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Title: Grammatical Sketch of the Heve Language - Shea's Library of American Linguistics. Volume III.
Author: Smith, Buckingham
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Grammatical Sketch of the Heve Language - Shea's Library of American Linguistics. Volume III." ***

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Transcriber's Note: The symbol "[=o]" is
used to represent an "o" with macron.










       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *



       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *


This tongue was spoken in the middle of the last century over a
region of country principally within Sonora, the northernmost of
the seven Provinces then comprising the kingdom of New Galicia
under the Viceroyalty of New Spain. The limit of Sonora on the east
was continuous along the chain of mountains that divides it from
Taraumara,--from Sateche, the farthest of the Indian settlements in
that district, southwardly eighty leagues to Bacoa Sati the first of
its towns. On the west the Province was washed by the sea of Cortez
from the mouth of the Hiaqui to the Tomosatzi, or Colorado, the waters
of the Hiaqui forming its limit to the south; and on the north by a
course from the Mission of Baseraca westwardly through the Presidio
de Fronteras to that of Pitic (Terrenate), a distance of seventy
leagues. According to the opinion of a Jesuit Father, the author of
an anonymous work in, manuscript on that country, written in the year
1762 at Alamo, it was thought also to be the most important among
the many Provinces of Mexico, whether for fertility of soil, gold
washings, or silver mines; and not less distinguishable for the
docility and loyalty of those aboriginal inhabitants who had
early given their adhesion to the government to secure religious

[Footnote 1: The title of the work, in manuscript, from which the
grammatical notices have been elaborated is Arte y Vocabulario de
la lingua Dohema, Heve ó Eudeva; the adjective termination of the
last and first name being evidently Spanish, as is also the plural
terminations used elsewhere in some of the modifications of those
words. We have only the definition of Heve with certainty given as
"people;" to the word "nation" in the vocabulary, there being attached
the remark: "I find no generic term: each (nation) has its specific
name; the Eudeves are called Dóhme." Another like work, also
unpublished, with the title _Arte cíe In lengua Pinea_ has the
dictionary inscribed _Vocabulario en lengua Nevome_.

In the uncertain relationship of the tribes to each other, better
marked and measured perhaps by the proximity of their idioms than by
any other means with which we are acquainted, a thought has been taken
from the indistinct manner in which these different people are spoken
of by those who have been among them to advance in the present title,
(since we may not be at liberty to reject,) the word Dóhme for the
family; and Pima generally for the common language, under which the
Opata, Heve, Nevome, Sobahipurls and the rest may be placed, as they
shall become known, each by its separate dialect.]

The Missions of Sonora included moreover a section to the south
bounded by the River Chico within the Province of Ostimuri. To the
north, within the religious precinct, was the Pimeria Alta through the
Sobahipuris up to the junction of the river of that name, (otherwise
the San Pedro,) with the Gila; thence for a distance of more than
one hundred and thirty leagues, after passing among _rancherías_ of
Pima, Opa, and Cocomaricopa, and having received in its course the
Asumpcion, or Compuesto--from its being formed by the united waters
of two streams, the Salado and Verde--it enters the Tomosatzi, closing
that Pimeria of innumerable tribes described by the missionaries as
sealed in productive places, and in a genial climate. Other Indians of
the same names, the Yuma also and Papapootam (Papago) lived beyond,
as appears from the accounts given by the spiritual invaders of those
remote regions, chiefly the Fathers Kino, Keller, and Sedelmayer.

The two principal nations of Sonora are spoken of as the Opata and
Tima, since the Eudeve should be reckoned with the Opata, for the
reason that its language differs as little from that of the other as
the Portuguese from the Castilian, or the Provençal from the French;
and likewise should also be added the Jove, who, having mingled with
the Opata, no longer use their own tongue, except in some instances of
the aged. It is one difficult to acquire, and different from any other
in the Province.

The Opata are the best of the native Christians, having never turned
upon their teachers, nor once risen against the royal authorities; nor
do they, like other Indians, make the women bear the heavier share of
the labor in the fields. They are industrious husbandmen; but they are
not any the less wanting in valor on that account, having oftentimes
shown their good conduct when bearing arms with the king's forces
at the expense of the Missions. Individuals there were, and perhaps
still are, who did the work of blacksmiths, carpenters, tailors, stone
cutters, masons, learning any craft readily, and practicing it with
skill. They and some of the Endeve, although in a less degree, are to
the other Indians what the people who live in towns are to those in
the country, still for all it was remarked, they were none the less
Indians. Such was the general character of the Opata, which is the
same that is given of them in our time by that curious and instructive
observer, John R. Bartlett, in his narrative of an expedition into
that country.

The Jove were a rural people, quite the greater number of them,
unwilling to be brought together in communities, lived in chasms
among the ridges where they were born, proof to the solicitations of
kindness and conveniences of civilized life. The other portion of them
dwelt in Ponida, Teopari and Mochoba. The good missionary at Bacadeque
endeavored to bring into towns those who inhabited the ranchería
of Sathechi and the margins of the Mulatos and Arcos, rivers to the
south, without avail. They live among briars, owning a few animals,
subsisting on wild fruits and vegetables, gathering an occasional
stalk of maize or a pumpkin that nature suffers to grow in some
crevice here and there made by torrents bursting from the mountains.

These nations, the Pima and the Opata, Eudeve, Jove, forming two
people, occupy the greater portion of Sonora, seated far inward to
the west from the Cordillera. The limit on the south is where stood
the deserted town of Ivatora thence to Arivetze, Bacanora, Tonitzi,
Soyopa, Nacori; on the west from Alamos, through parts of Ures and
Nacomeri to Opedepe, and Cucurpe; on the north from Arispe, Chinapa,
Bacoquetzi, Cuquiaratzi to Babispe, and from that Mission of Babispe
on the east by mountains of low elevation returning to Natora.

The Pima occupy a still wider territory, extending on the south into
Cinaloa, on the east in to the Province of Taraumara. The Upper Pima
are found far to the north living by the Sobahipuris to its outlet,
and on both banks of the Gila to the Tomosatzi, in vales of luxuriant
beauty, and in wastes of sand and sterility between those rivers
and the sea,--having still other tribes beyond them using the same
language in different dialects. The Lower Pima are in the west of
the Province, having many towns extending to the frontier of the
indomitable Seri, who live some thirty leagues to the north of the
mouth of the Hiaqui and have their farthest limit inland, some dozen
leagues from the sea, finding shelter among the ridges, and in the
neighboring island of Tiburon.[2] Those of the Pima who reside on
the south, in the Province of Cinaloa, the history of their migration
thither is of the earliest, and belongs to that which should relate
the closing scene in the journey of Cabeza de Vaca, with the strange
success that eventually, at the close of a century, attended his
Christian purpose.

[Footnote 2: The Guaima speak nearly the same language as the Seri,
are few in number, and live among the Hiaqui in Belén and elsewhere,
having retreated before the sanguinary fury of their congeners


All these nations, save the last, and all others who inhabit the
country excepting the Apaches--including a numerous people on the Gila
and on the farther bank of the Colorado--speak the same language, with
so slight differences, say the missionaries, that they who shall have
attained the one of the Opata and Eudeve with little difficulty will
master the rest. And for this we have that early authority referred
to, of three centuries since: "They made known to us what they would
say by means of a language they have among them through which we and
they understood each other. Those to whom it properly belongs we call
Primahaitu, which is equivalent to when we say Biscayans. We found
it in use over more than four hundred leagues (miles?) of our travel,
without another in the whole extent." The name thus given by the
narrator of the Naufragios seemingly exists in these words, their
definitions taken from a dictionary in MS. of the Pima language
written by a missionary. No, _pima_: Nothing, _pim' haitu_. Ques.
What, _Ai_? Ans. _Pimahaitu_ (nihil).


       *       *       *       *       *



It has been thought proper to use nineteen characters in the language,
among which are not included f, j, k, w, x, y, nor l, although the
sound of l is somewhat heard in the soft enunciation given by the
Indian to the letter r.

The k is sufficiently supplied in the syllabic sounds que and qui,
where the u is silent, although gue and gui are each of two syllables.
There has been a disposition to omit the g also, the sound of which,
as in go, if the natives had not originally, they certainly possess
at present, got from the Spaniards. This should excuse its appearance
here. The sound of z is strong as heard in _fits_.

The vowels are sounded as in t_a_r, b_e_ar, s_i_lk, d_o_e, r_u_e.

       *       *       *       *       *




_Substantives_ in this language are declined without the use of

2. Those which may be called _verbal_, from their origin in verbs,
are much used: hiósguadauh, painting, or writing, is the passive (is
painted) of the present active hiósguan, I paint. They have their
times: hiósguadauh is in the present, expressing the picture I form
now of the passive preterite hiósguacauh, the work I have executed, of
which hiósguatzidaugh, the picture I will make, is the future passive:
and when to these verbal substantives is added the particle gua, it
denotes place, as, No hiósguadaubgua, the place where I paint, etc.


3. But words signifying kindred, have their termination usually in gua
also, for which see section 16.


4, 5. _Other verbal substantives_, signifying instruments, are made
from the future active: thus, the verb métecan, I chop, having métetze
in the future, receives siven in lieu of the final syllable, and makes
the substantive, métesiven, axe or tool with which to chop. Many of
these words likewise terminate in rina, as bícusirina, flute, from
bícudan, I whistle, and bíhirina, shovel, from bihán, I scrape.


6, 7. Many _abstract nouns_ are formed by the addition of the particle
ragua, as váde, joyously; váderagua, joy; déni, good; déniragua,
goodness; dóhme, man, or people; dóhmeragua, humanity; and so
diósragua, divinity. Others, substantive nouns, applied to certain
places end in súra, as, omásúra, canebrake, from om, cane, and súra,
in or among; huérigosúra, reedfield; húparosúra, mesquitscrub: and so
a town is called Opósúra, because it is among some trees called opó,

8. The _verbs are substantives_ likewise, and as such are declined as
much so as the same words are conjugated when verbs: thus, nemútzan,
I bewitch, is also wizard, and hiósguan, I write, is scrivener; but
it is to be observed of these substantives, as well as of those which
end in daugh, that they too have equally their times, as nemútzan,
the wizard--that is now, in the present; nemútzari, the preterite that
has; nemútzatze, the future that will, with the difference that these
terminations are active, while those in daugh, etc., are passive.

       *       *       *       *       *



9, 10, 11, 12. The many _adjective nouns_ ending in téri, and ei,
signify quality, as, bavitéri, elegant; aresumetéri, different or
distinct; tasúquei, narrow; asóquei, thick; sútei, white; and so of
the rest signifying color. Some ending in ráve, denote plenitude; for
example, sitoráve, full of honey; composed of sitóri, honey, and ráve,
full; seborráve, full of flies; ateráve of até, louse, etc.; others,
ending in e, i, o, u, signify possession, as, esé, she that has
petticoats; cúne, she that has a husband; guásue, he that has land for
planting; húvi, the married man, from hub, woman; nóno, he that has
a father, from nónogua, father, and sutúu, he that has finger-nails,
from sutú: and they, moreover, have their times like verbs, since,
from esé is formed esei, preterite, she that had petticoats; cúnetze,
future, she that will marry, etc.; and afterwards they are declined
as nouns, as, _Nom._, eséi; _Gen._ eséigue. (For other form of the
possessive, see section 19.)


13, 14. It is usual for the want of many positive affirmatives in the
language to express by the positive of the opposite signification,
adding the negation ca, as, nucuatéri, perishable; canucuatéri,
everlasting; cúne, married, f.; cacúne, not married; húbi, married,
m.; cahúbi, not married, etc. Those ending in sári, and scor, mark a
bad, or vicious quality, as, dedensári, tobacco-smoker, from déinan, I
suck; and hibesári, gluttonous, from hibáan, I eat; nehrisári, talker,
from néhren, I talk; capasári, old rags, from capát; baníscor, weeper,
from báanan; cotzíscor, sleeper, from cotzom; dióscor, vagabond, from
dion, I walk, or vacosári, which has the same signification, from
vácon. The termination, sguari, is used in this sense: dotzi, old man;
dotzísguari, very old man; hóit, female of middle age; hoísguari, very
old woman.


Substantives of the First Declension form their genitive in _que_, and
usually are such as terminate in a vowel.

  _Nominative_, Siibì, hawk,
  _Genitive_, Sìiibíque, of hawk,
  _Dative_, Siibt, to hawk,
  _Accusative_, Siibìe, hawk,
  _Vocative_, Siibì, hawk,
  _Ablative_, Sibítze, in     \
              Sibíde, by       > hawk.
              Sibíquema, with /

The plural of substantives (requiring a special notice) will be
treated of hereafter. Substantives of the Second Declension form their
genitive in _te_ and _t_.

  _N._ Mavirot, Lion.
  _G._ Mavirote,
  _D. and A._ Mavírota,
  _V._ Mavírot,
  _A._ Mavírotze, in,
       Mavírode, by,
       Mavírotema, with lion.

  The verb-noun hiósguadauh, painting, is thus declined.

  _N._ Hiósgnadauh,
  _G._ Hiósguadauhte,
  _D. and A._ Hiósguadauhta,
  _Ab._ Hiósguadautze, in,
        Hiósguadauhde, by,
        Hiósguadauhtema, with painting.

And so likewise decline the preterite passive hiósguacauh, and the
future passive hiósguatzidauh.

But verbs in the present time, when they serve as substantives, are
thus declined

  _N._ Nemútzan, wizard.
  _G._ Nemútzante,
  _D. and A._ Nemútzanta,
  _V._ Nemútzan,
  _A._ Nemútzantze, in,
       Nemútzade, by,
       Nemútzantema, with wizard.

Some ending in _t_ while they form the genitive in _te_, part with a
vowel, as follows:

  _N._ Arit, Ant.
  _G._ Arte,
  _D. and A._ Arta,
  _V._ Arit;
  _A._ Artze, in,
       Arde, by,
       Artema, with ant.

Nónoguat, father, belongs to this declension, and forms the genitive
nónauhte; but when preceded by a possessive pronoun, it loses the
final guat, as has been stated, and the termination is left in _o_, to
form the genitive in the first declension, as, no, my, no nónoque, of
my father, which rule applies equally to other names of kindred.

Sometimes an ablative is formed in _u_, as teópatu, in the church,
from teópa, hecátu, in the shade, from hecát.

Substantives of the Third Declension end in _s_, _r_, _z_, and form
the genitive by the addition of _e_, and the accusative by _i_.

  _N._ Utzvor, Pitahaya.
  _G._ Utzv[=o]re,
  _D. and A._ Utzvori,
  _V._ Utzvor,
  _A._ Utzvortze, in,
       Utzvorde, by,
       Utzvorema, with pitahaya.

In this way decline tatas, crabapple,--gen. tatáse, dat. and acc.
tatási, &c., also, porótz, wildcat, gen. porótze, dat. and acc.
porótzi, &c.

To Adjective Nouns there has been an inclination to assign a separate
place, but they terminate _in a vowel_, and there appears to be
no reason why they should not go with substantives of the first

    _N._ Sóvei, obscure.
    _G._ Sóveique,
    _D. and A._ Sóvec,
  _V._ Sóvei,
    _A._ Sóvetze in,
         Sóveide, by,
         Sóveiquema, with obscure.


15. Substantives, especially those animate of rational beings, usually
form the plural by doubling the first syllable, as, dor, man, or male;
dódor, men; hoit, woman, pl. hóhoit; déni, good, pl. dedéni.

Some other words form their plural irregularly, as, doritzi, boy,
pl. vus, applied to both sexes, though when intended only for males
dódorus is used; hoquis, large girls, pl. hórquir; temátzi, big boy,
pl. tetemtzi; to which when the particle _te_ is added it marks the
absence of any of the other sex, as dodórte, men only; hohóite,
women only; hórquirte, girls only. The declension of these plurals is
according to the rules before given.


16. The language is remarkable for another peculiarity, which is, that
the females in many instances employ different words from the males:
the father says to his son, Nognàt, to his daughter, Mórqua; the
mother to either says, Nótzgua; the son to the father says, Nonógua,
and the daughter says, Mósgua. The elder brother likewise is called
Vátzgua, pl. Vapàtz, the younger Vángua, pl. Vopon, the elder sister
Cotzgua, pl. Cocátz, the younger Víngua, pl. Vipim, to which adding
the possessive pronouns no, amo, and the like, the gua is omitted to
such as have that termination. There is much to be learned about the
names of the kindred, but the subject is one too wide for present


17. The _Personal Pronoun_ nee, I, followed by another word becomes
ne; nap, thou or you, becomes na, tamide becomes ta; emet or emíde
becomes em, veride and iride become ver and ir; meride becomes mer.

          SINGULAR.                        PLURAL.

  _Nom._ Nee, I,                        Tamide, we,
  _Gen._ No, of me,                     Tamo, of us,
  _Dat. and Acc._ Netz, to me,          Tame, to us,
  _Voc._ (if there be any,) Nee, O,     Tamide, O we,
  _Abl._ Noma, with me,                 Tamóma, with us,
  Node, by me;                           Tamóde, by us.
the ma in this case being that of cause, manner and instrument.

  _N._ Nap, thou,                       Emet, or Emíde, ye,
  _G._ Amo, of thee,                    Emo, of you,
  _D. and A._ Eme, to thee,             Emé, to you,
  _V._ Nap, O thou,                     Emèt, O ye,
  _Ab._ Amóma, with thee,               Emóma, with you,
          Amóde, by thee,               Emóde, by you.

  _N._ Veride, or Iride, this,          Meride, these,
  _G._ Vére, of this,                   Mere, of these,
  _D. and A._ Véra, to this,            Mera, to these,
  _Ab._ Veréma, with this,              Meréma, with these,
        Veréde, by this,                Merede, by these.

  _N._ Véte, that,
  _G._ Véte, of that.  No more appear to exist
  _N._ Id, At, or Ar, that, (he, she),  Amét, or Met, these,
  _G._ Ide, or Are, of that,            Ame, or Mere, of those,
  _D. and A._ Ia, to that,              Ame, to those,
  _Ab._ Arema, or Idema, with that,     Améma or Meréma, with those,
        Aréde or Idéde, by that         Amede, or Herede, by those.

No arácade, by my will, is more used than Nóvide, by my will,
  Amóvide, by your will,                Tamóvide, by our will,
  Verévide, by the will of this,        Emóvide, by your will.
  Arevide, by the will of that,         Merevide, by the will of these,
                                        Amévide, by the will of those,
  Nosa, Nósava, I myself,               Tomósa, Temósava, we ourselves.
  Amósa, Amósava, then thyself,         Emósa, Emósava, ye yourselves.
  Arésa, Arésava, he himself,           Amétva, they themselves.

These are all without inflections save this last, which has its
genitive améva, being declined like amet. Nee vasu, likewise means I

Nee senéva is, I alone; the plural, tamide améve, we alone; but
neither senéva nor améve are declined, only the pronouns that
accompany them.


18, 19. _Possessive Pronouns_ are the genitives of the primitive;
thus, no vónama, means, my hat, no being the genitive of nee, and
the same with the rest. But in order to say, this is mine, guagua is
used applied to inanimate things, as, veride quit no guagua, this is
my house; or vut applied to animate, as, veride cavadu no vut, this
horse is mine; and with the change of person those genitives of the
primitive must be added, as, no guagua, mine; amo guagua, thine, are
guagua, his, &c., no vut, mine, &c. (Another manner of expressing the
possessive has been given in section 12.)

       *       *       *       *       *


Here opens a very broad field whereon may be observed the excellence
of this language that is considered barbarous.

Conjugation of the verb hiósguan, I write, or paint.


     ACTIVE VOICE.                                 PASSIVE VOICE.
  Nee hiósgnan, I write,            Nee hiósguadauh, I am written,
  Nap hiosguan, You write,          Náp hiósguadauh, You are written,
  Id, or At, hiosguan, He writes,   Id, or At, hiósguadauh, He is written.

  Tamide hiósguame,  We write,      Tamide \
  Emét hiósguame,    Ye write,      Emét    > hiósguadagua,
  Amet [3]hiósguame, They write,    Amet   /  We are written, &c.

[Footnote 3: In all moods and tenses when the person is put afterward,
which it is very common to do, the form is this:

                    ACTIVE.         PASSIVE.
  _Singular_, hiósguamne,    hiósguadauhne,
              hiósguanna,    hiósguadauhna,
              hiósguanar,    hiésguadauhar,
  _Plural_,   hiósguameta,   hiósguadaguata,
              hiósguametem,  hiósguadaguatem,
              hiósguametam,  hiósguadaguatam, and so on,
                               according to their condition.]


                  ACTIVE.                             PASSIVE.
  Nee       \              I wrote,    Nee       \
  Nap        > hiosguamru, You wrote,  Nap        > hiósguadauhru
  Id, or At,/              He wrote,   Id, or At,/  I was written, &c.

  Tamid \                 We wrote,    Tamide \
  Emét   > hiósguameru    Ye wrote,    Emét,   > hiósguadauaru,
  Ame   /                 They wrote.  Amet   /  We were written, &c.


  Nee       \             I have written,    Nee       \
  Nap        > hiósguari, Thou hast written, Nap        > hiósguacauh,
  Id, or At,/             He has written,    Id, or At,/  I have been
                                                           written, &c.

  Tamide,\              We have written,     Tamide,\
  Emét,   > hiósguarim, Ye have written,     Emét,   > hiósguacagua,
  Amet,  /              They have written,   Amet,  /  We have been
                                                        written, etc.


        Nee, hiósguarit, &c.,       I have been written, etc.
        Tamide, hiósguarit, &c.,    We have been written, etc.


  Nee       \               I had written.      Nee,     \
  Nap        > hiósgnariru, Thou hadst written, Nap,      > hiósguacuahrutu
  Id, or At,/               He had written,     Id or At,/  I had been
                                                             written, etc.

  Tamide\                We had written,   Tamide\
  Emét   > hiósguarimru, Ye had written,   Emét   > hiósguacaguaru,
  Ámet  /                They had written. Amet  /  We had been written, etc.


  Nee       \              I will write,    Nee       \
  Nap        > hiósguatze, You will write.  Nap        > hiósguatzidauh,
  Id, or At,/              He will write,   Id, or At,/  I will be written,

  Tamide\              We will write,      Tamide\
  Emét   > hiósguatze, Ye will write,      Emét   > hiósguatzidagua,
  Amet  /              They will write.    Amét  /  We will be written, etc.


  Hiósgua, write thou.                             Wanting.

  Hiósguavu, write ye.

Another form of the IMPERATIVE made with ásma, to see.

  Asmane\                                 Asmane\
  Asmana > hiósguatze,                    Asmana > hiósguatzidauh,
  Asmair/  I will see that I write, &c.,  Asmair/  I shall see that I
                                                      be written, &c.,


  Venésmana hiósguam,        Even though you write.
  Venesmatze em hiósguame,   Even though ye write.


  Nee eme hiósguaco naquém,               Nee eme hiósguarico naquém.
  I will that you write.                  I will that thou be written.

  Nee emé hiósguaco noquim,               Nee ame hiósguarico naquém,
  I will that they write.                 I will that they be written.


This mood appears to have been anciently used with cáne, would that it
might be! but now in general it is not so understood. The phrase may
be deemed to be in the Optative, although it does not express that
entirely, being formed by the union of the Imperative above with
venesma, even though.

  Venésmane hiósguam,                     Venésmane hiósguadauh,
  I would that it might be, or,           I would that it might be, or,
  Even though I may write.                Even though I may be written.


This mode of speech, If I should write, I should have written, &c.,
the natives express by adding the particle _ru_ to the future.

  Nee \                             Nee \
  Nap  > ghiósuatzeru,              Nap  > hiósquatzidauhru
  Id  / If I should write, &c.      Id  /  If I should be written, &c.

  Tamide\                           Tamide\
  Emét   > hiósguatzeru,            Emét   > hiósguatzidauru,
  Amet  /  If we should write, &c.  Amet  /  If we should be written, &c.[4]

[Footnote 4: Conjunctions, corresponding to _aunque, paraque, cuando_,
and the like which it is common to make use of with the subjunctive in
Spanish do not exist in the language.]


Although this mode does not exist in the language, still the natives
have ways to express the thought, some of which are these:

One mode is by the verb erám, I wish or think; so that to say, I
wish to write, Nee hiósguavaerám may be used, which is the future
hiósguatze, with the final syllable omitted for the particle va, and
followed by the erám. In the same manner, other verbs may be proceeded
with, they remaining stable through all the mutations that erám
undergoes, as in the following:



  _Present_, Erám, I wish.          _Pluperfect_, Ehritu, I had wished.
  _Imperfect_, Eramtu, I wished.    _Future_, Erátze, I shall wish.
  _Perfect_, Ehri, I have wished.
  SUBJUNCTIVE, (Impt?) Erátzern, I might wish, etc.

In the passive erám is not used, but naquém, which also means, I wish,
and with the preterite particle, in the manner that is stated in the
fourth form of the imperative, the infinitive mood in this voice is
expressed, as, Nee no hiósguarico naquém, I desire to be written.

Another mode that serves for the Infinitive, is that after a verb
of motion, the future of the verb is used, as to express, I come to
you to say, Nee eme queitudetze güerem: here, Nee is I; eme, to you;
güerem, or üerem, I come, and queitudetze the future of the verb
queituden, I say, or make known.


The gerund in _di_ is found in the expression: Already arrived the
time of labor; for which, taking the preterite pánauhri, the verb
pánauan signifying labor, add dagua, time, and for arrived use
hassíde, the preterite of hássem, followed by the de, particle,
signifying already, and the phrase is formed pánauhridagua hasside.

The gerund in _do_ is found in the phrase Vus hóquedo panavame, the
boys playing, work, in which vus is boys, hóquedo or hóqueco, the
gerund of hoquen, play, and panavame, the plural of pánavan, work. The
passive voice has likewise the gerund, as for example: Nap sícriuhdo
cotzóm, Whilst thou art shorn, sleepest; here nap cotzóm is, you
sleep, sícriuhdo is the gerund in do passive of the verb sicán, and
toasquilo, hair.

The gerund in _dum_, and supine joined to a verb of motion is
equivalent to the future as before stated in the second mode of the
infinitive; but should there be no verb of movement with the gerund
in dum, the particle betzéuai, for, is used, as this suffices for
payment, (hoc ad solvendum sufficit,) Veride hasem ovíde betzéguai;
veride meaning this, hasem, suffices; ovide betzévai, for payment;
ovíden signifying pay.

Thus much it has been found necessary to say of the verb in its active
and passive voice, of its modes and times, which will serve as a
paradigm for the conjugation of any verb observant of the form of its
preterite and future (the roots whence rise the other tenses) to be
discovered in the vocabulary.


21. This verb signifies the frequent repetition of the same action,
and is formed by adding the adverb tátze, peace-meal, as, I write
often, tátze ne hiósgan.


22. It is thus called because it signifies to cause or compel to do
any thing, and is formed by taking away the last syllable of any verb
and replacing it with tudem or tuden, which alone is conjugated, and
has the perfect tudari, and future tudetze, as varuhtúden, I cause to
sin; verúhtze being the future of varúuen.


23. When the action is for, by, or through, ("para ó por,") this verb
is used, having its termination in dem or den, perfect, deri, and
future, detze; as pánauan, work; whence is formed pánauiden, which is
the applicative, so that to say, I work for you, the phrase is Nee eme
pánauiden; and the mother to express, My son has failed me, (died),
says, No nótzi múquideri; although in the place of this applicative
the preposition betzéguai, for, is used likewise, or de, by; as,
Christ died for us, Cristo tamo betzéguai, or tamóde múqui.


24. This verb serves to continue the action, and is made from the
future, omitting the tze and substituting sem or sen, as nenérsem, I
am continually talking, from nehren, I speak; the future, nenértze;
biquesen, I am thus singing, from biquen, I sing; future, bequetze,
for which there appearing to be no perfect, the imperfect, bíquesenru
may be used, and the same is the case with the words that end in hon,
as merihon, go running; nenerhon, be speaking; biquehon, be singing,
of which the future termination is sintze, as nenérsintze.


25. This gives completeness to the signification of the word out of
which it is made so full that nothing remains further, and is formed
of the future taking away the final tze, and placing suam instead, as,
baán, I eat; bétze, I will eat; besuam, I eat until I have finished
it all; todam, I leave; todetz, I will leave; todesuam, I leave
forever,--at once. The penitent may say, Oquine haóna no cananacemca
todesuatze, Now, forevermore, I will leave my sins; the perfect being
formed in coari, and the future in uatze.


26. This denotes the judgment that one forms of anything, as,
dénitzem, I judge it good; déni meaning good; hana Diosi denitzem,
perhaps you esteem God? nee eme deosaritzem, I judge you happy;
deosari meaning happy; nee eme náventzem, I consider you poor--pity
you; náven meaning poor: and they form the perfect, tziui, and future


27. When a thing changes so as to pass from one to another form
or quality, this verb is used. Earth, tevat; genitive, teuhte;
accusative, teuhta, whence comes the verb teúhtuun, I make me
earth,--as do the sticks become, and bodies that rot. So dóhmetum,
make man, explains the mystery of the incarnation, as, God the Son
made himself man for us, Dios noquát tamóde, or tamo, betzeguai
dóhmetui. So batuum, is made water, bat, water; nasórtaan, I throw
away; nasórtuun, is thrown away, to become corruption; of which the
perfect is tui, the future, tutze.

28. There are some _Compound Verbs_ which end in donon, signifying
to go to do something, which appear to be formed from the future,
omitting the last syllable tze, and substituting donon, as amúdonon, I
go to hunt; amún being, I hunt; the future amútze; cumándonon, I go to
gather wood, from cumánan, I gather wood, future cumantze; baudónon,
I go to bring water, formed of bat, water; vun, the future of vtze,
bring, and donon, which has the perfect doni, and future dontze.

29. The termination guan, is usually a sign of the _Active Verb_, as
in mótzguan, I begin: máguan, or máhuan, I plough, and is added by
the natives to some Spanish words they use, such are perdonároguan,
I pardon; ayunároguan, I fast; velároguan, I watch. Some form the
perfect in guari, and future in guatze; others the perfect in uhri,
and future in úhtze, úitze, or in guatze.

30. To form _Compound Neuter Verbs_, the verb dáan, I go, is
frequently used, as bahútunan, I melt (active); bahútudaan, I melt,
or am melting, the neuter, barínan, I soften; baricdaan, I go on to
soften; zicónan, I break; zicócdaan, I break (neuter); the perfect
being dai, the future, détze.

31. _Other Neuters_ are formed of active verbs ending in an by
changing it into en, as sebán, I freeze; seben, freeze; basán, I
ripen; basen, ripen; sepán, cool; sepen, cool; nacuan, hurt; nacuen,
hurt. To form the perfect, the en is changed into i; but the future,
although it always ends in tze, differs, as will appear by the

32. In the same manner as of Active Verbs in an, _Neuter Verbs_ in
en are made, so from other actives in an, neuters are made in un, as,
busán, I awake another; busún, I awake me; tutzan, I quench; tucún, I
quench me, in the perfect changing the un to i, and the future to tze.


33. This language has the notable peculiarity of the verbs oftentimes
differing greatly in the plural from the singular, as, vaquén, enter
one; múume, enter many; vóon, one to lay down; medáguame, lay down
many; méran, one to run; vóome, many to run; batémucun, to drown
oneself; betécoome, many to drown themselves; batemean, drown one;
batecódan, drown many.

34. There are many _Compound Active Verbs_ ending in puguan or puuan,
which signify to pluck, as beguát, skin, genitive; beúhte, accusative;
beúhta, whence beuhpuuan, tear off the skin is formed, and from mo,
hair of the human head comes mópuuan, pluck the hair, etc.; sequát,
flower, genitive, seúhte; accusative, seúhta gives seúhpuuan, to
pluck flowers; nágua; root, genitive, naúhte; accusative, naúhta, when
naúhpuuan, eradicate, is formed, their perfect being in uhri, their
future in natze.


35. Estimative Verbs it has already been said end in tzem, but there
are other verbs of that termination that signify certain passion,
failing, or quality, as, hisumtzem, I am hungry; veráctzem, I am
thirsty; vrútzen, I am hot; vtétzen, I am cold, which form their
perfects in tziui, the futures in tzíuhtze.


36. _The Particle_ taan compounded with a substantive, signifies to
do, as, sibúrtaan, to make girdles composed of sibúra, band; zántaan,
to make arrows, zamát signifying arrow; vacotaan, to make bow, from
vácotzi, that instrument; but when it is component of the verb it
signifies, I say that I wish, thus from nósquen, I return, nósquitaan
is made, signifying, I say that I wish to return, and from pánauan,
labor, is pánauataan, I say that I wish to labor.


Being the English substantive verb AM.

37. Such is the condition of this part of speech: yonder is a man,
anát sei dor _eni_, and if he live there, or is there standing, anát
catzí, etc., which catzí is used only for persons. Yonder is water,
anát, or aguát bat _maní_, yonder is grass, anát dósa _habí_, and also
may be said, bat eni, dosa eni, but bat habí, dosa mani would not be
correct. Further than this the substantive verb am appears not to show
itself clearly: thus that utterance of God, I am that I am, has no
corresponding words in the tongue: it could seemingly be made somewhat
intelligible in this wise: Nee uehva nee, which word for word means,
I greatly I, and am is not expressed though understood. So in asking,
Who is it, the answer is, Nee, and not I with the verb. This method of
speaking should be regarded: to say the house of Pedro was my house,
it should be, Pevroque qui no quiru, of which qui means house, and
Pevroque qui, house of Pedro. The verb was, does not now exist in it
apart, but in expression it appears, or nearly so, in the substantive
qui, which is put in the imperfect by the termination of that tense,
ru being added, as, quiru, was house; no quiru, was my house. The same
is otherwise said: Pevroque qui no guaguaru, the house of Pedro was
mine; the guagua, if alone, signifies, is mine.


38. There are several _Compound Verbs_ that end in maguan, which
signify, to throw something to another, as, ermaguan, to throw blood
(erát) on him; dósmaguan, to throw grass (dosát) on him; teúhmaguan,
to throw dirt (tevát) on him; sitórimaguan, to throw honey (sitóri) on
him, which form the perfect in guari, the future in guatze.


39 The _Particle_ táden, the terminal of several verbs, expresses the
like or dislike the good or evil appearance of anything according to
the name or adverb to which it is joined, as, neve sodóta nanactáden,
or hidenatóden, I do not like this bower; tamide naven tamo tademe,
we find ourselves poor; nee deosári no taden, I find myself fortunate,
the perfect being found in taderi, the future in tadetze.


40. Of the Verb _Mucún_, I die, compounds such as these are made:
vrumucún, I die of heat; vrúcóome, they die of heat; hisú-mucún, I
die of hunger; hisúmcóome, they die of hunger; varótmucún, I die of
thirst; varó-coóme, they die of thirst; cúmemucún, I die of envy;
cumecoáme, they die of envy. Vrútzen is, I have heat; hisúmtzen, I
have hunger; veráctzen, I have thirst; cúmen, I have envy. The reason
of changing mucún to form the plural may be seen in section 36.


41. Neóquen, means I command, and observe this method as respects its
use: Nee uneóquen, and I command to bring; nee nerta neóquen, and I
command, to pray; nee ouit neóquen, and I command to call. Vtze is
the future of vun, I bring; nertátze, I pray, the future of nértaan:
ouictze the future of ouican, I call; so that the tze is taken from
the future, and neóquen is placed in its stead. Notice, likewise, this
method: Nap ca istutándauh, It is commanded not to lie.

So far of the verbs, which as well other parts of speech all the
Indians use with nicety and elegance. For their conjugation, a
single exemplar has been given; but their perfects and futures being
differently formed, which are the roots whence the other tenses
spring, they have been placed in the vocabulary added to the verbs, a
knowledge of which will suffice to form all the other times.

       *       *       *       *       *


42. The verbs become participles without undergoing change of form,
as, hiósguam, I write, or he that writes, is the present participle;
hiósguari, I have written, or he that has written; hiósguatze, I will
write, or he that will, is the preterite (future?) participle. The
same in its proportion is to be understood of the passive voice.

The _Present Participle_ is of the second declension, forming the
genitive in te, thus Nominative, hiósguan; Genitive, hiósgnante,
etc. The imperfect participle is of the same declension, with the
difference that the mark of the imperfect, ru, is the final, as, Nom.
hiósguamru, Gen. hiósguamteru, etc.

The _Perfect Participle_ is of the first declension, having its
genitive in que, as, Nom. hiósguari, Gen. hiósguarique.

_Pluperfect Participle_ is declined like the perfect, observing
what has been said of the imperfect, as, Nom. hiósguariru, Gen.
hiósguariqueru, etc.

The _Future Participle_ belongs to the second declension, the
genitive ending in te, preceded by n or m, as, Nom. hiósguatze, Gen.

The plural, it appears, should be declined in the same manner as the
singular in respect of its termination in te or que.

       *       *       *       *       *


43. The prepositions that govern the genitive might with reason be
called postpositions, since they follow the case; for Pedro Pedroque
betzégnai, with you amó ma.

       *       *       *       *       *


The adverbs are very many, and by them more especially is expressed
the manner of walking, of sitting, of sounding, etc., and oftentimes
the enunciation copies after the sense, as, cúusan, I sound; catzcatze
cúusan, clattering sound.

       *       *       *       *       *


45. Some of the interjections are these: Ari! and when repeated ari,
ari! are those of one feeling pain; Asioma is of one that menaces,
like, You will see! and Asma is like, I desire to see! Hábesa
matzi, Well, then! Ahéne is exclaimed by one who recollects himself;
Navehtzemne, Alas! Woe to me!

       *       *       *       *       *


46. The conjunctions to the extent they can, will be treated of
separately; for although the language of Indians is exact, there are
difficulties to be encountered, and from those not brought up in their
use, requiring special study.

47. The word _And_ is represented by aui, as, Nee aui nap, I and you,
and also by vai placed afterward used in this way, Nee nap vai.

48. Whether the sentence consist of one or of two parts, this
conjunction If is nowhere found, but the gerund in do or co is used;
and in this manner should it be of a single part or an individual: If
I do it well, I shall be content, hidénane éndo, or énco, nanacerátze;
when of two, thus: If I did it well, you will be content, hidéna
netzendo, or emco, nap nanacerátze: whence it may be seen that in the
first passage is put the nominative nee, having but one part, and in
the second the dative or accusative netz, since another member comes
in which is nap, you. These are other examples: If I should be well,
I will go to see you, Nee hidéna crádo, osét eme teuhdontze, which is
an expression of one proposition, for though two persons enter there
the action is single: If I shall have worked well you will pay me, Nee
hidéna pananhriuhco, nap netz ovidetze, which is of two positions, the
action being of two.

49. In the examples about to be given, it will be observed that
_That_ is never used, whether it correspond to the quod or the ut
of the Latin. Nee eme vitzán, nap hibe, I see that you are lax; Nee
aguáteran, Domincotze amo misa ea vitzaca, I know that you have not
heard mass Sunday; where vitzaca or vitzácauh is passive perfect, and
the literal rendering is, I know, on Sunday your mass was not heard.
I desire that you may live here, Nee eme iuide cáteo naquém, in which
cáteo is an active perfect participle, and the verb naquém, I desire,
ever requires this construction. The verb óqueem, I command, is
peculiar likewise in one respect: in order to say I command you that
you work, Nee eme panaúaoqueem is said; panaúaoqueem being composed of
two words, of which panauatze, I will work, is from panaúan, work, the
tze final being taken away and substituted by óqueem.

50. The equivalent of _Because_, nanévari, can be thus shown. I become
angry because you are lax, Nee zínauan, ne néuari nap híbeen: with the
particle aréde, which means because, it may be elegantly expressed,
Nap híbeen, aredene zinauan, which, word for word, is, You are lax,
for that I become angry. Here are other instances: Because I am sick
I do not work, Nee ca panauan, nanéuarine cocotzem; in another manner,
Nee cocotzem, arédene ca panauan, or Nee no cócotzihdade ca panauan,
which corresponds to this, I, because of my infirmity, do not work. I
come, because you called me, Nee eue hasi, naneuari nap netz ouíqui.
Eue, signifying hither, is used because to the Indian ear, I came
hither, is more euphonious than only I came. Nap netzoúiqui, arédene
hási, I am glad, because you come to see me, Nee nánaceran, nanéuari
nap netzeue teúhdóniueren, or otherwise, Nap netz eue teúhdóniueren
arédene nanaceran.

51. The equivalent of _Before_ is caque, the translation of which is
not yet. Before you could come I was already here, Nap caque hasdo nee
vínu iuide énitude, of which hasdo is the gerund of hásem, that part
of speech being thus used with caque, when it signifies before, and is
literally, You not arrived yet, already was I here. Another instance:
Before you can go, you will pay me: Caquena dado, netz ovidetze; also,
Before the wheat could be planted, it rained: Perilon caque étzih
dauh, duqui.

52. _After_ is rendered likewise by the gerunds with the adverb vaar,
after. After he had sinned, he was converted to God: Varúhruco vaàr,
Diosse vené are viranari, that is, having sinned afterward, etc.; and
also it may be without vaár, as, After it had rained much, the river
carried away the earth: Muic duco, bata guasta údari. Again: After the
wheat had been cut, it got wet, and was lost: Pericon are tepúnaricoua
sánhruco nasórtui.

53. _When_ may be rendered by héco, as, When you had come to see me, I
had gone for wood: Hècona netz eue teuhdòni, nee cumandóniru. Another:
When Christ had died, so much as was man died, and had not died
so much as was God: Héco múcruco Cristo, are dóremcade muqui, are
Diósemeade ca muqui; where also mucruco is gerund, and likewise may
be said, héco muqui Cristo etc. If the question be asked, When? the
accent is placed upon the last letter.


54, 55, 57. The native having counted to ten, says ten and one on it,
etc., and at twenty says one man, sei dóhme, for the reason of that
being his full number of fingers and toes: for forty he says, two
men, got dóhme, and so on to a hundred, marqui dóhme. After twenty the
count is the same as with the ten, twenty and one on it, etc. These
numerals have also their inflections:

  1, sei,    once, ses,            6, vusani,      six times, vusanis,
  2, godum,  twice, gos,           7, seniovusáni, seven times, seniovusánis,
  3, veidum, thrice, veis,         8, gos návoi,   eight times, gos návos,
  4, nauoi,  four times, návos,    9, vesmácoi,    nine times, vesmácois,
  5, marqui, five times, marquis, 10, macoi,       ten times, mácois.

The word _Already_, de, is thus added:

  Gósade,    Márquisade,       Gosnavosade,
  Veisade,   Vusánisade,       Vesmácoisade,
  Navósade,  Seniovusánisade,  Mácoisade.


56. To form these the numerals are put in the ablative with in, _tze_,
which is placed afterward as the prepositions ever are. Sétze, first;
góctze, second; véictze, third; návoctze, fourth; márquitze, fifth;
vusánitze, sixth; seniovásanitze, seventh; gosnávoctze, eighth;
vesmácoitze, ninth; mácoitze, tenth. First is also called vatzut

58. On the third day, is expressed, Veie queco; on the fourth day,
Navoe queco, etc.

       *       *       *       *       *



    Nuestro Padre, que estás en el cielo. Tu nombre sea
    grandemente creido. A nosotros venga tu reino. Tu voluntad
    aqui en la tierra se haga, come se hace en el cielo. Nuestra
    comida cotidiana danosla hoy. Ten nos lástima limpiandonos
    nuestros pecados, asi como tenemos lástima á nuestros
    enemigos. No dexaras al Diablo, que nos hace caer en el
    pecado; mas guárdanos del mal. Amen.

    Tamo Nóno, tevíetze catzi, canné tegua uéhva vitzua terádauh.
    Tomo canne vené hasém amo Quéidagua. Amo canne hinádocauh
    iuhtépatz éndaugh, teníctze endahtevén. Quécovi tamo bádagua
    óqui tame mie. Tame náventziuh tame piuidcdo tamo canáde émea;
    ein tamide tamo. Ovi tamo páven tziuhdahteven. Cana tótzi
    Díablo tatacóritze tame huétudenta; nassa tame hipur
    eadénitzenai Amen.


    Our Father, who art in heaven. Thy name be greatly believed
    in. To us come thy kingdom. Thy will here on earth be done, as
    it is done in heaven. Our daily bread give us this day. Have
    pity on us, cleansing us of our sins, as we have pity on our
    enemies. Leave us not to the Devil, that he cause us to fall
    into sin, but keep us from evil. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *


  Acorn, _tohátacat_.
  Adobe, _saamí_; to make _saamítaan_.
  Air, _vaheia_.
  Amoli, soap-plant, _baròt_, Gen. _baróte_, Ac. _baròta_.
  Arm, _nocat_.
  Arrow, _zamát_, to make _zántaan_, to poison with vegetable _hithutzaguan_.
  Arrowhead of stone, _tavit_.
  Autumn, _mahuákis_.
  Axe, _métesiuen_.

  Bad, _cadéni_.
  To bark, _vüden_.
  Basket, _huarit_.
  Bear, _mavár_.
  Beard, _hinsi_.
  Bee, _mumúhuo_.
  Belly, _síguat_.
  Bird, _viguits_.
  Bitter, _chipúen_.
  Black, _sóvei_.
  Blanket, _estári_.
  Blue, _tadei_.
  Blood, _erát_.
  To boil, _tonóri_.
  Bone, _hógua_.
  Bow, _vácotzi_.
  Boy, _doritizi_.
  Brother, the elder, _vátzgua_ the younger, _róngua_.
  Brown, _temosei, vamei mai_.
  Buzzard, _tecó_.
  But, _nassá_.

  Cane, _omá_.
  Canoe, _vvasguasiuen_.
  To cheat, _istuden_.
  Chameleon, _itzícamúr_.
  Clay, _taarát_.
  Cloud, _mosit_.
  Coal, _ovi_.
  Cobweb, _vitoroca_.
  Cold, _vteri, vteragua_; it is cold, _vtéen_, to feel cold _vtetzen_.
  To come, _verén_.
  Cotton, _chin_.
  Coyote, _voi_.
  Crane, _coro_.
  Cricket, _vaui sorótz_.
  Crow, _cáratz_.

  Dance, _dáhdauh_, to _dáuen_.
  Daughter, the father says, _márgua_; the mother, _nótzgua_.
  Day, _taui_, to-day, _oqui táuitze_.
  Deaf, _nacáp_.
  Deer, _masót, suputz_.
  Difficult, _omtziteri_.
  Distant, _mecu_.
  Ditch, _vavat_.
  Dog, _chúchi_.
  Dove, _ococói_.
  Drizzle, _veiguat, bahú ragua_.
  Drown, see Water.
  Drunkard, _tutzan_.
  Dry, or thin, _huáqui_.
  Duck, _bavitz_, a large black variety, _humuviri_.
  Dumb, _nipí_.
  Dust, _báta_.

  Eagle, _páue_.
  Ear, _nacát_.
  Earth, _tóvat_.
  East, _sivín_, from the east hither _sivitz-cue_, for the east
      _sivitzuai_, to the east nearly _sivicon_.
  To eat, _hibáan_.
  Egg, _aiavora_.
  Elm, _vasát_.
  Enemy, _ovigua_.
  Eye, _vusit_.

  Face, _vúsva_.
  To fall, _huetzén_.
  Father, _nonogua_; the woman says _másgua_.
  Feather, _hunsa_.
  To fear, _scuitzen_.
  Female, if a child, _hoquitz_; if large, _hoquis_; if grown,
      _hoit_; if aged, _hoisguari_.
  Finger, _mamát_.
  Fire, _te_.
  To finish, _biháu_.
  To fight, _nácodan, nahódan_.
  First, _batzút_; first time, _viguat_.
  Fish-hook, _seiuiquirina_; fish, _cuchút_.
  Flesh, _sába_.
  Flower, _sequát_.
  To fly, _méen_.
  Flea, _tepu_.
  Food, _hibé, badagua_.
  Foot, _tarát_.
  Fox, _caos_.
  Frog, _temat_; small _sivor_.
  Fruit, _tacat, baságua_; of the field, _túdaugh, tudahua_.

  Girl, _hoquitzi_.
  To go, _daau_.
  Good, _déni_.
  Goodness, _denirava,  dénihibéraua_.
  Grass, _dósa_.
  Gratis, _nassahitáua_.
  Great, _tavéi_.
  Green, _sidei_.

  Half, _nataio_.
  Hand, _mamát_, right, _hibe puuai_, left, _zicópeuai_.
  Happy, _decsari_.
  Hail, _tehét_.
  Hard, _zeen, zeitera_.
  Hawk, _toháuo_, the large, _sübi_, the red, _hisúntocotz_, the
      little _chinuópar_, the little spotted _oris_.
  Head, _zonit_.
  Heart, _hibés_.
  Heat, _úruri_.
  Heron, white _batósa_, with dark wings, _bahesó_.
  Hole, _hibíhi_.
  Honey, _vatzia_.
  House, _quit_, of stick _cúquit_, of adobe _saamiquit_, of grass
      _dosquit_, of mud _batóquit_, of mat _hipequit_.
  Hunger, _hisumagua_.
  Husband, _cúngua_.

  Ice, _sutéuhoi_.
  Idol, _hósit_.
  Infant, _vrátz_.
  To irrigate, _vanuun_.

  Knee, _tonót_.

  Language, _nerit_.
  Lagune, _báhri_.
  Lead, _temésti_.
  Leaf, _sagua_; of maize, _sonót_, to
  leaf or bud, _ziradaan_; to fall, _sauhdiórion_.
  Leg, _morica_.
  Liar, _istuneri_.
  To lie, _istun_.
  Lie, _isturagua_.
  Lizard, _behór_.
  Lime, _azot_.
  Lip, _ténpira_.
  Little, _chúpi_.
  Love, _hinadodauh_.
  To love, _naquén, hinádocon_.

  Maiden, _náhua hoquis_.
  Maize, _sunút_.
  Maizefield, _etzét_.
  Mesquit, _hupuro_, the fruit _zona_.
  Metal, _sati_.
  Moon, _metzat_.
  Mother, _degua_.
  Mouse, _zicúr_.
  Mouth, _tenít_.

  Night, _chúgoi_.
  North, _batén_, from the North hither _bahitz-áue_, to _bahitzuai_, to
      the north nearly _bútecon_. The Indian ever has the points of the
      compass present to his mind and expresses himself accordingly in
      words, although it shall be of matters in his house.
  No, _quáta, ca_.
  Nose, _dacàt_.
  Now, _óqui_.

  Oak, _tohá_, the red _vadásor_.
  Old man, _dotzí_.
  Orphan, _topini_.
  Owl, _haropeuátz_.

  Parched, _saquét_.
  Paroquet, _zíra_.
  Peak, _cauitze mógua_.
  People, _dóhme_.
  Petticoat, _esát_.
  Phesant, _puráva_.
  Pigeon, _macágua_; the wild _cucúr_.
  Pine, _vocot, sivér_.
  Pine grove, _voceura_.
  Plant, _zivadai, vehri_.
  Plume-crest, _cumisa_.
  Poison, _zarua_.
  Purple, _hácagua_.

  Quail, _cue_.
  To quarrel, _nevúden, nepúden_.

  Rabbit, _távu_.
  Rain, _dúqui_, to _dúcun_.
  Rainbow, _vainára_.
  Rat, _voiset_.
  Red, _siquei_.
  River, _haquit_.
  Rivulet, _bavútzque_.
  Road, _vouet_.
  Rock, _evét, sibát_.

  Salt, _onát_.
  Sand, _sa_.
  To say, _teén_.
  Scorpion, _tomúor_.
  Season of rain, _badás_; of heat, _cuués_, _cuuesragua_; of cold,
      _tomóragua_, _tomodagua_.
  Seed, _suvútzi_.
  Squirrel, _heretz_.
  Stomach, _voquima_.
  Stone, _tet_.
  Straw, _moquàt_.
  String, _tegámi, fibre_.
  To seek, _hiamun_.
  Shade, _heias, heiagua_.
  Shower, _dúqui_.
  Silver, _teoquita_.
  Sister, the elder, _cótzgua_; the younger, _víngua_.
  Skin, _peguat_.
  Sky, _teguica, teuica_.
  Sleep, _cotzàt, cotziragua_.
  Smoke, _morágua_.
  Snow, _sutéhri_.
  Son, the father says _nóguat_; the mother, _notzgua_.
  Sour, _zocáen_.
  South _tenún_, to the south nearly, _tenacon, tenauai, tánai_, from
      the south hither _ténauai áue_.
  Speech, _nerit_.
  Spring, time of drought, _túsar, cuuesragua_.
  Star, _sibora_; Venus, _zarin_; the three Marias, _vauróra tácsoi_.
  To steal, _etzbaan_.
  Stick, _cut_.
  To sting, _húhan_.
  Stream, _haquit_.
  Summer, time of rain, _badás_.
  Sun, _túui_.
  Swallow, _vaidarus_.
  Sweet, _quegúaen, queguateri_.

  Tail, _basit_.
  Tear, _opet_.
  That, _at, ar_.
  Thicket, _churi_.
  Thief, _etzbaan, etzibaras_.
  Thigh, _moríca_.
  This, _verido, vet_, with this _verema_, by this _vérede_.
  Thrush, _chanate, zaia_.
  Thorn, _vetzát_, of nopal, _nacóuetzat_.
  Tiger, _tutzí_.
  Toad, _cohar_.
  Tobacco, _vivát_.
  To-morrow, _queco_.
  Tongue, _nenét_.
  Tooth, _tanus_.
  Town, _hoirúgua_.
  Track, _darút, déruh_.
  Tree, _cut_.
  Turkey, _ziúi_.
  Turtle, _múri_.

  Valley, _haqúit_.
  Viper, _sameior_, the coral _mapurvúcotz_.
  Virgin, _naha hoquis_.
  Virmillion, or yellow, _basca_.

  War, _nahódadauh_.
  To wash, _vacoran_.
  Wasp, _huiquitunútz_.
  Water, _bat_, G. _bate_, Ac. _báta_; hot, _basuera_, warm,
      _camérabasucrari_, cold _batutáeu_. To drown one _bátemean_, Per.
      _bateméari_, Fut. _bateméatze_, from _mean_ to kill one: to drown
      many _batécodan_, Per. _batécoi_, Fut. _batécoitze_, from _codan_
      to kill many: many to become drowned _batecéome_, Per. _batécoi_,
      Fut. _batecotze_, from _coome_ many to die: one to become drowned,
      _batémucun_, Per. _batémuqui_, Fut. _batémuctze_, from _múcun_ one
      to die. (See section 33.)
  Watermelon, _himus_.
  To weep, _baúnan_.
  Well, _batécori_, to make, _batécoran_, from _tecori_, bowl.
  West, _huritzei_; to the west, _hurún, hurucon, huritzuai_; from the
      west hither _huritzcue.
  To whistle, _bicudaguan_.
  White, _sútei_.
  Wide, _huena_.
  Wife, _húhgua_.
  Wild-cat, _porótz_.
  Wind, _vahéca_.
  Winter, _tomó, utédo_ time of cold.
  Wolf, _húrue_.
  Word, _nerit_.
  Wood, _cút_.
  Woman, _hoquis_.
  Wood, _cùquit_.
  Wound, _vücat_, to _nacùan_.

  Year, _betúragua_.
  Yellow, _súvei_.
  Yes, _háue_, (more emphatically) _hai eco_; woman says, heè_.
  Yesterday, _tuut_.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Grammatical Sketch of the Heve Language - Shea's Library of American Linguistics. Volume III." ***

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