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´╗┐Title: Notes on the Apocalypse
Author: Steele, David
Language: English
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NOTES

ON

THE APOCALYPSE;

WITH

An Appendix

CONTAINING DISSERTATIONS ON SOME OF THE APOCALYPTIC SYMBOLS,

TOGETHER WITH

ANIMADVERSIONS ON THE INTERPRETATIONS OF SEVERAL AMONG THE MOST LEARNED
AND APPROVED EXPOSITORS OF BRITAIN AND AMERICA.

BY DAVID STEELE, Sr.,

Pastor of the Reformed Presbyterian Congregation, Philadelphia.


PHILADELPHIA: YOUNG & FERGUSON, No. 14 SOUTH SEVENTH ST. 1870.



TO THE

REV. JOHN CUNNINGHAM, LL.D.,

_Missionary from the Reformed Presbyterian Church to the Jews in London,
England._


REV. AND VERY DEAR FRIEND AND BROTHER:--

Although we are "separated upon the wall, one far from the other," we
are not altogether precluded from mutual salutation. Placed by our
Master on two hemispheres, between which the electric current bears
frequent tidings, our respective positions are advantageous for noting
the events of providence. These constitute the signs of the times, and
are the counterpart of prophecy. Prophecy and providence reflect light
upon each other, and both are helpful to the interpretation of each; but
He alone who is the "Wonderful Counsellor," can cause us to understand
either.

In submitting the following work to the public, I venture to do so under
your auspices, if not under the sanction of your name. And I embrace the
present occasion, Rev. Sir, to bear willing testimony to your
acknowledged scholarship,--your profound erudition, especially in
Natural Science and Philology. I do also cheerfully and joyfully
recognise you as a public witness; and at the present time of general
defection, as an official and _consistent_ witness in the British Isles
for the integrity of our Covenanted Reformation,--that reformation which
in its fuller development is destined to secure the rights of God and
man in reorganized society. Such, I believe to be one of the cheering
lessons which may be learned by Christ's witnesses from searching the
Apocalypse.

That you, Dear Sir, may be long preserved, sustained and comforted by
the providence and grace of the Most High, amid all your self-sacrifice,
privation and reproach which you endure for the truth's Bake, is the
prayer of

Your brother in covenant bonds,

DAVID STEELE.

PHILADELPHIA, _February 1st, 1870_.



PREFACE


The Apocalypse is one of the most sublime and wonderful dramatic
exhibitions presented for human contemplation. Internal evidence concurs
with authentic history, in demonstrating to the devout and intelligent
reader, its divine origin. God, angels and men, are the principal
actors. Men's natural curiosity may find entertainment in this book; and
from no higher principle, many have doubtless been prompted to attempt a
discovery of its mysterious contents. What is true, however, of
supernatural revelation in general, is equally true of this book:--"The
natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God, neither can
he know them, because they are spiritually discerned."

To the right understanding of the Apocalypse, so far as the prophetical
parts of it are contemplated, the following prerequisites would seem to
be indispensable:--

1. A competent knowledge of what may be termed the fundamental doctrines
of the gospel: such as the unity of the Divine Nature; the distinction
of persons in the Godhead; the atonement and intercession of Christ; the
total depravity and renovation of human nature; the resurrection and
final retribution, etc.

2. Acquaintance with symbolical language, as the only language common to
all men since the confusion of tongues.

3. Familiarity with the typical dispensation, from which most of the
symbols are taken. 4. Freedom from all political bias.

No expositor of the Apocalypse appears to have possessed all these
qualifications, however few and simple. The most learned and judicious
interpreters of this book have been divines of Britain and of the United
States.

After so many laborers employed in this harvest, the reader may
ask,--What remains to be gleaned? To this inquiry, it may be sufficient
to remind the devout Christian, that as the Apocalypse is the end of the
Bible, so "the harvest is the end of the world;" and during the
intermediate time "the Lord of the harvest is sending forth laborers."
Prophecy has engaged the attention and occupied the thoughts of the
writer, more or less, for the last thirty years. He has consulted the
views of most of the distinguished and approved interpreters of the book
of Revelation; among whom the following are named, viz.: _Mede, Sir
Isaac_ and _Bishop Newton, Durham, Fleming, Gill, Whitaker, Kett,
Galloway, Faber, Scott, Mason, McLeod_; and many others: from all whose
labors, he has derived much instruction; and from all of whom he has
been obliged in important points to dissent.

The immediate occasion of this undertaking, was the urgent request of
the people of his charge, that the substance of a course of lectures
delivered in ordinary Sabbath ministrations, might be put into a more
permanent form, for their future edification.

In the early centuries of the Christian era, so wild, enthusiastic and
corrupt were the sentiments of some Millenarians, that this book ceased
in great measure to be read or studied; and even its divine authority
came to be questioned by many learned and pious men. As the "Dark Ages"
of Popery resulted from neglect of the sacred Scriptures in general, so
even among the first reformers the Apocalypse was viewed with suspicion
as to its claim to inspiration. It is probable that many of the
unlearned will hear with wonder, and doubt the assertion, that even the
great reformer Luther rejected the Apocalypse, as being no part of the
sacred canon! The same judgment he formed of the epistle by James! With
characteristic boldness, he wrote as follows:--"The epistle of James
hath nothing evangelical in it. I do not consider it the writing of an
apostle at all.... It ascribes justification to works, in direct
contradiction to Paul and all the other sacred writers.... With respect
to the Revelation of John, I state what I feel. For more than one
reason, I cannot deem this book either apostolic or prophetical, ... and
it is sufficient reason for me not to esteem it highly, that Christ is
neither taught nor known in it."[1] Such was the estimation in which
that distinguished reformer held _two_ inspired books of the New
Testament at the dawn of the Reformation. How great the increase of
scriptural light since his day!

The grand design of this book, as declared by its divine Author, is, "to
show unto his servants things which must shortly come to pass," ... "to
testify these things in the churches:"--to make known beforehand, to
those styled his "witnesses," the certainty of a great apostacy,--the
rise, reign and overthrow of the Antichrist, that "when it came to pass,
they might believe," and exemplify before the world "the patience and
the faith of the saints." During that protracted period, the witnesses
could neither know their duty nor sustain their allotted trials without
these necessary instructions.

From the position of the witnessing church--"in the wilderness" during
the whole time of Antichrist's reign, which is also the position of the
apostle John when viewing in vision the "woman upon the beast;" (ch.
xvii. 3,) _that_ appears to be the _only advantageous position_ from
which to view the actors in this wonderful scene. And since few have
voluntarily "gone forth to Christ without the camp, bearing his
reproach," or submitted to wear the mourning garments of "sackcloth," it
is not at all surprising that the Apocalypse--emphatically a
_Revelation_--should continue to be, to many, a "sealed book." But on
the other hand, "blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear the
words of this prophecy, and keep those things which are written
therein."

As this work is intended for the instruction and edification of the
unlearned, rather than for the entertainment of the learned, words of
foreign extract are used as seldom as possible. Practical remarks and
reflections are rarely introduced; the principal aim being simply to
ascertain and present to the reader the mind of the Holy Spirit. How far
this object has been accomplished, is of course left to the judgment of
the honest inquirer. The reader, however, in forming his judgment of the
value of these Notes, may be reminded of that inspired rule in searching
the Scriptures,--"Comparing spiritual things with spiritual." To assist
him in the application of this divine rule, many chapters and verses are
quoted from other parts of the Bible, but especially within the
Apocalypse itself; that by concentrating the various rays upon
particular texts or symbols, their intrinsic light may be rendered more
luminous. Thus the interpretation given, if correct, may be confirmed
and illustrated.



NOTES ON THE APOCALYPSE.


The heavens and the earth did not make themselves. The material universe
furnishes to the intelligent creature a visible demonstration of the
"eternal power and godhead of its Author." Besides, a _sense of Deity_
is essential to humanity; and a supernatural revelation is not necessary
to convince rational beings that there is a God. Man is a dependent
being in common with all other creatures, and all creatures depend upon
a first cause. That cause is God. Dependent as a creature, man may know
something of the natural perfections of his Maker; and possessing a
conscience, which implies accountability to a superior, he may know,--he
_must_ know, something of the moral attributes of God.

In view of these positions, we may account for the fact, too often
overlooked by the reader of the Bible, that the Holy Spirit directed the
first of all historians to begin his narrative _so abruptly_. Assuming
that the reader is already assured of _God's being,_ Moses proceeds at
once to account for the origination of the material universe. In simple
narrative he writes,--"In the beginning God created the heaven and the
earth." Thus God's being, and the eternity of his being are assumed as
known by the first inspired penman; a fact or principle not to be
disputed. True, the being of God has been questioned, but only by
"fools"--"brutish people;" who, by their atheistical suggestions have
proclaimed to their fellows their "brutish folly." (Ps. xiv. 6, xciv. 8,
9.)

As the Bible takes for granted that mankind have had a previous
revelation in their own physical and moral constitution,--in the visible
heavens and earth; the same is true of the last book of the Bible, the
Apocalypse. It assumes that the reader has some competent knowledge of
the preceding books of the sacred Scriptures. The reader is supposed to
be acquainted with the patriarchal and Mosaic dispensations of the
Covenant of Grace. Moreover, the moral law, as inculcated in the Old
Testament; the Levitical priesthood and ministry, as being "shadows of
good things to come;" the "doctrine according to godliness," taught in
the gospels and epistles of the New Testament,--are all taken for
granted and supposed to be received with a divine faith by all who would
profit by this last book of the sacred canon.

It is further assumed in the Apocalypse, that the humble inquirer into
the mind of the Holy Spirit has a knowledge of ancient history, of the
character and destiny of Egypt, Babylon, etc. And finally, it is
requisite that the successful inquirer into the mind of God be
acquainted with the language of symbols; and, above all, that he be
resolved, with the inspired writer John, to take a position with the
mystic woman _in the wilderness_.

With these few preliminaries, we proceed:



CHAPTER I.


1. The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave unto him, to show unto
his servants things which must shortly come to pass; and he sent and
signified it by his angel unto his servant John:

2. Who bare record of the word of God, and of the testimony of Jesus
Christ, and of all things that he saw.

3. Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear the words of this
prophecy, and keep those things which are written therein; for the time
is at hand.

Verses 1-3.--Here, our divine Mediator appears in the continued exercise
of his prophetical office "in his estate of exaltation." While present
with his disciples on earth, he told them he had many things to say to
them, but they could not hear them then. (John xvi. 12) Upon his
ascension he fulfilled his own and his Father's promise in sending the
Holy Spirit to guide them into all truth--bring all things to their
remembrance, and show them _things to come_. (v. 13.) The fulfilment of
this promise we have in the whole of the New Testament,--doctrines,
facts and predictions.

Jesus said,--"Of mine own-self I can do nothing." (v. 30.) The same is
true of his teachings as of his works:--"The words that I speak unto
you, I speak not of myself, (xiv. 10.) In all that "Jesus began both to
do and to teach," (Acts i. 1,) he was instructed by his Father. These
things are all plainly implied in the first verse. Indeed, the official
actings of the three Persons in the Godhead had been frequently taught
by Christ during the time of his personal ministry; and they are more
fully and frequently recorded by the beloved disciple than by any other
evangelist, in that gospel which still bears this apostle's name. Thus,
it appears that although this book is called a "Revelation of Jesus
Christ," he is not the ultimate author. It is a revelation "which God
gave unto him." By God here, we are to understand the person of the
Father. The reader is thus conducted to the divine origin of all
supernatural revelation,--the eternal purpose of God. (Heb. i. 1, 2.)
The object of the whole Bible, in the evolvement of the divine economy
of man's redemption, appears to be the unfolding of the ineffable
mystery of the Trinity, and displaying the perfections of the Godhead,
to his own glory as the highest and last end.

The channel through which the divine will comes to the church, is
exhibited in the beginning of this book. Originating with God the
Father, passing to the Mediator, communicated to a holy angel; by his
ministry it is made known to John, who reveals it to the church! How
beautiful the order here! How wonderful and condescending on the part of
God!

Although we commonly and justly designate the whole Bible by the name
"Revelation;" yet we are to consider that this book is so called by way
of eminence. Doubtless it is so styled by its divine Author because it
reveals events which were then future, and which could not be discovered
by human sagacity. But this holds equally true of other parts of the
Scriptures, especially those parts which are prophetical. It may be that
this book is called "Apocalypse" because of the opposition which it was
to encounter from Antichrist, as also because of its singular and
intended use to a peculiar portion of professing Christians. As on the
one hand the Romish church, and too many who protest against her
encroachments, prohibit or discourage the disciples of Christ from
reading this book; so, on the other hand, it has been of singular use to
others in strengthening their faith and ministering to their comfort.

John "bare record of the word of God and of the testimony of Jesus
Christ and of all things that he saw." A question arises here,--What is
the difference, if any, between the "word of God" and the "testimony of
Jesus Christ?" Or is there any distinction intended by the Holy Spirit?
Most readers as well as expositors view these expressions as identical.
We shall meet with them, or their equivalent, frequently hereafter; and
it may be proper at the outset to inquire a little into this familiar
phraseology. (See chapters i. 9; vi. 9; xii. 11, 17; xx. 4, etc.)

Recognising the inspired rule of interpretation,--"comparing spiritual
things with spiritual," we refer to Psalm lxxviii. 5, where "testimony
and law" are obviously distinguished. The same distinction will be found
in Isa. viii. 16, 20. The prophet refers the reader to _two tests_ of
doctrine and practice: first the "law." But as the spouse of Christ is
unable, in her perplexity, to apply the law to the present case in a
manner satisfactory to herself, she is directed by her Lord, (Song i.
8,) to "go forth by the footsteps of the flock." That is, search and
ascertain how the disciples applied the law in similar circumstances,
and imitate their approved example. This is a rule recognised and often
inculcated in the New Testament. (Heb. vi. 12.)

The inspired penman in Psalm lxxviii. 5, refers to the covenant
transaction at Mount Sinai, where the "law" was exhibited as an appendix
to the covenant of grace--"added to the promise." (Gal. iii. 19.) The
reader will find this whole matter set before him, perhaps to his
surprise and delight in Exod. xx. 1-17. The Lord (Jehovah) is the God
(Elohim) of his people. How shall they know that he is _their_ God? By
the law?--No, for that is a rule to all men. They know by the
_testimony_ as distinct from the law. Testimony consists of _facts_.
God's people knew that he was their God, because he "brought them out of
the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." This was "the doing of
the Lord,"--"the testimony of Jesus Christ." And so it is an important
and precious truth to us at the present day.--"The preface to the Ten
Commandments teacheth us, that God is the Lord (Jehovah) and _our
God_."--This great historical fact is the controlling motive to
acceptable obedience to the moral law. To this, among other truths of
the gospel, every faithful minister will "bear witness" with the apostle
John.

John also bore witness to "all things that he saw," as presented to him
in a succession of visions to the end of this book, in view of some of
which, he "wondered with great admiration." (xvii. 6.)

In the third verse there is a "blessing" pronounced on all such as
"hear, read and keep those things which are written in the words of this
prophecy." A mere reading and hearing of the Apocalypse will not secure
the blessing. It is suspended on the _keeping_. "Blessed is he that
_keepeth_ the sayings of the prophecy of this book." (Ch. xxii. 7.) The
divine and compassionate Author of this prophecy, who "knoweth the end
from the beginning," foresaw the violent and ignorant opposition even to
the _reading_ of it, which would be encountered by those for whose
special direction and comfort it was given. While the "man of sin" would
attempt to deprive the church of the light of the Bible in general, the
great "Antichrist" would join him in special hostility to this book. The
judgment of the former is, that the Bible in the hands of the people
will generate _heresies_; of the latter,--the Apocalypse is so "hard to
be understood" as to be unintelligible. A revelation, and yet
unintelligible! This is very nearly a contradiction. Such sentiments
betray rebellion against the authority, and a reflection upon the wisdom
and beneficence of God. All Christians acknowledge, as Peter says of the
writings of Paul, that in this book are "some things dark and hard to be
understood:" but there have been always and now are, some disciples who
do not subscribe to the teaching of most expositors of this book,--that
their actual fulfilment, alone, will interpret these
predictions.--Doubtless it was in view of such discouragements that our
Lord prefixed and repeated the special blessing. And this promised
blessing of the Master himself is sufficient to countervail all the
discouragements and hostility of the adversaries, thrown in the way of
the reader and expositor. Moses "endured as having respect unto the
recompense of the reward." Let us copy his example. "He is faithful that
promised." Let the pious reader, therefore, disregard the counsel to
"omit the reading, of this book in family worship," as we have sometimes
heard; whether it be tendered by Papist, Prelate or Presbyterian,
because it is directly contrary to the express command of Christ, (John
v. 39,) and because by following such counsel, he would forfeit the
special blessing here promised.


4. John, to the seven churches which are in Asia: Grace be unto you, and
peace, from him which is, and which was, and which is to come; and from
the seven Spirits which are before his throne;

5. And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful Witness, and the
First-begotten of the dead, and the Prince of the kings of the earth.
Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood,

6. And hath made us kings and priests unto God and his Father; to whom
be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.

Vs. 4-6.--Here we have the customary salutation, addressed to the
churches of Asia Minor. Many other churches had been organized in other
parts of the earth at this date; (A.D. 96:) but the special reason why
John saluted these seven, and addressed an epistle to each, would seem
to be his vicinity to them in the place of his present sojourning, and
probably his personal acquaintance with them in the exercise of his
ministry among them, (v. 11.) His prayer for these churches is
substantially the same as that prefixed to most of Paul's epistles.
Grace and peace are inseparable in the divine arrangement. "There is no
peace, saith my God, to the wicked." (Isa. lvii. 21.)

The solitary pilgrim in his place of banishment, contemplating the
Abrahamic covenant, and realizing that grace and that peace in which he
desires his fellow disciples to share, sets before us the threefold
source whence these divine influences flow. First, "from him which is,
and which was, and which is to come;" a description of God the Father,
whose personal subsistence has priority in the Godhead, and who occupies
the like priority in voluntary relationship and economic standing. From
the Father personally, as the representative of Trinity, we have seen
(in verse 1,) this book emanated; and now from the same we are taught
that "grace and peace" come to fallen man. Second, John's prayer here,
differs from Paul's usual form in the beginning of his epistles; for
Paul omits the Holy Spirit, commonly saying,--"Grace be to you, and
peace from God the Father, and from our Lord Jesus Christ," (as in Gal.
i. 3.) In this last book of Scripture we have the co-equal Three
introduced as co-operating in the work of man's redemption. Thus our
attention is directed to the "seven Spirits which are before the
throne;" by which we are to understand the Holy Ghost, in his essential
equality with God the Father, but in the place of official
subordination. The Holy Spirit is _one_ personally, but _seven_ in his
manifold gifts and graces, with special reference to the "seven
churches." And whereas the divine Spirit, in the order of his personal
subsistence and operation is _third,_ here he occupies the _second_
place in the order of revelation. Third, The special reason for
reserving the notice of our Saviour to the last place, is doubtless that
the "beloved disciple" may take occasion to leave on record an
expression of his admiration of the Mediator's person, one of whose
names is "Wonderful," (Isa. ix. 6;) and that he might exemplify the
ruling principle of his own heart,--"We love him, because he first loved
us." (1 John iv. 19.) The apostle dwells upon the personal glory of
Immanuel, contemplating him in his threefold office of prophet, priest
and king.--He is "the faithful witness" in his prophetical office. "The
only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared
him." (John i. 18;) "who, before Pontius Pilate, witnessed a good
confession." (John xviii. 37.) He is "the first-begotten of the dead."
He "died unto sin once," as an expiatory sacrifice to atone for the
guilt of an elect world. Being a "priest for ever after the order of
Melchizedek," "he ever liveth to make intercession,"--"death hath no
more dominion over him," as it had over Lazarus and many others who
"came out of the graves after his resurrection." (Matt, xxvii. 52, 53.)
_Among all_, he has the preeminence. (Col. i. 18.) He is "the Prince of
the kings of the earth." There is not in the sacred volume a title of
our Redeemer more full or expressive than this, on his headship or royal
office. A _prince_ is of royal parentage. Such is the understanding of
mankind in all civilized nations. Joseph in Egypt typified, in part, the
kingly office of Christ; and Solomon on the throne of Israel partially
typified him in his dominion: but as Balaam foretold that he should be
"higher than Agag," (Num. xxiv. 7,) so we may say he is higher than
Joseph,--"A greater than Solomon is here." "Pharaoh said unto Joseph,
Thou shalt be over my house, and according unto thy word shall all my
people be ruled: only in the throne will I be greater than thou." When
the Father says to the Son, "Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever,"
(Ps. xlv. 6,) this is consistent with "excepting him that did put all
things under him." (1 Cor. xv. 27.) Although we are not warranted to say
with some, "The Father is the fountain of the Godhead, we may
warrantably and boldly say, the Father is the _fountain_ of _authority_.
(John vi. 38.) The dominion of the Mediator is universal, reaching "from
the roofless heaven to the bottomless hell." It is comfortable to the
disciples to know this in anticipation of the rise and reign of
Antichrist. He is, by the appointment of the Father "head over all
things," (Eph. i. 22,)--"able to save to the uttermost all that come
unto God by him," to "consume with the spirit of his mouth, and destroy
with the brightness of his coming, that Wicked, the Man of Sin." (2
Thess. ii. 8.)

In view of the personal dignity and mediatorial dominion of Christ, the
apostle gives expression to his admiration and wonder at the amazing
love and condescension displayed by him on behalf of himself and all
others, on whom that love was fixed from everlasting, and whose guilt
and pollution were taken away by the atoning and cleansing blood of the
Lamb. To these saving benefits is to be added the honour to which the
redeemed are advanced as "kings and priests,--a royal priesthood." The
living Head is "a priest upon his throne," (Zech. vi. 13,) and all the
members are assimilated to him. (1 Pet. ii. 5, 9.)


7. Behold, he cometh with clouds; and every eye shall see him, and they
also which pierced him; and all kindreds of the earth shall wail because
of him. Even so, Amen.

Verse 7.--How animated the language, sublime the conception, and
awe-inspiring the sentiment here! Time is annihilated! The end is seen
from the beginning, and all eyes are directed to the sovereign Judge of
the world, as he comes in majesty to fix the final destiny of all the
children of Adam! These have constituted only two classes sincere world
began. "Every eye shall see him," but the eye will affect the heart very
differently. The hearts of some, with holy Job, will be filled with joy
unspeakable, (Job xix. 26, 27;) but others, with mercenary Balaam, will
be inspired with terror and dismay. (Num. xxiv. 17.) Of "them that
pierced him," who shall be able to abide his indignation? Judas,
Caiaphas, Herod and his men of war; Pontius Pilate, and all who have
consented to the counsel and deed of them, "must appear before his
judgment seat." "All kindreds of the earth," covering all the
combinations of "Antichrist" during the definite period of twelve
hundred and sixty years, "shall wail because of him," (Rev. xiv. 10,
11.) Assured of the equity of Messiah's judgment, the apostle, in the
exercise of "like precious faith with all them that believe," subjoins
his hearty assent,--"Even so, Amen:" "So let all thine enemies perish, O
Lord." Doubtless the design of the Holy Spirit in this verse is to
furnish ground of encouragement to those who were to be engaged in the
protracted conflict with the powers of darkness foreshadowed in the
prophecy of this book.


8. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord,
which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty.

Ver. 8.--The same divine person, to whom the apostle directs the
doxology in the 6th verse, is introduced in the 8th: that is, the Lord
Christ. He claims eternity and omnipotence. He describes himself here in
the _very words_ which in the 4th verse are descriptive of the eternal
subsistence of the person of the Father. "Alpha and Omega," the first
and last letters of the Greek alphabet, are explained in the
words,--"the beginning and the ending." This language is not to be
understood as expressing or defining the duration of the Godhead only;
but it points also to the divine purpose and providence. To the same
purpose speaks our Redeemer under the name of Wisdom:--"The Lord (the
Father) possessed me in the beginning (head, purpose) of his way, before
his works of old." (Prov. viii. 22.) In joint counsel with the Father,
ere the wheels of time began to move, and being "almighty" to execute
the purposes of God, he is perfectly qualified to act as the final Judge
of the world. And in the great and last day "every tongue must confess
that he is Lord, to the glory of God the Father." (Phil. ii. 11.) "For
to this end Christ both died, and rose, and revived, that he might be
Lord both of the dead and living." (Rom. xiv. 9.)--"God is judge
himself." (Ps. 1. 6.)


9. I John, who also am your brother, and companion in tribulation, and
in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ, was in the isle that is
called Patmos, for the word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus
Christ.

Ver. 9.--Again, the inspired writer addresses the Christians in Asia,
acquainting them very briefly and simply with his present local
situation; not so much to move their sympathy with him, as to express
his unabated affection for them:--"I am your brother, and companion in
tribulation." Although the "like afflictions were accomplished in his
brethren," the Devil was permitted to "cast" only "some of them into
prison." But it is remarkable that John utters not a word, much less
manifests any resentment, against the persecutor. He was "in the isle
that is called Patmos:"--but he does not say who sent him there.
Historians tell us that he was banished by Domitian, the Roman emperor;
others say, by Nero; but the former is more probable. This island is
proverbially barren. It is situated among a number of islands in the
Aegean sea, a point of the Mediterranean running northward between
Europe and Asia, and not very remote from most of the churches here
addressed.

The ground of controversy between John and his persecutors was "the word
of God, and the testimony of Jesus Christ." Of these he "bare record."
(v, 2.) "This," say most expositors, "was the cause of John's
banishment." This unguarded language confounds the difference between a
_cause_ and an _occasion_. John had given no cause of banishment to his
enemies. The true cause of their hostility was their hatred of the "word
of God and the testimony of Jesus Christ." For these John contended
earnestly, as Jude enjoined; (ver. 3:) just as Paul and others were
"bold in their God to speak the gospel of God with much contention." (1
Thes. ii. 2.) We have here the standing ground of strife between the
believer and the infidel; between Christ and Belial, between the church
and the world. There is a divine hand interposed all along in this
warfare, and the conflict will terminate only in the extermination of
one of the parties. (Gen. iii. 15; Rev. xx. 10.)


10. I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day, and heard behind me a great
voice, as of a trumpet,

Ver. 10.--The beloved disciple had often "tasted the good word of God,"
while the bosom-companion of Christ in the time of his ministry on
earth: His "heart burned within him." (Luke xxiv. 32.) Especially had
this been his happy experience on the holy Sabbath. Now that his
condition is solitary, being by violence "driven out from the
inheritance of the Lord," (1 Sam. xxvi. 19,) his gracious Master favours
him with a special visit. Did he not say to his disciples while he was
yet with them,--"I will not leave you comfortless? I will come to you."
(John xiv. 18.) The Comforter was promised to supply the want of the
Saviour's bodily presence, (v. 16,) and now John is "in the Spirit," and
it is "the Lord's day,"--the Christian Sabbath. We may well suppose this
disciple never was happier, no, not when he was "leaning on Jesus'
bosom." He would not now envy the emperor or any of his persecutors in
all their outward peace and prosperity. He was in an ecstasy,--"whether
in the body or out of the body he could not tell:" but his soul was
susceptible of the impressions of Christ's love, and of the intimations
of his sovereign will. "Shall I hide from Abraham the thing which I do?"
(Gen. xviii. 17.) "Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth
his secret unto his servants the prophets." (Amos iii. 7.) John does not
boast as Balaam,--"falling into a trance, but having his eyes open:" yet
he heard and saw as distinctly and clearly as if his perceptions had
come through the medium of his bodily ears and eyes. "He heard behind
him a great voice as of a trumpet," not to alarm, but to engage
attention.


11. Saying, I am Alpha and Omega; the first and the last: and, What thou
seest, write in a book, and send it unto the seven churches which are in
Asia; unto Ephesus, and unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and unto
Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto Philadelphia, and unto Laodicea.

V. 11.--Christ speaks, asserting his eternity, and consequently his
equality with the Father. This book being written in the Greek language,
our Saviour names and appropriates to himself the first and last letters
of the alphabet in that language, and gives the interpretation,--"the
first and the last," as in v. 8. John is directed to write and send to
the seven churches all that is contained in this last book of the Bible.
The churches are named here, and in the second and third chapters they
are addressed severally in a letter to each. It may be noted that
besides the general commission to preach the gospel to every creature,
apostles had a special call to _write_; and sometimes a
prohibition,--"write not," (ch. x. 4.) Many of the most learned and
godly divines whom we would consider best qualified, have never left any
writings for the instruction of posterity; whilst others less qualified,
either in respect of literature or piety, or not at all qualified, have
filled the world with books without a special call from Christ. (John
xx. 30, 31; xxi. 25.)


12. And I turned to see the voice that spake with me. And, being turned,
I saw seven golden candlesticks;

13. And in the midst of the seven candlesticks one like unto the Son of
man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the paps
with a golden girdle.

14. His head and his hairs were white like wool, as white as snow; and
his eyes were as a flame of fire;

15. And his feet like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace;
and his voice as the sound of many waters.

16. And he had in his right hand seven stars; and out of his mouth went
a sharp two-edged sword; and his countenance was as the sun shineth in
his strength.

Vs. 12-16.--His attention being arrested, the apostle "turned to see the
voice,"--that is, the person from whom the voice came. A glorious vision
was presented to his view,--"seven golden candlesticks" or lamp-bearers,
in allusion to the golden candlestick with the seven lamps as placed in
the tabernacle. (Exod. xxv. 31-40.) "In the midst of the candlesticks
appeared one like unto the Son of man," the Mediator, clothed in
sacerdotal garments, supplying oil for the light, after the example of
Aaron and his sons. (Exod. xxvii. 20, 21.) The "garment" may signify his
mediatorial righteousness,--the "golden girdle" the preciousness of his
love,--"his head and his hairs white like wool," his purity and
eternity,--"his eyes as a flame of fire," his omniscience, by which he
searches the reins and hearts, and sees the end from the beginning; "his
feet like unto fine brass," the stability of his appointments and the
excellency of his providential dispensations,--"his voice," the
irresistible energy of his word to quicken, terrify or destroy at his
pleasure. (John v. 25, Heb. xii. 26.) "The sharp two-edged sword" will
represent his awful justice against the impenitent who resist his
righteous authority. "With the breath of his lips shall he slay the
wicked." (Is. xi. 4; Luke xix. 27.) "His countenance as the sun shining
in his strength," disclosed to the beloved disciple such splendor as to
overwhelm him. The like display of divine majesty was insupportable to
Saul of Tarsus when on his way to Damascus. (Acts xxvi. 13.) To the
workers of iniquity, "our God is a consuming fire." (Heb. xii. 29.) It
is a certain truth,--"The vengeance of the gospel is weighter than the
vengeance of the law." (Heb. x. 28, 31.) "Let us therefore fear."


17. And when I saw him, I fell at his feet as dead. And he laid his
right hand upon me, saying unto me, Fear not; I am the first and the
last:

18. I am he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for
evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death.

19. Write the things which thou hast seen, and the things which are, and
the things which shall be hereafter;

20. The mystery of the seven stars, which thou sawest in my right hand,
and the seven golden candlesticks. The seven stars are the angels of the
seven churches; and the seven candlesticks which thou sawest are the
seven churches.

Vs. 17-20.--We have the effect of the vision upon the beloved disciple.
He who had leaned on Christ's bosom at supper, and who had seen his
Master transfigured on the holy mount, was now utterly overwhelmed with
the effulgence of his glory. John "fell at his feet as dead." So it was
with Daniel, "a man greatly beloved." (Daniel x. 4-8.) But the
compassionate Saviour dispelled his fears, as in all similar cases;
making known to his astonished servant his supreme deity and real
humanity, as "the first and the last," who died for the sins, and was
raised again for the justification of his people. (Rom. iv. 25.) He is
"alive for evermore,"--become "the first fruits of them that slept." (1
Cor. xv. 20.) He "dieth no more. Death hath no more dominion over him."
(Rom. vi. 9.) And so complete is his victory over the king of terrors,
the last enemy of the believer, that he hath "the keys of hell and of
death." He has the "key of the bottomless pit," (xx. 1;) having
triumphed over principalities and powers, making a show of them openly.
(Col. ii. 15.) Whether Christ used the word, "amen," to ratify the truth
of his immortality; or whether this is an expression by John of his
joyful acquiescence in that truth, is not material: we know on
satisfactory evidence, that our Lord is a prophet and king, as well as a
priest, "after the power of an endless life." (Heb. vii. 16; Rom. xiv.
9.)

John is next commanded to write,--_First_, "the things which he had
seen;" that is, the description of the foregoing vision:--_Second_, "the
things which are;" that is, the actual condition of the church, as
delineated in the diverse characters of the seven churches addressed, as
in the next two chapters:--_Third_, "the things which shall be
hereafter:" that is, the prophetical part of the book, from the
beginning of the fourth chapter to the close, as containing the
prospective history of the church and of the nations, as she was to be
affected by them, or they by her, till the consummation of all things.
This is the division of the book made by the divine Author himself, and
it is a natural and intelligible one. All attempts of learned and pious
men by other divisions to render this mysterious part of the Bible more
clear to the unlearned reader, tend only to display the ingenuity of the
writers,--not to say their temerity, while they "darken counsel by words
without knowledge." Such artificial divisions are as unfounded, in the
apprehension of sober expositors, as the attempts of impious Arians and
others, to turn the historical narrative of the creation and fall of man
into an allegory!

The meaning of the "seven stars and seven candlesticks" is then
explained to John. The word, "are," is used in a figurative sense, and
not to be taken literally. It means here, _symbolize, represent_ or
_signify_. It is to be interpreted in the same sense as in the following
places of sacred Scripture:--"It _is_ the Lord's passover." (Exod. xii.
11.) "That rock _was_ Christ." (1 Cor. x. 4.) "This _is_ my body."
(Matt. xxvi. 26.) None but a Papist will have any difficulty here, or
perhaps,--a Lutheran!



CHAPTER II.


Some commentators, among whom may be mentioned the learned Dr. Gill, a
leading Antipedobaptist minister of England, have imagined, that the
seven epistles addressed to the Asiatic churches, contain a mystical
prophecy of the church general, covering the whole period of her history
from the apostolic age till the end of the world. According to this
fancy,--for it is nothing more than a fancy; the church in Smyrna, will
represent the church's condition in the second stage of her history,
when Arianism prevailed! And the Laodicean must represent her last, and
so her worst condition! How will this harmonize with the 20th chapter,
where she appears in triumph over all her antichristian foes? This is
given as a specimen of the unbridled fancy and licentious imagination
with which even good men may be tempted to approach the reading and
interpreting of this important and instructive part of God's word. But
Peter informs us that some persons in his time, "wrested" those parts of
Paul's writings which were "dark and hard to be understood:" and this
was not the worst of their conduct, for they treated "the other
scriptures also" in the same reckless and irreverent manner, which were
neither dark nor hard to be understood. (2 Pet. iii. 16.) These epistles
are no more mystical or prophetical than those of the apostle Paul. They
are simply and properly descriptive, although like all other epistles,
they are applicable to the church general in all ages, and equally
suited to the case of individuals, as is clear in the close of
each:--"If _any man_ have an ear, let _him_ hear."


1. Unto the angel of the church of Ephesus write; These things saith he
that holdeth the seven stars in his right hand, who walketh in the midst
of the seven golden candlesticks;

2. I know thy works, and thy labour, and thy patience, and how thou
canst not bear them which are evil: and thou hast tried them which say
they are apostles, and are not, and hast found them liars:

3. And hast borne, and hast patience, and for my name's sake hast
laboured, and hast not fainted.

4. Nevertheless, I have somewhat against thee, because thou hast left
thy first love.

5. Remember therefore from whence thou art fallen, and repent, and do
the first works; or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will remove
thy candlestick out of his place, except thou repent.

6. But this thou hast, that thou hatest the deeds of the Nicolaitans,
which I also hate.

7. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the
churches; To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the tree of life,
which is in the midst of the paradise of God.

Verses 1-7.--This first epistle, addressed to the church in Ephesus,
comes from the Lord Jesus, who holds the stars in his right hand; who
gives commission to the ministry, gives them authority as his
ambassadors to negotiate with mankind, communicates to them the light
which they diffuse in the world, sustains them in their respective
spheres, and controls them as they move in their orbits. He walks in the
midst of the candlesticks, as the sun in the system of nature, trimming
and snuffing the lamps that they may burn more clearly.

This is the second epistle sent from Christ to the church of Ephesus.
Paul, who is thought to have planted this church, (Acts xviii. 19,) had
written to those Christians some thirty years before, while he was a
prisoner in Rome. (Eph. i. 4; vi. 20.) Paul and John were nothing more
than Christ's amanuenses,--"the pen of a ready writer." (Ps. xlv. 1; 1
Cor. iii. 7.)--"The angel of the church" is at once a symbolic and
collective name, including also the idea of representation:--not a pope
or any other prelatic personage. No doubt in our Saviour's estimation
the saints take precedence here of the "bishops (overseers.) and
deacons," as they do in Phil. i. 1; Eph. iv. 8-12. All ecclesiastical
officers are Christ's gift to the church; but the object or recipient of
the gift is more valued than the gift. And just here is the point where
prelates "do greatly err, not knowing the Scriptures." They have
arrogated to themselves the honourary title of "clergy;" and for the
sake of distinction, and to give plausibility to their ambitious
pretensions, call the membership of the church the "laity,"--contrary to
the express decision of the unerring Spirit. Peter cautions the
"elders" that they be not as "lords over God's _heritage,"_--_lot,
clergy;_ where it is obvious that the body of the people, as
distinguished from their rulers, are denominated the _clergy._ Moreover,
it is evident to any unbiased reader, that the membership, and not a
bishop only, are addressed by our Lord in these epistles; as when he
says,--"some of you." (v. 10.) Hence it may be inferred that there is no
proof in these epistles on which to erect the antichristian hierarchy of
diocesan prelacy; and consequently that ecclesiastical government is by
divine right, lodged in the hands of a plurality of presbyters.

Christ notices what is commendable, before he administers reproof. "I
know thy works."--There seems to be an incompatibility between the
"patience" commended, and not being able to "bear them which were evil."
But patience under persecution or any other providential dispensation,
is perfectly consistent with an enlightened zeal against error and
immorality. Indeed, the two graces,--patience and zeal, are inseparable
in themselves, and as connected with all the other graces of the Holy
Spirit.--There were such in the primitive church, who claimed to be
apostles, and who, upon trial, were discovered to be impostors. Paul, in
the exercise of the miraculous gift of "discerning of spirits," could,
without presbyterial examination of witnesses, personally detect "false
apostles, deceitful workers" in Corinth. (2 Cor. xi. 13.) But John was
not at Ephesus, and therefore the ordinary rulers are approved by Christ
for the faithful exercise of discipline. Persons who falsify the
doctrines and corrupt the order and ordinances of divine appointment,
are the worst of liars, and having been by competent authority "found"
to be such; they may be so called without breach of charity. When
discipline is neglected or relaxed, error and tyranny soon enter, with
"confusion and every evil work." But when false teachers have gained
followers and influence in the church, the friends of truth and order
will be in danger of yielding to the pressure. They are liable to become
"weary and faint in their minds," (Heb. xii. 3;) but zeal for their
Master's honor will animate them to contend for the faith so as to
secure his approbation. It is remarkable that so much labor, patience,
zeal etc., should be found in this church while chargeable with having
"fallen from first love." Habits contracted in the fervor of early
affection to Christ, may continue to influence an individual or a
church, when the fervency of affection is sensibly abated. This state of
feeling the exercised Christian will confess and lament. Nothing but
repentance and reformation in such a case will procure the approbation
and restore the favor of Christ. Continued impenitence is threatened
with removing "the candlestick," the gospel, ministry and ordinances.

The Nicolaitans were a sect of corrupt professors of Christianity of
whose doctrines and deeds little or nothing is certainly known. It is
most generally supposed that they were a sort of Antinomians, who turned
the grace of God into lasciviousness; and there is a tradition, not well
sustained, that their heresy was derived from Nicolas, a proselyte of
Antioch, one of the seven deacons of whom we read, Acts vi. 5. The
similarity of name seems to have suggested this fancy; for there is no
historical evidence that one who was "of honest report, full of the Holy
Ghost and wisdom," was permitted thus to fall away. Their deeds,
however, were hateful to Christ, and therefore hateful to his real
disciples: for one of the infallible marks of a state of grace is to
hate what,--yes and whom,--our Lord hates. (Ps. cxxxix. 21, 22.) All who
read or hear these things are interested in them, whether they will
hear, or whether they will forbear. What Christ saith in each of these
epistles, the Spirit saith; and what is said to each church is said to
all the seven; that is, to the whole visible church. "To him that
overcometh" false apostles, the deeds of the Nicolaitans, any doctrines
or practices in opposition to the truth of Christ, or militating against
the honor of Christ; to such he "will give to eat of the tree of life,"
from which Adam was excluded upon the breach of the first covenant.
(Genesis iii. 22-24.) What the first Adam lost by the fall, the last
Adam will restore with interest, (1 Cor. ii. 9.) The felicity of the
saints in glory can be represented only by sensible things; and even
then but very imperfectly. (1 Cor. xiii. 12; 1 John iii. 2.)


8. And unto the angel of the church in Smyrna write; These things saith
the first and the last, which was dead, and is alive;

9. I know thy works, and tribulation, and poverty, (but thou art rich,)
and I know the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are not,
but are the synagogue of Satan.

10. Fear none of those things which thou shalt suffer: behold, the devil
shall cast some of you into prison, that ye may be tried; and ye shall
have tribulation ten days: be thou faithful unto death, and I will give
thee a crown of life.

11. He that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the
churches; He that overcometh shall not be hurt of the second death.

Vs. 8-11.--Smyrna is the second in order of the seven churches addressed
through the ministry as the official representatives. Our Saviour here
assumes those titles mentioned in ch. i. 17, 18, which bespeak his
divine personal dignity and voluntary humiliation, his eternal Godhead
and true manhood,--"God manifest in the flesh," having by death
triumphed over death, to deliver them who through fear of death were all
their life-time subject to bondage. (Heb. ii. 15.) This church was
subjected to "tribulation,"--persecution in name, substance and person.
The members were either of the poorer sort of the citizens of Smyrna, or
rendered poor by fines,--"the spoiling of their goods."--"But thou art
rich," rich in faith, in good works, in the gifts and graces of the
Spirit, the earnest of the heavenly inheritance.--In this place a colony
of Jews had gained such social influence as to move the populace, and
even the local magistrates, to offer violence to the servants of God. It
does not appear that these Jews were professing Christians of any creed,
but just such as Paul often encountered in Judea and elsewhere. (Acts
xvi. 19-22.) The devil instigated the Jews, and they the Gentiles; and
both, the magistrates, to silence the testimony of Christ's witnesses,
by which all were tormented. The design of the devil, who was a murderer
from the beginning, was to _destroy_ that church; but Christ's design
was to _try_ her members. Only _some_ were to be imprisoned, and the
time of trial would be limited to "ten days,"--a definite for an
indefinite, but short time. Those who resist the truth contradict its
advocates, and blaspheme the holy name of God, though professing to be
either Jews or Christians, area "synagogue of Satan." "A crown of life"
is promised to such as proved "faithful unto death." They shall not be
"hurt of the second death;" that is, eternal death. (Ch. xx. 14, 15.)


12. And to the angel of the church in Pergamos write; These things saith
he which hath the sharp sword with two edges;

13. I know thy works, and where thou dwellest, even where Satan's seat
is: and thou holdest fast my name, and hast not denied my faith, even in
those days wherein Antipas was my faithful martyr, who was slain among
you, where Satan dwelleth.

14. But I have a few things against thee, because thou hast there them
that hold the doctrine of Balaam, who taught Balak to cast a
stumbling-block before the children of Israel, to eat things sacrificed
unto idols, and to commit fornication.

15. So hast thou also them that hold the doctrine of the Nicolaitans,
which thing I hate.

16. Repent; or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will fight
against them with the sword of my mouth.

17. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the
churches; To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden manna,
and will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new name written,
which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth it.

Vs. 12-17.--To the church in Pergamos reproofs and threatenings are
addressed by him who has the "sharp sword." Satan had his throne in this
place, whence he assailed the true doctrine and disciples of Christ by
heresy and persecution. In such a great fight of afflictions there was
one distinguished, like Stephen, for boldness and fortitude, who
"resisted unto blood, striving against sin." And wherever there is a
"faithful martyr" for Christ, who "holds fast his name, and will not
deny his faith" at the risk of his life, his divine Lord will condescend
to register his name among that noble company who "by faith have
obtained a good report." (Heb. Xv. 2.) The "doctrine of Balaam" and that
of the Nicolaitans led to gross immoralities in apostolic times as of
old in the days of Moses. (Num. xxxi. 16.) And thus it appears, that old
heresies, which have been condemned, are afterwards revived under new
names, and patronized by new leaders. In such a case, we have the
authority of Christ for calling them by the same names of those whose
principles they adopt, and whose example they emulate. It was no breach
of charity, therefore, by our forefathers to designate those who
"delated" them to the cruel persecutors in Scotland by the name of
"Ziphites," or to call the archtraitor Sharp,--"a Judas." The Lord Jesus
"hates the doctrine" as well as "deeds of Nicolaitans," which are
subversive of truth and godliness. Those who oppose the doctrines of
Balaam and the Nicolaitans in any age when these are popular, must
expect persecution. But when "troubles abound for Christ's sake,
consolations much more abound by Christ." This is to "eat of the hidden
manna." Also, the "white stone" or pebble,--the token of
justification,--will be given to the conqueror in the Christian
conflict. The allusion here is to the mode of procedure in courts of
judgment among the ancient Greeks. White stones were cast for acquittal;
black for condemnation. The manna is _hidden_, and so is the _white_
stone, both signifying the sustaining and consoling evidence of the
Comforter,--the Holy "Spirit witnessing with the spirit" of the
persecuted believer, that he is a "child of God." It is the same thing
as the "hundred-fold in this life," promised by Christ. (Matt. xix. 29.)

It is worthy of notice, in the condition of this church, that while
among a minority may be found an "Antipas,--faithful martyr" for the
cause of Christ, against those who hold the doctrine of Balaam and the
Nicolaitans: the majority are called upon to "repent,"--evidently for
conniving at the destructive errors and immoralities of those seducers.
And unless the discipline of the church was employed to "purge out these
rebels;" the Master would take the work into his own hand, and "fight
against them with the sword of his mouth:" and then such as screened or
spared these sinners might expect to partake of their just punishment.
Rulers in the church "must give account for those over whom they watch."


18. And unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write; These things
saith the Son of God, who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire, and
his feet are like fine brass;

19. I know thy works, and charity, and service, and faith, and thy
patience, and thy works; and the last to be more than the first.

20. Notwithstanding, I have a few things against thee, because thou
sufferest that woman Jezebel, which calleth herself a prophetess, to
teach and to seduce my servants to commit fornication, and to eat things
sacrificed unto idols.

21. And I gave her space to repent of her fornication; and she repented
not.

22. Behold, I will cast her into a bed, and them that commit adultery
with her into great tribulation, except they repent of their deeds.

23. And I will kill her children with death; and all the churches shall
know that I am he which searcheth the reins and hearts: and I will give
unto every one of you according to your works.

24. But unto you I say, and unto the rest in Thyatira, (as many as have
not this doctrine, and which have not known the depths of Satan, as they
speak;) I will put upon you none other burden:

25. But that which ye have already, hold fast till I come.

26. And he that overcometh, and keepeth my works unto the end, to him
will I give power over the nations:

27. And he shall rule them with a rod of iron; as the vessels of a
potter shall they be broken to shivers; even as I received of my Father.

28. And I will give him the morning-star.

29. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the
churches.

Vs. 18-29.--The most lengthy epistle is sent to the church in Thyatira.
He who is the "Son of God," a divine person, possessing the essential
attributes of omniscience and immutability, has more to say to this
church than to any of the rest. Commending, as usual, whatever was
commendable,--their "works, charity, service," etc.; "and the last to be
more than the first:" he has, nevertheless, "a few things against
them,"--especially "suffering that woman Jezebel to teach." Is this
"woman Jezebel" to be taken in a literal or figurative sense? Analogy
seems to require a metaphorical sense. If, in the preceding epistle,
"Balaam" is not to be understood literally and personally, but
figuratively and representatively, so Jezebel represents an individual,
or rather as that other woman, (ch. xvii. 4.) a faction or sect, who
propagated destructive heresy. Jezebel was daughter of Ethbaal, King of
the Zidonians, whom Ahab married contrary to the express law of God. (1
Kings xvi. 31; Deut. vii. 3.) She was a violent persecutor of the Lord's
people, because she was given to idolatry; and she was an instigator of
all the cruelty perpetrated by that wicked king, "whom Jezebel his wife
stirred up." As Ahab suffered his wife to control his policy, "giving
him the vineyard of Naboth," etc., so it appears, the rulers in this
church are blamed for permitting "a woman to teach," contrary to the law
of Christ." (1 Tim. ii. 12.) She "called herself a prophetess,"--why not
then require her to show her credentials? Permitted to usurp the
functions of a public teacher, she "seduced Christ's servants" to join
in the abominable rites of the heathen. Spiritual fornication,
especially when conducted by female agency, has always issued in that
which is literal. This may be verified from the time of Noah and Balaam
till the erection of nunneries under the sanction of the "man of sin."
The distinction here between "committing fornication" and "eating things
sacrificed unto idols," intimates that the "adultery" is to be taken in
a literal sense. Time was allowed for repentance, "and she repented
not." All this time the rulers were culpable: therefore the Lord
himself, as before, will interpose to rectify such gross sin and
scandal. This he would do by visiting these impenitent transgressors
with some incurable disease which would issue in certain death. So he
did in the church of Corinth. (1 Cor. xi. 30.) By this example he would
teach "all the churches, that it is he who searcheth the reins and
hearts,"--demonstrating his divine omniscience.--"But unto you I say."
Where now is to be discovered, in this address of the Saviour, that
"presiding minister," or diocesan bishop, whom the anti-christian
prelates affirm our Lord addresses in all these epistles? "And unto the
rest in Thyatira,"--still no prelate addressed; but those laborious and
patient ones previously commended, who "had not known the depths of
Satan." Those deceivers pretended to instruct their deluded followers in
the "deep things of God;" but Christ calls them "depths of Satan." It is
usual with the devil's factors to delude credulous persons with
pretending to teach them deep mysteries,--"curious arts. (Acts xix. 18,
19.)

To such as withstood the adversary and his allies, Christ would give no
additional injunctions to those which they had received. And to animate
them to continued fidelity and fortitude in future conflicts with these
enemies of all righteousness, he holds forth an ample reward. He shall
share in the honor of his Master, conferred on him by his Father.
Whatever may be comprehended in this promise, it can be made good to the
victorious Christian only by Him who is divine. None else has "power
over the nations," but he to whom "all power is given in heaven and in
earth." (Matt, xxviii. 18.) "The morning star" may signify Christ
himself, (ch. xxii, 16,) or the "first fruits of the Spirit," (Rom.
viii. 23,) or the full assurance of grace. (2 Peter i. 19.)

As before, what "Christ saith, the Spirit saith;" and the instruction,
warning and threatening sent to the church in Thyatira, was addressed to
all churches and to every human being endowed with an "ear to hear." It
is assumed in the beginning of the Apocalypse, that only some will have
sufficient education to "read the words of the prophecy of this book;"
and such is the condescension of our gracious Master, that those who, by
reason of invincible ignorance, cannot _read_, yet may share in the
reward promised to such as "hear and keep" the sayings of this book. And
no doubt thousands have received this reward since the begun decline of
Popery, who were privileged to hear and to "know the joyful sound" of
the gospel proclaimed by the heralds of the Reformation. In the times of
Luther, Calvin, Knox, and others, who were their compeers and
successors, many were called from darkness to light, in continental and
insular Europe, who could not read.

All are commanded to "search the Scriptures." Now to be able to obey
this reasonable command, either all must be instructed in the knowledge
of Hebrew and Greek,--the two languages in which the Bible was
originally written, or the Bible must be translated into the languages
of all nations. But the former supposition is impracticable, and
therefore the latter is dutiful. And after all that has been done, and
is yet to be accomplished, in translating the sacred writings into the
languages of the nations of the earth, the "angels of the churches" will
be employed by the chief Shepherd in feeding his flock.



CHAPTER III.


1. And unto the angel of the church in Sardis write; These things saith
he that hath the seven Spirits of God, and the seven stars; I know thy
works, that thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead.

2. Be watchful, and strengthen the things which remain, that are ready
to die: for I have not found thy works perfect before God.

3. Remember therefore how thou hast received and heard, and hold fast,
and repent. If therefore thou shalt not watch, I will come on thee as a
thief, and thou shalt not know what hour I will come upon thee.

4. Thou hast a few names even in Sardis which have not defiled their
garments; and they shall walk with me in white: for they are worthy.

5. He that overcometh, the same shall be clothed in white raiment; and I
will not blot out his name out of the book of life, but I will confess
his name before my Father, and before his angels.

6. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the
churches.

Vs. 1-6.--As hitherto in these epistles we do not discover a "presiding
minister" above an elder, so neither do we in this one find any hint of
a "bishop and pastors." All Christ's bishops are elders, and "all are
brethren." (Acts xx. 17, 28.) Prelacy,--that is, preferring one pastor
before another in office, is expressly prohibited by the church's only
Lawgiver. (Matt. xx. 25, 26.) The attempts to annul this law of Christ
has caused more sin and suffering to his disciples than any one external
agency of the devil. The whole history of the church furnishes the
evidence of this.

The church in Sardis is addressed by him who "hath the seven spirits of
God and the seven stars," who has authority by office to give the
quickening influences of the Spirit to the dead, and his reviving
influences to the dormant; for revival presupposes life. Their "works
were not perfect before God," however they might appear to men. The
majority were in a languishing condition, had "given themselves over to
a detestable neutrality" in the Lord's cause. And as the whole body is
justly characterized by the major part; this church is described as
"dead." "Be watchful,--remember,--repent." These duties point out the
prevailing sins, namely, slothfulness, forgetfulness and security. Where
these predominate, "things that remain are ready to die." And there is
no other remedy but that of applying to the "Seven Spirits of God,"
which Christ is ready to shed abundantly on all who make believing
application.

Christ threatens to "come as a thief" upon those who do not "watch." In
similitudes, we are not to indulge a licentious fancy in our attempts to
interpret them. The objects of the thief's visit and that of Christ are
not the point of resemblance; for "the thief cometh not but for to
steal, and to kill, and to destroy." The point, and the only point of
resemblance, is the suddenness of the visit. Ignorance or neglect of
this rule of interpretation has been a fruitful source of error,
especially in expounding Revelation.

In this epistle, the order hitherto observed by the Saviour is reversed.
What was praiseworthy in other churches was first noticed. Here the
commendation follows the reproof. "Thou hast a few names," etc. A
virtuous minority are "undefiled in the way." They have nobly withstood
the prevailing contamination, and therefore Christ will admit them to
fellowship and honor. The victor shall be "clothed in white
raiment,"--grace shall be perfected in glory; and their names, which
were inscribed in the book of life,--the register of the church of the
first-born, shall be confessed by Christ "before his Father and before
his angels," as having "followed the Lamb," when others went back like
Orpah. (Ruth i. 15.) Let those who, having "put their hand to the
plough," are tempted to "look back," consider "what the Spirit saith" to
the church in Sardis.


7. And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write: These things
saith he that is holy, he that is true, he that hath the key of David,
he that openeth, and no man shutteth; and shutteth, and no man openeth;

8. I know thy works: behold, I have set before thee an open door, and no
man can shut it: for thou hast a little strength, and hast kept my word,
and has not denied my name.

9. Behold, I will make them of the synagogue of Satan, which say they
are Jews, and are not, but do lie; behold, I will make them to come and
worship before thy feet, and to know that I have loved thee.

10. Because thou hast kept the word of my patience, I also will keep
thee from the hour of temptation, which shall come upon all the world,
to try them that dwell upon the earth.

11. Behold, I come quickly: hold that fast which thou hast, that no man
take thy crown.

12. Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God,
and he shall go no more out: and I will write upon him the name of my
God, and the name of the city of my God, which is new Jerusalem, which
cometh down out of heaven from my God; and I will write upon him my new
name.

13. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the
churches.

Vs. 7-13.--This church, like the one in Smyrna, is "without rebuke," in
the midst of similar trials.--Christ's message is prefaced, as usual, by
some description of himself, implying his supreme deity and authority.
"He that is holy, he that is true," is more than a creature. As "there
is none _good_ but one, that is God;" so, "there is none _holy_ as the
Lord," (Jehovah,) (1 Sam. ii. 2.) Here is another, among many plain
proofs, of our Saviour's proper divinity. His divine authority is held
forth in his "having the key of David," etc. A key is the symbol of
authority, (Matt. xvi. 19,) and the reference is to that prophecy, (Isa.
xxii. 20-24,) in which the mediatorial dominion of Christ is set forth,
by calling Eliakim to the place of authority in the room of Shebna. "The
key of the house of David will I lay upon his shoulder." It is in virtue
of this extensive grant of power from the Father, that the Lord Christ
has a right, _as Mediator_, to send his ambassadors into all nations, to
call sinners (rebels) back to their rightful allegiance; and also to
execute deserved punishment upon all who do harm to his servants. (Ps.
cv, 15.) In the exercise of his rightful authority, he has set before
this church an "open door" of liberty, of opportunity, of activity; that
she may put forth her "little strength" in keeping Christ's word and
confessing his name amidst opposition, reproach and violence; for it is
obvious, that when impostors fail to reach their objects by deceit, they
will resort to forcible measures. Because this church was unable to
purge herself by corrective discipline,--having but "a little strength,"
therefore Christ declares his purpose to strip these lying Jews of their
cloak of hypocrisy, and exhibit them in their true character a
"synagogue (church) of Satan." (James ii. 2.) Seeing that in apostolic
times there were apostles, ministers, churches of the devil, is it to be
supposed that we violate the law of charity, if in our own degenerate
age, when heresies abound, when ecclesiastical order is trampled upon,
we venture to apply the language of the Holy Spirit to unholy and
profane amalgamations? No, it is part of the special business of
Christ's witnesses to unmask specious hypocrites and warn of danger from
false teachers, (2 Cor. xi. 13-15; Gal. i. 6, 7,) that "their folly may
be made manifest to all men." (2 Tim. iii. 8, 9; 2 Peter ii. 1, 3.)--The
cruel enemy, who in the day of prosperity boasts of his success, in the
day of adversity becomes the most arrant coward and cringing
suppliant,--whether it be Saul or Shimei. (1 Sam. xv. 30; 2 Sam. xix.
18.) Haughty persecutors have been changed to humble suitors for an
interest in the prayers of their victims,--"to worship before their
feet." "The word of Christ's patience" may signify any truth or doctrine
of the Bible which is of supernatural revelation. The same idea is
suggested by the phrase, "the present truth,"--any divine truth which
may come to be opposed or denied, especially as it may bear upon the
personal glory of our Redeemer. Love to Christ is often tested by an
enlightened and firm adherence to the "truth as it is in Jesus," when
"false apostles will sell it for a mess of pottage." (Prov. xxiii. 23; 2
Cor. xiii. 8.) The first promise here is of a temporal kind, of
protection in time of general danger. The "temptation" thus predicted
may refer to some of those "ten persecutions" waged by the Roman
emperors against the Christians, as that of Trajan in particular; but
doubtless, like many other predictions, it was to have more than one
fulfilment. The expression, "all the world" does indeed sometimes mean
the Roman empire, (Luke ii. 1;) but perhaps it would be rash to affirm,
that it is to be always thus limited. Like "the kingdom of heaven,--the
kingdom of God,"--phrases which have unquestionably a two-fold
signification, so it will be safer to consider this expression as of a
similar kind. All other churches would be exposed to trial, from which
this one would be exempted. The trial might consist of persecution, or
the spreading of heretical principles and wicked practices, followed by
apostacies. At such a time of trial, a firm adherence to the "doctrines
which are after godliness," would be imperative duty, and the only way
to secure the victor's crown. The gracious reward of fidelity here
promised is a permanent and honorable place in the heavenly temple,--the
temple of Christ's Father, whose name the citizen of the New Jerusalem
should bear for ever, and should be known and recognised as
"fellow-citizen with the saints." These names may be safely interpreted
as importing, "son, daughter of the Lord Almighty, citizen of Zion,
Christian." As "the disciples were first called Christians at Antioch,"
so their gracious Master will "confess their names before his Father and
the holy angels." (Acts xi. 26; Rev. iii. 5.)


14. And unto the angel of the church of the Laodiceans write: These
things saith the Amen, the faithful and true Witness, the beginning of
the creation of God;

15. I know thy works, that thou art neither cold nor hot: I would thou
wert cold or hot.

16. So then, because thou art lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I will
spue thee out of my mouth.

17. Because thou sayest, I am rich, and increased with goods, and have
need of nothing; and knowest not that thou art wretched, and miserable,
and poor, and blind, and naked.

18. I counsel thee to buy of me gold tried in the fire, that thou mayest
be rich; and white raiment, that thou mayest be clothed, and that the
shame of thy nakedness do not appear; and anoint thine eyes with
eye-salve, that thou mayest see.

19. As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten: be zealous therefore, and
repent.

20. Behold, I stand at the door and knock: If any man hear my voice, and
open the door, I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with
me.

21. To him that overcometh will I grant to sit with me in my throne,
even as I also overcame, and am set down with my Father in his throne.

22. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the
churches.

Vs. 14-22.--It appears that in Paul's time a Christian church had been
planted in Laodicea. (Col. ii. 1; iv. 16.) This church had the benefit
of his ministry as well as that of Ephesus: and as both these churches
were comparatively near to all the other five, we may suppose that a man
of his zealous, active and persevering character and habits, would
"impart unto them some spiritual gift." (Rom. i. 11.)

It is evident that this church had degenerated more than all the others.
In her there is nothing to commend. Her officers and members are
described in their real character by him who is the "Amen, the faithful
and true Witness, the beginning of the creation of God." Each of these
titles speaks the divine dignity of Christ. They are all to be
understood in an absolute, not in a comparative sense. As "there is none
_good_ (absolutely so,) but one; that is, God," Matt. xix. 17; so Christ
only is the "Amen" in such sense that he "cannot lie" as a "witness.'"
He "speaks that which he has seen with his Father." (John viii. 38.)
Jesus is, moreover, the "Beginning;" the author, owner and sovereign
ruler of "the creation of God." This is clearly taught in Col. i. 15-18,
where the same person, who (in v. 18) is called "the beginning," as
here; is (in v. 17,) said to "be before all things;" by whom (v. 16,)
"were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in
earth."--Creation is a work proper to God only. But our Redeemer has
"created all things." Now, according to Heb. iii. 4, "he that built all
things is God;" therefore he of whom these things are spoken is "the
Most High God." And so said the inspired prophet long ago, "For thy
Maker is thine husband." (Isa. liv. 5.) In the language of Jeremiah, (x.
11,)--thus do we say to Arians, Socinians, and other self-styled
Unitarians,--"The gods that have not made the heavens and the earth,
even they shall perish from the earth, and from under these heavens:"
and their blinded votaries, "except they repent, shall all likewise
perish."--However far the body of this church had declined, it does not
appear that they had yet, as a community, gone the length of "denying
the Lord that bought them."

Spiritual pride, self-sufficiency, seems to have been the prevailing sin
among these degenerate professors. Like the Pharisee, they would boast
of their riches, the spiritual gifts which they possessed, by which they
flattered themselves that "they were not as other men." Possibly they
might excel in knowledge, that "knowledge which puffeth up;" in
utterance,--"great swelling words of vanity," by which they gained both
"filthy lucre" and the admiration of an ignorant and carnal multitude.
Such is too often the actual condition of ministers and people, when
they are all the while under the power of sin, and wholly "blind" to
their spiritual destitution. Self-deception is fatal; and it would be
just in the Lord Jesus to give such persons up to their own hearts'
lusts. So he threatens,--"I will spue thee out of my mouth," as a man's
stomach loathes that which is nauseating. The like figure is used by
Isaiah, (lxv. 5,) personating his Lord when describing similar
characters:--"These are a smoke in my nose,"--intolerably offensive.--To
us the case of this church would appear hopeless. It is not so, however:
on the contrary, he assures them that these sharp rebukes proceed from
love. "As many as I love, I rebuke, and chasten." (Heb. xii. 6-8.) And
from the "counsel" which he gives, as farther evidence of his love, we
learn wherein this church was lacking,--in grace, justifying
righteousness, and the saving self searching illumination of the Holy
Spirit. As this church had not the promise of exemption from the coming
"temptation," (v. 10,) the "gold tried in the fire" of persecution will
be indispensable to preserve any from apostacy, whereby their cloak of
hypocrisy would be removed, and they be exposed to "shame."--Christ
"stands and knocks."--If the church refuses him admittance, yet if but
one will "hear his voice and open the door," he will certainly
communicate such consolations,--the "joy of his salvation," that it may
be said they sup together. (Song v. 1.)

This, as before, is the "hundred-fold," promised in this life, as a
foretaste and pledge of heavenly felicity.--There is added, a
participation in his honor and authority; for those who suffer with him
shall also reign with him. (2 Tim. ii. 12.) Whilst "this honour is to
all his saints," it is to be conferred upon them by Christ. This
assertion may seem to contradict what Christ said to the mother of
Zebedee's sons, (Matt. xx. 23,)--"to sit on my right hand, and on my
left, is not mine to give."--No, it is not his to give,--"but, except to
them for whom it is prepared of his Father." Then it is his to
give,--his right. Of the honor and felicity promised to such as "fight
the good fight of faith," none can have an adequate conception without
actual experience. (1 John iii. 2.)


GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

Although the fundamental doctrine of the _Trinity in Unity_ be not
expressly taught or asserted in these epistles, it is nevertheless often
and plainly presupposed. Each epistle begins and closes with express
mention of two divine persons as equally the author. What Christ says,
the Spirit says to these churches. But there is a _third_ divine person
often mentioned who is called "God," and "Father." (Ch. ii. 7, 18, 27,
etc.;) and in the first verse of chapter third, one speaks who has the
seven Spirits of God," where the _Trinity_ is included. Thus, while in
these epistles this important doctrine of the adorable Trinity,--a
doctrine which lies at the very foundation of a sinner's hope, is
obscurely revealed, as being clearly discovered in the preceding parts
of the Holy Scriptures; the subsequent part of this book of Revelation
is intended, among other objects, to demonstrate _the distinct
subsistence and economical actings_ of the co-equal and eternal Three,
in the protection and salvation of the church, and in the control and
moral government of the universe.

Again, on the groundless and chimerical assumption of those expositors
who view these epistles as prophetical of seven successive periods of
the destiny of the church general, the last estate would be worse than
the first,--Laodicea being the worst of all. But this is obviously
contrary to the description contained in ch. xx. 1-10, where the saints
are represented as in possession and exercise of all their purchased and
social rights. Neither does authentic history prove that the church of
Christ was more prosperous under the "ten persecutions" by the heathen
Roman emperors than in the apostolic age, as the superior condition of
the church in Smyrna to that of Ephesus would require. The very contrary
is true; and hence the groundlessness of such interpretation, however
respectable the names of its authors. The object of our Saviour in all
the instructions, counsels, warnings, rebukes and threatenings addressed
to these several churches is doubtless the real benefit of his people in
after generations;--just as his dealings with the church in Old
Testament times, "were written for our admonition and learning." (Rom.
xv. 4; 1 Cor. x. 11.) Moreover, some persons have inferred from our
Lord's treatment of these churches, a _divine warrant_ for the
existence, and an imperative Christian duty for the charitable
recognition, of all the conflicting and antagonistic organizations of
our time, popularly styled Christian churches. But as the designation,
"Christian churches," is in the apprehension of some too general, the
term "evangelical" is used by them as restrictive of the term
"Christian." Still the question will present itself,--What constitutes a
church "evangelical?" And this question is still without any definite
answer. Perhaps no two persons would include in one category the same
denominations of professing Christians. For example,--Is a community to
be considered a Christian church in which the "doctrine of Balaam" is
taught? Does the law of charity require the recognition of an
organization as a Christian church, in which a "Jezebel would be
suffered to teach, and to seduce the servants of Christ?" Is that a
Christian church which denies the supreme deity of Christ, and rejects
the seals of the covenant of grace,--the only charter of the Christian
church's existence, on earth? Or is that combination to be viewed as a
Christian church which has no regular ministry, but expressly rejects
the "pastors and teachers" of Christ's appointment and the morality of
the sabbath? These, and many other questions of similar or analogous
import, will suggest negative answers to all who fear God, respect his
authority, and are free from the bewildering effects of popular error.

It ought to be considered that all these _seven_ churches were _one
church_, as originally constituted, having the same,--that, is, a
divine, scriptural organization. And although in the divine forbearance,
they were still owned by Christ, notwithstanding the errors, heresies
and immoralities which had crept into them; yet it is manifest that he
threatens some of them with divorce, total extinction in case of
impenitence. He has indeed fulfilled his awful threats in making them a
desolation. Is it reasonable to suppose that he would reorganize these,
or recognise others which incorporate the same or the like corruptions
in doctrine and practice for tolerating which he has "removed their
candlestick," or "spued them out of his mouth?" (_Absit blasphemia_.) To
say so, or write so, does not manifest the "charity which rejoiceth not
in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth." Alas! the present condition of
the church general contains frequent evidences, that our Saviour's
affectionate counsels, solemn warnings, and awful threatenings, are
neither duly pondered nor dutifully regarded.



CHAPTER IV.


With this chapter the prophetical part of the Apocalypse begins. This is
the place where the third division of the book commences, of which
intimation had been given to John.--"Write ... the things which shall be
hereafter." (Ch. i. 19.) The third is therefore much the largest part of
the whole book, comprising all from the 4th to the 22d ch. It is also to
be noticed that the fourth and fifth chapters are properly of the nature
of an introduction to what follows, presenting to view, as it were, a
grand theatre on which are to be exhibited the dramatic characters and
events which constitute the outline of history in the church and the
world from the apostle's time till the consummation of all things.

Expositors commonly frame and lay down some rules by which they suppose
symbolic language in general, and the symbols of this book in
particular, may be interpreted. On examination, however, it will be
discovered that the learned are not agreed either in the nature or
number of such rules, and sometimes an expositor who has exerted his
ingenuity most in devising canons of interpretation, forgets to apply
them.

All languages, whether spoken or written, are more or less metaphorical,
interspersed with what are called figures of speech. It is customary to
represent nations and tribes, whose language abounds in symbols, as but
little advanced in civilization; and to view oriental nations as more
disposed to indulge in tropes and figures than those of the west; but
perhaps this relative estimate of the modes of speech in the eastern and
western hemispheres will admit of some modification, when we consider
the gesticulations and similes by which the aborigines of America
attempt to give expression to their ideas. The word _hieroglyphics_,
signifying sacred sculpture, derived from the ancient mode of writing by
the priests of Egypt, has received conventional currency among the
learned, as descriptive of any writing which is obscure, "hard to be
understood." And all who read this book will find some of it "dark"
indeed. The divine Author intended that it should be so, (ch. xiii. 18;)
yet he calls it emphatically, a "Revelation."

We have already noticed, that the symbols in this book are taken from
the ceremonial law in part, and part are taken from the works of
creation. The heavens and the earth present to our senses a variety of
material objects; some more, some less calculated to arrest our
attention. Among these, the sun, moon and stars,--earth and sea,
mountains and rivers, occupy prominent places. To facilitate our
knowledge of these, and prompt reference to any part of them, we
generalize or throw them into groups. Thus we speak familiarly of the
"solar system," the "animal, vegetable or mineral kingdom." Now, just
transfer these systematized objects from the material and physical, to
the moral and spiritual world. Then consider what relation any one
object bears to the system, and what influence it has upon the other
objects of which it is a part, and its import may be generally,
satisfactorily and certainly ascertained. Thus the same canons or rules
which we apply in the interpretation of other writings, will be equally
available in "searching the Scriptures,"--never, never forgetting that
it is the Spirit of Christ that "guides into all truth," or his own
all-comprehensive rule of interpretation, "comparing spiritual things
with spiritual." (1 Cor. ii. 13.)

In order to the right observance of the divinely prescribed rule,
"comparing spiritual things with spiritual," we must often refer to the
prophecies of the Old Testament,--to the second and seventh chapters of
Daniel in particular, because that prophet, while the church was captive
under the power of literal Babylon, was favoured with a discovery of the
purpose of God, that a succession of imperial powers should afterwards
arise to "try the patience and the faith of the saints." As in the case
of Pharaoh, so in the whole history of the rise, reign and overthrow of
succeeding persecuting powers, Jehovah's design was precisely the
same,--"to make his power known, and that his name might be declared
throughout all the earth." (Ex. ix. 16; Rom. ix. 17.) In connexion with
this, he would "glorify the riches of his grace on the vessels of mercy,
which he had afore prepared unto glory," by sustaining them in the
furnace of trial.


1. After this I looked, and, behold, a door was opened in heaven: and
the first voice which I heard was as it were of a trumpet talking with
me; which said. Come up hither, and I will show thee things which must
be hereafter.

2. And immediately I was in the Spirit; and, behold, a throne was set in
heaven, and one sat on the throne.

3. And he that sat was to look upon like a jasper and a sardine stone:
and there was a rainbow round about the throne, in sight like unto an
emerald.

Verses 1-3.--"After these things," contained in the three preceding
chapters, the glorious vision of the mediatorial person, and the writing
and sending of the seven epistles; there seems to have intervened a
pause. While John was in expectation of farther discoveries of "things
which were to be thereafter," "behold, a door was opened in heaven," the
place of Jehovah's special residence. But as this "heaven" is sometimes
the theatre of _war_, (ch. xii. 7,) of course it is not to be taken
literally. As a symbol it generally signifies organized society, over
which the Most High presides. The "door opened" afforded the means to
John of seeing the objects within. The "voice as of a trumpet," which
arrested his attention, was that of Christ,--the "voice of the Lord,
full of majesty." (Ps. xxix. 4; ch. i. 10, 11.) John was in his own
apprehension, like Paul, "caught up into the third heaven," that he
might behold in glorious succession "things which must be hereafter."
Why _must_ they be? Simply because such was the "purpose of Him who
worketh all things after the counsel of his own will; who is wonderful
in counsel and excellent in working; whose counsel stands, and who doeth
all his pleasure." (Eph. i. 11.) Can a rational creature work without a
plan? And shall mortal man be more rational than his Maker? The objects
which were presented to John are not to be understood as _material_
objects. It was requisite that he should be "in the Spirit," before he
could see them. The exercise of his bodily senses, the organs of
sensation, must be suspended, that he might have a perception of the
objects presented in vision. As the "spirits of just men made perfect"
in glory, in a disembodied state, are still conscious and active; so are
we warranted to conceive of souls yet in the body as being in a state
analagous,--falling into a trance. (Acts x. 10.) The first object seen
by John was a "throne set in heaven," the emblem of sovereignty. "One
sat on the throne," who cannot be described, only in an obscure manner
by comparison, being "the invisible God, whom no eye hath seen, nor can
see." Yet we know with certainty it is the person of the Father, because
he is in the next chapter plainly distinguished from "the Lamb." Seated
on the throne,--and "in the throne he is greater than the Mediator." A
relation between these divine persons was shadowed forth in Egypt
between Pharaoh and Joseph. (Gen. xli. 40.) Occupying the throne of the
universe, the Father sustains the majesty of the Godhead, and represents
the persons of the adorable Trinity; for the idea is equally
unscriptural and absurd, that either person appears or acts (_ad extra_)
in absolute or essential character. (Is. xlii. 1; John x. 18; xiv. 31.)
He that "sat, was ... like a jasper and a sardine stone,"--not like any
human form, but in allusion, perhaps, to the Shekinah or visible glory
above the mercy-seat in the most holy place, he appeared in the
essential purity or holiness of his nature and awful justice,--one "who
will by no means clear the guilty." The rainbow is the familiar emblem
or "token of the covenant." Its being "round about the throne" teaches
us, that God "in wrath remembers mercy." As "green" is the color most
pleasing to the natural eye, so is the rainbow of covenant mercy most
grateful to the penitent sinner, contemplated by the eye of faith. God
is "ever mindful of his covenant." (Ps. cxi. 5.)

Ever since the revelation of mercy to fallen man, God deals with
mankind, not in essential or absolute character, but by covenant in
economical standing. All along since that epoch in the history of this
world, "the Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto
the Son." As yet, however, the Son is not brought upon the stage in the
apostle's present view. The Son has his appropriate place in the vision,
where he will appear as Mediator. In the conflict to be carried on for
twelve hundred and sixty years by the combined powers of earth and hell
"against the Lord and his Anointed," we have the agencies exhibited in
these two chapters _only on heaven's side_. The opposing hosts will
afterwards appear.


4. And round about the throne were four and twenty seats; and upon the
seats I saw four and twenty elders sitting, clothed in white raiment;
and they had on their heads crowns of gold.

5. And out of the throne proceeded lightnings, and thunderings, and
voices: and there were seven lamps of fire burning before the throne,
which are the seven spirits of God.

Verses 4, 5.--To John's view, the "throne" seen from one side would
appear to be surrounded by a segment of a circle, within which were
"four and twenty seats," (thrones,) occupied by an equal number of
"elders." In society divinely organized "elders" have always been the
legal representatives of God's covenant society in civil and
ecclesiastical relations. (Exod. iii. 16; Acts xx. 17.) These "four and
twenty elders" represent the collective body of God's people under the
Old and New Testaments,--the "twelve tribes of Israel" and the "twelve
apostles." (ch. vii. 4; xxi. 12-14.) Their "white raiment" and "crowns
of gold" indicate their legal state and moral purity,--their
justification and sanctification, as also their promotion to honour, to
"reign as kings." (ch, i. 6; v. 10.) ["_reign on the earth_," ch, xx.
4.] Allusion is had to the terrific scene at Sinai by the "lightnings,"
etc., when "Moses did exceedingly fear and quake," importing that God,
"our God, is a consuming fire" to all his impenitent, especially
antichristian, enemies, even under the milder economy of the New
Testament. (Heb. x. 28-31; ch. xx. 10.) The "seven lamps of fire" are
explained to mean "the seven spirits of God," in allusion to the golden
candlestick in the temple, (Exod. xxxvii. 23; Zech. iv. 2,) and
signifying the gifts and graces of those who are "baptized with the Holy
Ghost and "with fire."


6. And before the throne there was a sea of glass like unto crystal; and
in the midst of the throne, and round about the throne, were four beasts
full of eyes before and behind.

7. And the first beast was like a lion, and the second beast like a
calf, and the third beast had a face as a man, and the fourth beast was
like a flying eagle.

8. And the four beasts had each of them six wings about him; and they
were full of eyes within: and they rest not day and night, saying, Holy,
holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, which was, and is, and is to come.

9. And when those beasts give glory, and honor, and thanks, to him that
sat on the throne, who liveth for ever and ever,

10. The four and twenty elders fall down before him that sat on the
throne, and worship him that liveth for ever and ever, and cast their
crowns before the throne, saying,

11. Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory, and honour, and power;
for thou hast created all things, and for thy pleasure they are and were
created.

Vs. 6-11.--The "sea of glass before the throne" is a symbol taken from
the "brazen sea" in the temple, in which priests and victims were to be
washed. (Exod. xxx. 18; 1 Kings vii. 23.) This sea represents the same
thing as the "fountain opened," (Zech. xiii. 1,) which denotes the
atoning and cleansing blood of Christ. (Ch. vii. 14.) All who offer
"spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God," must first be washed; for the
"Lord had respect to Abel" _first_, and then to his "offering," (Gen.
iv. 4.)--Next, John saw "four beasts." The translation here is faulty,
as noticed by many expositors. Different words in the original
Greek,--not only different, but in some respects opposite in
signification, ought not to be rendered by the same English word; for
this tends to mislead the unlearned leader. He is thus bewildered
instead of being enlightened. There are several beasts besides these,
introduced as instructive symbols in this book. Two are mentioned in ch.
xiii. 1, 11, altogether different from these,--so different as to be
antagonistic. Instead of "beasts," they should have been called
"animals" or "living beings;" for even the phrase "living _creatures_"
hardly covers or conveys the whole import of the Greek word. The
position of these "four animals" is worthy of special notice:--"in the
midst of the throne, and round about the throne." How can this be? Well,
if the "seats" and the "elders" occupying them are "round about the
throne," in a segment of a circle, as viewed by John, then it will be
readily perceived that the "animals" seen from the same quarter would
appear to him as occupying a space forming a smaller segment of a circle
between the elders and the throne. Thus we have the relative positions,
(_a_) the throne, (_b_) the "four animals" next to the throne, and
lastly, (_c_) the "four and twenty elders." The places occupied by these
several parties are pregnant with scriptural instruction, as may appear
when we come to the latter part of ch. 6.

In the mean time, what do these "four animals" represent? Not the
adorable Trinity, as some learned men have imagined; nor holy angels, as
more learned men have supposed and laboured to prove. These "animals"
are worshippers; (v. 8,) therefore they are not the Object of worship.
They are culpably blind who mistake the creature for the Creator. (Rom.
i. 25.) Other expositors have attempted, with greater plausibility, but
no better success, to prove these animals to be symbolical of angels.
For this purpose, reference has been made to Isaiah's vision of the
_seraphims_, (ch. vi. 2,) and also to the "four living creatures" which
appeared in vision to Ezekiel, (i. 5-10.) The identity of John's
"animals" and Ezekiel's "living creatures" is argued especially from
their number, "four," and their "faces" being the same. To the
thoughtful and unbiased reader it is sufficient to reply,--that John's
"animals" acknowledge themselves to have been _redeemed_ by the blood of
the Lamb, (ch. v. 8, 9,) an expression which is inapplicable to angels.
As the "four and twenty elders" and the "four animals" comprise the
whole company of the _redeemed_, as distinguished from the higher and
lower orders of God's worshippers, (ch. v. 8-14,) and as the "elders"
represent the whole church, it would seem to be reasonable to suppose,
that these "animals" are the symbols of the gospel ministry. And to this
agree their functions as exercised in the farther developments of this
book, as we shall see.

One plausible objection to this interpretation is grounded on the fact
that their "faces" are the same as those of Ezekiel's angels,--"of an
ox, or young calf, of a lion, of a man, and of an eagle." But each of
the "cherubims" had "four faces" whereas these "animals" have but _one_
face each. Nor ought it to be thought incongruous that faithful
ministers are represented as possessing some of the properties of holy
angels, when we find them called by the same name: (ch. i. 20;) and
also, when we find the Master directing them to imitate and emulate holy
angels in their services. (Matt. vi. 10; Ps. ciii. 20, 21.) These
"animals," emblematical of the gospel ministry, are in number "four,"
answerable to the universality of their mission into the four quarters
of the earth,--"all the world." (Matt, xxviii. 19; Mark, xvi. 15.) So
the "four winds," (ch. vii. 1,) mean all winds. As the "lion, which is
the strongest among beasts, and turneth not away for any," is
distinguished for courage and magnanimity; so, as a symbol, it
represents a ministry of courageous and heroic spirit. Luther in
continental, and Knox in insular Europe, may be named as displaying this
prominent feature of ministerial character. The "calf" or young ox,
symbolizes "patient continuance in well-doing" amidst trials, such as
"cruel mockings," etc. The "face as a man" indicates sagacity,
"Christian prudence," together with active sympathy. The "flying eagle"
is emblematical of penetration and discrimination,--ability to teach
others," from a spiritual insight into the divine character and
purposes,--an experimental acquaintance with "the God of glory." All
these properties are not to be supposed ordinarily in any one minister,
but as distributed among the ministry at large,--"according to the
measure of the gift of Christ,"--the Holy Spirit "dividing to every man
severally as he will." (Eph. iv. 7; 1 Cor. xii. 11.) It may be remarked,
that in some cases all these properties may be discerned in great
measure in the same individual. In the gifts and grace of the apostle
Paul, may be discovered the _boldness_ of the _lion_, the _patience_ of
the _ox_, the _compassion_ of the _man_, and the _soaring flight_ of the
_eagle_. Our covenant God endows his servants for the service to which
he calls them, always making good the promise,--"As thy days, so shall
thy strength be." The "six wings," of course, are expressive of the
activity of the ministry,--"in season, out of season," emulating the
heavenly seraphims in serving the same Lord. They were "full of eyes
before, behind, within." They are to "take heed to themselves, and to
the ministry which they have received in the Lord, that they fulfil it."
(Col. iv. 17; 1 Tim. iv. 16.) They are to regard the operation of God's
hand in providence, so as to "have understanding of the times, and know
what Israel ought to do." (1 Chron. xii. 32.) They are to "try the
spirits whether they are of God;" and "after the first and second
admonition, to reject heretics." (Tit. iii. 10.) They are to "oversee
the flock," (Acts xx. 28;) and to "watch for souls, as they that must
give account" to the Master. (Heb. xiii. 17.) And we may say with
Paul,--"Who is sufficient for these things?" Modern prelates, who
arrogate to themselves the exclusive use of the Scriptural official name
"BISHOP," generally manifest that they are _only bishops_, (_two-eyed_)
and not the _many-eyed_ servants of Christ, symbolized by the "four
animals" of our text, or the "overseeing _elders_" charged at Miletus by
the apostle Paul. (Acts xx. 17.) "While these men slept, the enemy sowed
tares."--In direct acts of worship, these "animals,"--the ministers,
take the lead, answerable to another official name,--"guides, in things
pertaining to God." (Heb. xiii. 7; [Greek] v. 1.) They are, as well
expressed by another phrase, the "sworn expounders of God's word," and
authoritative rulers in his house. Destitute of legislative power, which
in ecclesiastical affairs pertains to Christ alone; they are the
authorized administrators of all the laws by which his household is to
be governed. (Heb. xiii. 7, 17.)--The language of adoration here is the
same uttered by the seraphim. (Isa. vi. 3) The "holiness" of God is that
adorable character which is most attractive to holy angels and redeemed
sinners, being the principal feature of the divine image reflected by
themselves. (Matt. xxv. 31; Jude 14; 1 John iii. 2.) The glorious Being
seen by John, as sitting on a throne, is the same who was seen by
Isaiah, (vi. 1;) and precisely in the same attitude; but called by
different names. By Isaiah he is denominated "the Lord of Hosts,"--by
John, "the Lord God Almighty." The context proves,--especially ch. v. 1;
that John in vision contemplated God in the _person_ of the _Father_;
whereas we are assured, in John xii. 41, that Isaiah saw him in the
_person_ of the _Son_. Thus we may understand our Lord's words addressed
to Philip, (John xiv. 9.) "He that hath seen me hath seen the father."
(See Heb. i. 8; Col. i. 15.)

Led by the "four animals,"--the ministry of reconciliation; the "four
and twenty elders," representing all the redeemed of mankind, "fall down
before him that sat on the throne" in prostrate adoration of that
glorious Being whose "eternal power and Godhead" are demonstrated in the
volume of creation. We are thus taught that motives to acceptable
worship of God are _primarily_ to be found in the _perfections_ of his
_nature_ as our beneficent Creator,--perfections possessed by him in
essential character, independently of all his works of creation and
redemption. His "worthiness" of worship is inherent in himself, but
outwardly manifested to intelligent creatures by the work of creation,
of which he is the first Cause and the last End,--the efficient and
final Cause. This doctrine, understood by the intellect and unbraced in
the heart, would greatly tend to "hide pride from man." (Job xxxiii.
17.) Aside from the doctrine of the "cross," which is still counted
"foolishness" by our modern self-styled "philosophers, psychologists and
freethinkers;" there is enough here revealed of this eternal One to
humble the "proud looks and haughty hearts" of these "enemies of the
King." Without repentance, "he that made them will not have mercy on
them; and he that formed them will show them no favour;" for
notwithstanding their pride of superior intellect, he whose judgment is
according to truth, has pronounced them a "people of no understanding."
(Isa. xxvii. 11.) It is no disparagement to those in places of highest
earthly dignity, as David; nor to the wisest of all men, as Solomon: to
"cast their crowns before the throne" of this only universal Monarch;
saying, "Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honor and power;
for thou hast created all things, and for thy pleasure they are and were
created;" "and let the whole earth be filled with his glory." (Ps.
lxxii. 19.)



CHAPTER VI.


1. And I saw in the right hand of him that sat on the throne a book
written within and on the backside, sealed with seven seals.

Verse 1.--The dividing of the books of Scripture into chapters and
verses is not by inspiration. Fallible men have used their discretion in
this respect, as they still do, by parceling chapters into sections,
paragraphs, &c. And so, although we have passed to another chapter, the
vision is the same. The inspired penman had looked upon the great King
surrounded by part of his retinue. In earnest expectation of farther
discoveries, he beheld "in the right hand of him that sat on the throne
a book written within and on the back side," (or _outside,_ as in some
copies.) The book was "sealed with seven seals." This volume was in the
form of a _roll,_ as the word _volume_ signifies. The form of a book is
determined by the kind of material on which one writes. This has
consisted of great variety in the successive ages of the world. The
first of which we have any notice in history is _stone._ When Job, in
his affliction, was sustained by faith in the promised Redeemer; and
when he would emphasize and transmit an expression of that faith to
future generations; he thought of the nearest expedient familiar to his
mind:--"Oh that my words were now written.... that they were graven with
an iron pen.... in the rock forever," (Job xix. 23, 24.) On the same
material the law was written at Horeb, (Exod. xxiv. 12.) No doubt this
was the usual method of recording events in Egypt in the time of Joseph,
as the word "hieroglyphics" or _sacred sculpture,_ appears to imply.
Next, it appears that the inside bark of trees was used for this
purpose, as of birch, which has a natural tendency to _curl_ or _roll_
together when dry. Hence the word _library,_ and volume, or _rolled
bark._ The royal archives, or "house of the rolls," is thus explained,
(Ezra. vi. 1.) "Vellum," or dressed skins of beasts, appears to have
been next used; then linen and cotton; and as now put through a chemical
process, these are the material in most common use at the present day.
Thus contemplating the symbol in the text, we may trace in our thoughts
the gradual advancement of this department of science and the mechanic
arts. The second stage of progress had been reached in John's time, from
stone to the bark of timber. The "book" appears to have been of
cylindrical form, but whether in one piece or in seven separate pieces,
revolving on a common axis, it is not easy nor perhaps important to
determine. It is of much greater importance to know that the "book" is
emblematical of the decrees of God. This will appear by comparing Psalm
xl. 7, where we find the same symbol employed to represent the record of
covenant agreement or stipulation between the Father and the Son, and to
which our Saviour appeals as evidence in his case. (Heb. x. 7.) While
the symbol may be safely considered as involving all the purposes of
God; it signifies here more especially the following part of the
Apocalypse, containing, as it were, a transcript from the great
original.--"Seals" are for security and secrecy. Both may be included in
the case. And indeed their being "seven" in number--a number of
perfection, would seem to confirm this two-fold meaning. The sealed
book, symbolical of the decrees of God, comprehending all events of all
time, teaches us the doctrine expressed in plain words thus:--"Known
unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world," (Acts xv.
18.) The complex symbol also teaches more forcibly than in words,--"My
counsel shall stand, and I will do all my pleasure," (Is, xlvi. 10.)
Some have suggested a little change in the punctuation. Instead of
placing the comma, after the word "side," place it after the word
"within," the meaning would then be, that the "book was written only on
_one_ side, namely on the side _within_." We do not accept the
suggestion. The reason is sufficient for its rejection, that the
material in the time of the apostle, was too costly to leave one-half of
it _blank_; and here our divine Lord "speaks to us of heavenly things"
through the medium of earthly things with which we are familiar.


2. And I saw a strong angel proclaiming with a loud voice, Who is worthy
to open the book, and to loose the seals thereof?

3. And no man in heaven, nor in earth, neither under the earth, was able
to open the book, neither to look thereon.

Vs. 2-3.--Proclamation is made by a "strong angel," the Almighty
Monarch's herald to the universe, challenging all creatures to the task
of opening the seals. His "loud voice" reverberates throughout
illimitable space, that all concerned might hear. The challenge is not,
"who is _able_?" but, "who is _worthy_?"--Who is "worthy," by personal
dignity, or distinguished and meritorious services, "to open the book
and to loose the seals thereof?" No response comes from any quarter to
break the solemn silence. The whole creation is mute. "Who hath known
the mind of the Lord? or who hath been his counsellor?" "O the depth of
the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are
his judgments and his ways past finding out!" (Rom. xi. 33, 34.)--"And
no man in heaven," &c. The word "man" is in this place, as in many
others, an imperfect and inadequate supplement. In some places it is
calculated to mislead the "unlearned and unstable," as John x. 28, 29,
(in some copies,) Heb. ii. 9. The former text, as supplemented by the
word "man," contradicts the apostle, Rom. viii. 39. The meaning here is
obviously that no _creature_,--angel or man, was worthy or "able" to
"open the book." To holy angels, devils, and the dead "under the earth,"
the purposes of God are as inscrutable as they are to us, until they are
revealed. (Eph. iii. 10; 1 Pet. i. 12.)


4. And I wept much, because no man was found worthy to open and to read
the book, neither to look thereon.

V. 4.--John understood by the symbol which he saw, that its contents
were of deep significance. A sanctified curiosity and anxiety, more
powerful than that of the Ethiopian eunuch, (Acts viii. 34,) occupied
his soul. But the book is sealed and there is no visible interpreter!
(Is. xxix. 11.) The "beloved disciple" is much affected. He has more
than once or twice "beheld the glory of God," and cannot but earnestly
desire to know more of his mind. "Hope deferred maketh his heart sick."
He "wept much." His covenant God "has seen his tears." He "will heal
him," (2 Kings xx. 5.)


5. And one of the elders saith unto me, Weep not: behold, the Lion of
the tribe of Juda, the Root of David, hath prevailed to open the book,
and to loose the seven seals thereof.

V. 5.--From a quite unexpected quarter comes a hint! How could John
anticipate relief from such a source? "One of the elders" is made the
messenger of joyful tidings. As Aquila and Priscilla took to them the
eloquent Apollos, and "expounded unto him the way of God more
perfectly," (Acts xviii. 26,) so one of the elders--one of the humble
disciples was the instrument of comfortable instruction to the aged
apostle! The prophet Daniel was similarly affected by a partial
exhibition of the same important events; but his anxiety to know the
meaning of the vision, though allayed, was not fully gratified, as that
of John. (Dan. xii. 8, 9,) "Go thy way, Daniel, for the words are closed
up and sealed." The desire of the best of God's people to know his
purposes may be sometimes excessive, as exemplified by the disciples of
Christ, (Acts i. 7.) "It is not for them to know the times and the
seasons which the Father hath put in his own power." So much, however,
is revealed as may be necessary to their present support and comfort;
and the rest they "shall know hereafter," (John xiii. 7.) But as the
events involved in the secret purpose of God, were concealed from
Daniel; because not to be evolved till near "the time of the end:" so in
John's time, when as in Abraham's case, "the time of the promise drew
nigh"--the time was approaching when the interests of God's people would
be greatly affected by these events; it became needful that the book
should be unsealed and its contents made known. "The time was at hand."
Accordingly, John is exhorted by the elder to dry up his tears, for to
the unspeakable joy of himself and of the whole creation, the
announcement is made,--"Behold, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root
of David, hath prevailed to open the book, and to loose the seven seals
thereof." Here our attention is called away back to the famous prophecy
of dying Jacob, (Gen. xlix. 9, 10,) and also to the subsequent and
concurrent declaration of the evangelical prophet, (Isa. xi. 1, 10.)
Christ is the "Lion of the tribe of Judah" in reference to his human
nature; "for it is evident," from the inspired tables of his genealogy,
"that our Lord sprang out of Judah," (Heb. vii. 14;) and it is no less
evident that he is the Root of David, in respect to his divine nature,
(John i. 1, 3; Isa. ix. 6; 1 Cor. xv. 47.) The "one Mediator between God
and men," partaking of the nature of each party, is "worthy"--alone
worthy, by reason of personal dignity, to "open the book." It is also to
be noticed that _worthiness_ is not his only qualification. In view of
the challenge published,--"who is worthy?" the answer is, this champion
"hath _prevailed_!"--Isaiah saw him in vision, victorious over
enemies--"travelling in the greatness of his strength," (Isa. lxiii. 1.)
To his _personal_ worthiness is to be added the unrivalled merit of his
achievements in conflict with hostile powers, (Gen. iii. 15; Isa. liii.
12; Col. ii. 15.)


6. And I beheld, and, lo, in the midst of the throne and of the four
beasts, and in the midst of the elders, stood a Lamb as it had been
slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of
God sent forth into all the earth.

V. 6.--In this verse we have the Lord Jesus Christ introduced to the
view of John and the intelligent universe in his sacerdotal or priestly
office, "a lamb, as it had been slain." In the order of nature and of
merit, his priestly office precedes his prophetical and kingly offices.
This is evident from the position which he occupies in relation to the
throne and royal retinue. He stands in the attitude of a priest "in the
midst of the throne and of the four animals," etc. As seen here, our
Saviour does not _sit on the throne_. He appeared in a standing posture.
His position was obviously _before_ the throne. As the priestly function
required, he stood nearest to the object of worship, between the
ministers and the throne,--in the inmost circle. There he exhibited the
scars received in war; the wounds made by the sword of divine justice;
(Zech. xiii. 7;) the holes in his hands and side by the nails and
soldier's spear. (John xix. 34; xx. 23.) This "Lamb slain,"--typified by
all the spotless lambs offered in sacrifice by divine appointment from
the time of Abel, had been marvellously restored to life, as no other
victim had ever been. (John x. 18; ch. i. 18.) The "seven horns and
seven eyes," symbolize the power and wisdom of the Mediator. "It pleased
the Father that in him should all fulness dwell." (Col. i. 19.) He
"giveth not the Spirit by measure unto him." (John iii. 34; Heb. i. 9.)
Christ was privy to all the purposes of his Father, (John v. 20,) and
the extent of his knowledge is limited in him _as Mediator_, only by the
authority and will of the Father. "Of that day and that hour ... knoweth
no man ... neither the Son." (Mark xiii. 32.) The same interesting and
important truth is taught by the Father's holding the book in his hand,
as also in plain words, (ch. i. 1,)--"the Revelation of Jesus Christ
which God gave unto him." "No man knoweth the Father but the Son."
(Matt. xi. 27.) In office-capacity the Lord Christ is qualified to
unfold and execute the decree of God. (Ps. ii. 7,) as more fully appears
in the following part of the book.


7. And he came and took the book out of the right hand of him that sat
upon the throne.

V. 7.--The Lord Jesus approaches his Father's throne to receive the
roll. And with the prophet we may ask,--"Who is this that engaged his
heart to approach?" (Jer. xxx. 21.)--With all who are honored to
surround the throne, we may joyfully answer in the words of the
Psalmist,--It is the "Lord, strong and mighty in battle." (Ps. xxiv. 8.)
"He took the book."--This action symbolically signified the
authoritative commission given by the Father and received by the
Mediator to proceed in the execution of the divine decree, and in
discharge of his threefold office as prophet, priest and
king,--especially and more formally his prophetical and kingly offices.


8. And when he had taken the book, the four beasts and four and twenty
elders fell down before the Lamb, having every one of them harps, and
golden vials full of odours, which are the prayers of saints.

V. 8.--No sooner does the "Lamb take the book," than all spectators are
apprized of the act, and instantly give expression to their confidence
and joy. Among all the worshippers before the throne, the "four animals"
take precedence, and lead by their own example as before, (ch. iv. 9.)
They gave "glory" etc., to God creator, as in the person of the Father;
and now in the presence of the Father's manifested glory, they prostrate
themselves before the "Lamb," in obedience to the Father's command,
"That all men should honor the Son, even as they honor the Father."
(John v. 23.)--The "four and twenty elders,"--the representatives of all
the children of God, cordially join the ministry in these acts of solemn
worship. Some of the furniture employed in the temple worship, is here
introduced, to harmonize with the rest of the symbolic scenery. "Harps
and golden vials" signify praise and prayer. Our modern advocates for
instrumental music in God's worship, to be consistent, must associate
with the "harps," the "incense-cups" and the "golden altar:" for all
belonged alike to the service of the temple. Even in the time when such
"vessels of the ministry" were in use with divine approbation, the
Psalmist had greater clearness,--more evangelical conceptions of the
temporary use of those "beggarly elements whereunto many desire again to
be in bondage" than they seem to have. (Gal. iv. 9.) He knew, even then,
that "incense and the evening sacrifice" represented spiritual worship.
(Ps. cxli. 2.) Others there are, who question whether Christ as Mediator
be the _formal_ object of worship? While they acknowledge his supreme
deity as God equal with the Father, they are in doubt on his assuming
human nature, whether, "as such, he is the object of worship!" Such
doubts are groundless, as unanswerably shown in this place, and in many
others, such as John xx. 28: xxi. 17; Ps. xlv. 11; xcvii. 7; Heb. i. 6.
All these worshippers appear to know that the nature of the _altar_ at
which they worship determines the kind of oblations to be offered:
namely,--"spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ." (1
Pet. ii. 5.)


9. And they sung a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to take the book,
and to open the seals thereof: for thou wast slain and hast redeemed us
to God by thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and
nation;

10 And hast made us unto our God kings and priests, and we shall reign
on the earth.

Vs. 9, 10.--"They sung a new song." They all agreed in the matter, as
well as in the divine object of worship. "Now will I sing to my well
beloved a song of my beloved touching his vineyard." (Isa. v. 1.) Agreed
as to the object and matter of the song none is silent in Immanuel's
praise,--no _select choir_, not one who _worships by proxy_. Such belong
to a different fellowship. This is the "song of the Lamb," which joined
to the "song of Moses," constitutes the whole of the "high praises of
the Lord," leaving no place for the vapid, empty, bombastic, amorous and
heretical effusions, of uninspired men, whether of sound or "corrupt
minds."--The burden of the song is the same as the "Song of Songs" and
the forty-fifth Psalm,--"Christ crucified,"--Christ glorified, "the
praises of him who hath called them from darkness into his marvellous
light." The key-note among them all is the work of redemption. "Thou
hast redeemed us to God by thy blood,"--_us_, and not others in the same
condition. Others may talk of a ransom that does not redeem: but these
dwell with emphasis upon the price and power that brought them "out of
every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation." This happy and
joyful company never conceived the idea that, in order at once to
vindicate Jehovah's moral government and give the most impressive
demonstration of his opposition to sin, he subjected his beloved Son to
untold sufferings, which should be equally available by all his enemies,
but _specially intended for none in particular_! They never imagined
that their adorable Creator was under a natural necessity of "seeking
the greatest good of the greatest number," that he might thereby escape
the just imputation of _partiality_. Such impious conceptions imply
distributive injustice on the part of God, when he "spared not the
angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell." (2 Pet. ii. 4.) Neither
man's chief end nor God's is the happiness of creatures,--no, neither in
creation nor redemption, as is clear to unsophisticated reason, and
plainly determined by the Spirit of God. (See ch. iv. 11; Isa. xliii. 7,
21; Eph. i. 12.) The manifestation of his own perfections,--his own
glory, is the highest and ultimate end of Jehovah in all his purposes
and works. "The Lord hath made all things for himself." (Prov. xvi. 4;
Rom. xi. 36.) Now, if the Lamb has redeemed the whole human family, as
some affirm; then it will follow that all must be saved, or Christ died
in vain, in reference to them that are lost: and besides, the "Judge of
all the earth" would be chargeable with exercising distributive
injustice, in exacting double payment, first from the Surety, and then
from the sinner! "That be far from God." "He is just and having
salvation,"--"a just God and a Saviour." (Zech. ix. 9; Isa. xlv. 21.) As
there can be no liberty without law, so there can be no mercy without
justice, though there may be "justice without mercy." (James i. 25; ii.
13.) This worshipping company, the representatives of the universal
church, ascribe their redemption to the blood of Christ. It is their
declared faith that pardon is grounded on atonement, that "without
shedding of blood is no remission." (Heb. ix. 22; Lev. xvii. 11; ch. i.
5.) They believe, moreover, that as the obedience of Christ unto death,
his doing and dying, is an adequate satisfaction to law and justice; so
by compact between the Father and the Son, his penal sufferings avail
the believing sinner for pardon. Thus it is, that "if we confess our
sins, he (God the Father,) is faithful and _just_ to forgive us our
sins." (1 John i. 9.) This doctrine the apostle, as the mouth of the
whole church, had already avowed: (ch. i. 5, 6;) and now again we have
it repeated and incorporated in the song of praise. Thus, while "Christ
crucified is to the Jews a stumbling block, and to the Greeks
foolishness;" to them who are saved this humbling doctrine is "the power
of God and the wisdom of God." (1 Cor. i. 24, 25.) God's glory and the
saints' honor and felicity equally spring from the slaying of the Lamb.
These good things the blood of Abel's sacrifice spake in type soon after
the fall: and here we have the same things proclaimed as the faith of
all believers. (Heb. xi. 1.)

By this blood they are consecrated a "royal priesthood" to offer up
spiritual sacrifices; and there is a period in the world's eventful
history, when they shall "reign on the earth." Of the nature of this
_reign_ there are two views entertained. That of the Millenarians, under
the supposed corporeal presence of Christ, which is _too gross,_ after
the manner of carnal Jews: the other _too refined_ and remote, after the
manner of carnal Christians, who "will not have this man to reign over
them,"--_except in the church._ Such Christians come very near the views
and sentiment of those who exclaimed,--"Not this man, but Barabbas."
(John xviii. 40.) Of the nature of Christ's royal dominion we will have
occasion to treat in other parts of the Apocalypse; but we take occasion
to remark, that his kingly office is formally and meritoriously founded
on the efficacy of his sacrifice: "Thou art worthy, for thou wast
slain."--That the saints shall "reign in glory" in company with their
Saviour is a precious scripture truth; but it is not the truth taught in
the words,--"we shall reign _on the earth."_ This is not the place to
enter on a full discussion of the doctrine here avowed; yet the
following may be adduced as part of the warrant of this doctrine. (Dan.
vii. 27; Rev. xx. 4.)


11. And I beheld, and I heard the voice of many angels round about the
throne, and the beasts, and the elders: and the number of them was ten
thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands;

12. Saying with a loud voice, Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to
receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, and honour, and
glory, and blessing.

Vs. 11, 12.--Here we have the concurrence of holy angels, as seen by
John in vision, with all the redeemed in acts of solemn worship offered
directly to the Lamb.--"Many angels," how many? Some divines have
actually attempted, by arithmetical rules, to compute the number! Such
employment may amuse, but it cannot edify. The definite here mentioned
for indefinite numbers, may be easily computed; (as in Dan. vii. 10; Ps.
lxviii. 17;) but still we would labor in vain "to find out the account;"
for we are expressly told that they are "innumerable." (Heb. xii. 22.)
Like the ransomed children of Adam, they are "a great multitude which no
man can number." (ch. vii. 9.) Why then attempt that which the Holy
Spirit has pronounced impossible? "Vain man would be wise." It is of
much more consequence for us to contemplate their position, relations
and employments. Their _position_ is "round about the throne," beholding
the "Lamb as it had been slain." The law of their creation could not
reveal to them this object of adoration. That they may know their duty
to the Mediatorial Person as their moral Head, it is requisite that they
be directed by a new revelation. Accordingly, we find a "new
commandment" issued from God the Father expressly to them. (Ps. xcvii.
7; Heb. i. 6.) "Worship him, all ye gods;" that is, "Let all the angels
of God worship him." By the development of the eternal counsels of God
in his dealings with the church, these "principalities and powers in
heavenly places," discover with adoring wonder more and more of the
"manifold wisdom of God." They _stoop down_, as it were, "to look into
this" mysterious economy, (Eph. iii. 10, 11; 1 Pet. i. 12.) They are
humbly but intensely desirous to discover still more of "the hidden
wisdom which God ordained before the world unto the glory" of their
fellow worshippers. (1 Cor. ii. 7.) Such is their position.--They are
related to the Lamb as his subjects by the Father's grant and command.
"He (Jesus) is gone into heaven ... angels ... being made subject unto
him." (1 Pet. iii. 22.) They are also related to the "elder" and
"animals," the members and ministers of the church. Said one of them to
John,--"I am thy fellow-servant." (ch. xix. 10.) Angels are not ashamed
to call them "fellow-servants," whom the Lord Jesus "is not ashamed to
call his brethren." (Heb. ii. 11.) As the "four animals" are nearer the
throne than the "elders," so are the "elders" nearer the throne than the
angels. These are ranged, in John's view, in the outside segment of the
circle. All the redeemed, ministry and membership, are "nearer of kin"
to the Lamb than angels are. "He took not on him the nature of angels,
but he took on him the seed of Abraham." (Heb. ii. 16.) All believers
are "members of his body, of his flesh and of his bones." (Eph. v. 30.)
He has highly advanced human nature, by taking it into real and
indissoluble union with his divine person. This is the special ground of
nearness and intimacy between Christ and his brethren. And O, how ought
we to emulate holy angels in adoring this precious Redeemer! "He loved
the church and gave himself for it," (Eph. v. 25,) and he loved and gave
himself for every member of the church. (Gal. ii. 20.)

The employments of this innumerable company of angels, besides
"ministering for them who shall be heirs of salvation," (Heb. i. 14;)
consist much in admiring contemplations of the glory of the "Lamb slain,
and in ascriptions of praise to him who is "worthy to receive power,"
etc. In this they cordially harmonize with the redeemed, whose
delightful exercise is "to show forth the praises of him who hath called
them out of darkness into his marvellous light:" (1 Pet. ii. 9:) and all
the honor, thus ascribed to the Mediator by both classes of worshippers,
is intended to terminate ultimately on the person of God the Father.
(Phil. ii. 9-11.) The Father "hath committed all judgment unto the Son,
that all men," yes, and all angels, "should honor the Son, even as they
honor the Father." (John v. 22, 23.)


13 And every creature which is in heaven, and on the earth, and under
the earth, and such are in the sea, and all that are in them, heard I
saying, Blessing, and honour, and glory, and power, be unto him that
sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb, for ever and ever,

14. And the four beasts said, Amen. And the four and twenty elders fell
down and worshipped him that liveth for ever and ever.

Vs. 13,14.--In addition to angels and men, we have here enumerated
"every creature" in the whole vast universe, co-operating in the worship
of the two divine Persons as associated in concerting and executing the
plan of redemption. Thus the "host of heaven" and all inferior creatures
according to their several capacities unite in ascribing "blessing, and
honor, and glory, and power, unto him that sitteth upon the throne, and
unto the Lamb for ever and ever." And we may say with Nehemiah,--They
are both "exalted above all blessing and praise." (Neh. ix. 5.) Fallen
angels and reprobate men are excluded, from the nature of the case, and
by the unalterable laws of the moral government of the Most High, from
any participation in this service. (Ps. cx. 1; 1 Cor. xv. 24, 25; Luke
xix. 27.)--Can any one who denies the supreme deity of the Lord Jesus,
or who refuses to worship him, ever join the society of these
worshippers? Or, supposing the possibility of their admission, could
they be otherwise than miserable? O the "blasphemy of them who say they
are Jews!"--This is one of the sublime doxologies framed by the Holy
Spirit, for the use of all creatures on special occasions, but not to be
abused by "vain repetitions" as by Papists and Prelates. The like
specimens of the "high praises of the Lord" we have in Ps. lxix. 34.--As
the three ranks of worshippers here presented in vision to John,
beautifully harmonize in holy exercises, each in its appropriate sphere;
so the "animals and elders,"--the rulers and ruled of the church, take
precedence of all others in acts of solemn worship, and also close the
solemn service, saying,--"Amen."

The "sealed book" being delivered by the Father into the possession of
the Mediator, the whole creation awaits with confidence and joy the
development of the counsels of God, as they may affect the destinies of
his redeemed people. The "Lamb has prevailed to open the book," and his
established character is sufficient guarantee for success in
accomplishing the responsible work assigned him by his Father. This
feeling of confidence is expressed by the worshippers, not only by the
matter of their praise, but also by the closing word, "amen;" which word
is expressive of their "desires and assurance to be heard."



CHAPTER VI.


1. And I saw when the Lamb opened one of the seals; and I heard, as it
were the noise of thunder, one of the four beasts saying, Come and see.

2. And I saw, and behold a white horse: and he that sat on him had a
bow; and a crown was given unto him: and he went forth conquering, and
to conquer.

Vs. 1, 2.--The apostle "saw when the Lamb" proceeded to disclose the
contents of the book by breaking the seals in regular succession. It is
not requisite to suppose that each of the seals covers an exactly equal
part of the roll. These parts may be quite different in quantity or
length. It is obvious, however, that upon the breaking of any one seal,
that part of the roll which the seal was intended to cover, would be
disclosed to a spectator's view,--the whole of such part and no more. We
shall find as we advance that the several parts of this book are in fact
very different in extent. When the seventh and last seal is opened, the
whole contents of the book must of course be disclosed: and it will
appear that the last of the seals contained a much greater part of the
roll than any of the others. To a superficial reader this may be
apparent from the circumstance that within the compass of this short
chapter, six of the seals exhibit their contents.

By the most learned and sober divines the first six seals are considered
as disclosing the events which transpired from the time of the apostle
John till the overthrow of pagan idolatry in the Roman empire and the
accession of Constantine.

Let us consider the contents of these seals in order: Upon the opening
"of one of the seals," the first of course, "one of the four animals"
with a voice like "thunder, said, Come and see." This was the animal
like a "lion," emblematical of those bold and dauntless servants of
Christ who took their life in their hand and "went every where preaching
the word," (Acts viii. 4.) Many expositors, of secular notions and
affinities, imagine that some one of the Roman emperors is to be
understood as represented by him who rides on the white
horse,--Vespasian, Titus, or Trajan. To name such figments is enough to
confute them in the mind of such as have spiritual discernment. "White"
is not the divinely chosen symbol of bloody warriors or persecutors. It
is most frequently the emblem of purity, legal or moral. (Matt. xvii. 2;
Rev. iii. 4, 5.) "White horse" may represent the gospel, the Covenant of
Grace or the church. In this "chariot," (Song iii. 9,) or upon this
horse, as it were, Christ, "the captain of salvation" in apostolic
times, "went forth conquering, and to conquer." Much opposition from
Jews and Gentiles was raised against his gospel, especially upon his
exaltation to his mediatorial throne: but the opening of this seal
discloses the Father's purpose to bear out his Son in extending his
rightful conquests. (Isa. xlii. 4.) "The Lord gave the word; great was
the company of those that published it." (Ps. lxviii. 11.) The "bow and
the crown" as symbols, combine the military and regal character of
Christ, indicating his victories and succeeding exaltation. He shall
wound the heads over the large earth; therefore shall he lift up the
head. (Ps. cx. 6.) He is the "Prince of peace," and the primary object
of his mission by the Father is, to establish "truth and meekness and
righteousness" in the earth. Yet he is a "Lamb," but a Lamb that makes
war; and "in righteousness he doth judge and make war." (ch. xix. 11.)
In this last cited text we have an irrefragable proof of the correctness
of our interpretation of the symbols under the first seal. The rider's
name is, "The Word of God," (v. 13.)


3. And when he had opened the second seal, I heard the second beast say,
Come and see.

4. And there went out another horse that was red; and power was given to
him that sat thereon to take peace from the earth, and that they should
kill one another: and there was given unto him a great sword.

V. 3,4.--The opening of the "second seal" furnishes occasion for the
"second animal" to cry, "Come and see." It is the customary business of
faithful ministers to invite the disciples of Christ to a contemplation
of his providential procedure. "Come, behold the works of the Lord."
(Ps. xlvi. 8.) This is the call of the ministry represented by the
symbol of a "calf or young ox." "Patient continuance in well doing" is
the special duty of Christ's servants in times of suffering. And such
seems to be the import of the emblem, the "red horse." By the horse,
singly considered, we are to understand a _dispensation_ of
_providence_. So we are to view it as a symbol in Zech. i. 8; vi. 1-8.
The prophet said, "O, my Lord, what are these?... And the man
answered,--These are they whom the Lord hath sent to walk to and fro
through the earth." We speak familiarly of a "dispensation of the
gospel,"--the "white horse." Our attention is now called to a "red
horse,"--_fiery_, as the word imports. The character of the dispensation
is thus indicated as bloody. Wars should prevail so as to "take peace
from the earth." "They should kill one another." The instrument of
slaughter is seen,--"a great sword." _Mutual_ slaughter does not seem to
harmonize with the idea of persecution, by which the saints only "are
killed all the day long." History records that insurrections, battles,
massacres and devastations of an extraordinary kind took place in the
first half of the second century, by which more than half a million of
the Jews perished by the hand of the pagans; and a still greater number
on the opposite side were slain by the Jews. Thus the two parties who
rivalled each other in opposing the gospel and the progress of Christ's
kingdom, were made by him the instruments of their mutual destruction.
For he it is who directs the movements and course of providence, the
"red horse." "Behold what desolations he hath made in the earth!" "In
this text," says an eminent expositor, "earth signifies the Roman
empire." ... "Daniel, ... whose sealed prophecy is explained by the
opening of the Apocalyptical seals, denominates the Roman empire, 'the
fourth kingdom upon earth.'" We humbly suggest, that this does not
render the Roman empire _synonymous_ with _earth_, any more than the
Chaldean, Persian, or Grecian. And indeed the monarchs of those empires
put forth as extensive claims to universal empire as ever the Cesars
did. The word _earth_ is to be interpreted always by the context. Like
the term _world_, it may sometimes signify the Roman empire, as Luke ii.
1. But in other cases even within the compass of the Apocalypse, it is
not to be so understood without manifest confusion, as in ch. xvi. 1, 2.
The contents of _all_ the vials are there said to be poured out upon the
earth; but _earth_ is afterwards the special _object_ of the _first
only_. It follows that this term cannot be uniformly and safely in this
book interpreted as identical with and limited by the Roman empire. The
importance of accuracy here may become more apparent in our future
progress.


5. And when he had opened the third seal, I heard the third beast say,
Come and see. And I beheld, and, lo, a black horse; and he that sat on
him had a pair of balances in his hand.

6. And I heard a voice in the midst of the four beasts say, A measure of
wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny; and see
thou hurt not the oil and the wine.

Vs. 4-6.--The third of the four "animals" calls attention to the
disclosures made by breaking the "third seal." Hie "had a face as a
man," (ch. iv. 7,) indicating, as already said, active sympathy,
affectionate counsel and seasonable exhortation in calamitous times.
Christian ministers need "the tongue of the learned to speak a word in
season to him that is weary," when the judgments of God are abroad in
the earth; for some of these press, most sensibly, on the poor. Such is
the character of the dispensation symbolized by the "black horse."
Scarcity of bread is the judgment represented here by the combined
symbols. "Our skin was black like an oven, because of the terrible
famine." (Lam. v. 10; Zech. vi. 2.)--The rider "had a pair of balances
in his hand." The word translated "balances," literally rendered,
signifies a _yoke_,--_pair_,--_couple_.--In popular use, it came to
signify an instrument for weighing commodities, from the counterpoising
(double) scales. This symbol indicated famine,--that people should "eat
bread by weight and with care;" (Ezek. iv. 16;) and this is confirmed by
the "voice in the midst of the four animals:"--"A measure of wheat for a
penny," etc. The quantity of food, and the price, as here announced,
would seem to the English reader to express plenty and cheapness. But
when it is understood that the "measure of wheat" was the ordinary
allowance for a laboring man, and "a penny" the usual wages for _one
day_; a little more than a _quart_, for about _fifteen cents_: it may be
asked, How could the laboring man procure food and clothing for himself,
his wife and children? It is said that three times the quantity of
"barley" could be had for the same money; but being a coarser and less
nutritious grain, it would reach but little farther in sustaining a
family. Famine usually falls heaviest on the middle and lower classes of
society. Even in such times the "rich fare sumptuously every day."
Accordingly, "the oil and the wine,"--some of the staple productions of
Canaan,--are exempted from the providential blight sent upon the
necessaries of life. (Gen. xliii. 11.)

According to history, from the year 138, till near the end of the second
century, a general scarcity of provisions was felt, notwithstanding all
the care and foresight of emperors and their ministers to anticipate the
scourge. The Pharaohs on the throne had no Joseph to lay up in store in
the "years of plenty." But when our New Testament Joseph would thus
fight against the persecutors of his saints by the judgment of famine;
he gave previous intimation here to his disciples of the approaching
calamity, as his manner is to his own. (Luke xxi. 20-22.)


7. And when he had opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the
fourth beast say, Come and see.

8. And I looked, and behold a pale horse; and his name that sat on him
was death, and hell followed with him: and power was given unto them
over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword, and with hunger,
and with death, and with the beasts of the earth.

Vs. 7, 8.--"It is better to go to the house of mourning than to go to
the house of feasting," according to the judgment of the wisest of mere
men; (Eccl. vii. 2,) and so we are invited here by a spiritually-minded
ministry,--"like a flying eagle." A scene of lamentation, mourning and
woe, is disclosed at the opening of the "fourth seal."--All the symbols
betoken augmented severity in the judgments. There is "pestilence" added
to the sword and famine. "The pale horse," or _livid green_, is the
emblem of pestilence. The Mediator conducts the destroying angel to
fulfil the will of God. "Before Him went the pestilence;" and by a
combination of awful symbols, the king of terrors,--"death," is
represented as slaying his victims, and "hell followed with him,"
satiated with his prey. "Sword, hunger, death and beasts of the earth,"
were commissioned to lay waste the fourth part of the then known world.

If we are to interpret the "beasts of the earth" literally, then we may
easily perceive how the depopulation produced by the other calamities
would make way for their increase and destructive ravages. But if we
understand these "beasts" as symbolizing the persecuting powers; then
adding these to all the other destructive agencies,--especially to the
"pale horse," the chief symbol in the group; we may readily perceive the
force of the combined emblems, a concentrating, as it were, of all
destroying agencies. Historians inform us, that "a pestilence arising
from Ethiopia, went through all the provinces of Rome, and wasted them
for fifteen years." This, added to the sword of war and persecution,
which lasted sixty years, according to some interpreters, or from 211 to
270, would seem to exhaust the events symbolized by the series of the
seals, except the seventh, so far at least as the sufferings of the
church are concerned. For under the fifth and sixth seals, as will
appear, nothing of a calamitous nature befalls the righteous.


9. And when he had opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the
souls of them that were slain for the word of God, and for the testimony
which they held:

10. And they cried with a loud voice, saying, How long, O Lord, holy and
true, dost them not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the
earth?

11. And white robes were given unto every one of them; and it was said
unto them, that they should rest yet for a little season, until their
fellow-servants also, and their brethren, that should be killed as they
were, should be fulfilled.

Vs. 9-11.--At the opening of the fifth seal, none of the "four animals"
calls attention to its contents. This fact may indicate that no new
development of providence is intended, but rather the effects of the
preceding three, produced upon the church and saints of God; as the
sixth discloses the penalty inflicted on his and their enemies.

John saw the "souls of them that were slain."--Souls are visible only in
vision, (ch. xx. 4.) These souls were not slain, but they were the souls
of them, the persons, that were slain. (Matt. x. 28.) The enemy could
kill the body only, an essential part of the human person, although the
chief aim was to kill the soul. The ground of their suffering was the
same, as that of John, (ch. i. 9.) And from the first of this honoured
class,--Abel, mentioned in the Bible, to the last,--Antipas; the cause
is the same, and the distinguished name is the same. They are "martyrs
for the word of God, and for the testimony which they held." And however
tenaciously a person may hold other principles, even though he should
die for them, he is not a martyr. The aphorism is true,--It is not
suffering for religion, but "the _cause_ that makes the
martyr,"--suffering unto death from love to "the truth as it is in
Jesus."

These souls were "under the altar," in allusion still to the outward
means of grace under the Old Testament economy. It is not very material,
perhaps, whether we understand the altar for sacrifice or that for
incense, the comfortable doctrines, often taught in the Scriptures, are
here illustrated. _First_, That the redemption of the sinner is by the
atoning sacrifice of Christ. _Second_, That after death,--especially by
martyrdom, the soul is safe "under the altar,"--in fellowship with the
Saviour. _Third_, That the soul, "made perfect in holiness," retains a
deep conviction, that "vengeance belongs to God," (ch. xviii. 20; xix.
1-3.) _Fourth_, That "the spirits of just men made perfect," both desire
and need instruction relative to the future evolution of the divine
purposes. Adoring the infinite perfections of God, acknowledging his
holiness and acquiescing in his faithfulness; they cannot but desire a
farther display of his vindictive and distributive justice, as
indispensable to the manifestation of the divine glory, the vindication
of the claims of the divine government, the asserting of their injured
rights, and the completing of their eternal felicity. Accordingly, we
find their earnest plea admitted. "It was said unto them, that they
should rest."--Their repose can never be disturbed. The "white robes" in
which they are arrayed, are not spun out of their own bowels, like the
spider's web, either by their services or sufferings; but they are the
well known emblems of the imputed righteousness of their Redeemer,--fine
linen clean and white, the only righteousness of saints, (ch. xix. 8).
Persecution did not terminate under the preceding seals. Others, their
"fellow-servants and brethren, should be killed as they were." The
honorable roll of martyrs was not yet completed. The "little season" is
a very indefinite period in our mode of computation. But "with the Lord,
one day is as a thousand years,"--(2 Pet. iii. 8.) This "season" seems
to comprehend the whole period of persecution. Now, as we shall see, the
Roman empire, whether pagan or Christian, is still a ravenous
beast,--"devouring Jacob."

The policy of Rome pagan was to dictate the state religion. The idol
gods of the conquered provinces were generally adopted and enrolled
among those of the Pantheon. There was a niche for any and every god but
"Jacob's God." As he would permit no rival, (Exod. xx. 2, 23; Is. xlii.
8;) so the populace "would have none of Him," (Acts xvi. 19-21.) Such we
will find to be the policy of Rome Christian. There is no "communion
between light and darkness."


12. And I beheld when he had opened the sixth seal, and, lo, there was a
great earthquake: and the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the
moon became as blood;

13. And the stars of heaven fell unto the earth, even as a fig-tree
casteth her untimely figs, when she is shaken of a mighty wind:

14. And the heaven departed as a scroll when it is rolled together; and
every mountain and island were moved out of their places;

15. And the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the rich men, and
the chief captains, and the mighty men, and every bond-man, and every
free-man, hid themselves in the dens, and in the rocks of the mountains:

16. And said to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from
the face of him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the
Lamb:

17. For the great day of his wrath is come, and who shall be able to
stand?

Vs. 12-17.--The sixth seal is opened, like the rest, by the hand of the
Mediator, and here "his right hand teacheth terrible things." "By
terrible things in righteousness wilt thou answer us, O God of our
salvation." (Ps. lxv. 5.) The awful scene disclosed would seem to be a
beginning of answer to the importunate cry of the "souls under the
altar," as in the foregoing vision.

Many expositors since the time of Cyprian in the third century, have
understood this seal as disclosing the scene of the last judgment. No
doubt the symbols here employed are suited to that event; but the series
of seals, trumpets and vials, not to speak of events still more remote,
wholly precludes such an interpretation. All the symbols under the sixth
seal betoken revolution. Such is their established and well known import
in other parts of Scripture.

The "earthquake" is more than a shaking of the earth. It is a
_concussion_ of the heavens also. As Haggai is interpreted by Paul, we
learn the civil and ecclesiastical change of the Jewish polity by the
"shaking of the heavens and the earth." (Hag. ii. 6; Heb. xii. 26, 27.)
The day of final judgment is so often referred to as certain, that no
special prediction was needed to assure us of that event. Indeed, the
description of the day of judgment is commonly employed by the prophets
to represent revolutions among the nations. So it is in reference to the
overthrow of Babylon, (Is. xiii. 13.)--of Egypt, (Ezek. xxxii. 7, 8,) of
Jerusalem, (Matt. xxiv. 7, 29.) The "sun, moon and stars" are emblems of
civil officers, supreme and subordinate, as well as of military
commanders. Their consternation and despair, now that they are cast down
from their exalted position, as heavenly luminaries darkened and hurled
from their orbits, betray their apprehension of deserved and inevitable
wrath. Indeed we may view the last three verses of this chapter, as
exegetical or explanatory of the preceding three. The whole frame of
imperial power underwent a change which is commonly called a revolution.
And the grandeur of the complex symbols, borrowed from the closing scene
of time, was never more appropriately employed by the Spirit of
prophecy, than in the present instance, to portray the total overthrow
of pagan power, idolatry and tyranny. The most conspicuous instrument in
the Mediator's hand by which this great revolution was effected, is well
known in history as "Constantine the Great." The great lights of the
heathen world, the powers civil and ecclesiastical, were not eclipsed,
but extinguished, heathen priests and augurs were extirpated and
idolatrous temples were closed. Christianity was professed by the
emperor himself, and his authority exerted for its recognition and
diffusion throughout his dominions. Thus did the God of Israel "avenge
his own elect, who cried to him night and day from under the altar;" and
thus did he afford unto them a "season of rest."

Constantine, however, was more of a politician than divine. To the
student of history he will appear in many respects a striking prototype
of William Prince of Orange, who on a less extended scale answers as an
antitype in the latter part of the seventeenth century. Neither of them
exemplified in their lives the "power of godliness". Like Charles the
Second, they did not consider primitive apostolic Christianity "a
religion for a gentleman." Constantine combined in his character the
properties of the lion and the fox. He was crafty and ambitious.
Usurping the prerogatives of Zion's King, he assumed a blasphemous
supremacy over the church, and proceeded to model her external polity
after the example of the empire. Among the Christian ministry, he found
mercenary spirits who pandered to his ambition,--"having his person in
admiration because of advantage." Advancing these to positions of
opulence and splendor, he could certainly rely upon them to support him
in his schemes of aggrandizement. Thus the mystery of iniquity, whose
working Paul discovered in his time, was nurtured to its full
development in Heaven's appointed time. (2 Thess. ii. 7, etc.) If on
such occasions mighty kings and valiant generals are stricken with
dismay, what shall be the terror of all the impenitent enemies of the
Lord and his Anointed when the heavens and the earth shall pass away and
leave them without these imaginary hiding places from "the wrath of the
Lamb!"



CHAPTER VII.


The scenes portrayed by varied symbols in this chapter, are by some
considered as a continuation of the sixth seal. We think they may with
more propriety be viewed as relating to the events under the four which
precede; while they are obviously preparatory to the opening of the last
seal in the next chapter.


1. And after these things I saw four angels standing on the four corners
of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, that the wind should
not blow on the earth, nor on the sea, nor on any tree.

V. 1. The "four angels" represent the instruments of providence. The
"four corners of the earth" intend all nations of the world, as then
known in geography. (Ch. xx. 8, 9.) The "holding of the winds" is
emblematical of the tranquillity consequent upon the accession of
Constantine to the imperial throne,--the temporary cessation of
desolating wars and persecutions,--the "rest" for which the martyrs
prayed. "Thou calledst in trouble, and I delivered thee." (Ps. lxxxi.
7.)


2. And I saw another angel ascending from the east, having the seal of
the living God: and he cried with a loud voice to the four angels, to
whom it was given to hurt the earth and the sea.

3. Saying, Hurt not the earth, neither the sea, nor the trees, till we
have sealed the servants of our God in their foreheads.

Vs. 2, 3.--"Another angel ... having the seal of the living God," can be
none other but the Lord Christ. His people are "sealed unto the day of
redemption with that Holy Spirit of promise," or promised Holy Spirit.
(2 Cor. i. 22; Eph. i. 13). He came from the east. There the Son of
righteousness arose upon a dark world, and his beams enlightened the
kingdoms of Europe, in which multitudes were effectually called during
this tranquil period, (ch. xiv. 1). This angel, as having sovereign
authority over "earth and sea," and from whom the "four angels" had
their commission, now commands them not to "hurt the earth and the sea,"
till He and the ministers,--the instruments of his grace,--had "sealed
the servants of God." This "sealing," while symbolizing baptism,
signifies especially the saving work of the eternal Spirit, by which its
subjects are to be, and actually are, preserved from apostacy in future
and trying times. We shall meet with them again, (ch. xiv. 1.)

The favour shown by Constantine to Christian ministers and converts,
induced multitudes to make a profession of Christianity, and of course
filled the church with hypocrites. The flattery of those in power has
often proved as detrimental to the church's spiritual prosperity as
their frowns. (Dan. xi. 32.) Still, the special design of this sealing
seems to be the preservation of a chosen remnant,--the witnesses, during
the period of the trumpets, when Antichrist should be fully organized.


4. And I heard the number of them which were sealed: and there were
sealed a hundred and forty and four thousand, of all the tribes of the
children of Israel.

5. Of the tribe of Juda were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of
Reuben were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Gad were sealed
twelve thousand.

6. Of the tribe of Aser were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of
Nephthalim were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Manasses were
sealed twelve thousand.

7. Of the tribe of Simeon were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of
Levi were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Issachar were sealed
twelve thousand.

8. Of the tribe of Zabulon were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of
Joseph were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Benjamin were sealed
twelve thousand.

Vs. 4-8.--The number sealed was "a hundred forty and four thousand;" of
"each tribe twelve thousand." These numbers are not to be taken
literally, but comparatively, as contradistinguished from another
company, (v. 9.) Neither do we suppose, with many expositors, that Jews
by nation are here exclusively intended. At the time referred to, in the
fifth century, the "middle wall of partition" had been long removed.
(Eph. ii. 14.) Jews and Gentiles were "all one in Christ Jesus." (Gal.
iii. 28.) There is no ground to suppose that exactly the same number
would be sealed of every tribe. Besides, all the original tribes are not
named. Dan is not among them, and Judah is first in order in Reuben's
place. The gates of the heavenly Jerusalem are inscribed with the names
of the twelve tribes of Israel, (ch. xxii. 12.) In a word, this sealed
company is composed of Jews and Gentiles, representing the whole number
of true believers, who were enabled by grace to hold fast their
profession in trying times, and who experienced more special protection
in perilous times. (Ezek. ix. 4-6.)


9. After this I beheld, and, lo, a great multitude, which no man could
number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues, stood
before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and
palms in their hands;

10. And cried with a loud voice, saying, Salvation to our God which
sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb.

11. And all the angels stood round about the throne, and about the
elders and the four beasts, and fell before the throne on their faces,
and worshipped God,

12. Saying, Amen: Blessing, and glory, and wisdom, and thanksgiving, and
honour, and power, and might, be unto our God for ever and ever. Amen.

Vs. 9-12.--The "great multitude, which no man could number," are
evidently distinguished from the number sealed. They are collected from
all the nations known at that time. They "stood before the throne and
before the Lamb," as accepted worshippers; ascribing "salvation," not to
their own merit, but to the free grace of God the Father, and the
oblation and intercession of the Lamb. They are now in a triumphant
state, as indicated by the "palms in their hands," the usual emblems of
victory. "White robes" bespeak their justification. "All the angels" in
heaven, signify their hearty assent to the praises of the redeemed by
saying, "Amen." Then in an attitude of profoundest reverence, they
celebrate the praises of God in strains proper, though not peculiar to
themselves. As in ch. v. 11, the angels in this place are disposed and
arranged in the outer circle of all the intelligent worshippers.
Redeemed sinners stand nearest to the throne, in virtue of their union
to Christ, while holy angels, without envy, contemplate, with rapturous
emotions, the displays of the "manifold wisdom of God" in his dealings
with the church. (Eph. iii. 10.) Thus we may learn to do the will of God
on earth, as it is done by the angels in heaven.


13. And one of the elders answered, saying unto me, What are these which
are arrayed in white robes? and whence came they?

14. And I said unto him, Sir, thou knowest. And he said to me, These are
they which came out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes,
and made them white in the blood of the Lamb.

15. Therefore are they before the throne of God, and serve him day and
night in his temple; and he that sitteth on the throne shall dwell among
them.

16. They shall hunger no more, neither thirst any more; neither shall
the sun light on them, nor any heat.

17. For the Lamb, which is in the midst of the throne, shall feed them,
and shall lead them unto living fountains of waters; and God shall wipe
away all tears from their eyes.

Vs. 13-17.--"One of the elders" asks John,--not for information, but to
engage his attention,--"What are these, ... and whence came they?"
Ministers may often receive instruction from the members of the church.
This elder answers his own questions as the angel did to the prophet,
(Zech. iv. 5, 6.) These are the "great multitude,"--probably the same
whose "souls" John saw at the opening of the fifth seal, but now
appearing in a new aspect: for it is evident that they had been engaged
in war. This appears by the "palms" of victory. They had been in "great
tribulation" prior to the peaceful reign of Constantine, by Satan's
temptations, the spoiling of their goods, imprisonment of their persons,
and the sacrifice of their lives,--"not loving their lives unto the
death." All these tribulations, however, could not separate them from
the love of God. (Rom. viii. 37-39.) They had "washed their robes,"--not
in penitential tears, their own martyr-blood, their doing or suffering
in the cause of Christ; but their robes were "made white in the blood of
the Lamb," who was "made of God unto them ... justification and
sanctification." (1 Cor. i. 30.) Could the human mind conceive the idea
of rendering linen garments _white_ by washing them in _blood_? Never,
unless as suggested by the doctrine of Christ crucified, whose "blood
cleanseth from all sin." (1 John i. 7.) "Therefore are they before the
throne of God,--without fault before his throne," (ch. xiv. 5.)
Delivered from the tempestuous storms of war, and the scorching heat of
persecution; they are safe in the haven of eternal rest.

Not only are they for ever freed from the sensation of "hunger or
thirst;" but they shall drink of the "living fountains of waters,
proceeding from the throne of God and of the Lamb," (ch. xxii. 1). "In
thy presence is fulness of joy; at thy right hand there are pleasures
for evermore." (Ps. xvi. 11.) While this company, brought out of great
tribulation, to which they had been subjected in the centuries before
the time of Constantine, are represented as in possession of eternal
blessedness, the other company of the "sealed" ones, are by this mark
furnished with the gifts and graces of the Holy Spirit, to enter the
lists with the Dragon in a much more trying and prolonged contest. The
latter company, although _preceding_ the other, in the order of symbolic
revelation; do really in the order of time, succeed them in continuation
of the struggle with the powers of darkness. And here we make the
general remark, That nearly throughout the Apocalypse the two parties
whom we may call the powers of darkness and the children of light, often
change their relative positions, and assume different aspects. And in
this, there is nothing new, as appears, 2 Cor. xi. 14, 15; vi. 8, 9.



CHAPTER VIII.


Hitherto our observations have been brief, because interpreters are very
generally agreed in their views of the first series, the seals, in this
interesting book of prophecy. The first six seals, covering the time of
heathen Rome's opposition to Christianity, and before the Devil
succeeded in enlisting the nominal church of Christ in his interest, do
not therefore furnish occasion for much controversy among expositors.
Besides, the seventh seal covers much more time than all the others. The
first six refer to pagan Rome, and constitute the first period, properly
styled the PERIOD OF THE SEALS. The seventh seal, introducing the
trumpets, is the second period, called the PERIOD OF THE TRUMPETS. In
attempting to unfold their mystical import, greater amplification will
be indispensable.


1. And when he had opened the seventh seal, there was silence in heaven
about the space of half an hour.

V. 1.--"Heaven" is the ordinary symbol of organized society, whether
civil or ecclesiastical or both. "Silence in heaven for half an hour,"
indicates public tranquillity, together with anxious and mute
expectation of coming and alarming events. "Half an hour," a definite
for an indefinite duration, as usual, imports that the repose hitherto
enjoyed, shall shortly terminate. The respite which the saints enjoyed
during the period succeeding the revolution indicated by the opening of
the sixth seal, soon came to an end.


2. And I saw the seven angels which stood before God; and to them were
given seven trumpets.

3. And another angel came and stood at the altar, having a golden
censer; and there was given unto him much incense, that he should offer
it with the prayers of all saints upon the golden altar which was before
the throne.

4. And the smoke of the incense, which came with the prayers of the
saints, ascended up before God out of the angel's hand.

Vs. 2-4.--"Seven angels" appear to John as ministers "standing before
God," ready to execute his commands. To them were given "seven
trumpets." Here, as all along hitherto, there is allusion to the former
dispensation. Under the Old Testament, trumpets were constructed by
divine direction and to be used for diverse purposes. Of the manifold
uses of this instrument, that which is here chiefly intended is, to
"sound an alarm." (Joel ii. 1; 1 Cor. xiv. 8). Whilst all is suspense,
and before the silence is broken by the sounding of the first trumpet,
the worship of God is exemplified after the usual manner. An angel, by
his official place and work easily distinguished from those having the
trumpets, holds in his hand a "golden censer" that with "much incense"
he might render acceptable "the prayers of all saints." As the angel who
had the "seal of the living God," is distinguished from those that "held
the winds," (ch. vii. 1;) so is he here, from those that had the
trumpets. Here he appears as the Great High Priest over the house of
God; and as "the whole multitude of the people were praying without, at
the time of incense;" (Luke i. 10;) so the service of God is thus
emblematically represented as conducted according to divine appointment.
This Angel therefore is Christ himself. "No man cometh unto the Father
but by him." He is the only Advocate with the Father; and through him
"we have access by one Spirit unto the Father." (Eph. ii. 18.)

May we not inquire, without presumption, a little into the nature or
purport of the "prayers of all saints" at this time of ominous silence?
And what could so likely be the burden of their petitions as that of the
cry of the souls under the altar, namely, the destruction of the Roman
empire? Surely this has been the prayer of God's persecuted servants in
all ages:--"Pour out thy fury upon the heathen," etc. (Jer. x. 25; Ps.
lxxix. 6). However inconsistent with Christian charity superficial
Christians may deem the law of retaliation; we shall find it often urged
on our attention as exemplified in this book. It is absolutely essential
to the divine government.


5. And the angel took the censer, and filled it with fire of the altar,
and cast it into the earth: and there were voices, and thunderings and
lightnings and an earthquake.

V. 5--The Lord Jesus, in carrying out the designs of the divine mind,
and executing the commission which he received from the Father as
Mediator, appears in various characters. Whilst as a priest he
intercedes for his people, and by the incense from the golden censer
renders their prayers acceptable before God; as a king he answers their
prayers by terrible things in righteousness. (Ps. lxv. 5). This work of
vengeance is vividly signified by scattering coals of fire on the earth.

From the very same altar, whence the glorious Angel of the Covenant had
received fire to consume the incense, he next takes coals, the symbol of
his wrath, and scatters them into the earth. These "burning coals of
juniper" produce "voices, and thunderings, and lightnings, and an
earthquake." "O God, thou art terrible out of thy holy places." (Ps.
lxviii. 35; lxxvi. 12). "The Lord our God is a jealous God." Our
merciful Saviour once put a strange and startling question to his
disciples:--"Suppose ye that I am come to give peace on earth? I tell
you, Nay."--For ends worthy of himself, the only wise God has
unchangeably decreed that "offences must needs come," (Matt, xviii. 7;)
and "there must be also heresies" among professing Christians. (1 Cor.
xi. 19.). However, in the administration of providence, judgment without
mercy awaits every nation to which the gospel is sent in vain. The
voices, thunderings, etc., consequent upon the scattering of the coals,
portended the calamities which would be inflicted upon men for their
opposition to the gospel and cruel treatment of the saints, in answer to
their prayers through the intercession of Christ.


6. And the seven angels, which had the seven trumpets, prepared
themselves to sound.

V. 6.--The "seven angels now prepare themselves to sound." The first
alarm, of course, will put an end to the "silence." It should be noted
that while each seal, when broken, disclosed so much of the roll of the
book as was concealed by it; the seventh leaves no part unrevealed. The
whole contents are laid open. It is otherwise with the trumpets. The
reverberations of one may not have ceased when the next begins to sound.
Thus, several may be partly cotemporary. Again, it may be questioned
whether mankind are to be considered in civil or ecclesiastical
organization as the formal object of the judgments indicated by the
trumpets. Some expositors view the one, and some the other, as the
object, and the contention has been sharp among them. We humbly suggest
that neither is the formal object without the other, simply because the
_same individuals_ constitute the complex _moral person_. The
correctness of this view is largely illustrated and abundantly confirmed
in the subsequent part of the Apocalypse. Provinces, nations, empires,
are no farther worthy of notice in prophecy than as they affect the
destiny of the church and illustrate the immutable principles of the
moral government of God. He is known by the judgments which he
executeth, and nations must be taught that "the heavens do rule." (Dan.
iv. 26.) Although the church and the state are, by divine institution,
distinct, not united; they are nevertheless co-ordinate, and always
exert a reciprocal influence for good or for evil. It has been the
policy of Satan to confound this distinction; and alas! with too much
success in the apprehension of many. There are not wanting divines who
boldly assert, that even among the Jews, under the Old Testament,--"the
church was the state, and the state was the church!" We may have
occasion to notice hereafter, that this gross error and antichristian
dogma, is yet entertained in relation to divinely organized society
under the present New Testament economy!

The "voices, thunderings and earthquakes" resulting from the scattering
of the coals,--are the harbingers and precursors of coming calamities
upon Christendom at the sounding of the trumpets. And these may be
emblematical of the contentions, strife and divisions which accompanied
the rise and prevalence of the heresy of Arius and the apostacy of the
emperor Julian, during the time of comparative public tranquillity from
Constantine to Theodosius. The church and the state, as one complex
system, we have considered as the object of the judgments to be
inflicted under the trumpets. These had, in fact, become incorporated,
if not identified, under the reign of Constantine and his imperial
successors. But assuming the correctness of the phraseology of secular
historians and Christian expositors, when in a _popular sense_ they
speak of the Roman empire as the object of penal inflictions; we by no
means agree with the latter class of writers, when they _limit_ the
empire to the geographical boundaries as it existed at the time of this
prediction. This mistake, if not detected here, will materially affect
and control our views of the whole subsequent part of the Apocalypse.
Who would not discover the impropriety and absurdity of treating of
events now transpiring within the empire of the United States, as if
falling out within the limits of the original thirteen as they existed
in 1776? But the Roman empire yet exists, and we have sufficient
evidence that it will continue till the time of the sounding of the
seventh trumpet, (ch. xi. 15.) _Political bias_ has prevailed with one
class of expositors to exempt the British empire from the stroke of
God's wrath, symbolized by both the trumpets and vials. Others, from
similar predilections, would exempt the United States and British
Provinces from these plagues. Whilst a third class, giving fall scope to
the hallucinations of mere imagination, aver their conviction that
republican America is the special and doomed object of all these
plagues!--Hence, the necessity of caution, sobriety, reverence for
divine authority, reliance on the teaching of the Holy Spirit, whom the
Saviour has promised to his humble disciples to "guide them into all
truth, and to show them things to come." (John xvi. 13.) That the
student of prophecy,--especially of the Apocalypse, may realize the
fulfilment of this promise, it is indispensably necessary that he be
absolutely untrammeled by all antichristian politics. Such cases are
very rare, (ch. xiii. 3.)

During the reign of Constantine, that monarch had transferred the
capital of the empire from the "city of seven hills" to another locality
and founded another metropolis, which as the future seat of imperial
rule, and to immortalize himself, he called after his own name,
Constantinople. This ambitious enterprise itself virtually divided the
empire, preparing the way for its total dismemberment by the trumpets.
And now the "seven angels prepared themselves to sound," for all things
are ready. The interceding Angel at the "golden altar" has prevailed to
obtain a period of tranquillity whilst preparatory steps are in progress
towards the next series of events; but that time shall be no longer, or
respite from impending judgments, is significantly intimated by the
symbolical Angel casting his "golden censer" from his hand, and hurling
it into the earth. Then without farther delay,


7. The first angel sounded, and there followed hail and fire mingled
with blood, and they were cast upon the earth: and the third part of
trees was burnt up, and all green grass was burnt up.

V. 7.--"The first angel sounded." The object of this judgment is the
_earth_, the population of the empire in general. The judgment itself
is, "hail and fire mingled with blood,"--desolating wars, like
successive storms of hail mingled with lightning, "hailstones and coals
of fire." (Ps. xviii. 12.) The effect is, a consumption of a third part
of the "trees and grass," people in high and low degrees. Green trees
and grass are the ornaments and products, of a land: and when the earth
is an emblem of nations and dominions, trees and grass may represent
persons of higher and lower rank.

The careful student of the Apocalypse will discover a striking analogy
between the effects of the trumpets and vials as the latter are
presented in the sixteenth chapter. This first trumpet therefore
produces an effect upon the social order of Christendom, which will
continue till the pouring out of the first vial. As the Roman empire in
its twofold division is the general object of all the trumpets; so the
first four are directed towards the western, and the next two against
the eastern member.

The infidel historian Gibbon has unwittingly recorded the fulfilment of
these predictions, as Josephus has done those of our Lord respecting the
destruction of Jerusalem. Unconscious that he was bearing testimony to
the truth of prophecy, Gibbon used with his classic pen the very
allegorical language of the inspired apostle. Respecting the incursion
of the barbarous Goths, as led by Alaric their chief into the fertile
plains of southern Europe, he describes their alarming descent as a
_"dark cloud_, which having collected along the coasts of the Baltic,
burst in _thunder_ upon the banks of the upper Danube." He who directed
Balaam and Caiaphas to utter predictions, doubtless could direct
Josephus and Gibbon to attest the truth of prophecy; and this may be one
of the many ways in which "he makes the wrath of man to praise
him."--The Goths, the Scythians and Huns, first under Alaric and
afterwards under Attila, those savage warriors from the northern
regions, invaded the provinces of the Roman empire in both sections,
carrying all before them like an irresistible tornado,--with fire and
sword utterly destroying cities, temples, princes, priests, old and
young, male and female,--thus "burning up trees, and green grass."


8. And the second angel sounded, and as it were a great mountain burning
with fire was cast into the sea; and the third part of the sea became
blood:

9. And the third part of the creatures which were in the sea, and had
life, died; and the third part of the ships were destroyed.

Vs. 8, 9.--"The second angel sounded." The object of this judgment, is
the _sea_. As a great collection of waters, this symbol is explained,
(ch. xvii. 15.) "Peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues,"
indicate the population in an agitated and disorganized or revolutionary
condition. The judgment is a "burning mountain," a tremendous
object,--consuming and being itself consumed. The mountain is a symbol
of earthly power civil or military, and sometimes ecclesiastical.--"Who
art thou, O great mountain?" (Zech. iv. 7.) The Almighty says to the
king of Babylon,--"Behold, I am against thee, O destroying mountain ...
I will roll thee down from the rocks, and will make thee a burnt
mountain." (Jer. li. 25; Ps. xlviii. 2.)

The consequence of this judgment is, the third part of the sea became
blood, the fish perished, and the shipping was destroyed. Similar
language, illustrating these figurative expressions, had been used by
the prophets to represent divine judgments denounced against Egyptian
power. (Ezek. xxix. 3, etc.) In the eighth verse is contained the
explanation of the symbolic language,--"Behold I will bring a sword upon
thee, and cut off man and beast from thee."

History verifies this part of the Apocalyptic prediction. Only two years
after the death of that northern "scourge of God," Attila, who boasted
that "the grass never grew where his horse had trod;" Genseric set sail
from the burning shores of Africa; and, like a burning mountain launched
into the sea, accompanied by a vast army of barbarous Vandals, suddenly
landed his fleet at the mouth of the river Tiber. Disregarding the
distinctions of rank, age or sex, these licentious and brutal plunderers
subjected their helpless victims to every species of indignity and
cruelty. Hence the hostility to arts and science, the tokens of refined
civilization,--indiscriminate devastation of life and property
perpetrated by the savage warriors, has given rise to the word
"Vandalism."


10. And the third angel sounded, and there fell a great star from
heaven, burning as it were a Lamp, and it fell upon the third part of
the rivers, and upon the fountains of waters;

11. And the name of the star is called Wormwood: and the third part of
the waters became wormwood; and many men died of the waters, because
they were made bitter.

Vs. 10, 11.--The object of the third trumpet is the waters as
before,--the population of the empire, but not in collective form as a
_sea_; rather in a state of separation or disconnected, as "rivers and
fountains." Some apply this symbol of a "falling star" to Genseric, but
this is incongruous. On the contrary, he was a victorious prince,--a
_rising_ star. It is more consonant to the truth of history and the
chronological series of prophecy, to apply this symbol to the downfall
of Momyllus the last of the Roman emperors, who was deposed by Odoacer
king of the Heruli, called in derision Augustulus,--the diminutive
Augustus. Doubtless the allusion here is to the king of Babylon:--"How
art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, (day-star,) son of the morning!
How art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!"
(Isa. xiv. 12.) A star may indeed signify either a civil or
ecclesiastical officer, but the scope and context determine all these
judgments to the enemies of the church, and those of her illustrious
Head. It is the "vengeance of his temple." We have already found a star
the emblem of a gospel minister, and we shall hereafter find it employed
in that sense; but it does not seem to refer in the present connexion to
any apostate. The name of this star,--"Wormwood," embittering the
waters, is a lively emblem of the miseries experienced by the people, in
the use of the remaining temporal comforts which the preceding
calamities had left.


12. And the fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was
smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the
stars; so as the third part of them was darkened, and the day shone not
for a third part of it, and the night likewise.

V. 12.--The design of all the trumpets is to point out the utter
destruction of the Roman empire,--Daniel's "kingdom of iron." (Dan. ii.
40.) For although from the time of Constantine it assumed the Christian
name, it nevertheless continued to be a beast. Of this we shall have
cumulative evidence as we progress. The first trumpet began to demolish
the fabric of antichristian power; and by the fourth the western
division was overthrown. For although the northern barbarians under the
first, the southern Vandals under the second, and the successors of
both, prevailed to bring down the last of the Caesars, yet the ancient
frame of government still subsisted. The political heaven, though
shaken, was not yet wholly removed, while the Senate, Consuls and other
official dignitaries continued to shine as political luminaries in the
firmament of power. But as the last of the Caesars fell from power in
the year 476, so the last vestige of imperial dominion in the west was
removed in 566, when Rome, the queen of the nations, was by the emperor
of the east reduced to the humble condition of a tributary dukedom. Most
of the saints had their residence at this time in the nations of western
Europe and northern Africa, where they were grievously afflicted by the
Arian, Pelagian and other heresies; as also exposed to persecution by
the civil powers, whom those heresiarchs moved to oppress the orthodox:
consequently, the righteous judgments of God fall first upon that member
of the empire. The eastern section, however, is destined to become the
special object of the judgments indicated by the succeeding trumpets.
However interpreters differ in details when explaining the effects
produced by the sounding of the first four trumpets, they very generally
harmonize in the application of them to the western section of the Roman
empire. The luminaries of heaven are darkened, or fall, or are
extinguished, while the earth, the sea and the rivers are
correspondently affected. Now, these are the well known allegorical
representations of divine judicial visitations of guilty communities, as
we find in the prophetic writings. See, for example, the case of
Babylon, "the beauty of the Chaldees' excellency" (Isa. xiii. 1, 10;)
also Egypt,--(Ezek. xxxii. 7, 8.)


13. And I beheld, and heard an angel flying through the midst of heaven,
saying with a loud voice, Woe, woe, woe, to the inhabitants of the
earth, by reason of the other voices of the trumpet of the three angels,
which are yet to sound!

V. 13.--Before the fifth angel sounds, a note of warning is given by the
ministry, of another angel distinct from the seven with the trumpets. He
pronounces a "woe" thrice repeated, upon the inhabitants of the earth,
indicating that heavier judgments and of longer duration are about to be
inflicted. This announcement was intended to excite attention and awful
expectation. This angel's message of "heavy tidings" may be viewed in
quite interesting contract with that of a subsequent angel,--"flying
through the midst of heaven," (ch. xiv. 6.) How different, yet
harmonious, is the ministry of those heavenly messengers!

The first four trumpets, as we have seen, demolished the western
division of the Roman empire. About the middle of the sixth century this
work was brought to completion. Here, for greater clearness, we may be
allowed to anticipate by digressing a little. Assuming now, what shall
afterwards appear to be correct, that the Roman empire is Daniel's
fourth universal monarchy, and Paul's "let," or hinderance, to the
revealing of the "Man of Sin;" since the first four trumpets have
dismembered that great power, revealing the "ten toes,--ten horns," or
kingdoms; we would expect now to hear of the destruction of that "Son of
perdition." But it is not so. That is to be effected by the vials, (ch.
xvi.) As the general and grand design of the Apocalypse is to illustrate
the divine government, exhibiting the moral world as affecting, or
affected by the Christian religion, it seemed good to the Divine Author
that the destinies of the eastern section of the Roman empire yet
standing, where many of his saints reside, shall come under review.
Ecclesiastical history treats familiarly of a _Greek,_ as well as a
_Latin_ church and empire. As the trumpets cover the whole time from the
opening of the sixth seal till the final overthrow of the whole fourth
monarchy; (Dan. vii. 26; Rev. xi. 15,) it follows that the eastern
section must be the object of a part of them. Accordingly, the remaining
part of the second period,--the _Period of the Trumpets,_ includes the
first two of the three, emphatically and significantly styled
"woe-trumpets."



CHAPTER IX.


1. And the fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star fall from heaven unto
the earth: and to him was given the key of the bottomless pit.

2. And he opened the bottomless pit; and there arose a a smoke out of
the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace; and the sun and the air were
darkened by reason of the smoke of the pit.

3. And there came out of the smoke locusts upon the earth; and unto them
was given power, as the scorpions of the earth have power.

4. And it was commanded them that they should not hurt the grass of the
earth, neither any green thing, neither any tree; but only those men
which have not the seal of God in their foreheads.

5. And to them it was given that they should not kill them, but that
they should be tormented five months: and their torment was as the
torment of a scorpion, when he striketh a man.

6. And in those days shall men seek death, and shall not find it; and
shall desire to die, and death shall flee from them.

7. And the shapes of the locusts were like unto horses prepared unto
battle; and on their heads were as it were crowns like gold, and their
faces were us the faces of men.

8. And they had hair as the hair of women, and their teeth were as the
teeth of lions.

9. And they had breastplates, as it were breastplates of iron; and the
sound of their wings was as the sound of chariots of many horses running
to battle.

10. And they had tails like unto scorpions; and there were stings in
their tails: and their power was to hurt men five months.

11. And they had a king over them, which is the angel of the bottomless
pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue
hath his name Apollyon.

Vs. 1-11.--The scene of the events announced by the sounding of the
first "woe-trumpet," is the eastern Roman empire. A variety of symbols
is here employed to represent the judgment to be inflicted. The
principal agents and events are,--a "star, locusts, Apollyon their king,
their depredations, the time of their continuance."

Neither Boniface III. nor Mahomet answers to the symbol "falling star."
Allowing that a star, as a symbol, may represent a person in either
civil or ecclesiastical office, no successful aspirants to places of
power, as both of these were, can be here understood. Obviously
degradation and not elevation is intended. Either dethronement of a
prince or apostacy of a theological dignitary must be intended.

No character in history at the time referred to, so well agrees to the
symbol of a fallen star as the monk Sergius, who is known to have been
the coadjutor of Mahomet. He had been a monk of the Christian sect
called Nestorians from Nestorius their leader. This monk Sergius had
been excommunicated for heresy and immorality. He was glad to serve the
devil as dictator to Mahomet in composing the Koran, which bears
internal evidence of having been written by one who was acquainted with
the Sacred Scriptures. When this degraded man had finished his task, he
was put to death by his master, lest he should betray the imposture.

He opened the bottomless pit, from which issued a smoke darkening the
whole face of the heavens. The pit is hell, whence came the smoke,--the
diabolical system of delusion. From the same place comes the character
afterwards to appear under the aspect of a beast, (ch. xi. 7.) Locusts
constituted one of the plagues of Egypt, and they are the emblem of a
destroying army. (Exod. x. 14-19; Joel i. 4-6.) And this is their import
here. They represent the deluded and destructive followers of Mahomet,
who in vast multitudes laid waste the nations of western Asia, southern
Europe, and northern Africa. The Saracens, originating in Arabia, the
national locality of the literal locusts, in great multitudes like
clouds, laid waste the fairest and most populous portions of the earth
for a succession of ages.

These symbolic locusts have also the property of scorpions, a poisonous
reptile, resembling in some degree a lizard combined with a lobster,
armed with a sting in the end of its tail. Wicked and impenitent men are
compared to scorpions. (Ezek. ii. 6.) But these locusts are under
restraint. They are permitted to hurt only "those men which have not the
seal of God in their foreheads." The time of their continuance is "five
months," of thirty days each, making 150 years,--"a day for a year."
(Ezek. iv. 6.) In the year 606, Mahomet began his imposture by retiring
to the cave of Hera. In 612 he appeared publicly as the apostle of his
new religion at the head of his deluded followers. Between 612 and 762,
he and the warlike chiefs who succeeded him, overran with terrible
destruction, Syria, Persia, India, Egypt and Spain. Although the
Saracenic empire continued for a longer time, yet from this time it lost
the disorderly _Locust_ character and because a more settled
commonwealth. In the year 762, the city of Bagdad was built by one of
the caliphs, who called it "the city of peace." This put a stop to the
devastations of the locusts, when the empire began to decline. It was
foretold, however, that during the time of successful war by these cruel
invaders, they would inflict such miseries upon their wretched victims,
that they would earnestly but vainly desire death to put an end to their
exquisite torments. It is farther said that these locusts resembled
horses, as indeed they do, especially in their heads. The Arabians
excelled in horsemanship, and their chief force lay in cavalry. The
"crowns upon their heads" may refer to the turbans worn by the Arabians
as part of their national costume; or to the kingdoms which they
subdued. Flowing hair is also characteristic of these people. Their
"teeth" like those of lions indicated their strength and fury to
destroy. "Breast-plates of iron,"--defensive armour, indicates
self-protection by the most effectual public measures. The sound of
their wings may denote the fury of their assaults, and the rapidity of
their conquests. But the deadly stings in their tails were their most
fatal instruments of torture, symbolizing the poison of their abominable
and ruinous religion.

Their king is "Abaddon or Apollyon," the destroyer: for so is his name
by interpretation, both in Hebrew and Greek. He is from the "bottomless
pit,"--from hell, the vicegerent of the devil. Mahomet in person, and in
the person of his official successors, will alone answer to this
_duplicate_ symbol. This is, without a rational shadow of ground for
controversy, the _Great Eastern Antichrist_, sufficiently distinguished
from the _Western_. The western combination against real Christianity
never attained to power by successful conquest of the nations; but on
the contrary by chicanery, insidious policy, flattery of princes and
priestcraft. This enemy is described with sufficient accuracy and
peculiar precision in the subsequent part of the Apocalypse. Prophecy
has a determinate meaning; and we are not at liberty to give loose reins
to our imagination: otherwise we shall bewilder, rather than satisfy the
devout and earnest inquirer.


12. One woe is past: and, behold, there come two woes more hereafter.

V. 12.--Before the time of the sixth trumpet, intimation is given that
some pause shall intervene prior to the judgments which are to
follow:--"One woe is past."--The object of the first woe is the
nominally Christian Roman empire, which still stands in its Eastern
section; and is to be totally demolished by the second woe-trumpet: for
the Western section, recovering from the effects of the first four
trumpets, is the object of the third and last woe. The "man of
Sin,"--the "little horn" of Daniel, is actuating the "ten horns" to
"scatter Judah," etc., during the time of the Mahometan conquests in the
East; by which the whole Roman empire is ripening for the harvest of the
vials of wrath.


13. And the sixth angel sounded, and I heard a voice from the four horns
of the golden altar which is before God,

14. Saying to the sixth angel which had the trumpet, Loose the four
angels which are bound in the great river Euphrates.

15. And the four angels were loosed, which were prepared for an hour,
and a day, and a month, and a year, for to slay the third part of men.

16. And the number of the army of the horsemen were two hundred thousand
thousand; and I heard the number of them.

17. And thus I saw the horses in the vision, and them that sat on them,
having breastplates of fire, and of jacinth, and brimstone: and the
heads of the horses were as the heads of lions; and out of their mouths
issued fire, and smoke, and brimstone.

18. By these three was the third part of men killed, by the fire, and by
the smoke, and by the brimstone, which issued out of their mouths.

19. For their power is in their mouth, and in their tails: for their
tails were like unto serpents, and had heads, and with them they do
hurt.

Vs. 13-19.--At the sounding of the sixth trumpet, a "voice comes from
the four horns of the golden altar," the immediate presence of the
Almighty. This indicates punishment to be inflicted upon men for
corrupting the gospel, similar to the judgment of fire from the "golden
censer," (ch. viii. 5.) The effects of the first woe may be supposed to
reach from the early part of the seventh century to the latter part of
the thirteenth,--the period of Arabian locusts. During the latter part
of this time, the Turks were held in check by the Crusaders, who strove
to wrest the Holy Land from the infidels. The "four angels" are the four
Turkish Sultanies. The river Euphrates is to be taken in this place
literally, as designating the geographical locality of these combined
powers, which were the instruments employed by the enthroned Mediator,
to demolish the remaining part of the Roman empire,--"the third part of
men." The time occupied in this barbarous work of slaughter is "an hour,
a day, a month and a year," about equal to 391 years; or from the year
1281 to 1672. The Western empire had been overthrown by the first four
trumpets, the Eastern nearly ruined under the fifth; and under the sixth
it was finally subverted. The numbers which the Turks brought into the
field are here said to be "two hundred thousand thousand,"--a definite
for an indefinite number as usual, a vast army. And historians tell us
that they were, in fact, from four to seven hundred thousand, and a
large proportion of them cavalry.

From the year 1672, one of their own historians dates the "Decay of the
Othman empire!" Since that date, the Turkish power is well known to have
been straitened by the Russian empire.

These eastern warriors and their horses are described by their military
costume and their arms. Fire is _red_, jacinth _blue_, and brimstone
_yellow_,--the chosen colors of the Ottoman warriors, their military
uniform. The heads of their horses "as the heads of lions," denote
strength, fierceness and cruelty. "Fire, smoke and brimstone issuing out
of their mouths," may be supposed to indicate the employment of
gunpowder, first invented about that time, as an element of destruction.
The commander at the siege of Constantinople is said to have employed
cannon, some of which were of such caliber as to send stones of three
hundred pounds weight! Thus their power was in their "mouth:" but like
the locusts, "they had in their tails power to do hurt,"--the deadly
poison of the Koran. The Turks left behind them wherever they went, as
the Saracens had done before, the poisonous and ruinous religion of
Mahomet, more durable and injurious to men than all their bloody
conquests. By this abominable system of delusion, the remains of the
Greek church in the Eastern division of the Roman empire, were almost
extirpated; Christianity was nearly extinguished in that part of the
world where the gospel had shone brightly, and there Mahometanism
continues till the present day. Such has been the desolating effect of
the sixth,--the second woe trumpet. Thus the Judge of all the earth
punishes impenitent communities. Besides the positive effects of the
second wo, we have intimation of some that are negative in the close of
this chapter.


20. And the rest of the men, which were not killed by these plagues, yet
repented not of the works of their hands, that they should not worship
devils, and idols of gold, and silver, and brass, and stone, and of
wood; which neither can see, nor hear, nor walk:

21. Neither repented they of their murders, nor of their sorceries, nor
of their fornication, nor of their thefts.

Vs. 20, 21.--The "rest of the men that were not killed by these
plagues," or morally destroyed by becoming Mahometans, by the foregoing
calamities, were not brought to repentance of their evil deeds. The
population of the Western Latin empire and nominal Christian church,
still persisted in their idolatries and immoralities. Both individually
and as associated, they openly violated both tables of the moral law. It
is evident from these two verses, that the sins enumerated in them were
the procuring causes of the divine judgments symbolized by the
trumpets,--the two woe-trumpets, all the trumpets,--yes, including the
seventh and the last. Professing Christians both in the Greek and Latin
churches, after all the plagues inflicted by the angels of the past six
trumpets, continue to this day in the practice of worshipping demons,
angels and saints, for which they can produce no better arguments than
their Pagan predecessors whom the Lord charges with "worshipping devils"
here and elsewhere. (1 Cor. x. 20; Ps. cvi. 37.) In their stupid worship
of senseless images, consecration of places, etc., who cannot perceive
the identity of modern Papists and prelates with those portrayed by the
pen of inspiration in the passage before us? The horrible "murders,"
massacres and bloody persecutions of the saints, are verified in
authentic history. Papal bulls, imperial and royal edicts, issued
against _heretics_, answer to the second part of this awful picture.
Then follow "sorceries," plainly pointing out pretended revelations,
false miracles, etc. To these are to be added "fornications," corporeal
and spiritual, in a mass of superstitions added to, or supplanting
divine ordinances; together with vows of celibacy, monkeries and
nunneries,--followed by public license of brothels. And
finally,--"thefts." By these are to be understood the illegal exactions
and oppressive impositions, by which the nations of Christendom have
been plundered of their revenues to enrich the lordly hierarchy of
apostate Christendom. This state of things still continuing after the
sixth angel sounds his trumpet, and no evidence of repentance; who can
doubt that the same community is yet to be visited with the "third woe?"
Surely the Lord may justly still say,--"For three transgressions, and
for four, (of Antichrist,) I will not turn away the punishment thereof."
The eastern church, in which the first corruptions prevailed, was
punished by the _first woe_ of the Saracens; and this not producing
repentance, her ruin was completed by the _second wo_ of the Ottomans.
So, when God judges, he will overcome; therefore the western church,
still persisting in her abominations, without repentance, shall be
destroyed by the _third woe_. Let not the pious reader suppose that by
these penal inflictions on churches, the church of Christ is to perish.
No, no. But, on the contrary, their overthrow is subservient to her
preservation. This also will appear with increasing evidence as we
proceed with our meditations on this instructive book.

In the mean time it may be well to remark here, at the close of those
_woes_ which developed the rise and progress of Mahometanism, that the
creed of this religious sect is substantially the same as that of those
Christians called Socinians. Both presumptuously and arrogantly claim to
be the worshippers of _the one God_,--commonly called _Unitarians_. This
is one of the "depths of Satan." All who worship, as well as believe in,
three co-equal Divine Persons, Father, Son and Holy Ghost, believe in,
and worship _one God_, and in this sense are Unitarians.--_the only
scriptural Unitarians_. "Whosoever denieth the Son, the same hath not
the Father." (John ii. 23.) And the same is true of such who "have not
so much as heard whether there be any Holy Ghost." (Acts xix. 2.) "He is
Antichrist that denieth the Father and the Son,"--a deceiver and an
Antichrist. It is doubtless in view of these soul-ruining heresies, that
the beloved disciple tendered the caution,--"Little children, keep
yourselves from idols." (1 John v. 21.)

We would expect the tenth chapter to begin with the sounding of the
seventh trumpet; but we find it is not so. Indeed, we shall not find any
direct intimation of the work of the seventh angel till we come to the
fourteenth verse of the eleventh chapter. The sixth trumpet continues to
reverberate throughout Christendom for centuries; and during the
intermediate time, our attention is called to another scene, which the
Lord Jesus deemed necessary as preparatory.



CHAPTER X.


This chapter and the greater part of the next, from the first to the
fourteenth verse inclusive, is of the nature of a parenthesis; for the
fifteenth verse of the 11th chapter evidently connects the narrative or
series of events with the ninth chapter. The ninth chapter closes with
an intimation of impenitence on the part of those who had been punished
by the plagues of the preceding trumpets. Then it follows, as we have
seen, that they are to be still farther visited by the infliction of the
closing judgment symbolized by the seventh trumpet. The immediate
design, therefore, of interrupting the natural order of the narrative is
to place before us the actual condition of society when the seventh
trumpet sounds.


1. And I saw another mighty angel come down from heaven, clothed with a
cloud; and a rainbow was upon his head, and his face as it were the sun,
and his feet as pillars of fire:

2. And he had in his hand a little book open: and he set his right foot
upon the sea, and his left foot on the earth,

3. And cried with a loud voice, as when a lion roareth: and when he had
cried, seven thunders uttered their voices.

Vs. 1-3.--The majestic description of this Angel agrees to no creature.
It is proper to God-man only. It is partly the same display of the
Mediator's glory which we had in ch, i. 15. Especially is this the case
as to his _face_, his _feet_ and his _voice_. The "rainbow" is still the
sign of the everlasting covenant. "In wrath he remembers mercy."

This "book" differs from the _sealed_ book as a part from the whole, or
a codicil from the will to which it is appended. Also, it is
distinguished from the former as being _little_ and _open_. They do
therefore greatly err here, who would make this little book comprehend
all the remaining part of the Apocalypse, which would make it larger
than the sealed book. The little book is _open_, because it is part of
the large one, from which the last seal had been removed by the
Mediator. But another reason why the little book is represented as being
open, is the fact that the most of the events to which it refers, had
transpired prior to the sounding of the seventh trumpet. That trumpet
had been without its appropriate object, as presented in any preceding
part of the prophecy. To present that object is the special design of
the little book. All the events predicted in this book of Revelation are
not successive in the order of time, but some are coincident; and the
inspired writer of the Apocalypse, on several occasions goes back, as we
shall see, in order to explain at greater length, what had been but
briefly and obscurely narrated.

The angel set his feet upon the world, as his footstool; by which
position is emblematically signified his sovereign dominion over sea and
earth. And this is agreeable to his own plain teaching in the days of
his public ministry:--"All power is given unto me in heaven and in
earth." (Matt. xxviii. 18.) He trod upon the billows of the ocean
literally in the state of his humiliation, giving thereby evidence of
his power over the mystical waters,--"the tumults of the people." During
the popular commotions signified by the trumpets, he said to the raging
passions of men and their towering ambition, as to the waves of the
sea,--" Hitherto shall ye come, and no further; and here shall your
proud waves be stayed." "He maketh the storm a calm, so that the waves
thereof are still;" and whether the nations of Christendom are at war or
in peaceful tranquillity, he reigns over them as their rightful
sovereign;--"his right foot on the sea, and his left on the earth." In
possession of universal dominion, he speaks with authority, "as when a
lion roareth." Although a lamb slain, the victim for our sins; he is
also the Lion of the tribe of Judah, ruling over his own people,
restraining and conquering his own and their enemies.

The "seven thunders," etc., give a _premonition_ of tremendous
judgments, the import of which is to be "sealed up" until it be
demonstrated to all the world by the seventh trumpet and vial.


4. And when the seven thunders had uttered their voices, I was about to
write: and I heard a voice from heaven, saying unto me, Seal up those
things which the seven thunders uttered, and write them not.

5. And the angel, which I saw stand upon the sea, and upon the earth,
lifted up his hand to heaven,

6. And sware by him that liveth for ever and ever, who created heaven,
and the things that therein are, and the sea, and the things which are
therein, that there should be time no longer.

7. But in the days of the voice of the seventh angel, when he shall
begin to sound, the mystery of God should be finished, as he hath
declared to his servants the prophets.

Vs. 4-7.--The attitude assumed by the Angel of the covenant is very
impressive, instructive and exemplary:--"his hand lifted up to heaven."
This is the external attitude of solemnity most becoming the jurant when
performing the act of religious worship, the oath. Abraham, in the
presence of the king of Sodom, used the same form, appealing to the
"Lord, the Most High God, possessor of heaven and earth." (Gen. xiv.
22.) "Kissing the book" has no example in all the Bible; hence it is
unquestionably of heathen, and so of idolatrous origin and tendency. No
Christian can thus symbolize with heathens, without so far "having
fellowship with devils" as really as in eating in their temples. (1 Cor.
x. 21.)

The matter of the Angel's oath is,--"that there should be time no
longer." Here it is humbly suggested that our excellent translators are
faulty as in ch. iv. 6, already noticed. Neither the original Greek
text, nor the coherence of the symbolic narrative, will sustain or
justify the version. John, like all pious people, when he heard the
lion's voice, followed by the "seven thunders," was filled with solemn
awe, anticipating the coming dissolution of all things. It was not the
only instance of his weakness and misapprehension, (ch. xix. 10;) nor is
this infirmity peculiar to the apostle John; for we find other disciples
mistaking "the times and the seasons which the Father hath put in his
own power." (2 Thess. ii. 1-3.) These Thessalonians had misapprehended
the language of Paul in his first epistle to them, when speaking of the
end of the world. (1 Thess. iv. 15-17.) To relieve the anxieties of the
Thessalonians, relative to the apprehended and sudden coming of the
Lord, Paul wrote again to correct their mistake; so it may be supposed
that the Angel interposed this solemn assurance to his servant John, for
the like purpose, of allaying his forebodings. The words in the
original, literally translated, stand thus: "That the time shall not be
yet." That is, the "time of the end," as we read in Daniel xii. 9, shall
not be, till the seventh trumpet begins to sound. The phrase,--"time of
the end," may signify either the final overthrow of antichristian power,
or the end of the world, because of the resemblance between the two
events. The plain and certain meaning, then, of the Angel's oath is,
that the "mystery of God shall be finished" only by the work of the
seventh angel. What this mystery is, we will discover in the following
chapters. Indeed, it had been long before "declared to the prophets,"
but still accompanied with comparative obscurity suitable to their time;
for the word "declared," is expressive of glad tidings, being the same
in origin and significance as that which we translate,--_gospel_, good
news. Accordingly, our Saviour directs his disciples, in view of his
appearing either to overthrow the Roman power, or to judge the world, in
the following words of cheer: "And when these things begin to come to
pass, then look up, and lift up your heads; for your redemption draweth
nigh." (Luke xxi. 28.) To the prophet Daniel the same event was attested
with like solemnity. (Dan. xii. 7.) This is the period to which the
suffering saints of God have been long looking forward with believing
and joyful hope. As Abraham rejoiced to see Christ's day of appearing in
our nature, and by faith saw and it and was glad; so the covenanted seed
of the father of the faithful, in the light of prophecy, and by like
precious faith, are favored with a view of the certain downfall of
mystical Babylon.


8. And the voice which I heard from heaven spake unto me again, and
said, Go and take the little book which is open in the hand of the angel
which standeth upon the sea and upon the earth.

9. And I went unto the angel, and said unto him, Give me the little
book. And he said unto me, Take it, and eat it up; and it shall make thy
belly bitter, but it shall be in thy mouth sweet as honey.

10. And I took the little book out of the angel's hand, and ate it up;
and it was in my mouth sweet as honey; and as soon as I had eaten it, my
belly was bitter.

11. And he said unto me, Thou must prophesy again before many peoples,
and nations, and tongues, and kings.

Vs. 8-11.--John is next directed by a voice from heaven, or by divine
authority,--to take and eat the open book. There is obvious allusion to
a similar transaction in Ezekiel iii, 1-3. The prophet was a captive by
the river of Chebar in Babylon, under the dominion of the _first_ beast
of Daniel, as John was in Patmos under that of the _fourth_; and both
were favoured and employed by the glorious Head of the church in an
eminent part of their ministry. "The word is not bound" when ministers
are in confinement.

The "eating of the book" represents the intellectual apprehension of the
things which it contained.

"Thy words were found and I did eat them,"(Jer. xv. 16.) A speculative
knowledge of the word of God, and especially of those parts that are
prophetical, will afford pleasure to the human intellect, even though
the mind be unsanctified. (Matt. xiii. 20, 21.) But when the prophet
gets a farther insight into the contents as containing "lamentations,
and mourning and woe," like Ezekiel's roll;--the pleasure is converted
into pain. A foresight of the sorrows and sufferings of Christ's
witnesses causes grief to the Christian's sensitive heart. He "weeps
with them that weep," by the spontaneous sympathies of a common and
renewed nature. "Sweet in the mouth as honey, but in the belly bitter as
wormwood and gall."

Upon the apostle's digesting the little book, the Angel interprets the
symbolic action by the plain and extensive commission,--"Thou must
prophesy again before many peoples, and nations, and tongues, and
kings." This commission did not terminate with the ministry of the
apostle, although he may be truly said to prophesy by the Apocalypse to
all nations till the end of the world. This is equally true, however, of
all the inspired penmen of the Holy Scriptures. (Psalm xlv. 17.) But
John is to be considered here as the official representative of a living
and faithful ministry, on whom devolves the indispensable obligation to
open and apply these sacred predictions to the commonwealth of nations,
however constituted authorities may be affected by them. And, indeed,
these messages will prove unwelcome to the immoral powers of the earth,
as in the days of old. (1 Kings xviii. 17.)



CHAPTER XI.


The narrative of prophetic events was broken off at the end of the ninth
chapter. The tenth chapter and the greater part of this, from the
beginning to the thirteenth verse inclusive, present appearances and
actions quite foreign to the events which follow the sounding of the
trumpets. Why is this, the thoughtful student of the Apocalypse will
naturally ask? Why is the regular series of the trumpets suspended? When
the sixth trumpet,--the "second woe,"--has effected its objects, we
naturally expect the seventh trumpet to sound; yet we are held in
suspense till we come to the fourteenth verse of this chapter. Hitherto
we have met with no similar interruption. Let us take a retrospective
view:--The seven epistles to the churches followed each other in regular
succession. The seals, in like manner, followed successively; and this
is true of the vials, (ch. xvi.)

We have seen that the object of the trumpets was the Roman empire, the
fourth beast of Daniel's prophecy. The same is the object of the
judgments symbolized by the vials. The final subversion and utter
destruction of that beastly power, was plainly revealed in the
Babylonian monarch's dream. (Dan. ii. 44.) And the same event was
afterwards exhibited in vision to Daniel, (ch. vii. 11, 26.) Now the
first four trumpets had demolished imperial power in the western or
Latin section; and the next two, by the Saracenic locusts and the
Euphratean horsemen had subverted the eastern or Greek section. Rome and
Constantinople were the capitals of the respective sections or members
of the _one_ empire. Under the first four trumpets, by the Northern
barbarians; and under the first two woes, by the Mahometans, both
sections of the empire were overthrown. The question now presses upon
our attention, Where shall we find an object for the tremendous judgment
to be inflicted by the third and last woe? This question requires a
solution. It demands it; and he who succeeds in the application of
history to solve this apparent enigma in the Apocalypse, will be able to
attain to a satisfactory, a certain, understanding of much that is yet
to most readers as if the "sealed book" were to this day in the "right
hand of Him that sitteth on the throne." Let us humbly attempt to solve
this difficulty.

Daniel's fourth beast, the Roman empire, is to be contemplated in
_diverse aspects_, as the varied symbols obviously require. All know
that Nebuchadnezzar's "image" is the same as Daniel's "four beasts;"
therefore the same thing is presented in different forms or aspects. Of
course we are to view that object as presented. We have seen that under
the sixth seal, (ch. vi. 12-17,) the Roman empire underwent a
revolution; that is, it was destroyed as to its Pagan form. The empire
became Christian under Constantine. History proves that Christianity
degenerated under the reign of that monarch and his successors. Heresy,
idolatry and persecutions characterize the subsequent history of the
empire. Then follow the judgments of the trumpets to vindicate the
divine government, and alleviate from time to time the sufferings of
true Christians. While the two woe-trumpets are demolishing the fabric
of idolatry and despotism in the east, the "deadly wound is healed" in
the west, which had been inflicted by the first four trumpets. Ten horns
are developed upon the beast's head, and another "little horn," by all
of which the saints suffer, as had been predicted by Daniel, (ch. vii.
24,) and of which we had intimation after the judgment of the second woe
or sixth trumpet, (ch. ix. 20, 21.) All the "plagues," which had been
inflicted upon the people of Christendom under this trumpet left them
still impenitent,--"worshipping devils," etc. Surely we may now see
where the object of the third woe is to be found,--namely in the same
Roman empire, now become antichristian more than ever before. To
describe this antichristian combination and present the unholy
confederacy against the Lord and his Anointed, and so to justify the
ways of God; it was necessary to digress from the narrative of the
trumpets. We now proceed with our observations on the eleventh chapter.


1. And there was given me a reed like unto a rod: and the angel stood,
saying, Rise, and measure the temple of God, and the altar, and them
that worship therein.

2. But the court which is without the temple leave out, and measure it
not; for it is given unto the Gentiles: and the holy city shall they
tread under foot forty and two months.

Vs. 1, 2.--This chapter, (vs. 1-13,) gives the contents of the "little
book" delivered to the apostle; as in the tenth chapter. It contains a
brief description and prospective history of the true church of Christ
for a period of 1260 years. Her conflicts with Daniel's fourth beast are
here epitomized. As the scene is laid in the temple and ministry all
along in the Apocalypse, so there is probably a special allusion here to
Ezekiel's vision, (ch. xl. 5.) At all times the Christian church is to
be organized, and all her ordinances to be administered by divine rule.
Accordingly we have here presented the actual condition of Christendom
during the whole time mentioned above. The command to John from the
Angel, is to be understood as from the Lord Jesus, Zion's only king to
the gospel ministry. Long before the time of the transactions here
predicted, the apostle John had gone the way of all the earth. The work
here enjoined was to be performed by his legitimate successors.

The reed is the symbol of the word of God. It is of the same import as
Zechariah's "measuring line." (ch. ii. 1,) and to be used for the same
purpose--"to measure Jerusalem," the temple; for both are emblematical
of the church of God. The "temple, altar and worshippers," are emblems
of the church, her doctrines, worship and membership, tried by the
Scriptures--the "reed." There are Gentiles who worship in the outer
court, treading under foot both it and the city. These are formal,
immoral, idolatrous professors of Christianity. They are rejected by God
as reprobate, and by his command to be "cast out" from the fellowship of
his people,--authoritatively excommunicated by those to whom Jesus
Christ has given the key of discipline.

Here then, at the disclosing of the contents of the little open book, it
is manifest that John goes back from the sixth trumpet in the
seventeenth century, when the Eastern section of the Roman empire was
subverted, by the Othmans, and gives us another view of society in
Christendom cotemporaneously with the trumpets. It follows necessarily
that the little book does not rank, as some imagine, under any one
trumpet; much less does it comprehend all the remaining chapters of the
Apocalypse, as others vainly suppose. This matter will receive
increasing confirmation as we advance.

Those who worship within the temple and those who worship without, are
evidently distinguished from each other. They differ in character tested
by the word of God, in fellowship, as authoritatively separated
according to the rule of the same word: for whereas the gentile
worshippers are so numerous as to crowd both the outer court and the
city, the measured worshippers are all included within the confines of
the temple, (Song iv. 12.) _Measuring_ is equivalent to the _sealing_ of
the servants of God in the seventh chapter; and imports that they are
secured from the sins and plagues of their time. The period of the
apostacy from God is fixed to "forty and two months." According to
Jewish mode of reckoning, a day for a year, (Num. xiv. 34; Dan. ix. 24,)
the whole period is 1260 years. Each month has thirty days. Multiply
forty-two by thirty, and we have 1260. The _same_ period of time,--not
merely an equal period, is otherwise expressed by the prophet Daniel
thus: "time, times, and a half." (ch. xii. 7.) That is, 360, the number
of days in the Jewish year: times, or 720, the days in two years; and
half a time, or 180, the days in half a year. Now, add these three
numbers, 360, 720, 180; and the sum is 1260. Now see Daniel iv. 25,
where the word "times" means _years_, and then a child may calculate
these mystical numbers.


3. And I will give power unto my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy
a thousand two hundred and threescore days, clothed in sackcloth.

V. 3.--While the nominal church, "the outer court and the holy city,"
would be "trodden under foot," and the most eminent places would be
filled with idolaters, infidels, hypocrites, and mercenary spirits, and
true Christians grievously oppressed, the Lord would preserve a faithful
few from defiling themselves with the prevailing abominations. These he
claims and owns as his "peculiar treasure,"--"my witnesses." These have
found that it was "good for them to draw near to God," when the
multitude treacherously departed from him. The Lord Christ promises to
sustain them in the midst of all their tribulations. The duration of
their special work is the very same as that of the treading of the holy
city, "a thousand two hundred and three score days,"--1260 years. In
attempting to fix the beginning of this period, Daniel and John must be
compared; both treat of the same events and dates, and this gives
definiteness to the interpretation. Daniel fixes these events to the
fourth monarchy _after_ it had been _broken in pieces_, and the ten
horns had arisen: (ch. vii. 23-25;) so that we have both the geography
and chronology determined by the prophets themselves. Hence it follows
that we must date the beginning of the 1260 years after the first four
trumpets; for by these the western Roman empire was dismembered or
broken, that the ten horns might appear. Then the "little horn" of
Daniel arose after and among them, (ch. vii. 20, 24.) All reliable
expositors agree that the "little horn" is the papacy or the Romish
church. This little horn is the special enemy of the "saints of the Most
High," and they are to be "given into his hand." (Dan. vii. 25.) The
first four trumpets subverted the Roman empire in the west in the latter
part of the sixth century. This event made way for the bishop of Rome,
in process of time, to acquire a great accession of ecclesiastical
power. The civil and ecclesiastical rulers, equally unscrupulous and
aspiring, were at this period on terms of comparative intimacy, and
occasionally disposed to reciprocate good offices. Phocas, having waded
through the blood of the citizens to supreme civil power, in order to
secure his position, declared Boniface III., bishop of Rome, head of the
universal church. This impious public act took place in the year 606.
The pope became also a temporal prince in 756. Now we cannot know _with
certainty_ which of these events, nor indeed whether _either_ of them,
marks the period in time when the 1260 years _began_. Hence we must
remain at uncertainty as to the exact time when this most interesting
period will end. Of all transactions recorded in history, however, that
between Phocas and Boniface appears most like "giving the saints into
the hand of the little horn." At this juncture in particular, church and
state conspire, as never before, to resist the authority of Jesus Christ
the Mediator. Paul's "man of sin" has been "revealed in his time." (2
Thess. ii. 6.) Paganism has been abolished by formal edict throughout
the Roman empire, and Christianity established as the recognised
religion of the commonwealth. That which "letted,"--hindered, that is,
the pagan idolatry of the civil state, is "taken out of the way;" and
nominal Christianity takes its place. This combination or alliance
between church and state will be more clearly made known in the
succeeding chapters of this book. Mean while it is the immediate design
of the "little open book," to give an epitome or outline of this unholy
confederacy in the first thirteen verses of this chapter. The treading
under foot of the holy city by the "Gentiles," furnishes occasion for
the witnesses to appear publicly against them. These pretended
Christians, but real hypocrites, as will appear with increasing evidence
as we proceed, have usurped the rights of Messiah's crown, and
grievously oppressed his real disciples. Against these outrages on the
prerogatives of Christ and the rights of man, these witnesses lift their
solemn protest. Their distinctive name, "witnesses," is familiar to
every one who searches the Scriptures. (Isa. xliii. 10; Acts i. 8.) But
witnesses who love not their lives unto the death are distinguished by
the name of _martyrs_. (Rev. ii. 13; Acts xxii. 20.)

God has had his witnesses in all ages since the fall of Adam, in defence
of truth and holiness against error and ungodliness; but the specific
work _these_ witnesses is to oppose the corruption of his two ordinances
of church and state during the specified period of 1260 years. The
existence of this complex system of civil and ecclesiastical tyranny and
heresy, in the holy purpose and sovereign providence of God, calls for
the public and uncompromising opposition of the two witnesses. We shall
discover the two parties in more visible conflict hereafter; and tracing
the struggle to its issue, we shall find, that like the more general and
lasting warfare between the seed of the woman and that of the serpent,
(Gen. iii. 15,) it is a "war of extermination."

These witnesses are distinguished as a part from the whole. All
witnesses are not _martyrs_, but these are such, (v. 7, ch. xx. 4.) And
here we are constrained to dissent from the opinion of some expositors,
for whose sentiments we entertain profound respect. These "two
witnesses" are supposed by these eminent interpreters to "differ as much
from the 144,000 sealed ones, (ch. vii. 4,) as Elijah differed from the
7000 in Israel in his time;" whereas, we think the 144,000 and the
_two_, are the same identical company. (See chapters vii. 4-8: xiv. 1;
xx. 4.) It is evident that they are the same party,--and the _whole_ of
the party, who are honored to "reign with Christ a thousand years," (ch.
xx. 4.)

They are _two_ in number, because one witness is not sufficient in law,
to establish any matter in controversy. (Num. xxxv. 30; 2 Cor. xiii. 1.)
They are a small number compared with their opponents, (ch. xiii. 3.)
Again, they are few, but sufficient to confront and confute their two
opponents, (ch. xiii. 1, 11.) And, finally, they are _two_, that they
may be assimilated to their predecessors.


4. These are the two olive trees, and the two candlesticks standing
before the God of the earth.

5. And if any man will hurt them, fire proceedeth out of their mouth,
and devoureth their enemies: and if any man will hurt them, he must in
this manner be killed.

6. These have power to shut heaven, that it rain not in the days of
their prophecy; and have power over waters to turn them to blood, and to
smite the earth with all plagues, as often as they will.

Vs. 4-6.--"These are the two olive trees, and the two candlesticks,"
answerable to Joshua and Zerubbabel, the representatives of a gospel
ministry and a scriptural magistracy in their day, as seen by the
prophet Zechariah, (ch. iv. 14.) The official administrators of the
divine ordinances of church and state, require the oil of divine grace
to qualify them for the discharge of their responsible duties to God and
man. (1 Tim. i. 2; Titus i. 4; Ps. lxxii. 1.) Thus were those public
servants of God and of his people qualified who "stood before the God of
the earth," as Moses and Aaron in Egypt, Elijah and Elisha in Israel, to
whom there is obvious allusion in the special work of these witnesses.
(2 Kings i. 10; 1 Kings xvii. 1; Exod. vii. 17.) "Fire proceedeth out of
their mouth," when from the scriptures they denounce just judgments upon
the impenitent enemies of him whom they represent. They "smite the earth
with all plagues," when, in answer to their prayers, vengeance comes
upon antichristian communities. (Luke xviii. 7, 8.) They "turn waters
into blood," when through their effective agency, the votaries of
Antichrist are made the instruments of mutual destruction. And all this
is made more clear in the symbolic "vials," (ch. 16.) These witnesses
"prophesy," not as being inspired, but because they,--and _they only_,
apply existing predictions to their appropriate objects, so far as they
receive light from Him who is "the light of the world."

They are "clothed in sack-cloth," because they sigh and cry for all the
abominations of their time,--subjected to oppression, and excluded from
"kings' palaces,"--places of worldly honor, power and emolument.

But the question is of great importance, and, to themselves in
particular, of absorbing interest,--How shall these witnesses be
identified among mankind? For however few, humble, despised and
persecuted, even unto death; strange as it may seem, there are not
wanting many to put forth a claim to be identified with them! Assuming
that these mystic witnesses are individual persons, the Papists say,
they are Enoch and Elijah, hereafter to appear on earth! By Protestants,
John Huss and Jerome.--Luther and Calvin, have been selected. Others
suppose the Old and New Testaments, with many other vague and groundless
conjectures. The witnesses die; but the two prophets named "were
translated that they should not see death:" and the thought is
preposterous that they should be brought again from their glorious state
of immortality and subjected to an ignominious death. John Huss and
Jerome of Prague did not prophesy 1260 years, nor have we the shadow of
a ground to believe that any of the human race shall ever prolong their
days on earth to the age of Methuselah. The two Testaments cannot die,
for "the word of God liveth and abideth for ever." (1 Pet. i. 23.) But
it would be tedious and unprofitable to confute the various chimeras
which on this question have been entertained in the minds equally of the
learned and the illiterate. The like fanciful and diversified opinions
have been, and still are, prevalent in relation to what constitutes "the
Antichrist." (1 John ii. 22.) Now, it is evident, even on a cursory
perusal of the Apocalypse; that the witnesses and their opponents are
the principal parties symbolized in the whole series of the seals,
trumpets and vials. How then can any one attain to a rational
understanding of the manifold details, who remains "willingly ignorant"
of the principal characters in this grandest of all tragico-dramas,
presented to man's view on the stage of Jehovah's moral empire, to be
contemplated for the whole period of 1260 years? The prevailing
ignorance, bewilderment and error, in the minds of most spectators of
these moving scenes, we are warranted to expect. (Dan. xii. 10.) For the
present we define the witnesses and Antichrist concisely thus:--_The
Witnesses are a competent number of Christians, who for 1260 years,
insist upon the application of God's word to church and state; and who
testify against all communities who rebel against the Lord Christ._ Such
communities, in visible organization, constitute THE ANTICHRIST, as will
more fully appear in the thirteenth and seventeenth chapters, where the
two prominent parties are more formally presented.

Let us never lose sight of the fact, that these witnesses cease not to
prophesy,--to apply the scriptures, especially the prophetical parts of
them, during the _whole_ period of 1260 years; that is, _while they
live_. Authentic history supplies abundant evidence that such has been
their special work all along since the rise of the antichristian enemy.
That enemy is but obscurely mentioned,--_not described_ in the "little
book," the contents of which we have, as already said, in this chapter,
(vs. 1-13.) The character and achievements of the witnesses may be found
in the familiar histories of the Culdees and Lollards of Britain, the
Waldenses of Piedmont, the Bohemian Brethren; together with the more
recent and successful reformers on the continent of Europe and in the
British Isles. Is it unnecessary to mention the names of those men of
renown,--Zwingle, Luther, Calvin, Knox, Henderson, etc.,--men "mighty in
words and in deeds," whose influence on the great "family of nations,"
their very enemies have reluctantly attested? The testimony of an enemy
has ever been deemed weighty. The following is appropriate and decisive
from the polished pen of the historian of the "Decline and Fall of the
Roman Empire:" "The visible assemblies of the Paulicians, or Albigeois,
were extirpated by fire and sword; and the bleeding remnant escaped by
flight, concealment, or catholic conformity. But the invincible spirit
which they had kindled still lived and breathed in the western
world.--In the state, in the church, and even in the cloister, a latent
succession was preserved of the disciples of St. Paul, who protested
against the tyranny of Rome, embraced the Bible as the rule of faith,
and purified their creed from all the visions of the Gnostic theology.
The struggles of Wickliff in England, and of Huss in Bohemia, were
premature and ineffectual: but the names of Zuinglius, Luther and
Calvin, are pronounced with gratitude as the deliverers of nations."[2]

Ever since the time of those eminent witnesses, the same testimony has
been maintained. It is not yet finished, the witnesses are yet alive,
and the term of 1260 years is not expired.


7. And when they shall have finished their testimony, the beast that
ascendeth out of the bottomless pit, shall make war against them, and
shall overcome them, and kill them.

8. And their dead bodies shall lie in the street of the great city,
which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was
crucified.

9. And they of the people, and kindreds, and tongues, and nations, shall
see their dead bodies three days and a half, and shall not suffer their
dead bodies to be put in graves.

10. And they that dwell upon the earth shall rejoice over them, and make
merry, and shall send gifts one to another; because these two prophets
tormented them that dwelt on the earth.

Vs. 7-10.--In these verses we have described the death of the witnesses,
as also the agent mentioned, by whom the fatal stroke is given. As
future occasion will occur for identifying this bloody tyrant,
ascertaining with precision his diabolical origin, here only hinted, his
crimes and his awful doom, it is premature to amplify in this place.

If the witnesses cannot be identified, neither can the time of their
death be ascertained. We find indeed among expositors as many vague
notions relative to the _time_ and the _nature_ of their death as in
relation to their identity. These notions are unworthy of notice; for
however they might amuse, they cannot edify.

Four questions are suggested by these verses.--By whom; in what manner,
when, and where are the witnesses slain?

The first question is explicitly answered in the sacred text. The
"beast," of hellish origin, kills them. But it will afterwards appear
that the beast is instigated to this relentless cruelty by another agent
of the devil. Again, as to the kind of death, we may in good measure
learn this from the kind of life. Now it is obvious that to give
testimony, or "prophesy" during the allotted time, constitutes their
life. They live, that they may prophesy. Hence it is usual to speak of
_silencing_, as equivalent to _slaying_ these witnesses. But this is not
strictly correct. Why? Because they have been hitherto "killed all the
day long." (Ps. xliv. 22; Rom. viii. 36.) Doubtless defection and
apostacy do always accompany persecution; and thus the testimony of such
is silenced. But the enemy in this case is "drunken with the blood" of
these witnesses; and this phrase must be understood literally. Moreover,
the enemy gets "blood to drink," because of "shedding blood." (ch. xvi.
6; xvii. 6.) The death of the witnesses is therefore a literal death, of
course it will be also moral,--they will cease to prophesy.

Some have supposed the "three years, or days and a half," during which
the witnesses lie dead are the same as the 1260 days or years; because
if these three and a half days be considered as prophetical, and reduced
to literal days, they will amount exactly to 1260. Such an
interpretation, however, is preposterous; simply because according to
this hypothesis, they _never lived at all_!--The absurdity is evident.

Having ascertained the nature of the death to which the witnesses are
appointed by the Lord of life, we now inquire as to the time of this
mournful event. The text informs us that their death is connected with
the "finishing of their testimony." However the original may be
translated,--when they _shall have finished_,--when they _shall be
finishing_,--or about to finish, affects not the question as to time.
While they live, their work is to prophesy, and their testimony is not
completed. Like their Master, to whose example they are conformed, their
life and testimony are finished together. These facts, briefly and
obscurely hinted here, will be more satisfactorily presented in the
next, but especially in the twentieth chapter, (vs. 1-4.) But inasmuch
as many, if not most interpreters, have expressed the opinion that the
witnesses are already slain, the following arguments in the negative are
submitted to the reader.

The 1260 years are not yet terminated, during which,--the whole of which
time,--the witnesses are to "prophesy," (v. 3.) Their testimony is yet
continued, and sensibly felt by the wicked. They still more or less
"torment them that dwell on the earth," (v. 10.) Beyond the usual
reproach attached to their names and their work, there has been no
general reviling and deriding of them throughout Christendom, to render
their memory infamous, (v. 9.)--No opprobrious epithets such as, "These
deceivers said, while they were yet alive," (Matt, xxvii. 63,) that so
they might be conformed to their Lord in his death. Nor, lastly, have
"they that dwell upon the earth" exulted as yet over these hated
individuals, as no longer "hurtful to kings and provinces,"--although
there have been, often, partial but premature rejoicings by a part of
the enemy. But although from time to time, "some of them, have fallen,
to try them, and to purge, and to make them white" as predicted, (Dan.
xi. 35;) yet the time of "making merry, sending gifts,"--is not yet
come.

While we believe, on the grounds adduced,--and much more might have been
cited from the context,--that the death of the witnesses is to be
understood literally, we do not suppose that every individual will be
personally put to death. No, but as in the time of Elijah's banishment,
or of our Saviour's lying in the grave, there will be no public body or
individual standard-bearer, to bear testimony against the enemies of
Jesus Christ, or boldly to assert and press his royal claims upon church
and state. In prospect of this dark time,--darker than the "dark ages,"
we may ask with Joshua,--"What wilt thou do unto thy great name?" But
though the witnesses die, the Faithful Witness lives, (ch. i. 18.)

The _place_, where the witnesses lie dead is pointed out by three places
well known in sacred history, Egypt, Sodom and Jerusalem. But these are
to be understood mystically. The place resembles Egypt for idolatry and
cruelty to the people of God; it is like Sodom for literal and spiritual
pollution; and Jerusalem, where our Lord was crucified afresh and put to
open shame in the persons of his slain witnesses. It follows of
course,--that place is to be utterly destroyed; having committed the
crimes and contracted the guilt of all those unpardonable criminals.
(Ps. lxxiv. 13, 14; Ezek. xxxi. 18; Isa. xiii. 19; Luke xxi. 20.) For
similar reasons, Babylon is afterwards mentioned repeatedly as the place
of this tragic event, this unpardonable crime,--the slaying of the
witnesses, (ch. xviii. 24.) It is to be specially noted here, that in
ascertaining the place of the death of these distinguished servants of
Christ, our attention is directed by the Holy Spirit to a "street" of
the city. At present it is assumed that _streets_ of the city and
_horns_ of the beast substantially harmonize as symbols. Now look over
the streets of the great city: contemplate the horns of the beast:
ascertain which is most guilty of persecution. In estimating the
relative degree of guilt, the degree of heavenly light against which the
criminal has rebelled is to be taken into the account. (John xv. 22;
Matt. xi. 24.) In view of these scriptural principles, and the actual
condition of Christendom as portrayed in authentic history, would the
conjecture seem presumptuous, should we venture to designate--Great
Britain? There, for centuries, the witnesses have been most numerous,
active, and pointed, in testifying against encroachments on the
crown-rights of Messiah. There also, lordly prelates, in close alliance
with a blasphemous horn of the beast, have often vied with the sworn
vassals of the "man of sin," in murdering the saints of God. "Therefore
it is no great thing" if, throwing off the mask of Protestantism,
English prelacy, combining with Romish Jesuitism, should make common
cause with undisguised infidelity, in slaying the witnesses against
their heaven-daring rebellion. The signs of the present time, (1870,)
render our conjecture not improbable. We give it only as a _conjecture_;
for in reference to events yet future,--as we believe that of the death
of the witnesses to be,--we may not presume to _prophesy_.--"Three days
and a half" is the limited period of their degradation; and this is
three natural years and a half: for the word "days" must be taken in the
same sense as in v. 3; otherwise we fall into an inextricable labyrinth
of endless confusion. From all which it appears that "the triumphing of
the wicked is short." If "while the wicked is in power, and we wait upon
God." we are called to "join trembling with our mirth;" the pleasing
prospect of the speedy and joyful resurrection of "these slain," may
inspire us with "a lively hope," and warrant us to join mirth with our
trembling.


11. And after three days and a half, the Spirit of life from God entered
into them, and they stood upon their feet; and great fear fell upon them
which saw them.

12. And they heard a great voice from heaven, saying unto them, Come up
hither. And they ascended up to heaven in a cloud; and their enemies
beheld them.

Vs. 11, 12.--In these two verses, as in the preceding, the thoughtful
reader will discern a beautiful allusion in the history of these
witnesses, to the death and life of our blessed Master. "For if they
have been planted together in the likeness of his death, they shall be
also in the likeness of his resurrection." Yes, they have communion with
him in death and life,--in grace and glory. "Nothing can separate them
from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus their Lord."

"The Spirit of life from God entered into them." That is, God will
speedily raise up successors, who, maintaining the very same principles,
will be gloriously successful in putting down all rule and authority and
power," that had been in hostility to their Lord. (1 Cor. xv. 24, 25.
See Ezek. xxxvii. 11-14.) "This is the first resurrection," to be
explained by the inspired penman more fully hereafter, (ch. xx. 5.)--As
Saul feared David, and Herod John Baptist, because they were "just men
and holy;" so were the wicked afraid when these witnesses arose; and,
like Shimei, they justly dread the "due reward of their deeds." At the
time referred to, "the haters of the Lord will feign submission."--The
"great voice from heaven" inviting the witnesses to ascend, and their
actual ascent, is another allusion to Christ's exaltation. As when "he
was taken up, a cloud received him;" so here, "they ascended up to
heaven in a cloud."

It has often been the cry of the antichristian multitude,--"The voice of
the people is the voice of God." This cry has been iterated and
reiterated, in centuries past, like that of the Ephesian worshippers of
Diana; that thereby the testimony of the witnesses might be counteracted
and silenced. It has been only too often successful. But where did
flattering demagogues and haughty despots find the sentiment? They found
it engraved on the moral constitution of man by our beneficent Creator.
They found it also transcribed on the pages of objective
revelation,--the Bible. But, like other moral and scriptural principles,
it has been perverted and misapplied by the perverse ingenuity of wicked
men.--This "voice from heaven" is indeed the _people's_ voice: and it is
legitimate, as coming from the people, because it is first the voice of
God. The "heaven" here mentioned is the seat of civil power,--"the
ordinance of man." (1 Pet. ii. 13.) In the times here
contemplated,--millennial times,--the rights of men will be respected,
predicated upon the rights of God, and flowing from them as inseparable.
In settling the point of title to civil sovereignty, or the eligibility
of any candidate for civil office, the principle enunciated by Hushai
the Archite will be found to be alone reliable:--"Whom the Lord and this
people choose." (2 Sam. xvi. 18.) Only let the Lord have the first
choice of candidates for office in both church and state, and society
will be prosperous and happy. (Acts i. 23, 24; vi. 5.) The "great voice"
of the 12th verse, comes from "heaven," as the "great voices" of the
15th verse, announcing the millennium.


13. And the same hour was there a great earthquake, and the tenth part
of the city fell, and in the earthquake were slain of men seven
thousand: and the remnant were affrighted, and gave glory to the God of
heaven.

V. 13.--"The same hour" that the witnesses mark by their
resurrection,--contemporaneously with that joyful event, is "a great
earthquake,"--a revolution, (ch. vi. 12.) "The tenth part of the city
fell." The city,--"Sodom." "Tenth part of the city,"--a "street,"
equivalent to "horn." Some one of the "ten kingdoms" will secede from
the antichristian confederacy, or imperial dominion; "and the
remnant,"--the other nine, dreading the Mediator's vengeance, will
reluctantly but speedily submit. (See ch. vi. 16, 17.)--In the
"earthquake were slain of men (names, titles,) seven thousand." By
"names of men" to be slain,--that is, abolished in reorganized society,
we are to understand those "names of blasphemy" mentioned, (ch. xiii.
1,) hereafter to be explained.

We have now taken a very cursory view of the contents of the "little
open book." Its place is between the termination of the fourth, and the
sounding of the seventh trumpet. In other words, it gives an outline of
the contest between the witnesses and Antichrist during 1260
years,--events running parallel in time, at least in part, with the
first two woe-trumpets; for it obviously anticipates also, the effects
of the third and last woe.

This may be as suitable a place as any other, before proceeding to a
consideration of the seventh trumpet, to direct attention to the method
which Infinite Wisdom has chosen, by which to reveal to mankind the
purposes of God in prophecy. He who alone "knows the end from the
beginning,"--who "from ancient times has declared the things that are
not yet done," has told us plainly,--"I have multiplied visions, and
used similitudes, by the ministry (_hand_,) of the prophets." (Hosea
xii. 10.) Now since God has _multiplied_ visions, we ought not to think
it strange if the same important events in providence be predicted by
several, or by many of the prophets; or that one and the same important
event be foretold "at sundry times and in diverse manners" by the same
prophet. How often, and by how many prophets was the dispersion of the
Jews foretold!--the downfall of ancient cities, Babylon, Nineveh,
Tyre!--Need we refer to the language of our Lord, addressed to his
disciples on the way to Emmaus?--"And beginning at Moses, and all the
prophets, he expounded unto them in all the Scriptures the things
concerning himself." (Luke xxiv. 27.) We may be sure that the things
concerning Christ and the interests of his kingdom in this world, are
the theme of inspired prophets in the New Testament as well as in the
old. Agreeably to these views, we find Nebuchadnezzar's dream and
Daniel's visions relate to the same objects and events. What was more
obscurely revealed in the monarch's dream, is rendered more intelligible
by various symbols in Daniel's first vision. (Dan. ii. 36-45; vii.
17-27.) But in the next, the eighth chapter, Daniel is favored with
still clearer information relative to what he had already seen in
vision; and in the eleventh chapter, his attention is called to the most
obscure, but most interesting parts of his former visions; and, after
all, the "vision is sealed," so that he sees not "the end of these
things." (ch. xii. 8, 9.) "I heard, but I understood not," (1 Pet. i.
10, 11.)

In this book, styled Apocalypse, or Revelation, we are told in the first
verse, that the Lord Christ "signified,"--made known _by signs_, to his
servant John the things that were to come to pass. We have thus far seen
that the customary method has been pursued in using signs, symbols or
emblems. Henceforth we will find "multiplied visions" employed, more
clearly to illustrate events which have already passed under review, but
of which we could see little more than a _profile_:--"men, as trees
walking."


14. The second woe is past; and, behold, the third woe cometh quickly.

15. And the seventh angel sounded: and there were great voices in
heaven, saying, The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of
our Lord, and of his Christ; and he shall reign forever and ever.

Vs. 14, 15.--"The third wo cometh quickly,"--the time elapsing since the
end of the second, is not to be so long as that intervening between the
first two woes.--The first wo is thought to have begun about the year
612, and continuing by the Saracenic conquests about 150 years, to have
terminated in 762. The second woe-trumpet, it is alleged, sounded about
1281, and continuing for 391 years,--the period of the ravages by the
Euphratean horsemen, ended about 1672. The destructive influence,
however, of these two judgments, may be considered as reaching to the
time of the third woe, the one which is to demolish the whole
antichristian fabric.

Many eminent expositors,[3] in the early part of the present century,
while the first Napoleon was waging successful war with the other powers
of Europe, expressed their belief with much confidence, that the seventh
angel had begun to sound. They were evidently mistaken. Christendom will
not fail to hear the voice of the third woe. It may be so that an
individual may "not be conscious of having an interest inconsistent with
fidelity to the Scriptures," while political "bias" may in fact so
influence "sentiments, as to render conviction less dependent upon
_evidence_ than upon his _wishes_." And we doubt not that
misapprehensions and misinterpretation of "the other scriptures," are to
be attributed to this cause, insensibly influencing the minds and hearts
of learned and godly men, as well as in their expositions of the
Apocalypse. Indeed the misapplying of God's word, precept and prophecy,
to political and ecclesiastical organizations, has been the principal
means of combining and continuing the antichristian apostacy. Thus it is
precisely, that the great adversary has been successful, as "an angel of
light."

"The little book" has been shown to contain such extensive and important
events as to justify the solemnity accompanying its delivery to the
apostle.--He now resumes the subject which had been interrupted at the
close of the ninth chapter.--The "great voices in heaven" represent the
expressions of joy by the saints on hearing the voice of the last of the
trumpets, as assuring them of the happy change in the moral condition of
the world, which they had been warranted to expect by God's "servants
the prophets" from the days of old, (ch. x. 7.) The great, the universal
change consists in this:--"The kingdoms of this world are become _the
kingdoms_ of our Lord and of his Christ." The English supplement,--"the
kingdoms," is justified and required, equally by the sense and the laws
of syntax: and he is a deceiver, if a scholar, who insists upon any
other, to supply the ellipsis. Indeed, the omission of similar
supplements, has occasioned needless obscurity to the unlearned in other
parts of this book. (See chs. xix. 10; xxii. 9.) The greatest of all
revolutions consists in restoring church and state to their scriptural
foundation,--transferring both from allegiance to "the god of this
world," (Matt. iv. 8; Luke iv. 5, 6;) to their rightful owner,--"the
Lord and his Anointed." (Ps. ii. 2, 8.) When this desirable epoch
arrives, for which the persecuted witnesses have long and fervently
prayed, (ch. vi. 10,) gospel ministers and Christian magistrates will
seek to do the will, and aim at the glory of God.--It is painful and
pitiable to hear learned and pious men often pray,--"That the kingdoms
of this world may soon become the _kingdom_ of our Lord and Saviour
Jesus Christ." This is to "ask amiss,"--to miss the promise; for no such
promise is on record. The groundless conception confounds the revealed
distinctions in the Godhead,--the Father with the Mediator; and it would
subvert Jehovah's moral empire, annihilating the eternal principle of
representative identification! But those good men "mean not so, neither
do their hearts think so." They ought, however, to be more careful and
diligent in "searching the Scriptures."--If the scriptural significance
of this joyful announcement "in heaven" were better understood by gospel
ministers generally, a chief barrier would be removed, which now
obstructs the advent of the millennium. Would they but cease, their
hearers might more readily cease, to "wonder after the beast." But we
may not anticipate.

"He, (Christ,) shall reign for ever and ever." When the seventh trumpet,
the third woe, shall have accomplished its object, in the utter
destruction of immoral power, and the 1260 years shall have come to an
end, no other successful combination shall ever again be permitted to
assail and harass the city of the Lord:--"of his government there shall
be no end." (Dan. vii. 27.) "All dominions shall serve and obey him."
The final enterprise of Gog and Magog shall not succeed, (ch, xx. 7-9.)


16. And the four and twenty elders, which sat before God, on their
seats, fell upon their faces, and worshipped God,

17. Saying, We give thee thanks, O Lord God Almighty, which art, and
wast, and art to come; because thou hast taken to thee thy great power,
and hast reigned.

18. And the nations were angry, and thy wrath is come, and the time of
the dead, that they should be judged, and that thou shouldst give reward
unto thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear
thy name, small and great; and shouldst destroy them which destroy the
earth.

Vs. 16-18.--These verses give us a glimpse of the times following the
last woe till the end of the world. The "elders," the
representatives,--not of the ministry, as prelates dream, but of the
collective body of God's people, now that they are emancipated from a
longer and more cruel bondage than that of their fathers in the literal
Egypt, "give thanks to God" for the display of his "great power" in
their deliverance. Many times had he made bare his holy arm in past ages
on behalf of his people: but this is in their eyes the most signal
display of his power. "Thou hast taken to thee thy great power."--He now
exercises his power over the nations, which was his before; their
"anger" in the time of their rebellion is now repressed,--Messiah's
"wrath is come," heavier wrath than that which fell upon Rome pagan:
(ch. vi. 16, 17.) Then follows an intimation of the final judgment, and
suitable "rewards." Our curiosity is excited here, but not gratified;
but while left in suspense, we may, with Daniel and the virgin
Mary,--"keep these things in our heart." (Dan. vii. 28; Luke ii. 19.)
Farther light will be given, (ch. xx. 11-13.)

19. And the temple of God was opened in heaven, and there was seen in
his temple the ark of his testament: and there were lightnings, and
voices, and thunderings, and an earthquake, and great hail.

V. 19.--The inspired books of the Bible were divided into chapters,
verses and other parts, for the convenience of reference. But those who
performed this useful service were imperfect like ourselves, and
therefore we are at liberty to differ from them in our arrangement. Now
it seems evident that the 18th verse closes this chapter with a concise
account of the ending of the last woe. But the last woe reaches to the
final consummation of all things as we have already seen: it follows
that the nineteenth verse _must_ introduce a new subject. Similar
mistakes may be seen in numerous instances elsewhere in our Bibles.

But although a new vision is presented in the twelfth chapter, the two
principal parties delineated in the eleventh, engage the apostle's
attention. And as preparatory to future scenes, "the temple of God was
opened in heaven." "Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty, God hath
shined." Before the following scene of warfare, John is favored with a
view of the "ark of the testament,"--a symbol of the covenant of grace,
which shall continue to be administered in the worst of times; and the
opposition to which, in its external dispensation, is emblematically set
forth by "lightnings,"--as well as the tokens of Jehovah's presence and
avenging judgments: for these awful symbols, taken from fearful
convulsions in nature, are usually indicative of the tremendous
judgments of God.



CHAPTER XII.


1. And there appeared a great wonder in heaven: a woman clothed with the
sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve
stars;

2. And she, being with child, cried, travailing in birth, and pained to
be delivered.

Vs. 1, 2.--The Apocalypse, besides the _three_ parts into which it is
divided by its divine Author, (noticed in ch. i. 19,) is also
susceptible of division into _two_ parts. With the eleventh chapter
terminates the _abridged_ prospective history of the church and of the
world, emblematically represented under the seals and trumpets. The
seventh seal, when opened, disclosed all the contents of the sealed
book, and also introduced the seven trumpets. But we have followed the
series of the trumpets in order, to the end of the world,--interrupted
only by the isolated history of the "little book; which, treating of
events which were matter of history under the first two woe-trumpets,
_could not be sealed_. Now at the twelfth chapter, without regard to the
seventh, or any other of the trumpets in particular, we are furnished
with a second and enlarged edition, as it were, of the most important
parts of the first edition. We have observed before, that this is the
manner of the prophets on a large scale, especially in predicting "the
sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow." So it is with
John and Paul. What the latter only hints at, when writing to Timothy,
(1 Tim. iv. 1-3,) he enlarges upon in addressing the Thessalonians. (2
Thess. ii. 3-12.) The theme is the same as treated by these two
apostles; and this coincidence will in due time be more manifest. Next
to Christ personal, the prophets have been interested in the destiny of
Christ mystical.

Three different views of this twelfth chapter have been taken by the
more sober and learned expositors. One considers it as referring to the
Roman empire in its heathen state, prior to the time of Constantine.
Another understands the first part of this chapter,--(vs. 1-6,)--as
relating to Rome pagan, and the rest of the chapter to antichristian
Rome. A third conceives that the whole of it applies to apostate
imperial Rome _only_. The last is doubtless the correct view.

As the "sealed book" and the "little open book," must be supposed to
contain all the prophetical part of the Apocalypse; and as the whole of
the little book is comprised in the eleventh chapter, (vs. 1--13,) this
twelfth chapter must belong to the sealed book. Being a continuance of
the history under the seventh seal, although it may agree in time with
some of the trumpets, it cannot go back to a period prior to the seventh
seal. But under the sixth seal, paganism was abolished in the Roman
empire; therefore this chapter refers to the antichristian empire.
Moreover, as the little book was introductory to the seventh trumpet,
designating the object of the third woe, so this chapter and the next
two, are wholly occupied in describing the object of the vials, (ch.
16.)

We ought to bear in mind continually, that the seals, trumpets and
vials, are introduced as symbols, to delineate one character, the
impenitent enemy of God and of his saints. But this enemy "beguiles
through his subtlety," changing his aspects and instruments, the more
successfully to assail the city of the Lord. It is therefore the design
of the Holy Spirit in these three chapters to present the foe in his
most prominent features, that the two witnesses may be able to identify
the enemy, be apprized of their danger, and intelligently choose their
commander,--"the Captain of salvation."

"There appeared a great wonder in heaven." The word "wonder" in this
verse, and also in verse third, simply means a _sign_ or symbol; and the
whole structure of the book requires that it be so translated.--"Woman"
is here the true church of God. Here most expositors fail to explain the
symbol "heaven." Others say "heaven" symbolizes the church. Then we have
_two churches_,--a church within a church! This is unquestionably the
only correct view of the matter. During most, if not the whole period of
the 1260 years, the witnesses are so blended with, or overshadowed by
the church catholic or general, that few are able, and fewer still
disposed, to distinguish the one from the other. All through the Bible
the church is spoken of as a female. She is the "daughter of Zion,--the
bride, the Lamb's wife." Any body politic is spoken of in the sacred
writings in the same style. "The daughter of Babylon, of Tyre, or even
of Egypt,"--These are familiar figures.

This woman is "clothed with the sun." She has "put on the Lord Jesus
Christ." (Rom. xiii. 14.) He is "the Lord her righteousness." (Jer.
xxiii. 6.) The "moon under her feet," may represent the "beggarly
elements" of the Mosaic ritual, sublunary things, or the ordinances
which derive all their light from the "Sun of righteousness." The
"twelve stars" are the doctrine of the apostles, or rather the apostles'
legitimate successors; their _legitimacy_ tested by their doctrine and
order in opposition to the _imaginary historical line_ of papistical and
prelatic succession. A faithful gospel ministry are ever her stars and
her crown, (ch. i. 20.) The true apostolic church, thus scripturally
constituted, (ch. xi. 1,) becomes the joyful mother of a holy seed. (Ps.
cxiii. 9; Gal. iv. 26, 27.)


3. And there appeared another wonder in heaven, and, behold, a great red
dragon, having seven heads, and ten horns, and seven crowns upon his
heads.

4. And his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and did cast
them to the earth: and the dragon stood before the woman which was ready
to be delivered, for to devour her child as soon as it was born.

5. And she brought forth a man-child, who was to rule all nations with a
rod of iron: and her child was caught up unto God, and to his throne.

6. And the woman fled into the wilderness, where she hath a place
prepared of God, that they should feed her there a thousand two hundred
and threescore days.

Vs. 3-6.--The next "sign in heaven," exciting the apostle's admiration,
was "a great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns,"--The dragon
is fully described, v. 9, leaving no place, or even _pretence_ for
conjecture. He is known from the day that he "beguiled Eve" in the
garden of Eden. "That old serpent" still intrudes among the saints, in
the garden of the Lord. (Job i. 6; John vi. 70; xiii. 27.) As the devil
possessed the serpent to deceive the mother of mankind, so, with the
same malevolent design, he possessed himself of the whole political and
ecclesiastical power of the Roman empire, thereby to deceive and destroy
the "seed of the woman," all true believers. His color is _red_,
denoting his character as cruel and blood-thirsty. Sir Isaac Newton
considers the dragon as symbolical of the Greek Christian empire of
Constantinople. Scott thinks this symbol represents the pagan Roman
empire; while others suppose the British government to answer the
symbol, because of the scarlet costume of her officers and soldiers!
Thus, inspired symbols may mean any thing suggested to the imaginations
of men, not by the text or context, but by their respective and
conflicting political prejudices. Surely, if the red color signify any
thing besides _cruelty_, it may be discerned with equal clearness in the
scarlet cloaks of _Pope_ and _Cardinals_. As "heaven" is to be taken in
an ecclesiastical sense, so are the "stars," (ch. i. 20,--) "the angels
of the churches," ministers of the gospel.--As the Saracenic locusts and
the Euphratean horses had stings and hurtful power in their tails, (ch.
ix. 10, 19;) so it is with this dragon. The destructive influence of
Mahometan delusion and papal idolatry, operated as a fatal poison in the
souls of men. The judgments of the past woes left many still in a state
of impenitence, (ch. ix. 20, 21.) "The leaders of this people caused
them to err," by inculcating submission to existing corrupt civil power.
The "little horn" of Daniel, as first rendered visible in the person of
the brutal Phocas, began to be addressed in language of most fulsome and
degrading flattery, which seems to be copied till the present time. That
we may see how mercenary and aspiring ecclesiastics paid court to civil
despots from the commencement of the famous 1260 years, let the
following instance serve for a sample. Addressing the monster Phocas,
Pope Gregory, as the mouth of the clergy and laity,[4] uses this
language: "We rejoice that the benignity of _your piety_(!) has reached
the pinnacle of imperial power. Let the heavens he glad and the earth
rejoice."--Now let us hear the character of Phocas from the pen of an
infidel:--"Ignorant of letters, of laws, and even of arms, he indulged
in the supreme rank a more ample privilege of lust and drunkenness.--The
punishment of the victims of his tyranny was imbittered by the
refinements of cruelty: their eyes were pierced, their tongues were torn
from the root, their hands and feet were amputated: some expired under
the lash, others in the flames, others again were transfixed with
arrows: and a simple speedy death was mercy which they could rarely
obtain."[5] Thus the dragon's power was in his mouth, issuing bloody
edicts to "slay the innocent;" while "his tail drew the third part of
the stars of heaven, and did cast them to the earth." They prostituted
their ministry to sustain the policy of the beast. "The ancient and
honorable, he is the head; and the prophet that teacheth lies, he is the
tail." (Is. ix. 15.) Thus it is that pastors, fond of show and ambitious
of worldly distinction, attach themselves to the train of earthly
thrones and dignities, and so constitute and perpetuate the
antichristian confederacy against the "woman"--the true church. During
the first six hundred years of the Christian era the woman had been
"travailing" to bring forth a holy progeny. All this time the dragon's
"eyes are privily set against the poor." (Ps. x. 8.) The allusion is
here to the cruel edict of Pharaoh (Exod. i. 16; Acts vii. 19.) The
great city where the witnesses are slain is "spiritually called Egypt."
(ch. xi. 8.) By a like form of speech, Pharaoh is called "the great
dragon," (Ezek. xxix. 3; Is. li. 9.) It should be noted, that the Roman
empire, the beast, in all its heads and horns is actuated by the
devil,--before as well as after its dismemberment, from the time of
Romulus its founder, till its overthrow by the third woe. At the time
referred to in the text, when the empire has "assumed the livery of
heaven,"--professedly in the interest of Christ, then it is that the
devil bestirs himself. Like his prototype, he dreads the growth and
power of the woman's offspring. Under pagan Rome's persecutions, "the
more God's people were afflicted, the more they multiplied and grew."
Now the adversary shapes his policy accordingly.--"Come on, let us deal
wisely with them, lest they multiply."--His avowed object is, to "devour
the child as soon as it is born,"--by persecution to prevent ministers
from laboring to convert sinners to God; and to destroy all who "as
new-born babes, desire the sincere milk of the word."--The woman had
still "strength to bring forth."--"She brought forth a man child, who
was to rule all nations with a rod of iron."--With united voice papists
and prelates declare, this child can be no other than Constantine the
first Christian emperor. The very fact that this interpretation comes
from such a source, may well suggest suspicion as to its correctness.
Two considerations demonstrate the error of this prelatic
interpretation, besides the fact that it is _prelatic_. Constantine had
gone the way of all the earth some hundreds of years before the birth of
this child. And again, the eternal Father never made the promise to
Constantine or any other earthly monarch, to which the apostle John here
refers. (Ps. ii. 8, 9.) This promise is obviously made to the Lord
Christ. But it is objected by those learned expositors,--much like the
Pharisees, (John vii. 52,)--"Search and look, for out of Galilee ariseth
no prophet." So reason these men. They haughtily and confidently object
thus:--"Christ is the son of the _Jewish_ church, but this child is the
son of the _Christian_ church." This argument destroys the unity of the
church of God, which is one under all changes of dispensation of his
gracious covenant. (Rom. xi. 16-24; Eph. ii. 20.) The Messiah is here
represented as in the beginning of the war with the same enemy;--the
_seed_ of the _woman_ shall bruise the serpent's head. Still may the
church of God joyfully declare,--"Unto us a _Child_ is born, unto us a
_Son_ is given." (Is. ix. 6.) This _masculine_ son, however, is not to
be understood of Christ _personal_, but of Christ mystical,--of those
who are with him "called, and chosen, and faithful;" whom "he is not
ashamed to call his brethren." (ch. xvii. 14; Heb. ii. 11.) The "sealed"
company, (ch. vii. 4,) the "two witnesses;" (xi. 3), the "144 thousand,"
(xiv. 1,) are the "manchild." As many rulers constitute but one "angel,"
(chs. ii. and iii.,) so the two witnesses are one _manly Son_. The Lord
Jesus was _alone_ in the work of redemption; but he allows his faithful
disciples to share in the honor of his victories, (ch. ii. 26, 27; Ps.
cxlix. 9.) From the devouring jaws of the dragon, as it were, the "child
is caught up unto God, and to his throne." The leaders in church and
state supposed that they had "made sure" of the Saviour, when they had
"sealed the stone and set a watch." So thought the enemies of the
witnesses while their dead bodies lay unburied.--"He that sitteth in the
heavens shall laugh: the Lord shall have them in derision." The Anointed
of the Father, the Head of the church, and Prince of the kings of the
earth, as the representative of his people, in defiance of the serpent,
is caught up to the throne of God, (Eph. ii. 6;) while the church flies
to her appointed place in the wilderness during the 1260 years. At the
beginning of that gloomy period the woman fled. This flight is not
mentioned "by anticipation," as some suppose; for the wilderness
condition of the woman, and the sackcloth of the witnesses, are
emblematical of the same depressed state of the church, and during the
same time. The witnesses prophesy during the whole period of the 1260
years; and the woman is fed in the wilderness during the _same_ time.
Her flight, sojourn in the wilderness, and feeding there, are allusions
to the history of Elijah as before, (ch. xi. 6.) when he fled for his
life from the wrath of Jezebel. (1 Kings xix. 1-4.) Jezebel has been
already introduced as an enemy to the church, (ch. ii. 20.) There may be
allusion also to the miraculous subsistence of the church in the
wilderness, till the "cup of the Amorites should be full." During the
time of the conflict, to be described in the rest of this chapter, the
woman is in a place of safety. In the worst of times there are places of
safety provided for God's children. (Isa. xxvi. 20.)


7. And there was war in heaven: Michael and his angels fought against
the dragon; and the dragon fought, and his angels.

8. And prevailed not; neither was their place found any more in heaven,

9. And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the
Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into
the earth, and his angels were cast out with him.

10. And I heard a loud voice saying in heaven, Now is come salvation,
and strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of his Christ;
for the accuser of our brethren is cast down, which accused them before
our God day and night.

11. And they overcame him by the blood of the Lamb, and by the word of
their testimony; and they loved not their lives unto the death.

Vs. 7-11.--In this part of the chapter we have three attacks of the
dragon upon the friends of true religion. The first is the war in
heaven, (vs. 7-12.) The second persecution on the earth, (vs. 12-16.)
The third is mentioned in verse 17th: and these three contests cover the
whole period of the 1260 years.

The first war is waged in heaven. The allusion is obviously to the
rebellion of angels, for which they were cast down from heaven, (2 Pet.
ii. 4.) The contest is the same in principle as the first war; but it is
conducted in a different form and place. Heaven here, is the church
general, and the serpent acts by the authority of the empire. The woman
having fled into the wilderness, the dragon's power becomes so great in
the symbolical heaven, that he aims at the entire destruction of true
religion in the world. The advocates of the true religion at this time
were the Waldenses, called by their adversaries in derision _Leonists_
and _Cathari_,--citizens of Lyons in France; and Puritans, a term of
reproach heaped upon their successors till the present day. These people
were deemed the most dangerous enemies to the church of Rome. Yet the
reasons for their condemnation by the inquisitors, are their full
vindication in the judgment of impartial men. They are three,--"This is
the oldest sect; for some say it hath endured,--from the time of the
apostles. It is more general; for there is no country in which this sect
is not. Because when all other sects beget horror in the hearers, this
of the Leonists hath a great show of piety: they live justly before men,
and believe all things rightly concerning God; only they blaspheme the
church of Rome and the clergy." While the beast by its horns, instigated
by an apostate church, and both by the dragon, was "making havoc of the
church," represented by the Puritans: there were some even in the Romish
cloisters whose hearts God had touched, and who occasionally espoused
the cause of a virtuous minority at the hazard of life. This war _in
heaven_, conducted with various success by Bernard, Peter Waldo, John
Wickliffe and others on the European continent and in Britain, may be
pronounced by Gibbon "premature and ineffectual;" but the Captain of
salvation and his heroic followers, will give a different verdict. These
noble confessors and martyrs, under the conduct of Michael our prince,
began the struggle with the dragon, although the war did not come to its
height till the early part of the 16th century. Then it was that
"Michael and his angels fought against the dragon, and the dragon fought
and his angels." Both parties became more visible in the symbolic heaven
before the eyes of all Christendom. Michael, (_who is like God_?) is the
well known description of Jesus Christ. (Phil. ii. 6; Heb. i. 3.) To
Daniel, while contemplating this same contest, he was made known as the
"great Prince, that standeth for the children of God's people," and long
before Daniel's time, had "contended with the devil." (Jude v. 9.)
"Christ and Belial" are therefore the two opposing leaders of the
armies. In other words, Christ mystical and the devil incarnate are the
belligerents; and we know that "greater is he that is in the saints,
than he that is in the world." (1 John iv. 4.) The result of the war is
not doubtful. The whole power of Rome, civil and
ecclesiastical,--emperors, kings, princes, pope, cardinals and prelates,
were baffled; and this too, whether in the use of the sword of the
Spirit,--polemic _theses_,--or of the material sword, in literal
warfare. When the Lord Jesus "mustered the hosts to the battle," he
furnished them "with the whole armour of God to stand in the evil way."
When Zuingle, Luther, Calvin, Knox, their compeers and successors, were
obliged to wrestle with the hosts of Antichrist,--"against
principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of
this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places," (_wicked
spirits in heavenly places_,) they found it both lawful and
necessary,--"having no sword, to buy one." (Luke xxii. 36.)

The dragon and his angels were defeated and routed,--"They prevailed
not,--he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with
him." The thunders of the Vatican thenceforth lost their wonted power to
terrify. Ever since, they are but _brutum fulmen,--vox, et praeterea
nihel_,--harmless thunder,--unmeaning voice. Papal curses, though
annually launched against all heretics, tend only to amuse the popular
mind, not to reach or disturb the individual conscience. For centuries
the dragon has been unable to rouse any one horn of the beast to deeds
of blood.

It is usual for the victors to give outward expression to their joy.
"The voice of them that shout for mastery," has been heard since the
days of Moses. (Exod. xxxii. 18.) Accordingly, these conquerors
congratulate one another on their recent victory, but their joy
terminates on the proper object. The "kingdom of their God and the power
of his Christ" constitute their theme. His right hand and his holy arm
have gotten him the victory. The devil accused Job before God. His
accusations in that instance were prosecuted through Job's friends and
his wife. (Job ii. 4, 5, 9, 11.)--So it was in the experience of the
reformers. They were loaded with infamy by their persecutors; and while
they were depressed, God himself seemed to give sentence against them.
This was the wormwood and the gall in the cup of their affliction, as it
was in holy Job's experience: but in due time God "brought forth their
righteousness as the light, and their judgment as the noonday." Their
"good conversation put to silence the ignorance of foolish men." The
power of the Lord's Christ was made manifest through the instrumentality
of his servants, by producing conviction in many hearts that the cause
for which they suffered was from God, and thus prevailing with such to
join in their fellowship. The hearts of kings and princes of the earth
were touched from on high; so that they braved the combinations of
imperial and papal power, while extending the shield of their protection
to the followers of the Lamb. Frederick the Wise, and especially John
his brother, electors of Saxony in Luther's time, were notable bulwarks
of defence to the sufferers, against the bloody edicts of Charles fifth,
emperor of Germany. The "good regent" in Scotland and others extended
effectual protection to Knox, his coadjutors and followers in the cause
of reformation. When the seven thunders uttered their voices, John "was
about to write," (ch. x. 4.) He was about to proclaim a final victory!
He was too sanguine. "The time was not yet." Just so in the case of his
legitimate successors in the work of the Lord. Confident in the power
and faithfulness of Michael their Prince, confident in the righteousness
of their cause, fondly hoping that at this time their Master is about to
restore again the kingdom to Israel, they prematurely exclaim,--"Now is
come salvation."--In reaping the first fruits of victory, they
anticipate the harvest of final and absolute conquest, (ch. xiv. 8.)
Indeed, the salvation of God and the power of his Christ, were
experienced by great multitudes during the time of this contest. The
saints experienced times of refreshing from the presence of the Lord.
Then followed a work of grace, both on the continent of Europe and in
the British Isles; Christians entering into solemn covenant bonds with
God and with one another, whereby the kingdom of God was rendered more
visible among mankind than in the "dark ages." The weapons, with which
the saints overcame the dragon, were not carnal, but mighty. These, we
are told, were "the blood of the Lamb, and the word of their testimony."
They believed and they taught in opposition to the popular doctrine of
good works and penances, that the righteousness which the law of God
requires of a sinner, is provided by a Surety; that the blood of Christ
alone cleanses believers from the guilt of sin, and thus justifies them
in the sight of God. No man ever used stronger language than Luther in
denouncing the supposed efficacy of works, or in asserting the
sovereignty of free grace, in the justification of a sinner. Indeed it
was the deep impression which the doctrine of justification made upon
the hearts of men, and the firm hold which faith took of it, that
enabled and constrained them to forsake the Romish church and to seek
and erect a separate fellowship. This was with them "the word of
Christ's patience." Other doctrines of grace were, of course, connected
with this of justification in the apprehension of the Reformers, but it
was the central one. And thus we may learn, that any doctrine of the
Bible, when generally opposed, may lawfully become a point of testimony;
and when openly opposed and practically denied, it may become a
warrantable and imperative ground of separation. In all such cases,--and
history supplies multitudes of them,--the declining majority are truly
the schismatics and separatists. The malicious, the indolent and
credulous, however, in all ages have joined in the cry of schism as
attaching to the virtuous minority.

Many of the combatants fell in the conflict, "resisting unto blood,
striving against sin." "They loved not their lives unto the death." They
could give no stronger evidence of love to Christ and truth. Their
faithful contendings constituted their testimony. This testimony is
called in the 17th verse, "the testimony of Jesus Christ." Does this
mean that it _belongs_ to Christ? or that it _treats_ of him? The
language may probably be taken in either sense, or as embracing both. It
is Christ's testimony, as he is "the faithful and true Witness, who
before Pontius Pilate witnessed a good confession;" or it may be
understood as bearing upon Christ in his person, offices and work. In
either sense his faithful disciples enjoy intimate communion with
himself, sharing the honour of his victories, (v. 5.) Therefore let the
heavens rejoice in prospect of _final_ victory, (ch. xviii. 20.)


12. Therefore rejoice, ye heavens, and ye that dwell in them. Woe to the
inhabiters of the earth, and of the sea! for the devil is come down unto
you, having great wrath, because he knoweth that he hath but a short
time.

13. And when the dragon saw that he was cast into the earth, he
persecuted the woman, which brought forth the manchild.

Vs. 12, 13.--Here is a note of warning. The dragon, though ejected from
the symbolic heaven, the seat of imperial and ecclesiastic power, is not
yet bound with the great chain, (ch. xx. 1, 2.) His late defeat has only
incensed his rage, "as a bear robbed of her whelps." But the special
reason assigned for his "great wrath" is, "because he knoweth that he
hath but a short time." How does the devil come to this knowledge? Is he
omniscient! No. Was he joint-counsellor with the Most High? No. (Isa.
xl. 13, 14; Rom. xi. 34.) He must have derived this knowledge from
revelation; and from some instances in Scripture, we might infer that
the devil is more skilled in theology, especially in prophecy, than
many, if not most modern interpreters. In the time of our Lord's
humiliation he quoted and applied to him a prophecy in the 91st psalm,
(v. 11, 12.) He also dreaded being tormented,--"before the time." (Matt.
viii. 29:) from which it appears that he reasons of the "times and the
seasons" as revealed in the Bible. But by the phrase, "a short time,"
the devil understood,--and we are to understand,--not the time to
transpire till the end of the world; but, the time intervening between
his ejectment out of heaven, and the overthrow of Antichrist, when he is
to be bound. Now, we may learn from the _devil's calculation_, that all
those learned and famous divines, especially of the prelatic church of
England, "do greatly err, not knowing the Scriptures;" who say, that the
dragon was cast out of the symbolic heaven _in the time of Constantine!_
The space of duration _from Constantine till the millennium_, cannot be
relatively "short," under the New Testament dispensation. The time of
the dragon's being cast out of heaven, and the instruments by which this
was accomplished, are to be found clearly verified in the authentic
histories of the sixteenth century, to which some references have been
already made, as elucidating the events of the 11th chapter: for it is
to be still remembered that the former part of the 11th chapter _agrees
in time_ with the 12th, 13th and 14th chapters. At the end of the second
woe, which we supposed to be in the latter part of the seventeenth
century, about the year 1672, it is declared "the third woe cometh
quickly," (ch. xi. 14.) Now here it is said "the devil,--hath but a
short time." Taking both expressions as relating to the same period, it
follows that we are now living,--not in the time of the third woe, but
in the time of the devil's activity among the "inhabiters of the earth
and of the sea;" that is, the population of Christendom either in a
tranquil or revolutionary state. The enemy makes his _second_ attack
upon the "woman" in a new and unexpected mode of warfare. So long as
permitted, he never ceases to persecute the saints. When defeated in
_heaven_, he renews the assault upon the _earth_. If the edicts and
bulls of crowned and mitred heads have lost their power to terrify and
destroy the souls of men, he will try to effect the same object by other
means.


14. And to the woman were given two wings of a great eagle, that she
might fly into the wilderness, into her place; where she is nourished
for a time, and times, and half a time, from the face of the serpent.

15. And the serpent cast out of his mouth, water as a flood, after the
woman, that he might cause her to be carried away of the flood.

16. And the earth helped the woman, and the earth opened her mouth, and
swallowed up the flood which the dragon cast out of his mouth.

Vs. 14-16.--To guard against the _second_ attack of the dragon, the
woman flees a _second_ time to the place of safety, which had been
mercifully prepared for her preservation before the war began, (v. 6.)
And she is in no less peril from her deadly enemy than before.

The "two wings of a great eagle" have furnished occasion to many fertile
minds for indulging in fanciful conjectures. To such persons nothing
occurs answerable to the symbol but some emblem of imperial power or
national sovereignty. And because the eagle was the visible symbol on
the military banner of Rome, it is conjectured that "the eastern and
western empires afforded protection to the church!" Why, the empire, in
both its wings, was the deadly enemy of the church, as we have already
seen! (ch. xi. 7.) Alas! what absurdities result from political bias!
The unlettered Christian will readily perceive under the emblem in the
text, a plain allusion to the gracious interposition of the church's
Redeemer in the days of old. "Ye have seen what I did unto the
Egyptians, and how I bare you on _eagles' wings_, and brought you unto
myself." (Exod. xix. 4.) Thus the Lord delivered his people and brought
them into a literal wilderness on their way to the promised land of
liberty. And now in a time of equal danger, he will "set his hand again
the second time" to deliver his people. He who delivered them from so
great a death as Pharaoh threatened, doth still deliver: in whom his
saints have ground to trust that he will still deliver them, (2 Cor. i.
10) The great and beneficial change accomplished among the nations by
the reformation in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, whereby the
dragon was hurled from seats of ecclesiastical and civil power, did not
materially change the position of the "two witnesses." The time had not
yet come when they were to be called up into the symbolic heaven. They
must continue to prophesy till the close of the appointed period of 1260
years. Till the expiration of that definite period the true church of
Christ is not to be permanently established in any nation of the earth.
The actual condition of the church and of the nations among whom she
dwells, is delineated in these verses during the time subsequent to the
Protestant Reformation,--consequently in our own time. The "time, times
and half a time" of the 14th verse, are an obvious reference to Daniel
vii. 25: xii. 7; and are the same period as 42 months, or 1260 days, "a
day for a year." During this whole time the woman is nourished in the
wilderness "from the face of the serpent." Safety is secured for her
only "in her place."

"Water," as a symbol or metaphor, is of frequent occurrence and varied
import in Scripture. Among its diversified significations, perhaps that
of a destructive element is most common. (Ps. xviii. 4; xxxii. 6.) It is
indeed often used to denote gospel blessings, (as Is. lv. 1; John vii.
38; Rev. xxii. 17.) As here used, the "water as a flood," represents
something intended by the dragon for the destruction of the woman. If he
cannot destroy her by fire, he aims to overwhelm her with water. This
water comes out of the dragon's "mouth." So of the "unclean spirits,"
(ch. xvi. 13.) Soul-destroying errors,--heresies,--are undoubtedly
intended. If he cannot devour as a roaring lion, he will endeavour to
deceive and seduce as a cunning serpent. We are therefore instructed
hereby to look for "damnable heresies" to prevail, accompanied and
followed by popular commotions and licentiousness. The age in which we
live is remarkably characterized by false systems and impious theories.
Speculative atheism caused the French revolution, and led to the
erection of the United States government; which, having openly declared
independence of England, soon after virtually declared independence of
God. France, Germany, England and the United States, have all been
pervaded with infidel and atheistical sentiments; and these, whether
propagated under the name of _solid science_ or _polite literature_,
have corrupted the public mind for generations. In the name of science,
treating of the material or moral world, the agents of the dragon have
been exceedingly successful. Metaphysicians and geologists have
constructed systems which would exclude the Almighty from the heavens
and the earth. But however active and zealous these laborers in the
service of the dragon, they do not reach the popular ear but in part.
Those sons of Belial who devise false systems of religion under the name
of Christianity, have been still more pernicious to the nations, and
dangerous to the church. If the church of Rome cannot prevail with kings
as before, to execute her cruel sentences of death upon heretics, she is
not less active in disseminating her idolatrous and superstitious dogmas
among the nations. By freemasonry, odd-fellowship, temperance
associations, and a countless number of affiliated societies,--the
offshoots of popery and infidelity, the dragon still assails the woman.
Reason, toleration, humanity, charity and liberality are terms which
have been selected and abused by the servants of the devil "to deceive
the hearts of the simple." These are alike the watchwords of the
spiritual seducer and the political agitator. What dogma or heresy so
absurd,--what conduct so immoral, as not to find patronage in the
journals of the day? or not to find tolerance or protection under the
fostering wings of church or state? What is impiously called "free
love," as well as avowed infidelity and polygamy, are patronized by
constituted authorities in Christendom. When taking a survey of the
errors and systems of error, hostile to the honor of Messiah and the
free grace of his gospel, how few can be found in the different nations
of the earth, who "overcame by the blood of the Lamb!" The religions
established by the nations of the world are all more or less tainted
with the errors, and disfigured by the ceremonies of the church of Rome.
Surely we have before our eyes a constant fulfilment of the prophecy
under consideration. To all outward appearance the woman is in the
wilderness. She is in fact so obscure that some of her sons begin to
question her visibility. They are ready to cry in despondency,--"The
witnesses are slain."--They are mistaken. This is their infirmity. The
1260 years are not yet expired, nor the testimony finished. "When the
enemy shall come in _like a flood_, the Spirit of the Lord shall lift up
a standard against him." (Isa. lix. 19.) The mystic woman is yet in the
wilderness, and there she is nourished with the hidden manna "a time,
times and half a time," "forty and two months, or twelve hundred and
sixty days,"--that is, years; for, as formerly noticed, all these
expressions mean the same period of time; the period during which the
witnesses prophesy, on the one side, and the gentiles tread the outer
court, on the other. The profanation of the holy city,--the church
nominal, and the testimony of the witnesses against that conduct, is the
same contest which in this chapter is represented under other symbols.
The waters of the symbolic flood have spread over all the nations of
Christendom, corrupting the very fountains of natural and moral science,
literature, politics and religion; so that hardly any principle is
accepted by the human mind as settled, but all is thrown into debate.
Man's intellect, craving substantial nourishment, and thirsting for
refreshment which nothing but the water of life can supply, vibrates
between ritualism and skepticism in our day. The flood from the dragon's
mouth, consisting of truth and error, a combination of Christianity,
refined idolatry and speculative atheism, fails to satisfy the necessary
cravings of the immortal soul. "There be many that say, Who will show us
any good?" (Ps. iv. 6.)

In this state of the popular mind, there is a general sentiment which
discountenances penalties inflicted for mere opinion. The cry of
toleration,--"freedom of speech and of the press," resounds in the
public ear among most communities since the dragon was cast down from
the mystic heaven. This popular sentiment is not an expression of the
law of charity, actuating hearts influenced by divine grace; but rather
originates from indifference alike to the claims of Messiah and the
destinies of mankind. Thus "the earth helps the woman." Indeed, the
nations of Christendom, contrary to their former policy, are now much
more tolerant of ecclesiastical than of _political_ heresies. With few
exceptions, the policy of the nations at the present time is to
discriminate, not among _churches_, but among _religions_. The popular
voice is obviously in favor of dissevering that alliance between church
and state, from which mankind have suffered in past generations. While
every earthly potentate, usurping the place and prerogatives of the
Mediator, assumed to dictate the faith and worship of his subjects, all
dissenters and recusants must necessarily be subjected to penalties.
Such was the policy of the dragon for centuries, while in the heavens of
ecclesiastical and civil power. The nominal church established by the
state, _defined heresy_; and the heresy found by the church became
rebellion against the civil authority. Of course the saints were then
executed as _traitors_. Even a superficial view of the signs of the
times will result in the conviction, that a great change has taken place
in the policy of nations and churches. The dragon has now prevailed with
most politicians and statesmen, as well as with most professing
Christians, to demand a total "separation of church and state;" by which
demand they do not mean a divorce of the unscriptural and
_antichristian_ alliance only or chiefly, but a simple and absolute
rejection of religion, and especially the _Christian_ religion, from any
connexion with or influence upon _civil_ affairs. This is undeniably the
avowed aim and declared desire of the great body of the population of
Christendom at the present time, (1870.) And what is this but an open
denial of the authority of the Mediator as he is the "Prince of the
kings of the earth?" Thus has the dragon, since his ejection from heaven
become a terrible "woe to the inhabiters of the earth and of the sea!"
And thus has the "earth opened her mouth and swallowed up the flood;" so
that the woman remains comparatively safe "from the face of the serpent"
in the very obscurity of her position. Some of her sons, from time to
time, venturing abroad from their secluded place in the wilderness,
becoming weary of sackcloth and aspiring to worldly distinction, have
been borne along by the waters of the flood, and _drowned in the general
deluge_. Against the force of this strong current of popular errors,
nothing will avail the seed of the woman but the "living water" which
Jesus imparted to the woman of Samaria. To him who partakes of this
water, those of the dragon will be distasteful; for "it shall be in him
a well of water springing up into everlasting life." (John iv. 14.)
Since the middle of the seventeenth century, when by the reformation in
Europe and the British Isles, the dragon was cast down from the symbolic
heaven, he has been assailing in "great wrath" all ranks and degrees of
men, not, as before, with fire and sword, with scaffolds, gibbets,
thumb-screws,--torturing and destroying their mortal bodies, that he
might reach their immortal souls: but by bringing them together in
_voluntary associations_ on principles of the covenant of works,
subversive of the covenant of grace, and consequently aiming at the
drowning of the mystic woman. This the enemy of all righteousness has
been attempting, and with too much success, by public and professed
ecclesiastical and Christian associations; such as Jesuits, Socinians
and other self-styled Unitarians, Latter-day Saints, Mormons,--or by
combinations in secret and sworn confederacies; such as Odd Fellows,
Freemasons, Sons and Daughters of Temperance, with other affiliated
fellowships innumerable. The special subtlety of the serpent consists in
blending these two kinds of communions, so that under the name of
reform, moral and spiritual, those who fear God may be unconsciously
drawn into the snare. And alas! how many simple ones have been thus
carried away by the waters of the flood! And many strong men have been
thus cast down from their excellency. We are not to be surprised if we
find the witnesses few in our time,--the seed of the woman diminished
when the dragon makes his final attack.


17. And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with
the remnant of her seed, which keep the commandments of God, and have
the testimony of Jesus Christ.

V. 17.--In this verse we have the last effort of the enemy, to destroy
the woman's offspring. It is the _third_ attempt, and, as we suppose, is
yet future. We cannot therefore, of course, be so exact or certain as to
the nature of this contest. Some things, however, are plain enough. The
dragon, disappointed in his efforts hitherto against the woman, so far
from ceasing the warfare, is only thereby the more exasperated. "The
dragon was wroth with the woman." Malice overcomes reason. He knows that
he cannot finally prevail,--that "no weapon formed against her shall
prosper;" yet he continues to vent his rage. The mode of attack is to be
different from what it was in the second struggle. He is said to "make
war,"--to resort to open violence, to employ the agency of the civil
power, the beast of the bottomless pit, (ch. xi. 7;) for this third and
last war, waged by the dragon agrees in time with the _slaying of the
witnesses_. This third onset agrees also with the "third woe-trumpet,"
the "vintage" and the last "vial;" and immediately precedes the
introduction of the millennium. "The remnant of the woman's seed" are so
called with reference to those of her offspring who had suffered death
under pagan and papal Rome, (ch. vi. 9.) Perhaps also we may suppose the
number to be comparatively few at the time of the last war with the
dragon; as during the whole period of the 1260 years, it was the aim of
the dragon, through his instruments, to wear out the saints of the Most
High. (Dan. vii. 25.) The character which the Holy Spirit gives of these
sufferers proves them to be the woman's seed. They "keep the
commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ." This is
the special ground of the devil's hostility towards them. A more
comprehensive and definite description of true believers is not to be
found in the whole Bible. In matters of religion they adhere strictly to
the commandments of God. They will not introduce, nor permit to be
introduced, any corruptions into the doctrines of grace or into the
matter of God's worship. The temple, altar and worshippers must stand
the measurement of God's word in their fellowship. No human traditions
or innovations are to be tolerated. But besides their conscientious care
to have all the laws of the house of God duly observed, these remaining
witnesses sustain and propagate the testimony of their predecessors,
with such additional facts as they may have collected in their own time,
for the personal glory, the offices and work of Jesus Christ. This
testimony will necessarily bring them into collision with the children
of those who killed their fathers in the same quarrel. Like their
fathers, "they have the sentence of death in themselves, that they
should not trust in themselves, but in God which raiseth the dead,--not
accepting deliverance, that they might obtain a better resurrection." (2
Cor. i. 9; Heb. xi. 35.) For as already hinted, this remnant is to
"overcome by the blood of the Lamb and by the word of their testimony,"
as others did; and in death to gain the final victory over death by
vital union to their living Lord, "being made conformable to his death."
(Heb. ii. 14, 15.)



CHAPTER XIII.


1. And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of
the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten
crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy.

2. And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were
as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion; and the
dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority.

3. And I saw one of his heads as it were wounded to death; and his
deadly wound was healed: and all the world wondered after the beast.

4. And they worshipped the dragon which gave power unto the beast: and
they worshipped the beast, saying, Who is like unto the beast? Who is
able to make war with him?

5. And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things, and
blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue forty and two
months.

6. And he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his
name, and his tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven.

7. And it was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to
overcome them: and power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues,
and nations.

8. And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are
not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of
the world.

9. If any man have an ear, let him hear.

10. He that leadeth into captivity, shall go into captivity; he that
killeth with the sword, must be killed with the sword. Here is the
patience and the faith of the saints.

Vs. 1-10.--This chapter may be considered as an explication or
commentary upon the seventh chapter of Daniel's prophecy, and a farther
elucidation of what is revealed under different symbols in the two
preceding chapters; and no one can have an intelligent understanding of
its contents without a competent knowledge of the symbols employed in
those chapters. Here the Holy Spirit has given a most graphic,
intelligible and comprehensive exhibition of the complex power which the
dragon employs, to persecute and slay the witnessing servants of Christ.
Hitherto the devil has conducted the war against the saints through the
agency of the beast of the pit, (ch. xi. 7,) and those allies called
"his angels:" (ch. xii. 7:) but there has been a vail of obscurity
hanging over these agencies. Who the beast and other allies of the
dragon are, it is the very _design_ of this chapter to disclose, with
greater precision and clearness than heretofore. In a word, we have here
the _full portrait_ of THE GREAT ANTICHRIST. The distinct features and
component parts of this complex and diabolical system of hostility to
the Lord and his Anointed, are presented in detail for our inspection.
And it is a fact, that by a competent knowledge of this hostile
combination, the suffering saints of God have been hitherto enabled to
direct their testimony with intelligence and efficacy against their
appropriate objects. And although the developments of providence in past
centuries, and those transpiring in our own generation, are calculated
to shed light upon this and collateral prophecies; yet the gross
conceptions of the illiterate in the contemplation of prophetic symbols
on the one hand, and the reckless disregard of scripture rules and usage
by the learned on the other, have greatly contributed to the present
lamentable ignorance and culpable indifference of most Christians. For
people cannot feel an interest in that of which they are ignorant. But
to be "willingly ignorant" of that which may and ought to be known, is
one of the characteristic sins of a generation of impenitent and profane
"scoffers." (2 Pet. iii. 3, 5.) On the other hand, all who humbly and
earnestly desire to know the mind of God for their direction in faith
and holiness, shall assuredly obtain the necessary instruction. (Dan.
vii. 16: viii. 15; John xvi. 13; 1 Cor. xiv. 38.)

In these first ten verses are contained the characteristics of that
beast whose origin is given, ch. xi. 7. There we had no particular
description of this personage; only he was the agent by whom the
witnesses were opposed in open warfare, and by whom they were finally
killed. Now we have a more full account of his origin, character,
achievements and duration. This personage is denominated a "beast." So
are designated other characters, who are very different from this, (ch.
iv. 6.) In that place we intimated that the authorized version is
imperfect; and that either "living creatures" or simply "animals," which
latter we prefer, is that which the reader is to understand from the
original word. Not only are the "four animals" different in origin,
nature and agency from the "beast;" but in all these respects they are
morally opposite. This is a ravenous beast; a beast of prey. Elsewhere
the word is translated a "wild beast," a "venomous beast," a "viper."
(Acts x. 12; xxviii. 4.) This beast is the same which appeared in vision
to the prophet Daniel, (ch. vii. 3.) Of the four great beasts which that
prophet saw, this is the last. All the preceding are described by their
resemblance to some known animals, but each is ferocious,--"a lion,
bear, leopard." The fourth is a _nondescript_; there is no species in
the animal kingdom that can represent it; only it was "diverse from all
the beasts that were before it," (v. 7.) These four beasts represent
"four kings," (v. 17,) that is, "kingdoms," (v. 23,) or _dynasties_. Now
all interpreters agree that these four dynasties are the same as those
symbolized in Nebuchadnezzar's dream, (ch. ii. 31-43.) The different
parts of the "image" answer to the four beasts; and these again are the
symbols of the Babylonian, Medo-Persian, Grecian and Roman empires. Thus
far, all sober expositors are agreed. Also, there is a like agreement
that John's _first_ beast identifies with Daniel's _fourth_,--the Roman
empire. This is obvious from the general description by both
prophets,--"having seven heads and ten horns." (Dan. vii. 7; Rev. xiii.
1.)

The origin of this beast is threefold,--"out of the sea," (v. 1,) "out
of the bottomless pit," (ch. xi. 7; xvii. 8,) and "out of the earth."
(Dan. vii. 17.) Out of the sea of the commotions arising from the
incursions of the northern barbarians, by whom the Roman empire was
dismembered. "The ten horns out of this kingdom are ten kings that shall
arise." (Dan. vii. 24.) This is the result of revolution,--"the sea."
The Roman empire, especially as nominally Christian, is thus
characterized as being "earthly, sensual, devilish," a suitable agent of
the dragon.

The fact of the ten horns of the beast, _now wearing crowns_, proves
that the time to which the prophecy refers, is that which followed the
division of the empire into ten kingdoms. The seven heads of the beast
have a double significance,--seven different forms of government, and
seven mountains, afterwards to be more fully explained, (ch. xvii. 9,
10.) The "name of blasphemy" may indicate "eternal city, mistress of the
world."--Of this characteristic of the beast, other examples will be
discovered hereafter.

Daniel was solicitous to "know the truth (interpretation) of the fourth
beast, which was diverse from all the others," (ch. vii. 19.) Although
"diverse from all the others" in geographical extent and destructive
power, this fourth beast combined in one all the ravenous propensities
of the three predecessors, but in _reverse order_. The "leopard, bear
and lion of Daniel," by which Grecian, Persian and Chaldean dynasties
were symbolized, are all comprised in John's beast of the sea,--the
antichristian Roman empire. Since this beast of the sea embodies all the
voracious properties of the three persecuting powers which went before
it; this may be a suitable place briefly to review the sufferings
inflicted by them upon the saints, that we may know what the witnesses
were taught to expect at the hands of this monstrous enemy.--"Israel is
a scattered sheep, the lions have driven him away: first, the king of
Assyria hath devoured him, and last, this Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon
hath broken his bones.--The violence done to me and to my flesh, be upon
Babylon, shall the inhabitant of Zion say; and, My blood upon the
inhabitants of Chaldea, shall Jerusalem say." (Jer. 1. 17; li.
35.)--"Haman, the son Hammedatha, the Agagite, the Jews' enemy,--thought
scorn to lay hands on Mordecai alone."--"If it please the king, let it
be written that they (the whole people) may be destroyed; and I will pay
ten thousand talents of silver,--to bring it into the king's
treasuries."--"Behold also the gallows, fifty cubits high, which Haman
had made for Mordecai, who had spoken good for the king, standeth in the
house of Haman. Then the king said, Hang him thereon." (Esth. iii. 1, 9;
vii. 9.) Such were the crimes and such the punishments of the enemies of
God's people in Babylon and Persia, as already matter of inspired
history: and had we equally full and authentic records of the
punishments as we have of the cruelties of Antiochus and other
successors of Alexander the Great, the king of Greece, we would see, as
in the other cases, "the just reward of the wicked." Of all these
idolatrous, tyrannical and persecuting powers, which the Divine Spirit
represented by beasts of prey, it was foretold that they were to be
removed in succession and with violence. This fourth beast, "dreadful
and terrible and strong exceedingly, was to devour and break in pieces,
and stamp the residue with the feet of it." (Dan. vii. 7.) Moreover,
while it is predicted of them that "they had their dominion taken away,"
it is also added,--"yet their lives were prolonged for a season and
time," (v. 12.) That is, though their distinct and successive
_dominions_ were severally swept from the earth, yet their _lives_,--the
diabolical principles by which they had been actuated survived; and
these passed, by a kind of transmigration, into the body of the fourth
beast. This transition of animating principles or imperial policy of
inveterate hostility to the kingdom of God, we think, is plainly
indicated by the three features of this beast of the sea, the "leopard,
bear and lion." If these three "slew their thousands," this monster has
"slain his ten thousands" of the saints; and the remnant of the woman's
seed are yet to be "slain as they were," (ch. vi. 11.)

"The dragon gave him his power,"--physical force, "his seat" or
_throne_,--his right to reign, "and great authority"--dominion--by the
voice of the people. Thus, it is obvious that the seven-headed,
ten-horned beast is the first, and the oldest, among the combined
enemies of the Christian church; all of whose origin is from the dragon,
the abyss or bottomless pit. The writers of the church of Rome, while
forced to acknowledge that this beast is emblematical of the Roman
empire, still insist that _pagan_ Rome is intended. It is sufficient in
opposition to this false interpretation to observe, that the beast
appears to John with crowns, not upon his _heads_, but upon his _horns_,
denoting the actual division of the empire into ten kingdoms: an event
which did not transpire till after the empire had become nominally
Christian under the reign of Constantine the Great. The reign of this
emperor and his successors, by their largesses fostered the luxurious
propensities of the Christian ministry, and so contributed to prepare
the way for the rise of the next enemy in this antichristian confederacy
against the witnesses.--The "head wounded unto death is the _sixth_.
John says expressly, elsewhere, "five are fallen, and one is, and the
other is not yet come," (ch. xvii. 10.) The "five fallen" were, kings,
consuls, dictators, decemvirs, and military tribunes. All these forms of
civil government had passed before the time of the apostle. The one
existing in his time, was the sixth head,--the emperors; by one of whom
the apostle was now subjected to banishment in the desert isle of
Patmos. This wound is supposed by some to be the change from paganism to
Christianity in the empire. No; this view is many ways erroneous: but it
is enough to remark that the Roman empire, according to both prophets,
Daniel and John, is to continue _bestial_ under all changes, during the
whole period of 1260 years. The deadly wound was inflicted by the
northern invaders who overturned the empire, and, for the time,
extinguished the very name of emperor in the person of Augustulus. After
the division of the western member of the empire had been subdivided
among the victorious leaders of the invaders from the north, and the
people of that section supposed the beast slain, the throne of
Constantinople continued to be occupied by the representative of the
empire. In the popular apprehension the imperial head of the beast
seemed to be utterly cut off by the sword of Odoacer,--"wounded by a
sword:" but the several kingdoms into which the empire was divided, in
process of time became united in the bonds of an apostate faith. The
imperial name and dignity were revived in the person of the emperor of
Germany, Charlemagne, in 800; and by the wars among the horns of the
beast, the title of emperor has been claimed alternately by Germany,
Austria and France, down to our own time. These dissensions and
rivalries among the sovereigns of Europe,--the mystic horns of the
beast, were foreshadowed in the Babylonish monarch's dream:--"the
kingdom shall be partly strong and partly broken,--they shall not cleave
one to another, even as iron is not mixed with clay," (Dan. ii. 42, 43.)
And doubtless these internal commotions among the common enemies of the
saints of God, have tended, in divine mercy, to divert their attention
occasionally from the witnesses. While they have been made the
instruments of mutual punishment, the Lord's people have been "hid in
the day of his fierce anger." (Zeph. ii. 3.)

At what time the sixth head of the beast disappeared and the seventh
became developed, is not clearly marked in the Apocalypse, and it is of
comparatively little importance, since the latter is to "continue a
short space" (ch. xvii. 10.) The _central fact_ is the continuance of
the beast a definite time under _all the heads_,--1260 years. Under all
the forms of government through which the empire passed, it continued
bestial and was the object of popular admiration. "All the world
wondered after the beast." The populace made court to, fawned upon,
followed in the train, or formed the retinue of the beast. We are to
limit the phrase,--"all the world," for not all the inhabitants are to
be understood, but such only as professed allegiance to the existing
imperial dominion; and among those within the beast's territorial
jurisdiction, the witnesses still stood to their protest against his
impious claims.--But from admiration and loyalty, the servile multitude
break forth into adoration, addressing the dragon and the beast in such
language as is proper to God only. (Ps. lxxxix. 6.) The shouts of the
rabble on Herod's birth-day may illustrate the conduct of these votaries
of the beast and dragon. (Acts xii. 22.) The poor ignorant and deluded
subject, in rendering homage to the beast, did homage to the devil, from
whom the power was derived. Such is the degradation to which man is
reduced by blind obedience to despotic power, whether civil or
ecclesiastical. He glories in the chains which bind him!--And this is
the actual and voluntary condition of the great majority of the
population of Christendom at the present hour. There has been, indeed,
within the current century, an effort by the masses of the people to
assert their natural and civil rights, to regain the exercise of the
elective franchise; but in selecting candidates to bear rule over them,
they generally prefer such as are, like the majority of
themselves,--"aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from
the covenants of promise." Hence, "vile men are exalted, the wicked bear
rule, and the people mourn." (Ps. xii. 8; Prov. xxix. 2.)--The
"blasphemies" uttered by this beast are all those _royal prerogatives_
claimed by the several crowned horns or civil sovereigns who have
established idolatry and superstition within their respective dominions.
The "blasphemous headship" over the church of Christ, as viewed and
designated by his persecuted disciples in the British empire, may tend
to illustrate this part of the beast's history. King Henry VIII. of
England, upon renouncing the civil and ecclesiastical headship of the
Pope, proceeded to usurp an ecclesiastical headship within his own
dominions; and all his royal successors till the present day have
asserted a similar dominion over the faith of the Lord's people. As an
"inherent right of the crown," the sovereign of Britain, male or female,
is declared to be "supreme judge in all causes, as well ecclesiastical
as civil!" The rest of the horns are no less blasphemous in their
haughty pretensions. History attests that the martyrs of Jesus denounced
these encroachments on the prerogatives of Christ, and the intrinsic
power of his church, as "Erastian supremacies,--blasphemous
supremacies." Most expositors tell us that the blasphemies are
chargeable to the Pope or to the Romish church. But this interpretation
confounds this beast of the sea with the apostate church of Rome; and
indeed this confounding of symbols and consequent mistaking of objects
in actual history, are the primary errors of expositors in nearly all
their attempts at expounding the Apocalypse. This first beast of John,
and fourth of Daniel, however, is _wholly secular or civil_; and clearly
distinguished by both inspired prophets, from the other agents of the
dragon, as we shall find in the subsequent part of this chapter. This
beast "blasphemes the name of God" by compelling men to worship idols
and images, enacting penal statutes and issuing bloody edicts to force
their consciences. He "blasphemes his tabernacle," when stigmatizing the
assemblies of God's worshipping people as "traitorous conspiracies,
rendevouses of rebellion"--"and them that dwell in heaven," he
blasphemes by calling them "incendiaries, fanatics, enthusiasts, rebels
and traitors;" for all these terms of reproach are well authenticated in
history, as heaped upon the faithful and heroic servants of Christ.
Those who suppose that the phrase "them that dwell in heaven," means
saints departed and angels as worshipped by papists in obedience to the
Romish church, make two mistakes,--the one, that _ecclesiastical_ power
is here intended, whereas we have already shown that the power is
_civil_; the other, that the word "heaven" is to be taken in a literal
sense, contrary to the symbolic structure of the whole context. All
history, so far as authentic, teaches that the civil powers throughout
Christendom, attempt to coerce by penal inflictions the consciences of
all who refuse obedience to their commands, no less than the church of
Rome. Even _constitutional guarantees of liberty_ of _conscience_ have
never secured the witnesses from the savage rage of the beast or any of
his infuriated horns. Witness the history of the bloody house of the
Stuarts of Britain. In vain did the victims of papal and prelatic
cruelty plead, in their just defence in the seventeenth century, the
constitution and laws of their native land! Those who have done violence
to the law of God, will always disregard human enactments which stand in
the way of their ambitious schemes. Their own laws will be treated as
ropes of sand, as Samson's withs, and the blood of saints as water. Such
is persecution.--The seventh verse, expressing the beast's victory over
the saints and the extent of his power, is explanatory of ch. xi. 7, 9;
and the time of his continuance, (v. 5,) is the same as the treading
under foot of the city; (ch. xi. 2:) so that we are assured of the
agreement in time between the events here and those of the first part of
the eleventh chapter. Also, the parties here presented are the same as
in the two preceding chapters, only they are exhibited in different
aspects by appropriate symbols.--The worshippers of the beast include
all under his dominion except those "whose names were written in the
book of life."--This book is different both from the sealed book, (ch.
5;) and also from the open book, (ch. 10.) It is the register, as it
were, of the names of all whom the Father gave to the Son, to be by him
brought to glory. (John xvii. 2; Heb. ii. 10; Rev. xx. 12, 15.) During
the whole reign of the beast, these are preserved, having been "sealed
unto the day of redemption." In the seventh chapter we had the angels
employed in holding the four winds of the earth, till these servants of
God were sealed in their foreheads, before the first alarm should be
given by the trumpets. The book of life contained their names from the
foundation,--before the foundation of the world. (Eph. i. 4.) They were
in time "sealed with that Holy Spirit of promise," so that it was
impossible to deceive them, either by lying wonders or the serpent's
sophistry. (Eph. i. 13; Matt. xxiv. 24.)--The Lamb may be said to be
"slain from the foundation of the world" in the purpose of God, (2 Tim.
i. 9;) in sacrifice, (Gen. iv. 4;) in the ceremonial law and prophecy.
(Matt. xi. 13;) and in the efficacy of his satisfaction rendered to
divine justice, for which the Father gave him credit from the fall of
man. (Rom. iii. 25.)--So many erroneous views have been taken, and false
interpretations given of this chapter in particular, as of the
Apocalypse in general, that the Divine Spirit calls special attention
here to the rise, reign and ruin of the beast of the sea. The prophetic
description of this beast in an especial manner is of such importance to
instruct, and thereby sustain and comfort, the suffering disciples of
Christ, that he causes his servant John to pause, as it were, and allow
the reader to reflect. Indeed, wherever a note of attention is thus
given, we may be sure that something "hid from the wise and prudent" is
intended. Accordingly, it were endless to follow the vagaries of even
learned men dealing out their "private interpretations" of this chapter.
Yet the understanding of its general outlines was at the bottom of the
Reformation by Luther, his colleagues and successors. Elsewhere,
however, we may take occasion to notice how vague, and inadequate, and
bold, were some of their conceptions; all going to show the
seasonableness of the solemn admonition,--"If any man have an ear, let
him hear."--The beast is to be treated as he dealt with the victims of
his cruelty. He is justly doomed to captivity and death. "The beast was
taken and--cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone," (ch.
xix. 20.) "Tophet is ordained of old." It was used by the prophets as a
figure of hell. (Is. xxx. 33.) To this place, whence there is no
redemption, this monstrous beast was to be consigned, as predicted by
the prophet Daniel, (vii. 11,)--"The beast was slain, and his body
destroyed, and given to the burning flame."--In the protracted contest
of 1260 years with this imperial power, "the patience and the faith of
the saints" were exemplified. Faith and patience would be more severely
tried in this case than in any other; as the period of persecution was
to be of much longer continuance than any that had preceded since the
beginning of the world. (Heb. vi. 12.)


11. And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had
two horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon.

V. 11.--John "beheld another beast,"--therefore not the _same_, as many
expositors strangely suppose. No one can have an intelligent
understanding of this chapter unless he views the beast of the sea and
the beast of the earth as _perfectly distinct_. As the former arose out
of a revolutionary state of society, and was consequently more clearly
marked in history, so the latter grew "up out of the earth" more quietly
and gradually, like a spear of grass,--we "know not how." As this second
beast of the Apocalypse is to act a prominent part in the scenery
afterwards presented in vision to the apostle, and a correspondent part
in actual history, and as it is called by different names and appears
under different aspects, it is necessary that its character be closely
inspected, so that its identity may be clearly ascertained. The
description here given is very minute. One thing is very obvious,--that
this beast of the earth is the confederate, the ally, and the accomplice
of the beast of the sea. They act in concert. They had been thus
represented in vision to Daniel. In the seventh chapter of that prophecy
we have the beast of the sea, as here, with his "ten horns," (v. 7.)
While the prophet narrowly "considered the horns, behold, there came up
among them another little horn," (v. 8.) It has been already shown that
these horns represent the kingdoms into which the Roman empire was
divided, (v. 24.) Among these horns, kings, (v. 24,) or kingdoms,
"another shall rise after them,"--"among them," yet in the order of
time,--"after them." Thus it appears that Daniel's fourth beast had
_eleven_ horns; but the eleventh is called "another which came up," to
distinguish it from the ten, (v. 20.) "He shall be diverse from the
first," (v. 24.) It is thus evident that the last horn,--the eleventh,
is as really a horn of the beast, as the other ten; and of course this
horn,--"little" at its rise, but in time becoming "more stout than his
fellows," is the willing accomplice in crime of that beast whose horn it
is. "The same horn made war with the saints, and prevailed against
them," (v. 21.)--"He had two horns like a lamb." He professed to be
gentle and innocent as a lamb,--to be the vicegerent of the "Lamb of
God." He claimed only a _spiritual_ jurisdiction. As it is natural that
a lamb should have only two horns, so the symbol is agreeable to nature.
But this lamb "spake as a dragon;" and that was contrary to nature. No
two animals in creation are in their respective natures more diverse or
opposite than a lamb and a beast of prey. These two antagonistic natures
combined, indicate the crafty and cruel policy of this beast of the
earth. Daniel mentions the "little horn" of the civil beast; but says
nothing of the "two-horned beast." On the other hand, John speaks
plainly of this beast of the earth, but omits any mention of the "little
horn." But the "beast of the earth" and the "little horn" sustain the
same relation to the first beast, the "beast of the sea"--the Roman
empire; therefore the "two-horned beast of the earth" and the "little
horn" are identical; and this identity is confirmed by the additional
name "false prophet," given to the beast of the earth in ch. xix, 20.
His alliance and co-operation with the civil beast is precisely the same
as in this chapter. He "wrought miracles before him," that is,--in his
interest. Some interpreters have mistaken this "false prophet" as a
symbol of Mahometanism. The facts of history demonstrate the fallacy of
this interpretation; for the delusions of Mahomet never had, and they
have not now, any affinity with the idolatries of the Latin Roman
empire. But these two beasts of the sea and of the earth are obviously
in the closest sympathy, having a common interest.


12. And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and
causeth the earth and them which dwell therein, to worship the first
beast, whose deadly wound was healed.

V. 12.--The second beast "exerciseth all the power of the first beast
before him,"--in his presence, under his sanction and powerful
protection. Thus the state, or empire, lays the church under obligation,
and of course expects a reciprocity of kind offices. This is effected by
the beast of the earth "causing the earth--to worship the first beast."
By force and craft this is accomplished. By his "two horns" of power,
the _regular_ and _secular_ orders of the hierarchy, as from the mouth
of a "dragon," he enjoins "submission to the (civil) powers that be."
But besides the horns of power, that is, ecclesiastical authority, this
beast of the earth, in order more effectually to enforce his commands to
worship the first or civil beast, resorts to "great wonders,--miracles,"
(vs. 13,14,)--"lying wonders;" (2 Thess. ii. 9:) for Paul and John agree
in their description of the same diabolical agency. "As Jannes and
Jambres withstood Moses,--magicians doing so with their
_enchantments_,"--"beguiling unstable souls," so this second beast
"maketh fire to come down from heaven on the earth in the sight of
(credulous) men." (2 Tim. iii. 8; Exod. vii. 22; Acts viii. 9-11.) The
venal ministry of the heathenized church, (ch. xi. 2,) inculcate passive
obedience to the beast of the sea, as to the "ordinance of God;"--to
"resist" which, subjects the recusant to "damnation." (Rom. xiii. 2.)
Here, then, we behold the _counterfeits_ of the two great ordinances of
church and state, against which it is the special duty and arduous work
of the two witnesses to contend for 1260 years. This "false prophet,"
who "spake as a dragon, and made fire to come down from heaven," to
authenticate his divine mission, may represent the bulls, anathemas,
interdicts, encyclical letters, which emanate from Rome, together with
the less terrifying mandates of her coadjutors,--"daughters."


13. And he doeth great wonders, so that he maketh fire come down from
heaven on the earth, in the sight of men,

14. And deceiveth them that dwell on the earth, by the means of those
miracles which he had power to do in the sight of the beast; saving to
them that dwell on the earth, that they should make an image to the
beast which had the wound by a sword, and did live.

15. And he had power to give life unto the image of the beast, that the
image of the beast should both speak, and cause that as many as would
not worship the image of the beast should be killed.

16. And he caused all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and
bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads:

17. And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the
name of the beast, or the number of his name.

Vs. 13-17.--This lamb-like beast of the earth devises another agency, by
which to subserve his own diabolical interest, as well as that of the
"first beast." He causes to be made "an image" _to_ or _of_ the beast of
the sea. Of images in general, as objects of idolatrous worship, we are
warranted to say,--they are _dead_ and _dumb_ idols; (ch. ix. 20; Jer.
x. 14:) but this one is altogether different. And it is surprising to
find learned expositors fixing upon the superstitious use of the cross
by the papists, as exemplifying this symbol. The Holy Spirit, as if to
guard all readers against such misapprehension, declares explicitly,
that this image has "life, speaks," and _acts_. The only point in which
this image resembles others is, that it is to be _worshipped_: but of
all others we are assured that they "cannot do evil," (Jer. x. 5.) This
image has such "life," (breath,) and power as to cause the death of such
as refuse to worship _itself_. Three agents are to be noticed and
clearly distinguished here,--the ten-horned beast of the _sea_, the
two-horned _beast_ of the _earth_, and the _image_ of the beast. At the
instance of the second beast, an image is made; not _to_ or of himself,
but _to_, and also _of_, the first beast. Now, as the beasts put forth
their power by their horns, so this ecclesiastical beast of the earth
makes the image by his horns. In short, history explains the symbols.
The Roman clergy,--the horns, the cardinals, create the Pope; and, in
their own ceremonial and language,--_quem creant, adorant_, "whom they
create, they adore;" like all other idolaters. Thus, the Pope becomes
the "man of sin, sitting in the temple of God, showing himself that he
is God," (2 Thess. ii. 4.) The Pope is the most perfect image of the
Roman emperor; claiming the same universal dominion, the same titles and
prerogatives, in the same city: but the Pope and the emperor never
identify. They are always distinct. Two authoritative measures are to be
specially noticed in this connexion; one by the beast of the earth, the
other by the image of the beast of the sea. The image demands worship
under pain of death. All _heretics_ are judged worthy of death. All are
required by the second beast to receive the mark of the first or civil
beast. The penalty in this case is privation of civil and political
privileges,--to "buy or sell." It is to be noticed here that the "mark"
is imposed by the authority of the _ecclesiastical_ power, the
two-horned beast. As there is liability to mistake as to which of the
two beasts the "mark" refers, and as this mistake is in fact generally
made by expositors, the apostle John has been directed, as in the case
of the image, to be peculiarly explicit, that all may know it to be the
mark of the _first_ beast. (See chs. xv. 2; xix. 20; xx. 4.) But it will
be asked,--What are we to understand by the "mark?" This question is
easily answered from history. The heathen idolater gloried in his
devotion to his imaginary god; as the ivy leaf was the token of the
worshippers of Bacchus: soldiers bore the initials of the names of their
commanders; and slaves, of their masters. These _characters_ were
impressed on the foreheads or other part of the persons of individuals.
The general idea suggested by the "mark" was subjection or _property_.
In short, the mark of the beast signifies open and avowed allegiance to
antichristian or immoral _civil_ power, when in the "forehead;" and
active co-operation with the same, when in the "hand." It is at once a
pitiable and culpable error, to suppose, as many preposterously do, that
this "mark of the beast" is _popery_! And as the "mark" is the
recognised badge of loyalty to civil rule, of course the prohibition to
"buy or sell," must signify civil disabilities,--_disfranchisement_. Men
who suffer, necessarily feel. Christ's witnesses, as they only have the
_scriptural_ conception of the rights of man, have long been familiar
with the deprivation of their rights, both civil and ecclesiastical. The
moral evils incorporated in the constitutions of church and state,
throughout all the streets of mystic Babylon, have effectually excluded
the two witnesses, and left them in the "wilderness." Here is their
destined "place," and here they are to be "nourished from the face of
the serpent" for 1260 years. Christ's promise,--"I will not leave you
comfortless," (orphans,) is all along verified in their soul-satisfying
experience.--This will appear in the next chapter.


18. Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of
the beast; for it is the number of a man; and his number is six hundred
threescore and six.

V. 18.--"The name of the beast," since the time of Ireneus, the disciple
of Polycarp, who was cotemporary with the apostle John, is understood to
be _Lateinos_, or _Lateinus_; for it is well known to scholars, that
classical usage justifies the orthography of this word. However learned
men may indulge their fancy, and sport with this mystic and sacred name
and number, no other word fills up all the conditions required by the
inspired writer. _Latinus_ is the proper name of the "first beast," the
_Latin_ empire: it is the name common to the whole population of the
empire, the _Latins_: it is the name of the _founder_ of the empire,
_Latinus_; and it contains the _number_, 666. The probability that this
word contains the requisite name and number, amounts almost to a
certainty. The unlearned reader may be easily taught to understand how
to "count the number of the beast." Of course, the apostle John
accommodated his expressions to the custom of his own age. Well, even
children soon learn to number or count by the use of Roman letters of
the alphabet. They know that the letter I, stands for _one_; V. for
_five_, etc. Now, in the apostolic age, the Jews, Greeks and Romans,
were accustomed to express numbers by the use of the letters of their
respective alphabets. This we suppose to be the only rational and
probable method of solving the mystery.

In this chapter we have the fullest exhibition of the great
antichristian confederacy, spoken of by prophets and apostles, including
the "man of sin, to be revealed in his time." The component parts of
that complex moral person called "Antichrist," are here graphically
portrayed. The three most prominent features are the _two beasts_ of the
sea and of the earth, with the _image_ of the first; or, a tyrannical
_empire_, an apostate _church_, and the _Pope_. To suppose that the
Antichrist is a power or moral person _distinct from these_,--a "wilful,
infidel or atheistical king," is a mere _chimera_ framed in a learned
brain, disordered by _antichristian_ politics. The chief, if not the
only ostensible ground of such hypothesis is the language of our
apostle, (1 John ii. 22.) "He is Antichrist that denieth the Father and
the Son." The _sound_ of the words of Scripture is too often mistaken
for the _sense_. This is a notable example. From the words of our Divine
Redeemer,--"My Father is greater than I, Socinians infer the _essential_
inferiority of the Son to the Father. So in the preceding instance. The
inference is, that the Antichrist is to be known by a _doctrinal_ denial
of deity. But the very name of this enemy of all righteousness,
_Antichrist_, demonstrates his recognition of the existence and office
of our Saviour. For why should he oppose a _nonentity_? All scholars are
aware that the primary meaning of _anti_, is substitution. (Matt. xx.
28.) Antichrist usurps Christ's place in church and state, that he may
more successfully oppose his interest. There is no mystery to the
intelligent Christian in the declaration, that men too often "profess
that they know God, but in works deny him." This explains the fact of
Antichrist's denying the Father and the Son. Usurping the prerogatives
of the Mediator is a practical denial of him,--of his authority, and by
consequence, of the Father who sent him. "He that acknowledged the Son,"
in this sense, "hath the Father also; while it is equally true, in the
same sense,--"whosoever denieth the Son, the same hath not the Father."
(1 John ii. 23.) Hence it _is not true_ that the _Pope_ is the
_Antichrist_ of prophecy, nor the church of Rome, nor both combined; but
Daniel's ten-horned beast,--John's seven-headed, ten-horned beast, which
are the same: Daniel's little horn and John's beast of the earth, which
are the same; together with the image of the first beast: the Saracenic
locusts and Euphratean horsemen;--all these go to the composition of the
Antichrist, the "eastern and western Antichrist," so identified and
_familiarly_ designated by the _martyrs_ and _witnesses_ of Jesus for
hundreds of years. The great family of nations, called "the nations of
this world," (chap. xi. 15;) in unholy alliance with a _gentile_ church;
(ch. xi. 2;) _these combined, constitute the Antichrist_. They "will not
have this man to reign over them." Against this combination it is the
appointed business,--the life of the two witnesses, to prophesy for a
definite period of 42 months, 1260 days, time, times and a half; all
indicating the same duration, 1260 natural years. All this time the
witnesses are alive and active, but in an obscure and depressed
condition, wearing sackcloth in the wilderness, "not reckoned, (not
_reckoning themselves_,) among the nations." (Num. xxiii. 9; Dan. vii.
22, 27; Rev. xx. 4.) Such is the condition of the saints, and such the
powerful combination against them, as symbolically represented in the
11th, 12th and 13th chapters of the Apocalypse. And in this prolonged
and eventful conflict we may with Moses, "turn aside and see this great
sight, why the bush is not burnt." (Exod. iii. 3.) The Lord was in the
bush, and "greater is he that is in them than he that is in the world."
(1 John iv. 4.) This will appear in the following chapter.



CHAPTER XIV.


As the 13th chapter contains the most full and graphic description of
the great apostacy, so in this chapter we have the other party described
which protested against that apostacy. It is a concise history of the
two witnesses in holy and happy fellowship with Christ, when he had
rejected the heathenized church, because of her unholy league with the
beast of the bottomless pit, (ch. xi. 2, 7.) The contrast between the
"sealed" ones here, and those who bore the "mark of the beast," is very
noticeable. This fact suggests that the parties are _cotemporary_.
Besides, it is evident that this company of 144,000 are the legitimate
successors of those sealed in ch. vii. 4-8; or rather, from the
perpetual identity of the covenant society as a moral person, we may
view this company as the same with the sealed ones of the seventh
chapter, the two witnesses of the eleventh chapter, and as in the
wilderness in the 12th chapter. Political bias caused a learned
expositor to interpret the third angel of this chapter as a symbol of
the prelatic church of England! and a similar bias, or _modern_ charity,
induced another to distinguish between the "two witnesses" and the
144,000. To the unbiased and enlightened mind it is obvious that instead
of the 144,000 symbolizing the "pious people,--in the different branches
of the Christian church"--all true Christians; they are in fact
distinguished from _true Christians_, as 144,000 from "a great multitude
... who had washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the
Lamb," (ch. vii. 9, 14.)

As the Antichrist, after his first development in the world, appeared in
diverse forms of organization, thereby more effectually to deceive them
that dwell on the earth, yet still preserved his moral identity, so the
faithful servants of Christ are presented in corresponding attitudes and
aspects, to oppose and counteract his diabolical policy and tyranny; yet
always preserving their proper identity during the whole period of 1260
years.

The process of "sealing the servants of God in their foreheads," (ch.
vii. 4-8,) took place under the _sixth_ seal before the opening of the
seventh, (ch. viii. 1,) which introduced the trumpets,--the harbingers
of the visible organization of Antichrist. For this purpose the "four
winds,"--all winds, emblematical of popular commotions, were by four
angels restrained from blowing upon the earth etc., during the peaceful
reign of Constantine and his successors. Under the patronage of those
nominally Christian emperors, as history informs us, multitudes flocked
into the church; "the number of immoral and unworthy Christians began so
to increase, that the examples of real piety and virtue became extremely
rare.... The virtuous few were oppressed and overwhelmed with the
superior numbers of the wicked and licentious."[6] Thus the way was
prepared for the visible appearing of the "man of sin,"--the papacy. So
soon as the confederate hosts of the dragon are completely organized,
the two witnesses take their position with the Lamb.


1. And I looked, and, lo, a Lamb stood on Mount Zion, and with him a
hundred forty and four thousand, having his Father's name written in
their foreheads.

V. 1.--While "all the world wonders after the beast," (xiii. 3,) and the
gross senses of the multitude are preoccupied with that object; here is
another presented more worthy of our contemplation. Often has the Lord
Jesus appeared in vision to John while viewing the grand panorama
passing before him in Patmos. Here he appears as the "captain of the
Lord's host" at the head of his army; not indeed in active military
enterprise, but rather as leader in acts of solemn worship during a
temporary recess from sanguinary warfare. He and his associates are on
the "Mount Zion." "In Zion is his seat." ... "The Lord hath founded
Zion, and the poor of his people shall trust in it. (Is. xiv. 32.) This
select company maintain fellowship with Christ, being "really and
inseparably united to him as their Head," by the bond of the Spirit, on
his part, and faith on theirs. Christ's "Father's name in their
foreheads" indicates that they are the _property_ and voluntary servants
of God in Christ. Of this covenant relation baptism is the visible sign;
but while Simon Magus may bear the sign, none but those who are "sealed
unto the day of redemption," are honored to "stand with the Lamb on
Mount Zion." To him their number is as accurately known, as one hundred
and forty-four thousand is to us; and "truly their fellowship is with
the Father and with his Son Jesus Christ." The votaries of the beast may
either glory in bearing his mark in their foreheads, or conceal the mark
in their right hand; but the followers of the Lamb will "confess him and
his word before men," at the hazard of all that is dear to men,--even
life itself. (Mark viii. 38.)


2. And I heard a voice from heaven, as the voice of many waters, and as
the voice of a great thunder: and I heard the voice of harpers harping
with their harps:

3. And they sung as it were a new song before the throne, and before the
four beasts, and the elders: and no man could learn that song but the
hundred and forty and four thousand, which were redeemed from the earth.

Vs. 2, 3.--"Let the children of Zion be joyful in their King.... Let the
high praises of God be in their mouth."--(Ps. cxlix. 2, 6.) Unterrified
by the roaring of the beasts of prey, these followers of the Lamb lift
their voices in unison; and whether on mountains or in valleys, in dens
or in caves of the earth, their songs of praise ascend to the ears of
the Lord of Sabaoth. The symphony is heightened by the "voice of
harpers, harping with their harps." And if any person be so ignorant as
to ground an argument on these words, for the use of instruments in the
worship of God, consistency will require him to take his position on the
literal Mount Zion with a literal lamb!

The song was _new_. It was not peculiar to the Mosaic economy; that,
like it, was to "wax _old_ and vanish away."--(Heb. viii. 13.) No, it
was indited by the Holy Spirit, "to whom all hearts are known, and all
events foreknown." It was a song exactly framed to answer the twofold
end of all inspired songs--to display the glories of the Godhead, and
delineate the workings of grace and corruption with infallible
precision, neither of which can be even successfully imitated by the
best of uninspired men; much less by the licentious debauchees--the
slaves of Antichrist. Moreover, the _order_ of worship, as here
exemplified, merits special attention, The 144,000 perform this solemn
service "before the four beasts, and the elders." The office-bearers,
appointed by the Lamb--the Lord Christ--direct the whole solemnity.
Among this joyful and holy company, there is no hint that any part of
public worship is left to "a vote of the congregation." This "new song"
was unintelligible by the votaries of the beast; nor could they learn it
while in that servile vassalage. They only who were "redeemed from the
earth," as well as "from among men," were capable of learning it. As
this song related to the royal prerogatives of Jesus Christ, and those
who "dwelt on the earth" had transferred their allegiance to Antichrist,
they became thereby incapacitated for learning that song. Alas! how many
complain of the _cloudiness_, the _Jewish peculiarities_, the
_unforgiving, revengeful spirit_ of the inspired Psalms! In their
apprehension, they are "contrary to the spirit of the gospel"--that is,
_the Holy Spirit is contrary to Himself!_ O, the blasphemy! Can such
learn the "new song?" No, indeed, unless they repent and "pray God if
perhaps the thought of their heart may be forgiven them."


4. These are they which were not defiled with women; for they are
virgins. These are they which follow the Lamb withersoever he goeth.
These were redeemed from among men, being the first fruits unto God and
to the Lamb.

5. And in their mouth was found no guile: for they are without fault
before the throne of God.

Vs. 4, 5.--These 144,000 worshippers are farther distinguished by their
chastity. Betrothed to the Lord Christ from eternity, they were married
to him in time. (Hosea ii. 19, 20; Rom. vii. 4; Cor. xi. 2.) Indeed the
marriage covenant is employed throughout the Bible, to shadow forth the
union between Christ and believers. (See Is. liv. 5; Jer. xxxi. 32; Hos.
ii. 2; Rev. xxi. 2) This analogy pervades the 45th Psalm and the Song of
Solomon. Idolatry is therefore adultery; and superstition, will-worship
and human inventions, as means of grace or of communion with God, are
fornication. (Ezek. xxiii. 27.) Accordingly, the "kings of the earth"
are charged with this crime, (ch. xviii. 3.) Hence, it is plain that
this company with the Lamb are such as do not receive or "teach for
doctrines the commandments of men," nor submit to a "voluntary humility
and worshipping of angels, (Col. ii. 18,) "for they are virgins." (Ps.
xlv. 14.) They are distinguished for "sound doctrine and the power of
godliness." "A man that is a heretic, after the first and second
admonition," they "reject." (Titus iii. 10.) They cannot be indifferent
to truth and error; and they may be known by their love for practical,
but _especially doctrinal_, preaching. They frequent the ministry of
those who "give attendance to reading, to exhortation, to doctrine." (1
Tim. iv. 13.)

"These follow the Lamb." (John x. 4, 27.) Next after self-denial, taking
up the cross, becomes the test of discipleship. (Matt. xvi. 24, 25.)
Suffering is the most trying and most difficult part of a Christian's
obedience. But mere suffering for one's religion is no evidence that his
religion is scriptural. Nor is punishment endured for religion
_persecution_; but suffering "for righteousness' sake, or for Christ's
sake," is persecution. And this is what is implied in "following the
Lamb whithersoever he goeth." Not suffering, but the _cause_ for which
he suffers, makes a Christian martyr. All these 144,000 are martyrs in
principle and intention.

Besides, "these were redeemed (bought) from among men." Purchase
supposes contract,--a price fixed and paid. This ransom is both from
debt and crime,--from bondage, sin and penalty. The Lamb is their
surety. With his blood he "redeemed them to God," (ch. v. 9; 1 Pet. i.
19.) An atonement which _does not reconcile_, a redemption which _does
not save_, must be an atonement and a redemption _without a compact_.
Hence the covenant of grace, and Christ's engagement as surety in that
covenant, determine the _extent_ of the atonement; for _without compact
no sinner could be saved!_ But such is the liberal doctrine of the
boasted Roman Catholic Church, and such the sandy foundation of that
"general and doubtsome faith" which the witnesses renounce. However
numerous these followers of the Lamb may seem to be, they are no more
than "the first fruits." But the first fruits are part of the coming
harvest, and an assured pledge of a larger ingathering. Their numbers
were to be greatly augmented by the Reformation, and still further in
the millennial era.

"Godly sincerity" is the last quality of these upright ones. They are
"Israelites without guile." Integrity, probity, candor, distinguish them
from the "flocks of the companions" by whom they are surrounded. "As
they think in their heart, so do they express the truth." (Ps. xv. 2;
xii. 2; John i. 47.) They know nothing of the "pious frauds" any more
than the "indulgences" and "supererogations" by which the "man of sin"
sustains his interest. Their being "without fault before the throne of
God," is the highest commendation possible; yet it does not imply
sinless perfection. It speaks their justification by the righteousness
of Christ, and their Christian sincerity, such as God testifies of Job,
(ch. i. 8.) Who would not prefer the society and employments of those
who are with the Lamb on Mount Zion, to dwelling in the tents of
wickedness? Let our delights be with these excellent ones of the earth.


6. And I saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the
everlasting gospel to preach unto them that dwell on the earth, and to
every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people,

7. Saying with a loud voice, Fear God, and give glory to him; for the
hour of his judgment is come: and worship him that made heaven, and
earth, and the sea, and the fountains of water.

Vs. 6, 7.--The apostles, Paul and John agree, as already noticed, in
delineating a great defection from the purity and power of Christianity
in "the last days." Paul calls this event "the Apostacy," (2 Thess. ii.
3.) while John designates it "the Antichrist." (1 John ii, 22.) Both
these inspired writers use the Greek article, as may be supposed, to
_emphasize_ that wicked confederacy of Church and State,--a confederacy
of greater extent and longer continuance than any other conspiracy
"against the Lord and his Anointed." Against these the saints of God,
with Messiah at their head, contend for the allotted period of 1260
years, as we have seen in the three preceding chapters. On their part
the warfare is mostly defensive, and their weapons ordinarily spiritual.
(2 Cor. vi. 6, 7.)

From the 6th verse to the close of this chapter are presented, under
customary and well-defined symbols, three successive stages of
successful reformation, showing how the "two witnesses" manage their
scriptural and effective testimony against antichristian error and
disorder in organized society. Three mystic "angels" successively
appear, divinely commissioned to execute their respective and appointed
work. These angels have been correctly designated, by judicious
expositors, "angels of revival and reform." To the intelligent Christian
it will be obvious, that without _reform_ there can be no _revival_. The
popular idea of our time connected with the term _revival_, is without
foundation in the Holy Scriptures. It does not mean the regeneration of
a sinner, nor the first work of the Spirit in conviction. It presupposes
the existence of the vital principle, and the bringing of that living
principle into visible activity, (Rom. vii. 9;) and this is equally
true, whether of an individual or moral person. (Ps. lxxxv. 6; Ezek.
xxxvii.) Divine truth and external order are characteristics of a
genuine revival: for nothing but "sound doctrine" can produce "the power
of godliness." The popular commotions and social disorders which
accompany modern revivals, render them highly suspicious, if they do not
demonstrate them to be spurious. It is true, indeed, that passionate
declamation, vociferous assertion of heresy, intensified by theatrical
and violent gesticulation, may commove to a higher degree the active
powers,--the passions of the sinner; but such appliances can generate
only a temporary faith. Such converts, "having no root in themselves,
wither away." (Mark iv. 6.) "God is not the author of confusion, but of
peace, as in all the churches of the saints." So these angels of reform
declare by their ministry.

The first of these angels is the recognized symbol of a gospel ministry,
(ch. i. 20; ii. 1, 8, 12, etc.) "Heaven" is the visible church general.
"Flying" indicates celerity of motion. This "angel" does not represent
any individual, as Luther; but the _collective body_ of those who carry
the joyful message of "the everlasting gospel." This gospel is
_everlasting_ as distinguished from "another gospel, which is not
another" (Gal. i. 6, 7, 8, 9,)--a spurious, counterfeit, and therefore
ephemeral gospel, invented and propagated by the "man of sin," from the
flood which issued from the mouth of the dragon, (ch. xii. 15) The
gospel preached by this angel is everlasting in its origin and duration.
(Tit. i. 2; John iv. 14; Gal. vi. 8.) This angel's commission is as
extensive as that of the apostles,--"every nation;" his "loud voice" is
expressive of his zeal, energy and authority; the subject matter of his
brief sermon indicates very plainly that the object of his teaching is
to counteract the heresies of the Romish apostacy. "Fear God and give
glory to him,"--not to the Virgin Mary, canonized saints and angels,
images of wood and stone, (ch. ix. 20.) All are solemnly warned to
"abstain from pollutions of idols," and their attention earnestly
directed to their Creator,--to him "who made heaven, and earth, the seas
and fountains of waters." This argument of the angel is very
short,--that He only is to be worshipped who created the universe; but
it is sufficient to "leave all men without excuse who do not glorify him
as God." (Rom. i. 20, 21.) And how much more aggravated is the guilt of
professing Christians! But the "angel" employs another powerful argument
to enforce his teaching,--"The hour of his judgment is come." The final
judgment of the last day is often set before us in the Bible, and it is
so even in this book; but the last judgment cannot be intended here, for
subsequent judgments are to be inflicted according to the messages of
the following angels.

That Charlemagne should be mistaken for this flying angel betrays an
almost incredible hallucination of the human mind![7] No individual, as
already noticed, much less a successful civil or military tyrant, can be
intended by the Spirit as the herald of the "everlasting gospel!"

In fact, this "angel" is identical with the "two witnesses," whose
special work is to oppose the great apostacy; and this they do in a
pre-eminent manner by proclaiming the everlasting gospel. For 500 years
those who are known in history by the name of Waldenses, kept the
doctrines and order of the apostles, in a state of separation from the
Church of Rome. In the latter part of the twelfth century their numbers
and influence attracted the notice and brought upon them the wrath of
the "man of sin." In the following ages multitudes of them were
subjected to all the penalties of confiscation, banishment and death.
Like the seed of Abraham in Egypt, however, "the more they were
afflicted, the more they multiplied and grew." They revived true
religion in the kingdoms of southern Europe, and it is most probable
that the good seed sown by them reached even to the island of Britain.
John Huss and Jerome, who, by decree of the council of Constance, were
committed to the flames for heresy; and Wishart, in England, whose end
was similar, together with such as co-operated with them and succeeded
them in the same holy warfare, are to be viewed as answering to the
mystic angel. These faithful and dauntless men denounced divine
judgments against all who worshipped graven images, however enjoined by
civil and ecclesiastical authority. For their fidelity to Christ and the
souls of men, they were subjected to the heaviest censures of the
heathenized church, and the severest penalties of a tyrannical
state,--the beast of the earth and the beast of the sea always in unholy
alliance and acting in concert. The ministry of this angel is a
testimony against papal corruptions, such as the worshipping images of
the Creator and creatures, but especially the Pope,--the image of the
Roman emperor. It is a mere fancy to suppose this angel symbolizes
modern missions. The series of the prophecy forbids such an
interpretation. Besides, the idolatry of Rome Christian, is not less
real or gross than the idolatry of pagans, and calls for a more earnest
testimony; and God has never left himself without witnesses against
defection and apostacy. This angel prepares the way for his successor,
who prosecutes the same work with increasing clearness and confidence.


8. And there followed another angel, saying, Babylon is fallen, is
fallen, that great city, because she made all nations drink of the wine
of the wrath of her fornication.

V. 8.--"There followed another angel." Some expositors[8] interpret this
angel of Luther, some of Calvin; but no _individual_ is sufficiently
prominent in history to justify the application to him of so striking a
symbol in so concise a prophecy. Such restriction of a symbol to an
individual results from _prelatic_ habits of thought. In the mind of a
prelate the idea of a gospel ministry includes that of a _metropolitan_.
This angel is, in fact, as usual, simply the emblem of the ministry, not
excluding the social body of which they are the official guides.

This second angel carries forward the reformation effected by his
predecessor, reviving that cause when it began to languish under the
violence of Antichrist. "While the Roman pontiff," says Mosheim,
"slumbered in security at the head of the church, and saw nothing
throughout the vast extent of his domain but tranquillity and
submission, and while the worthy and pious professors of genuine
Christianity almost despaired of seeing that Reformation on which their
most ardent desires and expectations were bent, an obscure and
inconsiderable person arose on a sudden, in the year 1517, and laid the
foundation of the long expected change, by opposing with undaunted
resolution his single force to the torrent of papal ambition and
despotism." That individual was the heroic Luther, whose praise is in
all the churches till the present day. No individual is so famous in the
history of that eventful period as Martin Luther, for recovering the
doctrine of justification by the righteousness of Christ, to the
exclusion of all creature merit. This fundamental principle in the
economy of man's salvation he justly denominated _articulus stantis vel
cadentis ecclesiae_--"the hinge of a standing or falling church." By the
defence and propagation of this doctrine especially, the priestly office
of Christ was vindicated against the dogmas of penance, indulgence and
supererogation, inculcated by the "Man of Sin;" and by consequence, one
of the bulwarks of mystical Babylon effectually demolished. At the
famous Diet of Worms, which, like the Council of Constance, combined the
imperial power of Rome, civil and ecclesiastic, that indomitable servant
of Christ gave a visible demonstration that "the Spirit of the Father"
animated and "spake in him," (Matt. x. 20.) Not less explicit was Luther
on the fundamental doctrine of the divine decrees; which, with other
Arminian dogmas of creature-merit, had been almost universally
propagated and stamped with the pretended infallible authority of Rome.
By the translation and circulation of the Holy Scriptures among the
people, the idolatries, impositions and profligacy of the priesthood
were extensively discovered. And after years of deference to
ecclesiastical authority, conditional proposals of submission to the
Pope upon conviction of error in his _theses_, or conscientious belief,
Luther in time arrived at the conclusion that the church of Rome was
irreclaimable, giving publicity to his deep convictions in a treatise
_De Captivitate Babylonica_,--"The Captivity of Babylon." In the 18th
chapter of this book, he discovered that Babylon is doomed to
destruction. He considered the church of Rome as answering to the
prophetic symbol, and of course not to be reformed. It was an obvious
inference--he ought to obey Christ rather than the Pope,--"Come out of
her, my people."--This call was indeed a sufficient warrant to separate
from the Church of Rome; and, acting on it, protestant churches have
ever since been organized: but the type or symbol, Babylon, was
unwarrantably restricted in import, as representing only the Church of
Rome. And it is to be deplored that most protestant expositors continue
to limit the inspired symbol in the same way till the present time. The
literal Babylon, a name common to the ancient city and empire by the
river Euphrates, was in no sense a church; and it would be anomalous and
incongruous to select either city or empire as an _emblem of a church_!
There is, however, in the Apocalypse a combining or blending of symbols
in order clearly and fully to represent a complex moral person. This has
been already exemplified in ch. xiii. 2, where the prominent features of
Daniel's first _three_ beasts, (ch. vii. 4-6,) are combined in John's
_first_ beast of the sea. Just so in this instance. The idolatrous and
tyrannical Roman empire, in alliance with an apostate church,
constitutes mystical Babylon. History demonstrates the fact of their
coalition. The great red dragon, the devil, operates through both during
the allotted period of 1260 years against the witnesses of Christ.
Sometimes, indeed, the nominal church is the more active and visible
instrument, and at other times the state, in opposing Mediatory
authority; and thus Babylon, or one of her streets, which is the
equivalent of a horn of the beast, becomes prominent. This second angel
confidently proclaims,--"Babylon is fallen, is fallen." So said Isaiah
of literal Babylon long before the event; (ch. xxi. 9,) and so said
Jeremiah, (ch. li. 8,) to whose predictions John obviously alludes. All
these three prophets speak in present time of a future event, simply
because of the settled and unalterable purpose of God, acting not
formally as a sovereign, but as a judge. The multiplied and aggravated
crimes of Babylon, literal or mystical Babylon, are the just grounds of
her deserved and awful doom. From ancient times God has declared by his
prophets the things that are not yet done. (Isa. xlvi. 10.) His counsel
stands and he doeth all his pleasure.

That the mystical Babylon emblematically represented the complex systems
of civil and ecclesiastical corruption and despotism organized in
Christendom, was in some degree understood by the reformers in Europe;
but the work of this second angel was carried on successively by men of
piety and learning, who were eminently qualified for systematically
arranging the doctrines of grace as deduced from the word of God. Their
pious labors we still have in the forms of Bodies of Divinity and
Confessions of Faith, in both which the unscriptural and antiscriptural
dogmas and heresies of Rome are condemned and solidly confuted by the
Scriptures. There is a wonderful "harmony of confessions" framed by
those who separated from the fellowship of the Romish church; which
harmony can be accounted for only by the fact that those who framed them
drew their materials from the Bible. But it was by their public
_covenants especially_, that the reformers lifted a testimony against
the heresies, immoralities and tyrannies of the church of Rome. And
among all the churches of the Reformation, that of Scotland is justly
entitled to the pre-eminence. In no nation or state in Christendom did
the witnesses of Christ,--the second angel, attain so nearly to a
scriptural model of organized society in church and state as in that
land, whose mountains and valleys were "flowered with martyrs" for a
"Covenanted Work of Reformation." As Zuingle the Swiss-reformer excelled
Luther, Calvin and others in Europe in the application of the divine
moral law, as revealed in Scriptures, to civil society, so John Knox in
Scotland was equally clear, that royal personages are amenable to the
body politic, and both to the Mediator.

_We are now_ under the ministry of this _second_ "angel." The revival
effected by the first angel had greatly declined before the second made
his appearance; and all persons of intelligence and spiritual
discernment in our day, lament the visible decline in practical
godliness, arising from indifference to divine truth. Most professing
Christians, including the descendants of the martyrs, are "willingly
ignorant" of the attainments and sufferings of their illustrious
predecessors. The work of reformation to be accomplished by the second
angel, we suppose to have been completed about the middle of the
seventeenth century. Since that period his work appears from history to
consist in testifying against defection from the reformation which had
been reached. The "great city" is to fall "because she made all nations
drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication." She is "spiritually
called Sodom and Egypt," neither of which was a church any more than
Babylon. These were all heathen communities, never _married_ to the
Lord; therefore Babylon is not here charged as an adulteress, but with
_fornication_. The nations are her paramours. Her wine is intoxicating.
It deranges the intellect and stupifies the conscience. Will any
reasoning prevail with a drunken man? An active politician is
proverbially unscrupulous, and proof against the law of God. There is,
however, "wrath" in this cup. Those who refuse to "kiss the Son" must
feel the weight of his iron rod. (Ps. ii. 9, 12; lxxv. 8.)

The "little book" introduced at the 10th chapter, is included in the
first 13 verses of the 11th chapter, which comprehends a concise history
of the 1260 years, as we have seen. At the 15th verse, the seventh and
last trumpet is sounded which introduces the millennium and gives a
brief outline of events till the end of the world. Then the three
following chapters give in detail the events prior to the millennium, a
commentary, as it were, on the "little book," but resuming a narrative
of the sealed book's contents, which had been suspended at the end of
the 9th chapter. There, as we have seen, the first and second
woe-trumpets left the population of the Roman church and empire still in
rebellion:--"They repented not."--Hence it is apparent that the work of
these symbolic angels consists in opposing the antichristian systems of
organized society during the period of the fifth and sixth trumpets.
This they do partly by declaring the truth as it is in Jesus, and partly
by denouncing divine judgments on the impenitent. The first angel, by
proclaiming the "everlasting gospel," called upon men to "fear God and
give glory to him," and not to idols,--threatening "coming judgment."
The great majority of those addressed, however, disregarding alike his
loving instructions and faithful warnings, must hear from the second
angel that the judgment threatened by his predecessor, is now
imminent:--"Babylon is fallen," etc. Notwithstanding the faithful and
earnest contendings of the Waldenses, Bohemians and others on the
continent of Europe, seconded by the Lollards in England, so far were
the votaries of Antichrist from repenting of their idolatry and
profligacy, that they became more and more exasperated against those
witnesses who tormented them, and attempted to silence their testimony
by committing their leaders to the flames. Hence the second angel's
ministry consists more in denouncing judgment than in offering mercy to
the penitent; and the history of the struggles in Europe and the British
Isles between Christ's witnesses and the Roman Antichrist in the 16th
and 17th centuries, demonstrates the awful fact that they, with great
and wonderful unanimity, judged the church of Rome at least, utterly
irreclaimable. Of this united judgment the Confessions of those
reformers are at this day a standing evidence. But chief among the
churches and nations of Christendom stands Scotland, as well before as
after her appearance, by her famous Commissioners, in the Westminster
Assembly of Divines. In her full and free Assembly, and by her national
representatives, sustained by all their pious constituency, she uttered
those memorable words,--"We abhor and detest ... chiefly all kind of
Papistry in general and particular heads, even as they are damned
(_condemned_) and _confuted_ by the word of God and Kirk of Scotland."
Perhaps this is the only instance hitherto within the 1260 years, where
a _whole church_ and _nation_, under the awful sanction of a _solemn
oath_, has pronounced a judicial sentence of condemnation upon the
church of Rome. Thus with confidence did those noble witnesses pronounce
the anticipated doom of the mystic Babylon. But alas! may we not adopt
and apply now (1870,) the language of the weeping prophet?--"How is she
become a widow! she that was great among the nations, and princess among
the provinces!"

As declension among those who had protested against the corruptions of
Antichrist, under the ministry of the first angel of reform, together
with the continued impenitence of the multitude who still wondered after
the beast, called for the appearance of the second angel of revival, so
the moral condition of the world called for the work of his successor.
In the mean time, living as we now are, within the period allotted in
prophecy and in history to the ministry of the second angel of revival
and reform, it is but too evident that there is a great and increasing
decline among the best reformed churches. Many of the Protestant
ministry, especially of the prelatic order, are posting back to Rome;
and the growing ritualism, with its gaudy and splendid "attire of a
harlot," which characterizes others, plainly indicates their tendency in
the same direction. And even those other denominations, which are not
yet prepared to adopt that "blasphemous hierarchy," are visibly
departing from the soundness in doctrine and purity of gospel worship
which constituted the chief glory of the Second Reformation. These are
the baleful effects of the dragon's influence "on the earth," (ch. xii.
13, 15.) Besides, nearly all ecclesiastical bodies are yet in cordial
alliance with the beast of the sea; and this alliance is the Antichrist.
The Pope is now nearly divested of his former civil supremacy, and in
this respect become less the express image of the imperial beast of the
sea, (ch. xiii. 14;) yet the leaven of the Romish religion pervades all
the Christian community, so far as allegiance to the beast or his horns
is either enjoined or tolerated. This usurpation of the royal
prerogatives of Christ over the churches and nations in the eastern
hemisphere by the kings of the earth, and a similar usurpation in the
western hemisphere, whether by individual despots or by the body
politic, is the _great crime_ which fills the measure of the cup of
wrath, to be poured out of the "seven vials." While such is the moral
condition of society in all lands favored with a revelation of the will
of God,--visited with judgments, continuing impenitent and guilt
augmenting, what is to be expected but heavier judgments to follow?


9. And the third angel followed them, saying, with a loud voice, If any
man worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark in his
forehead, or in his hand,

10. The same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is
poured out without mixture into the cup of his indignation; and he shall
be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels,
and in the presence of the Lamb:

11. And the smoke of their torment ascendeth up for ever and ever; and
they have no rest day nor night, who worship the beast and his image,
and whosoever receiveth the mark of his name.

Vs. 9-11.--"And the third angel followed." The two preceding angels
addressed _communities_, calling them to repentance and reformation.
Indeed, the language of the second implies little or no hope of their
recovery. This third angel, "following" up the scriptural testimony of
those who went before, and assuming that church and state,--the
essential elements of the antichristian system,--continue irreclaimable,
addresses his message to _individuals_. This angel is the last that the
Lord Jesus will employ to awaken sinners that "are at ease in Zion." His
ministry is yet future, and he will never be succeeded by an angel of
mercy until mystical Babylon is overthrown. The special, arduous and
perilous work of this angel is, to threaten eternal death against every
individual who persists in the hitherto popular idolatry. "If any man
worship the beast."--Up to the time of this angel's appearance the beast
lives and devours his prey: consequently, his work comes within the
period of the 1260 years. During this limited time, there will be found
in the Apocalypse _three objects_ of popular devotion,--the dragon, (ch.
xiii. 4,) the _beast_, and his _image_, (v. 15.) In this place the
dragon is omitted, as also in ch. xv. 2; xx. 4. We may ask, why the
omission?--Simply because "the things which the _Gentiles_ sacrifice,
they sacrifice to devils, and not to God," (1 Cor. x. 20;) consequently,
these worshippers being _Gentiles_, (ch. xi. 2,) there is no necessity
that the dragon (the devil) should be particularized. From the first
rise of the beast, he was in alliance with the dragon, (ch. xiii. 2, 3;)
therefore both are doomed to perdition, (ch. xx. 10.) Most expositors
consider this angel as emblematical of events already past; the
reformation effected by Luther, his coadjutors and successors, or the
church of England![9] Their error consists in viewing the beast as the
symbol of the church of Rome. And it is remarkable, that through the
power of local and political bias, those commentators who themselves
perceive that the beast of the sea in chapter xiii. 1, symbolizes the
Roman _empire_, lose sight of their _own exposition_ when they arrive at
the place before us! And of this bias and inconsistency they seem to be
wholly unconscious! No, there has never yet appeared in the symbolic
heaven a minister or ecclesiastical organization, which has
authoritatively denounced everlasting punishment against all who
"receive the mark of the beast." It is to be noticed here that the sins
charged are _cumulative_, not _distributive_. Guilt is contracted as
here charged, by "worshipping the beast and his image, and receiving his
mark." If the beast signify immoral civil power, and his image signify
the Papacy, as we have seen they do, then it follows that worshipping
both, and receiving the mark of the former, constitute the special guilt
here charged by the angel: that is, eulogizing, praising, and actively
co-operating with civil and ecclesiastical society, at war with the
Bible--in organized hostility to the Lord and his Anointed. (Ps. ii. 9.)
"Shall the throne of iniquity have fellowship with thee, which frameth
mischief by a law?" (Ps. xciv. 20.) But during the 1260 years, the
secular imperial beast consists of "kingdoms of this world" in alliance
with the beast of the earth, (ch. xiii. 1, 11.) And as both are for
their crimes consigned to utter destruction, so in the time of the
"third angel," every individual is threatened with everlasting
punishment, who identifies with them. "No _temporal_ judgments on
_collective_ bodies can be the fulfilment of this awful denunciation,
which evidently relates to _individuals_, and to each individual who is
guilty; and if words can convey the idea of eternal punishment, it is
here denounced."[10] The words in the original, translated "for ever and
ever," (v. 11,) are the strongest in the Greek language to signify
eternity, and are not susceptible of any other meaning.

As already intimated, the special mission and awful message of this
angel is yet future; but the testimony of his predecessor will have made
the tyranny, idolatry, immorality and profligacy of civil despots and
mercenary ministers so palpable and glaring, that the vengeance of the
Lord proclaimed by the last messenger will appear to be just. In this
way the "two witnesses smite the earth with all plagues," (ch. xi. 6;)
for they are identical with the "third angel," and have an active agency
in the work of judgment to be executed upon the antichristian enemies,
(ch. xv. 7.) And "who knows the power of that wrath which is poured out
without mixture into the cup of Jehovah's indignation?" In temporal
judgments there may be a mixture of mercy; but there is no such element
in the cup of the impenitent votaries of mystic Babylon. "Holy angels"
look on without sympathy for her agonies, while the Lamb inflicts the
tremendous penalty of her complicated and long-continued crimes. "_He_
shall be tormented--_their_ torment:"--individuals found guilty of
complicity with Babylon, will be bound up into bundles as fuel for that
fire and brimstone, whose "smoke ascendeth up for ever and ever." "They
have no rest day nor night who worship the beast,"--no mitigation of
their sufferings. They are doomed to dwell "with everlasting burnings."
(Is. xxxiii. 14.) Such are the denunciations which the "third angel" is
commissioned to proclaim in the ears of men, either to bring them to
repentance, or to justify the Lamb in punishing their impenitent
disobedience. Now "every one who is acquainted with the writings of the
reformers and their successors, knows that they generally declared,
without hesitation, that popery is a damnable religion."[11] Popery,
however, is the religion which has corrupted states and churches
throughout the world; and therefore future reformers will not hesitate
to join civil states with her in their testimony and prayers,
saying,--"The wicked shall be turned into hell, _and all the nations_
that forget God. Pour out thy fury upon the heathen that have not known
thee, and upon the kingdoms that have not called upon thy name; for they
have devoured Jacob and laid waste his dwelling place." (Psa. ix. 17;
lxxix. 6, 7.)


12. Here is the patience of the saints: here are they that keep the
commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.

13. And I heard a voice from heaven, saying unto me, Write, Blessed are
the dead which die in the Lord, from henceforth: Yea, saith the Spirit,
that they may rest from their labours; and their works do follow them.

Vs. 12, 13.--The faithful and pointed testimony of the "third angel" of
reform against the organized enemies of God in church and state, instead
of producing repentance, tends only to provoke them to greater rage
against those who thus awaken their consciences and disturb their sinful
repose. The fires of persecution are again kindled, and the witnesses
are subjected to the anathemas of the church and the sword of the civil
magistrate,--the cruelty of the two beasts. It is therefore
added,--"Here is the patience of the saints." The events predicted here
agree in time with ch. xiii. 10; and the subjects of persecution are the
same moral person in their legitimate successors who appeared in ch.
xii. 17. They "keep the commandments of God and the faith of Jesus,"
while the multitude "obey unrighteousness, receiving for doctrines the
commandments of men."

To animate these sufferers who are in "jeopardy every hour" and who have
the sentence of death as outlaws, pronounced against them by Antichrist,
John "heard a voice from heaven," directing him to write,--"Blessed are
the dead which die in the Lord, from henceforth."--To "die in the
Lord,"--means, in the faith and hope of the gospel, relieved by the
"witness of the Spirit" from the overwhelming fears of the pains of
_purgatory_. Both negatively and positively, this angel testifies
against the antichristian dogma of purgatory. He declares that the
torments of the wicked continue "for ever and ever," while the righteous
who die in the Lord, "cease from their labours."--No stronger testimony
can be conceived against the more gross papal heresy, or the more modern
and so called philosophical delusions of Universalists, Socinians and
others,--all of whom are the offspring of the "mother of harlots." But
besides the voice from heaven, and the concurrent witness of the Spirit,
against the papal dogma of purgatory, the "rest" here proclaimed for the
comfort of martyred saints, may be also understood as a termination to
their sharp conflicts with Antichrist. "_Henceforth_ they rest from
their labours,"--they shall never again be called to "resist unto blood,
striving against sin," as heretofore, by the combined opposition of the
"beast and false prophet," organized tyranny and idolatry. The ministry
of the "third angel," cotemporary with the "seventh trumpet,"--the third
and last "woe," prepares society throughout Christendom for entering
into the millennial rest.


14. And I looked, and, behold, a white cloud, and upon the cloud one sat
like unto the Son of Man, having on his head a golden crown, and in his
hand a sharp sickle.

15. And another came out of the temple, crying with a loud voice to him
that sat on the cloud, Thrust in thy sickle, and reap; for the time is
come for thee to reap: for the harvest of the earth is ripe.

16. And he that sat on the cloud thrust in his sickle on the earth; and
the earth was reaped.

Vs. 14-16.--The gathering in of the harvest is sometimes emblematical of
mercy,--as when the believer is gathered to his fathers by death. His
sanctification being completed, he is taken home "as a shock of corn
ripe in his season." Reaping and threshing, however, are most frequently
symbolical of divine judgments, (Jer. li. 33;) and the apostle refers
here to the same event which the Lord foretold by the mouth of other
prophets. (Joel iii. 13-17; Micah iv. 12, 13.) This harvest is
emblematical of divine judgment on the nations of apostate Christendom.
He who executes the judgment is one like the Son of man, the Lord
Christ. Enthroned on a "white cloud" as his chariot, and having on his
royal "head a golden crown," the symbol of sovereignty, at the
solicitation, the loud cry of the symbolic angel,--a gospel ministry, he
"thrusts in his "sharp sickle," the emblem of avenging justice, and with
infinite ease, "the earth is reaped." This work of punishing guilty
_nations_ is not so proper to the ministry, the functions of whose
office are of a spiritual nature; yet are they active in a way competent
to them, calling upon the "Lord of the harvest" to reap. They judge of
the signs of the times. Such is part of their appropriate work. Thus
they say,--"The time is come for thee to reap; for the harvest of the
earth is ripe." The Lord Jesus appeared in royal majesty to John, as he
had appeared to Ezekiel, (ch. i. 26;) and to Daniel, (ch. vii. 13.) The
cloud on which he sat had a bright side towards his saints, but to his
enemies a dark side, as at the Red Sea. (Ex. xiv. 19, 20.)

The two judgments of the _harvest_ and _vintage_, are obviously an
allusion to a natural order in the climate of Judea. Not only did the
barley and wheat-harvest precede the time of gathering grapes, but some
space elapsed between these labors of the husbandman. The usual order is
observed here.


17. And another angel came out of the temple which is in heaven, he also
having a sharp sickle.

18. And another angel came out from the altar, which had power over
fire; and cried with a loud cry to him that had the sharp sickle,
saying, Thrust in thy sharp sickle, and gather the clusters of the vine
of the earth; for her grapes are fully ripe.

19. And the angel thrust in his sickle into the earth, and gathered the
vine of the earth, and cast it into the great wine-press of the wrath of
God.

20. And the wine press was trodden without the city, and blood came out
of the wine-press even unto the horse-bridles, by the space of a
thousand and six hundred furlongs.

Vs. 17-20.--As the ministry of the "third angel," (v. 9,) was final, as
to pronouncing the deserved doom of all the adherents of the
antichristian system, so in the symbols of the _harvest_ and _vintage_,
we have the execution of that sentence exhibited. The nations of
Christendom, having drunk the wine of the mother of harlots, and of her
daughters too, and having exhausted the patience of the Lord Jesus,
refusing to repent, while he warned them by his servants the three
angels of reform,--"rising early and sending them," were at length
"ripe" for his sharp sickle. Long had he expostulated with them, saying
to them, while addressing his church,--"The nation and kingdom that will
not serve thee (O Zion,) shall perish; yea, those nations shall be
utterly wasted." (Isa. lx. 12.)--The desolating judgments of the
reigning Mediator, having brought those nations to "hate the whore,"
they become the willing and zealous agents of her destruction, as
appears, (ch. xvii. 16.)

The "gathering of the clusters of the vine of the earth,"--is a concise
emblematical representation of that tremendous work of punishing the
apostate church, to be exhibited in greater detail in the following
chapters.

The "angel coming out of the temple,"--represents the gospel ministry as
usual. His "having a sharp sickle" may import his more immediate agency
in this than in the preceding work of the harvest." Christ himself
judged the nations,--had the "sharp sickle;" but in reckoning with
impenitent ecclesiastical communities, he will honor his faithful
servants. As in "measuring the temple,"--the Mediator held the
instrument in his own hand under the Old Testament, (Zech. ii. 1,) but
under the New Testament gave it into the hand of John, the
representative of a gospel ministry, (ch. xi. 1,) so that transaction
may illustrate the symbols here.

The other angel "coming from the altar, who had power over fire," is
also symbolical of the ministry. The sickle in the hand of the former
angel, is for gathering the grapes; while the connexion of the latter
angel with the "altar," imports that a sacrifice is about to be offered,
as customary, to appease divine justice.--The "vine of the earth" is
plainly contrasted with the true vine. (Ps. lxxx. 1; Jer. ii. 21.) This
is a vine of Sodom with clusters of Gomorrah, (ch. xi. 8; Deut. xxxii.
32, 33.) It is the symbol of an apostate church, the chief heresy of
which is a practical rejection of the atonement of Christ; for it is
certain that vindictive justice is an attribute of God, and that he will
demand satisfaction from those impenitent sinners who despise his mercy
in the gospel offer, and "tread under foot the blood of the covenant
wherewith Christ was sanctified." (Heb. x. 29.) A heavier doom awaits
all such than to "die without mercy," which was the penalty for those
who "despised Moses' law." No sacrifice is appointed for the man or the
church that sins presumptuously. (Num. xv. 30, 31.) To all such, "_our_
God is a consuming fire." (Heb. xii. 29.)--The one angel calls upon the
other,--encourages his companion, to execute the judgment of God.
"Thrust in thy sharp sickle."--Under the superintendence of the
Mediator, his servants by their prayers and their sermons have an active
part in this work of judgment. From the mouth of the witnesses proceeded
fire to devour their enemies, (ch. xi. 5.) This is the last work of
judgment in which they will be honoured. Joining their victorious
predecessors who overcame the antichristian combinations "by the blood
of the Lamb and the word of their testimony," (chs. vi. 9, 10; xii. 11,)
these undaunted servants of the Lord are honored by him as instrumental
in the infliction of the final judgments symbolized by the seventh
trumpet and the seventh vial,--the third and _last woe_.--The
"wine-press" is the symbol of the "wrath of God," and its location
"without the city," denotes that the churches of the apostacy are
excommunicated,--"reprobate silver, because the Lord hath rejected
them."

We are not told here by whom the grapes are trodden; but this is the
work of the Lord Jesus himself, who in the days of his flesh on earth
forewarned his impenitent foes that he would thus deal with them in his
wrath. "Those mine enemies, which would not that I should reign over
them, bring hither, and slay them before me." (Luke xix. 27; Isa. lxiii.
3; Rev. xix. 15.)--The blood in depth is to the "horse-bridles," and in
extent "a thousand and six hundred furlongs,"--200 miles! Although this
language is hyperbolical, it is intended to signify "a time of trouble,
such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time; and
at that same time God's people shall be delivered, every one that shall
be found written in the book." (Dan. xii. 1; Rev. xiii. 8.)--Thus it
appears that church and state, having combined in the antichristian
apostacy, are severally visited with the unmingled wine of the wrath of
God. All the saints shall have obeyed the call,--"Come out of her, my
people;" and mystic Babylon shall then be utterly destroyed. Whether
Palestine, the Pope's patrimony, or some other territory be understood
by the "1600 furlongs," is matter of vague conjecture by all expositors,
and is to be verified only by the fulfilment of the prediction.



CHAPTER XV.


This chapter introduces the third and last series of symbols under which
the prospective history of the church militant is given, to strengthen
the faith and animate the hopes of her suffering and heroic children.
The warfare of the witnesses for the crown rights of Immanuel, which
have been usurped by his enemies, has been symbolized under the seals,
(chs. vi.-ix.,) and under the trumpets, (chs. xi. xii.;) and the
symbolic narrative is yet under the vials to be greatly amplified,
especially their last and greatest conflict, briefly represented in the
latter part of the preceding chapter, (vs. 9-18.) Whether or not the
vials, to which this fifteenth chapter is introductory, be all
comprehended under the _seventh trumpet_, as the trumpets are all
comprehended under the _seventh seal_, is a question upon which
respectable expositors differ. It is indeed obvious that the breaking of
the last seal, lays open the whole of the book, consequently the angels
holding the vials would come into view. John, however, is obliged to
"write" _consecutively_ some visions which he saw as it were at _one
view_. Thus he was "about to write what the seven thunders uttered,"
(ch. x. 4,) but was prohibited. That was not the proper time or place;
but it is there intimated, (v. 7,) that "in the days of the voice of the
seventh angel," the import of the "seven thunders" would be disclosed.
Then would the "mystery of God be finished, as he had declared to his
servants the prophets." (Joel iii. 2, 12, 13; Micah iv. 3; Zech. xii.
2-4; 2 Thess. ii. 8.) Some of the most learned and sober divines, who
wrote on the Apocalypse during the peninsular war waged by the first
Napolean, contemplating the anarchical and bloody scenes of the French
Revolution, and the subsequent tyranny and blood connected with the
successful wars of the Gallic usurper, thought they heard in the
commotions of European nations the sound of the seventh trumpet, and saw
the plagues inflicted as symbolized by the vials. And thus it is that
local events, which excite the political feelings, the prejudices and
partialities of even good men, are hastily interpreted as a fulfilment
of prophecy. It does not appear, however, that those events were either
of sufficient magnitude or geographical extent to answer the tremendous
symbols of either _harvest_ or _vintage_. Did the French revolution, the
American revolution, or the wars of Napolean First, influence the
civilized world or affect the church of God, as Popery and Mahometanism
have done? No, the comparison is preposterous. Hence it is most probable
that Christendom has not yet heard the alarming sound of the seventh
trumpet.


1. And I saw another sign in heaven, great and marvellous, seven angels
having the seven last plagues; for in them is filled up the wrath of
God.

V. 1.--"Another sign in heaven."--All the visions were seen by the
apostle in the same place, (ch. i. 1; xii. 1.) The word translated
"sign" here is the same as "wonder" in the twelfth chapter, which for
greater clearness to the English reader ought to have been rendered by
the same word.--The symbol or sign consists of "seven angels having the
seven last plagues,"--the _last_ to be inflicted on the Antichrist, but
not absolutely the last penal inflictions on the enemies of God; for
"Gog and Magog" are in like manner to be destroyed, and there is
_eternal_ wrath.

Upon the "Lamb's taking the book," and before he had opened the first
seal, songs of joy burst forth from saints and angels, (ch. v. 8, 9.) So
it is here. Before the angels proceed to execute their commission, the
redeemed of the Lord, anticipating the effects of these judgments, give
expression to their joy.


2. And I saw as it were a sea of glass mingled with fire; and them that
had gotten the victory over the beast, and over his image, and over his
mark, and over the number of his name, stand on the sea of glass, having
the harps of God.

3. And they sing the song of Moses the servant of God, and the song of
the Lamb, saying, Great and marvellous are thy works, Lord God Almighty,
just and true are thy ways, thou King of saints!

4. Who shall not fear thee, O Lord, and glorify thy name? for thou only
art holy: for all nations shall come and worship before thee; for thy
judgments are made manifest.

Vs. 2-4.--The "sea of glass," or transparent sea, (as in ch. iv. 6,)
refers us to the brazen sea before the throne of God in the temple. In
this sea the priests were to wash themselves, (Exod. xxx. 18, 19,) and
in water drawn from it the sacrifices were to be washed also. (Lev. i.
9, 13.)

As the brazen sea typified the blood of Christ, that "fountain opened
for sin and for uncleanness," (Zech. xiii. 1,) so this "sea of glass" is
the symbol of the same thing; for the Lord washes away the filth of the
daughters of Zion, and purges the blood of Jerusalem from the midst
thereof by the spirit of judgment, and by the spirit of burning. (Isa.
iv. 4.) This happy company were victorious by the blood of the Lamb,
"over the beast, his image, his name and number;" having clean escaped
from them who live in error, both in civil and ecclesiastical relations.
Holding the eucharistic "harps of God," they are the same company as
those on Mount Zion with the Lamb, (ch. xiv. 1, 2.) There, their song
was called _new_; here it is more fully described. There it was said,
"no man could learn that song" but themselves, here we have the matter
of the song epitomised. It is constructed of two parts, "the song of
Moses and the song of the Lamb." As the children of Israel at the Red
Sea celebrated the praises of God's justice in the overthrow of their
enemies the Egyptians, so do these with united voice express their
admiration and praise in anticipation of the final and awful end of
these cruel, idolatrous and persecuting mystical Egyptians, (ch. xi. 8,)
"saying, Great and marvellous are thy works, Lord God Almighty; just and
true are thy ways, thou King of saints." They do also declare their
faith in the universal dominion of their King; that "all nations shall
come and worship before him." And to this day none but the witnesses are
prepared either with intelligence or affection to "learn" or use this
song. We have the subject matter of both parts of this triumphant song,
framed by the Holy Spirit and incorporated in the Book of Psalms, (as
Ps. ii. 8; xviii. 37-45; xlv. 3-6; cx. 1, etc.) The fortunes of God's
covenant people till the ingathering of the Jews, with the fulness of
the Gentiles, may be found in Moses' song, (Deut. xxxii. 1-43,) and the
"song of the Lamb" is found in chapter v. 9-13.


5. And after that I looked, and behold, the temple of the tabernacle of
the testimony in heaven was opened:

6. And the seven angels came out of the temple, having the seven
plagues, clothed in pure and white linen, and having their breasts
girded with golden girdles.

Vs. 5, 6.--John looked again, and saw the "temple opened," that the
seven angels might have egress to enter upon their heavenly mission.
Their clothing resembled the garments of the priests under the law,
"white linen and golden girdles," representing the holiness or moral
purity of their work. They shed the blood of the victim, so to speak,
without soiling their garments; but the Lord Jesus, whose work of
judgment this is, "stains all his raiment," (Isa. lxiii. 3,) "for the
day of vengeance is in his heart," (v. 4.)


7. And one of the four beasts gave unto the seven angels seven golden
vials full of the wrath of God, who liveth for ever and ever.

V. 7.--"One of the four beasts,"--_animals_, the symbol of the gospel
ministry, as we found, (ch. iv. 6.) Not all the ministry were employed
in this action, but _one_ only. That is, some few, a fractional part,
possessing more insight into the "sure word of prophecy," and endowed
with larger measure of heroic spirit by the Lord Jesus, co-operated with
holy angels in this work of judgment. "He gave the vials into the hand
of the angels." By their preaching, their prayers and their example,
faithful ministers, unseduced by the blandishments of corrupt power, and
undismayed by the bloody edicts of the beast,--"in nothing terrified by
their adversaries," denounce the judgments represented by these vials,
upon the impenitent enemies of the Lord and his Anointed. For an
illustration of this symbolic action of giving the vials of divine wrath
to the appointed agents, reference may be had to Jer. xxv. 15-26; li. 7.


8. And the temple was filled with smoke from the glory of God, and from
his power, and no man was able to enter into the temple, till the seven
plagues of the seven angels were fulfilled.

Vs. 8.--"The temple filled with smoke," represents the darkness of these
dispensations, the horror and dismay which seizes upon the votaries of
Antichrist. But during the time of executing these judgments, the
progress of the gospel will be retarded,--"no man being able to enter
into the temple." It is intimated, moreover, that these judgments will,
as it were, clear away the "smoke," and render the temple once more
luminous. So we may conclude by comparing the 4th and 8th verses. In the
4th verse the witnesses declare their faith thus,--"All nations shall
come and worship before thee." But this is a description of the
millennial state of the world. (Ps. lxxii. 11.)



CHAPTER XVI.


All preliminaries being now arranged, the seven angels receive their
commission by a "great voice out of the temple." It is the "voice of the
Lord, full of majesty." (Ps. xxix. 4.)--As the _seals_ and _trumpets_
were not coincident, but successive, so it is doubtless with the
_vials_. No two begin to be poured out at the same time. One follows
another in orderly succession.

Several questions of difficult solution, arise in the minds of devout
and humble students of the Apocalypse, respecting the series of the
vials. Are the vials cotemporary with the trumpets? Seeing that the
seventh seal included all the trumpets, does analogy require that all
the vials be comprehended under the seventh or last trumpet? Or, do the
seven vials come under the last three trumpets, distinguished as they
are by the character of woe-trumpets? (ch. viii. 13.) Other questions
may here be propounded; but these seem to be the most obvious and
important, in fixing the time of the events predicted.

The breaking of the seventh seal unquestionably laid open the whole of
the book, including all the trumpets and vials,--all future events till
the end of the world; but it does not follow, for instance, that the
awful scene of the final judgment is to be cotemporary with any of the
trumpets, (ch. xx. 11, 12.) The seventh seal, therefore, discloses
important events, which are to come to pass subsequently to both
trumpets and vials. The fact that both trumpets and vials are disclosed
by the opening of the last seal, admits of their being cotemporaneous.

From the striking resemblance between the effects of the trumpets and
those of the vials, (ch. viii. 7-12; xvi. 2-12,) they might seem to be
cotemporary. This, however, is not the case, for the objects of the
judgments are different, that of the trumpets being more formally the
civil empire, while that of the vials is the ecclesiastical empire;
each, however, greatly affecting the other, because of their unholy
union against the cause of Christ. Perhaps it may be most consonant to
the mind of the Spirit to view the vials as agreeing in time with the
three woe-trumpets. Keeping in view the definite period of Antichrist's
domination in church and state, 1260 years, and the probability of its
drawing to a close, the remaining part would seem too short for the
period of the vials. As the series of the vials, like those which in
vision preceded them, is successive, the application of them all to the
French Revolution is simply preposterous.[12] That event answered not to
the symbol either in extent or duration. Nor indeed is there
satisfactory evidence in the actual condition of the Christian world,
notwithstanding the fond imagination of learned and good men, that the
voice of the seventh angel has yet been heard by Christendom.


1. And I heard a great voice out of the temple, saying to the seven
angels, Go your ways, and pour out the vials of the wrath of God upon
the earth.

V. 1.--"Earth" has here the usual meaning,--the whole territory and
population of the Roman empire, those only and always exempted, who are
true to the cause of Immanuel. The angels of destruction cannot hurt
those who are under the protection of his blood. (Exod. xii. 23.) They
may not "come near any man upon whom is the mark." (Ezek. ix. 6; Rev.
xiv. 1.)


2. And the first went, and poured out his vial upon the earth; and there
fell a noisome and grievous sore upon the men which had the mark of the
beast, and upon them which worshipped his image.

3. And the second angel poured out his vial upon the sea; and it became
as the blood of a dead man: and every living soul died in the sea.

4. And the third angel poured out his vial upon the rivers and fountains
of waters; and they became blood.

5. And I heard the angel of the waters say, Thou art righteous, O Lord,
which art, and wast, and shalt be, because thou hast judged thus:

6. For they have shed the blood of saints and prophets, and thou hast
given them blood to drink; for they are worthy.

7. And I heard another out of altar say, Even so, Lord God Almighty,
true and righteous are thy judgments.

Vs. 2-7.--"And the first went."--However disagreeable the service, as we
are ready to suppose, this holy agent at once obeys the divine command.
The best of men hesitate and remonstrate when called to difficult and
disagreeable work. So it was with Moses, and with Jeremiah. (Exod. iv.
10; Jer. i. 6.) But all these heavenly messengers in succession, execute
their respective tasks without gainsaying. It is the will of our common
Lord that his disciples should emulate their example, that they should
"know, obey and submit to his will in all things as the angels do in
heaven." (Ps. ciii. 20, 21.)--The judgments upon the antichristian
enemies which have been briefly represented in the close of the 14th
chapter by a _harvest_ and _vintage_, are in this chapter more
extensively exhibited by the seven vials. A resemblance to the first
four trumpets may be observed in the effects of the first four vials,
and besides, these plagues resemble those inflicted on Egypt. If by her
crimes, especially by idolatry and cruelty to the people of God papal
Rome has copied the manners of Egypt and Babylon, it is but just that
she should be visited with like punishment.--The first vial selects as
victims those who "had the mark of the beast and worshipped his image;"
and this is true of the succeeding plagues, although the fact be not
repeated. The object of this vial is the "earth" in a more restricted
sense than in the first verse. The "earth" in the first verse comprises
all the parts of a system, "earth, sea, fountains, sun and air,"
mentioned in the following verses.--The "noisome and grievous sore,"
refers to one of the plagues of Egypt. (Exod. ix. 9-11.) The _earth_ was
the object affected also by the first trumpet; (ch. viii. 7;) but as
Antichrist had not then arisen, this plague cannot agree in time with
the first trumpet, though it might with the fifth or sixth trumpet; for
while these trumpets were demolishing the eastern member of the Roman
empire, making way for the development of Mahomet's imposture, the
"little horn" of Daniel, and Paul's "man of sin," was revealed in the
west. But the "two witnesses" were coincident in origin with Antichrist,
and were empowered by the Lord Christ "to smite the earth with all
plagues as often as they would," (ch. xi. 6.) The "grievous sore" is to
be understood metaphorically, not literally; for so the construction of
the Apocalypse requires. It may import the festering of unmortified
corruption among the votaries of Antichrist, intensified by the faithful
application of the divine law by the witnesses.--The object of the
second vial is the "sea," the same as that of the second trumpet, (ch.
viii. 8, 9.) The allusion is to Exod. vii. 20, 21. Intestine commotions,
with war, blood and death, seem to be symbolized. The horns of the beast
were often turned against one another; for the bestial kingdom was
"partly broken." The toes in Nebuchadnezzar's image did not "cleave one
to another." (Dan. ii. 42, 43.)--The object of the third vial is the
"rivers and fountains of waters," (ch. viii. 10; Exodus vii. 19.) These
symbols may signify the several kingdoms of the empire, tributary by
their wealth and traffic to the great city. And as the witnesses
continued to prophesy, giving increased point and publicity to their
testimony, and as the Turks were making encroachments upon the
territories of nominal Christian princes in the west, extensive wars and
great slaughter were the results. These awful judgments are followed by
the plaudits of two angels. The eternal Jehovah is recognized as the
Author of these judgments. The Mediator may here be understood, (ch. i.
8;) (John v. 22, 27.) The "angel of the waters" may be the same who
poured out the vial. He gives to the Lord the glory of his
justice:--"Thou art righteous." He also approves the "law of
retaliation:"--"For they are worthy." The other angel "out of the altar"
speaks on behalf of the martyrs, (ch. vi. 9, 10,) recognizing the
faithfulness of God:--"True and righteous are thy judgments."


8. And the fourth angel poured out his vial upon the sun; and power was
given unto him to scorch men with fire.

9. And men were scorched with great heat, and blasphemed the name of
God, which hath power over these plagues; and they repented not to give
him glory.

Vs. 8,9.--The object of the fourth vial is the "sun," (ch. viii. 12.)
"Power was given him,"--the angel. The two witnesses are represented as
armed with "fire, which proceedeth out of their mouth, devouring their
enemies," (ch. xi. 5.) As the formal object of all the vials is the
ecclesiastical, rather than the civil empire, and the sun is the symbol
of the chief dignitary, perhaps this vial strikes more directly upon the
"man of sin." The expression in the introduction to the vials, (ch. xv.
4,)--"thou only art holy," seems to be a testimony against the
antichristian "name of blasphemy,"--"His Holiness." By the Reformation,
symbolized by successive angels of the fourteenth chapter, those valiant
men tormented the Pope and his vassals, so that they raged and
blasphemed more and more, but "repented not to give God the glory." So
it was at the sounding of the sixth trumpet, (ch. ix. 20, 21.)


10. And the fifth angel poured out his vial upon the seat of the beast;
and his kingdom was full of darkness; and they gnawed their tongues for
pain,

11. And blasphemed the God of heaven, because of their pains and their
sores, and repented not of their deeds.

Vs. 10, 11.--"The seat of the beast" is the object of the fifth vial.
The "beast" is all along from chapter xi. 7, the Roman empire. The
"image of the beast," we have found to be the papacy, (ch. xiii. 14,
15.) Now the "seat (throne) of the beast," would seem to point to the
metropolis, where the Pope, as a kind of imperial,
politico-ecclesiastical head, keeps his court, and whence decrees are
issued. This plague is like the ninth inflicted upon Egypt, (Exod. x.
21.) It was the last but one, and left Pharaoh still impenitent. Just so
here; although this vial is the last but one to be poured out on the
western limb of the great antichristian conspiracy: the population of
the spiritual empire repress their complaints before men,--"they gnawed
their tongues for pain;" while they in their hearts "curse their king
and their God, and look upward." (Is. viii. 21.) This may be understood
to be the actual condition of the Pope and his retainers at the present
time, and especially since the year 1848, when he was forced to flee
from Rome. _Darkness_ is the emblem of distress, of mental despair, (Ps.
xxxv. 8; Is. viii. 22;) and the actual relation of European powers to
the see of Rome,--Austria, France, Spain, and the Italian states, is not
calculated to mitigate, but rather to augment and irritate the "pains
and the sores" inflicted by this and former vials.

We can, however, offer only conjectures here, and dare not be too
confident; for learned and pious expositors are of the opinion that all
the vials are comprehended under the seventh trumpet; that the seventh
trumpet has not yet begun to sound; and consequently, that the vials are
all future. On the other hand, equally learned and godly interpreters of
these Apocalyptic hieroglyphics, are very confident that the _sixth_
vial is in process of pouring out in our present time; and that in fact
its effects are obviously traceable in providence. Already we have
indicated our humble opinion, that all the vials are not necessarily
comprehended under the seventh trumpet; inasmuch as the opening of the
last seal disclosed equally trumpets and vials: yet doubtless it is
requisite that the series of the trumpets should precede that of the
vials, while nothing hinders that of both series should cotemporate. We
may conceive that as the first four trumpets demolished the western
member of the Roman empire, and the next two the eastern limb, so the
vials may be distributed in a manner somewhat similar. The second woe,
or sixth trumpet, has not yet finished its appropriate work in the final
subversion of the Turkish empire, which still exists; and during the
time of its last echoes, the vials may be supposed to be accomplishing
their appropriate work upon the western empire, as being "wholly given
to idolatry." While the first five vials are consuming the Antichrist in
the west, the sixth is operating in the east.


12. And the sixth angel poured out his vial upon the great river
Euphrates; and the water thereof was dried up, that the way of the kings
of the east might be prepared.

13. And I saw three unclean spirits like frogs come out of the mouth of
the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of
the false prophet.

14. For they are the spirits of devils, working miracles, which go forth
unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to
the battle of that great day of God Almighty.

15. Behold, I come as a thief. Blessed is he that watcheth and keepeth
his garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame.

16. And he gathered them together into a place called in the Hebrew
tongue Armageddon.

Vs. 12-16.--"The great river Euphrates" is the object of the sixth vial.
By the very general consent of expositors the Turkish empire is intended
by this symbol; and they seem to be equally agreed that the sixth vial
in now in process of pouring out. The object of the sixth trumpet is the
same, (ch. ix. 14.) There is, besides, an obvious allusion to the
ancient literal Babylon; and to the manner of its overthrow by Cyrus the
king of Persia. (Jer. l. 38; li. 36; Dan. v. 26-28; Is. xliv. 27,
28.)--This monarch, as historians relate, changed the current of the
Euphrates, and by this means took possession of the city, while
Belshazzar and his nobles were engaged in a drunken festival. (Dan. v.
1-30.)--The waters of this river are to be taken as representing the
population of the Ottoman empire, (ch. xvii. 15.) By the "kings of the
east" may be understood the Jews, agreeably to the symbolical nature of
this book; (Is. xli. 2, 3;) yet as the Turkish empire and Mahometan
imposture constitute barriers to the extension of Christ's kingdom among
the populous nations of the east, as Popish despotism and idolatry,
obstruct the gospel in the west, we may give this symbol of the "kings
of the east" a more extensive interpretation. Probably a larger
proportion of the natural seed of Abraham are to be found on the west
than even on the east of the Turkish empire. The dynasty of the Turk is
in process of visible exhaustion, and nothing but what is termed among
antichristian nations "the balance of power," prolongs its existence or
hinders its extinction. "Drying up," evaporation, is a gradual process,
and with singular precision describes the waning light of the once proud
Crescent,--the expiring breath of what has been termed by a bold figure,
"the sick man."[13]--Under this vial, however, and likewise as the
termination of the second woe, a general, final and desperate alliance
is to be found to resist the aggressive forces of the "Lord of
Hosts."--This confederacy is headed by the dragon, and is identical with
the war, (ch. xii. 17,) against the "remnant of the woman's
seed."--These "unclean spirits like frogs" are called "spirits of
devils." They "come out of the mouth" of all the agents, the dragon,
(ch. xii. 3, 9,) the beast, (ch. xiii. 1,) and the false prophet,--the
same as the two-horned beast, (v. 11,) and (ch. xix. 20.) These "unclean
spirits" succeed in gathering the kings of the earth, by "working
miracles," "lying wonders." (2 Thess. ii. 9; 1 Tim. iv. 1, 2.) They are
the agents of antichristian Rome, spiritual wickedness in high places,"
(Eph. vi. 12;)--"like frogs," living in moral filth; garrulous and
impudent, stealthily gaining access into the bedchambers of the kings,
"after the manner of Egypt." (Exod. viii. 3.)--Surely the policy of Rome
is here portrayed, her cardinals, archbishops, Jesuits, etc., gaining
entrance into the councils and cabinets of princes, inciting them to
debauchery, tyranny and blood. Hellish hosts are thus "gathered to the
battle of that great day of God Almighty,"--the day of the seventh vial,
of the "vintage," (ch. xiv. 18-20,) and of the seventh trumpet, (ch. xi.
15;) for all these agree in point of time.--This will be an "hour of
temptation," as intimated in the 15th verse, which is a parenthesis,
interrupting a little the narrative of the effects of the vial. There is
danger of apostacy, of "falling away to these Chaldeans," of temporizing
with the enemy in order to escape suffering. Thus Christian soldiers of
the cross, losing "the armour of righteousness," would be exposed to
"shame." But "blessed is he that watcheth," that looks to the Captain of
Salvation, to his cause, as elucidated by his providence,--the signs of
the times; for so shall he "keep his garments," when others are "found
naked."--"And he gathered them" or rather "_they_ gathered," (for the
singular verb agrees with its nominative plural neuter as usual,)--the
"unclean spirits gathered the kings of the earth" to the destined place.
This hinders not but that these antichristian enemies of the church are
brought together by the Almighty. Just so he sent the king of Assyria
against "a hypocritical nation." (Is. x. 5-7.) And doubtless the prophet
Joel prophesied of this great and decisive battle, (ch. iii. 11-14.)
"Thither cause thy mighty ones to come down, O Lord." Compare vs. 1, 2.
The place is called "Armageddon," the _mountain of destruction_,
suggesting the issue of the battle in the final overthrow of Antichrist;
for it is not necessary to suppose that any _place_ is literally pointed
out; but as this is a compound word in the "Hebrew tongue," allusion may
be made to the slaughter of Sisera's army, (Judges v. 19;) or to the
mournful death of Josiah, (2 Chron. xxxv. 22.)


17. And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the air; and there
came a great voice out of the temple of heaven, from the throne, saying,
It is done.

18. And there were voices, and thunders, and lightnings; and there was a
great earthquake, such as was not since men were upon the earth, so
mighty an earthquake, and so great.

19. And the great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of
the nations fell; and great Babylon came in remembrance before God, to
give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath.

20. And every island fled away, and the mountains were not found.

21. And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven, every stone
about the weight of a talent; and men blasphemed God, because of the
plague of the hail; for the plague thereof was exceeding great.

Vs. 17-21.--"The seventh angel poured out his vial into the air."--The
devil is emphatically styled "the prince of the power of the air." (Eph.
ii. 2.) All the preceding vials fell upon their respective and
successive objects, the several parts of the symbolic system; but this
"vial of consummation" affects the whole of that system at once. The
dragon, the beast, and his image, together with the false prophet,--all
the "kingdoms of this world and the glory of them," which the god of
this world claimed as his own, and offered to our Lord Jesus Christ in
the days of his humiliation, (Luke iv. 6, 7;)--all will be destroyed for
ever. He who gave commission by a "great voice," (v. 1,) to these
angels, now that they have fulfilled his pleasure, solemnly declares his
approbation,--"It is done." The Lord Christ had solemnly sworn that "in
the days of the voice of the seventh angel, when he should begin to
sound, the mystery of God should be _finished_," (ch. x. 6, 7.) He is
faithful to his oath,--_It is done._ Hence, it is undeniably evident
that the seventh trumpet agrees in time with the seventh vial; and it is
equally evident that the events which they represent are yet future.
What was obscurely intimated as following the sounding of the seventh
trumpet,--"the nations were angry,--and thy wrath is come," (ch. xi.
18,) is here amplified; for the "voices, thunders and lightnings," are
the visible and sensible tokens of the wrath of God. (Exod. xix. 16;
Heb. xii. 21.) Next follows an "earthquake," the usual symbol of
revolution; but this one is without parallel. An earthquake followed the
opening of the sixth seal, (ch. vi. 12;) when paganism was overthrown in
the Roman empire by Constantine, and another earthquake marked the close
of the second woe, (ch. xi. 13,) when "the tenth part of the city fell:"
but this _concussion_ is "so mighty and so great" as to "divide the
great city into three parts," or rival factions: next, "the cities of
the nations fell,"--revolted from their wonted allegiance, and "great
Babylon came in remembrance before God," who seemed to have forgotten
both her and his saints whom she had so long and so cruelly persecuted.
At the fall of Rome _pagan_, mountains and islands were only "moved out
of their places," (ch. vi. 14;) but at the fall of Rome _papal_, "every
island fled away, and the mountains were not found;"--the former
indicating _transition_, the latter utter _destruction_.--The "fall of
hail" is to be viewed as accompanying, not following, the fall of
cities, flight of islands and mountains. As hail-stones are symbolical
of divine judgments, and as there may be allusion here to another of the
plagues of Egypt, (Exod. ix. 18;) so more especially may the facts of
history supply the figurative language with which the judgments of the
vials terminate. If any escaped the destroying sword in the battle of
Armageddon, they are overtaken by these ponderous hail-stones out of
heaven; even as "the Lord cast down great stones from heaven" upon the
five kings of the Amorites; so that "more died with hailstones than they
whom the children of Israel slew with the sword." (Jos. x. 11.)--The
result is as before; the survivors remain impenitent. As history
supplies no instance of literal hail-stones of a talent weight, (sixty
pounds, or as others, a hundred,) so the symbol represents this as the
most tremendous of all the judgments of God, (ch. xiv. 20.)

Thus, we have seen that the last trumpet and the last vial combine, in
the final perdition of Babylon the great.



CHAPTER XVII.


This chapter may be considered introductory to the eighteenth, or as a
digression in the narrative, to explain more fully the integral parts of
that complex, mystical moral person so often called "great Babylon,"
whose destruction was so awfully presented in the foregoing chapter.


1. And there came one of the seven angels, which had the seven vials,
and talked with me, saying unto me, Come hither; I will show unto thee
the judgment of the great whore, that sitteth upon many waters;

2. With whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the
inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her
fornication.

Vs. 1, 2.--The angel that "talked with the apostle" was probably the
seventh. "The great whore" is the symbol of the idolatrous church of
Rome, which broke her marriage covenant with Christ. Idolatry is
spiritual whoredom. (Hosea vi. 10.) Her "sitting upon many waters" is
explained, verse 15. "The kings of the earth" are her paramours, and
their subjects are partakers in the crime,--"made drunk."


3. So he carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness; and I saw a
woman sit upon a scarlet-coloured beast, full of names of blasphemy,
having seven heads, and ten horns.

4. And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet-colour, and decked
with gold, and precious stones, and pearls, having a golden cup in her
hand, full of abominations, and filthiness of her fornication.

5. And upon her forehead was a name written, MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT,
THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS, AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH.

Vs. 3-5.--The "scarlet-coloured beast" is the Roman empire professing
the Christian religion, modelled by the Romish church; for the "woman
sits upon the beast," guiding and controlling all its motions. (James
iii. 3.) The raiment of both is at once _imperial and bloody_,--"purple
and scarlet."--The raiment of this "woman" is decked with precious
metal, stones and pearls, after the usual "attire of a harlot." (Ezek.
xvi. 17.) The "cup" alludes to the practice of harlots giving
love-potions to their paramours, very expressive of the indulgences,
absolutions, preferments, etc., by which the church of Rome attracts
disciples to her idolatry. "The nations have drunken of her wine;
therefore the nations are mad." (Jer. li. 7.)--The inscription "upon her
forehead" is after the manner of shameless prostitutes, avowing Rome's
whoredoms of idolatry, monasticism, indulgences to sin, as essential to
religion, a "mystery of iniquity," by which the "man of sin thinks to
change times and laws." (Dan. vii. 24, 25; xi. 36, 37.)


6. And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with
the blood of the martyrs of Jesus: and when I saw her, I wondered with
great admiration.

V. 6.--This "woman,"--_Christian church_,--was "drunken with the blood
of saints and martyrs." Of course, such a sight would give rise to the
apostle's astonishment. The attempt of popish writers to apply this to
_pagan_ Rome's persecutions is demonstrably false; for John could not
"wonder" at the persecution of the church when he was himself an actual
victim in Patmos, (ch. i. 9.)


7. And the angel said unto me, Wherefore didst thou marvel? I will tell
thee the mystery of the woman, and of the beast that carrieth her, which
hath the seven heads and ten horns.

8. The beast that thou sawest, was, and is not; and shall ascend out of
the bottomless pit, and go into perdition: and they that dwell on the
earth shall wonder (whose names were not written in the book of life
from the foundation of the world,) when they behold the beast that was,
and is not, and yet is.

9. And here is the mind which hath wisdom. The seven heads are seven
mountains, on which the woman sitteth.

10. And there are seven kings: five have fallen, and one is, and the
other is not yet come; and when he cometh, he must continue a short
space.

11. And the beast that was, and is not, even he is the eighth, and is of
the seven, and goeth into perdition.

Vs. 7-11.--The angel explains the "mystery of the woman and of the beast
that carrieth her." The beast, the civil power, carrieth, sustains the
woman, the church; as the church controls the state, (v. 3; ch. xiii. 1,
11, 16.) The "beast that was, and is not, and yet is," is a mysterious
personage as well as the woman; therefore all who "dwell upon the
earth,"--not in "heaven, wonder," (ch. xiii. 3-6;)--that is, all the
vassals of Antichrist, distinguished from those whose "names are in the
book of life,"--the two witnesses.--"The seven heads" of the beast
signify seven mountains, on which Rome literally stands, namely,
Capitoline, Palatine, Aventine, Esquiline, Coelian, Viminal and
Quirinal. Here the woman and Rome are manifestly identical,--the
spiritual empire. But the heads of the beast have a double meaning; for
they also signify "seven kings" or successive forms of civil government.
At the time when John wrote, "five had fallen;" they had passed into
actual history. One was then existing, namely, the emperor, in the
person of Domitian, as is supposed. This is the imperial head, whose
"deadly wound was healed," (ch. xiii. 3.)--The "seventh head was not
come" in the apostles' time, but on his appearance, he was to "continue
a short space." The papacy is not the seventh head. _He_ is a horn.
(Dan. vii. 8, 20.) But a _horn_ of the beast cannot identify with the
_beast himself_. It is otherwise with a head, which is the form of
government over the _whole empire_. The _patriciate_ succeeded the
imperial, being the seventh head, and only of _short_ duration, about
fifty years. Charlemagne was crowned emperor of the Romans in the year
eight hundred; and so the patriciate terminated. This is the _eighth_,
which "is of the seven;" and goeth into perdition. This septimo-octave
head is so variable, sometimes acknowledged as residing in Austria, then
in France, etc., that for hundreds of years, the great republic of the
nations,--all _bestial_,--are at a loss to identify the visible head in
whom resides the precedency: hence the "balance of power" is so
perplexing and difficult to adjust. Were there an acknowledged imperial
and despotic head, this obvious difficulty could not exist. But the
beast is not. Nevertheless the arbitrary power of the horns of the beast
is sensibly felt in every part of the Roman empire.--The beast is, and
will continue till "the time of the end;" (Dan. xii. 9;) for the Roman
empire must be equal in duration with the life and actings of the two
witnesses, 1260 years.


12. And the ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings, which have
received no kingdom as yet; but receive power as kings one hour with the
beast.

13. These have one mind, and shall give their power and strength unto
the beast.

14. These shall make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb shall overcome
them; for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings; and they that are with
him are called, and chosen, and faithful.

Vs. 12-14.--"The ten horns" signify "ten kings" or regal or civil
sovereignties, into which the empire was to be partitioned after John's
time, and which we have seen was effected by the first four trumpets,
(ch. viii. 7-12.)--These "received power _one hour_ with the
beast,"--rather, at _one time_, or cotemporaneously with the beast; for
they are his horns, and are of "one mind, giving their power and
strength," all their resources, to him. These shall make war with the
Lamb," the Mediator, headed by the dragon, and instigated by the beast
and his image, (ch. xii. 7; xiii. 7.)


15. And he saith unto me, The waters which thou sawest, where the whore
sitteth, are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues.

V. 15.--"The waters," controlled by "the whore," are the multitudes whom
the apostate church of Rome commands to volunteer in the wars of the
kings against the Lamb.


16. And the ten horns which thou sawest upon the beast, these shall hate
the whore, and shall make her desolate and naked, and shall eat her
flesh, and burn her with fire.

V. 16.--What a surprising change! yet how natural! (2 Sam. xiii. 15.)
The punishment is that which was adjudged in the case of a priest's
daughter. (Lev. xxi. 9.)--The "ten horns," here, are to be understood
generally, not universally, (ch. xviii. 9; xix. 19.) Some of those
princes that have contributed most to the aggrandizement of the Romish
church, and been most devoted to her religion, as the ruler of France,
"the eldest son of the church," their "catholic majesties" of Austria,
Spain, Portugal,--may be among the first in executing divine judgments
on Babylon.--"Make her desolate and naked, eat her flesh;" that is,
withdraw the lands, endowments, etc., which enriched her monasteries and
fattened her bishops, priests, etc.


17. For God hath put in their hearts to fulfil his will, and to agree,
and give their kingdom unto the beast, until the words of God shall be
fulfilled.

V. 17.--Here we are led into the secret cause of the wonderful change in
the policy of the horns: "God hath put into their hearts." They just do
to the "great whore, whatsoever God's hand and counsel determined before
to be done." (Acts iv. 28. See also Exod. vii. 3; Gen. xiv. 8; l. 20;
Ps. cv. 25.)


18. And the woman which thou sawest is that great city, which reigneth
over the kings of the earth.

V. 18.--This "woman is the great city;" not literally the city of Rome;
but the imperial ecclesiastical jurisdiction, to whose authority
intoxicated kings and their subjects bowed in slavish submission; and
whose bloody decrees they had executed for 1260 years upon many of their
best subjects and fellow-creatures.



CHAPTER XVIII.


1. And after these things I saw another angel come down from heaven,
having great power; and the earth was lightened, with his glory.

2. And he cried mightily with a strong voice, saying, Babylon the great
is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of devils, and the
hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird.

3. For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her
fornication, and the kings of the earth have committed fornication with
her, and the merchants of the earth are waxed rich through the abundance
of her delicacies.

Vs. 1-3.--After the apostle had described Babylon in the preceding
chapter, he "saw another angel." This seems to be the Lord Christ, the
same as in ch. x. 1. He "confirmeth the word of his servants," (ch. xiv.
8;) that "Babylon the great has fallen," and is adequately punished for
her crimes, which are enumerated, v. 3.


4. And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, Come out of her, my
people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of
her plagues.

V. 4.--The phrase, "my people" indicates that the speaker is not a
created angel whose warning is here given with a "voice from heaven."
This call of the Lord Jesus has been addressed to his elect, ever since
the revelation of the "man of sin." It has been obeyed but partially
hitherto: but upon the sounding of the seventh trumpet, his Holy Spirit
will give the call unusual efficacy.


5. For her sins have reached unto heaven, and God hath remembered her
iniquities.

6. Reward her even as she rewarded you, and double unto her double,
according to her works: in the cup which he hath filled, fill to her
double.

7. How much she hath glorified herself, and lived deliciously, so much
torment and sorrow give her: for she saith in her heart. I sit a queen;
and am no widow, and shall see no sorrow.

8. Therefore shall her plagues come in one day, death, and mourning, and
famine; and she shall be utterly burnt with fire; for strong is the Lord
God who judgeth her.

Vs. 5-8.--"Her sins have reached unto heaven," and now she is to be
visited with condign punishment; although it seemed both to her and
God's own people long delayed. "God hath remembered her iniquities."
There is reference to ancient Babylon's punishment, and the law of
retaliation. (Jer. l. 15; Ps. cxxxvii. 8; Is. xlvii. 1-8.) Her
punishment is destruction from the Almighty": "strong is the Lord God
who judgeth her."


9. And the kings of the earth who have committed fornication and lived
deliciously with her, shall bewail her, and lament for her, when they
shall see the smoke of her burning.

10. Standing afar off, for the fear of her torment, saying, Alas, alas,
that great city Babylon, that mighty city! for in one hour is thy
judgment come.

11. And the merchants of the earth shall weep and mourn over her; for no
man buyeth their merchandise any more.

12. The merchandise of gold, and silver, and precious stones, and of
pearls, and fine linen, and purple, and silk, and scarlet and all thyine
wood, and all manner of vessels of ivory, and all manner vessels of most
precious wood, and of brass, and iron, and marble.

13. And cinnamon, and odours, and ointments, and frankincense, and wine,
and oil, and fine flour, and wheat, and beasts, and sheep, and horses,
and chariots, and slaves, and souls of men.

14. And the fruits that thy soul lusted after are departed from thee,
and all things which were dainty and goodly are departed from thee, and
thou shalt find them no more at all.

15. The merchants of these things, which were made rich by her, shall
stand afar off, for the fear of her torment, weeping and wailing,

16. And saying, Alas, alas! that great city, that was clothed in fine
linen, and purple, and scarlet, and decked with gold, and precious
stones, and pearls!

17. For in one hour so great riches is come to naught. And every ship
master, and all the company in ships, and sailors, and as many as trade
by sea, stood afar off,

18. And cried, when they saw the smoke of her burning, saying, What city
is like unto this great city?

19. And they cast dust on their heads, and cried, weeping and wailing,
saying, Alas, alas! that great city, wherein were made rich all that had
ships in the sea, by reason of her costliness! for in one hour is she
made desolate.

Vs. 9-19.--At the fall of Babylon some of the kings who had been her
supporters, will lament for her while utterly unable to protect her, and
afraid of partaking of her plagues. It may be proper to remark, that the
word translated "alas," and repeated in this chapter, is the same in the
Greek text as that which is rendered, "woe" in ch. viii. 13; from which
fact we are to infer that the fall of mystical Babylon described in this
chapter comes under the last three, or probably the seventh trumpet.
That the Turkish empire is to be overthrown by the sixth trumpet or
second woe, and gradually exhausted by the sixth vial, hardly admits of
a doubt: but it does not necessarily follow, that said trumpet and vial
are to terminate when that judgment ends. Each trumpet and vial may
continue its effects for some time after the following one
commences.--Kings, merchants and shipmasters are mentioned as chief
mourners, while they are helpless spectators of this judgment. In all
this narrative there is plain allusion to the language of Old Testament
prophets who predicted the destruction of the enemies of God's people;
as Babylon, Tyre, Egypt. All these powerful kingdoms have been made
desolate for their idolatry and cruelty; and thus history comes in aid
of prophecy to confirm the faith of the saints. The moral government of
the Most High is uniform, and he will execute vengeance upon his and
Zion's impenitent enemies. The merchandise and lamentations are borrowed
from Ezek. xxvii. In ver. 13 there is mention made of "the persons of
men" as part of the wares in the markets of Tyre, and we find "slaves
(_bodies_) and souls of men," among the commodities for sale in modern
Babylon. How can we, in view of historic facts, exempt the United States
of North America from complicity in the crimes of mystic Babylon as one
of her dependencies? While earthly politicians, sustained by eminent
divines, proclaimed to the world in gushing oratory that "America was an
asylum for the oppressed of all nations,"--"the land of the free, and
the home of the brave;" perhaps there never was a more effectual
refutation of this popular sentiment, accompanied with a more biting
sarcasm, than that which was uttered in derisive song by the sable,
coffled chain-gang in the streets of the national capital,--"Hail!
Columbia, happy land!"--All who are acquainted with the internal and
political history of the United States, know that the adherents of the
"Man of Sin" always gave their suffrages for the support and continuance
of that cursed traffic.

The great variety of the articles of merchandise here enumerated, is
calculated to impress the reader with the idea of the wealth, luxury,
splendor, and self-indulgence of the metropolis of the idolatrous Roman
empire, the "mother and mistress of all churches."--The prophetic
declaration, however,--"with feigned words shall they make merchandise
of you," (2 Pet. ii. 3,) is not confined to the Romish communion. This
traffic, in _souls_, pervades all the streets of symbolic Babylon.--The
overthrow is sudden and unexpected,--"in one hour." This is thrice
repeated, (vs. 10, 17, 19.) In v. 18 this "spiritual Sodom" is compared
to her prototype in her fearful end. "They saw the smoke of her
burning." (Gen. xix. 28.)


20. Rejoice over her, thou heaven, and ye holy apostles and prophets;
for God hath avenged you on her.

V. 20.--Judgments on the impenitent enemies of God and of the saints,
are mercies to the church. (Ps. cxxxvi. 15-20;) and consequently, while
the former are lamenting for the fall of the great city, the latter are
exhorted to rejoice in her ruin,--all the members of the church in
general, and "holy apostles and prophets" in particular. The apostles
are daily worshipped at Rome in their supposed likenesses, the work of
the "cunning artificer; but here they are mentioned as rejoicing in the
destruction of the idolatrous sinners who so greatly _dishonoured_ them,
and detracted from the glory of God.--As "there is joy in heaven over
one sinner that repenteth," so is there over the destruction of the
impenitent. (Jer. li. 48.) "So let all thine enemies perish, O Lord."
(Judges v. 31.)


21. And a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone, and cast
it into the sea, saying, Thus with violence shall that great city
Babylon be thrown down, and shall be found no more at all.

22. And the voice of harpers, and musicians, and of pipers, and
trumpeters, shall be heard no more at all in thee; and no craftsman, of
whatsoever craft he be, shall be found any more in thee; and the sound
of a millstone shall be heard no more at all in thee;

23. And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee; and
the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at
all in thee: for thy merchants were the great men of the earth; for by
thy sorceries were all nations deceived.

Vs. 21-23.--The emblem of "a great millstone cast into the sea," is a
very striking indication of the sudden and irretrievable ruin of mystic
Babylon, and contains an allusion to Jer. li. 63, 64.--The removal of
"musicians, craftsmen, candles, etc.," from this devoted city, as they
plainly point to the statuary, music and paintings which have attracted
multitudes to the idolatry, superstition and harlotry of antichristian
Rome, emphatically proclaims the utter and perpetual desolation of papal
Rome. The language is borrowed from Isa. xxiv. 8; Jer. xxv. 10; Ezek.
xxvi. 13.--Her merchants being the "great men of the earth," and the
"sorceries" by "which the nations were deceived, very plainly indicate
the successful traffic of the "mother of harlots,"--the church of Rome.


24. And in her was found the blood of prophets and of saints, and of all
that were slain upon the earth.

V. 24.--When the Lord "maketh inquisition for blood," the "blood of all
that were slain upon the earth,"--_for Christ's sake_, will be found in
the skirts of this Jezebel. Papal Rome has shed more innocent blood than
pagan Rome; than Babylon, Tyre and Egypt; and by her relentless cruelty
to "prophets and saints," ministers and members of the witnessing
church, she has endorsed all the murderous persecutions from Abel down
to the present day. (Luke xi. 50, 51; Acts vii. 52.)--Now when we
contemplate in the light of prophecy, confirmed by authentic history,
the numberless, aggravated and long-continued crimes of Babylon the
great, her pride, (v. 7,) her cruelty, (v. 3,) her luxury, her tyranny,
her idolatry, her fornication, her impenitence in all,--can we hesitate
to acquiesce in the righteousness of her final doom, or to join in the
plaudits of the saints in the next chapter?



CHAPTER XIX.


1. And after these things, I heard a great voice of much people in
heaven, saying, Alleluia; Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power,
unto the Lord our God:

2. For true and righteous are his judgments: for he hath judged the
great whore, which did corrupt the earth with her fornication, and hath
avenged the blood of his servants at her hand.

3. And again they said, Alleluia. And her smoke rose up for ever and
ever.

4. And the four and twenty elders and the four beasts fell down and
worshipped God that sat on the throne, saying, Amen; Alleluia.

Vs. 1-4.--The frequent repetition of the Hebrew word "Alleluia" in this
chapter, may perhaps be an intimation of something which specially
relates to the Jews. The perpetuity of the covenant made with Abraham,
renewed to Isaac, and confirmed to Jacob, (Ps. cv. 9, 10,) is clearly
taught in the Scriptures. (Gen. xvii. 7; Acts ii. 39; Rom. iv. 13; Gal.
iii. 14, 29.)

It has been already intimated, (ch. xi. 15,) that at the sounding of the
seventh trumpet, "there were great voices in heaven, saying, The
kingdoms of this world are become _the kingdoms_ of our Lord and of his
Christ; and he (Christ,) shall reign for ever and ever." Beholding the
overthrow of Babylon, all the people of God were invited, (ch. xviii.
20,) to "rejoice over her," for her downfall was effected under the last
trumpet and vial. With that invitation the saints here joyfully comply.
"_Much people_ in heaven," implies a great augmentation of their number,
and as "heaven" signifies the church on earth, we are warranted to
expect a rapid increase of her membership as the consequence of the
sounding of the seventh trumpet.--At the pouring out of the third vial,
(ch. xvi. 7,) the angel of the altar said, "True and righteous are thy
judgments." The very same sentiment is repeated here by the "much
people,"--all the saints. Thus they recognise the faithfulness and
justice of God, as he heard and answered the cry of the "souls under the
altar;" (ch. vi. 9, 10,) for he had now "avenged their blood" and that
of their "brethren that had been killed as they were," upon them that
dwell on the earth,--the population of mystic Babylon. (Ps. cxxxvii. 8,
9.) "And again they said, Alleluia; and her smoke rose up for ever and
ever," like that of Sodom. In all this, the ministry and members of the
whole church cordially join, adding their hearty and solemn "Amen!"

For this protracted joy and exulting praise, two causes seem to be in
operation, God's judgment on Babylon, and his mercy on Zion. Both are
matter of praise. (Ps. ci. 1.)


5. And a voice came out of the throne, saying, Praise our God, all ye
his servants, and ye that fear him, both small and great.

6. And I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the
voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying,
Alleluia: for the Lord God Omnipotent reigneth.

7. Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him; for the marriage
of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready.

8. And to her was granted, that she should be arrayed in fine linen,
clean and white; for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints.

9. And he saith unto me, Write, Blessed are they which are called unto
the marriage supper of the Lamb. And he saith unto me, These are the
true sayings of God.

Vs. 5-9.--This happy company are called upon to renew their song. The
call seems to come from some one who is authorized to speak with
authority, "out of the throne." All the servants of God are invited, and
all appear to respond, "a great multitude." This is the most animated of
all the examples of praise recorded in this book. It is compared to the
rushing of waters down a cataract, as the roaring of the sea, or the
rolling of thunder in the heavens. It is indeed the "voice of them that
shout for mastery,"--and "all the people shout with a great shout, for
the Lord hath given them the city,"--"Alleluia, _praise ye the Lord_,
for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth." "Thou wilt perform the truth to
Jacob, and the mercy to Abraham, which thou hast sworn unto our fathers
from the days of old."--These joyful victors encourage each other to
prolong their acclamations:--"Let us be glad and rejoice," ... "for the
marriage of the Lamb is come:" and what can that be, but the recalling
of the Jews? This is the day of our New Testament Solomon's espousals,
and the day of the gladness of his heart. (Song iii. 11.)--Not only the
Jews, but the great majority of professing Christians during the 1260
years of Antichrist's usurpations, have refused to "submit themselves to
the righteousness of God." (Rom. x. 3.) The kings of the earth also have
fostered the pride and profligacy of the great whore, instead of the
bride of the Lamb. The lewd woman, and the woman in the wilderness
hitherto, are now to be distinguished. As their character and conduct
are different, so is their raiment. The gaudy and splendid attire of the
former, is in striking contrast with that of the latter; which is that
of a "woman professing godliness," (ch. xvii. 4; 1 Tim. ii. 10.)--"To
her was granted,"--Precious words; for the "Lamb's wife of herself was
utterly destitute," (ch. iii. 17.) The Jews, in the day of their
Messiah's power, (Psa. cx. 3,) convinced of the law as transgressors,
will be brought to adopt the language of their own prophet, (Is. lxi.
10;) "he hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, he hath covered
me with the robe of righteousness." The righteousness of Christ imputed
for justification, and the Spirit of Christ imparted for sanctification,
together with good works, the visible evidence of both, will constitute
the "fine linen, clean and white, which is the righteousness of saints."
This is, after all, a more _costly_, as well as more comely attire, than
that of the mother of harlots. (Ps. xlv. 13, 14.)--"And he saith."--That
is, say some, the angel, (ch. xvii. 1, 7; or ch. xviii. 1;) but we are
rather to view him as the same who brings all these messages from Christ
to the apostle, (ch. i. 1.) The angel pronounces those "blessed who are
called to the marriage supper of the Lamb."--In the beginning of the New
Testament dispensation, the invitation was to a _dinner_. (Matt. xxii.
4.) The day will have been far spent at the sounding of the seventh
trumpet, when Jews and Gentiles are called to this supper. It will be
the last _great feast_ of the church militant. But who shall live to
partake of the banquet? The angel gives his solemn attestation to "these
sayings."


10. And I fell at his feet to worship him. And he said unto me, See
_thou do it_ not; I am thy fellow-servant, and of thy brethren that have
the testimony of Jesus. Worship God: for the testimony of Jesus is the
spirit of prophecy.

V. 10.--This is a surprising incident,--an aged, experienced and holy
man, an apostle, "falling down to worship the angel!" And we are told
that he relapsed into the same sin, (ch. xxii. 8, 9.) Like Peter on the
mount, who "wist not what to say;" or Paul in the "third heaven ...
whether in the body or out of the body, he could not tell." (Mark ix. 6;
2 Cor. xii. 3.) John had become overpowered by the visions and
transported by the high praises which he saw and heard. The like effects
were experienced by Daniel, (viii. 18; x. 8, 17.)--This sin of idolatry
by the apostle was doubtless permitted by the Lord, in order to furnish
occasion for a testimony from the angel, against the "voluntary humility
and worshipping of angels," (Col. ii. 18;) practised by the Papists, and
to leave them without excuse.--The abrupt language of the angel in this
and a subsequent case, is strongly expressive of
resentment:--"See--not." Such is the _curt, sententious_ utterance in
the Greek text. He assigns the best reason and strongest argument
against idolatry:--"I am thy fellow-servant," a creature as well as
yourself: we are servants of one Lord, who alone is the object of our
devotion, "Worship God." This is the best counsel, enforced by the most
cogent reasoning,--"For the testimony of Jesus is the Spirit of
prophecy." This sentence may be read,--"The Spirit of prophecy is the
testimony of Jesus;" and it will be equally true. "To him give all the
prophets witness," (Acts x. 43;) for "the Spirit of Christ was in them;"
(1 Pet. i. 11;) and this fact is well known to holy angels. (Eph. iii.
10; 1 Pet. i. 12.) So this angel plainly declares.


11. And I saw heaven opened, and, behold, a white horse: and he that sat
upon him was called Faithful and True: and in righteousness he doth
judge and make war.

12. His eyes were as a flame of fire, and on his head were many crowns:
and he had a name written, that no man knew but he himself.

13. And he was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood: and his name is
called The Word of God.

14. And the armies which were in heaven followed him upon white horses,
clothed in fine linen, white and clean.

15. And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should
smite the nations, and he shall rule them with a rod of iron: and he
treadeth the wine-press of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God.

16. And he hath on his vesture, and on his thigh a name written, KING OF
KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.

Vs. 11-16.--"Heaven opened" once more, allows the apostle to look upon
Messiah the Prince going forth to fresh conquests. As he began, (ch. vi.
2,) so he continues, "in righteousness to judge and make war;" not as
the ambitious tyrants who "destroy the earth," (ch. xi. 18.) He has here
three names,--"Faithful and True, The Word of God, king of kings and
Lord of lords; yet he has a "name written which no man knoweth but he
himself."--His infinite essence and eternal generation are
incomprehensible by angels and men.--He is, however, known by his
mediatorial titles,--"faithful and true" to all covenant engagements; as
the prophet of the church, he "declares the Father," making known the
"word of God;" and his lordship is at once a warning to his enemies and
security to his friends.--"On his head were many crowns," emblematical
of his numerous victories over the princes of the earth, especially the
"ten kings," (ch. xvii. 14.)--"His eyes as a flame of fire," going
though the whole earth "in every place," (Prov. xv. 3;) render it
impossible for his enemies to elude discovery. (Jer. xxiii. 24.)--His
"vesture dipped in blood," refers to his victories over all his
malicious and impenitent foes. (Is. lxiii. 1-3; Rev. xiv. 20.)--His
"armies on white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean," are
uniformed like their leader, (ch. xii. 7;) for "they that are with him
are called, and chosen, and faithful," (ch. xvii. 14.)--The weapon with
which he "smites the nations" that oppose him, is the "sharp sword," an
emblem of his ruinous and avenging justice; for he "tradeth the
wine-press of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God."--"On his
thigh," where he wears his sword, there is a legible inscription,
indicating his universal and rightful authority.


17. And I saw an angel standing in the sun; and he cried with a loud
voice, saying to all the fowls that fly in the midst of heaven, Come and
gather yourselves together unto the supper of the great God;

18. That ye may eat the flesh of kings, and the flesh of captains, and
the flesh of mighty men, and the flesh of horses and of them that sit on
them, and the flesh of all men, both free and bond, both small and
great.

19. And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies,
gathered together to make war against him that sat on the horse, and
against his army.

20. And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought
miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the
mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. These both were
cast alive into a lake of fire, burning with brimstone.

21. And the remnant were slain with the sword of him that sat upon the
horse, which sword proceeded out of his mouth: and all the fowls were
filled with their flesh.

Vs. 17-21.--The position of the "angel standing in the sun," and "crying
with a loud voice;" represents, that Messiah's judgments would be
visible to all the world; and the extent of the invitation to the
"fowls," indicates the vast slaughter of his enemies. Babylon being
"utterly burned with fire," (ch. xvii. 16, xviii. 8,) as a suitable
punishment of an apostate church; the "flesh of kings, of captains, of
mighty men," etc., as a sacrifice to divine justice, is given as a feast
to the fowls of heaven. The allusion here is to the destruction of "Gog
and Magog." (Ezek. xxxix. 17-20.) These enemies of the saints are to
appear and be overthrown before the millennium; and although John
borrows the names of these enemies, (ch. xx. 8,) they are not the same
as those of Ezekiel; the one appearing _before_, the other _after_ the
thousand years. We have often found the enemies of the church called in
the Apocalypse by the names of persecutors under the Old
Testament;--Babylon, Egypt, etc.--We may consider the "fowls," the birds
of prey, as symbolizing the kings who retaliate upon Babylon; (as in ch.
xvii. 16;) or rather, as the Lord's people reclaiming their own, of
which they had been unjustly and long deprived,--"spoiling the
Egyptians." (Exod. xii. 36.)

Some suppose that the confederacy of the "kings of the earth" with the
beast, (v. 19,) is a distinct attack from that mentioned in chapter
seventeenth; (v. 14;) but perhaps it is safer to consider it as the
same, only more distinctly and fully exhibited here. Indeed it seems,
from the agency of the "false prophet," to be the same event as that
under the sixth vial, (ch. xvi. 14;) preparing to the battle of
Armageddon. The Lord Jesus as "captain of the Lord's hosts," and the
army of heaven following him, all of them on white horses, appear to be
on the one side; and the beast with the kings of the earth, instigated
by the false prophet, on the other. The rank and file like their leaders
are described as having "received the mark of the beast and worshiped
his image." But the beast of the earth, (ch. iii. 11,) causes all ranks
to receive the mark, and worship the image of the beast, (vs. 15, 16)
The beast of the earth, the woman, and the false prophet, all mean the
same thing; and that is, an apostate church in alliance with tyrannical
civil powers, (ch. xvii. 3.) Now, if the great city Babylon, a symbol
which comprises the whole antichristian confederacy, has been utterly
destroyed, as appears in the eighteenth chapter, whence come these
enemies bearing the same characters? The only solution of this apparent
difficulty is by supposing as we have done, that this is a re-exhibition
of what has been more obscurely symbolized, (ch. xiv. 20; xvi. 17; xvii.
16; xviii. 2, 8, 20,) in order more distinctly to point out the end of
two principal leaders,--the "beast and the false prophet," the empire
and church of Rome. "These both were cast alive into a lake of fire
burning with brimstone."--"The remnant were slain." When the leaders
were discomfited, the ranks were soon broken, and the whole army melted
away. They were slain with Messiah's sword, the emblem of his justice,
(ch. i. 16.)

Thus "Babylon is fallen, to rise no more at all:" all the visible
enemies of the Lord and his Anointed are cut off from the face of the
earth: and it remains only that he who originated the rebellious
conspiracy be put under necessary restraint.



CHAPTER XX.


1. And I saw an angel come down from heaven, having the key of the
bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand.

2. And he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the devil,
and Satan, and bound him a thousand years.

3. And cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal
upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand
years should be fulfilled: and after that, he must be loosed a little
season.

Vs. 1-3.--"And I saw an angel." This angel is the Lord Christ, (ch. x.
1.) The key is the symbol of authority. (Is. xxii. 22; chs. i. 18; iii.
7.) The dragon had been previously cast down from heaven, (ch. xii. 9;)
by the Reformation, and during the "short time" of his liberty, he
persecuted the woman and the remnant of her seed, on the earth. Now,
however, his career is arrested. "Seizing, binding, casting into the
abyss, shutting up, and setting a seal upon that old serpent," (ch. xii.
9,) are strong figurative expressions, by which his secure confinement
is signified. Thus is the devil to be restrained from deceiving the
nations for a "thousand years." That this period is to be taken in a
proper, and not in a mystical sense, appears thus. If we multiply one
thousand by three hundred and sixty, as some fancifully do, the
resulting number of years, three hundred and sixty thousand, would be
out of all proportion to the past duration of the world, as well as the
well-defined period of 1260 years. Add to this, that when by Daniel and
John definite duration is symbolically mentioned, it is by "months,
days; time, times and a half a time," or "the dividing of time,"--never
by "years."

At the expiration of the thousand years, Satan will be loosed a "little
season,"--_little_, as compared with the thousand years; so little, as
not to be deemed worth estimating.


4. And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given
unto them: and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the
witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and which had not worshipped
the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark upon their
foreheads, or in their hands: and they lived and reigned with Christ a
thousand years.

V. 4.--"And I saw thrones." Here there is no mention of _heaven being
opened_. Nothing henceforth obstructs John's vision. "The darkness is
past, and the true light now shineth."--"At evening time it shall be
light." (Zech. xiv. 7.)--"And they sat on them." Who?--There is here
what may be termed a remarkable chasm in the language of the text. There
is no visible or proximate antecedent. Who are they who "sit on
thrones?" Did Millenarians only put this question, and patiently search
for the solution in the context, agreeably to the _allegorical texture_
of this whole book, all their hallucinations might be easily and happily
obviated. The inspired writer assumes, of course, that the reader will
readily identify these persons, who are thus promoted to honour, now
that Antichrist is no more, and society is to be reorganized.--Daniel
furnishes a satisfactory answer to our question. "I beheld till the
thrones were cast down." (Dan. vii. 9.) The Roman imperial thrones of
_civil despotism_ were subverted. Again,--"But the judgment shall sit,
and they shall take away his dominion, to consume and to destroy it unto
the end." (v. 26.) The Roman imperial _throne_ of ecclesiastical
domination shall be destroyed. Then when Messiah "shall have put down
all rule, and all authority and power," of both sorts of tyranny, "the
kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom under the whole
heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High,
whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions, (_rulers_)
shall serve and obey him," (v. 27.) The "saints of the Most High,"
according to Daniel, are to be exalted to civil rule, and these are the
same whom John saw "sitting on thrones." Now, the effect of the seventh
trumpet becomes a fact in history.--"The kingdoms of this world," which
had been controlled by the beast, and bewitched by the sorceries of the
lewd woman, "are become the kingdoms of our Lord and of his
Christ."--For in the millennial state of the world, there will be a
_plurality_ of _kingdoms_.--Hence a very common petition of pious but
ignorant people,--"That the kingdoms of this world may soon become the
kingdom of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ," neither will, nor ever
can be answered.--Under the righteous and benign administration of the
saints, "kings shall be nursing-fathers, and their queens
nursing-mothers to the church:" for "the nations and kingdoms that would
not _serve her_, have perished; yea, those nations have been utterly
wasted." (Is. xlix. 23; lx. 12.)--The souls which the apostle saw under
the altar, whose cry for vengeance he heard, and who were directed to
rest for a little season, till the roll of their martyred brethren
should be completed, are here presented in quite a new position,
"sitting on thrones," (ch. vi. 9.) Although they are not the same
identical persons _physically_, they are the same _morally_; for the
life of the two witnesses is commensurate with the reign of
Antichrist,--twelve hundred and sixty years. These "lived and reigned
with Christ a thousand years; that is, in their successive generations:
for otherwise they would over-live the age of Methuselah!--Souls are
here evidently persons, and not souls as distinct from bodies, as some
needlessly argue against Millenarians: for "foreheads" and "hands" are
attributed to them: but foreheads cannot be literally ascribed to those
who had been "beheaded." Their living is to be understood of their
succeeding to the same scriptural position occupied by their
predecessors, as well as succeeding them in the order of natural
generation. The Holy Spirit says, "Levi, who receiveth tithes, paid
tithes in Abraham." (Heb. vii. 9, 10.) Elijah reappeared in the person
of John the Baptist. (Matt. xi. 14.) Jezebel and Balaam were recognised
in their wicked successors, (ch. ii. 14, 20.) But this is the very
structure of the Apocalypse, being composed of hieroglyphics, that the
free agency of the wicked might be left untrammelled, and the diligence
of God's people might be tested in "searching the Scriptures."


5. But the rest of the dead lived not again until the thousand years
were finished. This is the first resurrection.

V. 5.--"The rest of the dead" supposes two classes of the dead. These
are the witnesses, who died a violent and cruel death, and the wicked,
who died a natural death,--there "were no bands in their death." As
there are _two kinds_ of death, so are there two kinds of
resurrection,--a _first_ and _second_ of each. Those who had been
"beheaded for the witness of Jesus," etc., lived in their
successors,--sat on thrones, reigned with Christ a thousand years. Of
course those who were slain by Christ and his army at the battle of
Armageddon, and whose flesh was given to the fowls of heaven, "lived not
again" in their successors, "until the thousand years were finished."
Consequently, "this is the first resurrection," with which the true
disciples of Christ shall be honoured. They must, however, die as all
others, and await the _second_ resurrection: but "on them the second
death shall have no power."


6. Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection; on
such the second death hath no power; but they shall be priests of God
and of Christ, and shall reign with him a thousand years.

V. 6.--"Blessed and holy,"--and blessed, because _holy_; for sin is the
procuring cause of misery. This is a summary description of the
millennial period. The dragon being bound by the almighty power of
Christ, and not permitted to deceive the nations, wars shall cease unto
the ends of all the earth: the population of the globe must be rapidly
and greatly multiplied beyond all precedent. (Ps. xlvi. 9; lxxii. 16,)
the life of man will be prolonged; (Isa. lxv. 20-25,) holiness,
righteousness and praise shall spring forth before all the nations,
(lxi. 11.)

That condition of our globe, which divines call the _millennium_,--a
state of holiness and happiness, second only to the enjoyment of
heavenly felicity, is as clearly and frequently promised to God's
people, as the promise of the Messiah was under the former economy. But
as many were "in expectation that the kingdom of God should immediately
appear," who then entertained unwarrantable and carnal conceptions of
the Messiah's person and reign, just such groundless and gross
expectations and aspirations are cherished now. A literal resurrection
of _all_ the righteous, who shall have died before the millennium is
supposed to take place at the personal appearance of Christ; and this,
too, before the general judgment. By _personal_, they mean _corporeal_:
for the Lord Christ promised his gracious _personal_ presence with his
people _all days_, when he was about to disappear from their bodily
vision. (Matt. xxviii. 20.) "To them that look for him shall he appear
the _second_ time, (not a _third_,) without sin unto salvation." (Heb.
ix. 28; Rev. i. 7.) Besides, is it for a moment supposable that saints
who have passed into glory, are to be brought upon earth to conflict
once more with enemies, when Gog and Magog shall surround the "camp of
the saints?" Such is a specimen of questions suggested by the
_Millenarian system_, which have failed of either scriptural or rational
solution by all the learning and ingenuity of its fanciful advocates.

The whole series of the Apocalypse proves that the _two witnesses_ live
and prophesy throughout the 1260 years of Antichrist's reign. Their
lives and their testimony end together, (ch. xi. 7.) But the beast that
slays them is himself with his ally, the false prophet, at the close of
the contest, cast alive into the lake of fire, (ch. xix. 20.)

After three and a half prophetical days, the witnesses are raised, and
ascend up to heaven, (ch. xi. 12;) and this is the identical fact which
is more fully presented here in the 20th chapter. The resurrection of
the witnesses in the 11th chapter is a spiritual and mystical
resurrection in the persons of their successors; the heaven to which
they were exalted is a mystical heaven: and just so of those beheaded
and advanced, after their resurrection, to positions of civil and
ecclesiastic power as in this 20th chapter. Thus exalted, and ruling in
the fear of God, they become a terror to evil doers, and a praise to
them that do well. (Rom. xiii. 3.) Then shall be realized the glorious
predictions of Isaiah and the Sweet Psalmist of Israel. (Isa. xi. 1-9;
Ps. lxxii. 1)


7. And when the thousand years are expired, Satan shall
be loosed out of his prison.

8. And shall go out to deceive the nations which are in the four
quarters of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to battle:
the number of whom is as the sand of the sea.

9. And they went up on the breadth of the earth, and compassed the camp
of the saints about, and the beloved city: and fire came down from God
out of heaven, and devoured them.

Vs. 7-9.--"Satan shall be loosed out of his prison."--The Lord Christ
will remove the restraint which had repressed the chief enemy during the
thousand years, that the Faithful and True Witness may give a final
testimony to the moral universe, that neither the philosophy of proud
man, nor the law of Moses,--no, nor the ordinances of the gospel, will
ever change the nature of a sinner:--That neither judgments nor mercies
have any efficacy to subdue the stubborn will, or renew the desperately
wicked heart of man; and that it is a righteous thing with God to render
tribulation to them that trouble his saints and insult his Majesty.

Thus released "for a little season," the prime enemy goes out as before
to "deceive the nations." He is successful. "The rest of the dead," who
lived not again during the 1000 years, at once re-appear in the persons
of their genuine successors. They are the children of them that killed
the witnesses;--the seed of the serpent aiming a last fatal stroke at
the seed of the woman.--They are called "Gog and Magog;" and because of
the identity of names, many have supposed them to be the same as those
enemies of the people of God described by Ezekiel, (chs. xxxviii.,
xxxix.) This view is, however, without sanction in the Scriptures. The
characters are mystical according to the uniform structure of the
Apocalypse. Ezekiel's Gog and Magog come from the "north quarters;"
those of John from the "four quarters or corners of the earth." It is
also probable, if not absolutely certain, that the enemies predicted by
Ezekiel are to appear before, while those of John are to arise after the
millennium. The overthrow of Gog and Magog, foretold by Ezekiel, is
evidently connected with the conversion of the Jews, (ch. xxxix. 22,
29;) but that event must precede the millennial period. (Rom. xi.
26.)--Magog is reckoned with Meshech and Tubal among the sons of
Japheth, (Gen. x. 2;) and those nations called in history Scythians and
Tartars, in the "north quarters" of Europe and Asia, as well as the
"isles of the Gentiles," are supposed to be their descendants. By the
"three unclean spirits," (ch. xvi. 13,) a confederacy was effected under
the sixth vial to the battle of Armageddon; and the same is again
presented in ch. xix. 20, as the final attempt against the saints
previously to the millennium, when two of the prime instigators, the
beast and the false prophet, are cast into the lake of fire. Thus we may
suppose _eastern_ and _western_ Antichrist finally destroyed.

Ezekiel's Gog and Magog being slain in the battle of Armageddon, how or
where shall we find those of John? They are to be found precisely on the
same principle on which we find the witnesses of Christ in this chapter.
Satan is loosed "a little season,"--_little_ as compared with the
thousand years of Messiah's reign; or rather, as compared with the 1260
years of the dragon's successful enterprises against the saints through
the beast and false prophet as agents. These being now cast into the
lake of fire, Satan is for ever deprived of their agency. During the
millennial period people will be born in sin as at other times; and at
the close of that happy period, Almighty God will display his
sovereignty by withholding his grace, that a last demonstration may be
given to all the world of the necessity and efficacy of that grace in
changing the heart of a sinner. Without the intervention of the beast or
the false prophet, Satan will prevail by more direct temptations to
gather together to battle a multitude of the _same spirit_ as Ezekiel's
Gog and Magog displayed against the saints before the millennium. These
are the "rest of the dead that lived not again till the one thousand
years were finished." As the "deadly wound" of the civil beast "was
healed," and he received a new life, to the astonishment of spectators,
(ch. xiii. 3,) as the witnesses received "the Spirit of life from God,"
to the dismay of their enemies; (chs. xi. 11; xx. 4,) so Gog and Magog
re-appear in the persons and bloody cruelties of their genuine
successors. And in language similar to that in the context we may
warrantably say,--this is the _second resurrection_; for when it is
declared that the "rest of the dead lived not again," it is manifest
that two classes of dead are intended. All are said to be dead; the
witnesses, slain by the beast; their enemies, slain by the Lord. The
witnesses rise, and "this is the first resurrection." A _first_ implies
a _second of the same kind_. Well, "the rest lived not again till the
thousand years were finished." What then? Why, simply this,--that the
other remaining class of the dead _lived again_; and this appears to be
the obvious scope and meaning of these terms, so vexing to many critics.

By deception Satan prevails to assemble the nations in vast multitudes,
"as the sand of the sea,"--a proverbial form of expression applied to
Abraham's seed. (Gen. xxii. 17.) "They went up on the breadth of the
earth." Coming from the "four quarters of the earth," they "compassed
the camp of the saints." The allusion here is twofold: to Israel in the
wilderness, in the time of Moses; and to the holy city Jerusalem, in the
days of David; (Ps. cxviii. 10-12,) for often did the enemy with "joint
heart" attempt to "cut off the name of Israel." (Ps. lxxxiii. 4-8.)
Never was Pharaoh or Sennacherib more confident of a sure and easy
victory over the saints. (Exod. xv. 9; Isa. xxxvi. 20.) As in the days
of Noah, most of the generation of the righteous had been taken home to
glory before the ungodly were destroyed by the deluge, so we may suppose
the "camp of the saints" to be but a "little flock," when assailed for
the last time, while they are in a militant state.--The issue in this
case, however, will be more decisive and glorious than any other battle
with the powers of darkness. We may adopt and apply the words of the
prophet to God's people in the time of Jehoshaphat:--"Thus saith the
Lord,--Be not afraid nor dismayed by reason of this great multitude; for
the battle is not yours, but God's. Ye shall not need to fight in this
battle." (2 Chron. xx. 15, 17.)--"Fire came down from God out of heaven,
and devoured" this great multitude. This most dreadful of all elements
in the material universe, is that which is commonly employed to
represent the wrath of God. By it Sodom and Gomorrah were destroyed,
Corah and his rebellious company, the captains and their fifties; fire
proceeded out of the mouth of the two witnesses and devoured their
enemies; Gog and Magog are consumed by this element; the heavens and the
earth which are now, are reserved unto fire; the Lord Jesus shall be
revealed from heaven ... in flaming fire, taking vengeance on them that
know not God, and that obey not the gospel,--most probably _these very
enemies_; and all such are to be consigned to "the fire that never shall
be quenched." Awful thought! Tremendous destiny! Who would not fear
thee, O Lord; who art a consuming fire to all thy impenitent enemies?


10. And the devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and
brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet are, and shall be
tormented day and night for ever and ever.

V. 10.--The _first_ rebel against the righteous authority of the Lord
and his Anointed, and the ceaseless instigator of all rebellions of
individual and social man, is the _last_ to be consigned to adequate
punishment. When the Lord first called sinners to account, the same
order is noticeable: First, Adam, then Eve, and last the serpent. The
beast and the false prophet are already in the lake of fire; (ch. xix.
20;) and now, Satan, who is here called the devil, is dismissed after
them, that they may all be tormented "for ever and ever,"--words, as
already noticed, which are the strongest in the Greek language, to
convey to the human mind the idea of _endless duration_.


11. And I saw a great white throne, and him that sat on it, from whose
face the earth and the heaven fled away; and there was found no place
for them.

12. And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God: and the books
were opened; and another book was opened, which is the book of life: and
the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books
according to their works.

13. And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell
delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man
according to their works.

14. And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the
second death.

15. And whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast
into the lake of fire.

Vs. 11-15.--Nothing now remains to bring to a close the moral
administration of Messiah, but the raising of the dead and pronouncing
final sentence on all the subjects of his government. There is no
intimation that any events shall intervene between the casting of the
devil into the burning lake, and the appearing of the Judge.

The "great white throne" is suitable to the majesty and holiness of the
Judge. He is not at first called by any name, for "every eye shall see,"
and seeing, recognise his divine dignity. In the next verse he is styled
God, not to identify him, but as a matter of course in the
narrative.--No sooner did the Judge take his seat, than "the earth and
the heaven fled away." The simplicity and sublimity of this language are
inimitable by human genius; and rarely if at all equalled, even by those
who spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost. The first inspired
writer uses language very similar. (Gen. i. 3.) We are frequently and
sufficiently taught that the Lord Christ in person is to be the judge of
quick and dead. (Acts xvii. 31.) "All must appear before the judgment
seat of Christ." (2 Cor. v. 10.) No person is competent to this work of
judgment but one who is omniscient and omnipotent, not to speak of other
divine perfections. The "Judge of all the earth" is a divine person,
possessed of all the attributes of deity; and as there is not _now_
among apostate angels, so there will not _then_ be a child of Adam, to
_deny the supreme deity of Jesus Christ_. (Matt. viii. 29.) Of this he
gave intimation at the beginning of the Apocalypse:--"Every eye shall
see him, and they also which pierced him," (ch. i. 7;) yes, they pierced
him for _blasphemy_, "because that he, being a man, made himself God."
(John x. 33.) Here the Judge on the throne demonstrates to an assembled
universe, the scriptural warrant for the language of the Reformers when
they say he is "very God, and very man." "God is judge himself," (Ps. l.
6,) in the person of the Father; but "he hath appointed a day in the
which _he_ will judge the world in righteousness, by that _man_ whom he
hath ordained."--(Acts xvii. 31.)

Before the righteous Judge "shall be gathered all nations," (Matt. xxv.
32,) all that have ever lived upon the earth, from the creation till the
end of time, all ranks and degrees, however diversified by sex, age, or
social position; righteous and wicked, Jews and Gentiles, Herod and
Pontius Pilate, Cain and Abel, Judas, etc.

In order to this general assize, "the dead shall hear the voice of the
Son of God," (John v. 25, 28, 29;) "and many of them that sleep in the
dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to
shame and everlasting contempt." (Dan. xii. 2.) The "sea, death and
hell," or the grave, (or rather, the place of souls as separated by
death from their bodies,) which are thus awfully, but beautifully
personified, shall surrender their respective tenants, that they may
stand before the Son of man in judgment.--Only such as have died are
mentioned here: but some will not die, but "remain alive unto the coming
of the Lord," the judge; and these, it is probable, will be the "camp of
the saints" which have been miraculously delivered from the rage of Gog
and Magog, (vs. 8, 9.) There is a beautiful order in the final
resurrection. "The dead in Christ shall rise first." (1 Thess. iv. 16; 1
Cor. xv. 23.) Next will be raised the wicked; for "like sheep they are
laid in the grave; death shall feed on them, and the upright shall have
dominion over them in the morning." (Ps. xlix. 14.) The dead, being all
raised, those who shall be alive will undergo a change equivalent to
death,--"in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye;" for these "shall not
prevent (anticipate) them which were asleep;" that is, they will not be
_changed_ until their companions are called from the grave, etc. All
being now "before the judgment seat of Christ,"--the "books are opened!"
Oh, what emotions will swell and heave the bosoms of the
righteous!--"joy unspeakable and full of glory:" for before the sentence
of acquittal is publicly pronounced, their position on the Judge's right
hand indicates the sentence. And next what terror insupportable will now
seize the wicked! What "fearful looking-for of judgment and fiery
indignation," when in breathless suspense, they await the just
sentence,--"Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared
for the devil and his angels!" (Matt. xxv. 41; Heb. x. 27.) The
righteousness of this sentence will be attested by the "opened
books,"--of the divine omniscience, the human conscience, and in the
case of gospel-rejecters, the Bible. (2 Thess. i. 7, 8.) And the like
condemnation would pass upon the righteous, but that "another book is
opened," in which are inscribed the names of all the objects of God's
electing love: and this will be the key-note in their songs of praise to
all eternity. (Jer. xxxi. 3; Rev. i. 5.) All are "judged according to
their works," as these are witnessed by the books,--for "their works do
follow them," (ch. xiv. 13.)

"Death and hell were cast into the lake of fire." Death, or the grave;
hell, or the separate state, will never again be needed, as prisons to
keep their inmates for trial. "The lake of fire" is the place of
ceaseless and endless torment for all who are not "found written in the
book of life;" and this place seems to be distinct from the "bottomless
pit," Satan's "prison," out of which he had been loosed, (v. 7.)--Of the
beast it was said, he "ascendeth out of the bottomless pit," but not
that he was remanded thither again: he is said to "go into perdition,"
which must be "the lake of fire." (Compare ch. xvii. 8, with xix. 20;
and xx. 1-3 with v. 10.)--The plain and obvious meaning of these closing
verses of the 20th chapter, as delineated in its general import by
appropriate and familiar symbols and intelligible words, for ever
excludes, and emphatically condemns the conscience-stupifying heresies
and blasphemies of Unitarians and Universalists. The God-man Mediator,
seated upon the "throne of his glory," before whose face the "earth and
the heaven fled away," is thus evidenced to be the Son of God, Jehovah's
Fellow. And we may here adopt the assertion and caution of the "beloved
disciple,"--"This is the true God and eternal life.--Little children,
keep yourselves from idols." (1 John v. 20, 21.)--Moreover, these verses
reveal a place or state, more to be dreaded than the "killing of the
body,"--"the lake of fire, which is the second death," "where their worm
dieth not, and the fire is not quenched." (Matt. x. 28; 2 Thess. i.
8-10; Heb. x. 26-31.)

With the 20th chapter of the Apocalypse terminate the events of time, in
which the divine Author demonstrates, that "known unto him are all his
works, from the beginning of the world." (Acts xv. 18.) Many, indeed, of
the learned and pious have supposed the remaining chapters of the
Apocalypse, to be a description of the church on earth during the
millennial period. But besides the series, coherence and dependence of
the several parts of the book, precluding such _retrogression_, this
interpretation overthrows the scriptural distinction between the
militant and triumphant state of the church. And it is not to be thought
out of place, that the inspired prophet should describe, by suitable
emblems, the outline of the heavenly state; for this he has done briefly
already in a number of instances. (See chs. ii. and iii., also ch. vii.
15, 17.)--Those who consider the last two chapters as a delineation of
the church on earth, have first formed in their minds ideas of a
corporeal or bodily presence of Christ, and of a literal and visible
reign on the earth. Such views we have already shown to be without
scripture warrant, yea against plain declarations of the Holy Spirit,
(as Acts iii. 21; Matt. xvii. 11, 12; Heb. ix. 28.) Hence we shall
contemplate the symbols of the following chapters,--except as incidents
or allusions may render this incompatible,--as shadowing forth the
glories of the church's heavenly state.



CHAPTER XXI.


1. And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the
first earth were passed away; and there was no more sea.

2. And I John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out
of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband.

3. And I heard a great voice out of heaven, saying, Behold, the
tabernacle of God is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they
shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them, and be their
God.

4. And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes: and there shall be
no more death, neither sorrow nor crying, neither shall there be any
more pain: for the former things are passed away.

5. And he that sat upon the throne, said, Behold, I make all things new.
And he said unto me, Write: for these words are true and faithful.

6. And he said unto me, It is done. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning
and the end: I will give unto him that is athirst, of the fountain of
the water of life freely.

7. He that overcometh shall inherit all things: and I will be his God,
and he shall be my son.

Vs. 1-7.--It is unquestionable that the phrase "new heavens and a new
earth" is to be understood sometimes as descriptive of moral renovation
in the world. As the moral change affected by grace in the character of
an individual sinner is called a new creation, and is in truth no less,
so in respect to a community. The analogy in this case is the same as
between a revolution and an earthquake. Thus, we must understand Is.
lxv. 17, lxvi. 22, of that great moral change which will characterize
the millennium. But the "new heaven and the new earth" are here
contrasted with the "first heaven and the first earth which were passed
away," (ch. xx. 11.) The apostle Peter describes the very same grand and
glorious change. Mingling the important facts of authentic history with
the future facts of prophecy, he tells us that the "heavens and the
earth which are now, ... are reserved unto fire."--He speaks obviously
of the visible heavens and earth. These "heavens shall pass away ... and
"the earth also, ... shall be burnt up." He adds,--"We look for new
heavens and a new earth, wherein dwelleth righteousness." (2 Pet. iii.
7, 13.)--"There was no more sea," no more disorderly passions,
animosities, arising from human depravity, to interrupt the delightful
harmony and fellowship of saints in glory. It is estimated that about
two thirds of this world are occupied by water. In that happy place
occupied by the people of God, there is no sea; consequently, "yet there
is room," many mansions, room enough for all the redeemed. "The holy
city," compared to a "bride," two very incongruous emblems, shows the
poverty of symbols, their inadequacy to represent the church triumphant:
how then shall created objects furnish suitable emblems of the glorious
and glorified Bridegroom? In vision the city seemed to the apostle as if
suspended in the air on the same plane with himself; for now he stood
neither on "the sand of the sea," (ch. xiii. 1,) for "there was no more
sea," nor upon the earth, for it was "passed away." No intervening
object could obstruct his view.--He heard a voice from heaven, saying,
"Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and he will dwell with
them," as his reconciled and beloved people. As a tender Father, he will
"wipe away all tears from their eyes." "There shall be no more death,"
either of themselves or their beloved friends, to open the fountain of
tears any more for ever. But death is the last enemy to be destroyed; (1
Cor. xv. 26;) how then can these words apply to any state short of
immortality in heaven? "Neither sorrow nor crying,"--for sin or
suffering; "neither shall there be any more pain," causing tears or
cries: and what is this but heaven? Yes, "the former things are passed
away." Now "he that hath the bride is the bridegroom," and she shall
never be false to her marriage covenant any more.--"He that sat on the
throne," denotes the Father most frequently in this book, as he is
distinguished from the Son; but the Son "is set down with his Father in
his throne," (ch. iii. 21;) and the Son is to be viewed as the person on
the throne here, as the following words, compared with the twentieth
chapter, verse eleventh, make evident.--He it is who "makes all things
new." He left his disciples as to his bodily presence, and went to
"prepare a place for them," (John xiv. 2;) and now he has come again and
received them to himself, in fulfilment of his promise. Having sent the
Holy Spirit to create them anew and to carry on to completion their
sanctification, he now sees of the travail of his soul, the Father has
given him his heart's desire, and hath not withholden the request of his
lips. Now, all his ransomed ones are with him, in answer to his prayer,
and also their own prayers, that they may behold his glory which the
Father gave him. (Ps. xxi. 2; John xvii. 24; Phil. i. 23.)--The Lord
Christ said to John,--"Write; for these words are true and faithful."
And what has sustained the spirits, animated the hopes, and filled with
exulting joy, the confessors, witnesses and martyrs of Jesus, but
faith's realizing views of the King in his beauty, and the glories of
Immanuel's land? For this peculiarity the disciples of Christ have been
as speckled birds, men wondered at, in all generations.--"It is done,"
so he said at the pouring out of the seventh vial, (ch. xvi. 17;) when
the final stroke was given to the antichristian enemies: but now these
words import the completion of the whole counsel of the will of God, as
carried into effect by the Captain of salvation, in bringing the beloved
and adopted sons and daughters of the Father home to glory. (Heb. ii.
10.) He who is the "Alpha and Omega," is the "author and finisher of
their faith."--Although the Lord Jesus has made of sinners "new
creatures," prepared them as "vessels of mercy unto glory," and
introduced them into heaven, they are _creatures_ still, and necessarily
dependent. They thirst for refreshment suited to their holy nature; and
accordingly he gives of the "_fountain_ of the water of life freely,"
for the _streams_ of which they thirsted, "as the heart panteth for the
water brooks," while they sojourned in a dry and parched land, far from
their Father's house. Man's sin consisted in forsaking this "Fountain of
living waters," and his recovery and felicity must arise from his
returning from his own "broken cisterns" to the original spring.--The
water of life was purchased at infinite cost by Christ; but he offers it
to the thirsty without price, (Is. lxv. 1, 2.)--Those who are refreshed
by the streams of the water of life, have many enemies to encounter in
their militant state, but all who overcome are encouraged in their
warfare by the animating promise, that they shall "inherit all things."
(1 Cor. iii. 21.)--"He shall be my son," and "if a son, then an heir of
God, and joint heir with Christ."


8. But the fearful and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers,
and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, shall
have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone; which
is the second death.

V. 8.--"But the fearful," who dread suffering or reproach for the cause
of Christ,--not the self-diffident who loves his Captain, but the coward
or deserter, who "turns back in the day of battle," who fears the enemy
more than his Captain:--"and unbelieving," not the misbelieving, as
Thomas; nor the _weak_ in faith, but such as have _no_
faith,--_infidels_;--"the abominable," defiling the flesh as
Sodomites:--"murderers," suicides, duelists, assassins, burglars, etc.,
"whoremongers," adulterers, fornicators:--"sorcerers," necromancers,
spiritualists, who are the devil's prophets, pretending to new
revelations, "and all liars," perjured persons, deceivers, hypocrites,
false teachers, who handle the word of the Lord deceitfully, for filthy
lucre's sake,--all such shall have their part in the lake, with the
devil, the beast, and the false prophet. (1 Cor. vi. 9, 10; Gal. v.
19-21; Eph. v. 5, 6; 2 Cor. xi. 13.)


9. And there came unto me one of the seven angels which had the seven
vials full of the seven last plagues, and talked with me, saying, Come
hither, I will show thee the bride, the Lamb's wife.

10. And he carried me away in the spirit to a great and high mountain,
and showed me that great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of
heaven from God,

11. Having the glory of God: and her light was like unto a stone most
precious, even like a jasper-stone, clear as crystal;

12. And had a wall great and high, and had twelve gates, and at the
gates twelve angels, and names written thereon, which are the names of
the twelve tribes of the children of Israel.

13. On the east, three gates; on the north, three gates; on the south,
three gates; and on the west, three gates.

14. And the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and in them the
names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb.

Vs. 9-14.--This "angel" is probably the same who had shown John the
mystic Babylon and her destruction, (ch. xvii. 1;) and who now proposes
to show him the "bride of the Lamb" by way of contrast.--Under the
influence of the Spirit, who has access to the soul without the use of
the bodily organs, (2 Cor. xii. 2,)--John was "carried to a great and
high mountain," where the prospect might be sufficiently enlarged. When
the angel proposed to show him the "scarlet whore," he "carried him into
the wilderness," intimating that such is the _only position_ in which
the "mystery of the woman, and of the beast that carrieth her," can be
clearly seen or perfectly understood. (2 Pet. i. 9.) Great indeed is the
contrast. Both objects are complex, and the combination of symbols,
wholly incongruous in nature, admonishes the sober interpreter to beware
of indulging his vain fancy by attempting to trace analogies in detail,
where none are intended by the Holy Spirit. The true church of Christ is
compared to a virtuous and fruitful woman, (ch. xii. 5;) and the
apostate church is symbolized by a fruitful but profligate woman, (ch.
xvii. 5.) Then both are also represented by two cities, which are
equally contrasted. As the women differ in their outward adornment,
(chs. xix. 8, xvii. 4,) so do the cities in the quality of population,
commerce and employment, (ch. xviii. 4; xxii. 14.)--The nuptials being
consummated between the Lamb and his bride, and she being now "made
perfect in holiness;" under the emblem of a city, she is illuminated
with "the glory of God," made "comely through his comeliness put upon
her," rendered beautiful and illustrious beyond conception or
expression: for the happiness of heaven results from conformity to the
God-man, communion with him and communications from him. (1 John iii.
2.)--"Her light" resembled the "jasper, clear as crystal." The knowledge
of saints in heaven will be intuitive: they will no longer "see through
a glass darkly," by word and sacraments; nor shall the glorious
Bridegroom show himself as formerly "through the lattice;" (Song ii. 9;)
but they "shall see him as he is." (1 John iii. 2.)--"A wall great and
high" denotes the security of this city, which can never be scaled by an
enemy. The "twelve gates" are to admit the twelve tribes of God's
spiritual Israel,--the sealed ones, (ch. vii. 5-8;) who "shall come from
the east, and from the west, and from the north, and from the south, and
shall sit down in the kingdom of God." (Luke xiii. 29.)--At the gates
were "twelve angels," as guards and porters. The "foundations" of the
wall, named after the "twelve apostles," denote that all who enter the
city, gained admission by "belief of the truth" as taught by the
apostles,--had "continued steadfast in the apostles' doctrine and
fellowship," in the face of reproach, persecution and apostacy. They
were "built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets,"--Old and
New Testament believers saved by the blood of the Lamb: for the twelve
tribes, multiplied by the twelve apostles, make a hundred and
forty-four; and these again, multiplied by a thousand, make the whole
number who appeared with the Lamb on Mount Zion, (ch. xiv. 1;) _the
public witnesses_ of Christ, in the _church militant_ during the great
apostacy.


15. And he that talked with me had a golden reed to measure the city,
and the gates thereof, and the wall thereof.

16. And the city lieth four square, and the length is as large as the
breadth. Ami he measured the city with the reed, twelve thousand
furlongs: the length, and the breadth, and the height of it are equal.

17. And he measured the wall thereof, a hundred and forty and four
cubits, according to the measure of a man, that is, of the angel.

Vs. 15-17.--The apostle borrows the symbols and language of preceding
prophets, especially those of Ezek. (xl. 3,) and Zech. (ii. 1.) The
"furlongs" measured by the "reed," indicate a city of vast dimensions;
and being "four square," each side would be about fifteen hundred miles!
And as the "length and breadth and height of it are equal," we are
hereby taught that no gross conceptions are to be formed in our
imaginations, since a city fifteen hundred miles high, is utterly
inconceivable. The instruction intended to be conveyed to us by the vast
dimensions, and precious materials of this city may be, the
incomprehensible nature and transcendent glory of heaven. (1 Cor. ii.
9.) A cubit, as the word signifies, "is the measure of a man" from his
elbow to the end of his middle finger. The measure of the wall, in
height or breadth, was a hundred and forty-four cubits, or the twelve
tribes, as before, multiplied by the twelve apostles; for the idea of a
cube, as the most perfect symbol of symmetrical form, seems to be
intended.


18. And the building of the wall of it was of jasper: and the city was
pure gold, like unto clear glass:

19. And the foundations of the wall of the city were garnished with all
manner of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper; the second,
sapphire; the third chalcedony; the fourth, an emerald;

20. The fifth, sardonyx; the sixth, sardius; the seventh, chrysolite;
the eighth, beryl; the ninth, a topaz; the tenth, a chrysoprasus; the
eleventh, a jacinth; the twelfth, an amethyst.

21. And the twelve gates were twelve pearls: every several gate was of
one pearl: and the street of the city was pure gold, as it were
transparent glass.

Vs. 18-21.--The "jasper, gold and glass," are here all combined; though
their natural properties and chemical elements are so different. Glass
is clear, transparent, but brittle; gold is solid and shining, but
opaque. In heaven, the saints shall _know_ more than we can now
_imagine_. The glass will be all gold. As the eye sees an object through
glass at a glance, so the saints in heaven will perceive truth without
the tedious process of comparison and reasoning. The gold will be all
glass. All these symbols are intended to show to the devout reader, that
the antichristian harlot is incomparably eclipsed by the glory of the
Lamb's bride,--having "no glory, by reason of the glory that
excelleth."--The twelve "precious stones" which "garnished the
foundations of the wall of the city," are an allusion to those of
Aaron's breastplate of judgment. (Exod. xxviii. 17-20;) indicating that
the _Urim_ and _Thummim_, the _light_ and _perfection_ of glory, shall
be there, superseding the oracle and Shekinah: for one thing is peculiar
to this city by which it is distinguished from the old Jerusalem,--no
temple.


22. And I saw no temple therein: for the Lord God Almighty, and the
Lamb, are the temple of it.

23. And the city had no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine
in it; for the glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is the light
thereof.

24. And the nations of them which are saved shall walk in the light of
it, and the kings of the earth do bring their glory and honour into it.

25. And the gates of it shall not be shut at all by day; for there shall
be no night there.

26. And they shall bring the glory and honour of the nations into it.

27. And there shall in no wise enter into it any thing that defileth,
neither whatsoever worketh abomination, or maketh a lie; but they which
are written in the Lamb's book of life.

Vs. 22-27.--There was "no temple therein." As there _was a temple_ in
the city which Ezekiel saw in vision, (ch. xli. 1,) and this fact
determines the point, that his prophecy relates to the church
_militant_; so, the absence of even the semblance of such a structure
here, proves that this is a description of the church _triumphant_. In
heaven there is no need of external, material, visible symbols of God's
presence. As the ceremonial "law had a shadow of good things to come,"
but "vanished away" when Christ appeared, (Heb. x. 1,) so will it be in
heaven; no ordinances will be used to act upon either sense or faith,
these having issued in vision.

The glorious presence of "the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb," having
superseded the necessity of a temple; the light of the sun and moon
shall be no longer needed. "God is light, and in him is no darkness at
all," (1 John i. 5;) and "as long as Christ was in the world, he was the
light of the world." (John ix. 5.) We have seen that other suns and
moons which were _symbolical,_ have been darkened or blotted out of
existence by the omnipotent Mediator; but now these natural luminaries
are totally and for ever obscured by the ineffable effulgence of
uncreated light,--the manifested and immediate presence of the Father
and the Son.--All the redeemed shall "walk in the light of the Lord;"
and all the glory of "the kings of the earth," concentrated in one
place, would bear no comparison with the splendor of this "holy city."
The gates are not to be shut during the "day" of _eternity_; and since
the "excellent ones of the earth" shall all enter the twelve open gates
from every part of the world, it may be truly said "they bring the glory
and honor of the nations into it." What a delightful scene of a holy,
happy, safe and harmonious fellowship!--It is observable that the
apostle altogether drops _personalities_ here. He seizes only upon
properties or qualities,--"any thing,"--so holy is the place, and so
holy the inhabitants; yea, so safe and secure, that no creature,--no
"beast of the field which the Lord God has made," shall ever gain an
entrance into this heavenly Paradise: but only those whose names are
"written in the Lamb's book of life;" who, despite of the Serpent,
brings all his spiritual seed safe to glory.



CHAPTER XXII.


1. And he showed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal,
proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.

2. In the midst of the street of it, and on either side of the river,
was there the tree of life, which bare twelve manner of fruits, and
yielded her fruit every month: and the leaves of the tree were for the
healing of the nations.

3. And there shall be no more curse: but the throne of God and of the
Lamb shall be in it; and his servants shall serve him.

4. And they shall see his face; and his name shall be in their
foreheads.

5. And there shall be no night there: and they need no candle, neither
light of the sun: for the Lord God giveth them light: and they shall
reign for ever and ever.

Vs. 1-5.--These verses, being a continuance of the description of the
"holy city," naturally belong to the preceding chapter.--The angel
proceeds to show John the source and current from which emanate all
heavenly blessings. The allusion is to Ezekiel, xlvii. 1-12; but both he
and John call our attention to man's primeval state, when our first
parents dwelt in Eden. This abode of the blessed is beautified and
enriched with all the products, delights and attractions which are
adapted to the refined senses of holy creatures,--"pleasant to the eyes,
and good for food." It is Paradise restored, by the "doing and dying" of
the second Adam. It is also Paradise _improved_, having not only the
"tree of life," as the first had, but also, in addition, the "water of
life." The "tree of life" was to sinless Adam a symbol and pledge of
immortality to himself and all his posterity whom he represented in the
Covenant of Works. Now that heaven is procured for all believers by the
second Adam, it is emblematically represented to our weak apprehension
by directing our attention to the primitive and earthly Paradise. This
is repeatedly done in Scripture. The Lord Jesus, before he expired upon
the cross, said to the penitent thief,--"To day shall thou be with me in
Paradise. (Luke xxiii. 43.) Paul was "caught up" thither, (2 Cor. xii.
4;) and he calls the place "heaven," (v. 2;) and in this book, (ch. ii.
7,) the Lord promises,--"I will give to him that overcometh to eat of
the tree of life, which is in the midst of the paradise of God." The
"tree" is an emblem of Christ, (Song ii. 3;) the "river of the water of
life" symbolizes the Holy Spirit, (John vii. 38, 39;) for as the Son and
the Holy Ghost proceed from the Father, the former by generation, the
latter by emanation from eternity,--so "that eternal life which was with
the Father" in the person of the Son, and purchased by the Son, is
communicated by the Holy Ghost to all the redeemed by regeneration. (2
Cor. iii. 6; Rom. viii. 2.)--Thus, the eternal duration of life in glory
"proceeds out of the throne of God and the Lamb." On each side of the
river "the tree of life" is accessible by the inhabitants; and the
fruits of the tree, ripe in all months of the year, and adapted to every
taste, each one may "put forth his hand" as he passes, "and take ... and
eat, and live for ever." (Gen. iii. 22.) Or, "the people that are
therein" may "sit down under its shadow, and its fruit will be sweet to
their taste."--"The leaves of the tree" are for medicine, being
preventive of all disease, so that "the inhabitant shall not say, I am
sick: the people that dwell therein are forgiven their iniquities." (Is.
xxxiii. 24.) "There shall be no more curse." Satan gained entrance into
the garden of Eden, and succeeded in entailing the "curse" upon man, and
upon beast, and upon the fruits of the ground; but he shall never be
loosed again, or emerge from "the lake of fire," to disturb the repose
of that blessed society in heaven, (ch. xxi. 27.)--As the "throne of God
and the Lamb" is _one,_ (ch. iii. 21;) so it is remarkable that the
distinction of persons is omitted, as though the Father and the Son were
but one person. True, Christ said, "I and my Father are one," (John x.
30;) but he referred to _unity_ of _nature_ and purpose, not of
_personality;_ for, in consistency with this, he said also,--"My Father
is greater than I;" an assertion which must consist with the former, and
which plainly involves personal distinction, (ch. xiv. 28.)--"His name
shall be in their foreheads."--Which of them? We have found Christ's
Father's name "written in the foreheads" of a hundred and forty-four
thousand saints _militant_, (ch. xiv. 1.) While in conflict, "the world
knew them not," and the adherents of Antichrist "cast out their names as
evil," branding them as _heretics_; but now they are known to the whole
universe, as the _covenant property_ of both the Father and the Son,
(ch. iii. 12.)--"Behold, I and the children which God hath given me;"
(Heb. ii. 13.) "I have manifested thy name unto the men which thou
gavest me cut of the world. Thine they were, and thou gavest them me;
and they have kept thy word. ... All mine are thine, and thine are mine;
and I am glorified in them." (John xvii. 6,10.)--There will be no
intermission or interruption of service, "no night there,"--no hidings
of God's countenance, no desertions; for "they shall see his face" in
the "express image of the Father's person," be assured of his
love;--"need no candle," nor any earthly accommodation; "for the Lord
God giveth them light; and they shall reign for ever and ever," in
fulness of joy and unalloyed pleasures for evermore. (Ps. xvi. 11.) How
different is this heaven from the Mahometan paradise, which, if real,
could gratify only carnal and sensual sinners! yet the imaginations of
many, and their aspirations too, with the Bible in their hands, are
little better than those of Mahometans or pagans. All speculations of
heathen philosophers about the "chief good," or the enjoyments of their
imaginary gods, are so gross and brutish as to demonstrate the
all-important truth, that "except a man be born again, _he cannot_ see
the kingdom of God." (John iii. 3.) And it is too evident that some
modern philosophers are as little acquainted as Nicodemus with the
humbling doctrines of the gospel. The society of learned men, making
perpetual advance in natural science, especially in astronomy,--would
seem to be the highest conception of happiness which too many modern
philosophers can reach. They know not some of the elementary teachings
of the Holy Scriptures; such as,--"Without holiness no man shall see the
Lord;" and that this indispensable preparation for heavenly felicity
consists in "the washing of regeneration, and the renewing of the Holy
Ghost."

The hundreds of diverse and conflicting opinions of learned writers on
the _summum bonum_, or chief good, proves to demonstration, that without
supernatural revelation and regeneration, man cannot conceive in what
happiness consists. Thus far is the description of the heavenly state;
and how little can we know, or even conceive of the glory and felicity
of the upper sanctuary! We must still say with the prophet Isaiah and
the apostle Paul,--"Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have
entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for
them that love him." (Isa. lxiv. 4; 1 Cor. ii. 9.)


6. And he said unto me, These sayings are faithful and true: and the
Lord God of the holy prophets sent his angel to show unto his servants
the things which must shortly be done.

7. Behold, I come quickly, blessed is he that keepeth the sayings of the
prophecy of this book.

Vs. 6, 7.--The angel assures the apostle and all who read, that "these
sayings are faithful and true," however sublime and incomprehensible;
however, incredible to infidels; however contradicted and misinterpreted
by antichristian apostates and enthusiasts. They are all from "the Lord
God of the holy prophets,"--from Jesus Christ and God the Father, (ch.
i. 1.)--All prophets who wrote _any part_ of the Bible, were "holy men
of God." (2 Pet. i. 21.)--Of "these things" some were "shortly to be
done;" and all in regular series would be accomplished in due
time.--"Behold I come quickly." Christ is the speaker here, and declares
that each one is "blessed who keepeth the sayings ... of this book."
This benediction was pronounced on such at the beginning of this
Revelation, (ch. i. 3,) and it is repeated by its immediate divine
Author, to encourage all to study it. This blessing is not to be
expected by any who merely _read_ or _hear_, but by those only who
_keep_ the "sayings of this prophecy." Its Author foreknew its enemies
and corrupters.


8. And I John saw these things, and heard them. And when I had heard and
seen, I fell down to worship before the feet of the angel, which showed
me these things.

9. Then saith he unto me, See thou do it not: for I am thy
fellow-servant, and of thy brethren the prophets, and of them which keep
the sayings of this book: worship God.

Vs. 8, 9.--A _second_ time, John attempts an act of idolatry! While we
may wonder at this, let us not fail to admire the wonderful wisdom of
God in permitting his servant to fall, as he did in the case of our
first father Adam, that he might take occasion more fully to display his
glory in "bringing good out of evil." The Apocalypse is directed chiefly
against that primary feature of the great Antichrist, _idolatry_. This
was part of "the mystery of inquity "which did already work" in the time
of the apostles, (Col. ii. 18,) and was to be fully developed
afterwards. (2 Thess. ii. 4.) This second rebuke of an apostle, by one
of the most exalted of creatures, for ever answers all arguments of
Papists or others, who plead for, or palliate the "worshipping of
angels" or souls of men. Idolaters worship angels and souls _when
absent_, as though they were omniscient, omnipresent and omnipotent;
thus giving the glory to creatures of these divine perfections: whereas
this heavenly messenger, _when present_, keenly resents this indignity
to his and the apostle's adorable Creator and Lord. Once more the angel
directs John and all men to join him and all the heavenly host in
observing "the first and great commandment,"--"Worship God," (ch. v.
11-14.) This angelic rebuke, leaves Papists for ever without excuse; and
consequently all others who deny the _supreme deity_ of our Lord and
Saviour Jesus Christ, and yet worship him.


10. And he saith unto me, Seal not the sayings of the prophecy of this
book; for the time is at hand.

11. He that is unjust, let him be unjust still; and he which is filthy,
let him be filthy still; and he that is righteous, let him be righteous
still; and he that is holy, let him be holy still.

12. And, behold, I come quickly; and my reward is with me, to give every
man according as his work shall be.

Vs. 10-12.--Christ himself addresses John in person. He had done so at
the beginning of these glorious scenes of the future, (ch. i. 8.) Now he
appears again in glory, though not described as before, that he may thus
authenticate and close the vision.--"Seal not the sayings of the
prophecy of this book." Why is this? The reason is assigned, because
"the time is at hand" when they shall begin to be verified in actual
history. The case was different in Daniel's time, who was inspired by
the same omniscient Spirit to predict the same events. "O Daniel, shut
up the words, and seal the vision, even to the time of the end." (Dan.
xii. 4.) If the vision of the empires of Persia and Greece was to be
"for many days," (ch. viii. 26,) then the rise, reign and overthrow of
the Roman empire, were still more remote. No wonder that Daniel, with
becoming humility but intense interest inquired, "O, my Lord, what shall
be the end of these things?" Such was the subdued anxiety of other
prophets. (1 Pet. i. 10.) And here we may once for all notice the _three
distinct_ periods mentioned by Daniel, as measuring the duration of the
Roman empire, the Romish apostacy, and as they bear upon the promised
and desirable millennium. The two prophets, Daniel and John, agree in
fixing and limiting the domination of the Antichrist to 1260 years. This
agreement has been already pointed out. The Lord, however, to allay the
laudable anxiety of his "greatly beloved" servant Daniel, makes mention
of two other periods of time, 1290 and 1335 days or years, (ch. xii. 11,
12.) Now, when we have manifold assurances that the great apostacy shall
terminate with the close of the 1260 years, we may venture humbly to
suppose, that the next thirty years may be occupied in the conversion of
the Jews, and the remaining forty-five in the effectual calling of the
residue of the gentile nations; so as to bring the kingdoms of the earth
and the church of Christ to perfect organization and visible harmony,
and the whole population of the globe into voluntary and avowed
subjection to the Lord and his Anointed,--to perfect millennial
splendor, the nearest approximation to heaven. (Rom. xi. 25, 26; Ps.
cii. 15, 16.) But "who shall live when God doeth this?" (Num. xxiv.
23.)--The divine Author of this book, having given to mankind a complete
and sufficient revelation of his will, containing invitations and
warnings, at this juncture gives intimation that obstinate sinners shall
at length be left to the consequences of their own free and perverse
choice, "unjust and filthy still;" no further means to be employed for
their conviction; but those who have embraced the offer of the gospel,
shall be confirmed for ever in holiness and happiness,--"righteous and
holy still."--He also repeats the assurances of his sudden appearance to
reward "every man according as his work shall be." The recompense which
he brings will be of debt or justice to the impenitent unbeliever; but
wholly of free grace to the believer; for the works of each class shall
follow them, as decisive evidence of their respective characters, (ch.
xiv. 13.)


13. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the
last.

V. 13.--The Lord Christ here declares and asserts the eternity of his
personal subsistence and official standing, as an all-sufficient
guarantee of his ability and authority to deal with the righteous and
the wicked, as also to bring to pass all events by his providence which
are here predicted. The same guarantee he had given at the beginning of
the Apocalypse, (ch. i. 8.)

14. Blessed are they that do his commandments, that they may have right
to the tree of life, and may enter in through the gates into the city.

V. 14.--Those who "do his commandments," are believers, (John xiv. 15,)
and no others can obtain a "right to the tree of life"--all the
blessings of Christ's purchase: for "without faith it is impossible to
please God," (Heb. xi. 6;) and "this is the love of God, that we keep
his commandments." (1 John v. 3.) "By the deeds of the law,"--keeping
the commandments, whether moral or ceremonial, "shall no flesh be
justified in the sight of God," or _merit_ a "right to the tree of
life," or to "enter in through the gates into the city." This right,
power, or privilege, is confined to those, and to those only, who
"receive and believe on the name of Christ." (John i. 12.) They who
serve the Lord Christ, are entitled to the reward of the inheritance,
(Col. iii. 24;) and in keeping of his commandments, there is great
reward. (Ps. xix. 11.) This reward is of _grace_, not of _debt_ to any
of the children of Adam: "not of works, lest any man should boast."
(Rom. xi. 6; Eph. ii. 9.) And when the last elected sinner, pertaining
to the whole company of the redeemed, shall have been called, justified
and sanctified, then "with gladness and rejoicing shall they be brought:
they shall enter into the King's palace." (Ps. xlv. 15.)


15. For without are dogs and sorcerers, and whoremongers, and murderers,
and idolaters, and whosoever loveth and maketh a lie.

V. 15.--"Without are dogs."--These characters have been excluded by the
righteous and unalterable sentence of the judge of quick and dead,
having their part in the "lake of fire:" for there is no intimation here
or elsewhere, of any _purgatory_ or intermediate place, with the
delusive hope of which, those who "love and make lies," flatter
themselves and their blind votaries. Oh, that such "sinners in Zion,"
and out of Zion, "might be afraid!"--that timely "fearfulness might
surprise these hypocrites!" that they might ponder those awful
questions!--"Who among us shall dwell with the devouring fire? who among
us shall dwell with everlasting burnings?" (Isa. xxxiii. 14.)


16. I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the
churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and
morning star.

V. 16.--This is the "angel" whose ministry the Lord Christ was pleased
to employ in making known to the church through his servant John, most
of the discoveries of this book, (ch. i. 1, 11.) Many other angels have
indeed been employed by the Mediator as the ministers of his providence;
but this one seems to have been the principal all along. None of these
heavenly messengers, however, was found competent to reveal the purposes
of God, (ch. v. 3.) To this work the eternal Son of God alone was found
adequate by nature and office,--the "Lamb that had been slain." Christ
has a personal property in the angels, as he is their Creator and Lord;
and as they are his creatures and willing servants,--"_mine_
angel."--This is perfectly reasonable; for he is the "Root of David" in
his divine nature; and the "Offspring of David," in his human nature,
(Rom. i. 3.)--God-Man, Mediator. And here let it be remarked, that in
speaking or writing of our Redeemer there appears to be no scriptural
warrant for the popular phrases,--"the _union_ of the two
natures,"--"Christ as man;" or, "as God." These expressions militate
against the _unity_ of his _divine nature_ and _personality;_ and are
calculated,--we do not say _intended_, to mislead or confuse the mind of
his disciples. "In _him personally_, not in the Father or the Holy
Ghost, "dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily." (Col. ii.
9.)--By John the descent of Christ's human nature is traced through
David here, because of the Covenant of Royalty; by Paul, he is
represented as being of the "seed of Abraham," by reason of the more
extended relation involved in the Covenant of Grace. (Heb. ii. 16.)--He
is also "the bright, even the morning star." This may be in reference to
the less luminous "stars in his right hand," (ch. i. 16, 20,) and by way
of contrast with them: but he takes this name chiefly to intimate that
he is the Author of all supernatural illumination, whether in the
kingdom of grace or of glory:--"The Lamb is the light thereof," (ch.
xxi. 23.)


17. And the Spirit and the bride say, Come. And let him that heareth,
say, Come. And let him that is athirst, come. And whosoever will, let
him take the water of life freely.

V. 17.--Here is the unrestricted universal call of the gospel, to "come"
to Christ for eternal life.--"We do testify that the Father sent the Son
to be the Saviour of the world," (1 John iv. 14.)--The invitation is
manifold and pressing. "The Spirit" by the word and conscience says,
"Come." "The Bride," the church militant and triumphant, says, "Come."
Every one "that heareth" the invitation, is warranted to say to others,
"Come." Let every one that "thirsts" for true and lasting felicity,
"Come." If any one be in doubt, whether his desire be spiritual or not,
it is added for his encouragement, as well as sufficient warrant,--"Let
whosoever will, take of the water of life freely." Any sinner of Adam's
race may "wash and be clean," in that "fountain open for sin and for
uncleanness;" may with confidence and pleasure, "draw water from the
wells of salvation." (Zech. xiii. 1: Isa. xii. 3.) Who can resist these
calls, invitations and persuasions, and be guiltless? or who can devise
easier terms of reconciliation to an offended God, than are here
addressed to the chief of sinners?


18. For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy
of this book, If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto
him the plagues that are written in this book:

19. And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this
prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, and out
of holy city, and from the things which are written in this book.

Vs. 18, 19.--"For I testify."--He who is "the faithful and true Witness"
closes this book of prophecy, with a solemn and awful sanction. These
tremendous threatenings by the "Lord God of the holy prophets," may well
cause all who read or hear to tremble: for who can abide his
indignation?--While the "prophecy of this book" is primarily intended,
all other parts of the Bible are included in this solemn conclusion: for
doubtless our Lord intended the Apocalypse to be a close to the whole
canon. The threatening is twofold, corresponding to the criminality.
Learned, bold and irreverent biblical critics; enthusiasts and
pretenders to new revelations, are in danger of these judgments. "The
plagues that are written in this book," are such as will utterly destroy
the presumptuous sinner who "adds to these things." And he that
impiously "takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy,"
exposes himself to the like awful punishment. "God shall take away his
part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from the
things which are written in this book."--Tremendous doom! All that which
he seemed to have shall be taken away. (Luke viii. 18.) Great will be
the sudden and unexpected loss!--These awful denunciations, however,
have special reference, like the rest of the threatened judgments in
this book, to the great, continued and defiant impieties of the apostate
church of Rome. She has "added" her _traditions_ to the Scriptures, as
part and principal part, of the "Rule of Faith!" She has "taken away"
the Scriptures from the body of her people; or shut them up in an
"unknown tongue," so that "every man may" _not_ "hear in his own tongue
wherein he was born, the wonderful works of God." (Acts ii. 8, 11.) This
is one of the articles in Rome's indictment here; and whatever modern
infidelity or spurious charity may suggest, this theft of God's word,
and robbery of his people, is not to be expiated with burnt offering or
sacrifice. And he who scans all time, foresaw this attempt of the dragon
and his allies to deprive the church and the world of the "lively
oracles;" therefore, as he promised a blessing on the reader of this
book, as it were on the title-page, here in the close he appends a
malediction, that all who read or hear, may be deterred from such
sacrilege.


20. He which testifieth these things saith, Surely I come quickly: Amen.
Even so, come, Lord Jesus.

V. 20.--"He which testifieth these things" is the Lord Jesus. Again he
reminds all to whom these presents come, of his certain and speedy
appearance. These frequent assurances are not "vain repetitions." They
are intended to strengthen the faith and counteract the despondency of
the saints, and to alarm the consciences of his enemies. (2 Pet. iii. 3,
4, 8, 10; Jude 14, 15.) To this "promise of his coming," John responds
in the name of the whole church,--"Amen. Even so, come, Lord Jesus," to
fulfil these predictions, in their promises and threatenings; "to be
glorified in his saints, and admired in all them that believe." "So
shall they ever be with the Lord." (1 Thess. iv. 17.)


21. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.

V. 21.--These are also the words of John. He had just been addressing
the "Lord Jesus," and his next words are addressed to the "seven
churches," (ch. i. 4, 11,) or to all who read or hear the words of this
book: but especially the church general. This is a concise form of the
"apostolic benediction," (2 Thess. iii. 18,) which is sometimes
amplified, by naming the Father and the Son; or, at other times, the
three divine persons. (2 Cor. xiii. 14.) However, "the grace of the Lord
Jesus Christ" is originally from God the Father, procured for us by
Jesus Christ, and communicated to us by the Holy Spirit. And unto the
Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, let equal, undivided, and
everlasting glory be ascribed, by all the subjects of his regenerating
and sanctifying grace, "throughout all ages, world without end." Amen.


FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 1: Life of Martin Luther. Pp. 173, 174. London. 1855. Luther
afterwards became convinced of his error.]

[Footnote 2: Gibbon has unconsciously written a commentary on
prophecy!--an involuntary witness, like Josephus!]

[Footnote 3: "It has been our lot to hear the voice of the third woe,"
Faber.--"In this I entirely agree with that expositor." M'Leod. The
blinding influence of earth's politics upon the minds of pious men, has
often occasioned the hearts of their brethren to "sigh for their
inconsistency."]

[Footnote 4: The terms "clergy and laity" are of papal origin, and the
unlearned Christian should know that they are contrary to the mind of
the Holy Spirit. 1 Pet. v. 3. The body of the people are "God's
heritage,"--_clergy_.]

[Footnote 5: Gibbon.]

[Footnote 6: Mosheim.]

[Footnote 7: Such is the interpretation of Bishop Newton!]

[Footnote 8: Faber.]

[Footnote 9: This is the opinion of Mr. Faber.]

[Footnote 10: Scott.]

[Footnote 11: Scott]

[Footnote 12: So Mr. Faber imagined.]

[Footnote 13: So designated by Nicholas, late emperor of Russia.]



APPENDIX.


THE NEW JERUSALEM.

Interpreters are much divided in opinion as to the import of this
symbol. Some think it represents the church on earth during the period
of the millennium; while others, no less learned and pious, consider it
as an emblematical representation of the heavenly state. Of those who
acquiesce in the former view, some consider the arguments "quite
conclusive." It may be conceded that much may be advanced, and with
great plausibility, in support of this position.

Perhaps the most specious arguments to this purpose are such as the
following:--"That the New Jerusalem is distinguished from the Old,
because of the superior light and grace of the present dispensation of
the Covenant. Moreover, the glowing descriptions of the church militant
given by the prophets, especially Isaiah, are thought to be as boldly
rhetorical as those of John; yet those lofty flights are confessedly
descriptive of the church on earth. Besides, who can conceive how "the
kings of the earth bring their glory and honour into" the heavenly
state? or how are "the leaves of the tree of life for the healing of the
nations," when there _are no nations to be healed?_ etc.

To these arguments the following answers may be given.

The church is one under all changes of dispensation, and by what names
soever she is called: but it does not appear that we are warranted by
Scripture usage to view the New Jerusalem as a designation of the church
in her militant state. She is indeed sometimes called in the New
Testament by Old Testament names: as when Paul calls her by the name
Zion, (Heb. xii. 22.) But he does not say, _new_ Zion. Again, when our
Lord promises, (as in Rev. iii. 12,) to reward "him that overcometh," it
must be supposed from the connexion, that, as in all similar cases of
spiritual conflict, this reward is to be conferred in a future
state,--heaven. But part of the reward he describes in these words:--"I
will write upon him the name of the city of my God, which is New
Jerusalem." Surely it may be supposed without presumption, that in this
place New Jerusalem means heaven. Nor is the assumption true,--that the
descriptive language of the Old Testament prophets is always to be
understood of the church on earth. For instance, can the following
language (Is. xxxiii. 24,) be predicated of the saints while in the
body:--"The inhabitant shall not say, I am sick?" "The glory and honour
of the nations" are the "saints of God, the excellent;" who while here,
are "the light of the world, the salt of the earth;" and doubtless
nations as well as families and individuals "have learned by experience
that the Lord hath blessed them for their sakes:" (Gen. xxx. 27; xxxix.
5;)--and that he has also "reproved kings" and destroyed nations for
their sakes, (Ps. cv. 14; Is. xliii. 3, 4.) And when all the saints who
are to rule the nations, (Rev. xx. 4, 6,) for a thousand years, shall
have been brought home to glory, then emphatically will the glory and
honour of the nations be brought into the New Jerusalem.

As to the "leaves of the tree for the healing of the nations," it may be
remarked, that their sanative virtue will have been experienced by
national societies on earth: and there is not, there never was, nor will
there ever be, any other healing medicine for them, (Ezek. xlvii. 12) In
addition to what has been said, it is worthy of notice that the tree of
life, in allusion to the delights of the garden of Eden, which was an
emblem of heaven, is mentioned in the Apocalypse, near the beginning and
near the end of the book, (chs. ii. 7; xxii. 2.) Now, we are told
expressly that this tree is "in the midst of Paradise." But we learn
both from our Lord and the apostle Paul that Paradise signifies
heaven:--"To-day shalt thou be with me in Paradise," said Christ to the
penitent thief. "I was caught up into Paradise;" that is, "the third
heaven," said Paul. Did Christ and Paul mean the visible, or the
invisible church militant by the name Paradise? But the tree of life
flourishes there, and all the redeemed eat of its fruit. They are where
the tree is, the tree is in Paradise, and Paradise is heaven itself:
therefore we are warranted to conclude with certainty that New Jerusalem
is a symbol of the church triumphant; and, consequently, that those
parts of chapters twenty-one and twenty-two, which are of symbolic
structure, are descriptive of the heavenly state.


THE ANTICHRIST.

This word does not occur in the Apocalypse, nor in any other book of the
New Testament except the first and second epistles, by the apostle John.
There it is found in the singular and plural form. (1 John ii. 18, 22;
iv. 3; ii. 7.) The apostles in their ministry had spoken frequently and
familiarly to the disciples of this personage, as an enemy of God and
man. "Ye _have heard_ that Antichrist shall come." "Remember ye not,"
asks Paul, "that, when I was yet with you, I _told you_ these things?"
(2 Thess. ii. 5.) Paul blames his countrymen, the Hebrews, that they had
need that one should teach them again which be the first principles of
the oracles of God, (Heb. v. 12.) And it is just so now, in the case of
most professing Christians, learned and illiterate; they yet need to be
taught again what is meant by Antichrist.

All who are acquainted with the sentiments of the reformers of the
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries are aware that their conceptions of
this enemy were vague and confused. Persecuted as heretics and apostates
from the only true church, the church of Rome, the reformers very
naturally concluded that the Pope, or the church of which he is the
visible head, was the Antichrist. And this opinion is very generally
held at the present day.

Mr. Faber, however, dissents from this popular notion, and with much
confidence and plausibility broaches a new theory of his own. His style
is always forcible, and so perspicuous that he cannot be misunderstood.
In his "Dissertation on the Prophecies," he lays down the following
canon or rule for expositors:--"Before a commentator can reasonably
expect his own system to be adopted by others, he must show likewise
that the expositions of his predecessors are erroneous in those points
wherein he differs from them." To enforce this rule he adds,--"It will
be found to be the only way, in which there is even a probability of
attaining to the truth." I can neither admit the justness of his rule,
nor the conclusiveness of his reason; for by its adoption, "of making
many books there would be no end; and the world itself could not contain
the books that should be written." To deduce the truth from any portion
of God's word, it is by no means necessary that the expositor shall
undertake the Herculean task of refuting all the heresies and vagaries
which "men of corrupt minds" have pretended or attempted to wring out of
it. But as Mr. Faber is not to be reckoned in this category, I shall pay
him so much deserved respect as to apply to himself _his own rule_ in
some following particulars:--

By a formal syllogism Mr. Faber proposes to overthrow the generally
received interpretation of the term _Antichrist_, that it means, the
_Papacy_, or, the _Church of Rome_. Thus he reasons:--"He is Antichrist
that denieth the Father and the Son: but _the Church of Rome_ never
denied either the Father or the Son: therefore _the church of Rome_
cannot be the _Antichrist_ intended by St. John." Now, in this argument,
which seems to be so clear and conclusive, there is a latent sophism, an
assumption contrary to the Scriptures. The false assumption is, that the
word _denieth is univocal_; that is, that it has in the Bible, and on
this doctrinal point in particular, only _one sense_; whereas this is
not the case. The Church of Rome does indeed "profess to know" the
Father and the Son, but "in works denies" both, (1 Tim. v. 8; Tit. i.
16.) Therefore Mr. Faber's conclusion is not sustained by his premises,
and the Church of Rome might be the Antichrist for any thing that his
syllogism says to the contrary.

Mr. Faber imagined that "Republican France,--infidel and atheistical
France,"--was the Antichrist; and he labored with much ingenuity to
sustain his position by applying to revolutionary France the latter part
of the eleventh chapter of Daniel, together with the prophecies of Paul,
Peter and Jude. I presume that most divines and intelligent Christians
are long since convinced, by the developments of Providence, that he was
mistaken. The commotions of the French Revolution and the military
achievements of the first Napoleon, however important to peninsular
Europe, were on much too limited a scale to correspond with the
magnitude and duration of the great Antichrist's achievements. They
were, however, owing to their proximity to Britain and their threatening
aspect, of sufficient importance to excite the alarm and rouse the
political antipathies of the Vicar of Stockton upon Tees! Mr. Faber's
Antichrist is an "infidel king, wilful king, an atheistical king, a
professed atheist," of short duration, and his influence of limited
geographical extent. He is not in most of these features the Antichrist
of prophecy, whose baleful influence is co-extensive with Christendom,
and whose duration is to be 1260 years. Mr. Faber's erudition is to be
respected, his imagination admired, but his political feelings to be
lamented. Indeed, his very ecclesiastical title of office,--"Vicar," is
itself partly indicative and symbolical of the prophetic Antichrist.

I do not believe that infidel France, whether republican or monarchical,
nor the Papacy, nor the Church of Rome, is the Antichrist of the apostle
John; yet I do believe that all these are essential elements in his
composition. The following are the principal component parts of that
complex moral person, as defined by the Holy Spirit, by which any
disciple of Christ without much learning may identify John's Antichrist.
His elemental parts are three, _and only three_, and all presented in
the thirteenth chapter of Revelation. The "beast of the sea," (vs. 1,
2,) the "beast of the earth," (v. 11,) and the "image of, or to the
first beast," (v. 14,) that is, the Roman empire, the Roman church and
the Pope: all these in combination, _professing Christianity_; these,
with their adjuncts as subordinate agencies constitute the Apocalyptic
Antichrist. Besides this personage, well defined by the inspired
prophets, Daniel, Paul, John and others, there is no other Antichrist.
An "infidel king, a professed atheist," as distinct from this one and
symbolized in prophetic revelation, I find not. I conclude that such a
personage is wholly chimerical, framed as a creature of a lively
imagination.


THE IMAGE OF THE BEAST.

Mr. Faber is unsuccessful in his interpretation of the "image of the
beast." His reasoning is ingenious, specious and intelligible as usual.
He labours to prove that the worshipping of images by the Papists is the
meaning of the symbol. Material images, however, whether of papal origin
or otherwise, are harmless vanities: "for they cannot do evil, neither
also _is it_ in them to do good," (Jer. x. 5.) The case is quite
otherwise with this image. It has "life, speaks, and has power to
_kill_," (Rev. xiii. 15.) These properties of John's "image" are so
opposite to those of the Papal images, that they effectually confute Mr.
Faber's fanciful, not to say whimsical theory. It has been already shown
that the "image" symbolizes the Papacy, the _fac-simile_ of the Roman
emperor.


THE BEAST'S "_deadly wound_."

The Erastian heresy, the usual concomitant of prelacy, will readily
account for Mr. Faber's explanation of the "deadly wound," which the
first beast received in his sixth head. Constantine, he thinks,
inflicted that wound by abolishing paganism. He writes as though the
beast had been _actually killed_, and had lain literally dead for a
period of nearly three centuries! (viz., from 313 till 606.) Yet the
apostle assures us that the "deadly wound was healed." The _beast did
not die_. Daniel gives no hint of the death of his fourth beast, which
is the same as John's beast of the sea, until his final destruction at
the close of the 1260 years. It was in fact under the reigns of
Constantine and his successors, that ambitious pastors were nurtured
into antichristian prelates, and passed by a natural transition into
Popery. The empire never ceased to be a beast during the whole period of
its continuance. The sixth _head_ was wounded, but the beast still
survived. The sixth or imperial form of government was changed, but that
change brought no advantage to the Christian church either in her
doctrine or order. As a distinct horn of this beast the British nation
with her hierarchy is easily traceable to mystic Babylon in point of
maternity. Since, as well as before the time of Henry the Eighth,
spiritual fornication has ever been the crime of the "British
Establishment." This historical fact requires no proof.

Mr. Faber seems to me to give too little prominence in his exposition to
Daniel and John's beast of the sea, as an enemy to Christ. Indeed, he
appears to overlook the leading idea involved in the name Antichrist, as
a _substitutionary_, false, and therefore inimical or hostile christ.
Instead of keeping before his mind the glorious person of the Mediator
as the special object of Antichrist's enmity, as prophecy requires, he
places before him the church or the gospel instead of Christ. Hence he
writes thus:--"We find in the predictions of St. John,--(why not _St_
Daniel?) two _great enemies_ of the _gospel_, Popery and Mohammedism."
Then he adds,--"a third power is introduced," (Preface, p. 7.) This
"third power" he calls "a wilful infidel king," and, as already noticed,
interprets it of "atheistical France." Now, it will be evident to the
intelligent reader that among his "three powers" considered by him as
"enemies to the gospel," he has entirely lost sight of the _seven headed
ten horned beast_, and _his hostility to Christ_! He has, in fact,
manifestly substituted his imaginary "wilful king",--infidel France, for
the Roman empire, the beast of Daniel and John, the agent that slays the
witnesses, (Rev. xi. 7.) To almost every expositor, and in his lucid
moments, even to Mr. Faber himself, it is apparent, that the Roman
empire is the primary element in the complex personage that wars against
the Lamb. Even kings are but _horns of the beast_, and Popery but a
_horn_. (Dan. vii. 20; Rev. xvii. 12, 13.)

It is therefore a great mistake on the part of this learned author, to
feign an Antichrist distinct from the three confederated enemies of
Christ and his witnesses,--enemies so clearly pointed out in prophecy by
appropriate and intelligible symbols:--the beast with ten, and the beast
with two horns, and the image of the first. These three, all professing
the Christian religion, and practically denying it, without the shadow
of a doubt, constitute the Antichrist of John, (1 John ii. 19-21.) This
is the identical enemy described by Daniel, and according to the
inspired predictions of both prophets, doomed to eternal destruction,
(Dan. vii. 11; Rev. xix. 20.) Hence it is obvious that Mr. Faber's
"wilful king" is wholly a creature of his own fancy, constituting no
feature of the prophetic Antichrist.


THE LITTLE BOOK.

This symbol is in the tenth chapter evidently distinguished from the one
in the fifth chapter. It is considered by several interpreters as
containing all that follows to the end of the book. According to this
view, it would be larger than the sealed book, (ch. v. 1.) Such a view
is altogether untenable, involving, as it does, almost a palpable
contradiction. The little book is indeed comprehended in the sealed
book, as a part of the whole; or it may be viewed as an appendix or
codicil, or perhaps still more correctly as a _parenthesis_,
interrupting the series of the trumpets, that the object of the seventh
or last woe-trumpet maybe thus described and rendered intelligible when
sounded.

Mr. Faber is correct in saying, "the eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth and
fourteenth chapters, in point of chronology run parallel to each other;"
but he is mistaken when he says the "little book comprehends these four
chapters." It comprehends only so much as intervenes between the close
of the ninth chapter and the fifteenth verse of the eleventh chapter;
or, in other words, between the sounding of the sixth and seventh
trumpet. To be more correct and explicit,--the tenth chapter introduces
the little book, and the eleventh chapter, from the first to the
fourteenth verse inclusive, exhibits an abstract of its contents,--a
condensed narrative or mere outline of the contest during the 1260
years.


THE DEATH OF THE WITNESSES.

Many divines have considered the death of the two witnesses, as
consisting in a moral slaying, equivalent to apostacy. Mr. Faber views
their life and death as altogether political. He censures Mr. Galloway
for "want of strict adherence to _unity of symbolical_ interpretation,"
but he inadvertently falls into the same error. Assuming, as he does,
that the two witnesses are the Old and New Testament _Churches_, where
is the "unity of symbolical interpretation" when he tells us that the
witnesses were politically slain in the "disastrous battle of Mulburgh
in the year 1547, by the total route of the protestants under the lead
of the Elector of Saxony and the Landgrave of Hesse?" The _political_
death of two churches in the battle of Mulburgh!--Such language
exemplifies neither the accuracy of historic narrative, nor the "unity
of symbolical interpretation:" nor does it accord with another rule of
the writer, one of his three cardinal rules, namely,--That "no
interpretation of a prophecy is valid, except the prophecy agree _in
every particular_ with the event to which it is supposed to relate."
Mistaking the character of the witnesses, as one of the primary symbols
in the Apocalypse, he is unable to ascertain in history either their
identity or work, their life or their death. Having imagined their
political death in 1547, he supposes their resurrection to political
life in 1550,--"by the accession of Edward the Sixth to the throne of
England!" and "the defeat of the Duke of Mecklenburgh in the October of
that year!!" Of course, these witnesses, according to Mr. Faber's
interpretation, resumed their function of prophesying so soon as they
were restored to political life: but we look in vain for the prophesying
of the mystic witnesses after their ascension to the symbolic heaven,
(Rev. xi. 12.) As we have shown to the readers of these Notes, their
lives and their testimony, or prophesying, terminate together, (ch. xi.
7; xii. 11.)


THE MARK OF THE BEAST.

"With regard to the mark of the beast," Mr. Faber "thinks, with Sir
Isaac Newton, that it is _the cross_," (p. 176.) This _thought_ has
indeed been almost universal in the minds of protestants. So deep-seated
is this conviction in the popular belief, that one is deemed chargeable
with temerity, if not something worse, who would call its grounds in
question. Popular opinion, or belief in matters of this spiritual and
mystical nature, is, however, of very little weight in the estimation of
such as are accustomed to "try the spirits." Although the mark was to be
received at the instance and by the authority of the two horned beast of
the earth, it was not enjoined as a mark of devotion to _himself_. It
was manifestly commanded by him as a _tessera_ of loyalty to the
ten-horned beast of the sea, the obvious symbol of corrupt and
tyrannical civil power. Instead therefore of the cross as a sign of
devotion to Popery,--of membership in the church of Rome, as identifying
with the beast's mark, this mark is evidently and demonstrably the
tessera of loyalty to the Roman empire,--immoral civil power; and this,
too, in any of the dependencies of that iron empire, (Dan. ii. 40; vii.
7.)

From the errors and vagaries of this learned and acute expositor, some
of which have been pointed out, it is apparent that no amount of
intellectual culture, no natural powers of discrimination, no logical or
metaphysical acumen, will compensate for the want of early and accurate
training in the knowledge of supernatural revelation. On the prophetical
and priestly offices of our Redeemer, some of the English prelates have
written with a force, perspicuity and zeal against the heresies of the
Romish apostacy, not excelled by the writings of those who have
dissented from the semi-papal hierarchy of the Anglican Church. But on
the _royal_ office of Immanuel, their prelatic training and associations
seem to have blinded their minds. "No bishop, no king," is a maxim which
seems to lie at the foundation of all their political disquisitions and
speculations, and which gives a tincture to all their expositions of
prophecy. Nevertheless, even in this field of labor, the diligent
student may consult with much advantage the learned works of such
writers as the two Newtons, Kett, Galloway, Whitaker, Zouch, with their
predecessors, Lowman, Mede and others.

After all, the best works to be obtained as helps to understand the
prophetic parts of Scripture, will be found in the labors of those who,
from age to age, have obeyed the gracious call of Christ,--who have
"come out from mystic Babylon," from the Romish communion,--from the
mother and her harlot daughters, and who have associated more or less
intimately with the _witnesses_. Among these may be consulted with
profit the works of Durham, Mason and M'Leod. But while searching after
the mind of God revealed in this part of his word, let us never exercise
implicit faith in the teachings of any fallible expositor. Let us always
regard the injunction of our apostle:--"Beloved, believe not every
spirit, but try the spirits whether they are of God." Of course, the
only infallible standard by which we can try the spirits is the whole
word of God,--"comparing spiritual things with spiritual."


THE FIRST RESURRECTION.

Bishop Newton, among those divines distinguished in ecclesiastical
history as Millenarians, may be regarded as one of the most learned,
judicious and cautious. The amount of the deductions which this class of
writers draw from the scripture phrase "first resurrection," and its
context, confirmed as they suppose by many other parts of Scripture,
appears to be the following:--All the righteous shall be raised from
their graves to meet our Saviour coming from heaven at the beginning of
the Millennium: he and these saints, clothed in real human bodies, are
to dwell and reign together upon a renovated earth during that happy
period. Indeed, writers on this interesting subject differ so much in
details, that no well-defined theory or system can be discovered among
them. The _literal resurrection_ of the bodies of the saints, and the
_corporeal presence_ of Christ among them, seem to be the cardinal
points of agreement with this class of expositors; and from this literal
interpretation of the resurrection of the righteous and bodily
appearance of the Saviour, they either took or received the name
_Millenarians_. Other Christians, however, who differ from them in the
interpretation of symbols, are no less believers in a millennium than
they,--a thousand years of righteousness and peace _on the earth_.

Bishop Newton understands "this 'first resurrection' of a particular
resurrection preceding the general one at least a thousand years." "It
is to this first resurrection," says he, "that St. Paul alludes, (1
Thess. iv. 16,) when he affirms that the 'dead in Christ shall rise
first,' and (1 Cor. xv. 23;) that every man shall be made alive in his
own order, Christ the first fruits, afterwards they that are Christ's at
his coming." It is surprising that a person of the Bishop's learning
should so readily mistake the _sound_ for the _sense_ of the words which
he quotes. While the apostle is, for the "comfort" of the saints,
treating of _their_ resurrection, he is evidently speaking of the
general resurrection at the _end of time_. In the morning of the
resurrection Christ's members will be raised after the manner and in
virtue of his resurrection,--"the first fruits" securing the following
harvest, in obvious allusion to the ceremonial law. In the other case,
when Paul says, "the dead in Christ shall rise first," does he
mean,--before "the rest of the dead?" No, but before those of their
_redeemed brethren_ who shall then be "alive and remain;" for these
"shall not prevent (_anticipate_) them which are asleep," (_in the
grave_.) That is, the bodies of the saints who have died shall be raised
in glory, _before_ those then alive shall undergo a change equivalent to
that of the resurrection. Such is manifestly the meaning of the
apostle's plain language which has no reference whatever to the
millennium, not even the remotest allusion. Nothing but a groundless
preconception of the nature of the millennium will account for the sound
of words taking the place of their sense in the reader's mind, and no
degree of mere scholarship can obviate this propensity of the human mind
in "the things of the Spirit of God."

Not only does the learned prelate misapprehend and misapply the texts
above quoted to support his theory, but he makes a gratuitous
concession, which is at once fatal to his scheme and inconsistent with
himself. He says,--"Indeed, the _death_ and _resurrection_ of the
witnesses before mentioned, (Rev. xi. 7, 11,) appears from the
concurrent circumstances of the vision to be _figurative_." The Bishop
evidently viewed the witnesses of the eleventh chapter as a company
altogether different from those of whom John speaks in the twentieth
chapter, (vs. 4, 5.) This is another of his surprising mistakes; for
that the _identical party_ as a moral person appears in both parts of
the symbolic and allegorical representation will readily appear to any
unbiassed mind by an induction of the following particulars.

These witnesses are to continue "prophesying 1260 days (_years_,) (Rev.
xi. 3.) Then they are killed, (v. 7.) But we learn that _in death_ they
are _victorious_, (ch. xii. 11) They triumph "with the Lamb on Mount
Zion," (ch. xiv. 1) In a similar attitude of triumph they again appear
"standing on the sea of glass, (ch. xv. 2.) They are with their
victorious King, (ch. xvii. 14.) They are exhorted to retaliate upon
mystic Babylon, (xviii. 6.) They are also engaged in the last campaign
with the Captain of their salvation, (ch. xix. 14, 19, 20.) And at
length they are advanced to thrones of civil power to "rule the
nations," (ch. xx. 4,) in fulfilment of Daniel's prophecy and their
Saviour's promise, (Dan. vii. 27; Rev. ii. 26, 27.) The death and
resurrection of the witnesses is compendiously stated in the former part
of the eleventh chapter, (vs. 7-14;) but these events, epitomised again
in the "little book," are amplified in the subsequent chapters, where we
are made acquainted more fully with their enemies, their conflicts,
death, resurrection, ascension and exaltation; and in all these respects
is exhibited their conformity to the example of their Captain and
Leader. If, therefore, according to the Bishop's conception, "the death
and resurrection" of the witnesses in the eleventh chapter be
_figurative_, and if the witnesses of the twentieth be the same as those
of the eleventh chapter, which identity I have proved, it follows
incontrovertibly, that the "first resurrection" is to be understood in a
figurative sense. This interpretation may be abundantly confirmed in the
following manner:--The witnesses prophesy 1260 years. But since no
individual persons live so long, a succession _must_ be supposed. They
are, in fact, mystic characters, having their real counterpart in actual
history on this earth. The scarlet colored beast and woman, (ch. xvii.
3,) are of equal duration with the witnesses, and of similar mystic
character, and have their real counterpart in history. The witnesses are
slain by the beast at the instigation of the woman; but their death is
only temporary, (ch. xi. 7, 11;) their enemies "have no more that they
can do:" while, on the other hand, the death of the beast is
"perdition,"--eternal death, (ch. xvii. 8,) and in this death the
woman,--"the false prophet" participates, (ch. xix. 20.) All this
symbolical language respects Christ's enemies as corporate or organized
bodies.

Here it is proper to notice an objection of Bishop Newton. He
asks,--"With what propriety can it be said, that some of the dead who
were beheaded "lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years; but the
rest of the dead lived not again until the thousand years were
finished;" unless _the dying_ and _living again_ be the same in both
places?" Very true, the dying and living are doubtless "the same in both
places." The Bishop's mistake consists in taking these expressions in a
literal sense, "a proper death and resurrection." He evidently assumes
that "the rest of the dead," here mentioned, are to be literally raised
at the last day. This is undoubtedly true, for there shall be a
resurrection ... of the unjust." (Acts xxiv. 15,) but it is not the
truth contained in the words in question. From the assumption of the
_literal_ raising of "the rest of the dead," he infers the _literal_
raising of those that were beheaded. The converse of this is obviously
the correct way of reasoning. We have found that the witnesses are
spoken of, (xi. 14,) as _figuratively_ raised by the Bishop's own
acknowledgment, therefore it is most natural and logical to infer that
"the rest of the dead" were to be raised in the same manner, namely,
_figuratively_. As at the beginning of the millennium,--the martyrs, not
some of them only, as the Bishop hints, will be raised in the persons of
their legitimate successors in faith and practice; and their faith and
practice will constitute the happy state of the world for a thousand
years, so, when that period shall have expired, Satan, being "loosed out
of his prison," (ch. xx. 8,) will deceive the nations as before, and
during the "little season" of liberty, will succeed in raising from the
dead as it were, a multitude of the same character as those who killed
the witnesses,--"Gog and Magog." This maybe called the _second_
resurrection, and there will never be a _third of that kind_, for the
Lord will destroy them for ever, (ch. xx. 9.) The character of the
witnesses and their unparalleled conflicts with Antichrist sufficiently
identify them in the Apocalypse throughout the 1260 years, as also
during the thousand years of their reign; and the character of their
enemies identifies them in the time of conflict for 1260 years; but
during the succeeding period of righteousness and peace for a thousand
years, they will not be permitted to lift up the head. And so soon as
they are organized under the conduct of Satan, and like Pharaoh, most
confident of victory, (Exod. xv. 9,) then "sudden destruction cometh
upon them, and they shall not escape."


THE IDENTITY OF THE TWO WITNESSES.

The late Rev. Alexander M'Leod, D. D., who had the works of learned
predecessors before him, has successfully corrected many of their
misinterpretations in his valuable publication, entitled "Lectures upon
the Principal Prophecies of the Revelation." At the time when he wrote
that work, he possessed several advantages in aid of his own
expositions. He had access to the most valuable works which had been
issued before that date, (1814.). He was then in the vigor of youthful
manhood; and he was also comparatively free from the trammels which in
attempts to expound the Apocalypse, have cramped the energies of many a
well-disciplined mind, _political partialities_. At the time of these
profound studies, he occupied a position "in the wilderness," from which
as a stand point, like John in Patmos, he could most advantageously
survey the passing scenes of providence with the ardor of youthful
emotion, and with unsullied affection for the divine Master. With all
these advantages, however, the dispassionate and impartial reviewer may
discover, in the rapid current of his thoughts, that the active powers
of the expositor some times took precedence of the intellectual. Two
special causes may be assigned for this, hereditary love of liberty, and
the actual condition of society at the time. Born in Scotland, the
cradle of civil and religious liberty from the days of John Knox, Dr.
M'Leod's traditions and mental associations were necessarily imbued with
the atmosphere of such surroundings. To such causes may be attributed
occasional declamation, extravagant verbosity and unconscious
inconsistencies, not well comporting with the solidity and self
possession so desirable on the part of an expositor. Yet even in such
outbursts of impassioned eloquence we may sometimes discover noble
conceptions commanding our admiration, if not altogether such as to
secure our approbation. It ought to be considered, moreover, that the
"Lectures" came from their author in a turbulent, if not in a
revolutionary condition of society. Peninsular Europe was convulsed by
the successful military career of that brilliant general, Napoleon.
England and the United States were also at war. The independence and
even the existence of the young Republic were apparently in peril. The
lecturer very naturally sympathized with the land of his adoption, in
which resided his domestic treasures and many of the "excellent ones of
the earth," to whom he was bound by conjugal, paternal and covenant
ties. In a condition of actual warfare, he could not but feel most
keenly the constriction of these manifold and endearing bonds,
especially when thought to be jeopardized.

With these preliminaries, and expressing my obligation to the Doctor's
labors, to whose system of interpretation as well as to most of his
details, I cheerfully give my approbation in preference to all other
expositors whose works it has been in my power to consult; it is
proposed briefly to review some of his expositions and sentiments, from
which I crave liberty to dissent. "It is not the interest of any man to
be in error."

In his interpretation of the seals and trumpets of the Apocalypse, Dr.
M'Leod has unquestionably corrected many misapprehensions of his learned
predecessors, especially Bishop Newton and Mr. Faber: and it is perhaps
to be regretted that he did not favor the public with his view of the
vials also, a work which he seems to have had in contemplation when the
"Lectures" were published. The three last named interpreters did
certainly improve upon the expositions of all who went before them in
this field of investigation; and in most cases of disagreement the
Doctor excelled in accuracy the other two, as will readily appear on
careful examination.

In attempting to ascertain the import of the mystic "witnesses," as of
the Antichrist, expositors widely differ. Bishop Newton says
positively,--"The witnesses cannot be ... any two churches." Mr. Faber
is equally peremptory, that they "must be two churches," and he attempts
to sustain his position by many citations of Scripture, and by much
plausible argumentation. The Bishop is substantially correct in saying,
"They are a succession of men, and a succession of churches." Mr. Faber
is also correct in the main when he says,--"The two witnesses signify
the spiritual members of the catholic church:" but his notion of _two
churches_, the "Old and New Testament churches," betrays his imperfect
conception of the _essential unity_ of the church of God. Both he and
the Bishop overlook too often the important fact that civil magistracy
is a divine ordinance, which, as corrupted, constitutes the first beast
of the Apocalypse, and the most prominent feature of the great
Antichrist.

Doctor M'Leod's definition or description of the witnesses is as
follows:--"They are a small company of true Christians, defending the
interests of true religion against all opposition, and frequently
sealing with their blood the testimony which they hold," (p. 314.) This
description is more definite than either of the two preceding, and is
therefore worthy of preference; yet the reader will still wish for
something more precise and tangible. Since the prophets of the Old and
New Testaments reveal the hostility of the Devil to Christ and his
people, and since both Daniel and John represent this hostility by
appropriate and intelligible symbols, as carried out by corrupting the
two great ordinances of _church_ and _state_, would it not follow that
the witnesses are those Christians who, for 1260 years, apply the word
of God to these two ordinances, contending for a _scriptural magistracy_
and a _gospel ministry_,--the "Two Sons of Oil;" and testifying against
their _Counterfeits_? Such appears to be the import of those mystical
characters of whom we read, Zech. iv. 14; Rev. xi. 4.

In tracing the witnesses through their eventful history for 1260 years
as portrayed in the Apocalypse, and in fixing with precision their
_continuous identity_, I am constrained reluctantly to dissent from the
Doctor and agree with Faber. Adopting the language of "Frazer's Key,"
Dr. M'Leod says, "These witnesses differ as much from their
cotemporaries, the one hundred and forty-four thousand sealed ones,
(Rev. vii. 4,) as Elijah differed from the seven thousand in Israel in
his time." The attempt is made to prove this assertion by the following
plausible argument:--"God is never for a moment without a people upon
earth." This is true,--"And the visible church is an indestructible
society." Is this assertion true? It is partly true, and partly
untrue:--"true of her _existence_ and moral identity, but not of her
_visibility_ as an organized body." For example, where was the visible
church while Elijah "dwelt by the brook Cherith?" (1 Kings xvii. 3, xix.
10;) or while the "woman was in the wilderness?" (Rev. xii. 6.) Is it
consistent with propriety to contemplate the woman as _literally
visible_, when she is symbolically "in the wilderness?" This seems to be
impossible. I am therefore prepared to give my decided preference to the
sentiment of Mr. Faber contained in the following words of his
"Dissertation:" "The one hundred and forty-four thousand here mentioned,
(Rev. xiv. 1,) are the immediate successors of the one hundred and forty
four thousand sealed servants of God; (ch. vii. 4.) They are the same in
short, as _the two witnesses_.... They constitute the _persecuted church
in the wilderness_."--I cannot but think the evidence of identity here
irresistible; and in the pithy language of the Doctor on another point,
I say,--"A man must shut his eyes not to see" the correctness of Mr.
Faber's interpretation of this identity. The Doctor's censure of English
expositors in one of his notes will too often justly apply to other
divines in expounding prophecy:--"They have greatly diminished the value
of their publications, by permitting themselves to indulge so much of
the spirit of political partiality." Doctor M'Leod and Mr. Faber I
consider among the best expositors of the prophecies on which they
severally wrote; and therefore their valuable works have been
principally contemplated in these animadversions. On material points
they have shed much light where those who preceded them left the reader
in darkness, or involved him in perplexing labyrinths. Faber preceded
M'Leod, and the latter availed himself of all the aid furnished by the
former; yet till the "mystery of God shall be finished," his people will
be receiving accessions of light from the "sure word of prophecy."


SOUNDING OP THE SEVENTH TRUMPET.

At the time when those learned divines wrote, the political agitations
in Europe and America, as already noticed, gave a peculiar tincture to
their opinions and expositions of the Apocalyptic symbols. This state of
feeling on the part of these distinguished men, and on opposite sides of
the Atlantic, is very strikingly illustrated in their conflicting
interpretations of the "third woe,"--the seventh trumpet. Amidst the
conflict of arms and the booming of cannon, in both hemispheres, those
writers thought the first blast of the seventh trumpet and third woe
could be distinctly heard. They differed widely, however, in their
interpretations of its import and effects. To Mr. Faber, Napoleon, who
was the most conspicuous figure in the passing drama, appeared as a
terrific Vandal at the head of his legions, threatening to uproot and
lay waste the fair fabric of European civilization. To the Doctor, on
the other hand, Napoleon seemed the possible minister of Providence,
destined to prepare the way of the Lord, and to introduce a better, a
scriptural civilization. As time has sufficiently demonstrated the
fallacy of their respective expositions of the seventh trumpet, it is
needless to quote or review their speculations.

The principal defect pervading the "Lectures," and one which most
readers will be disposed to view in an opposite light, appears to be, a
charity _too broad_, a catholicity _too expansive_, to be easily
reconciled with a consistent position among the mystic witnesses. Their
author, however, deriving much information from the learned labours of
English prelates on prophecy, could not "find in his heart" to exclude
them from a place in the _honourable roll of the witnesses_. I am unable
to recognize any of those who are in organic fellowship with the "eldest
daughter of Popery," as entitled to rank among those who are symbolized
as "clothed in sackcloth." The two positions and fellowships appear to
be obviously incompatible and palpably irreconcilable. It is true that
there have been and still are in the English establishment divines who
are strictly evangelical; but the reigning Mediator views and treats
individuals, as he views and treats the moral person with which
individuals freely choose to associate; and we ought to "have the mind
of Christ." (1 Cor. ii. 16.)

Assuming that the third woe trumpet was sounding in his ears, the
Doctor, transported with the imaginary but delightful prospect, that the
kingdoms of this world were speedily to become the kingdoms of our Lord
and of his Christ, speaks of France as follows:--"She had given
assistance to the sons of freedom on the plains and along the shores of
Columbia, until the republican eagle snatched the oppressed provinces
from the paw of the royal lion of England."--We may admire the metaphors
of the _orator_, while we deplore the political feeling of the _divine_.
It is true, as the orator in calmer moments reflects,--"The political
conduct of professing Christians is generally lamentable;" and alas!
this "lamentable conduct" is usually tolerated and too often exemplified
by their spiritual guides. It has been generally so since the days of
Jeroboam who "made priests of the lowest of the people," and thereby
rendered the ministry the stipendiaries of the state. And as it was
then, even so it is now, whether in the kingdoms, empires or republics
of the earth. "Let us," with the Doctor, "lament the political conduct
of Christians in the present age of the world."

Allusion has been already made to seeming inconsistencies in the
Doctor's sentiments. There is truth in the adage,--"_tempora mutantur et
nos mutamur cum illis_,"--"times change, and we change with them." And
indeed changes are allowable in matters of a circumstantial nature which
do not affect moral principle. Moral principle, however, is in its
nature immutable. In the early period of the Doctor's public life he had
nobly proved "Negro Slavery Unjustifiable." But this accursed system was
from the first interwoven with the very framework of that "Republican
America," which in his "Lectures" he takes occasion thus to eulogize!
"We never formed a street of the mystical Babylon.... Let this be the
asylum of the oppressed.... She (Republican America) has not, either by
sea or land, encouraged oppression (?) or despoiled of his goods him
that was at peace with us?"--I confess my inability to credit these
statements, or to reconcile them with "the great moral principles" which
the author justly tells his readers it was the object of the Author of
the Apocalypse to illustrate before the world.

I have thus noticed some of the most important particulars in which I
dissent from the interpretations of the Doctor and others, that the
reader may be guided by all accessible way-marks in searching after the
mind of God in this mysterious but highly instructive part of his
precious word. I can again cordially recommend to his attention the
Lectures of Doctor M'Leod, as the best exposition of those parts of the
Apocalypse of which he treats, that has come under my notice. In the
Notes will be found minor points of dissent from the Doctor's views, and
from multiplied aberrations of many others. I have studied great
plainness of speech, abstaining from the introduction of many verbal
criticisms on the original text, and from the use of terms and phrases
not familiar to the unlearned reader. Let no sincere Christian be
deterred by seeming difficulties from reading the Apocalypse, or be
dissuaded from searching it, by the discrepancies of interpreters; for
this is equally true of "the other Scriptures." (2 Pet. iii, 16.)


THE TITLE OF THIS BOOK.

In our authorized version of the Bible, this last book is correctly
translated "Revelation." It is otherwise designated "The Apocalypse," by
simply Anglicising the Greek title,--_Apokalupsis_. A distinguished
modern divine, Doctor Seiss, has furnished the public with a novel
interpretation of the title. But it is remarkable that he does not
propose an _interpretation_ at all; he merely gives what he conceives to
be a _correct translation_. It is this:--"The Book of the _Unvailing_ of
Jesus Christ!" In this singular translation two things are
transparent,--affectation of scholarship, and the (_proton pseudos_) the
cardinal error of Millenarianism. Learned men, however, are not devoid
of fancy. Of this fact those who are historically designated
Millenarians have given many illustrations from the primitive ages down
to our own time. The Doctor's rendering of the name of this book
discloses the predominant idea conceived in his imagination and
cherished there, that Christ is to appear upon earth in glorified
humanity at the beginning of the millennium, and that the Apocalypse is
intended chiefly to apprize the church and the world of this momentous
event.

"The unvailing of Jesus Christ," indeed! Why, the Lord Jesus Christ was
revealed,--"unvailed" to the faith of our first parents in the promise
of the "woman's seed" as every intelligent Christian knows, (Gen. iii.
15.) We are assured that "to him give all the prophets witness," (Acts
x. 43.) Abraham rejoiced to see Christ's day, (John viii. 56.) His
advent in the flesh was so well known that Old Testament believers spoke
of him familiarly as of "Him that was to come," (Matt. xi. 3.) Surely he
was "unvailed" to his disciples all the time that he went in and out
among them before his death. And after his resurrection he appeared unto
them the third time,--"was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve: after
that he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once," (1 Cor. xv. 5,
6.) After his ascension Stephen "saw Jesus standing on the right hand of
God," (Acts vii. 56) How preposterous then, since the whole Bible
"unvails" the Saviour, to insinuate that the _specific object_ of the
Apocalypse is to _unvail Jesus Christ_!

That Doctor Seiss and those who endorse his _mistranslation_, or, as it
ought to be called, his _false exposition_ of the title to this book, do
totally misapprehend and misinterpret the mind of the Holy Spirit, is
further evident from the obvious import of the plain words in the first
verse;--this "Revelation of Jesus Christ, God gave unto him."--Christ.
Did God the Father "unvail" Christ to Christ himself? How gross the
absurdity! We do not transgress the law of charity in pronouncing as
impious, such manifest "wresting of the Scriptures." Moreover, the
declared object of this book is to "show unto God's servants
_things_,--(not to show Christ,) which must shortly come to pass:"
namely, events of providence which were then future,--the evolution of
the purposes of God. It is indeed true that in the sublime scenery
presented in vision to John, the Lord Jesus often appears as a very
conspicuous object; but he is only one among a multiplicity of other
objects, and generally as the principal agent in executing the divine
decrees. In this attitude he appears immediately on the opening of the
seals of that book, which all sober expositors consider as the symbol of
God's purposes, especially of those "unvailed" in this prophetic book.
When in the sixth chapter, the "four animals" say in succession, "Come
and see," is Jesus Christ the only object to be seen?--the exclusive
object unvailed? or even always the _primary_ object? By no means.

Thus it is evident that at the very beginning of his career as an
expositor of this sacred book, Doctor Seiss gives loose reins to his
fancy; and then it is not difficult to foresee through what mazes of
error the credulous reader will be conducted, who in his simplicity,
follows such a reckless guide. The hallucinations of Millenarians of old
and of late have greatly discouraged the disciples of Christ, and
seriously hindered them in obeying his command,--"Search the
Scriptures," especially this precious book. Their unscriptural error,
which some might call an _antiscriptural heresy_, of the pre-millennial
corporeal appearance of our Saviour, with its carnal concomitants, has
been a temptation to not a few to look upon this part of the Bible as
wholly unintelligible, _contrary to its very name_,--REVELATION, The
hereditary and inveterate misconception by Millenarians of the nature of
the thousand years' reign of the saints, bears a striking analogy to
that of the Jews concerning the kingdom of their Messiah, and suggests a
remark by that prince of divines among English Dissenters, Doctor Owen,
in his "Exposition of the Epistle to the Hebrews." He says
truly,--"There are precious, useful, significant truths in the
Scripture, so disposed of, so laid up, as that if we accomplish not a
diligent search, we shall never set eye on them. The common course of
reading the Scriptures, nor the common help of expositors, who for the
most part, go in the same track, and scarce venture one step beyond
those that are gone before them, will not suffice, if we intend a
discovery of these hid treasures." And again he says, "How hard it is to
dispossess the minds of men of inveterate persuasions in religion!"





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