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´╗┐Title: A Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Venture, a Native of Africa, but Resident above Sixty Years in the United States of America, Related by Himself
Author: Smith, Venture
Language: English
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But resident above sixty years in the United States of America.



New London, 1798


The following account of  the life of VENTURE, is a relation of simple
facts, in which nothing is in substance to what he relates himself.
Many other interesting and curious passages of his life might have
been inserted, but on account of the bulk to which they must
necessarily have swelled this narrative, they were omitted.  If any
should suspect the truth of what is here related, they are referred to
people now living who are acquainted with most of the facts mentioned
in this narrative.

The reader is here presented with an account, not of a renowned
politician or warrior, but of an untutored African slave, brought into
this Christian country at eight years of age, wholly destitute of all
education but what he received in common with other domesticated
animals, enjoying no advantages that could lead him to suppose himself
superior to the beasts, his fellow servants.  And if he shall enjoy no
other advantage from perusing this narrative, he may experience those
sensations of shame and indignation, that will prove him to be not
wholly destitute of every noble and generous feeling.

The subject of the following pages, had he received only a common
education, might have been a man of high respectability and
usefulness; and had his education been suited to his genius, he might
have been an ornament and an honor to human nature.  It may perhaps,
not be unpleasing to see the efforts of a great mind wholly
uncultivated, enfeebled and depressed by slavery, and struggling under
every disadvantage.  The reader may here see a Franklin and a
Washington, in a state of nature, or rather, in a state of slavery.
Destitute as he is of all education, he still exhibits striking traces
of native ingenuity and good sense.

This narrative exhibits a pattern of honesty, prudence, and industry,
to people of his own colour; and perhaps some white people would not
find themselves degraded by imitating such an example.

The following account is published in compliance with the earnest
desire of the subject of it, and likewise a number of respectable
persons who are acquainted with him.


_Containing an account of his life, from his birth to the time of his
                  leaving his native country._

I was born at Dukandarra, in Guinea, about the year 1729.  My father's
name was Saungm Furro, Prince of the Tribe of Dukandarra.  My father
had three wives.  Polygamy was not uncommon in that country,
especially among the rich, as every man was allowed to keep as many
wives as he could maintain.  By his first wife he had three children.
The eldest of them was myself, named by my father Broteer.  The other
two were named Cundazo and Soozaduka.  My father had two children by
his second wife, and one by his third.  I descended from a very large,
tall and stout race of beings, much larger than the generality of
people in other parts of the globe, being commonly considerably above
six feet in height, and in every way well proportioned.

The first thing worthy of notice which I remember was, a contention
between my father and mother, on account of my father's marrying his
third wife without the consent of his first and eldest, which was
contrary to the custom generally observed among my countrymen.  In
consequence of this rupture, my mother left her husband and country,
and travelled away with her three children to the eastward.  I was
then five years old.  She took not the least sustenance along with
her, to support either herself or children.  I was able to travel
along by her side; the other two of her offspring she carried one on
her back, and the other being a sucking child, in her arms.  When we
became hungry, my mother used to set us down on the ground, and gather
some of the fruits which grew spontaneously in that climate.  These
served us for food on the way.  At night we all lay down together in
the most secure place we could find, and reposed ourselves until
morning.  Though there were many noxious animals there; yet so kind
was our Almighty protector, that none of them were ever permitted to
hurt or molest us.  Thus we went on our journey until the second day
after our departure from Dukandarra, when we came to the entrance of a
great desert.  During our travel in that we were often affrighted with
the doleful howlings and yellings of wolves, lions, and other animals.
After five days travel we came to the end of this desert, and
immediately entered into a beautiful and extensive interval country.
Here my mother was pleased to stop and seek a refuge for me.  She left
me at the house of a very rich farmer.  I was then, I should judge,
not less than one hundred forty miles from my native place, separated
from all my relations and acquaintance.  At this place my mother took
her farewell of me, and set out for her own country.  My new guardian,
as I shall call the man with whom I was left, put me into the business
of tending sheep, immediately after I was left with him.  The flock
which I kept with the assistance of a boy, consisted of about forty.
We drove them every morning between two and three miles to pasture,
into the wide and delightful plains.  When night drew on, we drove
them home and secured them in the cote.  In this round I continued
during my stay there.  One incident that befel me when I was driving
my flock from pasture, was so dreadful to me at that age, and is to
this time fresh in my memory, that I cannot help noticing it in this
place.  Two large dogs sallied out of a certain house and set upon me.
One of them took me by the arm, and the other by the thigh, and before
their master could come and relieve me, they lacerated my flesh to
such a degree, that the scars are very visible to the present day.  My
master was immediately sent for.  He came and carried me home, as I
was unable to go myself on account of my wounds.  Nothing remarkable
happened afterwards until my father sent for me to return home.

Before I dismiss this country, I must just inform my reader what I
remember concerning this place.  A large river runs through this
country in a westerly course.  The land for a great way on each side
is flat and level, hedged in by a considerable rise of the country at
a great distance from it.  It scarce ever rains there, yet the land is
fertile; great dews fall in the night which refresh the soil.  About
the latter end of June or first of July, the river begins to rise, and
gradually increases until it has inundated the country for a great
distance, to a height of seven or eight feet.  This brings on a slime
which enriches the land surprisingly.  When the river has subsided,
the natives begin to sow and plant, and the vegetation is exceedingly
rapid.  Near this rich river my guardian's land lay.  He possessed, I
cannot tell exactly how much, yet this I am certain of respecting it,
that he owned an immense tract.  He possessed likewise a great many
cattle and goats.  During my stay with him I was kindly used, and with
as much tenderness, for what I saw, as his only son, although I was an
entire stranger to him, remote from friends and relations.  The
principal occupation of the inhabitants there, were the cultivation of
the soil and the care of their flocks.  They were a people pretty
similar in every respect to that of mine,  except in their persons,
which were not so tall and stout.  They appeared to be very kind and
friendly.  I will now return to my departure from that place.

My father sent a man and horse after me.  After settling with my
guardian for keeping me, he took me away and went for home.  It was
then about one year since my mother brought me here.  Nothing
remarkable occured to us on our journey until we arrived safe home.

I found then that the difference between my parents had been made up
previous to their sending for me.  On my return, I was received both
by my father and mother with great joy and affection, and was once
more restored to my paternal dwelling in peace and happiness.  I was
then about six years old.

Not more than six weeks had passed after my return, before a message
was brought by an inhabitant of the place where I lived the preceding
year to my father, that that place had been invaded by a numerous
army, from a nation not far distant, furnished with musical
instruments, and all kinds of arms then in use; that they were
instigated by some white nation who equipped and sent them to subdue
and possess the country, that his nation had made no preparation for
war, having been for a long time in profound peace that they could not
defend themselves against such a formidable train of invaders, and
must therefore necessarily evacuate their lands to the fierce enemy,
and fly to the protection of some chief; and that if he would permit
them they should come under his rule and protection when they had to
retreat from their own possessions.  He was a kind and merciful
prince, and therefore consented to these proposals.

He had scarcely returned to his nation with the message, before the
whole of his people were obliged to retreat from their country, and
come to my fathers dominions.

He gave them every privilege and all the protection his government
could afford.  But they had not been there longer than four days
before news came to them that the invaders had laid waste their
country, and were coming speedily to destroy them in my father's
territories. This affrighted them, and therefore they immediately
pushed off to the southward, into the unknown countries there, and
were never more heard of.

Two days after their retreat, the report turned out to be but too
true.  A detachment of the enemy came to my father and informed him,
that the whole army was encamped not far out of his dominions, and
would invade the territory and deprive his people of their liberties
and rights, if he did not comply with the following terms.  These were
to pay them a large sum of money, three hundred fat cattle, and a
great number of goats, sheep, asses, &c.

My father told the messenger that he would comply rather than that his
subjects should be deprived of their rights and privileges, which he
was not then in circumstances to defend from so sudden an invasion.
Upon turning out those articles, the enemy pledged their faith and
honor that they would not attack him.  On these he relied and
therefore thought it unnecessary to be on his guard against the enemy.
But their pledges of faith and honor proved no better than those of
other unprincipled hostile nations; for a few days after a certain
relation of the king came and informed him, that the enemy who sent
terms of accommodation to him, and received tribute to their
satisfaction, yet meditated an attack on his subjects by surprise, and
that probably they would commence their attack in less than one day,
and concluded with advising him, as he was not prepared for war, to
order a speedy retreat of his family and subjects.  He complied with
this advice.

The same night which was fixed upon to retreat, my father and his
family set off about break of day.  The king and his two younger wives
went in one company, and my mother and her children in another.  We
left our dwellings in succession, and my father's company went on
first.  We directed our course for a large shrub plain, some distance
off, where we intended to conceal ourselves from the approaching
enemy, until we could refresh and rest ourselves a little.  But we
presently found that our retreat was not secure.  For having struck up
a little fire for purposes of cooking victuals, the enemy who happened
to be encamped a little distance off, had sent out a scouting party
which discovered us by the smoke of the fire, just as we were
extinguishing it and about to eat.  As soon as we had finished eating,
my father discovered the party, and immediately began to discharge
arrows at them.  This was what I first saw, and it alarmed both me and
the women, who being unable to make any resistance, immediately betook
ourselves to the tall thick reeds not far off, and left the old king
to fight alone.  For some time, I beheld him from the reeds defending
himself with  great courage and firmness, till at last he was obliged
to surrender himself into their hands.

Then they came to us in the reeds, and the very first salute I had
from them was a violent blow on the head with the fore part of a gun,
and at the same time a grasp round the neck.  I then had a rope put
about my neck, as had all the women in the thicket with me, and were
immediately led to my father, who was likewise pinioned and haltered
for leading.  In this condition we were all led to the camp.  The
women and myself being pretty submissive, had tolerable treatment from
the enemy, while my father was closely interrogated respecting his
money which they knew he must have.  But as he gave them no account of
it, he was instantly cut and pounded on his body with great
inhumanity, that he might be induced by the torture he suffered to
make the discovery.  All this availed not the least to make him give
up his money, but he despised all the tortures which they inflicted,
until the continued exercise and increase of torment, obliged him to
sink and expire.  He thus died without informing his enemies of the
place where his money lay.  I saw him while he was thus tortured to
death.  The shocking scene is to this day fresh in my mind, and I have
often been overcome while thinking on it.  He was a man of remarkable
stature.  I should judge as much as six feet and six or seven inches
high, two feet across his shoulders, and every way well proportioned.
He as a man of remarkable strength and resolution, affable, kind and
gentle, ruling with equity and moderation.

The army of the enemy was large, I should suppose consisting of about
six thousand men.  Their leader was called Baukurre.  After destroying
the old prince, they decamped and immediately marched towards the sea,
lying to the west, taking with them myself and the women prisoners.
In the march a scouting party was detached from the main army.  To the
leader of this party I was made waiter, having to carry his gun, &c.
As we were a scouting we came across a herd of fat cattle, consisting
of about thirty in number.  These we set upon, and immediately wrested
from their keepers, and afterwards converted them into food for the
army.  The enemy had remarkable success in destroying the country
wherever they went.  For as far as they had penetrated, they laid the
habitations waste and captured the people.  The distance they had now
brought me was about four hundred miles.  All the march I had very
hard tasks imposed on me, which I must perform on pain of punishment.
I was obliged to carry on my head a large flat stone used for grinding
our corn, weighing as I should suppose, as much as 25 pounds; besides
victuals, mat and cooking utensils.  Though I was pretty large and
stout of my age, yet these burthens were very grievous to me, being
only about six years and a half old.

We were then come to a place called Malagafco.  When we entered the
place we could not see the least appearance of either houses or
inhabitants, but upon stricter search found, that instead of houses
above ground they had dens in the sides of hillocks, contiguous to
ponds and streams of water.  In these we perceived they had all hid
themselves, as I suppose they usually did upon such occasions.  In
order to compel them to surrender, the enemy contrived to smoke them
out with faggots.  These they put to the entrance of the caves and set
them on fire.  While they were engaged in this business, to their
great surprise some of them were desperately wounded with arrows which
fell from above on them.  This mystery they soon found out.  They
perceived that the enemy discharged these arrows through holes on the
top of the dens directly in to the air.  Their weight brought them
back, point downwards on their enemies heads, whilst they were smoking
the inhabitants out.  The points of the arrows were poisoned, but
their enemy had an antidote for it, which they instantly applied to
the wounded part.  The smoke at last obliged the people to give
themselves up.  They came out of their caves, first spatting the palms
of their hands together, then and immediately after extended their
arms, crossed at their wrists, ready to be bound and pinioned.  I
should judge that the dens above mentioned were extended about eight
feet horizontally into the earth, five feet in height and as many
wide.  They were arched over head and lined with earth, which was of
the clay kind, and made the surface of their walls firm and smooth.

The invaders then pinioned the prisoners of all ages and sexes
indiscriminately, took their flocks and all their effects, and moved
on their way towards the sea.  On the march the prisoners were treated
with clemency, on account of their being submissive and humble.
Having come to the next tribe, the enemy laid siege and immediately
took men, women, children, flocks, and all their valuable effects.
They then went on to the next district which was contiguous with the
sea, called in Africa, Anamaboo.  The enemies provisions were then
almost spent, as well as their strength.  The inhabitants knowing what
kind of conduct they had pursued, and what were their present
intentions, improved the favorable opportunity, attacked them, and
took enemy, prisoners, flocks and all their effects.  I was then taken
a second time.  All of us were then put into the castle, and kept for
market.  On a certain time I and other prisoners were put on board a
canoe, under our master, and rowed away to a vessel belonging to Rhode
Island, commanded by capt. Collingwood, and the mate Thomas Mumford.
While we were going to the vessel, our master told us all to appear to
the best possible advantage for sale.  I was bought on board by one
Robertson Mumford, steward of said vessel, for four gallons of rum,
and a piece of calico, and called VENTURE, on account of his having
purchased me with his own private venture.  Thus I came by my name.
All the slaves that were bought for that vessel's cargo, were two
hundred and sixty.


  _Containing an account of his life, from the time of his leaving
               Africa, to that of his becoming free._

After all the business was ended on the coast of Africa, the ship
sailed from thence to Barbadoes.  After an ordinary passage, except
great mortality from small pox, which broke out on board, we arrived
at the island of Barbadoes: but when we reached it, there were found
out of the two hundred and sixty that sailed from Africa, not more
than two hundred alive.  These were all sold, except for myself and
three more, to the planters there.

The vessel then sailed for Rhode Island, and arrived there after a
comfortable passage.  Here my master sent me to live with one of his
sisters, until he could carry me to Fisher's Island, the place of his
residence.  I had then competed my eighth year.  After staying with
his sister some time I was taken to my master's place to live.

When we arrived at Narragansett, my master went ashore in order to
return a part of the way by land, and gave me the charge of the keys
of his trunks on board the vessel, and charged me not to deliver them
up to any body, not even to his father without his orders.  To his
directions I promised faithfully to conform.  When I arrived with my
master's articles at his house, my master's father asked me for his
son's keys, as he wanted to see what his trunks contained.  I told him
that my master intrusted me with the care of them until he should
return, and that I had given him my word to be faithful to the trust,
and could not therefore give him or any other person the keys without
my master's directions.  He insisted that I should deliver him the
keys, threatening to punish me if I did not.  But I let him know that
he should not have them say what he would.  He then laid aside trying
to get them.  But notwithstanding he appeared to give up trying to
obtain them from me, yet I mistrusted that he would take some time
when I was off my guard, either in the day time or at night to get
them, therefore I slung them around my neck, and in the day concealed
them in my bosom, and at night I always lay with them under me, that
no person might take them from me without being apprized of it.  Thus
I kept the keys from every body until my master came home.  When he
returned he asked where VENTURE was.  As I was then within hearing, I
came, said, here sir, at your service.  He asked me for his keys, and
I immediately took them off my neck and reached them out to him.  He
took them, stroked my hair, and commended me, saying in presence of
his father that his young VENTURE was so faithful that he would never
have been able to have taken the keys from him but by violence; that
he should not fear to trust him with his whole fortune, for that he
had been in his native place so habituated to keeping his word, that
he would sacrifice even his life to maintain it.

The first of the time of living at my master's own place, I was pretty
much employed in the house at carding wool and other household
business.  In this situation I continued for some years, after which
my master put me to work out of doors.  After many proofs of my
faithfulness and honesty, my master began to put great confidence in
me.  My behavior to him had as yet been submissive and obedient.  I
then began to have hard tasks imposed on me.  Some of these were to
pound four bushels of ears of corn every night in a barrel for the
poultry, or be rigorously punished.  At other seasons of the year I
had to card wool until a very late hour.  These tasks I had to perform
when I was about nine years old.  Some time after I had another
difficulty and oppression which was greater than any I had ever
experienced since I came into this country.  This was to serve two
masters.  James Mumford, my master's son, when his father had gone
from home in the morning, and given me a stint to perform that day,
would order me to do _this_ and _that_ business different from what my
master directed me.  One day in particular, the authority which my
master's son had set up, had like to have produce melancholy effects.
For my master having set me off my business to perform that day and
then left me to perform it, his son came up to me in the course of the
day, big with authority, and and commanded me very arrogantly to quit
my present business and go directly about what he should order me.  I
replied to him that my master had given me so much to perform that
day, and that I must therefore faithfully complete it in that time.
He then broke out in a great rage, snatched a pitchfork and went to
lay me over the head therewith; but I as soon got another and defended
myself with it, or otherwise he might have murdered me in his outrage.
He immediately called some people who were hearing at work for him,
and ordered them to take his hair rope and and come and bind me with
it.  They all tried to bind me but in vain, tho' there were three
assistants in number.  My upstart master than desisted, put his pocket
handkerchief before his eyes and went home with a design to tell his
mother of the struggle with young VENTURE.  He told her that their
young VENTURE had become so stubborn that he could not controul him,
and asked her what he should do with him.  In the mean time I
recovered my temper, voluntarily caused myself to be bound by the same
men who tried in vain before, and carried before my young master, that
he might do what he pleased with me.  He took me to a gallows made for
the purpose of hanging cattle on, and suspended me on it.  Afterwards
he ordered one of his hands to go to the peach orchard and cut him
three dozens of whips to punish me with.  These were brought to him,
and that was all that was done with them, as I was released and went
to work after hanging on the gallows about an hour.

After I lived with my master thirteen years, being then about twenty
two years old, I married Meg, a slave of his who was about my age.  My
master owned a certain Irishman, named Heddy, who about that time
formed a plan of secretly leaving his master.  After he had long had
this plan in meditation he suggested it to me.  At first I cast a deaf
ear on it, and rebuked Heddy for harboring in his mind such a rash
undertaking.  But after he had persuaded and much enchanted me with
the prospect of gaining my freedom with such a method, I at length
agreed to accompany him.  Heddy next inveigled two of his fellow
servants to accompany us.  The place to which we designed to go was
the Mississippi.  Our next business was to lay in a sufficient store
of provisions for our voyage.  We privately collected out of our
master's store, six great old cheeses, two firkins of butter, and one
whole batch of new bread.  When we had gathered all our own clothes
and some more, we took them all about midnight, and went to the water
side.  We stole our master's boat, embarked, then directed our course
for the Mississippi river.

We mutually confederated not to betray or desert one another on pain
of death.  We first steered our course for Montauk point, the east end
of Long-Island.  After our arrival there we landed, and Heddy and I
made an incursion into the island after fresh water, while our two
comrades were left at a little distance from the boat, employed at
cooking.  When Heddy and I had sought some time for water, he returned
to our companions, and I continued on looking for my object.  When
Heddy had performed his business with our companions, who were engaged
in cooking, he went directly to the boat, stole all the clothes in it,
and then travelled away for East-Hampton, as I was informed.  I
returned to my fellows not long after.  They informed me that our
clothes were stolen, but could not determine who was the thief, yet
they suspected Heddy as he was missing.  After reproving my two
comrades for not taking care of our things which were in the boat, I
advertised Heddy and sent two men in search of him.  They pursued and
overtook him at Southampton and returned him to the boat.  I then
thought it might afford some chance for my freedom, or at least a
palliation for my running away, to return Heddy immediately to his
master, and inform him that I was induced to go away by Heddy's
address.  Accordingly I set off with him and the rest of my companions
for our master's, and arrived there without any difficulty.  I
informed my master that Heddy was the ringleader of our revolt, and
that he had used us ill.  He immediately put Heddy into custody, and
myself and companions were well received and went to work as usual.

Not a long time passed after that, before Heddy was sent by my master
to New-London gaol.  At the close of that year I was sold to a Thomas
Stanton, and had to be separated from my wife and one daughter, who
was about one month old.  He resided at Stonington-point.  To this
place I brought with me from my last master's, two johannes, three old
Spanish dollars, and two thousand of coppers, besides five pounds of
my wife's money.  This money I got by cleaning gentlemen's shoes and
drawing boots, by catching musk-rats and minks, raising potatoes and
carrots, &c. and by fishing in the night, and at odd spells.

All this money amounting to near twenty-one pounds York currency, my
master's brother, Robert Stanton, hired of me, for which he gave me
his note.  About one year and a half after that time, my master
purchased my wife and and her child, for severn hundred pounds old
tenor.  One time my master sent me two miles after a barrel of
molasses, and ordered me to carry it on my shoulders.  I made out to
carry it all the way to my master's house.  When I lived with Captain
George Mumford, only to try my strength, I took up on my knees a
tierce of salt containing seven bushels, and carried it two or three
rods.  Of this fact there are several eye witnesses now living.

Towards the close of the time that I resided with this master, I had a
falling out with my mistress.  This happened one time when my master
was gone to Long-Island a gunning.  At first the quarrel began between
my wife and her mistress.  I was then at work in the barn, and hearing
a racket in the house, induced me to run there and see what had broken
out.  When I entered the house, I found my mistress in a violent
passion with my wife, for what she informed me was a mere trifle; such
a small affair that I forbear to put my mistress to the shame of
having it known.  I earnestly requested my wife to beg pardon of her
mistress for the sake of peace even if she had given no just occasion
for offence.  But whilst I was thus saying my mistress turned the
blows which she was repeating on my wife to me.  She took down her
horse-whip, and while she was glutting her fury with it, I reached out
my great black hand, raised it up and received the blows of the whip
on it which were designed for my head.  Then I immediately committed
the whip to the devouring fire.

When my master returned from the island, his wife told him of the
affair, but for the present he seemed to take no notice of it, and
mentioned not a word of it to me.  Some days after his return, in the
morning as I was putting on a log in the fire-place, not suspecting
harm from any one, I received a most violent stroke on the crown of my
head with a club two feet long and and as large around as a chair-
post.  This blow very badly wounded my head, and the scar of it
remains to this day.  The first blow made me have my wits about me as
you may suppose, for as soon as he went to renew it, I snatched the
club out of his hands and dragged him out of the door.  He then sent
for his brother to come and assist him, but I presently left my
master, took the club he wounded me with, carried it to a neighboring
Justice of the Peace, and complained of my master.  He finally advised
me to return to my master, and live contented with him until he abused
me again, and then complain.  I consented to do accordingly.  But
before I set out for my master's, up he come and his brother Robert
after me.  The Justice improved this convenient opportunity to caution
my master.  He asked him for what he treated his slave thus hastily
and unjustly, and told him what would be the consequence if he
continued the same treatment towards me.  After the Justice had ended
his discourse with my master, he and his brother set out with me for
home, one before and the other behind me.  When they had come to a bye
place, they both dismounted their respective horses, and fell to
beating me with great violence.  I became enraged at this and
immediately turned them both under me, laid one of them across the
other, and stamped both with my feet what I would.

This occasioned my master's brother to advise him to put me off.  A
short time after this I was taken by a constable and two men.  They
carried me to a black-smith's shop and had me hand-cuffed.  When I
returned home my mistress enquired much of her waiters, whether
VENTURE was hand-cuffed.  When she was informed that I was, she
appeared to be very contented and was much transported with the news.
In the midst of all this content and joy, I presented myself before my
mistress, shewed her my hand-cuffs, and gave her thanks for my gold
rings.  For this my master commanded a negro of his to fetch him a
large ox chain.  This my master locked on my legs with two padlocks.
I continued to wear the chain peaceably for two or three days, when my
master asked me with contemptuous hard names whether I had not better
be freed from my chains and go to work.  I answered him, No.  Well
then, said he, I will send you to the West-Indies or banish you, for I
am resolved not to keep you.  I answered him I crossed the waters to
come here, and I am willing to cross them to return.

For a day or two after this not any one said much to me, until one
Hempsted Miner, of Stonington, asked me if I would live with him.  I
answered him that I would.  He then requested me to make myself
discontented and to appear as unreconciled to my master as I could
before that he bargained with him for me; and that in return he would
give me a good chance to gain my freedom when I came to live with him.
I did as he requested me.  Not long after Hempsted Miner purchased me
of my master for fifty-six pounds lawful.  He took the chain and
padlocks off me immediately after.

It may here be remembered, that I related a few pages back, that I
hired out a sum of money to Mr. Robert Stanton, and took his note for
it.  In the fray between my master Stanton and myself, he broke open
my chest containing his brother's note to me, and destroyed it.
Immediately after my present master bought me, he determined to sell
me at Hartford.  As soon as I became apprized of it, I bethought
myself that I would secure a certain sum of money which lay by me,
safer than to hire it out to Stanton.  Accordingly I buried it in the
earth, a little distance from Thomas Stanton's, in the road over which
he passed daily.  A short time after my master carried me to Hartford,
and first proposed to sell me to one William Hooker of that place.
Hooker asked whether I would go to the German Flats with him.  I
answered, No.  He said I should, if not by fair means I should by
foul.  If you will go by no other measures, I will tie you down in my
sleigh.  I replied to him, that if he carried me in that manner, no
person would purchase me, for it would be thought that he had a
murderer for sale.  After this he tried no more, and said he would not
have me as a gift.

My master next offered me to Daniel Edwards, Esq. of Hartford, for
sale.  But not purchasing me, my master pawned me to him for ten
pounds, and returned to Stonington.  After some trial of my honesty,
Mr. Edwards placed considerable trust and confidence in me.  He put me
to serve as his cup-bearer and waiter.  When there was company at his
house, he would send me into his cellar and other parts of his house
to fetch wine and other articles occasionally for them.  When I had
been with him for some time, he asked me why my master wished to part
with such an honest negro, and why he did not keep me himself.  I
replied that I could not give him the reason, unless it was to convert
me into cash, and speculate with me as with other commodities.  I hope
he can never justly say it was on account of my ill conduct that he
did no keep me himself.  Mr Edwards told me that he should be very
willing to keep me himself, and that he would never let me go from him
to live, if it was not unreasonable and inconvenient for me to be
parted from my wife and children; therefore he would furnish me with a
horse to return to Stonington, if I had a mind for it.  As Miner did
not appear to redeem me I went, at called at my old master Stanton's
first to see my wife, who was then owned by him. As my old master
appeared much ruffled at my being there, I left my wife before I had
spent considerable time with her, and went to Colonel O. Smith's.
Miner had not as yet wholly settled with Stanton for me, and had
before my return from Hartford given Col. Smith a bill of sale for me.
These men once met to determine which of them should hold me, and upon
my expressing a desire to be owned by Col. Smith, and upon my master's
settling the remainder of the money which was due Stanton for me, it
was agreed that I should live with Col. Smith.  This was the third
time of my being sold, and I was then thirty-one years old.  As I
never had an opportunity of redeeming myself whilst I was owned by
Miner, though he promised to give me a chance, I was then very
ambitious of obtaining it.  I asked my master one time if he would
consent to have me purchase my freedom.  He replied that he would.  I
was then very happy, knowing that I was at that time able to pay part
of the purchase money, by means of the money which I some time since
buried.  This I took out of the earth and tendered to my master,
having previously engaged a free negro man to take take his security
for it, as I was the property of my master, and therefore could not
safely take his obligation myself.  What was wanted in redeeming
myself, my master agreed to wait on me for, until I could procure it
for him.  I still continued to work for Col. Smith.  Ther was
continually some interest accruing on my master's note to my friend
the free negro man above named, which I received, and with some
besides which I got by fishing, I laid out in land adjoining my old
master Stanton's.  By cultivating this land with the greatest
diligence and economy, at times when my master did not require my
labor, in two years I laid up ten pounds.  This my friend tendered to
my master for myself, and received his note for it.

Being encouraged by the success which I had met in redeeming myself, I
again solicited my master for a further chance of completing it.  The
chance for which I solicited him was that of going out to work the
ensuing winter.  He agreed to this on condition that I would give him
one quarter of my earnings.  On these terms I worked the following
winter, and earned four pounds sixteen shillings, one quarter of which
went to my master for the privilege, and the rest was paid him on my
own account.  This added to the other payments made up forty four
pounds, eight shillings, which I had paid on my own account.  I was
then about thirty five years old.

The next summer I again desired he would give me a chance of going out
to work.  But he refused and answered that he must have my labor this
summer, as he did not have it the past winter.  I replied that I
considered it as hard that I could not have a chance to work out when
the season became advantageous, and that I must only be permitted to
hire myself out in the poorest season of the year.  He asked me after
this what I would give for the privilege per month.  I replied that I
would leave it wholly with his own generosity to determine what I
should return him a month.  Well then, said he, if so two pounds a
month.  I answered him that if that was the least he would take I
would be contented.

Accordingly, I hired myself out at Fisher's Island, and earned twenty
pounds; thirteen pounds six shillings of which my master drew for the
privilege, and the remainder I paid him for my freedom.  This made
fifty-one pounds two shillings which I paid him.  In October following
I went and wrought six months at Long Island.  In that six months'
time I cut and corded four hundred cords of wood, besides threshing
out seventy-five bushels of grain, and received of my wages down only
twenty pounds, which left remaining a larger sum.  Whilst I was out
that time, I took upon my wages only one pair of shoes.  At night I
lay upon the hearth, with one coverlet over and another under me.  I
returned to my master and gave him what I received on my six months
labor.  This left only thirteen pounds eighteen shillings to make up
the full sum for my redemption.  My master liberated me, saying I
might pay what was behind if I could ever make it convenient,
otherwise it would be well.  The amount of the money which I had paid
my master towards redeeming my time, was seventy-one pounds two
shillings.  The reason of my master for asking such an unreasonable
price, was he said, to secure himself in case I should ever come to
want.  Being thirty-six years old, I left Col. Smith once for all.  I
had already been sold three different times, made considerable money
with seemingly nothing to derive it from, been cheated out of a large
sum of money, lost much by misfortunes, and paid an enormous sum for
my freedom.


_Containing an account of his life, from the time of his purchasing his
                freedom to the present day._

My wife and children were yet in bondage to Mr. Thomas Stanton.  About
this time I lost a chest, containing besides clothing, about thirty-
eight pounds in paper money.  It was burnt by accident.  A short time
after I sold all my possessions at Stonington, consisting of a pretty
piece of land and one dwelling house thereon, and went to reside at
Long-Island.  For the first four years of my residence there, I spent
my time in working for various people on that and at the neighboring
islands.  I the space of six months I cut and corded upwards of four
hundred cords of wood.  Many other singular and wonderful labors I
performed in cutting wood there, which would not be inferior to those
just recited, but for brevity sake I must omit them.  In the
aforementioned four years what wood I cut at Long-Island amounted to
several thousand cords, and the money which I earned thereby amounted
to two hundred and seven pounds ten shillings.  This money I laid up
carefully by me.  Perhaps some may enquire what maintained me all the
time I was laying up money.  I would inform them that I bought nothing
which I did not absolutely want.  All fine clothes I despised in
comparison with my interest, and never kept but just what clothes were
comfortable for common days, and perhaps I would have a garment or two
which I did not have on at all times, but as for superfluous finery I
never thought it to be compared with a decent homespun dress, a good
supply of money and prudence.  Expensive gatherings of my mates I
commonly shunned, and all kinds of luxuries I was perfectly a stranger
to; and during the time I was employed in cutting the aforementioned
quantity of wood, I never was at the expense of six-pence worth of
spirits.  Being after this labor forty years of age, I worked at
various places, and in particular on Ram-Island, which I purchased
Solomon and Cuff, two sons of mine, for two hundred dollars each.

It will here be remembered how much money I earned by cutting wood in
four years.  Besides this I had considerable money, amounting in all
to near three hundred pounds.  After this I purchased a negro man, for
no other reason than to oblige him, and gave him sixty pounds.  But in
a short time after he run away from me, and I thereby lost all that I
gave for him, except twenty pounds which he paid me previous to his
absconding.  The rest of my money I laid out in land, in addition to a
farm which I owned before, and a dwelling house thereon.  Forty four
years had then completed their revolution since my entrance in to this
existence of servitude and misfortune.  Solomon my eldest son, being
then in his seventeenth year, and all my hope and dependence for help,
I hired him out to one Charles Church, of Rhode Island, for one year,
on consideration of his giving him twelve pounds and an opportunity of
acquiring some learning.  In the course of the year, Church fitted out
a vessel for a whaling voyage, and being in want of hands to man her,
he induced my son to go, with the promise of giving him, on his
return, a pair of silver buckles, besides his wages.  As soon as I
heard of his going to sea, I immediately set out to go and prevent it
if possible.  But on my arrival at Church's, to my great grief, I
could only see the vessel my son was on almost out of sight going to
sea.  My son died of the scurvy on this voyage, and Church has never
yet paid me the least of his wages.  In my son, besides the loss of
his life, I lost equal to seventy-five pounds.

My other son being but a youth, still lived with me.  About this time
I chartered a sloop of about thirty tons burthen, and hired men to
assist me in navigating her.  I employed her mostly in the wood trade
to Rhode-Island, and made clear of all expenses above one hundred
dollars with her in better than one year.  I had then become something
forehanded, and being in my forty-fourth year, I purchased my wife
Meg, and thereby prevented having another child to buy, as she was
then pregnant.  I gave forty pounds for her.

During my residence at Long-Island, I raised one year with another,
ten cart loads of water-melons, and lost a great many every year
besides by the thievishness of the sailors.  What I made by the water-
melons I sold there, amounted to nearly five hundred dollars.  Various
other methods I in order to enable me to redeem my family.  In the
night-time I fished with set-nets and pots for eels and lobsters, and
shortly after went a whaling voyage in the service of Col. Smith.
After being seven months, the vessel returned, laden with four hundred
barrels of oil.  About this time, I became possessed of another
dwelling-house, and my temporal affairs were in a pretty prosperous
condition.  This and my industry was what alone saved me from being
expelled that part of the island in which I resided, as an act was
passed by the select-men of the place, that all negroes residing there
should be expelled.

Next after my wife, I purchased a negro man for four hundred dollars.
But he having an inclination to return to his old master, I therefore
let him go.  Shortly after I purchased another negro man for twenty-
five pounds, who I parted with shortly after.

Being about forty-six years old, I bought my oldest child Hannah, of
Ray Mumford, for forty-four pounds, and she still resided with him.  I
had already redeemed from slavery, myself, my wife and three children,
besides three negro men.

About the forty-seventh year of my life, I disposed all my property at
Long-Island, and came from thence into East-Haddam.  I hired myself
out at first to Timothy Chapman, for five weeks, the earnings of which
time I put carefully by me.  After this I wrought for Abel Bingham
about six weeks.  I then put my money together and purchased of said
Bingham ten acres of land, lying at Haddam neck, where I now reside.
On this land I labored with great diligence for two years, and shortly
after purchased six acres more of land contiguous to my other.  One
year from that time I purchased seventy acres more of the same man,
and paid for it mostly with the produce of my other land.  Soon after
I bought this lot of land, I set up a comfortable dwelling house on my
farm, and built it from the produce thereof.  Shortly after I had much
trouble and expense with my daughter Hannah, whose name has before
been mentioned in this account.  She was married soon after I redeemed
her, to one Isaac, a free negro, and shortly after her marriage fell
sick of a mortal disease; her husband a dissolute and abandoned
wretch, paid but little attention to her in her illness.  I therefore
thought it best to bring her to my house and nurse her there.  I
procured her all the aid mortals could afford, but notwithstanding
this she fell a prey to her disease, after a lingering and painful
endurance of it.

The physician's bills for attending her during her illness amounted to
forty pounds.  Having reached my fifty-fourth year, I hired two negro
men, one named William Jacklin, and the other Mingo.  Mingo lived with
me one year, and having received his wages, run in debt to me eight
dollars, for which he gave me his note.  I procured a warrant, took
him, and requested him to go to Justice Throop's of his own accord,
but he refusing, I took him on my shoulders, and carried him there,
distant about two miles.  The justice asking me if I had my prisoner's
note with me, and replying that I had not, he told me that I must
return with him and get it.  Accordingly I carried Mingo back on my
shoulders, but before we arrived at my dwelling, he complained of
being hurt, and asked me if this was not a hard way of treating our
fellow creatures.  I answered him that it would be hard thus to treat
our honest fellow creatures.  He then told me that if I would let him
off my shoulders, he had a pair of silver shoe-buckles, one shirt and
a pocket handkerchief, which he would turn out to me.  I agreed, and
let him return home with me on foot; but the very following night, he
slipped from me, stole my horse and has never paid me even his note.
The other negro man, Jacklin, being a comb-maker by trade, he
requested me to set him up, and promised to reward me well with his
labor.  Accordingly I bought him a set of tools for making combs, and
procured him stock.  He worked at my house about one year, and then
run away from me with all his combs, and owed me for all his board.

Since my residence at Haddam neck, I have owned of boats, canoes and
sail vessels, not less than twenty.  These I mostly employed in the
fishing and trafficking business, and in these occupations I have been
cheated out of considerable money by people whom I traded with taking
advantage of my ignorance of numbers.

About twelve years ago, I hired a whale-boat and four black men, and
proceeded to Long-Island after a load of round clams.  Having arrived
there, I first purchased of James Webb, son of Orange Webb, six
hundred and sixty clams, and afterwards, with the help of my men,
finished loading my boat.  The same evening, however, this Webb stole
my boat, and went in her to Connecticut river, and sold her cargo for
his own benefit.  I thereupon pursued him, and at length, after an
additional expence of nine crowns, recovered the boat; but for the
proceeds of her cargo I never could obtain any compensation.

Four years after, I met with another loss, far superior to this in
value, and I think by no less wicked means.  Being going to New-London
with a grand-child, I took passage on an Indian's boat, and went there
with him.  On our return, the Indian took on board two hogsheads of
molasses, one of which belonged to Capt. Elisha Hart, of Saybrook, to
be delivered to his wharf.  When we arrived there, and while I was
gone, at the request of the Indian, to inform Captain Hart of his
arrival, and receive the freight for him, one hogshead of the molasses
had been lost overboard by the people in attempting to land it on the
wharf.  Although I was absent at the time, and had no concern whatever
in the business, and was known to a number of respectable witnesses, I
was nevertheless persecuted by this conscientious gentleman, (the
Indian not being able to pay for it) and obliged to pay upwards of ten
pounds lawful money, with all the costs of court.  I applied to
several gentlemen for counsel in this affair, and they advised me, as
my adversary was rich, and threatened to carry the matter from court
to court till it would cost me more than the first damages would be,
to pay the sum and submit to the injury; which I accordingly did, and
he has often since insultingly taunted me with my unmerited
misfortune.  Such a proceeding as this, committed on a defenseless
stranger, almost worn out in the hard service of the world, without
any foundation in reason or justice, whatever it may be called in a
christian land, would in my native country be branded a crime equal to
highway robbery.  But Captain Hart was a _white gentleman_, and I a
_poor African,_ and therefore it was _all right, and good enough for
the black dog._

I am now sixty nine years old.  Though once straight and tall,
measuring without shoes six feet one inch and an half, and every way
well proportioned, I am now bowed down with age and hardship.  My
strength which was once equal if not superior to any man whom I have
ever seen, is now enfeebled so that life is a burden, and it is with
fatigue that I can walk a couple of miles, stooping over my staff.
Other griefs are still behind; on account of which some aged people,
at least, will pity me.  My eye-sight has gradually failed, till I am
almost blind, and whenever I go abroad one of my grand-children must
direct my way; besides for many years I have been much pained and
troubled with an ulcer on one of my legs. But amidst all my griefs and
pains, I have many consolations; Meg, the wife of my youth, whom I
married for love, and bought with my money, is still alive.  My
freedom is a privilege which nothing else can equal.  Notwithstanding
all the losses I have suffered by fire, by the injustice of knaves, by
the cruelty and oppression of false-hearted friends, and the perfidy
of my own countrymen whom I have assisted and redeemed from bondage, I
am no possessed of more than two hundred acres of land, and three
habitable dwelling houses.  I gives me joy to think that I _have_ and
that I _deserve_ so good a character, especially for _truth_ and
_integrity._  While I am now looking to the grave as my home, my joy
for this world would be full--IF my children, Cuff for whom I paid two
hundred dollars when a boy, and Solomon who was born soon after I
purchased his mother--If Cuff and Solomon--O! that they had walked the
way of their father.  But a father's lips are closed in silence and
grief!  Vanity of vanities, all is vanity!

                         F I N I S.


Stonington, November 3, 1798.

These certify that VENTURE, a free negro man, aged about 69 years, and
was, as we have ever understood, a native of Africa, and formerly a
slave to Mr. James Mumford, of Fisher's-Island, in the state of New-
York, who sold him to Mr. Robert Stanton, 2d, of Stonington, in the
state of Connecticut, and said Stanton sold said VENTURE to Col.
Oliver Smith, of the aforesaid place.  That said VENTURE hath
sustained the character of a faithful servant, and that of a
temperate, honest and industrious man, and being ever intent on
obtaining his freedom, he was indulged by his masters after the
ordinary labour on the days of his servitude, to improve the nights in
fishing and other employments of his own emolument, in which time he
procured so much money as to purchase his freedom from his late master
Col. Smith; after which he took upon himself the name of VENTURE
SMITH, and has since his freedom purchased a negro woman, called Meg,
to whom he was previously married, and also his children who were
slaves, and said VENTURE has since removed himself and family to the
town of East-Haddam, in this state, where he has purchased lands on
which he hath built a house, and there taken up his abode.

                                       NATHAN MINOR, Esq.
                                      ELIJAH PALMER, Esq.
                                       Capt. AMOS PALMER,
                                         ACORS SHEFFIELD,
                                            EDWARD SMITH.

*** End of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "A Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Venture, a Native of Africa, but Resident above Sixty Years in the United States of America, Related by Himself" ***

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