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Title: The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom - Considered in Their Various Uses to Man and in Their Relation to the Arts and Manufactures; Forming a Practical Treatise & Handbook of Reference for the Colonist, Manufacturer, Merchant, and Consumer, on the Cultivation, Preparation for Shipment, and Commercial Value, &c. of the Various Substances Obtained From Trees and Plants, Entering into the Husbandry of Tropical and Sub-tropical Regions, &c.
Author: Simmonds, P. L.
Language: English
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THE COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS OF THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM,


CONSIDERED IN THEIR VARIOUS USES TO MAN AND IN THEIR RELATION TO THE
ARTS AND MANUFACTURES;

FORMING A PRACTICAL TREATISE & HANDBOOK OF REFERENCE FOR THE

Colonist, Manufacturer, Merchant, and Consumer,

ON THE CULTIVATION, PREPARATION FOR SHIPMENT, AND COMMERCIAL VALUE,
&c. OF THE VARIOUS SUBSTANCES OBTAINED FROM TREES AND PLANTS,

ENTERING INTO THE HUSBANDRY OF TROPICAL AND SUB-TROPICAL REGIONS, &c.


BY P.L. SIMMONDS,

HONORARY AND CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE ROYAL AGRICULTURAL AND
COMMERCIAL SOCIETIES OF JAMAICA, BRITISH GUIANA, ANTIGUA, BARBADOS,
KONIGSBERG, CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, NATAL, THE NEW YORK STATE SOCIETY, THE
NOVA SCOTIA CENTRAL BOARD OF AGRICULTURE, THE SOCIETIES FOR PROMOTING
AGRICULTURE IN PHILADELPHIA AND NEW ORLEANS; ONE OF THE EDITORS OF
"JOHNSON'S FARMER'S ENCYCLOPÆDIA;" MANY YEARS EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR OF
THE "COLONIAL MAGAZINE," &c. &c.


MDCCCLIV.



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS.


African Steam Ship Company, 3, Mincing Lane
Archbell, J., Esq., Pietermaritzburg, Natal
Assam Company, 30, Great Winchester-street
Aubert, Honourable J.M.A., M.C., St. Lucia

Botanical Society (the Royal), Regent's Park
Burton, C.H., Esq., 133, Fenchurch-street
Boddington, Messrs. & Co., 9, St. Helen's Place
Bristol Chamber of Commerce, Bristol
Brown, Messrs. & Co., 4, Pancras Lane
Begg, Thomas, Esq., 3, Corbett Court, Gracechurch-street
Bow, J.B. De., Editor of Commercial Review, New Orleans
Breede, L. Von, Esq., Natal
Breen, H.H., Esq., St. Lucia
Barbados General Agricultural Society
British Guiana Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society
Browne, Hunter & Co., Messrs., Liverpool
Bagshaw, John, Esq., M.P., Cliff House, Harwich
Berry, Richard L., Esq., Chagford, Devonshire
Blyth, Messrs., J. & A., Steam Engine House, Limehouse
Blyth, Philip P., Esq., 23, Upper Wimpole Street
Brown, Messrs. Robert & Co., 25, Lawrence Pountney Lane

Carmichael, Sir James, Bart., Sussex Gardens
Christopher, J.S., Esq., 26, Coleman-street
Challis, Alderman, 32, Wilson Street, Finsbury
Childs, R.W., Esq., 26, Coleman Street
Cape of Good Hope Agricultural Society
Campbell, C.T., Graham's Town, Cape of Good Hope (3 copies)
Central Board of Agriculture, Halifax, Nova Scotia (5 copies)
Crum, H.E., Esq., (Messrs. J. Ewing & Co's.,) Glasgow
Clegg, T., Esq., Manchester
Carleton, Percival A., Esq., Stipendiary Magistrate, Bahamas

Davis, Messrs. T.E. & W.W., manufacturers, 159 and 160, Whitechapel Road
Dinneford, Messrs. & Co, 172, New Bond-street
Denoon, Messrs. D. & Co., 6, Adam's Court, Old Broad-st.
Decasseres, Phineas, Esq., Falmouth, Jamaica
Dod, Francis, Esq., Savanna le Mar, Jamaica
Duke, Sir James, M.P., Portland Place
Dunbar, Messrs. D., & Sons, 95, Fore-street, Limehouse
Dennistoun, Messrs. J. & A., Glasgow
Drysdale, Hon. J.V., Colonial Secretary, St. Lucia
Drumm, Mr. W., Chemist, Barbados (12 copies)

Ede, Francis, Esq., Great Winchester-street
Ede, Limbrey, Esq., merchant, Winchester-street
Edmonds, E., junr., Esq., Bilcomb Brook, Bradford, Wilts
Evett, Thomas, Esq., Trelawney, Jamaica

Forbes, Dr., F.R.S., Burlington-street
Fielden, J. Leyland, Esq., Feniscowles, Blackburn
Fox, Mr. C., Paternoster Row
Foster, T.C., Esq., Natal
Framgee, Neeswanjee & Co., Bombay
Forman, Mr. R.B., 14, Mincing Lane
Franks & Co., Messrs., 36, Fenchurch-street

Grey, The Right Honourable Earl
Grassett, Elliot, Esq., 6, Chesham-street, Belgrave Square
Gray, Messrs. B.C.T. & Co., Great St. Helen's
Gray & Co., Messrs., Commercial Chambers, Mincing Lane
Glasgow, Messrs. Alexander & Co., Glasgow
Glasgow Chamber of Commerce and Manufactures

Harker, George, Esq., 102 and 103, Upper Thames-street
Henry, J.G., Esq., Bicknollon House, Williton, Somerset
Holloway, Thomas, Esq., 244, Strand
Hanbury, Daniel, Esq, 2, Plough Court
Howard, Messrs. James & Frederick, Bedford
Haywood, James, Esq., Birmingham
Henley, The Right Honourable J.W., M.P.
Humphreys, E.R., L.L.D., Cheltenham School
Haynes, Robert, Esq., Thimbleby Lodge, Northallerton
Howson, Rev. J.S., M.A., Principal of Liverpool Collegiate School
Howard, W.M., Esq., Barbados
Hitchins, Richard, Esq., Kingston, Jamaica
Hamilton, William, Esq., 29, St. Vincent Place, Glasgow
Hodge, Honorable Langford L., Antigua

Ifill, Benjamin, Esq., 86, Gloucester Terrace, Hyde Park Gardens
Innes, J., Esq., Moorgate-street
Isle of Thanet Agricultural Association, Ramsgate

Jamaica Association, 1, New Square, Lincoln's Inn
Jamaica Royal Agricultural Society
Jennings, J.H., Esq., Stipendiary Magistrate, St. Lucia
Jung & Burgtheel, Messrs., 2, Winchester Buildings
Johnson, C.W., Esq., F.R.S., Croydon

Keane, Charles C., Esq., Bermuda
Keating, Thomas, Esq., St. Paul's Churchyard
Keeling & Hunt, Messrs., Monument Yard

Laird, J.M., Esq., African Steam Ship Co., Mincing Lane
Laurie, W.C., Esq. 6, Great Winchester-street
Lane, Crawford & Co., Messrs., Hong Kong (12 copies)
Lee, D. McPhee, Esq., Bermuda
Livesay, Drs., R.N., 35, Nelson Square
Lloyd, B.S., Esq., Birchin Lane
Liverpool, Library of Collegiate Institution
Lawton, Isaac, Esq., Kingston, Jamaica (2 copies)
Lyons, George, Esq., Falmouth, Jamaica (2 copies)
Lawrence & Co., Messrs., Madras (3 copies)
Losack, F.C., Esq., Trelawney, Jamaica
Lord Mayor, The Right Honourable, Mansion House

Molesworth, The Right Honourable Sir William, Bart., M.P., Eaton Square
McCulloch, J.R., Esq., Her Majesty's Stationery Office
Morewood, Edward Esq., Compensation, Natal
Morewood, J.J., Esq., 1, Winchester Buildings
Martin, R. Montgomery, Esq., 21, Victoria Road, Kensington
McHenry, George, M.D., 12, Danzie Street, Liverpool
Masterman, John, Esq., M.P., Nicholas Lane, City
Mayers, J.P. Esq., Staplegrove, Barbados
Mouat, Richard, Esq., R.N., H.M. Dockyard, Port Royal, Jamaica
McHugh, R.G., Esq., St. Lucia
Marryatt, Charles, Esq., Laurence Pountney Lane
Mason, J.P. and Co., 18, Mincing Lane
Mosely, Mr. E.N., Nassau, Bahamas.
Michelli, Mr. F., Gould Square

Nesbit, J.C. Esq., F.G.S., Scientific School, Kennington Lane
Newdegate, C.N., Esq., M.P., Blackheath
Natal Agricultural and Horticultural Society
Newcastle, his Grace the Duke of, (2 copies)
New York State Agricultural Society, Albany
Noble, Messrs. G. & J.A., 11, George Yard, Lombard Street,

Pakington, Right Hon. Sir John S., M.P.
Poole, David, Esq., Analytical Chemist, 18, Jubilee Street, Mile End Road.
Poole, Braithwaite, Esq., London and North Western Railway, Liverpool.
Pitts and Gavin, Messrs., Kandy, Ceylon.
Porteous, The Honorable James, Jamaica.
Prescott, George W., Esq., 62, Threadneedle Street

Rowland, Messrs. Alex. and Sons, 20, Hatton Garden (3 copies)
Ransomes and Sims, Messrs., Implement Makers, Ipswich (2 copies)
Rolph, Thomas, Esq., M.D., Portsmouth.
Richardson, Robert, Esq., 3, Jermyn Street, St. James's
Richardson, Mr. J.M., Cornhill
Rowe, Sir Joshua, Chief Justice of Jamaica
Roberts, Charles, Esq., 38, Mincing Lane
Russell, Graham, Esq., 63, Miller Street, Glasgow
Rothschild, Baron, Lionel De, M.P., New Court, Swithin's Lane

Sampson, M.B., Esq., City Editor of the _Times_, Lombard Street
Saunders, Trelawney W., Esq., F.R.G.S., 6, Charing Cross
Staunton, Sir George Thomas, Bart., M.P., F.B.S., Hants
Strousberg, B.H., Esq., F.R.G.S., Editor of "The Merchant's Magazine."
Straube, Dr., 36, Moorgate Street
Stewart, Charles, Esq., 4, Adam's Court, Old Bond-street (2 copies)
Schomburgk, Sir R.H., British Consul, St. Domingo
Sewell, William, Esq., St. James's, Jamaica
Stephenson, R. Macdonald, Esq., East India Railway, Calcutta
Simmonds, Richard, Esq., R.N., Admiralty, Somerset House
Simmonds, J.G., Esq., R.N., H.M.S. _Crane_, West Coast of Africa
Simeon, Hardy and Sons, Messrs., Cork
Samuelson, B., Esq., Britannia Iron Works, Banbury
Stanford, Mr., 6, Charing Cross

Trade, The Honorable the Board of
Tennent, Sir J. Emerson, M.P.
Travers, Messrs., and Co., 19, St. Swithin's Lane
Thibou, James B., Esq., Antigua
Tollemache, Honorable F., Hillmagham Hall, Ipswich
Thornton, Edward, Esq., Statistical Department, East India House

Weeding, Thomas, Esq., 6, Great Winchester Street (2 copies)
Weguelin, T.M., Esq., 7, Austin Friars
Wyld, James, Esq, Great Globe, Leicester Square
Westgarth, Ross and Co., Messrs., Melbourne, Port Philip
Wortley, S.S., Esq., Cumberland Pen, Spanish Town, Jamaica
Wray, Leonard, Esq., Natal
Wells, Charles, Esq., Grenada
Woodifield, R.D., Esq., Custom House
Woods, R.C., Esq., Straits Times, Singapore (20 copies)
Wilson, Mr. Effingham, Royal Exchange Buildings (2 copies)

Yeatman, Rev. H.F., L.L.B., Stockhouse, near Sherborne
Young, Bryan, T., Esq., Barbados



WORKS CONSULTED.

SIMMONDS'S COLONIAL MAGAZINE, 15 vols.

PORTER'S TROPICAL AGRICULTURIST.

PAXTON'S BOTANICAL DICTIONARY.

LAWSON'S MERCHANT'S MAGAZINE, 2 vols.

PROFESSOR ROYLE, on the Productive Resources of India.

CRAWFORD'S HISTORY OF THE INDIAN ARCHIPELAGO, 3 vols.

LOGAN'S JOURNAL OF THE INDIAN ARCHIPELAGO, 3 vols.

REPORTS AND DOCUMENTS CONNECTED WITH THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE EAST INDIA
COMPANY, in regard to the Cultivation and Manufacture of Cotton, Wool,
Raw Silk, and Indigo in India.

JOURNAL OF THE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA.

MILBURN'S ORIENTAL COMMERCE.

URE'S DICTIONARY OF ARTS AND MANUFACTURES, AND SUPPLEMENTS.

CHASE'S HISTORY OF THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.

PROFESSOR BALFOUR'S MANUAL OF BOTANY.

DUPON'S TRAVELS IN SOUTH AMERICA, 2 vols.

COUNT DANDOLO on the art of Rearing Silk Worms.

JOURNAL AND TRANSACTIONS OF THE NEW YORK STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, 7
vols.

PRIDHAM'S HISTORY OF CEYLON AND ITS DEPENDENCIES, 2 vols.

PRIDHAM'S HISTORY OF THE MAURITIUS.

TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF JAMAICA, 5 vols.

THE BARBADOS AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY'S REPORTER, 2 vols.

LOW'S DISSERTATION ON THE AGRICULTURE OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS.

M'CULLOCH'S COMMERCIAL DICTIONARY, last Edition and Supplements.

HUNT'S NEW YORK MERCHANT'S MAGAZINE, 27 vols.

DE BOW'S COMMERCIAL REVIEW, New Orleans, 6 vols.

RENNY'S HISTORY OF JAMAICA.

SCHOMBURGK'S HISTORY OF BARBADOS.

BREEN'S HISTORY OF ST. LUCIA.

CAPTAIN BEEVER'S AFRICAN MEMORANDA.

PERREIRA'S ELEMENTS OF MATERIA MEDICA.

SPRY'S PLANTS, &c., required for India.

HOOPER'S MEDICAL DICTIONARY.

PERLEY'S REPORTS ON THE FOREST TREES AND FISHERIES OF NEW BRUNSWICK.

ESSAYS ON THE CULTIVATION OF THE TEA PLANT IN THE UNITED STATES, by
Junius Smith, L.L.D.

THE MAHOGANY TREE, its Range, &c.

THE STATES OF CENTRAL AMERICA, by John Bailey, R.M.

THE INDUSTRIAL RESOURCES OF NOVA SCOTIA, by A Gesner.

REPORTS ON THE PAST AND PRESENT STATE OF H.M.'s COLONIAL POSSESSIONS,
for the years 1849-50.

POOLE'S STATISTICS OF COMMERCE.

PATENT OFFICE REPORTS OF THE UNITED STATES, 1849-50.

DE BOW'S INDUSTRIAL RESOURCES OF THE SOUTHERN AND WESTERN STATES OF
AMERICA, 4 vols.

OFFICIAL AND DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION; Part
1.--RAW MATERIALS.

DR. O'SHAUGHNESSY'S BENGAL DISPENSATORY.

ARCHER'S ECONOMIC BOTANY.

A FEW WORDS ON THE TEA DUTIES, by J. Ingram Travers.

OBSERVATIONS ON THE VEGETABLE PRODUCTS OF CEYLON.

GENERAL STATISTICS OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE, by James McQueen.

A HISTORY OF THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM, by W. Rhind.

THE STATISTICAL COMPANION, by Banfield and Weld.

FORTUNE'S TRAVELS IN CHINA.

BALL ON TEA CULTURE.

PROFESSOR ROYLE ON COTTON.

LECTURES ON THE RESULTS OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION, delivered before the
Society of Arts, 2 vols.

JOHNSON'S FARMER'S ENCYCLOPÆDIA.

A DISSERTATION UPON TEA, by Thomas Short, M.D.; 1753.

PARLIAMENTARY PAPERS ON TRADE AND NAVIGATION.

THE HONG KONG ALMANAC AND DIRECTORY.

JAMAICA ALMANACS, &c.

KEEFER'S PRIZE ESSAY ON THE CANALS OF CANADA, 1850.

COLMAN'S CONTINENTAL AGRICULTURE, 1848.

CUBA IN 1851, by Alexander Jones.

MARTIN, on China.

CEYLON ALMANACS.

EARL'S ENTERPRISE IN TROPICAL AUSTRALIA.

CUNNINGHAM'S HINTS FOR AUSTRALIAN EMIGRANTS.

DR. TURNBULL'S CUBA, with Notes of Porto Rico.

LT. MOODIE'S TEN YEARS IN SOUTH AFRICA, 2 vols.

FARMER'S MAGAZINE, 20 vols.

ROBERTSON'S LETTERS ON SOUTH AMERICA, 3 vols.

STEVENSON'S TWENTY YEARS RESIDENCE IN SOUTH AMERICA, 3 vols.

JOURNALS OF THE STATISTICAL SOCIETIES OF LONDON AND PARIS.

PHARMACEUTICAL JOURNAL, 10 vols.

THE LEADING AGRICULTURAL PERIODICALS OF THE UNITED STATES AND THE
COLONIES.

BALANZA GENERAL DE COMERCIO OF CUBA.

KNIGHT'S CYCLOPÆDIA OF THE INDUSTRY OF ALL NATIONS.



PREFACE.


The objects and purposes of the following Work are fully set forth in
the introductory chapter; but I may be permitted to remark here, that
its compilation and arrangement have occupied a very large share of my
time and attention, and I can therefore assert with confidence, that
it will be found the most full and complete book of the kind that has
ever yet appeared. It is not a mere condensation from Encyclopædias,
Commercial Dictionaries, and Parliamentary and Consular Reports; but
is the fruit of my own Colonial experience as a practical planter and
of much laborious research and studious investigation into a class of
ephemeral but useful publications, which seldom meet with any extended
or enduring circulation--assisted, moreover, by the contributions and
suggestions of many of the most eminent agricultural chemists,
planters, and merchants of our Colonial Possessions and Foreign
Countries.

Few are aware of the great labor and research required for digesting
and arranging conflicting accounts--for consulting the numerous
detached papers and foreign works treating of the subjects embraced in
this volume, and for referring to the home and colonial trade
circulars, Legislative papers, and scientific periodicals of different
countries. The harassing duties appertaining to the position of City
editor of a daily paper, coupled with numerous other literary
engagements, have afforded me insufficient time to do full justice to
the work while passing through the press; and several literal
typographical errors in the botanical names have, I find, escaped my
attention in the revision of the sheets. I have, however, thought it
scarcely necessary to make a list of errata for these. From want of
leisure, to reduce all the weights and measures named in the body of
the work into English, I have given their relative value in the Index.
I have taken considerable pains to make the Index most full and
complete, for it has always appeared to me, that in works embracing a
great variety of subjects, facility of reference is of paramount
importance.

Some discrepancy may here and there be found between the figures
quoted from Parliamentary returns and those derived from private trade
circulars; but the statistics are accurate enough for approximate
calculations.

Whilst the work has been passing through the press, several important
modifications and alterations have been made in our Tariff.

I have throughout found great difficulty in obtaining commercial
information from the various Colonial brokers and importers of the
City, who, with but few exceptions, have been stupidly jealous of any
publicity respecting the staples in the sale of which they were
specially interested. The greatest fear was expressed lest any details
as to the sources of supply, stocks on hand, and cost prices of many
of the minor articles, should transpire. After the results of the
Great Exhibition, the exertions making to establish Trade Museums, and
the prospect of information to be furnished at the new Crystal Palace,
this narrow-minded and selfish feeling seems singularly misplaced.

I had not originally contemplated touching upon the grain crops and
food plants of temperate regions; but the prospect of a failure in our
harvest, the disturbed state of political affairs on the Continent,
with short supplies from Russia and the Danubian provinces, and the
absence of any reliable statistics and information for convenient
reference on this all-important subject, added to the recommendations
of one or two well-informed correspondents, induced me to go more into
detail on the Food-plants and Breadstuffs than I had at first
intended, and to treat very fully upon Wheat, Barley, Potatoes, and
other subsidiary food crops. This has trenched somewhat largely on my
space; and although the volume has been swelled to an unexpected size,
I am reluctantly compelled to omit some few Sections, such as those
treating of elastic and other Gums, Resins, &c.; on tropical Fruits;
and on textile substances and products available for cordage and
clothing. The latter section, which includes Cotton, Flax, Jute, &c.,
and embraces a wide and important range of plants, I propose issuing
in a separate volume at an early date, with a large fund of
statistical and general information.

Among those gentlemen to whom I acknowledge myself most indebted for
valuable suggestions or important information, are my friends Sir R.H.
Schomburgk, British Consul at St. Domingo, and Mr. R. Montgomery
Martin, the well-known Statist and Colonial Historian; Mr. R.D.
Wodifield, Deputy Inspector of Imports at the port of London; Mr.
Leonard Wray, of Natal, author of "The Practical Sugar Planter;" Dr.
W. Hamilton, of Plymouth, a talented and frequent contributor to the
scientific periodicals of the day; Mr. T.C. Archer, of Liverpool,
author of "Economic Botany;" Mr. Greene, of the firm of Blyth,
Brothers, and Greene; Mr. J.S. Christopher, author of several works on
the Cape Colony, and Natal; Mr. B.H. Strousberg, editor of "The
Merchant's Magazine," and Mr. G.W. Johnson, the eminent agricultural
writer, author of various elaborate "Essays on the Agriculture of
Hindostan," which were written for my "Colonial Magazine."

P.L. SIMMONDS.

5, BARGE YARD, BUCKLERSBURY,
December, 1853.



CONTENTS.

INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER

  Objects of the work.

  Prof. Solly on the demand for a practical book on raw
  materials.

  Objects of the Society of Arts and Great Exhibition.

  Necessity for an attention to the culture of the minor
  staples of the soil.

  New objects of industry worthy the attention of
  Science.

  Principal part of our homeward commerce composed of raw
  materials from the Vegetable Kingdom.

  Mutual dependence of countries on Commerce for the
  supply of their wants.

  System of arrangement of subjects adopted by the
  author.

  Many articles of commerce omitted for want of space.

  Those of tropical and sub-tropical regions chiefly
  discussed.

  Hints for the cultivator. Division of zones, and
  countries lying within each, with their range of
  temperature.

  Table of climate; duration and production of the
  principal cultivated plants.


SECTION I.--DRIED LEAVES, SEEDS, AND OTHER SUBSTANCES USED IN
THE PREPARATION OF POPULAR DIETETIC BEVERAGES

  _Cacao_ or _Cocoa_.

    Varieties and description of the tree.

    Mode of cultivation in the Colombian Republics.

    Enemies of the tree.

    Expenses of a plantation in Jamaica.

    Cultivation in Trinidad and St. Lucia.

    Statistics and consumption.

  _Coffee_.

    Home consumption and revenue of coffee.

    Chicory largely substituted for; history of the fiscal
    changes.

    Continental demand.

    Present produce and consumption in various countries.

    Cultivation in Mocha.

    Cultivation in India; in Ceylon.

    Exports from that island.

    Manures suitable for the tree.

    Peeling, pulping, and winnowing.

    Improved machinery.

    New use for coffee leaves.

    Culture in Java.

    Production of America and the West Indies; Venezuela.

    Statistics of the Brazils.

    Shipments of various countries to the United States.

    Comparative consumption by different nations.

    Cultivation in Jamaica; Trinidad; British Guiana; Cuba;
    decline of production in this island.

    Statistics of exports.

    Preparation of coffee leaves for infusion according to
    Dr. Gardner's patent.

    Dr. Hooker's opinion thereon.

  _Tea_.

    Immense consumption of.

    Liebig's analysis of.

    Varieties of the plant.

    Imports of tea for a series of years.

    Alterations in the duties.

    Statistics of import and consumption, revenue and
    prices.

    Value and extent of the tea exported from China; first
    cost at the ports; enormous prices paid for superior
    teas.

    Total outlay for tea.

    Consumption of tea in China.

    Export to various countries.

    Total production.

    Consumption per head in England; not properly within
    the reach of the poorer classes.

    China could furnish any quantity.

    Mr. Travers on the tea duties.

    Brick tea of Thibet.

    Tea annually imported into the United States;
    proportion of green to black.

    Range of the plant.

    Countries in which its culture has been attempted.

    Its progress in America.

    The Assam Company and its plantations.

    Extension of tea culture by the East India Co.

    Mr. Fortune's travels in the tea districts of China.

    Instructions and details as to soil, management and
    manufacture, by Dr. Jameson and Mr. Fortune.

    Dr. Campbell's notes.

    Mr. A. Macfarlane's Report.

    The East India tea plantations in the North-West
    Provinces.

    Experimental cultivation of the tea plant in Brazil; M.
    Geullemin's report thereon.

    Paraguay Tea: Mr. Robertson's description of the
    collection and manufacture.

  _Sugar_.

    Plants from which it is usually obtained.

    The sugar cane; its range of cultivation.

    Production in our colonies.

    Consumption in the last ten years.

    Improvements in sugar machinery and manufacture.

    Quantity of cane sugar annually produced and sent into
    the markets.

    Local consumption in India.

    Present European supply; demand according to the
    consumption in England.

    Estimated annual production throughout the world.

    Consumption in the principal European countries.

    Average annual consumption in the United Kingdom.

    Comparative amount of beet-root and cane sugar produced
    in the last four years. _Gazette_ prices of sugar
    in the last ten years.

    Production of sugar in the United States.

    Production in Cuba.

    Production in the British West Indies.

    Production in Mauritius.

    Statistics of imports from the Mauritius.

    Production in the British East Indies.

    Production in Java.

    Production in the Philippines.

    Chemical distinction between cane and grape sugar.
    Varieties of the sugar cane cultivated.

    Possibility of raising the cane from seed.

    Analysis of the cane, and of a sugar soil.

    Chemical examination of cane juice.

    Vacuum pans.

    Boiling and tempering.

    Composition of cane juice.

    Ramos's prepared plantain juice.

    Professor Fownes on the manufacture of sugar.
    Expression of cane juice.

    Construction of the sugar mill.

    Quantity of juice obtained by each kind of mill.

    Position of rollers.

    Mode of culture and varieties in the East Indies.

    Soils considered best adapted for its luxuriant growth.

    Manures.

    Sets and planting.

    Aftergrowth.

    Harvesting.

    Injuries, from seasons, storms, insects, &c.

    Mode of cultivation in the Brazils; in Natal; expenses.

    Comparison between the cost of production in Mauritius
    and Natal.

    Comparative cost in free and slave countries.

    Beet-root sugar: variety cultivated; mode of expression
    and manufacture; yield of sugar; estimated profit;
    extensive production in France; production in the
    German States.

    Statistics of the Prussian Provinces of Saxony; Russia,
    Belgium and Austria.

    A Visitor's account of the French manufactories.

    Mr. Colman's opinion.

    Proportion of sugar in the beet.

    Maple Sugar: description of the tree; its production
    limited to America; extent of the manufacture in Canada
    and the United States; processes employed; statistics
    of production.

    Maize Sugar.


SECTION II.--THE GRAIN CROPS, EDIBLE ROOTS AND FARINACEOUS
PLANTS, FORMING THE BREADSTUFFS OF COMMERCE

  Statistics of _Wheat Culture_.

    Exports of flour from the United States.

    Adaptation of the soil and climate of the United States
    to the culture of the cereals.

    Export of sophisticated (damaged) flour. Kiln drying of
    bread stuffs and exclusion of air. Value of the "whole
    meal" of wheat as compared with that of the fine flour.
    Nutritious properties of various articles of food.

    Composition of wheat and wheat-flour, and the modes of
    determining their nutritive value.

    Rotation of crops in connexion with wheat culture.

    Production and consumption of the United Kingdom.

    Statistics of other countries.

    Barley, Oats, Rye, Buckwheat, Maize: Indian corn and
    meal imported.

    Crop and exports of United States.

    System of culture.

    Rice: Statistics of production and culture in Carolina.

    The Bhull rice lands of Lower Scinde.

    Rice in Kashmir; exports from Arracan.

    Millet.

    Broom Corn.

    Chenopodium Quinoa.

    Fundi or Fundungi.

    Pulse.

    The Sago Palms.

    Manufacture and extent of the trade in Singapore.

    The bread-fruit tree.

    Kafir bread.

  The PLANTAIN and BANANA; various products of these
    palms.

  STARCH-PRODUCING PLANTS investigated.

    Characters of starch from different plants.

    Tenacity and clearness of jellies; per centage of
    starch yielded, and produce of plant per acre; their
    meal as articles of export.

    Indian Corn starch.

    Rice starch.

  ARROWROOT: East and West India, culture and statistics
  of.

  ROOT CROPS: Potatoes, Yams, Cocos, or Eddoes, Sweet
  Potatoes, Cassava or Manioc.

  NEW TUBEROUS PLANTS recommended as substitutes for the
  potato.

  MISCELLANEOUS FOOD PLANTS.

  LICHENS and MOSSES.

  FERNS.


SECTION III.--SPICES, AROMATIC CONDIMENTS, AND FRAGRANT WOODS.

  CINNAMON.

    Limited range of the culture in Ceylon.

    Analysis of the soil most favorable to the tree.

    Peeling.

    Various kinds of bark; commercial classification,
    distinguishing properties of good cinnamon; suitability
    of the Straits Settlement for cinnamon plantations; oil
    of cinnamon; statistics and exports from Ceylon, and
    prices realised; reduction of the duty; extent of land
    under cultivation with the tree; progress of the
    culture in Java; exports thence to Holland.

  CASSIA BARK: species from whence derived; imports,
  consumption and prices.

    Cassia Buds.

    Cassia Oil.

  CANELLA ALBA.

  CASCARILLA BARK.

  CLOVES: description and varieties of the tree.

    Produce in Java.

    Introduction into the West Indies.

    Progress of the culture in Pinang and Singapore.

    The Clove plantations of Zanzibar. Imports and
    consumption of the United Kingdom.

  The NUTMEG: Botanical description.

    Dr. Oxley's account of the cultivation and management
    of a plantation; enemies of the tree.

    Produce and returns.

    Preparation of the nuts for market.

    Statistics of culture in the Straits Settlements.

    Memorandum on the duties on nutmegs.

    Exports of nutmegs from Singapore and Java.

    Imports into the United Kingdom, and consumption of
    wild and cultivated nutmegs and mace.

  GINGER: description and consumption of.

    Commercial distinction between black and white ginger.
    East and West India ginger, directions for cultivation.

    Shipments from Jamaica.

    Comparison between the imports from the East and from
    the West.

    Total annual imports and consumption.

  GALANGALE ROOT.

  CARDAMOMS; plants from which derived.

    Grains of Paradise.

    Meleguetta, or Guinea pepper. PEPPER: description of
    the vine; range of the plant.

    Production of the World.

    The culture declining in Java.

    Extent of the production in Singapore.

    Exports from Ceylon.

    Its introduction into the Mauritius.

    Shipments from Singapore.

    Imports and consumption of the United Kingdom.

  CHILLIES AND CAYENNE PEPPER: varieties of Capsicum.

  PIMENTO: description of the tree; production of the
  spice limited to Jamaica.

    Imports and consumption.

  VANILLA: description of the plant.

    Its collection and preparation for the market.

    Commercial varieties.

    Tonquin beans.

  TURMERIC: sources of supply.

    Commercial uses.

    Value of the Curry stuffs of the East.

    Imports and consumption.

  GINSENG: description of--demand for in China, exports
  from America, and commercial value.

    Canary, Coriander, mustard and anise seeds.

  PUTCHUX, or COSTUS.

  LIGNUM ALOES, and fragrant woods.


SECTION IV.--DYES AND COLORING STUFFS AND TANNING SUBSTANCES

  Importance and value of these substances to our
    manufacturing interests.

    New specimens and materials recently produced.

    Miscellaneous notices of useful plants.

    Lana Dye.

    Prices of Dyewoods.

  Red SANDERS WOOD.

  FUSTIC.

  SAPPAN WOOD, Camwood and Barwood.

    Imports of Dyewoods.

  ARNATTO.

    Commercial kinds.

    Cultivation and manufacture.

    Imports, consumption and prices.

  CHAY-ROOT.

    Wood Dyes.

    Mangrove Bark.

  SUMACH.

    Statistics of imports and prices.

  SAFFLOWER.

    Gamboge.

    Common native dyes.

  INDIGO; plants which produce it.

    Commercial sources of supply.

    Cultivation in Central America, in Jamaica and the West
    Indies; once an important crop in the United States.

    The indigo plant a common weed in many parts of Africa.

    Cultivation in India.

    Classification of the dye-stuff.

    Localities best suited to its production.

    Process of Manufacture.

    Annual production in the East Indies; adaptation of
    Ceylon.

    Extent of the culture in Java; annual exports
    therefrom; imports and consumption.

  MADDER: extent of the demand for. Enormous profit of
    the cultivation; system of harvesting and manufacture.

    Large supplies received from France.

  MUNJEET, or Indian madder, deserving of more
    consideration.

  LOGWOOD, FUSTIC, Quercitron.

    Brazil Wood.

  LICHENS FOR DYEING.

    Henna.

  ORCHILLA WEED.

    Chemical examination of the coloring principles of the
    Lichens.

  BARKS FOR TANNING: cursory notice of a variety of
    suitable barks.

    Proportions of tannin yielded by different barks.

  CATECHU: definition of, and whence derived.

  GAMBIER PLANT: cultivation in Singapore; returns from a
    plantation.

    Different qualities of extract and mode of obtaining
    it.

    Places of manufacture; average produce.

    Terra Japonica, a misnomer. Cutch, another name for
    Catechu.

    Statistics of imports and consumption; the amount and
    value of Gambier from Singapore.

  DIVI-DIVI: description of.

  CORK TREE BARK.

  MIMOSA BARK.

    Valuable native barks of New Zealand.

    Mangrove bark.

  MYROBALANS.

    Kino: definition of; sources from whence obtained.

  VALONIA: statistics of, consumption and prices.


SECTION V.--OLEAGINOUS PLANTS AND THOSE YIELDING FIXED OR
ESSENTIAL OILS

    General Remarks.

    Extensive demand for Oils.

    Proportion of oil furnished by various seeds.

    Richness of Indian seeds in oil.

  RAPE OIL.

    Domba Oil.

  The EARTH or GROUND NUT, its extensive cultivation for
    food and oil.

    Tea oil.

    Tobacco seed oil.

    Poppy oil.

    Tallicoonah oil.

    Carap oil.

    Macaw oil. _Madia sativa_.

    Cocum oil.

    Candle Tree.

    Cinnamon Suet.

    Croton oil.

    Oil of Ben.

  PALM OIL: progress of the African trade.

    Imports into Liverpool.

    Quantity retained for home consumption.

    Statistics of; imports of the four principal vegetable
    oils.

  OLIVE OIL: description of the tree and its varieties;
    its cultivation attempted in the United States.

    Preservation of the fruit.

    Expression of the oil.

    Range of prices.

    Frequently adulterated with cheaper oils.

    Annual imports and consumption.

  ALMOND OIL.

  SESAME, or TEEL Oil.

    Various species cultivated in the East.

    Large exports of the seed from India; native oil mills;
    processes of expression and manufacture.

    Sunflower oil.

    Margose, or Neem oil.

    Illepe oil.

    Vegetable butter. Candle nut tree.

    Colza oil.

  VEGETABLE WAX.

    The Candleberry myrtle.

    The CASTOR OIL PLANT: manufacture of the oil in the
    East and West Indies.

    Extent of the imports annually.

    The oil-cake for manure.

    Kanari oil.

  The COCO-NUT PALM: description of the tree; its various
    and important uses.

    Varieties of this palm met with.

    Wide range of the plant.

    Directions for its culture; profits derived from
    plantations; great attention paid to them in Ceylon.

    Commercial value of its products.

    Statistics of culture in Pinang.

    Natural enemies of the tree.

    Copperah and Poonac.

    Statistical returns connected with its products in
    Ceylon.

    Imports and consumption of coco-nut oil.

    Comparison of the consumption of the chief vegetable
    oils of commerce.

    The value and uses of oil-cake for cattle-feeding.

  VOLATILE, OR ESSENTIAL OILS: description of the most
    important.

    Oil of peppermint.

    Process of obtaining the perfumed oils.

    Cultivation of Roses in the East and preparation of
    Attar. Lemon-grass oil.

    Citronella oil.

    Patchouly.

  SAPONACEOUS PLANTS.


SECTION VI.--DRUGS, INCLUDING NARCOTICS AND OTHER MEDICINAL SUBSTANCES

  The COCA PLANT. _Cocculus Indicus_.

  BETEL LEAF.

  The ARECA PALM; extensive use of the nuts in the East
  as a masticatory.

    Narcotic properties.

    Catechu, or Cutch; its astringent properties.

    Davy's analysis.

    Value of the Areca nuts exported from Ceylon.

    The POPPY: increasing consumption of Opium in this
    country.

    Production of the Drug in India.

    Large revenue derived therefrom.

    Variety of the poppy grown; system of culture pursued.

    Various modes of consuming opium.

    Its preparation and manufacture described.

    Commercial varieties met with.

    Requisites for the successful culture of the poppy for
    opium.

  The TOBACCO PLANT; species cultivated.

    London's classification.

    Analyses of various samples of tobacco; Statistics of
    the culture in Brazil; extent of the consumption;
    considerations of revenue; memorial of Liverpool
    Chamber of Commerce.

    Comparative consumption of tea, coffee and tobacco, per
    head.

    Imports and duty received on tobacco in the last five
    years.

    Consumption checked in England and France by the high
    duties.

    Imports, sales, and stocks, in Bremen for 10 years.

    Culture and statistics in the United States.

    Quantity exported from 1821 to 1850.

    Countries from whence we received our supplies in 1850.

    Particulars of the tobacco trade in 1850 and 1853.

    Mode of culture pursued in Virginia.

    General instructions for the planter.

    Information as to growing Cuba tobacco.

    History of the trade and cultivation in Cuba.

    Statistics of exports from the Havana.

    Culture of tobacco in the East.

    Analysis of tobacco soils.

    Progress of cultivation and shipments in Ceylon.

    Manila tobacco and cigars.

    Production in the Islands of the Archipelago.

    Suggestions and directions for tobacco culture in New
    South Wales.

    Its value and extensive use as a sheep wash.

    Excellence of the product and manufacture in New South
    Wales; culture of tobacco in South Australia.

  MISCELLANEOUS DRUGS.

    Poisons.

  ALOES: varieties of the plant; culture and manufacture
  in Socotra, Barbados, and the Cape Colony.

  ASAFOETIDA.

  CAMPHOR.

  CINCHONA BARK: commercial varieties of CALUMBA ROOT.

  COLOCYNTH.

  CUBEBS.

  GAMBOGE.

  GENTIAN.

  IPECACUAN.



INTRODUCTORY.

The want of a practical work treating of the cultivation and
manufacture of the chief Agricultural Productions of the Tropics and
Foreign Countries, has long been felt, for not even separate essays
are to be met with on very many of the important subjects treated of
in this volume.

The requirements of several friends proceeding to settle in the
Colonies, and wishing to devote themselves to Cotton culture, Coffee
planting, the raising of Tobacco, Indigo, and other agricultural
staples, first called my attention to the consideration of this
fertile and extensive field of investigation.

Professor Solly, in one of the series of Lectures on the results of
the Great Exhibition, delivered before the Society of Arts, early last
year, made some practical remarks bearing on the subject:--

    "If (he said) you were to place before any manufacturer specimens of
    all the substances which could be employed in his particular
    manufacture, and if you could tell him from whence each could be
    procured, its cost, the quantities in which he might obtain it, and
    its physical and chemical properties, he would soon be able to
    select for himself the one best suited for his purposes. This,
    however, has never happened in relation to any one art; in every
    case manufacturers have had to make the best of the materials which
    chance or accident has brought before them. It is strange and
    startling, but nevertheless perfectly true, that even at the present
    time there are many excellent and abundant productions of nature
    with which not only our manufacturers, but, in some instances, even
    our men of science, are wholly unacquainted. _There is not a single
    book published which gives even tolerably complete information on
    any one of the different classes of vegetable raw produce at present
    under our consideration_. The truth of these remarks will be felt
    strongly by any one who takes the trouble to examine any of these
    great divisions of raw materials. He will obtain tolerably complete
    information respecting most of those substances which are known in
    trade and commerce; but of the greater number of those not known to
    the broker, he will learn little or nothing. Men of science, for the
    most part, look down upon such knowledge. The practical uses of any
    substances, the wants and difficulties of the manufacturer, are
    regarded as mere trade questions, vulgar and low--simple questions
    of money. On the other hand, mere men of business do not feel the
    want of such knowledge, because, in the first place, they are
    ignorant of its existence, and secondly, because they do not see how
    it could aid them or their business; and if it should happen that an
    enterprising manufacturer desires to learn something of the
    cultivation and production of the raw material with which he works,
    he generally finds it quite impossible to obtain any really sound
    and useful information. In such cases, if he is a man of energy and
    of capital, he often is at the cost of sending out a perfectly
    qualified person to some distant part of the globe, to learn for him
    those practical details which he desires to know. This is no
    uncommon thing; and many cases might be stated, showing the great
    advantages which have arisen to those who have thus gained a march
    upon their neighbours."

The Society of Arts, appreciating the importance of from time to time
encouraging the introduction of new and improved products from our
Indian and Colonial Possessions, has offered many gold medals as
premiums for a great variety of staples from abroad.

The Great Exhibition of the Industry of all Nations brought together
an immense variety of productions from tropical regions, of which the
English public were comparatively ignorant. Attracting public
attention, as these necessarily did, information on the best modes of
cultivating and manufacturing them will be peculiarly valuable to the
colonists, and is as eagerly sought after by many brokers, merchants
and manufacturers at home.

In consequence of the recent liberal policy of Great Britain, the
competition of foreign countries, the want of cheap and abundant
labor, and other causes, those chief staples, Sugar and Coffee, which
for a series of years formed the principal and almost exclusive
articles of production in our colonies, and which had met with a ready
and remunerative sale in the British markets, have either fallen off
to an alarming extent, or become so reduced in price as scarcely to
repay the cost of cultivation. The partial abandonment of the
cultivation of these staples in our colonies has had the effect of
crippling the agricultural and commercial enterprise of several of our
most valuable foreign possessions, and throwing out of employment a
number of persons: it behoves us, therefore, to direct attention to
some of the many minor articles in demand;--to those indigenous or
exotic products of the soil in tropical regions, which, being
inexpensive in cultivation and manufacture, might be undertaken with a
moderate outlay of labor and capital, and the certainty of a ready and
remunerative sale in the European markets; and could moreover be
attended to without neglecting or at all interfering with the
cultivation of the leading staples.

It is evident that the export wealth of tropical regions must be
chiefly agricultural, the soil and climate being peculiarly fitted for
the culture of fruits, trees and plants yielding oils, gums, starch,
spices, and other valuable products, which no art can raise cheaply in
more temperate latitudes. The large and continued emigration of
farmers and other enterprising persons from Britain and the Continent
to Natal, the Cape Colony, Northern Australia, Ceylon, the East India
Company's Possessions and the Straits Settlements, Brazil, New
Granada, and the Central American Republics, Texas, the Southern
States of North America, and other tropical and sub-tropical
countries, renders information as to the agriculture and productions
of those regions highly desirable. Even to the settlers in our West
Indian possessions, most of whom have too long pursued the old beaten
track of culture and manufacture, comparatively regardless of modern
improvements and the results of chemical, scientific, and practical
investigation, recent information on all these subjects, and a
comparison of the practices of different countries, cannot fail to be
useful.

There is much valuable information to be met with in detached papers
and essays in the scientific periodicals of the day, and in colonial
and other publications; such as the Transactions and Journals of the
different agricultural and horticultural societies of the East and
West Indies, the United States, Australia, &c., but none readily
accessible for easy reference, and which the new settler, proceeding
out to try his fortune in those fair and productive regions of the
globe, can turn to as a hand book. I have had much experience in
Tropical Agriculture, and for many years my attention has been mainly
directed to this important subject, for which purpose I have kept up a
large and extended correspondence with numerous agricultural,
scientific and other societies abroad; with experienced practical men,
and have also received the leading journals of all the tropical
Colonies.

No one person could be expected to be thoroughly familiar with all the
different modes of culture and preparation of every one of the
numerous products to be described in this volume; but where my own
agricultural experience (of several years in the West Indies and South
America) was at fault, I have availed myself of the practical
knowledge of those of my colonial friends and correspondents best
informed on the subject, and am particularly fortunate in having many
valuable essays on Tropical Agriculture scattered through the
different volumes of my "Colonial Magazine."

The discussion of the best modes of culture, properties, manufacture,
consumption, uses, and value of the commercial products of the
vegetable kingdom cannot be without its value, and the attention of
merchants and planters may be usefully directed to various articles,
which will be profitable both in an agricultural and commercial point
of view; many of which are already sources of wealth to other
countries.

The introduction of new objects of industry into the colonial
dependencies of the British Empire, is no longer considered a mere
subject of speculation, but one well worthy the attention of the eye
of science; and the fostering hand of care is beginning to be held out
to productions of nature and art, which, if not all equally necessary
to the welfare of man, yet certainly merit the attention of the
cultivator and capitalist, and have great claims on the scientific
observer, and on those interested in raising the manufactures of our
country to a higher standard.

Few who have not investigated this subject are aware of the immense
number of countries lying in the equatorial and tropical ranges of the
torrid zone, many of which, from the value and importance of their
indigenous productions, have already attracted considerable notice,
and to which still more attention will be directed by European nations
as the value of their various products becomes more extensively known.

The homeward commerce which we carry on with our numerous Colonies,
with our Indian Possessions, and with foreign countries, is
principally in articles furnished by the vegetable kingdom, such as
the cereal grains, wheat, rice, maize, &c.; vegetables used in
preparing dietetic drinks and distilled liquors, as tea, coffee,
cacao, and the sugar cane, grapes, &c.; spices and condiments; drugs;
dyes and tanning substances, obtained from the bark, leaves, fruit,
and roots of various herbs and trees; the expressed or distilled oils
of different plants; fruits in the green, dried, or preserved state;
starches obtained from the roots or trunks of many farinaceous plants;
fibrous substances used for cordage, matting, and clothing, as cotton,
Indian hemp, flax, coco-nut coir, plantain and pine-apple fibre;
timber and fancy woods. These substances, in the aggregate, form at
least nine-tenths in value of the whole imports of this country. There
are also several products of the animal kingdom dependent on vegetable
culture, which might be brought into this category, such as silk and
cochineal. Very few of these products of the vegetable kingdom come to
us in any other than an unmanufactured state; they are shipped to this
country as the chief emporium and factory of the world, either for
re-export or to be prepared for consumption by the millions to whom
they furnish employment, sustenance, and articles of clothing.

It is a wise ordination of Providence, that the different nations of
the earth are as it were mutually dependent on each other for many of
the necessaries and luxuries of life, and the means of progress and
civilization. Commerce is thus extended, the various arts and
manufactures improved by comparison and competition; and the acres yet
untilled in distant lands hold out strong inducements for immigration,
their climate and products affording health, freedom, and independence
to the over-tasked and heavily taxed artisan and agriculturist of
Europe. Although the systems of tropical agriculture, generally
pursued, are peculiar and effective, yet there is no doubt that much
improvement remains to be carried out in the practices adopted, in the
implements employed, and the machinery used for preparing the crops
for shipment. In the British Isles our insulated position, limited
extent of country, unsettled climate, and numerous population,
aggregated in dense masses, have compelled us to investigate and avail
ourselves of every improvement in agriculture, arts and manufactures,
which experience, ingenuity, and a comparison with the customs of
other countries, have placed at our disposal.

If we except sandy deserts, and some of the interior portions of the
polar regions, it will be found that there is scarcely any country but
what is capable of improvement. Indeed, so extensive are the resources
of agriculture, that further improvements may be most easily effected.

Let us then examine and ascertain what new objects may be improved
upon, and if by our speculations only one single article, either for
food or use, is added to those already in use, or those that are
already cultivated be improved upon, it is equivalent to an increase
of our wealth.

An eminent writer has truly remarked that "Agriculture is the parent
of Manufactures, seeing that the productions of nature are the
materials of art."

In the economy of Providence every fragment of creation seems to
unfold, as man progresses in the arts of life, unbounded capabilities
of adaptation to his every want. We have, indeed, daily illustration
of the truth of that trite and homely adage, that "nothing is made in
vain."

That quaint old English poet, Herbert, who flourished in the fifteenth
century, in a short poem on "Providence," has graphically described,
in his unique vein, the sentiment which forces itself upon us in view
of the numerous discoveries of the age in which we live:--

"All countries have enough to serve their need.

       *       *       *       *       *

    ----The Indian nut alone
    Is clothing, meat and trencher, drink and can,
    Boat, cable, sail, and needle, all in one."

"The addition (it has been well observed) of even a single flower, or
an ornamental shrub, to those which we already possess, is not to be
regarded as a matter below the care of industry and science. The more
we extend our researches into the productions of nature, the more are
our minds elevated by contemplating the variety as well as the
exceeding beauty and excellence of the works of the Creator."

The mode of arrangement of the various subjects treated of involved
some consideration; two or three plans were open for adoption. 1st. To
describe the several products in the order of their agricultural
importance or commercial value. 2nd. An alphabetical reference, in the
style of a Dictionary or Encyclopædia; and 3rd. Classifying them under
subdivisions, according to their particular or chief uses. The last
seemed to me the most desirable and efficient mode, although open to
some objections, from the variety of uses to which different parts of
many plants were applied. Some, as cotton, indigo, sugar, coffee, tea,
&c., would readily fall into their proper division, but others, as the
coco-nut, plantain, &c., from the variety of their products, would
come under several heads. I have, however, endeavoured to meet this
difficulty by placing each plant or tree under the section to which
its most valuable production seemed naturally to refer it.

There are very many plants and substances which have been passed over
altogether, it being impossible, within the limits of a moderate sized
volume, to bring under notice even a tithe of the valuable grasses,
timber trees, cabinet woods, fruits, &c.; and I have confined myself
in a great measure to those which either already are, or might easily
be rendered, articles of commerce, of some importance. I have shown
their present value by quoting the current prices, and brought down,
as far as possible, the statistics of each article to the close of
last year, thus rendering the work valuable by commercial references
which could not be found collectively elsewhere.

There are some articles of commerce which could not properly be
treated of in a work intended as a guide on agriculture and husbandry,
for the tropical planter and cultivator, who purposes devoting his
attention to the raising of useful crops and plants on his estate. The
forests and jungles of the tropics abound in products of an useful
character, the luxurious and spontaneous growth of nature, such as
ebony, sandal wood, &c.; but these must be sought for by a different
class of settlers; and the mahogany cutter of Honduras, the
teak-feller of India, the gatherer of elastic gums, can scarcely be
ranked with the cultivators of the soil.

I had originally intended to confine my remarks to staples of tropical
growth, but I have been induced to depart from my prescribed plan by
the importance of some of the commercial products of temperate
regions, such as maple and beet-root sugar, wheat, the grain crops,
and potatoes.

The system of agriculture, and modes of tillage, &c., of separate
countries in the Eastern and Western hemisphere, notwithstanding their
similarity of climate, are as opposite as if each country belonged to
a different zone; and yet much may be learned by one of the other.

The only essentially useful division of seasons in countries within
the tropics is into a wet and dry season, the former being the period
of germination, the latter that of fructification.

The implements of agriculture required are for the most part few and
simple, for no high tillage is necessary, the luxuriance of vegetation
being so great that most of the products of the soil will grow
indiscriminately throughout the year, and the only care of the
husbandman, after the first preparation of the soil, is to keep down
the vast growth of weeds, which might stifle the crops.

In tropical regions there is less demand for manures than in temperate
climates, but still there are many additions to the soil that may
profitably be made.

Firstly, that most important principle, which has only recently been
practically inculcated, is in too many quarters entirely neglected,
namely, returning to the soil the component parts taken off by various
crops, and which is so generally practised in all good agricultural
districts, by a careful rotation of crops. Liebig has well pointed out
this: "It must be admitted (he says), as a principle of agriculture,
that those substances which have been removed from a soil must be
completely restored to it; and whether this restoration be effected by
means of excrements, ashes, or bones, is in a great measure a matter
of indifference." Again he remarks, "We could keep our fields in a
constant state of fertility by replacing every year as much as we
remove from them in the form of produce; but an increase of fertility,
and consequent increase of crop, can only be obtained when we add more
to them than we take away." Of all natural manures, therefore, the
best for each description of plant is its own refuse, or ashes; enough
of these can seldom, however, be obtained. But, as far as they can be
restored, this principle is beginning to be acted upon by the sugar
planters of the West Indies, who employ the waste leaves and ashes of
the expressed stalk of the cane, after it has been used as fuel, to
manure their cane-fields. The vine growers of Germany and the Cape
also bury the cuttings of their vines around the roots of the plants.
The cinnamon grower of the East returns the waste bark and cuttings of
the shoots to the soil. And in the coco-nut groves of Ceylon, the
roots of the trees are best manured with the husks of the nuts and
decomposed poonac, or the refuse cake, after the oil has been
expressed from the pulp. Analysis of soils is, perhaps, not so
essential in countries where virgin land is usually in abundance, and
the luxuriance of vegetation furnishes itself, by decomposition,
abundant materials for replenishing the fertility of the soil. But
there are some substances, such as muriate of soda, gypsum, phosphate,
and other compounds of lime, which may be advantageously applied.
Guano and expensive artificial manures, are seldom required, and,
indeed, will not repay the planters for importing.

An experienced cultivator can generally judge by a superficial
examination, aided by the situation, locality, and appearance of the
soil, whether a certain portion of land is fitted for the profitable
growth of any particular plant. Depth of soil, and facilities for
deepening it, with the nature of the subsoil, so as to know whether it
retains or parts with water, are also important considerations,
because tap-rooted plants require free scope for penetrating deep into
the ground.

A due supply of water is of vital importance to most crops--and
therefore the extent and periods of the fall of rain are essential to
be known, as it is not always possible to resort to irrigation. The
quantity of labor required for previous tillage, cultivation, and
harvesting of different crops, and the available supply, are primary
essentials to be considered before entering upon the culture of any
staple product, however remunerative it may appear in prospective.
Facility and cost of transport to the nearest market or shipping port
are the next desiderata to be ascertained, as well as a careful
estimate of the cost of plant or machinery necessary.

It may be desirable at the outset to make a brief enumeration of the
countries lying within the different zones, and the agricultural
products of which come, therefore, more especially under the notice of
the tropical planter.

Meyen, in his division of the horizontal range of vegetation into
zones, extends--

1. The equatorial zone to fifteen degrees on both sides of the
equator. In this division we shall find the Cape Verd Islands, Sierra
Leone, Ascension, and St. Helena, the Republic of Liberia, the
European and native settlements in the Gulf of Guinea, and on the
western Coast of Africa, Abyssinnia, Zanzibar on the East Coast,
Mocha and Aden in the Red Sea, the northern portion of Madagascar, the
Seychelles, the Madras Presidency, Northern India, Ceylon and the
Nicobar Islands, Sumatra, Siam, Malacca, Singapore and the Straits
Settlements, Cochin China, the Phillippine Islands, Borneo, Celebes
and the Moluccas, Java and Madura, Banca, the Johore Archipelago,
Timor and the eastern group of Islands, with New Guinea, a large
portion of Northern Australia, the Marquesas, Society's and other
oceanic islands. In South America the Republics of Peru, Bolivia,
Ecuador, New Granada, and Venezuela, British, French and Dutch Guiana,
and a large portion of the empire of Brazil; Trinidad, Barbados, and
most of the islands in the Carribean Sea.

This zone has a mean temperature of 78½ to 82½ Fahrenheit.

2. The tropical zone reaches from the 15th deg. on each side of the
equator to the tropics in 23 lat. The mean temperature is 73½ to 78¾
deg. Summer temperature 80½ to 86 deg.; winter temperature in the
eastern coast districts, 59 deg.

In this region is comprised the following countries:--Sandwich Isles,
Canton, in province of China, Burmah, Calcutta, and a portion of the
Bengal Presidency, the Bombay Presidency, Madagascar, Mauritius and
Bourbon; the southern portion of Brazil, Cuba, St. Domingo, Mexico,
and Central America.

3. The sub-tropical zone extends from the tropics 23 to 34 deg. of
latitude. There are a number of tropical fruits in this region. The
winters are mild and vegetation is green throughout the year. In the
northern division of the zone palms and bananas grow on the plains. In
this region is comprised all the extreme northern portions of Africa,
coasting the Mediterranean, comprising Algiers and the Barbary States,
Egypt, part of Persia, Cabool and the Punjab; the greater portion of
China, Lower California, Texas, the South-Western States of America,
the Bermudas, the Cape Colony and Natal, New South Wales, Southern and
Western Australia--the Government settlements in the Northern Island
of New Zealand, the largest portion of Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay and
the Argentine Republics, the Provinces of Brazil from St. Paul to Rio
Grande, Madeira and the Canary Isles.

To define accurately the conditions of temperature which a plant
requires to maintain it in a flourishing condition we must ascertain
within what limits its period of vegetation, may vary, and what
quantity of heat it requires. This most remarkable circumstance was
first observed by Boussingault, but unfortunately we do not as yet
possess sufficiently accurate accounts of the conditions of culture in
the various regions of the earth, to enable us to follow out this
ingenious view in all its details. His theory is, that the time
required by a plant to arrive at maturity is as the inverse ratio of
the temperature; therefore, knowing the mean temperature of any place,
and the number of days which a plant takes to ripen, the time required
at any other point more or less elevated, can easily be ascertained.
Peter Purry, a native of Switzerland, who settled in Charleston in
the eighteenth century, in a memorial to the Duke of Newcastle, then
Secretary of State, sets out with this postulate, that "there is a
certain latitude on our globe, so happily tempered between the
extremes of heat and cold, as to be more particularly adapted than any
other for certain rich productions of the earth; among which are silk,
cotton, indigo," &c.--and he fixes on the latitude of 33 deg., whether
north or south, as the one of that peculiar character.

The following Table, showing the climate, duration and production of
certain plants cultivated in tropical America, is from the proceedings
of the Agricultural Society of Grenada. The second, column gives the
altitude in English yards above the level of the sea. The third, the
mean temperature by Fahrenheit's thermometer. The fourth, the average
time required to commence bearing. The fifth, the number of plants in
a Spanish "fanegada" of 170 varras, about 153 square yards. The sixth,
the average duration of each plant. The seventh, the average produce
of each plant in the year:--

  -----------------+-----------+---------+--------+------+------+--------
                   |     2     |    3    |    4   |  5   |  6   |   7
                   |Level of   |Mn. Temp.|  Time  |No. of|      |Average
                   |the Sea, to|Deg. Min.|Required|plants|Years |produce
  -----------------+-----------+---------+--------+------+------+--------
  Cacao            |          }|81.17    |6½      | 1,156|  40  |1¼ lb
  (_Theobroma      |587 yds.  }|46.00    |yrs     |      |      |per tree
  Cacao_)          |          }|         |        |      |      |
                   +-----------+---------+--------+------+------+--------
  Plantain        {|630 yds. to|81.17    | 9 mths.| 3,613|  30  |50
  (_Musa          {|1077       |46.00    |9½   "  |      |      |plantains
  Paradisiaca_)   {|           |40.61    |11   "  |      |      |
                   +-----------+---------+--------+------+------+---------
  Indian Corn     {|1077       |81.17    | 90 days|28,900|Annual|238 for
  (_Zea Mays_)    {|1260 to    |40.61    |110  "  |      |      |every
                  {|  1890     |36to37.80|120  "  |      |      |seed
                  {|2880       |25.20to27|180  "  |      |      |
                   +-----------+---------+--------+------+------+--------
  Manioc or       {|1077       |81.17    |10 mths |28,900|Bicen-|One
  Cassava         {|1195       |40.61    |12   "  |      |nial  |cassava
                  {|           |43.00    |120 days|      |      |weighing
                  {|           |         |        |      |      |¾ lb.
                  {|           |         |        |      |      |¼ oz.
                  {|           |         |        |      |      |starch
                   +-----------+---------+--------+------+------+--------
  Coco nut         | 630       |81.17    |5 yrs.  |   452|  60  |4 bottles
  (_Cocos          |           |46.00    |6  "    |      |      |oil per
  nucifera_)       |           |         |        |      |      |tree
                   +-----------+---------+--------+------+------+--------
  Tobacco         {| 630       |81.17    |150 days|28,900|Annual|½ lb.
  (_Nicotiana_    {|1077       |46.00    |170  "  |      |      |_dried_
  _tabacum_)      {|1980       |40.61    |180  "  |      |      |to each
                  {|           |33.30    |225  "  |      |      |5 plants
                   +-----------+---------+--------+------+------+--------
  Cotton          {| 630       |81.17    |6½  mth |28,900|3½    |½ lb.
  (_Gossypium_)   {|1077       |46.00    |7    "  |      |      |nett
                  {|1415       |40.61    |7½"     |      |      |per
                  {|           |34.61    |9    "  |      |      |plant
                   +-----------+---------+--------+------+------+--------
  Coffee          {| 230       |47       |24 mths | 5,300|  45  |1½
  (_Coffea_       {| 630       |46       |25  "   |      |      |lb.
  _Arabica_)      {|1077to 2250|37.80 to |28  "   |      |      |per
                  {|2453       |39.60    |36  "   |      |      |tree
                  {|           |33.30    |        |      |      |
                   +-----------+---------+--------+------+------+--------
  Sugar cane      {| 630       |84.17    |11 mths.|28,900|   5  |10 percnt
  (_Saccharum_    {|1080       |46.00    |12  "   |      |      |sugar
  _officinarum_)  {|           |41.40    |14  "   |      |      |upon the
                  {|           |         |        |      |      |weight
                  {|           |         |        |      |      |of the
                  {|           |         |        |      |      |raw cane
                   +-----------+---------+--------+------+------+--------
  Indigo          {|  90       |48.60    |2½   "  |57,800|  1½  |70 plants
  (_Indigofera_   {| 630       |46.00    |3    "  |      |      |produce
  _tinctoria_)    {|1077       |40.61    |3½   "  |      |      |1 lb.
                  {|           |         |        |      |      |coloring
                  {|           |         |        |      |      |matter
                   +-----------+---------+--------+------+------+--------
  Potato          {|1080       |38.70    |140 days|116,600      |4½
  (_Solanum_      {|1980       |33.30    |165  "  |      |Annual|lb each
  _tuberosum_)    {|2700       |27.00    |210  "  |      |      |plant
                   +-----------+---------+--------+------+------+--------
  Wheat           {| 567       |42.30    | 80  "  |57,800|Annual|37 for
  (_Triticum_     {|1170       |38.70    |100  "  |      |      |every
  _æstivum_)      {|2520       |32.99    |120  "  |      |      |seed
                  {|           |         |        |      |      |planted
  -----------------+-----------+---------+--------+------+------+--------

The plantain bears at 1,529 yards, in a temperature of 61 deg.
Fahrenheit, and requires fifteen months, but its cultivation is of
little benefit in so high a latitude. It is the same with the cassava
root. The cane at 1,160 altitude, in a temperature of 66 deg., gives
no sugar; and indigo at 1,620 affords no coloring matter.



SECTION I.

DRIED LEAVES, SEEDS, AND OTHER SUBSTANCES USED IN THE PREPARATION OF
POPULAR DIETETIC BEVERAGES.


No substances are so essentially necessary to mankind, or form such
important articles of commerce, as those which we come first to
consider, the dietetic products--cacao, coffee, tea, and sugar. The
consumption of these in all civilized countries is immense,
notwithstanding that in many they have been fettered with heavy fiscal
duties. The investigation of the culture of the plants from which they
are obtained, and the manufacture of the products, is a very curious
object of research.


CACAO OR COCOA.

The chocolate nuts or seeds, termed cacao, are the fruit of species of
_Theobroma_, an evergreen tree, native of the Western Continent. That
commonly grown is _T. cacao_; but Lindley enumerates two other
species, _T. bicolor_, a native of New Granada; and _T. Guianensis_,
with yellow flowers, a native of Guiana. The seeds being nourishing
and agreeable to most people, are kept in the majority of houses in
America, as a part of the provisions of the family. By pressure they
yield fatty oil, called butter of cacao. They also contain a
crystalline principle analogous to caffeine, called theobromine. The
common cacao of the shops consists generally of the roasted beans, and
sometimes of the roasted integuments of the beans, ground to powder.
The consumption of cacao in the United Kingdom is about three millions
of pounds annually, yielding a revenue of £15,500. Few tropical
products are more valuable or more useful as food to man than cacao.
It is without any exception the cheapest food that we can conceive,
and were it more generally employed, so that the berries should not be
more than two, three, or, at most, six months old, from the time of
gathering (for, if kept longer, they lose their nutritive properties),
even a smaller quantity than that usually taken in a cup would
suffice: in fact, cacao cannot be _too_ new. The cacao beans lie in a
fruit somewhat like a cucumber, about five inches long and
three-and-a-half inches thick, which contains from twenty to thirty
beans, arranged in five regular rows with partitions between, and
which are surrounded with a rose-colored spongy substance, like that
of water melons. There are fruits, however, so large as to contain
from forty to fifty beans. Those grown in the West India islands, as
well as Berbice and Demerara, are much smaller, and have only from six
to fifteen; their development being less perfect than other parts of
South America. After the maturation of the fruit, when their green
colour has changed to a dark yellow, they are plucked, opened, their
beans cleared of the marrowy substance, and spread out to dry in the
air. In the West Indies they are immediately packed up for the market
when they are dried; but in Caraccas they are subjected to a species
of slight fermentation, by putting them into tubs or chests, covering
them with boards or stones, and turning them over every morning to
equalize the operation. They emit a good deal of moisture, and lose
the natural bitterness and acrimony of their taste by this process, as
well as some of their weight. Instead of wooden tubs, pits or trenches
dug in the ground are sometimes had recourse to for curing the beans;
an operation called earthing. They are, lastly, exposed to the sun and
dried. According to Lampadius, the kernels of the West India cacao
beans contain in 100 parts, besides water, 53.1 of fat or oil, 16.7 of
an albuminous brown matter, which contains all the aroma of the bean;
10.91 of starch, 7¾ of gum or mucilage, 0.9 of lignine, and 2.01 of a
reddish dye-stuff, somewhat akin to the pigment of cochineal. The
husks form 12 per cent, of the weight of the beans. The fatty matter
is of the consistence of tallow, white, of a mild agreeable taste, and
not apt to turn rancid by keeping. It melts only at 112 degrees Fahr.,
and should, therefore, make tolerable candles. It is obtained by
exposing the beans to strong pressure in canvas bags, after they have
been steamed or soaked in boiling water for some time. From five to
six ounces of butter may be thus obtained from a pound of cacao. It
has a reddish tinge when first expressed, but it becomes white by
boiling with water.

The beans, being freed from all spoiled and mouldy portions, are to be
gently roasted over a fire in an iron cylinder, with holes in its ends
for allowing the vapors to escape, the apparatus being similar to a
coffee-roaster. When the aroma begins to be well developed, the
roasting is known to be finished, and the beans must be turned out,
cooled, and freed by fanning and sifting from their husks. The kernels
are then to be converted into a paste, either by trituration in a
mortar heated to 130 degrees Fahr., or by a powerful mill.[1] The
cacao tree resembles our dwarf apple tree both in body and branches,
but the leaf, which is of a dark green, is considerably broader and
larger. The nuts are of the color and about the size of an almond, and
hang eighteen to thirty together by a slender stringy film, enclosed
in a pod. A ripe pod is of a beautiful yellow, intermixed with crimson
streaks; when dried, it shrivels up and changes to a deep brown; the
juice squeezed from the mucilaginous pulp contained in the husks of
these nuts appears like cream, and has a very grateful taste of a
cordial quality. The nuts have a light pleasant smell, and an
unctuous, bitterish, roughish (not ungrateful) taste. Those of
Nicaragua and Caracas are the most agreeable and are the largest;
those of the French Antilles, and our own West India islands, are the
most unctuous.

The Mexicans, in preparing the chocolate paste, add some long pepper,
a little annatto, and lastly vanilla; some add cinnamon, cloves and
anise, and those who love perfumes, musk and ambergris.

The finest American cacao is said to be that of Soconusco, but the
principal imports are from Caracas and Guayaquil, which is of a very
good quality. The province of Barcelona, adjoining Caracas exports
annually from 200,000 to 300,000 cwt.

The very large shipments from Guayaquil are shown by the following
return. Of this quantity Spain takes the largest portion, Mexico the
next, and England receives but a very small quantity.

Cacao exported from Guayaquil:--

                     lbs.
  1833             6,605,786
  1834            10,999,853
  1835            13,800,851
  1836            10,918,565
  1837             8,520,121
  1838             7,199,057
  1839            12,169,787
  1840            14,266,942

The exports of cacao from the port of La Guayra, has been as follows
in the years ending December 31.

                 Fanegas.
  1850            40,181
  1851            47,951
  1852            54,083

Five fanegas are equal to one English quarter. The price of cacao was,
at the close of 1852, sixteen dollars the fanega.

The province of Caracas, according to Humboldt, at the end of the last
century, produced annually 150,000 fanegas of cacao, of which
two-thirds were exported to Spain, and the remainder locally consumed.
The shipments from the port of La Guayra alone averaged 80,000 to
100,000, or nearly double the present shipments. In the early part of
the present century the captain-generalship of Caracas produced nearly
200,000 fanegas, of which about 145,000 were sent direct to Europe.
The province of Caracas then produced 150,000 fanegas; Maracaibo,
20,000; Cumana, 18,000, and New Barcelona, 5,000.

The vallies of Aragua, in the province of Caracas, those of Cariaco,
Campano, of Rio Caribe and the banks of the river Caroni, in Spanish
Guiana, produce excellent cacao in abundance.

The tree there bears fruit in four years after it has been planted,
the following year still more, and increases in fecundity until the
ninth or tenth year, when it is in full bearing.

The banks of the Magdalena, in the vicinity of Santa Martha and
Carthagena, are famed for the excellent cacao they produce. "This
tree," says Bonnycastle (Spanish America, vol. 1, p. 257), "is
indigenous, seldom exceeds the diameter of seven inches, and is
extremely beautiful when laden with its fruit, which are disposed on
short stalks over the stem and round the great branches, resembling
citrons, from their yellow color, and warty appearance. The leaves are
attenuate, stalked, drooping, about a foot long and three inches
broad, elliptic, oblong, pointed, slightly wavy, entire, and very
smooth on both sides; with one mid-rib and many transverse ones,
connected by innumerable veins. The petals of the flower are yellow,
the calyx of a light rose-color, and the flowers themselves are small
and placed on tufts on the sides of the branches, with single
foot-stalks, about an inch long. Its fruit is red, or a mixture of red
and yellow, and about three inches in diameter, with a fleshy rind
half-an-inch thick; the pulp is whitish and of the consistence of
butter, containing the seed; these seeds are generally twenty-five in
number in each fruit, and when first gathered are of a flesh color,
and form a nice preserve if taken just before they are ripe. Each tree
yields about two or three pounds of fruit annually, and comes to
maturity the third year after planting from the seed; it also bears
leaves, flowers, or fruit all the year round, the usual seasons for
gathering being June and December. The excellence of the Magdalena
chocolate may be attributed to the moist nature of the soil, as the
plant never thrives where the ground is hard and dry, or cannot be
irrigated."

_Mode of cultivation in the Colombian Republics_--Plantations of cacao
were speedily multiplied in Colombia, and the soil so admirably
seconded the labors of the planter, that in the produce abundance was
united to excellence. The cacao of this quarter ranks next to that of
Soconusco. It is well known that the best commercial recommendation of
cacao is that of coming from Caracas. But even in these provinces the
quality varies. The cacao of Orituco is superior to that of other
places, and a quantity of equal bulk weighs twenty per cent. more. The
cacao of the coast comes next, and obtains a preference over that of
the interior.

The plantations of cacao are all to the north of the chain of
mountains which coast the sea, and in the interior country. The former
extend from Cumana to the mouth of the Tocaygo; the latter are situate
in the vallies of Tuy, Orituco, Ocumare, Cura, Marrin, Tare, Santa
Theresa, Santa Lucia, Zuapira, Santa Philippo, Barquisimeto, Valencia,
Gruige and Cariaco.

All kinds of soil are not equally adapted to the culture of cacao,
still less are all exposures; but an analysis of the soil destined to
this culture never furnishes indications on which reliance can be
placed. No regard should be had to color or composition; it is only
requisite that it should be friable to a certain depth, which is
ascertained by the size of the trees with which it is covered; this
sign determines the land proper for cacao.

A suitable situation is not so easily found. It should be exposed as
little as possible to the north, and be on the borders of a river,
which may communicate moisture to the soil in dry seasons, and
receive its drainings in times of rain. A preference is particularly
to be given to land which can receive from the river the benefits of
irrigation without being exposed to injury from its overflow.

After having chosen the land, it should be cleared of all trees,
shrubs, and other plants. This operation is performed in various ways.
It is customary in Colombia to commence felling the trees immediately
after the rains, that is, about the month of November; the wood, after
being cut, is left to dry, then collected in heaps and burnt.

As soon as the new plantation is cleared, it is crossed with small
ditches, in directions according to the declivity of the soil. These
serve to drain the stagnant waters, to carry off the rains, and to
irrigate or water the soil whenever necessary. The _alignement_ is
then laid out, in which the cacao trees are to be arranged. They are
planted in triangles or squares. In either case, there is always in
the centre an alley, bordered by cacao trees, and running from east to
west. When they are planted in squares, this alley is crossed by
another running from north to south. The cacao plants should be placed
at fifteen or sixteen feet (French measure) from each other, in good
soil; and about thirteen or fourteen feet in soil of inferior quality.

This is almost the only tree in nature to which the enlivening beams
of the sun are obnoxious. It requires to be sheltered from their
ardour; and the mode of combining this protection with the principles
of fertility, forms a very essential part of the skill which its
cultivation demands. The cacao tree is mingled with other trees, which
guard it from the rays of the sun, without depriving it of the benefit
of their heat. The _Erythrina_ and the banana are employed for this
purpose. The latter, by the rapidity of its growth, and the magnitude
of its leaves, protect it for the first year. The erythrina endures at
least as long as the cacao; it is not every soil, however, that agrees
with it. It perishes after a while in sandy and clayey ground, but it
flourishes in such as combine those two ingredients.

In the Antilles this protection cannot be given to cacao, as it would
expose the plantation to destruction by every hurricane. Besides, the
cacao succeeds but indifferently there, and is much less oily than in
other parts.

The quality of the soil, and the species of the erythrina, should
determine the distance at which they ought to be placed. That kind
which the Spaniards call _bucare anaveo_, is planted in a fertile
soil, at the distance of two alleys, that is to say, at each second
range of cacao trees. That which they call _bucare peonio_, is placed
at three alleys in good soils (about forty-eight French feet).

The former species of erythrina is that which elevates itself the
highest. The second species has many thorns, the upper surface of the
leaf is darker and the lower whiter. Both kinds should be cut in the
wane of the moon, and remain in the shade until its increase, at
which time they should be planted. It is much preferable, however, to
take them from a nursery.

In one range of cacao trees a banana is placed between two cacaos, and
an erythrina between the two following. In the other range a banana is
placed between each cacao tree, and no erythrinas, so that the latter
are at the distance of two alleys. The banana and the erythrina are
first planted, and when a shelter from the sun is thus provided, the
hole for the cacao is made, around which are planted four stalks of
the yucca plant, at the distance of two feet from each other. At the
end of two months the cacao is planted. The smaller the plant is, the
better. There are, nevertheless, soils subject to worms where the
small plants do not thrive; but, excepting in this particular, the
small plants are preferable, because the large require more labor for
their transportation and planting; many of them die, and those which
survive bud and shoot forth, but are never of any value.

The cacao plant should not exceed thirty-six inches in size when
transplanted; if larger, it succeeds with difficulty, as will be
shown.

The nurseries of cacao demand an excellent soil, well prepared, where
the water does not remain. They should be well sheltered from the sun.
Small knolls of earth are formed, in each of which are put two seeds
of cacao, in such a manner that they are parallel with the level of
the ground. During the first twenty days the seeds are covered with
two layers of banana or other leaves. If necessary, the ground is
watered; but the water is not suffered to remain. The most suitable
time for sowing is in November.

Where there is not a facility for watering, the planting of the cacao
should take place in the rainy season; but when the former is
practicable, it is best to plant in dry weather and assist nature by
irrigation, since it is then in the power of the cultivator to give
the exact quantity of moisture necessary. But, in all cases, care
should be taken that the plants are not wet in the interval between
their being taken out of the ground and replanted.

When the bananas grow old, they should be carefully felled, lest the
cacaos should be injured by their accidental fall. They are totally
removed as soon as the erythrina yields sufficient shade; this
operation gives more air to the trees of the plantation, and
encourages their growth.

Until the cacao attains four feet in height, it is trimmed to the
stem. If it shoots forth several branches, they are reduced to three,
at equal distances; and, in proportion as the plant increases, the
leaves which appear on the three branches are stripped off. If they
bend much, and incline towards the earth, they are tied in bunches, so
that the tree may not remain crooked. The branches, which are trimmed,
are cut at the distance of two fingers from the tree. The suckers
which spring from the tree are also removed, as they only live at its
expense.

_Enemies of the tree_.--The cacao trees should, as already stated,
have sufficient shade to prevent their being burned by the sun. If
they are much exposed to its rays, their branches are scattered,
crack, and the tree dies. They are also infested with worms, which
gnaw the bark all around, then attack the interior and destroy them.
The only remedy which has hitherto been found, is to employ people to
kill these worms, which are deposited by a small, scaly winged insect,
which gnaws the tree; as soon as it hears the approach of its
destroyers, it lets itself fall, and trusts to its wings for safety.

The color of this insect is a mixture of ash color and white. If
pressed, it emits a sound something similar to the noise of water
thrown on a very hot substance. It has two small horns on its head,
the points of which are directed upwards. It is so lively that, even
when the head is separated from the body, it is a long time in dying.
To deposit its progeny it makes small holes in the tree.

At the commencement of the winter, or rainy season, another worm makes
its appearance, which devours the leaves of the young cacao plant.
This species of worm is called _goaseme_, and they are in some years
so abundant, that all the people of the plantation are solely employed
in destroying them. This worm is four inches in length, and of the
thickness of a finger. It is sometimes called _angaripola_, or Indian,
on account of the vivacity of its colors. It is believed that these
worms are mediately produced by other large worms in the earth, from
which are engendered butterflies, who lay their eggs on the leaves of
the cacao. These eggs are full of small worms, which feed on the
leaves of the cacao, and appear in clusters of the size of a shilling.
They are sought and destroyed with great attention, as they occasion
considerable damage. Those which escape lodge themselves in the earth,
and in the succeeding year are changed into butterflies. At the time
when the worm makes its appearance, it is necessary to make fires,
which should not be so large as to injure the cacao, yet sufficient to
attract and burn the butterfly.

The plantations of cacao in the valley of Tuy, the quarters of Marrin,
Cuba, Sabana, Ocumare, San Francis, &c., are subject to another
species of worm called _rasquilla_. It multiplies in the dry seasons.

There are small insects, called by the Spaniards _accerredores_, of
the same figure with those which eat the bark of the cacao, but larger
and of a blackish colour. They feed on the branches of the tree; are
always found upon those branches which they have cut; and the evil can
only be obviated by killing them.

The worms called _vachacos_ occasion also much damage. They eat the
leaf and the flower. To destroy them it is necessary to seek them in
their nests in the earth. Water is thrown on the spot, and stirred, as
in making mortar. By this means their young are crushed, and the evil
is diminished, if it be not entirely removed.

A parasitical plant often attaches itself to a branch of the cacao
tree which it covers over and causes to wither, by nourishing itself
with the substance of the plant. The only remedy is to remove it.

When the cacao trees are in a bearing state, they are subject to a
disease called _tache_. This is a black taint, or stain, which attacks
the trees, encircling them below, and kills them. The mode of
preservation is to make, in the beginning, a slight notch that shall
pierce the bark. But if the taint is extensive, it is necessary to cut
all the affected part. It then exudes a liquid and is healed. The bark
remains of a violet color in the part that has been tainted.

The other enemies of the cacao are the agouti, stag, squirrel, monkey,
&c. The agouti produces most havoc. It often destroys in one night all
the hopes of the proprietor.

Birds are not less injurious to the cacao. The whole class of parrots,
in particular the great Ara, which destroys for the pleasure of
destroying, and, the parroquets, which come in numerous flocks,
conspire also to ruin the plantations of cacao.

_Means of preserving a plantation_.--It is necessary that a cacao
plantation should have always shade and irrigation; the branches of
the plant should be cleared of the lichens that form on them; the
worms destroyed; and no large herbs or shrubs and mosses permitted to
grow near, since the least disadvantage resulting therefrom would be
the loss of all the fruit that should fall into these thickets. But it
is most essential to deepen the trenches which carry off the water, in
proportion as the plant increases in size, and as the roots of course
pierce deeper; for if the trenches are left at a depth of three feet,
while the roots are six feet in the earth, it follows that the lower
part of the cacao plant is in a situation of too great humidity, and
rots at the level of the water. This precaution contributes not only
to make the plantation more durable, but also to render the crop more
productive. It is necessary, also, to abstain from cutting any branch
from cacao plants that are already bearing. Such an operation might
occasion the subsequent crop to be stronger; but the plants become
enervated, and often perish, according to the quality of the soil and
the number of branches cut off.

If the earth of the plantations be pressed and trampled down by
animals, the duration of the plant is diminished. Irrigation, made
with judgment, maintains them long in a state of produce.

_Withering of the fruit._--The fruit of the cacao withers on the tree
from three causes:--

First.--When the plantation is, during a long time, inundated with
water. I have seen plantations of cacao, which had only been covered
with water thirty hours, and of which the fruit was totally withered.

Second.--From abundant rains, particularly in very damp valleys. This
is only to be remedied by keeping the plantation well drained, that
the water may not remain on it.

Third.--A want of necessary irrigation, and the watering of the
plantation under an ardent sun. The vapor from the earth kills the
fruit. If the rains are deficient for a time, and an excessive rain
succeeds, the fruit of the cacao also withers.

This dessication or withering takes place everywhere; but in some
places the surplus of fruit, which the tree is unable to nourish, is
alone subject to it. In others, as Araquita and Caucagua, it withers
in proportion to the northerly rains. An unsuitable soil occasions
another kind of decay. The pods become stinted, containing some good
and some bad seeds. The Spaniards call this _cocosearse_, which means
defective.

_Harvest of the cacao_.--The tree yields two principal crops in a
year, one about St. John's day, the other towards the end of December.
The cacao however ripens and is gathered during the whole year. But in
all seasons the planters of the Central American republics make it a
point, so far as possible, to collect their crops only at the decline
of the moon; because experience proves that this precaution renders
the cacao more solid, and less liable to spoil.

To collect the fruit, those negroes and Indians are employed who have
the sharpest sight, that only the ripe fruit may be gathered. The most
robust and active are chosen to carry it to the places where the beans
are to be shaken out. The aged and maimed are employed to do this. The
operation is performed on a floor well swept, and covered with green
leaves, on which they place the cacao. Some open the pod, and others
strike out the beans with a small piece of wood, which must not be
sharp, lest it should injure them.

The good and bad beans must not be mingled together. There are four
sorts of cacao in every crop; the ripe and in good condition, the
green but sound, the worm-eaten, and the rotten. The first quality is
best, the second is not bad; but the two others should be rejected.

As soon as that which is not fully ripe begins to show specks, it must
be separated. As to the pods which are not perfectly ripe, they should
remain in heaps during three days under green banana leaves, that they
may ripen before they are hulled. When the cacao is stored, great care
is necessary not to leave amongst it pieces of the pod or leaves, or
any other excrementitious particles. This care must be repeated every
time that it is removed from the store, or replaced in it.

The cacao must always be exposed to the sun on the fourth day after it
has been gathered, and this exposure should be daily repeated until it
is perfectly dry. When that is the case, the beans burst on being
squeezed, their shell resounds when struck, and they no longer become
heated when placed in heaps; the latter is the best proof that the
moisture injurious to their preservation is dissipated. If the cacao
is not sufficiently exposed to the sun, it becomes mouldy; if too
much, it withers, and easily pulverises--in either case it soon rots.

When the quantity of cacao gathered is considerable, it is placed in
the sunshine by a hundred quintals at a time, unless the cultivator
has a sufficient number of persons employed to expose a greater
quantity. This operation is indispensable, to prevent it from becoming
mouldy. If the rains prevent this exposure to the sun, it is
necessary, as soon as it is sufficiently cleaned or purified, to
spread it in apartments, galleries, or halls, with which the
plantation must be provided; this operation cannot be delayed without
danger of losing the crop.

It is to be wished that stoves were employed to dry the cacao when the
sun fails, but this expedient, so simple and important, is generally
unknown.

It is almost universally believed that the most essential precautions
for preserving the cacao consists in gathering it at the decline of
the moon. I believe that they may more seriously calculate on the care
of depositing it in apartments so hermetically closed that the air
cannot penetrate; it would be advisable to make these apartments of
wood, for the more perfect exclusion of moisture. The floor should be
elevated two feet; under the floor a pan of coals is placed, covered
with a funnel, the point of which enters into the heap of cacao and
then diffuses the vapor. In the apartment which contains the cacao,
some persons place bottles of vinegar, slightly stopped with paper, to
prevent the formation of worms.

The beans which begin to show specks, may be preserved from entire
corruption by a slight application of brine. This occasions a small
degree of fermentation, which is sufficient to destroy the worms, and
to preserve the cacao during a considerable time from new attacks. Why
is not this preservative also employed after the cacao is dried, and
when placed in the store, where it awaits the purchaser?

At St. Philip they make use of smoke to preserve the cacao; it is also
ascertained that fine salt, thrown in small quantities on the cacao,
protects it from worms.

Much has been done for the cacao when it has been cleared of all green
or dead beans, and extraneous substances; when it has received no
bruise or injury in the operation of drying, and when it has been
subsequently kept in a place that is dry and not exposed to the air;
yet, even with all these precautions, cacao of the best quality is
seldom found marketable at the end of a year.

These circumstances sufficiently prove that the culture of cacao
requires attention more than science, vigilance rather than genius,
and assiduity in preference to theory. Choice of ground, distribution
and draining of the waters, position of the trees destined to shade
the cacao, are almost the only points which require more than common
intelligence. Less expense is also required for an establishment of
this kind than for any other of equal revenue. One able hand, as I
have already said, is sufficient for the preservation and harvest of a
thousand plants, each of which should yield at least one pound of
cacao, in ground of moderate quality, and a pound and a half in the
best soil. By an averaged calculation of twenty ounces to each plant,
the thousand plants must produce twelve hundred and fifty pounds,
which, at the ordinary price of 31s. 6d. per cwt., would produce about
£17 10s. per annum for each laborer. The expenses of the plantation,
including those of utensils, machines, and buildings, are also less
considerable for cacao than for any other produce. The delay of the
first crop, and the accidents peculiar to cacao, can alone diminish
the number of planters attached to its culture, and induce a
preference to other commodities.

The cacao plant is not in a state of prolific produce till the eighth
year in the interior, and the ninth in plantations on the coast. Yet,
by a singularity which situation alone can explain, the crops of cacao
commence in the ninth year in the valley of Goapa, and at the east of
the mouth of the Tuy. In the vicinity of the line, and on the banks of
Rio-Negro, the plantations are in full produce on the fourth, or at
most the fifth year.

The cacao tree continues productive to the age of fifty years on the
coast, and thirty years in the interior of the country.

In general the culture and preparation of cacao receives more
attention in the eastern parts of Venezuela than in other places, and
even than in the French colonies. It is true that the suitability of
the soil contributes much to the quality of the article; but without
the assistance derived from art, it would be far from possessing that
superiority awarded to it by commerce over the cacao of every other
country.

Stevenson ("Travels in South America") speaks of another kind of cacao
tree, called moracumba, which is larger than the ordinary species, and
grows wild in the woods. The beans under the brown husk are composed
of a white, solid matter, almost like a lump of hard tallow. The
natives take a quantity of these, and pass a piece of slender cane
through them, and roast them, when they have the delicate flavour of
the cacao.

There are several cacao plantations in Surinam. The trees are left to
grow their natural height, which is about that of a cherry-tree; their
leaves resemble those of the broad-leaved laurel, and are of a dark
green colour. The fruit in shape resembles a lemon, but is rather more
oval; it is at first green, and, when ripe, yellow. It is said that
there are some trees which produce above two hundred, each containing
about twenty beans or nuts. The fruit not only proceeds from the
branches, but even from the stem; and though there is always ripe and
unripe fruit, it is only gathered twice a year. The chocolate is in
that colony in general of an inferior quality, known by its dark brown
color and rough taste, but the superiority of the cacao depends
principally on the soil where the trees are planted.--(Baron Von
Sack's "Surinam.")

My friend, Sir R. Schomburgk, in his "Description of British Guiana,"
says--"While we crossed from the river Berbice to the Essequibo, we
met a number of chocolate nut trees, near the abandoned Caribi
settlement of Primoss. It is not to be doubted that the trees were
originally planted by the Indians, but from their number and the
distance from the river, I judged they were propagated by nature.
Though they were overshadowed by larger trees, and had for many years
been neglected, they had reached nevertheless a height of from thirty
to forty feet, and the luxuriant growth and the abundance of fruit,
proved that the plant was satisfied with the soil. The forests at the
banks of the Rio Branco, in the vicinity of Santa Maria and Carno,
abound in wild cacao trees, the fruits of which are collected by the
scanty population of that district for their own use."

The cultivation of cacao will be most suitable to the less wealthy
individual, as it demands so little labor and outlay. Baron Humboldt
observes, in alluding to Spanish America, that cacao plantations are
occupied by persons of humble condition, who prepare for themselves
and their children a slow but certain fortune; a single laborer is
sufficient to aid them in their plantations, and 30,000 trees, once
established, assure competence for a generation and a half.

The following have been the total imports of Cacao into the United
Kingdom from Mexico and Central America, &c.:--

                  lbs.
  1832            85,642
  1834            16,171
  1835               211
  1836           861,531
  1837           564,992
  1838         1,681,965
  1839           508,307
  1840         1,058,015
  1841         1,802,547
  1842           441,084
  1843         1,229,515
  (Parl. Paper, No. 426, Sess. 1844.)

Only a few hundred pounds of this is entered annually for home
consumption, the great bulk being re-exported.

In 1850 we imported 1,204,572 lbs. from Mexico; 1,231,773 lbs. from
Chile; 4,438 lbs. from Venezuela, and 23,538 lbs. from Hayti.

BRAZIL.--A great deal of cacao is raised in different parts of this
empire. From the province of Para alone 35,000 bags, valued at
£35,000, were exported in the year 1845. Mr. Edwards, in his "Voyage
up the River Amazon," gives an interesting account:--

    "We were now (he says) in the great cacao region, which, for an
    extent of several hundred square miles, borders the river. The cacao
    trees are low, not rising above fifteen or twenty feet, and are
    distinguishable from a distance by the yellowish green of their
    leaves, so different from aught else around them. They are planted
    at intervals of about twelve feet, and, at first, are protected from
    the sun's fierceness by banana trees, which, with their broad
    leaves, form a complete shelter. Three years after planting the
    trees yield, and therefore require little attention, or, rather,
    receive not any. From an idea that the sun is injurious to the
    berry, the tree-tops are suffered to mat together until the whole
    becomes dense as thatch-work. The sun never penetrates this, and the
    ground below is constantly wet. The trunk of the tree grows
    irregularly, without beauty, although perhaps by careful training it
    might be made as graceful as an apple tree. The leaf is thin, much
    resembling our beech, excepting that it is smooth-edged. The flower
    is very small, and the berry grows direct from the trunk or
    branches. It is eight inches in length, five in diameter, and shaped
    much like a rounded double cone. When ripe, it turns from light
    green to a deep yellow, and at that time ornaments the tree finely.
    Within the berry is a white acid pulp, and embedded in this are from
    thirty to forty seeds, an inch in length, narrow and flat. These
    seeds are the cacao of commerce. When the berries are ripe, they are
    collected into great piles near the house, are cut open with a
    tresado, and the seeds, squeezed carelessly from the pulp, are
    spread upon mats to dry in the sun. Before being half dried they are
    loaded into canoes in bulk, and transmitted to Para. Some of these
    vessels will carry four thousand arrobas, of thirty-two pounds
    weight each, and, as if such a bulk of damp produce would not
    sufficiently spoil itself by its own steaming during a twenty days'
    voyage, the captains are in the habit of throwing upon it great
    quantities of water, to prevent its loss of weight. As might be
    expected, when they arrive at Para it is little more than a heap of
    mould, and it is then little wonder that Para cacao is considered
    the most inferior in foreign markets. Cacao is very little drunk
    throughout the province, and in the city we never saw it except at
    the cafés. It is a delicious drink when properly prepared, and one
    soon loses relish for that nasty compound known in the States as
    chocolate, whose main ingredients are damaged rice and soap fat. The
    cacao trees yield two crops annually, and, excepting in harvest
    time, the proprietors have nothing to do but lounge in their
    hammocks. Most of these people are in debt to traders in Santarem,
    who trust them to an unlimited extent, taking a lien upon their
    crops. Sometimes the plantations are of vast extent, and one can
    walk for miles along the river, from one to another, as freely as
    through an orchard. No doubt a scientific cultivator might make the
    raising of cacao very profitable, and elevate its quality to that of
    Guyaquil."

Cacao shipped from Brazil to the United Kingdom, for nine years,
ending 1835:--

            lbs.
  1827   3,992,449
  1828   1,174,168
  1829   2,442,456
  1830   1,308,694
  1831   1,716,614
  1832   2,198,709
  1833   2,402,803
  1834   1,591,600
  1835   1,678,769

_Cultivation in the West India Islands_.--The only English colonies
where this nutritious and wholesome substance is now cultivated to any
extent, are Trinidad, St. Lucia, Grenada, and St. Vincent.

In Jamaica and British Guiana it has given place to the production of
sugar, and though it forms such an important article in the imports
and consumption of the United Kingdom, the quantity introduced from
British plantations is barely equal to the demand. The imports from
Jamaica in 1831 were 6,684 lbs., and in 1838, 16,564 lbs.; while the
imports since have been merely nominal. Of 5,014,681 lbs. imported in
1841, 2,920,298 lbs. were furnished by the British West Indian
colonies, 1,802,547 lbs. came from the Colombian republics, and
269,794 lbs. were brought from Brazil. Trinidad furnishes by far the
largest proportion of the West Indian supplies, the imports from
thence in 1841 having been 2,500,000 lbs., while the imports from all
the other islands were but 427,000 lbs. In 1850, 4,750,000 lbs. were
shipped from Trinidad, whilst in 1851 the quantity was nearly as much.

Trinidad.--Although this tree is indigenous to many, if not most of
the tropical parts of America, it was first extensively cultivated in
Mexico; and it is remarkable that the words cacao and chocolate are
both of Mexican origin. From Mexico the variety called Creole cacao it
is supposed was transplanted to the West India colonies; that variety
called Forastero (stranger) came from the Brazils. The latter tree is
the most productive, but the former gives the best fruit, insomuch
that few persons now plant the Forastero cacao. There are two or
three indigenous species found growing wild in the forests of
Trinidad, viz., _T. Sylvestris cacao_, _T. Guianensis_, and another
sort.

There are few, perhaps no agricultural or horticultural pursuits, so
delightful (observes Mr. Joseph, in his "History of Trinidad,") as
that of the cultivation of the cacao. It is planted in rows,
intersecting each other at right angles, at the distance of from
twelve to fifteen feet, according to the nature of the soil. The tree
is not suffered to grow higher than about fifteen feet, and its broad
rich foliage, the hues of which vary from a light green to a dark red,
loaded with yellow and dark red pods, which contain the chocolate
bean, are beautiful objects; these alleys are shaded by rows of
magnificent trees, called _Bois Immortel_ by the French and English,
by the Spaniards the Madre de Cacao. It is the _Erythrina umbrosa_ or
_arborea_ of Linnæus. Like the Bignonia or Pouie, this tree, at
particular seasons, throws off its foliage and is covered with
blossoms; those of the Erythrina are of a brilliant red color,
justifying its Greek appellation. In this state they are literally
dazzling to behold--no object in the vegetable world looks more
striking than the alleys of a cacao walk shaded by a forest above them
of the Bois Immortel.

I have been obligingly furnished by Mr. W. Purdie, the able Government
botanist of Trinidad, with a short essay upon the cultivation of the
cacao tree, with which many of the valleys of that island are so
beautifully adorned, and which, at one time, poured into that now
unfortunate colony so large a stream of wealth. Fortunately the cacao
planter of the island has managed to survive the many years of
depression under which--like sugar now--the cacao cultivations
lingered and sunk, and which brought the once wealthy planter down to
poverty and misery. His prospects, however, are gradually improving.

The opinions put forth by Mr. Purdie, on the subject of which he
treats, will be found to run counter to the long-established practice
hitherto pursued in the treatment of cacao plantations; but it must
not be forgotten that these are the opinions of a person with whom the
study of trees, their physiology and functions, has been not merely an
amusing science, but an adopted employment, and whose acquirements in
this respect, previous to his arrival in the colony, recommended him
for selection as the agent to extend through South America (the great
cacao region) the investigations of one of the most noted botanical
gardens in Europe.

Mr. Purdie says:--

    "In the present depressed times, it behoves us to look well into the
    resources of our fertile island, particularly as far as any
    improvement can be suggested capable of averting, at least, a part
    of the misery and ruin that is hovering over us, and which is too
    eagerly borne on the lips of all classes of the community, instead
    of using our efforts to do what we can to meet the difficulty; but
    few seem to inquire whether we make the most of our present means or
    not, whilst every one rather joins in the cry that sugar fetches
    little or nothing, and it is no uncommon thing to hear the complaint
    transferred from sugar to cacao.

    It is but too true that the markets are at present lamentably
    against the most important branch of our industry, under the present
    manner of sugar cultivation and manufacture in this island. But it
    can hardly be admitted that the same is the case in that of
    cacao--also a very important branch of our agriculture.

    My attention has been lately directed to the average produce per
    tree, which will, I hope, throw some light on its cultivation. From
    fifteen cacao trees, which are all there are at St. Ann's, I have
    this year gathered 115 lbs. of cacoa (dried), and at present there
    is at least 50 lbs. more ripe on the same trees. This gives 165 lbs.
    of cacao from fifteen trees, or 11 lbs. per tree. These cannot be
    considered fine trees; on the contrary, they are what would be
    considered ordinary ones; therefore the average in this case is
    fair, and differs materially from selecting the produce of fifteen
    trees from a large plantation, and giving the average return of what
    might be obtained from cacao cultivation. Last year these trees did
    not average more than 2 lbs. per tree, and I attribute the increase
    of crop to the thinning out of both the cacao and shade trees.

    In a former letter to the cacao-planters of Trinidad, I recommended
    twenty-four to thirty feet from tree to tree as the proper distance;
    but so as to meet the feelings of those who, unfortunately for
    themselves, consider every cacao tree cut down a sacrifice, I
    propose that the trees be thinned out to twenty-four feet, and that,
    at intervals of twenty rows at most, avenues of fifty feet in both
    directions should be left. After this, it will be better seen what
    may be necessary to be done to each individual tree; neither should
    the shade trees be forgotten; as a general rule, they are
    prejudicially thick.

    By attending to this, I am quite satisfied that a very material
    increase in the produce will be seen; indeed, I may say that on this
    depends the chief difference of 1¼ lb. and 11 lbs. per tree; for I
    consider it a very fair inference, that the average obtained here
    can be realised in any other place in this island, and to any
    extent, under the same circumstances of light and air, unless on
    very poor soil, of which we fortunately have but little.

    At twenty-four feet apart there would be seventy-five trees per
    acre, or 250 per quarrée. This, at 11 lbs. per tree, gives 2,750
    lbs. of dried cacao per quarrée, at 5 dollars per 100 lbs., gives
    137 dollars 50 cents gross; deducting 80 dollars per quarrée
    expenses, leaves 57 dollars 60 cents net profit. Thus an estate of
    120 acres, or 36 quarrées, would contain 9,000 trees, at 11 lbs. per
    tree will give 33,000 lbs. of cacao, at 5 dollars gives 4,350
    dollars gross per annum; deducting 80 dollars per quarrée (a much
    more liberal sum than is at present laid out), leaves a net balance
    of 1,950 dollars, or 16 dollars 25 cents per acre.

    Now this, it must be remembered, would be the produce from 9,000
    trees, and from an estate containing only 36 quarrées of land (which
    cannot be considered a large one); what, then, might be expected
    from estates containing 40,000 trees?

    I have been recently favoured with the following average return of
    cacao in this island, which I have no doubt will be considered a
    fair one. I insert it in full, and, from the very low return, it
    shows a lamentable deficiency in the cultivation of this most
    grateful tree:--

    'The average number of cacoa trees in a quarrée of land is 868.

    '1st. The estates throughout the island are generally planted at a
    distance of 12 feet by 12, and 13½ feet by 13½. Those planted at 12
    by 12 contain 969 trees in the quarrée, and those at 13½ by 13½
    contain 767 trees, the area of the quarrée being taken at 139,697
    superficial feet. There may be in the island about 60 quarrées in
    all, planted at 15 by 15 feet.

    '2nd. The actual annual value of a quarrée of land planted in cacoa
    is ten fanegas, or 1¼ lb. to a tree.

    'It is to be observed that this is the general return from each tree
    as estates are now cultivated, but if planters had the means of
    keeping their estates in high cultivation, each cacoa tree would
    produce 2 lbs. on an average.

    '3rd. The annual average cost of cultivating a quarrée in cacao, and
    manufacturing the produce therefrom, is 35 dollars, in the imperfect
    manner it is carried on at present, thereby giving only 10 fanegas
    per quarrée.'

    I believe there are many estates in the island where the average
    distance is less than 12 by 12; however, to give the present mode
    the full benefit of the return, I will adopt, for comparison's sake,
    the maximum number of trees; so that 960 trees per quarrée, at l¼
    lb. per tree, gives 1,211 lbs. of cacao, at 5 dollars per 100 lbs.
    is worth 60 dollars,[2] gross return per quarrée; deducting 36
    dollars, not 80 dollars, for expenses, which leaves 24 dollars per
    quarrée net, or about 7 dollars 75 cents per acre.

    This is a startling account from lands among the most fertile in the
    world, and from a plant, under fair treatment, next to the sugar
    cane, perhaps the most grateful for the care bestowed, more
    especially when we consider that more than ten times that quantity
    might be obtained with a comparatively insignificant _outlay of
    money_.

    If such, then, be the case, as stated in the above report (and it is
    to be regretted that it is too near the truth), apathy on the part
    of those whose interests are so much concerned is unwarrantable. It
    is not enough to say that our fathers must have known the proper way
    to plant cacao; this is but a lame excuse, and not sufficient to
    dispense with any exertions of the present generation, beyond merely
    collecting whatever fruit may come, as it were, fortuitously.
    Moreover, at the time the present cacao plantations were established
    in this island, its cultivation was comparatively little known; it
    is therefore likely that they might have erred, as they undoubtedly
    did, in cramming them so close together; but notwithstanding this,
    by a proper system of thinning, the evils might have been easily
    obviated, and large crops ensured.

    A few mornings ago, a cacao planter from Santa Cruz called on me,
    and in conversation stated that the only place where he had anything
    like a crop of cacao at present, was where the hurricane of the 11th
    of October had devastated his estate most severely, and which he at
    that time considered a ruinous visitation. I hope the lesson will
    not be lost on him.

    In Jamaica it is found necessary to prune the coffee trees yearly,
    which is done with as much care as gooseberry or currant bushes in
    England; but, notwithstanding this, I remember a friend of mine in
    Jamaica telling me of the extraordinary difference on his coffee
    plantation under the management of a person who understood and
    attended more particularly to the pruning of his trees.

    Lunan, in his 'Hortus Jamaicensis,' published in 1814, gives a very
    elaborate article on the cacao, although its cultivation was almost
    extinct in his day in that island. He, however, appears to have
    derived his information chiefly from Blume, who wrote a short
    account of Jamaica, in 1672, at which time cacao was the chief
    export of the island. Lunan attributes its downfall to heavy
    ministerial exaction, which was then, he says, upwards of 480 per
    cent. on its marketable value. Speaking of the average weight of
    cacao per tree, he has the following:--'The produce of one tree is
    generally estimated at about 20 lbs. of nuts. The produce per acre
    in Jamaica has been rated at 1,000 lbs. weight per annum, allowing
    for bad years. In poor soils, and under bad management, the produce
    of the tree rarely exceeds 8 lbs. weight.' He also says--'When the
    cacao plants are six months old, the planter from this period must
    not be too fond of cleaning the plantation from grass and herbage,
    because they keep the ground cool; but all creeping, climbing
    plants, and such weeds as grow high enough to overtop the cacao,
    should be destroyed.' He gives the distance from tree to tree at 18
    feet. I have long since been of opinion that it is of less
    consequence to clean the ground beneath the trees than to attend to
    the top-pruning of the shade trees, as well as to the cacao
    (although the former is very desirable, it is nevertheless a
    subordinate consideration). Under the present mode of cultivation
    the ground-cleaning is the only one at all attended to, and that
    badly.

    A very important economy might also be made in the curing of the
    cacao, by which much time would be saved, and consequently expense,
    by adopting the same method as is used in Jamaica for drying coffee,
    namely, floorings of cement, or, as they are called, barbecues. At
    convenient distances in the centre of these floorings (which are
    inclined planes) a slightly-raised circular ridge is formed with
    cement, leaving an aperture at the lower side to allow the escape of
    any water that may have lodged in them. The cacao is easily brought
    together in these places in the event of rain, and at night covered
    with portable wooden frames, which are readily removed by two men.
    In this way the cacao would be dried in a fifth of the time much
    more effectually, and of a brighter colour.

    Any experiments tending to bring about a proper system of
    cultivation and manufacture of cacao, must be beneficial to the
    island, as well as to individuals; for it cannot be denied that the
    cultivation of cacoa will still prove advantageous in proportion to
    the care bestowed on it. Indeed its cultivation is at present
    languishing, not so much from inadequate prices, as from a want of
    proper attention to its cultivation."

In 1796, there were sixty plantations in Trinidad, which produced
96,000 lbs. In 1802 the plantations were reduced to fifty-seven, the
yield being about the same. In 1807, 355,000 lbs. of cacao were grown.
In 1831, there were 2,972 quarrees (each three acres and one-fifth
English) under cultivation in Trinidad with cacao, on which were
2,464,426 trees, which produced a crop of 1,479,568 lbs. In 1841 there
were 6,910 acres planted with cacao.

The following have been the exports from this island from 1821 to
1844:--

                               lbs.
  1821                      1,214,093
  1822                      1,780,379
  1823                      2,424,703
  1824                      2,661,628
  1825                      2,760,603
  1826                      2,951,171
  1827                      3,696,144
  1828                      2,582,323
  1829                      2,756,603
  1830                      1,646,531
  1831                      1,888,852
  1832                      1,530,990
  1833                      3,090,526
  1834                      3,363,630
  1835                      2,744,643
  1836                      3,188,870
  1837                      2,507,483
  1838                      2,571,915
  1839                      2,914,068
  1840                      2,007,494
  1841                      2,493,302
  1842                      2,163,798
  1843                      1,099,975
           (Mill's Trinidad Almanac).

In a lecture delivered by Dr. Lindley before the Society of Arts,
alluding to the colonial products shown, at the Great Exhibition, he
said:--

    "There was one sample which ought to be mentioned most especially;
    namely, the cocoa of admirable quality which comes, or which may
    come, from Trinidad. Cocoa--cacao, as we should call it--is an
    article of very large consumption. Enormous quantities of it are now
    used in the navy; and every one knows how much it is employed daily
    in private life. It is, moreover, the basis of chocolate. But we
    have the evidence of one of the most skilful brokers in London, who
    has had forty years experience to enable him to speak to the
    fact--that we never get good cocoa in this country. The consequence
    is, that all the best chocolate is made in Spain, in France, and the
    countries where the fine description of cocoa goes. We get here
    cocoa which is unripe, flinty, and bitter, having undergone changes
    that cause it to bear a very low price in the market. But it comes
    from British possessions, and is, therefore, sold here subject to a
    duty of only 18s. 8d. per cwt., whereas if it came from a foreign
    country it would pay 56s.[3] The differential duty drives the best
    cocoa out of the English market. Still it appears that we might
    supply, from our own colonies, this very cocoa; because, as I have
    said, there was exhibited, from Trinidad, a very beautiful sample,
    quite equal to anything produced in the best markets of the
    Magdalena, of Soconusco, or of other places on the Spanish main. It
    had no bitterness, no flintiness, no damaged grain in it; but all
    were plump and ripe, as if they had been picked. The cocoa from the
    Spanish main goes into other countries, for the preparation of that
    delicious chocolate which we buy of them. It is thrown out of our
    market by the differential duty. But it is their own fault if our
    own colonies do not produce fine cocoa, as Trinidad has conclusively
    proved."

The exports of cacao from St. Lucia, where there are now 300 acres
under cultivation, have been as follows:[4]--I have also added the
produce of St. Vincent and Grenada imported here:--

           Grenada.      St. Lucia.      St. Vincent.
            lbs.           lbs.              lbs.

  1828                     75,275           17,384
  1829     300,051         93,793           12,216
  1830     337,901        153,340            9,989
  1831     368,882         98,090            7,861
  1832     196,195         51,925              538
  1833     312,446         91,048            1,005
  1834     349,367         60,620            2,197
  1835     276,359         49,218            5,876
  1836     307,236         47,950            7,721
  1837     351,613         48,591            2,525
  1838     426,626         38,590            6,588
  1839     327,497         54,639              760
  1840     269,680         82,293            3,956
  1841     372,008         78,225            3,874
  1842     280,679         55,175            7,268
  1843     296,269         48,279           55,867
  1844     544,253         65,667            8,304
  1845     342,092         31,000            6,450
  1850     609,911          1,372            8,642
  1852     604,299          9,428            5,287

A little cacao is now grown in Antigua, about 19,000 lbs. having been
exported from that island in 1843, and 2,000 in 1846.

Dominica and British Guiana produce small quantities; our imports from
these quarters having been as follows:--

               Dominica.     Demerara.
                 lbs.           lbs.
  1833          8,808          2,051
  1834          4,767             86
  1835            685            126
  1836            279          1,121
  1837          1,896            522
  1838          1,054
  1839          1,127             58
  1840          2,366          2,376
  1841          4,014            129
  1842            667             98
  1843          4,614          4,178
  1844          1,746         10,209
  1845          5,444

The cultivation of cacao in Cuba is of comparatively recent
introduction, but it is expected to increase, and, in some degree, to
supply the place of coffee, which is evidently on the decline there.
In 1827, the gross produce of Cuba amounted to 23,806 arrobas, and the
exports to 19,053. In the same year, 15,301¾ arrobas were imported, so
that at that period the production was not adequate to the
consumption. The expectation of a great increase of production seems
not to have been realized, as the exports of cacao in 1837 were only
587¼ arrobas, while the imports amounted to 40,837½ arrobas.

There are now about sixty-nine cacao plantations in that island,
almost exclusively situate in the central and oriental departments,
which produced, in 1849, 3,836 arrobas, valued at 19,180 dollars.

Hayti exported, in 1801, 648,518 lbs. of cacao; in 1826, 457,592 lbs.,
and in 1836, 550,484 lbs.

The French island of Martinique produces a considerable quantity of
cacao. In 1763, there were stated to be 103,870 trees in bearing. The
produce exported in 1769 was 11,731 quintals. In 1770 there were
871,043 trees. In 1820 there were 412 square acres under cultivation
with cacao, producing 449,492 lbs.; and in 1835, 492 hectares, which
yielded 155,300 kilogrammes. I have no later returns at hand.

The beverage generally called _cocoa_ is merely the berries of
_Theobroma Cacao_, pounded and drank either with water or milk, or
with both. _Chocolate_ (of which I shall speak by and bye) is a
compound drink, and is manufactured chiefly from the kernels of this
plant, whose natural habitat would seem to be Guayaquil, in South
America, though it flourishes in great perfection in the West Indies.
It grows also spontaneously and luxuriantly on the banks of the
Magdalena, in South America; but the fruit of those trees that are
found in the district of Carthagena is preferred to all others,
probably from a superior mode of cultivation. Sir R. Schomburgk, in
his expedition into the interior of British Guiana, found the country
abounding in cacao, "which the Indians were most anxious to secure, as
the pulpy arillus surrounding the seed has an agreeable vinous taste."
Singular to say, however, they appeared perfectly ignorant of the
qualities of the seed, which possesses the most delightful aroma. Sir
Robert adds, they evinced the greatest astonishment when they beheld
him and Mr. Goodall collecting these seeds and using them as
chocolate, which was the most delicious they had ever tasted. These
indigenous cacao trees were met with in innumerable quantities on the
5th of June, 1843, and the following day; and thus inexhaustible
stores of a highly-prized luxury are here reaped solely by the wild
hog, the agouti, monkeys, and the rats of the interior.--(Simmonds's
Col. Mag. vol. i., p. 41.)

The height of the cacao shrub is generally from eighteen to twenty
feet; the leaf is between four and six inches long, and its breadth
three or four, very smooth, and terminating in a point like that of
the orange tree, but differing from it in color; of a dull green,
without gloss, and not so thickly set upon the branches. The blossom
is first white, then reddish, and contains the rudiments of the
kernels or berries. When fully developed, the pericarp or seed-vessel
is a pod, which grows not only from the branches, but the stem of the
tree, and is from six to seven inches in length, and shaped like a
cucumber. Its color is green when growing, like that of the leaf; but
when ripe, is yellow, smooth, clear, and thin. When arrived at its
full growth, and before it is ripe, it is gathered and eaten like any
other fruit, the taste being subacid. If allowed to ripen, the kernels
become hard; and, when taken out of the seed-vessel, are preserved in
skins, or, more frequently, laid on the vijahua leaves, and placed in
the air to dry. When fully dry, they are put in leathern bags, and
sent to market: this is the Spanish mode of taking in the crop. A
somewhat different method is followed in Trinidad and Jamaica (in the
latter island it can scarcely be said to be cultivated now); but it
differs in no essential degree from the principle of gradual
exsiccation, and protection from moisture.

_Chocolate_, properly so called, and so prized both in the Spanish
continent and in the West Indies, never reaches Great Britain except
as a contraband article, being, like nearly all colonial manufactured
articles, prohibited by the Custom-house laws. What is generally drank
under that name is simply the cacao boiled in milk, gruel, or even
water, and is as much like the Spanish or West India chocolate as
vinegar is to Burgundy. It is, without any exception, of all domestic
drinks the most alimentary; and the Spaniards esteem it so necessary
to the health and support of the body, that it is considered the
severest punishment to withhold it, even from criminals; nay, to be
unable to procure chocolate, is deemed the greatest misfortune in
life! Yet, notwithstanding this estimation in which it is held, the
quantity made in the neighbourhood of Carthagena is insufficient for
the demands of the population, and is so highly priced that none is
exported but as presents! The manner in which the Spaniards first
manufactured this veritable Theobroma--this food for gods (from
_Theos_, God, and _broma_, food)--was very simple. They employed the
cacao, maize, Indian corn (_Zea Mays_), and raw cane-juice, and
coloured it with arnatto, which they called _achiotti_ or _rocou_, but
which was known in Europe at that time by the name of _Terra
Orellana_. These four substances were levigated between two stones,
and afterwards, in certain proportions, mixed together in one mass,
which mass was subsequently divided into little cakes, and used as
required, both in the solid and fluid form.

The Indians used one pound of the wasted nuts, half a pound of sugar,
and half a pound of ground corn (maize) each, and then added
rose-water to make it palatable. This the Mexicans called chocolate,
from two words in their language, signifying the noise made by the
instruments used to mill and prepare it in the water. Many other
ingredients were subsequently added; but with the exception of
Vanilla, in the opinions of most persons, they spoil, rather than
improve it. Chocolate, as used in Mexico, is thus prepared: --The
kernels are roasted in an iron pot pierced with holes; they are then
pounded in a mortar, and afterwards ground between two stones,
generally of marble, till it is brought to a paste, to which sugar is
added, according to the taste of the manufacturer. From time to time,
as the paste assumes consistency, they add long pepper, arnatto, and
lastly, vanilla. Some manufacturers vary these ingredients, and
substitute cinnamon, cloves, or aniseed, and sometimes musk and
ambergris--the two latter on account of their aphrodisiac qualities.
The following is the formula given by a late writer:--To six pounds of
the nut add three-and-a-half pounds of sugar, seven pods of vanilla,
one-and-a-half pounds of corn meal (maize ground), half-a-pound of
cinnamon, six cloves, one drachm of capsicums (bird pepper), and as
much of the rocou or arnatto as is sufficient to color it, together
with ambergris or musk, to enforce (as he says) the flavor, but in
reality to stimulate the system. There is another chocolate made of
filberts and almonds, but this is not considered genuine. In old Spain
it is somewhat differently made; two or three kinds of flowers, also
the pods of Campeche, almonds, and hazel-nuts, being mixed up with it,
while the paste is worked with orange-water.

With regard to the manner in which chocolate is prepared in England
nothing need be said, as it is too well known to require description.
That which has appeared to me the best is "_Fry's Chocolate_," which
requires only to be rubbed up with a little boiling water, and scalded
milk added to it with sugar, according to the taste of the drinker;
there is a flavour, however, in this chocolate sometimes of _suet_,
which is probably added to give it a richness which the cacao employed
may not possess of itself. In the West Indies they rarely add anything
to cacoa but arnatto (sometimes a little fresh butter), though it is
often scented and sweetened, and sold in little rolls at five-pence
and ten-pence each, currency. It is always boiled with milk, which,
though very indigestible when boiled and taken alone, seems to lose
this quality when taken with chocolate. Chocolate thus made is much
drank, when cold, in the middle of the day, and is considered, both by
the negroes and the old settlers, as a most nutritive and salutary
beverage.

The signs by which _good chocolate_ or cacao is known are these:--It
should dissolve entirely in water, and be without sediment; it should
be oily, and yet melt in the mouth; and if genuine, and carefully
prepared, should deposit no grits or grounds. That made in the West
Indies, and in some parts of Cuba, is dark; but that manufactured in
Jamaica is of a bright brick colour, owing to the greater quantity of
arnatto which is used in the preparation, and which, I think, gives it
a richer and more agreeable flavor.

In an economical point of view, chocolate is a very important article
of diet, as it may be literally termed meat and drink; and were our
half-starved artisans, over-wrought factory children, and ricketty
millinery girls, induced to drink it instead of the innutritious
beverage called "tea," its nutritive qualities would soon develop
themselves in their improved looks and more robust constitution. The
price, too, is in its favour, cacao being eight-pence per pound; while
the cheapest black tea, such as even the Chinese beggar would despise,
drank by milliners, washerwomen, and the poorer class in the
metropolis, is three shillings a pound, or three hundred and fifty per
cent, dearer, while it is decidedly injurious to health.

The heads of the naval and military medical departments in England
have been so impressed with the wholesomeness and superior nutriment
of cocao, that they have judiciously directed that it shall be served
out twice or thrice a week to regiments of the line, and daily to the
seamen on board Her Majesty's ships, and this wise regulation has
evinced its salutary effects in the improved health and condition of
the men. Indeed, this has been most satisfactorily established in
Jamaica among the troops; and the same may be asserted of the seamen
in men of war on the coast.

But the excellent qualities of chocolate were known not only to the
Mexicans and Peruvians, from whom, as a matter of course, the
Spaniards acquired a knowledge of its properties; but European nations
also acknowledged its virtues. The Portuguese, French, Germans, and
Dutch, considered it an exceedingly valuable article of diet, and
Hoffman looked upon it both as a food and a medicine. In his
monograph, entitled _Potus Chocolati_, he recommends it in all
diseases of general weakness, macies, low spirits, and in
hypochondrial complaints, and what since his time have been termed
nervous diseases. As one example of the good effects of cacao, he
adduces the case of Cardinal Richelieu, who was cured of eramacausis,
or a general wasting away of the body, by drinking chocolate.[5] And
Edwards informs us that Colonel Montague James--the first white
person born in Jamaica after the occupation of the island by the
English--lived to the great age of 104; and for the last thirty years
of his life took scarcely any other food but chocolate. It is also
certain that those who indulge in excesses find their vigor more
speedily restored by the alternate use of chocolate and coffee than by
any other ingesta; and pigs, goats, and horses, which are fed even on
the spoiled berries, are observed to become very speedily fat, and in
good condition.

But cacao has not only the property of rapidly restoring the invalid
to health, strength, and condition, but a very inconsiderable quantity
of it will sustain life for a long period. The South American Indians
perform extraordinary journeys, subsisting, daring these prolonged
travels, on an incredibly small quantity of chocolate--so small,
indeed, as to render the accounts of travellers upon the subject
almost marvellous. In this respect it resembles coffee, which also
possesses the estimable property of sustaining the powers of life,
while it modifies and restrains the passion of hunger.

It is a curious fact, and how far this condition may be connected with
its powers of sustenance is worthy of inquiry, that chocolate recently
boiled, if the operation be performed in a tin pan, is highly
electrical; and this property may be frequently manifested by
repeating the process.

Cacao, according to Bridges, "was the favourite staple of the Spanish
commerce, trifling as that commerce was; and when the English took
possession of the island of Jamaica, it was that which first engaged
their attention. The extensive plantations left by their predecessors,
who had made it their principal food and only support, soon, however,
began to fail. They were renewed; but whether it might be from the
want of attention, or of information in the new colonists, the plants
never succeeded under their management; so that, disgusted with the
troublesome and unprofitable cultivation, they soon substituted
indigo." Yet forests of cacao trees grow wild in Guiana, the Isthmus
of Darien, Yucatan, Honduras, Guatemala, Chiapa, and Nicaragua; while
in Cuba, St. Domingo, and Jamaica, it was once an indigenous plant.

The following were the expenses of a cacao plantation in Jamaica
during the early period of British possession:--

                                                    £ stg
  Letters patent of five hundred acres of land         10
  Six negroes                                         120
  Four white persons, their passage and maintenance    80
  Maintenance of six slaves for six months             18
  Working implements                                    5
                                                     ----
                                                     £233

In four to five years the produce of one hundred acres would usually
sell for £4,240 sterling. This was a monstrous and most unlooked-for
return; but then, what was it to the profits of sugar, which, owing to
the prodigious increase of the slave trade, was fast coming into
active operation, and eating up and destroying all other sources and
springs of industry? How dearly have the West Indians paid for the
short-lived affluence which the sugar cane conferred!

Blome, in his brief account of Jamaica, published in 1672, speaks of
cacao as being one of the chief articles of export. He states that
there were sixty cacao-walks or plantations, and many more planting;
but, for many years, no cacao plantation has existed in Jamaica, all
the chocolate used being made from imported berries, or the chance
growth of a munificent climate and redundant soil! A few scattered
trees, Edwards says (and as I my self know), here and there, are all
that remain of those flourishing and beautiful groves, which were once
the pride and boast of the country. They have withered with the indigo
manufactory, under the heavy hand of ministerial exaction. _The excise
on cacao, when made into cakes, rose to no less than £12 12s. per
cwt., exclusive of 11s. 11½d. paid at the Custom-house, amounting
together to upwards of £840 per cent. on its marketable value!_

The mode of cultivating the cacao is given at some length by Edwards;
it is that of the Spaniards, a process strictly followed in Trinidad,
where, of all the West India islands, it constitutes a considerable
item of exports. It is thus described:--"A spot of level land being
chosen--preference is always given to a deep black mould, sheltered by
a hedge or thicket, so as to be screened by the wind, especially the
north, and cleared of all weeds and stumps of trees--a number of holes
are dug, at ten or twelve feet distance from each other, each hole
being about a foot in length, and six or eight inches deep. A very
important matter is the selection of the seeds for planting, and this
is done in the following manner: the finest and largest pods of the
cacao are selected when full ripe, and the grains taken out and placed
in a vessel of water. Those which swim are rejected; those chosen are
washed clean from the pulp, skinned, and then replaced in the water
till they begin to sprout; Banana (_Musa paradisiaca_), or some other
large leaves, those of the sea-side grape (_Coccoloba uvifera_), for
instance, are then taken, and each hole is lined with one of them,
leaving, however, the sides of the leaves some inches above ground;
after which the mould is rubbed in gently till the hole is filled;
three nuts are then selected for each hole, and they are set
triangularly in the earth, by making a small opening with the finger
about two inches deep, into which the nuts are put, with that end
downwards from which the sprout issues." They are then covered
lightly with mould, the leaf folded over, and a small stone placed on
the top, to prevent its opening; in eight or ten days the young shoots
appear above the ground; the leaves are then opened to give them light
and air, and a shelter from the sun, either in the shape of plantain
or banana leaves, is not forgotten; but the coco-nut and other species
of palm, on account of their fibrous structure and great durability,
are always preferred. This artificial shelter is continued for five or
six months. But, as a further security to the young plants, for they
are very delicate, other trees or shrubs are planted to the south-west
of the plants, that they may grow up with and shelter them, for young
cacao will grow and flourish only in the shade. For this purpose the
coral bean-tree (_Erythrina Corallodendrum_) is chosen. I should
presume there are other trees and plants equally eligible for this
purpose, and more useful; but my experience does not enable me to
speak positively upon the subject. Should the three seeds placed in
each hole spring up, it is thought necessary, when the plants are
fifteen or twenty inches high, to cut one of them down. The two
others, if they devaricate, are sometimes suffered to remain, but it
does not always happen that even _one_ of the three springs above the
earth; consequently this additional labor is not invariably requisite.

On the fourth or fifth year the tree begins to bear, and attains
perfection by the eighth, continuing to produce two crops of fruit per
annum, yielding at each crop from 10 lbs. to 20 lbs., according to the
nature of the soil. It will continue bearing for twenty years; but, as
it is a delicate plant, it suffers from drought, and is liable to
blight. In these respects, however, it does not differ from many other
plants, which are even more subject to disease, though not half so
valuable. Besides, a proper system of irrigation, such as could be had
recourse to in many parts of Jamaica, would obviate and prevent these
evils.

The whole quantity imported into the United Kingdom from the West
Indies and British Guiana during the last thirteen years, has been as
follows:--

               lbs.
  1831      1,491,947
  1832        618,090
  1833      2,125,641
  1834      1,360,325
  1835        439,440
  1836      1,611,104
  1837      1,847,125
  1838      2,147,816
  1839        969,428
  1840      2,374,233
  1841      2,919,105
  1842      2,490,693
  1843      1,496,554
  1844      3,119,555
  1845      3,351,602
  1846      1,738,848
  1847      3,026,381
  1848      2,602,309
  1849      3,159,086
  1850      1,987,717
  1851      4,347,195
  1852      3,933,863

Cacao is cultivated in the highlands as well as on the coasts of the
north-eastern peninsula of the large and rich island of Celebes, which
has within the last year or two been thrown open to foreign trade. The
plantations of it are even now considerable, and this branch of
industry only requires not to be impeded by any obstacles in order to
be still further extended. It forms a large ingredient in the local
trade, and furnishes many petty traders with their daily bread, not to
speak of the landowners, for whom the cultivation of the cacao affords
the only subsistence. The preparation of the product differs from that
adopted in the West Indies, but we have not been able to ascertain the
practice. We may reckon that 1,200 to 2,000 piculs of 133 lbs. are
yearly produced; the prices vary much, being from 50 to 75 florins per
picul.--("Journal of the Indian Archipelago," vol. ii., p. 829.)

Bourbon now produces 15,000 to 20,000 kilogrammes of cacao annually.
Cacao is grown to a small extent in some of the settlements of Western
Africa, but as yet only a few puncheons have been exported, all the
produce being required for local consumption.

The following figures give the imports and consumption of cacao into
the United Kingdom in the last five years:--

             Imports.     Consumption.
               lbs.           lbs.
  1848      6,442,986
  1849      7,769,234      3,233,135
  1850      4,478,252      3,103,926
  1851      6,773,960      3,024,338
  1852      6,268,525      3,382,944

The home consumption is very steady at about 3,000,000 lbs., yielding
to the revenue £15,000 to £16,000 for duty. The produce of British
colonies pays 1d. per lb. duty, that from foreign countries 2d; cocoa
husks and shells half these amounts; when manufactured into chocolate
or cocoa paste the duty is 2d. per lb. from British possessions, and
6d. from other parts. The quantity imported in this form is to the
extent of about 14,000 lbs. weight.


COFFEE.

The next staple I proceed to speak of is coffee--second only in
importance as a popular beverage to that universal commodity, tea. I
shall proceed, in the first instance, to take a retrospect of the
progress of the coffee trade, and glance at the present condition and
future prospects of produce and consumption. It will be seen, by
reference to the following figures, that the consumption of coffee in
the United Kingdom shows a successive decrease, from 1847 to 1850, of
6,414,533 lbs., and a loss to the revenue of £179,614.

HOME CONSUMPTION AND REVENUE OF COFFEE FOR THE
  Years      lbs.         £
   1824    8,262,943    420,988
   1825   11,082,970    315,809
   1828   17,127,633    440,245
   1835   23,295,046    652,124
   1839   26,789,945    779,115
   1840   28,723,735    921,551
   1844   31,394,225    681,610
   1845   34,318,095    717,871
   1846   36,793,061    756,838
   1847   37,441,373    746,436
   1848   37,106,292    710,270
   1849   34,431,074    643,210
   1850   31,226,840    566,822
   1851   32,564,164    445,739
   1852   35,044,376    438,084

I estimated, in a little treatise on coffee and its adulterations,
which I published in 1850, that not less than 18,000,000 lbs. of
vegetable matter of various kinds were sold annually under the
deceptive name of coffee. Three-fourths of these 18,000,000 lbs. of
pretended coffee were composed of chicory, and the remaining fourth of
other ingredients prejudicial to health, as well as a fraud upon the
revenue. The various substances used in adulterating both chicory and
coffee, when sold in the powdered state, have been specifically
pointed out and set forth from time to time in memorials from the
trade and the coffee-growers. Mr. M'Culloch and other competent judges
set down the actual consumption of chicory in the United Kingdom at
12,500 tons per annum. When we consider the vast difference of price
between chicory and coffee, as purchased by the wholesale dealer, the
temptation to its fraudulent use was obviously great, and there was no
penal restriction against it.

It will be interesting and useful to trace the history of the trade in
chicory from its first introduction.

The substitution of chicory for coffee occasioned a loss to the
revenue of three hundred thousand pounds sterling a-year, besides its
mischievous effect in adulterating and debasing a popular beverage
when used in such large and undue proportions for admixture, and sold
at the price of coffee.

Since the prohibition of the admixture of chicory with coffee, when
sold to the public, and the compulsory sale by Treasury minute of the
two articles in separate packages, a large and rapid increase in the
consumption of coffee has taken place, and the trade is now placed in
a healthy position. Whilst the increase in the consumption of coffee
from the 1st of January, to 5th September, 1852, was but 142,267 lbs.
as compared with the same period of 1851; the increase in the
remaining four months of the year was to the amazing extent of
2,350,368 lbs. This increased consumption is likely to continue, and
our colonial possessions are furnishing us with larger proportionate
supplies, as may be seen by the following figures:--

                      TOTAL IMPORTS OF COFFEE IN
                 1848        1849        1850        1851        1852
  Produce of     lbs.        lbs.        lbs.        lbs.        lbs.
    British
    Possessions
               35,970,507  40,339,245  36,814,036  35,972,163  42,519,297
  Ditto foreign
    countries  21,082,943  22,976,542  13,989,116  17,138,497  11,857,957
               ----------  ----------  ----------  ----------  ----------
     Total     57,053,450  63,315,787  50,803,152  53,110,660  54,377,254

In the year 1832 chicory was first imported into England, subject to
a duty equivalent to that levied upon colonial coffee, and permitted
to be sold by grocers _separately_ as chicory; but notices were at the
same time issued, that the legal penalties would be rigidly enforced,
if discovered mixed with coffee.

In 1840, in consequence of memorials from the grocers and dealers in
chicory, and also from the circumstance of exceedingly high rates then
ruling for coffee, together with the disruption of our commercial
relations with China, simultaneously advancing the price of tea (thus
rendering both these popular beverages excessively dear to the
consumer), an order was issued from the Treasury to the Excise Board,
authorizing the admixture of chicory with coffee; a duty, however,
being still maintained on the former of £20 per ton on the kiln-dried,
and 6d. per lb. on the powdered root, when imported from abroad.

In the year 1845, the cultivation of chicory was introduced upon
British soil, and, being a home-grown commodity, was exempt from duty,
but nevertheless, by virtue of the said Treasury Order, was permitted
to enter into competition with a staple production of our own
colonies, contributing on its import a tax of 60 to 80 per cent. to
the revenue of the State.

The result, as might have been foreseen, necessarily created and
stimulated a demoralizing system of fraud, unjust and destructive to
the interests of the coffee planter, and prejudicial to the national
revenue.

The effects of so baneful a system being equally manifest upon both
consumption and revenue, they are here separately illustrated.

In 1824, according to the following high scale of duties, viz., 1s. on
West India, 1s. 6d. on East India, and 2s. 6d. on foreign, the Customs
derived from coffee was £420,988; in the following year the rates were
reduced one-half, and in the short space of three years the amount
yielded had advanced to £440,245, an increase which steadily
progressed (partly aided by the admission of the produce of British
India at the low duty) until it reached £921,551 in 1840. These
satisfactory results justified a further reduction of the duties in
1842 to 4d. on colonial and 8d. (and in the subsequent year to 6d.) on
foreign, under which the revenue declined in 1844 to £681,616. In 1846
it had again reached to £756,838, and was gradually recovering itself,
when this system of adulteration first began to extend itself
generally, and since that time the revenue has rapidly declined under
the _same scale of duties_ to £566,822 in 1850.

In 1824 the quantity retained for home consumption was 8,262,943 lbs.,
which was augmented to 11,082,970 lbs. in the first year of the
reduction of duty, and continued to exhibit an increase at a rate
rather exceeding two million pounds per annum until 1830, when coffee
would appear to have reached its limit of consumption without further
stimulus, and remained stationary until the modification of duties
allowing the admission of foreign coffee, _via_ the Cape, at the
colonial rate, when it advanced from 23,295,046 lbs. in 1835, to
28,723,735 lbs. in 1840; and consequent upon a further reduction of
duties in 1842, the elasticity of the trade experienced a still wider
development, and an increase of nine million pounds is exhibited in
the next five years. From that period, however, the general use of
chicory has not only checked the progressive increase of this healthy
demand, but an annual decline is observable to the extent of above six
million pounds in 1850, as compared with 1847.

On the 15th of April, 1851, with the view of partly remedying the
grievance of the colonists on this head, the duties were equalized and
reduced to 3d. The results are, however, far from satisfactory, either
in a fiscal or commercial point of view. It is true that an increase
in consumption, of one-and-a-quarter million pounds has taken place,
but at the sacrifice of £121,000 of revenue. But this increase, it
will be seen, has not exceeded 4¼ per cent., whilst there has been a
diminution of 21½ per cent. in the revenue receipts. Upon
investigation, moreover, it will be found that, notwithstanding the
_total_ increase exhibited, there has been an actual falling off of
894,778 lbs. of colonial coffee in 1851; the items for last year are,
however, much more favorable and encouraging for the planters.

No reasonable cause can be assigned for this rapid and serious
diminution in the consumption of coffee, except the notorious
substitution of chicory and other substances.

The arguments advanced to account for the falling off in the
consumption of coffee, by adducing the increase of tea and cacao for a
similar period are fallacious, and contrary to the commercial
experience of many years, which convincingly proves these kindred
articles to have always simultaneously increased, or diminished, in
ratio with the general prosperity of the kingdom, and the prevalence
of temperate habits among the community.

I shall now proceed to trace the fluctuations in the consumption of
coffee.

At the close of the last century the consumption of coffee was under
one million pounds yearly; the only descriptions then known in the
London market were Grenada, Jamaica, and Mocha--the two former
averaging about £5 per cwt., and the latter £20 per cwt. Grenada
coffee is now unknown, and Ceylon and Brazil are the largest
producers. In 1760, the total quantity of coffee consumed in the
United Kingdom was 262,000 lbs., or three quarters of an ounce to each
person in the population. In 1833 the quantity was 20,691,000 lbs., or
1½ lb. to each person. When first introduced into England, about the
middle of the 17th century, coffee was sold in a liquid state, and
paid a duty of 4d. per gallon; afterwards, until the year 1733, the
duty was 2s. per lb.; it was then reduced to 1s. 6d., since which it
has paid various rates of duty; in the year 1824 it was settled at 6d.
per lb. All descriptions of coffee now pay but 3d. per lb.

The consumption of coffee in the United Kingdom, for several years
previous to 1825, varied from seven millions and a half to eight
millions and a half pounds in round numbers, the duty being 1s. per
lb. on British plantation, 1s. 6d. per lb. on East India, and 2s. 6d.
per lb. on foreign. From the 5th of April of that year those rates
were each reduced to one half, and the immediate consequence was a
steady increase of the consumption until 1831, when it amounted to
23,000,000 lbs. The consumption continued, without any material
variation, at this rate, or to advance by very slow degrees, until
1836, when the duty on East India coffee was reduced to 6d. per lb.;
and this change had precisely the same effect as the previous one, for
the consumption again advanced to upwards of 26,000,000 lbs., which
was then considered, in a memorial of the London trade, to be as much
as our colonies were capable of producing! We now find, however, one
small island, Ceylon, producing a fourth more than this amount
annually.

The Belgians, a population of 4,500,000, consume more than 33,000,000
lbs. of coffee annually; quite as much as is used by the whole
35,000,000 French. The duty on 100 lbs. of coffee in France is more
than the common original cost--the Belgian duty not a tenth part; so
that the French do not use 1 lb. of coffee per head, while the
Belgians consume 7 lbs. each per annum. The proportion in England is
not more than 1½ lb. per head to the population. The United States are
the largest consumers of coffee, as it is admitted into their ports
free of duty, and can therefore be sold for nearly the price per pound
which the British Government levies on it for revenue. The entire
consumption of the United States and British North America, calling
their population 23,000,000 and ours 30,000,000, exceeds ours, on an
estimate of population, by sixfold. Thus the average consumption of
coffee by each American, annually, is about 8½ lbs., while the
quantity used by each person in the European States is less than 1½
lb.

The changes in the sources of supply, within the last fifteen or
sixteen years, have been very remarkable. The British possessions in
the East have taken the place which our islands of the West formerly
occupied. The British West Indies have fallen off in their produce of
coffee from 30,000,000 to 4,000,000 lbs. Ceylon which, fifteen years
ago, had scarcely turned attention to coffee, now exports nearly
35,000,000 lbs. San Domingo, Cuba, and the French West India colonies
are gradually giving up coffee-cultivation in favor of other staples;
and it is only Brazil, Java, and some of the Central American
Republics that are able to render coffee a profitable crop. The export
crop of Brazil (the greatest coffee-producing country), grown in 1850,
for the supply of the year ending July, 1851, amounted to no less than
302,000,000 lbs., of this a large quantity remained in the interior to
supply the deficiency of the current year.

It is scarcely thirty years ago that the coffee-plant was first
introduced into Bengal by two refugees from Manilla; and the British
possessions in the East Indies now yield 42,000,000 lbs. Sufficient
extent has not yet been given to enable it to be decided in what
district of _Continental_ India it may be most advantageously
cultivated. It is in the fine island of Ceylon, however, that
coffee-culture has made the most rapid progress.

It is an important fact that the supply of coffee from Ceylon, even at
the present moment, and irrespective of land already planted but not
yet come into full bearing, is in excess of the whole consumption of
Great Britain, and the planter is thus compelled to carry the surplus
to continental markets. The exports of coffee from Ceylon have been
rather stationary the past three years, averaging about 300,000 cwt.
In the sixteen years ending with 1851, Ceylon had exported 130,083
tons of coffee!

The present _produce_ of the various coffee-growing countries in the
world, may be set down at the following figures:


                SOUTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA.
                                             Millions of lbs.
  Costa Rica                                        9
  La Guayra and Porto Cabello                      35
  Brazil                                          302
  British West Indies                               8
  French and Dutch West Indies                      7
  Cuba and Porto Rico                              30
  St. Domingo                                      33½

                     ASIA  AND  THE  EAST.

  Java                                            140
  The Philippine Isles                              3
  Celebes                                           1½
  Sumatra                                           5
  Ceylon                                           34
  Malabar and Mysore                                5
  Arabia (Mocha)                                    3
                                                   ---
                                                  616 = 275,000 tons.

This I have computed as accurately as possible from the most recent
returns, but it falls much below the actual capabilities of
production, even with the trees at bearing, and land already under
cultivation; and also, in a great measure, excludes the local
consumption in the producing countries. In many quarters there has
been a considerable falling off in the production. The British West
Indies, as we have seen, formerly exported 30,000,000 lbs., the French
and Dutch West Indies 17,000,000, Cuba and Porto Rico 56,000,000, and
St. Domingo, in the last century, 76,000,000. The growth of coffee has
been transferred from the West to the East Indies, and to the South
American Continent, where labor is more abundant, certain, and cheap.
In the East the increase in production has been enormous and
progressive, with, perhaps, the exception of Sumatra, which has fallen
off from 15,000,000 lbs. to somewhere about one-third of that
quantity.

The following statement may be taken as an approximate estimate of the
actual _consumption_ of coffee at the present time:--

                                           Millions of lbs.
  Great Britain                                  32
  Holland and Belgium                           125
  France                                         33
  German Customs Union                           95
  Other German Countries not included            46
    in the Union, and Austria
  Switzerland                                    13
  Mediterranean Countries                        20
  Russia                                         12
  Sweden and Denmark                             20
  Spain and Portugal                             15
  Cape of Good Hope and Australia                 6
  United States and British America             170
                                                ---
                                                587

A calculation made in the _Economist_, a year or two ago, gave the
following as the probable consumption:--


                                           Millions of lbs.
  Holland and Netherlands                       108
  Germany and North Europe                      175
  France and South of Europe                    105
  Great Britain                                  37
  United States and British America             175
                                                ---
  Total                                         600

But this estimate is too high in some of the figures. Great Britain we
know, from the official tables only, consumes 34,000,000 lbs.
annually; the United States and British America not so much as set
down by several millions; for the official returns of the imports of
coffee into the United States show an average for the three years
ending June, 1850, of less than 154,000,000 lbs.; although a writer in
a recent number of "Hunt's Merchant's Magazine," New York, (usually a
well-informed periodical,) assumes a consumption of 200,000,000 lbs.,
for the North American States and Provinces.

The quantity of coffee produced being greater than the consumption
thereof, the growth of it becomes less remunerative, and consequently
we may look for a decrease in the supply. Ceylon, as well as the West
Indies generally, British and foreign, are likely to direct their
attention to some more profitable staple. A diminished production may
further be expected in Brazil, consequent on the extermination of the
slave-trade and the more sparing exertion of the labour of the slaves.
In Cuba the want of labour is so much felt that large engagements have
been entered into for the importation of Chinese; and there are many
reasons for expecting a diminished production in Java, the next
largest coffee-producing country. The necessary consequence of this
expected decrease in the quantity of coffee produced will be, to bring
the produce as much below the wants of the consumers as it is now
above, and this must again result in an enhancement of prices in
process of time.

If it were thought desirable to extend the production of coffee, there
are many new quarters, besides the existing countries in which it is
largely cultivated, where it could be extensively grown. We may
instance Liberia and the western coast of Africa generally, the
interior ranges of Natal, the mountain-ranges on the northern coast of
Australia, from Moreton Bay to Torres Straits, &c., &c. But the
present production is more than equal to the demand; and unless a very
largely increased consumption takes place in the European countries,
the present plantations (colonial and foreign) are amply sufficient to
supply, for many years to come, all the demands that can be made upon
their trees, a large proportion of which have yet to come into full
bearing.

The coffee tree would grow to the height of fifteen or twenty feet if
permitted, but it is bad policy to let it grow higher than four or
five feet. It comes to maturity in five years, but does not thrive
beyond the twenty-fifth, and is useless generally after thirty years.
Although the tree affords no profit to the planter for nearly five
years; yet after that time, with very little labor bestowed upon it,
it yields a large return.

Mr. Churchill, Jamaica, found that 1,000 grains of the wood, leaves,
and twigs of the coffee tree, yielded 33 grains of ashes, or 3.300 per
cent. The ashes consist of potass, lime, alumina, and iron in the
state of carbonates, sulphates, muriates, and phosphates, and a small
portion of silica. According to Liebig's classification of plants, the
coffee tree falls under the description of those noted for their
preponderance of lime. Thus the proportions in the coffee tree are--

  Lime salts        77
  Potass salts      20
  Silica             3
                   ---
                   100

I shall now proceed to describe the cultivation of the tree and
preparation of the berry, as carried on in different countries.

_Cultivation of Mocha_--In Arabia Felix, the culture is principally
carried on in the kingdom of Yemen, towards the cantons of Aden and
Mocha. Although these countries are very hot in the plains, they
possess mountains where the air is mild. The coffee is generally grown
half way up on their slopes. When cultivated on the lower grounds it
is always surrounded by large trees, which shelter it from the torrid
sun, and prevent its fruit from withering before their maturity. The
harvest is gathered at three periods; the most considerable occurs in
May, when the reapers begin by spreading cloths under the trees, then
shaking the branches strongly, so as to make the fruit drop, which
they collect and expose upon mats to dry. They then pass over the
dried berries a heavy roller, to break the envelopes, which are
afterwards winnowed away with a fan. The interior bean is again dried
before being laid up in store.

The principal coffee districts are Henjersia, Tarzia, Oudein, Aneizah,
Bazil, and Weesaf. The nearest coffee plantations are three-and-a-half
days journey (about 80 miles) from Aden.

The following information is derived from Capt. S.B. Haines of the
Indian Navy, and our political agent at Aden. A camel load is about
400 lbs = 25 frazlas or bales.

                                               G.C.     Commassees.
  The price of ditto inland                     31          41
  At Mocha, duty to Dewla uncertain
  Bake fee one butsha on each frazla                        25
  Weighing and clerk's fee                                  20
  Packing                                                   40
  Camel hire to the coast                       12          50
  Cost from Sana to Mocha                       44          15

Coffee is brought into the Sana market in December and January from
the surrounding districts.

The varieties are--

  1. Sherzee, best--price 1 G.C. frazla 25 butsha.
  2. Ouceaime.
  3. Muttanee.
  4. Sharrazee.
  5. Hubbal from Aniss.
  6. Sherissee from ditto--price per frazla 1 G.C. 15 B.

The nearest place to Sana where the coffee tree grows, is at Arfish,
half a day distant. Attempts have been made to introduce the shrub in
the garden of the Imaum at Sana, but without success, ascribed to
cold. Kesher is more prized at Sana; the best is Anissea, and is sold
at a higher price than other coffee, namely, g.c. 12 per 100 lbs.;
inferior, at from 4, 5, and 6.

Rain falls in Sana three times in the year. 1st. In January, in small
quantities. 2nd. Beginning of June, when it falls for eight or ten
days. By this time the seed is sown, and the cultivators look forward
to the season with anxiety. 3rd. In July, when it falls in abundance.
A few farmers defer sowing till this period, but it is unusual when
they expect rain in June.

The coffee plant is mostly found growing near the sides of mountains,
valleys, and other sheltered situations, the soil of which has been
gradually washed down from the surrounding heights, being that which
forms its source of support. This is afforded by the decomposition of
a species of claystone (slightly phosphoritic) which is found
irregularly disposed in company with a few pieces of trap-rocks,
amongst which, on approaching Sana from the southward, basalt is found
to preponderate. The clay stone is only found in the more elevated
districts, but the debris finds a ready way into the lower country by
the numerous and steep gorges which are conspicuous in every
direction. As it is thrown upon one side of the valley, it is
carefully protected by means of stone walls, so as to present to the
traveller the appearance of terraces. The plant requires a moist soil,
though much rain does not appear necessary. It is always found in
greater luxuriance at places where there is no spring. The tree at
times looks languid, and half withered; an abundant supply of water to
the root of the plant seems necessary for the full growth and
perfection of its bean.

_Progress of Cultivation in India_.--There are said to be ten
varieties of the coffee, but only one is found indigenous to India,
and it is questionable if this is not the Mocha species introduced
from Arabia. The cultivation of this important crop is spreading fast
throughout the east, and has been adopted in many parts of Hindostan.
In the Tenasserim provinces, on the table land of Mysore, in Penang,
and especially in the islands of Bourbon and Ceylon, it is becoming
more and more an object of attention. It is known to have given good
produce in Sangar and the Nerbudda; also in Mirzapore, as well as
Dacca, and other parts of Bengal; Chota Najpore, Malabar, and
Travancore. From three to four million pounds of coffee are now
exported from the Indian presidencies annually. The highest quantity
was four and a quarter million pounds in 1845, but the progress of
culture, judging from the export, has been small.

On the hilly districts on the east coast of the Gulf of Siam, the
cultivation is carried on on a limited scale. The annual produce is
not much more than about 400 cwt., although it is understood to be
increasing. The quality of the berry is reckoned to be nearly equal to
Mocha, and it commands a high price in the English market.

The soil recommended in India is a good rich garden land, the
situation high and not liable to inundation, and well sheltered to the
north-west, or in such other direction as the prevailing storms are
found to come from.

A plantation, or a hill affording the shrubs shade, has been found
beneficial in all tropical climates, because, if grown fully exposed
to the sun, the berries have been found to be ripened prematurely.

The spot should be well dug to a depth of two feet before the trees
are planted out, and the earth pulverised and cleared from the roots
of rank weeds, but particularly from the coarse woody grasses with
which all parts of India abound.

The best manure is found in the decayed leaves that fall from the
trees themselves, to which may be added the weeds produced in the
plantation, dried and burnt. These, then, dug in, are the only manure
that will be required. Cow-dung is the best manure for the seed-beds.

The seed reserved for sowing must be put into the ground quite fresh,
as it soon loses its power of germination. Clean, well-formed berries,
free from injury by insects, or the decay of the pulp, should be
selected.

These berries must be sown in a nursery, either in small, well-manured
beds, or in pots in a sheltered spot, not too close, as it is well to
leave them where sown until they acquire a good growth; indeed, it is
better if they are removed at once from the bed where they are sown,
to the plantation. Here they should be planted as soon as they have
attained two years of age, for, be it remembered, that if they are
left too long in the nursery, they become unproductive and never
recover. The distance at which they should be put out in the
plantation need not exceed eight feet apart in the rows, between
which, also, there should be eight feet distance. The seedlings appear
in about a month after the seed is sown.

The culture requisite is, in the first instance, to afford shade to
the young plants; many consider that this shelter should be continued
during the whole period of their culture; but this is somewhat
doubtful, as it has been found that plants so protected are not such
good bearers as those which are exposed. The best plants for this
purpose are tall, wide-branching trees or shrubs, without much
underwood. The other culture requisite is only to keep the ground
tolerably clean from weeds, for which one cooly on from five to ten
biggahs is sufficient. He should also prune off decayed or dead
branches. This treatment must be continued until the fourth year, when
the trees will first begin bearing, and, after the gathering of each
crop, the trees will require to be thinned out from the superabundant
branches, their extremities stopped, and the tops reduced to prevent
their growing above seven or eight feet in height; the stems, also,
should be kept free from shoots or suckers for the height of at least
one foot, as well as clear from weeds.

Irrigation must be frequent during the first year that the plants are
removed to the plantation, and may be afterwards advantageously
continued at intervals during the dry and hot weather, as a very hot
season is found unfavorable to the plant, drying up and destroying the
top branches and the extremities of the side shoots; whilst, on the
other hand, a very long rain destroys the fruit by swelling it out and
rotting it before it can be ripened: hence it is necessary to attend
to a good drainage of the plantation, that no water be anywhere
allowed to lodge, as certain loss will ensue, not only of the crop of
the current year, but most frequently of the trees also, as their
roots require to be rather dry than otherwise.

The crop will be ready to gather from October to January, when the
ripe berries should be carefully picked from the trees by hand every
morning, and dried in the shade, the sun being apt to make them too
brittle; they must be carefully turned to prevent fermentation, and
when sufficiently dry the husks must be removed, and the clean coffee
separated from the broken berries. After being picked out and put
aside, and then again dried, it is fit to pack. The first year's crop
will be less than the succeeding ones, in which the produce will range
from ½ a lb. to 1 lb. in each year.--(Simmonds's "Colonial Magazine,"
vol. xv.)

_Ceylon_.--Coffee is stated to have been introduced into this island
from Java, somewhere about the year 1730. It was extensively diffused
over the country by the agency of birds and jackalls. In 1821 its
cultivation may be said to have partially commenced, and in 1836, it
had become widely extended through the Kandyan provinces.

In 1839 not a tree had been felled on the wide range of the Himasgaria
mountains. In 1840 a small plantation was, for the first time, formed.
In 1846 there were fifty estates, then averaging, each, 200 acres of
planted land, and yielding an average crop of 80,000 cwt. of coffee.
Every acre is now purchased in that locality, and in large tracts, or
there would have been twice the number of estates in cultivation. In
1848, the Galgawatte estate, situate in this range, at an elevation of
4,000 feet, containing 246 acres, of which 72 were planted, was
purchased by Mr. R.D. Gerard, for £1,600.

The quantity of land which had been brought under cultivation with
coffee in this island in the ten years previous to the last reduction
of duty in 1844, was, in round numbers, 25,000 acres; but so rapid was
the subsequent increase, that in the succeeding three years, that
extent of land was doubled; so that, in 1847, there were upwards of
60,000 acres of land under cultivation with coffee, giving employment
to 40,000 immigrant coolies from the continent of India, and upwards
of two millions of capital were invested in the cultivation of this
staple.

The quantity of land under culture with coffee by Europeans, was about
55,000 acres in 1851. Allowing 20,000 acres to produce the quantity of
native coffee exported, and 5,000 for that consumed in the island, the
total extent of coffee cultivation in Ceylon, European and native,
will be 80,000 acres.

The produce exported in 1849 was 373,593 cwt., while in the year 1836,
when attention was first directed to this island as a coffee-producing
country, the crop was not more than 60,330 cwt. Large profits were
made by the first planters, more capital was introduced, until,
between the years 1840 and 1842, the influx of capitalists, to
undertake this species of cultivation, completely changed the face of
the colony, and enlarged its trade, and the produce of coffee in
sixteen years has increased sixfold.

The general culture resembles the practice in Java. Of the Ceylon
coffee, that grown about Ramboddi fetches the highest price, from the
superiority of the make, shape, and boldness of the berry. The weight
per bushel, clean, averages 56 lbs.; 57½ lbs. is about the greatest
weight of Ceylon coffee. The lowest in the scale of Ceylon plantation
coffee is the Doombera, which averages 54½ lbs., clear, per bushel.
The following have been the prices of good ordinary Ceylon coffee in
the port of London for the last eight years in the month of January,
1853, 46s. to 48s.; 1852, 40s. to 42s.; 1851, 38s. 6d. to 40s. 6d.;
1850, 56s. 6d. to 57s. 6d.; 1849, 31s. to 32s. 6d.; 1848, 31s. 6d. to
33s.; 1847, 39s. 6d. to 41s. 6d.; 1846, 49s. to 50s.

Forest lands are those usually planted in Ceylon, and the expense
attendant on clearing and reclaiming them from a state of nature, and
converting them into plantations, is estimated to average £8 per acre.
The lowest upset price of crown lands in the colony is £1 per acre.

Coffee planting has failed over a considerable portion of the southern
province of the island, where the experiment was tried. The
temperature was found to be too equable, not descending sufficiently
low at any time to invigorate the plant; which, though growing
luxuriantly at first, soon became weak and delicate. Nurseries are
established for young plants. The districts in which the coffee is
principally cultivated, extend over nearly the whole of the hilly
region, which is the medium and connecting link between the
mountainous zone and the level districts of the coast.

The mania for coffee planting has recently subsided, in consequence of
the barely remunerative returns at which that article has been sold,
ascribable partly to over-production, and in some measure, perhaps, to
the temporary glut of foreign coffee thrown on the British market by
the reduction of the duty. As regards the yield, some estates in
Ceylon have produced upwards of 15 cwt. per acre, but it is a good
estate that will average seven, and many do not give more than 4 cwt.
the acre.

The shipments from Colombo for five years, are stated below, with the
class of coffee:--

         Plantation.   Native.    Total.
            cwt.        cwt.       cwt.
  1845     75,002      112,889   187,891
  1846     91,240       70,991   162,231
  1847    106,198      143,457   249,655
  1848    191,464       88,422   279,886
  1849    243,926      118,756   362,682
  1850    198,997       56,692   255,689
  1851    220,471       97,091   317,562

While, in 1839, the total value of the exports from Ceylon was only
£330,000, in 1850 the value of the single staple of coffee was no less
than £609,262, and in 1851 had still further increased.

I append a memorandum of the quantities of coffee exported from Ceylon
since 1836:--

                     Quantity.   Value.
                         cwt.       £
  1836                 60,329
  1837                 34,164
  1838                 49,541
  1839                 41,863
  1840                 68,206
  1841                 80,584    196,048
  1842                119,805    269,763
  1843                 94,847    192,891
  1844                133,957    267,663
  1845                178,603    363,259
  1846                173,892    328,781
  1847                293,221    456,624
  1848                280,010    387,150
  1849                373,593    545,322
  1850                278,473    609,262
  1851                339,744
                    ---------
  Total in 16 years 2,600,832
                    ---------
  Average             162,552     (Ceylon Almanac for 1853.)

The local export duty of two-and-a-half per cent., was abolished from
1st September, 1848.

From these figures it appears that, in a period of sixteen years,
Ceylon exported two and a half millions of cwts. of coffee. The
consumption of coffee, although for a long time stationary in Britain,
now that adulteration is no longer legalised, is likely to increase as
rapidly as in other parts of the world; and it appears pretty evident
that, so long as anything like remunerative prices can be obtained,
Ceylon will do her part in supplying the world with an article which
occupies the position of a necessary to the poor as well as a luxury
to the rich. The exports of coffee from this colony have, within a few
thousands of hundredweights, been nearly quadrupled since 1843, when
only 94,000 cwts. were sent away.

Dr. Rudolph Gygax, in a paper submitted to the Ceylon Branch of the
Royal Asiatic Society, offered remarks on some analyses, of the coffee
of Ceylon, with suggestions for the applications of manures.

    "Having had," he observes, "my attention drawn to an account of an
    analysis of the Jamaica coffee berry, made by Mr. Herapath, the
    Liverpool chemist, I have paid some little attention to the subject
    of the coffee plant of this island, forming, as it does, so very
    important a feature in the resources of this colony. The desire that
    I thus felt for obtaining some information regarding the constituent
    parts of the Ceylon tree and its fruit, was heightened by a
    knowledge of the fact, that not a few of those coffee estates, which
    once gave good promise of success, are now in a very precarious
    state of production.

    I much regret that the means at my disposal have not allowed me to
    carry out any _quantative_ analysis, but the result of my labours
    are sufficiently accurate for my present purpose. I have analysed
    the wood and fruit of trees from two different localities, as well
    as the ashes of some plants sent me from the Rajawella estate near
    Kandy, and they all tend to bear out the result of Mr. Herapath's
    inquiries. Placing the substances traced in the coffee plant in the
    order in which they occur in the greatest quantity, they will stand
    thus:--

    Lime, potash, magnesia, phosphoric acid, other acids.

    Of these lime is by far the most prominent, forming about 60 per
    cent. of the whole.

    I cannot help, therefore, arriving at the conclusion that, to
    cultivate coffee with any degree of success, the first-named
    substance must be present in the soil; or, if not present, must be
    supplied to it by some process.

    Now it is a singular fact that the rocks and soils of Ceylon are
    greatly deficient in alkaline matter; and, taking this view of the
    case, one no longer wonders that many estates cease to produce
    coffee. That all, or nearly all the plantations did, in their first
    year or two of bearing, produce liberally in fruit, may readily be
    accounted for by the fact that the alkaline poverty of the soil was
    enriched by the burning of the vast quantities of timber which lay
    felled on all sides. Whilst this temporary supply lasted, all was
    well with the planter. Heavy rains, and frequent scrapings of the
    land with the mamotie, or hoe, soon dissipated this scanty supply,
    and short crops are now the consequence.

    But nature, ever bountiful, ever ready to compensate for all
    deficiencies, has provided to our hands a ready means of remedying
    this evil of the soil, by scattering throughout most parts of the
    interior supplies of dolomitic limestone. The dolomite of Ceylon is
    not pure, far from it, being mixed freely with apatite or phosphate
    of lime. Even in this very accidental circumstance the coffee
    planter is aided; for the phosphoric acid thus combined with the
    limestone is the very substance required in addition. Some of the
    finest properties in the island are situated on a limestone bottom,
    and these no doubt will continue to yield abundant crops for a very
    long period.

    It has been urged against this opinion that in some districts where
    coffee planting has proved a complete failure, dolomite is found
    most abundantly; but I have very little doubt that the dolomite
    here alluded to is only _magnesian_ limestone, and which is most
    inimical to the coffee bush.

    I am aware that already several manures have been tried on coffee
    with varying degrees of success. Guano has, I believe, quite failed,
    and is besides very costly. Cattle manure is said to be effective,
    and no doubt it is, but it is a costly and troublesome affair.
    Bones, ground fine, are now being tried, though they cannot but
    prove most expensive, especially when imported.

    A ton of bone dust contains of animal matter, 746 lbs,; phosphates
    of lime, &c., 1,245 lbs.; carbonates of lime, &c., 249 lbs.

    The virtue of bones lies in the phosphates far more than in the
    animal matter, and thus their action on soils is felt for many years
    after their application. The Singalese cultivators of paddy about
    Colombo and Galle, appear to have been long aware of the fertilizing
    effects of this kind of manure, and import the article in dhonies
    from many parts of the coast: they bruise them coarsely before
    applying them.

    The partially decomposed husks of the coffee berry have been tried
    for some years, and successfully, but they are difficult of
    collection, and bulky to remove from one part of the estate to
    another.

    In Europe it would appear that little is yet known as to the causes
    of the fertilising effects of oil cake: some suppose them to arise
    mainly from the oil left by the crushing process, but this is not at
    all clear. I do not, however, see that we must look for much
    assistance from Poonac as a manure for coffee: for the cocoanut tree
    it is doubtless most valuable, but we have yet to learn that, beyond
    supplying so much more vegetable matter, it helps the action of the
    soil on the roots of the coffee bush, which, after all, is what is
    really required.

    For the proper application of the dolomite to land as manure, it
    should be freely burnt in a kiln, with a good quantity of wood, the
    ashes of which should be afterwards mixed with the burnt lime, and
    the whole exposed for several days to the action of the air,
    sheltered of course from the weather. The mixture should be applied
    just before the setting in of the monsoon rains: if the land be
    tolerably level, the lime may be scattered broadcast on the surface,
    though not quite near the plants. When the estate to be manured is
    steep, then the substance to be applied should be placed in ridges
    cut crossways to the descent of the slopes.

    About one cwt. to the acre would be ample for most lands; some may,
    however, require more. The contents of the husk pits might
    advantageously be mixed up with the burnt lime, when a sufficiency
    of it has been saved.

A planter in Ambagamoe states that he has tried the following remedy
for that destructive scourge, the coffee-bug, with great success.

He applies saltpetre in a finely-powdered state, dusted over the tree
when wet with rain or dew. The operation is inexpensive, as a very
small quantity suffices, one cwt. being sufficient for nine or ten
acres. It can be applied through a bamboo-joint covered with a
perforated top, or any equally simple contrivance.

Messrs. Worms' are reported to have found coco-nut oil an effectual
remedy.

To sum up the question of manures:--

Poonac, the marc or cake, after the coco-nut oil is expressed, is
represented to be a stimulating manure; but is not durable. Lime is an
useful application, especially to stiff soils, as the coffee tree
contains 60 parts of lime. Bone-dust is an excellent fertiliser, but
in Ceylon it is found that it cannot be applied at a less expense than
£5 per acre. Cattle manure is the cheapest and most available. Guano
does not seem suitable.

_Peeling, pulping, and winnowing._--The coffee-peeler, used for
separating the bean from the pellicle, was formerly a large wheel
revolving in a trough, the disadvantage of which was the flattening
more or less of the bean when not thoroughly dry. A new machine has
been recently introduced, the invention of Mr. Nelson, C.E., of the
Ceylon iron works, by which this evil is obviated; its principle being
not weight, but simple friction, of sufficient force to break the
parchment at first, and, when continued, to polish the bean free from
the husk. A very simple winnowing machine for cleaning the coffee as
it comes out of the peeler, is attached. From the winnowing machine it
runs into the separating machine, which sorts it into sizes, and
equalizes the samples, by which a vast amount of time and manual
labour are saved. The same principle is intended to be applied by Mr.
Nelson to pulping, which will obviate the injury now inflicted by the
grater upon the fresh berry. In spite of the greatest care numbers of
the beans in a sample, on close examination, will be found scratched
or pecked; and when the closest attention is not paid, or the person
superintending the process is devoid of mechanical skill, the injury
is proportionate.

The ordinary pulping-mill in use, consists of a cylinder of wood or
iron, covered with sheet brass or copper, and punctured similarly to a
nutmeg grater. This cylinder, technically called the barrel, runs upon
a spindle, which turns a brass pick on each side of a frame.
Immediately in a line with the centre upon which it turns, and placed
vertical to each other, are two pieces of wood, frequently shod with
iron of copper, called "the chops," placed about half an inch apart,
or sufficient to allow the passage of "parchment" coffee between them.
The lower chop is placed so close to the barrel, yet without contact,
that all coffee must be stopped by it and thrown outwards. The upper
chop is adjusted to that distance only which will permit the cherry
coffee to come into contact with the barrel; but will not allow the
berries to pass on till they have been denuded of their red epidermis
by a gentle squeeze against its rough surface. The far greater portion
of the pulps are separated by being carried past the lower chops upon
the sharp points of the copper, and thrown out behind, and a few are
left with the parchment coffee. As from the different sizes of the
berries, and their crowding for precedence as they descend from the
hopper above to the gentle embrace of the barrel and upper chop, some
pass unpulped, the coffee as it comes from the lower chop is made to
fall upon a riddle, which separates the unpulped cherries. These are
put back again, and passed through a pulper with the upper chop set
closer. The secret of working-appears to be the proper setting of the
chops, and many have been the schemes proposed for reducing this to a
certainty. Perhaps, after all, few plans are better than the old
wedges, by tightening or loosening of which the chop is kept in the
required position. Within the last few years, the machine has been
considerably improved by being formed entirely of iron, cog-wheels
being substituted in the place of straps and drums to move the riddle,
and the riddle itself is now formed of two sieves, by which the chance
of unpulped berries reaching the parchment is lessened. On some
estates, water-wheels have been put up to drive several pulpers at one
time, which otherwise would require from two to four men each to work
them, but from the costly buildings and appurtenances which such
machinery renders necessary, they are rare.

Although the operation of pulping is so simple, it is one which
requires the machine to be set in such a way that the greatest
quantity of work may be done, or, in other words, the smallest
quantity of unpulped berries be allowed to pass through. On the other
hand, the berries must not be subjected to injury from the barrel; for
if the parchment skin is pricked through, the berry will appear, when
cured, with an unsightly brown mark upon it. Several new coverings for
barrels, instead of punctured copper, have been tried; among others,
coir-cloth and wire net, but the old material is not as yet
superseded. After pulping, the coffee in parchment is received into
cisterns, in which it is, by washing, deprived of the mucilaginous
matter that still adheres to it. Without this most necessary
operation, the mucilage would ferment and expose the berry to injury,
from its highly corrosive qualities.

As some portion of pulp finds its way with the coffee to the cistern,
which, if suffered to remain would, by its long retention of moisture,
lengthen the subsequent drying process, various methods have been
adopted to remove it. One mode is to pass the coffee a second time
through a sieve worked by two men; another to pick it off the surfaces
of the cistern, to which it naturally rises.

In August, 1846, premiums were awarded by the Ceylon Agricultural
Society to Messrs. Clerihew and Josias Lambert for the improvements
they had introduced into coffee-pulpers, which, by their exertions,
had been brought to great perfection. The first improved complete
cast-iron pulper received in the island, was made for Mr. Jolly, from
drawings sent home by Mr. Lambert to Messrs. B. Hick and Son,
engineers. This pulper is one of the most perfect in every respect
that has yet been brought into use, the disadvantages belonging to the
old machine having been entirely remedied. The sieve crank has a
double eccentric action. The chops are regulated by set screws, and
the sieve suspended in a novel and secure manner, the whole combining
strength and efficacy, together with an elegance of form, which will
likewise be appreciated.

Mr. W. Clerihew, of Ceylon, submitted to the Great Exhibition a model
of his approved apparatus for drying coffee (which has been patented
in the name of Robert R. Banks, Great George Street, Westminster), and
received the Isis gold medal for the same. The intention is to dry the
vegetable and aqueous moisture of the berry. Before this is required,
the coffee has previously undergone the process of pulping, or
removal from the soft fleshy husk. Here let Mr. Clerihew describe the
advantages for himself--

    "When the coffee berry is picked from the tree it bears a closer
    resemblance to a ripe cherry, both in size and appearance; and
    several processes have to be gone through before the article known
    in commerce as coffee is produced. In the first place, the pulpy
    exterior of the cherry has to be removed by the process of pulping,
    which separates the seed and its thin covering called the parchment,
    from the husk. When the pulping process is completed, we have the
    parchment coffee by itself in a cistern, and the next process
    consists in getting rid of the mucilage with which it is covered."

Having become assured, both by experiment and by Liebig's reasoning,
that the successive stages of decomposition were wholly ascribable to
the action of the stagnant air which occupies the interstices between
the beans, and taking into account that a mass of coffee presented a
medium pervious to air, it occurred to Mr. Clerihew that it was
possible, by means of fanners, working on the exhausting principle, so
to withdraw air from an enclosed space as to establish a current of
air through masses of coffee spread on perforated floors forming the
top and bottom of that space. The plan he carried into execution at
Rathgoongodde plantation in 1849. No sooner was the plan put in
operation than, instead of stagnant air occupying the interstices of
the beans and gradually acting on them, a stream of air was
established and flowing through the mass of coffee, each bean of it
became surrounded by a constantly renewed atmosphere of fresh air.

_Java_.--When Arabia enjoyed the exclusive monopoly of coffee, it
could not be foreseen that one day the island of Java would furnish
for the consumption of the world from 125 to 130 millions of pounds
per annum. The cultivation was introduced by M. Zwaendenkroom, the
Governor-General of Batavia, who obtained seeds from Mocha, in 1723.
According to official statements the following are the exports.

In 1839 there were exported 46,781,729 kilogrammes, valued at 48
million florins. Eight years labor, 1833 to 1841, brought its produce
of coffee from 12 million kilogrammes annually, up to 55 millions.

In 1846, the exports were 916,876 piculs, but, in 1850 they were only
14,801 piculs. The total coffee crop of Java was in 1850, 1,280,702
lbs.; in 1851, 1,436,171 lbs.; in 1852, 1,229,349 lbs.

                                                     1840          1841
  Residences in which this produce has been
    cultivated in 1840 and 1841                           20            20
  Number of families destined for the labor          470,673       453,289
  Trees which have yielded a crop                916,193,894   216,085,600
  Trees which have produced the average quantity
    of a picul of 125 lbs. Dutch                         280           248
  Quantity of coffee furnished to the godowns
    in piculs                                        706,258       877,444
  Trees according to the reckoning made in the
    month of March, 1841 and 1842                336,922,460   329,898,936

The comparative result of this table shows--1st. That, in the year
1841, coffee had been gathered from 20,000,000 more trees than the
number in 1840, and that the crop had increased by 171,000 piculs.

2nd. That, in the month of March, 1842, there were above 7 millions
less of coffee trees than in 1840. This diminution is merely nominal,
seeing that these trees have served to replace those which by their
small produce have to be suppressed in the lowlands of the residency
of Baylen. On the contrary, the increase of trees, planted from 1839
to 1840, amount to very nearly the same number, of 7 millions.

3rd. That, in the season of 1842, there was planted nearly 20 millions
of plants; of which 12 millions are to serve to replace the old trees,
and 8 millions are destined to extend this culture. It is calculated
that this island will very soon be in a condition to produce a million
of piculs or 125 millions more of Dutch pounds of coffee. Previous to
1830, Java scarcely exported as much as 40 millions of pounds.

_Cultivation and Preparation of Coffee in Java_.--For the following
valuable details I am indebted to M. de Munnick, the inspector of the
agricultural department, Batavia, as contributed to my "Colonial
Magazine" (vol. xi. p. 46).

_Soil and Situation_.--Elevated lands are found to be those best
suited for the growth of coffee in Java. Land situated between 1,000
and 4,000 feet above the level of the sea may be generally said to be
adapted to the cultivation of coffee. It must not be taken for granted
that all ground of less elevation is unsuited. Suitable ground is to
be found lower down, but the cultivation on it is more difficult; the
tree gives less fruit, and the plant is less durable. Valleys lying
between high mountains are more especially fit for coffee plantations,
because the soil which is washed down from the heights affords fresh
food continually to the lowlands; the valleys themselves are moist,
since the hills surrounding them attract the rain; and they are shut
out from severe winds by the same protecting enclosure. The soils best
suited to the successful growth of coffee may be classed as follows:--

_Firstly_. Cleared forest lands, especially those in which the black
leafy, or vegetable mould is found to considerable depth. These are
the richest grounds, and will support the coffee plant for many years,
and they are also cultivated with the least trouble.

_Secondly_. Dark brown soils, approaching to black, which, without
having much clay in them, appear to the eye to have a mixture of
coral. The greater the depth of this coral-like stratum, and of the
reddish or deep yellowish soil, the better is the ground for coffee.
This kind of land also has sufficient strength and substance to afford
nourishment for many years to the plant; but it entails more trouble
than the before mentioned soils, because the young plant does not so
speedily strike root into it, and sometimes dies, so that provision
has to be made against failures.

_Thirdly_. Reddish and loose ground, such as is generally found in
the neighbourhood of volcanic lands. This kind is frequently found
well adapted for coffee; it flourishes on such land luxuriantly, but
does not last long, as the ground possesses less strength and
nourishing substance.[6] By digging in different places we become
better acquainted with the nature of the ground, but we may take it as
a rule, that rich old forest land on which many larger trees are
found, and plains covered with heavy underwood, most frequently offer
eligible sites for coffee plantations.

Grounds in which loam is found, and stony soils, are unfit for coffee.
But I do not mean by "stony soils" land on which many stones are
lying, for on that very account it may be most suitable; but I mean
land which shows a pebbly stratum just below the surface, or such as
is of a porous, stony nature. In the choice of situation care must be
taken to select that which is as much as possible protected against
the south-east wind, because its dry influence is very injurious to
the coffee plant, and also prevents the growth of the _Erythrina_
(known here locally as the Dadap tree) which is so necessary for its
shade. Flat grounds, or gentle declivities, are better than steep
slopes; yet the latter can be well employed if proper care is taken.

_Cultivation_.--After the ground has been cleared in the dry
season--that is, after the bushes have been rooted out, the
undergrowth burnt off, and the thickets removed--ploughing is
commenced in September. When the ground has twice been deeply
ploughed, the weeds and roots must be brought together with the rake
and carefully burnt. The depth of the ploughing must be regulated by
the nature of the ground. In all kinds of cultivation, deep ploughing
is recommended, but in Java we ought not to plough deeper than the
stratum of fertile soil, as a kind of subsoil may be wrought uppermost
injurious to plants, and which, before it can become fertile, must for
a year at least have been exposed to the atmosphere.

The ground having been turned up, should be left exposed for some days
to throw off the vapor arising from it; and must then be again
ploughed and cleared with the rake. After waiting for some days, it
should be ploughed for the fourth and last time, and made as clean and
friable as possible. In small plantations this is to be done with the
spade, but on large estates the roller must be used. This roller
consists of a heavy piece of round wood, eight or ten feet long, to
which a pole is fastened in the middle to have oxen harnessed to it.
It is drawn slowly over the ploughed land, and presses the clods to
earth. To give it greater force, the driver sits or stands upon it.

Before the field has been properly ploughed and rolled in the above
way, the middle of October will have arrived, and we then begin to
open a path through the plantation from the highest to the lowest
point, about two roods broad, and the whole of the land is then
divided into separate parcels. Portioning off the estates into
divisions of equal size is a system to be much recommended. By this
means labor may be equally divided, superintended and inspected. Order
and regularity, which are necessary in all things, are most especially
required in cultivation on a large scale.

The size of these parcels is regulated by the nature of the estate. On
flat or gently declining land they may be greater than on steep
grounds, because, in order to prevent the washing away of the soil on
precipitous land, the water must be led off by trenches, which of
themselves make the divisions of land smaller. On flat ground the
divisions may be each 625 square roods, each of which may contain, if
planted--

                           Trees.
  12 feet by 12              625
  10   "     10              900
   8   "      8             1406
   6   "      6             2500


The distance between the coffee bushes cannot be definitely laid down,
as it depends on the nature of the soil. On the most fertile forest
lands twelve feet by twelve is a good distance. Only on low and meagre
grounds, where the tree grows less luxuriantly and strong, can six
feet by six be reckoned a proper distance.

Between the divisions a path should be left, one rood in breadth.
Along the middle paths and by the side of the divisions drains must be
cut, the former two feet in breath and depth, the latter one foot. The
drains along the divisions must be cut in such a way as to conduct the
rain-water to the larger drains which flank the middle paths. On
precipitous ground, when the coffee is planted, small ridges should be
raised between the rows, to prevent the rich earth from washing down
in the heavy rains. The steeper the land is, the closer these ridges
should be; and care should be taken to incline them, so as to break
the descent, the direction of which they should in some degree follow.
The first ridges may be made with the branches of the trees which have
been felled, or with the rubbish cleared from the ground on the first
raking of it.

_Placing the pickets._--When the ground has been worked and divided in
the above manner, the pickets are placed. These are slips of bamboo
one-and-a-half to two feet long. First--two long canes (which do not
stretch like string), each one hundred feet long, are marked off in
feet according to the distance at which the planting is to take place;
heavy stakes are made fast to each end of them, by which they can be
well secured on the ground. At the places where they are marked off in
feet, strings are fastened so tightly that they cannot be displaced;
and then the canes are laid down and well fixed in the ground, one in
the length and the other in the breadth.

Picketing does not give much trouble; it ensures regular planting, and
makes the daily inspection simple. The planting thus takes place in
straight lines, which give an ornamental appearance, and afterwards
renders the view over the whole plantation easy. At every place where
a string has been tied, a picket is stuck in the ground; then the cane
is removed to another place, and so on till all the estate is marked
out by pickets. After the picketing, a hole is made with the spade at
every mark; it should be a good foot broad and deep, and the earth
inside should be made very fine and clear. The earth is now ready to
receive the coffee plant, and the time has only to be waited for when
the first rains fully begin.

_Nurseries_.--In the month of October, or earlier, if coffee trees are
near at hand, nurseries must be prepared in the neighbourhood of the
land about to be planted. This can be done in the ravines, or, if they
are too far from the spot where the plants are wanted, pieces of
ground most convenient can be selected. If the ravines are preferred,
places must be chosen which are shaded by trees not prejudicial to the
coffee plants. On ground where there is no trees, the nurseries may be
covered, at the height of four feet, with leaves of jack (_Artocarpus
integrifolia_), areca, or other palm trees, in a manner to admit the
air.

The ground made loose and fine, coffee plants newly opening, or seeds
only, are planted or sown at a distance of four inches square; 500
square roods will in this way furnish 648,000 plants, which are
sufficient for an estate of 300,000 trees. Transplanting from
nurseries is absolutely necessary in coffee cultivation, and the
trouble it costs is always doubly repaid. Having a choice of plants, a
person can be convinced he has taken none but healthy trees, and he
proceeds therefore with a confidence of success. After the first year,
all failures having been nearly replaced, the estate is fully planted,
the trees are of regular growth, and no useless clearing is
required--a thing which is always necessary in irregular plantations.
It is easy also to pick the berries from the trees which are planted
with regularity; the work goes on smoothly; and, when the estate has
lived its time, it may be abandoned altogether, without leaving
patches of living trees here and there, which renders superintendence
so very difficult.

There should always be a plentiful supply of plants, to give an ample
choice and to make up for failures. When plants are placed in the
nurseries, they should not have more than two offshoots, or leaves,
above each other; and when the ball plants are transplanted, they
should not be higher than a foot, as large plants always give meagre
trees.

At the end of November or beginning of December, if the nurseries are
kept free from weeds, and, if necessary, occasionally watered, the
plants will be about a foot high, and will have put forth 4 or 5
leaves; they are then just fit to be transplanted. Then, the ground is
cloven with the spade, at a distance of an inch and a half round the
stem of the plant, to about three inches deep; the plant, with the
ball of earth adhering to it, is carefully lifted out of the ground,
and the ball is wrapped in a jack, plantain, or other leaf, and tied
to prevent the earth falling off; but, before the plants are thus
taken from the ground, it must be moistened to make the earth
adhesive.

_Planting the coffee trees_.--The plants, which, after the above
operation are called "ball plants," are then placed in a bamboo wicker
frame, and are carefully carried by two men to the place where they
are to be put into the ground. They are then taken out of the frame
and placed in the holes next to the pickets. The pickets are removed,
and the plant is fixed upright; the leaf surrounding the ball is made
loose, but not taken away; the planter presses the plant down with his
hand and fills up the hole with fine loose earth, and the business of
planting the coffee tree is finished.

_Planting the Dadap tree_.--This is a species of Erythrina, probably
_E. indica_, or _E. arborescens_; that used for the purpose in the
West Indies is _E. Corallodendrum_. In Java, as soon as the coffee is
planted, the operation of planting the dadap tree is commenced. The
best sort of dadap comes from Serp or Mienyak; it is smooth and
broad-leaved, and shoots up quickly. Thick young stems are chosen,
about three feet long, and the lower part is pointed off. If the dadap
is moist or juicy, it should be cut twenty-four hours before it is
planted. The dadap is planted uniformly by measuring the cane in the
same way as the coffee itself. Between every two rows of coffee one of
dadap is planted, not on a line with the coffee plants, but
alternately with them; thus, if the coffee is eight feet by eight, the
dadap is sixteen by sixteen. The dadap is planted to the depth of a
foot, with somewhat of a westerly inclination, in order that the
morning sun may fall on a larger surface of the stick. The ground must
be stiffly trodden round the bottom of the stem, and the upper part of
it should have some kind of leaf tightly bound around it to prevent
the sap from escaping. When the coffee and dadap plants have thus been
put out, every fifth day the young plantation should be carefully
inspected, and a picket placed wherever there is a failure, as a mark
to the planter that a new plant is there required. This operation of
replacing failures is carried on all through the wet season, and the
dadaps which have not succeeded are at the same time changed.

_Keeping up the estate_.--In the first six months after planting, the
estate should be cleaned each fortnight with the hoe; the ground being
well moved and the weeds taken out. Those weeds which are too close to
the plants to be removed in this manner, must be pulled out with the
hand. When the plantation is thus wholly or partially cleaned, the
earth must be taken off the weeds, and they must be collected and
thrown on the pathways.

The weeding in this manner gives at first a great deal of trouble, but
it is most advantageous in the long run, as the weeds are thus easily
kept down.

Great care must be taken to do away with an old custom of burying the
weeds in large holes on the estates. It conduces to bad and slovenly
habits, such as cutting off the tops of the weeds by wholesale, and
thus giving the plantation an appearance of cleanliness, whilst it, in
fact, is as dirty as ever. This is soon discovered by the weeds
showing themselves again above ground in a very few days, and even if
they rot under ground, they breed insects which are very hurtful to
the bushes, and the seeds vegetate.

After the first six months, this weeding will be sufficient if it
takes places once a month, but this must be persevered in till the
third year, when there may be a much greater interval between the
weeding. When the trees are coming to full growth, the hoe should be
less frequently used in cleaning; the hand must be used to the full
extent to which the branches reach, as the roots of the tree spread to
a like distance, and if they are injured the growth of the tree is
prejudiced.

The well-being of an estate chiefly depends on frequent cleaning of
the plantation in the beginning. The idea of some persons that
cleaning in the dry season is of little consequence, must be given up,
as it is principally at that very time that it is extremely profitable
to remove and clear the ground round the trees in their growth. In the
first place, this destroys the weeds which take the nourishment away
from the trees; secondly, the ground is rendered more open to receive
the slight showers and dews which moisten it, and to benefit by the
influence of the air; the roots are thus considerably refreshed. The
dew falling on ground which has been recently moved, penetrates at
once into it, and does good to the plant; but if it falls on the
weeds, the first rays of the sun absorb it, and deprive the tree of
this source of refreshment.

The dadap is to be taken care of whilst clearing goes on; it must be
cropped so as to cause it to grow upright, and to throw as much shade
as possible on the coffee without pressing upon it.

In warm fertile ground, where the coffee plant grows rapidly, the
trees should be topped in the third year; but this should be done
sparingly, and as a general measure it is not to be recommended; it
should be resorted to only as a means to prevent the too rapid growth
of the tree, or its running up to a point. Topping and taking off
suckers are both necessary on meagre soils, where the trees run much
to wood; and it prevents the trees being injured in the picking
season, which often occurs without this precaution. The top or middle
stem is broken off at a height of six or seven feet, but care must be
taken not to tear the tree; when the top shoots out again it must be
cropped a second time, and it is seldom necessary to do this more than
twice. The cropping causes the tree to shoot out in breadth, and to
push forth a greater number of sprigs, and good strong ones.

_Picking coffee_.--When the estate becomes productive, it must in the
picking season, just before the work begins, be kept exceedingly clear
of weeds, and be even swept clean with brooms, in order that the
berries which fall off may be gathered up.

The picking should take place under proper superintendence, the trees
be picked row by row, and care taken that each berry is plucked off
separately, and not a heap together, by which the trees are torn and
the first offshoots prevented. In picking high trees, light ladders
should be used, made out of two or three bamboos tied together.

_Customary preparation of the berry in the pulp_.--When the coffee is
picked and brought into the village, it is piled up in a heap in the
open air, and left in that manner for twenty-four hours. Thus heaped
up it gets warm, and this creates a certain fermentation of the juice
which is in the berry. That fermentation promotes the drying and
loosens the silvery pellicle which is attached to the bean inside the
parchment, and which cannot be entirely got rid of in any other way.
Coffee which still retains that pellicle is called in trade "grey
coffee," and is lower priced than good clean sorts. After the
fermentation, the coffee is spread out in rather thick layers, and
turned over twice a day. If it rains during this first spreading out,
the coffee does not require to be sheltered, as the washing causes the
juicy substance to evaporate, and this accelerates the drying
afterwards.

In proportion as the coffee becomes dryer, the thickness of the layer
must be reduced, and the turning over must be more frequent till the
coffee is quite dry outside and the pulp has become hard.

Then the coffee is laid out on drying floors, which can be easily and
speedily covered in rainy or damp weather, and is dried by the
powerful heat of the sun.

This system of drying in the pulp requires six weeks or two months, as
it is advisable not to be over hasty with drying.

When the coffee is entirely dry, it is either at once pounded or
placed in the stores to await that operation. In order to know if the
coffee be sufficiently dry, take a handful of it and shut your hand
close; shake it to your ear, and listen if the beans rattle freely in
the pulp. Or try them by biting the berry, and see if the bean and
pulp are both brittle and crisp, which shows that the fruit is dry
enough.

_Preparation of the coffee in the parchment, or the West India
system_.--Only sound and fully ripe beans can be prepared in the West
India manner. In picking, therefore, all unripe, green, or unsound
beans must be taken away to dry in the pulp. As soon as the coffee is
brought in, it must be pulped. This operation is performed by means of
small peeling mills. These mills consist of two horizontal wooden
cylinders rubbing on a plank; they are covered with hoop-iron, and set
in motion by a water-wheel. The coffee is driven under the cylinder,
and kept constantly moist; by being turned through the mill, the pulp
is so bruised that the bean in the parchment falls from it into the
bamboo open frame, which is placed in front of the mill. The coffee is
then pressed with the hand, and falls through the frame into a basket.
The pulp, and beans not rid of the pulp, remain on the frame; the
first is cleared away, the rest passes a second time into the mill,
and this operation is continued till all the coffee is stripped of
the pulp, and the parchment beans are in the basket. When the
parchment coffee is thus separated from the outer skin, it is thrown
into the washing troughs, and remains there for twenty-four hours;
this drains from it the slimy substance adhering to it. After being
thus steeped, it is washed with pure water two or three times in the
basket, so that it becomes quite free from slimy matter. The parchment
coffee is then spread out on drying frames, and exposed for six or
eight days to the heat of the sun, till the outside is perfectly dry.
To do this equally it must be stirred about every hour. These frames,
which serve also to dry the coffee in the pulp, are made as
follows:--A bamboo roof is set up, resting on four wooden pillars, and
sloping considerably; it is covered closely with reeds; its length is
ten feet, its breadth six feet; the pillars are from nine to ten feet
high; a wooden framework is attached to this, about thirty feet long,
or three times the length of the space covered by the roof. On this
frame are brought out three platforms, one above the other, which are
pushed out by means of little rollers under them; they are ten feet
long by six broad, and six inches deep. The borders are of wood, and
the bottom of platted bamboo. In rainy weather, or when the drying
cannot go on, the three platforms are pushed under the covered space.
These drying places are set up near the overseer's dwelling, where
they stand free, and are not shaded by trees or buildings. After this
first drying on platforms, the parchment coffee is again dried inside
the house, and bamboo huts are for this purpose erected on each side
of the outhouse of the planters. These huts have trays, divided into
two or three compartments, one above the other, to keep the coffee
separate, according to the time of its having been picked. The
parchment coffee is spread out as thin as possible, and turned over
with a small wooden rake every hour. In proportion to the dryness of
the weather, from one to two months are required to dry the coffee
fully. In drying inside the houses, the greatest care must be taken to
prevent heating the coffee; this is the great object of the West
Indian system, as such heating is very prejudicial. On this account
the huts in which the platforms are placed must be very airy, so that
the wind may have good play among the trays, on which the coffee must
be thinly spread and frequently turned.

_Pounding_.--Coffee in the pulp, as well as that in the parchment,
must, before being pounded, be exposed for some hours to the sun to
make it crisp and hard; but it must be allowed to cool again before
the pounding begins, or the beans will be liable to be broken.

The pounding is done in small baskets of a conical form, two feet
high, at the top eighteen inches in diameter, and at the bottom one
foot. These baskets are, up to one-third of their height, thickly
woven round with coir, and fastened on the ground between four thick
bamboo poles, and with the bottom half an inch in the ground itself.
The coffee is pounded by small quantities at a time with light, wooden
pestles; the baskets must not be more than half full. When the coffee
is sufficiently pounded, the basket is lifted from between the poles
and the beans are thrown into sieves, on which it is cleaned from
skin, and white, black, or broken beans. According to the West Indian
system, the coffee must now be instantly put in bags, to preserve its
greenish colour, which is very peculiar. If the green coffee is not
instantly sent to the packing stores to be bagged, it must be put up
in a very dry place, and be turned over once every day, to prevent
heating, which damps and discolors the berry.

Coffee is grown to some extent in Celebes--the average crop being from
10,000 to 12,000 piculs of 133 English pounds. The production has
rather fallen off than increased during the last few years. The whole
of the coffee grown must be delivered by the inhabitants to the
government exclusively, at twelve copper florins per picul. It is much
prized in the Netherlands, and maintains a higher price in the market
than the best Java coffee. As the treatment of the product in Java
differs wholly from that which is in vogue in Celebes, and this, in
our eyes, is much inferior, I know not whether the higher price is
ascribable to the name, or to an intrinsic superiority in quality. It
is certain that this cultivation is susceptible of much improvement,
and might be advanced to a much higher condition.

From tables given by M. Spreeuwenberg ("Journal of the Indian
Archipelago," vol. ii. p. 829) of the quantity of coffee delivered
from each district of this island, for the years 1838 to 1842, it
appears that the average annual delivery of coffee was 1,288,118 lbs.

Of the production of Sumatra I have no details, but a very fair
proportion is grown there--about five million pounds.

_Production of America and the West Indies_.--The cultivation of the
coffee plant is largely carried on in South and Central America and
the West India Islands.

Its culture has greatly increased within the last few years in
Venezuela, particularly in the valleys and on the sides of the hills.
The exports from La Guayra, in 1833, were about twelve millions of
pounds, being nearly double the quantity exported in 1830. The price
there is about ten dollars the 100 lbs., which is still too high to
enable it to enter into competition with the produce of Brazil or
Cuba.

The total produce of coffee in Venezuela in 1839 was 254,567 quintals.
The quintal is about 10 lbs. less than the English cwt.

_La Guayra_.--The exports of coffee from this port in 1796, were 283
quintals.

              Quintals.
  1843        164,066
  1844        141,934
  1845        134,585
  1846        175,346
  1847        130,671
  1850        179,537

The exports of coffee from La Guayra have been declining within the
past few years; the shipments were but 153,901 quintals in 1851, and
only 124,623 in 1852.

Caracas coffee ranks in our market with good ordinary St. Domingo.

The decline in the produce of coffee in the British West India
possessions has been very great. In 1838, we imported from the West
India Islands and British Guiana 17½ million pounds of coffee, in 1850
we only received 4¼ million pounds from thence. The shipments from
Jamaica have decreased from about 15 million pounds in 1836, to 4
million pounds in 1850; Berbice and Demerara, from 5 million pounds in
1837, to about 8,000 pounds in 1850.

_Production of coffee in the Brazils_.--Forty-two years ago the annual
crop of coffee in Brazil did not exceed 30,000 bags, and even in 1820
it only reached 100,000 bags. About that time the high price of coffee
in England, superadded to the diminished production in Cuba,
stimulated the Brazilian planters to extend its cultivation, and in
1830 they sent to market 400,000 bags, or 64,090,000 lbs., and in
1847, the enormous quantity of 300,000,000 lbs.

It would seem from the annexed figures that the production of coffee
in Brazil doubled every five years, up to 1840, since when it has
increased eighty per cent. The increase since 1835 has been upwards of
two hundred millions of pounds, and of that increase the United States
have taken one half.

                  lbs.
  1820         15,312,000
  1825         29,201,600
  1830         62,685,600
  1835        100,346,400
  1840        170,208,800
  1850        303,556,960

The sources from whence the United States derives its supplies of
coffee are shown in the following table:--

  Years.   Brazil.       Cuba.     St. Domingo.    Java.       Total
  1835    35,774,876   29,373,675   19,276,290   4,728,890   103,199,577
  1840    47,412,756   25,331,888    9,153,524   4,343,254    94,996,095
  1845    78,553,616    1,157,794   13,090,359   3,925,716   108,133,369
  1850    90,319,511    3,740,803   19,440,985   5,146,961   144,986,895
  1851   107,578,257    3,009,084   13,205,766   2,423,968   152,453,617

Coffee, up to 1830, paid a duty in the United States of five cents a
pound. Since 1832 it has been free.

The population of the United States in 1840 was, in round numbers,
seventeen millions; the average consumption of coffee for the three
years ending 1841, 98½ millions of pounds, which gave a consumption of
5¾ lbs. per head. The average for the three years ending 1850, was 143
millions of pounds, and the population was twenty-three millions,
which gave a consumption of 6¼ lbs. per head. In 1830 the consumption
was only 3 lbs. per head; but the price ruled nearly double what it
was in the three years preceding 1850.

In 1821 the consumption per head, to the inhabitants of the United
States, was 1 lb. 4 oz. In 1830, the proportion had increased to 3
lbs. per head, the foreign price having fallen fifty per cent. The
importation in the year 1831 doubled, in consequence of the reduced
duty; and the consumption per head for the four years ending with
1842, averaged 6 lb. per head, having quadrupled to each inhabitant
since 1821. From 1820 to 1840, the Brazilian product increased 1,100
per cent, or 155 million pounds. In the same time the consumption in
the United States increased 137 million pounds; leaving an increase of
eighteen million pounds of Rio coffee, besides the enhanced products
of all countries, to supply the increased consumption of England and
Europe.

The consequence of the duty in England is, that while the United
States, with a population of seventeen millions, consumed, in 1844,
149,711,820 lbs. of coffee, Great Britain, with a population of
twenty-seven millions, consumed 31,934,000 lbs. only, or less than
one-fourth the consumption of the United States. In 1851 the figures
remained nearly the same, viz., 148,920,000 lbs. in the United States,
and 32,564,000 lbs. for Great Britain.

The cultivation of coffee forms the present riches of Costa Rica, and
has raised it to a state of prosperity unknown in any other part of
Central America. It was begun about fifteen years ago; a few plants
having been brought from New Granada, and the first trial being
successful, it has rapidly extended. All the coffee is grown in the
plain of San Jose, where the three principal towns are situated--about
two-thirds being produced in the environs of the capital, a fourth in
those of Hindia, and the remainder at Alhajuela, and its vicinity. The
land which has been found by experience to be best suited to coffee is
a black loam, and the next best, a dark-red earth--soils of a brown
and dull yellow color being quite unsuitable. The plain of San Jose is
mostly of the first class, being, like all the soils of Central
America, formed with a large admixture of volcanic materials. Contrary
to the experience of Java and Arabia Felix, coffee is here found to
thrive much better, and produce a more healthy and equal berry on
plain land, than upon hills, or undulating slopes, which doubtless
arises from the former retaining its moisture better, and generally
containing a larger deposit of loam.

I am inclined, in a great measure, to attribute the practice of sowing
coffee in sloping land in Java to this fact, that the plains are
usually occupied by the more profitable cultivation of sugar-canes. In
Arabia, the plains are generally of a sandy nature (being lands which
have, apparently, at no very distant geological period, formed the bed
of the sea), which may account for the plantations existing only upon
the low hills and slopes.

A coffee plantation in Costa Rica produces a crop the third year after
it is planted, and is in perfection the fifth year. The coffee trees
are planted in rows, with a space of about three yards between each
and one between each plant, resembling in appearance hedges of the
laurel bay. The weeds are cut down, and the earth slightly turned with
a hoe, three or four times in the year; and the plant is not allowed
to increase above the height of six feet, for the facility of
gathering the fruit. The coffee tree here begins to flower in the
months of March and April, and the berry ripens in the plains of San
Jose in the months of November and December, strongly resembling a
wild cherry in form and appearance, being covered with a similar sweet
pulp.

As soon as the crimson color assumed by the ripe fruit indicates the
time for cropping, numbers of men, women, and children are sent to
gather the berry, which is piled in large heaps, to soften the pulp,
for forty-eight hours, and then placed in tanks, through which a
stream of water passes, when it is continually stirred, to free it
from the outer pulp; after which it is spread out on a platform, with
which every coffee estate is furnished, to dry in the sun; but there
still exists an inner husk, which, when perfectly dry, is, in the
smaller estates, removed by treading the berry under the feet of oxen;
and in the larger, by water-mills, which bruise the berry slightly to
break the husk, and afterwards separate it by fanners. The entire cost
of producing a quintal (101 1-5 lbs. British) of coffee, including the
keeping of the estate in order, cleaning and fanning the plants, and
gathering and preparing the berries, is, at the present rate of wages
(two rials, or about a shilling per day), calculated at two and a half
dollars (equal to ten shillings); but the laborers are now hardly
sufficient for working all the estates which are planted, so that the
price may probably rise a little, though the present rate of payment
enables the natives to live much better than has been their wont.

The coffee tree bears flowers only the second year, and its blossoms
last only 24 hours. The returns of the third year are very abundant;
at an average, each plant yielding a pound and a-half or two pounds of
coffee.

The price of coffee in San Jose during the months of February, March
and April, after which none can generally be met with, was, in 1846,
about 5 dollars cash per quintal, the duty (which is collected for the
repairs of the road) one rial more, so that the speculator makes at
least ten rials, or about 20 per cent., by purchasing and sending the
coffee to the port, on his outlay and charges; but it is often
bartered for manufactured goods, and is also purchased before-hand,
half being paid in imports and half in cash to the grower.

The largest coffee estates of Costa Rica are possessed by the family
of Montealegre and Don Juan Moira. The principal of these I have
examined. They appear to be very carefully and judiciously managed,
possessing good mills for cleaning and husking the coffee, worked by
water power; and annually producing 500 tons. The entire produce of
the year 1836, amounted to about 3,000 tons, and the crop of 1847
exceeded 4,000 tons, near which quantity it will probably continue,
till the population gradually increases, the laborers, as already
mentioned, being barely sufficient for the present cultivation. As the
value at the present average price in the English market of 50s. a
cwt., will give £200,000, the produce of the district will appear
pretty considerable for a petty American State, possessing only 80,000
inhabitants, and just emerging from a half-savage
condition.--(Dunlop's "Central America.")

The cultivation of coffee on the plains of San Jose, in Costa Rica,
according to Stephens, has increased rapidly within a few years. Seven
years before, the whole crop was not more than 500 quintals, and in
1844 it amounted to 90,000.

Don Mariano Montealegre is one of the largest proprietors there, and
had three plantations in that neighbourhood. One, which Mr. Stephens
visited, contained 27,000 trees, and he was preparing to make great
additions the next year. He had expended a large sum of money in
buildings and machinery; and though his countrymen said he would ruin
himself, every year he planted more trees. His wife, La Senora, was
busily engaged in husking and drying the berries. In San Jose, by the
way (he adds), all the ladies were what might be called good
business-men, kept stores, bought and sold goods, looked out for
bargains, and were particularly knowing in the article of coffee.

The coffee at Surinam is suffered to grow in three stems from the
root, and when one of them does not produce plenty of berries, it is
cast away, and the best shoot in appearance next the root is allowed
to grow in its room. The trees are not permitted to rise higher than
about five feet, so that the negroes can very easily pluck the
berries, for gathering which there are two seasons, the one in May, or
the beginning of June, and the other in October or the beginning of
November. The berries are often plucked of unequal ripeness, which
must greatly injure the quality of the coffee. It is true when the
coffee is washed, the berries which float on the water are separated
from the others; but they are only those of the worst quality, or
broken pieces, while the half-ripe beans remain at the bottom with the
rest. Now, in the description I have given of the method of gathering
coffee in Arabia, it is seen that the tree is suffered to grow to its
natural height, and the berries are gathered by shaking the tree, and
making them fall on mats placed for them. By this way the Arabians
harvest only the beans perfectly ripe at the time, and which must give
the coffee a more delicate flavor. A tree will yield each time on an
average from 1 lb. to 1½ lb. of coffee, when pulped and perfectly
dried. An acre of land planted with coffee, when favored by the
weather, becomes more profitable than when it is planted with sugar
canes; but its crops are always very precarious, as the blossoms, and
even the berries, are sometimes damaged by the heavy rains, which are
much less injurious to sugar canes; wherefore a planter feels himself
best secured in his revenue, as soon as he can cultivate them both.

Nothing can exceed the beauty of the walks planted with coffee trees,
from their pyramidical shape and from their glossy dark green leaves,
shining with great brightness, amongst which are hanging the
scarlet-coloured berries. Mr. Baird, in his "Impressions of the West
Indies," thus speaks of a coffee plantation:--

    "Anything in the way of cultivation more beautiful, or more
    fragrant, than a coffee plantation, I had not conceived; and oft did
    I say to myself, that if ever I became, from health and otherwise, a
    cultivator of the soil within the tropics, I would cultivate the
    coffee plant, even though I did so irrespective altogether of the
    profit that might be derived from so doing. Much has been written,
    and not without justice, of the rich fragrance of an orange grove;
    and at home we ofttimes hear of the sweet odors of a bean-field. I
    have, too, often enjoyed in the Carse of Stirling, and elsewhere in
    Scotland, the balmy breezes as they swept over the latter,
    particularly when the sun had burst out, with unusual strength,
    after a shower of rain. I have likewise, in Martinique, Santa Cruz,
    Jamaica, and Cuba, inhaled the gales wafted from the orangeries; but
    not for a moment would I compare either with the exquisite aromatic
    odors from a coffee plantation in full blow, when the
    hill-side--covered over with regular rows of the tree-like shrub,
    with their millions of jessamine-like flowers--showers down upon
    you, as you ride up between the plants, a perfume of the most
    delicately delicious description. 'Tis worth going to the West
    Indies to see the sight and inhale the perfume."

The decline in the quantities of coffee drawn from the "West Indies to
supply the great demand, is manifest in the following summary of
imports from those islands:--

                                                             lbs.
  In 1828 they exported about                             30,000,000
     1831 the imports from British West Indies were       20,017,623
     1841          Ditto             Ditto                 9,904,230
     1850, the last year in which distinct accounts        4,262,225
           were kept
                                                         -----------
                                Decrease from 1831        15,755,398

_Jamaica_.--The coffee plant was first introduced into Jamaica by Sir
Nicholas Lawes, in 1728, when it was cultivated on an estate called
Temple Hall, in Liguanea, not far from Kingston. In 1752 there were
exported 60,000 lbs.; and in 1775, 44,000 lbs. Until 1788 little
attention was paid to this product. In the four years ending 30th
September, 1794, the average exportation of coffee was 1,603,000 lbs.;
in 1804 it amounted to 22,000,000 lbs.; and during the three years
ending 30th September, 1807, the average annual exportation was more
than 28,500,000 lbs.; which, at £6 per cwt., its cost in Jamaica,
produced more than £1,700,000. It is calculated that £20,000,000 was
invested in coffee estates. The coffee plant thrives in almost every
soil about the mountains of Jamaica, and in the very driest spots has
frequently produced abundant crops. In 1844 there were 671 coffee
plantations in the island. Coffee is grown in the vicinity of the Blue
Mountain Peak at a height of 4,700 feet above the level of the sea,
and some of the finest and most productive plantations are in this
locality. The branches of a coffee tree, on Radnor estate, covered, in
1851, a space of thirteen feet in diameter, and the tree was about
thirteen years old.

In 1789 Hayti exported 77,000,000 lbs. of coffee, but in 1826 it had
declined to 32,000,000 lbs., in 1837 it was 31,000,000 lbs., and the
shipments of this staple are now very inconsiderable.

In the West Indies, I speak principally of Jamaica, where my
experience extended, the soil best adapted for the cultivation of
coffee is found to be loose gravelly or stony. A rich black mould will
produce a luxuriant bush, which will yield little fruit. Decomposing
sandstone, and slate, known in Jamaica as rotten rock, mixed with
vegetable mould, is one of the most favorable soils. The subsoil
should be also carefully examined by a boring augur, for a stiff moist
clay, or marly bottom retentive of moisture, is particularly injurious
to the plant. A dark, rusty-colored sand, or a ferruginous marl on a
substratum of limestone, kills the tree in a few years. In virgin
lands, after the wood has been felled and cleared, the land is lined
off into rows of from six to seven feet square, and at each square a
hole is made about eighteen inches deep, into which the young plant is
placed and the earth plied gently about it, leaving from six to eight
inches of the plant above ground.

Nurseries for raising plants from seeds were formerly made, but for
many years this has been neglected, and plantations are set out now
from suckers which are drawn and trimmed of their roots, and cut about
two feet long.

The young plants require to be kept well clear from weeds, and four
cleanings in the year may be deemed necessary, the plants which have
failed must be supplied in order to ensure uniformity of appearance.

All manure, whether fluid or solid, in warm climates should be applied
in wet seasons, where it is not practicable to dig or turn it in to
prevent the escape of its volatile and nutritive principles.

As respects situation, coffee thrives best on elevated situations,
where the morning sun has most influence; and on lower mountains,
where the temperature is higher, in situations facing the south-east,
or where the sun does not act with such intensity. Low mountains, in
which the thermometer ranges from 75 to 90 degrees Fahr., as well as
those exposed to sea breezes, are less suitable for the cultivation of
coffee than those districts where the temperature averages 65 to 80
degrees Fahr., and situated at higher elevations in the interior.

As a general rule, it may be asserted that the elevation best adapted
for coffee is at an altitude ranging from 2,000 to 4,000 feet, at a
temperature from 70 to 75 degrees Fahr. A west or south-west aspect is
the best, and the field should be well sheltered from the north
breezes. As a general rule in planting in light soils and high
temperatures, trees may be placed at the distance of four or five
feet, while in stronger soils and lower temperatures the average
distance would be from five to seven feet.

_Topping_.--The young tree shoots out its lateral branches at each
joint, which follow in regular succession, till the tree attains the
height of about four feet six inches, when it is usual to top it down
to four feet. But care should be taken that the wood has ripened,
which is known by its assuming a brown and hard appearance, This
strengthens the vegetation of the branches, which begin to throw out
buds, and these shortly form collateral branches; in the course of
eighteen months after the tree will have arrived at its bearing point.
Trees, after being topped, throw off suckers, which are called
gormandizers, from each joint, but more especially at the head. They
should be plucked off with care, but not cut, as the sap would flow
more readily if cut.

In pruning, one of the main objects is the admission of a free
circulation of air and light through the branches to the root of the
tree. No general rules can be laid down for pruning; much must depend
on judgment, experience, and a nice eye to appearance and preservation
of primary branches for bearing and ripening wood for the ensuing
year, as well as to regulate and proportion the size of the tree to
the functions of the roots in supplying sustenance, and the
convenience of picking the berries when ripe. Every old bough which
has seen its day, every wilful shoot growing in a wrong direction,
every fork, every cross branch or dead limb, must be cut away.

_The blossoming, and ripening_ of the fruit varies according to the
situation and temperature of the plantation. In low and hot
situations, where the thermometer ranges from 78 to 90 degrees, the
tree shows its first blossoms when about two-and-a-half years old. In
higher and colder situations the tree will not blossom in profusion
until the fourth or fifth year. If there be light showers, the
blossoms will continue on the tree for a week or more, and by the
setting of the blossoms the planter can determine what germs will
become fruit. The trees will blossom in low situations as early as
March, but the April bloom is considered the most abundant. In higher
elevations, the trees will bloom even so late as August or September.
In warm climates the fruit advances as rapidly, and in a month will
have attained the size of a pea; in more elevated and colder
localities, it will take two months to arrive at this stage. The fruit
will be ripe in from six to eight months after the blossom has set; it
ripens in warm districts about the month of August, while in others
the crop will not be mature till February. An acre will usually
contain 1,200 trees in Jamaica, and the produce would be about 400
lbs. of coffee an acre, or six ounces as the produce of each tree
annually. In some instances, but very seldom, one pound a tree may be
obtained. A bushel of cherry coffee will produce about ten or twelve
pounds of merchantable coffee.

The coffee berry, after being pulped and soaked for a day and night to
free it from the mucilage, is spread out on barbacues to dry; in ten
or twelve days, if the weather has been good, it will be sufficiently
cured for the peeling mill.

Mr. W.H. Marah, of Jamaica, in a Prize Essay on the Cultivation and
Manufacture of Coffee in that Island, published in my "Colonial
Magazine," makes some useful remarks:--

    The manufacture of this staple commodity, with a view to its
    improvement in quality, is a subject which demands our serious
    attention; and when we observe the vast importance and pecuniary
    advantage which accrue upon the slightest shade of improvement
    either in colour or appearance, it becomes the more imperative on us
    to use all those means which are available, in order to place
    ourselves on a footing with the foreign grower. It is true that we
    are unable to enter the contest with the East Indian or slave
    cultivator, from the abundance and cheapness of labour which is
    placed at their command; but by means of our skill and assiduity, we
    can successfully compete with them by the manufacture of superior
    produce.

    To this portion of plantation management I have given an attentive
    inquiry, and shall shortly proceed to state my views on the system
    best adapted to the curing and preparing for market of good quality
    produce.

    The fruit should be gathered in when in a blood-ripe state, to all
    appearance like cherries. The labourers are principally accustomed
    to reap the crop in baskets, of which they carry two to the field;
    and when the coffee is bearing heavily, and is at its full stage of
    ripeness, the good pickers will gather in four bushels _per diem_,
    and carry the same on their heads to the works.

    The fruit is then measured and thrown into a loft above the pulper
    in a heap. It should be submitted to the first process of machinery,
    the pulper, within twenty-four hours after, if not immediately; but
    it not unfrequently happens that the manager is unable to pulp his
    coffee for two and sometimes three days, by which time fermentation
    ensues, and it becomes impossible after pulping to wash off the
    mucilage, which rather adheres to the outer envelope of the berry,
    and gives the produce what is termed a "red" or "blanketty"
    appearance when spread out on the barbacues. The produce is let down
    by means of a small hole cut into the floor of the loft, or a
    floating box, into the hopper of the pulper, and by means of a
    grater forcing the fruit against the chops, the berries are
    dislodged from the pulp and fall upon a sieve, which being shaken by
    the machinery, lets the berries fall into the cistern, whilst the
    grater catches the pulp and carries it backwards at each evolution
    of the roller, around which it is encircled.

    The fruit which might have passed through without being more than
    half squeezed, and having only ejected one berry, is then returned
    (after being shaken off by the sieve) into the hopper, to undergo
    the process a second time. The pulped coffee is then permitted to
    remain in the cistern for a day and a night, during which period it
    undergoes a process of fermentation; it is then washed out in two or
    three waters, and the whole of the mucilaginous stuff which had
    risen from the berry by the fermentation is entirely washed off, and
    the coffee presents a beautiful white appearance. From this the
    produce is turned out to drain on a barbacue, sloped so as to throw
    all the water to the centre, where a drain is placed to carry it all
    off.

    In an hour or so after, the coffee may be removed to the barbacues
    for curing; it is there spread out thinly and exposed to the sun,
    which, if shining strong, will in eight or nine hours absorb all the
    water, and the coffee be fit for housing that day. I say fit for
    housing, because I have repeatedly seen coffee washed out early in
    the morning and put up the same evening. I cannot say I approve of
    the system, though in fine weather it has been attended with
    success. From the time the coffee is first exposed to the sun till
    the silver skin starts, is the stage, in my opinion, during which
    the produce suffers most injury. In the first instance, it should be
    kept constantly turned, in order to get the water absorbed as early
    as possible; and after it has been housed, the greatest precaution
    should be taken to prevent its heating: and it is for this reason
    that I disapprove of early housing, for if wet weather should
    intervene, and the coffee cannot be turned out, it is sure to get
    heated. From this neglect I have seen a perfect steam issuing from
    the house in the morning when the doors have been opened; and I have
    known, as a natural consequence, the adhesion of the silver skin to
    the berry so firm, that it could not be removed by a sharp penknife
    without slicing the berry.

    In a succession of wet weather the produce has remained on the
    barbacues for several weeks, without the slightest advance in
    curing; and, unless it be frequently turned while in this wet
    state, it is sure to germinate; the berries first swell, then a thin
    white spire issues from the seam, and on opening the berry the young
    leaves will be actually seen formed inside, so rapid is the course
    of vegetation.

    I am of opinion that coffee should not be housed till the silver
    skin begins to start, when no danger can ensue; for if a few wet
    days should intervene, by turning the coffee over in the house, and
    allowing a current of air to pass through it, it will keep for
    weeks. It is at this stage that the parchment skin begins to show
    itself, for at first it adheres to the inner kernel, but the heat of
    the sun starts it from its hold and it separates; thus, on shaking a
    handful of the produce it will be heard to rattle, a sure indication
    that the silver skin has risen from the bean, without even threshing
    it to ascertain the fact. The bean is perfectly white till the
    silver skin starts; it then begins gradually to assume the dark, or
    what is called the half-cured appearance. A good day's strong sun
    will then half cure it, and by subsequent exposure the produce takes
    another stage, and gradually loses the half-cured, and assumes a
    blue colour; and when the produce is properly cured and fit for the
    mill, not the slightest dark spot will be perceptible in the bean,
    but it will exhibit a horny blue colour.

    It is within my observation that coffee has been gathered from the
    field on the Monday, and prepared for market on the Saturday, in a
    spell of dry weather; but I have known it also to lie on the
    barbacues for as many weeks in contrary weather, before it had gone
    through the same ordeal. With good weather and smooth terraces
    whereon to cure, nothing but gross ignorance and unpardonable
    carelessness can produce a bad quality of coffee. The difficulty
    arises in wet weather, when one's skill and assiduity is called into
    action to save the produce from being spoiled. After coffee has been
    half-cured, the putting it up hot at an early period of the day has
    the effect of curing it all night. I have noticed produce housed in
    this manner, and requiring another day's exposure to fit it for the
    mill, found perfectly cured next morning.

    The barbacues should be kept in good order--all ruts and holes
    neatly patched every crop, for to them and other roughnesses is to
    be attributed the peeling of the berries, their being scratched, and
    various injuries which the produce sustains. And while on the
    subject of "Works," I cannot help noticing the extreme carelessness
    and inattention which, on visiting properties, the works and
    buildings present to our view. It is utterly impossible to
    manufacture good produce unless the machinery and buildings are kept
    in good order; and the parsimony which is thus displayed in this
    necessary outlay is fallacious, when one thinks of the result of one
    or two shillings per 100 lbs. lost on a crop through this neglect.

    When the coffee is perfectly cured--which is generally ascertained
    by threshing out a few berries in one's hands, and seeing if it has
    attained its horny blue colour--it is then fit for milling, which is
    the second process of machinery which it has to undergo. Here the
    parchment and silver skins are dislodged from the berry, by means of
    the friction of a large roller passing over the produce in a wooden
    trough. It is then taken out of the trough, and submitted to the
    fanner or winnowing machine, when the trash is all blown away, and
    the coffee, passing through two or three sieves, comes away
    perfectly clean and partially sized. From this it is again sieved in
    order to size it properly, hand-picked, put into bags, and sent on
    mules' backs to the wharf. It is then put into tierces and sold in
    the Kingston market, or shipped to Britain.

    A variety of circumstances tend to injure the quality of the coffee,
    which it is beyond human agency to control. Dry weather intervening
    at the particular period when the berry is getting full, subjects it
    to be stinted and shrivelled; and strong dry breezes happening at
    the same period, will cause an adhesion of the silver skin which the
    ordinary process of curing and manufacture will not remove. Late
    discoveries in the latter have, however, shown the possibility of
    divesting the produce of that silvery appearance, when brought about
    under the foregoing circumstances. It is almost, unnecessary to
    state that this improvement in manufacture refers to the inventions
    of Messrs. Myers and Meacock, whose respective merits have already
    undergone public revision. In reference to Mr. Myers' plan of
    immersing coffee in warm water, I may be allowed to state that it
    has come under my own observation, that produce which had previously
    been heated through some carelessness in the curing, subsequently
    was exposed to a slight sprinkling of rain, and when ground out and
    fanned, was found to have lost its silvery appearance.

    To the invention of Mr. Meacock, a preference has, however, been
    given, in consequence of the impression that the produce thus
    immersed in water will absorb a portion of the liquid, which will
    deteriorate its quality in its passage across the Atlantic. Several
    gentlemen have shipped coffee submitted to this process to England,
    but I have not learnt the result.

    It appears very manifest that a great deal might be done in the way
    of machinery, to relieve produce of that silvery or foxy appearance
    which is so prejudicial to its value in the British market, and
    which appearances might accrue from a variety of incidents to which
    all plantations are more or less subject.

    A manifest preference is given in the leading European markets to
    coffee which has gone through the pulping and washing process; but,
    strange to say, the consumers of this beverage are totally ignorant
    of the fact, that the produce which is cured in the pulp furnishes a
    stronger decoction than an equal quantity of the same which has
    undergone the other process. Many persons are of opinion that the
    mucilaginous substance which is washed off in pulping is absorbed by
    the bean when cured in the pulp, and which gives strength to the
    produce and enhances its aromatic flavour. On most properties it has
    been customary to cure the remnants of the crop in this way, for the
    use of the plantation; and it has been well noticed by great
    epicures in the flavour of the decoction, that the coffee thus cured
    produced the strongest and best beverage."

_Trinidad_.--The coffee plant does not succeed well in Trinidad, the
tree giving but little fruit, and perishing at the end of ten or
twelve years; though the article is always of a superior quality, and
has the advantage over that of Martinique and the other Antilles of
not requiring age to produce an agreeable beverage. It is from the
fault and obstinate attachment to old habits of the planters, that
this cultivation has not been more successful in Trinidad. Because
coffee trees thrive in St. Domingo, Guadalupe, Dominica, St. Lucia and
Martinique, on the hills, they had concluded that it would be the same
in Trinidad; without noticing that the hills of that island are
composed only of schistus covered with gravel, on which lies a light
layer of vegetative earth, that the rain washes away after some years
of cultivation; whilst the hills of the Antilles, much more high and
cool, are covered with a deep bed of earth, which is retained by
enormous blocks of stone, that at the same time maintain humidity and
freshness.

Messrs. Branbrun, of Tacarigua, and Don Juan de Arestimuno, of
Cariaco, worthy and intelligent planters, some years ago adopted the
plan of planting coffee trees on the plains, in the manner cacao trees
are planted, that is, in the shade of the _Erythrina_, and this mode
of cultivation has perfectly succeeded. It is to be hoped that their
success will encourage the cultivation of this valuable tree in the
united provinces of Venezuela, and in those parts of Trinidad which
were deemed unfavorable to it from the too great dryness of the
climate.

In 1796, the year preceding its capture, there were 130 coffee
plantations in Trinidad, which produced 330,000 lbs. of coffee. In
1802, the produce had slightly increased to 358,660 lbs., but there
were two plantations less.

In the island of Grenada, according to the returns made to the local
Treasury of the staple products raised, while there were 64,654 lbs.
made-in 1829, the quantity had decreased to 13,651 lbs. in 1837.

The colony of British Guiana was formerly noted for its produce of
coffee. The following figures mark the decline of the culture of this
staple, showing the exports in Dutch pounds:--

         Demerara and Essequibo.   Berbice.

  1834        1,102,200           1,429,800
  1835        1,299,080           1,979,850
  1836        2,117,250           2,684,100
  1837        1,849,650           2,217,300
  1838        2,486,240           1,700,550
  1839          747,450           1,255,800
  1840        1,531,350           1,825,950
  1841          568,920             519,750
  1842        1,372,650             804,470
  1843          428,800             999,300
  1844          716,137             774,600

Thus the exports of the colony which in 1836 were 4,801,350 lbs. had
declined in 1844 to 1,490,737; whilst in 1831 we received from British
Guiana 3,576,754 lbs. of coffee, in 1850 we only received 8,472 lbs.

There are about 500 acres under cultivation with coffee in St. Lucia.
The exports, which in 1840 were 323,820 lbs., had declined, in 1844,
to 58,834 lbs.

The British West Indies exported to Great Britain, in 1829 and 1850,
the following quantities of coffee:--

                   1829.          1850.
                    lbs.           lbs.
  Jamaica      18,690,654       4,156,210
  Demerara      4,680,118          17,774
  Berbice       2,482,898             698
  Trinidad         73,667          96,376
  Dominica        942,114             792
  St. Lucia       303,499              35

_Cuba_.--For the following valuable remarks and details of coffee
culture in Cuba, I am indebted to Dr. Turnbulls "Travels in the
West:"--

    At the period of the breaking out of the French revolution, the
    cultivation of coffee could scarcely be said to have reached the
    South American continent; so that till that its cultivation was in a
    great measure confined to Arabia and the Caribbean Archipelago. Its
    extreme scarcity during the war enhanced its price so enormously,
    that on the first announcement of peace in 1814, the plants were
    multiplied to infinity, and coffee plantations were formed in every
    possible situation--on the Coste Firme of South America, along the
    Brazilian shores of that continent, and even at some points on the
    coast of Southern Africa. To show the extreme rapidity with which
    the cultivation has been extended, take the statistical returns of
    La Guayra, the chief port of the State of Venezuela, from whence the
    whole export of coffee in the year 1789 was not more than ten tons;
    and of late years from that port alone, and in spite of the internal
    disunions of the country, it has reached the enormous quantity of
    2,500 tons. In the Isle of Bourbon (now Reunion), and the Mauritius
    and Ceylon, the planters have also applied themselves to this branch
    of industry; it has been prosecuted successfully in our Eastern
    Possessions, and the French government, not content with the
    natural influence of the universal demand for it, have been
    endeavouring to stimulate the production by means of premiums and
    other artificial advantages.

    In forming a coffee plantation, the choice of situation and soil
    becomes a consideration of the first importance. A very high
    temperature is by no means a favourable condition. If a spot could
    be found where the range of the Fahrenheit thermometer did not sink
    below 75 degrees, nor rise above 80 degrees, and where the soil was
    otherwise suitable, no planter could desire a more favourable
    situation. In the mountainous islands of Jamaica and St. Domingo,
    the nearest approach to this temperature is found where the
    elevation is not less than 2,000, and not more than 3,000 feet above
    the level of the sea; and it is most successfully cultivated in the
    two islands I have named. The Island of Cuba being much less
    mountainous, but at the same time being nearer the tropical limit,
    the planter in seeking the degree of heat he requires is forced to
    confine himself in a great measure to the northern side of the
    island, where, accordingly, we find that the cultivation of coffee
    is most successfully carried on.

    The vicinity of the _cafetal_ to a convenient place of embarcation,
    enters largely, of course, into the consideration of the planter
    when choosing a suitable locality. A compact form is also thought
    desirable, in order to save the time and labour of the negroes; and
    the ordinary extent is about six caballerias, or something less than
    200 English acres.

    The locality being finally chosen, such open places are formed or
    selected, from distance to distance, as may be found most suitable,
    in respect to shade and moisture, for the establishment of
    convenient nurseries. The fruit which has been gathered in the
    beginning of the month of October, and which has been dried in the
    shade, is preferred for seed. The seed is sown in drills half a yard
    asunder, and introduced, two beans together, by means of a dibble,
    into holes two inches deep and ten or twelve inches apart. The
    extent of one of these nurseries is generally about 100 yards
    square, which, with such intervals as I have mentioned, ought to
    contain about 60,000 plants.

    A quarter of a _caballeria_, or about eight English acres, is
    visually set apart, in a central and convenient position, for the
    site of the buildings, and for growing provisions for the use of the
    labourers on the future plantation. In favourable seasons it is
    found that heavier crops are obtained from coffee trees left wholly
    unshaded; but, in the average of two years, it seems to be settled,
    in the island of Cuba at least, that a moderate degree of protection
    from the scorching rays of the sun produces a steadier, and, upon
    the whole, a more advantageous return.

    The distribution of the land into right-angled sections, and the
    planting of the trees in straight lines, is so contrived as to
    favour the future supervision of the labourers much more than from
    any strict attention to mere symmetry. The distance of the trees
    from each other ought to be regulated by the quality of the soil,
    and the degrees of heat and shade they are to enjoy. The ranges from
    north to south are usually four yards apart, and those from east to
    west not more than three; but the lower the temperature the wider
    should be the interval, because in that case the vegetation is more
    active and more rapid, and the tree requires a wider space over
    which to extend itself.

    The best season for planting the trees is the middle of the month of
    May, if there be then a sufficient degree of moisture; but the
    operation is often performed successfully during the rainy month of
    October; subject always to the risk, however, of serious injury to
    the young plantation from the north winds which prevail at that
    advanced season of the year. The holes prepared to receive the
    plants are eighteen inches in diameter, and about two feet deep.

    In the island of Cuba there are two rival modes of planting the
    coffee tree. The one is called "la siembra à la mota;" the other "la
    siembra à la estaca."

    By the method "a la mota," a circle is formed around the plant in
    the nursery, and care is taken to remove it without disturbing the
    earth around the roots. The plants are then placed carefully in
    willow baskets, prepared for the purpose, and carried to the holes
    already opened for their reception; gathering up the earth around
    the stem, and pressing it carefully down with the foot, in such a
    manner as to form a basin or filter for the reception of the
    rain-water, and for suffering it to percolate among the roots, and
    also to provide a convenient place of deposit for the subsequent
    application of manure.

    The "siembra à la estaca" is differently executed. Such plants are
    selected from the nursery as are of the thickness of the little
    finger, or from that to an inch in diameter. In withdrawing them
    from the ground, great care is taken not to injure or compress the
    bulbs or buttons within, eight or ten inches of the level of the
    soil, because these are to serve for the production of fresh roots
    when the "estaca" is afterwards planted more deeply in its permanent
    position. The greater part of the capillary roots are cut away with
    a knife; but a few, together with the principal root, are suffered
    to remain from four to six inches long. In planting them, from three
    to four inches of the trunk are left above ground. The little basin
    of earth for the reception and filtration of the rain-water, is not
    so large in the stake system of planting as in that with the clod of
    earth "à la mota;" but if the soil be poor, it must be
    proportionably enlarged to admit the application of the necessary
    quantity of manure.

    The stake system, requiring much less labour than the other, is
    generally preferred; but when there is abundance of shade to protect
    the young plant from drought, and always, of course, in replacing
    the decayed trees of an old plantation, it is considered more
    desirable to remove the whole plant, its roots and branches entire,
    with as much as possible of the adhering soil from the nursery,
    according to the system "à la mota."

    In the third or fourth year of the plantation, the trees, according
    to the best system of husbandry, are pruned down to the height of
    three feet from the ground on the richest soil, and still lower in
    proportion to its sterility. All the branches which are not as
    nearly as possible at right angles with the trunk, are likewise
    removed by the pruning-knife, so that in the following spring the
    whole stem is covered with fresh shoots. By this operation the power
    of nature seems to be exhausted, as for that year the trees in
    general bear no fruit; but in subsequent seasons the loss is amply
    repaid by a crop often greater than the branches can support, or
    than the flow of nourishment is always able to bring to full size
    and maturity.

    The machinery for removing the external pulp of the coffee-bean is
    seldom of a very perfect description in this island, and the loss
    sustained in consequence is often very considerable. It is almost
    uniformly moved by the power of horses or oxen, working in a gin,
    and the name it bears is that of the _Descerecador_. The Barbecues,
    when the coffee is laid out to dry, are called indiscriminately
    _Tendales_ or _Secadores_. They are more numerous and of smaller
    dimensions than is customary in the British colonies, where a single
    barbecue, laid down with tiles or plaster, is considered sufficient
    for a whole estate.

    The warehouse for receiving the crop and preserving the coffee after
    it is put into bags and ready for the market, is generally of such
    limited dimensions as to be barely sufficient for the purposes for
    which it is designed; so that, when the harvest has been abundant,
    or when anything has occurred to interfere with the despatch of what
    is ready for removal, the constant accumulation is attended with
    serious inconvenience. In fact, the occupation of the coffee planter
    has been for some time on the decline in the island, owing to the
    superior rate of profit derived from the making of sugar; and
    everything reminds you of it, the _moleno de pilar_, the
    _aventador_, and the _separador_, down to the humblest implement of
    husbandry on the estate.

    The gathering of the fruit commences in Cuba in August; but November
    and December are the most active and important months of the
    harvests. The labourers are sent out with two baskets each, one
    large, the other small. Every labourer has a file of coffee trees
    assigned to him; the large basket he leaves near the place where his
    work is to begin; the other he carries with him to receive the
    berries from the trees; and as often as it is full he empties it
    into the large one. The baskets are made of rushes, willows, or
    bamboo; and the large one is of such a size that three of them ought
    to fill the barrel, without top or bottom, which serves the purposes
    of a measure at the _Tendal_ or Secador.

    Three baskets, or one barrel-measure, of the newly-gathered coffee
    berry, ought to produce thirty pounds after the process of drying,
    the removal of the pulp, and the final preparation for the market.
    When there is a sufficient number, or a sufficient space of
    Barbecues or Secadors, sixty or seventy barrels only are put
    together; but from want of room it often happens that the quantity
    amounts to a hundred barrels. In either case, the whole is gathered
    into two great heaps, and in this state it is allowed to remain for
    four-and-twenty hours, in order to subject it to a certain degree of
    fermentation. After this, it is spread out to dry over the whole
    surface of the Barbecue, and until it is sufficiently so, it remains
    there uncovered day and night. When the dessication is found to be
    far enough advanced, it is no longer exposed during the night; nor
    even during the day, if the weather be damp or unfavorable. The
    subsequent operations are certainly not better, probably not so
    well, conducted as in our own West India possessions.

    In the fourth year, it is presumed that the agricultural produce of
    the land, and the first returns of coffee, should be sufficient to
    meet all the current expenses. At the end of the fifth year there
    ought to be forty thousand coffee trees four years old on the
    estate, 60,000 of three years, and 100,000 of two and one year, the
    produce of which ought to be at least 400 quintals, which, at a
    moderate estimate, should be worth 2,400 dollars. Thus the
    calculation goes on until we arrive at the end of the seventh year,
    when the estate ought to be in full bearing. The returns are
    estimated at 3,000 arrobas, or 750 quintals, which, at eight dollars
    per quintal delivered free on board, make 6,000 dollars. The minor
    products of the estate, such as Indian corn, pigs, and oil, are
    given at 1,130 dollars, making the gross returns 7,130 dollars; and,
    after deducting the annual expenses, leaving 5,300 dollars as the
    regular return on the capital invested, which, having been about
    40,000 dollars, gives about thirteen per cent.; not certainly to be
    considered extravagant in a country where twelve per cent, is the
    regular rate of interest. The produce of coffee from each section is
    given at 400 arrobas, or 3,500 arrobas for the whole of the nine
    sections. The average price of coffee, free of the expense of
    carriage, is assumed to be two dollars the arroba, or eight dollars
    per quintal, which would give a return of 7,200 dollars, besides the
    repayment of the rent by the colonists.

The cultivation of coffee has been falling off in Cuba for several
years past, the crops it is asserted being too precarious there, and
the prices too low to encourage the continuance of planting. On the
northern side of the island is where this decrease is most
perceptible, several of the largest estates having been converted to
the growth of sugar and tobacco, others abandoned to serve as pasture
fields, and the very few remaining yielding less and less every year.
Henceforward the culture of this berry here is likely to be very
insignificant, and not many years will elapse before the amount
produced will merely suffice for the local consumption. About St. Jago
de Cuba the cultivation is more attended to, the article forming still
their principal export. Taking five quinquennial periods, the
following figures show the average annual exports of coffee:--

                               arrobas.
  1826 to 1830                1,718,865
  1830 "  1835                1,995,832
  1835 "  1840                1,877,646
  1841 "  1846                1,887,444
  1846 "  1851                  768,244

The better to exhibit the decrease of production throughout the
island, I may state that the export from 1839 to 1841 inclusive, was
in the aggregate 1,332,221 quintals; 1842 to 1844, inclusive, was in
the aggregate 1,217,666 quintals; 1845 to 1847, inclusive, was in the
aggregate but 583,208 quintals. The exports of coffee for the whole
island, were, in 1840, 2,197,771 arrobas; in 1841, 1,260,920½ arrobas.

In 1847 there were 2,064 plantations under cultivation with coffee in
Cuba, in 1846 there were only 1,670. The production of 1849 was
1,470,754 arrobas, valued at 2,206,131 dollars. From the year 1841 to
1846, the average yearly production was 45,236,100 lbs.; but from 1846
to 1851, it was only 19,206,100 lbs.; showing a falling off of 72 per
cent.; the production still further decreased in 1851, it being only
13,004,350 lbs., or 1.52 per cent. less than the preceding year. This
enormous decline in the production of coffee has been caused by the
low price of the article in the markets of Europe and the United
States, coupled with the more remunerative price of sugar, during the
same period; causing capitalists rather to invest money in the
formation of new sugar estates. As a consequence, many coffee
plantations have been turned into cane cultivation; or, being
abandoned, the slaves attached thereto were sold or leased to sugar
planters.

The following is private information from a correspondent:--

    "We generally plant about 200,000 trees within a space of 500 feet,
    choosing the strongest soil. I have adopted a different system from
    the one generally in use here, for they usually plant the trees too
    near each other. I find by giving them space and air, that the plant
    develops itself and yields more beans. It is very important to
    protect the trees from the rays of the sun, for which purpose I
    plant bananas at intermediate rows; their broad leaves, like
    parasols, shed a delightful shade round the coffee plant, and tend
    to accumulate the moisture which strengthens the roots of the young
    tree.

    When the tree is about two years old the top branches are lopped off
    for the purpose of throwing the sap into the bean. Some planters cut
    the trees so short, that they do not allow them to stand more than
    five or six feet above the ground; but I allow mine to attain
    greater height prior to lopping them, whereby they produce larger
    crops. Nor do I allow my negroes to beat the trees, or force them to
    pluck a certain quantity a day, for I discovered that they picked
    the ripe and unripe beans indiscriminately--frequently injuring the
    trees. I only allow them to shake the tree, and pick up the beans
    that have fallen during the night."

Coffee exports from the ports of Havana and Matanzas, in Cuba, for the
years ending December in

                  Quintals.
  1839             344,725
  1840             402,135
  1841             212,767
  1842             314,191
  1843             223,265
  1844             186,349
  1845              42,409
  1846              65,045
  1847             106,904
  1848              31,674
  1849              92,974
  1852              42,510

Porto Rico exported 85,384 cwt. of coffee in 1839.

_Africa_.--Coffee will require some four years to grow before it will
give to the cultivator any income, but it should be known that after
that time the tree, with little or no labor bestowed on it, will yield
two crops a year. The quality of coffee grown in the republic of
Liberia, on the western coast of Africa, is pronounced by competent
judges to be equal to any in the world. In numerous instances, trees
full of coffee, are seen at only three years old. 214 casks and bags
of coffee were imported from the western coast of Africa in 1846.

Coffee, it has been proved, can be cultivated with great ease to any
extent in the republic of Liberia, being indigenous to the soil, and
found in great abundance. It bears fruit from thirty to forty years,
and yields 10 lbs. to the shrub yearly! A single tree in the garden of
Colonel Hicks, a colonist at Monrovia, is said to have yielded the
enormous quantity of 16 lbs. at one gathering. Judge Benson, in 1850,
had brought 25 acres under cultivation, and many others had also
devoted themselves to raising coffee. It was estimated there were
about 30,000 coffee trees planted in one of the counties, that of
Grand Bassa, and the quality of the produce was stated to be equal to
the best Java.

About the villages and settlements of the Sherbro river, and Sierra
Leone, wild coffee-trees are very abundant. In several parts of the
interior, the natives make use of the shrub to fence their
plantations.

Coffee has been successfully grown at St. Helena, of an excellent
quality, and might be made an article of export.

Portugal sent to the Great Exhibition, in 1851, a very valuable series
of coffees from many of her colonies; of ordinary description from St.
Thomas; tolerably good from the Cape de Verd islands; bad from Timor;
worse (but curious from the very small size of the berry) from
Mozambique; good from Angola; and excellent from Madeira.

Aden, alias Mocha coffee, is, along with the other coffees of the Red
Sea, sent first to Bombay by Arab ships, where it is "garbelled," or
picked, previously to its being exported to England.

An excellent sample of coffee, apparently of the Barbera (Abyssinia)
variety, was contributed to the Great Exhibition from Norfolk Island.
It was of good color, well adapted for roasting, and a most desirable
novelty from that quarter.

Dr. Gardner, of Ceylon, has taken out a patent for preparing the
coffee leaf in a manner to afford a beverage like tea, that is by
infusion, "forming an agreeable refreshing and nutritive article of
diet." An infusion of the coffee-leaf has long been an article of
universal consumption amongst the natives of parts of Sumatra;
wherever the coffee is grown, the leaf has become one of the
necessaries of life, which the natives regard as indispensable.

The coffee-plant, in a congenial soil and climate, exhibits great
luxuriance in its foliage, throwing out abundance of suckers and
lateral stems, especially when from any cause the main stem is thrown
out of the perpendicular, to which it is very liable from its great
superincumbent weight compared with the hold of its root in the
ground. The native planters, availing themselves of this propensity,
often give this plant a considerable inclination, not only to increase
the foliage, but to obtain new fruit-bearing stems, when the old ones
become unproductive. It is also found desirable to limit the height of
the plant by lopping off the top to increase the produce, and
facilitate the collecting it, and fresh sprouts in abundance are the
certain consequence. These are so many causes of the development of a
vegetation, which becomes injurious to the quantity of the fruit or
berry unless removed; and when this superabundant foliage can be
converted into an article of consumption, as hitherto the case in
Sumatra, the culture must become the more profitable; and it is
clearly the interest of the planters of Ceylon to respond to the call
of Dr. Gardner, and by supplying the leaf on reasonable terms, to
assist in creating a demand for an article they have in abundance, and
which for the want of that demand is of no value to them. It ought to
be mentioned also, that the leaves which become ripe and yellow on the
tree and fall off in the course of nature, contain the largest portion
of extract, and make the richest infusion; and I have no doubt, should
the coffee leaf ever come into general use, the ripe leaf will be
collected with as much care as the ripe fruit.

The mode of the preparation by the natives is this. The ends of the
branches and suckers, with the leaves on; are taken from the tree and
broken into lengths of from twelve to eighteen inches. These are
arranged in the split of a stick or small bamboo, side by side,
forming a truss in such a manner, that the leaves all appear on one
side, and the stalk on the other, the object of which is to secure
equal roasting, the stalks being thus exposed to the fire together,
and the leaves together. The slit being tied up in two or three
places, and a part of the stick or bamboo left as a handle, the truss
is held over a fire without smoke, and kept moving about, so as to
roast the whole equally, without burning, on the success of which
operation the quality and flavor of the article must depend. When
successfully roasted, the raw vegetable taste is entirely dissipated,
which is not the ease if insufficiently done. When singed or overdone,
the extract is destroyed and the aroma lost. When the fire is smoky,
the flavor varies with the nature of the smoke. The stalks are roasted
equally with the leaves, and are said to add fully as much to the
strength of the infusion. By roasting the whole becomes brittle, and
is reduced to a coarse powder by rubbing between the hands. In this
state it is ready for use, and the general mode of preparing the
beverage is by infusion, as in the case of common tea.

That it would soon become a most valuable article of diet amongst the
laboring classes, and on ship board particularly, if, once brought
into use, there can be no doubt. The coffee-tree can be grown to
advantage for the leaf in the lowlands of every tropical country,
where the soil is sufficiently fertile, whilst it requires a different
soil and climate to produce the fruit[7]. Dr. Hooker, in the Jury
Reports, observes upon the prepared coffee leaves, submitted by Dr.
Gardner, of Ceylon, to be used as tea leaves, that they are worthy of
notice as affording a really palatable drink when infused as tea is;
more so, perhaps, than coffee is to the uninitiated. That this
preparation contains a considerable amount of the nutritious
principles of coffee, is evident from the analysis; but as the leaves
can only be collected in a good state at the expense of the coffee
bush, it is doubtful whether the coffee produced by the berries be
not, after all, the cheapest, as it certainly is the best.


TEA.

The immense traffic in the produce of this simple shrub, the growth of
a remarkable country, hitherto almost entirely isolated from the
western nations, is one of the most remarkable illustrations of the
enterprise and energy of modern commerce. The trade in tea now gives
employment to upwards of 60,000 tons of British shipping, and about
ten millions sterling of English capital, producing a revenue to this
country of nearly six millions sterling.

Every reflecting man will admit that articles of such vast consumption
as tea and coffee (amounting together to more than 343,500 tons
annually), forming the chief liquid food of whole nations, must
exercise a great influence upon the health of the people.

There is scarcely any country in the world in which a dietetic drink
or beverage resembling tea, is not prepared, and in general use, from
some exotic or indigenous shrub. The two chief plants laid under
contribution are, however, the Chinese tea-plant, and a species of
holly peculiar to South America, producing the Paraguay tea. _Astoria
theiformis_ is used at Santa Fe as tea. The leaves of _Canothus
Americanus_, an astringent herb, have been used as a substitute, under
the name of New Jersey tea.

It has been a matter of surprise why tea should be so much sought
after by the poorer classes, since by many it is looked on more as a
luxury than of use to the human system. The manner in which it acts,
and the cause why it is so much in demand by all classes, is
satisfactorily explained by Liebig; and the benefit, therefore, which
will be conferred by selling it at a low rate, and thus placing it
within the means of all, has at last come to be duly appreciated.
Liebig says, without entering minutely into the medical action of
caffeine, theine, &c., it will surely appear a most striking fact,
even if we were to deny its influence on the process of secretion,
that the substance, with the addition of oxygen and the elements of
water, can yield taurine, the nitrogenised compound peculiar to
bile:--

                                 Carbon.   Nitrogen. Hydrogen.  Oxygen.
  1 atom caffeine or theine  =      8        2           5         2
  9 atoms water              =     --       --           9         9
  9 atoms oxygen             =     --       --          --         9
                                   __        __         __        __
            = 2 atoms taurine       8        2          14        20
                             =      2        4           9        10

To see how the action of caffeine, theobromine, theine, &c., may be
explained, we must call to mind that the chief constituent of the
bile contains only 3.8 per cent. of nitrogen, of which only the half,
or 1.9 per cent., belongs to the taurine; bile contains, in its
natural state, water and solid matter, in the proportion of ninety
parts by weight of the former, to ten of the latter. If we suppose
these ten parts, by weight of solid matter, to be chloric acid, with
3.87 per cent. of nitrogen, then 100 parts of theine would contain
0.171 of nitrogen in the shape of taurine. Now this quantity is
contained in 0.6 parts of theine, or 2 grains 8/10ths of theine can
give to an ounce of bile the nitrogen it contains in the form of
taurine.

Although an infusion of tea contains no more than the one-tenth of a
grain of theine, still, if it contribute in point of fact to the
formation of bile, the action even of such a quantity cannot be looked
upon as a nullity. Neither can it be denied, that in the case of an
excess of non-azotised food, and a deficiency of motion, which is
required to cause the change of matter of the tissues, and thus to
yield the nitrogenised product which enters into the composition of
the bile, that in such a condition the health may be benefited by the
use of compounds which are capable of supplying the place of the
nitrogenised substances produced in the healthy state of the body, and
essential to the production of an important element of inspiration. In
a chronical sense, and it is this alone which the preceding remarks
are intended to show, caffeine, or theine, &c., are, in virtue of
their composition, better adapted to this purpose than all
nitrogenised vegetable principles. The action of these substances in
ordinary circumstances is not obvious, but it unquestionably exists.
Tea and coffee were originally met with among nations whose diet was
chiefly vegetable.

Considerable discussion has taken place regarding the tea plants; some
say that there is only one species; others that there are two or
three. Mr. Fortune, who visited the tea districts of Canton, Fokien,
and Chekiang, asserts that the black and green teas of the northern
districts of China are obtained from the same species or variety,
known under the name of _Thea Bohea_. Some make the Assam tea a
different species, and thus recognise three: _T. Cantoniensis_ or
_Bohea_, _T. Viridis_, and _T. Assamica_. The quality of the tea
depends much on the season when the leaves are picked, the mode in
which it is prepared, as well as the district in which it grows. The
green teas include Twankay, Young Hyson, Hyson, Gunpowder, and
Imperial; while the black comprise Bohea, Congou, Souchong, Oolong,
and Pekoe. The teas of certain districts, such as Anhoi, have peculiar
characters.

The first tea imported into England was a package of two pounds, by
the East India Company, in 1664, as a present to the king; in 1667,
another small importation took place, from the company's factory at
Bantam. The directors ordered their servants to "send home by their
ships 100 pounds weight of the best _tey_ they could get." In 1678
were imported 4,713 lbs.; but in the six following years the entire
imports amounted to no more than 410 lbs. According to Milburn's
"Oriental Commerce," the consumption in 1711 was 141,995 lbs.; 120,595
lbs. in 1715, and 237,904 lbs. in 1720. In 1745 the amount was 730,729
lbs. For above a century and a half, the sole object of the East India
Company's trade with China was to provide tea for the consumption of
the United Kingdom. The company had the exclusive trade, and were
bound to send orders for tea, and to provide ships to import the same,
and always to have a year's consumption in their warehouses. The teas
were disposed of in London, where only they could be imported, at
quarterly sales. The act of 1834, however, threw open the trade to
China.

From a Parliamentary return, showing the quantity of tea retained for
home consumption in the United Kingdom, in each year, from 1740 to the
termination of the East India Company's sales, and thence to the
present time, it appears that in 1740, 1,493,695 lbs. of tea were
retained for home consumption. Two years afterwards, the quantity fell
to 473,868 lbs., and in 1767 only 215,019 lbs. were retained. Next
year the amount increased to 3,155,417 lbs.; in 1769 it was 9,114,854
lbs.; in 1795, 21,342,845 lbs.; in 1836, 49,842,236 lbs.

The return in question also specifies the quantity of the various
kinds of tea, with the average sale prices.

According to the annual tea reports of Messrs. W.J. Thompson and Son,
and Messrs. W.E. Franks and Son, the total imports of tea during the
last fifteen years were as follows, reckoned in millions of lbs.:--

  Years.     Black.       Green.     Total.  Home Consumption.
  1838       26,786       8,215      35,001     36,415
  1839       30,644       7,680      38,324     36,351
  1840       21,063       7,161      28,224     31,716
  1841       24,915       6,303      31,218     36,811
  1842       31,915       9,729      41,644     37,554
  1843       39,513       7,340      46,853     39,902
  1844       39,644       8,749      48,393     41,176
  1845       39,518      11,790      51,338     44,127
  1846       44,017      12,486      55,503     47,534
  1847       46,887       8,368      55,255     46,247
  1848       37,512       7,611      45,123     48,431
  1849       43,234       9,156      52,400     50,100
  1850       39,873       8,427      48,300     51,000
  1851       62,369       9,131      71,500     54,000
  1852       55,525       9,175      64,700     54,724

The duty on tea was gradually raised from 9d. per lb. in 1787 to 3s. a
lb. in 1806. It was 2s. 2d. per lb. until May, 1852, when 4d. per lb.
was taken off, and further annual reductions are to be made. Down to
the year 1834 the duty was an _ad valorem_ one of 96 per cent. on all
teas sold under 2s. a lb., and of 100 per cent. on all that were sold
at or above 2s., charged on the prices which they brought at the East
India Company's sales. The _ad valorem_ duties ceased on the 22nd of
April, 1834, and under the act 3 and 4 William IV. c. 100, all tea
imported into the United Kingdom for home consumption was charged
with a customs as follows:--

  Bohea                                    1s. 6d. per lb.
  Congou, twankay, hyson skin, orange
    pekoe, and campoi                      2   2     "
  Souchong, flowery pekoe, hyson, young
    hyson, gunpowder, imperial, and
    other teas not enumerated              3   0     "

In 1836, the uniform duty of 2s. 1d. per lb. on all descriptions of
tea was imposed, which, with the additional 5 per cent, imposed in
1840, made the total duty levied per lb. 2s. 2d. and a fraction.

During the years from 1831 to 1841, in spite of an increase of nearly
three millions in the population of the country, and notwithstanding
the impetus given to the tea-trade by the abolition of the East India
Company's monopoly in 1833, the increased consumption was only
6,675,566 lbs. Great as the increase has been of late years, however,
it is very far short of what we might expect to see were the duty
reduced to a moderate per centage on the value of the article as it
comes from the Chinese merchant. In Jersey and Guernsey, where there
is no duty on tea, the average consumption is 4½ lbs. per head per
annum. The same rate for the United Kingdom would require an annual
importation of nearly 150 million lbs. I asserted, many months ago, if
the duty could be gradually reduced from its present exorbitant amount
to 1s. per lb., the revenue would not suffer much, whilst the comfort
of the people would be much increased, and our trade with China
greatly improved.

  Years.   Teas Imported, lbs.   Entered for Home Consumption, lbs.
  1843         42,779,265                   35,685,262
  1844         50,613,328                   41,176,00
  1845         53,570,267                   44,127,000
  1846         57,584,561                   46,554,787
  1847         55,255,000                   50,921,486
  1848         47,774,755                   48,735,696
  1849         53,460,751                   50,024,688
  1850         50,512,384                   51,178,215
  1851         71,466,421                   53,965,112
  1852         66,361,020                   54,724,615

Amount of duty received on tea:--

                £         Prices of Sound Common Congou per lb.
  1841      3,973,668              1s. 7d. to 2s. 0d.
  1842      4,088,957              1   7      1  10
  1843      4,407,642              1   0      1   2
  1844      4,524,093              0  10      1   0
  1845      4,833,351              1   0      1   9½
  1846      5,112,005              0   9      0   9½
  1847      5,066,860              0   8½     0   9½
  1848      5,330,515              0   8      0   8½
  1849      5,471,641              0   8½     0   9½
  1850      5,597,708              0  10½     1   1
  1851      5,902,433              0   8      0   8½
  1852      5,986,482              0   7½     2   2

Mr. Montgomery Martin, in his work on China, published in 1847, gave
the average annual consumption of tea, the produce of China, as
follows:--

                                               lbs.
  Great Britain and Ireland                 45,000,000
  British North America and West Indies      2,500,000
  Australasia, Cape of Good Hope, &c.        2,500,000
  British India and Eastern Islands          2,000,000
                                            ----------
  Total used throughout the British Empire  52,000,000
                                            ----------

  United States of North America *           7,000,000
  Russia                                    10,000,000
  France and Colonies                          500,000
  Hanse Towns, &c.                             150,000
  Holland and its Colonies                   1,000,000
  Belgium                                      200,000
  Denmark, Sweden, and Norway                  250,000
  The German States                            500,000
  Spain and Portugal                           100,000
  Italian States                                50,000
  South American States                        500,000
                                               -------
  Total consumption in foreign countries    20,250,000

[* This is only one-third the actual consumption.]

According to this statement, it would seem that the English consume
twice the quantity of tea that is used by all the other countries
excepting China and Japan.

The consumption of tea in Europe and America I estimated a year or two
ago as follows:--

                                              lbs.
  Russia                                     15,000,000
  United States of America                   18,000,000
  France                                      2,000,000
  Holland                                     2,800,000
  Other countries                             2,000,000
  Great Britain                              50,000,000
                                             ----------
                                     Total   89,800,000

The estimated consumption, at the rate of consumption found where
taxation is favorable (as for instance 1½ pounds--the average of this
country) would give the following:--

                           cwts.
  England                  400,000
  France                   510,000
  Germany                  400,000
  Austria                  500,000
  Prussia                      ...
  Belgium                   63,000
  Russia                   900,000
  Rest of Europe           750,000

The total exportation of tea by sea from China, was estimated by Mr.
Martin in 1847 at 76 millions of pounds, viz.:--

  England                      50,000,000
  United States                20,000,000
  All other countries           5,000,000
                               ----------
                               75,000,000

which, at 20 taels per picul (133 lbs.) amounts to 11,280,000 taels of
silver at 80d. per tael, £3,760,000. The present Chinese duty of two
taels five mace, does not include shipping and other charges; the old
duty was five taels, and included all charges paid the Hong merchants.
The export by sea is now about 97 millions of lbs.

The following was the returned value of the tea exported from the five
Chinese ports in 1844 and 1845:--

                   1844.        1845.
  Canton       £2,910,474    £3,429,790
  Shanghae         67,115       462,746
  Ningpo            2,000         2,000
  Amoy                              544
  Foo-chow-foo                      638
                ---------     ---------
               £2,979,589    £3,895,718

The average cost of tea in China at the ship's side is 10d. per pound,
while it is confidently asserted that it could be produced in many
parts of America at 5d. the pound. The great cost in China is owing to
the expensive transportation, the cultivation of the fuel used, the
absence of all economy of machinery, &c. It is only by adulteration
that tea is sold in China as cheap as 10d. In America the beating and
rolling of the leaves (one half of the labor) could be done by the
simplest machinery, fuel could be economised by flues, &c.

The Russian teas, brought by caravans, are the most expensive and best
teas used in Europe. The Chinese themselves pay 7½ dollars per pound
for the "Yen Pouchong" teas.

Full chests were exhibited in 1851, by Mr. Ripley, of various Pekoe
teas, some of which fetch 50s. per lb. in the China market; whilst 7s.
is the very highest price any of the sort will fetch in England, and
this only as a fancy article. The plain and orange-scented Pekoes now
fetch little with us; but as caravan teas, are purchased by the
wealthier Russian families. The finest, however, never leave China,
being bought up by the Mandarins; for though the transit expenses add
3s. to 4s. per lb. to the value when sold in Russia, the highest
market price in St. Petersburg is always under 50s. Among these
scented teas are various caper teas, flavoured with chloranthus
flowers and the buds of some species of plants belonging to the orange
tribe, _magnolia fuscata_, olea flowers, &c. The Cong Souchong, or
Ning-young teas, are chiefly purchased for the American market. Oolong
tea is the favourite drink in Calcutta, though less prized in England,
its delicate flavor being injured by the length of the voyage. For
delicacy, no teas, approach those usually called "Mandarin teas,"
which being slightly fired and rather damp when in the fittest state
for use, will bear neither transport nor keeping. They are in great
demand among the wealthy Chinese, and average 20s. per lb in the
native market.--(Jury Reports.)

The consumption of tea in the United Kingdom may now be fairly taken
at fifty-four million pounds yearly, and sold at an average price to
the consumer of 4s. 6d., per pound. The money expended for tea is
upwards of twelve millions sterling.

The expenditure of this sum is distributed as follows, in round
numbers:--

  Net cost of 54,000,000 pounds, average 1s. per pound        £2,700,000
  Export duty in China of 1½d. a lb.                             337,500
  Shipping charges, &c., in China                                 25,000
  Freight, &c., China to England, about 2d. per lb.              450,000
  Insurance, ½d. per lb.                                         112,500
  Commission, about ¼d. per lb.                                   56,250
  Tasting charges, &c., about 1/8 of a penny per lb.              28,125
  Interest for 6 months on £3,709,375 at 5 per cent.              92,734
                                                               ---------
  Total outlay in China                                       £3,802,109
  Profit to exporters in China,(about 12 per cent.)              445,116
  Landing charges, &c., in England                                39,000
                                                              ----------
  Cost price in bond in England                               £4,286,225
  Duty received by government at 2s. 2½. per lb., about        5,985,482
                                                              ----------
                                                             £10,271,707
  Profit divided among tea-brokers, wholesale and retail
  dealers, &c                                                  1,878,293
                                                              ----------
  Total outlay by British public for tea, at 4s. 6d. per lb. £12,150,000

The tea imported into England in 1667 was only 100 lbs., while for the
year ending June 30, 1851, the export from China to Great Britain was
64,020,000 lbs., employing 115 vessels in its transportation; and to
the United States, during the same time, 28,760,800 lbs., in
sixty-four vessels. Within the last five years, the export has
increased 10,000,000 lbs. to the United States, and 17,000,000 to
Great Britain. These statistics will show the immense importance of
this article to commerce, and the vast amount of shipping it supports.
But let us follow out the statistics a little more in detail.

The population of the Chinese provinces, as quoted by Dr. Morison,
from an official census taken in 1825, was 352,866,012, and we may
fairly conclude that during the last twenty-eight years this
population has extensively increased. If we assume the annual
consumption of tea at four lb. per head on the above population; and
this is no unreasonable assumption in a country, where, to quote from
Murray's valuable work on China, tea "is the national drink, which is
presented on every occasion, served up at every feast, and even sold
on the public roads;" we shall have a tolerably accurate result as to
the total consumption in the empire. Indeed this computation falls
short of the actual relative consumption in the island of Jersey,
where, as we have seen, nearly five lbs. is the annual allowance of
each individual.

If we multiply the population of China by four, we have--

                                                                lbs.
  Total consumption of tea in China                        1,411,464,048
  Export of Great Britain and Ireland, for the year ending
    June 30, 1851.                                            64,020,000
  Export to the United States, same period                    28,760,800
  Export to Holland, returned at 2,000,000 in Davis's
    "China"                                                    3,000,000

  Inland trade to Russia                                      15,000,000
  Export to Hamburg, Bremen, Denmark, Sweden, &c.,
    seven cargoes, about                                       3,000,000
  Export to Sydney, and Australasian Colonies, at least        6,000,000
  Export to Spain and France, four cargoes                     2,000,000
                                                               ---------
                                            Total lbs.     1,533,244,848

The above is exclusive of the heavy exportation in Chinese vessels to
all parts of the east where Chinese emigrants are settled, such as
Tonquin, Cochin China, Cambodia, Siam, the Philippines, Borneo, and
the various settlements within the Straits of Malacca. In comparison
with such an enormous quantity, the 54 million lbs. consumed in the
United Kingdom sink into insignificance.

                                                                 £
  The cost of tea to America, at the ship's side in China,
    say 29,000,000 lbs., at an average of 1s. per lb.,
    would be                                                 1,450,000
  The cost to England, 64,000,000, at the same price         3,200,000
  The cost to other places, say 25,000,000                   1,250,000
  Russia, 15,000,000                                           750,000
                                                            ----------
                                               Total        £6,650,000

It is therefore clear, that were the demand to be doubled from Great
Britain, it would make very little difference in the Chinese market;
since it would be only a question of letting us have six per cent, of
their growth of the article, instead of three.

When we remember that the tea plant attains to maturity in three
years, and its leaves are then fit for picking; and that there is a
vast extent of country to which it is indigenous, growing in every
climate between the equator and the latitude of 45 degrees, it is
evident that, were there a necessity for it, the actual production of
tea in China could be increased to an almost unlimited extent in the
space of three or four years, an extent far more than compensating for
the extra three per cent., which might be, in the first instance,
required by the British.

The certainty of an increased consumption following upon a reduction
in the price of tea to the actual consumers of it, is so obvious as to
require demonstration to those only who have not considered the
subject. The population of Great Britain and Ireland is, say in round
numbers 30,000,000, the actual consumption of tea is only 54,000,000
lbs., or little more than one pound and three quarters for each
individual. In the neighbouring island of Jersey, there are nearly
five lbs. of tea consumed by every inhabitant yearly; and as we may
fairly infer from analogy that similar results would arise from a
similar cause, the consumption in the United Kingdom in the same ratio
would amount to no less than 150 millions of pounds annually.

Tea, observes a most competent authority (Mr. J. Ingram Travers), is
the favourite drink of the people: all desire to have it strong and
good, and none who can afford it are without it. But in the
agricultural districts the laborers use but little; numbers of them
"make tea with burnt crusts, because the China tea is too dear." In
Ireland the consumption is greatly below that of England; there are
comparatively few people who do not, on company occasions, make their
tea stronger than for ordinary use, and the general economy in the use
of tea forms an exception to almost every other article of
consumption. As to the working classes in the manufacturing districts,
Mr. Bayley, President of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce, himself a
very extensive manufacturer, and therefore well qualified to speak to
the fact, says:--"The common calculation of two ounces per head per
week I should think is very much in excess of what the working classes
consume. Domestic servants, I believe, have that quantity allowed
them, but I should say that the working classes do not consume one
quarter of that." And yet it is these classes who are the great
consumers of everything cheap enough to be within their reach. It is
this consumption that, under better earnings, has sustained the steady
increase of nearly two million pounds of tea per annum for the last
eight years, and still there is such ample room for increase that
domestic servants are allowed at least four times as much per head as
those working people who value, more than any other class, the
cheerful refreshingness of tea, but who, stinted in its use by the
exorbitant duty, are tempted and almost driven to the use, instead, of
degrading drinks.

And if the general consumption of the population should rise to even
half servants' allowance, or one ounce per head per week, the
consumption of tea would reach 97,500,000 lbs. per annum. And as to
what might be used if the taste for it had free scope, some idea may
be formed from the fact that the consumption of such people as have
found their way from these countries, where the consumption is 1 lb. 9
ozs. per head, to Australia, has there risen to 7 lbs. per head, at
which rate the consumption of the United Kingdom would be about
210,000,000 lbs. per annum, and which, even at a 6d. duty, would
produce five millions and a half. There is nothing in the air of
Australia to give any especial impulse to tea drinking: on the
contrary; in this comparatively cold, damp climate, people would
naturally use a hot beverage more largely than in the dry warm climate
of Australia; and, after all, great as the Australian consumption
seems, it is scarcely more than a quarter of an ounce per head per
week above the allowance to English domestic servants.

The consumption of tea, notwithstanding the dicta of Mr. Montgomery
Martin, is destined to a prodigious increase. Nor is it solely to an
increase in the consumption of tea, that we must look to prevent any
deficiency in the revenue, as there is no doubt that a reduction in
the price of the article would lead to a prodigious increase in the
quantity of sugar consumed, especially by the lower classes, who
seldom take the one without the other.

It is not, however, merely that they would buy sugar in proportion to
the quantity of tea that they consume; the circumstance of a smaller
sum being requisite for their weekly stock of tea, would enable them
to spend a larger amount in other articles, among which sugar would,
undoubtedly, be one of the most important. The merchant, shipowner,
manufacturer, and all connected with the trade between Great Britain
and China, are in a position to see the prodigious advantages that
such a measure as an extensive reduction of the impost on tea would
occasion to the general trade of the country; and the public at large,
who are not practically familiar with the subject, only require it to
be brought before them in a distinct point of view, when the important
results of such a reduction cannot fail to be apparent to them.

Tea is not now within the reach of the poor man. A person taking tea
once a day, will consume about 7½ lbs. a year.

                                                                       lbs.
Say 500,000 persons take tea twice a day, or 15 lbs. a year, is    7,500,000
Say 4,000,000 persons take tea once a day, or 7½ lbs. a year, is  30,000,000
Say 12,000,000 persons take tea once a week, or 1 lb. a year, is  12,000,000
                                                                  ----------
                                                                  49,500,000

Which shows that, at present, only one person out of every sixty can
have tea twice a day; one of every seven only once a day; and that out
of the remaining 13,500,000 persons, only five millions and a half can
procure it once in the week. The exact state of the case shows that
only eight millions of the people of the United Kingdom enjoy the use
of tea, leaving the other twenty-two millions excluded. A Chinese will
consume thirty pounds of tea in the year.

But it is said we must not, if our accumulated stocks be drank off
this year, expect the Chinese to meet at once so huge an increase in
the demand as to supply us with as much next year.

Now on no point of the case is the evidence so clear as upon the
capacity of the Chinese to furnish, within any year, any quantity we
may require. The Committee of 1847, on Commercial Relations with
China, state--"That the demand for tea from China has been
progressively and rapidly rising for many years, with no other results
than that of diminished prices:"--a fact to be accounted for only upon
the supposition that our ordinary demand is exceedingly small in
proportion to the Chinese supply. Nor is it an unreasonable inference,
that if so much more than usual was to be had at a less price than
before, any rise of price, however trivial it might be, would bring
forward a much larger quantity:[8] a supposition which is completely
confirmed by a review of prices here, and exports from China within
the last four years; and in considering which it is important to bear
in mind--1st, that our tea trade year, on which our account of import,
export, home consumption, and stock on hand is taken, is from January
to January, and the Chinese tea year from July to July; 2nd, that a
rise at the close of the last months of the year in England,
influences the next year's exports from China; and 3rdly, that of late
years, since something of decrepitude has fallen upon the Chinese
Government, smuggling there, to escape the export duty, has been
carried on largely and at an increasing rate, so that the return is
considerably below the real export.

In the Chinese tea year, July to July, 1848-9, the price of good
ordinary congou, the tea of by far the largest consumption here, and
which, in fact, rules the market, was 8½d. to 9-1/3d., and the export
from China 47,251,000 lbs. The year closed with the higher price, and
the Chinese export from July 1849, to July 1850, was 54,000,000 lbs.,
showing an increase of export on the year of 6,750,000 lbs. Throughout
1850, here, prices fluctuated a good deal. They were low in the
earlier part of the year, but in January went up from 9½d. to 11½d.,
and from July 1850, to July 1851, the export from China rose to
64,000,000 lbs., being an increase of ten million pounds on a previous
increase of nearly seven million lbs. Prices here, during 1851, varied
very much: it was difficult to say whether any rise would be
established, but the export still went up and reached, from July 1851,
to July 1852, 67,000,000 lbs., giving a total increase in three years
of 19,750,000 lbs. Nor was it pretended that in any of those years the
Chinese market showed even the least symptoms of exhaustion. "We
know," say the Committee, "that the Chinese market has never been
drained of tea in any one year, but that there has been always a
surplus left to meet any extraordinary demand." But the effect of the
rise in price in 1850 is still more forcibly shown by a comparison of
our total imports in that and the following year. In 1850 we imported
48,300,000 lbs.; in 1851, 71,500,000 lbs., being an increase of
23,200,000 lbs. Doubtless the Chinese export, if made up totally with
our year, would not account for the whole quantity, part of which is
to be set down to Chinese export-smuggling, and part to arrivals from
America and the Continent. The probability is that the increase of
price referred to above never reached the Chinese tea farmers; the
supply came from the merchants' stock on hand. The rise was, besides,
uncertain, and from any established advance a much larger increase of
export might be looked for.

But the mistake made in England in estimating what tea we may look for
from China goes upon the supposition that they grow expressly for us:
the fact being, as stated by Mr. Robt. Fortune, in his recently
published "Tea Districts of China," "that the quantity exported bears
but a small proportion to that consumed by the Chinese themselves." On
this point the report of the Parliamentary Committee is
explicit:--"There is a population in China, commonly assumed at above
three hundred millions, at all hours in the day consuming tea, which
only requires some change of preparation to be fit for exportation;
thus implying an amount of supply on which any demand that may be made
for foreign export can be, after a very short time, but slightly
felt." Mr. Fortune, in his evidence, says "that the Chinese drink
about four times as much as we do: they are always drinking it." Four
times as much is probably very much an under-estimate. With rich and
poor of all that swarming population, tea, not such as our working
classes drink, but fresh and strong, and with no second watering,
accompanies every meal. But even taking their consumption at four
times as much per head as ours, and their population at the lowest
estimate, at three hundred millions, their consumption, setting ours
at 55,000,000 lbs., will be no less than two thousand two hundred
millions of pounds per annum, or forty times the quantity used in the
United Kingdom. As reasonably might the few foreigners who visit the
metropolis in the summer expect to cause a famine of fruit and
vegetables in London, as we that a doubling of our demand for tea
would be felt in China. The further fifty-five million pounds would be
but another fortieth of what they use themselves, and would have no
more effect upon their entire market than the arrival of some thousand
strangers within the year in London would have upon the supply of
bread or butchers' meat. There is no need, therefore, to wait for the
extension of tea plantations, and so far from taking for granted the
statement of the late Chancellor of the Exchequer, "that time must be
given to increase production, and that the point of its taking three
or four years to make a tea-tree is to be considered in dealing with
the duties," we have the fact unmistakeably before us, that the
production is already so vast, that any demand from us could have no
appreciable effect. And as to future supplies, if we should come to
drink as much as the Chinese themselves, a matter not at all needful
to be considered at present, the Committee report that "the
cultivation of the plant may be indefinitely extended;" whilst Mr.
Fortune, who has been upon the spot, states "that there is not the
slightest doubt that there is a great part of the land which is nearly
uncultivated now, which, were there a demand for tea, could be brought
into cultivation. The cost would be very little indeed; they would cut
down a quantity of brushwood, and probably dig over the ground and
plant the bushes. They could clear and plant it in the same year, and
in about two years they could get something from it." As, however,
without this extension they have hitherto found enough for the
increase of their own vast population, for every extension of demand
from us and every other foreign customer, whether by land or water,
without the least tendency to an advance in price, there is no need
to do more than thus touch upon the undeveloped resources of tea
production.--_Travers on the Tea Duties_.

The consumption of tea in Russia is very great, as the middling
classes make a more frequent use of that beverage than the rest. Every
year 60,000 chests of tea arrive at Maimiatchin and Kiakhta, of the
declared official value of £1,185,000 sterling; and to this may be
added £38,650 for inferior tea used by the people of the south, which
makes the total declared value of the tea introduced about one and a
quarter million sterling. The consumption of Russia may be assumed at
over fifteen millions of pounds, although we have no correct data, as
in the case of shipping returns, to calculate from. In 1848, however,
the Russians took 136,217½ boxes of fine tea of the Chinese, for which
they paid 5,349,918 silver roubles--one million sterling. The quantity
forwarded from Kiakhta into the interior consisted of--

                                        Foods.
  Flowery or Pekoe tea                  69,677
  Ordinary tea                         183,752
  Brick tea                            116,249
    Equal to about fifteen million lbs. English.

_Brick tea of Thibet._--A sample of this curious product was shown by
the East India Company in 1851. It is formed of the refuse tea-leaves
and sweepings of the granaries, damped and pressed into a mould,
generally with a little bullock's blood. The finer sorts are friable
masses, and are packed in papers; the coarser sewn up in sheep's skin.
In this form it is an article of commerce throughout Central and
Northern Asia and the Himalayan provinces; and is consumed by Mongols,
Tartars, and Tibetans, churned with milk, salt, butter, and boiling
water, more as a soup than as tea proper. Certain quantities are
forced upon the acceptance of the Western tributaries of the Chinese
Empire, in payment for the support of troops, &c.; and is hence, from
its convenient size and form, brought into circulation as a coin, over
an area greater than that of Europe.--_Dr. Hooker, in Jury Reports_.

The quantity and value of the tea imported into the United States,
from 1821, is thus stated:--

  Years.         Pounds.     Value, dolls.
  1821          4,975,646       1,322,636
  1822          6,639,434       1,860,777
  1823          8,210,010       2,361,245
  1824          8,920,487       2,786,812
  1825         10,209,548       3,728,935
  1826         10,108,900       3,752,281
  1827          5,875,638       1,714,882
  1828          7,707,427       2,451,197
  1829          6,636,790       2,060,457
  1830          8,609,415       2,425,018
  1831          5,182,867       1,418,037
  1832          9,906,606       2,788,353
  1833         14,639,822       5,484,603
  1834         16,282,977       6,217,949
  1835         14,415,572       4,522,806
  1836         16,382,114       5,342,811
  1837         16,982,384       5,903,054
  1838         14,418,112       3,497,156
  1839          9,439,817       2,428,419
  1840         20,006,595       5,427,010
  1841         10,772,087       3,075,332
  1842         13,482,645       3,567,745
  1843         12,785,748       3,405,627
  1844         13,054,327       3,152,225
  1845         17,162,550       4,802,621
  1846         16,891,020       3,983,337
  1847         14,221,410       3,200,056
  1848         18,889,217

The annual reports of the Secretary to the Treasury, for the last
twenty years, show a considerable increase in the consumption of tea
in the United States, but not so great as in the article of coffee.
The establishment of tea shops, in all the large cities of America, is
a new feature in the retail trade, dating only some six years back.

The average rate of duty, which previously ranged between thirty and
thirty-four cents. per pound, was reduced in 1832 to fourteen cents
(7d.) a pound.

The proportion of green to black used is shown by the following return
of the imports:--

                                  lbs.
  1844         Green           10,131,837
               Black            4,125,527
                               ----------
                     Total     14,257,364


  1845         Green           13,802,099
               Black            6,950,459
                               ----------
                     Total     20,752,558

The large import of 1840, of 250,000 chests, of which 200,000 were
green, was in anticipation of the disturbances arising from the war
with Great Britain, and the blockade of the ports.

In 1850, there were 173,317 chests of green tea, and 91,017 of black
tea exported from China to America; these quantities, with a further
portion purchased from England, made a total of about twenty-three
million lbs. of tea which crossed the Atlantic in 1850.

The imports and exports of tea into the United States, in the years
ending Dec. 31st, 1848 and 1849, were as follows:--

                    IMPORTS.
              1849.                  1848.
               lbs.                   lbs.
  Green     14,237,700             13,686,336
  Black      5,999,315              3,815,652
            ----------             ----------
     Total  20,236,916             17,503,988

                    EXPORTS.
  Green        230,470                262,708
  Black        186,650                194,212
            ----------             ----------
       Total   417,120                456,920

The value of tea imported into the United States during the year
ending June 30th, 1851, amounted to 4,798,006 dollars (nearly
£1,000,000 sterling); of this was re-exported a little over 1,000,000
dollars worth, leaving for home consumption 3,668,141 dollars.

The quality of tea depends much upon the season when the leaves are
picked, the mode in which it is prepared, as well as the district in
which it grows.

The tea districts in China extend from the 27th degree to the 31st
degree of north latitude, and, according to missionaries, it thrives
in the more northern provinces. Koempfer says it is cultivated in
Japan, as far north as 45 degrees. It seems to succeed best on the
sides of mountains, among sandstone, schistus, and granite.

In 1834, the East India Company introduced the cultivation of tea in
Upper Assam, where it is said to be indigenous; and they now ship
large quantities of very excellent tea from thence.

Mr. Boyer, director of the museum at Port Louis, Mauritius, has
succeeded in rearing 40,000 tea-trees, and expresses an opinion, that
if the island of Bourbon would give itself up to the cultivation, it
might easily supply France with all the tea she requires.

The culture has also been commenced on a small scale, in St. Helena,
and the Cape Colony.

The cultivation of the tea-tree might be tried with probability of
success in Natal, and the Mauritius. The plant grows in every soil,
even the most ungrateful; resists the hurricanes, and requires little
care. The picking of the leaves, like the pods of cotton, is performed
by women, children, and the infirm, without much expense. The
preparation is known to the greater part of the Chinese, of whom there
are so many in Mauritius; besides, it is not difficult. A Mr. Duprat
has, I am informed, planted a certain extent of land in the
neighbourhood of Cernpipe, in that island, but I have not yet learnt
with what success.

The tea-plant has been successfully cultivated, on a large scale, in
the island of Madeira, at an elevation of 3,000 feet above the level
of the sea, by Mr. Hy. Veitch, British ex-Consul. The quality of the
leaf is excellent. The whole theory of preparing it is merely to
destroy the herbaceous taste, the leaves being perfect, when, like
hay, they emit an agreeable odor. But to roll up each leaf, as in
China, is found too expensive, although boys and girls are employed at
about two-pence or three-pence per day. Mr. Veitch has, therefore,
tried the plan of compressing the leaves into small cakes, which can
be done at a trifling expense. It is performed when the leaf is dry;
whereas, the rolling requires moisture, and subsequent roasting on
copper plates is necessary to prevent mustiness. In this process the
acid of the tea acts upon the copper, and causes that astringency
which we remark in all the China teas.

The tea of Cochin China is considered inferior to that of China, being
less strong and pleasant in flavour.

An inferior sort of tea, with a leaf twice or thrice as large as that
of Bohea, grows wild in the hilly parts of Quang-ai, and is sold at
from 12s. 6d. to 40s. the picul of 133lbs.

The Dutch have devoted much attention to tea cultivation in Java, and
the plantations are in fine order. Nearly a million lbs. of tea were
shipped thence in 1848; but the tea is said to be of inferior quality,
and grown and manufactured at considerable expense.

Japan produces both black and green tea. The Japanese prefer the
latter to the Chinese green tea. The black tea is very bad. The
Japanese tea-tree, is an evergreen, growing in the most sterile places
to the height of about six feet. It is described as above, by
Koempfer, as having leaves like the cherry, with a flower like the wild
rose; when fresh, the leaves have no smell, but a very astringent
taste. Tea grows in all the southern provinces of Japan, but the best
green is produced in the principality of Kioto, where it is cultivated
with great care.

A few years ago, Messrs. Worms attempted the cultivation of tea in
Ceylon. The island, however, lies too far within the tropics to offer
a climate like Assam, which is situate without them. The plants may
thrive to appearance, but that is not a demonstration of their
quality. The tea-plant has reached upwards of six feet in height at
Pinang, and in as healthy a state as could be desired, but the leaf
had no flavor, and although thousands of Chinese husbandmen cultivate
spices, and other tropical productions on that island, no one thinks
it worth while to extend the cultivation of the tea-plant in Pinang.
The Chinese there laugh at the idea of converting the leaf into a
beverage.

The cultivation of the tea-plant has been introduced into the United
States, and those planters who have tried the experiment have
succeeded beyond their highest expectations. Dr. Junius Smith had
successfully cultivated the plant on his property called Golden grove,
near Grenville, in South Carolina. His plants were in full blossom,
and as healthy and flourishing as those of China at the same stage of
growth. Everything connected with them looked favorable, and Dr. Smith
felt abundantly encouraged to extend the culture of the several
descriptions of tea upon his property. It is stated that his
expectations were so great, that he contemplated to place fresh tea on
the tea-tables of England and Paris in twenty days, from the
plantation. He had a large supply of plants, and tea seed enough for a
million more. The black descriptions blossomed earlier than the green
plant, but the latter also blossomed luxuriantly.

He introduced at first about 500 plants of from five to seven years'
growth, overland from the north-west provinces of India, and some from
China direct.

In the close of 1849, he writes me:--

    "During the past year the tea-plant under my care has passed through
    severe trials, from the injury received in transplanting, from the
    heat generated in the packing-cases, from the want of shelter during
    the severe frosts of February, from the excessive heat in June, and
    from the drought of 58 days' continuance in July and August. The
    plants were divested of their leaves and generally of their branches
    and twigs in February, during my absence in New York. Knowing that
    the plants were tender, and not fortified by age and mature growth
    against severe weather, I had directed them to be covered in case a
    material change of temperature should occur. But these orders were
    neglected, and they consequently suffered from that cause.

    The plant is sufficiently hardy to resist any weather occurring in
    this part of the country, when seasoned for one year.

    The plant has grown thrifty since April, and the quantity of
    foliage, buds, and blossoms, show that the root has taken strong
    hold, and is now fully equal to produce its fruit next autumn, which
    always follows the year after the blossoms. I have a variety of both
    black and green tea-plants. The buds and blossoms of the latter did
    not appear until a fortnight after the black tea-plant. But the
    blossoms were larger when they did appear in September, October,
    November, and December. From present appearances, I think the
    blossoms of some of the late plants will continue to unfold until
    spring. It is not an unusual thing for the blossoms and the fruit to
    appear at the same time upon the same plant. In this particular it
    differs from any plant I have seen. As my chief object, at present,
    is to cultivate and increase the tea-nut, it will be a year or two
    perhaps before I attempt to convert the leaf into tea. The root
    supports the leaf and fruit, and the leaf the root, so that neither
    can be spared without detriment.

    This climate appears congenial to the growth of the plant, and the
    soil is so diversified in this mountainous district, that there is
    no difficulty in selecting that best adapted to seed-growing plants,
    or that designed for the leaf only. Upon the plantation purchased
    this summer, I have light-yellow, dark-brown, and red clay subsoil,
    of a friable character, with a surface soil sufficiently sandy to
    answer the demands of the plant. I do not see any reason to doubt,
    from a year's experience, that the tea-plant in its varieties will
    flourish in what I heretofore denominated the tea-growing district
    of the United States, as well as in any part of China.

    The slowness of its growth requires patience. But when once
    established, the tea-nuts will supply the means of extending
    cultivation, and the duration of the plant for twenty years
    diminishes the expense of labor. To illustrate the hardihood of the
    plant, I may observe, that notwithstanding the zero severity of
    February frost destroyed the leaves and branches of most of the
    plants, and those now blooming in great beauty and strength are from
    roots the growth of this summer, I have one green tea-plant the stem
    and branches of which withstood the frost of February without the
    slightest protection, and is now a splendid plant, covered with
    branches and evergreen leaves, affording undeniable evidence not
    only of its capability of resisting frost, but of its adaptation to
    just such a degree of temperature.

    I have often remarked that the tea-plant requires for its perfection
    the influence of two separate and distinct climates, the heat of
    summer and the cold of winter. The thermometer in this vicinity
    during the heat of summer generally ranges from 74 at 6 o'clock a.m.
    to 82 at 3 o'clock p.m., only one day during the summer so high as
    86.

    This is a most agreeable temperature, nights always cool, which the
    tea-plant enjoys, and the days hot and fanned with the mountain
    breeze.

    The drought I found the most difficult point to contend with, owing
    to the want of adequate means for irrigation. I lost 20 or 30 plants
    through this, and learned that no tea plantation should he
    established without irrigation. After two or three years there will
    be little necessity for it, because the depth of the roots will
    generally then protect the plant.

    My plantation at Golden Grove is well supplied with water, or I
    should not have purchased it at any price.

    It is the first and most important point to secure a southern or
    western aspect, a gentle declivity the second, salubrious air and
    suitable soil the third.

    Our country is filled with natural tea plantations, which are only
    waiting the hand of the husbandman to be covered with this luxuriant
    and productive plant.

    I know the public is naturally impatient of delay. Like corn, it is
    expected that the tea-nuts will be planted in the spring, and the
    crop gathered in the autumn. But they forget that the tea-plant does
    not interfere with any other crop, and when once planted it does not
    soon require a renewal.

    I have sometimes felt this impatience myself, and longed for a cup
    of tea of my own growing, but I have never had one. As a husbandman,
    I must wait some time longer, and let patience have her perfect
    work."

Again, under date May 1, 1850, he states that he has succeeded
admirably in the culture. The plants bear the winter well, and their
physiology and general characteristics remain unchanged by the change
of climate and soil. The leaf puts out at the same period of the year
that it does in China.

On the 27th of May, 1850, Dr. Smith received a further batch of
trees, fresh, green and healthful, as if still growing in the
plantations of China; after a passage of little more than five months.
These plants, together with the seedlings and nuts, were of the green
tea species, and obtained from a quarter situated about 700 miles from
Canton.

In a letter, dated Grenville, S.C., June 17th, 1850, with which I have
been favored, he adds:--

    "I never heard of the failure of the tea-crop. All vegetation may be
    retarded, or lessened, or augmented, in its production, in a slight
    degree, by excessive rains, or drought, or cold, or heat, or
    atmospheric action; but the tea-plant is sure to produce its leaf.
    From all I have observed, a decided drought is the most detrimental
    to the health of the tea plant. The almost continued rains which
    marked the advance of the past spring, seemed perfectly agreeable to
    the tea-plant, and facilitated the germination of the tea-nuts.
    Where any vitality remained in the nut, it was sure to germinate.
    Curiosity, on this point should be restrained, and no picking and
    pawing up of the nuts permitted. I have seedlings with tap roots
    four inches in length, where no appearance of germination is visible
    upon the surface of the ground. The chances are ten to one that the
    seedling would be destroyed by the tamperings of idle curiosity. Let
    nature have her own most perfect work, and see that the enemy, the
    drought, is vanquished by an abundant supply of water.

    From experience, I notice that nothing is more congenial to the
    germination of the tea-nut than a good stiff blue, clayed soil. The
    marly colour of the soil is undoubtedly the result of a rich loam,
    combined with the clay of a lighter hue. The adhesive nature of the
    clay retains moisture in an eminent degree, and the fertilising
    qualities of the loam are well known to every bottom land farmer.

    Plants put out three weeks ago, after a long voyage from China, are
    now taking root, and look fresh and vigorous, notwithstanding the
    recent heat and dryness of the atmosphere. But I have taken
    unwearied pains in the cultivation. Every plant is sheltered from
    the scorching influence of the sun, now from 70 deg. to 86 deg. of
    temperature. Although the soil is naturally moist and clayey, and
    half bottom land, from the work of gentle acclivities, rising on
    either hand, yet I have given the plants a liberal watering in the
    evening. By last summer's drought of fifty-seven days, I was taught
    the absolute necessity of deep digging and deep planting. None of my
    plants, of this season's planting, are more than two or three inches
    above the surface of the ground.

    If any of the plants have leaves, as most of them have, below that
    height, they are planted with the leaves retained; none are removed.
    Some of the older plants have no leaves remaining, and looked like
    dry sticks. Many of these are now beginning to break, and put forth
    fresh leaves."

In 1851, Mr. Frank Bonynge set on foot a subscription list of fifty
dollars each, to procure tea and various Indian plants for culture in
America. That tea can be grown successfully in Carolina, Georgia, and
Florida, is almost certain, because the experiment has been pretty
fairly tried, as above shown, by Dr. Smith. The thermometer at
Shanghai indicates the cold as more severe by thirteen degrees than at
Charleston, South Carolina. The cold winter of 1834-5, which destroyed
the oranges in Mr. Middleton's plantation, in Charleston, left his tea
plants uninjured.

The question of cultivating tea in California has been seriously
discussed, and will no doubt be gone into when the gold digging mania
has a little subsided. There is the necessary labor and experience on
the spot, in some 12,000 or 14,000 Chinese, most of whom doubtless
understand the culture and manufacture. The climate, soil and surface
of California exactly answer the requirements for the growth of this
plant. The time may yet come when the vast ranges of hills that
traverse this State shall present terraces of tea gardens, cultivated
by the laborious Chinese, and adding millions to the value of its
products.

A company for the cultivation of tea, under the title of the Assam
Company, was established in March, 1839; and which, with a called-up
capital of £193,337, has made up to the present time very profitable
progress; having now got its plantations into excellent cultivation,
and all its arrangements in admirable working order, it has sold teas
to the amount of £90,000, and has a steam-boat, a considerable plant
and machinery.

In the report of the Company, at their annual meeting, held at
Calcutta, in Jan., 1850, it was stated, as the result of their
operations, that during the year 1849, the manufacturing season was
unusually cold and ungenial, in consequence of which the development
of leaf for manufacture was much checked. Although some loss was
sustained, there was considerable increase in the crop
notwithstanding, attributable to the continued improvements in the
culture which had been obtained, and improvements over the previous
season in some departments of the manufacturing process. The gross
quantity of unsorted tea manufactured in the southern division was
207,982 lbs., being 2,673 lbs. less than that of the previous season,
but the actual net out-turn was expected to reach 200,000 lbs. As much
as 157,908 lbs. of the crop had been already received and shipped to
England. These teas consisted chiefly of the finer qualities. Whilst
the crops have been thus sensibly advancing in quantity and quality,
and the value of the company's plantations permanently raised by
extended and improved culture, and some increase to the sowings, the
total outlay had been somewhat less than the previous year, the
expenditure being limited to £500 for a crop of 12,000 acres of tea.
With more extended gardens, the produce will be raised at a yet lower
rateable cost than at present.

The number of acres in cultivation in 1849, was about 12,000; these
were not all in bearing, but would shortly be so, and the produce from
this extent might be estimated at 300,000 lbs., and the cost of
producing this would be about £11,000. 1,010 chests of the produce
were sold in London on the 13th of March, 1850, at a gross average of
1s. 11½d. per lb. The produce of 1847, sold in England, was 141,277
lbs., at a gross average of 1s. 8d. per lb.: that of 1848 was 176,149
lbs. which sold at the average of 1s. 8½d. per lb. The produce of 1849
was 216,000 lbs., and there was every expectation of the average
prices realised being higher than those of the previous years. The
season was cold and unfavorable, or the crop would have been 10,000
lbs. more.

The exact amounts obtained for the Company's teas in the five years,
ending with 1851, will be seen from the following figures:--

   Net produce, lbs.             Average price.    £
  1847        144,164 at per lb.  ls. 7-1/16d.  11,513
  1848        182,953     "       ls. 8¼d.      15,436
  1849        216,000     "       ls. 9½d.      19,350
  1850        253,427     "       ls. 6-1/8d.   18,153
  1851        271,427     "       ls. 8½d.      22,152
  1852 esmtd. 280,000

This exhibits a progressive increase in the aggregate value of the
Company's produce, and this has been effected, it is stated, without
any sensible increase of the current expenditure. It exhibits also a
rise in the value of the tea (157,942 lbs. having been sold at the
high average price of 1s. 11¼d.), a fact strongly indicative of its
increasing excellence. The details of the crop of the season of 1849
showed a net produce of 237,000 lbs. of tea; so that the Company are
increasing their cultivation to the extent of nearly ten per cent, per
annum, and the increase will doubtless proceed with greater rapidity,
whenever the increase of capital enables the directors to extend their
operations.

In a report submitted to the Directors, by Mr. Burkinyoung, the
managing director in Calcutta last year, he thus speaks of the
Company's field of operations and future prospects:--

    "The box-making is especially worthy of notice for its effective
    organisation and economical arrangement; the work is performed
    chiefly by Assamese boys instructed at the factory: the number of
    boxes required for the year's consumption will not be short of four
    thousand, the whole of which will be made at the factory,--an
    achievement that cannot be too highly estimated in a country so
    destitute of mechanical labor.

    Notwithstanding the high standard of quality and strength to which
    our teas have already attained, I am of opinion that, as experience
    advances, and our knowledge and system of plucking and manufacturing
    the crops become improved, and better organised, a higher standard
    of quality and value may yet be realised; in this opinion the
    superintendent concurs with me, and the attainment of this object is
    one to which his attention's prominently directed.

    In the course of my enquiries and trials of different samples of tea
    in Assam, my attention was directed to one description of black tea,
    of rough strong flavor, made by a quicker process than that
    ordinarily used in the manufacture of black tea: under this mode of
    manipulation, a quality of tea is produced sufficiently distinctive
    in its flavor and appearance to render it worthy of attention and
    trial, and I think, when perfected in the process of manufacture,
    calculated to come into popular estimation. Samples of this tea the
    superintendent will forward to the board for trial.

    In conducting the operations in Assam, the chief difficulty of
    importance which has not yet been effectually met is the paucity of
    labor; this does not, however, exist to the extent of materially
    checking any of the important operations connected with the
    production of the tea, but it is felt in the arrear of various
    descriptions of work, in providing bricks for building, and in the
    preparation of a stock of seasoned timber and boards for building
    and box-making; while the out factories would be benefited by a
    larger proportion of agricultural labor. Great advance, however, has
    been made by the superintendent in the employment of Assamese labor
    in contract work: under the arrangement he has established, these
    contracts are now, for the most part, fulfilled with much
    punctuality, and there is reason to expect that this system of labor
    will be further extended. The Kachorie Coolies are a valuable class
    of laborers, but they do not appear to be sufficiently numerous, or
    to emigrate in sufficient numbers to afford with the native Assamese
    a supply of labor altogether equal to our wants, so as to render the
    concern independent of Bengal labor.

    The tea lands are for the most part advantageously situated, within
    convenient reach of water-carriage, either by the 'Dickhoo,'
    'Dêsang,' and 'Dehing' rivers, or by means of small streams leading
    to them. The Plantations of the Satsohea and Rookang forests, and on
    the banks of the Tingri in the Northern Division, are all valuable
    centres of extension in each district. The lands suitable for tea
    cultivation are ample in extent, and of the highest fertility; while
    the Hill Factories of the Southern and Eastern Divisions, although
    secondary in importance, are, as regards extent and quality of soil,
    equally eligible as bases of extension.

    The prospects of the future, I entertain no doubt, will keep pace
    with the satisfactory results that have hitherto been realised,
    looking to the sound organisation that now exists in our
    establishment at Assam, an organisation that has already taken
    healthy root, and must in its growth gain strength and permanence. I
    think we may safely calculate, after the current year, upon an
    annual increase in our production of 40,000 lbs. of tea, until a
    larger system of operations can be matured, of which the basis is
    already laid down, in the new lands cleared and sown during the past
    cold season, averaging 225 to 250 poorahs; and this extended basis
    will be doubtless followed up by annual extensions of similar, if
    not larger, area. The concern is now taking a position which will
    place it on a scale of working commensurate with the objects
    entertained upon the first incorporation of the company, the profits
    now likely to be realised being adequate to all the outlay
    necessary."

The prices in the last two years in London have been fully maintained
at 1s. 3d. to 4s. 4d., according to sorts. Of Assam tea, the sales in
the London market in 1851 amounted to 2,200 packages, against 1,900
packages in 1850, and all were freely taken (on account of their great
strength) at very full prices. Seventy-six packages of Kumaon tea,
both black and green, grown by the East India Company, in the
Himalayas, as an experiment, were also brought to sale. They were teas
of high quality; but being of the light flavored class, and not duly
esteemed in this market, they realised only about their relative value
as compared with China teas of similar grade. The Souchong and
Pouchong sold at 1s. 1¼d. to 1s. 3½d.; the Hyson, Imperial, and
Gunpowder realised 1s. 7¾d. to 2s. 6½d.

Mr. Robert Fortune, who, in the service of the Horticultural Society
of London, gave such satisfaction by his botanical researches in
China, was, on his return to England, in 1848, engaged by the
Directors of the East India Company to proceed again to the Celestial
Empire, and procure and transmit to India such a quantity and variety
of the tea plant, that its cultivation in the north-western provinces
would be a matter of mere manual labor. Having penetrated about 300
miles into the interior, he left Hong Kong in the middle of 1851 for
Calcutta, with a large quantity of choice plants, selected in the
green tea districts, and these have flourished as well as could
possibly be expected; so that, in the course of a few years, there is
every probability that tea will form a considerable article of export
from our Indian Presidencies. Mr. Fortune secured the services of, and
took with him, eight Chinese, from the district of Wei-chow, under an
agreement for three years, at the rate of fifteen dollars a month
each. Six of these are regular tea-manufacturers; the other two are
pewterers, whose sole business is that of preparing lead casings for
tea-chests.

In the British portion of the Punjaub, it has been resolved to expend
£10,000 a year on the cultivation of the tea plant on the banks of the
Beas, as well as at Anarkullee, and Kotghur in the Simla jurisdiction.
Beyond the Beas there is a series of valleys on to Noonpoor, viz., the
Palklun, Kangra, Rillo, &c., from 3,000 to 4,000 feet above the level
of the sea, separated from each other by small ranges of hills. The
valleys are from three to four miles in breadth, and from sixty to
seventy in length: they are sheltered on the north by high mountains.
They are described as admirably suited for the cultivation of the
plant, now about to be attempted under the able management of Dr.
Jamieson. Should it prove successful, the benefits it will confer on
the country will be enormous. Tea is a favorite beverage everywhere
with the natives: at present their supplies come in scanty measure and
bad condition, at extravagant charges, across the frontier.

The cultivation of the tea plant in the highlands of the Punjaub, is
likely to be successful, even beyond the hopes of its promoters.
Thousands of plants sown in 1849 have attained a height of four or
five feet, and there seems no reason why tea should not ultimately
become an important article of trade in the Punjaub, as well as in
Kumaon. The Indian teas are already becoming popular in the English
market, and the cultivators have the advantage of a demand which is
almost unlimited, and of prices which seldom fluctuate to any great
extent.

The experiment of growing tea in the Madras Presidency has been often
successfully tried, on a small scale. A number of plants supplied by
government, through Dr. Wallich, were planted in the Shevaroy hills,
about twelve or fourteen years since, and have thriven well; but
though no doubt is entertained of the ease with which they could be
propagated over a wide extent of country, no attempt has been made to
give the cultivation a practical turn, or to make a cup of tea from
the southern Indian tree. In Coorg, too, the experiment has been
tested with like results, so that sufficient warranty exists to
justify trials on the largest scale.

Tea plants grow in luxuriance in the open air, at the Botanical
Gardens, at Kew. Mr. Bonynge has seen this plant growing wild in N.
lat. 27 deg. 30 min. on hills from three to 500 feet in height, where
too, there was an abundance of frost, snow and hail.

Those persons in England who possess tea plants, and who cultivate
them for pleasure, should always bear in mind that, even in the tea
districts of China, this shrub will not succeed if it be planted in
low, wet land; and this is, doubtless, one of the reasons why so few
persons succeed in growing it in this country. It ought always to be
planted on a warm sloping bank, in order to give it a fair chance of
success. If some of the warm spots of this kind in the south of
England or Ireland were selected, who knows but that our cottagers
might be able to grow their own tea? at all events, they might have
the fragrant herb to look upon.

The Dutch made the first movement to break the charm of Chinese
monopoly, by introducing and cultivating the tea plant in their rich
and fruitful colony of Java. That island lies between the sixth and
eighth degrees of south latitude.

In 1828, the first experiment in the cultivation of tea was made in
the garden of the Chateau of Burtenzorg, at Java, where 800 plants of
an astonishing vigor, served as an encouragement to undertake this
culture, and considerable plantations were made in many parts of the
island. The first trials did not answer to the expectations, as far as
regards the quality of the article, the astringent taste and feeble
aroma of which caused the conjecture that the preparation of the leaf,
and its final manipulation, are not exactly according to the process
used in China. At present tea is cultivated in thirteen Residencies:
but the principal establishment, where the final manipulation is made,
is in the neighbourhood of Batavia. The tea which Java now furnishes
yearly to the markets of the mother country, may be stated at from
200,000 to 300,000 pounds. It is intimated that the government intends
to abandon this culture to the industry of private individuals, under
the guarantee of equitable contracts.

The mountain range, which runs through the centre of the island, is
the most productive, because the tea gardens, extending from near the
base, high up the mountains, reach an atmosphere tempered by
elevation. The plant escapes the scorching heats of the torrid zone,
and finds a climate, by height rather than by latitude, adapted to its
nature. But the plant is not confined to lofty ridges. In the plains,
the hedges and fences, if one may so call them, are all planted with
the tea shrub, which flourish in greater or less perfection throughout
the island. But, as has already been intimated, the equatorial
latitudes are not the most auspicious for the vigorous growth of a
plant that requires a temperature equally removed from the extremes of
heat and cold, and the quality of the tea is as much affected by the
climate as the growth of the plant. A considerable quantity of tea is
annually shipped from Java to Europe; but the extension of the
cultivation is no doubt checked by the exceeding fertility of the
soil, and its adaptation to the growth of the rich products of
tropical regions.

Mr. Jacobson, inspector of tea culture in Java, has published at
Batavia a work in three volumes, upon the mode of cultivating this
plant, upon the choice of grounds, and the best processes for the
preparation and manipulation of the leaves. This book, the fruit of
many years of experience and care given to the subject, has been well
received by the cultivators who devote themselves to this branch of
industry. If, by means of careful experiments and experience, the
government succeed in conferring on the island of Java this important
branch of commerce, she may hope to obtain brilliant results; at all
events, it will open to the country a new source of prosperity and
riches.

An interesting account of the tea plants, and the manufacture of tea,
will be found in Fortune's "Wanderings in China," in Ball's "Account
of the Cultivation and Manufacture of Tea," Boyle's "Illustrations of
Himalayan Botany," and his "Productive Resources of India."

From Fortune's "Travels" I take the following extract:--

    "There are few subjects connected with the vegetable kingdom which
    have attracted such a large share of public notice as the tea-plant
    of China. Its cultivation on the Chinese hills, the particular
    species of variety which produces the black and green teas of
    commerce, and the method of preparing the leaves, have always been
    objects of peculiar interest. The jealousy of the Chinese government
    in former times, prevented foreigners from visiting any of the
    districts where tea is cultivated; and the information derived from
    the Chinese merchants, even scanty as it was, was not to be depended
    upon. And hence we find our English authors contradicting each
    other; some asserting that the black and green teas are produced by
    the same variety, and that the difference in colour is the result of
    a different mode of preparation; while others say that the black
    teas are produced from the plant called by botanists _Thea Bohea_,
    and the green from _Thea viridis_, both of which we have had for
    many years in our gardens in England. During my travels in China
    since the last war, I have had frequent opportunities of inspecting
    some extensive tea districts in the black and green tea countries of
    Canton, Fokien, and Chekiang: the result of these observations is
    now laid before the reader. It will prove that even those who have
    had the best means of judging have been deceived, and that the
    greater part of the black and green teas which are brought yearly
    from China to Europe and America are obtained from the same species
    or variety, namely, from the _Thea viridis_. Dried specimens of this
    plant were prepared in the districts I have named, by myself, and
    are now in the herbarium of the Horticultural Society of London, so
    that there can be no longer any doubt upon the subject. In various
    parts of the Canton provinces where I have had an opportunity of
    seeing tea cultivated, the species proved to be the _Thea Bohea_, or
    what is commonly called the black tea plant. In the green tea
    districts of the north--I allude more particularly to the province
    of Chekiang--I never met with a single plant of this species, which
    is so common in the fields and gardens near Canton. All the plants
    in the green tea country near Ningpo, on the islands of the Chusan
    Archipelago, and in every part of the province which I have had an
    opportunity of visiting, proved, without an exception, to be _Thea
    viridis_. Two hundred miles further to the north-west, in the
    province of Kiangnan, and only a short distance from the tea hills
    in that quarter, I also found in gardens the same species of tea.
    Thus far my actual observations exactly verified the opinions I had
    formed on the subject before I left England, viz: that the black
    teas were prepared from the _Thea Bohea_, and the green from _Thea
    viridis_. When I left the north, on my way to the city of
    Foo-chow-foo, on the river Min, in the province Fokien, I had no
    doubt that I should find the tea hills there covered with the other
    species, _Thea Bohea_, from which we generally suppose the black
    teas are made; and this was the more likely to be the case as this
    species actually derives its specific name from the Bohea hills in
    this province. Great was my surprise to find all the plants on the
    tea hills near Foo-chow exactly the same as those in the green tea
    districts of the north. Here were, then, green tea plantations on
    the black tea hills, and not a single plant of the _Thea Bohea_ to
    be seen. Moreover, at the time of my visit, the natives were busily
    employed in the manufacture of black teas. Although the specific
    differences of the tea plant were well known to me, I was so much
    surprised, and I may add amused, at this discovery, that I procured
    a set of specimens for the herbarium, and also dug up a living
    plant, which I took northward to Chekiang. On comparing it with
    those which grow on the green tea hills, no difference whatever was
    observed. It appears, therefore, that the black and green teas of
    the northern districts of China (those districts in which the
    greater part of the teas for the foreign market are made) are both
    produced from the same variety, and that that variety is the _Thea
    viridis_, or what is commonly called green tea plant. On the other
    hand those black and green teas which are manufactured in
    considerable quantities in the vicinity of Canton, are obtained
    from the _Thea Bohea_, or black tea.

    In the green tea districts of Chekiang, near Ningpo, the first crop
    of leaves is generally gathered about the middle of April. This
    consists of the young leaf buds just as they begin to unfold, and
    forms a fine and delicate kind of young hyson, which is held in high
    estimation by the natives, and is generally sent about in small
    quantities as presents to their friends. It is a scarce and
    expensive article, and the picking off the leaves in such a young
    state does considerable injury to the tea plantation. The summer
    rains, however, which fall copiously about this season, moisten the
    earth and air; and if the plants are young and vigorous, they soon
    push out fresh leaves. In a fortnight or three weeks from the time
    of the first picking, the shrubs are again covered with fresh
    leaves, and are ready for the second gathering, which is the most
    important of the season. The third and last gathering, which takes
    place as soon as new leaves are formed, produces a very inferior
    kind of tea, which is rarely sent out of the district. The mode of
    gathering and preparing the leaves of the tea plant is very simple.
    We have been so long accustomed to magnify and mystify everything
    relating to the Chinese, that in all their arts and manufactures we
    expect to find some peculiar practice, when the fact is, that many
    operations in China are more simple in their character than in most
    parts of the world. To rightly understand the process of rolling and
    drying the leaves, which I am about to describe, it must be borne in
    mind that the grand object is to expel the moisture, and at the same
    time to retain as much as possible of the aromatic and other
    desirable secretions of the species. The system adopted to attain
    this end is as simple as it is efficacious. In the harvest seasons,
    the natives are seen in little family groups on the side of every
    hill, when the weather is dry, engaged in gathering tea leaves. They
    do not seem so particular as I imagined they would have been in this
    operation, but strip the leaves off rapidly and promiscuously, and
    throw them all into round baskets, made for the purpose out of split
    bamboo or ratan. In the beginning of May, when the principal
    gathering takes place, the young seed-vessels are about as large as
    peas. These are also stripped off and mixed with the leaves; it is
    these seed-vessels which we often see in our tea, and which has some
    slight resemblance to capers. When a sufficient quantity of leaves
    are gathered, they are carried home to the cottage or barn, where
    the operation of drying is performed."

This is minutely described, and the author continues:--

    "I have stated that the plants grown in the districts of Chekiang
    produce green teas, but it must not be supposed that they are the
    green teas which are exported to England. The leaf has a much more
    natural color, and has little or none of what we call the 'beautiful
    bloom' upon it, which is so much admired in Europe and America.
    There is now no doubt that all these 'blooming' green teas, which
    are manufactured at Canton, are dyed with Prussian blue and gypsum,
    to suit the taste of the foreign 'barbarians;' indeed the process
    may be seen any day, during the season, by those who give themselves
    the trouble to seek after it. It is very likely that the same
    ingredients are also used in dyeing the northern green teas for the
    foreign market; of this, however, I am not quite certain. There is a
    vegetable dye obtained from _Isatis indigotica_ much used in the
    northern districts, and called _Teinsing_; and it is not unlikely
    that it may be the substance which is employed. The Chinese never
    use these dyed teas themselves, and I certainly think their taste in
    this respect is more correct than ours. It is not to be supposed
    that the dye used can produce any very bad effects on the consumer,
    for, had this been the case, it would have been discovered before
    now; but if entirely harmless or inert, its being so must be
    ascribed to the very small quantity which is employed in the
    manufacture."

In short, the black and green teas which are generally exported to
England and the United States from the northern provinces of China,
are made from the same species; and the difference of color, flavor,
&c., is solely the result of the different modes of preparation.

I shall make an extract, also, from Williams's "Middle Kingdom:"--

    "The native names given to the various sorts of tea are derived for
    the most part from their appearance or place of growth; the names of
    many of the best kinds are not commonly known abroad. _Bohea_ is the
    name of the Wu-i hills, (or Bu-i, as the people on the spot call
    them,) where the tea is grown, and not a term for a particular sort
    among the Chinese, though it is applied to a very poor kind of black
    tea at Canton. _Sunglo_ is likewise a general term for the green
    teas produced on the hills in Kiangsu. The names of the principal
    varieties of black tea are as follows: _Pecco_, 'white hairs,' so
    called from the whitish down on the leaves, is one of the choicest
    kinds, and has a peculiar taste; _Orange Pecco_, called _shang
    hiang_, or 'most fragrant,' differs from it slightly; _Hungmuey_,
    'red plum blossoms,' has a slightly reddish tinge; the terms
    _prince's eyebrows_, _carnation hair_, _lotus kernel_, _sparrow's
    tongue_, _fir-leaf pattern_, _dragon's pellet_, and _dragon's
    whiskers_, are all translations of the native names of different
    kinds of Souchong or Pecco. _Souchong_, or _siau chung_, means
    _little plant_ or sort, as _Pouchong_, or _folded sort_, refers to
    the mode of packing it; _Campoi_ is corrupted from _kan pei_ i.e.
    carefully fired; _Chulan_ is the tea scented with the chulan flower,
    and applied to some kinds of scented green tea. The names of green
    teas are less numerous: _Gunpowder_, or _ma chu_, i.e. hemp pearl,
    derives its name from the form into which the leaves are rolled; _ta
    chu_ or 'great pearl,' and _chu lan_, or 'pearl flower,' denote two
    kinds of _Imperial_; _Hyson_, or _yu tsien_, i.e. before the rains,
    originally denoted the tenderest leaves of the plant, and is now
    applied to _Young Hyson_; as is also another name, _mei pein_, or
    'plum petals;' while _hi chun_, 'flourishing spring,' describes
    _Hyson_; _Twankay_ is the name of a stream in Chehkiang, where this
    sort is produced; and _Hyson skin_, or _pi cha_, i.e. skin tea, is
    the poorest kind, the siftings of the other varieties; _Oolung_,
    'black dragon,' is a kind of black tea with green flavor. Ankoi teas
    are produced in the district of Ngankí, not far from Tsiuenchau fu,
    possessing a peculiar taste, supposed to be owing to the ferruginous
    nature of the soil. De Guignes speaks of the Pu-'rh tea, from the
    place in Kiangsu where it grows, and says it is cured from wild
    plants found there; the infusion is unpleasant, and is used for
    medical purposes. The Mongols and others in the west of China
    prepare tea by pressing it, when fresh, into cakes like bricks, and
    thoroughly drying it in that shape to carry in their wanderings.

    "Considering the enormous labor of preparing tea, it is surprising
    that even the poorest kind can be afforded to the foreign purchaser
    at Canton, more than a thousand miles from the place of its growth,
    for 9d. and less a pound; and in their ability to furnish it at this
    rate, the Chinese have a security of retaining the trade in their
    hands, notwithstanding the efforts to grow the plant elsewhere.
    Comparatively little adulteration is practised, if the amount used
    at home and abroad be considered, though the temptation is great, as
    the infusion of other plants is drunk instead of the true tea. The
    poorer natives substitute the leaves of a species of Rhamnus or
    Fallopia, which they dry; Camellia leaves are perhaps mixed up with
    it, but probably to no great extent. The refuse of packing-houses is
    sold to the poor at a low rate, under the name of tea endings and
    tea bones; and if a few of the rarest sorts do not go abroad,
    neither do the poorest. It is a necessary of life to all classes of
    Chinese, and that its use is not injurious is abundantly evident
    from its general acceptance and extending adoption; and the
    prejudice against it among some out of China may be attributed
    chiefly to the use of strong green tea, which is no doubt
    prejudicial. If those who have given it up on this account will
    adopt a weaker infusion of black tea, general experience is proof
    that it will do them no great harm, and they may be sure that they
    will not be deceived by a colored article; Neither the Chinese nor
    Japanese use milk or sugar in their tea, and the peculiar taste and
    aroma of the infusion is much better perceived without those
    additions; nor can it be drunk so strong without tasting an
    unpleasant bitterness, which the milk partly hides. The Japanese
    sometimes reduce the leaves to a powder, and pour boiling water
    through them in a cullender, in the same way that coffee is often
    made."

The following valuable details as to the cultivation and manufacture
of tea in British India, are from interesting reports by Dr. Jameson,
Superintendent of the Company's Botanical Gardens in the North West
Provinces, published in 1847 in the Journal of the Agricultural and
Horticultural Society of Calcutta;--and from Mr. Robert Fortune's
report to the Hon. East India Company:--

    _The quantity manufactured_.--The quantity of tea manufactured from
    five plantations, of 89 acres in all, amounted in 1845 to 610 lb. 2
    oz., and in 1846, on 115 acres, to l,023 lb. ll oz. The small
    nursery of Lutchmisser, consisting of three acres of land, gave a
    return in 1845 of 216 lb., or 2 maunds and 56 pounds; in 1846 the
    return was 272 lbs., or 3 maunds and 32 pounds.

    The small plantation of Kuppeena, established in 1841-2, and then
    consisting of three acres (but increased in 1844 to four), yielded
    in 1845, 1 maund and 56 pounds, and in 1846, 2 maunds and 56 pounds.
    Thus we have received from a plantation of only five years'
    formation, and of four acres (one of these recently added), upwards
    of 2½ maunds of tea, and from another, Lutchmisser, of three acres,
    which was established in 1835-6, 3 maunds and 30 pounds, equal to
    272 pounds. I have, in a former report, asserted that the minimum
    return of tea for an acre of land may be estimated at 1 pucka maund,
    or 80 lb. The only plantations that I can as yet bring forward in
    favour of my assertion, are the two above-mentioned: Kuppeena has
    not yielded the proportion mentioned, but it was only established in
    1841-42, and the tea-plants do not come into full bearing until the
    eighth year; on the other hand, Lutchmisser has given more than the
    average return. I think, therefore, that the returns already yielded
    are highly favorable, and that though the data are small, they are
    very satisfactory.

    _Soil best adapted for the tea-plant_.--The soil in which the
    tea-plant is now thriving in the Himalayas and in the valley of
    Deyrah Dhoon, varies exceedingly. At Bhurtpoor and Russiah it is of
    a light silico-aluminous nature, and abounding with small pieces of
    clay slate, which is the subjacent rock, and trap (green-stone),
    which occurs in large dykes, cutting through and altering the strata
    of clay slate; mixed with the stony soil, there is a small quantity
    of vegetable matter. The clay slate is metamorphic, being almost
    entirely composed of mica. In some places it is mixed with quartz,
    forming mica slate. From the decomposition of these rocks, mixed
    with a small quantity of vegetable matter, the soil is formed. At
    Kuppeena and Lutchmisser, the soil is also very stony, formed from
    the decomposition of clay slate, which, in many places, as at
    Russiah and Bhurtpoor, passes into mica slate, or alternates with
    it, and a little vegetable matter. The same remark applies to the
    plantations of Guddowli, Kouth, and Rumaserai. At Huwalbaugh part of
    the soil consists of a stiff clay, of a reddish-yellow colour, owing
    to peroxide of iron. Here, too, the tea-plants, provided that the
    ground around them is occasionally opened up, thrive well. In Mr.
    Lushington's garden at Lobha, in Kumaon, and in Assistant
    Commissioner Captain H. Ramsay's garden at Pooree, in Gurwahl,
    plants are thriving well in a rich, black, vegetable mould. The soil
    in the Deyrah Dhoon varies exceedingly from clayey and stiff soil to
    sand and gravelly soil, or light and free. The soil at Kaolagir is a
    compound of the two, neither clayey, nor free, nor light soil, but
    composed partly of clay and sand, mixed with vegetable mould, and in
    some places mixed with much gravel, consisting of limestone, marl,
    sandstone, clay slate, and quartz rock, or of such rocks as enter
    into the composition of the surrounding ranges of mountains, viz.,
    the Sewalick range to the south, and the Himalayas, properly so
    called, to the north, From the above statement, we find that the
    tea-plant thrives well both in stiff and free soils, and in many
    modifications of these. But the soil which seems best adapted to its
    growth may be styled free soil, as at Russiah, or a mixture of both,
    as at Kaolagir, in the Deyrah Dhoon.

    In limestone districts, where the tea has been tried, if the
    super-imposed soil has been thin and untransported, and this proved
    from the decomposition of the subjacent rock, the plant has
    generally failed; and this has been particularly the case where the
    limestone, by plutonic action, has become metamorphic. These
    districts, therefore, in forming plantations, are to be avoided.

    From the writings of various authors, it appears that the districts
    where the tea-plant thrives best in China, have a geological
    structure very similar to that met with in many parts of the
    Himalayas, being composed of primitive and transition rocks.

    _Altitude above the sea best suited to the tea plant_.--To state
    what altitude is best adapted to the growth of the tea-plant, and
    for the production of the best kinds of tea, will require much more
    observation. At present the tea-plant thrives equally well at
    Kaolagir, in the Deyrah Dhoon; at Russiah, in the Chikata district;
    at Huwalbaugh; at Kuppeena and Lutchmisser; and at Rumaserai, or at
    heights ranging from 2,200 feet above the level of the sea to 6,000
    feet.

    Moreover, the tea manufactured from leaves procured from Kaolagir,
    has been considered by the London brokers equal to that made from
    leaves procured from Lutchmisser and Kuppeena.

    _On the method of preparing ground prior to forming a
    plantation_.--In forming a plantation, the first object of
    attention, both in the hills and in the Deyrah Dhoon, is a _fence_.
    In the former, to prevent the depredations of wild animals, such as
    wild hog, deer, &c., which abound in the hills, and though they do
    not eat tea leaves, yet hogs, in search of tubers, in the space of a
    single night will do much damage by uprooting young shrubs--in the
    latter, to prevent the straying of cattle. The first thing to be
    done, therefore, is to dig a trench three feet broad and two deep,
    and to plant a hedge, if in the hills, of black thorn (_Cratoegus_);
    if in the plains, the different species of aloe are best adapted for
    the purpose. The fence being formed, all trees and shrubs are then
    to be uprooted; this is very heavy work, both in the hills and
    plains, from the vast number of shrubs, allowed by natives (from
    indolence to remove them) to grow everywhere throughout their
    fields. Roads are then to be marked off.

    After this has been accomplished, the land is to be drained, if
    necessary, by open drains--under drainage, for want of means and the
    expense, being impracticable--and then ploughed three or four times
    over. The beds for young tea-plants are then to be formed; these
    ought to be three feet in breadth, alternating with a pathway of two
    feet in breadth. By arranging beds in this manner much time and
    labour is saved in transplanting; in irrigation the water is
    economised, and in plucking tea leaves a road is given to the
    gatherer. In transplanting, each plant is allowed 4½ feet; this is
    at once gained, the beds and pathways being formed by placing in one
    direction the plant in the centre of the bed.

    _Trenching_.--On the tea beds being marked off, they are to be
    trenched to a depth of from two to three feet, in order to destroy
    all the roots of weeds, which are to be carefully removed. The
    trenching is to be performed by the _fowrah_, or Indian spade.

    In the hills, in many places the _fowrah_ cannot be used, owing to
    the number of stones. The work is then to be done by the _koatlah_,
    a flat-pointed piece of iron, of about eight inches in length, which
    is inserted into a wooden handle. It is in form like the pick, and
    is much used in hill cultivation for weeding and opening up the
    ground. It is, however, not much to be commended for trenching
    purposes, as natives, in using it, never penetrate the ground beyond
    a few inches. For weeding, however, it is particularly useful, and
    to such soil is much better adapted than most other implements.

    _Formation of roads and paths_.--In addition to the pathways of two
    feet in breadth, recommended to be formed between each bed, there
    ought, for general use, to be a four feet road carried round the
    plantation, and one of 10 feet through the centre. This applies to a
    limited plantation, that is, of from 200 to 400 acres. If, on the
    other hand, it was on a more extensive scale, several hackery roads
    of 10 feet in breadth would be necessary, in order to cart away
    weeds, &c., or carry manure to seedling beds.

    _On seeds when ripe, and method to be adopted to ascertain it_.--In
    all September and October the tea seeds ripen, but in the more
    elevated plantations, as at Rumaserai, many do not ripen until
    November. The seeds are contained in a capsule, and vary in number
    from one to seven; to ascertain that they are ripe, open the
    capsule, although green, and if their color is a nut-brown, they are
    sure to be so. If they are not ripe, they are of a reddish-brown
    above, mixed with white. If the seeds are allowed to remain a short
    time on the bushes, after they are ripe, the capsules burst, and
    they fall out; it is necessary, therefore, to remove them before
    this takes place.

    _On the method of sowing seeds, and season, and on the treatment of
    the young tea plants after they have germinated_.--The ground having
    been first well trenched and manured, that is, from sixty to seventy
    maunds of manure given to the acre, the seeds are, when ripe, to be
    removed from the capsules, and immediately sown to the depth of one
    inch, and very close, in drills 8 to 10 inches apart from each
    other. The sooner that they are sown after being removed from the
    capsules the better, as their germinating properties are apt to be
    destroyed if they are kept for any length of time. Some germinate in
    the space of a few weeks, others lie dormant until February and
    March, and others do not germinate until the rains.

    The method of sowing seeds in China is thus described, being similar
    to the native plan of sowing mangoes in India. "Several seeds are
    dropped into holes four or five inches deep and three or four feet
    apart, shortly after they ripen, or in November and December; the
    plants rise up in a cluster when the rains come on. They are seldom
    transplanted, but sometimes four to six are put quite close to form
    a fine bush."[9] By this method nothing is gained, and the
    expenditure of seeds great.

    If the plants germinate in November, which, as already stated, many
    do, they ought to be covered with a _chupper_ made of bamboo and
    grass.

    In the hills, everywhere at an elevation of 6,000 and 7,000 feet,
    the ringal, a small kind of bamboo, of which there are several
    species, is found in great abundance, and well adapted for the
    purpose, and in the Deyrah Dhoon the bamboo occurs in vast quantity;
    the market of the Upper Provinces being chiefly supplied from that
    valley and other forests at the base of the Himalayas. Bamboos are
    also met with to the height of six and seven thousand feet on the
    Himalayas in the neighbourhood of Almorah. During the day, in the
    cold weather, the _chuppers_ ought to be removed, and again replaced
    at night; as the weather becomes hot, it is necessary to protect the
    young plants from the heat of the sun, that is, in April and May,
    and until the rains commence; the _chuppers_ at this time ought to
    be put on about eight a.m., and removed again about four p.m.

    _Method of rearing plantations by layers, and by cuttings_.--The
    best season for laying down is when the sap is dormant, or in cold
    weather; or when in full action, as in the rains. "Laying," as
    expressed by Dr. Lindley, "is nothing but striking from cuttings,
    which are still allowed to maintain their connection with the mother
    plant by means of a portion of their stem." There are various
    methods of making layers, but the most simple and efficient is to
    bend down a branch, and sink it into the earth after having made a
    slit or notch in the centre of the embedded portion. By so doing,
    the descent of the sap is retarded, and thus the formation of
    radicles or young roots is promoted; about five or six inches or
    more, of the branch, is to be allowed to remain above ground, and in
    a position as perpendicular to the point where the plant is notched
    as possible. In three or four mouths these layers are ready to be
    removed and transplanted; the removal of the layers is to be
    gradual, that is, they ought first to be cut half through, then a
    little more, and finally altogether separated.

    The best season for propagating by cuttings is the cold weather,
    that is, from November to February; they may also be propagated,
    though not with the same success, during the rains; it is necessary
    to protect them against frost in the cold weather, and from the rays
    of the sun in the hot. Cuttings put in during the cold weather are
    ready to transplant in the rains, and if put in during the rains,
    they are generally fit for removal in February.

    _On the method of transplanting and season_.--In transplanting young
    tea-plants care should be taken to lift them with a good large ball
    of earth attached to their roots, as they throw out a long central
    or tap root, which, if cut through, invariably destroys the plant.
    On being placed in the ground, the earth around them is to be well
    pressed down and watered; the watering is to be continued every
    third or fourth day, until the plants have taken hold of the ground.
    During the rains, grass springs up with great rapidity, so as to
    render it impossible for one man to keep three acres (the quantity
    assigned by us) clean. This, however, is not necessary, if care be
    taken to make a golah round each plant, and keep it clear of weeds;
    these golahs ought always, in hill plantations where the ground is
    irregular, to be connected by small _khauls_ or channels, in order
    to make irrigation easy; by so doing too, water, if the supply be
    scanty, which often happens in the hills in the hot weather, will be
    economised.

               +-----------------------------------------+
               |  b                                   b  |
               |         a          a          a         | a Tea plant.
  Thus--       |         X----------X----------X         | b Bed
               |              c          c               | c Watercourse
               |  b                                   b  |
               +-----------------------------------------+

    We have already stated that 4½ square feet ought to be assigned to
    each plant. In China, according to Professor Royle, three to four
    feet are given; this, however, is too small a space to allow the
    plant to grow freely. After the tea plants are transplanted, it is
    not necessary to protect them.

    The best seasons for transplanting are towards the end of February,
    or as soon as the frost has ceased, and throughout March, and during
    the rains, and until the end or middle of November, depending on the
    season.

    In transplanting, four parties ought to be employed; viz., one
    person to dig holes, a second to remove plants, a third to carry
    them to the ground where they are required, and a fourth to plant.
    By this means, not only time is saved, but the plants have a much
    better chance, when thus treated, of doing well. When the seedling
    beds are extensive, so many of the plants ought not to be removed,
    that is, a plant left every 4½ feet, and these beds added to the
    plantation.

    _On pruning, best season and mode_.--The plants do not require to be
    pruned until the fifth year, as the plucking of leaves generally
    tends to make the plants assume the basket shape, the form most to
    be desired to procure the greatest quantity of leaves; if, however,
    the plants show a tendency to run into weed, from central branches
    being thrown out, this ought to be checked by removing the central
    stem. In the fourth year a quantity of the old and hard wood ought
    to be removed, to induce the plants to throw out more branches. The
    best season for pruning is from November to March.

    _On irrigation_.--To keep the tea-plants healthy, irrigation for two
    or three years is absolutely necessary, and no land ought to be
    selected for a tea plantation which cannot be irrigated.

    On the other hand, land liable to be flooded during the rains, and
    upon which water lies for any length of time, is equally detrimental
    to the growth of the plant. This applies to a small portion of the
    Kooasur plantation, which receives the drainage of the adjoining
    hills, and the soil being retentive, keeps the water. Deep trenches
    have been dug in order to drain it off--these, however, owing to the
    lowness of the surrounding country, act badly. Three successive
    seasons plants have been put into the ground, and as often have been
    destroyed on the setting in of the rains, showing the necessity of
    avoiding such kind of land for tea plantation.

    To facilitate irrigation, &c., as already stated, in the Deyrah
    Dhoon, I have limited the tea beds to three feet in breadth. This is
    particularly requisite in land so constituted as that of the Deyrah
    Dhoon, it being so porous, as mentioned by Major Cautley in his
    "Notes and Memoranda of Watercourses." This is caused by the
    superincumbent soil not being more than from one to three feet
    thick, in some places more, but varying exceedingly. Beneath this
    there is a bed of shingle of vast thickness, through which the water
    percolates; it is this that renders the sinking of wells so
    difficult in the Deyrah Dhoon, and which has tended so much to
    retard individuals from becoming permanent residents; at present
    there are many tracts of several thousand acres in that valley
    unoccupied from want of drinking water, as for instance, at
    Innesphaeel.

    Where the ground is very uneven, as is the case generally in the
    hills, the _khaul_ system, already recommended, ought to be adopted.

    _On the tea-plant; season of flowering, its characters and species,
    and on the advantages to be derived from importing seeds from
    China_.--From the importance of tea, as an article of commerce, the
    plant has attracted much attention; and from few qualified Europeans
    having travelled in the tea districts of China, there is much
    difference of opinion as to the number of species belonging to the
    genus Thea.

    In the government plantations in Kumaon and Gurwahl, the plants
    begin to flower about the end of August and beginning of September,
    or, as the seeds of the former year begin to ripen. They do not all
    come into flower at once, but some are in full blossom in September,
    others in October, November, December and January. Some throw out a
    second set of blossoms in March, April, and May, and during the
    rains; so that from the same plant unripe or ripe seeds and flowers
    may be collected at one and the same time.

    To the genus Thea, which belongs to the order Ternstræmiaceæ, the
    following characters have been ascribed: calyx persistent, without
    bracts, five-leaved, leaflets imbricated and generally of the same
    size. Petals of the corolla vary in number from five to nine,
    imbricated, the inner ones much the largest. Stamens numerous, in
    several rows adhering to the bottom of the petals. Filaments
    filiform. Anthers incumbent, two-celled, oblong, with a thickish
    connectivum. Cells opening longitudinally. Ovary free, three-celled;
    ovules four in each cell, inserted internally into the central
    angle, the upper ones ascending, the lower pendulous. Style trifid,
    stigmas three, acute. Capsule spheroidal, 1-7-lobed with loculicidal
    dehiscence, or with dessepiments formed from the turned-in edges of
    the valves. Seeds solitary, or two in cells, shell-like testa,
    marked with the ventral umbilicus. Cotyledons thick, fleshy, oily,
    no albumen. Radicle very short, very near the umbilicus centripetal.
    In the plantations there are two species, and two well marked
    varieties.

    The first is characterised by the leaves being of a pale-green
    colour, thin, almost membraneous, broad lanceolate, sinatures or
    edge irregular and reversed, length from three to six inches. The
    color of the stem of newly-formed shoots is of a pale-reddish
    colour, and green towards the end. This species is also marked by
    its strong growth, its erect stem, and the shoots being generally
    upright and stiff. The flowers are small, and its seeds but sparing.

    In its characters this plant, received from Assam, agrees in part
    with those assigned by Dr. Lettsom and Sir W. Hooker to the _Thea
    viridis_, but differs in its branches being stiff and erect. The
    flowers small, or rather much about the same size as the species
    about to be described, and not confined to the upper axils of the
    plant, and solitary, as stated by them.[10] By the Chinese
    manufacturers it is considered an inferior plant for making tea, it
    is not therefore grown to any extent.

    The second species is characterised by its leaves being much
    smaller, and not so broadly lanceolate; slightly waved, of a
    dark-green color, thick and coriaceous, sinature or edge irregular,
    length from one to three inches and a half. In its growth it is much
    smaller than the former, and throws out numerous spreading branches,
    and seldom presents its marked leading stem. This species,
    therefore, in the above characters, agrees much with those that have
    been assigned to _Thea Bohea_ by authors. The characters have been
    mixed up in an extraordinary manner. Thus it has been stated, that
    the _Thea viridis_ has large, strong growing, and spreading
    branches, and that _Thea Bohea_ is a smaller plant, with branches
    stiff and straight, and stem erect. No doubt the _Thea viridis_ is a
    much larger and stronger growing plant than the _Thea Bohea_, or
    rather the plant now existing in the different plantations is so;
    but in the former the branches are stiff and erect, and in the
    latter inclined and branches. The marked distinguishing characters
    between the two species are the coriaceous dark-green leaves in the
    _Thea Bohea_, and the large pale-green monhanæous leaves of the
    _Thea viridis_. The manner, too, of growth is very striking, and on
    entering the plantation the distinction is at once marked to the
    most unobservant eye. This species of _Thea Bohea_ forms nearly the
    whole of the plantations, and was brought from China by Dr. Gordon.

    In the plantations there is a third plant, which, however, can only
    be considered a marked variety of _Thea Bohea_. Its leaves are
    thick, coriaceous, and of dark-green color, but invariably very
    small, and not exceeding two inches in length, and thinly
    lanceolate; the serratures, too, on the edge, which are straight,
    are not so deep. In other characters it is identical. This marked
    variety was received from Calcutta at the plantation in a separate
    despatch from the others.

    But in addition to these there are, no doubt, many more varieties,
    and though it may be a fact that, in certain districts, green tea is
    manufactured from a species differing from that from which black tea
    is manufactured, yet, in other districts, green and black teas are
    manufactured from one and the same plant. The Chinese manufacturers
    now in Kumaon state that the plant is one and the same, and that it
    can be proved by converting black tea into green. In manufacturing
    teas now in the manufactory, if a large quantity of leaves are
    brought in from the plantations, one half are converted into green,
    and one half into black tea. This only shows that much of the green
    and black teas of commerce are manufactured from one and the same
    plant. The Assam plant is, from the characters given, quite a
    distinct plant, and agrees, as already stated, most nearly with the
    species described as _Thea viridis_. It would, therefore, be most
    desirable to procure seeds of this so-called species, and also of
    other varieties, of which, no doubt, there is a great variety. From
    the northern districts of China in particular, seeds ought to be
    imported, not, however, in large quantities, but in quantities of
    two or three seers, so that they might, on arrival at Calcutta, be
    sent up the country as quickly as possible, for, if the seeds are
    kept long out of the ground, not one will germinate; such was the
    fate of all the seeds contained in ten boxes imported by government
    in 1845, not one having germinated, which was much to be regretted.
    Had they been sent in small parcels, well packed in wax cloth, to
    prevent them from being injured by moisture, and placed in an airy
    part of the vessel in transmission from China to Calcutta, and, on
    arrival there, sent by dâwk banghay direct to the plantation, they
    would, I am confident, have reached in good condition. It is well
    worthy of a trial and seeds ought, if possible, to be obtained from
    every district celebrated for its teas. It is in this manner, by
    obtaining seeds of the finest varieties of plants, that the finest
    teas will be procured. I do not mean to infer that the tea plants
    now under cultivation are not the produce of fine varieties, for
    that has been proved by the undoubted testimony of the London
    brokers, but only that there are, no doubt, many others well worthy
    of introduction. In confirmation of what I have stated, I may quote
    the words of my late friend Dr. Griffith, who, in his report on the
    tea plant of Assam, says--"I now come to the consideration of the
    steps which, in my opinion, must be followed if any degree of
    success in the cultivation of tea is to be expected; of these the
    most important is the importation of Chinese seeds of
    unexceptionable quality, and of small numbers of their sorts."[11]
    Dr. Royle, too, who was the first person to point out that the
    Himalayas were well adapted to tea cultivation, and to whom the
    credit of recommending to government the introduction of the plant
    into Northern India is due, strongly urges the necessity of
    importing seeds from different localities in China celebrated for
    their teas.

    _Method and season for plucking and gathering leaves_.--The season
    for picking leaves commences in April and continues until October.
    The number of gatherings varies, depending on the moisture[12] or
    dryness of the season. If the season be good, as many as seven
    gatherings may be obtained. If, however, the rains are partial, only
    four or five. These, however, may be reduced to their general
    periods for gathering--that is, from April to June, from July to
    15th August, and from September to the end of October. But few
    leaves are collected after the 15th of the latter month. As soon as
    the new and young leaves have appeared in April, the plucking takes
    place, this being done by the Chinese, assisted by the Mallees. The
    following is the method adopted:--A certain division of the
    plantation is marked off, and to each man a small basket is given,
    with instructions to proceed to a certain point, so that no plant
    may be passed over. On the small basket being filled, the leaves are
    emptied into another large one, which is put in some shady place,
    and in which, when filled, they are conveyed to the manufactory. The
    leaves are generally plucked with the thumb and forefinger.
    Sometimes the terminal part of a branch, having four or five young
    leaves attached, is plucked off. All old leaves are rejected, as
    they will not curl, and therefore are of no use.

    As the season advances, and manufactory and plantation works become
    necessary, the Mallees are assisted in gathering leaves by Coolies.
    The process is simple, and thus every man, woman, and child of
    villages could be profitably employed, on the plantations being
    greatly extended. Certain kinds of leaves are not selected in the
    plantation, in order to make certain kinds of tea, but all new and
    fresh leaves are indiscriminately collected together, and the
    different kinds separated on the leaves being fired.

    _Method of manufacturing black tea_.--The young and fresh leaves on
    being picked (they only being used, the old ones being too hard, and
    therefore unfit to curl), are carried to the manufactory, and spread
    out in a large airy room to cool, and are there kept during the
    night, being occasionally turned with the hand if brought in in the
    afternoon; or, if brought in during the morning, they are allowed to
    lie until noon. Early in the morning the manufacturers visit the
    airing room, and pack up the leaves in baskets and remove them to
    the manufacturing room. Each manufacturer takes a basketful, and
    commences to beat them between the palms of his hands with a lateral
    motion, in order to soften and make them more pliable for working,
    and thus prevent them, when rolled, from breaking. This beating
    process continues for about an hour, and it may either consist of
    one or two processes; the Chinese sometimes finish the beating
    process at once; at others, they allow the leaves, after being beat
    for half an hour, to remain a time and then resume it. They now go
    to breakfast, and in one hour and a half the leaves are ready for
    the pan. The pans being heated by wood placed in the oven, so as to
    feel hot to the hands, are filled to about two-thirds, or about
    three seers of leaves are thrown in at a time--the quantity which a
    manufacturer is capable of lifting with both hands. With the hands
    the leaves are kept moving with a rotatory motion in the pan, and
    when they become very hot, the motion is kept up with a pair of
    forked sticks. This process is continued for three or four minutes,
    depending on the heat of the pan, or until the leaves feel hot and
    soft. They are then, with one sweep of a bamboo brush, swept into a
    basket, and thrown on to the rolling-table, which is covered with a
    coarse mat made of bamboo. Each manufacturer then takes as much as
    he can hold in both hands, and forms a ball and commences to roll it
    with all his might with a semicircular motion, which causes a
    greenish yellow juice to exude. This process is continued for three
    or four minutes, the balls being occasionally undone and made up
    again. The balls are then handed to another party at the extremity
    of the table, to undo them and spread the leaves out thinly on flat
    baskets and expose them to the sun, if there is any; if not they are
    kept in the manufactory. After all the leaves have gone through this
    process, the first baskets are brought back, and the leaves again
    transferred to the pan, worked up in a similar manner for the same
    length of time, re-transferred to the table, and again rolled. This
    being done, the leaves are again spread out on large flat baskets to
    cool. On being cooled the leaves are collected together and thinly
    spread out on flat wicker-worked sieve-baskets, which are placed in
    others of a deep and of a double-coned shape. The choolahs being
    lighted for some time, and the charcoal burning clear, they are now
    ready to receive the coned baskets. The basket is placed over the
    choolah and kept there for about five minutes. The leaves are then
    removed, re-transferred to the flat baskets, and re-rolled for a few
    minutes. This being done, the leaves are again brought together,
    placed in the conical basket and kept over the charcoal fire for
    about two minutes. The contents of the conical baskets are then all
    collected together in a heap, and as much is placed in a conical
    basket as it will hold, and it is again placed over the charcoal
    choolah until the tea is perfectly dry. During this time the baskets
    are frequently removed and the tea turned, in order to allow the
    leaves to be completely and uniformly dried, and the basket too is
    generally struck, on removal, a violent side blow with the hand, to
    remove from the sieve any small particles that might otherwise fall
    into the fire. Before removing the basket from the choolah, a flat
    basket is always placed on the floor to receive it, and all the
    particles which pass through, on the coned basket being struck, are
    again replaced. On the conical basket being filled, before placing
    it over the choolah, a funnel is made in the centre of the tea with
    the hand, to allow the heated air to pass through. Sometimes a
    funnel made of bamboo is made for this purpose. After the tea feels
    perfectly dry, it is packed in boxes, and sent to the godown.

    Next day the different kinds of tea are picked, and on being
    separated they are again placed in the conical baskets and heated.
    During this process the baskets are frequently removed from the
    choolah in order to turn the tea, so that the heating may be general
    and uniform. In doing this a flat basket is always placed on the
    floor, as on the former day (and a flat basket, too, is placed on
    the top to confine the heat), to receive the conical one, which
    receive one or two blows to open the pores of the sieve. What passes
    through is replaced amongst the tea. When it is perfectly dry it is
    ready for finally packing.

    The kinds of black tea at present manufactured are--Souchong,
    Pouchong, Flowery Pekoe, and Bohea. The Flowery Pekoe is
    manufactured in September.

    _Method of manufacturing Green Tea_.--On the young and fresh leaves
    being plucked they are spread out on the ground of the airing room
    and allowed to cool. After remaining for about two hours, or (if
    brought in late in the afternoon) during the night, they are removed
    to the green tea room. The pans being properly heated, the leaves,
    as in the case with the black tea, are thrown into the pans and kept
    either with the hand or two forked sticks in constant motion for
    three or four minutes, and are then removed to the rolling table,
    and then rolled in the same manner in balls as the black tea. They
    are then scattered most sparingly on large flat baskets and exposed
    to the heat of the sun. If there is no sun the baskets are arranged
    in frames, which are placed over the choolah, heated with charcoal.
    During the drying the leaves are frequently made into balls and
    rolled in the flat baskets, in order to extract the juice. The
    drying process continues for about two hours, and on the leaves
    becoming dry, those contained in two baskets are thrown together,
    and then four basketsful into one, and so on until they are all
    collected together. In this state the leaves still feel soft, damp,
    and pliant to the hand, and are now brought back to the tea
    manufacturing-room. Opposite to each of the inclined pans, which
    have been properly heated so as to feel warm to the hand by wood
    supplied to the ovens underneath, one of the Chinese stations
    himself, and puts as many leaves into it as it will hold. He then
    moves them in a heap gently, from before backward, making these
    perform a circle, and presses them strongly to the sides of the pan.
    As the leaves become hot he uses a flat piece of wood, in order that
    he may more effectually compress them. This process continues for
    about two hours, the leaves being compressed into at least half of
    their bulk, and become so dry that when pressed against the back
    part of the pan in mass, they again fall back in pieces. The tea, as
    by this time it has assumed this appearance, is now placed in a bag
    made of American drill or jean (the size depending on the quantity
    of tea), which is damped, and one end twisted with much force over a
    stick, and thus it is much reduced in size. After being thus
    powerfully compressed and beaten so as to reduce the mass as much as
    possible, the bag is exposed to the sun until it feels perfectly
    dry. If there is no sun it is placed in the heated pan, and there
    retained until it is so. This finishes the first day's process.

    On the second day it is placed in small quantities in the heated
    inclined pans, and moved up and down against the sides and bottom
    with the palm of the hand, which is made to perform a semi circle.
    This is continued for about six hours, and by so doing the colour of
    the tea is gradually brought out.

    The third day it is passed through sieve baskets of different
    dimensions, then exposed to the winnowing machine, which separates
    the different kinds of green teas. The winnowing machine is divided
    into a series of divisions, which receive the different kinds
    according to their size and weight. 1st. Coarsest Souchoo. This tea,
    owing to its coarseness, is not marketable. 2nd. Chounchoo. This is
    a large, round-grained tea. 3rd. Machoo. This is also a
    round-grained tea, but finer than the former. 4th. Hyson. 5th.
    Gunpowder Hyson. 6th. Chumat. This kind of tea consists of broken
    particles of other kinds of tea.

    On being separated, the different kinds are placed in baskets and
    picked by the hand, all the old or badly curled and also
    light-coloured leaves being removed, and others of different
    varieties, which by chance may have become mixed. To make the bad or
    light-colored leaves marketable, they undergo an artificial process
    of coloring, but this I have prohibited in compliance with the
    orders of the Court of Directors, and therefore do not consider this
    tea at present fit for the market[13]. On the different teas being
    properly picked, they are again placed in the heated inclined pans,
    and undergo separately the process of being moved violently up and
    down and along the bottom of the pan for three hours in the manner
    already described. The color is now fully developed. If the tea
    feels damp, it is kept longer than three hours in the pan. The tea
    is now ready to be packed.

    _Packing_.--As soon as the tea is prepared, boxes lined with sheet
    lead ought to be ready to receive it. On being packed it is to be
    firmly pressed down, and the lead is then to be soldered. Before the
    sheet lead box is placed in the wooden one it is covered with paper,
    which is pasted on to prevent any air acting on the tea through any
    holes which might exist in the lead. The box is then nailed, removed
    to the godown, papered, stamped, and numbered. It is then ready for
    sale.

    From what I have just stated, it will be perceived that box makers
    and sheet lead makers are essential to form a complete tea
    establishment. With reference to the box making it is unnecessary
    for me to make any remark, further than that care is to be taken in
    selecting wood for making boxes, as it ought to be free of all
    smell. All coniferous (pine) woods are therefore unfit for the
    purpose. In the hills the best woods are toon and walnut, and at
    Deyrah the saul (_Shorea Robusta_).

    _Manufacture of sheet lead_.--Sheet lead making is a much more
    complicated process, and therefore requires more consideration. To
    make sheet lead, the manufacturer mixes 1½ to 3 seers of block tin
    with a pucka maund of lead, and melts them together in a cast metal
    pan. On being melted, the flat stone slabs, under which it is his
    intention to run the lead, are first covered with ten or twelve
    sheets of smooth paper (the hill paper being well adapted to the
    purpose), which are pasted to the sides, and chalked over. He then
    places the under stone in a skeleton frame of wood, to keep it firm,
    and above it the other stone. On the upper stone the manufacturer
    sits, and gently raises it with his left hand, assisted by throwing
    the weight of his body backwards. With his right hand he fills an
    iron ladle with the molten matter, throws it under the raised slab,
    which he immediately compresses and brings forward (it having been
    placed back, and thus overlapping the under slab by about half an
    inch) with his own weight. On doing so, the superabundant lead
    issues in front and at both sides; what remains attached to the
    slabs is removed by the iron ladle. The upper slab is now lifted,
    and the sheet of lead examined. If it is devoid of holes it is
    retained; if, on the other hand, there are several, which is
    generally the case with the first two or three sheets run, or until
    the slabs get warm, it is again thrown back to the melting pan.
    After having run off a series of sheets the slabs are to be
    examined, and, if the paper is in the least burnt, the first sheet
    is to be removed, and the one underneath taking its place, and thus
    securing an uniform smooth surface, is then to be chalked. According
    to the size of the stone slabs used, so is the size of the sheet
    lead. Those now in use are 16 inches square by 2 inches in
    thickness, and are a composition, being principally formed of lime.

    To make sheet lead boxes, a model one of wood (a little smaller than
    the box for which the lead is intended) is formed, which has a hole
    in the bottom, and a transverse bar of wood to assist in lifting it
    up, instead of a lid. The lead is then shaped on this model and
    soldered. This being done, the model is removed by the transverse
    bar, and by pressing, if necessary, through the hole. The lead box
    is then papered over, in case there should be any small holes in it,
    to prevent the action of air on the tea, and, when dry, transferred
    to the wooden box for which it was intended.

    _The manufactory_.--The rooms of the manufactory ought to be large
    and airy, and to consist of--1st, a black tea manufactory; 2nd, a
    green tea manufactory; 3rd, winnowing room; and 4th, airing room. At
    Almorah the black tea manufacturing room is 53 feet long by 20
    broad, and the other three, 20 by 24. The walls are 18 feet in
    height.

    _Implements required in manufacturing_.--In the body of this report
    I have noticed all the different kinds of implements required, I may
    however, again briefly notice them, and give a short account of
    each. Cast-iron Pans--In the manufactory there are two kinds in use,
    one received from China, the other from England. Both are considered
    equally good by the tea manufacturers, though in firing green tea
    they prefer the Chinese ones, as they are thinner, and are thus by
    them better able to regulate the heat. The Chinese pans are two feet
    two inches in diameter, and 10 inches in depth, by about one-eighth
    of an inch in thickness.

    The English pans are two feet two inches in diameter, and eight
    inches in depth, and rather thicker than the Chinese.

    The oven for making black tea is made of kucha brick. In height it
    is two feet nine inches, in length, three feet, and in breadth three
    feet one inch. Door one foot five inches in height, and 11 inches in
    breadth. The base of the oven is 10 inches elevated above the floor
    of the manufacturing room.

    The oven with double pans for manufacturing green tea, is also built
    of kucha bricks. It is three feet in height and three feet in
    breadth; base of oven one foot in height. Door one foot six inches
    in height, and 10 inches in breadth. The pans are placed
    horizontally.

    A brush made of split bamboo, used in sweeping the tea leaves out of
    the pans.

    A basket for receiving tea from the pan when ready to be rolled. It
    is 2 feet long, and 1½ feet broad, and gradually increases in depth
    from before backwards to 6 inches. It is made of bamboo.

    The mat made of bamboo for placing on the table when the tea leaves
    are about to be rolled. It is 8 feet long and 4 feet broad.

    A flat basket made of bamboo for spreading out the tea leaves when
    they have been rolled on the mat. These flat baskets are of various
    sizes, varying from 3 to 5 feet in diameter.

    A flat sieve basket of 2 feet in diameter, made of bamboo, upon
    which the rolled tea leaves are placed, and which is deposited in
    the centre of the double-coned basket.

    Double-coned baskets. The height of these baskets varies from 2 feet
    2 inches to 2 feet 6 inches, external diameter 2 feet 8 inches. In
    the centre there are some pegs of bamboo to support the flat sieve
    basket on which the tea rests.

    Forked sticks for turning leaves.

    Choolahs. These are formed of kucha bricks, and are 10 inches high,
    10½ inches deep, and generally about 2 feet in diameter.

    Funnel made of bamboo to allow the heated air from the choolahs to
    pass through the tea; it is seldom used; the Chinese tea
    manufacturers preferring one made in the tea basket by the hand.

    Oven for firing green tea made of kucha bricks. The pans are
    inclined at an angle of 50. In front the oven is 3 feet 2 inches in
    height, behind 4 feet 8 inches, length 5½ feet, breadth 3 feet. Door
    10 inches from the base, 1 foot 2 inches high, and 7 inches wide.

    Frames for placing baskets. The first being inclined.

    Baskets for collecting leaves.

    Shovel, &c., used in regulating the fire.

    Winnowing machine. This is a common winnowing machine, with a box 2
    feet 10 inches in length, 1 foot 2 inches in breadth, and 1 foot 3
    inches in depth, attached to the bottom of the hopper, and closely
    fitted into the middle of the circular apartment which contains the
    fanners. This box is entirely closed above (unless at the small
    opening receiving the hopper) and at the sides. At the base there
    are two inclined boards which project from the side of the machine 6
    inches, and are partly separated from each other by angular pieces
    of wood. The end towards the fanners is open, the other is partly
    closed by a semicircular box which is moveable.

    I shall now give the dimensions of the different parts of this
    machine, which may be useful to parties wishing to make up similar
    ones to those employed in the manufactories.

    External frame 7 feet 2 inches in length, 18 inches in breadth, and
    5 feet 8 inches in height. Hopper 2 feet 10 inches above, and 1 foot
    8 inches in depth. Frame of box for fanners 3 feet 9 inches in
    diameter. Hopper frame 2 feet 7 inches. Semicircular box, in length
    2 feet 5 inches and 7 inches in depth. Inclined plane at base, first
    15 inches, second 13 inches.

    I may briefly state how this machine acts. With the right hand the
    fanners are propelled by the crank, and with the left hand the
    bottom of the hopper is opened by removing the wood. The flat piece
    of wood (the regulator) is held in the hand to regulate the quantity
    of tea that passes down. An assistant then throws a quantity of tea
    into the hopper which escapes through the apartment, and there meets
    the air. The first kind of tea falls down the inclined plane into
    one box which has been placed to receive them, the second are
    propelled further on, and fall into another box, and the lighter
    particles are propelled on to the semicircular end, and fall into a
    third box.

    _Note on the culture of the tea plant at Darjeeling, in 1847, by Dr.
    A. Campbell, Superintendant_.--About six years ago I received a few
    tea seeds from Dr. Wallich; they were of China stock, grown in
    Kumaon. I planted them in my garden in November, 1841, and had about
    a dozen seedlings in the month of May following, which were allowed
    to grow where they had come up, and rather close together. The
    plants were healthy from the commencement, and up to May, 1844, had
    grown very well; at this period the ground passed into other hands
    (Mr. Samuel Smith's), and I lost sight of them until last August,
    when Mr. Macfarlane, from Assam, who was acquainted with the tea
    plant in that province, arrived here. Being desirous of ascertaining
    how far the climate and soil of Darjeeling were suitable to the tea,
    I took him to examine the plants, and begged of him to record his
    opinion on their growth and qualities, with reference to their age,
    and his experience of the plant in Assam. The result was quite
    satisfactory. Encouraged by this result, I determined to give an
    extended trial to the plant, and through the kindness of Major
    Jenkins and Captain Brodie, of Assam, I procured a supply of fresh
    seed in October and November last, which was planted in November and
    the early part of December.

    The seed was of excellent quality. It commenced germinating in
    March, a few plants appeared above ground in the early part of May,
    and now I have upwards of 7,000 fine healthy seedlings in the
    plantation.

    For the information of those who may desire to try the tea culture
    in this soil and climate, I have to state the mode of planting
    pursued by me, and other particulars. The ground is a gentle sloping
    bank, facing the north and west; the soil is a reddish clay mixed
    with vegetable mould. After taking up a crop of potatoes, and
    carefully preparing the ground, I put in the seeds in rows six feet
    apart and six feet distance in the rows. The seeds were placed about
    three inches under the surface, five in number, at each place about
    four inches apart--thus : . : On an average, two out of five have
    come up. The seedlings commenced appearing above ground early in
    May, and continued to show until the end of July. The earliest were,
    therefore, six months in the ground; the latest about eight months.

    The seed was of China stock, grown in Assam, and of the Assam plant
    mixed. I am anxious to have the China stock only, and purpose
    separating the plants of the Assam stock as soon as I can
    distinguish them, which Captain Brodie informs me can be readily
    done as they grow up; the China plants begin of a darker color, and
    smaller than the Assam ones.

    I hope to have a supply of the seed of China stock from Kumaon next
    November, and with it to cause the extension of the experiment at
    this place.

    I think that it is reasonable to expect quite as good tea to be
    produced here as in Kumaon.[14] I have not tasted the Kumaon tea,
    but, from the opinion expressed on it in England, I am satisfied
    that it is a very drinkable beverage, and that with similar success
    here, the tea will be a valuable addition to our products. I have
    recently tried two kinds of the Assam tea presented by Mr. Stokes to
    a friend. They are excellent teas, and I shall be well content to
    have an equally good article manufactured here.

Mr. A. Macfarlane's report on the tea plants in Mr. Smith's ground is
annexed:--

    "According to your request I have the pleasure of transmitting you
    my opinion of the tea plants in your garden in this place. The two
    larger plants have made very good progress, considering their
    closeness to each other, which prevents them from throwing their
    branches freely in every direction, but as they have attained so
    great a size I would not recommend their being transplanted, because
    let it be done ever so carefully, the roots must receive more or
    less injury, and should the injury be great the death of the tree is
    certain.

    The smaller ones on the contrary are much stunted; this is caused by
    their confined situation, being completely choked up by the rose
    trees, which prevents their receiving a proper supply of light and
    air, so necessary to vegetation. They are also planted too closely,
    and, as the plants are still small, by availing yourself of the most
    favourable season, and using great care in the operation, they might
    he transplanted with safety, and should then be placed at a distance
    of not less than six feet apart. The difficulty of transplanting is
    occasioned by the depth to which the root penetrates, as it
    generally grows downwards, and in a large tree is principally in the
    subsoil. The larger plants should be pruned of their lower branches
    to allow a free current of air. This operation is generally
    performed in November, but any time during the cold season or before
    the rains, while the plant is at rest, would answer: as I have no
    knowledge of this climate, I would leave it to more experienced
    persons to judge of the proper season. To conclude, the plants are
    in a very healthy condition, and had they been in the hands of a
    cultivator, would now have been giving a very fair supply of
    produce.

    The small sample I tried was of a very good flavor, but on account
    of the defective manner of manufacture, for want of proper
    materials, no proper judgment can be formed." (Simmonds's Col. Mag.,
    vol. xvi. p. 44.)

Report upon the Tea Plantations of Deyra, Kumaon and Gurhwal, by
Robert Fortune, Esq., addressed to John Thornton, Esq., Secretary to
the Government, North Western Provinces, dated Calcutta, September
6th, 1851:--

    KAOLAGIR TEA PLANTATION.

    1. _Situation and extent_.--The Deyra Doon, or Valley of Deyra, is
    situated in latitude 3 deg. 18 min. north, and in longitude 78 deg.
    east. It is about 60 miles in length from east to west, and 16 miles
    broad at its widest part. It is bounded on the south by the Sewalick
    range of hills, and on the north by the Himalayas proper, which are
    here nearly 8,000 feet above the level of the sea. On the west it is
    open to the river Jumna, and on the east to the Ganges, the distance
    between these rivers being about 60 miles.

    In the centre of this flat valley, the Kaolagir tea plantation has
    been formed. Eight acres were under cultivation in 1847. There are
    now 300 acres planted, and about 90 more taken in and ready for many
    thousands of young plants raised lately from seeds in the
    plantation.

    2. _Soil and culture_.--The soil of this plantation is composed of
    clay, sand, and vegetable matter, rather stiff, and apt to get
    "baked" in dry weather, but free enough when it is moist or during
    the rains. It rests upon a gravelly subsoil, consisting of
    limestone, sandstone, clay-slate, and quartz rock, or of such rocks
    as enter into the composition of the surrounding mountain ranges.
    The surface is comparatively _flat_, although it falls in certain
    directions towards the ravines and rivers.

    The plants are arranged neatly in rows 6 feet apart, and each plant
    is about 4½ feet from its neighbour in the row. A long, rank-growing
    species of grass, indigenous to the Doon, is most difficult to keep
    from over-topping the tea-plants, and is the cause of much extra
    labor. Besides the labor common to all tea countries in China, such
    as weeding, and occasionally loosening the soil, there is here an
    extensive system of irrigation carried on. To facilitate this, the
    plants are planted in trenches, from four to six inches below the
    level of the ground, and the soil thus dug out is thrown between the
    rows to form the paths. Hence the whole of the plantation consists
    of numerous trenches of this depth, and five feet from centre to
    centre. At right angles with these trenches a small stream is fed
    from the canal, and, by opening or shutting their ends, irrigation
    can be carried on at the pleasure of the overseer.

    3. _Appearance and health of plants_.--The plants generally did not
    appear to me to be in that fresh and vigorous condition which I had
    been accustomed to see in good Chinese plantations. This, in my
    opinion, is caused, 1st, by the plantation being formed on _flat
    land_; 2nd, by the system of _irrigation_; 3rd, by too early
    plucking; and 4th, by hot drying winds, which are not unfrequent in
    this valley from April to the beginning of June.


    GUDDOWLI PLANTATION (NEAR PAORIE).

    1. _Situation and extent_.--This plantation is situated in the
    Province of Eastern Gurhwal, in latitude 30 deg. 8 min. north, and
    in longitude 78 deg. 45 min. east. It consists of a large tract of
    terraced land, extending from the bottom of a valley or ravine to
    more than 1,000 feet up the sides of the mountain. Its lowest
    portion is about 4,300 feet, and its highest 5,300 feet above the
    level of the sea; the surrounding mountains appear to be from 7,000
    to 8,000. The plantation has not been measured, but there are,
    apparently, fully one hundred acres under cultivation.

    There are about 500,000 plants already planted, besides a large
    number of seedlings in beds ready for transplanting. About 3,400 of
    the former were planted in 1844, and are now in full bearing; the
    greater portion of the others are much younger, having been planted
    out only one, two, and three years.

    2. _Soil and culture_.--The soil consists of a mixture of loam,
    sand, and vegetable matter, is of a yellow colour, and is most
    suitable for the cultivation of the tea-plant. It resembles greatly
    the soil of the test tea districts in China. A considerable quantity
    of stones are mixed with it, chiefly small pieces of clay-slate, of
    which the mountains here are composed. Large tracts of equally good
    land, at present covered with jungle, are available in this district
    without interfering in any way with the rights of the settlers.

    I have stated that this plantation is formed on the hill side. It
    consists of a succession of terraces, from the bottom to the top, on
    which the tea bushes are planted. In its general features it is very
    like a Chinese tea plantation, although one rarely sees tea lands
    terraced in China. This, however, may be necessary in the Himalayas,
    where the rains fall so heavily. Here, too, the system of irrigation
    is carried on, although to a small extent only, owing to the
    scarcity of water during the dry season.

    3. _Appearance and health of plants_.--This plantation is a most
    promising one, and I have no doubt will be very valuable in a few
    years. The plants are growing admirably, and evidently like their
    situation. Some of them are suffering slightly from the effects of
    hard-plucking, like those at Kaolagir; but this can easily be
    avoided in their future management. Altogether, it is in a most
    satisfactory condition, and shows how safe it is in matters of this
    kind to follow the example of the Chinese cultivator, who never
    makes his tea plantations on _low rice land, and never irrigates_.


    HAWULBAUGH PLANTATION (NEAR ALMORAH).

    _1st. Situation and extent_.--This tea farm is situated on the banks
    of the river Kosilla, about six miles north-west from Almorah, the
    capital of Kumaon. It is about 4,500 feet above the level of the
    sea. The land is of an undulating character, consisting of gentle
    slopes and terraces, and reminded me of some of the best tea
    districts in China. Indeed, the hills themselves, in this part of
    the Himalayas, are very much like those of China, being barren near
    their summit and fertile on their lower sides.

    Thirty-four acres of land are under tea cultivation here, including
    the adjoining farm of Chullar. Some of the plants appear to have
    been planted in 1844; but, as at Paorie, the greater number are only
    from one to three years old.

    2_nd. Soil and culture_.--The soil is what is usually called a sandy
    loam; it is moderately rich, being well mixed with vegetable matter.
    It is well suited for tea cultivation. The greater part of the farm
    is terraced as at Guddowli, but some few patches are left in natural
    slopes in accordance with the Chinese method. Irrigation is
    practised to a limited extent.

    3_rd. Appearance and health of the plants_.--All the young plants
    here are in robust health and are growing well, particularly where
    they are growing on land where water cannot flood or injure them. As
    examples of this, I may point out a long belt between Dr. Jameson's
    house and the flower garden, and also a piece of ground a little
    below the house in which the Chinese manufacturers live. Some few of
    the older bushes appear rather stunted; but this is evidently the
    result of water remaining stagnant about the roots, and partly also
    of over plucking; both defects, however, admit of being easily
    cured.


    LUTCHMISSER AND KUPPEENA PLANTATIONS.

    1_st. Situation and extent_.--These plantations are on the hill side
    near Almorah, and about 5,000 feet above the level of the sea. The
    situation is somewhat steep, but well adapted to the growth of tea.
    The former contains three acres, and the latter four acres under
    cultivation.

    2_nd. Soil and culture_.---The soil is light and sandy, and much
    mixed with particles of clay-slate, which have crumbled down from
    the adjoining rocks. I believe these plantations are rarely
    irrigated, and the land is steep enough to prevent any stagnant
    water from remaining about the roots of the plants.

    3_rd. Appearance and health of plants_.--Most of the bushes here are
    fully grown, and in full bearing, and generally in good health. On
    the whole, I consider these plantations in excellent order.


    BHEEMTAL PLANTATIONS.

    The lake of Bheemtal is situate in latitude 29 deg. 20 min. north,
    and in longitude 79 deg. 30 min. east. It is 4,000 feet above the
    level of the sea, and some of the surrounding mountains are said to
    be 8,000 feet. These form the southern chain of the Himalayas, and
    bound the vast plain of India, of which a glimpse can be had through
    the mountain passes. Amongst these hills there are several _tals_ or
    lakes, some flat meadow-looking land, and gentle undulating slopes,
    while higher up we have steep and rugged mountains. It is amongst
    these hills, that the Bheemtal tea plantations have been formed.
    They may be classed under three heads, viz.--

    1_st. Anoo and Kooasur plantations_.--These adjoin each other, are
    both formed _on low flat land_, and together cover about forty
    acres. The plants do not seem healthy or vigorous; many of them have
    died out, and few are in that state which tea plants ought to be in.
    Such situations never ought to be chosen for tea cultivation. The
    same objection applies to these as to those at Deyra, but in a
    greater degree. No doubt, with sufficient drainage, and great care
    in cultivation, and the tea plant might be made to exist in such a
    situation; but I am convinced it would never grow with that
    luxuriance which is necessary in order to render it a profitable
    crop. _Besides, such lands are valuable for other purposes_. They
    are excellent rice lands, and as such of considerable value to the
    natives.

    2_nd. Bhurtpoor plantation_.--This plantation covers about four and
    a half acres of terraced land on the hill side, a little to the
    eastward of those last noticed. The soil is composed of a light
    loam, much mixed with small pieces of clay-slate and trap or
    green-stone, of which the adjacent rocks are composed. It contains a
    small portion of vegetable matter or _humus_. Both the situation and
    soil of this plantation are well adapted to the requirements of the
    tea shrub, and consequently we find it succeeding here as well as at
    Guddowli, Hawulbaugh, Almorah, and other places where it is planted
    on the slopes of the hills.

    3_rd. Russia plantation_.--This plantation extends over seventy-five
    acres, and is formed on sloping land. The elevation is somewhat less
    than Bhurtpoor, and although terraced in the same way, the angle is
    much lower. In some parts of the farm the plants are doing well, but
    generally they seemed to be suffering from too much water and hard
    plucking. I have no doubt, however, of the success of this farm,
    when the system of cultivation is improved. I observed some most
    vigorous and healthy bushes in the overseer's garden, a spot
    adjoining the plantation, which could not be irrigated, and was
    informed they "never received any water, except that which fell from
    the skies."

    In the Bheemtal district, there are large tracts of excellent tea
    land. In crossing over the hills towards Nainee Tal, with J.H.
    Batten, Esq., Commissioner of Kumaon, I pointed out many tracts
    admirably adapted for tea cultivation, and of no great value to the
    natives; generally, those lands on which the mundoca is cultivated
    are the most suitable.

    I have thus described all the Government plantations in Gurhwal and
    Kumaon. Dr. Jameson, the superintendent, deserves the highest praise
    for the energy and perseverance with which he has conducted his
    operations. I shall now notice the plantations of the zemindars,
    under the superintendence of the commissioner and
    assistant-commissioner of Kumaon and Gurhwal.


    ZEMINDAREE TEA PLANTATIONS.

    1_st, at Lohba_.--This place is situated in eastern Gurhwal, about
    50 miles to the westward of Almorah, and is at an elevation of 5,000
    feet above the level of the sea. It is one of the most beautiful
    spots in this part of the Himalayas. The surrounding mountains are
    high, and in some parts precipitous, while in others they are found
    consisting of gentle slopes and undulations. On these undulating
    slopes, there is a great deal of excellent land suitable for tea
    cultivation. A few tea bushes have been growing vigorously for some
    years in the commissioner's garden, and they are now fully ten feet
    in height. These plants having succeeded so well, naturally induced
    the authorities of the province to try this cultivation upon a more
    extensive scale. It appears that in 1844, about 4,000 young plants
    were obtained from the Government plantations, and planted on a
    tract of excellent land, which the natives wished to abandon.
    Instead of allowing the people to throw up their land, they were
    promised it rent-free upon the condition that they attended to the
    cultivation of the tea, which had been planted on a small portion of
    the ground attached to the village.

    This arrangement seems to have failed either from want of knowledge,
    or from design, or perhaps partly from both of these causes. More
    lately, a larger number of plants have been planted, but I regret to
    say with nearly the same results.

    But results of this discouraging kind are what any one, acquainted
    with the nature of the tea plant, could have easily foretold, had
    the treatment, intended to be given it, been explained to him. Upon
    enquiry, I found the villagers had been managing the tea lands just
    as they had been doing their rice fields, that is, a regular system
    of irrigation was practised. As water was plentiful, a great number,
    indeed nearly all, the plants seem to have perished from this cause.
    The last planting alluded to had been done late in the spring, and
    just at the commencement of the dry weather, and to these plants
    little or no water seems to have been given; so that, in fact, it
    was going from one extreme to another equally bad, and the result
    was of course nearly the same.

    I have no hesitation in saying that the district in question is well
    adapted for the cultivation of tea. With judicious management, a
    most productive farm might be established here in four or five
    years. Land is plentiful, and of little value either to the natives
    or to the Government.

    2_nd, at Kutoor_.--This is the name of a large district 30 or 40
    miles northward from Almorah, in the centre of which the old town or
    village of Byznath stands. It is a fine undulating country,
    consisting of wide valleys, gentle slopes, and little hills, while
    the whole is intersected by numerous streams, and surrounded by high
    mountains. The soil of this extensive district is most fertile, and
    is capable of producing large crops of rice, on the low irrigable
    lands, and the dry grains and tea on the sides of the hills. From
    some cause, however, either the thinness of population or _the want
    of a remunerative crop_,[15] large tracts of this fertile district
    have been allowed to go out of cultivation. Everywhere I observed
    ruinous and jungle-covered terraces, which told of the more extended
    cultivation of former years.

    Amongst some hills near the upper portion of this district, two
    small tea plantations have been formed under the patronage and
    superintendence of Captain Ramsey, Senior Assistant Commissioner of
    Kumaon. Each of them cover three or four acres of land, and had been
    planted about a year before the time of my visit. In this short
    space of time the plants had grown into nice strong bushes, and were
    in the highest state of health. I never saw, even in the most
    favoured districts in China, any plantations looking better than
    these. This result, Captain Ramsay informed me, had been attained in
    the following simple manner:--All the land attached to the two
    villages with which the tea farms are connected, is exempted from
    the revenue tax, a sum amounting only to 525 Rs. per annum. In lieu
    of this, the assamees (cultivators) of both villages assist with
    manure, and at the transplanting season, as well as ploughing and
    preparing fresh land. In addition to this, one chowdree and four
    prisoners are constantly employed upon the plantations. The chief
    reason of the success of these plantations, next to that of the land
    being well suited for tea cultivation, may, no doubt, be traced to a
    good system of management; that is, the young plants have been
    carefully transplanted at the proper season of the year, when the
    air was charged with moisture, and they have not been destroyed by
    excessive irrigation afterwards. The other zemindaree plantation at
    Lohba might have been now in full bearing had the same system been
    followed.

    From the description thus given, it will be observed that I consider
    the Kutoor plantations in a most flourishing condition. And I have
    no doubt they will continue to flourish, and soon convince the
    zemindars of the value of tea cultivation, providing three things,
    intimately connected with the success of the crop are strongly
    impressed upon their minds; viz., the unsuitableness of low wet
    lands for tea cultivation; the folly of irrigating tea as they would
    do rice, and the impropriety of commencing the plucking before the
    plants are strong, and of considerable size. I am happy to add, that
    amongst these hills there are no foolish prejudices in the minds of
    the natives against the cultivation of tea. About the time of my
    visit, a zemindar came and begged two thousand plants, to enable him
    to commence tea growing on his own account.

    It is of great importance, that the authorities of a district, and
    persons of influence, should show an interest in a subject of this
    kind. At present the natives do not know its value; but they are as
    docile as children, and will enter willingly upon tea cultivation,
    providing the "Sahib" shows that he is interested in it. In a few
    years the profits received will be a sufficient inducement.

    In concluding this part of my Report, I beg to suggest the propriety
    of obtaining some of the _best varieties_ of the tea plant which
    have been introduced lately into the government plantations from
    China. Dr. Jameson could, no doubt, spare a few, but they ought to
    be given to those zemindars only who have succeeded with the
    original variety.

    Having described in detail the various government plantations, and
    also those of the zemindars which came under my notice in the
    Himalayas, I shall now make some general remarks upon the
    cultivation of tea in India, and offer some suggestions for its
    improvement.


    GENERAL REMARKS.

    1. _On land and cultivation_.--From the observations already made
    upon the various tea farms which I have visited in the Himalayas, it
    will be seen that I do not approve of _low flat lands_ being
    selected for the cultivation of the tea shrub. In China, which at
    present must be regarded as the model tea country, the plantations
    are never made in such situations, or they are so rare as not to
    have come under my notice. In that country they are usually formed
    on the lower slopes of the hills, that is, in such situations as
    those at Guddowli, Hawulbaugh, Almorah, Kutoor, &c., in the
    Himalayas. It is true that in the fine green tea country of
    Hwuy-chow, in China, near the town of Tunche, many hundred acres of
    flattish land are under tea cultivation. But this land is close to
    the hills, which jut out into it in all directions, and it is
    intersected by a river whose banks are usually from 15 to 20 feet
    above the level of the stream itself, not unlike those of the Ganges
    below Benares. In fact, it has all the advantages of hilly land such
    as the tea plant delights in. In extending the Himalaya plantation
    this important fact ought to be kept in view.

    There is no scarcity of such land in these mountains, more
    particularly in Eastern Gurhwal and Kumaon. It abounds in the
    districts of Paorie, Kunour, Lohba, Almorah, Kutoor, and Bheemtal,
    and I was informed by Mr. Batten, that there are large tracts about
    Gungoli and various other places equally suitable. Much of this land
    is out of cultivation, as I have already stated, while the
    cultivated portions yield on an average only two or three annas per
    acre of revenue.

    Such lands are of less value to the zemindars than low rice land,
    where they can command a good supply of water for irrigation. But I
    must not be understood to recommend poor worn out hill lands for tea
    cultivation,--land on which nothing else will grow. Nothing is
    further from my meaning. Tea in order to be profitable requires a
    good sound soil,--a light loam, well mixed with sand and vegetable
    matter, moderately moist, and yet not stagnant or sour. Such a soil,
    for example, as on these hill sides produces good crops of mundooa,
    wheat or millet, is well adapted for tea. It is such lands which I
    have alluded to as abounding in the Himalayas, and which are, at
    present, of so little value either to the Government, or to the
    natives themselves.

    _The system of Irrigation_ applied to tea in India is never
    practised in China. I did not observe it practised in any of the
    great tea countries which I visited. On asking the Chinese
    manufacturers whom I brought round, and who had been born and
    brought up in these districts, whether they had seen such a
    practice, they all replied, "_no, that is the way we grow rice: we
    never irrigate tea_." Indeed, I have no hesitation in saying that,
    in nine cases out of ten, the effects of irrigation are most
    injurious. When tea will not grow without irrigation, it is a sure
    sign that the land employed is not suitable for such a crop. It is
    no doubt an excellent thing to have a command of water in case of a
    long drought, when its agency might be useful in saving a crop which
    would otherwise fail, but irrigation ought to be used only in such
    emergent cases.

    I have already observed that good tea land is naturally moist,
    although not stagnant; and we must bear in mind that the tea shrub
    is _not a water plant_, but is found in a wild state on the sides of
    hills. In confirmation of these views, it is only necessary to
    observe further, that all the _best Himalayan plantations are those
    to which irrigation has been most sparingly applied_.

    In cultivating the tea shrub, much injury is often done to a
    plantation by _plucking leaves from very young plants_. In China
    young plants are never touched until the third or fourth year after
    they have been planted. If growing under favorable circumstances,
    they will yield a good crop after that time. All that ought to be
    done, in the way of plucking or pruning before that time, should be
    done with a view to _form the plants_, and make them _bushy_ if they
    do not grow so naturally. If plucking is commenced too early and
    continued, the energies of the plants are weakened, and they are
    long in attaining any size, and consequently there is a great loss
    of produce in a given number of years. To make this more plain, I
    will suppose a bush that has been properly treated to be eight years
    of age. It may then be yielding from two to three pounds of tea per
    annum, while another of the same age, but not a quarter of the size,
    from over-plucking, is not giving more than as many ounces.

    The same remarks apply also to plants which become unhealthy from
    any cause; leaves ought never to be taken from such plants; the
    gatherers should have strict orders to pass them over until they get
    again into a _good state_ of health.

    2_nd. On climate_.--I have already stated that eastern Gurhwal and
    Kumaon appear to me to be the most suitable for the cultivation of
    the tea plant in this part of the Himalayas. My remarks upon climate
    will therefore refer to this part of the country.

    From a table of temperature kept at Hawulbaugh from November 28th,
    1850, to July 13th, 1851, obligingly furnished me by Dr. Jameson, I
    observed that the climate here is extremely mild. During the winter
    months, the thermometer [Fahr.] at sunrise was never lower than 44
    deg., and only on two occasions so low, namely on the 15th and 16th
    of February, 1851. Once it stood so high as 66 deg. on the morning
    of February 4th, but this is full ten degrees higher than usual. The
    minimum in February must, however, be several degrees lower than is
    shown by this table, for ice and snow were not unfrequent; indeed,
    opposite the 16th of February in the column of remarks, I find
    written down _a very frosty morning_. This discrepancy no doubt
    arises either from a bad thermometer being used, or from its being
    placed in a sheltered verandah. We may, therefore, safely mark the
    minimum as 32 deg. instead of 44 degrees.

    The month of June appears to be the hottest in the year. I observe
    the thermometer on the 5th, 6th and 7th of that month stood at 92
    deg. at 3 P.M., and this was the highest degree marked during the
    year. The lowest, at this hour, during the month was 76 deg., but
    the general range in the 3 P.M. column of the table is from 80 deg.
    to 90 degrees.

    _The wet and dry seasons_ are not so decided in the hills as they
    are in the plains. In January, 1861, it rained on five days and ten
    nights, and the total quantity of rain which fell, as indicated by
    the rain gauge, during this month, was 5.25 inches; in February,
    3.84 fell; in March, 2.11; in April, 2.24; in May, none; and in June
    6.13. In June there are generally some days of heavy rain, called by
    the natives Chota Bursaut, or small rains, after this there is an
    interval of some days of dry weather before the regular "rainy
    season" commences. This season comes on in July and continues until
    September. October and November are said to be beautiful months with
    a clear atmosphere and cloudless sky. After this fogs are frequent
    in all the valleys until spring.

    In comparing the climate of these provinces with that of China,
    although we find some important difference, yet upon the whole there
    is a great similarity. My comparisons apply, of course, to the best
    tea districts only, for although the tea shrub is found cultivated
    from Canton in the south to Tan-chowpoo in Shan-tung, yet the
    provinces of Fokein, Kainsee and the southern parts of Kiangnan,
    yield nearly all the finest teas of commerce.

    The town of Tsong-gan, one of the great black tea towns near the far
    famed Woo-e-shan, is situated in latitude 27 deg. 47 min, north.
    Here the thermometer in the hottest months, namely in July and
    August, rarely rises above 100 deg. and ranges from 92 deg. to 100
    deg., as maximum; while in the coldest months, December and January,
    it sinks to the freezing point and sometimes a few degrees lower. We
    have thus a close resemblance in temperature between Woo-e-shan and
    Almorah, The great green tea district being situated two degrees
    further north, the extremes of temperature are somewhat greater. It
    will be observed, however, that while the hottest month in the
    Himalayas is June, in China the highest temperature occurs in July
    and August: this is owing to the rainy season taking place earlier
    in China than it does in India.

    In China rain falls in heavy and copious showers in the end of
    April, and these rains continue at intervals in May and June. The
    first gathering of tea-leaves, those from which the Pekoe is made,
    is scarcely over before the air becomes charged with moisture, rain
    falls, and the bushes being thus placed in such favourable
    circumstances for vegetating are soon covered again with young
    leaves, from which the main crop of the season is obtained.

    No one, acquainted with vegetable physiology, can doubt the
    advantages of such weather in the cultivation of tea for mercantile
    purposes. And these advantages, to a certain extent at least, seem
    to be extended to the Himalayas, although the regular rainy season
    is later than in China. I have already shown, from Dr Jameson's
    table, that spring showers are frequent in Kumaon, although rare in
    the plains of India; still, however, I think it would be prudent to
    adopt the gathering of leaves to the climate, that is to take a
    moderate portion from the bushes before the rains, and the main crop
    after they have commenced.

    _3rd. On the vegetation of China and the Himalayas_. One of the
    surest guides from which to draw conclusions, on a subject of this
    nature, is found in the indigenous vegetable productions of the
    countries. Dr. Royle, who was the first to recommend the cultivation
    of tea in the Himalayas, drew his conclusions, in the absence of
    that positive information from China which we possess now, not only
    from the great similarity in temperature between China and these
    hills, but also from the resemblance in vegetable productions. This
    resemblance is certainly very striking. In both countries, except in
    the low valleys of the Himalayas (and these we are not considering),
    tropical forms are rarely met with. If we take trees and shrubs, for
    example, we find such genera as pinus, cypress, berberis, quercus,
    viburnam, indigofera, and romeda, lonicera, deutzia, rubus, myrica,
    spiræ, ilex, and many others common to both countries.

    Amongst herbaceous plants we have gentiana, aquilegia, anemone,
    rumex, primula, lilium, loutodon, ranunculus, &c. equally
    distributed in the Himalayas and in China, and even in aquatics the
    same resemblance may be traced, as in nelumbium, caladium &c. And
    further than this, we do not find plants belong to the same genera
    only, but in many instances the identical species are found in both
    countries. The indigofera, common in the Himalayas, abounds also on
    the tea hills of China, and so does _Berberis nepaulencis_,
    _Lonicera diversifolia_, _Myrica sapida_, and many others.

    Were it necessary, I might now show that there is a most striking
    resemblance between the geology of the two countries as well as in
    their vegetable productions. In both the black and green tea
    countries which I have alluded to, clay-slate is most abundant. But
    enough has been advanced to prove how well many parts of the
    Himalayas are adapted for the cultivation of tea; besides, the
    flourishing condition of many of the plantations is, after all, the
    best proof, and puts the matter beyond all doubt.

    _4th. Concluding Suggestions_.--Having shown that tea can be grown
    in the Himalayas, and that it would produce a valuable and
    remunerative crop, the next great object appears to be the
    production of superior tea, by means of fine varieties and improved
    cultivation. It is well known that a variety of the tea plant
    existed in the southern parts of China from which inferior teas only
    were made. That, being more easily procured than the fine northern
    varieties, from which the great mass of the best teas are made, was
    the variety originally sent to India. From it all those in the
    Government plantations have sprung.

    It was to remedy this, and to obtain the best varieties from those
    districts which furnish the trees of commerce, that induced the
    Honourable Court of Directors to send me to China in 1848. Another
    object was to obtain some good manufacturers and implements from the
    same districts. As the result of this mission, nearly twenty
    thousand plants from the best black and green tea countries of
    Central China, have been introduced to the Himalayas. Six first-rate
    manufacturers, two lead men, and a large supply of implements from
    the celebrated Hwuy-chow districts were also brought round and
    safely located on the Government plantations in the hills.

    A great step has thus been gained towards the objects in view. Much,
    however, remains still to be done. The new China plants ought to be
    carefully propagated and distributed over all the plantations; some
    of them ought also to be given to the zemindars, and more of these
    fine varieties might be yearly imported from China.

    The Chinese manufacturers, who were obtained some years since from
    Calcutta or Assam, are, in my opinion, far from being first-rate
    workmen; indeed, I doubt much if any of them learned their trade in
    China. They ought to be gradually got rid of and their places
    supplied by better men, for it is a great pity to teach the natives
    an inferior method of manipulation. The men brought round by me are
    first-rate green tea makers, they can also make black tea, but they
    have not been in the habit of making so much black as green. They
    have none of the Canton illiberality or prejudices about them, and
    are most willing to teach their art to the natives. I have no doubt
    some of the latter will soon be made excellent tea manufacturers.
    And the instruction of the natives is, no doubt, one of the chief
    objects which ought to be kept in view, for the importation of
    Chinese manipulators at high wages can only he regarded as a
    temporary measure; ultimately the Himalayan tea must be made by the
    natives themselves; each native farmer must learn how to make tea
    as well as how to grow it; he will then make it upon his own
    premises, as the Chinese do, and the expenses of carriage will be
    much less than if the green leaves had to be taken to the market.

    But as the zemindars will be able to grow tea long before they are
    able to make it, it would be prudent, in the first instance, to
    offer them a certain sum for green leaves brought to the government
    manufactory.

    I have pointed out the land most suitable for the cultivation of
    tea, and shown that such land exists in the Himalayas to an almost
    unlimited extent. But if the object the government have in view be
    the establishment of a company to develop the resources of these
    hills, as in Assam, I would strongly urge the propriety of
    concentrating, as much as possible, the various plantations. Sites
    ought to be chosen which are not too far apart, easy of access, and,
    if possible, near rivers; for, no doubt, a considerable portion of
    the produce would have to be conveyed to the plains or to a
    sea-port.

    In my tour amongst the hills, I have seen no place so well adapted
    for a central situation as Almorah, or Hawulbaugh. Here the
    government has already a large establishment, and tea lands are
    abundant in all directions. The climate is healthy, and better
    suited to a European constitution than most other parts of India.
    Here plants from nearly all the temperate parts of the world are
    growing as if they were at home. As examples, I may mention myrtles,
    pomegranates, and tuberoses from the south of Europe; dahlias,
    potatoes, aloes, and yuccas from America; Melianthus major and bulbs
    from the Cape; the cypress and deodar of the Himalayas, and the
    lagerstroemias, loquats, roses and tea of China.

    In these days, when tea has become almost a necessary of life to
    England and her wide-spreading colonies, its production upon a large
    and cheap scale is an object of no ordinary importance. But to the
    natives of India themselves, the production of this article would be
    of the greatest value. The poor _paharie_, or hill farmer, at
    present has scarcely the common necessaries of life, and certainly
    none of its luxuries. The common sorts of grain which his lands
    produce will scarcely pay the carriage to the nearest market town,
    far less yield a profit of such a kind as will enable him to
    purchase some few of the necessary and simple luxuries of life. A
    common blanket has to serve him for his covering by day and for his
    bed at night, while his dwelling-house is a mere mud-hut, capable of
    affording but little shelter from the inclemency of the weather.
    Were part of these lands producing tea, he would then have a healthy
    beverage to drink, besides a commodity which would be of great value
    in the market. Being of small bulk compared with its value, the
    expense of carriage would be trifling, and he would return home with
    the means in his pocket of making himself and his family more
    comfortable and more happy.

    Were such results doubtful, we have only to look across the
    frontiers of India into China. Here we find tea one of the
    necessaries of life, in the strictest sense of the word. A Chinese
    never drinks cold water, which he abhors, and considers unhealthy.
    Tea is his favorite beverage from morning until night; not what we
    call tea, mixed with milk and sugar, but the essence of the herb
    itself, drawn out in pure water. One acquainted with the habits of
    this people can scarcely conceive the idea of the Chinese empire
    existing were it deprived of the tea plant; and I am sure that the
    extensive use of this beverage adds much to the health and comfort
    of the great body of the people.

    The people of India are not unlike the Chinese in many of their
    habits. The poor of both countries eat sparingly of animal food, and
    rice, with other grains and vegetables, form the staple articles on
    which they live; this being the case, it is not at all unlikely the
    Indian will soon acquire a habit which is so universal in the sister
    country. But in order to enable him to drink tea, it must be
    produced at a cheap rate; he cannot afford to pay at the rate of
    four or six shillings a pound. It must be furnished to him at four
    _pence_ or six _pence_ instead; and this can be done easily, but
    only on his own hills. If this is accomplished, and I see no reason
    why it should not be, a boon will have been conferred upon the
    people of India, of no common kind, and one which an enlightened and
    liberal government may well be proud of conferring on its subjects."

I shall now add a description of the Chinese method of making black
tea in Upper Assam, by Mr. C.A. Bruce, superintendent of tea
culture:--

    "In the first place, the youngest and most tender leaves are
    gathered; but when there are many hands and a great quantity of
    loaves to be collected, the people employed nip off with the
    forefinger and thumb the fine end of the branch, with about four
    leaves on, and sometimes even more if they look tender. These are
    all brought to the place where they are to be converted into tea:
    they are then put into a large, circular, open worked bamboo basket,
    having a rim all round, two fingers broad. The leaves are thinly
    scattered in these baskets, and then placed in a framework of
    bamboo, in all appearance like the sides of an Indian hut, without
    grass, resting on posts, 2 feet from the ground, with an angle of
    about 25 deg. The baskets with leaves are put in this frame to dry
    in the sun, and are pushed up and brought down by a long bamboo with
    a circular piece of wood at the end. The leaves are permitted to dry
    about two hours, being occasionally turned; but the time required
    for this process depends on the heat of the sun. When they begin to
    have a slightly withered appearance, they are taken down and brought
    into the house, when they are placed on a frame to cool for half an
    hour; they are then put into smaller baskets of the same kind as the
    former, and placed on a stand. People are now employed to soften the
    leaves still more, by gently clapping them between their hands, with
    their fingers and thumbs extended, and tossing them up and letting
    them fall, for about five or ten minutes. They are then again put on
    the frame during half an hour, and brought down and clapped with the
    hands as before. This is done three successive times, until the
    leaves become to the touch like soft leather; the beating and
    putting away being said to give the tea the black color and bitter
    flavor. After this the tea is put into hot cast-iron pans, which are
    fixed in a circular mud fireplace, so that the flame cannot ascend
    round the pan to incommode the operator. This pan is well heated by
    a straw or bamboo fire to a certain degree. About two pounds of the
    leaves are then put into each hot pan, and spread in such a manner
    that all the leaves may get the same degree of heat. They are every
    now and then briskly turned with the naked hand, to prevent a leaf
    from being burnt. When the leaves become inconveniently hot to the
    hand, they are quickly taken out and delivered to another man with a
    close-worked bamboo basket, ready to receive them. A few leaves that
    may have been left behind are smartly brushed out with a bamboo
    broom: all this time a brisk fire is kept up under the pan. After
    the pan has been used in this manner three or four times, a bucket
    of cold water is thrown in, and a soft brick-bat and bamboo broom
    used, to give it a good scouring out; the water is thrown out of the
    pan by the brush on one side, the pan itself being never taken off.
    The leaves, all hot in the bamboo basket, are laid on a table that
    has a narrow rim on its back, to prevent these baskets from slipping
    off when pushed against it. The two pounds of hot leaves are now
    divided into two or three parcels, and distributed to as many men,
    who stand up to the table with the leaves right before them, and
    each placing his legs close together, the leaves are next collected
    into a ball, which he gently grasps in his left hand, with the thumb
    extended, the fingers close together, and the hand resting on the
    little finger. The right hand must be extended in the same manner as
    the left, but with the palm turned downwards resting on the top of
    the ball of tea leaves. Both hands are now employed to roll and
    propel the ball along; the left hand pushing it on, and allowing it
    to revolve as it moves; the right hand also pushes it forward,
    resting on it with some force, and keeping it down to express the
    juice which the leaves contain. The art lies here in giving the ball
    a circular motion, and permitting it to turn under and in the hand
    two or three whole revolutions, before the arms are extended to
    their full length, and drawing the ball of leaves quickly back
    without leaving a leaf behind, being rolled for about five minutes
    in this way. The ball of tea leaves is from time to time delicately
    and gently opened with the fingers lifted as high as the face, and
    then allowed to fall again. This is done two or three times to
    separate the leaves; and afterwards the basket with the leaves is
    lifted up as often, and receives a circular shake to bring these
    towards the centre. The leaves are now taken back to the hot pans
    and spread out in them as before, being again turned with the naked
    hand, and when hot taken out and rolled; after which, they are put
    into a drying basket and spread on a sieve, which is in the centre
    of the basket, and the whole placed over a charcoal fire. The fire
    is very nicely regulated; there must not be the least smoke, and the
    charcoal should be well picked.

    When the fire is lighted it is fanned until it gets a fine red
    glare, and the smoke is all gone off; being every now and then
    stirred, and the coals brought into the centre, so as to leave the
    outer edge low. When the leaves are put into the drying basket, they
    are gently separated by lifting them up with the fingers of both
    hands extended far apart, and allowing them to fall down again; they
    are placed three or four inches deep on the sieve, leaving a passage
    in the centre for the hot air to pass. Before it is put over the
    fire, the drying basket receives a smart slap with both hands in the
    act of lifting it up, which is done to shake down any leaves that
    might otherwise drop through the sieve, or to prevent them from
    falling into the fire and occasioning a smoke, which would affect
    and spoil the tea. This slap on the basket is invariably applied
    throughout the stages of tea manufacture. There is always a large
    basket underneath to receive the small leaves that fall, which are
    afterwards collected, dried, and added to the other tea; in no case
    are the baskets or sieves allowed to touch or remain on the ground,
    but always laid on a receiver, with three legs. After the leaves
    have bean half-dried in the drying-basket, and while they are still
    soft, they are taken off the fire and put into large open-worked
    baskets, and then put on the shelf, in order that the tea may
    improve in color.

    Next day the leaves are all sorted into large, middling, and small;
    sometimes there are four sorts. All these, the Chinese informed me,
    become so many different kinds of teas; the smallest leaves they
    call Pha-ho, the second Pow-chong, the third Souchong, and the
    fourth, or the largest leaves, Zoy-chong. After this assortment they
    are again put on the sieve in the drying-basket (taking care not to
    mix the sorts), and on the fire, as on the preceding day; but now
    very little more than will cover the bottom of the sieve is put in
    at one time; the same care of the fire is taken as before, and the
    same precaution of tapping the drying basket every now and then. The
    tea is taken off the fire with the nicest care, for fear of any
    particles of the tea falling into it. Whenever the drying-basket is
    taken off, it is put on the receiver, the sieve in the drying-basket
    taken out, the tea turned over, the sieve replaced, the tap given,
    and the basket placed again over the fire. As the tea becomes crisp,
    it is taken out and thrown into a large receiving-basket, until all
    the quantity on hand has become alike dried and crisp, from which
    basket it is again removed into the drying-basket, but now in much
    larger quantities. It is then piled up eight and ten inches high on
    the sieve in the drying-basket; in the centre a small passage is
    left for the hot air to ascend; the fire that was before bright and
    clear has now ashes thrown on it to deaden its effect, and the
    shakings that have been collected are put on the top of all; the tap
    is given, and the basket, with the greatest care, is put over the
    fire. Another basket is placed over the whole, to throw back any
    heat that may ascend. Now and then it is taken off, and put on the
    receiver; the hands, with the fingers wide apart, are run down the
    sides of the basket to the sieve, and the tea gently turned over,
    the passage in the centre again made, &c., and the basket again
    placed on the fire. It is from time to time examined, and when the
    leaves have become so crisp that they break by the slightest
    pressure of the fingers, it is taken off, when the tea is ready. All
    the different kinds of leaves underwent the same operation. The tea
    is now, little by little, put into boxes, and first pressed down
    with the hands and then with the feet (clean stockings having been
    previously put on).

    There is a small room inside of the tea-house, seven cubits square,
    and five high, having bamboos laid across on the top to support a
    network of bamboo, and the sides of the room smeared with mud to
    exclude the air. When there is wet weather, and the leaves cannot be
    dried in the sun, they are laid out on the top of this room, on the
    network, on an iron pan, the same as is used to heat the leaves;
    some fire is put into it, either of grass or bamboo, so that the
    flame may ascend high; the pan is put on a square wooden frame, that
    has wooden rollers on its legs, and pushed round and round this
    little room by one man, while another feeds the fire, the leaves on
    the top being occasionally turned; when they are a little withered,
    the fire is taken away, and the leaves brought down and manufactured
    into tea, in the same manner as if it had been dried in the sun. But
    this is not a good plan, and never had recourse to if it can
    possibly be avoided."

In 1810, a number of tea plants were introduced into Brazil, with a
colony of Chinese to superintend their culture. The plantation was
formed near Rio Janeiro and occupied several acres. It did not,
however, answer the expectations formed of it, the shrubs became
stunted, cankered and moss grown, and the Chinese finally abandoned
them. The culture was again tried in 1817. The plantations lie between
the equator and 10 deg. south latitude, nearly parallel with Java, and
of course are exposed to the same intemperate climate, and suffer in a
similar manner. In addition to these physical disabilities, the
enterprise has had to contend with the natural indolence of the
natives, the universal repugnance to labor, the crushing effect of
committing so important a work to the superintendence of slaves and
overseers, the amazing fertility of the soil, the extent of
unappropriated land, the ease with which subsistence can be obtained
and the low degree of personal enterprise. These are frowning
features, and would rather seem to indicate a failure, before the
attempt at cultivation was made. But, nevertheless, the plant does
nourish to some extent, even in Brazil, under all the disparaging
circumstances which surround it. From the Brazilian Consul General, I
learn that although the plant for some years after its introduction
received but little attention and was almost abandoned, yet within the
last few years the cultivation has revived and is now prosecuted with
energy and with a corresponding success. Some of the large and wealthy
land proprietors of Brazil have directed their attention to tea
culture, and one gentleman has given up his coffee plantation and
directed his attention exclusively to the cultivation of the tea
plant. The market of Rio Janeiro is said to be largely and almost
entirely supplied with tea of domestic growth, and the public mind is
awakened to the prominent fact, that no plant cultivated in Brazil is
more profitable and none is deserving more decided attention.

_Experimental cultivation of the tea plant in Brazil_.--I now proceed
to notice the report of M. Guillemin, presented in 1839 to the French
Minister of agriculture and commerce, on the culture and preparation
of the tea plant in Brazil--in a climate of the southern hemisphere
just equivalent to that of Cuba in the northern. The report enters
very minutely into the incidents of temperature and cultivation, and
cannot fail to strike the attention when disclosing the important
fact, that the tea plant grows luxuriantly with the coffee and other
valuable plants of the equatorial regions, and even on low-lying
lands, on a level with the sea, and exposed to the full rays of a
burning sun.

    "As the tea shrub," says M. Guillemin, "is grown in several
    plantations about two days' journey distant from Rio, in different
    directions, I hired a lodging at St. Theresa, sufficiently
    contiguous to all the establishments I meant to visit, and further
    recommended by having a small garden attached to the house, where I
    could deposit the growing plants of tea, and sow seeds. During the
    month of November, except when hindered by slight indispositions
    incidental to the Brazilian climate, I pursued my researches, and
    principally in the charming valleys of the Tijuka and Gavia
    mountains. There, together with coffee, their principal product, the
    most valuable plants of the equatorial region are cultivated.

    In the middle of November I had an opportunity of observing the
    method pursued when culling the tea, which is performed by black
    slaves, chiefly women and children. They carefully selected the
    tenderest and pale-green leaves, nipping off with their nails the
    young leaf bud, just below where the first or second leaf was
    unfolded. One whole field had already undergone this operation;
    nothing but tea shrubs stripped of their foliage remained. The
    inspector assured me that the plant received no injury from this
    process, and that the harvest of leaves was to become permanent by
    carefully regulating it, so that the foliage should have grown again
    on the first stripped shrubs at the period when the leaves of the
    last plant were pulled off. About 12,000 tea shrubs are grown in
    this garden: they are regularly planted in quincunxes, and stand
    about one metre distant from each other; the greater number are
    stunted and shabby looking, probably owing to the aspect of the
    ground, which _lies low, on the level of the sea, and exposed to the
    full rays of a burning sun_; perhaps the quality of the soil may
    have something to do with it, though this is apparently similar to
    what prevails in the province of Rio Janeiro. This soil, which is
    highly argillaceous, and strongly tinged with tritoxyde of iron, is
    formed by the decomposition of gneiss or granite rocks. The flat
    situation of this tea ground is unfavorable to the improvement of
    the soil, for the heavy rains which wash away the superfluous sand
    from slanting situations, of course only consolidate more strongly
    the remaining component parts, where the land lies perfectly level,
    and thus the tea plants suffer from this state of soil.

    The kindness of M. de Brandao, director of the Botanic Garden,
    induced him to invite me, shortly after I had seen the above
    described tea ground, that I might inspect all the operations for
    the preparation of tea. I found that the picking of the leaves had
    been commenced very early in the morning, and two kilogrammes were
    pulled that were still wet with dew. These were deposited in a
    well-polished iron vase, the shape being that of a very broad flat
    pan, and set on a brick furnace, where a brisk wooden fire kept the
    temperature nearly up to that of boiling water. A negro, after
    carefully washing his hands, kept continually stirring the leaves in
    all directions, till their external dampness was quite evaporated,
    and the leaves acquired the softness of linen rag, and a small pinch
    of them, when rolled in the hollow of the hand, became a little ball
    that would not unroll. In this state the mass of tea was divided
    into two portions, and a negro took each and set them on a hurdle,
    formed of strips of bamboo, laid at right angles, where they shook
    and kneaded the leaves in all directions for a quarter of an hour,
    an operation which requires habit to be properly performed, and on
    which much of the beauty of the product depends. It is impossible to
    describe this process; the motion of the hands is rapid and very
    irregular, and the degree of pressure requisite varies according to
    circumstances; generally speaking, the young negro women are
    considered more clever at this part of the work than older persons.
    As this process of rolling and twisting the leaves goes on, their
    green juice is drained off through the hurdle, and it is essential
    that the tea be perfectly divested of the moisture, which is acrid,
    and even corrosive, the bruising and kneading being especially
    designed to break the parenchyma of the leaf, and permit the escape
    of the sap.

    When the leaves have been thus twisted and rolled, they are replaced
    in the great iron pan, and the temperature raised till the hand can
    no longer bear the heat at the bottom. For upwards of an hour the
    negroes are then constantly employed in separating, shaking, and
    throwing the foliage up and down, in order to facilitate the
    dessication, and much neatness and quickness of hand were requisite,
    that the manipulators might neither burn themselves nor allow the
    masses of leaves to adhere to the hot bottom of the pan. It is easy
    to see that, if the pan was placed within another pan filled with
    boiling water, and the leaves were stirred with an iron spatula,
    much trouble might be obviated. Still, the rolling and drying of the
    leaves were successfully performed; they became more and more crisp,
    and preserved their twisted shape, except some few which seemed too
    old and coriaceous to submit to be rolled up. The tea was then
    placed on a sieve, with wide apertures of regular sizes, and formed
    of flat strips of bamboo. The best rolled leaves, produced from the
    tips of the buds and the tenderest leaves, passed through this
    sieve, and were subsequently fanned, in order to separate any
    unrolled fragments which might have passed through them; this
    produce was called _Imperial_, or _Uchim Tea_. It was again laid in
    the pan till it acquired the leaden grey tint, which proved its
    perfect dryness, and any defective leaf which had escaped the
    winnowing and sifting was picked out by hand. The residue, which was
    left from the first fanning, was submitted to all the operations of
    winnowing, sifting, and scorching, and it then afforded the _Fine
    Hyson Tea_ of commerce; while the same operations performed on the
    residuum of it yielded the _Common Hyson_; and the refuse of the
    third quality again afforded the _Coarse Hyson_.--Finally, the
    broken and unrolled foliage, which were rejected in the last
    sittings, furnish what is called _Family Tea_, and the better kind
    of which is called _Chato_, and the inferior _Chuto_. The latter
    sort is never sold, but kept for consumption in the families of the
    growers.

    Such is the mode of preparation pursued at Rio Janeiro, though I
    must add that the process employed at the Botanic Garden being most
    carefully performed in order to serve as a model for private
    cultivators of tea, the produce is superior to the generality, so
    that we dare not judge of all Brazilian tea by what is raised at the
    garden of Rio. I was also assured, that at Saint Paul each grower
    had his own peculiar method, influencing materially the quality of
    the tea, which decided me to visit that province, where I hoped to
    gain valuable information respecting the culture and fabrication of
    tea, especially considered as an article of commerce.

    In the interim, the month of December proving excessively hot and
    rainy, so as to forbid any distant excursions, I turned my attention
    to the important object of procuring _tea plants_ in number and
    state fit for exportation; and, observing that almost all the shrubs
    I saw were too large for this purpose, I applied to M. de Brandao
    for his help and advice. This gentleman, in the most courteous
    manner, offered me either seeds or slips from his own tea shrubs.
    The striking of the latter was, he owned, a hazardous and uncertain
    affair, though it had the probable advantage of securing a finer
    kind of plant than could with certainty be raised from seed. I,
    however, began by asking him for newly gathered seeds, in order to
    set them in my little nursery garden at Santa Theresa, and he
    obligingly gave me a thousand of the seeds, perfectly ripe and
    sound, which is easily known by the purplish-brown color of their
    integument. M. Houlet immediately set about preparing the soil in
    which to plant these seeds, and the earth being excessively
    argillaceous and hard, much digging, manuring, and dressing were
    needful; in a word, we neglected no precautions which could
    contribute to the growth of our seeds. In the interim I allowed not
    a single dry day to elapse without visiting the country house near
    Rio, in all of which I saw something more or less interesting,
    either in the culture of tea, or other vegetable productions of
    commercial value.

        *        *        *        *        *

    I detected, growing not unfrequently in the environs of Rio, the
    _Ilex Paraguayensis_ of M. Auguste de St. Hilaire, perfectly
    identical with the tree which the Jesuits planted in the missions of
    Paraguay, and whose foliage is an article of great importance
    throughout Spanish America, and vended under the name of _Paraguay
    Tea_. A living plant of this shrub was brought home by me, and
    placed in the Royal Garden at Paris, as well as a species of
    Vanilla, and many other rare and interesting plants. I also made a
    valuable collection of woods employed for dyeing, building, and
    cabinet work, with samples of their flowers, fruits, and leaves, to
    facilitate botanical determination.

    Early in January, 1839, M. Houlet began anew sowing tea, not only in
    the open ground in our little garden, but also in pans, in order to
    facilitate the lifting of the young plants, and putting them into
    the cases that I had brought for the purpose. The heat being
    excessive, we purchased mats, that we might shelter them from the
    sun, and we gave them water far more frequently. Many of the seeds
    that we had sown a month previously, were already appearing above
    the ground, but the soil being of too compact a nature, some did not
    come up, which warned us to make choice in future of a lighter kind
    of soil.

    The period now arrived when I was to visit the tea plantations in
    the province of St. Paul; and hoping that the cultivators would give
    me some of the young shrubs, I took M. Houlet with me, leaving the
    charge of our collections and seedlings to M. Pissis, a French
    geologist and engineer, with whom I had formed an intimate
    acquaintance, and who most obligingly offered to attend to them
    during my absence. Many were the influential persons at Rio Janeiro,
    who gave me introductory letters to the proprietors and tea growers
    of St. Paul.

    We started on the 15th January, by steam-boat, and in two days
    reached Santos, the principal port in the province of St. Paul;
    thence crossing the great chain of mountains, named the Serra do
    Mar, in caravans drawn by mules, we reached the city of St. Paul on
    the 20th January, where I experienced the warmest reception from the
    governor, two ex-governors, and some other gentlemen.

       *       *       *       *       *

    Accompanied by M.J. Gomez and a M. Barandier, an historical painter,
    whom the desire to visit a new country, and to see its inhabitants,
    had induced to become _my compagnon de voyage_, we visited almost
    immediately a M. Feigo, ex-Regent of the Empire, and now President
    of the Provincial Senate. We found this venerable ecclesiastic at
    his country-house, two leagues distant from the city, and here we
    saw all the process pursued on the tea leaf, commencing by the
    bruising, drying, and scorching of a large quantity of foliage
    picked the preceding evening. The chief difference that struck me in
    the mode here adopted, was, that the tender, flexible, and not
    brittle leaves, were gathered with the petiole and tip extremity of
    every bud, and that some water was put with them into the iron pan,
    in which the negresses twisted, squeezed, broke and shook the masses
    of foliage. The operation was, on the whole, more neatly performed
    than at Rio. When the tea was perfectly dry and removed from the
    pan, it was placed aside in a box, shaded from the air and light,
    and was considered ready for present use, on the spot; but M. Feigo
    informed me, that when sent to a distance, the cases were
    hermetically closed, and the tea underwent an extra dessication over
    the fire.

    The plantations belonging to M. Feigo, and surrounding his chagara,
    are extensive, containing about 20,000 tea shrubs, of fine growth
    and high vigor, most of them six or eight years old, set in regular
    lines, a metre asunder from each other, and the lines with a metre
    and a half between them. The soil is excellent,
    argillaceo-ferruginous, as is generally the case near St. Paul.

    In the Botanic Garden at St. Paul, some squares are devoted to the
    growth of tea; but I am not aware that the leaves are ever subject
    to preparation.

    M. da Luz had invited us to inspect his tea-grounds near Nossa
    Senhora da Penha, and I went thither, accompanied by Messrs.
    Barandier and Houlet. The cultivation is admirable, the soil
    excellent, and the tea-plants peculiarly vigorous. Each shrub was so
    placed that a man can easily go all round it, and _young plants,
    self-sown, were springing up below every old one_; of these offsets,
    I was made welcome to as many as I could take away, and should have
    had a great stock, but that the ground had been very recently
    cleared. M. da Luz showed me his magazines of prepared tea, which
    were extensive and well stocked.

    Hence I went to the property of a lady, Donna Gertrude Gedioze
    Larceda, situated at the foot of Jarigur, a mountain famed for its
    gold mines, and passed two days in exploring this celebrated
    locality, and then visited the Colonel Anastosio on my way back to
    St. Paul. These plantations are in the most prosperous condition,
    situated on a sloping and well-manured tract behind the habitations.
    The shrubs are generally kept low, and frequently cut, so as to,
    make them branching, by which the process of picking the leaves is
    rendered easier. There may be 60,000 or 70,000 plants, but a third
    of them were only set a year before. Every arrangement is
    excellently conducted here; the pans kept very clean, though perhaps
    rather thin from long use and the fierceness of the fires. But the
    general good order that prevails, speaks much in favor of the tea
    produced in this neighbourhood. The colonel showed me his warehouse,
    where the tea is stored in iron jars, narrow-necked and closed by a
    tight fitting stopper. I ventured to put some questions to Colonel
    Anastosio respecting the sale of the produce. He gave me to
    understand that he was by no means eager to sell; but, confident of
    the good quality, he waited till application was made to him for it,
    as the tea is thought to improve by time, and the price is kept up
    by there being a small supply. With respect to the cost of its
    production in Brazil, he said, this was so great that, to make it
    answer to the grower, a price of not less than 2,000 reis, about six
    francs (5s.), must be got for each pound. The whole labor in Brazil
    is done by slaves, who certainly do not cost much to keep, but who,
    on the other hand, work as little as they can help, having no
    interest in the occupation. The slaves, too, bear a high price, and
    the chances of mortality, with the exorbitant value of money in
    Brazil, augment their selling value.

    The Major da Luz kindly presented me with 300 young tea-plants,
    which he had caused his negroes to pull up for me; and in an
    adjoining farm, where an immense tract planted with tea is now
    allowed to run to waste, being no object of value to the proprietor,
    I was permitted to take all I could carry away; and in a single
    day's time, M. Houlet and I, aided by some slaves, succeeded in
    possessing ourselves of 3,000 young plants, which we carefully
    arranged in bamboo baskets (here called cestos). To diminish the
    weight, M. Houlet removed as little soil as possible; but carefully
    wetted the roots before closing the baskets, and covered them with
    banana leaves. In one garden, the largest I have seen devoted to the
    growth of tea, but which is not particularly well kept, I saw that
    the spaces between the shrubs were planted with _maize_, and the
    bordering of the squares which intersect this vast plantation, and
    the whole of which is inclosed with valleys of _Araucaria
    Brasiliensis_, is formed of little dwarf tea-plants, which are kept
    low by cutting their main shoots down to the level of the soil.

    On the 8th of February I again embarked in the steam-boat to return
    to Rio Janeiro, and when we came in sight of St. Sebastian, I left
    M. Houlet to proceed to the city alone, charging him to take the
    very greatest care of our package of tea-plants, as well as of the
    nursery-ground at St. Theresa, while I should visit the flourishing
    colony of Ubatuba, inhabited by French families, who cultivate most
    successfully _coffee_, and other useful vegetables. After a
    delightful sail through an archipelago of enchanting islands, I
    landed at Pontagrossa, where I was most kindly received, and spent a
    week, obtaining much and varied information, both respecting
    cultivated plants and the kinds of trees which grow spontaneously in
    the virgin forests of this lovely land, and afford valuable woods
    for building, cabinet work, and dyeing. Finally, I visited the tea
    plantations of M. Vigneron, which are remarkably fine, though their
    owner finds a much more profitable employment in the growth of
    _coffee_, which is very lucrative. He kindly gave me a quantity of
    young tea-plants and chocolate trees. Reluctantly quitting these
    worthy colonists, I re-embarked in a Brazilian galliot, which took
    me back to Rio Janeiro in the close of February. There I found the
    tea-plants from St. Paul, set by M. Houlet, in our garden at St.
    Theresa, and I added to them the stock I had brought from Ubatuba.
    All the very young ones had perished on the way, from the excessive
    heat, and M. Houlet had much difficulty in saving the others.

       *       *       *       *       *

    M. Guillemin concludes his interesting narration with this partially
    discouraging fact;--that though the culture of the tea-shrub
    succeeds perfectly well in Brazil; though the gathering of the
    foliage proceeds with hardly any interruption during the entire
    year; though the quality (setting aside the aroma, which is believed
    to be artificially added) is not inferior to that of the finest tea
    from China--still the growers have not realised any large profits.
    They have manufactured an immense quantity of tea, to judge by what
    he saw in the warehouses at St. Paul, but they cannot afford to sell
    it under six francs for the half kilogramme (a pound weight), which
    is higher than Chinese tea of equally good quality. This is,
    however, precisely one of those commodities in which free labour,
    that is, the labor of a free peasant's family, the wife and
    children, the young and the old, can successfully compete with slave
    labor, and considerably undersell it. It is manifest, from the
    remarks of M. Guillemin, that the cost for plantation slaves, under
    a system apparently so profitable as labor without wages, is a dead
    weight on the Brazilian planter."

_Paraguay Tea._--A species of holly (_Ilex Paraguensis_), which grows
spontaneously in the forest regions of Paraguay, and the interior of
South America, furnishes the celebrated beverage called _Yerba Mate_,
in South America. The evergreen leaf of this plant is from four to
five inches long; when prepared for use as tea it is reduced to
powder, and hence the decoction has to be quaffed by means of a tube
with a bulb perforated with small holes.

The leaves yield the same bitter principle called theine, which is
found in the leaf of the Chinese tea-plant, the coffee berry, &c.
Various other species of Ilex are sometimes employed in other parts of
South America for a similar purpose. Although the leaves may not
contain as much of the agreeable narcotic oil as those of the China
shrub, in consequence of the rude way in which it is collected and
prepared for use, yet it is much relished by European travellers in
South America, and would doubtless enter largely into consumption if
imported into this country at a moderate rate of duty.

The consumption in the various South American Republics is estimated
at thirty or forty millions of pounds annually. It is generally drank
without sugar or milk.

There are no correct data for calculating the exports, but some
authorities state the amount sent to Santa Fe and Buenos Ayres at
eight millions of pounds.

A great trade is carried on with it at Sta. Fe, where it is brought
from the Rio de la Plata. There are two sorts, one called "Yerba de
Palos," the other, which is finer, "Yerba de Carnini." Frezier tells
us that, in the earlier part of the 17th century, above 50,000
arrobas, or more than 12,000 cwt. of this herb were brought into Peru
from Paraguay, exclusive of about 25,000 arrobas taken to Chile; and
Father Charleroix, in his "History of Paraguay," states the quantity
shipped to Peru annually at 100,000 arrobas, or nearly 2,500,000 lbs.

My friend, Mr. W.P. Robertson, has favored me with some details as to
the production of Paraguay tea. His brother has graphically described
a visit he paid to the wastes or woods of the Yerba tree, with a
colony of manufacturers from Assumption. These woods were situated
chiefly in the country adjacent to a small miserable town called Villa
Real, about 150 miles higher up the river Paraguay than Assumption.
The master manufacturer, with about forty or fifty hired peons or
servants, mounted on mules, and a hundred bulls and sumpter mules, set
out on their expedition, and having discovered in the dense wood a
suitable locality, forthwith a settlement is established, and the
necessary wigwams for dwellings, &c., run up. The next step is the
construction of the "tatacua." This was a small space of ground,
about six feet square, of which the soil was beaten down with heavy
mallets, till it became a hard and consistent foundation. At the four
corners of this space, and at right angles, were driven in four very
strong stakes, while upon the surface of it were laid large logs of
wood. This was the place at which the leaves and small sprigs of the
yerba tree, when brought from the woods, were first scorched--fire
being set to the logs of wood within it. By the side of the tatacua
was spread an ample square net of hidework, of which, after the
scorched leaves were laid upon it, a peon gathered up the four corners
and proceeded with his burthen on his shoulders to the second place
constructed, the barbacue. This was an arch of considerable span, and
of which the support consisted of three strong trestles. The centre
trestle formed the highest part of the arch. Over this superstructure
were laid cross-bars strongly railed to stakes on either side of the
central supports, and so formed the roof of the arch. The leaves being
separated after the tatacua process, from the grosser boughs of the
yerba tree, were laid on this roof, under which a large fire was
kindled. Of this fire the flames ascended, and still further scorched
the leaves of the yerba. The two peons beneath the arch, with long
poles, took care, as far as they could, that no ignition should take
place; and in order to extinguish this, when it did occur, another
peon was stationed at the top of the arch. Along both sides of this
there were two deal planks, and, with a long stick in his hand, the
peon ran along these planks, and instantly extinguished any incipient
sparks of fire that appeared.

When the yerba was thoroughly scorched, the fire was swept from the
barbacue or arch; the ground was then swept, and pounded with heavy
mallets, into the hardest and smoothest substance. The scorched leaves
and very small twigs were then thrown down from the roof of the arch,
and, by means of a rude wooden mill, ground to powder.

The yerba or tea was now ready for use; and being conveyed to a larger
shed, previously erected for the purpose, was then received, weighed,
and stored by the overseer. The next and last process, and the most
laborious of all, was that of packing the tea. This was done by first
sewing together, in a square form, the half of a bull's hide, which
being still damp, was fastened by two of its corners to two strong
trestles, driven far into the ground. The packer then, with an
enormous stick, made of the heaviest wood, and having a huge block at
one end, and a pyramidal piece to give it a greater impulse at the
other, pressed, by repeated efforts, the yerba into the hide sack,
till he got it full to the brim. It then contained from 200 to 250
pounds, and being sewed up, and left to tighten over the contents as
the hide dried, it formed at the end of a couple of days, by exposure
to the sun, a substance as hard as stone, and almost as weighty and
impervious too.

Having described the process of making ready the yerba for use, we
will now accompany Mr. Robertson to the woods, to see how it is
collected.

    "After all the preparations which I have detailed were completed
    (and it required only three days to finish them), the peons sallied
    forth from the yerba colony by couples. I accompanied two of the
    stoutest and best of them. They had with them no other weapon than a
    small axe; no other clothing than a girdle round their waist and a
    red cap on their head; no other provision than a cigar, and a cow's
    horn filled with water; and they were animated by no other hope or
    desire, that I could perceive, than those of soon discovering a part
    of the wood thickly studded with the yerba tree. They also desired
    to find it as near as possible to the colonial encampment, in order
    that the labor of carrying the rough branches to the scene of
    operations might be as much as possible diminished.

    We had scarcely skirted for a quarter of a mile the woods which shut
    in the valley where we were bivouacked, when we came upon numerous
    clumps of the yerba tree. It was of all sizes, from that of the
    shrub to that of the full-grown orange tree; the leaves of it were
    very like those of that beautiful production. The smaller the plant,
    the better is the tea which is taken from it considered to be.

    To work with their hatchets went the peons, and in less than a
    couple of hours they had gathered a mountain of branches, and piled
    them up in the form of a haystack. Both of them then filled their
    large ponchos with the coveted article of commerce in its raw state,
    and they marched off with their respective loads. Having deposited
    this first load within the precincts of the colony, the peons
    returned for a second, and so on till they had cleared away the
    whole mass of branches and of leaves cut and collected during that
    day. When I returned to the colony I found the peons coming by two
    and two, from every part of the valley, all laden in the same way.
    There were twenty tatacuas, twenty barbacues, and twenty pies of the
    yerba cut and ready for manufacture. Two days after that the whole
    colony was in a blaze, tatacuas and barbacues were enveloped in
    smoke; on the third day all was stowed away in the shed; and on the
    fourth the peons again went out to procure more of the boughs and
    leaves."--(_Letters on Paraguay_, vol. ii. p. 142-147).

Each peon or laborer, going into the woods for six months, can procure
eight arrobas, or 200 lbs. of yerba a day. This, at the rate of two
rials, or 1s. for each arroba, would make his wages per day 8s.; and
this for six months' work, at six days in the week, would produce to
the laborer a sum of £57 12s.

Wilcockes, in his "History of Buenos Ayres," published in 1807,
states:--"Though the herb is principally bought by the merchants of
Buenos Ayres, it is not to that place that it is carried, no more
being sent thither than is wanted for the consumption of its
inhabitants and those of the vicinity; but the greatest part is
dispatched to Santa Fe and Cordova, thence to be forwarded to Potosi
and Mendoza. The quantity exported to Peru is estimated at 100,000
arrobas, and to Chile 40,000. The remainder is consumed in Paraguay,
Tucuman, and the other provinces. It is conveyed in parcels of six or
seven arrobas, by waggons, from Santa Fe to Jugui, and thence by mules
to Potosi, La Paz, and into Peru proper. About four piastres per
arroba is the price in Paraguay, and at Potosi it fetches from eight
to nine, and more in proportion as it is carried further."


SUGAR.

Sugar is obtained from many grasses; and, indeed, is common in a large
number of plants. It is procured in Italy from _Sorghum saccharatum_;
in China, from _Saccharum sinense_; in Brazil, from _Gynerium
saccharoides_; in the West Indies, from _saccharum violaceum_; and in
many other parts of the world from _S officinarrum_. The last two are
commonly known as sugar canes, and they are generally considered as
varieties of a single species, _S. officinarum_, which is now widely
spread over different parts of the world.

Some curious specimens of palm sugars were exhibited at the Great
Exhibition of 1851, among others,--gomuti palm sugar (_Arenga
saccharifera_) from Java; date palm sugar, from the Deccan; nipa
sugar, from the stems of _Nipa fruticans_, and sugar from the fleshy
flowers of _Bassia latifolia_,--an East Indian tree.

Among the other sugars shown were beet root sugar, maple sugar, date
sugar, from Dacca, sugar from the butter tree (_Bassia butyracea_),
produced in the division of Rohekkund, in India; and sugar candy,
crystallized by the natives of Calcutta and other parts of India.

Sugar and molasses from the grape, were also shown from Spain, Tunis
and the Zollverein.

Sugar, or sugar candy, has been made in China from very remote
antiquity, and large quantities have been exported from India, in all
ages, whence it is most probable that it found its way to Rome.

The principal impurities to be sought for in cane sugar are inorganic
matter, water, molasses, farina, and grape, or starch sugar. The
latter substance is occasionally, for adulterating purposes, added in
Europe to cane sugar; it may be detected by the action of concentrated
sulphuric acid and of a solution of caustic potassa; the former
blackens cane sugar, but does not affect the starch sugar, while
potassa darkens the color of starch sugar, but does not alter that of
cane sugar. But the copper test is far more delicate. Add to the
solution to be tested, a few drops of blue vitriol, and then a
quantity of potassa solution, and apply heat; if the cane sugar is
pure, the liquor will remain blue, while, if it be adulterated with
starch sugar, it will assume a reddish yellow color.

Inorganic matter is determined by incineration, farina by the iodine
test, water by drying at 210 deg., and molasses by getting rid of it
by re-crystalization from alcohol, as also by the color and moisture
of the article.

The natural impurities of sugar are gum and tannin; gum is detected by
giving a white precipitate with diacetate of lead, and tannin by
giving a black coloration or precipitate with persulphate of iron.

An experienced sugar dealer easily judges of the value of sugar by the
taste, smell, specific gravity, moisture and general appearance.

The value of molasses may be determined by drying at 220 degs., and by
the taste.

The commercial demand for sugar is mainly supplied from the juice of
the cane, which contains it in greater quantity and purity than any
other plant, and offers the greatest facilities for its extraction.

Although sugar, identical in its character, exists in the maple, the
coco-nut, maize, the beet root, and mango, and is economically
obtained from these to a considerable extent, yet it is not
sufficiently pure to admit of ready separation from the foreign matter
combined with it, at least by the simple mechanical means, the
ordinary producers usually have at command; unless carried onto a
large extent, and with suitable machinery and chemical knowledge and
appliances.

The different species of commercial sugar usually met with in this
country, are four, viz:--brown, or muscovado sugar (commonly called
moist sugar); clayed sugar, refined or loaf sugar, and sugar candy;
these varieties are altogether dependent on the difference in the
methods employed in their manufacture.

The cultivation of the sugar cane, and the manufacture of sugar, were
introduced into Europe from the East, by the Saracens, soon after
their conquests, in the ninth century. It is stated by the Venetian
historians, that their countrymen imported sugar from Sicily, in the
twelfth century, at a cheaper rate than they could obtain it from
Egypt, where it was then extensively made. The first plantations in
Spain were at Valencia; but they were extended to Granada, Mercia,
Portugal, Madeira, and the Canary Islands, as early as the beginning
of the fifteenth century. From Gomera, one of these islands, the sugar
cane was introduced into the West Indies, by Columbus, in his second
voyage to America in 1493. It was cultivated to some extent in St.
Domingo in 1506, where it succeeded better than in any of the other
islands. In 1518, there were twenty-eight plantations in that colony,
established by the Spaniards, where an abundance of sugar was made,
which, for a long period, formed the principal part of the European
supplies. Barbados, the oldest English settlement in the West Indies,
began to export sugar in 1646, and as far back as the year 1676 the
trade required four hundred vessels, averaging one hundred and fifty
tons burden.

The common sugar cane is a perennial plant, very sensitive to cold,
and is, therefore, restricted in its cultivation to regions bordering
on the tropics, where there is little or no frost. In the Eastern
hemisphere its production is principally confined to situations
favorable to its growth, lying between the fortieth parallel of north
latitude and a corresponding degree south. On the Atlantic side of
the Western continent, it will not thrive beyond the thirty-third
degree of north latitude and the thirty-fifth parallel south. On the
Pacific side it will perfect its growth some five degrees further
north or south. From the flexibility of this plant, it is highly
probable that it is gradually becoming more hardy, and will eventually
endure an exposure and yield a profitable return much further north,
along the borders of the Mississippi and some of its tributaries, than
it has hitherto been produced. In most parts of Louisiana the canes
yield three crops from one planting. The first season is denominated
"plant cane," and each of the subsequent growths, "ratoons." But,
sometimes, as on the prairies of Attakapas and Opelousas, and the
higher northern range of its cultivation, it requires to be replanted
every year. Within the tropics, as in the West Indies and elsewhere,
the ratoons frequently continue to yield abundantly for twelve or
fifteen years from the same roots.

The cultivation of this plant is principally confined to the West
Indies, Venezuela, Brazil, Mauritius, British India, China, Japan, the
Sunda, Phillippine, and Sandwich Islands, and to the southern
districts of the United States. The varieties most cultivated in the
latter are the striped blue and yellow ribbon, or Java, the red
ribbon, violet, from Java, the Creole, crystalline or Malabar, the
Otaheite, the purple, the yellow, the purple-banded, and the grey
canes. The quantity of sugar produced on an acre varies from five
hundred to three thousand pounds, averaging, perhaps, from eight
hundred to one thousand pounds.

Six to eight pounds of the saccharine juice of the plant, yield one
pound of raw sugar; from 16 to 20 cart-loads of canes, ought to make a
hogshead of sugar, if thoroughly ripe. The weight necessary to
manufacture 10,000 hhds of sugar, is usually estimated at 250,000
tons, or 25 tons per hhd. of 15 or 16 cwt.

The quantity of sugar now produced in our colonies is in excess of the
demands of the consumers, that is, of their demands cramped as they
are by the duties still levied on sugar consumed in Great Britain,
imposed for the purposes of revenue; the high duty on all other but
indigenous sugar, consumed all over the continent, imposed to promote
the manufacture of beet-root sugar, and the legal duty levied on all
other than indigenous sugar used in the United States, for the purpose
of protecting the sugar production of that country; and so long as
that excess exists---until a further reduction of duties shall
increase consumption and cause sugar to be used for many purposes
which the present high rates prohibit its being applied to--any
improvement which may be effected in the quality--any increase which
may take place in the quantity of colonial sugar--will only result
infinitely more to the benefits of the consumers than the producers.
In 1700 the quantity consumed in Great Britain and Ireland was only
about 200,000 cwt. In 1852, including molasses, &c., it was not less
than 8,000,000 cwt., a forty-fold increase in the century and a-half.
Taking the whole population last year, it was nearly 28 lbs. per
head. In 1832 the consumption in Great Britain alone was put down by
Mr. M'Culloch at 23 lbs.; and as my estimate includes Ireland, where
the consumption is notoriously small, we may infer that it has
increased in Great Britain since 1832 at least 5 lb. per head. As the
allowance to servants is from ¾ lb. to 1 lb. per week, it may be
assumed that 50 lb. a year, at least, is not too much for grown
persons. In sugar-producing countries the quantity consumed is
enormous; the labourers live on it in the manufacturing season; and a
Duke of Beaufort, who died about 1720, consumed one pound daily for
forty years, and enjoyed excellent health till he was seventy years of
age. The consumption of sugar has increased considerably since it has
become cheap; and we may expect, therefore, that the consumption will
extend more rapidly than ever. The whole quantity consumed in Europe
last year, including beet-root sugar, was not less than 16,000,000
cwt. If peace be preserved and prosperity continue, the market for
sugar will extend amazingly, and force the cultivation by free men in
all tropical countries.

             British    East India and   Total of B.P.
  Years.    Plantation    Mauritius        E.I. and       Consumption
              tons.          tons          Mauritius         tons.
  1838-39    176,033        54,017          230,050         195,483
    39-40    141,219        60,358          201,577         191,279
    40-41    110,739        52,232          162,971         179,741
    41-42    107,560        97,792          205,352         202,971
    42-43    123,685        80,429          204,114         199,491
    43-44    125,178        78,943          204,121         202,259
    44-45    122,639        81,959          204,598         206,999
    45-46    142,384       102,690          245,074         244,030
    47-48    164,646       125,829          290,475         289,537
    48-49    139,868       107,844          247,712         308,131
    49-50    142,203       121,850          264,053         296,119
    50-51    129,471       119,317          248,788         305,616
    51-52    148,000       110,000          258,000         312,778

--The above figures refer to raw sugar only.

At these periods, calculating from 1838-39, the duty on British sugar
ranged from 24s. down to 10s. per cwt., and foreign slave-grown sugar
from 63s. down to 14s. The greatest impetus was given to foreign sugar
when the duties were reduced, in 1846.

The extension of sugar cultivation in various countries where the
climate is suitable, has recently attracted considerable attention
among planters and merchants. The Australian Society of Sydney offered
its Isis Gold Medal recently to the person who should have planted,
before May, 1851, the greatest number of sugar canes in the colony. I
have not heard whether any claim was put in for the premium, but I
fear that the gold fever has diverted attention from any new
agricultural pursuit, and that honorary gold medals are therefore
unappreciated. Moreton Bay and the northern parts of the colony of New
South Wales, are admirably suited to the growth of all descriptions of
tropical products.

The Natal Agricultural Society is also making great exertions to
promote sugar culture in that settlement. Mr. E. Morewood, one of the
oldest colonists, has about 100 acres under cultivation with the cane,
and I have seen some very excellent specimens of the produce,
notwithstanding the want of suitable machinery to grind the cane and
boil the juice. Many planters from the East Indies and Mauritius are
settling there. His Royal Highness Prince Albert awarded, through the
Society of Arts, a year or two ago, a gold medal, worth 100 guineas,
to Mr. J.A. Leon, for his beautiful work descriptive of new and
improved machinery and processes employed in the cultivation and
preparation of sugar in the British colonies, designed to economise
labor and increase production.

The centrifugal machines, recently brought into use, for separating
the molasses from the sugar, more quickly than the old-fashioned
method of coolers, have tended to cheapen the production and simplify
the processes of sugar making. The planters object, however, to the
high prices which they are charged for these machines, so simple in
their construction; and that they are not allowed, by the patent laws,
to obtain them in the cheaper markets of France and Belgium.

Great loss has hitherto taken place annually, in the sugar colonies,
through the drainage of the molasses, resulting from the imperfect
processes in use; but this can now be obviated, by the use of the
centrifugal machine. It is a modification of the "hydro-extractor,"
and is the invention of Mr. Finzel, of Bristol.

The machine being filled with sugar, appropriately placed, is rapidly
revolved, and a powerful ceutrifugal force generated; the moisture is
speedily removed to the circumference of the revolving vessel, and
passes off through apertures adapted for the purpose.

Various other improvements in the making of sugar have been carried
into effect within the last few years, by Dr. Scoffern, Messrs. Oxland
and M. Melsens, but the description of these would occupy too much of
my space, and those who are desirous of growing sugar on an extensive
scale, I must refer to Dr. Evans' "Sugar Planter's Manual," Mr. Wray's
"Practical Sugar Planter," Agricola's "Letters on Sugar Farming," and
other works which treat largely and exclusively of the subject.

An announcement has recently been made, that a Mr. Ramos, of Porto
Rico, has discovered some new dessicating agent, to be used in sugar
making, which is to cost next to nothing, but improves most materially
the quality of the sugar made, and also increases considerably the
quantity obtained by the ordinary process.

The average annual quantity of cane sugar produced and sent into the
markets of the civilised world, at the present time, may be taken at
1,500,000 tons, exclusive of the amount grown and manufactured for
local consumption in India, China, Cochin-China, and the Malay
Archipelago, of which no certain statistics exist, but which has been
estimated at about another million tons.

So far back as 1844, the Calcutta "Star," in an article on sugar,
estimated the domestic consumption in India, at 500,000 tons. This is
considerably below the mark, even if India is taken in its limited
signification, as including only British subjects. On this estimate
the 94,000,000 of British subjects, men, women and children, would not
individually consume more than one pound avoirdupois by the month. A
fat, hungry Brahmin, at any of the festivals given by the great, will
digest for his own share four pounds, without at all embarrassing his
stomach.

Assuming the million and a half of tons that find their way into
civilized markets, to represent an average value at the place of
production of £15 per ton, we have here the representation of
£22,500,000 sterling. But this value may fairly be increased by
one-fourth.

The whole exportable production of the sugar-growing countries was
found to be, in 1844, about 780,000 tons, of which Cuba furnished
200,000 tons. In 1845, notwithstanding Cuba only produced 80,000 tons,
the increase from other sources was so considerable (namely:--the
British Colonial supply 40,000, United States 40,000, Porto Rico
15,000, Brazil 10,000 tons) that the total produce fell very little
short of the previous year--having reached 764,000 tons.

The present SUPPLY of sugar to the markets of Europe, is nearly as
follows:--

                                Cwts.
  England                    8,000,000
  France                     2,550,000
  German League              1,350,000
  Prussia                      220,000
  Austria, (ten Provinces)     560,000
  Belgium                      294,000
  Other States not defined.

The present DEMAND, according to the estimated consumption per head
(28 lbs.), found to exist in England, where taxation is favorable, and
the price moderate, would be about 3¼; million tons, viz.:--

                               Cwts.
  England                    8,000,000
  France                     8,875,000
  Germany                    5,750,000
  Prussia                    4,100,000
  Austria                    8,642,857
  Belgium                    1,250,000
  Russia                    15,250,000
  Rest of Europe            12,500,000

The whole annual PRODUCTION of the world is estimated by another party
at 1,471,000,000 lbs., of which the United States produce 150,000,000
lbs., including 40,000,000 lbs. of maple sugar. Of the whole amount of
sugar produced, Europe consumes about 648,700 tons, divided nearly as
follows:--

                               lbs.
  Great Britain             803,360,096
  France                    160,080,000
  Belgium                    19,840,000
  Netherlands                42,000,000
  Russia                     70,000,000
  Denmark and Sweden         22,000,000
  German Zollverein         101,300,000
  Other parts of Germany    160,000,000
  Austria                    50,000,000
                          -------------
                          1,428,580,096

The following figures show the quantities of raw sugar in general, in
tons, imported into the British markets for the last five years,
compared with consumption:--

               Entire          British
  Years.    Importations.    Consumption.    Surplus.
  1847         415,289         290,281       125,008
  1848         354,834         309,424        45,410
  1849         362,087         299,041        63,046
  1850         332,470         310,391        22,089
  1851         419,083         329,561        89,472
  1852         360,033         358,642         1,391
  Deduced from Parliamentary Paper, No. 461, Session 1853.

The consumption of sugar then in the whole world may be roughly
estimated at two and a half million tons, of which the United Kingdom
may now be put down for 350,000; the rest of Europe 420,000, and the
United States 300,000.

The United States produce about 140,000 tons of cane and maple sugar,
which are exclusively used for home consumption, the remainder of
their requirements being made up by foreign importation. The American
consumption, which in 1851 amounted to 133,000 tons of sugar cane
reached last year a total of 321,000 tons, almost as much as England
consumed--358,000--and more than the consumption of 100,000,000 of
persons on the continent.

The whole production of tropical sugar, is about one million and
a-half tons, while the consumption is probably two million tons; but
the manufacture of sugar from beet root, maple and other sources,
supplies the deficiency.

The total quantities of sugar, and molasses as sugar, consumed in the
United Kingdom in the last six years, were, according to a
Parliamentary paper, No. 292, of the last session, as follows:--

            Cwt. sugar.      Cwt. molasses.
  1847       4,723,232         1,256,421
  1848       5,003,318           865,752
  1849       5,283,729         1,021,065
  1850       5,570,461           752,027
  1851       5,043,872         1,522,405
  1852       7,203,631           799,942

The returns further specify that the annual average consumption of
_British colonial sugar_, in the five years ending 1851, was 5,124,922
cwt.; and in the five years ending 1846, was 4,579,054 cwt.; the
average consumption of British colonial sugar, has, therefore,
exceeded in the five years since the duties were reduced, in 1846, the
average consumption for the five previous years by 545,868 cwt. per
annum; or in the aggregate in the five years, the excess has been
3,239,338 cwt. The quantity consumed in the year ending December,
1852, was 4,033,879 cwt.[16] There can be no doubt whatever, that the
consumption of sugar in Great Britain is capable of very large
increase; moderate cost, and the removal of restrictions to its
general use, being the main elements required to bring it about. The
question of revenue must of course be a material consideration with
Government; but recent experience certainly leads to the conclusion
that it would not suffer under a further reduction of duty.

The revenue derived from sugar before the reduction of the duty, was
five millions per annum; in the past two years it reached nearly four
millions.

The reduction in duties which took place in 1845, may be said to have
answered the expectations formed of it, as regards the increase of
consumption, which there is no doubt would have even gone beyond the
estimate, if the failure in the crop of sugar in Cuba--that most
important island, which usually yields one-fifth of the cane crop of
the whole world--had not driven up prices in the general market of the
continent, and, in consequence, diverted the supply of free labor
sugar from this country. As it was, however, the consumption of the
United Kingdom, which in 1844 was 206,472 tons, in 1845 was not less
than 243,000--Sir Robert Peel's estimate was 250,000 tons--the average
reduction in price to the consumer during the latter year having been
20 per cent. The large increase in subsequent years I have already
shown.

The consumption of sugar we find, then, has been steadily and rapidly
increasing in this country, and if we add together to the refined and
raw sugar and molasses used, it will be seen that the consumption of
1852 amounted to 400,178 tons; which is at the rate of 29 lbs. per
head of the population per annum. Whilst the quantity retained for
home consumption in the United Kingdom, in 1844; was but 4,130,000
cwt., the amount had risen in 1852 to upwards of 8,000,000 cwt.

Sugar unrefined, entered for home consumption.

               Colonial Raw.   Foreign Raw.      Total.
                  Cwt.            Cwt.            Cwt.
  1848          5,936,355       1,225,866       6,162,221
  1849          5,424,248         498,038       5,922,386
  1850          5,201,206         911,115       6,112,321
  1851          5,872,288       1,383,286       6,255,574
  1852          6,241,581         687,269       6,928,850

To the foregoing should be added the following quantities of refined
sugar and molasses, entered for home consumption.

          Refined Sugar and Candy.    Molasses.          Total
                   Cwt.                   Cwt.              Cwt.
  1848            46,292                637,050          683,342
  1849            75,392                812,330          887,722
  1850           116,744                917,588        1,034,362
  1851           338,734                773,035        1,111,769
  1852           274,781                799,942        1,074,723

The quantity of sugar refined by our bonded refiners, and exported,
is shown by the following figures. The increase in 1851, was
one-fourth in excess of the previous year.

                Cwt.
  1848        248,702
  1849        222,900
  1850        209,148
  1851        258,563
  1852        214,299

The following were the imports of sugar into Great Britain, in 1848
and 1851, respectively--and the quarters from whence supplies were
derived:--

                                  1848--Tons.  1851--Tons.
  West Indies                       121,600      153,300
  Mauritius                          43,600       50,000
  East Indies                        65,200       78,286
  Java and Manila                    11,000       20,850
  Havana, Porto Rico, and Brazil     76,900       76,526
                                    -------      -------
                                    318,300      378,962

The production of sugar in the last four years, may be stated
comparatively as follows:--

  +----------------------+---------+---------+---------+-----------+
  |     CANE SUGAR.      |  1849.  |  1850.  |  1851.  |    1852.  |
  +----------------------+---------+---------+---------+-----------+
  |                      |  Tons.  |  Tons.  |  Tons.  |   Tons.   |
  | Cuba                 | 220,000 | 250,000 | 252,000 |   320,000 |
  | Porto Rico           |  43,600 |  48,200 |  49,500 |    50,000 |
  | Brazil               | 106,000 | 103,000 | 113,000 |   100,000 |
  | United States        |  98,200 | 120,400 | 103,200 |   110,000 |
  | The West Indies      |         |         |         |           |
  |  1. French Colonies  |  56,300 |  47,200 |  50,000 |    50,000 |
  |  2. Danish   Do.     |   7,900 |   5,000 |   6,000 |     5,000 |
  |  3. Dutch    Do.     |  13,800 |  14,200 |  15,000 |    20,000 |
  |  4. British  Do.     | 142,200 | 129,200 | 148,000 |   140,000 |
  | The East Indies      |  70,403 |  67,300 |  66,000 |    60,000 |
  | Mauritius            |  50,782 |  57,800 |  55,500 |    65,000 |
  | Java                 |  90,000 |  89,900 |  99,347 |   104,542 |
  | Manila               |  20,000 |  20,000 |  20,000 |    20,000 |
  +----------------------+---------+---------+---------+-----------+
  |                      | 919,182 | 952,200 | 977,547 | 1,044,542 |
  +----------------------+---------+---------+---------+-----------+

  +----------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
  |BEET ROOT SUGAR.|   1849.    |   1850.    |   1851.    |   1852.    |
  +----------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
  |                |   Tons.    |   Tons.    |   Tons.    |Estmd. Tons.|
  | France         |    38,000  |    61,000  |    75,000  |    60,000  |
  | Belgium        |     5,000  |     6,000  |     8,000  |     9,000  |
  | Zollverein     |    33,000  |    38,000  |    49,000  |    50,000  |
  | Russia         |    13,000  |    14,000  |    15,000  |    16,000  |
  | Austria        |     6,500  |    10,000  |    15,000  |    18,000  |
  +----------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
  |                |    95,500  |   129,000  |   162,000  |   153,000  |
  | Cane Sugar     |   919,182  |   952,200  |   977,547  | 1,044,542  |
  +----------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
  | Total          | 1,014,682  | 1,081,200  | 1,139,547  | 1,197,542  |
  +----------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+

The price of sugar has, however, fallen considerably, and like many
other things--corn, and cotton, and tea--has been lower for a long
period than ever was known before.

                Average price per London Gazette.
  Year ending July 5,     British West India.      Mauritius.
  1842                         37s.  0d.              -----
  1843                         34s.  7d.            33s. 10d.
  1844                         34s.  9d.            34s.  7d.
  1845                         31s.  3d.            30s.  3d.
  1846                         35s.  3d.            34s.  2d.
  1847                         32s. 11d.            32s.  1d.
  1848                         24s.  3d.            23s.  3d.
  1849                         24s.  4d.            24s.  0d.
  1850                         25s.  3d.            28s.  8d.
  1851                         27s.  3d.            26s.  9d.
  Half-year ending Jan. 5,
  1852                         27s.  3d.            26s.  9d.

Thus, it is equally clear that the fall in the price has been very
considerable since 1845, and that in 1849 and 1850 the price of sugar
was about 10s. per cwt., or nearly one-third less than in 1838. The
planters complain of the fall of price; and the only question in
dispute is whether the fall has been occasioned by the reduction of
the duties. Now the reduction of duties subsequent to 1846 and to
1851, was, on brown Muscovado sugar, from 13s. to 10s., or 3s.; and on
foreign, from 21s. 7d. to 16s. 4d., or 5s. 3d. At the same time there
was a very large increase of consumption, and the price, as of almost
all articles, would not have been reduced to the full extent of the
reduction of the duties, and certainly not reduced in a much greater
degree, had there not been other causes at work to reduce the price.
Between 1846 and 1851 freight from the Mauritius fell from £4 1s. 8d.
to £2 13s. 9d., or 35 per cent.; and that reduction of price was not
made from the planter. In the interval, too, great improvements were
made in the manufacture of sugar; and in proportion as the article was
produced cheaper, it could be sold cheaper, without any loss to him.

I shall now take a separate review of the capabilities and progress of
the leading sugar producing countries.

_Production in the United States_.--Sugar cultivation, in the United
States, is a subject of increasing interest. The demand is rapidly
advancing. Its production in the State of Louisiana, to which it is
there principally confined, is a source of much wealth. In 1840, the
number of slaves employed in sugar culture was 148,890, and the
product, 119,947 hhds. of 1,000 lbs. each; besides 600,000 gallons of
molasses. Last year, the crop exceeded 240,000 hhds., worth 12,000,000
of dollars. The capital now employed, is 75,000,000 of dollars. The
protection afforded by the American tariff, has greatly increased the
production of sugar in the United States. From 1816 to 1850, this
increase was from 15,000 hhds. to 250,000 hhds.

In 1843, the State of Louisiana had 700 plantations, 525 in
operation, producing about 90,000 hhds. In 1844, the number of
hogsheads was 191,324, and of pounds, 204,913,000; but this was
exclusive of the molasses, rated at 9,000,000 gallons. In 1845 there
were in Louisiana 2,077 sugar plantations, in 25 parishes; 1,240 sugar
houses, 630 steam power, 610 working horse power; and the yield of
sugar was 186,650 hhds., or 207,337,000 lbs.

The introduction of the sugar cane into Florida, Texas, California,
and Louisiana, probably dates back to their earliest settlement by the
Spaniards or French. It was not cultivated in the latter, however, as
a staple product before the year 1751, when it was introduced, with
several negroes, by the Jesuits, from St. Domingo. They commenced a
small plantation on the banks of the Mississippi, just above the old
city of New Orleans. The year following, others, cultivated the plant
and made some rude attempts at the manufacture of sugar. In 1758, M.
Dubreuil established a sugar estate on a large scale, and erected the
first sugar mill in Louisiana, in what is now the lower part of New
Orleans. His success was followed by other plantations, and in the
year 1765 there was sugar enough manufactured for home consumption;
and in 1770, sugar had become one of the staple products of the
colony. Soon after the revolution a large number of enterprising
adventurers emigrated from the United States to Lower Louisiana,
where, among other objects of industry, they engaged in the
cultivation of cane, and by the year 1803 there were no less than
eighty-one sugar estates on the Delta alone. Since that period, while
the production of cane sugar has been annually increasing at the
south, the manufacture of maple sugar has been extending in the north
and west.

Hitherto, the amount of sugar and molasses consumed in the United
States has exceeded the quantities produced--consequently there has
been no direct occasion for their exportation. In the year 1815 it was
estimated that the sugar made on the banks of the Mississippi amounted
to 10,000,000 lbs.

According to the census of 1840, the amount of cane and maple sugar
produced in the United States was 155,100,089 lbs., of which
119,947,720 lbs. were raised in Louisiana. By the census of 1850, the
cane sugar made in the United States was 247,581,000 lbs., besides
12,700,606 gallons of molasses; maple sugar, 34,249,886 lbs., showing
an increase, in ten years, of 126,730,077 lbs.

The culture and manufacture of sugar from the cane, with the exception
of a small quantity produced in Texas, centres in the State of
Louisiana--where the cane is now cultivated and worked into sugar in
twenty-four parishes. The extent of sugar lands available in those
parishes is sufficient to supply the whole consumption of the United
States. Sugar cultivation was carried on in Louisiana to a small
extent before its cession to the United States. In 1818 the crop had
reached 25,000 hogsheads. In 1834-35 it was 110,000 hogsheads, and in
1844-45 204,913 hogsheads. Each hogshead averaging 1,000 lbs. net,
and yielding from 45 to 50 gallons of molasses.

The number of sugar estates in operation in 1830, was 600. The manual
power employed on these plantations, was 36,091 slaves, 282
steam-engines, and 406 horse power. The capital invested being
estimated at 50 million dollars. In 1844 the estates had increased to
762, employing 50,670 slaves, 468 steam-engines, 354 horse power.

The sugar-cane is now cultivated on both branches of the Mississippi
from 57 miles below New Orleans to nearly 190 miles above. The whole
number of sugar houses in the State is 1,536, of which 865 employ
steam, and the rest horse power.

The crop of 1849-50 was 247,923 hhds. of 1,000 lbs., which, at an
average of 3½ cents., amounted to nearly 9½ million dollars. The
quantity of molasses produced was more than 12 million gallons, worth,
at 20 cents the gallon, about 2,400,000 dollars, giving a total value
of close upon 12 million dollars, or an average to each of the 1,455
working sugar houses of 8,148 dollars.

The overflow of the Mississippi and Red Rivers in 1850, shortened the
crop near 20,000 hhds., and was felt in subsequent years. Since 1846,
not less than 355 sugar mills and engines have been erected in this
State. The sugar crop of 1851-52 was 236,547 hhds., produced by 1,474
sugar houses, 914 of which were worked by steam, and the rest by
horse-power. Texas raises about 8,000 to 10,000 hhds. of sugar, and
Florida and Georgia smaller quantities.

In the year ending December, 1851, there were taken for consumption in
the United States about 132,832 tons of cane sugar, of which 120,599
were foreign imported. The quantity consumed in 1850 was 104,071 tons,
of which 65,089 was foreign.

_Production in Cuba_.--The average yearly production of sugar in Cuba
has been, in the five years from 1846 to 1850, 18,690,560 arrobas,
equal to 467,261,500 lbs., or 292,031 hhds. of 1,600 lbs. weight. The
crop of 1851 was estimated at twenty-one and a-half million arrobas,
equal to about 335,937 West India hhds. Thus, the increase from 1836
to 1841, has been as 29 per cent.; from 1841 to 1846, as 25 per cent.;
and from 1846 to 1851, as 45 per cent. A portion of sugar is also
smuggled out, to evade the export duty, and by some this is set down
as high as a fourth of the foregoing amounts.

In the three years ending 1841, the exports of the whole island were
2,227,624 boxes; in the three years ending 1844, 2,716,319 boxes; in
the three years ending with 1847, 2,805,530 boxes.

Between 1839 and 1847, the exports had risen from 500,000 to 1,000,000
boxes. The following table exhibits the quantity shipped from the
leading port of Havana, to different countries:--

  Countries.     Sugar boxes of about 400 lbs. each.
                         1850.         1851.
  Spain                  81,267       101,762
  United States         146,672       199,204
  England                25,697        46,615
  Cowes and a market    221,385       270,010
  The Baltic             45,085        81,866
  Hamburgh and Bremen    29,271        33,165
  Holland                23,242        26,828
  Belgium                62,849        29,814
  France                 44,947        46,517
  Trieste and Venice     38,627        14,832
  Italy                   2,856         5,243
  Other places           13,888        16,601
                        -------       -------
               Boxes    743,249       872,457

Our West India possessions have, owing to the want of a good supply of
labor and available capital to introduce various scientific
improvements, somewhat retrograded in the production of sugar; which,
from the low price ruling the past year or two, has not been found a
remunerative staple.

The two large islands of Jamaica and Cuba, may be fairly compared as
to their production of sugar. From 1804 to 1808, Jamaica exported, on
the average, annually 135,331 hhds., and from 1844 to 1848, it had
decreased to 41,872 hhds. The exports from the single port of Havana,
which in the first named period were 165,690 boxes, rose during the
latter period to 635,185 boxes; so that the shipments of sugar from
Jamaica, which were in 1804 to 1808 double those of Havana--in the
period from 1844 to 1848, were five times less!

Cuba will be able to withstand the crisis of the low price of sugars,
better than the emancipated British Colonies, for the following
reasons:--

1. It will find, in its present prosperity, a power of resistance that
no longer exists in the British sugar-growing colonies.

2. Because it enjoys in the Spanish markets a protection for at least
16,955 tons of its sugar, or about eight-tenths of its total
exportation.

3. Because it has secured a very strong position in the markets of the
United States; and both from its proximity to, and its commercial
relations with that country, as also from the better quality of its
sugar, will command the sale of at least 33,500 tons, or about 16 per
cent. of its total production.

4. Because in 1854, after the duties shall have been equalized, it
will be enabled to undersell the British article in its own market.

5. Because, not being an exclusively sugar-growing colony, as are
almost all British West India Islands, it may suffer from the present
depressed condition of the sugar market, but cannot be entirely
ruined, owing to its having commanding resources, and many other
valuable staples,--coffee, copper, cotton, &c.

6. Because, by improving its agriculture and introducing useful
machinery, railroads, &c., for which it has large available capital,
it can produce sugar at a diminished cost.

7. And lastly, because the proprietors have _continuous_ labour at
command, until slavery be abolished--of which there seems no present
prospect. The slave population numbers about 350,000, and the free
coloured population, about 90,000.

The consumption of sugar, during 1847, very singularly tallied with
the production of the British Colonies that year--being exactly
289,000 tons; but as 50,000 tons of foreign sugar were consumed, an
accumulation of British plantation sugar necessarily remained on hand.

The production of the French colonies was 100,000 tons, of which
France received nine-tenths.

In 1836, Jamaica made 1,136,554 cwt. of sugar. In 1840, its produce
had fallen off to 545,600 cwt.; but in the same years, Porto Rico had
increased its sugar crop, from 498,000 cwt., to 1,000,000 cwt. In
1837, Cuba made 9,060,058 arrobas of sugar, equal to 132,765 hhds.; in
1841, it had increased to 139,000 hhds. The largest crop grown in the
West Indies, since 1838, was that of 1847, which amounted to 159,600
tons.

The annexed returns of the sugar crops of Barbados and Jamaica, for a
series of years may, be interesting:--

SUGAR CROPS OF THE ISLAND OF BARBADOS, FROM 1827 TO 1846 AND 1851.

  1827         18,109 hhds.
  1828         28,533  "
  1829         23,486  "
  1830         26,360  "
  1831         28,174  "
  1832         19,761  "
  1833         28,099  "
  1834         28,710  "
  1835         25,371  "
  1836         26,358  "
  1837         31,670  "
  1838         33,058  "
  1839         28,213  "
  1840         13,589  "
  1841         17,801  "
  1842         21,607  "
  1843         24,587  "
  1844         23,147  "
  1845         24,767  "
  1846         21,936  "
  1851         48,000  "

SUGAR CROPS OF THE ISLAND OF JAMAICA, FROM 1790 TO 1851.

  1790         91,131  "
  1791         91,020  "
  1792           ...   "
  1793         82,136  "
  1794         97,124  "
  1795         95,372  "
  1796         96,460  "
  1797         85,109  "
  1798         95,858  "
  1799        110,646  "
  1800        105,584  "
  1801        139,036  "
  1802        140,113  "
  1803        115,496  "
  1804        112,163  "
  1805        150,352  "
  1806        146,601  "
  1807        135,203  "
  1808        132,333  "
  1809        114,630  "
  1810        112,208  "
  1811        138,292  "
  1812        113,173  "
  1813        109,158  "
  1814        104,558  "
  1815        127,209  "
  1816        100,382  "
  1817        123,766  "
  1818        121,758  "
  1819        116,382  "
  1820        122,922  "
  1821        119,560  "
  1822         94,515  "
  1823        101,271  "
  1824        106,009  "
  1825         72,090  "
  1826        106,712  "
  1827         87,399  "
  1828        101,575  "
  1829         97,893  "
  1830        100,205  "
  1831         94,381  "
  1832         98,686  "
  1833         85,161  "
  1834         84,756  "
  1835         77,970  "
  1836         67,094  "
  1837         61,505  "
  1838         69,613  "
  1839         49,243  "
  1840         33,066  "
  1841         34,491  "
  1842         50,295  "
  1843         44,169  "
  1844         34,444  "
  1845         47,926  "
  1851         41,678  "

The average of the five years ending 1851, being the first five of
Free trade, shows an annual export from Jamaica of 41,678 hhds.

The quantity of unrefined sugar imported from the British West Indies
and Guiana in a series of years since the emancipation, is shown by
the following abstract:--

                Cwts.           Cwts.
                Sugar.        Molasses.
  1831        4,103,800        323,306
  1832        3,773,456        553,663
  1833        3,646,205        686,794
  1834        3,843,976        650,366
  1835        3,524,209        507,495
  1836        3,601,791        526,535
  1837        3,306,775        575,657
  1838        3,520,676        638,007
  1839        2,824,372        474,307
  1840        2,214,764        424,141
  1841        2,148,218        430,221
  1842        2,508,725        471,759
  1843        2,509,701        605,632
  1844        2,451,063        579,458
  1845        2,853,995        491,083
  1846        2,147,347        477,623
  1847        3,199,814        531,171
  1848        2,794,987        385,484
  1849        2,839,888        605,487
  1850        2,586,429        470,187

_Mauritius_.--In the year 1813 the exports of sugar from this island
were but 549,465 lbs., and increasing gradually to 128,476,547 lbs. in
1849, or two-hundred fold in thirty-six years.

The equalisation of the duties in 1825, and the admission of Mauritius
sugars into England on the same footing as those from the West Indies,
had the effect of stimulating the sugar trade of Mauritius, and
advancing it to its present remarkable success. Notwithstanding its
immense crops, scarcely more than three-fifths of the island is yet
under cultivation; but it has the advantage of a cheap and abundant
supply of labor, and much improved machinery has been introduced. The
planters first commenced introducing Coolies in 1835, and were for
some time restricted to the single port of Calcutta for their supply.

The recent advices from Mauritius furnish some interesting information
regarding the progress making in the sugar production of that colony.
In reference to the cultivation of the cane, it is stated that by the
introduction of guano upon several estates in the interior, the
production has been very largely increased; but as the value and
economy of manure has not been hitherto sufficiently estimated, its
introduction has not been so general as could be desired. The
importance of free labor to the cultivation of the estates, has now
become fully appreciated by the planters; it being found that an equal
amount of work can be obtained by this means from a less number of
hands, and that at lower rates of wages than were current in previous
years, the average of which is shown in the following table:--

  +--------+-----------------+------------------+--------------+
  |        |    Number of    |    Aggregate     |   Average    |
  | Years. |     Coolies     | amount of wages  |wages per head|
  |        |    employed.    |  paid per week.  |  per week.   |
  +--------+-----------------+------------------+--------------+
  |        |                 |        £         |    s.  d.    |
  |  1846  |      47,733     |      33,484      |    14   0    |
  |  1847  |      48,314     |      35,338      |    14   9    |
  |  1848  |      41,777     |      26,627      |    12   9    |
  |  1849  |      45,384     |      27,625      |    12   2    |
  |  1850  |      47,912     |      31,664      |    12   3    |
  |  1851  |      42,275     |      27,832      |    12   2    |
  +--------+-----------------+------------------+--------------+

In 1826, to make from 25 to 30,000,000 lbs. of sugar, it required
30,000 laborers (slaves); at the present time, with less than 45,000
(from which number fully 5,000 must be deducted as absent from work
from various causes), 135,000,000 lbs. are produced, or about five
times the quantity under slavery. The coolies are found to be an
intelligent race, who have become inured to the work required, and by
whose labor this small island can produce the fifth part of the
consumption of the United Kingdom, and that with only about 70,000
acres under cane cultivation. About 10,000 male immigrants, introduced
since 1843, are not now working under engagement, but are following
other occupations, and thus become permanent consumers. Some cultivate
land on a small scale, on their own account, but very few plant canes,
as it requires from eighteen to twenty months before they obtain any
return for their labor; but the most important fact established by
this and other official statements is, that only a small number of
immigrants leave the colony at the expiration of their industrial
residence. In the manufacture of sugar from the cane, considerable
improvement has been effected by the introduction of new methods of
boiling and grinding. The vacuum pan and the system of Wetsell are all
tending to economise the cost of production, and to save that loss
which for years amounted, in grinding alone, to nearly one-third of
the juice of the cane. The planters begin to find that they can
increase the value of their sugar 30 to 40 per cent. by these
improvements, and that their future prosperity depends upon carrying
them out. Unfortunately, however, here, as in many other of our
colonies, a very large number of planters do not yet appreciate the
advantages to be obtained by the adoption of improved machinery and
manufacture, or by improved cultivation, and still struggle on under
the old system of waste and negligence, which can only result in the
ruin and destruction of their property.

In 1827, the number of sugar estates in operation in Mauritius, were
49 worked by water power, 50 by cattle or horses, and 22 by
steam--total 111; in 1836, this number had increased to 186, viz.--64
moved by water power, 10 by horse, and 112 by steam. In 1839, the
number was 211, of which 138 were worked by steam power--70,292 acres
were then under cultivation with sugar. There are now about 490 sugar
estates, whereof only 231 have mills--42 are worked by water power,
the rest by steam.

The annual Mauritius crops, as exported, for the last ten years, have
been as follows. The shipments frequently extend beyond a year, hence
a discrepancy sometimes between the year's crop and the year's
export:--

                  Tons,
  1842-43        24,400
  1843-44        28,600
  1844-45        37,600
  1845-46        49,100
  1846-47        64,100
  1847-48        59,021
  1848-49        50,782
  1849-50        51,811
  1850-51        55,000
  1851-52        65,080

Besides its exports to Great Britain, Mauritius ships large
quantities of sugar to the Cape of Good Hope and Australia.

Its local consumption is moreover set down at about 2,500 tons.

The progressive increase in its exports is marked by the following
return of imports into Great Britain from the island:--

               Cwt.
  1826         93,723
  1827        186,782
  1828        204,344
  1829        361,325
  1830        297,958
  1831        485,710
  1832        517,553
  1833        521,904
  1834        516,077
  1835        553,891
  1836        558,237
  1837        497,302
  1838        537,455
  1839        604,671
  1840        690,294
  1841        545,356
  1842        716,009
  1843        696,652
  1844        545,415
  1845        716,173
  1846        845,197
  1847      1,193,571
  1848        886,184
  1849        893,524
  1850      1,003,296
  1851        999,337

_East Indies_.--Sugar is a very old and extensive cultivation in
India. It would probably be within the mark, to estimate the annual
produce of the country at a million of tons. An official return shows
that the quantity of sugar carried on one road of the interior, for
provincial consumption, is about equal to the whole quantity shipped
from Calcutta--some 50,000 or 60,000 tons.

India is fast becoming a great sugar producing country, although its
produce and processes of manufacture are rude and imperfect. The
Coolies who return from time to time to the Indian ports, bring with
them much acquired knowledge and experience from the Mauritius.

In 1825, the import of sugar from the East Indies was but 146,000
cwt., and it fluctuated greatly in succeeding years, being
occasionally as low as 76,600 cwt. In 1837 the quantity imported was
just double what it was in 1827. In 1841, it had reached as high as
1,239,738 cwt., and subsequently kept steady for a few years at
1,100,000 cwt.--and for the last four years has averaged 1,400,000
cwt.

_Java_.--Attention has been withdrawn, in a great measure, from sugar
cultivation in Java, owing to coffee being found a more remunerative
staple. The following figures serve to show the extent of its exports
of sugar:--

               Cwt.
  1826         23,565
  1827         38,357
  1828         31,301
  1829         91,227
  1830        129,300
  1831        144,077
  1832        292,705
  1833        151,128
  1834        443,911
  1835        523,162
  1836        607,336
  1837        820,063
  1838        873,056
  1839        999,895
  1840      1,231,135
  1841      1,252,041
  1842      1,105,856
  1843      1,162,211
  1844      1,260,790
  1845      1,812,500
  1848      1,798,612
  1850      1,797,874
  1851      1,987,957
  1852      2,090,845

In 1840, we imported from Java 75,533 cwt.; in 1841, 87,342 cwt.; in
1842, 24,922 cwt.; in 1843, 35,161 cwt.; and in 1844, about 72,000
cwt.; but most of this was only sent to Cowes, for orders, to be
transhipped to the Continent.

_Philippines_.--The exports from Manila into this country in 1841,
were 133,482 cwt.; in 1842, 63,464 cwt.; and in 1843, 48,977 cwt. In
the fifteen years between 1835 and 1850, the export of sugar from the
Philippine Islands more than doubled:--

              Tons.
  1835       11,542
  1836       14,875
  1837       12,293
  1838       12,375
  1839       15,631
  1840       16,563
  1841       15,321
  1842       18,540
  1843       22,239
  1844       21,528
  1845       24,500
  1850       28,745

About a third of this is raw sugar, the rest is clayed or refined. It
is singular, that though these islands belong to Spain, the export of
this staple product to that country should be limited to about 600
tons; America taking about one-sixth, and England and her colonies the
remainder. There is now an increased demand for the Australian
colonies, consequent upon the large influx of population to that
quarter.

Export of sugar from Manila in 1850.

                                        Piculs.
  To Great Britain                      146,926
  "  Continent of Europe                 50,830
  "  Australian Colonies                142,359
  "  Singapore, Batavia, and Bombay      12,749
  "  California and the Pacific          29,144
  "  The United States                   77,919
                                        -------
                                        459,927

The sugar cane occurs in a wild state on many of the islands of the
Pacific, but in no part of the American continent, notwithstanding a
contrary opinion has been expressed.

The following are the chief varieties cultivated in the West Indies,
Louisiana, the East Indies, and Mauritius:--

1. Common or creole cane, so called from being introduced from the New
World.

2. Yellow Bourbon.

3. Yellow Otaheite.

4. Otaheite with purple bands.

5. Purple Otaheite.

6. Ribbon cane.

My friend, Mr. L. Wray, in his "Practical Sugar Planter," considers
the Bourbon, and yellow, or straw-coloured Otaheite cane, as
identical, but merely altered by change of soil and climate. The yield
from these cane-plants seems to be about the same in either Indies,
viz., in good land about two-and-a-half tons of dry sugar per
acre--sometimes three tons.

A very large species of red cane, grown at Gowhatty, in Assam, is
made favorable mention of for its strength of growth, early maturity,
and juiciness; and Mr. Wray strongly recommends the introduction into
the West Indies of another fine variety, generally grown in the
Straits' settlements, where it is known by the name of the Salangore
cane. He considers they would ratoon better than any other cane, and
the return from it is on the average 3,600 lbs. of dry sugar to the
acre.

    "For my own part, I have always reckoned as an average, 3,600 lbs.
    of dry sugar to the acre as the return this cane will give, on
    anything like good land, in the Straits, according to the present
    imperfect mode of expressing and manufacture; but, considering the
    surpassing richness of land in the West India Islands, Demerara, and
    Mauritius, I should not be in any way surprised to find that it
    would there give even three tons an acre.

    The Salangore cane grows firm and strong; stands upright much better
    than the Otaheite; gives juice most abundantly, which is sweet and
    easy of clarification, boils well, and produces a very fine, fair
    sugar, of a bold and sparkling grain."

Much discussion has arisen on the subject of raising the sugar cane
from seed, and the possibility has been universally denied among the
planters and agricultural societies of the West India colonies. Mr.
Pritchard, a sugar planter of Louisiana, in the "United States Patent
Report for 1850," however, states:--

    "It is an error to suppose that the cane cannot be propagated from
    the seed. This may be the case when the seed is obtained from plants
    that have been produced for a number of years from buds, or eyes.
    All plants that have been produced in this way for a series of
    years, lose the faculty of forming prolific seeds; and the sugar
    cane is governed by the same laws which govern the whole vegetable
    kingdom. It cannot, therefore, be expected to produce seeds after it
    has been cultivated for a great length of time."

The sugar cane is composed of water, woody fibre, and soluble matter,
or sugar. In round numbers it may be stated that the proportions are
72 per cent. of water, 10 per cent. of woody fibre, and 18 per cent.
of sugar.

The fluid contents of a cane, according to Dr. Evans, contain 90 per
cent. of the entire structure of the stem.

1,000 grains of sugar cane, being burnt, gave 7½ grains of ash, which,
on analysis, furnished the following components:--

  Silica                        1.78
  Phosphate of lime             3.41
  Red oxide of iron and clay     .17
  Carbonate of potash           1.46
  Sulphate of potash             .15
  Carbonate of magnesia          .43
  Sulphate of lime                 6
                                ----
                                7.46

The following is the quantative analysis of a portion of soil taken
from the surface of a cane field, on the Diamond estate, in St.
Vincent, West Indies: --

  Alumina soluble in acids                    12.87
  Organic matter                              11.26
  Gypsum                                        .23
  Carbonate of lime                           12.52
  ---- of magnesia                              .71
  Oxide of iron                                8.51
  Oxide of manganese                            .33
  Insoluble silicious and aluminous matter    53.57
                                             ------
                                             100.00

The sugar of the cane and grape sugar are distinguished by the
following difference in their elements, as proved by analysis:--

              Cane sugar.     Grape sugar.
  Carbon          12               12
  Hydrogen        10               12
  Oxygen          10               12
  Water            1                2

There is a remarkable difference, however, between their fermentable
properties. When a solution is made of the same quantities of these
two sugars, in equal proportions of distilled water, it will be
necessary to add eight times as much of the same ferment to induce
alcoholic fermentation in the solution of cane sugar, as in that of
grape sugar. Under the action of a larger quantity of ferment, cane
sugar is transformed into grape sugar.

If you cut a sugar cane in two, and examine the interior part of it
with a magnifying glass, you perceive the crystals of sugar as
distinct and as white as those of double-refined sugar. The object of
the operator should be then either to extract those crystals without
altering their color, or, if that be found impracticable, to separate
them from the impurities mixed with them, while the juice is in its
natural state, and yet contains but little coloring matter. Instead of
this, the juice is limed while all the impurities are in it. In
separating the feculencies from the juice and uniting them in large
flakes, lime dissolves a portion of them and forms with them coloring
matter, which we all know at once discolors the juice, when lime is
used in excess. Afterwards heat is applied, either in clarifiers or in
the grand copper, but most of the impurities found in the juice will
decompose, and burn at a degree of heat far below the boiling point,
say at 120 deg. of Fahrenheit. This is shown by the thick scales
continually forming in the grande. From that degree of heat the
decomposition goes on in the clarifier till the juice is drawn, and
continues in the grande so long as there are feculencies left. This
decomposition greatly increases the quantity of coloring matter, so
that, as the juice is being clarified, it loses in color what it gains
in purity. And here let me show the relative value of the "grande" and
of clarifiers as agents of clarification. In the grande, if it is well
attended to, the scummings are taken up as soon as they rise. A
portion of them is removed before they begin to decompose, and the
process goes on, so that before the juice reaches the boiling point
nearly all the feculencies are removed, and the source of coloring
matter is removed with them. Clarifiers reach the boiling point much
quicker, and cannot easily be scummed. The general practice is to
bring them to that point without scumming, to let the feculencies
separate from the juice by cooling and by rest, and to wash out the
clarifiers every second or third time they are filled. Heat and
alkalies acting in them upon the accumulated feculencies of one, two,
or three charges, dissolve a much larger portion of those feculencies
than they can possibly do in the grande. The formation of coloring
matter continues during the time of rest, and accordingly planters,
after repeated trials, generally agree that juice well clarified in
the grande, has a lighter and brighter color, and makes better sugar
than that obtained from clarifiers.

The first object of research should be to find means of clarifying the
juice without creating coloring matter. It is said that presses
something like those used to press cotton, have lately been
successfully employed in the West Indies, instead of rollers; that the
juice obtained is much purer, and that a much larger quantity of it is
extracted from the cane. If so, this will be a great improvement, and
the first step of the process I should recommend. From juice thus
obtained, I have no doubt that all impurities less soluble than itself
may be separated by mechanical means before heat and alkalies are
applied, or at least with a very small quantity of alkalies. All other
liquids, all fatty substances and oils, except cotton seed oil, are
clarified by a very rapid process. Cane juice can no doubt be
clarified by similar means, and if this were accomplished the process
of sugar making would be very much simplified.

The clarified juice might then be placed in an evaporator, heated by
the waste steam of the engine; then be limed and scummed if necessary,
and concentrated to fifteen or sixteen of the prese sirop; then
purified by filtration through animal charcoal, if white sugar was
wanted, or by rest for other qualities; and finally concentrated in
vacuum pans of great power, such pans as Mr. Thomas A. Morgan, of
Louisiana, now uses, and which, I am informed, are only made in
America.

The superiority of the vacuum pan is not universally admitted, and we
are told that in France it is superseded by open pans, similar to
those called in America "Mape's Evaporators." However this may be, I
cannot help believing that the vacuum pan has many decided advantages
over all others. One is manifest; the sugar may be grained in the pan,
and the granulation is completely under the control of the operator.
He may accelerate or retard it at pleasure; he may carry it so far
that sugar will not run from the pan, and will have to be taken out of
it; he may so conduct the operation as to increase, almost at will,
the size and hardness of the crystals. This last is an indispensable
requisite if the practice of draining sugar in pneumatic pans should
be adopted.

The atmospheric pressure is made too powerful for sugars boiled in any
other manner; it breaks and destroys the crystals, and in a very few
days sets the sugar to fermenting.

The pneumatic draining of sugar has many things to recommend it--the
usual loss by drainage is avoided, sugar is got ready for market day
by day, as it is made, and it may be bleached by pouring white syrup
over it and forcing it through the mass. It is said that the process
is attended with considerable loss in weight, but as all that drains
from the pan may be boiled over once or twice, it is not easy to
conceive how the loss can occur.

Cane juice contains many ingredients besides sugar, the principal of
which are albumen, gluten, gum, starch, resin, wax, coloring matter,
and certain salts, all of which, either collectively or individually,
have the power of preventing granulation, as may be proved by their
addition to a syrup of pure sugar, which will then defy all attempts
to make it crystallise. If, therefore, we want to make good sugar, we
must endeavour to free our cane juice as much as possible from those
substances.

Now, cane juice is no more the sap of the cane, than apple juice is
that of the apple tree; it is the natural product of the cane, and, in
all probability, would contain but a small proportion of these foreign
matters if it could be expressed without being accompanied by the sap,
they being the natural constituents of the last-named fluid. A patent
has, I believe, been lately taken out for separating the cane juice
without the sap. However, in the absence of such an improvement, much
may be done by care and attention at the mill; the green bands and
trash which usually accompany the canes from the field, should,
therefore, be carefully removed before they are passed through, as
they contain no saccharine matter, abound in the deleterious
substances already mentioned, and communicate a bad color to the
juice; therefore, _the ripe cane only should pass through the mill_.
There are but few planters who have not had to contend with sour
juice, and they attribute the difficulty they experience in making
sugar therefrom, to the presence of acetic acid, or vinegar; but this
is quite an erroneous idea, as the acetic acid is very volatile, and
evaporates quickly on the application of heat, which may be proved by
throwing a gallon of strong vinegar into a pan of liquor; it will do
no harm, provided it be boiled before tempering; on the contrary, the
effect, if it be properly done, will be beneficial, as it will promote
the coagulation of the albumen; it is the gum which is always formed
during the acetous fermentation of sugar that prevents granulation;
hence, then, acidity is strictly to be guarded against, as
fermentation once commenced, it will be impossible to make good sugar,
it will continue throughout the process, and even in the hogshead; so
that canes should be ground as soon as possible after they are cut,
and all rat-eaten and broken ones carefully excluded. Canes may,
however, be kept some days without fermenting, provided they be not
broken or damaged, it being, as we said before, the mixture of the sap
and the cane juice that makes the liquid so prone to fermentation; and
the mill, gutters, and everything with which the juice is likely to
come in contact, should be kept carefully clean, and whitewashed
immediately after, and the whitewash removed before use, as acetate of
lime being an exceedingly soluble and deliquescent salt, will not
improve the quality of the sugar; whilst the gutter should be short,
and sheltered from the sun's rays, they having the effect of greatly
expediting chemical action.

I shall say no more on this subject, but will proceed to consider the
mode of tempering and clarifying cane juice, and the action of lime on
the various substances contained therein. The expression "tempering"
has, I presume, been, adopted in consequence of the use of tempered
lime for the purpose of precipitating the feculencies, held in
solution in the cane juice, into a state of suspension; and
clarification is the process by which we afterwards clear the liquor
of these and other foreign matter. Now, as I before observed,
"fermentation should be most strictly guarded against;" our first
efforts should be directed to free the cane juice from those
substances most conducive to that process; and on inquiry we find
these to be albumen and gluten; so far, however, from getting rid of
them in cold tempering, we adopt a course which retains them
permanently in solution, as lime has the power of rendering them
permanently soluble, and of forming soapy compounds with resin, wax,
and chlorophyle, or the green coloring matter of leaves, forming an
insoluble compound with and precipitating only the starch, and
converting at the same time the green color of the chlorophyle (which
is, in all probability, attached to the resin), into a dark brown, of
a greater or less intensity, according to the composition of the cane
juice, and, consequently, the quantity of lime required; it follows,
therefore, as a matter of course, that if juice be tempered before
these substances have been removed, they must be permanently retained,
and they have all the power of preventing granulation.

Albumen, and gluten are both coagulable by heat; if, therefore, we
raise the liquor to the boiling point prior to applying the lime,
taking care to remove the scum as soon as it shows signs of breaking,
and continuing the boiling until the scum thrown to the surface
becomes inconsiderable, we shall find that the albumen and gluten, in
coagulating and rising, have carried with them the small particles of
woody fibre, the wax, and a large proportion of the coloring matter,
and that the lime will now throw down the starch, and any other little
impurities remaining in suspension in the liquor, leaving it perfectly
clear and bright. Tempering is an exceedingly delicate chemical
operation, and I have no hesitation in saying, that on its proper
performance depends the quality of the produce. The following simple
experiments, which all have it in their power to try, will, if they
give themselves the trouble, fully satisfy them of two important
points--the superiority of the hot over the cold mode, and the
necessity for great attention to the operation of tempering. Let them
take a tumbler of cane-juice and a bottle containing lime water, add
the latter to the former by drops, pausing and stirring between each,
and they will find that, after the addition of a certain quantity, the
opaque gummy appearance of the liquor undergoes a change, and the
impurities contained in it separate into flakes, which increase in
size with each drop of lime added, until they become extinct, and the
supernatant liquor perfectly transparent; this is the precise point at
which the liquor is tempered, and each drop of lime added after this,
causes the flakes to diminish rapidly in size, at last entirely to
disappear (being re-dissolved), and the liquor to resume its former
gummy appearance; it is, therefore, evident that there should be no
such expressions as tempering high or low.

The reason why some liquor is so difficult to clean is, that it is
either tempered high or low; if it be exactly tempered, the impurities
contained in it being entirely separated and thrown out of solution,
rise to the surface immediately on the application of heat, and are
easily removed; but if there be too little lime, a great portion
remains in solution, and if too much, a proportional quantity is
re-dissolved; and in either case cannot be removed by any mechanical
means. It is, therefore, necessary to have some precise test for the
application of lime.

As regards the superiority of the hot over the cold tempering, let any
one take, in separate vessels, two gallons of cane-juice, and temper
one, adding the lime in small quantities--say, of three grains at a
time--and keeping an account of the quantity used; he will find that
the first portions produce no effect whatever, and that it is only
after the addition of a considerable quantity that the desired
precipitation of the impurities manifest itself. Why is this? Because
albumen, gluten, resin, and chlorophyle, being soluble in lime, lime
is equally so in them, and they must first be saturated before it will
produce any other effect. Let the liquor thus tempered, be then placed
on one side. Put the other gallon over a fire, and boil it, removing
the scum just before, and during, ebullition; let it then be taken off
the fire, and tempered in the same way as the other. The very first
quantity of lime added causes the appearance of the floccy
precipitate; and if the addition of the lime be continued until it be
precisely tempered, it will be found that the hot possesses the
following advantages over the cold-tempered liquor:--In a quarter of
an hour its impurities will have subsided to a sixteenth of its bulk,
leaving the supernatant liquor as bright and clear as pale brandy;
while those in the other have only sunk to one-quarter of its bulk.
The color of the former clear liquor will not be less than one-half
the intensity of that of the latter. The lime used in the hot has been
less by one-third than the quantity used in the cold tempering.

Of course, on level estates there is little difficulty in tempering
liquor, but on hilly properties scarcely two pans will require the
same quantity.

It is generally believed that the object of adding lime to cane-juice
is for the purpose of neutralising an acid, and it is to the reception
of this fallacious idea that it is indebted for its long and continued
use, and the present backward state of sugar manufacture is
attributable: I unhesitatingly assert that, if there be an acid
present in the cane-juice, the addition of lime to it will be
injurious instead of beneficial. There are only four acids that we
could expect to find in cane juice--mucous, saccholactic or saclactic,
oxalic, and acetic acids. The three first named of these, however,
have never been traced, even in the most minute quantities; and if the
latter be present, which, unfortunately, is but too often the case,
the addition of lime would only result in the formation of acetate of
lime, which is, as I have already observed, an exceedingly difficult
crystallisable, very soluble, and deliquescent salt. It has a bitter,
saline taste; 100 parts consist of 64.5 acid, 35.5 lime, and it is
easily recognisable by its taste in the molasses made from sour
cane-juice: so that, supposing the cane-juice sour, every pint of acid
present would require nearly half a pound of lime for its
neutralisation, independent of the quantity required for the tempering
or precipitation of the feculencies contained in it, and would result
in the formation of one-and-a-half pound of the above mentioned highly
deleterious salt.

Suppose we boil the cane-juice prior to tempering it, we then drive
off a great portion of acetic acid, much less lime will be required,
and if we could, by filtration or subsidence, get rid of the
precipitated feculencies, we should make a tolerably good sugar; but
as, under the present plan, we have no means of so doing, the acetic
acid, which is forming during the whole process of evaporation (as
fermentation still goes on), unites with the lime before it can be
dissipated by the heat, and thus not only forms acetate of lime, but
causes the re-solution of the precipitated feculencies, thus rendering
it necessary to add a fresh portion of lime in the tache, a proceeding
always to be avoided, if possible, but generally necessary in boiling
down sour liquor. Take a small portion of cane-juice (hot or cold) in
a tumbler, and temper it with lime until the feculencies are
precipitated and the flakes perfectly visible, then add vinegar by
drops, and it will be found that the flakes will speedily disappear
and be re-dissolved, showing that lime has a greater affinity for
acetic acid than starch, and that, although when added to sour
cane-juice, it neutralises the acidity, still that result is a
consequence, not the cause, of the application, and is highly
injurious. Lime is one of the greatest known solvents of vegetable
matter; it dissolves albumen, gluten, gum and lignin, or woody fibre,
forming soapy compounds with wax, resin, and, chlorophyle. Ordinary
cane-juice contains about three parts of resin to every 100 of sugar,
and the projection of a small piece of soap into a tache full of
granulating syrup will soon convince any one of the effect likely to
result from the presence of that material. Although, by tempering hot,
we get rid of a very great quantity of the substances on which lime
acts injuriously, a considerable portion of them remain in suspension,
the quantity of albumen contained in the cane-juice not being
sufficient to carry them all off by coagulation; on the addition of
the lime, however, they are entirely dissolved and as the impurities
left behind consist chiefly of gluten, the liability of the liquor to
ferment is greatly increased by its retention, that being the
fermenting principle contained in wheat and other vegetable
productions prone to that process.

One hundred parts of Albumen consist of Carbon, 52.88; Oxygen, 23.88;
Hydrogen, 7-54; Nitrogen, 15.70. Gluten, nearly same as Albumen.

  -------------+-------+-------+-------+---------+-------++------+--------
   100 parts   |       |       |       |         |       ||Excess! Excess
   consist of  |Carbon.|Oxygen.|Hydro- | Carbon. | Water.||  of  |   of
               |       |       | gen.  |         |       ||Oxygen|Hydrogen
  -------------+-------+-------+-------+---------+-------++------+--------
  Lignin, or   |       |       |       |         |       ||      |
    Woody Fibre| 51.45 | 42.73 |  5.82 | or51.45 | 48.55 ||      |
  Starch       | 43.55 | 49.63 |  6.77 |   43.55 | 56.45 ||      |
  Sugar        | 42.47 | 50.63 |  6.90 |   42.47 | 57.53 ||      |
  Gum          | 42.23 | 50.84 |  6.93 |   42.23 | 57.77 ||      |
  Alcohol      | 51.98 | 34.32 | 13.70 |   51.98 | 38.99 ||      |  9.03
  Acetic Acid  | 50.22 | 44.15 |  5.63 |   50.22 | 46.91 || 2.87 |
  Resin        | 75.94 | 13.34 | 10.72 |   75.94 | 15.16 ||      |  8.90
  Wax          | 81.79 |  5.54 | 12.76 |   81.79 |  6.30 ||      | 11.01
  -------------+-------+-------+-------+---------+-------++------+--------

By a reference to the foregoing table it will be easily understood how
slight a change in the proportion of the ingredients of any one of the
substances contained therein will convert it into an entirely
different one. In chemistry we are able, to a certain extent, to
imitate the operations of nature; but we must follow in the same
course laid down by her; thus, we can convert woody fibre, or sawdust
and starch, into sugar, gum, alcohol, and acetic acid; but we cannot
convert alcohol, acetic acid, or gum into sugar, starch or woody
fibre; and of such importance is a slight alteration of the
proportions of these elements--carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen--that the
abstraction of carbon from sugar, and the addition of a portion of the
prime support of life, vegetation and combustion, oxygen, changes the
harmless sugar into the most violent of poisons, oxalic acid, which
consists of 26.57 carbon, 70.69 oxygen, and 2.74 hydrogen.

Let us now examine the action of lime on sugar, and we shall find it
equally, if not more, injurious than on the other substances. Sugar is
capable of dissolving half its weight of lime, by which its sweet
taste is destroyed, and it becomes converted into gum; the lime
abstracting carbonic acid from it to form a carbonate of lime or
chalk. It will be seen by the above table that--

  100 parts of sugar contain    42.47 carbon.
  100 parts of gum contain      42.23 ditto.
                                -----
                  Difference       24

So that, if we extract 24-100ths of a grain of carbon from 100 grains
of sugar, we convert them into gum. Let us suppose that about two
ounces of lime, or say 1,000 grains, remain in solution in a pan, (say
200 gallons of liquor,) those 1,000 grains of lime will require 761 of
carbonic acid to convert them into carbonate of lime or chalk, 100
grains of which consist of 56.2 lime and 43.8 carbonic acid. So that
1,761 grains of chalk consist of 1,000 lime and 761 carbonic acid. Now
100 grains of carbonic add consist of 27.53 carbon and 72.47 oxygen;
therefore 761 grains will consist of 209.50 carbon and 551.53 oxygen.

Consequently, 1,000 grains of lime will require 209.50 grains of
carbon to convert them into carbonate of lime; and as we have seen
that the abstraction of 24 from 100 grains of sugar convert them into
gum, it follows, that the abstraction of 209.50 grains would have a
similar effect on 87,000 grains, or about 15 lbs. of sugar, which,
being converted into gum, would prevent the crystallisation of several
times its weight of sugar; and this is the cause of the formation of
molasses. The loss of sugar is not the only bad consequence of the use
of lime, as the greater the quantity of gum in the liquor, the more it
must be boiled--the more it is boiled the darker it gets--and the
higher the temperature at which the skip is struck, the smaller the
grain. The following is a good proof that lime dissolves albumen, and
becomes converted into chalk:--Take a spoonful of syrup out of the
tache of any estate on which the liquor is tempered cold; it will be
found filled with small flakes; these are albumen set free from its
solution in the lime by the conversion of the latter into carbonate of
lime, and coagulated by heat. It is perfectly possible to temper
liquor, so that scarcely any uncrystallisable sugar will remain; but
planters do not like this; they must have molasses for the
still-house; they could, however, boil low, by which the grain and
color would be improved, and plenty of uncrystallised, although not
uncrystallisable, syrup would be left to take the place of molasses.

I think I have now fully proved the following facts, viz.:--That the
use of lime in sugar-making is not to neutralise an acid; that if
acidity be present, the application of lime is injurious; that its
action on gluten, albumen, wax, resin, and chlorophyle is equally so;
that by decomposing the sugar and forming gum, the quantity of
molasses or uncrystallisable sugar is much increased, whereby high
boiling is rendered necessary, with its consequent heightening of
color and injury to the grain of the produce, and that therefore it is
perfectly unfit for the purpose of tempering cane-juice.

Messrs. Thomas Begg and Co., of London, have procured from E.F.
Telchemacher and J. Denham Smith, an analysis of one gallon of
ordinary plantain juice, and one gallon of Ramos' prepared plantain
juice "for the purpose of ascertaining whether any substance can be
used which, in conjunction with water, will answer as a substitute for
the plantain juice in the receipt which accompanied the samples." The
chemists say they find that one gallon of ordinary plantain juice
holds in solution;--

  Extract similar to tannin              25.60 grains
  Vegetable extract and fatty matter     57.70    "
  Carbonate of potash                   150.40    "
  Muriate of potash                      33.60    "
  Muriate of soda                         2.00    "
  Silica                                  1.20    "
                                        -------------
  Contents of one imperial gallon       270.50 grains

--whilst one gallon of "Ramos' prepared plantain juice" contains,
besides vegetable extract, 226 grains of solid matter, consisting of
sulphuret and potash, in the following proportions:--

  Sulphur         40 grains
  Lime           156    "
  Potash          30    "
                 ----------
                 226 grains

They do not think it likely that the potash exists in fresh plantain
juice as carbonate, but rather that this salt is the product of
decomposition, arising from a compound of potash and a vegetable acid,
such as tartaric or oxalic acid present in the fresh juice; be this as
it may, any utility derivable from the plantain juice is evidently
owing to the potash it contains.

They then give as a substitute for Ramos' liquid, and to be used in a
similar way, the following--

Take of subcarbonate of potash 2 ounces, avoirdupois; sulphur, 2¼
ounces; best British lime slaked, 1½ lb.; mix them into a paste in an
earthen pan or wooden tub, with one quart of water (warm) and when
thoroughly mixed, pour in ten gallons of boiling water--rain water is
the best to use--and stir from time to time until it has cooled, when
it may be drawn off from the sediment and kept for use. If rain water
cannot be obtained, the purest water obtainable may be used.

One of the causes most fatal to West Indian prosperity, is that
exuberance of advantages which they enjoy from serenity of climate and
fertility of soil--causes which, in the absence of proper stimulus to
industry and improvement, have led to an improvident system of
cultivation, and to a blind and ignorant adherence to wasteful methods
of manufacture.

The cane is believed to contain from 90 to 95 per cent. of its own
weight of saccharine juice; and yet (as Mr. Fownes, a Professor of
Practical Chemistry in University College, London, informs us, in an
excellent paper "On the Manufacture of Sugar in Barbados,"[17] from
which much of what follows has been borrowed) owing to the defective
construction of the mills, hardly so much as 50 per cent. is obtained,
although he believes it practicable, by an improvement in the mills,
to obtain from 70 to 75 per cent.; and of the remaining 10 or 15 per
cent. which he regards it as impossible to extract, much, if not the
whole, might, I conceive, be obtained, by macerating the pressed canes
or megass, as it issues from the mill, and repassing it through the
rollers; and, be it remembered, that from 40 to 45 per cent. of
saccharine juice is nearly, if not altogether, equivalent to a similar
per centage of sugar; so that by these initiatory improvements alone,
and with little additional trouble, the produce of sugar might be
nearly doubled from any given quantity of canes.

From the action of lime-water when added in a slight excess to the
cane juice or raw liquor, as it is vernacularly termed, immediately on
issuing from the mill, as well as from the effect produced by ammonia
or potash, this liquid appears to contain a considerable quantity of
cane sugar, mixed with much glucose, or that saccharine matter which
is found in fruits; gum or dextrine, phosphates, and probably malates
of lime and magnesia, with sulphates and chlorides, potash and soda,
and a peculiar azotised matter, allied to albumen, which forms an
insoluble compound with lime, is not coagulable by heat or acids, and
runs readily into putrefactive fermentation.

To free it from these constituents, and enable it to yield pure and
crystallisable sugar, the liquor, on entering the boiling-house, is
received into the first of three clarifiers, of the capacity of from
three hundred to a thousand gallons each. Here it is subjected to the
action of lime-water, which checks the tendency to fermentation, and
neutralises any free acid which it may contain. "The common defection
process," says Mr. Fownes, "in careful hands, seems susceptible of
little improvement. Many other substances than lime have been proposed
and tried with more or less success, some of which, in particular
states of the cane juice, may prove very useful; but, for general
purposes, nothing seems to answer so well as neutralisation by lime,
either in the form of lime-water or milk of lime, added until the
slightest possible tendency to alkalinity, as ascertained by delicate
reddened litmus paper, is perceived. The juice should be somewhat
heated before the lime is added, and afterwards raised quite to the
boiling point. The fire is then to be withdrawn, and the whole allowed
to rest a short time." Such is Mr. Fownes' description of the process
of clarification; to which I will venture to add, upon the authority
of those who have experienced its good effects, the joint use of the
mucilage of the _Guazuma ulmifolia_, or gun-stock tree, as it is
popularly termed in Nevis from the use to which its timber has been
applied. This is the bastard cedar of Jamaica, or Orme d'Amerique, and
Bois d'Orme of the French, which may be found described by Lunan, in
the first volume of his "Hortus Jamaicensis," page 59, under the name
of _Bubroma Guazuma_.

This tree presents in the interval between its outer bark of sap-wood,
a mass of fibrous matter about half an inch in thickness, richly
impregnated with mucilage, which is obtained by macerating the fibrous
mass, conveniently divided into small shreds, for about twelve hours,
in warm water, in the proportion of about two handsful to eight
gallons of water. Of this solution, which is of a light, straw color,
and somewhat thickened, one gallon is to be added for every hundred
gallons of cane juice, after the clarifier has been charged with the
proper quantity of lime-water, and has become lukewarm. The mixture
should then be stirred, and afterwards allowed to settle till the scum
has risen to the surface. The fire must next be cautiously and
gradually raised to the point of boiling, when it must again be
slackened, and the whole left to stand for about forty minutes, by
which time the mass of feculencies will have risen to the surface,
when the clear liquor underneath may either be drawn off by a siphon
or cock; the whole may be filtered as Mr. Fownes recommends, by which
means the liquor would be more effectually clarified, and much, if not
all, the subsequent labour of skimming dispensed with. The matter
remaining on the filter may be employed, either as a ferment in the
still-house, or added to the manure heap. Much of the beneficial
effect of the mucilage of the _guazuma_ arises probably from an
admixture of tannin, or some other astringent; for I have often been
struck with the peculiar whiteness of the potted sugar in the
curing-house, in the immediate vicinity of the Banana stalks,
resulting, no doubt, from their powerful astringency; and tannin has
already been found useful in the manufacture of sugar from beet-root
in France, and is no doubt equally applicable to cane-sugar.

The liquor, when clarified in the manner described, must be
concentrated, by regulated evaporation, to the degree requisite for
crystallisation. This Mr. Fownes advises to be done by steam of a
moderate pressure circulating in a spiral of copper-pipe laid at the
bottom of the evaporating vessels, which should be large and shallow,
and wholly unlike those in present use. Here it may be rapidly boiled
down till the heat rises to about 225 deg., without risk of burning.
When cold, it should have a density of about 1.38, and mark the 38th
degree of Baume's hydrometer; beyond which point of inspissation it
would be dangerous to go. The remaining concentration will be most
safely conducted in the vacuum pan, where a scarcity of water does
not, as in Barbados, militate against its use.

Mr. Fownes exposes the absurdity of using shallow coolers, exposing a
large surface, and producing a rapid evaporation, for the process of
crystallisation. By the use of the shallow coolers formerly, and, I
believe, yet to be found on most estates, from the rapidity of the
evaporation, the sugar is obtained in a mass of confused and
imperfectly-formed crystals, entangling in their interstices a
considerable quantity of molasses, which impairs the color of the
product, and escaping slowly, and with difficulty, is, to a
considerable extent, lost on the homeward voyage by drainage into the
hold, occasioning much positive loss to the owner, and giving the
bilge-water a most offensive odor. He therefore recommends the use of
deep vessels, and avoidance of all agitation in this part of the
process, so as to enable the crystallisable portion of the syrup to
effect a more complete separation from the uncrystallisable portion or
the molasses. By this simple method, not only sugar of a finer and
whiter quality would be obtained, but a large per centage of loss both
of crystallisable and uncrystallisable sugar at present caused by the
leakage of the hogshead into the hold, would be prevented, not only to
the great advantage of the planter, but to the great comfort of the
captain, passengers, and crew of the vessel freighted with it.

It is not improbable that, by re-boiling the molasses in the
vacuum-pan, and employing tannin in the manner adopted in the process
for making sugar from beet-root, from one to five per cent. of
crystallisable sugar could be recovered from it, and this per centage
might possibly even be found to admit of increase by the further
treatment with lime-water and the gun-stock tree s already suggested,
for the first clarification of the liquor received from the mill. With
this view, Mr. Fownes recommends the substitution of puncheons, or
casks, for the molasses cisterns ordinarily employed in the
curing-house, to receive the molasses as it drains from the new sugar,
and thus retaining it until after the busy period of crop time has
closed.

Should sugar of a whiter quality than the ordinary muscovado of
commerce be desired, this advantage may be readily obtained, as Mr.
Fownes judiciously observes, by filtering the thin syrup, ready for
the vacuum-pan, through a bed of fine charcoal, as is done by the
sugar refiners, and afterwards washing the crystals of sugar with
white syrup, when the molasses has thoroughly drained from them. By
this process, which, however, is attended with some increase of
expense, and may not, in consequence, be always advisable, muscovado
sugar may be obtained, of a quality hardly inferior to that of refined
sugar. Mr. Fownes thus sums up the principal points to which he is
desirous of calling the attention of the intelligent and enterprising
planter.

1. "To obtain, by the use of a properly-constructed mill, the greatest
possible amount of juice from the cane."

By this, according to Mr. Fownes, a gain of from 20 to 30 per cent.,
equivalent to as much marketable sugar, may be obtained without any
additional expense; but as, from Mr. Fownes' own showing, there is a
residuum of 10 to 15 per cent of liquor obstinately retained by the
megass, or cane trash, after the most powerful pressure to which it
can be subjected; much, if not all, even of this loss might be
prevented by subjecting the megass, on issuing from between the
rollers, to the action of water for a brief time, passing it once more
through the mill, and adding the saccharine solution so obtained, or
that obtained directly from the cane on its first crushing. The water
thus employed would serve for many successive portions of megass,
until at length it became so richly loaded with saccharine matter as
to be worth attention in the boiling-house; or, at all events, it
would be serviceable for the cattle, who would fatten rapidly upon it.
By this additional process a further gain of at least five per cent.
might be expected, raising the total gain from improvements in this
_first_ stage of the process, to from 25 to 35 per cent.

2. "To clarify and filter this juice with expedition, and to evaporate
it rapidly, either over the open fire or by steam heat, as far as it
can be done with safety."

By the use of steam, not only is a vast economy of fuel effected, but
the temperature is maintained at a uniform and sufficient standard,
and the liquor effectually guarded against the risks of carelessness
or ignorance. Coal may be obtained on far cheaper terms, in exchange
for produce, from the United States or from Cape Breton, than from
England; and as colliers from those quarters would find it their
interest to bring cargoes at their own risk, and take return cargoes
of sugar, rum, or molasses, at the market price, the planter will be
doubly a gainer by the system, obtaining his fuel at a reduced rate,
and having his trash and megass left free as manure for the use of his
cane fields.

3. "To complete the concentration in a vacuum pan, or by other means,
at a moderate temperature, not hurtful to the sugar, and facilitate
the natural process of crystallisation, so as to obtain sugar of a
large and distinct grain."

4. "To drain and dry the sugar perfectly, and to save all the
molasses."

The advantages to be anticipated from these improvements, superadded
to an improvement in cultivation, cannot be estimated at less, upon a
moderate calculation, than from 150 to 200 per cent. of increase in
the production of sugar, with hardly an appreciable increase of labor
or expense; for we have, in the first place, a gain by improved
culture of, at least, two hogsheads an acre in sugar, equivalent to
100 per cent.; in the next, by employing improved mills and extracting
the residuum, 30 per cent.; by conducting the process of manufacture
more judiciously, 10 per cent.; and by the prevention of waste during
the transit to market, 10 per cent., making a total of at least 150
per cent.

The common sugar-mill consists of three cylinders, tightened either by
wedges, if in a wooden frame, or by screws in a cast-iron frame. If in
an iron frame, the above-mentioned noise is obviated, but the friction
and loss of power is the same, which is ascertainable by subsequent
investigation. The cylinders or rollers, which are moving either
horizontally or vertically, are from eighteen to twenty-four inches in
diameter, with bearings or shafts of one fourth of their diameter. If
the bearings or shafts of the cylinders were of less substance, they
could not resist the great strain to which they are subjected when in
operation. The whole of the prime mover (steam-engine, water-wheel, or
animals), minus the friction of intermediate machinery, is transmitted
to the plains of these rollers and resisted by their bearings; hence
the action is equal to a weight moving on low wheels of eighteen or
twenty-four inches in diameter, on axles of from four to six inches
thickness, which weight is equal to the force applied; consequently,
if the strain is greater than the resistance of the rollers or the
bearings, they must be wrenched off, or if greater than the force
applied, the mill will be stopped. The power necessary to move weights
upon wheels, on a smooth and level surface, is in proportion to the
respective diameters of wheels and axles. The same pull which moves
one ton at a given velocity upon a wheel of two feet, with an axle of
six inches, will move four tons, if on a wheel of four feet diameter,
with an axle of six inches. Consequently, cylinders of small diameter,
with strong and substantial bearings, are only admissible as working
machines, if no other mechanical means are applicable, as, for
instance, in rolling out metals, compressing the surface of various
bodies for a glossy appearance, or, generally speaking, to produce a
certain and equal form of the substance which is pressed and passed
between them. They compress the atoms of bodies, and for this reason
alone are ill suited to separate the fibres of the sugar canes, and to
express effectively the saccharine matter between them. A practical
proof of this demonstration is furnished by every sugar cane which has
gone through the mill. Fresh megass is at present better suited for
fattening animals than for fuel under the sugar pans.

The loss of material thus sustained, which is, on an average, equal in
every mill, whether driven by steam, water, or animal power, is
entirely chargeable to the construction of the mill, and amounts to
about ten per cent. of the saccharine matter contained in the sugar
canes.

M. Duprez, an agent of the French Government, having experimented on
the canes in Guadaloupe, found the quantity of juice in every 100 lbs.
crushed--

                                                lbs.
  1 By mills having horizontal rollers; the
    motive power not stated                     61.2
  2 By mills, motive power, steam               60.9
  3 By mills, motive power, wind and steam      59.3
  4 By mills, having vertical rollers           59.2
  5 By mills, motive power, cattle              58.5
  6 By mills, motive power, wind *              56.4

  [* Dr. Evans' "Treatise on Sugar," p. 75.]

The average of all these experiments being 56 per cent. only. The
result of M. Avequin, on Louisiana cane, was 50 per cent. Mr.
Thompson, of Jamaica, states 50 per cent. as the average throughout
the island of Martinique. Dr. Evans ventures 47 per cent. as the
lowest, and 61 per cent. as the highest in the West Indies. A mill in
Madeira gave 47.5 and 70.2 of juice--the larger yield being obtained
by bracing the horizontal rollers more than usually tight, and
introducing only a few canes at a time, the motive power being cattle.

The three roller mill has the disadvantage of re-absorbing a part of
the cane juice in the spongy megass, (or trash as it is termed in the
West Indies), and a loss of power.

Those with five rollers have been used in Cuba, Bourbon and the
Mauritius, which gave 70 per cent., but a great increase of motive
power is necessary. Four roller mills, two below and two above,
requiring little more motive power than three rollers, have given 70
to 75 per cent of juice.

Some years since, the East India Company instituted inquiries relative
to the cultivation of the sugar cane in Hindostan, and the information
obtained was published in a large folio volume. The Reports furnished
by their officers, from almost every district, concur in stating that
there were three kinds cultivated:--1. The purple. 2. The white. 3. A
variety of the white, requiring a large supply of water. The epitome
of the Reports affords this information:--

1. The purple colored cane yields a sweeter, richer juice, than the
yellow or light colored, but in less quantity, and is harder to press.
Grows on dry lands. Scarce any other sort in Beerbhoom, much in
Radnagore, some about Santipore, mixed with light colored cane. Grows
also near Calcutta; in some fields separate, in others mixed with
pooree or light colored cane. When eaten raw, is more dry and pithy in
the mouth, but esteemed better sugar than the pooree, and appears to
be the superior sort of cane. Persons who have been West Indian
planters do not know it as a West Indian cane.

2. The light colored cane, yellow, inclining to white; deeper yellow
when ripe, and on rich ground, it is the same sort as that which grows
in the West India Islands; softer, more juicy than the Cadjoolee, but
juice less rich, and produces sugar less strong; requires seven maunds
of pooree juice to make as much goor or inspissated juice as is
produced from six of the Cadjoolee. Much of this kind is brought to
the Calcutta markets, and eaten raw.

3. The white variety, which grows in swampy, lands, is light colored,
and grows to a great height. Its juice is more watery, and yields a
weaker sugar than the Cadjoolee. However, as much of Bengal consists
of low grounds, and as the upland canes are liable to suffer from
drought, it may be advisable to encourage the cultivation of it,
should the sugar it produces be approved, though in a less degree than
other sugars, in order to guard against the effects of dry seasons.
Experience alone can determine how far the idea of encouraging this
sort may answer.

Besides the foregoing, several kinds are now known to the Indian
planter. One of them, the China sugar cane, was considered by Dr.
Roxburgh to be a distinct species, and distinguished by him as
_Saccharum sinensis_. It was introduced into India in 1796, by Earl
Cornwallis, as being superior to the native kinds. It is characterised
by a hardness which effectually resists most of the country rude
mills; but this hardness is importantly beneficial, inasmuch as that
it withstands the attack of the white ants, hogs, and jackals, which
destroy annually a large portion of the common cane.[18] Dr. Buchanan
found that four kinds are known in Mysore. Two of these are evidently
the purple and white generally known; but as this is not distinctly
stated, I have retained the form in which he notices them. _Restali_,
the native sugar of the Mysore, can only be planted in the last two
weeks of March and two first of April. It completes its growth in
twelve months, and does not survive for a second crop. Its cultivation
has been superseded by the other.

_Putta-putti_.--This was introduced from Arcot, during the reign of
Hyder Ali. It is the only one from which the natives can extract
sugar; it also produces the best _Bella_ or _Jaggery_. It can be
planted at the same season as the other, as well as at the end of July
and beginning of August. It is fourteen months in completing its
growth; but the stools produce a second crop, like the ratoons of the
West Indies, which ripen in twelve months.

_Maracabo_, _Cuttaycabo_.--These two are very small, seldom exceeding
half an inch in diameter; yet in some districts of Mysore, as about
Colar, the last-named is the variety usually cultivated; but this
arises from its requiring less water than the larger varieties.

The best varieties are those introduced from the Islands of Otaheite
and Bourbon. Hindostan is indebted for their introduction to Captain
Sleeman, who brought them hither from the Mauritius in 1827. He
committed them to Dr. Wallich, under whose care, at the Botanic
Garden, they have flourished, and been the source from whence the
benefit has been generally diffused. Their superiority over those
which have been usually cultivated by the natives has been completely
established. The largest of the Hindostan canes, ripe and trimmed
ready for the mill, has never been found to exceed five pounds; but it
is not uncommon for an Otaheite cane,[19] under similar circumstances,
to weigh seven pounds. The extra weight arises proportionately from an
increased secretion of superior sap. The sugar is more abundant,
granulates more readily, and has less scum. Other superior qualities
are, that the canes ripen earlier, and are less injured by the
occurrence of protracted dry weather.

Of the history of the sugar cane a popular tradition obtains amongst
the natives, that, in very ancient times, a vessel belonging to their
country chanced by accident to leave one of her crew, under a
desperate fit of sickness, at a desert island, at a considerable
distance in the Eastern Seas, and that, returning by the same route,
curiosity prompted them to inquire after the fate of their companion,
when, to their utter astonishment, the man presented himself to their
view, completely recovered from his sickness, and even in a state of
more than common health. With anxiety they inquired for the physic he
had so successfully applied, and were conducted by him to the sugar
cane, on which he acquainted them he had solely subsisted from the
time of their departure. Attracted by such powerful recommendation,
every care and attention was bestowed, we may suppose, to convey such
an invaluable acquisition to their own lands, where the soil and
climate have mutually since contributed to its present prosperity.

_Soil_.--The soil best suiting the sugar cane is aluminous rather than
the contrary, tenacious without being heavy, readily allowing
excessive moisture to drain away, yet not light. One gentleman, Mr.
Ballard, has endeavoured to make this point clear by describing the
most favorable soils about Gazepore as "_light clays_," called there
_Mootearee_, or _doansa_, according as there is more or less sand in
their composition.--_Trans. Agri-Hort. Soc._ i. 121.

Mr. Peddington seems to think that calcareous matter, and iron in the
state of _peroxide_, are essential to be present in a soil for the
production of the superior sugar cane. There can be no doubt that the
calcareous matter is necessary, but experience is opposed to his
opinion relative to the peroxide.

The soil preferred at Radnagore is there distinguished as the soil of
"two qualities," being a mixture of rich clay and sand, and which Mr.
Touchet believed to be known in England as a light brick mould.

About Rungpore, Dinajpoor, and other places where the ground is low,
they raise the beds where the cane is to be planted four or five feet
above the level of the land adjacent.

The experience of Dr. Roxburgh agrees with the preceding statements.
He says, "The soil that suits the cane best in this climate is, a rich
vegetable earth, which on exposure to the air readily crumbles down
into very fine mould. It is also necessary for it to be of such a
level as allows of its being watered from the river by simply damming
it up (which almost the whole of the land adjoining to this river, the
Godavery, admits of), and yet so high as to be easily drained during
heavy rains. Such a soil, and in such a situation, having been well
meliorated by various crops of leguminous plants, or fallowing, for
two or three years, is slightly manured, or has had for some time
cattle pent upon it. A favourite manure for the cane with the Hindoo
farmer is the rotten straw of green and black pessaloo (_Phaseolus
Mungo max_)."[20] Many accordant opinions might be added to the
preceding, but it seems only necessary to observe further, that "the
sugar cane requires a soil sufficiently elevated to be entirely free
from inundation, but not so high as to be deprived of moisture, or as
to encourage the production of white ants (_termes_)."

The sugar cane is an exhausting crop, and it is seldom cultivated by
the ryot more frequently than once in three or four years on the same
land. During the intermediate period, such plants are grown as are
found to improve the soil, of which, says Dr. Tennant, the Indian
farmer is a perfect judge. They find the leguminous tribe the best for
the purpose. Such long intervals of repose from the cane would not be
requisite if a better system of manuring were adopted.

Mr. J. Prinsep has recorded the following analysis of three soils
distinguished for producing sugar. They were all a soft, fine-grained
alluvium, without pebbles. No. 1 was from a village called Mothe, on
the Sarjee, about ten miles north of the Ganges, at Buxar, and the
others from the south bank of the Ganges, near the same place. There
is a substratum of _kunkar_ throughout the whole of that part of the
country, and to some mixture of this earth with the surface soil the
fertility of the latter is ascribed:--

                                                       1     2     3
  Hygrometric moisture, on drying at 212 deg.         2.5   2.1   3.6
  Carbonaceous and vegetable matter, on calcination   1.8   2.1   4.0
  Carbonate of lime (No. 3 effervesced)               1.6   0.6   3.9
  Alkaline salt, soluble                              1.0   1.1   0.3
  Silex and alumina                                  94.1  94.1  88.2
                                                    ----- ----- -----
                                                    100.0 100.0 100.0

The earths unfortunately were not separated. Mr. Prinsep says the two
first were chiefly of sand, and the third somewhat argillaceous. The
former required irrigation, but the other was sufficiently retentive
of moisture to render it unnecessary.--(Journ. Asiatic Soc., ii. 435.)

_Manures_.--The sugar cane being one of the most valued crops of the
ryot, he always devotes to it a portion of the fertilising matters he
has at command, though in every instance this is too small.

In the Rajahmundry district, previously to planting, the soil is
slightly manured, either by having cattle folded upon it, or by a
light covering of the rotten straw of the green and black pessalloo,
which is here a favourite fertiliser. In some parts of Mysore the mud
from the bottom of tanks is employed, and this practice is more
generally adopted in other places. Thus the fields being divided by
deep ditches in Dinajpoor, the mud from which is enriched by the
remains of decayed aquatic plants and animals, forms an excellent
manure for the sugar cane, and of this the ryots make use, spreading
it over the surface before the ploughing is commenced; and when that
operation is completed, the soil is further fertilised by a dressing
of oil-cake and ashes.

Crushed bones would unquestionably be of the greatest benefit if
applied to the sugar cane crop. Not only would their animal matter
serve as food for the plants, but the phosphate of lime of the bones
is one of the chief saline constituents of the sugar cane.

Salt is another valuable manure for this crop. Dr. Nugent, in a Report
made to the Agricultural Society of Antigua, observes that salt has
been found a valuable auxiliary in cultivating the sugar cane. Many
trials of it, he says, have been made during successive seasons,
applied generally to the extent of about nine or ten bushels per acre.
It destroys grubs and other insects, and gives the canes an increased
vigor and ability to resist drought. It is a singular remark of the
intelligent traveller, M. de Humboldt, while speaking of the practice
adopted in the Missions of the Orinoco, when a coco-nut plantation is
made, of throwing a certain quantity of salt into the hole which
receives the nut; that of all the plants cultivated by man there are
only the sugar cane, the plantain, the mammee, and the Avocado pear,
which endure equally irrigation with fresh and salt water.

In the West Indies, when the cane is affected by what is called there
the _blast_, which is a withering or drying up of the plants, an
unfailing remedy is found to be watering them with an infusion of dung
in salt water.[21] _Preparation of soil_.--In the Rajahmundry
district, during the months of April and May, the ground is frequently
ploughed, until brought into a very fine tilth. About the end of May,
or beginning of June, the rains usually commence, and the canes are
then to be planted. If the rains do not set in so early, the land is
flooded artificially, and when converted into a soft mud, whether by
the rain or by flooding, the canes are planted.

In Mysore the ground is watered for three days, and then, after drying
for the same period, ploughing commences, this operation being
repeated five times during the following eight days. The clods during
this time are broken small by an instrument called _colkudali_. The
field is then manured and ploughed a sixth time. After fifteen days it
is ploughed again, twice in the course of one or two days. After a
lapse of eight days it is ploughed a ninth time. Altogether these
operations occupy about forty-four days.

For planting, which is done six days, an implement called _yella
kudali_ is employed.

In Dinajpoor, "the field, from about the middle of October until about
the 10th of January, receives ten or twelve double ploughings, and
after each is smoothed with the _moyi_. During the last three months
of this time it is manured with cow-dung and mud from ponds and
ditches. On this account, the land fit for sugar cane is generally
divided into fields by wide ditches, into which much mud is washed by
the rain, and is again thrown on the fields when the country dries,
and leaves it enriched by innumerable aquatic vegetables and animals
that have died as the water left them. When the ploughing has been
completed, the field is manured with ashes and oil-cake."

About Malda, "the land is first ploughed in the month of Cartick,
length and breadth ways, and harrowed in like manner; four or five
days after it is again ploughed and harrowed, as before, twice. In the
month of Aghun, the whole land is covered with fresh earth, again
twice ploughed, and harrowed in different directions, and then manured
with dung. Fifteen or twenty days afterwards it is to be twice
ploughed, as before; eight or ten days after which, it is to be
slightly manured with dung, and the refuse of oil, mixed together;
then twice ploughed and harrowed in different directions, so that the
clods of earth brought be well mixed together with the land. This
preparation continues until the 20th or 25th of the month Pows."

In the vicinity of Dacca, during "Cautic or Augun (October, November)
the Ryots begin to prepare their ground. They first dig a trench round
their fields, and raise a mound of about three feet in height. If the
ground to be cultivated is waste, about nine inches of the surface
are taken off, and thrown without the enclosure. The ground is
ploughed to the depth of nine inches more. The clods are broken, and
the earth made fine. In Maug or Faugun (January, February) the sugar
cane is planted; a month afterwards earth is raised about the plants;
after another month this is repeated. The crop is cut in Poous and
Maug (December, January). If the ground be not waste, but cultivated,
the surface is not taken off. After cutting the crop, it is not usual
again to grow sugar cane on the same ground for eighteen months, on
account of the indifferent produce afforded by a more early planting.

In the Zillah, North Mooradabad, the land is broken up at the end of
June. After the rains have ceased it is manured, and has eight or ten
ploughings. This clears it of weeds. In February it is again manured
and ploughed four or five times, and just before the sets are planted,
some dung, four cart-loads to each cutcha beegah of low land, and five
cart-loads to high land, are added. The land is well rolled after the
four last ploughings, and again after the cuttings are set.

About Benares and the neighbouring districts, Mr. Haines says, that
owing to the hot winds which prevail "from March until the setting in
of the annual rains in June or July, the lands remain fallow till that
period. In the mean time, those fields that are selected for sugar
cane are partially manured by throwing upon them all manner of rubbish
they can collect, and by herding their buffaloes and cattle upon them
at night, though most of the manure from the latter source is again
collected and dried for fuel.

When the annual rains have fairly set in, and the Assarree crops sown
(in some instances I have seen an Assarree crop taken from the lands
intended for sugar cane), they commence ploughing the cane lands, and
continue to do so four or five times monthly (as they consider the
greater number of times the fields are turned up at this period of the
season, the better the crop of cane will be), till the end of October,
continuing to throw on the little manure they can collect.

Towards the end of October, and in November, their ploughs are much
engaged in sowing their winter (or rubbee) crops of wheat, barley,
grain, &c.; and at this period they make arrangements with the
shepherds who have large flocks of sheep, to fold them upon the fields
at night, for which they pay so much per beegah in grain.

During the latter part of November, and early in December, the fields
are again ploughed well, and all grass, weeds, &c., removed with the
hoe; then the surface of the field is made as smooth as possible by
putting the hengah (a piece of wood eight to ten feet in length, and
five to six inches in breadth, and three or four inches in thickness,
drawn by two pairs of bullocks, and the man standing upon the wood to
give it weight), over several times for three or four days in
succession. This makes the surface of the field very even and somewhat
hard, which prevents the sun and dry west wind from abstracting the
moisture, which is of great importance at this period of the season,
for, should there be no rain, there would not be sufficient moisture
at the time of planting the cane to cause vegetation.

In this state the land remains till the time of planting the cane
cuttings, which is generally the 1st to the 15th of February; but
should there have been a fall of rain in the mean time, or excess of
moisture appear, the field is again ploughed, and the hengah put over
as before.

A day or two previous to planting the cane, the field is ploughed and
the hengah lightly put over."--(Trans. Agri-Hort. Soc. vi. 4, 5.)

_Sets_.--When the canes are cut at harvest time, twelve or eighteen
inches of their tops are usually taken off, and stored, to be employed
for sets. Each top has several joints, from each of which a shoot
rises, but seldom more than one or two arrive at a proper growth.

When first cut from the stem, the tops intended for plants are tied in
bundles of forty or fifty each, and are carefully kept moist. In a few
days they put forth new leaves: they are then cleared of the old
leaves, and separately dipped into a mixture of cow-dung, pressed
mustard seed, and water. A dry spot is prepared, and rich loose mould
and a small quantity of pressed mustard-seed; the plants are
separately placed therein, a small quantity of earth strewed amongst
them, and then covered with leaves and grass to preserve them from
heat. Ten or twelve days afterwards they are planted in the fields.

In Burdwan, the tops, before they are planted, are cut into pieces
from four to six inches long, so that there are not more than four
knots in each. Two or three of these plant tops are put together in
the ground, and a beegah requires from 7,500 to 10,240 plants.

In Rungpore and Dinajpoor, about 9,000 plants are required for a
beegah, each being about a foot in length.

In Beerbhoom, 3,000 plants are said to be requisite for a beegah, each
cane top being about fifteen inches long.

Near Calcutta, from 3,000 to 8,000 plants are required for a beegah,
according to the goodness of the soil, the worst soil needing most
plants. In Mysore an acre contains 2,420 stools, and yields about
11,000 ripe canes.

Near Rajahmundry, about 400 cuttings are planted on a cutcha beegah
(one-eighth of an acre). In Zilla, North Mooradabad, 4,200 sets, each
eight inches long, are inserted upon each cutcha beegah of low land,
and 5,250 upon high land.

In the district of Gollagore the Ryots cut a ripe cane into several
pieces, preserving two or three joints to each, and put them into a
small bed of rich mould, dung, and mustard-seed from which the oil has
been expressed. At Radnagore, when the time of cutting the canes
arrives, their tops are taken off, and these are placed upright in a
bed of mud for thirty or forty days, and covered with leaves or straw.
The leaves are then stripped from them, and they are cut into pieces,
not having less than two nor more than four joints each. These sets
are kept for ten or fifteen days in a bed prepared for them, from
whence they are taken and planted in rows two or three together,
eighteen inches or two feet intervening between each stool.

_Planting_.--The time and mode of planting vary. In the Rajahmundry
Circar, Dr. Roxburgh says, that "during the months of April and May
the land is repeatedly ploughed with the common Hindoo plough, which
soon brings the loose rich soil (speaking of the Delta of the
Godavery) into very excellent order. About the end of May and
beginning of June, the rains generally set in, in frequent heavy
showers. Now is the time to plant the cane; but should the rains hold
back, the prepared field is watered or flooded from the river, and,
while perfectly wet, like soft mud, the cane is planted.

"The method is most simple. Laborers with baskets of the cuttings, of
one or two joints each, arrange themselves along one side of the
field. They walk side by side, in as straight a line as their eye and
judgment enable them, dropping the sets at the distance of about
eighteen inches asunder in rows, and about four feet from row to row.
Other laborers follow, and with the foot press the set about two
inches into the soft, mud-like soil, which, with a sweep or two with
the sole of the foot, they most easily and readily cover."--(Roxburgh
on the Culture of Sugar.)

About Malda, in the month of Maug (January, February), the land is to
be twice ploughed, and harrowed repeatedly, length and breadth ways;
after which it is furrowed, the furrows half a cubit apart, in which
the plants are to be set at about four fingers' distance from each
other, when the furrows are filled up with the land that lay upon its
ridges. The plants being thus set, the land is harrowed twice in
different directions; fifteen or twenty days afterwards the cane
begins to grow, when the weeds which appear with it must be taken up;
ten or twelve days after this the weeds will again appear. They must
again be taken up, and the earth at the roots of the canes be removed,
when all the plants which have grown will appear.

At Ghazepore the rains set in at the beginning of March, and planting
then commences. Near Calcutta the planting takes place in May and
June. In Dinajpoor and Rungpore the planting time is February.

About Commercolly it is performed in January. The field is divided
into beds six cubits broad, separated from each other by small
trenches fourteen inches wide and eight inches deep. In every second
trench are small wells, about two feet deep. The irrigating water
flowing along the trenches fills the wells, and is taken thence and
applied to the canes by hand.

Each bed has five rows of canes. The sets are planted in holes about
six inches in diameter, and three deep; two sets, each having three
joints, are laid horizontally in every hole, covered slightly with
earth, and over this is a little dung.

When, the canes are planted in the spring, the trenches must be
filled with water, and some poured into every hole. At the other
season of planting the trenches are full, it being rainy weather; but
even then the sets must be watered for the first month.

Mr. Haines says that in Mirzapore and the neighbouring districts, "in
planting the cane they commence a furrow round the field, in which
they drop the cuttings. The second furrow is left empty; cuttings
again in the third; so they continue dropping cuttings in every second
furrow till the whole field is completed, finishing in the centre of
the field. The field remains in this state till the second or third
day, when for two or three days in succession it is made even and hard
upon the surface with the hengah, as before stated."--(Trans.
Agri-Hort. Soc. vi. 5.)

Mr. Vaupell, in describing the most successful mode of cultivating the
Mauritius sugar cane in Bombay, says, that "after the ground is
levelled with the small plough, called 'paur,' in the manner of the
cultivators, pits of two feet in diameter, and two feet in depth,
should be dug throughout the field at the distance of five feet apart,
and filled with manure and soil to about three inches of the surface.
Set in these pits your canes, cut in pieces about a foot and a half
long, laying them down in a triangular from, thus /\. Keep as much of
the eyes or shoots of the cane uppermost as you can; then cover them
with manure and soil; beds should next be formed to retain water,
having four pits in each bed, leaving passages for watering them. The
cutting should be watered every third day during hot weather, and the
field should always be kept in a moist state."--(Ibid. iii. 43.)

About Benares, the sets require, after planting, from four to six
waterings, until the rains commence, and as many hoeings to loosen the
surface, which becomes caked after every watering. The moister nature
of the soil renders these operations generally unnecessary in Bengal.

_After-culture._--In Mysore, the surface of the earth in the hollows
in which the sets are planted is stirred with a stick as soon as the
shoots appear, and a little dung is added. Next month the daily
watering is continued, and then the whole field dug over with the hoe,
a cavity being made round each stool, and a little dung added. In the
third month water is given every second day: at its close, if the
canes are luxuriant, the ground is again dug; but if weakly, the
watering is continued during the fourth month, before the digging is
given. At this time the earth is drawn up about the canes, so as to
leave the hollows between the rows at right angles with the trenches.
No more water is given to the plants, but the trenches between the
beds are kept full for three days. It is then left off for a week, and
if rain occurs, no further water is requisite; but if the weather is
dry, water is admitted once a week during the next month. The digging
is then repeated, and the earth levelled with the hand about the
stools.

The stems of each stool are ten or twelve in number, which are
reduced to five or six by the most weakly of them being now removed.
The healthy canes are to be tied with one of their own leaves, two or
three together, to check their spreading; and this binding is repeated
as required by their increased growth.

In the absence of rain, the trenches are filled with water once a
fortnight.

When the _Putta-putti_ is to be kept for a second crop, the dry leaves
cut off in the crop season are burnt upon the field, and this is dug
over, and trenches filled with water, and during six weeks the plants
watered once in every six or eight days (unless rain falls), and the
digging repeated three times, dung being added at each digging. The
after-culture is the same as for the first crop.

In the Upper Provinces, Dr. Tennant says, if moderate showers occur
after planting, nothing more is done until the shoots from the sets
have attained a height of two or three inches. The soil immediately
around them is then loosened with a small weeding iron, something like
a chisel; but if the season should prove dry, the field is
occasionally watered; the weeding is also continued, and the soil
occasionally loosened about the plants.

In August, small trenches are cut through the field, with small
intervals between them, for the purpose of draining off the water, if
the season is too wet. This is very requisite, for if the canes are
now supplied with too much moisture, the juice is rendered watery and
unprofitable. If the season happens to be dry, the same dikes serve to
conduct the irrigating water through the field, and to carry off what
does not soak into the earth in a few hours. Stagnant water they
consider very injurious to the cane, and on the drains being well
contrived depends in a great measure the future hope of profit.
Immediately after the field is trenched, the canes are propped. They
are now about three feet high, and each set has produced from three to
six canes. The lower leaves of each are first carefully wrapt up
around it, so as to cover it completely in every part; a small strong
bamboo, eight or ten feet long, is then inserted firmly in the middle
of each stool, and the canes tied to it. This secures them in an erect
position, and facilitates the circulation of the air.

Hoeing cannot be repeated too frequently. This is demonstrated by the
practice of the most successful cultivators. In Zilla, N. Mooradabad,
in April, about six weeks after planting, the earth on each side of
the cane-rows is loosened by a sharp-pointed hoe, shaped somewhat like
a bricklayer's trowel. This is repeated six times before the field is
laid out in beds and channels for irrigation. There, likewise, if the
season is unusually dry, the fields in the low ground are watered in
May and June. This supposes there are either nullahs, or ancient pucka
wells, otherwise the canes are allowed to take their chance, for the
cost of making a well on the uplands is from ten to twenty rupees--an
expense too heavy for an individual cultivator, and not many would dig
in partnership, for they would fight for the water.

In the vicinity of Benares, as the canes advance in growth, they
continue to wrap the leaves as they begin to wither up round the
advancing stem, and to tie this to the bamboo higher up. If the
weather continue wet, the trenches are carefully kept open; and, on
the other hand, if dry weather occurs, water is occasionally supplied.
Hoeing is also performed every five or six weeks. Wrapping the leaves
around the cane is found to prevent them cracking by the heat of the
sun, and hinders their throwing out lateral branches.

In January and February the canes are ready for cutting. The average
height of the cane is about nine feet, foliage included, and the naked
cane from one inch to one inch and a quarter in diameter.

Near Maduna, the hand-watering is facilitated by cutting a small
trench down the centre of each bed. The beds are there a cubit wide,
but only four rows of canes are planted in each.

It is deserving of notice, that the eastern and north-eastern parts of
Bengal are more subject to rain at every season of the year, but
especially in the hot months, than the western; which accounts for the
land being prepared and the plants set so much earlier in Rungpore
than in Beerbhoom. This latter country has also a dryer soil
generally; for this reason, so much is said in the report from thence
of the necessity of watering.

The Benares country is also dryer than Bengal, therefore more
waterings are requisite.

At Malda, ten or fifteen days after the earth has been removed from
the roots of the canes and the plants have appeared, the land is to be
slightly manured, well cleared of weeds, and the earth that was
removed again laid about the canes; after which, ten or fifteen days,
it must be well weeded, and again twenty or twenty-five days
afterwards. This mode of cultivation it is necessary to follow until
the month of Joystee. The land must be ploughed and manured between
the rows of canes in the month of Assaar; after which, fifteen or
twenty days, the canes are to be tied two or three together with the
leaves, the earth about them well cleaned, and the earth that was
ploughed up laid about the roots of the canes something raised. In the
month of Saubun, twenty or twenty-five days from the preceding
operation, the canes are tied as before, and again ten or fifteen days
afterwards; which done, nine or ten clumps are then to be tied
together.

In the Rojahmundry Circar, on the Delta of the Godavery, Dr. Roxburgh
states, "that nothing more is done after the cane is planted, if the
weather be moderately showery, till the young shoots are some two or
three inches high; the earth is then loosened for a few inches round
them with the weeding iron. Should the season prove dry, the field is
occasionally watered from the river, continuing to weed and to keep
the ground loose round the stools. In August, two or three months from
the time of planting, small trenches are cut through the field at
short distances, and so contrived as to serve to drain off the water,
should the season prove too wet for the canes, which is often the
case, and would render their juices weak and unprofitable. The farmer,
therefore, never fails to have his field plentifully and judiciously
intersected with drains while the cane is small, and before the usual
time for the violent rains. Immediately after the field is trenched,
the canes are all propped; this is an operation which seems peculiar
to these parts.

In Dinajpoor, in about a month after planting, "the young plants are
two or three inches high; the earth is then raised from the cuttings
by means of a spade, and the dry leaves by which they are surrounded
are removed. For a day or two they remain exposed to the air, and are
then manured with ashes and oil-cake, and covered with earth. Weeds
must be removed as they spring; and when the plants are about a cubit
high, the field must be ploughed. When they have grown a cubit higher,
which is between the 13th of June and 14th of July, they are tied
together in bundles of three or four, by wrapping them round with
their own leaves. This is done partly to prevent them from being laid
down by the wind, and partly to prevent them from being eaten by
jackals. During the next month three or four of these bunches are tied
together; and about the end of September, when the canes grow rank,
they are supported by bamboo stakes driven in the ground. They are cut
between the middle of December and the end of March."

If the canes grow too vigorously, developing a superabundance of
leaves, it is a good practice to remove those leaves which are
decayed, that the stems may be exposed fully to the sun. In the West
Indies, this is called _trashing_ the canes. It requires discretion;
for in dry soils or seasons, or if the leaves are removed before
sufficiently dead, more injury than benefit will be occasioned.

_Harvesting_.--The season in which the canes become ripe in various
districts has already been noticed when considering their cultivation.
In addition I may state, that in the Rajahmundry Circar, about the
mouth of the Godavery, Dr. Roxburgh adds, "that in January and
February the canes begin to be ready to cut, which is about nine
months from the time of planting. This operation is the same as in
other sugar countries--of course I need not describe it. Their height,
when standing on the field, will be from eight to ten feet (foliage
included), and the naked cane from an inch to an inch and a quarter in
diameter."

In Malda, the canes are cut in January and February. In N. Mooradabad,
upon the low land, the canes are ripe in October, and upon the high
lands a month later. The fitness of the cane for cutting may be
ascertained by making an incision across the cane, and observing the
internal grain. If it is soft and moist, like a turnip, it is not yet
ripe; but if the face of the cut is dry, and white particles appear,
it is fit for harvesting.--(_Fitzmaurice on the Culture of the Sugar
Cane_.)

_Injuries_.--1. _A wet season_, either during the very early or in the
concluding period of the cane's vegetation, is one of the worst causes
of injury. In such a season, the absence of the usual intensity of
light and heat causes the sap to be very materially deficient in
saccharine matter. But, on the other hand,

2. _A very dry season_, immediately after the sets are planted, though
the want of rain may in some degree be supplied by artificial means,
causes the produce to be but indifferent. These inconveniences are of
a general nature, and irremediable.

3. _Animals_.--In India not only the incursions of domesticated
animals, but in some districts of the wild elephant, buffalo, and hog,
are frequent sources of injury. Almost every plantation is liable,
also, to the attack of the jackal, and rats are destructive enemies.

4. _White Ants_.--The sets of the sugar cane have to be carefully
watched, to preserve them from the white ant (_Termes fatalis_), to
attacks from which they are liable until they have begun to shoot. To
prevent this injury, the following mixture has been recommended:--

  Asafoetida (hing),                    8 chittacks.
  Mustard-seed cake (sarsum ki khalli), 8 seers.
  Putrid fish,                          4 seers.
  Bruised butch root,                   2 seers;
     or muddur,                         2 seers.

Mix the above together in a large vessel, with water sufficient to
make them into the thickness of curds; then steep each slip of cane in
it for half an hour after planting; and, lastly, water the lines three
times previous to setting the cane, by irrigating the water-course
with water mixed up with bruised butch root, or muddur if the former
be not procurable.[22] A very effectual mode of destroying the white
ant, is by mixing a small quantity of arsenic with a few ounces of
burned bread, pulverised flour, or oatmeal, moistened with molasses,
and placing pieces of the dough thus made, each about the size of a
turkey's egg, on a flat board, and covered over with a wooden bowl, in
several parts of the plantation. The ants soon take possession of
these, and the poison has a continuous effect, for the ants which die
are eaten by those which succeed them.[23] They are said to be driven
from a soil by frequently hoeing it. They are found to prevail most
upon newly broken-up lands.

In Central India, the penetration of the white ants into the interior
of the sets, and the consequent destruction of the latter, is
prevented by dipping each end into buttermilk, asafoetida, and
powdered mustard-seed, mixed into a thick compound.

5. _Storms_.--Unless they are very violent, Dr. Roxburgh observes,
"they do no great harm, because the canes are propped. However, if
they are once laid down, which sometimes happens, they become branchy
and thin, yielding a poor, watery juice."

6. _The Worm_ "is another evil, which generally visits them every few
years. A beetle deposits its eggs in the young canes; the caterpillars
of these remain in the cane, living on its medullary parts, till they
are ready to be metamorphosed into the chrysalis state. Sometimes this
evil is so great as to injure a sixth or an eighth part of the field;
but, what is worse, the disease is commonly general when it
happens--few fields escaping."

7. _The Flowering_ "is the last accident they reckon upon, although it
scarce deserves the name, for it rarely happens, and never but to a
very small proportion of some few fields. Those canes that flower have
very little juice left, and it is by no means so sweet as that of the
rest."

In the Brazils, the fact of the slave trade being at an end must
influence the future produce of sugar, and attention has been lately
chiefly directed to coffee, cotton, and other staples. The exports of
that empire in 1842, were 59,000 tons; in 1843, 54,500; in 1844,
76,400; in 1845, 91,000; average of these four years 69,720. The
exports in the next four years averaged 96,150 tons, viz:--76,100, in
1846; 96,300, in 1847; 112,500, in 1848; and 99,700, in 1849.

_Mode of Cultivation in Brazil_.--The lands in Brazil are never
grubbed up, either for planting the sugar cane, or for any other
agricultural purposes. The inconveniences of this custom are
perceivable more particularly in high lands; because all of these that
are of any value are naturally covered with thick woods. The cane is
planted amongst the numerous stumps of trees, by which means much
ground is lost, and as the sprouts from these stumps almost
immediately spring forth (such is the rapidity of vegetation) the
cleanings are rendered very laborious. These shoots require to be cut
down sometimes, even before the cane has found its way to the surface
of the ground. The labor likewise is great every time a piece of land
is to be put under cultivation, for the wood must be cut down afresh;
and although it cannot have reached the same size which the original
timber had attained, still as several years are allowed to pass
between each period at which the ground is planted, the trees are
generally of considerable thickness. The wood is suffered to remain
upon the land until the leaves become dry; then it is set on fire, and
these are destroyed with the brush wood and the smaller branches of
the trees. Heaps are now made of the remaining timber, which is
likewise burnt. This process is universally practised in preparing
land for the cultivation of any plant. I have often heard the method
much censured as being injurious in the main to the soil, though the
crop immediately succeeding the operation may be rendered more
luxuriant by it. I have observed that the canes which grew upon the
spots where the heaps of timber and large branches of trees had been
burnt, were of a darker and richer green than those around them, and
that they likewise over-topped them. After the plant-canes, or those
of the first year's growth, are taken from the lands, the field-trash,
that is the dried leaves and stems of the canes which remain upon the
ground, are set fire to, with the idea that the ratoons,--that is, the
sprouts from the old roots of the canes,--spring forth with more
luxuriance, and attain a greater size by means of this practice. The
ratoons of the first year are called in Brazil, _socas_; those of the
second year, _resocas_; those of the third year, _terceiras socas_,
and so forth. After the roots are left unencumbered by burning the
field-trash, the mould is raised round about them; indeed, if this was
neglected, many of those roots would remain too much exposed to the
heat of the sun, and would not continue to vegetate.

Some lands will continue to give ratoons for five, or even seven
years; but an average may be made at one crop of good ratoons fit for
grinding, another of inferior ratoons fit for planting, or for making
molasses to be used in the still-house, and a third which affords but
a trifling profit, in return for the trouble which the cleanings give.

I have above spoken more particularly of high lands. The low and
marshy grounds, called in Brazil, _varzeas_, are, however, those which
are the best adapted to the cane; and, indeed, upon the plantations
that do not possess some portions of this description of soil the
crops are very unequal, and sometimes almost entirely fail, according
to the greater or less quantity of rain, which may chance to fall in
the course of the year. The _varzeas_ are usually covered with short
and close brushwood, and as these admit, from their rank nature, of
frequent cultivation, they soon become easy to work. The soil of
these, when it is new, receives the name of _paul_; it trembles under
the pressure of the feet, and easily admits of a pointed stick being
thrust into it; and though dry to appearance requires draining. The
_macape_ marl is often to be met with in all situations; it is of a
greenish white color, and if at all wet, it sticks very much to the
hoe; it becomes soon dry at the surface, but the canes which have been
planted upon it seldom fail to revive after rain, even though a want
of it should have been much felt. The white marl, _barro branco_, is
less frequently found; it is accounted extremely productive. This clay
is used in making bricks and coarse earthenware, and also for claying
the sugar. Red earth is occasionally met with upon sides of hills near
to the coast; but this description of soil belongs properly to the
cotton districts. Black mould is common, and likewise a loose brownish
soil, in which a less or greater proportion of sand is intermixed. It
is, I believe, generally acknowledged that no land can be too rich for
the growth of the sugar cane. One disadvantage, however, attends soil
that is low and quite new, which is, that the canes run up to a great
height without sufficient thickness, and are thus often lodged (or
blown down) before the season for cutting them arrives. I have seen
rice planted upon lands of this kind on the first year to decrease
their rankness, and render them better adapted to the cane on the
succeeding season. Some attempts have been made to plant cane upon the
lands which reach down to the edge of the mangroves, and in a few
instances pieces of land heretofore covered by the salt water at the
flow of the tide, have been laid dry by means of draining for the same
purpose; but the desired success has not attended the plan, for the
canes have been found to be unfit for making sugar; the syrup does not
coagulate, or at least does not attain that consistence which is
requisite, and therefore it can only be used for the distilleries.

The general mode of preparing the land for the cane is by holing it
with hoes. The negroes stand in a row, and each man strikes his hoe
into the ground immediately before him, and forms a trench of five or
six inches in depth; he then falls back, the whole row doing the same,
and they continue this operation from one side of the cleared land to
the other, or from the top of a hill to the bottom. The earth which is
thrown out of the trench remains on the lower side of it. In the
British West India colonies this work is done in a manner nearly
similar, but more systematically. The lands in Brazil are not
measured, and everything is done by the eye. The quantity of cane
which a piece will require for planting is estimated by so many
cart-loads; and nothing can be more vague than this mode of
computation, for the load which a cart can carry depends upon the
condition of the oxen, upon the nature of the road, and upon the
length of the cane. Such is the awkward make of these vehicles, that
much nicety is necessary in packing them, and if two canes will about
fit into a cart lengthways, much more will be conveyed than if the
canes are longer and they double over each other.

The plough is sometimes used in low lands, upon which draining has not
been found necessary; but such is the clumsy construction of the
machine of which they make use, that six oxen are yoked to it. A
plough drawn by two oxen, constructed after a model which was brought
from Cayenne, has been introduced in one or two instances. Upon high
lands the stumps of the trees almost preclude the possibility of thus
relieving the laborers. The trenches being prepared, the cuttings are
laid longitudinally in the bottom of them, and are covered with the
greatest part of the mould which had been taken out of the trench. The
shoots begin to rise above the surface of the ground in the course of
twelve or fourteen days. The canes undergo three cleanings from the
weeds and the sprouts proceeding from the stumps of the trees; and
when the land is poor, and produces a greater quantity of the former,
and contains fewer of the latter, the canes require to be cleaned a
fourth time. The cuttings are usually 12 to 18 inches in length, but
it is judged that the shorter they are the better. If they are short,
and one piece of cane rots, the space which remains vacant is not so
large as when the cuttings are long, and they by any accident fail.
The canes which are used for planting are generally ratoons, if any
exist upon the plantation; but if there are none of these, the
inferior plant canes supply their places. It is accounted more
economical to make use of the ratoons for this purpose; and many
persons say that they are less liable to rot than the plant canes. In
the British sugar islands the cuttings for planting are commonly the
tops of the canes which have been ground for sugar. But in Brazil the
tops of the canes are all thrown to the cattle, for there is usually a
want of grass during the season that the mills are at work. In the
British colonies, the canes are at first covered with only a small
portion of mould, and yet they are as long in forcing their way to the
surface as in Brazil, though in the latter a more considerable
quantity of earth is laid upon them. I suppose that the superior
richness of the Brazilian soil accounts for this. Upon rich soils the
cuttings are laid at a greater distance, and the trenches are dug
farther from each other, than upon those which have undergone more
frequent cultivation, or which are known to possess less power from
their natural composition. The canes which are planted upon the former
throw out great numbers of sprouts, which spread each way; and,
although when they are young, the land may appear to promise but a
scanty crop, they soon close, and no opening is to be seen. It is
often judged proper to thin the canes, by removing some of the suckers
at the time that the last cleaning is given; and some persons
recommend that a portion of the dry leaves should also be stripped off
at the same period, but on other plantations this is not practised.

The proper season for planting is from the middle of July to the
middle of September, upon high lands, and from September to the middle
of November in low lands. Occasionally, the great moisture of the soil
induces the planter to continue his work until the beginning of
December, if his people are sufficiently numerous to answer all the
necessary purposes. The first of the canes are ready to be cut for the
mill in September of the following year, and the crop is finished
usually in January or February. In the British sugar islands the canes
are planted from August to November, and are ripe for the mill in the
beginning of the second year. Thus this plant in Brazil requires from
thirteen to fifteen months to attain its proper state for the mill;
and in the West India islands it remains standing sixteen or seventeen
months.

The Otaheitan, or the Bourbon cane, has been brought from Cayenne to
Pernambuco since the Portuguese obtained possession of that
settlement. I believe the two species of cane are much alike, and I
have not been able to discover which of them it is. Its advantages are
so apparent, that after one trial on each estate, it has superseded
the small cane which was in general use. The Cayenne cane, as it is
called in Pernambuco, is of a much larger size than the common cane;
it branches so very greatly, that the labor in planting a piece of
cane is much decreased, and the returns from it are at the same time
much more considerable. It is not planted in trenches, but holes are
dug at equal distances from each other, in which these cuttings are
laid. This cane bears the dry weather better than the small cane; and
when the leaves of the latter begin to turn brown, those of the former
still preserve their natural color. A planter in the _Varzea_ told me
that he had obtained four crops from one piece of land in three years,
and that the soil in question had been considered by him as nearly
worn out, before he planted the Cayenne cane upon it.--("Koster's
Travels in Brazil," vol. 2.)

Mr. E. Morewood, of Compensation, Natal, who has paid much attention
to sugar culture in that colony, has favored me with the following
details, which will be useful for the guidance of others, as being the
results of his own experience:--

                                                                    lbs.
  Produce of one acre of sugar cane                               72,240
  Juice expressed, (or 64 per cent.)                              46,308
  Dry sugar                                                        7,356
  Green syrup or molasses                                          2,829
  This syrup carrying with it a good deal of sugar out of the
  coolers, contains fully 75 per cent. of crystalizable sugar, or  2,121
  Thus the total amount of sugar per acre is                       9,477

    The average density of the cane juice was 12 degrees Beaume, or 21
    per cent. All the improved cane mills are now constructed to give at
    least 75 per cent. of juice. With such a mill, an acre would yield
    11,075 lbs. of sugar. With proper cultivation I have no doubt the
    produce could be largely increased; for, as the numerous visitors
    who have seen this place can testify, my cane fields were not
    attended to.

    To enable me to show the cost of producing a crop of canes, you must
    allow me to go into the expense of cultivating the land first.

    To keep one ploughman going, a person requires--

  20 Oxen at £3                    £60  0  0
  1 Plough                           7 10  0
  1 set Harrows                      7 10  0
  Yokes, Trektows, Reins, &c.        5  0  0
                                  ----------
                                   £80  0  0

    Then the expenses per month will be:--

  Ploughman's wages                £2  10  0
  Board                             1  10  0
  1 Driver, 10s., Leaders, 5s.      0  15  0
  Food for two natives              0  10  0
  Wear and tear of oxen and gear,
  at 25 per cent. per annum         1  10  4
                                   ---------
                                   £6  18  4

    These two spans of oxen will comfortably plough and harrow twenty
    acres per month, and the cost will thus be about 7s. per acre.

    Now, let us suppose that a person wishes to put in twenty acres of
    canes, the expense would be about as follows:--

  4 Ploughings and harrowings, 80 acres at 7s.          £28  0  0
  Drawing canefurrows, 4 acres per day, 5 days at 6s.     1 10  0
  2,000 Cane tops per acre, at 50s.                     100  0  0
  4 Horsehoeings, at 2s. 6d.                             10  0  0
  4 Handweedings in the rows, at 2s. 6d.                 10  0  0
  Cutting and carrying out canes, at 30s.                30  0  0
  Carriage to Mill, thirty tons per acre, at 2s.         60  0  0
                                                       ----------
                                                       £239 10  0

    or £12 per acre. To this must be added the rent of land, say 10s.
    per acre, with right of grazing cattle, for two years, when the
    first crop will come in, would bring the expense to £13 per acre.
    The cane yielding say only three tons of sugar per acre, of which
    the planter would, most likely, have to give the manufacturer
    one-third, he will receive forty tons of sugar, costing him £6 10s.
    per ton, and worth on the spot, according to advices received from
    England and the Cape, £15 per ton, at the lowest estimate, or £600.

    The greatest expense, you will perceive, is the article of tops for
    planting; but this ought not to discourage persons. The plants which
    I imported from the Mauritius some years ago, cost me, on account of
    many of them not vegetating, at the rate of £30 per acre. Parties
    who begin planting now have the great advantage that they can get
    plants, every one of which, if properly treated, will grow, at
    one-sixth of that price.

    How many crops cane will give on good soil in Natal, I am of course
    unable to state, as the oldest cane I have got has been cut only
    three times--the last yield (second ratoons) was much finer than the
    preceding ones, and by adopting the improved manner of cane
    cultivation, viz., returning all but the cane juice to the soil, I
    am confident that replanting will be found quite unnecessary; the
    expenses for the second and following years will therefore be very
    trifling.

Comparative Statement of the ruling Prices at Natal and the Mauritius
of Land, Live Stock, Implements, Labor, and other requirements
connected with the cultivation of the Sugar Cane.

                MAURITIUS                             NATAL
                             £   s. d. |                        £  s. d.
                                       |
  LAND, per acre, £3 10s. to 20  0  0  | LAND, per acre, 10s.
                                       | to                     1  0  0
  RENT OF LAND. It is not              | RENT OF LAND, 6d. to   0  5  0
  customary to let land at             |
  the Mauritius, except on             |
  the system of an equal               |
  division of the produce.             |
  MANURE. Guano, commonly              | CATTLE MANURE in
  used in its dry state,               | abundance, according to
  also other manures or                | distance, per load,
  composts, per ton, £6 to    7  0  0  | 1s. to                 0  2  6
                                       | (None required on
                                       | virgin soil for the
                                       | first three years of
                                       | cultivation.)
                                       |
  LIVE STOCK. Mules, 5 of              | Oxen, of which 12 are
  which are required to each           | required to each load,
  load of 3,000 to 4,000               | £3 each               36  0  0
  lbs., £30 each            150  0  0  | Keep of oxen, on
  Keep of Mules each, per              | pasturage               free.
  annum                       7  0  0  |
                                       |
  LABOR. Drivers, each, per            | Colored driver,
  month                       1  0  0  | each, per month        0 15  0
  Coolies, including keep,             | Kafir leader, ditto    0 10  0
  each                        1  0  0  | Kafirs, including
  White labor, each           4  0  0  | keep, ditto            0 10  0
                                       | White labor, each
                                       | per month, £3 10s. to  4  0  0
                                       |
  FUEL. Cane trash or wood             | Cane trash or wood
  MILL POWER. Steam or water           | The same
                                       |
  IMPLEMENTS. All agricultural         | All agricultural labor
  labor is performed by the            | is performed with the
  hand-hoe, very expensive             | plough, harrows, and
  in its nature.                       | scarifier, with oxen
                                       | so much less expensive
                                       | than the hand labor at
                                       | the Mauritius.
                                       |
  PRODUCE of the Cane. Average         | From 2 to 3 tons
  from 1 to 4 tons.                    |
  CANE. Periodical renewal of          | Not yet ascertained,
  the cane, according to the           | and depending on the soil
  quality of the soil, every           |
  3 to 10 years                        |
                                       |
                             £.  s. d. |                         £.  s. d.
  PROVISIONS, &c. Beef,                | PROVISIONS, &c. Beef,
  per lb. 6d. to              0  0  8  | per lb.,        1½d. to  0  0  2½
  Bread, per loaf             0  0  6  | Bread, per loaf          0  0  6
  Butter, per lb., 1s. 3d.             | Butter, per lb., 6d. to  0  0  9
  to                          0  1  6  |
  Rice, the food of the                | Indian corn, (maize per
  Coolies, per bag of                  | 180 lbs. 5s.) per 150
  150 lbs., 12s. 6d. to       0 15  0  | lbs.                     0  4  2
  Oats, per bag, of 100                | Oats, per 104 lbs., 10s.
  lbs. 12s. 6d. to            0 15  0  | to                       1  0  0
  Bran, ditto, 100 lbs.                | Bran, not used.
  12s. to                     0 13  9  |
  Beans, ditto, 100 lbs.               | Beans, per 180 lbs., 13s.
  22s. 6d. to                 1  5  0  | to 20s., or per 100 lbs.
                                       | 7s. 2d. to               0 11  0
  Coal, per ton, 40s. to      2 10  0  | The same
                                       |
  CHARGE OF MANUFACTURE.               | The Mauritius principle
  The manufacturer reaps               | may be adopted in this
  and carries to the mill              | colony, with such
  the canes of the grower,             | modifications as may be
  but the latter provides              | called for by local
  his own bagging, and                 | exigencies.
  carts away his half of               |
  the sugar, the other                 |
  half being the                       |
  remuneration of the                  |
  manufacturer                         |

Analysis of the foregoing Statement, showing the total comparative
outlay for sundries connected with the cultivation of Sugar at Natal
and Mauritius, computed at the lowest ruling prices.

  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
                         |   MAURITIUS   |     NATAL      |  Difference
                         |               |                |      in
                         |               |                |favor of Natal
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
                         |               |                |
  Land, 100 acres        |70s. 350  0  0 |10s.  50  0  0  |  300  0  0
  Manure, Guano 10 loads |£6    60  0  0 |                |
  Cattle Manure, 10 loads|               | 1s.   0 10  0  |
  Live Stock, 10 mules.  |£30  300  0  0 |£15. 150  0  0  |  150  0  0
  ----        10 oxen    |£12  120  0  0 | £3.  30  0  0  |   90  0  0
  Two drivers per mouth  | £1    2  0  0 |       1  5  0  |    0 15  0
  Coolies, 10 with keep  |      10  0  0 |              } |    2 10  0
  Kafirs,   10 ditto     |               |15s.   7 10  0} |
  White men, 10          | £4   40  0  0 |£4.   40  0  0  |
  Beef, 100 lbs.         |at 6d. 2 10  0 |1½d.   0 12  6  |    1 17  6
  Bread, 100 loaves      | 6d.   2 10  0 |6d.    2 10  0  |
  Butter,100 lbs.        |1s.3d. 6  5  0 |6d.    2 10  0  |    3 15  0
  Rice, 100 lbs., food   |       0  8  4 |              } |
  for Coolies, Indian    |               |              } |    0  5  7
  Corn, 100 lbs., food   |               |       0  2  9} |
  for Kafirs             |               |              } |
  Oats                   |       0 12  6 |       0 10  0  |    0  2  6
  Beans, 100 lbs.        |       1  2  6 |       0 10  0  |    0 12  6
  Coals                  |       2  0  0 |       2  0  0  |
                         |               |                |
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
                         |    £897  8 4  |    £288  0  3  |  £554 18 1
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------

The immense saving obtained by ploughing, &c., over the Mauritius hand
labor with the hoe, is not shown in the above figures.

Table showing the cost of producing Muscovado sugar, and the quantity
produced or available in the several countries mentioned, as made up
from the evidence given before the Committee on Sugar and Coffee
Plantations; by T. Wilson.

  -----------------+-------+---------+---------+-------+-------+-------+------
                   |       |         |         |       |       |Excess |
                   |       |         |         |       |       |of cost|
                   |       |         |         |       |Excess |of free|
                   |       |         |         |       |of cost| over  |
                   |       |         |         | Cost  |of free| SLAVE |
                   |       | Average | Average |of pro-|labour | TRADE |
                   |       |available|available|ducing | over  | labor,|
                   |       | produce | produce |  one  | slave |taking |In-
                   |Average|  under  |  during |cwt. of|or com-|  the  |crease
                   |cost of| slavery |the last | sugar |pulsory|cost in|of cost
                   |produc-| or com- |  three  |  at   | labor,|Brazil |in the
                   | tion  | pulsory |years of |present|  per  |  at   |British
        COUNTRY.   | under |  labor, | freedom,| date, | cwt., |7s. 6d.|planta-
                   |slavery| for the | for the |exclu- |taking |  per  |tions
                   |or com-|supply of|supply of|sive of|  the  |  cwt. | since
                   |pulsory|  Europe |  Europe |inter- |average|making |emanci-
                   | labor.| and the | and the |est on |cost of|  the  |pation.
                   |       |  United |  United | capi- |  the  |average|
                   |       |  States,|  States.|  tal, |latter |  of   |
                   |       |         |         |  etc. |at 11s.| slave |
                   |       |         |         |       |  per  | trade |
                   |       |         |         |       |  cwt. | labor |
                   |       |         |         |       |       |8s. per|
                   |       |         |         |       |       |  cwt. |
  -----------------+-------+---------+---------+-------+-------+-------+------
  _British         |  s. d.|   Tons. |   Tons. | s  d. | s. d. |  s. d.| s. d.
    Plantations_.  |       |         |         |       |       |       |
   Antigua         |  7  6 |   7,767 |   8,963 | 16  6 |  5  6 |  8  6 |  9  0
   Barbados        |  6  0 |  17,174 |  16,378 | 15  6 |  4  6 |  7  6 |  9  6
   Grenada         | 11  0 |   9,634 |   3,779 | 17  6 |  6  6 |  9  6 |  6  6
   St. Kitts       |  5  0 |   4,382 |   5,558 | 19  0 |  8  0 | 11  0 | 14  0
   St. Vincent     |  5  6 |  10,056 |   6,636 | 19  6 |  8  6 | 11  6 | 14  0
   Tobago          |  5  6 |   5,321 |   2,514 | 19  6 |  8  6 | 11  6 | 14  0
   St. Lucia, etc. |  5  6 |   9,600 |   8,650 | 19  6 |  8  6 | 11  6 | 14  0
   Jamaica         | 10  0 |  68,626 |  30,807 | 22  6 | 11  6 | 14  6 | 12  6
   Guiana          |  6  8 |  44,178 |  24,817 | 25 10 | 14 10 | 17 10 | 19  2
   Trinidad A*     |  3  0 |  15,428 |  16,539 | 20 10 |  9 10 | 12 10 | 17 10
   Mauritius       |       |  35,000 |  50,000 | 20  0 |  9  0 | 12  0 |
   Bengal          |       |         |  62,000 | 23  0 | 12  0 | 15  0 |
   Madras          |       |         |   7,000 | 20  0 |  9  0 | 12  0 |
  _Foreign         |       |         |         |       |       |       |
    Free Labor     |       |         |         |       |       |       |
    Country_.      |       |         |         |       |       |       |
   Europe          |       |         |         |       |       |       |
    (Beet-root) B* |       |         | 100,000 | 24  4 | 13  4 | 16  4 |
  _Foreign Slave,  |       |         |         |       |       |       |
    or Compulsory  |       |         |         |       |       |       |
    Labor          |       |         |         |       |       |       |
    Countries_.    |       |         |         |       |       |       |
   Java C*         | 15  0 |  88,000 |         | 15  0 |       |       |
   French Colonies | 15  0 |  90,000 |         | 15  0 | Slave |       |
   Cuba (Muscovado)|  8  0 | 220,000 |         |  8  0 |or com-|       |
   Porto Rico      |  8  6 |  40,000 |         |  8  6 |pulsory|       |
   Louisiana       | 12  6 | 100,000 |         | 12  6 | labor |       |
   Brazils D*      | 11 11 |  90,000 |         | 11 11 |       |       |
  -----------------+-------+---------+---------+-------+-------+-------+------

[A* This cost, as taken from the averages given in Lord Harris's
despatches, is lower than the averages given by the witnesses before
the Committee.]

[B* This beet-root sugar sells, in the continental markets, on account
of its inferior quality, at about 4s. to 6s. per cwt. below Colonial
Muscovado, so that Colonial Muscovado must be about 33s. per cwt. to
enable beet sugar to sell in this market for cost and charges, and
allowing no profit to the beet sugar maker.]

[C* The cost of producing sugar in Java is taken at the average
between the Government contract sugar, and the free sugar, as given by
Mr. San Martin.]

[D* The cost of producing sugar in Brazil is taken from the Consular
return: this return has given no credit for rum or molasses, and has
charged 6s. 5d. for manufacturing, fully 3s. 5d. more than the cost in
Cuba,--allowance for these two items would give 7s. 6d. as the nett
cost per cwt.]


BEET ROOT SUGAR.

The rapid progress of the production of beet root sugar on the
continent, especially in France, Belgium, Germany, Austria, and
Russia, and its recent introduction and cultivation as an article of
commerce in Ireland, renders the detail of its culture and manufacture
on the continent interesting. I have, therefore, been induced to
bestow some pains on an investigation of the rise and progress of its
production and consumption in those countries.

During the past three years, the smallest estimate which can be formed
of the quantity of cane sugar that has been replaced by beet root
sugar in the chief European countries, is about 80,000 tons annually,
with the certainty that, year after year, the consumption will become
exclusively confined to the former, to the greater exclusion of the
latter; unless some great change shall take place in the relative
perfection and manufacture of the two different descriptions of
produce.

Although, observes the _Economist_, the beet root sugar produced in
France, Belgium, Germany, and other parts of the continent is not
brought into competition in our own markets with the produce of the
British colonies, yet it must be plain that the exclusion of so much
foreign cane sugar from the continent, which was formerly consumed
there, must throw a much larger quantity of Cuba and Brazilian sugar
upon this market; and by this means the increased production of beet
root sugar, even in those countries where it is highly protected, does
indirectly increase the competition among the producers of cane sugar
in our market.

So early as 1747, a chemist of Berlin, named Margraf, discovered that
beet root contained a certain quantity of sugar, but it was not until
1796 that the discovery was properly brought under the attention of
the scientific in Europe by Achard, who was also a chemist and
resident of Berlin, and who published a circumstantial account of the
progress by which he extracted from 3 to 4 per cent. of sugar from
beet root.

Several attempts have been made, from time to time, to manufacture
beet root sugar in England, but never, hitherto, on a large and
systematic scale. Some years ago a company was established for the
purpose, but they did not proceed in their operations.

A refinery of sugar from the beet root was erected at Thames Bank,
Chelsea, in the early part of 1837. During the summer of 1839 a great
many acres of land were put into cultivation with the root, at
Wandsworth and other places in the vicinity of the metropolis. The
machinery used in the manufacture was principally on the plan of the
vacuum pans, and a fine refined sugar was produced from the juice by
the first process of evaporation, after it had undergone
discolorization. Another part of the premises was appropriated to the
manufacture of coarse brown paper from the refuse, for which it is
extensively used in France.

A refinery was also established about this period at Belfast, in the
vicinity of which town upwards of 200 acres of land were put into
cultivation with beet root for the manufacture of sugar.

The experience of France ought to be a sufficient guarantee that the
manufacture of beet root sugar is not a speculative but a great staple
trade, in which the supply can be regulated by the demand, with a
precision scarcely attainable in any other ease, and when, in
addition, this demand tends rather to increase than to diminish. That
the trade is profitable there can also be no doubt from the large
capital embarked in it on the Continent--a capital which is steadily
increasing even in France, where protection has been gradually
withdrawn, and where, since 1848, it has competed upon equal terms
with colonial sugars.

The produce of France in 1851 was nearly 60,000 tons. The beet root
sugar made in the Zollverein in 1851 was about 45,000 tons. Probably
half as much more as is made in France and the Zollverein, is made in
all the other parts of the Continent. In Belgium, the quantity made is
said to be 7,000 tons; in Russia, 35,000; making a total of beet root
sugar now manufactured in Europe of at least 150,000 and probably
more, or nearly one-sixth part of the present consumption of Europe,
America, and our various colonies. In 1847 this was estimated at
upwards of 1,000,000 tons; and, as the production has increased
considerably since that period, it is now not less than 1,100,000
tons. The soil of the Continent, it is said, will give 16 tons to the
acre, and that of Ireland, 26 tons to the acre. The former yields from
6 to 7 per cent.--the latter from 7 to 8 per cent. as the extreme
maximum strength of saccharine matter. The cost of the root in
Ireland--for it is with that, and not with the cost of the Continental
root, with which the West Indies will have to contend--is said to be
at the rate of 16s. per ton this; but will probably be 13s. next
season. The cost of manufacture is set down at £7 5s. per ton.
Calculating the yield of the root to be 7½ lbs. to every 100 lbs., for
26 tons the yield would be nearly 2 tons of sugar, which would give
about £9 10s. per ton, putting down the raw material to cost 14s, 6d.
per ton, the medium between 16s. and 13s. Thus a ton of Irish-grown
and manufactured beet root sugar, would cost £16 15s. per ton. Mr.
Sullivan, the scientific guide to those who are undertaking to make
beet root sugar at Mountmellick, Queen's County, Ireland, estimates
the cost of obtaining pure sugar at from £16 17s. to £19 18s. per ton,
according to the quantity of sugar in the root.

Beet root is a vegetable of large circumference, at the upper end nine
to eleven inches in diameter. There are several kinds. That which is
considered to yield the most sugar is the white or Silesian beet
(_Beta alba_). It is smaller than the mangel wurzel, and more compact,
and appears in its texture to be more like the Swedish turnip. For the
manufacture of sugar, the smaller beets, of which the roots weigh only
one or two pounds, were preferred by Chaptal, who, besides being a
celebrated chemist, was also a practical agriculturist and a
manufacturer of sugar from beet root. After the white beet follows the
yellow (_beta major_), then the red (_beta romana_), and lastly the
common or field beet root (_Beta sylvestris_). Margraf, as we have
seen, was the first chemist who discovered the saccharine principle in
beet root; and Achard, the first manufacturer who fitted up an
establishment (in Silesia) for the extraction of sugar from the root.
It was not before 1809 that this manufacture was introduced into
France.

The manufacture sprung up there in consequence of Bonaparte's scheme
for destroying the colonial prosperity of Great Britain by excluding
British colonial produce. It having been found that from the juice of
the beet root a crystallizable sugar could be obtained, he encouraged
the establishment of the manufacture by every advantage which monopoly
and premiums could give it. Colonial sugar was at the enormous price
of four and five francs a pound, and the use of it was become so
habitual, that no Frenchman could do without it. Several large
manufactories of beet root were established, some of which only served
as pretexts for selling smuggled colonial sugar as the produce of
their own works. Count Chaptal, however, established one on his own
farm, raising the beet root, as well as extracting the sugar. The
roots are first cleaned by washing or scraping, and then placed in a
machine to be rasped and reduced to a pulp. This pulp is put into a
strong canvas bag and placed under a powerful press to squeeze out the
juice. It is then put into coppers and boiled, undergoing certain
other processes. Most of the operations are nearly the same as those
by which the juice of the sugar cane is prepared for use; but much
greater skill and nicety are required in rendering the juice of the
beet root crystallizable, on account of its greater rawness and the
smaller quantity of sugar it contains. But when this sugar is refined,
it is impossible for the most experienced judge to distinguish it from
the other, either by the taste or appearance; and from this arose the
facility with which smuggled colonial sugar was sold in France, under
the name of sugar from beet root. Five tons of clean roots produce
about 4½ cwt. of coarse sugar, which give about 160 lbs. of double
refined sugar, and 60 lbs. of inferior lump sugar. The rest is
molasses, from which a good spirit is distilled. The dry residue of
the roots, after expressing the juice, consists chiefly of fibre and
mucilage, and amounts to about one-fourth of the weight of the clean
roots used. It contains all the nutritive part of the root, with the
exception of 4½ per cent. of sugar, which has been extracted from the
juice, the rest being water.

As the expense of this manufacture greatly exceeded the value of the
sugar produced, according to the price of colonial sugar, it was only
by the artificial encouragement of a monopoly and premiums that it
could be carried on to advantage. The process is one of mere curiosity
as long as sugar from the sugar cane can be obtained cheaper, and the
import duties laid upon it are not so excessive as to amount to a
prohibition; and in this case it is almost impossible to prevent its
clandestine introduction.

Another mode of making sugar from beet root, practised in some parts
of Germany, is as follows, and is said to make better sugar than the
other process:--The roots having been washed, are sliced lengthways,
strung on packthread, and hung up to dry. The object of this is to let
the watery juice evaporate, and the sweet juice, being concentrated,
is taken up by macerating the dry slices in water. It is managed so
that all the juice shall be extracted by a very small quantity of
water, which saves much of the trouble of evaporation. Professor
Lampadius obtained from 110 lbs. of roots 4 lbs. of well-grained white
powder-sugar, and the residuum afforded 7 pints of spirit. Achard says
that about a ton of roots produced 100 lbs. of raw sugar, which gave
55 lbs. of refined sugar, and 15 lbs. of treacle. This result is not
very different from that of Chaptal. 6,000 tons of beet root it is
said will produce 400 tons of sugar and 100 tons of molasses.

Beet root sugar in the raw state contains an essential oil, the taste
and smell of which are disagreeable. Thus the treacle of beet root
cannot be used in a direct way, whereas the treacle of cane sugar is
of an agreeable flavor, for the essential oil which it contains is
aromatic, and has some resemblance in taste to vanilla. But beet root
sugar, when it is completely refined, differs in no sensible degree
from refined cane sugar. In appearance it is quite equal to cane
sugar, and the process of refining it is more easy than for the
latter. Samples made in Belgium were exhibited at a late meeting of
the Dublin Society. It was of the finest appearance, of strong
sweetening quality, and in color resembling the species of sugar known
as crushed lump. The most singular part of the matter is, that it was
manufactured in the space of forty-five minutes--the entire time
occupied from the taking of the root out of the ground and putting it
into the machine, to the production of the perfect article. It was
said that it could be produced for 3d. per lb. An acre of ground is
calculated to yield 50 tons of Silesian beet, which, in France and
Belgium, give three tons of sugar, worth about £50; the refuse being
applied in those countries to feeding cattle. But from the superior
fitness of the Irish soil, as shown by experience to be the case, it
is confidently affirmed by persons competent to form an opinion, that
8 per cent. of sugar could be obtained there on the raw bulk.

The following figures are given as illustrative of the expense of the
cultivation of one acre of beet-root in Ireland:--

  Two ploughings and harrowing       £1  1  0
  Expense of manure and carting       5  0  0
  Hoeing and seed                     0  6  0
  Drilling and sowing                 0  5  0
  Rent                                2  0  0
                                      -------
                                     £8 12  0

An average produce of 20 tons, at £15 per ton, would leave a profit of
£6 8s. per acre, leaving the land in a state fit for the reception, at
little expense, of a crop of wheat, barley, or oats for the next year,
and of hay for the year ensuing; a consideration of no small
importance to the farmer. The following estimates, recently given, are
not by any means exaggerated:--

  61,607 tons of beet, at 10s.                     £30,803 10  0
  Cost of manufacture, at 11s. per ton.             33,883 17  0
                                                   -------------
                                                    64,687  7  0
  Produce 7 per cent of sugar, at 28s. per cwt.    136,767 10  0
                                                   -------------
  Estimated profit                                 £72,080  3  0

The quantity of sugar made from beet-root in France in 1828, was about
2,650 tons; in 1830, its weight was estimated at 6 million
kilogrammes[24] (5,820 tons); in 1834, at 26 million kilogrammes
(24,000 tons); in 1835, 36,000 tons; in 1836, 49,000 tons. At the
commencement of the year 1837, the number of refineries at work or
being built was 543; on an average 20 kilogrammes of beet-root are
required for the production of one kilogramme of sugar. The sugar
manufactured from the beet-root in France a few years ago was stated
to amount to 55,000 tons, or one half of the entire consumption of the
kingdom. The _Courrier Francais_ calculated that the beet-root sugar
made in France in 1838 amounted to 110 million lbs., and the journal
added, there is no doubt that, in a few years, the produce will be
equal to the entire demand. The cultivation then extended over 150,000
acres, and in the environs of Lille and Valenciennes it has sometimes
been as high as 28,000 lbs. per acre.

From returns of the produce and consumption of beet-root sugar
published in the _Moniteur_, it appears that on the 1st Dec. 1851,
there were 335 manufactories in operation, or 81 more than in the
corresponding period of 1850. The quantity of sugar made, including
the portion lying over from the previous year, amounted to 19,625,386
kilogrammes, and that stored in the public bonding warehouse to
10,556,847. At the end of June, 1852, 329 manufactories were at work,
or two more than at the same period in 1851. The quantity sold was
62,211,663 kilogrammes, or 9,167,018 less, as compared with the
corresponding period of the previous year. There remained in stock in
the manufactories 91,434,070 kilogrammes, and in the entrepot
4,597,829 kilogrammes, being an increase of 2,568,662 kilogrammes in
the manufactories, and a decrease of 1,292,962 in the entrepots. The
manufacture of beet-root sugar is every year assuming in France
increased importance, and attracts more and more the attention of
political economists as a source of national wealth, and of
government, as affording matter of taxation. Thirty new factories, got
up upon a very extensive scale, are enumerated as going into operation
this year. They are located, with but two exceptions, in the north of
France; fifteen of them are in the single department of Nord. Indeed,
the manufacture of beet-root sugar is confined, almost exclusively, to
the five northern adjacent departments of Nord, Pas de Calais, Somme,
Aisne, and Oise. The best quality retails at 16 cents the pound.

I take from a table in the _Moniteur_ the following statement of the
number of factories and their location, with the amount of production
up to the 31st May, 1851. At that date the season is supposed to end.
A separate column gives the total production in the season of 1842,
showing an increase in ten years of more than double, viz., of
41,582,113 kilogrammes, or, in our weight, of 93,559,754 pounds.

                       Number of    Kilogrammes     Kilogrammes
  Departments.         Factories.   Prod. 1850-1.   Prod. 1843.

  Aisne                   30         5,307,754       3,103,178
  Nord                   155        44,142,224      15,334,063
  Oise                     8         1,589,939         751,746
  Pas-de-Calais           70        16,665,084       5,856,944
  Somme                   23         3,404,776       2,683,421
  Scattered about         18         2,707,190       3,505,602
                       ------      ------------    ------------
                         304        73,817,607      30,234,954

This information was given by M. Fould, Minister of Finance, upon the
introduction of a bill making an appropriation for the purchase of 455
_saccharometers_, which had become necessary by reason of the late law
ordering that from and after the 1st of January, 1852, the beet sugars
were to be taxed according to their saccharine richness. The Minister
declared that at that date there would be in active operation in
France 334 sugar factories and 84 refining establishments.

The _Moniteur Parisien_ has the following:--

    "Notwithstanding the advantages accorded to colonial sugar, and the
    duties which weigh on beet-root sugar, the latter article has
    acquired such a regular extension that it has reached the quantity
    of 60,000 tons--that is to say, the half of our consumption. France
    (deducting the refined sugar exported under favour of the drawback)
    consumes 120,000 tons, of which 60,000 are home made, 50,000
    colonial, and 10,000 foreign. The two sugars have been placed on the
    same conditions as to duties, but it is only from the 1st inst.
    (Jan. 1852), that the beet-root sugar will pay a heavier duty than
    our colonial sugar. In spite of this difference we are convinced
    that the manufacture of beet-root sugar, which is every day,
    improved by new processes, will be always very advantageous, and
    will attain in some years the total quantity of the consumption. In
    Belgium the produce of the beet-root follows the same progress. The
    consumption of sugar there was, in 1850, 14,000 tons, of which 7,000
    was beet-root, made in 22 manufactories. This year there are 18 new
    ones, and although their organisation does not allow of their
    manufacturing in the same proportion as the 22 old ones, they will
    furnish at least 3,000 tons. The quantity of foreign sugar in that
    market does not reckon more than 4,000 tons. This conclusion is the
    more certain, as in 1848-1849, the beet-root only stood at 4,500
    tons in the general account. It may therefore be seen from these
    figures what progress has been made. The same progressive movement
    is going on in Germany. In 1848 it produced 26,000 tons, and in
    1861, 43,000. The following table shows the importance of this
    improvement. It comprises the Zollverein, Hanover, and the Hanse  Towns:--

          Cane Sugar.    Beet-root.   Totals.
            Tons.          Tons.       Tons.
  1848     60,500         26,000      86,500
  1849     54,000         34,000      88,000
  1851     45,000         43,000      88,000

    Thus we find that in the period of four years cane sugar has lost
    15,000 tons and it will lose still more when new manufactories shall
    have been established. The consumption of Russia is estimated at
    85,000 tons, of which 35,000 is beet-root, and what proves that the
    latter every day gains ground is, that the orders to the Havana are
    constantly decreasing, and prices are getting lower. In 1848 Austria
    consumed 40,000 tons, of which 8,000 were beet-root. Last year
    (1851,) she produced 15,000 tons. The production of the continent
    rising to 200,000 tons, and the consumption remaining nearly
    stationary, it is evident that Brazilian and Cuban sugars will
    encumber the English market, independently of the refined sugar of
    Java, which Holland sends to Great Britain. When the continental
    system was established by the decrees of Milan and Berlin, the
    Emperor Napoleon asked the savans to point out the means of
    replacing the productions which he proscribed: it is to the active
    and useful impulse which his genius impressed on all minds, that
    France and Europe owe this fresh manufacture--a creation the more
    valuable as its fortunate development required the co-operation of
    chemical science and agricultural improvement."

The quantity of sugar extracted from beet-root in the commencement of
the process, amounted to only 2 per cent.; but it was afterwards made
to yield 5 per cent., and it was then supposed possible to extract 6
per cent. On this calculation the fiscal regulations for the
protection of colonial sugars in France were founded; but recent
experiments have been made, by means of which as much as ten and a
half per cent. of sugar has been obtained. The following notice of the
improved process is given in a number of the _Constitutionnel_:--

    "It appears that a great improvement is likely to be made in the
    manufacture of beet-root sugar. Those who are acquainted with the
    process of this manufacture, are aware that M. de Dombasle has the
    last six years exclusively devoted himself to bring to perfection
    the process of maceration, of which he is the inventor. Adopting
    recent improvements, this process is materially altered, and has now
    arrived at such a point of perfection that it could scarcely be
    exceeded. The Society for the Encouragement of National Industry
    recently appointed committees to examine the effect produced in the
    manufactory of Roville. They witnessed the entire progress of the
    work, every part of which was subjected to minute investigation.
    Similar experiments have been made in the presence of many
    distinguished manufacturers. We have not the least intention to
    prejudge the decision which may be made on this subject by the
    society we have alluded to; but we believe we are able to mention
    the principal results that have regularly attended the works of the
    manufactory this year. The produce in coarse sugar has been more
    than eight per cent. of the first quality, and more than two per
    cent. of the second quality, in all nearly ten and a half per cent.
    of the weight of beet-root used; and the quality of these sugars has
    been considered by all the manufacturers superior to anything of the
    kind that has hitherto been made, and admits of its being converted
    into loaf-sugar of the first quality. The progress of these
    operations is as simple as possible, and the expenses attending the
    manufacture are considerably less than that of the process hitherto
    adopted."

The cultivation of the beet in France appears likely to prove still
more advantageous, in consequence of the discovery that the molasses
drawn from the root may be, after serving for the manufacture of
sugar, turned to farther advantage. It appears that potash may be made
from it, of a quality equal to foreign potash. A Monsieur Dubranfaut
has discovered a method of extracting this substance from the residue
of the molasses after distillation, and which residue, having served
for the production of alcohol, was formerly thrown away. To give some
idea of the importance of the creation of this new source of national
wealth (remarks the _Journal des Debats_), it will be sufficient to
say that the quantity of potash furnished by M. Dubranfaut's process
is equal to l/6th of the quantity of sugar extracted from the beet.
Thus, taking the amount of indigenous sugar manufactured each year at
seventy million kilogrammes (each kil. equal to 2 lbs. 2 oz. avoird.),
there may besides be extracted from this root, which has served for
that production, twelve million kilogrammes of saline matter,
comparable to the best potash of commerce; and this, too, without, the
loss of the alcohol and the other produce, the fabrication of which
may be continued simultaneously. According to the present prices, the
twelve millions of kilogrammes represent a value of from fourteen to
fifteen million francs.

The States composing the German Union possessed towards the close of
1838, 87 manufactories of beet-root sugar in full operation, viz.,
Prussia, 63; Bavaria, 5; Wurtemburg, 3; Darmstadt, 1; other states,
15; besides 66 which were then constructing.

The only returns given for Prussia and Central Germany are 1836 to
1838, and the annual production of sugar was then estimated at eleven
million pounds. The quantity now made is, of course, much greater.

At the close of 1888, Austria produced nine million pounds; she now
makes fifteen thousand tons.

The growth of beet-root in Hungary, during the years 1837 and 1838,
was extremely favorable, and the manufacture of sugar from it has
become very extensive. It has been greatly encouraged by the Austrian
government. It was estimated that fifty millions of pounds were
manufactured in Prussia and Germany in 1839. In Bohemia there were, in
1840, fifty-two factories of beet-root sugar, and nine for the making
of syrup out of potato meal. In 1838, the number was as high as
eighty-seven.

The Dutch papers state that in a single establishment in Voster Vick,
in Guilderland, about five million pounds' weight of the beet-root are
consumed in the manufacture of sugar.

The following is a Comparative Statement of the number of Sugar
Manufactories, and the Quantity of Beet-root upon which duty was paid
for the Manufacture of Sugar in the Zollverein during the years ending
the 31st of August, 1846 and 1847:--

  -------------------+-------------+-------------------------------------
                     |             |Quantity of Beet-root upon which duty
                     |             |was paid for the Manufacture of Sugar.
                     |             +---------+---------+-----------------
                     |  Number of  |         |         |  Comparison in
  Name of the State  |Manufactories|         |         | 1846-7 with the
  of the Zollverein  |             | 1845-6  | 1846-7  | preceding year.
                     +------+------+         |         +---------+-------
                     |      |      |         |         | More in |Less in
                     |1845-6|1846-7|         |         | 1846-7  |1846-7
  -------------------+------+------+---------+---------+---------+-------
       Prussia       |      |      |Cwts. ** |  Cwts.  |  Cwts.  | Cwts.
  Eastern Prussia    |   2  |   2  |   12,393|   29,941|   17,548|  --
  Western Prussia    |  --  |  --  |    --   |    --   |    ---  |  --
  Posen              |   7  |   8  |  101,422|  121,914|   20,492|  --
  Pomerania          |   5  |   4  |   89,865|  121,061|   31,196|  --
  Silesia            |  16  |  22  |  590,545|  711,632|  121,087|  --
  Brandenburg        |   3  |   3  |  140,421|  148,066|    7,645|  --
  Prussian Saxony    |  38  |  42  |2,676,084|3,547,891|  871,817|  --
  Duchies of Anhalt  |   4  |   5  |  266,345|  288,082|   21,737|  --
  Westphalia         |  --  |  --  |    --   |    --   |    --   |  --
  Rhenish Provinces  |   2  |  --  |    2,479|    --   |    --   |  2,479
  -------------------+------+------+---------+---------+---------+-------
  Total in Prussia   |  77  |  86  |3,879,554|4,968,587|1,079,043|
  -------------------+------+------+---------+---------+---------+-------
  Luxemburg          |  --  |  --  |    --   |    --   |    --   |  --
  Bavaria, Kingdom of|   8  |   7  |   50,952|   46,142|    --   |  4,810
  Saxony,     "      |   1  |   2  |   20,887|   34,230|   13,343|  --
  Wurtemburg, "      |   2  |   2  |   59,521|  141,366|   81,845|  --
  Baden, Grand Duchy |   2  |   2  |  316,968|  328,608|   11,640|  --
  Hesse, Electorate  |   2  |   3  |   25,376|   23,529|    --   |  1,847
  Hesse, Grand Duchy |  --  |  --  |    --   |    --   |    --   |  --
  Thuringia          |   2  |   3  |   36,127|   38,218|    2,091|  --
  Brunswick, Dukedom |   2  |   2  |   65,707|   52,796|    --   | 12,911
  Nassau, Dukedom    |  --  |  --  |    --   |    --   |    --   |  --
  Frankfort, FreeCity|  --  |  --  |    --   |    --   |    --   |  --
                     +------+------+---------+---------+---------+-------
  Total, exclusively }      |      |         |         |         |
    of Prussia       }  19  |  21  |  575,538|  664,889|   89,351|
                     +------+------+---------+---------+---------+-------
  Total in the       |      |      |         |         |         |
    Zollverein       |  96  | 107  |4,455,092|5,633,476|1,168,394|
  -------------------+------+------+---------+---------+---------+-------
  [** Prussian cwts. are equal to 80 English cwts.]

This statement proves that the cultivation of the beet-root, and the
subsequent manufacture into sugar, has greatly increased in the
Zollverein. Eleven manufactories had been added to the number in the
previous year, and an increase of 26 per cent. took place in the
quantity of beet-root which was manufactured into sugar. Each
manufactory used, upon an average, the following quantity during the
undermentioned years:--

                                     1841-2   1844-5   1846-7
                                      Cwts.    Cwts.    Cwts.
  In Prussia generally               38,161   50,384   57,774
  In the province of Saxony          55,412   70,423   84,473
  In the province of Silesia         33,595   36,909   32,347
  In the Zollverein, on an average
    in each manufactory              27,237   46,407   52,634

The increase is chiefly evident in the province of Saxony, where, in
1846-7, an augmentation of 1,087,851 cwt. of beet-root; in comparison
to the preceding year, took place. If we compare the quantity of
beet-root employed in Saxony with that of the whole Zollverein, we
find that the former province requires 63 per cent, of the whole
quantity used for the manufacture of sugar. The great activity in that
province (chiefly in the district of Magdeburg) is rendered more
apparent by the following table:--

Comparative Statement of the Number of Manufactories, and their
Machinery and Utensils, employed for the Manufacture of Beet-root
Sugar in the Prussian Province of Saxony during the years 1841-2 and
1846-7 respectively.

  ------------------------------+-------------------+--------------------
                                |                   |In the neighbourhood
                                |Province of Saxony |    of Magdeburg
                                +---------+---------+---------+----------
                                | 1841-2  | 1846-7  | 1841-2  | 1846-7
                                +---------+---------+---------+----------
                                |   No.   |   No.   |   No.   |   No.
  Manufactories                 |    40   |    39   |    15   |    15
  Apparatus for grating         |    58   |    65   |    27   |    32
  Hydraulic presses             |   136   |   209   |    72   |    93
  Clarifying pans, with open    |         |         |         |
    firing                      |    81   |    68   |    24   |    24
  Ditto, by steam               |    50   |    76   |    33   |    42
  Evaporating pans, with open   |         |         |         |
    firing                      |   130   |   123   |    55   |    54
  Ditto, by steam               |    46   |    71   |    28   |    32
  Clarifiers, with open firing  |    23   |    21   |    14   |    10
  Ditto, by steam               |    23   |    28   |    19   |    21
  Boiling pans, with open firing|    76   |    61   |    33   |    24
  Ditto, by steam               |    20   |    35   |    12   |    17
  Of which there are vacuum pans|     8   |    21   |     3   |     9
  Steam-engines                 |    19   |    40   |    12   |    20
  Horse-power                   |   210   |   457   |   153   |   267
  Cattle mills                  |    19   |     9   |     4   |     2
  Cattle employed               |    79   |    38   |    19   |    12
                                |         |         |         |
                                |   Cwt.  |   Cwt.  |   Cwt.  |   Cwt.
  Quantity of beet-root used}   |         |         |         |
    for manufacture         }   |2,349,774|3,387,280|1,433,293|1,889,463
  Or on an average in each}     |         |         |         |
    manufactory           }     |   58,744|   86,853|   95,553|  125,964
  ------------------------------+---------+---------+---------+----------

The increase of power by machinery is surprising, chiefly by steam and
hydraulic presses, which has not only effected a greater produce, but
likewise a much larger increase of the quantity of beet-root required
for manufacture. The works where draught cattle are employed have
decreased, and are only in use where the manufacture of beet root
sugar is combined with a farm.

In Russia, in 1832, there existed only 20 manufacturers of beet root
sugar, but this number subsequently increased to 100, and they
annually produced the twelfth of the total quantity of sugar which
Russia receives from foreign parts. The number of those manufactories
in 1840, was 140, and the importation of sugar, which reached to
1,555,357 lbs. in 1837, amounted to only 1,269,209 lbs. in 1839. The
production of indigenous sugar is now set down at 35,000 tons.

In France, for many years past, the production of beet-root sugar has
been rapidly increasing, in spite of a gradual reduction of the
protection which it enjoyed against colonial and foreign sugar, until
it has reached a quantity of 60,000 tons, or fully one half of the
entire consumption. Independent of the refined sugar exported under
drawback, the consumption of France may be now estimated at 120,000
tons, of which 60,000 tons are of beet-root, 60,000 tons of French
colonial, and 10,000 tons at the outside of foreign sugar. The
beet-root and the French colonial sugars are now placed on the same
footing as regards duty, and a law was recently passed, subjecting
beet-root sugar, from the 1st of January, 1852, to even a higher duty
than French colonial sugar. Nevertheless, it is admitted that the
manufacture of beet-root sugar is highly profitable and rapidly
increasing, so that it is likely in a very short time to exclude
foreign sugar from French consumption altogether.

In Belgium, the production of beet-root sugar is also rapidly
increasing; in 1851 the entire consumption of sugar was estimated at
14,000 tons, of which 7,000 tons were of beet-root, and 7,000 tons of
foreign cane sugar. The number of beet-root factories to supply that
quantity was _twenty-two_, but this number has, already increased in
the present year to _forty_. Many of these will be but imperfectly at
work during this season, but it is estimated that of the entire
consumption of 14,000 tons, at least 10,000 tons will consist of
beet-root, and only 4,000 tons of foreign cane sugar. And from present
appearances the manufacture of beet-root is likely to increase so much
as to constitute nearly the entire consumption. So lately as 1848 and
1849 the production of beet-root sugar was only 4,500 tons.

In Austria, the consumption of sugar in 1841 was 40,000 tons, of which
8,000 tons were of beet-root, and 32,000 tons of foreign cane sugar.
But the production of beet-root has increased so fast that it is
estimated to produce in the present year 15,000 tons; and as no
increase has taken place in the entire consumption, the portion of
foreign cane sugar required in the present year will be reduced from
32,000 tons to 25,000 tons.

The following information, with regard to the state of the manufacture
of beet-root sugar on the Continent last year, has been furnished by
Mr. C.J. Ramsay, of Trinidad.

    "My first start was for Paris, where I remained a week, procuring
    the necessary letters of introduction, to enable me to see some of
    the sugar works in the provinces. Whilst there I called upon Messrs.
    Cail and Co., the principal machine makers in France, mentioned the
    subject of my visit, and requested their assistance. Nothing could
    have been more liberal than the way in which they treated me. I was
    at once asked to look over their establishment and requested to call
    the next day, when letters of introduction to their branch
    establishments at Valenciennes and Brussels would be ready for me.
    This I of course did, and received not only these letters but some
    others, to sugar manufacturers in the neighbourhood of Valenciennes.
    Thus provided, and with letters from Mr. D'Eickthal, a banker in
    Paris, to Mr. Dubranfaut, the chemist, to Mr. Grar, a refiner of
    Valenciennes, to Mr. Melsens of Brussels, and to another sugar maker
    near Valenciennes, whose name I forget, and who was the only man
    from whom I did not receive the greatest politeness, I started for
    Valenciennes. My first essay was upon the latter personage, who
    evidently with a considerable grudge showed me a simple room in his
    works where four centrifugal machines were at work--raised the cry
    of ruin, if the French improvements were introduced in the West
    Indies, and informed me he had nothing else worth seeing. I returned
    to Valenciennes, thinking if this is the way I was to be treated, I
    might as well have stayed at home. That this was a solitary instance
    of illiberality, you will presently see. I next called upon Mr.
    Grar, by whom I was received in a very different manner; he at once
    offered to show me over his works, and especially that part of them
    where a new process, discovered by Mr. Dubranfaut, was carried on,
    every part of which was fully explained, Mr. Dubranfaut's laboratory
    is connected with these works, and having inspected the working part
    of the establishment Mr. G. then took me there, and introduced me to
    that gentleman, with whom I passed the remainder of the afternoon,
    receiving a full explanation of his new process, which is this:--a
    solution of hydrate of barytes is made in boiling water--the
    saccharine solution to be treated is heated to the same degree, and
    the two mixed together in the proportions of 46 parts of hydrate of
    barytes to every 100 parts of sugar contained in the solution, which
    has previously been ascertained by polariscopic examination. A
    saccharate of barytes is immediately formed in the shape of a
    copious precipitate; this, after being thoroughly washed and thus
    freed from all soluble impurities, is transferred into large, deep
    vats, and a stream of carbonic acid gas forced into it, which
    decomposes the saccharate of barytes, forming carbonate of barytes,
    and liberating the sugar in the shape of a perfectly pure solution
    of sugar in water, of the density of 20 to 23 degrees Baumé; the
    carbonate of barytes being thoroughly washed is again converted into
    caustic barytes by burning, so that there is little loss in the
    operation. The whole process is certainly very beautiful, and its
    economic working has been tried for a year, on a sufficiently large
    scale to leave no doubt as to the economy of the process in refining
    molasses, which is the only purpose it has yet been applied to.

    The Messrs. Grar were so thoroughly satisfied with it, that when I
    was there they had taken down their original apparatus, and were
    re-erecting it on such a scale as to work up all the molasses by it,
    equal to almost five tons of sugar daily. Owing to this
    circumstance, I had not an opportunity of seeing the process on a
    working scale, but was shown the whole proceedings in the
    laboratory.

    The only difficulties I see in applying this process at once to the
    cane juice, are the large quantity of barytes required, the expense
    of re-burning it and the entire change in works that would be
    necessary before it could be introduced. The advantage would be, the
    obtaining the whole sugar contained in the juice, free from all
    impurities, consequently white, and in the shape of a syrup marking
    20 to 23 degrees instead of 8 or 10 degrees, thus saving fully half
    the evaporation now required. The sugar made in this way, I was
    told, contains no trace of barytes.

    To show you the degree of economy practised in such establishments
    in France, I may mention that the washings of the saccharate of
    barytes are sold to the makers of potash and soda, who make a profit
    by boiling them down to obtain what salts they contain.

    The carbonic acid is obtained by the combustion of charcoal in a
    closed iron furnace into which air is forced by an air pump,
    requiring, I believe, about one horse power. From the top of the
    furnace a pipe leads into a washing vessel, from which the gas is
    led into the bottom of the vats by pipes.

    At Valenciennes I met with Mr. Cail, who, beside being an engineer
    and machine-maker, is interested in sugar-making, both in France and
    in the West Indies, and most thoroughly understands the subject. He
    invited me to accompany him to Douai, to see a new set of works
    which had been set agoing this month. I was of course too glad to
    accept his invitation, and started with him at six next morning,
    reached Douai at eight, and then proceeded to the works, which are a
    few miles out of town. In this work a new process is also employed;
    it is that of Mr. Rouseau, and is said to answer well. The beet root
    juice, as soon as possible after expression, is thrown up by a
    montjus into copper clarifiers with double bottoms, heated by steam
    at a pressure of five atmospheres. To every hundred litres of juice
    (=22 gals.) two kilogrammes of lime are added (about four and a half
    pounds English weight). The lime is most carefully prepared and
    mixed with large quantities of hot water till it forms a milk
    perfectly free from lumps. The steam is turned off, and the juice
    heated to 90 deg. A complete defecation has taken place, the steam
    is shut off, and the juice left a short time, to allow the heavier
    impurities to subside. It is then run off in the usual manner,
    undergoes a slight filtration through a cotton cloth placed over a
    layer of about four inches thick of animal charcoal, and runs into a
    second set of copper vessels placed on a lower level than the
    clarifiers; these vessels are heated by means of a coil of steam
    piping sufficient to make them boil. A second pipe passes into them,
    making a single turn at the bottom of the vessel; this is pierced on
    the lower side with small holes, through which a stream of carbonic
    acid gas is forced.

    This decomposes the saccharate of lime, which has been formed in
    consequence of the large excess of lime added to the clarifiers.

    The lime is precipitated as carbonate. When precipitation has
    ceased, steam is turned on, and the whole made to boil; this expels
    any excess of carbonic acid; the liquor is then run off, undergoes a
    similar partial filtration to that mentioned above, and is then
    passed through the charcoal filters to be decomposed. The sugar made
    by this process, directly from the beet-root juice, is nearly white.
    The molasses is re-boiled as often as six times; each time
    undergoing a clarification and filtration through animal charcoal.
    And the proceeds of the last re-boiling is certainly in appearance
    not worse than a great deal of muscovado I have seen shipped from
    Trinidad.

    In this work there are about 150 people employed. The work goes on
    night and day, one gang replacing the other. The whole evaporation
    is done by two vacuum pans, each 6½ feet in diameter, 80,000
    kilogrammes of beet-root are used daily, from which about 6,000
    kilogrammes of sugar are obtained, equal to about 6 tons English
    weight.

    In these and every other works I visited--eight in all--the
    centrifugal machines were in use, and had in most cases been so for
    two years; those lately made have been much simplified in
    construction, and work admirably. Cail & Co., of Paris, are the
    makers; their charge is 3,000 francs for each machine (£120 stg.).
    They require about one and a half horse power each. As they are
    wrought in France, one machine is about equal to work off a ton and
    a half of sugar daily, working all the 24 hours. Mr. Cail recommends
    a separate engine for those machines; so that they can be used at
    any time, independent of the other machinery. The charge put into a
    machine is about 80 kilogrammes, from which about 30 to 35
    kilogrammes of dry sugar is obtained; the calculation is, I believe,
    40 per cent. I weighed some of the baskets of sugar taken out after
    drying, and found them 35 kilogrammes. Sugar intended for the
    machine is never concentrated beyond 41 degrees Baumè; that made
    from the juice direct is allowed 18 to 34 hours to crystallize, and
    is put into the machine in a semi-liquid state; the motion at first
    is comparatively slow; in about three minutes the sugar appears
    nearly dry; about three-fourths of a gallon of brown syrup is then
    poured into the machine whilst in motion, and the speed brought up
    to its highest, about 1200 revolutions a minute; in 3 or 4 minutes
    more the machine is stopped, the sugar scooped out and thrown into
    baskets, the inside of the revolving part, and especially the wire
    cloth, carefully washed with a brush and water, and a fresh charge
    put in. The whole time betwixt each charge is about 15 minutes. From
    the large proportion of molasses you will see very plainly that
    those who do not intend to re-boil, need not think of centrifugal
    machines. The sugar dried in this way is not altogether white, but
    has a slight greyish yellow tinge.

    Of the other sugar works which I visited, the only one of peculiar
    interest was that of Mr. Dequesne, near Valenciennes. Here the roots
    are first cut into small pieces by an instrument similar to a turnip
    slicer, then dried in a species of kiln, and stored up till
    required. In this way I was told beet-root could be preserved with
    very little deterioration for a full year, and this enables Mr.
    Dequesne to go on making sugar all the year round. When the sugar is
    to be extracted, the dried cuttings are put into a series of closed
    vessels connected by pipes, and by a system of continuous filtration
    of warm water through these vessels the solution of sugar is
    obtained, of a density equal, I believe, to 25 degrees Baumè; it is
    a good deal colored, and requires filtration through animal
    charcoal. Mr. Dequesne informed me that for five years he had been
    unable to make this mode of sugar-making cover its expenses, owing
    to the loss occasioned by fermentation taking place in the
    beet-root; but that he has now entirely overcome that difficulty; by
    what means I was not told.

    The number of macerating vessels is fourteen, ten of which are
    working at a time, the other four filling and emptying.

    A greater number of vessels, Mr. Dequesne thinks, would be
    advantageous, as cold instead of hot water could then be employed.
    He thinks a similar plan might be introduced in the West Indies with
    great advantage, and that by employing the proper means to prevent
    fermentation the sun's heat would be quite sufficient to dry the
    cane slices.

    Mr. Dubranfaut and Mr. Rouseau's processes are patented in England.
    The terms for the use of the former would, I was told, be made so
    moderate, as to offer no obstruction to its being used in the
    colonies. What Mr. Rouseau's terms are I could not learn.

    There are now 288 works making beet root sugar in France, and over
    30 in Belgium. The same manufacture is rapidly spreading in Germany
    and Russia, and is now being introduced in Italy. Whilst at
    Valenciennes, I learned that two English gentlemen had just preceded
    me in visiting the works in that neighbourhood, mentioning that they
    had in view introducing the beet root sugar manufacture in Ireland.

    The sugar crop of France was last year over 60,000,000 of
    kilogrammes (60,000 tons). For two years _Belgium has been
    exporting_ to the Mediterranean. One maker told me that he had last
    year exported a considerable part of his crop. It would therefore
    appear, that even beet root sugar can compete in _other than the
    producing country_ with the sugar of the tropics--a most significant
    hint that, unless the cane can be made to yield more and better
    sugar than is now generally got from it, there is some risk of its
    being ultimately beaten by the beet root, the cultivation of which
    is now carried on with so much profit that new works are springing
    up every year, in almost every country of the continent.

    In going through the French works, I made inquiries as to how far
    the procedé Melsens had been adopted, and was everywhere told it was
    a total failure. I, however, determined to see Mr. Melsens and judge
    for myself how far it might be applicable to the cane, even if a
    failure with regard to the beet root. I, therefore, went on to
    Brussels, enclosed my letters of introduction and card, and received
    in return a note, appointing to meet me next morning. I found him
    one of the best and most obliging of men. He immediately offered to
    go over some experiments on beet root juice with me at his
    laboratory, where I accordingly spent the greater part of two days
    with him, and went over a variety of experiments; and from what I
    saw and assisted in doing, I feel strongly inclined to think that,
    notwithstanding the French commission at Martinique report
    otherwise, some modification of Mr. Melsens' process may be most
    advantageously employed in making cane sugar if not as a defecator,
    at least to prevent fermentation, and, probably, also as a
    decolorising agent.

    Mr. Melsens showed me letters he had received from Java from a
    person with whom he had no acquaintance, stating that he had used
    the bisulphate of lime with complete success; and whilst I was with
    him he again received letters from the same person, stating that by
    its use he had not only improved the quality of sugar, but had
    raised the return to 9 per cent. of the weight of cane. From the
    letters which I saw, the process appears to have been tried on a
    very large scale, with the advantage of filters and a vacuum pan.
    Where the old mode of leaving half the dirt with the sugar, and
    boiling up to a temperature of 340 degrees or thereby, is continued,
    I fear there is not much chance of either bisulphate or anything
    else making any very great improvement.

    The use of bisulphate of lime is patented in England and the
    colonies, but I believe I may state the charge for the right of
    using it will be made extremely moderate.

    The points which appeared to me worthy of remark in visiting the
    beet-root sugar works are, the extreme care that nothing shall be
    lost--the great attention paid to cleanliness in every part of the
    process, besides the particular care given to defecation. No vessel
    is ever used twice without being thoroughly washed. Such a thing as
    the employment of an open fire in any part of the manufacture is
    quite unknown. Everything is done by steam, of a pressure of from 4
    to 5 atmospheres. In the more recently started works, the
    evaporation is entirely carried on in vacuum. In some of the older
    works copper evaporators, heated by coils of steam piping, and
    having covers, with chimneys to carry off the vapor, are still used;
    but of the eight works I visited I only saw them in use in one of
    them, and they are nowhere used excepting to evaporate to the point
    when the second filtration takes place.

    The coolers I saw were invariably made of iron, and varied in depth
    from 2 to over 6 feet. These very deep vessels are used for the
    crystallization of sugar, made of the fourth, fifth and sixth
    re-boilings of molasses, which requires from three to six months.

    One thing struck me forcibly in going over the French and Belgian
    works; it was the extreme liberality with which I was allowed to go
    over every part of them; to remain in them as long as I pleased; had
    all my inquiries answered, and every explanation given; in most
    striking contrast to the grudging manner in which I have been
    trotted over some of the refineries in England, as if those who
    showed them were afraid I should gain any information on the subject
    of their trade.

Mr. H. Colman, speaking of the agriculture of the Continent, gives
some information he obtained on the comparative cost of producing beet
and cane sugar. A hectare (two and a half acres) produces, in the Isle
of Bourbon, about 76,000 kilogrammes (a kilogramme is nearly two and
one-fifth pounds) of cane, which will give 2,200 kilogrammes of sugar,
and the cost for labor is 2,500 francs. A hectare of beet root
produces 40,000 kilogrammes of roots, which yield 2,400 kilogrammes of
sugar, and the expense of the culture is 354 francs. The cost of the
cane sugar in this case is 27 centimes, and of the beet sugar 14
centimes only, per kilogramme.

These are extraordinary statements, and will be looked at by the
political economist and the philanthropist with great interest. There
are few of the northern states of Europe, or of the United States,
which might not produce their own sugar; and when we take into account
the value of this product, even in its remains after the sugar is
extracted, for the fattening of cattle and sheep, and of course for
the enrichment of the land for the succeeding crops, its important
bearing upon agricultural improvement cannot be exaggerated.

According to M. Peligot, the average amount of sugar in beets is 12
per cent.; but, by extraction, they obtain only 6 per cent. The cane
contains about 18 per cent. of saccharine matter, but they get only
about 7½. The expense of cultivating a hectare of beets, according to
Dombasle, is 354 francs. An hectare of cane, which produces 2,200
kilogrammes of sugar, in the Island of Bourbon, and only 2,000 in
French Guiana, demands the labor of twelve negroes, the annual expense
of each of whom is 250 francs, according to M. Labran.--(Commission of
Inquiry in 1840.)

Sugar has become not only an article of luxury, but of utility, to
such a degree, that a supply of it constitutes an important article
of importation, and is of national consequence. For sugar the world
has hitherto relied on the cane, with the exception of some parts of
India, where the sugar palm yields it much more cheaply. The sugar
cane is, however, a tropical plant, and, of course, its cultivation
must of necessity be limited to such hot countries. France, during the
wars of Napoleon, shut out from her Indian possessions or deprived of
them, commenced making sugar from beets, and it proving unexpectedly
successful and profitable, it has as we have just seen, extended not
only over that empire, but nearly the whole of continental Europe,
where it forms an important item in their system of cultivation and
profit. The manufacture has been attempted in the United States; but
though the facts of the ease and certainty with which the beets may be
grown and their great value for stock has been fully ascertained,
still little progress in the production of sugar from them has been
made there.


MAPLE SUGAR.

There are few trees in the American forest of more value than the
maple (_Acer saccharinum_). As an ornamental tree, it is exceeded by
few; its ashes abound in alkali, and from it a large proportion of the
potash of commerce is produced; and its sap furnishes a sugar of the
best quality, and in abundance. It likewise affords molasses and an
excellent vinegar. In the maple the sugar amounts to five per cent. of
the whole sap. There is no tree whose shape and whose foliage is more
beautiful, and whose presence indicates a more generous, fertile, and
permanent soil than the rock maple: in various cabinet-work its timber
vies with black walnut and mahogany for durability and beauty; and as
an article of fuel its wood equals the solid hickory. Its height is
sometimes 100 feet, but it usually grows to a height varying from
forty to eighty feet. It is bushy, therefore an elegant shade tree.
The maple is indigenous to the forests of America, and wherever there
has been opportunity for a second growth, this tree attains to a
considerable size much sooner than might be imagined. In the course of
ten or fifteen years the maple becomes of a size to produce sugar. The
trees which have come up since the first clearing, produce sap that
yields much more saccharine than the original forest maples.

The whole interior of the northern part of the United States have
relied, and still rely, more on their maple woodlands for sugar than
on any other source; and as a branch of domestic manufacture and home
production, the business is of no little consequence. The time
occupied too in the manufacture is very limited, and occurs at a
season when very little other labor can be performed.

Hitherto but comparatively little attention has been bestowed upon
this important branch of industry in Canada. The inhabitants of that
province might doubtless manufacture a sufficient quantity of maple
sugar to supply the demand or consumption in this article for the
whole population of the country. This variety of sugar may be refined,
and made as valuable for table use as the finest qualities of West
India sugar. On the south shore of Lake Huron, and the islands of
that inland sea, there are forests of sugar

maple unsurveyed capable of producing a supply for the whole
population. The Indians upon those islands have lately turned their
attention pretty largely to the manufacture of sugar from the maple;
and many tons have been exported from this source. If the Indians
could obtain a fair value for their sugar, say seven or eight dollars
per 100 lbs., they would extend their operations upon a large scale.
Upon these islands alone, there are upwards of a million of full-grown
maple trees, capable of yielding each from two and a half to three
pounds of excellent sugar per annum; and if proper attention were
given to this branch of production in that quarter, I see no reason
why a most profitable business could not be carried on. Every farmer
who has a grove of sugar maple, should endeavour to manufacture at
least sufficient for the consumption of his own family. In most cases
150 trees of medium growth would yield an amount of sap that would
make 300 lbs. of sugar, twenty-five gallons of molasses, and a barrel
of vinegar. The labor required to manufacture this amount of sugar,
molasses, and vinegar, would scarcely be felt by the well-organised
cultivator, as the season for the business is at the close of the
winter, and opening spring, when no labor can be done upon the land.
In proportion to the amount of labor and money expended in the
production of maple sugar, it is as capable of yielding as large a
return of profits as any other branch of farm business. It is
certainly an object of great national interest to the inhabitants of
our North American Colonies, that they should supply their own market
with such products as their highly-favored country is capable of
producing. Sugar is an article which will ever find a ready sale at
highly-remunerating prices, provided that it be properly manufactured
and brought into market in good condition. It requires a little outlay
at first to purchase buckets, cisterns, and boilers, to stock a sugar
bush; but by carefully using the above necessary apparatus, they will
last for a very long period. A farmer can supply himself with the
suitable materials for performing the sugar business without any cost
further than his own labor. The spring is the season of the year that
everything should be put in readiness,--even the wood should be
chopped and drawn to the spot, so that when the sap commences to run,
there may be no impediments in the way to hinder the complete success
of the business.

Large tracts of land in the Ottawa district are covered with the true
sugar maple. It is found in great numbers in the eastern townships of
Lower Canada, where considerable forests of miles in extent contain
nothing else, and in other places it is mixed with various trees.
There is scarcely a spot in Lower Canada where it is not to be met
with. Capt. Marryatt has stated that there were trees enough on the
shores of Lakes Huron and Superior, to supply the whole world with
sugar. In the United States, the manufacture of the sugar was first
attempted about the year 1752, by some farmers of New England, as a
branch of rural economy. This gradually spread wherever the tree was
known. Now it forms an article of food throughout a large portion of
the country. Almost every farmer prepares sugar enough from the trees
in his neighbourhood for the consumption of his family during the
year, and has often a surplus for sale. It is much cheaper than
muscovado, being sold at from 2d. to 3½d. per pound, whilst common
muscovado cannot be bought for less than 4½d. to 5d. per pound.

The province of Canada produced nearly ten million pounds in 1852,
6,190,694 being made in Lower Canada, and 3,581,505 in Upper Canada.
The quantity made in Lower Canada in 1849 was only about 1,537,093
lbs. The maple sugar product of the Canadas in 1848 was officially
stated as follows:--

                          lbs.
  Upper Canada          4,160,667
  Lower Canada          2,303,158
                        ---------
                        6,463,835

This product is therefore of immense importance to the British North
American provinces, all of which, under a judicious system, might be
made to produce vastly increased quantities of this wholesome and
valuable commodity.

The importation of sugar in Canada may very safely be computed at
£40,000 per annum, and the whole of this amount of money could be
retained in the country if the people would only look well to the
matter.

In tapping the tree, the gouge is the best implement that can be used,
provided it is an object to save the timber. It is usual, when using
the gouge, to take out a chip about an inch and a half in diameter;
but this system is objectionable where the maple is not abundant, as
it subjects the timber to decay; it is a better course to make an
incision by holding the gouge obliquely upwards an inch or more in the
wood. A spout, or spile, as it is termed, about a foot long, to
conduct off the sap, is inserted about two inches below this incision
with the same gouge. By this mode of tapping, the wound in the tree is
so small that it will be perfectly healed or grown over in two years.
A boiler, of thick sheet-iron, made to rest on the top of an arch, by
which the sides would be free from heat, and only the bottom is
exposed, is doubtless a secure and rapid process of evaporation. The
sides and ends of the boiler may be made of well-seasoned boards,
which will answer the same purpose as if made solely of sheet-iron.
When the sap is boiled down into syrup or thin molasses, it must be
taken out of the boiler and strained through a flannel cloth into a
tub, where it should settle about twenty-four hours. The clear syrup
should be separated from the sediment, which will be found in the
bottom of the tub. The pure syrup must be boiled down into sugar over
a slow fire. A short time, however, before the syrup is brought to a
boiling heat, to complete the clarifying process, the whites of five
eggs well beaten, about one quart of new milk, and a spoonful of
saleratus, should be all well mixed with a sufficient amount of syrup,
to make 100 lbs. of sugar. The scum which would rise on the top must
be skimmed off. Caution is to be observed in not allowing the syrup to
boil until the skimming process is completed. To secure a good
article, the greatest attention must be bestowed in granulating the
syrup. The boxes or tubs for draining should be large at the top and
small at the bottom. The bottom of the tubs should be bored full of
small holes, to let the molasses drain through. After it has nearly
done draining, the sugar may be dissolved, and the process of
clarifying, granulating, and draining repeated, which will give as
pure a quality of sugar as the best refined West India article.

The greatest objections that are advanced against maple sugar are,
that the processes made use of in preparing the sugar for market are
so rude and imperfect that it is too generally acid, and besides
charged with salts of the oxide of iron, insomuch that it ordinarily
strikes a black color with tea. These objections may be removed
without any comparative difficulty, as it has been proved to
demonstration, by the application of one ounce of clear lime-water to
a gallon of maple sap, that the acidity will be completely
neutralised, and the danger of the syrup adhering to the sides of the
boiler totally removed. The acid so peculiar to the maple sugar, when
combined with lime in the above proportion, is found to be excessively
soluble in alcohol; so much so, that yellow sugar can be rendered
white in a few minutes by placing it in an inverted cone, open at the
top, with small holes at the bottom, and by pouring on the base of the
cone a quantity of alcohol. This should filtrate through until the
sugar is white; it should then be dried and re-dissolved in boiling
water, and again evaporated until it becomes dense enough to
crystallise. Then pour it into the cones again, and let it harden. By
this process a very white sample of sugar may be made, and both the
alcohol and acids will be thoroughly dispelled with the vapor.

The process of making maple sugar it will be seen is very simple and
easily performed. The trees must be of suitable size, and within a
convenient distance of the place where the operations of boiling, &c.,
are to be performed. When gathered, the sap should be boiled as early
as possible, as the quality of the sugar is in a great degree
dependent on the newness or freshness of the sap. There is a tendency
to acidity in this fluid which produces a quick effect in preventing
the making of sugar; and which, when the sap is obliged to be kept for
many hours in the reservoirs, must be counteracted by throwing into
them a few quarts of slaked lime. During the time of sugar making,
warm weather, in which the trees will not discharge their sap,
sometimes occurs, and the buckets become white and slimy, from the
souring of the little sap they contain. In this case they should be
brought to the boiler and washed out carefully with hot water, and a
handful of lime to each.

In reducing the sap, the great danger to be apprehended is from
burning the liquid after it is made to the consistence of molasses,
since, when this is done, it is impossible to convert it into sugar; a
tough, black, sticky mass, of little value, being the result. Indeed,
constant care and attention is required to produce a first-rate
article: for though sugar may be made in almost any way where the sap
can be procured, yet unless the strictest care is observed in the
processes, in gathering and boiling the sap, clarifying the syrup, and
in converting the syrup to sugar, a dirty inferior article will be
made, instead of the beautiful and delicious sweet which the maple,
properly treated, is sure to yield.

The quantity of sugar produced in a year varies considerably from the
same trees. The cause of this difference is to be found in the depth
of snow, continued cold, or a sudden transition from cold to warm,
thus abridging the period of sugar-making. A sharp frost at night,
with clear warm days, is the most favorable to the sugar-maker.
Perhaps four pounds of sugar from a tree may be a pretty fair average
of seasons generally, although we have known the growth to exceed six
pounds, and sink as low as three. A man will take care of one hundred
trees easily, during the season of sugar, which usually lasts from
about the middle of March into April, perhaps employing him twenty
days in the whole. Dr. Jackson, in his Report of the Maine Geological
Survey, gives the following instances of the production of sugar in
that State:--

                                                     Lbs. of Sugar.
  At the Forks of the Kennebec, twelve persons made    3,605
  On No. 1, 2d range, one man and a boy made           1,000
  In Farmington, Mr. Titcomb made                      1,500
  In Moscow, thirty families made                     10,500
  In Bingham, twenty-five families made                9,000
  In Concord, thirty families made                    11,000

A cold and dry winter is followed with a greater yield of sugar from
the maple than a season very moist and variable. Trees growing in wet
places will yield more sap, but much less sugar from the same
quantity, than trees on more elevated and drier ground. The red and
white maple will yield sap, but it has much less of the saccharine
quality than the rock or sugar maple.

The work begins usually about the first of March. The tree will yield
its sap long before vegetation appears from the bud: frequently the
most copious flow is before the snow disappears from the ground.

Some persons have a camp in their maple orchards, where large
cauldrons are set in which to boil down the sap to the consistency of
a thick syrup: others take the liquid to their houses, and there boil
down and make the sugar.

The process begins by the preparation of spouts and troughs or tubs
for the trees: the spouts or tubes are made of elder, sumach, or pine,
sharpened to fit an auger hole of about three-fourths of an inch in
diameter. The hole is bored a little upward, at the distance
horizontally of five or six inches apart, and about twenty inches from
the ground on the south or sunny side of the tree. The trough, cut
from white maple, pine, ash, or bass wood, is set directly under the
spouts, the points of which are so constructed as completely to fill
the hole in the tree, and prevent the loss of the sap at the edges,
having a small gimlet or pitch hole in the centre, through which the
entire juice discharged from the tree runs, and is all saved in the
vessels below. The distance bored into the tree is only about one-half
an inch to give the best run of sap. The method of boring is far
better for the preservation of the tree than boxing, or cutting a hole
with an axe, from the lower edge of which the juice is directed by a
spout to the trough or tub prepared to receive it. The tub should be
of ash or other wood that will communicate no vicious taste to the
liquid or sugar.

The sap is gathered daily from the trees and put in larger tubs for
the purpose of boiling down. This is done by the process of a steady
hot fire. The surface of the boiling kettle is from time to time
cleansed by a skimmer. The liquid is prevented from boiling over by
the suspension of a small piece of fat pork at the proper point. Fresh
additions of sap are made as the volume boils away. When boiled down
to a syrup, the liquor is set away in some earthen or metal vessel
till it becomes cool and settled. Again the purest part is drawn off
or poured into a kettle until the vessel is two-thirds full. By a
brisk and continual fire, the syrup is further reduced in volume to a
degree of consistence best taught by a little experience, when it is
either put into moulds to become hard as it is cooled, or stirred
until it shall be grained into sugar. The right point of time to take
it away from the fire may be ascertained by cooling and graining a
small quantity. The sediment is strained off and boiled down to make
molasses.

The following is from a Massachusetts paper:--

    The maple produces the best sugar that we have from any plant.
    Almost every one admires its taste. It usually sells in this market
    (Boston) nearly twice as high as other brown sugar. Had care been
    taken from the first settlement of the country to preserve the sugar
    maple, and proper attention been given to the cultivation of this
    tree, so valuable for fuel, timber, and ornament, besides the
    abundant yield of saccharine juice, we could now produce in New
    England sugar enough for our own consumption, and not be dependent
    on the labour of those who toil and suffer in a tropical sun for
    this luxury or necessary of life. But, for want of this friendly
    admonition,

    "Axeman, spare that tree,"

    the sturdy blows were dealt around without mercy or discretion; and
    the very generation that committed devastation in the first
    settlements in different sections of our country, generally lived to
    witness a scarcity of fuel; and means were resorted to for the
    purchase of sugar, that were far more expensive than would have been
    its manufacture, under a proper mode of economy in the preservation
    of the maple, and the production of sugar from its sap.

    Those who have trees of the sugar maple, should prepare in season
    for making sugar. In many localities, wood is no object, and a rude
    method of boiling is followed; but where fuel is very scarce, a
    cheap apparatus should be prepared that will require but little
    fuel. In some sections, broad pans or kettles have been made of
    sheet-iron bottoms, and sides of plank or boards, care being taken
    (continued) to allow the fire to come into contact with the iron
    only. These pans cost but a trifle, and, owing to their large
    surface, the evaporation is rapid.

    Another cheap construction for boiling with economy is, to make a
    tight box of plank, some four or five feet square--the width of a
    wide plank will answer, and then put into it, almost at the bottom,
    a piece of large copper funnel, say ten or twelve inches at the
    outer part, and then smaller. This funnel, beginning near one end,
    should run back nearly to the opposite side, then turn and come put
    at the opposite end, or at the side near the end, as most
    convenient, being in only two straight parts, that the soot may be
    cleared out. Each end should be made tight, with a flange nailed to
    the box. At the mouth of the large part there should be a door, to
    reduce the draught; here make the fire, and at the other end have a
    funnel to carry off the smoke. In this case, there is only sheet
    copper between the fire and the sap which surrounds the funnel, so
    that the heat is readily taken up by the liquid, and very little
    escapes. This is an economical plan for cooking food for stock,
    steaming timber, &c.

    For catching the sap, various kinds of vessels are used. The
    cheapest are made of white birch, which last one season, or less.
    Troughs of pine, or linden or bass wood, may be made for a few cents
    each, and they will last for a number of years, if inverted in the
    shade of trees. But these are inconvenient; and, after the first
    year, they become dirty, and clog the sap. Pails with iron hoops are
    the best, and, eventually, the cheapest. By painting and carefully
    preserving them, they will cost, for a course of years, about one
    cent each for a year.

Mr. Alfred Fitch, in the "Genesee Farmer," says:--

    In clarifying, I use for 50 lbs. of sugar one pint of skimmed milk,
    put into the syrup when cold, and place it over a moderate fire
    until it rises, which should occupy thirty or forty minutes; then
    skim and boil until it will grain; after which I put it into a tub,
    and turn on a little cold water, and in a few days the molasses will
    drain out, and leave the sugar dry, light, and white.

Mr. E.W. Clark, of Oswego, furnishes the following:--

    _On Fining Maple Sugar_.--The sweet obtained from the maple tree is
    undoubtedly the purest known; but from mismanagement in the
    manufacture it frequently becomes very impure. Its value is
    lessened, while the expense of making it increases. I am sensible
    that the method which I shall recommend is not altogether a new one,
    and that it is more by attending to some apparently minute and
    trivial circumstances, than to any new plan, that my sugar is so
    good. Much has been written upon, and many useful improvements been
    made in, that part of the process which relates to tapping the
    trees, and gathering and evaporating the sap, &c.; but still, if the
    final operation is not understood, there will be a deficiency in the
    quality of the sugar. I shall confine myself to that part of the
    operation which relates to reducing the syrup to sugar, as it is of
    the first importance. My process is this:--When the syrup is reduced
    to the consistence of West India molasses, I set it away till it is
    perfectly cold, and then mix with it the clarifying matter, which is
    milk or eggs. I prefer eggs to milk, because when heated the whole
    of it curdles; whereas milk produces only a small portion of curd.
    The eggs should be thoroughly beaten and effectually mixed with the
    syrup while cold. The syrup should then be heated till just before
    it would boil, when the curd rises, bringing with it every impurity,
    even the coloring matter, or a great portion of that which it had
    received from the smoke, kettles, buckets, or reservoirs. The
    boiling should be checked, and the scum carefully removed, when the
    syrup should be slowly turned into a thick woollen strainer, and
    left to run through at leisure. I would remark, that a great
    proportion of the sugar that is made in our country is not strained
    after cleansing. This is an error. If examined in a wine-glass,
    innumerable minute and almost imperceptible particles of curd will
    be seen floating in it, which, if not removed, render it liable to
    burn, and otherwise injure the taste and color of it.

    A flannel strainer does this much better than a linen one. It is,
    indeed, _indispensable_. As to the quantity of eggs necessary, one
    pint to a pailful of syrup is amply sufficient, and half as much
    will do very well. I now put my syrup into another kettle, which has
    been made perfectly clean and _bright_, when it is placed over a
    quick but solid fire, and soon rises, but is kept from overflowing
    by being ladled with a long dipper. When it is sufficiently reduced,
    (I ascertain this by dropping it from the point of a knife, while
    hot, into one inch of cold water--if done, it will not immediately
    mix with the water, but lies at the bottom in a round flat drop,) it
    is taken from the fire, and the foaming allowed to subside. A thick
    white scum, which is useable, is removed, and the sugar turned into
    a cask, placed on an inclined platform, and left undisturbed for six
    weeks or longer, when it should be tapped in the bottom and the
    molasses drawn off. It will drain perfectly dry in a few days.

    The sugar made in this manner is very nearly as white as lump sugar,
    and beautifully grained. We have always sold ours at the highest
    price of Muscovadoes; and even when these sugars have sold at
    eighteen cents, ours found a ready market at twenty. Two hands will
    sugar off 250 lbs. in a day. From the scum taken off in cleansing, I
    usually make, by diluting and recleansing, one-sixth as much as I
    had at first, and of an equal quality.

    It is not of much consequence as regards the quality of the sugar,
    whether care be taken to keep the sap clean or not. The points in
    which the greatest error is committed, are, neglecting to use a
    flannel strainer, or to strain after cleansing--to have the sugar
    kettle properly cleaned--and to remove the white scum from the
    sugar.

An important process of manufacturing maple sugar, which produces a
most beautiful article, is also thus described in a communication by
the gentleman who gained the first premium at the State Fair at
Rochester in 1843, to the Committee on Maple Sugar of the New York
State Agricultural Society.

    In the first place, I make my buckets, tubs, and kettles all
    perfectly clean. I boil the sap in a potash kettle, set in an arch
    in such a manner that the edge of the kettle is defended all around
    from the fire. I boil through the day, taking care not to have
    anything in the kettle that will give color to the sap, and to keep
    it well skimmed. At night I leave fire enough under the kettle to
    boil the sap nearly or quite to syrup by the next morning. I then
    take it out of the kettle, and strain it through a flannel cloth
    into a tub, if it is sweet enough; if not, I put it in a cauldron
    kettle, which I have hung on a pole in such a manner that I can
    swing it on or off the fire at pleasure, and boil it till it is
    sweet enough, and then strain it into the tub, and let it stand till
    the next morning. I then take it and the syrup in the kettle, and
    put it altogether into the cauldron, and sugar it off. I use, to
    clarify say 100 lbs. of sugar, the whites of five or six eggs well
    beaten, about one quart of new milk, and a spoonful of saleratus,
    all we'll mixed with the syrup before it is scalding hot. I then
    make a moderate fire directly under the cauldron, until the scum is
    all raised; then skim it off clean, taking care not to let it boil
    so as to rise in the kettle before I have done skimming it. I then
    sugar it off, leaving it so damp that it will drain a little. I let
    it remain in the kettle until it is well granulated. I then put it
    into boxes made smallest at the bottom, that will hold from fifty to
    seventy lbs., having a thin piece of board fitted in, two or three
    inches above the bottom, which is bored full of small holes, to let
    the molasses drain through, which I keep drawn off by a tap through
    the bottom. I put on the top of the sugar, in the box, a clean damp
    cloth; and over that, a board, well fitted in, so as to exclude the
    air from the sugar. After it has done draining, or nearly so, I
    dissolve it, and sugar it off again; going through with the same
    process in clarifying and draining as before.

The following remarks from Dr. Jackson, of Boston, may be of interest
to the sections of the country where maple sugar is made:--

    The northern parts of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York,
    have dense forests of the sugar maple, and at present only very rude
    processes are made use of in preparing the sugar for market, so that
    it is too generally acid and deliquescent, besides being charged
    with salts of the oxide of iron, insomuch that it ordinarily strikes
    a black color with tea. To remedy these difficulties was the object
    of my researches; while, at the same time, I was engaged in
    ascertaining the true composition of the sap, with a view to the
    theory of vegetable nutrition.

    I received several gallons of freshly-drawn maple sap from
    Northampton, Warner, and Canterbury, and made analyses of each lot,
    separating the acids, salts, and the sugar. I also analysed the sap
    of the yellow and white birch, which do not give any crystallisable
    sugar, but an astringent molasses.

    I shall now communicate to you the process by which I manufactured
    sugar maple sap, received from the Shakers of Canterbury, who
    collected it with care in a clear glass demijohn, and sent it
    forthwith, so that it came to me without any change of composition,
    the weather being cold at the time. The evaporation was carried on
    in glass vessels until the sap was reduced to about one-eighth its
    original bulk, and then it was treated with a sufficient quantity of
    clear lime-water to render it neutral, and the evaporation was
    completed in a shallow porcelain basin. The result was, that a
    beautiful yellow granular sugar was obtained, from which not a
    single drop of molasses drained, and it did not deliquesce by
    exposure to the air. Another lot of the sap, reduced to sugar
    without lime-water, granulated, but not so well, was sour to the
    taste, deliquesced by exposure, and gave a considerable quantity of
    molasses.

    Having studied the nature of the peculiar acid of the maple, I found
    that its combinations with lime were excessively soluble in alcohol,
    so that the yellow sugar first described could be rendered white in
    a few minutes, by placing it in an inverted cone open at the bottom,
    and pouring a fresh quantity of alcohol upon it, and allowing it to
    filtrate through the sugar. The whitened sugar was then taken and
    re-dissolved in boiling water and crystallised, by which all the
    alcoholic flavour was entirely removed, and a perfectly fine
    crystallised and pure sugar resulted. Now, in the large way, I
    advise the following method of manufacturing maple sugar. Obtain
    several large copper or brass kettles, and set them up in a row,
    either by tripods with iron rings, or by hanging them on a
    cross-bar; clean them well, then collect the sap in buckets, if
    possible, so that but little rain-water will be mixed with the sap,
    and take care not to have any dead leaves in it. For every gallon of
    the maple sap _add one measured ounce_ of clear lime-water, pass the
    sap into the first kettle and evaporate; then, when it is reduced to
    about one-half, dip it out into the second kettle, and skim it each
    time; then into the next, and so on, until it has reached the last,
    where it is reduced to syrup, and then may be thrown into a trough,
    and granulated by beating it up with an oar.

    As soon as the first kettle is nearly empty, pour in a new lot of
    the sap, and so continue working it forward exactly after the manner
    of the West India sugar-boilers. The crude sugar may be refined
    subsequently, or at the time of casting it into the cones made of
    sheet iron, well painted with white lead and boiled linseed oil, and
    thoroughly dried, so that no paint can come off. These cones are to
    be stopped at first, until the sugar is cold; then remove the
    stopper and pour on the base of the cone a quantity of strong
    whiskey, or fourth proof rum. Allow this to nitrate through, until
    the sugar is white; dry the loaf, and redissolve it in boiling hot
    water, and evaporate it until it becomes dense enough to
    crystallise. Now pour it into the cones again, and let it harden. If
    any color remains, pour a saturated solution of refined white sugar
    on the base of the cone, and this syrup will remove all traces of
    color from the loaf.

    One gallon of pasture maple sap yielded 3,451 grains of pure sugar.
    One gallon of the juice of the sugar cane yields, on an average, in
    Jamaica, 7,000 grains of sugar. Hence, it will appear that maple sap
    is very nearly half as sweet as cane juice; and since the maple
    requires no outlay for its cultivation, and the process may be
    carried on when there is little else to be done, the manufacture of
    maple sugar is destined to become an important department of rural
    economy. It is well known, by the Report of the Statistics of the
    United States, that Vermont ranks next to Louisiana as a sugar
    state, producing (if I recollect correctly) 6,000,000 of pounds in
    some seasons, though the business is now carried on in a very rude
    way, without any apparatus, and with no great chemical skill; so
    that only a very impure kind of sugar is made, which, on account of
    its peculiar flavor, has not found its way into common use, for
    sweetening tea and coffee. It would appear worth while, then, to
    improve this manufacture, and to make the maple sugar equal to any
    now in use. This can be readily accomplished, if the farmers in the
    back country will study the process of sugar-making, for cane and
    maple sugar are, when pure, absolutely identical. It should be
    remarked, that forest maples do not produce so much sugar as those
    grown in open fields or in groves, where they have more light, the
    under-brush being cleared away.

    In Farmington, on the Sandy River, in Maine, I have seen a very fine
    grove of maples, but thirty years old, which produced a large yield
    of very good sugar. A man and two boys made 1,500 lbs. of sugar from
    the sap of these trees in a single season. The sap was boiled down
    in potash kettles, which were scoured bright with vinegar and sand.
    The sugar was of a fine yellow color, and well crystallised. It was
    drained of its molasses in casks, with a false bottom perforated
    with small holes--the cask having a hole bored at the bottom, with a
    tow plug placed loosely in it, to conduct off the molasses. This
    method is a good one, but the sap ought to be limed in boiling, as I
    have described; then it will not attach to the iron or copper
    boilers. The latter metal must not be used with acid syrup, for
    copper salts are poisonous.

There are several towns in the northern sections of Maine, New
Hampshire, and Vermont, that produce more than sufficient sugar for
the consumption of their inhabitants. A lot of good sugar trees will
average four pounds to the tree, in a favorable season. Many farmers
have orchards that will yield five hundred to a thousand pounds of
sugar in a year. As this is made at a season interfering very little
with the general business of the farm, the sugar that the farmer makes
is so much clear gain.

There is, on almost every hill-farm, some place favorable for the
growth of a maple orchard--some rocky spots yielding little grass, and
impervious for the plough. Such spots may be favorably chosen for the
growth of a maple orchard; and whether the increase be used for
manufacturing sugar or molasses, or for timber or fuel, the proprietor
of the land will find a profit better than money at interest in the
growth of this beautiful tree, which will spontaneously propagate
itself in many positions.

Its great excellence consists in yielding sap for the manufacture of
vast quantities of maple sugar in the country during the months of
spring. An open winter, constantly freezing and thawing, is a
forerunner of a bountiful crop of sugar. The orchard of maple trees is
almost equal to a field of sugar cane of the same area, in the
production of sugar. This tree reaches an age of 200 years.

Vermont is the second sugar-producing State in the Union. The amount
of maple sugar produced there in 1840 was over 2,550 tons, being more
than 17¾ pounds to each inhabitant, allowing a population of 291,948.
At five cents a pound, this is worth. 255,963 dols. 20 cents.

The Statistics of the United States census for 1850, show that about
thirty-five millions of pounds (15,250 tons) of maple sugar were
manufactured in that year:--

  Maine                     97,541
  New Hampshire          1,392,489
  Massachusetts            768,596
  Vermont                5,159,641
  Connecticut               37,781
  New York              10,310,764
  New Jersey                 5,886
  Pennsylvania           2,218,641
  Maryland                  47,740
  Virginia               1,223,908
  North Carolina            27,448
  South Carolina               200
  Georgia                       50
  Alabama                      473
  Mississippi                  110
  Louisiana                    260
  Arkansas                   8,825
  Tennessee                159,647
  Kentucky                 388,525
  Ohio                   4,528,548
  Michigan               2,423,897
  Indiana                2,921,638
  Illinois                 246,078
  Missouri                 171,942
  Iowa                      70,684
  Missouri                 661,969
  Minnesota                  2,950
                        -----------
  Total                  32,776,671

There is a balance of about two million pounds produced by Rhode
Island, Texas, Oregon, California, Utah, New Mexico, Delaware, and
Florida. The above statement does not include the sugar made by the
Indians, east of the Mississippi river, which may be set down at
10,000,000 lbs., and west of that river 2,000,000 lbs.

Besides the above sugar crop, there was a yield by the sugar maple in
the United States in 1850, of 40,000,000 gallons of maple molasses.

_Maize Sugar_.--The stem and branches of Indian corn, during the time
that its grain is filling, abounds with sugar, even when grown in this
country; so much so, that it might be turned to account by those of
the peasantry who have small plots of ground attached to their
cottages; and I applied a simple method by which a rich syrup may be
obtained from it, equal in sweetness to treacle, and superior to it in
flavor. The proper time for cutting down the plant (which should be
done within an inch of the ground), is when the corn in the ear is
small and full of a milky juice. All the large and old leaves should
be stripped off, leaving only the young and tender ones; they should
then be cut into short lengths, thoroughly bruised, and the juice
entirely pressed out from them. Where the means cannot be obtained for
expressing the juice by this method, the following may be
employed:--After the plants have been cut into small pieces, put them
into a large pot or copper, with only just sufficient water to extract
the juice; boil for one hour, and then strain off the liquor; to each
gallon of this liquor add a wine-glass full of lime-water whilst warm;
but if it be the expressed juice, obtained as above mentioned, add
double the quantity of lime-water. When the liquor is cold, for every
three gallons beat up an egg with some of the liquor; put altogether
into a boiler, and boil gently till the syrup acquires the consistence
of treacle. Whilst this is going on, the liquor should every now and
then be well stirred, and the scum which rises to the surface taken
off. This syrup, which will be found a better substitute for sugar
than treacle, and more wholesome, should be kept in lightly-covered
vessels, in a dry place.

My own observations, twelve years ago, acquainted me with the fact,
that when the grain in the ear has acquired one half of the full size,
the quantity of sugar in the sap has passed its maximum, or begun to
decrease, and continues to do so until it disappears entirely. Lopping
off the young ears makes shorter work of it. It is like taking the
young from an animal giving suck, in which case the milk soon ceases
to flow into the breast, and that which produced it is elaborated into
other fluids necessary to the nourishment of the different parts of
the body of the parent. In the corn-stalk, when deprived of its ears,
the elements of sugar are dissipated by increasing the size of the
plant.

Sugar may also be obtained from the carrot and the parsnip, as well as
from all sweet fruits. It is abundant throughout the vegetable
kingdom; it forms the first food of plants when they germinate in the
seed; when the first little sprout is projected from a grain of corn,
a portion of the farina, or starch, is changed into sugar, which may
be called the blood of the plant, and from it is drawn the nourishment
necessary to its expansion and appearance above the surface of the
earth. In the latter growth of many plants an inverse process is
carried on, as in the Indian corn, which I have just spoken of. In
this instance, as also numberless others, sugar is formed in large
quantities in the body of the plant, and elaborated into farina, or
starch, in the ear. The elements of which sugar and starch are
composed are the same; the only difference is in their proportions.
Chemists, being aware of this, have converted starch into sugar; and
could do it with certainty to any extent, were any advantage to be
gained by it; but hitherto starch has been higher in price than sugar.



SECTION II.

THE GRAIN CROPS, EDIBLE ROOTS, AND FARINACEOUS PLANTS FORMING THE
BREAD STUFFS OF COMMERCE.


The vegetable substances, from which man derives his principal
sustenance, such as the nutritious cereal grains, the tuberous rooted
plants and the trees yielding farina, are very widely diffused, and
necessarily occupy the main attention of the cultivator; their
products forming the most important staples of domestic and foreign
commerce. The cereal grasses and roots, cultivated in temperate
regions, such as wheat, barley, oats, rye, and the potato, are so well
known, and have been so fully described by agricultural writers that I
shall not go much into details as to their varieties, culture, &c.,
but confine myself chiefly to their distribution, produce, statistics,
and commercial importance. The food plants may be most conveniently
arranged under three heads. Firstly--the Grain crops and legumes,
which comprises the European cultivated grasses, wheat, barley, oats,
&c.; and the tropical ones of rice, maize, millet, Guinea corn, &c.
Secondly--Palms and other trees yielding farina, including the sago
palms, plantain and banana, and the bread fruit tree. And Thirdly--the
edible Root crops and Starch producing plants, which are a somewhat
extensive class, the chief of which, however, are the common potato,
yams, cocos or eddoes, sweet potatoes, the bitter and sweet cassava or
manioc, the arrowroot and other plants yielding starch in more or less
purity.

There is a great diversity of food, from the humble oak bark bread of
the Norwegian peasant, or the Brahmin, whose appetite is satisfied
with vegetables, to the luxurious diet of a Hungarian Magnate at
Vienna.

The bread stuffs, as they are popularly termed, particularly wheat and
wheat flour, maize, and rice, form very important articles of
commerce, and enter largely into cultivation in various countries for
home consumption and export. Russia, India, and the United States,
carry on a very considerable trade in grain with other countries. Our
local production being insufficient for food and manufactures, we
import yearly immense quantities of grain and flour. In the four years
ending 1852, the annual quantity of corn, of various, kinds, imported
into the United Kingdom, exclusive of flour and meal, rice, sago, &c.,
averaged 8,085,903 quarters.

The flour and meal imported, omitting sago, arrowroot and other
starches, averaged in the same period 4,143,603 cwts. annually.

The annual imports of breadstuffs for food, taking the average of the
four years ending with 1852, may be thus summed up--

                                                                 Tons.
  Corn and grain, 8,085,903 quarters, at 60 lb. the bushel      173,270
  Flour and meal                                                207,180
  Rice                                                           40,817
  Potatoes                                                       42,440
  Sago, arrowroot, &c.                                            5,000
                                                                -------
                      Total                                     468,707

Some portion of this quantity is doubtless consumed in the arts--as
starch for stiffening linens, &c., and for other purposes not coming
under the term of food, but I have purposely left out in the
calculation about 30,000 to 40,000 quarters of rice in the husk
annually imported.

Ireland took, in 1849, of foreign grain 2,115,129 quarters; 1,683,687
quarters in 1850; and 2,504,229 in 1851; as well as 256,837 cwts. of
various kinds of meal and flour in 1849; 220,107 cwts. in 1850; and
341,680 cwts. in 1851. England also supplied her with about 500,000
quarters of grain and 350,000 cwts. of meal in each of those years.

The comparative returns of the importations of grain into the United
Kingdom for the last four years, are as follows, in quarters:--

                  1852.       1851.       1850.       1849.
  Wheat         3,068,892   3,812,009   3,738,995   3,845,378
  Barley          656,737     829,564   1,035,903   1,381,008
  Oats            995,480   1,198,529   1,154,473   1,267,106
  Rye              10,023      24,609      98,836     240,566
  Beans           371,250     318,502     443,306     457,933
  Peas            107,017      99,399     181,419     234,366
  Maize         1,479,891   1,807,636   1,277,071   2,224,459
  Other sorts       8,085       3,432         868       1,150
                ---------   ---------   ---------   ---------
  Quarters      6,667,375   8,124,280   7,930,871   9,651,966

The meal and flour imported in the same years, in cwts., were as
follows:--

                  1852.       1851.       1850.       1849.
  Wheat         3,889,583   5,314,414   3,819,440   3,349,839
  Barley              212          34         108         224
  Oats                521       2,525       5,999      40,230
  Rye                  92       6,493         964      18,468
  Indian corn         742       9,561      11,334     101,683
  Other sorts          54         343         163       1,396
                ---------   ---------   ---------   ---------
  Cwts.         3,891,195   5,323,370   3,838,008   3,511,840

Before the famine in Ireland the imports seldom reached 20 millions of
bushels of grain and meal of all kinds. In 1848 our imports were
about 60 millions; in 1849, 85 millions; in 1850, 68 millions; in
1851, 75½ millions; in 1852, 69 millions, with good wheat harvests;
showing the great shock received and the slowness of recovery.

With a rapidly increasing population in all parts of the civilized
world, the production of bread is obviously the first object to be
sought after, alike by the statesman and the peasant. I scarcely dare
give the calculation of the immense amount which would be realised in
any great country, by the single saving of a bushel to an acre, in the
quantity of seed ordinarily sown. The same result would follow if an
additional bushel could be produced in the annual average yield of the
wheat crop.

According to Mr. H. Colman, the annual amount of seed for wheat sown
in France is estimated at 32,491,978 bushels. If we could suppose a
third of this saved, the saving would amount to 10,863,959 bushels per
year. Suppose an annual increase of the crops of five bushels per
acre, this would give an increase of production of 54,319,795 bushels.
Add this, under improved cultivation, to the amount of seed saved, and
the result would be 65,183,754 bushels--I believe under an improved
agriculture this is quite practicable.

An eminent agricultural writer placed the average yield in England at
eighteen bushels per acre; some years since a man of sanguine
temperament rated it at over thirty bushels. In France it is stated,
in the best districts, to average twenty-two bushels. These evidently
are wholly conjectural estimates. In England Mr. Colman states that
fifty bushels per acre were reported to him on the best authority, as
the yield upon a large farm in a very favorable season. More than
eighty bushels have been returned, upon what is deemed ample
testimony, to the Royal Agricultural Society of England, as the
product of a single acre. In France Mr. Colman had, upon credible
authority, reports of forty, forty-four and seventy-two bushels. It
would be of immense importance to any government to know the exact
produce grown in any county, or district, or in the whole country; and
this might be obtained by compelling, on the part of the owner or
cultivator, an actual return of his crop; but it is of little use to
found such returns on estimates purely conjectural.

From the best statistical accounts that can be obtained, the wheat
annually produced in the United Kingdom.

  England, Scotland, Ireland is          111,681,320 bushels.
  In France it is                        198,660,000    "
  United States                          100,503,899    "

The amount of seed ordinarily sown to the acre in France is from two
to three bushels. The return of crop for the seed sown is represented
as in the best districts averaging 6.25 for one; in the least
productive 5.40 for one. My readers may be curious to know the
calculations which have been made in some other countries in regard to
this matter.

                              CENTRAL EUROPE
                                                            Increase
                     Countries.                 Year.    for seed sown.
  Spain                                         1828       6    for one
  Portugal                                      1786      10       "
  Tuscany                                                 10       "
  Plains of Lucca                                         15       "
  Piedmont--Plains of Marengo                              4  to five
  Bologna                                                 15       "
  Roman States--Pontine marshes                           20       "
    Ordinary lands                                         8       "
  Kingdom of Naples--best districts                       20       "
    Ordinary lands                                         8       "
  Malta--the best lands                                38 to 64    "
    Ordinary lands                                    22, 25, 30   "

                               NORTHERN EUROPE.

  Sweden and Norway                             1838       4.50 for one
  Denmark                                       1827       6       "
  Russia, a good harvest                        1819       5       "
  ---- province of Tambof                       1821       4.50    "
  ---- provinces north of 50 deg. latitude      1821       3       "
  Poland                                        1826       8       "
  England                                       1830       9       "
  Scotland                                      1830       8       "
  Ireland                                       1825      10       "
  Holland                                       1828       7.50    "
  Belgium                                       1828      11       "
  Bavaria                                       1827       7 to 8  "
  Prussia                                       1817       6       "
  Austria                                       1812       7.05    "
  Hungary                                       1812       4       "
  Switzerland, lands of an inferior quality     1825       3       "
   Of a good quality, 8; of the best quality              12       "
  France, inferior lands, 3; best lands                    6       "

  (Statistique des Cereales de la France par Moreau de Jonnes.)


STATISTICS OF WHEAT CULTURE.

As wheat forms the principal nutritious food of the world, claiming
the industrious application of labor over the greater part of Europe,
throughout the temperate regions of Asia, along the northern kingdoms
of Africa, and extending far into the northern and southern regions of
the American continents; as it has been cultivated from time
immemorial, and has produced in various climates and soils many
varieties; it is surprising that so little is generally known of the
distinct varieties best adapted to particular climates--and that in
Great Britain and the United States we have yet to learn the variety
which will yield the largest and best amount of human food!

At the Industrial Exhibition in 1851, twenty-six premiums only were
distributed for specimens of wheat; of these, five were awarded to
British farmers, three to France, three to Russia, three to Australia,
three to the United States, and one each or severally to other
nations. Some beautiful specimens of wheat were exhibited from South
Australia, weighing seventy pounds a bushel; which were eagerly sought
after for seed wheat by our farmers and the colonists of Canada and
the United States. But as is well observed by Professor Lindley, it
has no peculiar constitutional characteristics by which it may be
distinguished from other wheats. Its superior quality is entirely
owing to local conditions; to the peculiar temperature, the brilliant
light, the soil, and those other circumstances which characterise the
climate of South Australia.

All kinds of wheat contain water in greater or lesser quantities. Its
amount is greater in cold countries than in warm. In Alsace from 16 to
20 per cent.; England from 14 to 17 per cent.; United States from 12
to 14 per cent.; Africa and Sicily from 9 to 11 per cent. This
accounts for the fact, that the same weight of southern flour yields
more bread than northern, English wheat yields 13 lbs. more to the
quarter than Scotch. Alabama flour, it is said, yields 20 per cent.
more than that of Cincinnati. And in general American flour, according
to one of the most extensive London bakers, absorbs 8 or 10 per cent.
more of its own weight of water in being made into bread than the
English. The English grain is fuller and rounder than the American,
being puffed up with moisture.

Every year the total loss in the United States from moisture in wheat
and flour is estimated at four to five million dollars. To remedy this
great evil, the grain should be well ripened before harvesting, and
well dried before being stored in a good dry granary. Afterwards, in
grinding and in transporting, it should be carefully protected from
wet, and the flour be kept from exposure to the atmosphere. The best
precaution is kiln-drying. By this process the wheat and flour are
passed over iron plates heated by steam to the boiling point. From
each barrel of flour 16 or 17 pounds of water are thus expelled,
leaving still four or five per cent. in the flour, an amount too small
to do injury. If all the water be expelled, the quality of the flour
is deteriorated.

The mode of ascertaining the amount of water in flour is this; take a
small sample, say five ounces, and weigh it carefully; put it into a
dry vessel, which should be heated by boiling water; after six or
seven hours, weigh it; its loss of weight shows the original amount of
water.

The next object is to ascertain the amount of gluten. Gluten is an
adhesive, pasty mass, and consists of several different principles,
though its constitution has not yet been satisfactorily determined. It
is chiefly the nutritious portion of the flour. The remaining
principles are mostly starch, sugar and gum. On an average their
relative amount in 100 parts are about as follows:--

                     Average.     Kobanga wheat, the best.
  Water                13                 12
  Gluten               12                 16
  Starch               67                 60
  Sugar and Gum         8                  8
                      ---                ---
                      100                 97

Professor Beck examined thirty-three different samples from various
parts of the United States and Europe, and he gives the preference to
the Kobanga variety from the south of Russia. There would probably be
a prejudice against it in this country, from the natural yellowish hue
of its flour and bread.

The value of the vegetable food, grain, potatoes, rice and apples
exported from the United States within the past few years is thus set
down:--

                  Dollars.
  1847           57,970,356
  1848           25,185,647
  1849           25,642,362
  1850           15,822,273

To this has to be added nine or ten million dollars more for tobacco,
72 million dollars for cotton, and 180,000 dollars for hops and other
minor agricultural staples--making the value of the raw vegetable
exports about 98 million dollars. There is further the value of the
products of the forest, timber, ashes and bark, tar, &c., which are
equal to nearly seven millions more, as shown by the following
figures:--

                 Dollars.
  1847          5,248,928
  1848          6,415,297
  1849          5,261,766
  1850          6,590,037

It appears from an official document of the American Treasury
Department, that the average value of the breadstuffs and provisions
annually exported from the United States from 1821 to 1836 inclusive,
was 12,792,000 dolls.; in 1837 and 1838, about 9,600,000 dolls.; from
1839 to 1846, 16,176,000 dolls.; and for the last seven years as
follows:--

                 Dollars.
  1846          27,701,121
  1847          68,701,921
  1848          37,472,751
  1849          38,155,507
  1850          26,051,373
  1851          21,948,651
  1852          25,857,027

Out of the wheat crop in the United States in 1846 of 110 million
bushels raised, 10 millions were used for seed, starch, &c.; 72
consumed for food, and 28 million exported. The 460 million bushels of
Indian corn raised, were thus disposed of; exported to foreign
countries 22 million bushels; sold to and consumed by non-producers,
100 million; consumed on the farms and plantations of the producers
for human and animal food, seed, &c., 338 million bushels.

The United States now produce about 120 million bushels of wheat, and
nearly 600 million bushels of corn. Their surplus of wheat, for
export, may be taken at 20 million bushels, and of Indian corn an
almost unlimited quantity. They export about one and a quarter million
barrels of flour, and about one million of bushels of wheat to other
markets besides those of Great Britain or her North American colonies,
viz., to Europe, Asia, Africa, the West Indies and South America,
California and Australia, manufactured flour being the article
required for these latter markets. Nearly four million bushels of
Indian corn, and 300,000 barrels of corn meal, are exported from the
United States to the West Indies and other foreign markets.

From the abstracts of statistical returns prepared at the American
Census office, it appears that Pennsylvania, in 1850, was the largest
wheat producing State of the Union. I have had the curiosity to
compare the most prominent States in respect to this crop, and give
them below, with the crop of each, as shown by the returns:--

                         Bushels.
  Pennsylvania          15,482,191
  Ohio                  14,967,056
  Virginia              14,516,900
  New York              13,073,000
  Michigan               4,918,000
  Maryland               4,494,680

That the United States could export 6,000,000 bushels of wheat, and
its equivalent in flour in 1845; 13,000,000 in 1846, 26,000,000 in
1847, and then fell back to 13,000,000 in 1848, and 6,000,000 in 1849,
with their production of wheat constantly increasing throughout this
period, shows a wonderful elasticity, and extensive home market. If
the price of wheat is higher in proportion than for corn, the
Americans export the former and consume the latter; if the demand for
corn be also great, they kill their hogs and export corn, for the pork
will keep. If there be no great demand for either, they eat their
surplus wheat, feed their hogs with the corn, and export pork as
having the greatest value in the least bulk.

        DESTINATION OF FLOUR SHIPPED FROM THE UNITED STATES.
  -------------------------+---------+---------+---------+---------
          WHERE TO.        |  1847   |  1849   |  1850   |  1851
  -------------------------+---------+---------+---------+---------
  Swedish West Indies      |    7,366|    7,573|    8,757|    5,315
  Danish ditto             |   52,150|   49,568|   44,802|   60,102
  Dutch East Indies        |    1,150|    4,625|    1,600|    1,873
  Dutch West Indies        |   11,387|   17,221|   18,354|   19,217
  Holland and Belgium      |   73,871|      727|    1,177|      594
  England                  |2,475,076|  953,815|  369,777|1,004,783
  Gibraltar                |   23,974|    6,265|    2,543|      195
  British East Indies      |    3,034|      791|    1,646|    1,600
  British West Indies      |  320,363|  303,551|  250,776|  294,731
  British American Colonies|  272,299|  294,891|  244,072|  252,380
  France                   |  612,641|    --   |    --   |    --
  French West Indies       |   28,966|    5,554|    5,480|    7,902
  Hayti                    |   40,257|   10,903|   31,504|   43,867
  Cuba                     |   50,046|    7,154|    5,584|    5,611
  Spanish West Indies      |   17,780|    6,429|    7,074|    2,285
  Madeira                  |    4,856|    4,358|    6,321|    7,006
  Cape de Verds            |    1,634|      501|      455|      838
  Mexico                   |    5,928|   11,633|    9,736|   14,964
  Honduras                 |   10,686|    4,125|    4,725|    5,912
  Central America          |      550|    4,180|      746|    2,573
  Columbia                 |   39,403|   32,251|   41,072|   47,477
  Brazil                   |  270,473|  328,129|  295,415|  374,711
  Argentine Republic       |   10,684|    6,599|    4,901|   22,612
  Chili                    |    5,977|    5,129|    2,848|    4,327
  South America            |    2,128|    --   |       40|      200
  West Indies              |    4,902|    3,984|    1,702|    4,079
  Africa                   |   25,728|    4,617|    5,524|    5,430
  North-west Coast         |      764|    1,180|      858|    2,593
  Other ports              |   29,866|   35,017|   18,949|   19,158
                           |---------|---------|---------|---------
  Total--Barrels           |4,382,496|2,108,013|1,385,448|2,202,335
                           |---------|---------|---------|---------
  Average price            |     5.95|     5.35|     5.00|     4.77
  -------------------------+---------+---------+---------+---------

Wheat, where the soil and the climate are adapted to its growth, and
the requisite progress has been made in its culture, is decidedly
preferred to all other grains, and, next to maize, is the most
important crop in the United States, not only on account of its
general use for bread, but for its safety and convenience for
exportation. It is not known to what country it is indigenous, any
more than any other cultivated cereals, all of which, no doubt, have
been essentially improved by man. By some, wheat is considered to have
been coeval with the creation, as it is known that upwards of a
thousand years before our era it was cultivated, and a superior
variety had been attained. It has steadily followed the progress of
civilisation from the earliest times, in all countries where it would
grow. In 1776 there was entailed upon America an enduring calamity, in
consequence of the introduction of the Hessian or wheat fly, which was
supposed to have been brought from Germany in some straw, employed in
the debarkation of Howe's troops on the west end of Long Island. From
that point the insect gradually spread in various directions, at the
rate of twenty or thirty miles a year, and the wheat of the entire
regions east of the Alleghanies is now more or less infested with the
larva, as well as in large portions of the States bordering on the
Ohio and Mississippi, and on the great Lakes; and so great have been
the ravages of these insects that the cultivation of this grain has in
many places been abandoned.

The geographical range of the wheat region in the Eastern Continent
and Australia, lies principally between the 30th and 60th parallels of
north latitude, and the 30th and 40th degrees south, being chiefly
confined to France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Turkey,
Russia, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Poland, Prussia, Netherlands,
Belgium, Great Britain, Ireland, Northern and Southern Africa,
Tartary, India, China, Australia, Van Diemen's Land, and Japan. Along
the Atlantic portions of the Western Continent, it embraces the tract
lying between the 30th and 50th parallels, and in the country
westward of the Rocky Mountains, one or two more degrees further
north. Along the west coast of South America, as well as in situations
within the torrid zone, sufficiently elevated above the level of the
sea, and properly irrigated by natural or artificial means, abundant
crops are often produced.

The principal districts of the United States in which this important
grain is produced in the greatest abundance, and where it forms a
leading article of commerce, embrace the States of New York, New
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky,
Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Wisconsin, and Iowa. The chief
varieties cultivated in the Northern and Eastern States are the white
flint, tea, Siberian, bald, Black Sea, and the Italian spring wheat.
In the middle and Western States, the Mediterranean, the Virginia
white May, the blue stem, the Indiana, the Kentucky white bearded, the
old red chafet, and the Talavera. The yield varies from ten to forty
bushels and upwards per acre, weighing, per bushel, from fifty-eight
to sixty-seven pounds.

It appears that on the whole crop of the United States there was a
gain during the ten years ending 1850, of 15,645,373 bushels. The crop
of New England decreased from 2,014,000 to 1,078,000 bushels,
exhibiting a decline of 936,000 bushels, and indicating the attention
of farmers has been much withdrawn from the culture of wheat. Grouping
the States from the Hudson to the Potomac, including the district of
Columbia, it appears that they produced, in 1849, 35,085,000 bushels,
against 29,936,000 in 1839. In Virginia there was an increase of
1,123,000 bushels. These States embrace the oldest wheat-growing
region of the country, and that in which the soil and climate seem to
be adapted to promote the permanent culture of the grain. The increase
of production in the ten years has been 6,272,000 bushels, equal to
15.6 per cent. The area tilled in these States is 36,000,000 acres,
only thirty per cent. of the whole amount returned, while the
proportion of wheat produced is forty-six per cent. In North Carolina
there has been an increase of 170,000 bushels, but in the Southern
States generally there was a considerable decrease. Indiana, Illinois,
Michigan, and Wisconsin contributed to the general aggregate under the
sixth census only 9,800,000 bushels; under the last they are shown to
have produced upwards of 25,000,000 bushels, an amount equal to the
whole increase in the United States for the period.

When we see the growth of wheat keeping pace with the progress of
population in the oldest States of the Union, we need have no
apprehension of a decline in the cultivation of this important crop.

The amount of flour exported from New Jersey in 1751, was 6,424
barrels. From Philadelphia in 1752,125,960 barrels, besides 85,500
bushels of wheat; in 1767, 198,816 barrels, besides 367,500 bushels of
wheat; in 1771, 252,744 barrels. From Savannah, in 1771, 7,200 lbs.
From Virginia, for some years annually preceding the revolution,
800,000 bushels of wheat. The total exports of flour from the United
States:

in 1791 were  619,681 barrels, besides 1,018,339 bushels of wheat;
in 1800,      653,052 barrels, besides    26,853 bushels of wheat;
in 1810,      798,431 barrels, besides   325,924 bushels of wheat;
in 1820-21, 1,056,119 barrels, besides    25,821 bushels of wheat;
in 1830-31, 1,806,529 barrels, besides   408,910 bushels of wheat;
in 1840-41, 1,515,817 barrels, besides   868,585 bushels of wheat;
in 1845-46, 2,289,476 barrels, besides 1,613,795 bushels of wheat;
in 1846-47, 4,382,496 barrels, besides 4,399,951 bushels of wheat;
in 1850-51, 2,202,335 barrels, besides 1,026,725 bushels of wheat.

In the London Exhibition very little wheat was exhibited equal to that
from the United States, especially that from Genessee county, in the
State of New York--a soft white variety, to the exhibitor of which a
prize medal was awarded by the Royal Commissioners. The red
Mediterranean wheat exhibited from the United States attracted much
attention. The wheat from South Australia was probably superior to any
exhibited, while much from the United States fell but little behind,
and was unquestionably next in quality.

From the Second Report on the Breadstuffs of the United States, made
to the Commissioner of Patents, by Lewis C. Beck, M.D., I am induced
to make some extracts. He states:--

    The analyses of several samples, the growth of various foreign
    countries, have afforded me an opportunity of comparing the American
    and foreign wheats and flours. With a few exceptions of peculiar
    varieties, it will be seen from the results that with ordinary care
    the wheat of this country will compare advantageously with that of
    any other. Indeed, on reviewing my analyses, I question whether
    there is any part of the world where this grain is generally of a
    finer quality than it is in the United States. But all the
    advantages which we possess in this respect will be of little avail
    so long as inferior and damaged breadstuffs are shipped from our
    ports.

    In addition to the analyses which I have executed of the various
    samples of wheat and wheat flour according to the mode heretofore
    pursued, I have performed a series of experiments for the purpose of
    settling the important question in regard to the relative value of
    the fine flour of wheat, and the "whole meal." I have also consulted
    every work within my reach which could throw any light upon the
    different points that have presented themselves during the progress
    of the investigation.

    The large number of samples of wheat and wheat flour which have been
    placed in my hands for examination, have left me no time for the
    analysis of our other breadstuffs.

    It cannot be denied that the amount shipped to foreign ports during
    1849 is considerably less than for the two preceding years. In the
    meantime, however, a new and important market has been opened in our
    territories on the Pacific. It may also be safely affirmed that the
    causes for foreign demand, and which must hereafter operate, still
    remain. These are the cheapness of land in this country, and the
    peculiar adaptation of our soil and climate to the growth of the two
    important cereals, wheat and maize.

    Another fact, it seems to me, is of sufficient interest in
    connection with this subject, to be here noticed. The failure of the
    potato crop in various parts of the world for several years past has
    engaged the attention of scientific and practical men.
    Unfortunately, the nature of the blight which has seized upon this
    tuber has eluded the most careful inquiries; but it has been shown
    by well-conducted analyses that potatoes at their late prices are
    the most expensive kind of farinaceous food. This will be evident
    from the following statement:--

    "Potatoes contain from about seventy to seventy-nine per cent. of
    water, while the proportion in wheat flour is from twelve to
    fourteen per cent; and while the gluten and albumen in potatoes
    scarcely rise to one per cent., in wheat flour the range may be set
    down at from nine to thirteen per cent. Again, the non-nitrogenous
    principles are as about seventy-five per cent. in wheat flour
    against fifteen or sixteen in potatoes. In short, whilst potatoes
    supply only twenty per cent. of heat-forming and nutritious
    principles, taken together, wheat supplies more than seventy per
    cent. of the former, and more than tea of the latter. The value of
    wheat to potatoes, therefore, is at least four to one; or, if wheat
    sells at fifteen shillings sterling per cwt., potatoes to be equally
    cheap, ought to sell at between three and four shillings."

    The preceding results, for which I am principally indebted to Dr.
    Daubeny, Professor of Chemistry at Oxford,[25] show that unless a
    great change occurs in the culture of the potato, there must be an
    increased demand for other kinds of farinaceous food. And it is
    worthy of notice that while this blight is one of the causes which
    bring to our shores the starving population of Europe, the raising
    of the cereals not only furnishes profitable employment to the
    emigrant, but enables him to make the best return to those who are
    still obliged to remain.

    _Adaptation of the soil and climate of the United States to the
    culture of the cereals_.--That the soil and climate of many portions
    of the United States are well adapted to the cultivation of the more
    important cereals, is fully shown by the results of all the
    researches which have thus far been prosecuted. I have indeed seen
    it asserted that the climate of England is the best for the
    cultivation of wheat, and preferable to any in our country; its
    humidity being the peculiarity to which this superiority is
    ascribed.[26] But this is undoubtedly the testimony of a too partial
    witness. A recent statement by an English author is the result of a
    more correct knowledge of the facts. He acknowledges that there is
    no ground for the expectation which has been entertained concerning
    the advantageous growth of maize in England. "Nor is ours," says he,
    "the most favorable country for wheat, but skill in husbandry has
    overcome great difficulties."[27] The mistake on this subject may
    have originated from the occurrence of a larger and plumper grain in
    the more humid climate; but analysis shows that the small grain
    raised in the hotter and drier air oftentimes greatly surpasses the
    former in its nutritious value.

    Russia is said to be the great rival of this country in the growth
    of wheat, but I think it doubtful whether she possesses superior
    natural advantages; and I am sure she will find it difficult to
    compete with the industry and skill which here characterize the
    operations of husbandry, and the manufacture and shipment of
    breadstuffs.

    _Export of sophisticated and damaged flour_.--It is a matter of deep
    regret that circumstances have occurred which must have a most
    injurious influence upon the trade in breadstuffs between this
    country and Great Britain. I refer to the mixtures of damaged,
    inferior, and good kinds of flour, which it appears on authentic
    testimony have been largely exported during the past year. Whether
    this fraudulent operation, which is said to have been principally
    confined to New York, is the result of the change in the inspection
    laws, as some assert, I am unable to say. But it requires no great
    foresight to predict that, if continued, it will create a distrust
    of our breadstuffs in foreign ports which it will be very difficult
    to remove. It cannot but excite the indignation of the many
    honorable dealers, that the unworthy cupidity of a few individuals
    should lead to such disastrous consequences.

    I have as yet been unable to obtain samples of these sophisticated
    flours, and the only information which I have in regard to them is
    the general fact above stated, and concerning the truth of which
    there can be little doubt. No means should be left untried to
    devise some mode by which these frauds can be easily and certainly
    detected.

    _Injury sustained by breadstuffs during their transport and
    shipment._--During the past year, I have had abundant means of
    determining the nature of the injuries which are often sustained by
    our breadstuffs in their transport from the particular districts in
    which they are grown and manufactured to our commercial depots, and
    in their shipment to foreign ports. As this is one of the most
    important points connected with these researches, I have devoted
    much time to its investigation. From the results of numerous
    analyses, I think it may be safely asserted, that of the wheat flour
    which arrives in England from various ports of the United States, a
    large proportion is more or less injured during the voyage. The same
    remark may be made in regard to many of the samples sent from the
    Western States to the city of New York. Their nutritive value is
    considerably impaired, and without more care than is usually
    exercised, they are entirely unfit for export.

    In my former report, I adverted to one of the great causes of the
    deterioration which our breadstuffs often suffer during their
    transport and shipment. This was the undue proportion of the great
    disorganizing substance, water, under the influence of what usually
    occurs, viz., an elevation of temperature above the ordinary
    standard. My recent investigations have served only to strengthen
    these views. There is no doubt that these are the conditions which
    cause the change of the non-nitrogenous principles into acids (the
    lactic or acetic), while a portion of the gluten is thus also
    consumed.

    I have tried a series of experiments in reference to the action of
    moisture upon various samples of wheat and wheat flour. The samples
    were placed for twelve hours in the oven of a bath with a double
    casing, containing a boiling saturated solution of common salt, the
    temperature of which was about 220 deg. Fahr. Subjected to this
    test,

  100 grains of Milwaukie wheat lost                 12.10 grains.
   "    "       Guilderland (Holland) wheat lost      9.35     "
   "    "       Polish Odessa red wheat      "       10.55     "
   "    "       Soft Russian wheat           "        8.55     "
   "    "       Kobanga wheat                "        8.15     "

    After an exposure of the dried samples to the air for two or three
    days, they increased in weight from one to three grains in the
    hundred originally employed.

    Nineteen different samples of wheat flour, which lost by exposure to
    the above heat from ten to fourteen grains in the one hundred, when
    similarly exposed to the air for eighteen hours, again increased in
    weight from 8.40 to 11.60 in the hundred grains originally employed.

    These experiments show, what might indeed have been predicted as to
    the general result, that wheat in grain, if not less liable to
    injury than flour, yet if once properly dried, suffers much less
    from a subsequent exposure to air and moisture.

    It is now ascertained that in presence of a considerable proportion
    of water, wheat flour under the influence of heat undergoes a low
    degree at least of lactic fermentation, which will account for the
    _souring_ of the ordinary samples when exposed to warm or humid
    climates. The same result will inevitably follow from their careless
    exposure in the holds of vessels. That this is particularly the case
    with many of the cargoes of wheat flour shipped to Great Britain,
    there is little reason to doubt. This may be partly owing to the
    great humidity of the English climate, as the deterioration is
    observed as well in the flour which is the produce of that country
    as in that which is received from abroad.

    It is stated by Mr. Edlin, quoted in an article on Baking, in the
    _Encyclopædia Britannica_, that, "as a general rule, the London
    flour" is decidedly bad. The gluten generally wants the adhesiveness
    which characterizes the gluten of good wheat."

    I have observed that, in the analyses of some of the samples of
    damaged flour, the proportions of what is set down under the head of
    glucose and dextrine are unusually large. This is perhaps due to the
    change produced in the starch by the action of diastase, and which
    may under certain circumstances be formed in wheat flour. It would
    seem, according to M. Guérin, that starch may thus be acted on even
    at slightly elevated temperatures. In one of his experiments, at a
    temperature no higher than 68 deg. Fahr., a quantity of starch, at
    the end of twenty-four hours, was converted into syrup, which
    yielded seventy-seven per cent. of saccharine matter.[28] It may be
    thought that I have overrated the importance of this subject, but it
    is believed that a careful examination of the facts will relieve me
    from this charge. I am now satisfied that, if the proportion of
    water in our exported breadstuffs could be reduced to about five or
    six per cent., one of the great causes of complaint in regard to
    them would be completely removed.

    _Kiln-drying of breadstuffs, and exclusion of air_.--The injury
    which our breadstuffs sustain by the large proportion of water can
    of course be prevented only by careful drying before shipment, and
    by the employment of barrels rendered as impervious as possible to
    the influence of atmospheric moisture.

    In my first report, I have spoken favorably of the process of drying
    by steam, according to the plan patented by Mr. J.R. Stafford. I
    still think this mode possesses great advantages over those
    previously followed, and which almost always injured the quality of
    the grain or flour: but from some trials which I have made during
    the past year, it is inferred that the exposure to the heat is
    perhaps usually not sufficiently prolonged to answer the purpose
    intended by the operation. I have often observed that samples of
    wheat flour, after being exposed to the heat of the salt water-bath
    oven (220 deg. Fahr.) for two or three hours, lost weight by a
    further continuance of the heat. An apparatus has been patented by
    Mr. J.H. Tower, of Clinton, N.Y., consisting of a cylinder of square
    apartments or tubes, into which the grain or flour is introduced,
    and subjected to heat while in rapid revolution. I examined samples
    which had been subjected to this operation, and ascertained that
    wheat flour, originally containing 14.80 per cent. of water, had the
    proportion reduced to 10.25 per cent., while in wheat the proportion
    of water was reduced from 14.75 to 8.55 per cent.

    Now it is probable that by either of the above modes, and perhaps by
    many others, the various kinds of breadstuffs may be brought to that
    degree of dryness which, with ordinary care, shall protect them from
    subsequent injury; but in order to secure this advantage, the
    operation must be carefully performed, and experiments must be made
    to ascertain how long an exposure to heat is necessary to bring the
    sample to the proper degree of dryness, and to determine whether in
    any respect its quality is impaired. It has already been stated that
    absolute desiccation is not necessary, even were it attainable; but
    any process in order to be effective should reduce the proportion of
    water to about six, or at most seven per cent.

    I have heretofore adverted to the great care employed in the drying
    of grain in various foreign countries, and to which the preservation
    of it for a great number of years is to be ascribed.

    The operation is not conducted in the hurried manner which is here
    thought to be so essential, but is continued long enough to effect
    the intended object. Thorough ventilation, as well as the proper
    degree of drying, and which is equally important, is thus secured.

    It is said that in Russia the sheaves of wheat, carried into the
    huts, are suspended upon poles and dried by the heat of the oven.
    The grain shrinks very much during this process, but it is supposed
    to be less liable to the attacks of insects, and preserves its
    nutritive qualities for many years. During the winter, it is sent to
    market.--("The Czar, his Court and People." By John S. Maxwell, p.
    272.)

    With all the necessary attention which may be paid to the proper
    drying of our breadstuffs intended for export, another point is of
    equal importance, viz., the shipment in vessels rendered as
    impervious as possible to the influence of atmospheric moisture. For
    however carefully and thoroughly the drying, especially of wheat
    flour or maize meal, may have been performed, it will be nearly
    useless if the shipment is afterwards made in the barrels commonly
    employed.[29] And it is very certain that the transport and shipment
    of grain in bulk, as usually conducted, are attended with great
    loss. This difficulty might be removed at a trifling expense by
    adopting the plan suggested in the preceding report, and to which I
    would again respectfully call the attention of those who are engaged
    in this branch of trade.

    I might here adduce a mass of testimony showing the importance of
    the matters just referred to, but will only advert to the following
    statements, which although made in allusion principally to maize,
    are equally applicable to our other breadstuffs. Maize meal, if kept
    too long, "is liable to become rancid, and it is then more or less
    unfit for use. In the shipments made to the West Indies, the meal is
    commonly kiln-dried, to obviate as much as possible this tendency to
    rancidity." "When ground very fine, maize meal suffers a change by
    exposure to the air. It is oxygenated. It is upon the same principle
    that the juice of an apple, after a little exposure to the air, is
    oxygenated, and changes its character and taste. If the flour could
    be bolted _in vacuo_, it would not be changed." "Intelligent writers
    speak of the necessity of preparing corn for exportation by
    kiln-drying as indispensable. Without that process, corn is very
    liable to become heated and musty, so as to be unfit for food for
    either man or beast. The kiln-dried maize meal from the Brandywine
    Mills, &c., made from the yellow corn, has almost monopolized the
    West India trade. This process is indispensable, if we export maize
    to Europe. James Candy says that from fifty years experience he has
    learned the necessity of this process with corn intended for
    exportation." "I have often found the corn from our country when it
    reached its destination, ruined by heating on the voyage. It had
    become musty and of little or no value. Kiln-drying is absolutely
    necessary to preserve it for exportation. We must learn and practice
    the best mode of kiln-drying it.[30]"

     _The nutritious value of the "whole meal" of Wheat, as compared
     with that of the fine flour_.--The question whether what is
     called the whole meal of wheat, or that which is obtained by the
     mixture of the bran, contains more nutritious matter than the
     fine flour, is one of great importance. In my former report, I
     adverted to the statement made in regard to it by Professor
     J.F.W. Johnston, and which seemed to be almost conclusive in
     favor of the value of the whole meal. During the past year,
     however (1849), M. Eug. Peligot, an eminent French chemist, in an
     elaborate article "On the Composition of Wheat," to which more
     particular reference will be made hereafter, combats the opinion
     that the bran is an alimentary substance. He observes that "the
     difficulty of keeping the bran in flour intended for the
     manufacture of bread of good quality appears to result much less
     from the presence of the cellulose (one of the constituents of
     woody matter) contained in wheat than that of the fatty matter.
     This is found in the bran in a quantity at least triple of that
     which remains in the flour, and the bolting separates it from the
     ground wheat not less usefully than the cellulose itself."[31] M.
     Millon objects entirely to the views of M. Peligot on this point,
     and states some facts which are especially worthy of
     consideration. He asserts that, according to the views of the
     last named chemist, the separation at most of one part of fatty
     matter sacrifices fifteen, twenty, and even twenty-five per cent.
     of substances which are of the highest nutritive value. This
     abstracts from wheat, for the whole amount raised in France, the
     enormous sum of about two hundred millions of pounds annually.

    It seems that in France the question whether the bolting of flour is
    advantageous has always been decided in the most arbitrary manner.
    An ordinance of Louis XIV., issued in 1658, prohibited, under a very
    heavy penalty, the regrinding of the bran and its mixture with the
    flour; this, with the mode of grinding then in use, caused a loss of
    more than forty per cent.--(Comptes Rendus, February 19th, 1849.)

    In large cities and elsewhere, there seems for some time to have
    been a growing prejudice against the use of brown bread; and it is
    said that now nearly all the peasantry of France bolt their flour.
    The increase of this practice, according to M. Millon, threatens
    the nation with an annual loss of from two to three hundred millions
    of francs. If the bran was entirely valueless, there would be a loss
    of more than one million a day.

    It is quite difficult to determine the precise amount of bran which
    may have been removed from wheat, for various samples contain such a
    different proportion of bran that in the one case a removal of ten
    per cent, leaves more bran in the flour than a bolting of five per
    cent. in another.

    The following is an analysis of bran by M. Millon; the sample being
    a soft French wheat grown in 1848:--

  Starch, dextrine and sugar                                   53.00
  Sugar of liquorice                                            1.00
  Gluten                                                       14.90
  Fatty matter                                                  3.60
  Woody matter                                                  9.70
  Salts                                                          .50
  Water                                                        13.90
  Incrusting matter and aromatic principles (by difference)     3.40
                                                              ------
                                                              100.

    The conclusion to be drawn from this analysis is, that bran is an
    alimentary substance. If it contains six per cent. more of woody
    matter than the rough, flour, it has also more gluten, double that
    of fatty matter, besides two aromatic principles which have the
    perfume of honey, and both of which are wanting in the fine flour.
    Thus by bolting, wheat is impoverished in its most valuable
    principles, merely to remove a few hundredths of woody matter.

    The economical suggestion which springs from these views is, that
    the bran and coarse flour should be reground and then mixed with the
    fine flour. Millon states that he has ascertained, by repeated
    experiments, that bread thus made is of superior quality, easily
    worked, and not subject to the inconvenience of bread manufactured
    from the rough flour, such as is made in some places, and especially
    in Belgium.

    Opinions similar to those above noticed are entertained by Professor
    Daubeny. "The great importance attached to having bread perfectly
    white is a prejudice," he says, "which leads to the rejection of a
    very wholesome part of the food, and one which, although not
    digestible alone, is sufficiently so in that state of admixture with
    the flour in which nature has prepared it for our use." After
    quoting the remarks of Professor Johnston on the same side of the
    question, he adds, "that according to the experiments of Magendie,
    animals fed upon fine flour died in a few weeks, whilst they thrived
    upon the whole meal bread." Brown bread, therefore, should be
    adopted, not merely on a principle of economy, but also as providing
    more of those ingredients which are perhaps deficient in the finer
    parts of the flour.--("Gardeners' Chronicle," January 27th, 1849, p.
    53.)

    The remarks of Dr. Robertson may also be here introduced. "The
    advantage," he observes, "of using more or less of the coverings of
    the grain in the preparation of bread has often been urged on
    economical principles. There can be no doubt that a very large
    proportion of nutritive matter is contained in the bran and the
    pollard; and these are estimated to contain about one-fifth part of
    the entire weight of the wheat grain. It is, unquestionably, so far
    wasteful to remove these altogether from the flour; and in the case
    of the majority of people, this waste may be unnecessary, even on
    the score of digestibility."[32] This subject can also be rendered
    apparent to the eye. If we make a cross section of a grain of wheat,
    or rye, and place it under the microscope, we perceive very distinct
    layers in it as we examine from without inwards. The outer of them
    belong to the husk of the fruit and seed, and are separated as bran,
    in grinding. But the millstone does not separate so exactly as the
    eye may by means of the microscope, not even as accurately as the
    knife of the vegetable anatomist, and thus with the bran is removed
    also the whole outer layer of the cells of the nucleus, and even
    some of the subjacent layers. Thus the anatomical investigations of
    one of these corn grains at once explains why bread is so much the
    less nutritious the more carefully the bran has been separated from
    the meal.[33] There can therefore be little doubt that the removal
    of the bran is a serious injury to the flour; and I have presented
    the above array of evidence on this point in the hope of directing
    public attention to it here, as has been done in various foreign
    countries.

    After this, it will easily be inferred that I am not disposed to
    look with much favor upon the plan proposed by Mr. Bentz for taking
    the outer coating or bran from wheat and other grains previously to
    grinding.[34] Independently of the considerations which have already
    been presented, it is far from being proved, as this gentlemen
    asserts, that the mixture of the bran with the meal which results
    from the common mode of grinding is the chief cause of the _souring_
    of the flour in hot climates. On the contrary, the bran is perhaps
    as little liable to undergo change as the fine flour, and then the
    moistening to which, as I am informed, the grain is subjected
    previously to the removal of the husk, is still further
    objectionable, and must be followed by a most carefully-conducted
    process of kiln-drying.

    _Nutritious properties of various articles of food_.--There seems to
    be some difference of opinion in regard to the nutritious properties
    of various kinds of food. It is generally, however, agreed that
    those which contain the largest proportion of nitrogenous matters
    are the most nutritious. It is on this account that haricots, peas,
    and beans, form, in some sort, substitutes for animal food. Tubers,
    roots, and even the seeds of the cereal grasses, are but moderately
    nutritious. If we see herbivorous animals fattening upon such
    articles, it is because, from their peculiar organisation, they can
    consume them in large quantities. It is quite doubtful whether a man
    doing hard work could exist on bread exclusively. The instances
    which are given of countries where rice and potatoes form the sole
    articles of food of the inhabitants, are believed to be incomplete.
    Boussingault states that in Alsace, for example, the peasantry
    always associate their potato dish with a large quantity of sour or
    curdled milk; in Ireland with buttermilk. "The Indians of the Upper
    Andes do not by any means live on potatoes alone, as some travellers
    have said they do: at Quito, the daily food of the inhabitants is
    _lorco_, a compound of potatoes and a large quantity of cheese. Rice
    is often cited as one of the most nourishing articles of diet. I am
    satisfied, however, after having lived in countries where rice is
    largely consumed, that it is anything but a substantial, or, for its
    bulk, nutritious article of sustenance."--("Rural Economy," Amer.
    edition, p. 409.) These statements are further confirmed by the
    observations of M. Lequerri, who, during a long residence in India,
    paid particular attention to the manners and customs of the
    inhabitants of Pondicherry. "Their food," he states, "is almost
    entirely vegetable, and rice is the staple; the inferior castes only
    ever eat meat. But all eat _kari_ (curry), an article prepared with
    meat, fish, or vegetable, which is mixed with the rice, boiled in
    very little water. It is requisite to have seen the Indians at their
    meals to have any idea of the enormous quantity of rice which they
    will put into their stomachs. No European could cram so much at a
    time; and they very commonly allow that rice alone will not nourish
    them. They very generally still eat a quantity of bread."[35] In
    regard to the proportion of nutritious matter contained in grains of
    various kinds, it may be remarked that the tables which have been
    constructed as the results of various experiments are liable to an
    objection, which will be more particularly adverted to under another
    head. For example, two substances, by the process of ultimate
    analysis, may exhibit the same proportion of nitrogenous matter, and
    still differ very materially in their value as articles of food.
    Much depends on the digestibility of the form in which this matter
    is presented to the digestive organs. A strong illustration is
    afforded in the case of hay, the proportion of nutritive matter of
    which, about 9.71, would certainly not represent its power of
    affording nourishment to the human system. It is in truth quite
    impossible to arrive at any other than approximate results from the
    operations of chemistry, as to the amount of nutriment contained in
    a given quantity or weight of any article of food.[36] It is perhaps
    not irrelevant to notice in this place some of the researches which
    have recently been made upon fermentation, and particularly its
    effects in the manufacture of bread. It appears that when this
    process is brought about by the addition of yeast or leaven to the
    paste or dough, the character of the mass is materially altered. A
    larger or smaller proportion of the flour is virtually lost.
    According to Dr. William Gregory the loss amounts to the very large
    proportion of one-sixteenth part of the whole of the flour. He says,
    "To avoid this loss, bread is now raised by means of carbonate of
    soda, or ammonia and a diluted acid, which are added to the dough,
    and the effect is perfectly satisfactory. Equally good or better
    bread is obtained, and the quantity of flour which will yield
    fifteen hundred loaves by fermentation, furnishes sixteen hundred by
    the new method, the sugar and fibrin (gluten) being
    saved."--("Outlines of Chemistry," p. 352.)

    Another author, Dr. R.D. Thomson, states, as the results of his
    experiments upon bread produced by the action of hydrochloric acid
    upon carbonate of soda, "that in a sack of flour there was a
    difference in favor of the unfermented bread to the amount of thirty
    pounds thirteen ounces, or in round numbers, a sack of flour would
    produce one hundred and seven loaves of unfermented bread, and only
    one hundred loaves of fermented bread of the game weight. Hence it
    appears that in the sack of flour by the common process of baking,
    seven loaves, or six-and-a-half per cent, of the flour are driven
    into the air and lost."--("Experimental Researches on the Food of
    Animals," &c., p. 183.)

    The only objection to the general introduction of this process seems
    to be the degree of care and accuracy required in properly adjusting
    the respective qualities and quantities of acid and alkali, and
    which could seldom be attained even by those who are largely engaged
    in the manufacture of bread.

    I cannot leave this subject without adverting to a practice which
    has prevailed in England and France, and perhaps also in this
    country, of steeping wheat before sowing it in solutions of arsenic,
    sulphate of copper, and other poisonous preparations.

    The result has been that injurious effects have often followed, both
    to those who are employed in sowing such grain, and to those who
    have used the bread manufactured from it. The great importance of
    the subject led to the appointment of a commission at Rouen, in
    France, in December, 1842, having for its object to determine the
    best process of preventing the smut in wheat, and to ascertain
    whether other means less dangerous than those above noticed were
    productive of equally good results. The labors of this commission
    extended over the years 1843-'44-'45, and the experiments were
    repeated two years following on the farm of Mr. Fauchet, one of the
    commission, at Boisquilaume, in the department of the Seine
    Inferieure.

    The results arrived at by this commission are--1st. That it is not
    best to sow seed without steeping. 2nd. That it is best to make use
    of the sulphate of soda and lime process, inasmuch as it is more
    simple and economical, in no way injurious to the health, and yields
    the soundest and most productive wheat. 3rd. That the use of
    arsenic, sulphate of copper, verdigris, and other poisonous
    preparations, should be interdicted by the government.--("Gardeners'
    Chronicle," January 6th, 1849, pp. 10 and 11.)

    _Composition of wheat and wheat flour, and the various modes of
    determining their nutritive value_.--In my former report it was
    stated that the analyses of the various samples of wheat, the
    results of which were there given, had been chiefly directed to the
    determining the amount of rough _gluten_ which they contained. My
    reasons for adopting this plan, and the arguments in favor of its
    general accuracy, as compared with other modes of analysis, and
    especially that by which the ultimate composition is ascertained,
    were also detailed. A more full examination of this subject has
    served only to strengthen the opinion already expressed, that for
    the great purpose to be answered by these researches, the process
    which I have adopted is, to say the least, as free from objection
    as any other, and if carefully and uniformly carried out, will truly
    represent the relative values of the several samples of wheat flour.
    As this is a matter of much consequence in a practical point of
    view, I trust I shall be excused for introducing some additional
    facts in regard to it.

    The term _gluten_ was originally applied to the gray, viscid,
    tenacious, and elastic matter, which is obtained by subjecting wheat
    flour to the continuous action of a current of water. But it appears
    that this is a mixture of fibrine and caseine, with what is now
    called _glutine_, and a peculiar oily or fatty matter. Now these
    substances may be separated from each other, but the processes
    employed for this purpose are tedious, and to insure accuracy the
    various solvents must be entirely pure--a point which, especially in
    the case of alcohol and ether, is not ordinarily easy to be
    attained. This will be rendered still more evident by a reference to
    a French process, which will hereafter be noticed.

    But were it much less difficult in every case accurately to separate
    the constituents of gluten, it would not, in my opinion, be of the
    least practical utility. It is to the peculiar mechanical property
    of this gluten that wheat flour owes its superior power of detaining
    the carbonic acid engendered by fermentation, and thus communicating
    to it the vesicular spongy structure so characteristic of good
    bread.[37] It may also be added, that the results of more than one
    hundred trials have satisfied me that a diminution or loss of
    elasticity in the gluten is the surest index of the amount of injury
    which the sample of flour has sustained. Whether, therefore, the
    sample contains a certain proportion of nitrogen, or whether it
    contains albumen, fibrine, and caseine in sufficient quantity, it
    may still want the very condition which is essential to the
    manufacture of good bread. My objection, therefore, to the mere
    determination, however accurate, of the proportion of nitrogen
    contained in wheat flour, or of the various principles which form
    the gluten, is, that it does not represent the value of the various
    samples for the only use to which they are applied, viz., the making
    of bread. The remarks of Mulder, the celebrated Dutch chemist, upon
    the subject of manures, are so applicable to this point that I
    cannot refrain from quoting them. "It has," he says, "become almost
    a regular custom to determine the value of manures by the quantity
    of nitrogen they yield by ultimate analysis. This method is entirely
    erroneous; for it is based upon the false principle, that by
    putrefaction all nitrogeneous substances are immediately converted
    into ammonia, carbonic acid, and water! But these changes sometimes
    require a number of years. Morphine, for example, is prepared by
    allowing opium to putrefy; and the process for preparing leucin, a
    substance which contains 10.72 of nitrogen, is to bring cheese into
    putrefaction. Cheese, therefore, does not perhaps in a number of
    years resolve itself into carbonic acid, ammonia, and water, but
    produces a crystalline substance, which contains no ammonia. Hence
    the proportion of nitrogen yielded by manures is not a proper
    measure of their value, and therefore this mode of estimating that
    value ought to be discontinued."[38] We infer, therefore, that the
    proportion of nitrogen furnished by food of various kinds is not the
    true measure of their nutritious value, and cannot for practical
    purposes take the place of that process by which the amount of rough
    gluten is determined.

    No better illustration can be given of the uncertainty which attends
    the inferences drawn from the ultimate composition, than the fact
    heretofore stated in regard to hay, the nutritive value of which is
    placed in the tables containing the results of these analyses, at a
    figure nearly the same as that of ordinary wheat flour.[39] In the
    paper on the "Composition of Wheat," by M. Peligot--(" Comptes
    Rendus," February 5th, 1849)--to which I have already referred, the
    author gives the results of the various analyses which he has made,
    and details the process he adopted.

    Aware of the complex and difficult nature of the examination as
    conducted by him, he seems to doubt in regard to some of the results
    given in his tables In the fourteen samples which he analysed, the
    proportion of water ranges from 13.2 to 15.2, which is a rather
    higher average than is yielded by our American samples, especially
    those which have not been shipped across the Atlantic. Of the
    nitrogenous matter, soluble and insoluble, the proportions range
    from 9.90 per cent, to 21.50 per cent.; the former being from a
    sample of very soft and white French wheat; the latter from a very
    hard wheat with long grains, from Northern Africa, cultivated at
    Verriéres. Another sample from Egypt yielded 20.60 per cent, of
    these nitrogenous matters, both of which are very remarkable
    proportions.

    In describing the process for ascertaining the amount of insoluble
    nitrogenous matters, this author adverts to their estimation either
    by the quantity of nitrogen gas furnished, or of ammonia formed, the
    last being preferred for substances, which, like wheat, contain only
    a few hundredths of nitrogen. The results which he obtained by this
    method were compared with those yielded by the direct extraction of
    the gluten by softening the farina under a small stream of water.
    "These results," says he, "differ but little from each other when we
    operate upon wheat in good condition, although the gluten which we
    thus obtain holds some starch and fatty matter, while the starch
    which is carried away by the water contains also some gluten." The
    loss and gain, as I have already explained, and as has been proved
    by these and other comparisons, are nearly balanced, and the amount
    of rough gluten will therefore afford a fair exhibit of that of the
    insoluble nitrogenous matters in this grain.

    The salts in the samples of wheat analysed by M. Peligot, were
    either wanting or were in small proportion; while the amount of
    fatty matter ranged from 1.00 to 1.80 and 1.90 per cent.

    These results agree very well with those which I have obtained. But
    it is probable that the proportion is liable to great variation,
    inasmuch as it is inferred that the fatty matter originates from
    starch through its exposure to the general deoxidising influence
    which prevails in plants.[40] There are also many difficulties
    attending the accurate determination of this matter, and which are
    probably the cause of the higher proportion often given. It is
    properly remarked by M. Peligot that the ether employed in this
    process should be free from water, and that the flour ought also to
    be very dry. By neglecting these precautions, we separate not only
    the fatty matter, but also a certain amount of matters soluble in
    the water, which is furnished as well by the wheat as by the ether.

    It would not, I think, be difficult to point out some incorrect
    views entertained by this chemist, and more especially those which
    relate to the fatty matter. Some of his processes for the separation
    of various substances, if not faulty, require so many conditions for
    success as to render the results, at least in other hands,
    exceedingly uncertain.

    But the capital error which he has committed is that concerning the
    bran, already adverted to, which he considers injurious to the
    flour, chiefly in consequence of the large proportion of fatty
    matter which it contains.

    In regard to the soluble nitrogenous matter usually called albumen,
    from its resemblance to the animal substance of the same name, I
    have to remark that in my trials the proportion has been found to be
    considerably less than that often given in tables of the composition
    of wheat. In one sample it was found to be as low as 0.15 per cant.,
    in another it did not rise above 0.20 per cent. The amount was
    usually so inconsiderable, that I did not think it worth while to
    retard the progress of the work by following out processes which
    could add little to the utility of these investigations.

    Although much time and labor have been expended upon the analyses of
    the ash of plants, I have but slight confidence in the results
    heretofore given. The difficulties which attend the obtaining the
    ash in a proper condition, and the fact that the products of all the
    organs and parts of the plants have been analysed together, must
    necessarily impair the accuracy of the experiments, and render the
    inferences drawn from them of uncertain value. Much, indeed I may
    say almost everything, still remains to be done in this department
    of agricultural chemistry.

    _Weight of wheat as an index to its value_.--Much has been said in
    regard to the relative weights of the bushel of wheat of different
    varieties or under different modes of culture.

    As ordinarily determined, this weight ranges from fifty-six to
    sixty-five or sixty-six pounds, being in a few cases set down
    somewhat higher. It is said also that the bushel of wheat weighs
    less in some years than it does in others, and that the difference
    often amounts to two, or three, or even four pounds. Though this may
    seem of comparatively little consequence for a few bushels, yet, for
    the aggegate of the wheat crop of the United States, or for a State,
    or even a county, it makes a great difference. Thus, were we to
    estimate the product of one year in the United States at one hundred
    and ten million bushels, weighing fifty-six pounds to the bushel,
    and another year at one hundred and eight million bushels, weighing
    sixty-two pounds, the difference in favor of the latter, though the
    least in quantity, would amount to five hundred and thirty-six
    million pounds in weight, or more than one million and a quarter of
    barrels of flour.--(Report of the American Commissioner of Patents
    for 1847, p. 117.)

    It may be remarked, however, that it is not after all so easy to
    determine with accuracy the weight of a bushel of wheat, nor to
    decide upon the circumstances which have an influence in increasing
    the density of a grain of wheat. If the microscopical
    representations of wheat are to be relied on, it is probable that
    the increase in the density of wheat depends upon the increase in
    the proportion of gluten. I have found in several cases that, the
    proportion of water being the same, those samples of wheat which
    contain the largest proportion of gluten exhibit the highest
    specific gravity, or, in other words, will yield the greatest number
    of pounds to the bushel. But the weight of wheat will be influenced
    by the proportion of water which it contains; the drier the grain,
    the greater is its density; a fact which may account for the
    difference which has been observed in the weight of wheat in
    different seasons. If this is the cause, the calculation above given
    in reference to the United States is fallacious--but if the amount
    of gluten is _actually_, instead of _relatively_, increased by
    peculiarities in seasons, it is no doubt correct.

    I have devised a series of experiments to test the accuracy of the
    statements made upon this point, but have not yet had leisure to
    complete them.

    _General conditions from the analyses of wheat flour_.--The large
    number of analyses which I have made, and the uniformity of the
    processes pursued, enable me to draw some general conclusions which
    it may be useful to present in a connected form.

    1. In the samples from the more northern wheat-growing States, there
    seems to be little difference in the proportion of nutritive matter
    that can be set down to the influence of climate. Thus, the yield of
    the wheat from Michigan, Wisconsin and Iowa, is scarcely inferior to
    that from New York, Indiana, and Illinois, although the two latter
    are somewhat farther south. Local causes, and more especially the
    peculiarities of culture and manufacture, have more influence,
    within these parallels of latitude, than the difference of mean
    temperature.

    2. The samples from New Jersey, Lower Pennsylvania, the southern
    part of Ohio, Maryland (probably Delaware), Virginia, the Carolinas,
    and Georgia,[41] contain less water and more nutritive matter than
    those from the States previously enumerated. That the samples from
    Missouri, which is included within nearly the same parallels of
    latitude as Virginia, do not exhibit so high an average of nutritive
    matter as those from the latter State, must be ascribed principally
    to a want of care in the management of the crop, and perhaps also in
    the manufacture of the flour. Virginia flour, for obvious reasons,
    maintains a high reputation for shipment.

    3. The difference in the nutritive value of the various samples of
    wheat depends greatly upon the variety, and mode of culture,
    independently of climate. The correctness of the former statement is
    shown by the much larger proportions of gluten yielded by many of
    the samples of _hard_ wheat from abroad, the Oregon wheat in
    Virginia, and a variety of Illinois wheat, &c. And in regard to the
    effect of particular modes of culture, the various analyses of
    Boussingault may be referred to, and that in my table of a sample
    from Ulster county, New York.

    4. The deterioration of many of the samples of wheat and wheat flour
    arises in most cases from the presence of a too large per centage of
    water. This is often the result of a want of proper care in the
    transport, and is the principal cause of the losses which are
    sustained by those who are engaged in this branch of business.

    5. There seems to be little doubt that a considerable portion of the
    wheat and wheat flour, as well as of other breadstuffs, shipped from
    this country to England, is more or less injured before it reaches
    that market. It is also shown that this is mostly to be ascribed to
    the want of care above noticed, and to the fraudulent mixture of
    good and bad kinds. The remedy in the former case is the drying of
    the grain or flour before shipment, by some of the modes proposed,
    and the protection of it afterwards as completely as possible from
    the effect of moisture. The frauds which are occasionally practised
    should be promptly exposed, and those who are engaged in them held
    up to merited reproach.

    6. It has been fully shown, by the results of many trials, that the
    flour obtained by the second grinding of wheat, or the whole meal,
    contains more gluten than the fine flour. Hence the general use of
    the latter, and the entire rejection of the bran, is wasteful, and
    ought in every way to be discouraged.

    7. It cannot but be gratifying to us that the average nutritive
    value of the wheat and wheat flour of the United States is shown by
    these analyses to be fully equal to, if not greater than, that
    afforded by the samples produced in any other part of the world. And
    it will, in my opinion, be chiefly owing to a want of proper care
    and of commercial honesty, if the great advantages which should
    accrue to this country from the export of these articles are either
    endangered or entirely lost.

    TABLE EXHIBITING THE PER CENTAGE COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS SAMPLES OF
     AMERICAN AND FOREIGN WHEAT FLOUR, BY LEWIS C. BECK, M.D. (1849).
  ----------------------------------+-----+-------+------+--------------
                                    |     |Gluten |      | Glucos  |
    Kind of Wheat Flour, and from   |     |  and  |      |dextrine,|
           whence obtained          |Water|albumen|Starch|   &c.   |Bran
  ----------------------------------+-----+-------+------+---------+----
  Country Mills, New Jersey         |12.75| 11.55 | 65.95|   8.10  | .65
  West Jersey Wheat                 |12.80| 12.32 | 69.48|   5.90  | .50
  White Wheat, New Jersey           |11.55| 12.60 | 66.85|   8.50  | .50
  Pennsylvania Wheat                |11.90| 13.16 | 66.20|   7.25  | .75
      ditto    ditto                |13.35| 12.73 | 66.90|   6.50  | .52
      ditto    ditto (2nd grinding) |13.35| 14.72 |    71.28       | .65
  Pelham Wheat, Ulster Co., N.Y.    |10.79| 13.17 | 67.74|   7.60  | .70
  "Pure Genesee" Wheat              |13.20| 11.05 |    75.20       | .55
  Ohio Wheat, "fine"                |12.85| 12.25 |    73.90       |1.00
  Ohio Wheat, "superfine"           |13.00|  9.10 |    77.80       | .10
  Winter Wheat, Ohio                |13.10| 11.56 | 66.84|   7.90  | .60
      ditto    ditto (2nd grinding) |13.05| 12.69 |    73.61       | .65
  Michigan Wheat, "superfine"       |13.25| 11.10 |    74.80       | .85
  Michigan Wheat                    |12.25| 10.00 | 67.70|   8.75  | .75
      ditto    ditto (2nd grinding) |12.75| 11.20 | 66.00|   8.50  |1.05
  Illinois Wheat                    |12.73| 14.61 | 65.20|   6.45  | .80
  Magnolia Mill, St. Louis, Mo.     |13.13| 10.27 | 69.75|   6.15  | .35
  Mound Mill, St. Louis             |13.48| 10.53 | 67.35|   8.15  | .20
  Walsh's Mill, St. Louis           |12.70| 10.63 | 69.40|   6.65  | .40
  Washington Mill, St. Louis        |12.88| 11.00 | 68.65|   7.27  | .20
  Missouri Mill, St. Louis          |13.00| 10.46 | 67.79|   8.35  | .40
  O'Fallan's Mill, St. Louis        |12.85| 11.25 | 68.24|   7.00  | .66
  Phoenix Mill, St. Louis           |13.22| 10.10 | 68.70|   7.30  | .15
  Nonantum Mill, St. Louis          |12.10| 11.02 | 68.60|   7.93  | .35
  Franklin Mill, St. Louis          |12.25| 10.29 | 69.85|   7.26  | .35
  Eagle Mill, St. Louis             |11.00| 10.15 | 69.50|   8.65  | .20
  Winter Wheat, Missouri            |14.00|  9.30 | 70.05|   6.30  | .35
  Wisconsin Wheat                   |12.80| 13.20 | 68.90|   6.50  | .70
     ditto   ditto   (2nd grinding) |12.80| 13.46 |    72.54       |1.20
  Maryland Wheat                    |13.00| 12.30 | 66.65|   7.10  | .65
  Richmond City Mill                |11.70| 13.00 | 67.50|   6.90  | .50
  Haxall and Co., Richmond, Va.     |11.40| 12.80 | 68.50|   6.60  | .35
  Virginia Wheat, "superfine"       |12.05| 12.95 |    74.50       | .50
  Haxall and Co., "best brand, '49" |11.40| 13.25 | 68.20|   6.25  | .60
  Haxall and Co., "2nd brand, '49"  |11.00| 13.20 |    75.60       | .20
  Richmond City Mill, '49           |11.90| 10.50 | 70.00|   7.10  | .50
  Oregon White Wheat, Va.           |12.80| 14.80 |    71.30       |1.10
     ditto   ditto   (2nd grinding) |13.85| 14.50 | 65.15|   5.90  | .60
  Gallego Mill, Richmond, Va.       |11.50| 13.50 | 68.35|   6.00  | .65
  Ship Brandywine, Liverpool        |13.38| 10.62 | 67.60|   7.75  | .65
  Ship Fanchon, Liverpool           |13.83| 11.38 | 67.45|   6.34  |1.00
  Ship New World, Liverpool         |13.65| 11.60 | 65.80|   7.70  | .65
  Ship Juniata, Liverpool           |12.50| 14.14 | 64.20|   8.36  | .80
  Ship Stephen Lurman, Liverpool    |11.65| 13.18 | 64.50|   9.55  | .68
  Ship Leila, Liverpool             |13.22| 13.18 | 64.65|   8.00  | .95
  Ship Oxenbridge, Liverpool        |13.90| 10.13 | 68.42|   7.30  | .25
                                    |     |& bran |      |         |
  Ship Italy, Liverpool             |12.94| 10.60 | 68.56|   7.90  |
  Ship West Point, Liverpool        |14.30| 12.30 | 63.00|   9.45  | .95
  Ship W.H. Harbeck, Liverpool      |13.53| 10.18 | 66.95|   8.80  | .30
  Ship Princeton, Liverpool         |13.40| 11.52 | 65.60|   7.90  | .85
  Ship Columbus, Liverpool          |13.50| 10.45 | 66.45|   8.50  |1.03
  Ship Russell Glover, Liverpool    |13.45| 10.47 | 66.20|   8.83  |1.05
  Ship South Carolina, Liverpool    |13.80|  9.00 | 70.80|   5.95  | .38
     ditto   ditto   (2nd grinding) |13.30|  9.45 |    76.90       | .35
  Ship Cambridge, Liverpool         |14.50|  8.52 | 70.60|   5.40  | .40
     ditto   ditto   (2nd grinding) |14.10|  9.10 | 70.55|   5.45  | .20
  Ship Columbus, Liverpool          |14.85|  8.47 |    76.48       | .20
     ditto   ditto   (2nd grinding) |14.15|  9.00 |    76.60       | .25
  Ship Ashburton, Liverpool         |13.55| 11.68 | 69.22|   5.30  | .25
  Wheat grown in Canada West        |12.80|  7.23 | 74.12|   5.10  | .75
     ditto   ditto   (2nd grinding) |12.60|  8.45 |    78.55       | .40
  Chilian Wheat                     |12.44|  9.45 | 67.80|   8.37  |1.30
  Chilian Wheat                     |12.85|  8.65 | 71.60|   6.10  | .60
                                    |     |& bran |      |         |
  Valparaiso Wheat                  |12.50| 14.55 |      |         |
  French Wheat                      |13.20|  9.85 | 69.00|   7.65  | .30
  Spanish Wheat                     |13.50| 10.30 | 68.90|   7.00  | .30
  Canivano Wheat                    |11.33| 16.35 | 63.10|   6.50  |2.30
  Canivano Wheat                    |11.15| 15.40 | 67.25|   5.70  | .60
     ditto   ditto   (2nd grinding) |12.60| 18.70 |    67.00       |1.70
  Hard wheat, grown near Malaga     |10.87| 12.15 | 64.38|  12.60  |
                                    |     |       |      |& lactic acid
     ditto   ditto   (2nd grinding) |10.00| 14.50 | 60.20|  15.30  |
  ----------------------------------+-----+-------+------+---------+----

    There is no crop, the skilful and successful cultivation of which on
    the same soil, from generation to generation, requires more art than
    is demanded to produce good wheat. To grow this grain on fresh land,
    adapted to the peculiar habits and wants of the plant is an easy
    task. But such fields, except in rare instances, fail sooner or
    later to produce sound and healthy plants, which are little liable
    to attacks from the malady called "rust," or which give lengthened
    ears or "heads," well filled with plump seeds.

    Having long resided in the best wheat-growing district in the Union,
    the writer has devoted years of study and observation to all the
    influences of soil, climate, and constitutional peculiarities, which
    affect this bread-bearing plant. It is far more liable to smut,
    rust, and shrink in some soils than in others. This is true in
    western New York, and every other section where wheat has long been
    cultivated. As the alkalies and other fertilizing elements become
    exhausted in the virgin soils of America, its crops of wheat not
    only become smaller on an average, but the plants fail in
    constitutional vigor, and are more liable to diseases and attacks
    from parasites and destructive insects. Defects in soil and improper
    nutrition lead to these disastrous results. Soils are defective in
    the following particulars:

    1. They lack soluble silica, or flint in an available form, with
    which to produce a hard glassy stem that will be little subject to
    "rust." Soluble flint is never very abundant in cultivated soils;
    and after they have been tilled some years, the supply is deficient
    in quantity. It is not very difficult to learn with considerable
    accuracy the amount of silica which rain-water as it falls on the
    earth will dissolve out of 1,000 grains of soil in the course of
    eight or ten days. Hot water will dissolve more than cold; and water
    charged with carbonic acid more than pure water which has been
    boiled. The experiments of Prof. Rogers of the University of
    Virginia, as published in Silliman's Journal, have a direct bearing
    on this subject. The researches of Prof. Emmons of Albany, in his
    elaborate and valuable work on "Agriculture," as a part of the
    Natural History of New York, show that 10,000 parts of soil yield
    only from one to three parts of soluble silica. The analyses of Dr
    Jackson, as published in his Geological Survey of New Hampshire,
    give similar results. Earth taken from an old and badly exhausted
    field in Georgia, gave the writer only one part of soluble flint in
    100,000.

    What elements of crops rain water, at summer heat, will dissolve out
    of ten or twenty pounds of soil, in the course of three months, is a
    point in agricultural science which should be made the subject of
    numerous and rigid experiments. In this way, the capabilities of
    different soils and their adaptation to different crops may be
    tested, in connection with practical experiments in field culture,
    on the same kind of earth.

    Few wheat-growers are aware how much dissolved flint an acre of good
    wheat demands to prevent its having coarse, soft, and spongy stems,
    which are anything but a healthy organization of the plant. In the
    Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, vol. 7, there
    is an extended "Report on the Analysis of the Ashes of Plants, by
    Thomas Way, Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Agricultural
    College, Cirencester," which gives the result of sixty-two analyses
    of the ash of wheat, from as many samples of that grain, mostly
    grown on different soils and under different circumstances.

    In this report are given the quantity of wheat per acre, the weight
    of straw cut close to the ground to the acre, and also that of the
    chaff. These researches show, that from ninety-three to one hundred
    and fifty pounds of soluble flint are required to form an acre of
    wheat; and I will add from my own investigations, that three-fourths
    of this silica is demanded by nature during the last sixty days
    preceding the maturing of the crop. This is the period in which the
    stem acquires its solidity and strength, and most of its
    incombustible earthy matter. The quantity of this varies from three
    to fifteen per cent. of the weight of the straw. Prof. Johnston and
    Sir Humphry Davy give instances in which more than fifteen per cent.
    of ash was found; and Prof. Way gives cases where less than three
    per cent. were obtained. The mean of forty samples was four and a
    half per cent. Dr. Sprengel gives three and a half as the mean of
    his analyses. M. Boussingault found an average of seven per cent. As
    flint is truly the _bone_ of all the grass family, imparting to them
    strength, as in cane, timothy, corn, oats, rye, rice, millet, and
    the proportion of this mineral varies as much in wheat-straw, as
    bone does in very lean and very fat hogs or cattle.

    A young growing animal, whether a child or a colt, that is kept on
    food which lacks _bone-earth_, (phosphate of lime,) will have soft
    cartilaginous bones. Nature cannot substitute _iron_ or any other
    mineral in the animal system, out of which to form hard strong
    bones; nor can any other mineral in the soil perform the peculiar
    function assigned to silica in the vital economy of cereal plants.
    To protect the living germs in the seeds of wheat, corn, oats, rye,
    barley, &c, the cuticle or bran of these seeds contains considerable
    flint. The same is true of chaff.

    The question naturally arises,--How is the farmer to increase the
    quantity of soluble silica or flint in his soil? This is a question
    of the highest practical importance. There are three principal ways
    in which the object named may be attained. First, by keeping fewer
    acres under the plough. Land in pasture, if well managed, will gain
    its fertility, and in the process accumulate soluble silica in the
    surface soil. In this way more wheat and surer crops may be made by
    cultivating a field in wheat two years than four or six. If the
    field in the mean time be devoted to wool-growing, butter or
    cheese-making, or to stock-raising, particular care must be taken to
    make great crops of grass or clover to grow on the land, and have
    all the manure, both solid and liquid, applied to its surface.

    There are many counties in England that yield an average of
    thirty-two bushels of wheat per acre for ten crops in succession.
    There are but few of the old counties in the United States which
    average the half of that quantity: and yet America has greater
    agricultural capabilities than that of Great Britain.

    Another way to increase soluble silica in the soil, is to grow such
    crops, in rotation with wheat culture, as will best prevent the loss
    of dissolved flint, at any time by leaching and washing, through the
    agency of rain water. This remark is intended to apply more
    particularly to those large districts devoted to cotton and tobacco
    culture, plants that take up no considerable amount of silica, and
    which by the constant stirring of the earth, and the clean tillage
    which they demand, favor the leaching of the soil. To keep too much
    of a plantation of these crops, is to lessen its capabilities for
    producing good crops of corn, wheat, and barley, at a small expense.
    Corn plants, well managed, will extract more pounds of silica in
    three or six months from the soil, than any other. As not an ounce
    of this mineral is needed in the animal economy of man or beast, it
    can all be composted in cornstalks, blades, and cobs, or in the dung
    and urine derived from corn, and be finally reorganized in the stems
    of wheat plants. Corn culture and wheat culture, if skilfully and
    scientifically conducted, go admirably together. Of the two, more
    bread, more meat, and more _money_ can be made from the corn than
    from the wheat plant in this country. But so soon as what is called
    "high farming" in England, shall be popular in the United States,
    the crops both of wheat and corn grown here will demonstrate how
    little we appreciate the vast superiority of our climate for the
    economical feeding and clothing of the human family, over that of
    our "mother country." In several counties in England, it takes from
    twelve to fourteen months to make a crop of wheat, after the seed is
    put into the ground. At or near the first of December, 1847, Mr.
    M.B. Moore, of Augusta, Ga., sowed a bushel of seed wheat on an acre
    and a half of ground, which gave him over thirty bushels by the
    middle of May following. This ground was then ploughed, and a fine
    crop of hay made and cut in July. After this, a good crop of peas
    was raised, and harvested in October, before it was time to seed
    with wheat again, as was done. While the mean temperature of England
    is so low, that corn plants will not ripen, in Georgia one can grow
    a crop of wheat in the winter, and nearly two crops of corn in
    succession in the summer and autumn, before it is time to sow wheat
    again. No writer, to my knowledge, has done full justice to the vast
    agricultural resources of the southern portion of the American
    confederacy. But there is much of its soil which is not rich in the
    elements of bread. Nothing but the careful study of these elements,
    and of the natural laws by which they are governed, can remedy
    defects in wheat culture anywhere, but especially on very poor land.

    All alkaline minerals, such as potash, soda, lime, ammonia, and
    magnesia, hasten the solution of the several insoluble compounds of
    silica in the soil. This fact should be remembered by every farmer.
    To undertake an explanation of the various ways in which alkalies,
    oxides, and acids act and re-act upon each other in the surface of
    the earth, when subject to tillage, would be out of place in this
    outline view of wheat-growing in the United States. I may state the
    fact, however, as ascertained by many analyses, that a cubic foot of
    good wheat soil in the valley of the Genesee, contains twenty times
    more lime than do the poorest soils in South Carolina and Georgia.
    The quantity of gypsum, bone-earth, and magnesia, available as food
    for plants, varies in an equal degree. Not only lime, but phosphoric
    acid, potash, and magnesia are lacking in most soils, if one desires
    to raise a large crop of wheat, and have the seeds of the grain
    weigh as much as the straw. In a number of the specimens of wheat
    analyzed by Prof. Way, when cut close to the roots, the dry wheat
    outweighed the dry straw.

    Having secured the growth of a bright, hard, glassy stem, the next
    thing is to develop a long, well-filled ear. To this end, available
    ammonia or nitrogen, phosphorus, potash, and magnesia are
    indispensable. Ammonia (spirits of hartshorn) is necessary to aid in
    forming the combustible part of the seed. The other ingredients
    named are required to assist in making the incombustible part of the
    grain. In 100 parts of the ash of wheat, there are the following
    substances,  viz.:--

  Silica                       2.28
  Phosphoric acid             45.73
  Sulphuric acid               0.32
  Lime                         2.06
  Magnesia                    10.94
  Peroxide of iron             2.04
  Potash                      32.24
  Soda                         4.06
  Chloride of sodium           0.27
                              -----
  Total                       99.94

    The quantity of ash in wheat varies from 1¼ to 2½ per cent.; the
    average is about 1.69. The amount of phosphoric acid in any given
    quantity of the ash of wheat varies from forty to fifty per cent. of
    the same.

    Seeds that have a thick cuticle or bran, and little gluten, contain
    a smaller per centage of phosphoric acid, and more silica. About
    one-third of the ash is potash; in nearly all cases magnesia varies
    from nine to fourteen per cent.; lime from one and a half to six per
    cent. Peroxide of iron is seldom as abundant as in the ash above
    given, and the same is true of soda. Chloride of sodium is common
    salt, and exists in a small quantity. Salt is beginning to be much
    used as a fertilizer on wheat lands in western New York. It operates
    indirectly to increase the crop.

    The following may be taken as about the average composition of the
    ash of wheat-straw. It is "Specimen No. 40," in the tables of Prof.
    Way, and I copy verbatim all that is said upon the subject: [Soil,
    sandy; subsoil, stone and clay; geological formation, silurian;
    drained; eight years in tillage; crop, after carrots, twenty tons
    per acre; tilled December, 1845; heavy crop; mown, August 12th;
    carried, August 20th; estimated yield, forty-two bushels per acre;
    straw long, grain good, weight sixty-two pounds to the bushel.]
    Length of straw, forty-two inches.


          _Relation of Grain, Straw and Chaff_.

              Actual quantities.         Per centage.
  Grain            1633 lbs.                45.15
  Straw            1732                     47.89
  Chaff             250                      6.96
                   ----
  Total            3615 lbs.


  Specific gravity of grain             1.396
  Weight of grain per acre              2604 lbs.
    "    "  straw  "   "                2,775 3/10ths.
    "    "  chaff  "   "                  401 1/6th.

  _Mineral Matter in an Acre._
  Wheat                                   44 ½ lbs.
  Straw                                  113
  Chaff                                   47 1/6th.
                                         -----------
  Total                                  204 7/10ths.


  _Analysis of the Ash of the Grain_.
                        Per centage.      Removed from an acre.
                                            lbs.    ozs.
  Silica                    5.63              2    8
  Phosphoric acid          43.98             19    8
  Sulphuric acid             .21              0    1 1/6th.
  Lime                      1.80              0   12 8/10ths.
  Magnesia                 11.69              5    3 2/10ths.
  Peroxide of iron           .29              0    2
  Potash                   34.51             15    5 6/10ths.
  Soda                      1.87              0   13 3/10ths.
                           -----            ---   ----------
  Total                    99.98             44    6 l/10ths.


  _Analysis of Straw with its proportion of Chaff._
                        Per centage.      Removed per acre.
                                            lbs.    ozs.
  Silica                   69.36            111    1 7/10ths.
  Phosphoric acid           5.24              8    6 7/10ths.
  Sulphuric acid            4.45              7    2 2/10ths.
  Lime                      6.96             11    2 2/20ths.
  Magnesia                  1.45              2    5
  Peroxide of iron           .29              1    2
  Potash                   11.79             18   14
  Soda                      none               none.
  Chloride of sodium         "                  "
                           -----            ---   -----------
  Total                     99.54           160    1 l/10ths.

    If we subtract the 111 pounds of silica from 160 pounds of minerals
    in the straw and chaff, the difference between what are left and
    those in wheat, is not great. As the stems and leaves of wheat
    plants grow before their seeds, if all the phosphoric acid, potash,
    and lime available in the soil is consumed before the organization
    of the seeds begin, from what source is nature to draw her supply of
    these ingredients to form a good crop of wheat? If the farmer could
    reverse the order of nature, and grow a good supply of seeds first,
    and make straw afterwards, then many a one would harvest more wheat
    and less straw. But the cultivator must grow the stems, roots, and
    leaves of wheat, corn, and cotton, before nature will begin to form
    the seeds of these several plants: and every one should know that
    the atoms in the soil, which are consumed in organizing the bodies
    of cultivated plants, are, in the main, identical in kind with those
    required to make their seeds. The proportions, however, differ very
    considerably. Thus, while 100 parts of the ash of wheat contain an
    average of 45 parts of phosphoric acid, 100 of the ash of the wheat
    straw contain an average of only 5 parts. The difference is as 9 to
    1. In magnesia the disparity is only a little less striking.

    In what are called the organic elements of wheat (the combustible
    part) there are seven times more nitrogen in 100 pounds than in a
    like weight of straw. Hence, if the farmer converts straw into
    manure or compost, with the view ultimately of transforming it into
    wheat, it will take 7 pounds of straw to yield nitrogen enough to
    form one pound of wheat. Few are aware how much labor and money is
    annually lost by the feeding of plants on food not strictly adapted
    to the peculiar wants of nature in organizing the same. It is true,
    that most farmers depend on the natural fertility of the soil to
    nourish their crops, with perhaps the aid of a little stable and
    barn-yard manure, given to a part of them. As the natural resources
    of the land begin to fail, the supply must be drawn from other
    quarters than an exhausted field, or its cultivator will receive a
    poor return for the labor bestowed.

    In Great Britain, where the necessity for liberal harvests and
    artificial fertilizing is far greater than in this country, the
    yield of wheat is said to be governed in a good degree by the amount
    of ammonia available as food for growing plants. This opinion is
    founded not at all on theory, but altogether on the teachings of
    experience. But in England, limeing and manuring are so much matters
    of constant practice, that few soils are so improverished as many
    are in the United States, With land as naked and sterile as is much
    that can be found in the whole thirteen colonies between Maine and
    Alabama, English farmers could hardly pay their tithes and poor
    rates, to say nothing of other taxes, rent, and the coat of
    producing their annual crops.

    The first step towards making farming permanently profitable in all
    the older States, is to accumulate in a cheap and skilful manner the
    raw material for good harvests in the soil.

    Over a territory so extensive as the United States, it is extremely
    difficult to lay down any rule that will be applicable even to a
    moiety of the republic. There are, however, many beds of marl,
    greensand, gypsum, limestone, saline and vegetable deposits
    available for the improvement of farming lands, in the Union. In
    addition to these, there are extraneous resources, the ocean with
    its fish, its shells, its sea-weeds, and its fertilizing salts,
    which will yield an incalculable amount of bread and meat. In the
    subsoil and the atmosphere, every agriculturist has resources which
    are not duly appreciated by one in a thousand.

    As a general rule, the soil must be _deepened_ before it can be
    permanently improved. One acre of soil 12 inches deep is worth more
    to make money from, by cultivating it, than four acres 6 inches in
    depth. Thus, admit that a soil 6 inches deep will produce 14 bushels
    of wheat, and that 12 bushels will pay all expenses and give 2 for
    profit. Four acres of this land will yield a net income of only 8
    bushels. Now double the depth of the soil and the crop: making the
    latter 28 bushels, instead of 14 per acre, and the former 12 inches
    deep, in the place of 6. Fifteen bushels instead of twelve, will now
    pay all annual expenses, and leave a net profit not of _two_ but of
    _thirteen_ bushels per acre. If small crops will pay expenses, large
    ones will make a fortune; provided the farmer knows how to enrich
    his land in the most economical way. It is quite as easy to pay too
    dear for improving lands, as to lose money at any other business
    whatever.

    The first thing for the operator to do is to acquire all the
    knowledge within his reach, from the experience of others who have
    done for their soils what he proposes to accomplish for his. Twenty
    or fifty dollars, invested in the best agricultural works in the
    English language, may save him thousands in the end, and double his
    profits in two years. The Agricultural Journals of the United States
    abound in information most useful to the practical farmer: and the
    back volumes, if collected and bound, will form a library of great
    value.

    _Rotation of Crops in connexion with Wheat Culture_.--A system of
    tillage and rotation which will pay best in one locality, or on one
    quality of soil, and in a particular climate, will be found not at
    all adapted to other localities, different soils and latitudes.
    Hence, no rule can be laid down that will meet the peculiar
    exigencies of a farming country so extensive as the thirty States
    east of the Rocky Mountains. There are soils in Western New York,
    known to the writer, which have borne good crops of wheat every
    other year for more than twenty years, and produce better now than
    at the beginning of their cultivation. The resources of the earth in
    supplying the elements of wheat and corn are extremely variable.
    There are friable shaley rocks in Livingstone county, N.Y., which
    crumble and slake when exposed to the air, that abound in all the
    earthy minerals necessary to form good wheat. These rocks are
    hundreds of feet in thickness, and have furnished much of the soil
    in the valley of the Genesee. The Onondaga Salt Group, and other
    contiguous strata, which extend into Canada West, form soils of
    extraordinary capacity for growing wheat. Indeed, the rocks and
    "drift" of a district give character to its arable surface.

    Nothing is more needed at this time than a good geological map of
    the United States, accompanied by an accurate and popularly arranged
    work on agricultural geology. The writer had hoped to give such a
    map in this report; but it is thought best to devote another year to
    the collection of geological surveys and facts, and to the making of
    more critical and extended researches before publishing.

    In the matter of rotation of crops in connection with wheat culture,
    clover and corn are generally preferred in all the Northern, and
    most of the Middle States. In New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania,
    Michigan, Wisconsin, Northern Indiana, and Illinois, so far as the
    writer is acquainted, a crop of wheat is made in rotation, either
    every third, fourth, or fifth year. Wherever wool growing is united
    with wheat culture, clover and wheat are the staple crops of the
    farm. Wool and superfine flour are exported; farmers taking nearly
    all the bran and shorts of the millers who purchase their wheat.

    The offal of wheat makes not a little feed with chaff and cut straw.
    Many agriculturists grow peas, beans, turnips, beets, and carrots in
    large quantities, as well as clover, corn, oats, and barley. Peas
    and beans, both stems and pulse, when well cured, are excellent feed
    for sheep; and on good land they are easily grown. They prepare the
    soil well for wheat.

    All the manure derived from sheep is husbanded with extreme care by
    the farmers who are gradually enriching their lands. On a deep,
    rich, arable soil, quite a number of sheep may be kept per acre, if
    highly cultivated; and their manure prepares the land for producing
    generous crops of wheat at a small expense. Of all business men,
    farmers should be the closest calculators of _profit_ and _loss_.

    Great care should be taken to sow good and clean seed on clean land.
    Previous to putting the seed in the ground (drilling is preferable
    to sowing broadcast), wheat should be soaked five or six hours--not
    longer--in strong brine. After this, add a peck or more of recently
    slaked lime to each bushel, and shovel it over well, that the lime
    may cover each seed. It is now ready to commit to the earth. Most
    good farmers roll the earth after seeding: some before.

    In the Southern States, planters are in the habit of permitting
    their wheat to remain too long in the field after it is cradled, and
    in small shocks. Good barns are too scarce in all the planting
    States, and in some others.

    _Summer fallowing_ is generally abandoned, except in cases where old
    pastures and meadows, new prairie, or bushy bad fields are to be
    subdued. As a general rule, friable soils need not be ploughed long
    before the intended crop is expected to begin to grow. Among
    fertilizers, wood ashes, salt, bones, lime, guano, and poudrette
    have been used in wheat culture with decided advantage. In Great
    Britain, manure derived from the consumption of turnips and other
    root crops by sheep and neat cattle, is much used in preparing land
    for wheat. Sheep, clover and peas, corn and hogs, rotate well to
    insure the economical production of this staple. Manure is usually
    applied to the crop preceding wheat.

    It may be interesting to some readers to see in this place the mean
    result of several organic analyses of wheat made by M. Boussingault.
    Wheat, dried at 230 deg. _in vacuo_, was found to contain:

  Carbon          46.1
  Oxygen          43.4
  Hydrogen         5.8
  Nitrogen         2.3
  Ash              2.4
                 -----
  Total          100.0

    Charcoal may be regarded as a fair representative of carbon, and
    water as the representative of both oxygen and hydrogen. It will be
    seen by the above figures, that over 95 per cent. of wheat is made
    up of elements which greatly abound in nature in an available
    condition; and the same is true of all other plants. It is doubtless
    owing to this circumstance, that a comparatively small quantity of
    guano and other highly concentrated fertilizers are able to produce
    crops five, ten, and fifty times greater than their own weight.
    Azote, or nitrogen, in the form of ammonia, or nitric acid, (aqua
    fortis), and the incombustible part of plants are the elements which
    least abound in soils, and should be husbanded with the greatest
    care.

The Hon. C.P. Holcomb, of Delaware, furnishes some interesting remarks
on the wheat crop of the United States:--

    A short wheat crop in England, Mr. Webster says, affects the
    exchanges of the civilized world. In the vast increase of population
    in the absence of long wars and famines, the importance of this
    staple is constantly increasing. Its cultivation is the most
    attractive and pleasant of all descriptions of husbandry; and its
    rewards are generally remunerating, when the soil and climate are
    favorable, and the markets are not too distant.

    It is important to know what our relation is to this staple of the
    world, and what is, and what is likely to be, our contribution to
    the great aggregate of production. Beyond feeding our own great and
    rapidly increasing population, it probably will not soon, if ever,
    be very great. It is a mistake, I apprehend, to suppose our country
    is naturally a great wheat-producing country. The wheat district at
    present, in comparison to the whole extent of our territory, is
    limited. It is confined, so far as any appreciable amount is grown,
    to about ten degrees of latitude and twenty degrees of longitude,
    and embracing about one half the number of the States. The crop of
    1848 is estimated by the Commissioner of Patents at one hundred and
    twenty-six millions, and our population at twenty-two millions. This
    gives a less number of bushels, per head, to our population than the
    consumption of Great Britain, which is generally set down at one
    hundred and sixty millions, or six bushels to each inhabitant. But
    with us Indian corn is a great substitute; so are potatoes and oats
    in Ireland and Scotland. Still our consumption of wheat, including
    the black population, is undoubtedly less, per head, than theirs.
    But in the absence of any certain data, to ascertain either the
    actual production, or our consumption, our only safe course is to
    take the actual excess, or the amount exported, after supplying our
    own wants. This, for the fiscal year 1848, being the crop of 1847,
    amounted, in flour and wheat, to twelve millions two hundred and
    ninety-four thousand one hundred and seventy-five bushels, although
    Mr. Burke's figures would show a surplus of some forty millions!
    That there was not, and never has been any such surplus in the
    country is very evident, for the foreign demand was all the time
    good, and drew away all we had to part with.

    The crop of 1848 was, undoubtedly, one of the best and largest we
    have ever grown; yet I have ascertained, by application at the
    registrar's office, that the exports for the fiscal year 1842,
    amounted in wheat to but 1,527,534 bushels, and in flour to
    2,108,013 barrels, or less by 226,676 bushels than the exports of
    1848. Twelve millions is comparatively a small surplus in a
    favorable season, for a country with a population of twenty-two
    millions of inhabitants. The loss of a small per cent. in an
    unfavorable season would at once sink this excess.

    Let us now notice more in detail the different sections of our
    country as adapted to the growth of wheat.

    The New England States, some of them aided in their recent
    enterprises by bounties offered by the state governments, have
    failed to insure such success as is likely to encourage them to
    continue the culture of wheat; or, at all events, to induce them to
    aim at increasing their product to any considerable extent, since,
    as one of their own farmers candidly states, "the attempt to grow a
    crop of wheat is an experiment."

    The States south of North Carolina, and inclusive of a part of
    Delaware, have never heretofore succeeded in growing wheat to any
    considerable extent, though there were periods in their
    history--before the general introduction of the culture of
    cotton--when, if it had been practicable to make the cereal one of
    their staples, they would certainly have done so. Besides the common
    dangers from rust and blight, the fly, and sometimes the frost--as
    the past season--they have a most formidable enemy in the weevil. In
    Upper Georgia, in the Cherokee country in particular, wheat will
    probably be cultivated to some extent, and a limited cultivation of
    it by the planters for their own use will probably continue in
    several of the southern states. But the cotton, rice, and sugar
    states, like the manufacturing states of New England, will not soon,
    if ever, add much to the supply of wheat; the rich staples of the
    former, and the varied husbandry and grazing of the latter, suited
    to supply the immediate wants of a manufacturing population, will be
    likely to receive their attention in preference.

    Kentucky and Tennessee, though their agricultural history dates back
    beyond the settlement of the north-western states, have already been
    out-stripped by at least two of them. In neither of these states has
    the culture of wheat ever been put forward, and regarded as one of
    their best staples, or as very favorably adapted to their soil and
    climate. Still, notwithstanding the formidable danger from rust, the
    production of Tennessee is estimated to be equal to nine bushels to
    each person, and Kentucky about seven and a half bushels. Missouri
    may be classed with Kentucky and Tennessee, which she much resembles
    in soil, climate, and productions, except that she raises much less
    wheat than either, her crop being placed by the Commissioner of
    Patents at only two millions, or less than four bushels to each
    resident of the state. But, besides that the experience of the past
    discourages the idea that these fine states are likely to become
    great wheat-producing states, the fact that the staple of cotton may
    be cultivated over a considerable portion of one of them, and that
    hemp and tobacco are among the valuable products of the other two;
    that Tennessee is the very largest corn-producing state in the
    Union, showing her soil and climate are particularly adapted to this
    description of grain, and that Kentucky and Missouri are unsurpassed
    as grazing countries, and there is little ground to suppose that any
    change in their husbandry will very greatly or suddenly augment the
    production of wheat. Let us come now to the States of Indiana,
    Illinois, Wisconsin, and Iowa, and that _fabulous_ wheat district or
    territory to the west of these again, from which, according to the
    vaticinations of some, may be drawn supplies of wheat to feed the
    population of both Europe and America, or fill warehouses that would
    sustain our people through a longer famine than that which afflicted
    the people of Egypt! I cannot help thinking that, to some extent,
    this generally fertile district of country has, so far as the
    production of wheat is concerned, been "shouted forth in
    acclamations hyperbolical." My own impression in regard to it is,
    including the states last named, derived in part from observation,
    from intercourse and correspondence with intelligent agriculturists
    of these states, and from a careful examination of a geological
    survey of two of them, that the soil and climate of this whole
    district of country are _not_ particularly favorable to the
    production of wheat. The popular idea I know to be otherwise. I am
    not going to dwell upon it, or to examine the subject at any length.
    There is a single remark that may help to explain the reputation
    that has gone abroad in reference to the wheat-producing qualities
    of these lands. The prairie sod, when first broken up, generally
    produces wheat well, often most abundantly, provided it escapes the
    rust, insect, &c. But, when this ground has been much furrowed,
    becomes completely pulverized by exposure to the atmosphere, the
    light and friable mould, of which most of it is composed, drenched,
    as a good deal of it is, at times, with surface water, fails to hold
    or sustain the roots of the plant, it is thrown out, or
    winter-killed; and "winter-killed," "winter-killed,"
    "winter-killed," we all know, is among the catalogue of disasters
    that almost annually reach us. Sometimes, when escaping the winter,
    the high winds of spring blow this light soil from the roots,
    exposing them to such an extent, that, in a dry time in particular,
    the wheat often perishes. When breaking up fresh prairies, there was
    much encouragement and promise of hope, but which, I believe, has
    not been, nor is likely to be, realized by their husbandmen, in the
    degree that early experiments induced them to look for.

    As appears by the last report of the Commissioner of Patents, the
    crop of Illinois, in reference to population and production, is
    below that of Kentucky, and both Indiana and Illinois are below that
    of Tennessee. The crop of Indiana is set down at 8,300,000, her
    population at 1,000,000, or equal to 8½ bushels a-head. The
    production of Illinois is stated at 5,400,000, her population at
    800,000, or less than seven bushels to each inhabitant--and both
    these "fair and fertile plains" are still farther behind the old
    "battered moors" of Maryland and Virginia.

    Much of their wheat, too, is spring wheat, sown often on land where
    the fall crop had winter-killed, increasing the number of bushels
    much more than the value of the crop. I have heard it estimated
    that full one-third of all the wheat shipped from Chicago was of
    this description. Chicago is their great wheat depot. Several
    millions of bushels are shipped from this point, _the contributions
    from parts of three States_, Wisconsin, Indiana, and Illinois; and
    which concentration of their joint product at this new western city,
    or something else, seems to have imparted to each and all these
    states the reputation of great wheat-growing states, though they
    are, in fact, with the advantage of a virgin soil, behind several of
    the western states, and two at least of the eastern or Atlantic
    States. The geological explorations of the Hon. Robert Dale Owen,
    undertaken under the authority of Congress, throws much light on the
    character of the soil of Wisconsin and Iowa, and the description
    given undoubtedly characterizes much of that region of country. The
    specific gravity of the soil, Mr. Owen states to be remarkably
    _light_; but what he represents to be a "striking feature in the
    character of the Iowa and Wisconsin soils, is the _entire absence,
    in the most of the specimens of clay, and in a large proportion of
    silex_." Again, he speaks of their being particularly adapted to the
    growth of the sugar-beet, which he truly says, "flourishes best in a
    _loose fertile mould_." Again, he detected no phosphates; but they
    might be there, as the _virgin_ soil produced good wheat. So does
    the virgin soil of most of the prairie land.--"The soil was rich in
    geine," &c. But I submit that this does not describe a wheat soil,
    hardly in any one particular. Liebig tells us, that "however great
    the proportion of _humus_ in a soil, it does not necessarily follow
    it will produce wheat"--and cites the country of Brazil.

    Again, he adds, "how does it happen that wheat does not flourish on
    a sandy soil (which much of the soil of these states is described to
    be), and that a calcareous soil is also unsuitable to its growth,
    unless it be mixed with a considerable quantity of clay?"

    The late Mr. Colman, in his _European Agriculture_, states, that
    "the soil preferred for wheat (in England) is a strong soil with a
    large proportion of clay. But the question after all is, not whether
    these States cannot grow wheat, and in comparatively large
    quantities, for we know that while their lands are fresh, they can
    and do--but whether, considering the hazard of the crop from
    winter-killing, the rust, the fly--the risk from the two former
    being equal to a large per cent. premium of insurance, they are not
    likely to find their interest in grazing, in raising and feeding
    stock, instead of attempting to extend their wheat husbandry. Lord
    Brougham has said, that grazing countries are always the most
    prosperous, and their population the most contented and happy. The
    meat markets of Great Britain are likely to prove better and more
    stable for us, than their grain markets.

    The Hon. Henry L. Ellsworth, a distinguished citizen, and large
    farmer of Indiana--distinguished throughout the Union for his zeal
    in the cause of agriculture--thus expresses himself on this subject:
    "After a full consideration of the subject, I am satisfied that
    stock-raising at the West is much more profitable than raising
    grain. Indeed, an examination of the north-western States shows a
    vast difference in the wealth of the grazier over those who crop
    with grain. The profits of wheat appear well in expectation on
    paper, but the prospect is blasted by a severe winter, appearance of
    insects, bad weather in harvesting, in threshing, for there are but
    few barns at the West, or transporting to market, or last, a
    fluctuation in the market itself."

    Such is the opinion of Mr. Ellsworth, the result of observation and
    experience, himself largely interested in ascertaining the safest
    and surest course to be pursued. The destiny he has indicated for
    this beautiful fertile region of country, will undoubtedly be
    fulfilled; it will become a great pastoral, stock-raising, and
    stock-feeding country.

    Ohio stands now, as she did at the census of 1840, at the head of
    all the wheat States, in the aggregate of production; her crop of
    1848 being estimated at 20,000,000, which is about equal to 10½
    bushels per head of her population. The geological survey of this
    State, and the character of the soil, as described in the Reports of
    the Board of Agriculture, in a large range of her counties, as a
    "clayey soil," "clayey loam," "clay subsoil," &c., shows Ohio to
    possess a fine natural wheat soil, if indeed, alter thirty years of
    a generally successful wheat husbandry, such additional testimony or
    confirmation was necessary.

    Michigan has also been successful in the cultivation of wheat. Her
    burr-oak openings are unsurpassed in producing wheat. They are
    intervening ridges between low grounds, or marshes and bodies of
    water, and their location not generally considered very healthy. A
    doubt has also been suggested as to whether this soil, being a
    clayey loam, resting on a sandy and gravelly subsoil, is likely to
    wear as well as some other portions of the fertile soil of the
    State. The Commissioner of Patents puts her crop for 1848 at
    10,000,000 of bushels, which is equal to 23½ bushels to each
    inhabitant! By the census of 1840, the population of Michigan was
    212,267; number of bushels of wheat, 2,157,108. Her population in
    1848 is estimated at 412,000. While she has barely doubled her
    population, she has, according to the above estimate, more than
    _quadrupled_ her production of wheat--increased it at the rate of
    about one million bushels a year for eight consecutive years, making
    the quantity she grows to each head of her population _more than
    double_ that of any State in the Union.

    We can at least say, and appeal to the past history of the country
    to show it, that for a period of more than one hundred years, the
    supply of the Atlantic wheat States has generally been constant, and
    for the most part abundant. They have furnished the "staff of life"
    to several generations of men, and cotemporary with it, an annual
    amount for export, that materially assisted in regulating the
    exchanges of the country.

England requires for her own consumption, upon the average of years,
somewhere about 32,000,000 bushels of wheat more than she produces.
The average annual entries of foreign wheat for consumption in the
United Kingdom, for the sixteen years ending with 1845, were about
nine and a half million bushels. Inasmuch as the average number of
acres in wheat crop were in 1846 about 4,600,000, the average produce
142,200,000 bushels, or over 30 bushels to the acre--an improvement in
the harvest to the extent of two bushels per acre, will destroy the
demand, and a deficiency to that extent will double it. Now as there
is an available surplus at the neighbouring ports in Europe, in the
Baltic and the Black Sea, of about 18,000,000 of bushels only,
whenever there is a demand for home consumption, for, say 20,000,000
bushels, as was the case in each of the five years from 1838 to 1843,
larger shipments from America will take place; but whenever there are
good harvests, as in the six years from 1831 to 1837, in which the
deficiency only ranged from 230,000 to 1,000,000 bushels, the trade is
not worth notice. It must be remarked, however, that in a country like
Britain, where capital is abundant, consumption great, speculation
rife, the harvest so uncertain, and the stake so great that a cloudy
day transfers thousands from one broker to another, the importation
cannot be closely assimilated to the actual wants of the country. The
ordinary yield of grain in the United Kingdom after deductions for
seed, is about 400,000,000 bushels, and as nearly 100,000,000 bushels
of grain and meal were imported in 1847, there must have been a
general deficiency of nearly twenty-five per cent.

In the "Statistics of the British Empire," the average extent of land
under grain culture, &c., in 1840, was estimated as follows:--

                            ENGLAND AND WALES.
                                    Produce per Acre.      Total Produce.
  Wheat               3,800,000      3¼ quarters.            12,350,000
  Barley and rye.       900,000      4         "              3,600,000
  Oats and beans.     3,000,000      4½        "             13,500,000

                                SCOTLAND.
  Wheat                 220,000      3                          660,000
  Barley                280,000      3½                         980,000
  Oats                1,275,000      4½                       5,737,500

In Scotland, ten years ago, 150,000 acres were reckoned to be under
cultivation with wheat, 300,000 with barley, and 1,300,000 with oats,
which is the great crop and chief food of the people.

Mr. Braithwaite Poole, in his "Statistics of British Commerce," 1852,
states--"The annual average production of all sorts of corn in the
United Kingdom has been estimated by competent parties at rather more
than 60,000,000 quarters, and £80,000,000 in value; but in the absence
of general official returns, we cannot vouch for its accuracy,
although, from various comparisons, there are reasonable grounds for
assuming this calculation to be as nearly correct as possible. Some
persons in the corn trade imagine the aggregate production to approach
almost 80,000,000 quarters; but I cannot find any data extant to
warrant such an extended assumption."

The estimated produce of wheat, in quarters, and acreage, he states as
follows:--

                   Quarters.         Acreage.
  England         15,200,000        3,800,000
  Ireland          1,800,000          600,000
  Scotland         1,225,000          350,000
                  ----------        ---------
        Total     15,225,000        4,750,000

The average price of wheat per quarter in the last thirteen years, in
England and Wales, has been as follows:--

               s. d.
  1840        66  4
  1841        64  4
  1842        57  3
  1843        50  1
  1844        51  3
  1845        50 10
  1846        54  8
  1847        69  9
  1848        50  6
  1849        44  3
  1850        40  4
  1851        38  7
  1852        41  0

The best wheat, as well as the greatest quantity, is raised in the
midland counties. From two and a half to three Winchester bushels per
acre are required for seed, and the average produce varies from
twenty-two to thirty-two bushels per acre.


THE CONTINENT.

The quantity of wheat raised in France in 1835 was 71,697,484
hectolitres, of which eleven millions was required for seed. The
average produce per hectare was stated at thirteen and a half
hectolitres.

The total grain and pulse raised in that year was set down at
204,165,194 hectolitres.

                      Hectolitres.
  Maslin               12,281,020
  Barley               18,184,316
  Rye                  32,999,950
  Buckwheat             5,175,933
  Maize and Millet      6,951,179
  Oats                 49,460,057
  Peas and Beans        3,318,691

Oats, next to wheat is the largest crop grown in France, for the
support of two million horses and three and a half million mules and
asses.

According to the "Annuaire de l'Economie Politique de la Statistique,"
there were 13,900,000 hectares (each about 2½ acres) under cultivation
with the cereals in France.

The primary article of consumption is wheat. At the rate of three
hectolitres (1 qr. ¼ bush.) to each individual, every family would
require thirteen to fourteen hectolitres, costing 210 to 280 francs
(£8 15s. to £11 10s.) according as the price varies, between its
present value fifteen francs, and its occasional cost twenty francs.
In the reign of Louis XVI, Arthur Young referred with horror to the
black bread eaten by the French. Since that time half a century has
passed, and whilst the agricultural produce in France has tripled in
value, the labourers who produce it continue, from custom and
necessity, to eat a detestable bread made from rye, barley, or peas
and potatoes; and, to make the matter still worse, it is badly baked,
without yeast, and being sometimes kept for weeks, it becomes covered
with mould, and altogether presents an appearance enough to turn the
stomach of a savage.

According to Mr. McGregor's estimate some ten or twelve years ago, the
land under wheat culture was 13,808,171 acres, producing 191,000,000
bushels; and 11,715 acres with spelt, or red wheat, the yield of which
was 374,000 bushels.

The other crops were--

               Acres       Crops, bushels
  Maslin     2,251,438       32,000,000
  Rye        6,369,879       76,000,000
  Barley     2,936,453       45,000,000
  Oats       7,416,297      134,000,000
  Maize      1,561,372       20,000,000

Wheat and oats are grown all over Russia, which is the greatest corn
land in the world.

In Austrian Italy the yield of grain has been reckoned at three
million quarters, but this seems rather low. About one-half of this is
maize and rye, and a quarter wheat.

It is reckoned that eight million quarters of grain are raised yearly
in Denmark, but this seems doubtful. In 1839, a million quarters of
grain, however, were shipped from that kingdom.

BRITISH AMERICAN PROVINCES.

According to the census return of 1852, the number of acres under
grain crops, and the produce in Canada, were as follows:--

  Lower Canada--Produce.                    Upper Canada--Produce.

  Acres.          Bushels.                   Acres.          Bushels.
                Lower Canada--Produce     Upper Canada--Produce
                 Acres       Bushels       Acres      Bushels
  Wheat         427,111     3,075,868     782,115    12,692,852
  Barley         42,927       668,626      29,916       625,875
  Rye            46,007       341,443      38,968       479,651
  Oats          540,422     8,967,594     421,684    11,193,844
  Buckwheat      51,781       530,417      44,265       639,381
  Maize          22,669       400,287      70,571     1,666,513

Flour may be valued at 21s. the barrel.

The grain crops in Lower Canada are taken in the minot, and not in the
bushel, except in the townships. In like manner, the acres are taken
in arpents. An arpent is about one-seventh less than an acre; and a
minot about one-eighth (some say one-twelfth) more than a bushel.

During the years 1850-1, Western Canada exported upwards of two
million barrels of flour, and three million bushels of wheat, being
equivalent to 13,600,000 bushels of wheat. The value of the wheat and
flour exported in 1851 was £404,033. Canadian flour, like that of
Genessee, is of very superior quality.

                      WHEAT.--UPPER  CANADA.
                              Bushels.      To each inhabitant.
  Wheat crop of 1841 was     3,221,991  or          6.60
        Do.     1847         7,558,773  "          10.45
        Do.     1849         9,706,082  "          12.08
        Do.     1851        12,692,852  "          13.33

The quantity of land under wheat in "Upper Canada was 782,115 acres,
showing a yield of about sixteen and three quarter bushels to the
acre. The wheat produced in 1852 was valued at nearly two million
pounds sterling.

                                 LOWER CANADA.
                                         Minots.
  Wheat crop in 1843 was                  942,835  or  1.36
        Do.     1851                    3,075,868  "   3.46

                                 UNITED STATES.
                                        Bushels.
  Wheat crop in 1839 was               84,832,272  or  4.96
  Estimated by patent office 1847     114,245,500  "   5.50
  Crop of wheat 1849                  100,684,627  "   4.33

In order, however, to institute a fairer comparison, I will divide the
States into three classes, viz.:--1st. States growing over six million
bushels.

                    Bushels.      Population.     Bush, per head.
  Pennsylvania     15,367,691      2,311,736           6.65
  Ohio             14,487,351      1,980,408           7.32
  New York         13,131,498      4,148,182           3.16
  Virginia         11,232,616      1,421,661           7.90
  Illinois          9,414,575        851,471          11.06
  Indiana           6,214,458        988,416           6.28
                   ----------     ----------          -----
  Total            69,847,189     11,701,924           5.97

2nd. States growing over one million and less than six million
bushels.

                    Bushels.      Population.     Bush, per head.
  Michigan         4,925,889         397,654           12.39
  Wisconsin        4,286,131         305,191           14.04
  Maryland         4,494,681         583,031            7.71
  Missouri         2,981,652         682,043            4.38
  Kentucky         2,140,822         982,405            2.15
  North Carolina   2,130,102         868,903            2.45
  Tennessee        1,619,381       1,002,525            1.61
  New Jersey       1,601,190         481,555            3.27
  Iowa             1,530,581         192,214            7.96
  Georgia          1,088,534         905,999            1.21
  South Carolina   1,066,277         668,507            1.60
                  ----------       ---------            ----
  Total           27,865,240       7,078,131            3.93

3rd. The remaining States and territories.

                   2,791,470       4,466,246            0.63

Total wheat crop in the United States, 100,503,899 bushels.
Population, 23,246,301. Bushels per head, 4.33.

  Increase:--U. States,  1839      84,823,272 bushels
                  "      1849     100,503,896    "
                                  -----------
                                   15,680,627

  Or 18.49 per cent. in ten years.

           Upper Canada, 1841       3,221,991    "
                   "     1851      12,692,825    "
                                   ----------
                                    9,470,861

Or nearly quadrupling itself in ten years.

                            Bushels.     Population.     Bush. per head.
  Pr. Ed. Island   1847     219,787        62,678             3.50
  Newfoundland     1850     297,157       276,117             1.08
  New Brunswick    1850     206,635       193,800             1.06

The Eastern States in 1849 raised 1,090,896 bushels. Population
2,668,106, or 0.41 each.

The population of Upper Canada is 952,904, and allowing five bushels
for each, 4,760,020 bushels; and for seed at one and a half bushels
per acre 1,173,173 bushels = 5,933,193; leaves for export 6,761,668
bushels. More than sufficient to supply the consumption of the whole
of the Eastern States.

"Were the population of Lower Canada to consume flour at the given
rate, it would require--

                                    Bushels.
  890,261 at five bushels each     4,451,305
  Seed                               640,000
                                   ---------
                                   5,091,305
  Grown                            3,075,868
                                   ---------
                                   2,015,437

Leaving a surplus of wheat in Canada 4,746,231 bushels, or at four and
a half bushels for each, equal to 1,054,718 barrels of flour.

Professor Johnston in his report on New Brunswick, furnishes some
valuable information as to the produce there.

The following table of average weights indicates a capacity in the
soil and climate to produce grain of a very superior quality:--

  ----------------+-------+--------+------+-----+-------+-------
                  |       |        |      |     | Buck- |
      COUNTIES    | Wheat | Barley | Oats | Rye | Wheat | Maize
  ----------------+-------+--------+------+-----+-------+-------
  Saint John      |61     |   --   |41    |  -- |   50  |  --
  Westmoreland    |60     |   48   |35½   |  -- |   48  |  59
  Albert          |58     |   50   |34¾   |  50 |   45  |  --
  Charlotte       |59     |   45   |39    |  -- |   57  |  59
  King's          |59½    |   48   |37    |  -- |   48  |  60
  Queen's         |58½    |   50   |36½   |  53 |   43  |  61
  Sunbury         |57     |   55   |38    |  53 |   47  |  57
  York            |63     |   50   |38    |  -- |   51  |  60
  Carleton        |64     |   --   |38    |  -- |   52  |  65
  Kent            |63     |   --   |37    |  -- |   50  |  --
  Northumberland  |62     |   53   |37    |  -- |   45  |  57
  Gloucester      |63     |   51   |39    |  -- |   --  |  --
  Restigouche     |63     |   48   |42    |  -- |   --  |  --
  ----------------+-------+--------+------+-----+-------+------

The general average weights for the whole Province are, for

  Wheat           60 11-13 lbs.
  Barley          50       "
  Oats            38       "
  Rye             52½      "
  Buckwheat       48 8-11  "
  Indian Corn     59½   "
  Potatoes        63       "
  Turnips         66       "
  Carrots         63       "

The annexed statement shows not only the average yield per acre of
each description of crop, but affords an opportunity of contrasting it
with the like products in the State of New York:--

         AVERAGE PRODUCE PER IMPERIAL ACRE.

                  New Brunswick   State of New York
                     Bushels           Bushels
  Wheat               20                14
  Barley              29                16
  Oats                34                26
  Rye                 20½                9½
  Buckwheat           33¾               14
  Indian Corn         41¾               25
  Potatoes           226                90
  Turnips            460                88
  Hay                  1¾               --

A possibility of error in striking the averages is suggested in the
report; and to guard against it the following statement of the
averages derived from the minimum returns is given, viz.:--Wheat 17¾
bushels; Barley, 27; Oats, 33; Buckwheat, 28; Rye, 18; Indian Corn,
36½; Potatoes, 204; Turnips, 389. The diminished averages scarcely
affect the question of productiveness, as in every particular they
exceed the averages for the favored Genesee Valley and the southern
shores of Lake Ontario.

While the productiveness of the soil is thus proven by the statements
of most experienced farmers, the average prices appear to be equally
favorable to the Provincial growers. The following tables of averages
set this in a clear point of view:--

  AVERAGE PRICES OF GRAIN PER BUSHEL AND PER QUARTER.

                      Per Bushel   Per Quarter
        Wheat         7s. 6d.        60s. 0d.
        Barley        4   2½         33   8
        Oats          2   0          16   0
        Rye           4  10          38   8
        Buckwheat     3   9          30   0
        Indian Corn   4   8          37   4


          ROOT CROPS AND HAY.

  Potatoes        1s. 11d. per bushel.
  Turnips         1    2       "
  Eng. Hay       49    0   per ton.
  Carrots         2    5   per bushel.
  Man. Wurtzel    2    1       "
  Marsh Hay      20    0   per ton.


  AVERAGE MONEY VALUE OF AN ACRE OF EACH CROP.
                New Brunswick   Canada West    State of Ohio
  Wheat         £ 6 13 0        £2  4  7       £2 19 0
  Barley          5 13 7½        1 19  4½       2  4 0
  Oats            6  3 6         1 11  0        1 13 9
  Rye             4  7 0         1  5 10½       1 12 4
  Buckwheat       5  5 0         3  5  0        1 16 3
  Indian Corn     8 10 4         2 14  4½       2 15 0
  Potatoes       19 11 0         6  6  0        6  9 4½

On a review of the foregoing and other tables, Professor Johnston has
drawn the following conclusions:--

    "That grain and roots generally can be raised more cheaply in the
    Province of New Brunswick than in New York, Ohio, or Upper Canada;
    and that the Province ought to be able to compete with those
    countries and drive them from its home markets."

Such are the deductions of a skilful and scientific, practical and
theoretical agriculturist, from the statements furnished by the most
enterprising and successful of our colonists. Nevertheless, I cannot
conceal a doubt whether all the elements of comparison have been duly
weighed. The result, especially as regards wheat, is so contrary to
pre-conceived opinions, that further investigations should be made. Is
it not possible that, while an equality of expense in preparing the
land for a wheat crop appears to have been assumed, the great care and
expense necessary in New Brunswick to prepare the land, and an
occasional succession of minimum returns would, to a very considerable
extent, account for the supposed discrepancy?

Wheat has, from time immemorial, been a staple crop in the plains of
Northern India, and especially in the Punjaub. The climate and soil
are well fitted for this cereal, but owing to defects and carelessness
in the agriculture and harvesting, the crops, though excellent, fall
short of what most corn-growing countries produce. Further--owing to
foul boats and granaries, and to the moist heat of the months
immediately succeeding harvest, the wheat reaches England in a state
too dirty and weevelled for market. The hard wheat is preferred by the
natives in India to the soft, probably for no better cause than that
the hardness of the grain more closely resembles their favorite food,
rice.


BARLEY.

Oats, rye and barley, are the staple crops of northern and mountainous
Europe and Asia. In England barley is grown principally in the eastern
and some of the midland counties, and chiefly for malting. It is most
extensively cultivated in the Himalaya and Thibet, replacing in many
districts the wheat, and producing an admirable flour.

Since the establishment of the studs at Buxar, Ghazepore, &c., oats
have been extensively cultivated. It is a winter crop.

Although believed to have been indigenous to the countries bordering
on the torrid zone, this grain possesses the remarkable flexibility of
maturing in favorable seasons and situations on the eastern continent
as far north as 70 deg., and flourishes well in lat. 42 deg. south.
Along the Atlantic side of the continent of America, its growth is
restricted to the tract lying between the 30th and 50th parallels of
north latitude, and between 30 and 40 deg. south. Near the westerly
coast, its range lies principally between latitude 20 and 62 deg.
north. The barley chiefly cultivated in the United States is the
two-rowed variety which is generally preferred from the fulness of its
grain and its freedom from smut. Barley has never been much imported
from that country, as the Americans have been rather consumers than
producers. The consumption of barley there in 1850 in the manufacture
of malt and spirituous liquors amounted to 3,780,000 bushels, and
according to the census returns, the quantity of barley raised was
4,161,504 bushels in 1840, and 5,167,213 bushels in 1850. In this
country barley is extensively used for malting, distilling, and making
beer; large quantities are consumed in Scotland, or carried into
England.

In Prussia, about ten and a half million hectolitres of barley are
annually raised. In the Canary Isles, about 354,000 bushels are
annually exported. In Van Diemen's Land in 1844, 174,405 bushels of
barley were grown on 12,466 acres.

The quantity of barley made into malt in the United Kingdom in the
year ending 10th October, 1850, was 5,183,617 quarters, of which about
four million quarters were used by 8,500 maltsters. The quantity of
malt charged with duty in the year ending 5th January, 1851, was
636,641 tons; the average price per quarter, 26s. 2d.

Barley is at present extensively cultivated in the temperate districts
and islands of Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia. In Spain, Sicily,
the Canaries, Azores and Madeira, two crops are produced in a year.
In North America its growth is principally confined to Mexico, the
middle, western, and northern States of the Union, and to the British
North American provinces. The introduction of barley into the American
colonies may be traced back to the period of their settlement. By the
year 1648 it was raised in abundance in Virginia, but soon after its
culture was suffered to decline, in consequence of the more profitable
and increased production of tobacco. It has also been sparingly
cultivated in the regions of the middle and northern States for
malting and distillation, and has been employed, after being malted,
as a substitute for rice.

Barley, like wheat, has been cultivated in Syria and Egypt for more
than 3,000 years, and it was not until after the Romans adopted the
use of wheaten bread, that they fed their stock with this grain. It is
evidently a native of a warm climate, as it is known to be the most
productive in a mild season, and will grow within the tropics at an
elevation of 3,000 to 4,000 feet above the level of the sea. It is one
of the staple crops of northern and mountainous Europe and Asia. It is
the corn that, next to rice, gives the greatest weight of flour per
acre, and it may be eaten with no other preparation than that of
boiling. It requires little or no dressing when it is sent to the
mill, having no husk, and consequently produces no bran. In this
country barley is chiefly used for malting and distilling purposes. In
the year 1850, 40,745,050 bushels of malt paid duty, the number of
maltsters in the United Kingdom being from 8,000 to 9,000. About one
and a half million quarters of barley were imported in 1849, and a
little over a million quarters in 1850, principally from Denmark and
Prussia. The counties in England where this grain is chiefly
cultivated are Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridge, Bedford, Herts, Leicester,
and Nottingham. The produce of barley on land well prepared, is from
thirty to fifty bushels or more per statute acre, weighing from 45 to
55 lbs. per bushel, according to quality. It is said to contain 65 per
cent. of nutritive matter, while wheat contains 78 per cent.

The estimated average produce of barley in this country may be stated
as follows:--

                       Acres.              Crop.
  England            1,500,000           6,375,000
  Ireland              320,000           1,120,000
  Scotland             450,000           1,800,000
                      --------          -----------
                      2,270,000          9,295,000

The average produce per acre, in the United Kingdom, is 4¼ quarters in
England, 3½ in Ireland, and 4 in Scotland. The prices of barley per
quarter have ranged, in England, from 36s. 5d. in 1840, to 27s. 6d. in
1842. In 1847 barley reached 44s. 2d., and gradually declined to 23s.
5d, in 1850.


OATS.

Oats are principally in demand for horses, and the extraordinary
increase of the latter has occasioned a proportional increase in the
culture of oats. They are grown more especially in the north and
north-eastern counties; in the midland counties their culture is less
extensive, but it is prevalent throughout most parts of Wales.

Nearly twice as much oats as wheat is raised in the United Kingdom,
but the proportion grown in Scotland is not so large as is supposed.
The following is a fair estimate of the comparative production:--

                     Acres.           Produce.
  England          2,500,000         12,500,000
  Ireland          2,300,000         11,600,000
  Scotland         1,300,000          6,500,000
                   ---------          ---------
  Total            6,100,000         30,500,000

We import annually about l¼ million quarters from foreign countries
and nearly three-fourths of a million quarters from Ireland. The
average produce per acre throughout the kingdom is five quarters. The
price within the last 10 years has ranged from 28s. 7d. per quarter
(the famine year) to 17s. 6d.

The oat, when considered in connection with the artificial grasses,
and the nourishment and improvement it affords to live stock, may be
regarded as one of the most important crops produced. Its history is
highly interesting, from the circumstance that in many portions of
Europe it is formed into meal, and forms an important aliment for man;
one sort, at least, has been cultivated from the days of Pliny, on
account of its fitness as an article of diet for the sick. The country
of its origin is somewhat uncertain, though the most common variety is
said to be indigenous to the Island of Juan Fernandez. Another oat,
resembling the cultivated variety, is also found growing wild in
California.

This plant was introduced into the North American Colonies soon after
their settlement by the English. It was sown by Gosnold on the
Elizabeth Islands in 1602; cultivated in Newfoundland in 1622, and in
Virginia, by Berkley, prior to 1648.

The oat is a hardy grain, and is suited to climates too hot and too
cold either for wheat or rye. Indeed, its flexibility is so great,
that it is cultivated with success in Bengal as low as latitude
twenty-five degrees North, but refuses to yield profitable crops as we
approach the equator. It flourishes remarkably well, when due regard
is paid to the selection of varieties, throughout the inhabited parts
of Europe, the northern and central portions of Asia, Australia,
Southern and Northern Africa, the cultivated regions of nearly all
North America, and a large portion of South America.

In the United States the growth of the oat is confined principally to
the Middle, Western and Northern States. The varieties cultivated are
the common white, the black, the grey, the imperial, the Hopetown, the
Polish, the Egyptian, and the potato oat. The yield of the common
varieties varies from forty to ninety bushels and upwards per acre,
and weighing from twenty-five to fifty pounds to the bushel. The
Egyptian oat is cultivated south of Tennessee, which after being sown
in autumn, and fed off by stock in winter and spring, yields from ten
to twenty bushels per acre. In the manufacture of malt and spirituous
liquors oats enter but lightly, and their consumption for this purpose
does not exceed 60,000 bushels annually in the United States.

In 1840, Ireland exported 2,037,835 quarters of oats and oatmeal, but
in 1846, on account of the dearth, the grain exports fell off
completely. Most of the grain grown in Ireland requires to be
kiln-dried, and is, therefore, of lower value.

The oat, like rye, never has entered much into our foreign commerce,
as the domestic consumption has always been nearly equal to the
quantity produced. The annual average exports from the United States
for several years preceding 1817, were 70,000 bushels.

By the census returns of 1840, the total produce of the United States
was 123,071,341 bushels; of 1850, 146,678,879 bushels.

In Prussia 43 million hectolitres of oats are annually raised.

The quantity of oats imported into the United Kingdom, has been
declining within the last few years. In 1849, we imported 1,267,106
quarters; in 1850, 1,154,473; in 1851, 1,209,844; in 1852, 995,479. In
1844, 221,105 bushels of oats were raised in Van Diemen's Land on
13,864 acres.


RYE.

Rye (_Secale cereale_) is scarcely at all raised in this country for
bread, except in Durham and Northumberland, where, however, it is
usually mixed with wheat, and forms what is called "maslin,"--a bread
corn in considerable use in the north of Europe.

Geographically rye and barley associate with one another, and grow
upon soils the most analogous, and in situations alike exposed. It is
cultivated for bread in Northern Asia, and all over the Continent of
Europe, particularly in Russia, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Germany and
Holland; in the latter of which it is much employed in the manufacture
of gin. It is also grown to some extent in England, Scotland and
Wales. With us it is little used as an article of food compared with
wheat and oats, though in the north of Europe and in Flanders it forms
the principal article of human subsistence, but generally mixed with
wheat, and sometimes, also with barley; 100 parts of the grain consist
of 65.6 of meal, 24.2 of husk, and 10.2 of water. The quantity of rye
we import seldom reaches 100,000 quarters per annum.

The straw is solid, and the internal part, being, filled with pith,
is highly esteemed for Dunstable work, for thatching and litter, and
it is also used to stuff horse collars.

In Ireland there are 21,000 acres under culture with rye, producing
105,000 quarters.

In North America rye is principally restricted to the Middle and
Eastern States, but its culture is giving place to more profitable
crops.

In Bohemia, as in most parts of Germany, rye forms the principal crop,
the product being about 3,250,000 quarters annually.

The three leading varieties cultivated in the United States are the
spring, winter, and southern; the latter differing from the others
only from dissimilarity of climate. The yield varies from 10 to 30 or
more bushels per acre, weighing from 48 to 56 pounds to the bushel.
The production of rye has decreased 4,457,000 bushels in the
aggregate, but in New York it is greater by the last decennial census
than in 1840, by about 40 per cent. Pennsylvania, which is the largest
producer, has fallen off from 6,613,373 to 4,805,160 bushels. Perhaps
the general diminution in the quantity of this grain now produced may
be accounted for, by supposing a corresponding decline in the demand
for distilling purposes, to which a larger part of the crop is applied
in New York. This grain has never entered largely into its foreign
commerce, as the home consumption for a long period nearly kept pace
with the supply. The amount exported from the United States in 1801,
was 392,276 bushels; in 1812, 82,705 bushels; in 1813, 140,136
bushels. In 1820-1 there were exported 23,523 barrels of rye flour; in
1830-1, 19,100 barrels; in 1840-1 44,031; in 1845-6, 38,530 barrels;
in 1846-7, 48,892 barrels; in 1850-1, 44,152 barrels. During the year
ending June 1, 1850, there were consumed of rye about 2,144,000
bushels in the manufacture of malt and spirituous liquors.

According to the American census returns of 1840, the product of the
country was 18,645,567 bushels; in 1850, 14,188,637 bushels. We
imported 246,843 quarters of rye and rye meal, in 1849, equivalent to
49,368 tons; but in 1850 the imports were only 94,078 quarters and in
1851 they were but 26,323 quarters. About 20,000 acres are under
cultivation with rye in Ireland, the produce of which is 100,000
quarters.


BUCKWHEAT.

Buckwheat belongs to the temperate and arctic climates, and is
cultivated in Northern Europe, Asia, and America for the farinaceous
albumen of its seeds, which, when properly cooked, affords a delicious
article of food to a large portion of the human race. It also serves
as excellent fodder to milch cows, and the straw, when cut green and
converted into hay, and the ripened seeds, are food for cattle,
poultry, and swine.

It is raised most abundantly in Central Asia and the Himalaya. In the
latter country the different varieties are grown at various
elevations, between 4,000 and 12,000 feet. The finest samples
exhibited in 1851 were from Canada, but some of excellent quality was
also shown by the United States, Russia, and Belgium. The common
variety grown in Europe is the _Polygonum fagopyrum_, and _P.
emarginatum_ is grown in China and the East. In this country the
produce varies from 2 to 4 quarters per acre. The quantity of seed
sown is 5 to 8 pecks the acre. Vauquelin found 100 parts of its straw
to contain 29.5 of carbonate of potash, 3.8 of sulphate of potash,
17.5 of carbonate of lime, 13.5 of carbonate of magnesia, 16.2 of
silica, 10.5 of alum, and 9 of water.

It is believed to be a native of Central Asia, as it is supposed to
have been first brought to Europe in the early part of the twelfth
century, at the time of the crusades for the recovery of Syria from
the dominion of the Saracens; while others contend that it was
introduced into Spain by the Moors, four hundred years before.

The cultivation of buckwheat, in one or other of its species, is
principally confined to Great Britain, France, Switzerland, Italy,
Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, Russia, China, Tartary, Japan, Algeria,
Canada, and the middle and northern portions of the United States.

In America from 30 to 45 bushels per acre may be considered as an
average yield in favorable seasons and situations, but 60 or more
bushels are not unfrequently produced.

According to the census returns of 1840, the annual quantity raised in
the United States was 7,291,743 bushels; of 1850, 8,950,916 bushels.

The average annual imports of buckwheat into this country have not
exceeded 1,000 quarters, until last year (1852), when they reached
8,085 quarters. A small quantity of the meal is also annually
imported.


MAIZE.

Maize (_Zea Mays_), is the common well-known Indian corn forming one
of the most important of the grain crops, and has a greater range of
temperature than the other cereal grasses. It was found cultivated for
food by the Indians of both North and South America, on the first
discovery of that continent, and thence derived its popular name.
Maize succeeds best in the hottest and dampest parts of tropical
climates. It may be reared as far as 40 degrees north and south
latitude on the American continent; while in Europe it can grow even
to 50 degrees or 52 degrees of latitude, some of the numerous
varieties being hardy enough to ripen in the open air, in England and
Ireland. It is now cultivated in all regions in the tropical and
temperate zones, which are colonized by Europeans. It is most largely
grown, however, about the Republics bordering on the northern shores
of South America, California, the United States and Canada, the West
India islands and Guiana, on the coasts of the Mediterranean, and
partially in India, Africa, and Australia. We see the singular fact in
Mexico of land which, after perhaps thousands of years' culture, is so
little exhausted, that with a very little labor bestowed on it, a bad
maize harvest will yield two hundredfold profit, while a good crop
returns 600 fold.

This grain adopts itself to almost every variety of climate, and is
found growing luxuriantly in the low countries of tropical Mexico, and
nearly equally well on the most elevated and coldest regions of the
table-land; in the rich valleys of the Cordilleras or the Andes, and
on the sandy heights of those mountains wherever a rill of water can
be brought to nourish its roots. In short, it ripens under the sun of
America, in every part of both continents.

Though wheat is characterised as the most nutritious food for man in
all quarters of the world, yet the Indian corn crop of the United
States is not second in value to any product of the earth; cultivated
in the middle and Eastern States, nay, even in the rich cotton-growing
districts, Indian corn is fast rising in importance, and will soon
equal in value that important commercial staple. This indigenous grain
yields to the nation an annual average of five hundred millions of
bushels, and has, within the last five years, attracted much attention
as a life-sustaining food, more particularly at the period of
Ireland's severe suffering, in 1847, and the following years. Nations,
as well as statesmen and farmers, have found it an object worthy of
their consideration and esteem.

When due regard is paid to the selection of varieties, and cultivated
in a proper soil, maize may be accounted a sure crop in almost every
portion of the habitable globe, between the 44th degree of north
latitude and a corresponding parallel south. Among the objects of
culture in the United States, it takes precedence in the scale of
cereal crops, as it is best adapted to the soil and climate, and
furnishes the largest amount of nutritive food. Besides its production
in the North American Republic, its extensive culture is limited to
Mexico, the West Indies, most of the States of South America, France,
Spain, Portugal, Lombardy, and Southern and Central Europe generally.
It is, however, also cultivated with success in Northern, Southern,
and Western Africa, India, China, Japan, Australia, and the Sandwich
Islands, the groups of the Azores, Madeira, the Canaries, and numerous
other oceanic isles.

Maize is not a favorite grain as bread-corn with the European nations,
for although it abounds in mucilage, it is asserted to contain less
gluten, and is not likely to be much used by those who can procure
wheaten flour, or even rye bread.

The large importations which were made by our Government during the
prevalence of the potato disease, brought it into more general use
among some classes, and the imports for home consumption are still
extensive, having been as follows in the last few years:--

                                     1848.                 1849.
  Indian corn, quarters            1,582,755             2,249,571
    "    meal, cwts.                 233,880               102,181

                                     1850.                 1851.
  Indian corn, quarters            1,286,264             1,810,425
    "    meal, cwts.                  11,401

The trade in maize, or Indian corn, is totally new since 1846. The
famine in Ireland in that year, and the potato rot in almost every
successive year since, have now fully established it. Like the gold
discoveries, the potato rot may be regarded as a providential means of
effecting a great change in the condition of society. Those
discoveries are not without their influence in the East, and, combined
with the potato rot, they have rapidly increased the commerce between
the East and West of Europe, while they are spreading broad paths
between all Europe and the lands in the Southern Ocean. The imports of
maize from all parts, in 1852, amounted to 1,550,000 quarters, of
which about 1,100,000 quarters arrived in vessels from the
Mediterranean, &c., calling at Queenstown or Falmouth for orders. The
balance consisted of imports from America, France, Portugal, &c., and
also of cargoes addressed direct to a port of discharge, without first
calling off the coast for orders. The quantities received in 1851 and
1852 from the Mediterranean were as follows:--

                                     1852.             1851.
  Received from                       qrs.              qrs.
    Galatz                          223,000           286,067
    Ibraila                         362,600           211,779
    Salonica                         35,640            95,377
    Odessa                          219,170            74,065
    Egypt                            50,960            86,260
    Italy                             8,250           162,544
    Constantinople, Malta,
      Trieste, and other
      ports in the Mediterranean    190,720           286,358
                                  ---------         ---------
                                  1,090,340         1,202,450

The various quarters from whence we derive supplies of this grain, are
shown in the following table of the imports for the last three years,
which I have compiled from the most recent Parliamentary returns.

               INDIAN CORN AND MEAL IMPORTED INTO THE UNITED KINGDOM.
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
                        |       1849.     |       1850.    |       1851.
                        |-----------------|----------------|---------------
           PLACES.      |  Corn.  | Meal. |  Corn.  | Meal.|  Corn.  |Meal.
                        |   qrs.  | cwts. |   qrs.  | cwts.|   qrs.  |cwts.
  ----------------------|---------|-------|---------|------|---------|-----
  Russian Ports in      |         |       |         |      |         |
    Black Sea           |   25,519|       |   19,721|      |   98,176|
  Denmark               |    1,300|       |      250|      |        5|
  Hanover               |    1,344|       |         |      |         |
  Belgium               |       67|       |         |      |         |
  France                |  135,115|    510|  102,978|    26|  164,128|   29
  Portugal Proper       |   61,446|       |   67,518|    53|   21,922|
  Azores and Madeira    |   17,214|      7|    7,794|     6|    4,356|    1
  Spain and Bahama      |         |       |         |      |         |
    Islands             |   26,856|     48|   19,982|    48|   34,771|
  Sardinian Territories |   13,357|       |       25|     2|    1,302|    1
  Tuscany               |   11,481|     95|   15,612|    94|   34,760|
  Papal Territories     |    8,927|       |    1,876|      |   75,588|
  Naples and Sicily     |       18|       |   10,066|      |  101,489|
  Austrian Territories  |   90,540|       |   45,748|      |   73,966|
  Malta and Gozo        |   18,198|       |    4,969|      |   11,002|
  Ionian Islands        |    5,390|       |    7,324|      |    5,967|
  Greece                |   57,520|       |    8,712|      |    3,252|
  Egypt                 |   12,767|       |   71,808|      |  127,692|
  Turkish dominions,    |         |       |         |      |         |
    including Wallachia,|         |       |         |      |         |
    Moldavia and Syria  |  563,799|       |  348,456|      |  748,180|
  Morocco               |      760|       |         |      |         |
  West Coast of Africa  |      889|       |    2,322|      |         |
  B.N.A. Colonies       |    1,645|    164|    1,530|      |    4,377|    7
  U.S. of America       |1,170,154|100,859|  538,155|11,253|  295,978|9,522
  Brazil                |    1,253|       |      468|      |      725|
  Other places          |         |       |    1,756|      |         |
                        |         |       |         |      |         |    1
  ----------------------|---------|-------|---------|------|---------|-----
                        |2,225,459|101,683|1,277,070|11,482|1,807,636|9,561
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               (Parliamentary Paper, No. 14, Sess. 1852.)

The many excellent properties of Indian corn, as a wholesome
nutritious food, and the rich fodder obtained from the stalk and leaf
for the nourishment of cattle, invite more earnest attention from the
farmer and planter in the Colonies to its better and extended
cultivation.

Though the average quantity of grain from each acre in the United
States is not more than thirty or forty bushels, yet it is known that
with due care and labor 100 to 130 bushels may be obtained.

In feeding cattle little difference is discoverable between the
effects of Indian corn meal and oil-cake meal; the preference rather
preponderates in favor of the latter.

Corn cobs, ground with the grain, have advocates, but this food is not
relished, and swine decline it.

Indian corn contains about the same proportion of starch as oats
(sixty per cent.), but is more fattening, as it contains about nine or
ten per cent. of oily or fatty ingredients.

The following analysis of maize is given by Dr. Samuel David, of
Massachusetts:--

                  FLESH FORMING PRINCIPLES.

  Gluten, albumen, and casein                  12.60

                  FAT FORMING PRINCIPLES.

  Gum, sugar, starch, woody fibre, oil, &c.    77.09
  Water                                         9.00
  Salts                                         1.31
                                               -----
                                              100.

Prof. Gorham, in "Thomson's Organic Chem.," published in London in
1838, gives another analysis:--

                 Fresh grain.    Dried grain.
  Water              9.00
  Starch            77.00            84.60
  Gluten             3.00             3.30
  Albumen            2.50             2.74
  Gum                1.75             1.92
  Sugar              1.45             1.60
  Loss               5.30             5.84
                   ------           ------
                   100.             100.

Professor Johnston supplies a table, which, he says, exhibits the best
approximate view we are yet able to give of the average proportion of
starch and gluten contained in 100 lbs. of our common grain crops as
they are met with in the market.

From this table I extract the following:--

                       Starch, gum, &c.     Gluten, albumen, &c.
  Wheat flour.              55 lbs.             10 to 15 lbs.
  Oats                      65  "               18    lbs.
  Indian corn               70  "               12     "
  Beans                     40  "               28     "
  Peas                      50  "               24     "
  Potatoes                  12  "                2-1/3 "

The Professor remarks that the proportion of oil is, in 100 lbs. of

  Wheat flour         2   to   4
  Oats                5    "   8
  Indian corn         5    "   9
  Beans and peas      2½   "   3
  Potatoes            0¼   "

Maize is one of those plants in which potash preponderates, for
analysis of its ashes gives the following proportions:--

  Salts of potash and soda        71.00
  ---- lime and magnesia           6.50
  Silica                          18.00
  Loss                             4.50
                                 ------
                                 100.

Dr. Salisbury has also furnished the proximate analysis of five
varieties of ripe maize or Indian corn:--

                                                       Proportions.
             One hundred grains of each.              Water.    Dry.

  Golden Sioux corn, a bright, yellow, twelve-rowed}
    variety, frequently having fourteen rows       }   15.02    84.98
  Large eight-rowed yellow corn                        14.00    86.00
  Small eight-rowed   ditto                            14.03    85.97
  White flint corn                                     14.00    86.00
  Ohio Dent corn, one of the largest varieties of  }
    maize                                          }   14.50    85.50


                      COMPARATIVE ORGANIC ANALYSIS.
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
                       | Golden |  Ohio  |  Small  |  Large  |  White
                       | Sioux. |  Dent  | 8-rowed | 8-rowed |  Flint
                       |        |  Corn. |  Corn.  |  Corn.  |  Corn.
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
  Starch               |  36.06 |  41.85 |  30.29  |  49.22  |  40.34
  Gluten               |   5.00 |   4.62 |   5.60  |   5.40  |   7.69
  Oil                  |   3.44 |   3.88 |   3.90  |   3.71  |   4.68
  Albumen              |   4.42 |   2.64 |   6.00  |   3.32  |   3.40
  Casein               |   1.92 |   1.32 |   2.20  |   0.75  |   0.50
  Dextrine             |   1.30 |   5.40 |   4.61  |   1.90  |   3.00
  Fibre                |  18.50 |  21.36 |  26.80  |  11.96  |  18.01
  Sugar and extract    |   7.25 |  10.00 |   5.20  |   9.55  |   8.30
  Water                |  15.02 |  10.00 |  13.40  |  14.00  |  14.00
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Large quantities of starch are now made from this grain in Ohio; an
establishment near Columbus consume 20,000 bushels of corn annually
for this purpose. The offal of the grain is given to hogs, 500 to 600
head being annually fattened therewith. The quality of the starch is
said to be superior to that of wheat, and commands a higher price in
New York.

A corn plant, fifteen days after the seed was planted, cut on the 3rd
June close to the ground, gave of--

  Water                 86.626
  Dry matter            10.374
  Ash                    1.354
  Ash calculated dry    13.053

By the above figures it will be seen that nearly 90 per cent, of the
young plant is water; and that in proportion to the dry matter, the
amount of earthy minerals which remain, as ash, when the plant is
burnt, is large. This excess of water continues for many weeks. Thus,
on the 5th July, thirty-three days from planting, the relations stood
thus:--

  Water                   90.518
  Dry matter               9.482
  Ash                      1.333
  Ash calculated dry      14.101
  (Ash very saline.)

Before green succulent food of this character is fit to give to cows,
oxen, mules, or horses, it should be partly dried. Plants that contain
from 70 to 75 per cent. of water need no curing before eaten. The
young stalk cut July 12, gave over 94 per cent. of water. Such food
used for soiling without drying would be likely to scour an animal,
and give it the cholic.

The root at this time (July 12) gave of--

  Water                     81.026
  Dry matter                18.974
  Ash                        2.222
  Ash calculated dry        11.711
  (Ash tastes of caustic potash.)

Ash of the whole plant above ground, 6.77 grains. Amount of ash in all
below ground, 3.93 grains.

So late as July 26, the proportion of water in the stalk was 94 per
cent.; and the ash calculated dry 17.66 per cent. The plant gained
21.36.98 grains in weight in a week preceding the 6th September. This
was equal to a gain of 12.72 grains per hour.

The rapid growth of corn plants, when the heat, light, and moisture,
as well as the soil are favorable, is truly wonderful. A deep, rich,
mellow soil, in which the roots can freely extend to a great distance
in depth and laterally, is what the corn-grower should provide for his
crop. The perviousness of river bottoms contributes largely to their
productiveness of this cereal. A compact clay, which excludes alike
air, water, and roots, forbidding all chemical changes, is not the
soil for Indian corn.

When farmers sell corn soon after it is ripe, there is considerable
gain in not keeping it long to dry and shrink in weight. Corn grown by
Mr. Salisbury, which was ripe by the 18th October, then contained 37
per cent. of water, which is 25 per cent. more than old corn from the
crib will yield. The mean of man experiments tried by the writer has
been a loss of 20 per cent. in moisture between new and old corn. The
butts of cornstalks contain the most water, and husks or shucks the
least, when fully matured and not dried. The latter have about 30 per
cent, of dry matter when chemically desiccated.

         COMPOSITION OF THE ASH OF THE LEAVES AT DIFFERENT STAGES.

                   July 19.   Aug. 2.   Aug. 23.   Aug. 30.   Oct. 18.
  Carbonic acid     5.40       2.850      0.65       3.50       4.050
  Silicia          13.50      19.850     34.90      36.27      58.650
  Sulphuric acid    2.16       1.995      4.92       5.84       4.881
  Phosphates       21.60      16.250     17.00      13.50       5.850
  Lime               .69       4.035      2.00       3.88       4.510
  Magnesia           .37       2.980      1.59       2.30       0.865
  Potash            9.98      11.675     10.85       9.15       7.333
  Soda             34.39      29.580     21.23      22.13       8.520
  Chlorine          4.55       6.020      3.06       1.63       2.664
  Organic acids     5.50       2.400      3.38       2.05       2.200
                   -----      ------     ------     -----      ------
                   98.14      97.750     98.187     99.83      99.334

The above figures disclose several interesting facts. It will be seen
that the increase of silica or flint in the leaf is steadily
progressive from 13½ per cent. at July 19, to 58.65 at October 18.

Flint is substantially the _bone earth_ of all grasses. If one were
to analyse the bones of a calf when a day old, again when thirty days
of age, and when a year old, the increase of phosphate of lime in its
skeleton would be similar to that witnessed in the leaves and stems of
maize. In the early stages of the growth of corn, its leaves abound in
phosphates; but after the seeds begin to form, the phosphates leave
the tissues of the plant in other parts, and concentrate in and around
the germs in the seeds. On the 23rd of August, the ash of the whole
stalk contained 19½ per cent. of phosphates; and on the 18th of
October, only 15.15 per cent. In forming the cobs of this plant,
considerable potash is drawn from the stalk, as it decreases from
35.54 per cent. August 16, to 24.69 October 18. When the plant is
growing fastest, its roots yield an ash which contains less than one
per cent. of lime; but after this development is nearly completed, the
roots retain, or perhaps regain from the plant above, over 4½ per
cent. of this mineral. Soda figures as high as from 20 to 31 per cent.
in the ash obtained from corn roots. Ripe seeds gave the following
results on the analysis of their ash:--

  Silica               0.850
  Phosphoric acid     49.210
  Lime                 0.075
  Magnesia            17.600
  Potash              23.175
  Soda                 3.605
  Sodium               0.160
  Chlorine             0.295
  Sulphuric acid       0.515
  Organic acids        5.700
                      ------
                      99.175

The above table shows a smaller quantity of lime than is usually found
in the ash of this grain. It is, however, never so abundant as
magnesia; and Professor Emmons has shown that the best corn lands in
the State of New York contain a considerable quantity of magnesia. All
experience, as well as all chemical researches, go to prove that
_potash_ and phosphoric acid are important elements in the
organisation of maize. Corn yields more pounds of straw and grain on
poor land than either wheat, rye, barley, or oats; and it does
infinitely better on rich than on sterile soils. To make the earth
fertile, it is better economy to plant thick than to have the rows
five feet apart each way, as is customary in some of the Southern
States, and only one stalk in a hill. This gives but one plant to
twenty-five square feet of ground. Instead of this, three square feet
are sufficient for a single plant; and from that up to six, for the
largest varieties of this crop.

Mr. Humboldt states the production of maize in the Antilles as 300 for
one; and Mr. H. Colman has seen in several cases in the New England
States of America, a return of 400 for one; that is to say, the hills
being three feet apart each way, a peck of Indian corn would be
sufficient seed for an acre. If 100 bushels of grain is in such case
produced by an acre--and this sometimes happens--this is clearly a
return of 400 for one.

Of the whole family of cereals, _Zea Mays_ is unquestionably the most
valuable for cultivation in the United States. When the time shall
come that population presses closely on the highest capabilities of
American soil, this plant, which is a native of the New World, will be
found greatly to excel all others in the quantity of bread, meat,
milk, and butter which it will yield from an acre of land. With proper
culture, it has no equal for the production of hay, in all cases where
it is desirable to grow a large crop on a small surface.

Although there has been much written on the Eastern origin of this
grain, it did not grow in that part of Asia watered by the Indus, at
the time of Alexander the Great's expedition, as it is not among the
productions of the country mentioned by Nearchus, the commander of the
fleet; neither is it noticed by Arian, Diodorus, Columella, nor any
other ancient author; and even as late as 1491, the year before
Columbus discovered America, Joan di Cuba, in his "Ortus Sanitatis,"
makes no mention of it. It has never been found in any ancient
tumulus, sarcophagus, or pyramid; nor has it ever been represented in
any ancient painting, sculpture, or work of art, except in America.
But in that country, according to Garcilaso de la Vega, one of the
ancient Peruvian historians, the palace gardens of the Incas, in Peru,
were ornamented with maize, in gold and silver, with all the grains,
spikes, stalks, and leaves; and in one instance, in the "garden of
gold and silver," there was an entire cornfield, of considerable size,
representing the maize in its exact and natural shape; a proof no less
of the wealth of the Incas, than their veneration for this important
grain.

In further proof of the American origin, it may be stated that this
plant is still found growing, in a wild state, from the Rocky
mountains in North America, to the humid forests of Paraguay, where,
instead of having each grain naked, as is always the case after long
cultivation, it is completely covered with glumes or husks. It is,
furthermore, a well authenticated fact, that maize was found in a
state of cultivation by the aborigines, in the island of Cuba, on its
discovery by Columbus, as well as in most other places in America,
first explored by Americans.

The first successful attempt to cultivate this grain in North America,
by the English, occurred on James' river, in Virginia, in 1608. It was
undertaken by the colonists sent over by the Indian company, who
adopted the mode then practised by the natives, which, with some
modifications, has been pursued throughout this country ever since.
The yield, at this time, is represented to have been from two hundred
to more than one thousand fold. The same increase was noted by the
early settlers in Illinois. The present yield, east of the Rocky
Mountains, when judiciously cultivated, varies from 20 to 135 bushels
to an acre.

The varieties of Indian corn are very numerous, exhibiting every
grade of size, color, and conformation, between the "chubby reed"
that grows on the shores of Lake superior--the gigantic stalks of the
Ohio valley--the tiny ears, with flat, close, clinging grains, of
Canada--the brilliant, rounded little pearl--the bright red grains and
white cob of the eight-rowed hæmatite--the swelling ears of the big
white and the yellow gourd seed of the South. From the flexibility of
this plant, it may be acclimatised, by gradual cultivation, from Texas
to Maine, or from Canada to Brazil; but its character, in either case,
is somewhat changed, and often new varieties are the result. The
blades of the plant are of great value as food for stock, and is an
article but rarely estimated sufficiently, when considering of the
agricultural products of the Southern and Southwestern States
especially.

To supply slaves on plantations with bread, including old and young,
requires from twelve to thirteen bushels of corn each a year. Taking
thirteen bushels as the average consumption of breadstuffs by the
22,000,000 of people in the United States, the aggregate is
286,000,000 bushels per annum.

The increase of production, from 1840 to 1850, was 214,000,000
bushels, equal to 56 per cent.

The production of New England advanced from 6,993,000 to 10,377,000
bushels, showing an increase of 3,384,000 bushels, nearly fifty per
cent. New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware and Maryland,
increased 20,812,000 bushels, more than fifty per cent. In the
production of this crop no State has retrograded. Ohio, which in 1840
occupied the fourth place as a corn-producing State, now ranks as the
first. Kentucky is second, Illinois third, Tennessee fourth. The crop
of Illinois has increased from 2,000,000 to 5,500,000 bushels, or at
the rate of 160 per cent. in ten years.

Of the numerous varieties some are best adapted to the Southern
States, while others are better suited for the Northern and Eastern.
Those generally cultivated in the former are the Southern big and
small yellow, the Southern big and small white flint, the yellow
Peruvian, and the Virginian white gourd seed. In the more Northerly
and Easterly States they cultivate the golden sioux, or Northern
yellow flint, the King Philip, or eight-rowed yellow, the Canadian
early white, the Tuscarora, the white flour, and the Rhode Island
white flint.

The extended cultivation of this grain is chiefly confined to the
Eastern, Middle, and Western States, though much more successfully
grown in the latter. The amount exported from South Carolina, in 1748,
was 39,308 bushels; from North Carolina, in 1753, 61,580 bushels; from
Georgia, in 1755, 600 bushels; from Virginia, for several years
preceding the revolution, annually 600,000 bushels; from Philadelphia,
in 1765-66, 54,205 bushels; in 1771, 259,441 bushels.

The total amount exported from America in 1770, was 573,349 bushels;
in 1791, 2,064,936 bushels, 351,695 of which were Indian meal; in
1800, 2,032,435 bushels, 338,108 of which were in meal; in 1810,
1,140,960 bushels, 86,744 of which were meal. In 1820-21, there were
exported 607,277 bushels of corn, and 131,669 barrels of Indian meal;
in 1830-31, 571,312 bushels of corn, and 207,604 barrels of meal; in
1840-41,535,727 bushels of corn, and 232,284 barrels of meal; in
1845-46, 1,286,068 bushels of corn, and 298,790 barrels of meal; in
1846-47 16,326,050 bushels of corn, and 948,060 barrels of meal; in
1850-51, 3,426,811 bushels of corn, and 203,622 barrels of meal. More
than eleven millions of bushels of Indian corn were consumed in 1850,
in the manufacture of spirituous liquors.

According to the census of 1840, the corn crop of the United States
was 377,531,875 bushels; in 1850, 592,326,612 bushels.

The increase in the production of corn in Ohio has been (in ten years)
66 per cent. I have also before me the auditor's returns for the crop
of 1850, as taken by assessors, and the number of acres planted. The
auditor's returns are:--

  Seventy-three counties           55,079,374
  Darke county                        524,484
  Twelve counties, average          8,400,000
                                   ----------
         Total                     64,003,858

This is an advance of 15 per cent. on the crop of 1840, and it is
known that the crop of 1850 was better than that of 1849. The number
of acres planted, and the average production was:--

Acres planted         1,810,947
Bushels produced     64,003,858
Average per acre     35-3/8   bush.

Considering how large a portion of hill land is planted, and how many
fields are ill cultivated, the average is high. Many persons have
believed that taking all years and all lands into view, the average of
corn lands was not more than thirty bushels. But the immense fertility
of _bottom_ lands on the rivers and creeks of Ohio make up for bad
cultivation and inferior soil. We may see something of the differences
in the production of corn, by taking the averages of different
counties, thus:--

               Acres.       Crop.       Average.
  Butler       62,031     2,646,353       42½
  Warren       42,322     1,757,409       42
  Pickaway     65,860     2,627,727       40
  Ross         69,520     2,918,958       42

Compare the average of these counties, which embrace some of the best
lands in the State, with the following:--

               Acres.       Crop.       Average.
  Carroll      10,107       316,999       32
  Jackson      15,680       439,850       30
  Monroe       23,375       728,242       31
  Portage      10,426       329,529       32
  Vinton       11,413       345,470       30

The last counties contain but little bottom land, and hence the
average of corn is reduced one-fourth in amount. Of these counties,
two are full of coal and iron. The resources of the last are more slow
to develop, but in the end will be equally valuable.

But a small quantity of the corn of Ohio is exported _as grain_. It is
first manufactured into other articles, and then exported in another
form. The principal part of these are hogs, cattle, and whiskey. It is
difficult to say exactly how much corn is _in this way exported_, but
the following is an approximation--

                      Bushels.
  In Fat Cattle      4,000,000
  In Fat Hogs       10,000,000
  In Whiskey         2,500,000
                    ----------
      Total         16,500,000

Taking into view the export of corn meal--about twenty millions of
bushels--the residue goes to the support of the stock animals on hand,
of which there are near three millions, exclusive of those fatted for
market.

The exported corn in the shape of cattle, hogs, and whiskey, is worth
about thirty cents cash, while on the farm it is not worth
twenty--thus proving that it is more profitable to consume corn on the
farm, than to export it in bulk. This fact is well known to good
farmers, who seldom attempt to sell corn as a merchantable article.

No mining in the world has ever been equal to mining in a fertile
soil, and no treasury is so reliable as a granary of surplus products.

Indian corn and meal generally find a market in the West Indies,
Newfoundland, Spain, and Portugal. It commands a good price, and finds
a ready sale in the ports which are open to its reception.

Deducting one-sixteenth for the amount exported, and one-tenth for
seed, the quantity of maize annually consumed for food in the United
States by a family of five persons is 85 bushels.

Maize may be considered as the great staple of the agricultural
products of the States. It is exported in large quantities, in a raw
state, or when manufactured into meal. Before it is manufactured into
meal it is dried by a fire, in a kiln prepared for that purpose. By
this process the meal is much less liable to become sour on the
voyage, and can be preserved much longer in a warm climate. No
inconsiderable quantities have likewise been consumed in distillation;
and the article of kiln-dried meal for exportation is destined to be
of no small account to the corn-growing sections of that country.

The improvement continually making in the quality of the seed augurs
well for the productiveness of this indigenous crop, as it has been
found that new varieties are susceptible of being used to great
advantage.

The following was the produce of the different States in the years
named, as given in the Official Census Returns:--

  -----------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------
                   |   1840      |   1841      |   1843      |   1850
                   |  Bushels.   |  Bushels.   |  Bushels.   |  Bushels.
  -----------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------
  Maine            |     950,528 |     988,549 |   1,390,799 |
  New Hampshire    |   1,162,572 |     191,275 |     330,925 |
  Massachusetts    |   1,809,192 |   1,905,273 |   2,347,451 |
  Rhode Island     |     450,498 |     471,022 |     578,720 |
  Connecticut      |   1,500,441 |   1,521,191 |   1,926,458 |
  Vermont          |   1,119,678 |   1,167,219 |   1,252,853 |
  New York         |  10,972,286 |  11,441,256 |  15,574,590 |
  New Jersey       |   4,361,975 |   5,134,366 |   5,805,121 |
  Pennsylvania     |  14,240,022 |  14,969,472 |  15,857,431 |
  Delaware         |   2,099,359 |   2,164,507 |   2,739,982 |
  Maryland         |   8,233,086 |   6,998,124 |   6,205,282 |
  Virginia         |  34,577,591 |  33,987,255 |  45,836,788 |
  N. Carolina      |  23,893,763 |  24,116,253 |  27,916,077 |
  S. Carolina      |  14,722,805 |  14,987,474 |  18,190,913 |
  Georgia          |  20,905,122 |  21,749,227 |  26,960,687 |
  Alabama          |  20,947,004 |  21,594,354 |  24,817,089 |
  Mississippi      |  13,161,237 |   5,985,724 |   9,386,399 |
  Louisiana        |   5,952,912 |   6,224,147 |   8,957,392 |
  Tennessee        |  44,986,188 |  46,285,359 |  67,838,477 |  52,000,000
  Kentucky         |  39,847,120 |  40,787,120 |  59,355,156 |  58,000,000
  Ohio             |  33,668,144 |  35,552,161 |  38,651,128 |  59,788,750
  Indiana          |  28,155,887 |  33,195,108 |  36,677,171 |  53,000,004
  Illinois         |  22,634,211 |  23,424,474 |  32,760,434 |  57,000,000
  Missouri         |  17,332,524 |  19,725,146 |  27,148,608 |
  Arkansas         |   4,846,632 |   6,039,450 |   8,754,204 |
  Michigan         |   2,277,039 |   3,058,090 |   3,592,482 |
  Florida Territory|     898,074 |     694,205 |     838,667 |
  Wisconsin        |     379,359 |     521,244 |     750,775 |
  Iowa T.          |   1,406,241 |   1,547,215 |   2,128,416 |
  D. of Columbia   |      39,485 |      43,725 |      47,837 |
                   +-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------
      Total        | 377,531,875 | 387,380,185 | 494,618,306 | 500,000,000
  -----------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------

The Indian corn crop of 1850, for the whole of the United States, is
returned as over 500 million bushels, a gain of about 40 millions on
that of 1840.

I give below the quantities of Indian corn and meal which were
exported from the United States in the following years:--

           Corn, Bushels.      Meal, Bushels.     Value. Dolls.
  1790      1,713,241
  1794      1,505,977             241,570
  1798      1,218,231             211,694
  1802      1,633,283             566,816
  1806      1,064,263             108,342            1,286,000
  1810      1,054,252              86,744            1,138,000
  1814         61,284              26,438              170,000
  1818      1,075,190             120,029            2,335,405
  1822        509,098             148,288              900,656
  1826        505,381             158,652            1,007,321
  1829        897,656             173,775              974,535
  1833        437,174             146,678              871,814

  --(_Pitkin's Statistics of the United Stales, and Seybert's
  Statistical Annals_.)

_System of culture pursued in the United States_.--Maize, the _corn,
par excellence_, of America, is grown in every State in the Union.

Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Virginia, and Indiana, are in their order
the greatest producers of this grain. In Illinois, North Carolina,
Georgia, Alabama, Missouri, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, New York,
Maryland, Arkansas, and the New England States, it appears to be a
very favorite crop. In Massachusetts, the most Northern and least
favorable State on that account, being cold, a fair proportion is
grown, the aggregate produce being greater there than in any of the
grains, except oats; more, indeed, than might be expected, were not
labor somewhat cheaper than in more Southern States, where the climate
is more congenial. The ordinary produce is twenty-five bushels per
acre; forty bushels is often raised, and in prize crops the weight has
come up to 100 bushels per acre. In Ohio the average is fifty-five
bushels to the acre. The eight and twelve-rowed varieties of Indian
corn are those most usually grown in New York, and the average produce
of a good field in that State is from forty to sixty bushels; on
ordinary ground twenty-five to thirty is a fair crop. The same returns
appeared to be derived from ground in New Jersey. Mr. Doubleday, of
Binghampton, New York, estimates the produce of that neighbourhood at
forty bushels, and the expense of raising the crop as follows,
estimating the worth of the land at twenty-five dollars (say £5) per
acre:--

                                                   Dollars.    Cents.
  The interest of which is                          1           16
  One ploughing with double team, and harrowing     3           50
  Seed and planting                                 1           00
  Plaster or gypsum, and putting on the hill        0           37
  Ploughing and hoeing twice, cutting
     or stalking the corn                           2           75
  Husking or thrashing                              2           50
                                                  -----------------
                                                   11           62

Average yield, forty bushels; cost of produce, twenty-nine cents. (1s.
4½d.) per bushel.

Nothing is here put down for manure or cartage, because the fodder,
cut up and saved, as usually adopted, is equal to the manure required.
It is looked upon that the preparation of ground for corn costs less
than wheat; the approved plan is to plant on sward ground, ploughing
at once, and turning the ground completely over, then harrowing
longitudinally until, a good tilth is obtained. Should the soil not be
rich enough, stable manure is first spread on the land.

Now suppose the corn to sell at seventy-five cents the bushel, the
account would stand thus:--

                                                    Dollars.   Cents.
  Forty bushels, at seventy-five  cents.              30         00
  Cost                                                11         62
                                                     ---------------
    Gain per acre                                     18         38

or £3 13s. 6d. British money profit per acre.

In Lichfield, Connecticut, the cost of produce has been, for the
items as stated above, eighteen dollars twenty-five cents, or the cost
of each bushel thirty-six and one-half cents. The acre produce was
fifty bushels, so that it stood thus:--

                                         Dollars.    Cents.
  Fifty bushels, at seventy-five cents     37          50
  Cost                                     18          25
                                          -----------------
    Gain                                   19           5

or £3 12s. per acre.

The cost of producing maize varies somewhat in the other States,
thus:--

                                                 Per bushel.
                                                   Cents.
  New Hampshire (Unity) the cost was               50
  Fayette county, Pennsylvania                     16 ¼
  Donesville, Michigan, only                       17 ½
  Plymouth, Massachusetts                          17 7/10

The cost on producing this crop was small, but it appears to have been
a small crop, and did not bring more than thirty cents per bushel.

In Monroe county, the richest land in the State of New York,
estimating the land at fifteen dollars per acre, the producing cost
stood at:--

                                              Dollars.   Cents.
  Interest at six per cent.                       0        45
  One ploughing sward, cover or stubble           1        00
  Harrowing, furrowing, seed, and planting        0        87½
  Cultivating three times and hoeing              1        00
  Husking the hill                                1        00
  Shelling and cleaning                           1        00
                                              ---------------
                                                  5        82½

This yielded fifty bushels, the cost of producing the bushel was
eleven and three-fifths cents. This low cost was owing to the fact of
no manure being used; and while it speaks volumes as to the natural
fertility of American soils, yet it reflects very disgracefully upon
the careless system adopted there, as under such treatment no land
could continue, after some years, to produce a crop which could come
into competition with those from newer and less exhausted lands; but
if under a good system of tillage the ground was yearly renewed with
manure, and those amendments which every soil requires, after a crop
has been raised from it, added to the soil in top-dressing and in
ploughing-in, we should never hear of the exhausted state of New
England land, or see the sons of the soil moving west and cultivating
newer soils, thus removing much of the capital and intelligence of a
country away from it.

Supposing the corn of Monroe county sold at seventy cents per bushel,
the balance would appear thus:--

                                         Dollars. Cents.
  Fifty bushels, at seventy cents           35     00
  Cost of production                         5     82½
                                            --------------
        Gain                                29     18½

£6 1s. per acre profit.

In Northern Ohio and in Illinois the cost of production averages
twenty cents per bushel.

The mode of cultivation in Connecticut and the New England States has
been thus described to me by Mr. L. Durand, an experienced
agriculturist:--If the soil selected is light and mellow, it should be
ploughed and subsoiled in the spring, first spreading on the coarse
unfermented manure which is to be ploughed in. For marking the rows
for planting, a "corn marker" may be used to advantage. It is made by
taking a piece of scantling, three inches square and ten to twelve
feet long, with teeth of hickory or white oak inserted at distances of
two to four feet, according to the width designed for the rows. Then
an old pair of waggon-thills and a pair of old plough-handles are put
to it, and your marker is done. With a good horse to draw this
implement, the ground may be made ready for planting very rapidly. It
is better to leave the ground flat than to ridge it, for the latter
mode has no advantage, except when the ground is wet. The difference
in the two modes is chiefly this:--When the ground is ridged, the corn
being planted between the edges of the furrows, it comes immediately
in contact with the manure, springs up and grows rapidly the fore part
of the season. When the ground is left flat, and the manure turned
under the furrows, the corn will often look feeble at first, and in
growth will frequently be much behind that on the ridges; and the
inference early in the season is, that the ridged ground will give the
best crop, but as soon as the roots of the corn on the flat ground get
hold of the manure (say about the 20th of July), the corn will shoot
rapidly ahead, and the full force of the manure will be given to the
stalk just at the time of forming the grain. Corn cultivated in this
way, if the soil is deeply tilled, will often keep green, while that
on ridges is dried up.

Many farmers, at planting, shell the corn off the cob, and plant it
dry. Others soak it a few days in warm water. But when the seed is
only treated in this way, it is very likely to be pulled up by birds
and injured by worms. The best way to prevent this is to first soak
the corn in a strong solution of saltpetre; then take a quantity of
tar, and having warmed it over a fire, pour it on the corn, and stir
with a stick or paddle till the grain is all smeared with the tar;
then add gypsum or plaster till the corn will separate freely, and no
birds will touch the grain.

The time of planting, in the United States, varies with the season and
the section of the country. In New England it may generally be planted
from the 15th to the 25th May. Where the ground is flat, a light
harrow or a cultivator is much better to go between the rows than the
plough. Formerly a great deal of useless labor was spent in hilling up
corn; in dry seasons this was worse than useless. The earth hauled
round the stalk does not assist its growth, nor aid in holding it up;
the brace roots, which come out as the stalk increases in height,
support it; and it has been observed, that in a heavy storm and
thunder gust, corn that is hilled will be broken down more than that
which is not hilled. The ground which is kept level has also the
advantage of more readily absorbing rain, rendering the crop less
liable to suffer from drought. The field should have two or three
regular hoeings, and the weeds be carefully kept under.

In harvesting the following will be found a good plan:--Let two hands
take five rows, cutting the corn close to the ground. A hill should be
left standing to form the centre of the shock, placing the stalks
round it, so that they may not lie on the ground. After the shock is
made of sufficient size, take a band of straw, and having turned down
the tops of the stalks, bind them firmly, and the work is done.

Maize may be cut as soon as the centre of the grain is glazed, even if
the stalks are green. There will be sufficient nutriment in the stalk
to perfect the ear, and the fodder is much better than when it gets
dry before it is cut. If the shocks are well put up, they may stand
four or five weeks. The corn may then be knocked out, and the fodder
secured for winter use.

The report of the Ohio Board of Agriculture for 1849, contains many
interesting statements in reference to maize culture, made by the
officers of numerous county agricultural societies. In Miami county,
2,030,670 bushels were grown, at an average yield of fifty-five
bushels per acre. Three varieties are cultivated: the common gourd
seed, for cattle; the yellow Kentucky, for hogs and distilling; and
the white, for grinding and exportation. According to the returns from
Green county, which produced 1,250,000 bushels of corn in 1849, "a
regular rotation of clover, corn, wheat, and clover again, is best for
corn; and no crop pays better for extra culture." The Harrison county
Agricultural Society reports the pork crop at 4,800,000 pounds; and it
gave its first premium for corn to Mr. S.B. Lukens, whose statement is
as follows:--

    "The ground had been in meadow ten years, was ploughed six inches
    deep about the middle of April, was harrowed twice over on the 9th
    May, and planted on the 11th four feet by two feet. It came up well,
    was cultivated and thinned when ten inches high; three stalks were
    left in a hill. About two weeks afterward it was again cultivated,
    and the suckers pulled off. About the last of June it was again
    cultivated, making three times the same way, as it was laid off but
    one way.

                                                        d.     c.
  Expense of culture, gathering, and cribbing, was      17     10
  Produce of 374-3/8 bushels, at 31¼ cents             117     10
                                                       ----------
  Profit on three acres                                100     00


The evidence on which a premium was awarded was such as should satisfy
any one that 374 bushels were grown on three acres of land, and at a
cost not exceeding 17 dollars 10 cents, delivered in the crib. This is
producing corn at less than 5 cents a bushel.

Whether the statement be true to the letter or not, it shows
conclusively the great value of a _rich soil_ for making cheap corn.
The Board of Agriculture estimates the crop of Ohio last year at
70,000,000 of bushels. Taking the United States as a whole, probably
the crop of corn was never better than in the year 1849. One that has
rich land needs only to plough it deep and well, plant in season, and
cultivate the earth properly with a plough or cultivator, to secure
the growth of a generous crop. On poor soils the case is very
different.

To raise a good crop of corn on poor land, and at the least possible
expense, requires some science and much skill in the art of tillage.
Take the same field to operate in, and one farmer will grow 100
bushels of corn at half the cost per bushel that another will expend
in labor, which is money. It unfortunately happens that very skilful
farmers are few in number, in comparison with those who have failed to
study and practice all attainable improvements. To produce cheap corn
on poor land, one needs a clear understanding of what elements of the
crop air and water will furnish, and what they cannot supply. It
should be remembered that the atmosphere is precisely the same over
ground which yields 100 bushels of corn per acre, that it is over that
which produces only five bushels per acre. Now, the whole matter which
forms the stems, leaves, roots, cobs, and seeds of corn, where the
crop is 100 bushels per acre, is not part and parcel of the soil. A
harvest equal to fifty bushels per acre can be obtained without
consuming over ten per cent, of earth, as compared with the weight of
the crop. No plant can imbibe more of the substance of the soil in
which it grows, than is dissolved in water, or rendered gaseous by the
decomposition of mould.

The quantity of matter dissolved, whether organic or inorganic, during
the few weeks in which corn plants organise the bulk of their solids,
is small. From 93 to 97 parts in 100 of the dry matter, in a mature,
perfect plant, including its seeds, cob, stems, leaves, and roots, are
carbon (charcoal) and the elements of water. It is not only an
important, but an exceedingly instructive fact, that the most
effective fertilisers known in agriculture are those that least abound
in the elements of water and carbon. The unleached dry excrements of
dunghill fowls and pigeons, have five times the fertilising power on
all cereal plants that the dry dung of a grass-fed cow has, although
the latter has five times more carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, per 100
pounds, than the former. Although it is desirable to apply to the soil
in which corn is to grow as much of organised carbon and water as one
conveniently can, yet, where fertilisers have to be transported many
miles; it is important to know that such of the measure as would form
_coal_, if carefully burnt, can best be spared. The same is true of
those elements in manure which form vapor or water, when the
fertiliser decomposes in the ground.

Carbonic acid and nascent hydrogen evolved in rotting stable manure
are truly valuable food for plants, and perform important chemical
offices in the soil; but they are, nevertheless, not so indispensable
to the economical production of crops, as available nitrogen, potash,
silica, magnesia, sulphur, and phosphorus. These elements of plants
being less abundant in nature, and quite indispensable in forming
corn, cotton, and every other product of the soil, their artificial
supply in guano, night soil, and other highly concentrated
fertilisers, adds immensely to the harvest, through the aid of a small
weight of matter. In all sections where corn is worth 30 cents and
over a bushel, great benefits may be realised by the skilful
manufacture and use of poudrette. This article is an inodorous
compound of the most valuable constituents of human food and clothing.
It is the raw material of crops.

It is not necessary to restore to a cornfield all the matter removed
in the crop to maintain its fertility. A part of each seed, however,
ought to be carried back and replaced in the soil, to make good its
loss by the harvest.

In every barrel of meal or flour sent to market (196 pounds), there
are not far from 186 pounds of carbon (coal), and the elements of
water. When a bird eats wheat or corn, I have reason to believe, from
several experiments, that over 80 per cent, of the food escapes into
the air through its capacious lungs in the process of respiration; and
yet the 20 per cent, of guano left will re-produce as much wheat or
corn as was consumed. Imported guano, which has been exposed to the
weather for ages, often gives an increase in the crop of wheat equal
to three pounds of seed to one of fertiliser; while it has given a
gain of seven to one of corn, and fifty to one of green turnips.

Like other grains that have been long cultivated, Indian corn abounds
in varieties. In Spain they count no less than 130, and in the United
States the number is upwards of forty. The difference consists in
size, color, period of maturation, and hardness and weight of grain.
Of size there exists a considerable variety, from Zea Curagua of
Chili, and the Egyptian or chicken corn, both extremely diminutive, to
the large white flint, and ground seed corn of the United States. The
differences in color are the red, yellow, and white. The period of
maturation varies, apparently, very considerably; but it is
questionable whether this variation is real, and independent of
climate. In the Northern States of America, Indian corn ripens in a
shorter period of time than it does in the South, owing, possibly, to
the greater length of the summer day in those latitudes.

In selecting varieties, some experienced and judicious farmers prefer
that which yields the greater number of ears, without regard to their
size, or number of rows. Others prefer that which furnishes one or two
larger ears, having from twelve to twenty-four rows. In the Northern
States of America the yellow corn bears the highest price in the
market, and is considered the most prolific and best suited to feed
cattle and hogs. For bread, the white Button is preferred at the
North, and the white ground seed is used for that purpose in other
quarters. Preference, however, is most frequently given to white flint
corn, which is unquestionably the heaviest, and contains the greatest
proportion of farina.

In Mississippi many varieties are grown, principally those known as
flint and bastard flint. The gourd-seed varieties are very
objectionable in that climate, principally on account of their
softness rendering them unfit for bread, and open to the attacks of
insects in the field and the crib. They require a grain, _white_,
_hard_, and rather flinty--_white_ because of its great consumption in
bread and hommony, in the preparation of both of which their cooks
greatly excel. When meal is ground for bread, the mill is set rather
wide, that the flinty part of the grain may not be cut up too fine,
this being sifted out for "small hommony;" the farinaceous part of the
grain is left for bread. This hommony is a beautiful and delicious
dish. On most plantations the negroes have it for supper, with
molasses or buttermilk. A _hard flinty_ grain is necessary to head the
weevil, with which not only the cribs but the heads of corn in the
field are infested. These are the _Calandra oryzæ_, the true rice
weevil, distinguished from his European cousin by the two reddish
spots on each _elytra_ or wing-cover, and known in America as the
"black weevil;" also a little brown insect, not a true weevil, but a
_Sylvanus_. This sylvanus, and another of the same genus, most
probably the _S. surinamensis_, attack the corn in the field before it
becomes hard, causing serious damage--but nothing to equal that
occasioned by the black weevil.

I know of no generally successful method of staying or even checking
the injury caused by the insects, though much might be written in the
way of suggestion.

In Michigan, the _dent_ variety in dry seasons produces the best crops
on sandy loam, as its roots run deeper than the common _eight-rowed_
yellow or white. In moist seasons the latter varieties usually do
well. They are grown most generally in the Northern part of the State,
while in the Southern section the Ohio dent is principally raised. The
shuck and blade are much used as fodder for cattle, in the early part
of winter.

Indian corn is very liable to change of character from soil and
climate, growing smaller the farther North it is raised. The mixing of
the eight-rowed yellow with the Ohio dent has, so far as my experience
goes, been beneficial in increasing the yield. Sandy loam, or clay, is
considered the soil best adapted to corn. It is usually planted in
May, and harvested in September. The blade is not taken off there as
at the South; some farmers cut up their corn when ripe, put it into
shocks, and husk it late in the fall; others cut the stalks, bind them
in sheaves, and stack them for winter in the fields, or put them away
in barns or sheds; while others husk the corn on the hill without
cutting the stalks, and late in the fall turn their cattle into the
field to eat the fodder. Of these different modes the preference is
usually given to cutting the stalks and putting them under cover
after being well cured, and busting the corn on the hill. The corn is
thought to ripen better in this way, and to keep better in the cribs.
The Ohio dent, having a smaller ear containing less moisture than
other varieties, ripens quicker and keeps better. This crop ranges
from 25 to 65 bushels per acre, and the difference in the yield is to
be attributed to the manner of cultivation. My experience shows that a
crop of 45 bushels per acre costs 13 cents a bushel, including
interest on land. Corn is principally raised in Michigan for home
consumption, and the stalks and shucks, if well cured, are worths
dollars per acre, compared with hay at 5 dollars per ton.

As much as 134 bushels per acre have been obtained, in some instances,
in Massachusetts; till the last 20 years 35 bushels was considered an
average crop, but by a due rotation of crops, and ploughing in long
manure, at least 75 bushels to the acre are now raised. The kinds
preferred there, are an eight-rowed variety, procured originally from
Canada; the Cass corn, another eight-rowed variety, and the Dutton
corn, each of which averages about 60 lbs. to the bushel.

Maize is a principal crop in the Connecticut River Valley, Western
Vermont, and along the Lake shore; but in the high dividing ridge, and
in the Northern counties bordering on Canada, the climate is too
severe for its profitable cultivation.

    "The kind mostly grown (observes Mr. Colburn, of Vermont) is the
    yellow eight-rowed, though some prefer the twelve and sixteen-rowed,
    known here by the name of the Button corn; but my experience in
    cultivating the different kinds for the last twenty-four years, has
    forced me to the conclusion that the common eight-rowed, mixed with
    a kind called the Brown corn, does the best; the kernel of
    the-latter bearing upon a chocolate hue, and the mixture of these
    two kinds of seed imparting a deep rich color to the whole, when
    they become blended, and enhancing the yield whenever the soil is in
    high tilth. Of this kind, the writer has raised, the past season,
    upon eleven acres on the Connecticut River alluvium, over eight
    hundred bushels shelled corn, four acres of which, with extra
    preparation, produced four hundred and sixteen bushels.

    It will never do to carry seed corn from South to North, as it will
    not mature in a higher or colder climate than that from which it has
    been taken. Even half a degree of latitude sensibly affects the
    maturing of the blade, and renders it an uncertain crop in our high
    northern latitudes. To insure an extra yield of this valuable grain,
    the soil must be highly manured, deeply ploughed, thorough
    cultivated and hoed, and top-dressed with lime, house ashes, and
    plaster. This done, it is the most remunerative and profitable of
    all grain crops."

In Delaware there are many varieties, and everybody esteems his own
kind the best. The grain varies from pure "flint" to pure "gourd
seed"--of course the mixtures which are between these two varieties
are most common--it inclines more to gourd seed than to flint. Mint
weighs full standard fifty-six, the gourd seed from forty-nine to
fifty-two pounds, and the mixtures range between. Flint ripens from
ten days to two weeks earlier. It will not produce as many pounds per
acre as the lighter gourd seed. Soil exerts its influence over the
character of corn, a heavy soil tending to produce flint--light soil,
gourd seed.

The corn is "cut up" in the fall, and after curing in the shuck, is
husked; the shuck remaining on the stalk with the blades.

The average yield, on improved land, is fifty bushels; though crops
of one hundred and twelve, and one hundred and sixty bushels per acre
are reported to have been raised in the county, in 1849. The yield
increases from year to year. A general and rapid improvement of the
State is in progress, and in nothing is this seen more clearly than in
the corn crop. Mossy "old sedge" fields, which have been laid out for
years, are broken up, and will yield, if it be a good season, from
five to ten bushels per acre; fence them, lime them with twenty to
thirty bushels, and seed the oat crop with clover, and in two years
the clover sod will return eighteen to twenty bushels of corn. Another
dressing of lime, or its equivalent in marl, of which there is an
abundance in the lower half of Newcastle County, will show thirty
bushels of corn; and of wheat, if the farm manure be used on it, nine
to twelve bushels will not be too much to expect.

In Arkansas, Indian corn is regarded as the "king of grains." It
constitutes the chief food of every animal, from man down to the
marauding rat, while its dried blade furnishes seven-tenths of the
long food for working animals. The _large white_ is the variety most
esteemed, and most generally cultivated, for the reasons that it
yields more grain and fodder, makes, when ground into meal, whiter and
sweeter bread, and is less liable to injury from the weevils. The
blade is usually esteemed the best long food for horses, exceeding in
price the best Northern hay; the average price may be stated at about
seventy cents per cwt. The shuck is fed to cows and young mules, they
eat it, but with less relish than they do the blades, which are
sweeter and more nutritious. The former are much used for mattresses,
being preferred to moss, as they are cleaner, and easier manufactured.
When mixed with coarse cotton, and properly prepared, they will make a
mattress but little inferior to curled hair: price about fifty cents
per cwt. The average price of this grain may be set down at forty
cents per bushel; and the yield on upland in some parts of the State
may be stated at thirty bushels per acre.

Five varieties of maize are grown in Peru. One is known by the name of
_chancayano_, which has a large semi-transparent yellow grain; another
is called _morocho_, and has small yellow grain of a horny appearance;
_amarello_, or the yellow, has a large yellow opaque grain, and is
more farinaceous than the two former varieties; _blanco_, white--this
variety is large, and contains more farina than the former; and
_cancha_, or sweet maize. The last is only cultivated in the colder
climates of the mountains; it grows about two feet high, the cob is
short, and the grains large and white; when green, it is very bitter,
but when ripe and roasted, it is particularly sweet, and so tender
that it may be reduced to flour between the fingers. In this roasted
state it constitutes the principal food of the mountaineers of several
provinces.

The natives remove the husk from the maize by putting it into water
with a quantity of wood ashes, exposing it to a boiling heat, and
washing the grain in running water, when the husk immediately
separates from the grain.

In Jamaica I found maize to produce two crops in the year, and often
three. It is usually grown there on the banks or ridges of the cane
fields. It may be planted at any time when there is rain, and it
yields from fifteen to forty bushels per acre, according to the
richness of the soil, and the more or less close manner in which it is
planted.

In the colony of New South Wales, including the district of Port
Phillip, there were 20,798 acres under cultivation with maize in 1844,
the produce from which was returned at 575,857 bushels; 27,058 bushels
of maize were exported from Sydney in 1848.

_Culture in the East Indies_.--The growers on the hills of Nepaul
reckon three kinds of maize: a white grained species, which is
generally grown on the hill sides; a yellow grained one, grown in the
low and hot valleys; and a smaller one, called "Bhoteah," or "Murilli
Makii," which is considered the sweetest of the three, but from being
less productive is not generally grown on good lands. Maize thrives
best on a siliceous, well-drained, rich soil. A correspondent in my
"Colonial Magazine," vol. ii. p. 309, says the finest Indian corn he
ever saw was in the Himalayas of the Sikim-range, where the soil
consists of a substratum of decomposed _mica_ from the under or rocky
stratum, with a superstratum of from three to six inches of decayed
vegetable matter, from leaves, &c., of the ancient forests.

Throughout Hindostan, June is the usual time for sowing. In Behar,
about two seers are usually sown upon a beggah; in Nepaul, twenty-four
seers upon an English acre; in the vicinity of Poonah, one and a-half
seer per beggah. Before the seed is sown the land is usually ploughed
two or three times, and no further attention given to the crop than
two hoeings. In Nepaul, where it is the principal crop cultivated, the
seed is sown, after one delving and pulverisation of the soil, in the
latter end of May and early part of June, in drills, the seeds being
laid at intervals of seven or eight inches in the drills, and the
drills an equal space apart. The drills are not raised as for turnip
sowing, but consist merely of rows of the plant on a level surface.
The seed is distributed in this manner with the view of facilitating
the weeding of the crop, not for the purpose of earthing up the roots,
which seems unnecessary. The Indian corn sowing resembles that of the
_gohya_ (or upland) rice, in the careful manner in which it is
performed; the sower depositing each grain in its place, having first
dibbled a hole for it five or six inches deep, with a small hand hoe,
with which he also covers up the grain.

The after-culture of this crop is performed with great care in the
valleys, but much neglected in the hills, especially on new and strong
lands. In the former it undergoes repeated weeding during the first
month of its growth, the earth being loosened round the roots, at each
weeding, with the hand hoe. After the first loosening of the soil,
which is performed as soon as the plants are fairly above ground, a
top dressing of ashes or other manure is given. By this mode the crop
gets the immediate benefit of the manure, which otherwise, from the
extraordinary rapidity of its growth, could not be obtained by it. In
three months from the time of sowing, the seed is ripe. The crop is
harvested by cutting off the heads. In Nepaul these are either heaped
on a rude scaffolding, near the cultivator's house, or, more commonly,
they are suspended from the branches of the trees close by, where,
exposed to wind and weather, the hard and tough sheath of the seed
cones preserves the grain for many months uninjured.

Cattle are voraciously fond of the leaves and stems, which are very
sweet, and even the dry straw, which Dr. Buchanan surmises may be the
reason why it is not more generally cultivated by the natives, as the
difficulty would be great to preserve the crop. So slow is the
progress of changes in the regions of India, that near Kaliyachak,
though the people give all other straw to their cattle, yet they burn
that of maize as unfit for fodder. In Nepaul the stalks, with the
leaves attached, often twelve feet long, cut by the sickle, are used
as fodder for elephants, bedding for cattle, and as fuel. The maize
crop within the hills of Nepaul suffers much from the inroads of
bears, which are very numerous in these regions, and extremely partial
to this grain. The average return from this crop is seldom below fifty
seers, ranging frequently far above it.[42] Maize is increasing in
cultivation in Java, and some of the Eastern islands. It is found to
have the advantage there over mountain rice, of being more fruitful
and hardy, and does not suffer from cold until the mean temperature
falls to 45 deg. of Fahrenheit, and no heat is injurious to it.
Several varieties of it are known, but for all practical purposes
these resolve themselves into two kinds: one, a small grain, requiring
five months to ripen, and a larger one, which takes seven to mature.
In some provinces of Java it yields a return of 400 or 500 fold. Mr.
Crawfurd found, from repeated trials, that in the soil of Mataram, in
Java, an acre of land, which afforded a double crop, produced of the
smaller grain 848½ lbs. annually.


RICE.

This is one of the most extensively diffused and useful of grain
crops, and supports the greatest number of the human race. The
cultivation prevails in Eastern and Southern Asia, and it is also a
common article of subsistence in various countries bordering on the
Mediterranean. It is grown in the Japan Islands, on all the sea coasts
of China, the Philippine and other large Islands of the Indian
Archipelago, partially in Ceylon, Siam, India, both shores of the Red
Sea, Egypt, the shores of the Mozambique Channel, Madagascar, some
parts of Western Africa, South Carolina, and Central America. Three
species only are enumerated by Lindley:--_Oryza sativa_, the common
rice, a native of the East; _O. latifolia_, a species having its
habitat in South America; and _O. Nepalensis_, common in Nepaul. But
there are a host of varieties known in the East; these, however, may
for all practical purposes, be resolved into two kinds--the upland or
mountain rice (_O. Nepalensis_, the _O. mutica_, of Roxburgh), and the
lowland or aquatic species (_O. sativa_).

_Zizania aquatica_ is exceedingly prolific of bland, farinaceous
seeds, which afford a kind of rice in Canada and North-West America,
where it abounds wild in all the shallow streams. The seeds contribute
essentially to the support of the wandering tribes of Indians, and
feed immense flocks of wild swans, geese, and other water fowl.
Pinkerton says, this plant seems intended to become the bread-corn of
the North. Two other species of Zizania are common in the United
States of America.

Rice, the chief food, perhaps, of one-third of the human race,
possesses the advantage attending wheat, maize, and other grains, of
preserving plenty during the fluctuations of trade, and is also
susceptible of cultivation on land too low and moist for the
production of most other useful plants. Although cultivated
principally within the tropics, it flourishes well beyond, producing
even heavier and better filled grain. Like many other plants in common
use, it is now found wild [it is to be understood that the wild rice,
or water oat (_Zizania aquatica_), already referred to, which grows
along the muddy shores of tide waters, is a distinct plant from the
common rice, and should not be confounded with it], nor is its native
country known. Linnæus considers it a native of Ethiopia, while others
regard it of Asiatic origin.

The chief variety of this cereal is cultivated throughout the torrid
zone, wherever there is a plentiful supply of water, and it will
mature, under favorable circumstances, in the Eastern continent, as
high as the 45th parallel of north latitude, and as far south as the
38th. On the Atlantic side of the Western continent, it will flourish
as far north as latitude 38 degrees, and to a corresponding parallel
south. On the Western coast of America, it will grow so far north as
40 or more degrees. Its general culture is principally confined to
India, China, Japan, Ceylon, Madagascar, Eastern Africa, the South of
Europe, the Southern portions of the United States, the Spanish Main,
Brazil, and the Valley of Parana and Uruguay.

In 1834, 29,583 bags of rice were shipped from Maranham, but I am not
aware what have been the exports since.

At the Industrial Exhibition in London, in 1851, there were displayed
many curious specimens and varieties of rice, grown without
irrigation, at elevations of three thousand to six thousand feet on
the Himalaya, where the dampness of the summer months compensates for
the want of artificial moisture. Among these American rice received
not only honorable mention for its very superior quality, but the
Carolina rice, exhibited by E.I. Heriot, was pronounced by the jury
"magnificent in size, color, and clearness," and it was awarded a
prize medal. The jury also admitted that the American rice, though
originally imported from the Old World, is now much the finest in
quality.

This grain was first introduced into Virginia by Sir William Berkeley,
in 1647, who received half a bushel of seed, from which he raised
sixteen bushels of excellent rice, most or all of which was sown the
following year. It is also stated that a Dutch brig, from Madagascar,
came to Charleston in 1694, and left about a peck of paddy (rice in
the husk), with Governor Thomas Smith, who distributed it among his
friends for cultivation. Another account of its introduction into
Carolina is, that Ashley was encouraged to send a bag of seed rice to
that province, from the crops of which sixty tons were shipped to
England in 1698. It soon after became the chief staple of the colony.
Its culture was introduced into Louisiana in 1718, by the "Company of
the West."

The present culture of rice in the United States is chiefly confined
to South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and Texas.
The yield per acre varies from twenty to sixty bushels, weighing from
forty-five to forty-eight pounds when cleaned. Under favorable
circumstances as many as ninety bushels to an acre have been raised.

Judge Dougherty, who resides near th