops that talent until it is made to render a world
service. It makes the community a fact instead of a name.

PEACE TIME service is a war debt that Conscience and Patriotism must


By Anna Vaughan
   "Mel" Sheppard

It is just as essential that the teacher who enters a schoolroom in
September know how to play with children as to teach them. By no better
means, perhaps, may the spirit of friendship and co-operation be so
thoroughly strengthened and firmly established as through games.

The mental, moral and physical growth attained through participation in
games cannot be overestimated. To listen to directions, to understand
them thoroughly and to execute them exactly as given require alert
attention and accurate motion.

To play fair, win honestly and accept defeat cheerfully, remembering at
all times to be courteous to opponents, are invaluable lessons, and
conducive to good citizenship.

Active games quicken the sense perceptions. Through them the dull,
passive mind is aroused to an active interest in external things to
which the hitherto inert body is forced to respond. As a result the
child observes more closely, thinks more clearly and moves with greater

To rhythmic games may be attributed the freedom of movement, graceful
carriage and appreciation for and response to rhythm by which the child
attempts to give expression to his inmost feelings.

By correlation with language, quiet games furnish a successful means
for establishing correct habits of speech. Correlated with number, much
valuable drill in the fundamental processes may be secured in a most
delightful and informal way.

All children love to play, and, cosmopolitan as is the blend of our
public schools today, in the recreation period is found an opportunity
for universal expression not afforded in other activities of the day.
Keenly sensitive to their surroundings, they are quick to catch the
enthusiasm of their leader.

The child, timid and retiring of disposition, becomes a creature of
initiative, while not infrequently the forward, self-assured child is
given a much needed lesson in self-restraint. Through his skill
displayed in playing games involving contest, a formerly unappreciated
child compels the respect and admiration of his classmates, a tribute
that may play no small part in influencing his course in after life.

It is only by getting into the game with the children and encouraging
them to play naturally, permitting them to get all the joy there is in
the performance hereof, that games may be made of greatest service. The
effects of such play cannot fail to dispel the artificial atmosphere
which for various reasons permeates many of our schools today, and to
establish, in its place, wholesome and natural conditions, that will
challenge the child's best efforts and render school life pleasant as
well as profitable.

Graded Games for Schools and Community Recreation

The Indoor Recreation Work is given in the form of plays and games.

While the plays and games listed have been carefully arranged and
graded with a view to adapting them to the schoolroom, many of them are
suited to playground, hall and gymnasium use.

It is suggested that at least one game period a day be given out of
doors during the pleasant weather.

Rules to Be Observed in Giving Games

    1. Teacher should be familiar with the game before giving it.

    2. Teach by imitation in the story-plays and rhythm, as best
    results come from the teacher playing with the children.

    3. Be sure that the air is fresh when giving a game.

    4. In every rest period give a breathing exercise.

    5. See that all the children have a part in the game.

    6. Upon the spirit which the teacher puts into it, depends the
    success of the game.

Story Plays are imitations of well-known activities. They may be
experiences related to home activities, the surroundings near the home,
the season and to school work.

Capitalize the child's imagination and experience as a basis for
developing Story Plays, keeping in mind the types of exercise necessary
to give the children the proper amount of exercise.

The following is illustrative of the forms of exercise to be found in a
story play:

A Day in the Woods

    Stretching--Reach up high. Take your coat and hat.

    Leg movement--Walk quickly (skip) to the woods. (Each two rows walk
    around one row of desks.)

    Head exercise--Look up at the bright autumn leaves.

    Arm exercise--Raise your arms and touch them.

    Trunk and Arm exercise--Rake the fallen leaves. (Lean forward,
    bending body forward to either side.)

    Knee Bending--Run and jump into the pile of leaves.

    Breathing--Breathe in the fresh air.

Suggestive List of Story Plays

Home activities--Washing, ironing, baking, sewing, sweeping, dusting.

Industrial Activities--Fireman, soldier, shoemaker, blacksmith, carpenter,

Seasonal Activities:

Fall--Nutting, Thanksgiving, Jack Frost, gathering apples, etc.

Winter--Christmas Toys, Snow Fort, Valentine Day, Washington's

Spring--Flying Kites, making a garden, trees in a storm.

Summer--The Playground, swimming, picking flowers, a day at the circus.

Correlate rhythmic exercises with the reading language and nature work.
The movements may be executed to music, Victrola or piano being used.

    Walking fast
    Walking slow
    Ringing bell
    Beating drum
    Blowing bubbles
    Fairies skipping
    Birds flying
    Boats sailing
    Blowing bugle
    Blowing up a balloon
    Climbing a steep hill
    Imitate a steam engine
    Smell the pretty rose
    Galloping horses
    Rabbits jumping
    Ducks waddling
    Raking garden
    Rowing boat
    Bouncing ball
    Throwing snowballs
    Elephant's walk
    Giant striding
    Goose waddle
    Turkey strutting
    Indian walking
    Walk like a dwarf
    Crow like a rooster
    Breathe in the fresh air
    Blow a feather in the air



All ready for the big circus parade. Choose what you want to do or be
in the parade. Now we are at the circus grounds. The band marches
around the tent. Choose the instrument you want to play. See the big,
big elephants in the circus. Let us feed the big elephants. Now look at
the pretty high-stepping horses. See if we can step as high as they.
The little baby ponies are coming now. Let us make tiny steps just as
they do. Now the juggler is ready to play. Throw the ball high, way up
high, and catch it on your nose. Heads up high. Now let's breathe hard,
drink in the fresh air and run home to Mother.

Introduce skipping, hopping, running, jumping.

    1. Stand like soldiers. (Head, eyes, chest, feet.)
    2. March like soldiers.
    3. Run like fairies.
    4. Run like brownies.
    5. Fly like birds.

        Fly to the woods in front of you.
        Fly to the woods in back of you.
        Fly to the woods to the left.
        Fly to the woods to the right.

Play you are trees.
Bend to the left; arms sideward or overhead.
Bend to the right; arms sideward or overhead.
Galloping horses: Hold reins--gallop forward.
Skipping children: Skip--lightly and evenly.

Bursting bag:

    1. Breathe in.
    2. Blow.
    3. Clap.

Blow a soap bubble. Keep a feather in the air. Blow out a candle.

Blow a trumpet. Imitate the wind. Imitate a train of cars. Imitate a
flute. Blow a whistle. Blow a bugle.


Two adjacent rows, play together. The first of May is moving day. The
seats are houses. One player is chosen to be "It" and he walks up and
down the street between the two rows. At a signal, the residents along
the street change houses before and behind him and he tries to get a
house while it is vacant. The seats not occupied and one more must be
marked and not used in the game so that there is at all times one
person without a house. If the people do not move often enough the one
who is "It" may number the players and then when he calls, two or three
numbers may change places.


Choose a leader to be the old hen, who goes out of the room. All the
others sit at their seats, heads bowed on the desk. Touch four on the
head. Immediately they become little chickens. The old hen is recalled
and as she says "Cluck! Cluck!" the four wee chicks answer "Peep!
Peep!" The mother hen tries to locate them by sound. The chick
discovered first becomes the old hen.


One child is chosen as leader. He stands in front of class facing the
blackboard; the teacher steps lightly down among children and touches a
pupil on the head who says to the leader "Good Morning John Brown." The
leader responds by saying "Good Morning, Mary Smith." If the leader
fails to recognize voice of the pupil speaking, his place is taken by
that child and the game continues. This game is especially good
exercise in ear training.


Mother bird and little birds all stretch wings. Look up at the pretty
blue sky. Fly around lightly. Tuck wings under and hop. Drink from the
pretty brook. Stretch wings ready to fly back home. Tired, breathe,
raise and lower wings. Rest in your little nest.


Let us go for a spin in the park. Stoop, crank your automobile. Step
into the machine. Ride around the track; blow your horn. Pump up your
flat tire. Bend and stretch arms upward to rest them. Ride home.
Breathe in the good fresh air. Put your automobile into the garage.


Run down to the beach, one row at a time. Stoop, gather a handful of
stones. Raise hand, high, throw stones out into the sea. Now dig a well
with your shovel. Put shovel down hard, throw sand over shoulder. See
the big wave coming in. Run and see how near you can come to it without
wetting your feet. Run back quickly as wave comes nearer. Wade out into
the water. Lift knee high. Mother is calling. Run home quickly. Take a
long, deep breath.


Pack your baskets. Hang them over your arm. Run down to the street car.
Give your fare to the conductor. Step down from the car very carefully.
Look up and down for passing automobiles. Run down to the beach. Ready
for lunch baskets. Eat your lunch. Drink the cool spring water. Now for
the whirligig. Choose a galloping horse. Ready--go. Stop, slowly. Get
off the merry-go-round. Run for the street car. Wave good-bye to your
friends. Take a deep breath.

First Grade


Three players stand so as to represent a hollow tree, facing center
with hands on each other's shoulders; a fourth player stoops within to
represent a squirrel. Let the other players see how this is done and
they in the same way form groups of four. There must be one extra
player, who is a squirrel without a home. Upon a signal by the teacher
all the squirrels must change trees and the homeless squirrel tries to
get a tree. This leaves another squirrel without a home. And the game
is repeated. After a time let each squirrel change places with one of
the players of the tree so as to give all a chance to be squirrels.


The class is arranged so that there are the same number of players in
each row. A bean bag is placed on each front desk. At a given signal
the occupant of the front seat passes it overhead to the pupil behind
him, who passes it to the next and so on until it reaches the end of
the row, when it is returned the same way. The row returning the bag to
the front desk soonest, wins.


Draw two parallel lines on the floor with chalk to represent the banks
of the brook. The players form in line and take a running jump across
the brook. Those who step into the brook must run home to put on dry
stockings. Those who succeed in jumping across the brook continue round
the course and jump again, this time increasing the width of the brook.
Standing jump may be used in playing this game.


Name first row across the room, Monday; second, Tuesday; third,
Wednesday, etc. Teacher stands in front of room with rubber ball. As
she bounces the ball, she calls "Thursday." The row named Thursday run
to the front. The child catching the ball takes place of teacher. The
children failing to catch ball pass to their seats. The new teacher
continues game until the ball is caught.


    I am the wee Bologna Man.
    Always do the best you can
    To follow the wee Bologna Man.

A leader resourceful in ideas and brisk in movement stands in front of
and facing the other players and rapidly repeats this verse, performing
some action that the other players immediately imitate--such as beating
a drum, playing a fiddle, sawing wood. Without pausing he varies his
actions, the others continuing to follow his movements. Rapidity of
time and vivacity determine the success of the game.


All players stand facing one of their number who is the leader. The
leader assumes any position or imitates any action, at the same time
saying "Do this," and the others immediately imitate. Should the leader
at any time say "Do that!" instead of "Do this!" any player who
imitates the action performed must be seated. The leader may choose any
positions that are familiar, such as arm movements, head bendings,
trunk bendings, jumping, hopping, etc., or imitate familiar actions,
such as sawing, hammering, washing, ironing, sewing, sweeping, flying,


Class stands as for gymnastics. The teacher, beginning with the first
file, asks the leader, "What did you see?" The leader suggests some
activity as "I saw a butterfly flying," "I saw a boy beating a drum,"
"I saw a chicken hopping on one foot," "I saw a drum major leading a
band," "I saw a horse galloping down the street," "I saw a boy rolling
a hoop," etc. Each row in turn imitates its leader, following him
around the room and back to place.


Players all seated but one, heads on desks, eyes covered, one hand on
desk with palm up. The odd player is a squirrel. The squirrel passes up
and down between the rows and puts a nut in some player's hand. This
one rises and chases the squirrel. If the squirrel is caught before
reaching his own seat, the one caught becomes squirrel. If the squirrel
is not caught, he can be squirrel again.


One person is chosen leader, taking his place before the class which is
standing at their seats. Whenever the leader says "I say stoop!" both
he and the class stoop and quickly rise again. But when he says "I say
stand!" and stoops as before, the class must remain standing. He
repeats his commands in rapid succession and any player who makes a
mistake must be seated.


Draw a circle on the floor. Call upon a child to run into the circle,
while you count ten. If he succeeds in getting both feet into the
circle before you finish counting he is safe. Otherwise he is out of
the game and must perform some other task before taking his seat.


Players stand in a circle, hands joined. One player is chosen to be
Charley. If more than twenty players have several Charlies. Charley
stands in the center. The other players, skipping around him, repeat:

    Charley over the water, Charley over the sea,
    Charley caught a blackbird, can't catch me.

At the last word, the players stoop and Charley tries to tag them
before they reach that position. If successful, the player tagged
changes places with him.


    Hickory, Dickory, Dock,
        (Move arms to right, left, right, in pendulum fashion.
        Stamp right--left.)
    The mouse ran up the clock.
        (Run four steps forward.)
    The clock struck "One!"
        (Pause a moment to listen on "One"--clap hands)
    And down he ran.
        (Run four steps back to place.)
    Hickory, Dickory, Dock.
        (Swing arms right, left, right. Stamp left, right.)


(Mother Goose Melody.)

    1. See Saw--Margery Daw.
        (Arms sideward raise, sway body to left and right.)
    2. Jack shall have a new master.
        (Partners join hands--skip forward four steps.)
    3. But he shall have a penny a day.
        (Step left, point right toe forward, shaking right forefinger
        at partner and left hand on hip.)
    4. Because he won't work any faster.
        (Join both hands with partner, skip around in place four steps.)


    1. The leaves are green, the leaves are brown.
       They hang so high they will not come down.
       Leave them alone until frosty weather
       And then they will all come down together.

Rhythmic--The above is an old English circle game. During the first
3-1/2 lines skip or run around the circle, stretching arms high
overhead, and on "Come down together," drop to the floor.


Players in a circle. One player chosen by teacher goes around inside,
holds out his hand between two players and says, "Run for your supper."
The two players run around opposite ways outside. The one who returns
first to the vacant place wins, and may start the next runners.

Second Grade


Divide the room into teams of three rows each. In front of each team,
some six or eight feet distant, place a chair with a scarf tied to
each. The first child in each team acts as leader. He runs to the
chair, unties the scarf and returns with it to the child sitting back
of him. That child in turn runs quickly to the chair and reties the
scarf and returns to his seat. The next child runs to the chair and
unties the scarf, runs back with it to the next child and the game
continues. The object is to see which team finishes first. By keeping
the feet under the desks and returning by the same aisle as they came
forward, the game proceeds quickly and quietly.


One player is chosen for "teacher". The others stand in a line side by
side, facing her at an interval of five to ten feet. If there are many
players, make several groups of this kind, keeping a distinct interval
between groups.

The teacher starts the game by tossing the ball to each pupil in turn,
and it is immediately tossed back to her. If a pupil misses, he goes to
the foot of the line. If the teacher misses, the player at the head of
the line takes her place, the teacher going to the foot. Make the
action as rapid as possible.


The players join hands and form a circle. One is chosen to be "it" and
runs on the outside. He taps another player, who quickly runs in
opposite direction. The place he left remains vacant until one or the
other shall have returned to it first. The unsuccessful player
continues the running. The players upon meeting may exchange greetings,
bow to each other or shake hands, before completing the circuit.


The players form a circle facing inward. A tagger stands in the center
of the circle. The players raise their hands forward, palms upward. As
soon as a tagger tries to slap a hand it should be quickly lowered. The
one who is tagged takes the place of the tagger.


Players join hands and form a circle. One is chosen to be the runner
and runs around the outside of the circle, dropping the bean bag or
handkerchief on the floor directly behind one of the players. This
player picks up the bag (or handkerchief) and tries to tag the runner
before he can reach the vacant place in the circle. If he succeeds he
returns to his place and the runner drops the bag (or handkerchief)
behind someone else. If he fails he becomes the runner.


The class is seated in full rows, each two rows playing together. One
pupil having no seat stands in the aisle between the two rows.

The teacher claps her hands once and all exchange seats as rapidly as
possible. The pupil in the aisle attempts to secure one of the vacant
seats. If he succeeds the one left without a seat stands in the aisle.

The game is repeated as before until the teacher claps her hands twice
when all take their own seats.


The players join hands and form a circle. One is chosen "rat" and
stands inside the circle. Another is the "cat" and takes her place
outside. The "cat" tries to catch the "rat". The players favor the
"rat" and allow him to run in and out of the circle, but try to prevent
the "cat" from following him by raising and lowering their arms without
bending knees. When the "rat" is caught, both join the circle and the
next player to the right or left of each becomes "cat" and "rat". When
there are a large number of players, two cats may be chosen.


Players form a circle, hands joined. Stepping lightly around the
circle, they recite the following verse, bobbing down quickly on the
word "sank":

    Round and round went our gallant ship,
      Round and round went she;
    Three times round went our gallant ship,
      Till she sank to the bottom of the sea.



Place a small object eight to ten inches high upright on the floor to
represent a candlestick. The players run in single file and jump with
both feet at once over the candlestick, while all recite:

    Jack be nimble,
    Jack be quick.
    Jack jump over the candlestick.

Each player tries to clear the candlestick without knocking it over.



One row of players leave the room. The others hide some small object,
placing it in plain sight, but where it would not be likely to be seen,
as on the top of a picture frame, in a corner on the floor, behind the
steam pipe, etc. It may be placed behind any other object, so long as
it may be seen there without moving any object. When the object has
been placed, the players are recalled, and all begin to hunt. As soon
as one spies the hidden object, he goes at once to his seat saying,
"Huckle buckle, bean stalk!" which indicates to the class that he has
discovered it. When all have discovered the object, another row is sent
out of the room, and the pupil who found the object first, proceeds to
hide it. The game continues until everyone has had a chance to locate
the hidden article.


One player has a handkerchief, one is chaser. The players are scattered
about the field. The chaser runs after the one who has the
handkerchief, who, to save himself from being tagged, gives the
handkerchief to another, who is chased. Should the chaser tag the one
holding the handkerchief, that one becomes chaser.


Divide the class into two teams. Cards about 5×7, containing in large
type the letters of the alphabet, are passed out to each team. The
teacher flashes a word before the class. The players, holding the
letters necessary to make the word, come to the front and stand holding
the cards in front of them, in correct order. The side spelling the
word correctly first scores a point. Team scoring most points wins. (It
is advisable to have one letter of the alphabet on one side of the card
and a different letter on the other.)


Class lines up in two groups. One group are rabbits, safe in their
homes. The other group are foxes, walking about in the woods. The old
mother rabbit takes her young ones out to look for food. They go
softly, because they fear the old fox might see them. Suddenly the
leader of the foxes cries out "Run, Rabbit, Run," at which all the
rabbits try to reach their homes in safety before the foxes catch them.
All those who are caught become foxes, and help catch the remaining


Let the girls be Fairies. The boys play they are Indians. The Fairies
are in the woods. They run about and at last fall asleep in the woods,
all but one Fairy, who keeps watch while the others sleep. The Indians,
who have been hiding behind the trees, come out from their hiding
places cautiously, and as they approach the sleeping Fairies, the Fairy
on guard calls "Indians." At the call the Fairies rush out to catch the
Indians before they get back to their wigwams. Every Indian caught
becomes a Fairy.

Third Grade


This game is to be played by the second and fifth, the first and fourth
rows, or the third and sixth rows.

Place a flag on the front desk of the first row and name that row an

Place a flag on the front desk of the fourth row and name that row a
different automobile.

At a given signal each child on the front seat rises, runs up one aisle
and down the next and places the flag on the desk of the second child,
who quickly takes the flag, runs up the aisle and down the next,
placing it on the desk of the third child. When the flag reaches the
child in the last seat he brings it to the teacher. The row which
succeeds in getting the flag back to the teacher first is the winner.

To vary this game, name one row a steam engine, another an automobile.

Name one a bicycle, another a trolley car.

Insist that in every case the children keep their feet under the desks
to prevent anyone tripping.

Community excitement.



Players form a large circle. Number off by twos. Number one steps in
front of number two and kneels facing center of circle. Number two
places finger tips on the head of one kneeling. One player stands alone
in center. Number ones represent cities. At a given signal, number twos
face left and run around the outside of the circle. Suddenly another
signal is given, when all running stop and get safely behind one of the
kneelers. The center player upon hearing the signal attempts to find a
place. If he succeeds someone else is left without a place who, in
turn, becomes center player.

Let the two circles exchange places and repeat the game.


The players are lined up in files.

The leader of each file has an Indian Club.

At the word "Go" all jump in half stride position and the club is
passed between the legs, each player passing it on to the next until
the end of the line has been reached.

The last pupil runs to the front and passes it back along the line
again. When every player has been at the head of the line and the
leader is in front again the race is over. The file finishing first
wins the race.

This game may be played with bean bags, medicine balls or dumb bells.

Speed contest.


Players form a circle, placing right or left hand on the floor as the
teacher indicates. Player who is "it" stands in the center. At a signal
the players stand and move about promiscuously, the player who is "it"
attempting to tag one of the others before he gets his hand on the
floor. If he succeeds, the one tagged becomes "it" and the game

Off guard.


A leader is chosen who stands before class and says "I went to the
circus and saw a bear." The next child says, "I went to the circus and
saw a bear and ----" naming another animal of his own choice. The next
player repeats all that the previous players have said in exactly the
same order, adding a third animal. Insist upon exact wording.

Concentrated attention.


Players stand as for gymnastics. Leader stands in front of class and
says "The Wind Blows East," upon which all turn to the east. If the
leader says "The Wind Blows West" all turn to the west. The leader
continues to give commands and each time the players turn in the
direction in which the wind blows. Occasionally the command "The Wind
Blows a Whirlwind" is given, whereupon all make a complete circle,
returning to original position. Should the order "Whirlwind" be given
by itself all remain still. Anyone caught moving at this point drops
out of the game. The players standing longest become next leader.

Following directions.


Wind six hoops each with a standard color. Make six bean bags a
corresponding color. This game is played by six files of equal number.
In front of each file station a player who holds the hoop in a vertical
position and to his right, shoulder high. Two players, one for
scorekeeper the other to return bean bags to the place from which they
are to be thrown, stand a little to the back of player who is holding
the hoop. Upon a given signal the first player in the file throws his
bean bag, endeavoring to pass it through the hoop, in which event he
scores one point for his line. The bean bag is returned to the second
child in the file, who at the signal throws it through the hoop, if
possible. The file scoring the greatest number of points wins.

Test of skill.


Divide room into two teams, each team holding a flag. Upon a given
signal the first child in each team runs forward and makes a complete
circuit of his team and upon returning gives his flag to the player
behind him, who, upon receiving it, proceeds to make a circuit, giving
his flag to the third player. The team finishing first wins.



Players form a circle--one player stands in the center. A basketball is
passed quickly around the circle, moving in one direction only. The
ball must not be thrown. If the center player succeeds in touching a
player when holding the ball, he immediately exchanges places with him
and the game continues.

Speed defiance.


A circle is drawn on the ground. The players stand shoulder to shoulder
inside of the circle with arms folded, either on the chest or behind
the back. At a signal, the game begins and consists of trying to push
one's neighbor out of the circle with the shoulders. Players must not
unfold arms. Anyone doing so or falling down is out of the game. The
one who remains longest in the circle is king.

Strength test.


Draw a circle on the blackboard directly in front of each row. Supply
the first child in each row with a piece of crayon. At a given signal
the first child in each row stands to the right of his desk, runs
lightly to the board, makes his mark in the circle and returns by the
left, placing the chalk on the desk of the child behind him as he is

The second player stands, runs, makes his mark in the circle, and,
returning, places the chalk on the desk of the child behind him. The
others proceed in like manner; the row finishing first wins.

Each child must make his mark within the circle and upon returning sit
erect, feet under the desk.



The players are divided into two groups--A and B. One group (A)
performs some action representing an occupation, as sewing, picking
flowers, driving nails, etc. The other side (B) must guess in a limited
number of guesses what the motions represent. If it fails, one player
from this group must go over to the other group. Then the A's have
another chance. If the B's guess correctly they may select one from the
"A" side and also have another chance to represent an occupation. The
side having the most players at the end of the game wins.

After the A's have decided what they are to do they approach the B's
and the following dialogue takes place:

    A's. Here we come.
    B's. Where from?
    A's. New Orleans.
    B's. What's your trade?
    A's. Lemonade.
    B's. How's it made?

At the last question, the A's begin the motions previously agreed upon.

Intelligence test.


Children stand in files. Leader stands in front of class and gives
names of various birds saying "Blue birds fly," or "Sparrows fly,"
etc., raising her arms sideward to shoulder height and down again in
imitation of wings. The children follow her motions. After giving
successive birds' names, the leader suddenly changes to the name of
something that cannot fly, moving her arms as before, while the
children must keep theirs still. If a child makes a mistake he must
take his seat. The last child standing is the next leader.

Intellectual alertness.


One player chosen to be "Simon" takes his place before the other
players. He commands some gymnastic movement as "raise arms forward,
bend knees," etc. As he does so he calls out, "Simon says." If,
however, he omits "Simon says" before his command, the players should
not execute the movement, even though he does. Anyone failing in this
must be seated.

Intellectual alertness.

Fourth Grade


The players stand in rank and file. They join hands across the ranks. A
fox and hound are chosen. The hound is out to catch the fox. They can
only run where the passageways are open. At the command "change," the
players face left or right and join hands in opposite direction. The
command to change is given often and each time the course of fox and
hound is changed. There is no limit to the number of players. More than
one fox and hound can be used for large groups.

Heeding signals.


Players in couples, right hands joined, marching in a circle counter
clock wise. For convenience call outside circle number two, the inner
circle number one. Odd player in center. At the command "Grand Right
and Left," No. 2 swings No. 1 in front of him and to his right, giving
his left hand to approaching No. 1. Continue around circle in like
manner until command "change" is given. At this point of the game the
center player tries to get a partner. If he succeeds someone else
becomes "it" and the game proceeds.

A challenge alertness.


Each row represents some popular automobile. The first child in each
alternate row, at a given signal, leaves by the right side, runs
forward around his seat, then to the rear of the room on the left side,
thus completely encircling his own row of seats. As soon as he is
seated, the next child behind him runs in the same manner, and the game
continues until the last child has run and has returned to his seat.
The row finishing first wins.

Community excitement.


The players form a circle, hands joined. One toad stands in the center
holding a rope, at the end of which is tied a bean bag. The center toad
swings the rope first in a small circle gradually enlarging the radius
until it comes in direct line with the feet of the toads in the circle,
who must jump to avoid being hit by the bag. Should anyone in the
circle be hit by the bag he takes the place of the center toad.

Dodge game.


The players join hands and form a circle to represent a bear pit. One
stationed as bear stands in the center. The bear tries to get out of
the pit under or over or breaking through the bars--(clasped hands).
Should he succeed in getting out all the rest give chase. The one who
succeeds in catching him becomes the bear.

Strength test.


One player chosen as leader performs a series of marching activities;
work-a-day occupations, or gymnastic exercises, the other players
imitating him accurately--and responding promptly. Anyone failing to do
so retires to his seat and becomes a spectator. This is an old but ever
new game.



One player is chosen as bear, sits in the center of the room on a
stool. A second player is chosen to be the keeper. The keeper stands by
the bear holding in his hand a short rope about two feet long, knotted
at each end to give a firm hold. The rest of the players stand around
in a circle and attempt to tag the bear without being tagged by the
bear or his keeper. The players may attack the bear when the keeper
says "My bear is free." Should a player strike at the bear before the
keeper says "My bear is free," they change places. The keeper aims to
protect the bear. As in the case of the bear, if the keeper tags one of
the players they exchange places and the keeper returns to the ring.

Alert attention.


Each player is supplied with a bean bag. On the floor directly in front
of each aisle a circle about eighteen inches in diameter is drawn and
close up to the blackboard. At a given signal the first player in each
row runs forward, deposits his bean bag in the circle in front of his
aisle and runs back to his seat. As soon as he is seated the player
behind him runs forward, places his bean bag in the circle and returns
to his seat. The game continues until every player in the row has
deposited his bean bag. The row finishing scores one.

The game is then reversed. The last player in each line runs forward,
picks up a bean bag and returns with it to his seat. Upon being seated
he touches the player in front of him on the shoulder, this being the
signal for that player to run forward, pick up a bag and return. No
player is permitted to run before the signal is given. The row
finishing first scores one.

Speed competition.


Divide your players into four stations, one group in each of the four
corners of the room. Four captains are chosen, who stand in the center,
each with a bean bag and facing his corner of players. At a signal each
captain throws his bean bag to each player in his group, who in turn
throws it back to the captain. As the captain throws to the last player
in the group he calls, "Corner Spry!" and runs to the head of the row,
the last player taking his place as captain. The group succeeding first
in having all of its players in the captain's place wins the game.

Speed competition.


Have the same number of children in each row. Supply the first child in
each row with a crayon. Upon a signal from the teacher the first child
in each row stands, runs to the board, and writes one word, that serves
as the beginning of a sentence. Upon returning to his seat he gives the
crayon to the next child, who runs to the board and adds another word
and returns to his seat and the next child in turn adds still another
word. The row completing a sentence first wins.

Intellectual competition.


One player is chosen to be frog and sits in the middle of the circle,
with his feet crossed tailor fashion. The other players stand in a
circle around the frog and repeat: "Frog in the sea, can't catch me."
They dance forward toward the frog, teasing him and trying to keep from
being tagged by him. Should one be unfortunate enough to be tagged by
the frog, then the tagged player and frog exchange places. The frog is
not allowed to move at any time from his position in the middle of the



The players stand in groups of three, clasping hands to form a circle
or tree. The other players, one for each tree, are rabbits. An extra
player, who is the hound, tries to steal a tree from one of the rabbits
as they exchange places. The hound then becomes a rabbit, leaving the
slow player to be hound. No two rabbits may dodge into the same tree.
All rabbits must move at signal.

Physical alertness.

Fifth Grade


Boys and girls form separate circles. The players form a circle, facing
inward. Every other player steps inside the circle, facing outward. The
outside players throw a basket or tennis ball at those in the center,
trying to hit them. The center players run about in the circle trying
to dodge the ball. As soon as a player is hit he must step out of the
circle. The game continues until all have been put out. The game then
begins over with the other players on the inside.

Make five minutes time limit for each side and permit no one to tag
above the knee.

Dodge game.


Two parallel lines are drawn on the ground, about 40 feet distant. All
of the players except one stand beyond one of these lines. In the
middle territory between the lines the one player chosen to be "it"
takes his place and cries. "Black Tom! Black Tom! Black Tom!" whereupon
all the other players rush across to the opposite line, being chased by
the center player, who catches any that he may. Anyone so caught joins
him thereafter in chasing the others. Sometimes the center player, to
tantalize or mislead the other players may say, "Green Tom" or "White
Tom" or anything else he may choose. If a player starts to run upon any
such false alarm or starts before "Black Tom" has been repeated three
times, he is taken captive, and must join the players in the center.
The first one caught becomes "it" for the next game. No one but the
original "it" is permitted to give the signal.



The players stand in couples behind each other. One player is chosen to
be catcher and takes his place about ten feet in front of the other
players and facing in the same direction. Without turning his head he
calls "Last couple out, one, two, three," clapping his hands three
times. The last pair in the line runs forward, the right hand one on
the right side of the double line, and the left hand one on the left
side, and try to join hands in front of the catcher. The catcher may
not chase them before they are in line with him and may not turn his
head to see when and where they are coming. They should try to vary
their method of approach, circling in and out on either side of or
close to the lines. If the catcher succeeds in tagging them before they
clasp hands, the one he does not touch becomes his partner and they
take their place at the front of the line. The tagged player becomes
catcher. If they are not caught they are free and the game continues
until someone is caught.


Any number of players may participate in the game. The one who is "it"
begins the game by striking a posture to be assumed by the other
players. To escape being tagged, the players must assume this posture,
but no one may do so in safety more than three times. After that he may
be tagged. The first one tagged is "it" and sets a new posture.


Players stand in couples, facing each other, couples scattered in any
way about the room. One player is chosen as runner, another as chaser.
The runner is free from being tagged when he steps between the two
players of any couple, and the chaser now must chase the one toward
whom the runner turns his back.


The players form in a circle about two steps apart. The leader stands
in the center holding a cord with a small sand or shot bag attached to
the end. He swings the cord around the circle so that the shot bag is
close to the ground. Each player on the approach of the bag must jump
up to avoid being hit. Each one struck by the bag or cord steps out of
the circle, and this is continued until all are out. The last one put
out becomes leader and the game continues as before.


Place the boys on the left and the girls on the right. The class
marches in a double circle. One child acts as miller, standing in the
center. With the completion of the song the boys face about. The song
is then repeated, the boys marching one way and the girls the other.
The miller claps his hands three times and all run for a partner, the
pupil not getting one becomes "Miller."

    Jolly is the miller, who lives by the mill,
    The wheel goes round with a right good will,
    One hand on the hopper, and the other in the sack,
    The right steps forward and the left stays back.


Players are divided into two or more teams, the members of each
standing one behind the other, directly back of the starting line. The
first player of each team holds a handkerchief in one hand and at the
word "Go" runs to a certain goal and returns, handing the handkerchief
to the second in line and taking his place in the rear. This continues
until all have run, the team finishing first winning the race. Each
team has a separate goal, but all must be equally distant.


Players are arranged in two opposite lines facing the center. One
player is chosen to be "it" and takes his place in the center of the
playground. The center player then calls,

    "Hill Dill, come over the hill,
    Or else I'll catch you standing still."

He claps his hands three times, whereupon the players run across to the
other side. While they are crossing, they may be tagged. Those tagged
must then help in catching others until all have been tagged. The last
one tagged begins the game anew.


A square or circle drawn by Tommy around himself represents Tommy's
land. Tommy stands in the center trying to protect his supposed huge
stores of treasure from the enemy. The other players try to invade his
sacred territory and as they enter they shout,

    "Here I stand on Tommy Tiddler's Land,
        Picking up gold and silver."

If Tommy can touch or tag any player, that person becomes Tiddler.


One player who is blindfolded stands in the center of the room. The
other players stand anywhere they wish and in such positions as seem
safest to them. The blindman is then told to take ten steps in any
direction and try to capture a player by groping for him. If
unsuccessful, he may take ten steps in another direction, and so on
until someone is captured. The steps may be long or short as the
blindman wishes.


A football or basketball is necessary to the game.

All but one of the players stand in circle formation in stride
position, with feet touching those of the next players to make a
barricade for the ball. The odd player stands in the center.

The center player tries to throw the ball outside of the circle between
the feet of the players. The circle players try to prevent the passage
of the ball, using only their hands for this purpose. The play
continues until the center player succeeds in sending the ball through
the circle, when he changes places with the player between whose feet
the ball has passed. If a circle player moves his feet in any way he
must change places with the player in the center. When the ball has
been sent out of the circle without passing between the feet of a
player, the players turn outward, and the odd man tries to send it back
inside, according to the same rules.

The center player may appear to intend sending the ball in one
direction, turning suddenly and sending it in another.


One player takes his place in the center, holding a bean bag or ball.
The other players form a ring around him, standing a little apart from
each other. The object of the game is for the center player to return
to the center and touch the ball without being tagged.

The center player tosses the ball to anyone in the outside ring and
runs out. The player to whom the ball is tossed must catch it, place it
in the center of the ring and chase the one who tossed it. This player
tries to get back to the center to touch the ball before being tagged.
If he is tagged he takes a place in the circle. If he succeeds in
touching the ball he again throws the ball to some other player and the
game begins again. If the chase continues too long, time may be called
by the teacher.

It is permissible to have two or more balls of different kinds used and
several sets of runners going at the same time.

Sixth Grade


The players stand in a circle facing the center, some distance apart.
One player called the "center" stands within the circle. A basketball
is thrown from one player to another, across the circle, or may be
passed to the nearest neighbor. The center tries to touch the ball. If
he succeeds, the one who last threw the ball or dropped it, becomes


Two files, A and B, stand on opposite sides of the room, facing each
other. One player of file A stands in the center of the room facing his
file. A hollow rubber ball or tennis ball is passed to anyone in file
B, from where the ball is thrown to hit the center player. If he is
struck he will quickly turn and try to discover the ball thrower. If he
guesses the right one they exchange places, the one going to the center
always facing his file. If the center player guesses incorrectly, he
remains in the center, but faces about so as to give the other rank a
chance to hit him. In case the thrower fails to strike he must exchange
places with center.


The players form a circle, facing inward, with hands behind body. One
player who carries in his hand a towel knotted at one end walks outside
the circle. After walking or running a short distance, saying "Beetle
is out, don't face about," he puts the beetle in the hands of someone,
saying "Beetle move," at the same time taking his place. The one
receiving the beetle strikes the player to his right, who, trying to
avoid the beetle, runs quickly around the circle to his place. If the
one to the right is caught, he becomes the new beetle. The game
continues until all have had the beetle. Those who have had the beetle
once fold arms, thus avoiding being given the beetle a second time.


A file of ten or twelve players, so-called "hens," stand in line behind
each other, hands on shoulders of player in front. The first player
raises her arms shoulder high to protect those behind her. One player,
the "hawk," tries to catch one of the hens, not the first and second of
the file. The first hen must face the hawk throughout all the movements
and in order to keep out of the hawk's reach, all the other hens must
keep in line with her. A hen caught is out of the play. Both the hawk
and first hen take position at rear end of the file, the next two hens
becoming hawk and hen.


One player, called the Bogey-Man, stands on one goal. All the other
players stand on the goal opposite. The Bogey-man runs out and calls
"Are you afraid of the Bogey-Man?" at which the other players run
forward toward his goal, whereat the Bogey-Man tries to capture one of
the players. The one caught must follow the Bogey-Man to the opposite
goal and from here both run, with or without joining hands, to catch
the rest of the players. When all have been caught, the first player
caught becomes "Bogey-Man."


The players are divided into two teams formed in two lines about three
feet apart, facing in opposite directions.

           |                              |
           |                              |
           |------------------------------| Day
    Leader | o                            |
           |------------------------------| Night
           |                              |

The leader has a disk painted black on one side and white on the other.
A coin may be used in place of a disk. In front of each party at a
distance of about fifteen paces is a goal. The leader throws up the
disk. If the white side is up when the disk has alighted, he calls out
"Day." The day party then rushes toward its goal and the night party
pursues, catching as many of the "Day" party as possible. These they
take back to their own goal. The captured members are now out of the
game. The sides return to their places and the disk is thrown up again.
The game is continued until all players on one of the sides are out.


The players are arranged as shown in figure. The length of the space is
about thirty paces, "a--a" being the outer boundaries and "b" a center
line. The two parties stand about ten paces from the center line. A
member of the first party throws the ball. The members of the second
party catch it or stop it from rolling. The catcher then throws the
ball back to the first party and so on until either party succeeds in
passing the ball across the outer boundary line of the other party.

       |          )          : b         (          |
    a  |          )          :           (          |  a
       |          )          :           (          |
       |          )          :           (          |


A player blindfolded and furnished with a wand stands in the center of
the room. The other players join hands and walk or hop around him until
he signals them to stop, by tapping the floor with his wand. He points
the wand at some one in the ring. The one at whom he points takes the
end of the wand, and holding it must answer any three questions the
blindfolded player may choose to ask. The player who answers may
disguise his voice. If the blindfolded player recognizes the voice, the
two players change places.


The players join hands and form a circle. One is chosen bull and
wanders about in the inside, testing the circle in an effort to get
out. If he breaks through and escapes the keepers chase him. The one
catching him in turn becomes bull.


A basketball is needed for this game. The players, 10 to 30, are
numbered and form a circle, one of the players standing in the center.
The object is to catch the ball before the second bounce, when one
number has been called.

The player in the center tosses the ball high up within the circle, at
the same time calling the number of some player. The one called must
quickly run and catch the ball on the first bounce. If he catches the
ball he tosses it up and calls the number of some other player. If the
ball is not caught the first player again tosses it up. The ball may be
caught on the fly.

To vary the game, form sides, numbering the players, the odd numbers
forming one side, the even numbers the other. The odd numbers must call
on the even, and vice versa. One point is counted for every ball
caught, and the side with the highest score after twenty tosses wins.


Basketball and basket goal are necessary equipment. The players (8 to
10 on a team) are divided into seven groups and line up in a single
file in two or more lines, facing a basketball goal. Each line has a
basketball and stands behind a starting line.

A game is finished when the last man on the team has crossed the
starting line before the others have finished.

At a signal each leader passes the ball backward overhead and the next
player takes it and passes it on in the same way, and so on down the
line. When the last player receives the ball, he runs forward and tries
to throw it into the basket standing on a line marked from five to ten
feet from the goal. He is allowed but one throw, when he quickly takes
his place at the front of his line (the line moving backward in place
to make room for him), and he at once passes the ball backward
overhead. The last player in turn runs forward, tries for the goal, and
this is repeated until each player in line has thrown for goal.

Two points are scored for each team making the goal, one point may be
given for finishing first. The team having the highest score wins.

Sometimes the game is played with a time limit. In this case each
player throws until he succeeds in getting the ball into the basket.
The team wins whose last man finished first.


Two players are chosen--one to be the mother hen and the other to be
the fox, who is after a chicken for his meal. The other players are in
the brood--each one of them grasps the one in front of him, beginning
with the largest, and placing themselves in line behind their mother.
As the fox appears the hen says, "What do you want, Fox?" The fox
replies, "I want a chicken." The hen in turn says, "Where will you get
it?" The fox then replies "Out of your flock." The fox then runs to the
right and left trying to pass the mother and get one of the chickens.
The one caught becomes fox and the hen takes her place at the end of
the line. The second in line in turn becomes mother hen.

Seventh Grade


All players but one stand in a circle of about seven yards or more in
diameter facing inward. The odd player stands in the middle. Each
player is given a number which he retains all through the game. The
teacher calls out two numbers (but not, of course, that of the player
in the middle) and the players so numbered must change places in the
circle. While they are doing so the odd player must try to get into one
of the vacant places first, and if he is successful the ousted player
becomes the odd man in the center.


Players form in two lines facing each other and about eight yards
apart. Each line is numbered so that there are corresponding numbers on
each side. The leader then takes a rag, places it midway between the
two lines. He then calls a number, and the players on each side having
that number will rush forward and attempt to steal the handkerchief.
The one succeeding scores one point for his side. The players return
and the game continues; the side scoring highest wins.


Players form in a single file. An imaginary line to the left of the
column designated as the Bank and an imaginary line to the right of the
column designated as the Pond. These lines are about three feet apart.
Teacher facing column calls out "On the Bank," the players jumping onto
the Bank. He then calls out, "In the Pond," the players jumping into
the Pond. At each command the teacher moves his hand to the opposite
line from which players are located. In order to keep players "on their
toes," teacher calls "In the Pond" when the men are in the Pond and at
the same time moves his hand in the direction of the Bank. Those who
jump across or remain behind when the command is given to do otherwise
are out of the game.


All the players except two stand in parallel ranks, one behind the
other. The distance between each player and each rank is that of
"double arms' length," so that whichever direction the ranks may face
with arms extended horizontally a line of players with finger tips
touching will be formed. The ranks should be drawn up so as to form a
square as nearly as possible. The chaser has to pursue the runner up
and down the lines until he catches him, neither being permitted to
pass under the outstretched arms. The teacher makes sudden changes in
the lines by calling "right turn" or "left turn," on which all turn in
the required direction, still keeping the arms outstretched. These
sudden changes alter the direction of the paths down which the two
players may run. The interest depends greatly upon the judgment of the
leader in giving the commands "right (or left) turn." They should be
given frequently--and sharply, and often just at the moment when the
chaser is about to catch the runner. The game continues until runner is
caught, or a time reached when a new chaser and runner are chosen.

The game may be played with hands on hips instead of arms outstretched.


Playground or gymnasium suitable place for this game. Basketball and
Indian clubs are necessary equipment. Number of players 10 to 40. The
ground is divided into two equal fields by a line across the center. At
the rear of each field a row of Indian clubs is set up, there being the
same number of pins as players. Should the number of pins be so great
as to require their being closer than two feet, a second row should be
placed in front of the first so that each club stands opposite a space
in the preceding row of clubs.

The players are divided into two teams, from five to twenty in each
team. The players stand behind their clubs and the dividing line in any
scattered formation. Several balls should be put in play if a large
number are playing.

The object is to knock down the opponents' clubs. Each player acts both
as a guard to protect his clubs, and as a thrower. He may throw
whenever he can secure a ball, there being no order in which players
should throw. Balls may be made to displace the opponents' clubs by
being thrown against the wall behind the clubs so that they will
rebound, knocking the clubs down from the rear. No player is permitted
to cross the center line. The game is most interesting when several
balls are in play at once. For each club overturned the side which
knocked it down scores one. Every club overturned by a player on his
own side spoils one for the opponents. The game is played in time
limits of from one to twenty minutes, the side winning which has the
highest score at the end of that time.


The players are scattered within a limited playing area. This game is
played like ordinary tag except that "it" must place one hand on the
spot where he was tagged and hold it there while trying to tag another
man. Any player running outside of the playing area automatically
becomes "it".


Players paired in circular formation, inside arms hooked at elbows,
outside hands on hips. Two players stand in the center, one is "it,"
the other is chased by "it". The chased player runs about the circle
either inside or out and may hook the elbow of any player. The player
he catches holds fast to him and a third player is then the one to be
chased. If he tags a player chased, before he can hook an arm, the
latter must chase "it" or someone set free by "it," and the game


Formation--In single line.

A parallel line is drawn about fifty feet in front and the player being
"it" stands between this line and the players. At a signal, players
change to the opposite line. "It" tries to catch as many runners as
possible. Players so caught must help "it" catch the others. After such
charge those uncaught assemble themselves and try to charge back to
previous base. Players charge and re-charge until all have been caught.


Players stand in files, an equal number in each file. Opposite and at
about fifteen and twenty yards respectively from the front player of
each file, two circles (about eight inches in diameter) are marked on
the ground, one straight behind the other. In the nearest of each of
the circles an object (stone, stick, club) is placed. At the command
"Go" the first player of each file races to the first circle, seizes
the object and places it in the second circle, five yards off. He then
races back and touches the outstretched hand of the next player in his
row. The latter then races to the object and in the same way places it
back in the near circle, and so alternately until each player of the
row has had his turn. The last player, having deposited the object in
the circle, races back to the line which the front players were
originally "toeing". The first row to finish wins. Each player after
touching the outstretched hand of the "next to run" places himself at
the rear of his row, which keeps moving forward so that the next to run
is always "toeing" the original line.


This game is suitable for playground, gymnasium or classroom. Equipment
necessary is Bean Bag or ball. Number of players preferably 8 to 10 on
a team. The players stand in two or more even ranks, facing sideways
and numbered consecutively. The players at either end step two paces
forward of the ranks, to the points marked 1 and 10 respectively, as
they are to be in a position to catch the ball tossed by some other

    |   O------                       O   |
    |         2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9      |

No. 1 of each team tries to return to his original position first.

Player No. 1 has a bean bag (or ball) and at a signal for starting runs
toward the rear and as he runs tosses the bag to No. 10. The line
immediately moves forward one place, No. 2 stepping into the place
vacated by No. 1. Upon catching the bag, No. 10 takes his place in line
with the rank, and passes the bag to his next neighbor, No. 9. The bag
is then passed rapidly up the line until it is received by No. 3, who
tosses it to No. 2. No. 2 in turn, as soon as he receives the bag,
dashes for the rear, tossing the bag as he goes to the player standing
at 10, who in this case will be No. 1. The line again moves up--No. 3
now stepping out to the place marked 1. The play is continued until No.
1 is back in his original position. The rank getting the bag around to
No. 1 first after he returns to his original position wins the game.
No. 1 should hold the bag up at arm's length as soon as he gets its as
a signal that his rank has completed its play.


Players form in column of files.

All spread legs. First player in the column passes some object (stick,
stone, hat, eraser, bean bag) back between legs to the next player, who
passes it on. When the last player in the column has received it he
yells "Down" and runs forward astraddle the other players to the head
of the column. The other players quickly rise and the object is passed
back between the legs until all have carried it forward.


Players form in columns of files.

Place four bean bags four feet apart at a distance of ten feet in front
of each column in direction of depth. At a signal the first player in
each column runs to the right of the first bag, passes it and then runs
to the left of the second, to the right of the third, to the left of
the fourth and around it and then zig-zags back. When he reaches the
starting line, he touches off a second player who, in turn, proceeds to
duplicate the first player's performance. Column finishing first

Eighth Grade


Players form in two lines, back to back and at about one yard interval.
One line is designated "Crows" and the other "Cranes." If the leader
calls out "Cranes," the Cranes will rush forward about thirty feet
across a safety line, and the line designated as Crows will turn around
and attempt to tag his opposing player before he has crossed the
distance to the safety line. If the leader calls "Crows," the Crows
will rush forward to their safety zone. Those who are tagged must go
over to the other side. The team having the largest number of players
at the expiration of a given time wins. The game can be made more
intensive by the leader if he drawls out the "r" in either Crows or


Players form a circle about 30 feet in diameter. One player in center
holds a light rope about fifteen feet long with a soft weight on one
end. The player in the center swings the rope around so that players in
the circle have to jump it. Player failing to jump the rope has a point
counted against him or he may be made to withdraw from the game.


The players are scattered in a limited playing area, about fifty feet
square. One player is "it". He chases players about and may tag anyone
who is in "safe" position (on both knees, forehead on ground). Players
ought not to remain in one place, but must move about. Any player
tagged is "it". Players should not go out of playing area. Anyone doing
so is automatically "it".


Any number of players may participate. Players form a circle, hands
behind back, facing in, eyes closed. One player carrying a swatter
(belt, knotted towel, etc.), runs around outside of circle and places
swatter in someone's hand. The player receiving it immediately hits the
player to the right. The player who is being hit, runs around the
circle until he is back to his starting position. The player with the
swatter follows the runner and swats him until he is back in position.
The player with the swatter runs on and places it in the hands of some
other player.


The players are scattered within a limited playing area. One player is
"it". He can touch anyone who is not in a full squat position. The
player touched becomes "it" and chases about after some other player.
Players who for fear of being made "it" remain in the squat position
should be pushed over. The squat position consists of knees full bent
with hands on hips.


One player who is "it" blinds his eyes and counts ten while all the
other players run for hiding places. As soon as the one who is "it"
says "ten," the players must stand motionless wherever they may happen
to be while he turns at once to look for them. Any player whom he sees
moving must come back to the goal and start over again. The "blinder"
repeats this five times, and any player not entirely out of sight the
fifth time the blinder turns must change places with him, while the
original "it" becomes a spectator.

After counting "ten" and turning to look for moving players five times,
the hunter counts one hundred to give players chance to reach their
final hiding places and the game continues as in regular I Spy.


One player is chosen chaser or "it" and changes places with anyone whom
he can tag. Players may escape being tagged by hanging from anything
overhead which will enable them to lift their feet from the floor.
Played out of doors, players will naturally save themselves by catching
hold of the branches of trees. If played in a gymnasium or playground
pieces of apparatus may be used for the same purpose. Players are also
considered safe if instead of hanging by their hands, they throw
themselves across some obstacle such as a fence, which enables them to
lift their feet from the ground. No two players may hang from the same
piece of apparatus. The last one taking possession may keep his
position, the one before him being obliged to find another place. This
keeps the players constantly on the move and the game becomes more


A goal is marked off across each end of the playground. An Indian club
is placed midway between the goals. A starting base is marked on each
goal line in line with the club. The players are divided into two equal
teams, each having a captain. Each party takes its place in one of the
goals. The object of the game is for one of the runners to snatch the
club and return to his goal before a runner from the opposite side tags
him, both leaving their starting bases at the same time on a signal.
The players on each team run in turn, the captains naming the runner
each time.


Players come up in files not more than eight in a file. Each file forms
a circle. In the middle of each circle four Indian clubs are placed. At
the signal "go" each circle joins hands and pulls. When the umpire sees
that any player in any circle has knocked down a club he calls "Out
One." That player withdraws from the game. All stop playing and wait
for the signal "go" and the play is repeated. When any one of the
circles has been reduced to one player, the game ends, the circle
scoring that has the largest number of players left.


Players are in circle formation about four feet apart. They number off,
odds forming one team and evens the other. A ball, eraser or some
object is given each team on opposite side of the circle. At a signal
the teams pass the object to the right to members of the same team
only. Each player must catch the object in his turn. The team which
passes its object so that it catches up with the opponent's wins. Any
player dropping object must regain it himself and pass it on fairly.


Players form in columns of files facing each other. Players stand close
together, arms placed about the waist of the player in front (grasping
the left wrist with the right hand is the strongest grip). Leading
player of each team grasps the opponent about neck or shoulders, team
breaking first or having one or more players pulled over the line after
thirty seconds is the leader.


Ten to thirty players may play at one time on playground or gymnasium.
Equipment consists of volley ball and tennis net.

For large teams this game is best played on a ground measuring fifty
feet in length and twenty-five in width. A tennis net or a net two feet
wide is stretched across the center of the ground from side to side,
extending one or two feet beyond the boundary on either side. The upper
edge should be from six feet and one-half to seven feet and one-half
above the ground. The players are evenly divided into two teams. They
scatter over their respective courts without special arrangement. A
captain is chosen for each side. An umpire is desirable.

Each team tries to keep the ball in lively play toward its opponents'
court, as each team scores only on its opponents' failures to return
the ball or keep it in the air.

The ball is put in play by being served by a selected member of either
team, who should stand at the rear of his court with one foot on the
rear boundary line behind the line. From this position the ball is
tossed upward lightly from one hand and batted with the open palm of
the other hand over the net and into the opponents' court. The server
has two trials. A served ball may be assisted on its course by any
other player on the server's side using one or both hands (open palm),
no player so assisting the ball on the serve may strike it more than
twice in succession, and the server under such circumstances may not
strike it more than once.

Should the ball then fail to land on the opponents' court, the server
loses his second serve. In serving, the ball must be batted at least
ten feet by the server before being touched by any other player on his
side. If a return ball hits a player on the server's side and bounces
into the opponents' court, it is considered no play. The players on a
side take turns in serving. A ball which bounds back into the court
after striking any other object except the floor or ceiling is still in

In sending the ball across the net, players should aim for an
unprotected part of the opponents' court or try in other ways to place
them at a disadvantage. The service changes to opposite side when the
serving side:

    1. Allows the ball to touch the floor.
    2. Knocks it out of bounds.
    3. Fails to return it to the opponents.
    4. The ball hits the net during the service.
    5. A served ball falls outside the opponents' court.
    6. A player on the serving side touches the net at any time.

Score. The game consists of twenty-one points--only the serving side

One point is scored when:

    1. A good serve is unreturned.
    2. Any time when the opponents fail to return the ball which is in
    3. When the receiving side touches the net.

(Should the serving side fail to return a ball to the opponents' court,
they are put out. The serve passes to the opponents and no score is

Scoring on Fouls.

    1. Touching the net by a player on the receiving side allows the
    serving side one point.

    2. A ball sent under the net counts one for the opposing side.

    3. If the ball strikes any object outside the court and bounds
    back, although it is still in play, it counts one for the opposing
    side. A ball sent out of bounds in returning a service scores one
    point for the opposing team. One point is scored by the opponents
    whenever a player catches the ball or holds it for even an instant.

Group Games for Adults


Players line up at one end of the room. Count off by threes. Each group
joins hands, and on the command "Go!" they run to the other end of the
hall and return without letting go of hands. The first group back wins.


Place several objects at different distances. Contestants race, jumping
over them.


Song contestants are supplied with pencil and paper. Standing on one
foot, each writes two lines of a patriotic song. One finishing first

Contestants are supplied with paper and crayon, and asked to draw a
picture representing some popular song. The one whose drawing is the
best representation wins the prize.


Line up players in twos. Partners face and march backwards four steps.
Leaders draw for first chance. One side named Blues, other Reds. If
"Blues" have first chance, they try for the space of thirty seconds to
make the "Reds" laugh. All "Reds" found laughing are recruited to the
other side. Three turns constitute a game. The side having most
recruits at the finish wins.


Give each player a pencil and paper. Ask each to write the name of the
city (town or state) in which he was born. Then ask each to separate
the letters in the name of his birthplace and, using each letter as the
initial of a word, to compose a telegram. Some interesting combinations
are the result.


This is an old English game. Arrange as many chairs as there are
players in a circle. All the players but one are seated. This odd
player takes his position in the center of the circle. His object is to
take the vacant chair, but this the others prevent by hastily moving up
(to right or left, as the movements of the person standing indicate) so
as to fill the empty seat whenever the standing player approaches it.

In this manner, the vacancy is kept at the point farthest from him, and
unless he is agile, the player cannot capture it.


Players form a circle. The first player starts with the word "ha," the
second says "ha, ha," the third "ha, ha, ha," and so on, each one in
turn adding one more ha than has been made by his neighbor. In each
case, the ha ha's must be made without laughing, which is almost an
impossibility. Before the circuit has been completed the entire circle
is in peals of laughter. Each one guilty of laughing drops out of the
game. The one remaining longest without laughing wins.


Players stand in a circle. An extra player stands in the center,
holding in his hands as many pieces of tape as there are players in the
circle. The tape (or ribbons) are of two colors, red and blue. The
opposite ends of each tape are held in the hands of a player. When the
leader says "Reds let go," "Blues, hold on," the blues will let go,
always doing just the opposite of the command given to be obeyed.
Commands should be given rapidly and in military tone. When word for
"all to hold on" is given the entire circle lets go, and so on.


All players sit in a circle. One in the centre is the leader. To each
one is assigned some musical instrument, which he must play. The leader
waves his baton, but from time to time he will quickly begin to
pantomime the instrument of someone in the circle. For instance, he
plays the cornet, and as soon as he does this, the one to whom the
cornet was assigned immediately sits back with folded hands until the
leader goes back to his baton. Should a player fail to remark that the
leader has taken his instrument he is subject to forfeit.


A tray piled high with all sorts of objects, as diverse as possible in
character is brought into the room. The players are given one minute in
which to take a rapid survey of same. At the end of that period the
tray is taken away and the players, with pencil and paper (previously
supplied them) write down the names of as many of the articles as they
can remember. The one whose list is largest and most correct is the


An odd number of players participate. At a signal (preferably a musical
accompaniment), the players, fly or skip promiscuously about the room.
When the music stops each player attempts to stand back to back with a
partner. The one left without a partner, as the game proceeds, tries to
be successful the next time.


This game is played like ordinary tag, with the exception that no one
can be tagged who has his right hand on his toes and left hand on his


A leader and his accomplice are required in this game. The one
illustrating the game leaves the room. His accomplice passes among the
players and stopping before one of the number and with hands
outstretched says, "Spirits Move." The leader from without replies "Let
them move." Again the accomplice passes among the number and steps in
front of another player, saying, as before, with hands outstretched,
"Spirits Move." Again the reply from his accomplice, "Let them move."
He proceeds in this manner until finally he takes his stand before
another one of the group saying "Spirits Move and Rest Upon." The
leader from without completes the sentence by adding the name of the
person over whose head the hands are extended.

The trick is simply this: The one over whose head the accomplice's
hands rest is the one who spoke last before the leader retired from the


A leader and his accomplice are necessary to this mystifying game. The
leader leaves the room while his accomplice passes around among the
players, occasionally stopping in front of one of them, and with hands
extending over the player's head says. "Hands Over Head." The leader
answers from without "Hands Over Head." He continues around the circle
in like manner until finally he stops in front of a player and with
hands extended says "Hands Over Head and Rest Upon" whereupon the
leader answers "Hands Over Head and Rest upon (John Smith)" naming the
person over whom the hands are extended.

The trick: The accomplice places his hands over the head of the person
before whom he has been standing at the time the leader withdraws from
the room.


Any number of couples may compete in this game. Arrange two files of
Indian clubs, large bottles or ten pins, five in a file, at a distance
of four feet apart with an aisle of six feet between files. Each couple
is comprised of a man and woman. The man is blindfolded and to his
wrists are attached streamers or reins about three feet long. The
woman, at a given signal guides her partner by means of these reins on
and around each bottle in the first file, returning in like manner by
the second file.

The team succeeding in making the circuit without overturning any of
the bottles wins.

In no way is the driver permitted to suggest direction except by
driving with the reins.


This game is particularly interesting if the men and women of the party
compete. For each team a pronouncer is chosen who takes his place
directly to the right of the blackboard immediately in front of his
team, who are standing in file formation, and at a distance of about
fifteen feet from the blackboard.

Each pronouncer is supplied with a list of words previously agreed upon
between themselves, and consisting of words commonly used but
frequently misspelled, as necessary, parallel, embarrass, harass, etc.

At a given signal the first contestant leaves his place in the file,
runs to the board and as the pronouncer announces the first word to
him, proceeds to write it on the board, quickly, but legibly, turns and
runs to the end of the file, tagging as he does so the second player in
his file. The second contestant in turn, runs to the board, writes the
word pronounced to him and in like manner returns to the end of the
file, tagging as he does so the third contestant. No contestant except
the first leaves his place until tagged by the returning contestant.
With ten contestants to a file, count finishing first as equal to two
misspelled words at first, later to one misspelled word. The side
finishing first is thereafter entitled to consider 2 (or 1) misspelled
words as correctly spelled in the final count.



Community Service, Inc., One Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y.


The purpose of play leaders' training classes is to develop volunteer
leaders who will carry on recreational program in various schools,
churches and industrial plants, and later on who will organize play
groups on vacant lots in home vicinities. This will lead to
neighborhood activity. As the schools progress those leaders who
display more initiative than the others should be noted as a desirable
source from which paid recreational leaders may be drawn by the city
recreational commission and other agencies.


Before starting the class, confer with superintendents of schools,
churches, and industrial leaders, and send to all institutions in the
city, which are likely to be interested, invitations to send delegates
to the proposed class. After organization of the class there should be
some classification of its members so that the most efficient work may
be done.

It is desirable in nearly every case that there be separate classes for
white leaders and colored leaders in order that there may be the utmost
freedom of expression and the least hindrance to the enthusiastic
participation in the games.


Experience shows that ten lessons of one hour's duration each will be
sufficient in which to present a total of thirty games with such
directions and general suggestions as will enable the leaders to take
the games taught back to their organizations.

During the first few lessons, the time should be taken up entirely with
the teaching of games and toward the end of the course train all
students to act as leaders in turn. This brings out initiative and
enables the instructor to prepare tentative lists of the most efficient
leaders. Towards the end of the course, the students should do
practically all of the game-leading. By dividing them into groups, each
under a leader, the instructor can increase his own efficiency and help
more specifically the individual members of the class.


If the instructor deems it advisable, a certificate of attendance
testifying to the interest shown by the student may be presented at the
end of the course. It should, however, be made plain that this
certificate does not indicate that the student is an expert playground
director. An expert playground director is one who not only can direct
the games on the playground, but also by his influence makes the
playground an asset to the neighborhood instead of a liability.

Unless a book on games is provided as a guide to the course, each
student should receive at each lesson a mimeographed copy of the
direction for the games taught at that class, to become a part of his
permanent equipment.

Neighborhood organizations, particularly rural schools and vacant lots,
can be put in shape for playgrounds through simple and cheap athletic
equipment such as volley balls and net, basket balls, quoits,
playground balls and bats, medicine balls, which can be purchased at a
very reasonable price and will answer all purposes until more elaborate
equipment can be obtained.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Games and Play for School Morale - A Course of Graded Games for School and Community Recreation" ***

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