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Title: Illustrated Catalogue Of The Collections Obtained From The Indians Of New Mexico And Arizona In 1879 - Second Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the - Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1880-81, - Government Printing Office, Washington, 1883, pages 307-428
Author: Stevenson, James, 1840-1888
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Illustrated Catalogue Of The Collections Obtained From The Indians Of New Mexico And Arizona In 1879 - Second Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the - Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1880-81, - Government Printing Office, Washington, 1883, pages 307-428" ***

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[Transcriber’s Note:
Punctuation in catalog entries has been silently regularized. Other
errors are noted at the end of the text.
Figures with captions in CAPITALS were printed in color.]

       *       *       *       *       *


                     OF THE


                JAMES STEVENSON.

       *       *       *       *       *


The following catalogue of the collections made during 1879 was prepared
for the First Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, but owing to
want of space was not included in that volume. Before the necessity of
this action was made apparent the matter had been stereotyped and it was
impossible to change the figure numbers, etc. This will explain the
seeming irregularity in the numbering of the figures--the first one of
this paper following the last one of the above-mentioned report. The
second catalogue, that of the collection of 1880, also included in this
volume, has been made to correspond with the first, the figure numbers
following in regular order.


  WASHINGTON, _January 3, 1881_.

SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith an illustrated catalogue
exhibiting in part the results of the ethnologic and archaeologic
explorations made under your direction in New Mexico and Arizona during
the summer of 1879.

As you are already familiar with the mode of travel and the labor
necessary in making such investigations and explorations, as well as the
incidents common to such undertakings, and as I do not consider them of
any special interest or value to the catalogue, I have omitted such

I beg, however, in this connection, to refer to the services of Messrs.
F. H. Cushing, ethnologist of the Smithsonian Institution, and J. K.
Hillers, photographic artist of the Bureau of Ethnology, both of whom
accompanied me on the expedition.

Mr. Cushing’s duties were performed with intelligence and zeal
throughout. After the field-work of the season was completed he remained
with the Indians for the purpose of studying the habits, customs,
manners, political and religious organizations, and language of the
people; also to explore the ancient caves of that region. His inquiries
will prove of the utmost interest and importance to science. Mr. Hillers
labored with equal zeal and energy. His work is of the greatest value in
illustrating some of the most interesting features of our
investigations. He made a large series of negatives depicting nearly
every feature of the Pueblo villages and their inhabitants. The beauty
and perfection of the photographs themselves fully attest the value and
importance of his work.

I would extend most cordial thanks to General Sherman for the special
interest he manifested in our work, and for directions given by him to
the officers of the Army serving in the West to assist us in carrying
out the objects of the expedition; and to the officers who so cordially
rendered such aid.

To General Edward Hatch, commanding the district of New Mexico, we are
indebted for valuable information and material assistance, which were
liberally granted, and to which in great part our success was due. The
party also received valuable aid from Gen. George P. Buell, U.S.A., who
was in command at Fort Wingate during our work at Zuñi, for which I am
pleased to extend thanks. The large number and variety of objects
collected by the members of the expedition, and the many difficulties
incident to such undertakings, as well as the limited time devoted to
the preparation of the catalogue, will account for any imperfections it
may contain.

Hoping, however, that, notwithstanding these, it may serve useful ends
in the continuation of such work,

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Prof. J. W. POWELL,

  _Director Bureau of Ethnology_.


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL                          311
INTRODUCTION                                   319
  Articles of stone                            320
  Articles of clay                             322
  Vegetal substances                           334
Collection from Zuñi                           337
  Articles of stone                            337
    Axes, hammers, and mauls                   337
    Metates, or grain-grinders, and pestles    340
    Mortars, pestles, etc                      340
    Miscellaneous objects                      342
  Articles of clay                             343
    Water vases                                343
    Water jugs and jars                        347
    Jugs of fanciful forms                     349
    Pitchers                                   349
    Cups or cup-shaped vessels                 350
    Eating bowls                               350
    Cooking vessels                            358
    Ladles                                     360
    Baskets                                    360
    Paint cups                                 362
    Condiment cups                             363
    Effigies                                   364
    Statuettes                                 366
    Clays and pigments                         367
  Vegetal substances                           368
    Basketry                                   368
    Pads                                       369
    Domestic implements, toys, etc             370
    Foods                                      372
    Medicines and dyes                         372
  Animal substances                            373
    Horn and bone                              373
    Skin                                       373
    Woven fabrics                              373
Collection from Wolpi                          375
  Articles of stone                            375
    Axes, hammers, etc                         375
    Metates, or grain-grinders, and pestles    376
    Mortars, pestles, etc                      377
    Miscellaneous objects                      377
  Articles of clay                             378
    Water vases                                378
    Water jugs and jars                        379
    Toy-like water vessels                     381
    Cups                                       382
    Eating bowls                               382
    Cooking vessels                            385
    Toy-like vessels                           385
    Ladles                                     385
    Miscellaneous                              387
    Statuettes                                 387
  Vegetal substances                           389
    Basketry                                   389
    Domestic implements, toys, etc             391
    Ornamental objects                         393
    Statuettes                                 395
  Animal substances                            396
    Horn and bone                              396
    Skin                                       397
    Woven fabrics                              398
Collection from Laguna                         399
  Articles of clay                             399
    Water vases                                399
    Water jugs and jars                        401
    Pitchers                                   401
    Effigies                                   402
    Eating bowls                               403
Collection from Acoma                          404
  Articles of clay                             404
    Water vases                                404
    Pitchers                                   405
    Eating bowls                               405
Collection from Cochiti                        405
  Articles of clay                             405
    Water vessels                              405
    Eating bowls                               408
    Ornaments, effigies, and toys              408
Collection from Santo Domingo                  409
  Articles of Clay                             409
    Water vessels                              409
Collection from Tesuke                         410
  Articles of stone                            410
    Metates, mortars, etc                      410
  Articles of clay                             410
    Water vases                                410
    Water jugs and jars                        413
    Pitchers                                   413
    Eating bowls                               413
    Cooking vessels                            414
    Toys                                       414
  Vegetal substances                           414
    Medicines                                  414
Collection from Santa Clara                    415
  Articles of clay                             415
    Water vases                                415
    Eating bowls                               415
    Cooking vessels                            416
    Effigies                                   416
Collection from San Juan                       416
  Articles of clay                             416
    Eating bowls                               416
Collection from Jemez                          417
  Articles of clay                             417
Collection from the Jicarilla Apaches          417
  Articles of clay                             417
Collection from Old Pecos                      418
  Articles of stone                            418
  Articles of clay                             418
  Articles of wood                             419
Collection from the Cañon de Chelly            419
  Articles of clay                             419
    Water vessels                              419
    Bowls                                      420
    Cooking vessels                            420
Collection from Pictograph Rocks               420
  Articles of clay                             420
Collection from other localities               421
  Articles of clay                             421
    Miscellaneous                              421
    Statuettes                                 421


Figs. 347-352. Zuñi grooved axes                         338
Fig. 353. Zuñi mortar and pestle                         340
Fig. 354. Zuñi crucible                                  340
Fig. 355. Zuñi skinning-knife                            340
Fig. 356. Zuñi sandstone mold                            340
Fig. 357. Zuñi spear-head                                340
Fig. 358. Zuñi mortar and pestle                         340
Figs. 359-360. Zuñi water vases                          342
Figs. 361-362. Zuñi water vases                          343
Figs. 363-364. Zuñi water vases                          344
Figs. 365-366. Zuñi water vases                          344
Figs. 367-368. Zuñi water vases                          344
Figs. 369-370. Zuñi water vases                          344
Figs. 371-372. Zuñi water vases                          345
Figs. 373-374. Zuñi water vases                          345
Figs. 375-378. Zuñi water vases                          346
Fig. 379. Zuñi canteen                                   347
Fig. 380. Zuñi eating bowl                               347
Fig. 381. Zuñi water vase                                347
Fig. 382. Zuñi eating bowl                               347
Figs. 383-384. Zuñi water vases                          347
Figs. 385-387. Zuñi canteens                             348
Figs. 388-391. Zuñi canteens                             348
Figs. 392-394. Zuñi canteens                             349
Figs. 395-397. Zuñi canteens                             349
Fig. 398. Zuñi canteen                                   350
Fig. 399. Zuñi water vase                                350
Fig. 400. Zuñi canteen                                   350
Fig. 401. Zuñi eating bowl                               350
Fig. 402. Zuñi canteen                                   350
Figs. 403-406. Zuñi water pitchers                       350
Fig. 407. Zuñi water pitcher                             350
Figs. 408-409. Zuñi cups                                 350
Figs. 410-412. Zuñi eating bowls                         350
Figs. 413-415. Zuñi eating bowls                         352
Figs. 416-418. Zuñi eating bowls                         354
Figs. 419-421. Zuñi eating bowls                         356
Figs. 422-424. Zuñi eating bowls                         356
Figs. 425-427. Zuñi eating bowls                         357
Figs. 428-430. Zuñi eating bowls                         358
Figs. 431-436. Zuñi cooking vessels                      359
Figs. 437-441. Zuñi ladles                               360
Figs. 442-447. Zuñi clay baskets                         361
Figs. 448-453. Zuñi clay baskets                         361
Figs. 454-457. Zuñi paint cups                           364
Figs. 458-459. Zuñi condiment cups                       364
Figs. 460-461. Zuñi effigies                             365
Figs. 462-463. Zuñi effigies                             365
Figs. 464-467. Zuñi effigies                             365
Figs. 468-469. Zuñi effigies                             365
Figs. 470-471. Zuñi effigies                             365
Figs. 472-476. Zuñi effigies                             366
Figs. 477-480. Zuñi effigies                             366
Figs. 481-483. Zuñi moccasins                            367
Figs. 484-485. Zuñi basketry                             370
Fig. 486. Zuñi pad                                       370
Fig. 487. Zuñi toy cradle                                370
Fig. 488. Zuñi basketry                                  370
Fig. 489. Zuñi toy cradle                                370
Fig. 490. Zuñi ladle                                     370
Fig. 491. Zuñi war-club                                  372
Figs. 492-493. Zuñi dance ornaments                      372
Fig. 494. Zuñi rotary drill                              372
Fig. 495. Zuñi wooden, spade                             372
Fig. 496. Zuñi wooden digger                             372
Fig. 497. Zuñi rattle                                    371
Fig. 498. Zuñi rattle                                    373
Fig. 499. Zuñi hopple                                    373
Figs. 500-502. Zuñi woven sashes                         373
Fig. 503. Zuñi head dress                                374
Figs. 504-507. Wolpi axes                                375
Fig. 508. Wolpi metate                                   375
Fig. 509. Wolpi ancient pipe                             378
Fig. 510. Wolpi stone effigy                             378
Fig. 511. Wolpi neck ornament                            378
Figs. 512-513. Wolpi effigies                            378
Fig. 514. Wolpi water vase                               379
Figs. 515-516. Wolpi pots                                379
Figs. 517-519. Wolpi vessels                             381
Figs. 520-522. Wolpi water jars                          382
Fig. 523. Wolpi eating bowl                              385
Fig. 524. Wolpi cooking vessel                           385
Fig. 525. Wolpi ladle                                    385
Figs. 526-529. Wolpi ladles                              386
Fig. 530. Wolpi basket                                   386
Fig. 531. Wolpi basin                                    388
Fig. 532. Wolpi vase and bowl attached                   388
Figs. 533-534. Wolpi clay statuettes                     388
Figs. 535-536. Wolpi baskets                             389
Figs. 537-538. Wolpi baskets                             390
Fig. 539. Wolpi basket                                   390
Fig. 540. Wolpi floor mat                                390
Figs. 541-542. Wolpi baskets                             390
Figs. 543-545. Wolpi baskets                             391
Fig. 546. Wolpi weaving stick                            392
Fig. 547. Wolpi spindle whorl                            392
Fig. 548-549. Wolpi rabbit sticks                        392
Fig. 550. Wolpi rake                                     393
Fig. 551. Wolpi drumstick                                393
Fig. 552. Wolpi treasure-box                             393
Fig. 553. Wolpi dance gourd                              393
Fig. 554. Wolpi treasure-box                             393
Figs. 555-558. Wolpi dance ornaments                     393
Fig. 559. Wolpi head-dress                               394
Fig. 560. Wolpi gourd rattle                             394
Fig. 561. Wolpi musical instrument                       394
Fig. 562. Wolpi gourd rattle                             394
Figs. 563-565. Wolpi ornaments                           394
Figs. 566-569. Wolpi effigies                            395
Figs. 570-572. Wolpi effigies                            396
Fig. 573. Wolpi horn ladle                               397
Fig. 574. Wolpi horn rattle                              397
Fig. 575. Wolpi perforator                               397
Fig. 576. Wolpi arrow straightener                       397
Fig. 577. Wolpi wristlet                                 398
Fig. 578. Wolpi moccasin                                 398
Fig. 579. Wolpi wristlet                                 398
Fig. 580. Wolpi riding whip                              398
Fig. 581. Wolpi drum                                     399
Figs. 582-583. Wolpi blanket                             399
Fig. 584. Wolpi anklets                                  399
Figs. 585-587. Laguna water vases                        400
Figs. 588-591. Laguna water vases                        400
Fig. 592. Laguna water pitcher                           400
Figs. 593-596. Laguna water jars                         401
Figs. 597-600. Laguna effigies                           402
Figs. 601-604. Laguna effigies                           402
Figs. 605-609. Laguna effigies                           402
Figs. 610-612. Laguna water vases                        403
Figs. 613-615. Laguna eating bowls                       403
Figs. 616-617. Laguna eating bowls                       403
Figs. 618-619. Acoma water vases                         404
Figs. 620-622. Acoma water vases                         404
Figs. 623-624. Cochiti water vessels                     406
Figs. 625-626. Cochiti water vessels                     406
Figs. 627-628. Cochiti water vessels                     406
Figs. 629-630. Cochiti water vessels                     407
Figs. 631-632. Cochiti water vessels                     407
Figs. 633-634. Cochiti water vessels                     407
Figs. 635-636. Cochiti water vessels                     407
Figs. 637-638. Cochiti water vessels                     408
Figs. 639-640. Cochiti water vessels                     408
Figs. 641-642. Cochiti water vessels                     408
Figs. 643-644. Cochiti water vessels                     408
Figs. 645-647. Cochiti effigies                          409
Figs. 648-649. Santo Domingo drinking vessels            410
Fig. 650. Tesuke mortar and pestle                       410
Figs. 651-652. Tesuke water vases                        412
Figs. 653-654. Tesuke water vases                        412
Fig. 655. Tesuke water jar                               414
Fig. 656. Tesuke effigy                                  414
Fig. 657. Tesuke cooking vessel                          414
Fig. 658. Tesuke effigy                                  414
Fig. 659. Tesuke cooking vessel                          414
Figs. 660-662. Santa Clara water vases                   416
Figs. 663-664. Santa Clara eating bowls                  416
Figs. 665-666. Santa Clara effigies                      416
Fig. 667. Santa Clara eating bowl                        416
Fig. 668. Santa Clara platter                            416
Fig. 669. Santa Clara eating bowl                        416
Figs. 670-672. Santa Clara water jars                    416
Figs. 673-675. San Juan eating bowls                     416
Fig. 676. Jemez water vessel                             417
Figs. 677-680. Water vessels from Cañon De Chelly        418
Figs. 681-683. Water vessels from Cañon De Chelly        420
Figs. 684-686. Bowls from Cañon De Chelly                420
Figs. 687-692. Pitchers from Cañon De Chelly             420
Figs. 693-696. Cooking vessels from Cañon De Chelly      420
Fig. 697. Corrugated vessel from Pictograph rocks        420
Map showing location of the pueblos of Arizona
    and New Mexico                                       319





       *       *       *       *       *


              By JAMES STEVENSON.

       *       *       *       *       *


It is not my intention in the present paper--which is simply what it
purports to be, a _catalogue_--to attempt any discussion of the habits,
customs, or domestic life of the Indian tribes from whom the articles
were obtained; nor to enter upon a general comparison of the pottery and
other objects with articles of a like character of other, nations or
tribes. Occasionally attention may be called to striking resemblances
between certain articles and those of other countries, where such
comparison will aid in illustrating form or character.

The collection contains two thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight
specimens. Although it consists very largely of vessels and other
articles of pottery, yet it embraces almost every object necessary to
illustrate the domestic life and art of the tribes from whom the largest
number of the specimens were obtained. It includes, in addition to
pottery, implements of war and hunting, articles used in domestic
manufactures, articles of clothing and personal adornment, basketry,
trappings for horses, images, toys, stone implements, musical
instruments, and those used in games and religious ceremonies, woven
fabrics, foods prepared and unprepared, paints for decorating pottery
and other objects, earths of which their pottery is manufactured,
mineral pigments, medicines, vegetable dyestuffs, &c. But the chief
value of the collection is undoubtedly the great variety of vessels and
other articles of pottery which it contains. In this respect it is
perhaps the most complete that has been made from the pueblos. Quite a
number of articles of this group may perhaps be properly classed as
“ancient,” and were obtained more or less uninjured; but by far the
larger portion are of modern manufacture.


These consist of pestles and mortars for grinding pigments; circular
mortars, in which certain articles of food are bruised or ground;
_metates_, or stones used for grinding wheat and corn; axes, hatchets,
celts, mauls, scrapers &c.

The cutting, splitting, pounding, perforating, and scraping implements
are generally derived from schists, basaltic, trachytic, and porphyritic
rocks, and those for grinding and crushing foods are more or less
composed of coarse lava and compact sandstones. Quite a number of the
metate rubbing stones and a large number of the axes are composed of a
very hard, heavy, and curiously mottled rock, a specimen of which was
submitted to Dr. George W. Hawes, Curator of Mineralogy to the National
Museum, for examination, and of which he says:

“This rock, which was so extensively employed by the Pueblo Indians for
the manufacture of various utensils, has proved to be composed largely
of quartz, intermingled with which is a fine, fibrous, radiated
substance, the optical properties of which demonstrate it to be
fibrolite. In addition, the rock is filled with minute crystals of
octahedral form which are composed of magnetite, and scattered through
the rock are minute yellow crystals of rutile. The red coloration which
these specimens possess is due to thin films of hematite. The rock is
therefore fibrolite schist, and from a lithological standpoint it is
very interesting. The fibrolite imparts the toughness to the rock,
which, I should judge, would increase its value for the purposes to
which the Indians applied it.”

The axes, hatchets, mauls, and other implements used for cutting,
splitting, or piercing are generally more or less imperfect, worn,
chipped, or otherwise injured. This condition is to be accounted for by
the fact that they are all of ancient manufacture; an implement of this
kind being rarely, if ever, made by the Indians at the present day. They
are usually of a hard volcanic rock, not employed by the present
inhabitants in the manufacture of implements. They have in most cases
been collected from the ruins of the Mesa and Cliff dwellers, by whose
ancestors they were probably made. I was unable to learn of a single
instance in which one of these had been made by the modern Indians. In
nearly all cases the edges, once sharp and used for cutting, splitting,
or piercing, are much worn and blunt from use in pounding or other
purposes than that for which they were originally intended. On more than
one occasion I have observed a woman using the edge of a handsome stone
axe in pulverizing volcanic rock to mix with clay for making pottery.
Nearly all the edged stone implements are thus injured. Those showing
the greatest perfection were either too small to utilize in this manner
or had but recently been discovered when we obtained them.

The grinders and mortars are frequently found composed of softer rock,
either ferruginous sandstone or gritty clays. For a more complete
knowledge of these stone implements we must depend on a comparative
study of large collections from different localities, and such
information as the circumstances attending their discovery may impart,
rather than upon their present condition or the uses for which they are
now employed.

Metates or grain-grinders, pestles and rubbing stones belong to the
milling industry among the Indians. The metates are generally quite
large and heavy, and could not well be transported with the limited
means at the command of Indians. They are therefore well adapted to the
uses of village Indians, who remain permanently in a place and prosecute
agricultural pursuits. They are generally of rectangular shape, and from
10 to 20 inches in length by 6 to 12 in width, and are composed of
various kinds of rock, the harder, coarse-grained kinds being
preferable, though in some instances sandstone is employed; the most
desirable stone is porous lava. These stones are sometimes carried with
families of the Pueblos moving short distances to the valleys of streams
in which they have farms in cultivation. In the permanent villages they
are arranged in small rectangular bins (see Fig. 508), each about 20
inches wide and deep, the whole series ranging from 5 to 10 feet in
length, according to the number of bins or divisions. The walls are
usually of sandstone. In each compartment one of these metates or
grinding stones is firmly set at a proper angle to make it convenient to
the kneeling female grinder. In this arrangement of the slabs those of
different degrees of texture are so placed as to produce an increased
degree of fineness to the meal or flour as it is passed from one to the
other. But a small number of these slabs were collected on account of
their great weight. Accompanying these metates are long, slim, flat
stones, which are rubbed up and down the slabs, thus crushing the grain.
These hand-stones are worn longitudinally into various shapes; some have
two flat sides, while the third side remains oval. The same variety
exists in regard to the texture of these rubbing-stones, as in the
concave grinders.

The pueblo of Zuñi, from which the most important portion of the
collection was obtained, is situated in New Mexico, near the western
border, about two hundred miles southwest from Santa Fé.

At the time of Coronado’s visit to this country the pueblo was located
at what is now known as “Old Zuñi,” on the summit of a high _mesa_. The
modern Zuñi is situated upon a knoll in the valley of the Zuñi River,
about two miles from the site of the old town. Certain writers have
regarded Zuñi, or rather “Old Zuñi,” as one of the “Seven Cities of
Cibola.” The evidences found at and around both the old and present Zuñi
are certainly not sufficient to warrant this view, and further and more
careful investigations are necessary.

Zuñi, although lying on the line of travel of military expeditions,
emigrant trains, and trade between the Pacific coast and the Rio Grande,
the foreigners visiting them have seldom remained long in their village;
nor has the advancing wave of Caucasian settlement approached
sufficiently near to exert any marked influence on their manners and
customs; at least the form and decoration of their pottery bear no
marked evidence of the influence of the more highly civilized races.

The collection made here by the expedition was more extensive than that
from any other place, and numbers about fifteen hundred objects, of
which by far the larger part is composed of earthenware articles. These
include large and small water vases, canteens of various sizes and
shapes, cooking cups, and pottery baskets used in their dances,
paint-pots, ladles, water jugs, eating bowls, spoons, pepper and salt
boxes, pitchers, bread-bowls, Navajo water jugs, treasure boxes, water
vases, cups, cooking pots, skillets, ancient pottery, animals, and
grotesque images. It belongs mostly to the variety of cream-white
pottery, decorated in black and brown colors; a portion is red ware,
with color decorations in black. There are also several pieces without
ornamentation, and one or two pieces of black ware, but the latter were
most probably obtained from other tribes, and possibly the same is true
in reference to a few pieces of other kinds which present unusual
figures or forms.

A slight glance at the figures depicted on the _tinajas_, or water
vases, will suffice to show any one who has examined the older pottery
of this region, specimens and fragments of which are found among the
ruins, that a marked change has taken place in their ideas of beauty.
Although the rigid, angular, zigzag, and geometric figures are yet found
in their decorations, they have largely given way to carved lines,
rounded figures, and attempts to represent natural objects.

A few apparently conventional figures are still generally retained, as
around the outside of the necks of the vases and on the outer surface of
the bowls, probably suggested originally by the rigid outlines of their
arid country, and in fact by their buildings. The figure of the elk or
deer is a very marked feature in the ornamentation of their white ware,
and is often found under an arch. Another very common figure is that of
a grotesquely-shaped bird, found also on the necks of water vases and
the outer surface of bowls.


Tinajas, or water vases, are called in the Zuñi tongue
_tkāh-wi-nā-kā-tēhl-le_. They are usually from 8 to 12 inches in height,
and from 12 to 15 in diameter. A smaller size of the same form of
vessels, which are from 5 to 7 inches in height and from 8 to 10 in
diameter, are called _det-tsān-nā_. They are of three colors, cream
white, polished red, and black: there are in the collection
comparatively few of the second, and but one of the last variety. The
decorations are chiefly in black and brown, but four or five pieces
being in black. The decorations of the cream-white group present some
four general types--those represented by Figs. 359, 363, 364, and ----,
in which the uncolored circular space forms the distinguishing
characteristic; those of which Fig. 360 may be considered a
representative, of which type there are but two specimens in the
collection; those represented by Fig. 361, and those distinguished by
the rosette (see Figs. 366, 367, 368, and 370).

The following appear to be unique: (39935) Fig. 371, (40785) Fig. 375,
(41149) Fig. 372, and (41167) Fig. 374.

By a careful study of these decorations we find that they consist
chiefly of the following figures, which are combined in various ways:
triangular figures, usually on the neck; large open circles, frequently
in a diamond figure, as in Fig. 359 (39871); scrolls; or arches as in
Figs. 361, 362, &c.

In no instance do we find the meander or Greek fret on these, or in fact
any other Zuñi vessels. A marked characteristic of the decorations on
the pottery of this pueblo is the absence of vines and floral figures so
common on those of some of the other pueblos. The nearest approach to
the vine is the double line of scrolls seen in (40785) Fig. 375.
Although the checkered figure is common on bowls, the Zuñi artists have
appreciated the fact that it would be out of place on the convex surface
of the water vase. The elks or deer--for it is difficult to tell which
are intended--are usually marked with a circular or crescent-shaped
spot, in white, on the rump, and a red diamond placed over the region of
the heart, with a line of the same color extending from it to the mouth,
both margined with white; the head of the animal is always toward the

As will be observed by examining the decorated pieces, the surface is
divided into zones by lines--sometimes single, sometimes double, but
generally slender--one near the base, one or two around the middle, one
at the shoulder, and one at the rim; thus forming one zone embracing the
neck, and two or three on the body, exclusive of the undecorated base.
Sometimes there is but one zone on the body as seen in Figs. 364 (40322)
and 359 (39871); sometimes two, as shown in Figs. 367 (40317) and 370
(41146); but often three, the middle one quite narrow, as seen in Figs.
361 (39934) and 362 (41150). Although not always shown in the figures,
the lines at the rim, shoulder, and bottom are seldom wanting in Zuñi
vases. The zones are often interrupted by broad perpendicular stripes or
inclosed spaces in which circles, scroll figures, or rosettes are

Measurements of these vessels show considerable uniformity of
proportion, the widely exceptional specimens being also exceptional in
decorations. As indicating size and proportion I give here the
measurements of some typical as well as some abnormal specimens.

The figures show the height, the diameter of the body at the widest
part, and the diameter of the mouth in inches.

  |                                   | Height.| Diameter  | Diameter |
  |              Number.              |        |  of body. | of mouth.|
  | 1                                 |   8.25 |   12.00   |  6.75    |
  | 2                                 |  10.25 |   13.75   |  7.50    |
  | 3                                 |  11.00 |   13.25   |  7.15    |
  | 4                                 |  12.00 |   14.50   |  8.50    |
  | 5                                 |  10.75 |   14.50   |  8.25    |
  | 6                                 |  11.00 |   13.00   |  8.00    |
  | 7                                 |   7.25 |   10.00   |  5.00    |
  | 8                                 |   7.00 |    9.25   |  5.40    |
  | 9                                 |   4.25 |    6.75   |  4.60    |
  | 10                                |   4.40 |    5.50   |  3.75    |
  | 11                                |   3.50 |    4.50   |  3.25    |
  | 12                                |   3.50 |    4.25   |  2.90    |
  | 13                                |   7.75 |    8.00   |  5.75    |
  | 14                                |   9.00 |    9.75   |  6.50    |

If we reduce these to proportion, using the diameter of body as the unit
of measurement, the result is as follows:

  | Number.| Height.| Diameter  || Number.| Height.| Diameter  |
  |        |        | of mouth. ||        |        | of mouth. |
  |  1     |    .69 |      .56  ||   8    |    .81 |      .59  |
  |  2     |    .75 |      .54  ||   9    |    .63 |      .68  |
  |  3     |    .83 |      .54  ||  10    |    .80 |      .68  |
  |  4     |    .81 |      .58  ||  11    |    .78 |      .72  |
  |  5     |    .74 |      .57  ||  12    |    .82 |      .68  |
  |  6     |    .84 |      .61  ||  13    |    .97 |      .72  |
  |  7     |    .72 |      .50  ||  14    |    .91 |      .67  |

From this it will be seen that No. 148, which is represented by Fig. 373
(39774), is unusually broad in proportion to the height. Nos. 152 and
153 vary to the extreme in the other direction; No. 153 is shown in
Fig. 364 (40322). Excluding these and taking the means of the large and
small kinds separately we find the average ratios to be as follows:

          Height.  Diameter
                   of mouth.
  Large     .78       .57
  Small     .78       .61

Most of the water jugs of both the Shinumos and Zuñians are in the form
of canteens, usually more or less spherical, and varying in capacity
from a pint to four gallons. On each side there is a small handle in the
form of a loop or knob, through or around which is placed a small shawl
or strip of cloth, or a cord long enough to pass over the forehead so as
to suspend the vessel against the back just below the shoulders. The
other jugs are of various fanciful shapes, which will be noted in the
catalogue. A large portion are of plain brown ware, a few plain white,
and others white with colored decorations. Various names are used
apparently to designate the different kinds rather than the uses for
which they are intended.

The decorations, when present, are always on the upper side, which is
more convex than the lower, or side on which it is intended the vessel
shall lie when not in use. In the ornamented white ware the lower
portion is usually red or brown.

As all these clay fabrics are the work of North American Indians, it is
scarcely necessary for me to say that they are unglazed, a
characteristic, so far as I am aware, of all aboriginal pottery.

Some of the specimens, especially of the black ware, show a smooth
finish, and may perhaps, without violence to the term, be classed as
lustrous. This is not the effect of a varnish or partial glazing, but is
a polish, produced generally, if not always, by rubbing with a polishing

Although, as a rule, the paste of which the ware is made is
comparatively free from foreign matter, yet many pieces, especially of
the decorated ware, when broken, show little whitish or ash-colored
specks. These, when found in aboriginal pottery east of the Mississippi,
have, I believe, been without question considered as fragments or
particles of shell broken up and mixed with the paste. This may be
correct in reference to the pottery found east of and in the Mississippi
Valley, but this whitish and grayish matter in the pottery of the
Indians of New Mexico and Arizona is in most cases pulverized pottery,
which is crushed and mixed with the paste. Black lava is sometimes
crushed and used in the same manner.

The principal material used is a clay, apparently in its natural state,
varying in color according to locality. Although comparatively free from
pebbles or lumps of foreign matter, we detect in some of the coarser
specimens small particles of mica and grains of other materials, and in
one broken specimen the elytron of a small coleopterous insect. But as a
general rule, the paste appears to have been free from foreign matter.

A slight glance at this large collection is sufficient to show that the
potters worked by no specific rule, and that they did not use patterns.
While it is apparent that only a few general forms were adopted, and
that, with few exceptions, the entire collection may be grouped by
these, yet no two specimens are exactly alike; they differ in size, or
vary more or less in form. The same thing is also true in reference to
the ornamentation: while there is a striking similarity in general
characteristics, there is an endless variety in details. No two similar
pieces can be found bearing precisely the same ornamental pattern.

Much the larger portion of the collection consists of vessels of various
kinds, such as bowls, cooking utensils, canteens, bottles, jars,
pitchers, cups, ladles, jugs, water vases, ornamental vessels,
paint-pots, &c. These vary in size from the large vase, capable of
holding ten gallons, to the little cup and canteen, which will contain
less than half a pint. The other and much smaller portion includes all
those articles which cannot be classed as vessels, such as images, toys,
toilet articles, representations of animals, &c. The collection can
perhaps be most satisfactorily classified by reference to the coloring,
ornamentation, and quality, thus:

1. _The red or uncolored pottery_, which is without ornamentation of any
kind. Some of this is coarse and rough, and in this case always more
than ordinarily thick; but the larger portion has the surface smooth and
often polished. The color varies from the natural dull leaden hue of the
clay, to a bright brick red, the latter largely predominating.

2. _The brown ware_, or that which shows an admixture of mica. This,
although uniformly without color decorations, is occasionally marked
with impressed figures and lines. Although inferior in quality, being
coarse and fragile, it presents more symmetrical though less varied
forms than are usually found in the preceding group. The influence of
contact with the European races is here very apparent, as, for example,
in the true pitcher and other common utensils and an apparent attempt at

3. _The black ware_ which is without ornamentation. This variety in
quality and character is precisely like the polished red of the first
group; but is slightly in advance of that in regard to finish, and
perhaps, as heretofore remarked, may be classed as lustrous, while the
red may be classed as semi-lustrous. The paste of which this black ware
is formed appears to have been better prepared than that of the
preceding varieties, and is the hardest and firmest in the collection.

4. _The cream-white pottery decorated in colors_. This extensive group,
which includes fully two-thirds of the entire collection, embraces
almost every known form of earthenware manufactured by the tribes from
whom it was obtained. The paste of which it is formed is similar in
character to that of the black ware. When broken the fracture shows very
distinctly the effect of burning, the interior being of the natural
leaden color, shading off to a dull grayish white as it approaches the
outer surface. The opaque or creamy-white color of the surface is
produced by a coating of opaque whitewash. Upon this white surface the
figures are afterwards drawn.

The only colors used in decorating pottery are black, red, and some
shade of brown. But of this we will speak more fully when we come to
describe the peculiar methods practiced by the different tribes in
making and adorning pottery.

Although there is a strong general similarity in this colored
ornamentation, the great variety of details renders it difficult to
classify the figures so as to convey a correct idea of them to the
reader. We shall therefore have to refer him to the numerous cuts and
the colored plates which have been introduced for the purpose of
illustrating the catalogue.

The following general statement is about all that can be said in
reference to them before descending to specific details.

So far as the coloring is concerned they are of two kinds, those having
the figures wholly black, and those which are partly black and partly
brown or red. The differences in the decorated pottery appear to be
always accompanied by certain other variations sufficient to warrant
speaking of them as different varieties or groups. The former (those
having the figures wholly black), which are made of the ordinary plastic
blue clay, have only the upper half or two-thirds of the body of the
vessel overlaid with the white coating for receiving the decorations,
the lower part being uncoated, and of the natural pale red or salmon
color produced by burning, but usually well polished. As additional
distinguishing features of this group we notice that the shape is more
generally globular, the workmanship rather superior, and the pottery
somewhat harder and less friable than that of the other group; the
angular and geometrical figures formed by straight lines are more common
in this group; here we also find the meander or Greek fret correctly
drawn, the vine, and several other designs rarely or never found in the
other group. The figures of animals, which are common to both varieties,
are in the former more usually distributed in zones or groups, while in
the latter they are generally placed singly in inclosed spaces. The
latter variety, in which we see the curve freely used, shows an evident
advance over the ornamentation of the older pottery of this region; and
while the figures must be classed as rude, and the outlines are less
sharp, and not so well defined as in the older specimens, yet they
indicate clearly a mental advance in the greater variety of conception.

The figures of this entire class, as regards forms, may be grouped under
three general headings: first, the geometrical, which is the most
common; second, the figures of animals; and, third, rude attempts at
floral decorations, which forms are rather rare. Strange to say, in but
few instances can any attempt at representing the human form or any part
of it be discovered in these color decorations.

The geometric figures present an endless variety; but we notice, as is
shown by the cuts and plates, that triangles with an elongate acuminate
apex and the zigzag are very common in the black-brown decorations. The
checkered figure also is not uncommon. The animals most frequently
represented are the elk or deer and birds. The floral decorations are
chiefly vines well drawn, and rude attempts at representing trees, and
the flowers of various species of _Helianthus_.

5. _Red ware with color decorations_. This ware is represented by but
few vessels, which are in every respect similar to the best variety of
the red pottery heretofore mentioned, except that it is marked with
figures in black, many of which are decorated only on the upper portions
around the neck or rim.

6. _The ancient pottery_, of which Figs. 680 (40816) and 693 (40817) are
good examples.

The Pueblo tribes of New Mexico and Arizona, with rare exceptions,
manufacture earthenware vessels for domestic use. The Pueblo of Taos may
be mentioned as one of these exceptions; although the manner of living,
the general habits, and characteristics of the tribe are similar to
those of the other Pueblo Indians, and although they make use of pottery
for domestic purposes, they do not manufacture it. Some pieces, such as
water jars and vessels used for cooking, are made in the village, but
this occurs only in such families as have intermarried with other tribes
where the manufacture of the native ware is carried on.

The Pueblos among whom the manufacture of pottery or earthenware
utensils may be classed as a conspicuous feature of their peculiar
civilization at the present time, are situated geographically as
follows: San Juan, Santa Clara, San Ildefonso, Cochiti, Santo Domingo,
San Felipe, Sandia, and Isleta, located on the Rio Grande; Pojake,
Tesuke, Nambe, Jamez, Zia or Silla, Santa Ana, Laguna, and Acoma,
situated on the tributaries of the Rio Grande; Zuñi, and some small
pueblos of the same tribe all within the borders of New Mexico. Zuñi
however is located on the Rio Zuñi, which flows into the Little Colorado

The Moki pueblos, numbering seven in all, are embraced in what is called
the Province of Tusyan, and are located within the Territory of Arizona,
near its northeastern corner.

The Zuñians and Shinumos, although situated farther from civilized
people and less influenced by their usages than any of the other Indians
mentioned, surpass all the other tribes in the manufacture of all kinds
of earthenware. The collections made from these tribes, as will be seen
by reference to the catalogue, exceed, both in number and variety, those
from all the others combined. The collection as enumerated in the
catalogue includes specimens from all the pueblos referred to.

Although the uses of these articles are to a great extent the same among
all the Pueblo tribes, and the shapes and forms are apparently similar,
yet to the experienced eye there is no difficulty in detecting the
peculiarities which distinguish one from the other, or at least in
assigning them to the tribes with which they originated.

It will be observed by reference both to the colored and wood-cut
illustrations that there are special distinctions between the
ornamentation of the pottery of the pueblos of the Rio Grande Valley and
of those situated on the tributaries of the Rio Colorado. In the
decorations of the former the birds and vine are conspicuous and
constantly recurring features, while in the Zuñi and Shinumo pottery the
elk, domestic animals, and birds peculiar to these arid regions are the
figures most frequently used. The difference is easily accounted for
when we are informed of the fact that the former tribes reside in the
valley of the Rio Grande, which is well adapted to the culture of the
grape as well as other crops. The ever-present vine and the numerous
birds which flock to this fertile valley will naturally suggest figures
for decoration. On the other hand, the Zuñians and Shinumos reside in
regions almost destitute of water, and hence without any attractive
vegetation; therefore their designs are drawn chiefly from the sharp
outlines of their dwellings, their domestic animals, birds, and the elk
and antelope that graze in the little grassy oases. None of these are
actually drawn from nature, but from imagination and memory, as they
never have an object before them in molding or painting.

In none of the cases referred to do we observe any attempts to imitate
the exact forms or ceramic designs of the so-called ancient pottery,
fragments and sometimes entire vessels of which are found throughout
this southwestern region. This seems strange from the fact that in the
use of stone implements we find but few which are the result of their
own handiwork. The old ruins are searched, and from them, and the debris
about them, stone pestles, mortars, hammers, hatchets, rubbing stones,
scrapers, picks, spear and arrow heads, and polishing stones are
collected by the inhabitants of nearly all the pueblos, and are kept and
used by them.

The clay mostly used by the Zuñians in the manufacture of pottery is a
dark, bluish, carbonaceous, clayey shale found in layers usually near
the tops of the mesas. Several of these elevated mesas are situated near
Zuñi, from which the natives obtain this material. This carbonaceous
clay is first mixed with water and then kneaded as a baker kneads dough
until it reaches the proper consistency; with this, crushed volcanic
lava is sometimes mixed; but the Zuñians more frequently pulverize
fragments of broken pottery, which have been preserved for this purpose.
This seems to prevent explosion, cracking, or fracture by rendering the
paste sufficiently porous to allow the heat to pass through without
injurious effect. When the clayey dough is ready to be used a sufficient
quantity is rolled into a ball. The dough, if worked by a careful
artist, is first tested as to its fitness for molding by putting a piece
of the paste to the tongue, the sensitiveness of which is such as to
detect any gritty substance or particles, when the fingers fail to do
so. The ball is hollowed out with the fingers into the shape of a bowl
(this form constituting the foundation for all varieties of earthenware)
and assumes the desired form by the addition of strips of the clay; all
traces of the addition of each strip are removed before another is
added, by the use of a small trowel fashioned from a piece of gourd or
fragment of pottery, the only tool employed in the manufacture of

The bottoms of old water jars and bowls form stands for the articles
while being worked by the potter. The bowls are filled with sand when
objects of a globular form are to be made. Although I have often watched
the process, yet in no instance have I ever observed the use of a
potter’s wheel, measuring instrument, or model of any kind. The makers,
who are always females, depend entirely on memory and skill derived from
practice to accomplish their work. The vessels when completely formed
are laid in some convenient place to sun-dry. A paint or solution is
then made, either of a fine white calcareous earth, consisting mainly of
carbonate of lime, or of a milk-white indurated clay, almost wholly
insoluble in acids, and apparently derived from decomposed feldspar with
a small proportion of mica. This solution is applied to the surface of
the vessel and allowed to dry; it is then ready for the decorations.

The pigments from which the paints are derived for decorative purposes
are also found in the vicinity of the mesas, and are employed by the
Indians in the production of two colors, each of which varies slightly
according to the intensity of heat in the process of baking, or the
manner in which it is applied. One varies from a black to a
blackish-brown, the other from a light brick red to a dark dull red
color. The material which produces these colors is generally found in a
hard, stony condition, and is ground in a small stone mortar, just as we
reduce India ink for use. When the pigment is properly reduced, and
mixed with water so as to form a thin solution, it is applied with
brushes made of the leaves of the yucca. These brushes are made of flat
pieces of the leaf, which are stripped off and bruised at one end, and
are of different sizes adapted to the coarse or fine lines the artist
may wish to draw. In this manner all the decorations on the pottery are

The substance used in producing the black ware is a clayey brown
hematite, or ferruginous indurated clay, quite hard. The material used
to produce the red or brown colors is a yellowish impure clay, colored
from oxide of iron; indeed it is mainly clay, but contains some sand and
a very small amount of carbonate of lime. These are the principal
ingredients and methods involved in the manufacture of Zuñi pottery.

The method practiced by the Zuñians in baking pottery differs somewhat
from that employed by the tribes who make quantities of black and red
ware. It seems to be a necessity on the part of the Zuñians to observe
the greatest care in this operation. Their pottery is nearly all
decorated and must be baked free from contact with the peculiar fuel
used for that purpose. During the baking process it sometimes happens
that a piece of the fuel, which is composed of dried manure carefully
built up oven-shaped around the vessels to be baked, falls against the
vessel. In every such instance a carbonized or smoky spot is left on the
jar or bowl, which is regarded by the Indians as a blemish. The kiln is
carefully watched until the fuel is thoroughly burnt to a white ash,
when the vessels can be removed without danger of such blemishes.

The mode of manufacturing pottery adopted at the pueblos of the Rio
Grande Valley is quite similar to that described as practiced by the
Zuñi, Shinumo, Acoma, and Laguna Indians, but there is considerable
difference in the method of decorating and polishing. Polishing is
practiced chiefly by the Indians of the eastern pueblos, and but little
by those of the more western region.

The pueblos of Santa Clara, Cochiti, San Juan, Tesuke, &c., manufacture
large quantities of pottery for sale in addition to that made for their
own use. It is in these eastern pueblos that the black polished ware is
chiefly found, and it is in the production of this class of ware that
the chief difference in the ceramic art between the two sections exists.
The clays used in the manufacture of this ware are of the same character
as those of which the other is made; the paste is prepared in the same
way, so that when the vessels are formed and ready for the kiln they are
of the color of the original clay. In other words, the change to the
black color is not produced in making the paste or in moulding or
forming the vessel, but during the process of baking. The manner of
forming the vessel is the same as with the western tribes; and when,
formed it is dried in the sun in the same way; after this a solution of
very fine ochre-colored clay is applied to the outside and inside near
the top, or to such parts of the surface as are to be polished. While
this solution thus applied is still moist, the process of polishing
begins by rubbing the parts thus washed with smooth, fine-grained stones
until quite dry and glossy. The parts thus rubbed still retain the
original red color of the clay. The vessels are again placed in the sun
and allowed to become thoroughly dry, when they are ready for baking. It
is in this part of the process that the great differences in color are
produced. The vessels are placed together in a heap on a level spot of
ground and carefully covered over with coarsely broken dried manure
obtained from the corrals. The kiln thus formed is then ignited at
several points.

It is proper to add here that the clays used by the Santa Clara Indians
are of a brick-red color, containing an admixture of very fine sand,
which, no doubt, prevents cracking in burning, and hence dispenses with
the necessity of using lava or pottery fragments, as is the custom of
the Indians of the western pueblos. The burning is carried on until a
sufficient degree of heat is obtained properly to bake the vessels,
which still retain their original red brick color. At this juncture such
of the vessels as it is desired have remain in that condition are
removed from the fire and allowed to cool, when they are ready for use.
Those which the artists intend to color black are allowed to remain and
another application of fuel, finely pulverized, is made, completely
covering and smothering the fire. This produces a dense, dark smoke, a
portion of which is absorbed by the baking vessels and gives them the
desired black color. It is in this manner that the black ware of these
eastern pueblos is produced.

It is said that among the Cochiti, Santa Clara, and some other Pueblos a
vegetable matter is employed to produce some of their decorative
designs; this, however, I was unable to verify, though some of the
Indians assured me of the fact, and furnished me a bunch of the plant,
which Dr. Vasey, of the Agricultural Department, found to be _Cleome
integrifolia_, a plant common throughout the Western Territories. A few
specimens of the ware, some burnt and some unburnt, said to be decorated
with the oil or juice of this plant were secured.

As heretofore remarked, notwithstanding the variety in ornamentation,
there are really but few different figures, and these are mostly quite
simple. Any one interested in the study of Indian art can find in the
figures and plates of this catalogue all the original conceptions of the
artists of the Pueblo Indians as depicted by them.

While it is of value in the study of ethnology, and as affording a means
of comparison in the study of archaeology, there is nothing in the
composition or ornamentation, or in the form of the vessels, that
ceramic artists of the civilized races would desire to copy.

As a means of reference in the study of ancient American pottery, I
consider the collection invaluable, as it can scarcely be possible that
the forms and decorations contain nothing that has been handed down from
a former age. Although the figures used have no symbolic characters
connected with them in the mind of the modern artist, yet it is more
than probable that at least some of them did have such a meaning to the
ancient artists. For example, the little tadpole-shaped figure on the
clay baskets used in their dances and sacred ceremonies by the Zuñians
is understood by them to represent a little water articulate, which, as
heretofore stated, is probably the larva of some insect or crustacean,
very common in the pools and sluggish streams of the country inhabited
by these Indians. Now, it is possible that this figure has been used
with the same meaning from time immemorial, but I find, as pointed out
to me by Prof. Cyrus Thomas, that almost exactly the same figure is on a
vessel pictured on Plate VII of the manuscript Troano, where a religious
ceremony of some kind is evidently represented. The same figure is also
found in Landa’s character for the Maya day _Cib_, a word signifying
copal, a gum or resin formerly used in religious ceremonies as incense.
I find also on Plate XXXV of the same manuscript the figures of bowls or
pots with legs similar to those of the Zuñi. I do not point out these
resemblances as proof of any relation between the two races, but as mere
illustrations of what possibly may be learned by a careful study of the
forms and decorations of this pottery. It may also be well to add here
another fact to which Professor Thomas calls my attention, viz., the
similarity between the manner of wearing the hair by the Shinumo women,
_i.e._, in knots at the side, as represented by the female images, and
that of the ancient Maya women, as shown in numerous figures on the
manuscript Troano. Any one familiar with General Cesnola’s collection
from Cyprus cannot fail to be reminded of it when he examines this
collection of Indian pottery; especially the colors used and the general
character of the specimens; but an inspection of the two collections is
necessary in order to have this general resemblance brought to mind, as
it does not appear so distinctly on a comparison of the published
figures only. The figures on Plate XLIV of his “Cyprus” bear quite a
striking resemblance to those on some specimens of Cochiti ware. The
quadruple cup, Fig. 25, page 406, is almost exactly like the Zuñi
quadruple cups, and was probably used for the same purpose. The same
type of multiple cups is also shown in Plate IX of the same work. The
two tea-pot-like vessels represented on Plate VIII, as well as the two
bird-shaped pieces on the same plate, are much, like the similar vessels
of Cochiti pottery, several of which are figured in this catalogue.

The resemblance of this Indian ware, in the form of the vessels, to that
found in the ancient mounds of this country is so marked that it is
scarcely necessary to remind the reader of the fact, but it may be well
to call attention to the much, larger proportion of water vessels among
the Indian pottery than is seen in collections from the mounds. This,
however, may perhaps be accounted for by the scarcity of water in the
western region.

The custom of the Zuñi artists of making a diamond or triangle over the
region of the heart of the elk and deer figures with a line running to
the mouth, although somewhat singular, is quite consistent with the
Indian practice of symbolic writing. I was informed by the Zuñi Indians
that it was intended to denote that “the mouth speaks from the heart.” A
similar mark occurs in the decoration of the vase figured in Cesnola’s
“Cyprus,” page 268.

Contemporaneous and somewhat closely related tribes may use widely
different figures in the decoration of their ware, and hence it is
unsafe, in studying ancient specimens, to draw hasty conclusions from
slight differences in this respect; and I think I may also safely add
that a comparatively short period of time, a century or so at most, may
suffice to bring about a great change in the same tribe in the form and
manner of decorating their pottery. It also shows us that the ware of a
given tribe, which does not bear the impress of civilized influence,
can, by a careful study, be distinguished in nearly all cases from that
of any other tribe. I feel so confident of the truth of this statement,
that I would not hesitate to undertake to pick out all pieces of Zuñi
ornamented ware from a collection of thousands of specimens of modern
Pueblo Indian pottery if indiscriminately mixed together.

The Shinumo pottery in general appearance and form bears a strong
resemblance to that of Zuñi; in fact it is almost impossible to separate
the ornamented bowls and water vases of the two if mingled together.
There are certain figures found in the one which never occur in the
other, but there are a number of designs, especially of those most
generally seen, that are quite common to the pottery of both tribes.

The different varieties of ware, the red or brown without decorations,
the white with decorations, and the black are in general use with the
tribe, and specimens of each are contained in the collection. But few
specimens of the purely micaceous ware are found, either in Zuñi or

The preponderance of the large round water jugs in the Shinumo
collection over that of Zuñi is noticeable. This form of vessel seems
to be more in use by tribes whose villages are quite remote from water
or which are situated on high mesas difficult of access. The kinds of
vessels, however, which are common with the Zuñians are also common with
the Shinumos, and those intended for the same use are generally of the
same shape or similar in form. But, as with the decorations, there are
also vessels so markedly distinct and variant from those we find at Zuñi
as to show very readily at least tribal distinctions between the ceramic
artists and manufacturers.

The proximity of Laguna to Acoma led us to anticipate what we afterward
found, viz., a great similarity in the forms of their vessels, and
also in their manner of ornamentation. The principal differences consist
in the more profuse use of the forms of birds and flowers, the first
evidently representing prairie grouse and the last some form of
sunflower. There is an absence of the geometrical forms, of lines
and angles commonly observed on the works of more distant pueblos.

Quite a number of animal representations, made hollow for use as
drinking vessels, were obtained, displaying grotesquely imitative forms
of deer, elk, sheep, big-horn, antelope, and other animals with which
they are familiar. All of these objects have more color laid on them
than is to be found on the pottery of their neighbors of Acoma, the
birds and animals being painted in a light rufous fawn color not in use
elsewhere, and the only instance of the employment of green is on a
tinaja of this pueblo used in coloring some foliage.


This class of ware comprises a very diversified group of objects;
indeed, so great is the variety that I will not attempt a general
description of them. Specific reference will be made to the objects
as they occur in their places in the catalogue.

The objects of basketry or wicker-work are quite varied in form,
construction, and decoration. Those made by the Zuñi Indians are so rude
and coarse as not to entitle them to any merit. The larger baskets made
by this tribe are used for carrying corn, melons, peppers, &c. The
smaller are used for holding beans, shelled corn, and other coarse
small materials.

The basketry of the Shinumos is of a finer and more finished quality.
Among these are many jug or canteen shaped baskets, from which, no
doubt, many of the forms of their pottery water vessels have been
copied. These are sometimes globular, with large round bodies and small
necks. They are generally very closely woven and are then coated over
with a resin or gum which renders them capable of holding water. Like
some of their water jugs, in pottery, they have small horsehair ears
or loops attached to the sides through which strings are passed for
carrying them either over the head or shoulder. This class of water jug
basketry all show evidences of age, and it is possible that they were
manufactured by the Apaches or other tribes skilled in the art. The flat
kinds are designed to hold fine grain and meal, and are also frequently
used for winnowing. This is done by placing a small quantity of grain in
the basket, and by a skillful motion throwing the grain up into the wind
and again catching it as it comes down. This motion is kept up until the
wind has separated the chaff from, the grain. Many of the flat baskets
are decorated in colors, as will be seen by the accompanying

It is quite probable that most of the finer ware of this class is
manufactured by the Apache Indians, who are celebrated for this work,
and finds its way among the Pueblos through the medium of barter.

The basketry of the Zuñians is usually made of small round willows and
the stem of the yucca, the leaves of which attain a long slender growth
in that region. It is quite certain that the basketry used for holding
water is not manufactured by the Zuñians, and probably not by the
Shinumos, though many are found with them.

As previously stated, the basketry manufactured by the Shinumo Indians
is of a more finished class and of a greater variety than that made and
used by any of the other Pueblos, as will be seen by reference to the
accompanying illustrations. Among the examples of this ware, obtained at
Wolpi, is a large number of the flat or saucer-shaped kind; these vary
both in size and character of construction as well as decoration. The
manner of making one form of this class is quite interesting as well as
curious. A rope-like withe of the fiber of the yucca, made quite fine,
is wrapped with flat strips of the same plant. In forming the basket
with this rope the workman commences at the center, or bottom, and
coils the rope round, attaching it by a method of weaving, until, by
successive layers of the rope, it attains the desired dimensions. These
are quite highly and prettily ornamented in black, white, and yellow,
and are compact and strong. Another variety of baskets of similar shape
and size, and also fancifully ornamented, was obtained from the same
Indians. These are made from small round willows. They exhibit less
skill in construction, but are handsomely ornamented. Another kind was
also obtained from the Shinumos, which, however, are attributed to the
Apaches and probably found their way into the Moki villages through
trade. These are large bowl-shaped baskets, almost watertight, but
generally used as flour and meal baskets. They are also ornamented
black and yellow, produced by weaving the material of different colors
together while making the basket.

There are many other forms and varieties, which will be referred to at
the proper time, as they occur in the catalogue.

The Pueblos employ a variety of plants and herbs for medicinal and
dyeing purposes, some of which were collected. Their botanical names
were not determined, but they are indigenous to the regions inhabited
by the Indians using them.

Ornaments and musical instruments employed in dances and religious
ceremonies do not differ much among the Pueblo Indians; the principal
ones being the drum, rattle, notched sticks, a kind of fife, and a
turtle-shell rattle. The latter instrument is the shell of a turtle,
around the edges of which the toes of goats and calves are attached;
this produces a very peculiar rattling sound. The shell is usually
attached to the leg near the knee.




1. (40139). Flat rubbing or grinding stone of silicified wood.

2. (40551). Stone axe, _ō´-lā-ki-le_, with groove near the larger end.

3. (40552). Imperfectly-made stone axe, _ō´-lā-ki-le_, grooved at each
  edge; basalt.

4. (40553). Large axe, with groove around the middle; sandstone.

5. (40554). Axe, grooved at the middle, square and flat on top; basalt.

6. (40555). Small centrally-grooved axe; schistose rock.

7. (40556). Axe, grooved in the middle.

8. (40557). Axe, grooved near the blunt end, which is shaped similarly
  to the edge.

9. (40558). Axe, grooved near the end.

10. (40559). Small hatchet, _ō´-lā-ki-le_, of basalt doubly grooved,
  edge beveled from both sides, hammer end about one and a half inches
  in diameter.

11. (40560). Grooved axe, _ō´-lā-ki-le_, of fine black basalt, well
  polished; groove well worn. The face or side is intended to be near
  the holder when in use. Fig. 352. This specimen was found in Arizona,
  near Camp Apache, and was presented by Mrs. George P. Buell. It is one
  of the largest in the collection with such perfect finish.

12. (40561). Grooved in the center; of porous basalt.

13. (40562). Hammer grooved in the center, rounded off at each end.

14. (40563). Small hatchet-shaped instrument, square at the back, and
  rounded at the front edge.

15. (40563a). Rudely-made axe, grooved near the blunt end.

16. (40564). Small axe, with a groove round the body quite near the
  blunt end; basalt.

17. (40565). Axe, three and a half inches long.

18. (40566). Quite small, probably a hatchet, of firm basalt, grooved
  near the hammer end.

19. (40567). Much larger than the last, basaltic; groove quite deep and
  smooth, hammer end circular, large, and blunt.

20. (40568). Grooved axe of quartzitic rock.

21. (40569). Pick-shaped axe, grooved entirely around, with imperfect
  depressions which were in the water-worn boulder from which it was
  made; about six inches in length.

22. (40570). Boulder of sandstone with groove near the middle.

23. (40571). Flat basaltic boulder, grooved near the center, straight on
  the back, and tapering above and below the groove.

24. (40572). Small basaltic hammer and axe with groove near the large

25. (40573). Small grooved axe composed of hard sandstone; hammer end
  large, edge quite perfect.

26. (40574). Small boulder of basalt, ground to an edge at one end and
  rounded off at the other; doubly grooved.

27. (40575). Large basaltic stone considerably chipped off from pounding
  hard substances, grooved near the center, both ends quite blunt;
  probably used as a pounding stone.

28. (40576). Flat basaltic boulder, used as a pounder.

29. (40577). Basaltic hatchet grooved in the middle; quite rough.

30. (40578). Grooved axe of a very heavy, solid character, apparently
  designed more for mauling than cutting.

31. (40579). Large, heavy basaltic hammer and axe with groove around the
  body near the hammer end; about seven inches long.

32. (40580). Axe, grooved in the middle, upper or hammer end unusually
  long in proportion to the size.

33. (40581). Flat axe made from a water-worn boulder, oval in outline,
  both edges designed for cutting or splitting. Deep groove encircling
  the body, with protrusions above and below it to prevent the handle
  from slipping out; greenstone.

34. (40582). Hard, fine-grained sandstone axe wedge-shaped, without a

35. (40583). Grooved axe with round body.

36. (40584). Fig. 349. Axe with a broad, shallow groove near the upper
  end, which is much narrower and smaller than the lower; of mottled
  volcanic rock, white, green, and black.

37. (40585). Axe grooved in the middle, irregular in shape, and much
  chipped off at the lower edge and rounded off at the top.

38. (40806). Made from a very fine, hard metamorphic rock, small enough
  to be classed as a hatchet; crescent-shaped at the top.

39. (40703). Fig. 348. A very dark brown axe, speckled with reddish
  spots. This axe bears a much finer polish than most of those in the

40. (40704). Axe, grooved near the upper end, which is cone-shaped.

41. (40705). An almost square axe of basaltic rock, grooved on the
  sides, flat on top.

42. (40706). Axe of quartzitic rock, flat and thin; grooved.

43. (40900). Long, narrow axe, grooved near the upper end.

44. (40901). Axe, made from a water-worn boulder, almost to its present

45. (40902). Small, round axe of basalt, having a shallow groove near
  the larger end.

46. (40903). Grooved basaltic axe.

47. (40904). Maul, with rough surface, one side flat, the other convex,
  with a groove.

  Fig. 347 (42229) (⅓)
  Fig. 348 (40703) (⅓)
  Fig. 349 (40584) (⅓)
  Fig. 350 (39903) (⅓)
  Fig. 351 (42205) (⅓)
  Fig. 352 (40560) (⅓)
  Figs. 347-352.--Zuñi Grooved Axes.]

48. (40258). Double-grooved axe of porphyry, well polished and quite

49. (41260). Grooved axe of compact sandstone; wedge-shaped.

50. (42204). Stone maul of basalt, with groove; very rough.

51. (42205). Grooved axe of basalt. Fig. 351. This specimen was obtained
  at Fort Wingate, in New Mexico, but was probably found in or around
  some of the ruins.

52. (42229). This is one of the finest specimens in the collection, and,
  as shown by the cut, Fig. 347, has the handle attached, ready for use.
  This is formed of a willow withe bent round the axe and doubled,
  extending out far enough to form a handle and wrapped with a buckskin
  string; of compact basalt.

53. (42230). Shallow-grooved axe of basalt.

54. (42231). Axe, with a shallow groove near the larger end.

55. (42232). Axe of basalt, grooved on the sides.

56. (42233). Grooved axe, in size and shape the same as (42226).

57. (42234). Grooved axe of a peculiar black mottled rock, with white,
  marble-like streaks through it; groove surrounding it in the center.

58. (42235). Irregularly-shaped axe with a wide and deep groove
  surrounding it, curiously mottled with reddish and green streaks.
  Specimens of this kind are quite rare.

59. (42236). Grooved axe; sides well polished and exhibiting peculiar
  reddish spots.

60. (42237). Small grooved axe of metamorphic rock.

61. (42238). Grooved axe.

62. (42239). Small grooved axe of schistose rock, much flaked off at
  each end.

63. (42240). Axe, grooved on three sides; similar in size and shape to

64. (42241). Grooved axe with flattened top.

65. (42242). Same as the preceding.

66. (42242). Grooved axe with two edges.

67. (42244). Celt-shaped axe of basalt; it appears to have been used as
  a rubbing stone.

68. (39869). Zuñi maul with circular groove around the centre, used
  generally for grinding or pounding soft foods, such as red-pepper
  pods; of porous lava.

69. (39903). Double-edged axe, _ō´-lā-ki-le_, with groove around the
  middle; volcanic rock, from Zuñi. See Fig. 350.

70. (42349). Rounded end of a sandstone metate grinder converted into a
  flat hammer by grooving it at the opposite edges.

71. (41291). Pounder of sandstone. It was originally a common axe. Thumb
  and finger depression on the sides.

72. (40871). Lava Chili pounder with cap-shaped ends; grooved.

73. (40906). Lava rock pounder; small.


74. (40870). Square red sandstone metate.

75. (42280). Flat sandstone grinding slab.

76-82. The following numbers represent the rubbers accompanying the
  metates. The Indian name is _yä´-lĭn-ne_: 76, (40909); 77, (40910);
  78, (40911); 79, (40912); 80, (40913); 81, (40914); 82, (41259);
  sandstone rubber.


These are found in use at all the pueblos, but are more common in Zuñi
and the Moki villages than elsewhere, as these Indians use mineral
pigments more extensively and in greater variety than any of the others.

The pestles and mortars obtained from these tribes are all too small to
be used for any other purpose than grinding pigments. Many of them
appear to be quite old, and were probably handed down from distant
ancestors, or obtained from the ruins. Some of them are evidently of
modern manufacture.

83. (40707). Mortar; a round, flat, quartzitic boulder with round cavity
  on one side about one inch in diameter and half an inch deep, and a
  square depression on the other about an inch deep and two inches in
  width; indigo still clinging to the surface of the depression.

84. (40708). Mortar of quartzite, the body nearly square and flat;
  depression round and about four inches in diameter, quite shallow.

85. (40709). Mortar of coarse-grained sandstone, almost perfectly round,
  the cavity quite deep, and lined with red ochre or vermilion.

86. (40710). Mortar of a flat sandstone with irregular rim about four
  inches in diameter.

87. (40711). Paint mortar of a small round quartz boulder.

88. (40712). Mortar of fine-grained sandstone about six inches long by
  three wide; sides square. This mortar was in use by the Zuñians for
  the purpose of grinding a pigment of yellowish impure clay, colored by
  the oxide of iron, with which they decorate their pottery, and which
  produces the brown and reddish-brown colors.

89. (40713). Small mortar of sandstone.

90. (40714). Mortar made from a flat water-worn quartz boulder with a
  circular depression about half an inch deep. The bottom of this mortar
  shows evidence of its having been used as a grinding stone previous to
  being converted into a mortar, or it may have been used for both
  purposes, as both the paint cavity and the rubbing side show recent

91. (40715). Paint mortar of basalt, used for grinding the yellow
  pigment for ornamenting pottery; about four inches in diameter, cavity
  about one inch deep, bottom ground flat.

92. (40716). Flat paint mortar, of quartz rock, almost round, about an
  inch thick, depression quite shallow; used for grinding a pigment of
  azurite or carbonate of copper, small nodules of which they collect
  at copper mines. This pigment is used in painting and decorating
  wooden images and gods.

  Fig. 353 (40731) (⅓)
  Fig. 355 (42245) (⅓)
  Fig. 354 (42266) (⅓)
  Fig. 357 (40808) (¼)
  Fig. 356 (41289)
  Fig. 358 (42272) (½)
  Figs. 353-358.--Stone Implements from Zuñi.]

93. (40717). Mortar similar to the above, and used for the same purpose.

94. (40718). Paint mortar made from a large irregularly round
  ferruginous sandstone. Used in pulverizing a reddish pigment for
  decorating pottery.

95. (40719). Mortar of a globular shape, made from a coarse-grained
  sandstone, used for grinding or mixing vermilion.

96. (40720). Paint mortar of sandstone. The whole mortar is only about
  an inch thick; made from a section of an old metate rubber.

97. (40722). Paint mortar of quartzite; blue pigment grinder. Size about
  four by three inches. This, like many of the flat mortars, has been
  first used as a rubbing stone and subsequently converted into a paint

98. (40723). Mortar made from a quartz boulder.

99. (40724). Sandstone mortar.

100. (40725). Paint mortar of sandstone, very flat.

101. (40726). Paint mortar, with oblong shallow depression; sandstone.

102. (40728). Square paint mortar; cavity about half an inch deep;
  sandstone impregnated with iron. Quartzitic pestle accompanying it.

103. (40729). Paint mortar of quartzite; almost square; depression
  almost worn through by use; quartz pebble pestle accompanying it.

104. (40730). Small round paint mortar of basalt, with white quartz
  pebble pestle.

105. (40731). Fig. 353. Paint mortar and pestle of quartz, with a knob
  on the end, which serves as a handle. This mortar was used in grinding
  an azurite pigment.

106. (40732). Mortar shaped somewhat like a ladle; the projecting end is
  provided with a small groove out of which the paint is poured.

107. (40733). Small sandstone mortar.

108. (40864). Paint mortar of sandstone.

109. (40868). Paint mortar of basalt, almost square.

110. (40869). Flat, square sandstone paint mortar; black water-worn
  pebble for pestle.

111. (40907). Chili or red pepper mortar of very porous lava rock; oval
  bottom, shallow cavity, about four inches thick and eight in diameter.
  These lava mortars may have been used for other purposes, but at the
  present time the Indians use them in crushing the pods and seeds of
  red pepper, and occasionally for crushing parched corn. They are quite

112. (40908). Food mortar of lava rock; square with flat bottom.
  Mortars of this kind are used in crushing grain and seeds.

113. (42272). Fig. 358. Paint mortar of very hard, fine-grained
  sandstone. The specimen is a very fair type of all the square paint
  mortars and pestles. The depression is often square instead of round.
  In grinding pigments the Indians generally move the pestle backward
  and forward instead of around as is done by our druggists.

114. (41273). Small sandstone paint mortar, much like the preceding.

115. (40227). Small egg-shaped paint pestle of white quartz. The general
  name of these in Zuñi is _äh-shŏc-tōn-ne_.

116. (42276). Flat sandstone, circular and about five inches in
  diameter; used as a quoit; originally a rubbing stone.


117. (39755). Eight specimens not very well defined. They are flint
  flakes, showing, by their shape, that they were designed for scrapers
  and groovers, being flat or slightly concave on one side and oval on
  the other.

118. (41289). Fig. 356. This is a sandstone mould for shaping metal
  into such forms as suit the fancy of the Indians for bridle and other
  ornaments; one cavity is rectangular, about four inches long by one in
  width; the other about two inches in diameter. Silver, which has long
  been a metal of traffic among these tribes, is the one which is
  usually melted down for ornamental purposes. After it is taken from
  the mould it is beaten thin, then polished.

119. (41290). Is a portion of the same mould, with one cavity square and
  the other in the shape of a spear-head.

120, 121. (42266), Fig. 354, and (42267), are crucibles, which were used
  in connection with the moulds for melting silver and other metals.
  Many other ornaments are made in the same manner.

122. (40808). Fig. 357. This is a large, rudely chipped spear-head of
  mica schist, obtained at Zuñi, which was carried in the hand of one of
  the performers in a dance. It does not show any evidences of having
  been used in any other way. They called it _äh´-chi-än-tēh-ä-hla_.

123. (42245). Fig. 355. Handsomely-shaped and well-polished skinning
  knife of a remarkably fine-grained silicious slate. Above the
  shoulders on one side it is worn off to an oval surface, and is flat
  on the other.

124. (40915). Round sandstone, which is called a gaming stone; it is
  quite round, and bears the same name in Zuñi as the pestle,

125. (40916). Quartz stone, flat and rounded at the ends as a sort of
  last to keep moccasins in shape while being sewed; called

126. (41239). String of alabaster beads, _tem-thla_.

127. (41240). Charm, representing the upper part of the body and head of
  a bird.

128. (41241). Charm; representing a horse; quartz.

129. (41242). Charm; bird’s head and upper part of body.

  Fig. 359 (39871) (⅕)
  Fig. 360 (39916) (¼)
  Figs. 359, 360.--Zuñi Water Vases.]

  Fig. 361 (39834) (⅕)
  Fig. 362 (41150) (¼)
  Figs. 361, 362.--Zuñi Water Vases.]

130. (41243). Charm; horse and saddle.

131. (41244). Charm; representing entire bird; quartz.

132. (41245). Charm; head and upper part of body of a bird.

133. (41246). Charm; the same.

134. (41247). Agate arrow-head.

135. (40870). Disk of sandstone, slightly convex in the centre; used in

136. (42325). Flat sandstone slab, with the horns of male and female
  deer engraved on one side.

137, 138. (40721) and (41249). Flat sandstones, used for baking
_wi-a-vi_, a thin, wafer-like bread, by heating the rocks and then
spreading a gruel-like mixture of corn meal over them. The largest one
of these stones is about three feet in length by two in width. They are
used by the Zuñi and Moki pueblos quite extensively.

139. (42324). Eighty chip flints and flakes of agate, quartz,
  chalcedony, &c.



140. (39871). Form and decorations shown in Fig. 359. The slender
  shading lines only are brown, the rest of the figuring black; the base
  in this as in most Zuñi pottery is reddish or slate colored. This may
  be considered as the type of one variety of decorations, readily
  distinguished by the unadorned circular spaces, the large scrolls, and
  the absence of animal forms. The larger forms of these vases are
  called by the Zuñians _kāh´-wi-nā-kä-tēhl-le_; the smaller forms,

141. (39916). The ornamentation is well shown in Fig. 360. The
  combinations on this piece are rare on Zuñi pottery, and the chief
  figure on the body is more symmetrical than is usual in this group of
  ware. This may also be considered as representing a second type of
  decorations of which there is but one other example in the collection.

142. (39920). This belongs to the variety represented by Fig. 360, and
  varies chiefly in having the neck decorated with leaf-like figures,
  and in having the scrolls replaced by triangles with inner serratures.

143. (39934). The largest size; Fig. 361. The decorations of this piece
  belong to a third variety, distinguished chiefly by the presence of
  the elk or deer. Attention is called to the three figured zones or
  belts on the body, the upper with the arch inclosing an elk; the
  middle and narrow belt adorned with figures of birds with a long crest
  feather. The helix or scroll is freely introduced in this variety. The
  one here figured is typical of quite a large group. The animals are
  usually black, as are the lines separating the spaces.

144. (41150). This is similar in size and decorations to Fig. 361, and
  is shown in Fig. 362. The difference in the form of the bird in this
  from that in the preceding is worthy of notice.

145. (39933). Similar to No. 143 (Fig. 361); bird scrolls as in No. 144.

146. (40322). Medium size, represented in Fig. 364. It may be grouped in
  the variety of which Fig. 359 is given as the type.

147. (39936). Large size; decorations resembling those in Fig. 364, but
  with two belts of scrolls on the body.

148. (41154). Medium size; figures as in No. 147.

149. (41155). 150. (41162). Medium size; decorations similar to the
  preceding, except that No. 150 (41162) has figures of sheep on the

151. (41158). Large size; the ornamentation of this piece, as will be
  seen by reference to Fig. 363, belongs to the variety represented by
  Fig. 359 and 364, but differs in having on the body a middle zone of
  bird-like figures.

152. (41161). Large size; similar to Fig. 363.

153. (39943). Decorations very similar to those shown in Fig. 359.

154. (39937). Medium size; ornamentation similar to that seen in Fig.

155. (40312). Large size; shown in Fig. 365. As will be seen by
  comparison the decorations are the same as those in Fig. 361, except
  that the elk is omitted and a figure of scrolls introduced in its

156. (40310). Fig. 366. Large size. In the decorations of this piece we
  observe a new feature, a rosette or flower, showing a decided
  appreciation of the beautiful, either suggested by the flowers of the
  Helianthus or by something introduced by Europeans, but most probably
  the former. The different forms of this figure found on this ware
  furnish, perhaps the best evidence of taste exhibited by the Zuñian

157. (40313). Fig. 368. Large size. In this we see the same figures as
  in Figs. 363 and 366 brought into combination with the rosette, the
  birds being replaced by sheep.

158. (40318). Large size; similar to No. 149, except that the rosette is
  introduced in place of the circle.

159. (40314). }
160. (40316). }
  Decorations belong to the variety shown in Fig. 361.

161. (40317). Fig. 367. A little study of these figures will satisfy any
  one that although there is an apparently endless variety in details,
  there are, in fact, but comparatively few different figures.

162. (41146). Fig. 370. This belongs to the same variety as Fig. 368.

163. (40315). Large size, similar to that represented in Fig. 370, but
  varying in form, having the expansion at the shoulder more prominent
  and tapering more rapidly from thence to the base. The figures remind
  us of the trappings often seen in Japanese cuts.

  Fig. 363 (41158) (⅕)
  Fig. 364 (40322) (⅓)
  Figs. 363, 364.--Zuñi Water Vases.]

  Fig. 365 (40312) (⅕)
  Fig. 366 (40310) (⅕)
  Figs. 365, 366.--Zuñi Water Vases.]

  Fig. 367 (40317) (⅕)
  Fig. 368 (40313) (⅕)
  Figs. 367, 368.--Zuñi Water Vases.]

  Fig. 369 (40701) (¼)
  Fig. 370 (41146) (¼)
  Figs. 369, 370.--Zuñi Water Vases.]

  Fig. 371 (39935) (¼)
  Fig. 372 (41149) (¼)
  Figs. 371, 372.--Zuñi Water Vases.]

  Fig. 373 (39774) (¼)
  Fig. 374 (41167) (¼)
  Figs. 373, 374.--Zuñi Water Vases.]

164. (40319). Medium size; decorations similar to those in Fig. 361,
  except that here the elk or deer stands on a broad black band in which
  there is a row of white diamonds.

165. (40321). Medium size; of the variety represented in Fig. 361, but
  in these smaller pieces the bird zone is omitted, and there is but one
  figured zone on the body. In this example a small elk is represented
  as standing on the back of a larger one.

166. (40700). Medium size, belonging to the same type as the preceding.
  On the neck are figures of grotesque kite-shaped birds.

167. (40701). Medium size; Fig. 369. This and the preceding one are not
  designated as vases in the original Smithsonian Catalogue, nor in my
  field list, but according to the form should be classed in this group.

168. (41165). Medium size; decorations similar to those of Fig. 367, but
  varying in having the figure of a bird introduced in the middle belt
  with a small double scroll arising out of the back. The lower belt has
  the same bird reversed.

169. (39935). Medium size. The unusual decorations of this piece are
  shown in Fig. 371. It differs, as does also Fig. 369, from the usual
  form; the body is more nearly spherical, the neck more gracefully
  curved, and the rim slightly flaring. The proportions are also
  different; height, 8.75 inches; diameter of body, 10; of mouth, 6.5.

170. (41144). }
171. (41147). }
  Decorations similar to those in Fig. 364; (41144) varies in having the
  figures of elk or deer on the neck and in the coarser or ruder

172. (41149). This somewhat abnormal form is well shown in Fig. 372. It
  is of medium size.

173. (41152). This belongs to the same type, both as to form and

174. (41153). Large size; of the usual form, but the decorations on the
  body peculiar, the design being crudely architectural.

175. (41156). Medium size, belonging to the type represented by Fig.

176. (41163). Medium size. This pretty vase has a somewhat peculiar
  decoration, which can be best described as a kind of patch-work
  representing small fragments of pottery.

177. (41166). Medium size, with the usual elk and scroll figures.

178. (41167). This specimen, which is rather above medium size, presents
  one of the most chaste designs in the entire group. It is represented
  in Fig. 374. Attention is called especially to the leaves and to the
  simple meander in the stripes.

179. (41168). Marked with the usual elk and scroll figures. Medium size.

180. (39774). The decorations of this piece, shown in Fig. 373, may be
  classed with the peculiar type with oblique and vertical bands
  represented in Fig. 374.

181. (39917). Figures similar to those in Fig. 363.

182. (40768). The decorations on this piece consist entirely of
  representations of pyramids or possibly of pueblos, and are arranged
  in bands, one on the neck and two on the body; the two upper bands
  show the figures inverted.

183. (40770). }
184. (40771). }
  No. 183 is decorated with scrolls and bird scrolls and a scalloped
  line around the shoulder; No. 184 with elks and scrolls on the body.

185-188. 185, (40800). Fig. 378. The grotesque or kite-like bird seen on
  the neck, though rarely seen on the large water vase, is common on the
  small ones. To this type belong the following Nos. 186, (40769); 187,
  (40772); 188, (40791).

189. (40773). }
190. (40776). }
  These have the usual triangular and scroll designs without animal
  figures, as in Fig. 364.

191. (40777). Fig. 377. The decorations on this evidently belong to the
  same type as those represented in Fig. 359, the bird on the neck being
  the only variation. To this type also belong the following numbers:
  192, (40778); 193, (40792); 194, (40794).

195. (40779). }
196. (40781). }
197. (40788). }
198. (40787). }
199. (40788). }
200. (40801). }
  These belong to the type represented by Fig. 361, distinguished
  chiefly by the elk, triangular figures, and scrolls.

201. (40780). }
202. (40784). }
203. (40786). }
204. (40790). }
  The decorations on these are similar to those shown in Figs. 366, 367,
  368, and 370, in which the rosette is a distinguishing characteristic.
  Nos. 201, 202, and 203 are without figures of animals; No. 204 has a
  double belt of elk figures between the rosettes.

205. (40782). The designs on this remain unfinished; except that the
  triangles on the neck and the arches in which it was evidently the
  intention to place the figures of animals, are shown.

206. (40785). Fig. 375. This pretty vase, as will be seen by reference
  to the figure, has the diameter greater in proportion to the height
  than usual. Although the design is tasteful the hues are coarse and
  not so well drawn as the figure indicates.

207. (40789). On this there is an evident attempt to represent a pueblo
  or communal dwelling and the ladders.

208. (40793). Shown in Fig. 376.

209. (40795). Neck and lower belt of the body marked with vertical lines
  and oblique diamonds; upper belt with inverted pyramidal figures.

210. (40849). Very small; marked with oblique scalloped lines.

211. (40850). Very small; elk and grotesque bird on the body.

212. (40851). Very small; decorations similar to those on the middle
  belt of Fig. 373.

  Fig. 375 (40785) (⅓)
  Fig. 376 (40793) (⅓)
  Fig. 377 (40777)
  Fig. 378 (40800) (¼)
  Figs. 375-378.--Zuñi Water Vases.]

  Fig. 379 (39659)
  Fig. 380 (39618)
  Fig. 381 (40798)
  Fig. 382 (39592)
  Fig. 383 (41145)
  Fig. 384 (41052)
  Figs. 379-384.--ZUÑI POTTERY.]

213. (41105). Similar to that shown in Fig. 361.

214. (40774). Marked with transverse lines and scrolls; design simple
  and unique.

The following specimens are red ware:

215. (40311). Large size; without ornamentation.

216. (40775). Small; form peculiar, diameter of the body greatest at the
  base, mouth flaring; decorations in black, consisting of triangles
  pointing downwards, and lines.

217. (40798). Medium size. See Fig. 381.

218. (40799). }
219. (40802). }
  Small; without ornamentation.

220. (41145). Large. See Fig. 383.

221. (41052). Medium size. See Fig. 384.

222. (41151). }
223. (41157). }
224. (41159). }
  Medium size; without ornamentation.

225. (41160). Medium size; with a scalloped band in black around the rim
  and shoulder.

Black ware:

226. (39930). Large size; without ornamentation.

The only black water vase obtained at Zuñi; it was doubtless procured
from some other tribe. The black ware obtained from, this tribe is in
nearly all cases used for cooking, or holding liquids or moist foods. As
remarked in another place, the Zuñi black ware is generally small except
in cases where large quantities of food are to be cooked, which occurs
at feast tunes, when very large vessels are employed.


These vary so greatly in form that it is impossible to give any general
description that would convey a correct idea.

227. (39885). Somewhat mug-shaped, with handle; the top is rounded to
  the small mouth, no neck. White ware with scalloped bands and a
  Maltese cross.

228. (39886). Similar in form, but smaller, without handle or

229. (39899). Somewhat similar in form to the preceding, except that it
  is lower and more depressed, and instead of a mouth, at the top there
  is an orifice at the side as in the canteens, with which this should
  probably be classed.

230. (39940). Similar to No. 228.

231. (40062). Similar in form to No. 227, but without handle; with a
  double scalloped band around the constricted portion, and a single one
  around the mouth; figure of an insect on the upper half; apparently
  intended to represent a butterfly or large moth.

232. (40608). Small unhandled jug in the form of a smelling bottle.

233. (40611). Similar to No. 232.

234. (40697). }
235. (40608). }
  Like No. 228, with slight decorations.

236. (41140). An amphora or slender jug with two handles.

237. (39928). A jar shown in Fig. 399.

238. (39922). _Mē-hē-tō_, canteen of large size. Plain brown, as are
  also the following specimens:

239-242. 239, (40079); 240, (40081); 241, (40082), this has a small
  flower on one side; 242, (40083).

243-245. 243, (40088); 244, (40090); 245, (40091).

246-248. 246, (40085); 247, (40086), and 248, (40676), plain, white.

249. (40077). White with color decorations. Fig. 387.

The following eight specimens are also white with colors:

250. (40078). Decorated profusely with scrolls, leaves, and other
  figures. See Fig. 400.

251. (40080). Figure of a coiled snake or worm, without head or other
  character to indicate what it was intended to represent.

252. (40084). Usual scroll figures.

253. (40087). Decorated with simple loops and bands.

254. (40089). Radiating serrate lines.

255. (40092). Vase-shaped, with three colored bands.

256. (40093). Shown in Fig. 385.

257. (40886). Handsome piece, with floweret at the apex, scrolls on the
  side, and a scalloped band around the middle. The bands are always
  horizontal, the vessel being on its side. See Fig. 398.

258. (39914). _Mē-hē-tō-tsān-nā_, canteens of small size. Red. Double,
  with two sets of handles and two chambers, but with only one orifice.
  Decorations in white, those on the larger piece consisting of meanders
  of the simplest form, a figure very unusual on Zuñi pottery.

259. (39659). Brown, with handle and decorations in black. See Fig. 379.

260. (39923). Plain brown.

The following are also plain brown, red, or yellow:

261-271. 261, (40094); 262, (40095); 263, (40096); 264, (40097), Fig.
  390; 265, (40099); 266, (40100); 267, (40101); 268, (40687), Fig. 386;
  269, (40688); 270, (40689); 271, (40690).

272. (40102). White, with an oblique scalloped band.

273. (39872). White, shown in Fig. 389.

274. (40686). White, decorations as in Fig. 389.

275. (40685). White, with a single flower.

276. (40691). White, egg-shaped, with a single handle; decorated with a
  figure of the horned toad.

277. (40692). White, form and decorations like those shown in Fig. 385.

278. (40098). With outline figures of birds.

279. (40695). White, shown in Fig. 388. Although obtained at Zuñi, this
  piece may have been manufactured at one of the other pueblos.

  Fig. 385 (40093) (⅓)
  Fig. 386 (40687) (⅓)
  Fig. 387 (40077) (⅙)
  Figs. 385-387.--Zuñi Canteens]

  Fig. 388 (40695) (⅓)
  Fig. 389 (39872) (⅓)
  Fig. 390 (40097) (⅓)
  Fig. 391 (40106) (⅓)
  Figs. 388-391.--Zuñi Canteens.]

  Fig. 392 (39889) (⅕)
  Fig. 393 (40104) (⅓)
  Fig. 394 (39915) (⅓)
  Fig. 392-394.--Zuñi Canteens.]

  Fig. 395 (39913) (⅓)
  Fig. 396 (39837) (⅓)
  Fig. 397 (39914) (⅙)
  Figs. 395-397.--Zuñi Canteens.]


280. (39913). Fig. 395. Zuñi name _Mē´-wi-i-pä-chin_.

281. (39887). Similar to No. 280.

282. (39889). Fig. 392. _Mē´-wi-kē-lik-tōn-ne_. Plain red.

283. (39915). Fig. 394.

284. (40103). White, bottle-shaped, with constriction below the middle;
  scalloped bands and bird figures around the upper third. See Fig. 402.

285. (40104). Shown in Fig. 393.

286. (40105). Similar to No. 285. Marked with the figure of a bird
  having the wings spread. Navajo. _Kō´-sē-tŏm-me._

287. (40106). Fig. 391.

288. (39887). Fig. 396. A double-globed canteen; triangular, with
  orifice at upper convexity.

289. (39914). Fig. 397. Red ware, with white lines on the lower globe
  and decorations in black on the upper, with orifice in each globe.


These are of the usual form, of such vessels, except that they are
generally without the lip. It is possible that to a certain extent they
have been patterned after those observed in use among the Europeans or
white races with whom these Indians have come in contact. But we shall
presently find specimens similar in form among the ancient pottery found
in the ruins of the cliff houses. We are inclined to believe that the
form is original and not borrowed. The figures introduced will suffice
to illustrate the form and usual decorations. The specimens obtained are
generally small, varying in capacity from a pint to half a gallon. These
are known in Zuñi by the name _Ē´-mūsch-tōn-ne_.

290. (39918). Shown in Fig. 403.

291. (40668). With scalloped margin and decorations similar to those on
  Fig. 403.

292. (40669). Without handle and should be classed with the cups.
  Figures of plants.

293. (40671). Triangles on the upper portion; simple meander on the

294. (40672). Similar to the following.

295. (40673). With scalloped margin and zigzag lines on white ground;
  small right-angle handle.

296. (40674). With scalloped marginal and middle bands. The following
  are brown ware with but slight decorations:

297-310. 297, (40838); 298, (40839); 299, (40841); 300, (40843), outline
  figures similar to those on No. 293; 301, (40844); 302, (40887); 303,
  (40888); 304, (40889); 305, (40890), is really black but not polished;
  306, (40891); 307, (40893); 308, (40894); 309, (40897); 310, (40898).

311. (40842). Scalloped rim and similar in size and shape to 298,

312. (40845). Small, white, with decorations and of unusual form, in
  fact in the original field list is classed among the canteens. The
  mouth is prolonged obliquely in the form of a large tube. It should
  perhaps be classed with the water jugs.

313. (40892). Form and decorations shown in Fig. 405.

314. (40895). Scalloped margin; decorated with scrolls.

315. (40896). Scalloped margin. Figures of the little water animal so
  often represented on the earthenware baskets.

316. (40899). Without handle; diamond figures on the neck.

317. (41005). Fig. 406.

318. (41013). Slender neck and small mouth; jug-shaped, marked with
  twigs and leaves. This does not appear to be of Zuñi manufacture.

319. (41136). Fig. 407.

320. (40840). Shown in Fig. 404.


Under this general head are included two forms: one, closely resembling
the true cup, as shown in the figures and to which the Zuñis apply the
name _sāt-tsān-nā-mū-yā_, and those in the form of ollas or bowls, and
without handles. The decorations of the true cup-shaped vessels,
especially on the inner surface, follow somewhat closely the patterns
found on the bowls. Here we see the zigzag marginal line, the scalloped
bands, the interlaced or tessellated bands with star points, triangles,
scrolls, &c.; but the elongate triangle or lance point is seldom
present. As no new figure is introduced it is unnecessary for me to
describe the decorations. A few are of red or brown ware.

The following numbers refer to true cups:

321-345. 321, (40058); 322, (40615); 323, (40616), Fig. 408; 324,
  (40617); 325, (40618); 326, (40619); 327, (40620); 328, (40621), Fig.
  409; 329, (40622); 330, (40623); 331, (40624); 332, (40625); 333,
  (40627); 334, (40638); 335, (40639); 336, (40640); 337, (40641); 338,
  (40643); 339, (40644); 340, (40837); 341, (40847); 342, (40848); 343,
  (40880)--this is an unusually large cup and although having a handle
  may have been used as a bowl; 344, (40998); 345, (41148), an unburnt

The following are without handles and are either small bowls or paint

346-355. 346, (40426); 347, (40436); 348, (40458); 349, (40642); 350,
  (40853), a small bowl-shaped cup, _sūt-tsān-nā_; 351, (40994); 352,
  (40995); 353, (40996); 354, (40997); 355, (41000).

  Fig. 398 (40886)
  Fig. 399 (39928)
  Fig. 400 (40078)
  Fig. 401 (40486)
  Fig. 402 (40103)
  Figs. 398-402.--ZUÑI POTTERY.]

  Fig. 403 (39918) (¼)
  Fig. 404 (40840) (¼)
  Fig. 405 (40892) (⅓)
  Fig. 406 (41005) (¼)
  Figs. 403-406.--Zuñi Water Pitchers.]

  Fig. 407 (41136) (⅓)
  Fig. 408 (40616) (⅓)
  Fig. 409 (40621) (⅓)
  Fig. 410 (39962) (¼)
  Fig. 411 (40266) (¼)
  Fig. 412 (40285) (¼)
  Figs. 407-412.--Zuñi Water Pitcher, Cups, and Eating Bowls.]


The smaller forms are called _sāt-tsān-nā_.

356. (39962). Fig. 410. The ornamentation is typical of a variety very
  common on Zuñi bowls. The design on the outer surface is more constant
  than that on the inner, in which the figures of animals, especially
  the elk, are sometimes introduced. The distinguishing feature of this
  type is the zigzag line on the inner margin.

The following numbers belong to the same type:

357-378. 357, (39746); 358, (39973); 359, (39975); 360, (39981); 361,
  (39984); 362, (39988); 363, (39989); 364, (39991); 365, (39993); 366,
  (39994); 367, (39997); 368, (39999); 369, (40004), duplicate of Fig.
  411; 370, (40005); 371, (40231); 372, (40234); 373, (40236); 374,
  (40239); 375, (40246); 376, (40249); 377, (40250); 378, (40259).

379-396. 379, (40260); 380, (40266), shown in Fig. 411; 381, (40274);
  382, (40285), shown in Fig. 412; 383, (40504); 384, (40512); 385,
  (40513); 386, (40516); 387, (40517); 388, (40519); 389, (40522); 390,
  (40527); 391, (40530); 392, (40541); 393, (40546); 394, (40528); 395,
  (40203); 396, (40211).

397. (39951). Decorated, on the inner margin only, with triangles.

398. (39952). Similar to that shown in Fig. 411, except that the inner
  marginal line is scalloped.

The following numbers may be classed in the same group:

399, 400. 399, (40205); 400, (40210).

401. (40521). Similar to No. 397, except that it has the interior below
  the marginal line decorated with scrolls.

402. (39902). Decorated on the inner surface only, with the usual
  scrolls; marginal band simply a narrow line or entirely wanting.

The following belong to the same type:

403-417. 403, (39960); 404, (40002); 405, (40006); 406, (40232); 407,
  (40233); 408, (40237); 409, (40263); 410, (40268); 411, (40284), in
  this small specimen there are but few figures; 412, (40503); 413,
  (40505); 414, (40520); 415, (40524); 416, (40981); 417, (40987).

418. (40906). The decorations of this piece belong to a variety which is
  readily distinguished by the broad checkered band on the inner margin.

There are two sub-varieties, one with and one without figures on the
external surface. This and the following specimens belong to the latter

419, 420. 419, (40533); 420, (39890).

421. (40001). This belongs to the former group, as represented by Fig.

422. (39898). External decorations as in Fig. 410, except that the lower
  margin of the oblique line is furnished with scrolls as in Fig. 375,
  inner surface with leaves, and a zigzag marginal line.

423. (39908). This and the following thirty-one specimens have the
  external surface ornamented as in Fig. 410, the decorations of the
  inner surface varying and differing from those already enumerated. In
  this the marginal line is simple.

424. (39909). Marginal line scalloped; central rosette of simple lines.

425. (39963). Zigzags in irregular lines, no marginal band; form

426. (39963). Triangles and scrolls; somewhat mug-shaped.

427. (39972). Usual form; decorations as in the preceding.

428. (39975). Ornamentation as represented in Fig. 422.

429. (39976). Double scrolls; no marginal bands.

430. (40000). Margin as in Fig. 422; no other inner decorations.

431. (40204). Scroll figures; no marginal band; form hemispherical.

432. (40216). Similar to Fig. 423, as are also the following specimens:

433-443. 433, (40218); 434, (40223); 435, (40238); 436, (40240); 437,
  (40284); 438, (40286); 439, (40501); 440, (40506); 441, (40507); 442,
  (40510); 443, (40514); the inner decorations of this piece vary in
  having the figures of the elk below the marginal band.

444-447. 444, (40515); 445, (40547); 446, (40985); 447, (40217). Zigzag
  marginal band; no other inner decorations.

448. (40241). Marginal band double, upper line undulate, lower, straight
  with star points.

449. (40245). Marginal band composed of rows of stars, as in Fig. 414.

450. (40251). Only the inner decorations consist of radiating serrate

451. (40258). Similar to that shown in Fig. 424.

452. (40273). Inner decorations apparently intended as floral; marginal
  line very slender.

453. (40275). Inner figures; radiating scrolls.

454. (40287). Similar to No. 453.

455. (40558). Inner figures in the form of blocks or tiles; marginal
  band undulating.

456. (40549). Inner decorations consist of two narrow crenate bands, one
  marginal and the other just below it.

457. (39891). This and the following thirty-nine specimens are without
  external ornamentation. In this one the inner figures are radiating
  scrolls, and birds.

458. (39892). Slender marginal scalloped band only.

459. (39893). Serrate marginal band only.

460. (39953). Similar to Fig. 424.

461. (39954). Birds with wings spread, and scrolls.

462. (39958). Differs from the usual form in having the margin
  undulating. The inner decorations consist chiefly of combinations of
  triangles. Similar to

463. (39971). Similar to the preceding.

464. (39959). Scrolls and triangles.

465. (39960). Scrolls and leaves.

466. (39961). Oblique serrate lines.

467. (39986). Broad net-work, marginal band, as seen in Fig. 414; form
  unusual, being constricted near the base.

468. (39992). Marginal band composed of sigmoid figures.

469. (39996). Very small; central diameter with rays from the points;
  the marginal band is simply a narrow line.

  Fig. 413 (40041) (¼)
  Fig. 414 (40033) [illegible fraction]
  Fig. 415 (40164) (¼)
  Figs. 413-415.--Zuñi Eating Bowls.]

470. (40209). Ornamental marginal band only.

471. (40212). Scalloped marginal band, and central rosette or flower.

472. (40224). Scalloped marginal band, and figures of deer.

473. (40225). Zigzag band and the usual scroll figures.

474. (40229). Two slender bands, and central radiating scrolls.

475. (40242). Zigzag marginal line only.

476. (40248). Narrow scalloped marginal band; no other figures.

477. (40252). Zigzag band and floral decorations.

478. (40253). No marginal band; oblique triple and dotted lines.

479. (40265). Serrate marginal band and central rosette.

480. (40270). No band except a simple line bounding the central figure
  of radiating leaves.

481. (40272). Three plain bands.

482. (40481). Broad marginal band in figures arranged in square blocks.

483. (40485). Very small; marginal net-work band, central floral figure.

484. (40490). Similar to the preceding.

485. (40489). Plain marginal band; central floral figures.

486. (40492). Zigzag marginal band as in Fig. 425.

487. (40498). Marginal band as in Fig. 414.

488. (40499). Scalloped marginal band.

489. (40508). Zigzag band and floral decorations.

490. (40511). Marginal band composed of lines of stars.

491. (40530). Similar to No. 486, having also a central figure.

492. (40536). Marginal band of scrolls and triangles.

493. (40537). Net-work marginal band.

494. (40539). Scalloped band and central figure of twigs and leaves;
  unusually chaste design.

495. (40542). Like No. 467.

496. (40545). Scalloped marginal band.

497. (39967). Do.

498. (39965). Zigzag inner marginal band; figures of the elk externally
  and internally.

499. (39966). External and internal zigzag marginal band.

500. (39969). No external decorations; marked internally with oblique
  lines, no band.

501. (39970). Scroll figures on the inner surface; on the outer,
  triangles pointing in opposite directions; no bands.

502. (39977). Dish-like, undulate, external and internal marginal band.

503. (39978). Inner band of crosses, and central figure, outer serrate
  marginal band.

504. (39982). }
505. (39983). }
  Decorations same as those represented in Fig. 414, with a wide,
  latticed, marginal band on the inner side of the bowl.

506. (39985). Both surfaces decorated with scroll figures.

507. (39987). Inner surface with scroll figures, outer with but a
  marginal scalloped band.

508. (39990). Both surfaces marked with oblique serrate Hues; unusually

509. (39998). Inner surface with reversed elks; outer with oblique
  lines, with each side serrate.

510. (40007). Inner surface with serrate band and birds; outer with
  serrate band.

511. (40213). Elk and scrolls internally; an outer scalloped band.

512. (40215). Resembles No. 501.

513. (40219). The decorations on this bowl are unusual; those of the
  inner surface consist of a slender crenate marginal band, and below
  this a woman holding a child and apparently closely wrapped in a robe
  of some kind and placed transversely; the outer margin is marked with
  a broad band of crosses regularly spaced by perpendicular lines.

The following numbers belong to the type represented in Figs. 356, 411,
and 412:

514-520. 514, (39979); 515, (40220); 516, (40221); 517, (40243); 518,
  (40274); 519, (40493); 520, (40523), inner marginal band consists of
  scrolls and triangles.

521. (40227). Inner marginal band broad and divided into diamond spaces;
  outer surface ornamented with figures similar to those on vase
  represented by Fig. 372.

522. (40230). Although classed with the bowls this is shaped somewhat
  like the paint pots; outer and inner bands.

523. (40247). Resembles No. 504.

524. (40254). Two broad undulate lines on the external surface; inner
  surface with blocks and scrolls.

525. (40256). Inside with crenate marginal lines, and circular space and
  triangles as in Fig. 359. External surface with a simple scalloped

526. (40264). External surface as in the preceding; internal scrolls and

527-533. 527, (40267); 528, (40269); 529, (40487); 530, (40495); 531,
  (40509); 532, (40529); 533, (40531). The decorations on these
  specimens belong to the same general type as those of No. 526.

534. (40271). Mug-shaped with flat bottom; outer surface marked with
  five scalloped bands; inner with scrolls.

535. (40279). Outer surface with triangular figures; inner with a
  scalloped marginal band and a similar band below.

536. (40482). Similar in form to No. 534. Outer and inner decorations
  consist almost entirely of triangles.

537. (40483). Without bands; interior, scrolls; exterior, geometrical

538. (40488). This belongs to the type represented by Fig. 411; rosette
  on the inner surface.

539. (40491). Similar in form and decorations to No. 534.

  Fig. 416 (40296) (¼)
  Fig. 417 (40493) (¼)
  Fig. 418 (40176) (¼)
  Figs. 416-418.--Zuñi Eating Bowl.]

540. (40496). Form like the preceding; inner face decorated with stars;
  outer with the usual triangular figures.

541. (40497). Flat, finger-bowl shaped, single scalloped band
  externally; scrolls and circular figures internally.

542. (40502). Double band of triangles externally; internally zigzag
  lines precisely like those in Fig. 371.

543. (40538). Inner serrate marginal band and radiating scrolls; no
  external decorations.

544. (40540). Central flower internally; a single serrate band

545. (40980). Pan-shaped; inner surface marked with geometrical figures;
  outer without decorations.

546, 547. 546, (40988); 547, (40993). Without external ornamentation,
marked with zigzag inner marginal line, central scroll, and triangular

548. (40991). Oblique serrate lines externally; zigzag inner marginal

549. (40992). No external decorations; inner marginal line crenate;
  central flower.

Brown, red, or yellow ware. Usually without ornamentation.

550. (39907). Small rosettes or flowers on inner surface.

The following numbers are without ornamentation of any kind:

551-572. 551, (39968); 552, (40003); 553, (40207); 554, (40214); 555,
  (40226); 556, (40235); 557, (40244); 558, (40257); 559, (40276); 560,
  (40277); 561, (40278); 562, (40280); 563, (40281); 564, (40494); 565,
  (40526); 566, (40528); 567, (40534); 568, (40543); 569, (40544); 570,
  (40982); 571, (40984); 572, (40989).

The following have slight decorations; wherever the band is mentioned it
is to be understood as marginal unless otherwise specified:

573. (39974). Narrow external band.

574. (39981). Floral figure on inner surface.

575. (39995). Triangles externally; narrow sub-marginal band internally.

576. (40206). Outline leaf-like figures on inner face.

577. (40222). Inner crenate band and cross lines.

578. (40229). Slender bands and scrolls.

579. (40288). Inner band of geometrical figures.

580. (40550). With slender outer band.

581. (40980). Inner zigzag band and triangular figures.

582. (40983). Inner central white flower.

583. (40990). Inner band of scrolls.

The larger forms, following, are called _Ī´-tŏn-ä-ka-sah-le_.

584. (40041). Represented in Fig. 413. The broad checkered band on the
  inner margin forms the distinguishing characteristic. The following
  are similarly decorated:

585, 586. 585, (40010); 586, (40167).

587. (40033). As closely resembling the preceding, I introduce here a
  variety with a latticed marginal band shown in Fig. 414.

The following specimens belong to the same variety, the chief
differences, being the inner central figures:

588. (40164). Fig. 415.

589. (40177). Do.

590. (40181). This specimen has no ornamentation except the band.

591. (40296). Fig. 416. This varies in having the figures of birds with
  wings spread and of elks on the inner surface below the marginal line.
  These are but partially shown in the figure.

592, 593. 592, (40965) and 593 (40955) belong to the same variety, but
  their inner decorations resemble more closely those represented in
  Fig. 415.

594. (40493). Fig. 417. The decorations on this piece belong to the very
  common variety shown in Figs. 356, 411, and 412.

595-600. To this type belong the following numbers: 595, (40008); 596,
  (40009); 597, (40012); 598, (40013); 599, (40020); 600, (40021), this
  varies in having no ornamentation on the outer surface.

601-608. 601, (40176), shown in Fig. 418; 602, (40031); 603, (40038);
  604, (40043); 605, (40046); 606, (40047); 607, (40050); 608, (40052)

609-628. 609, (40151); 610, (40152); 611, (40163); 612, (40168); 613,
  (40170); 614, (40171); 615, (40175); 616, (40185); 617, (40186); 618,
  (40188); 619, (40189), Fig. 419; 620, (40191); 621, (40193); 622,
  (40194); 623, (40195); 624, (40196); 625, (40197); 626, (40199); 627,
  (40200); 628, (40293), this piece is properly a bread bowl,

629-638. 629, (40295); 630, (40297); 631, (40298); 632, (40310); 633,
  (40305); 634, (40306); 635, (40308); 636, (40309); 637, (40930); 638,
  (40931), shown in Fig. 420. I would call attention here to the strong
  similarity of the inner decorations of this bowl with those on the
  body of the vase represented in Fig. 359. This is properly a bread

639-646. 639, (40938); 640, (40957); 641, (40958); 642, (40967); 643,
  (40971); 644, (40974); 645, (40975); 646, (41171), Fig. 421.

The following specimens have the same external decorations as those
represented in Figs. 413-421, but differ in regard to the figures on the
inner surface.

647. (40014). Fig. 422. The cut fails to show the figures of the elk
  placed among the scroll ornaments.

648, 649. 648, (40023); 649, (40026).

650-658. 650, (40028), shown in Fig. 423; 651, (40035); 652, (40042);
  653, (40045); 654, (40049); 655, (40051), these two are bread bowls;
  656, (40153); 657, (40156); 658, (40178).

659-663. 659, (40183); 660, (40198); 661, (40202); 662, (40927), Fig.
  424; and 663, (40932), Fig. 425.

  Fig. 419 (40189) (¼)
  Fig. 420 (40931) (⅕)
  Fig. 421 (41171) (⅕)
  Figs. 419-421.--Zuñi Eating Bowls.]

  Fig. 422 (40014) (¼)
  Fig. 423 (40028) (¼)
  Fig. 424 (40927) (⅕)
  Figs. 422-424.--Zuñi Eating Bowls.]

  Fig. 425 (40932) (¼)
  Fig. 426 (40179) (¼)
  Fig. 427 (40290) (¼)
  Figs. 425-427.--Zuñi Eating Bowls.]

664-669. 664, (40951); 665, (40952); 666, (40960); 667, (40976); 668,
  (40977); and 669, (40016), may be grouped together, as strongly
  resembling each other in regard to their inner decorations.

670. (40027). Inner marginal band with diamond spaces and colored
  triangles, scrolls, and small rosettes or flowers below.

671. (40030). No inner band; geometrical figures.

672. (40035). Narrow simple marginal band; elk and scrolls.

673. (40179), Fig. 426. Each of the following specimens has a similar
  marginal band, but the inner central figures differ.

674-682. 674, (40037); 675, (40044); 676, (40187); 677, (40300); 678,
  (40937); 679, (40966); 680, (40969); 681, (40973); 682, (40040).
  Patch-work figures, resembling pieces of broken pottery.

683. (40157). Somewhat like Fig. 424, the perpendicular lines of the
  band being doubly scalloped.

684. (40169). Marginal band a vine with leaves and flowers; central
  figures similar to those on vase shown in Fig. 371.

685. (40182). No inner band; scroll figures.

686. (40190). No inner band; elks and geometrical figures.

687. (40201). Marginal band with triple lines similar to those in Fig.

688. (40290). Shown in Fig. 427.

689. (40292). Marginal band similar to that on Fig. 427; scroll figures
  in central portion.

690. (40294). Fig. 430. In this the outer decoration varies in having
  the elongate triangle or lance point double, and the inner in having
  the figure of a mule or donkey.

691. (40304). No marginal band; scroll figures.

692. (40302). Fig. 429.

693. (40486). A broad bowl; inner marginal band, the upper portion of
  which has a line of diamond spaces. The under side of the oblique line
  on the outer surface is bordered with scrolls as in Fig. 375. This is
  a very large specimen, being eighteen inches in diameter. See Fig.

694. (40928). Inner surface marked with geometrical figures.

695. (40970). No figures on the inner surface.

696. (40972). Inner decorations as in Fig. 419.

697. (40017). No outer decorations; inner surface with marginal band and
  large white cross; remainder brown.

698. (40015). Outer and inner faces marked with triangles and slender

699. (40024). Outer scalloped band, scroll figures internally.

700. (40022). Outer surface with scalloped band and large oblique
  diamonds; inner with double scalloped band and scrolls.

701, 702. 701, (40158); 702, (40159). Outer face without decorations;
inner with large vermiform figures.

703. (40166). Both faces with oblique lines of scrolls.

704. (40192). Stems and leaves externally and internally.

705. (40195), Interior decorations profuse; scrolls, and diamond-shaped

706. (40934). Four scalloped bands on outer face; scroll figures on
  inner surface.

707. (40935). No outer decorations; inside marked with a marginal band
  of dots and lines; central scrolls.

708. (40939). Both surfaces with geometrical figures.

709. (40950). Marked externally with double lance points; internally
  with scrolls.

710. (39954). Shown in Fig. 428. Here we see the head of the grotesque
  bird reduced to a simple scroll.

Brown or yellow ware. Decorations in black or red, without external
ornamentation unless otherwise stated.

711-713. 711, (40011); 712. (40936); 713, (40962). Four large leaves
  forming a cross.

714. (40018). Broad external band of horizontal and oblique dotted
  lines. No figures on the inner surface.

715. (40032). External scalloped band; reversed pyramids or pueblos

716. (40039). Broad marginal band of half pyramids, alternately

717. (40048). White vermiform figures.

718, 719. 718, (40154); 719, (40184). These are similarly marked, the
margin in both being also white.

The following specimens are without decorations of any kind:

720-733. 720, (40019); 721, (40036); 722, (40160); 723, (40162); 724,
  (40165); 725, (40180); 726, (40307); 727, (40929); 728, (40953); 729,
  (40954); 730, (40959); 731, (40962); 732, (40963); 733, (40968).

734. (40155). Patch-work.

735. (40172). Four serrate or scalloped bands on outer face. Similar
  inner marginal band in outline; and outline pyramidal figures.

736. (40174). Outline pyramidal figures.

737-739. 737, (40173); 738, (40289); 739, (40964). Marginal band of
  double outline scrolls.

740. (39618). Brown ware with decorations in black. Colored Fig. 380.

741. (39592). Brown ware with decorations in black. Colored Fig. 382.

  Fig. 428 (39954) (⅓)
  Fig. 429 (40302) (¼)
  Fig. 430 (40294) (⅕)
  Figs. 428-430.--Zuñi Eating Bowls.]

  Fig. 431 (41135) (⅓)
  Fig. 432 (41053) (¼)
  Fig. 433 (41114) (⅙)
  Fig. 434 (41092) (⅓)
  Fig. 435 (40865) (⅓)
  Fig. 436 (41113) (1/7)
  Figs. 431-436.--Zuñi Cooking Vessels.]


These vessels are generally of medium size, though in some instances the
dimensions vary exceedingly. Those used in cooking for feasts are quite
large, sometimes with a capacity of about ten gallons; the smallest,
designed only for family use, are less than four inches in diameter and
not quite three inches high. They are of two general forms, one similar
to the ordinary pots used on cooking stoves, the other bowl-shaped. Two
specimens in the collection are provided with legs; to these the Zuñians
apply the name _sä-mū yĕn-sä-qui-pä_. See Fig. 432. As a general
rule, the rims of these vessels are flared, and on some of them, close
to the rim on the outside, are ear-like projections, which are probably
intended as catches by which, with pokers or sticks, they can be removed
from or arranged in position on the fire. They are never ornamented, and
have no coloring other than that which is acquired in baking. These
vessels are used in cooking such foods as contain liquids. Three names
are applied to cooking pots, having reference to size, viz.:
_päh-tēh-le_ is the large cylindrical pot; the smaller pot of the same
form is _päh-tēhl-tsān-nā_; and _wāh-li-äh-kä-tēhl-le_ is the common
cooking pot. The Olla or bowl-shaped pot, Fig. 433, is called

The following numbers belong to the _päh-tēhl-tsān-nā_ group and present
no variations worthy of special notice.

742, 743. 742, (41113). Fig. 436; 743, (41114), Fig. 433. These
illustrations represent a form and have the appearance of the so-called
ancient ware; the latter specimen bears the impress of the grass which
was produced in the baking process.

744. (40865). Fig. 435. Cooking pot.

The following numbers represent specimens of cooking pots of varying
sizes, though generally small and of the form of No. 744, though some
few present the appearance of bowls:

745-766. 745, (41115); 746, (41116); 747, (41117); 748, (41118); 749,
  (41119); 750, (41120); 751, (41121); 752, (41122); 753, (41123); 754,
  (41124); 755, (41125); 756, (41126); 757, (41127); 758, (41128); 759,
  (41129); 760, (41130); 761, (41131); 762, (41132); 763, (41137); 764,
  (41138); 765, (41140); 766, (41141).

The following belong to the _sä-mū-yĕn_ bowls:

767-804. 767, (41055); 768, (41056); 769, (41057); 770, (41058); 771,
  (41059); 772, (41060); 773, (41061); 774, (41062); 775, (41063); 776,
  (41064); 777, (41065); 778, (41066); 779, (41067); 780, (41068); 781,
  (41069); 782, (41070); 783, (41071); 784, (41072); 785, (41073); 786,
  (41074); 787, (41075); 788, (41076); 789, (41077); 790, (41078); 791,
  (41079); 792, (41080); 793, (41081); 794, (41082); 795, (41083); 796,
  (41084); 797, (41085); 798, (41086); 799, (41087); 800, (41088); 801,
  (41089); 802, (41090); 803, (41091); 804, (41092), shown in Fig. 434.

805-826. 805, (41093); 806, (41094); 807, (41095); 808, (41096); 809,
  (41097); 810, (41098); 811, (41099); 812, (41100); 813, (41101); 814,
  (41102); 815, (41103); 816, (41104); 817, (41106); 818, (41107); 819,
  (41108); 820, (41109); 821, (41110); 822, (41111); 823, (41112); 824,
  (41133); 825, (41139); 826, (41143). This is an unburnt specimen of
  unusual form, resembling in this respect a sugar bowl, its margin and
  sides undulated.

827, 828. 827, (40853), bowl-shaped with conical bottom; 828, (41053),
Fig. 432, pot-shaped, but with four legs.

829, 830. 829, (41134); 830, (41135), are really pitchers, as will be
seen by reference to Fig. 431, which represents the latter, but they
appear to be made for cooking purposes, as they are designated by the
name _sä-mū-yĕn_.


Called by the Zuñians _sa-sho-kŏn-ne_. These are of two forms, one
resembling somewhat an oyster-shell, the other with a handle resembling
a spoon. The forms and decorations are shown in the figures. They are of
white ware usually with figures on the inner surface, and of red ware
without ornamentation. They vary in size from eight inches in length and
five inches across the bowl to four and a half and two and a half

831-839. 831, (39884); 832, (39894), Fig. 438; 833, (40430); 834,
  (40431); 835, (40432), flower in the bowl; 836, (40433); 837, (40460);
  838, (40461); 839, (41254). With handles.

840-841. 840, (39895); 841, (39896), figures of elks in the bowl.
  Without handles.

842. (39929).

843, 844. 843, (40408) scrolls; 844, (40417), Fig. 440.

845, 846. 845, (40418); 846, (40419), this has a pretty marginal band,
and the figure of a slender bird in the bowl.

847-851. 847, (40420); 848, (40421); 849, (40422), Fig. 439; 450,
  (40423); 451, (40424), resembles Fig. 440.

852-868. 852, (40425); 853, (40427); 854, (40428); 855, (40429); 856,
  (40434); 857, (40435); 858, (40437); 859, (40438); 860, (40439); 861,
  (40441); 862, (40442); 863, (40459); 864, (40462); 865, (40463); 866,
  (40675); 867, (40677); 868, (40678), Fig. 441.

869, 870. 869, (40679); 870, (40875), Fig. 437.

  Fig. 437 (40875) (½)
  Fig. 438 (39894) (⅓)
  Fig. 439 (40422) (⅓)
  Fig. 440 (40417) (⅓)
  Fig. 441 (40678) (⅓)
  Figs. 437-441.--Zuñi Ladles.]

  Fig. 442 (39971) (¼)
  Fig. 443 (40075) (⅓)
  Fig. 444 (40400) (⅓)
  Fig. 445 (40371) (⅓)
  Fig. 446 (40377) (⅓)
  Fig. 447 (40372) (⅓)
  Figs. 442-447.--Zuñi Clay Baskets.]

  Fig. 448 (40359) (⅓)
  Fig. 449 (41019) (⅓)
  Fig. 450 (40356) (¼)
  Fig. 451 (40355) (⅓)
  Fig. 452 (40354) (⅓)
  Fig. 453 (40379) (⅓)
  Figs. 448-453.--Zuñi Clay Baskets.]


Called by the Zuñians, _āh-wēhl-wi-āh-pä-sāhl_. These vessels, which
vary in size from four to eight inches in diameter and from two to five
in depth, are in the form of bowls, sometimes with a handle over the top
like a basket handle, sometimes without. The margin is either scalloped,
as in Fig. 452, or terraced so as to resemble the section of a pyramid
or pueblo, being cut in this form with a horse-hair while soft. They are
always of white ware decorated with black. The margin is uniformly
black, and there is often an inner and outer submarginal narrow band
following the undulations or terraces. The figures most common, and in
fact almost exclusively used, are those resembling tadpoles, but which,
as I learned, are intended to represent a small crustacean or the larva
of an insect common in the water-pools and streams of the Zuñi country;
and the somewhat grotesque figures of the horned toad (_Phrynosoma_).
These figures are placed both on the outer and inner surfaces, though
the figure of the reptile is generally found on the outer.

These singular vessels are used by the Indians only in their sacred and
ceremonial dances. In them is placed a small quantity of meal; they are
then borne in the hands of the women, who, during the dance, take a
small quantity of the meal, just as much as they can hold between the
tips of the fingers, and sprinkle it on the sacred objects and on the
heads of the persons leading in the ceremonies.

As the forms and decorations are correctly shown in the figures, I shall
only notice those which are unusual.

Without handles; margin scalloped:

871-873. 871, (40074); 872, (40075), Fig. 443; 873, (40400), Fig. 444.

Without handles; margin terraced:

874. (40337). Figures of insects on outer surface.

875-881. 875, (40344); 876, (40364); 877, (40367); 878, (40368); 879,
  (40369); 880, (40370); 881, (40371), Fig. 445.

882-899. 882, (40372), Fig. 447; 883, (40373); 884, (40374); 885,
  (40375); 886, (40376); 887, (40377), Fig. 446; 888, (40378); 889,
  (40380); 890, (40381); 891, (40382); 892, (40383); 893, (40384); 894,
  (40385); 895, (40392); 896, (40393); 897, (40394); 898, (40396); 899,
  (40803), this specimen, which is but slightly burnt, is more globular
  in form than usual, and has mounted on each pyramid a small image, one
  human, one of a dog or fox, one of a chicken, and the other probably
  intended for a bird. This is really not a meal basket, but is carried
  in the dance for rain, and bears the name _tkhä-pō-kā-tēhl-le_.

900-902. 900, (41014); 901, (41015), this has in the place of the
  reptile the figure of a bird; 902, (41018).

903. (39971). Fig. 442. A Zuñi clay basket without handles; the form of
  the margin and inner decorations are unusual, and on this account and
  the fact that the little water animal does not appear on it, it is
  probably from some other tribe, though obtained at Zuñi.

904. (40354). Fig. 452. With handles; margin scalloped. The decorations
  on this basket are unusual. The chief figure and the most interesting
  one on this entire group of pottery is that of a snake encircling the
  body of the basket; on the head of which is a feather crest.

905. (41019). Fig. 449. A Zuñi dance basket, one of the most complete in
  form and decoration in the collection.

906-909. 906, (40356), Fig. 450; 907, (40390); 908, (40391); 909,
  (40806). This is more cup shaped than usual, and is ornamented with
  the geometrical figures common on bowls. It belongs to a distinct
  class of sacred vessels to which the name _tkhä-pō-kā-tēhl-le_ is

910-913. 910, (40336); 911, (40353); 912, (40355), Fig. 451; 913,
  (40357), varies in having the head of a bird. With handles; margins

914-922. 914, (40358); 915, (40360); 916, (40361); 917, (40362); 918,
  (40365); 919, (40366); 920, (40359), Fig. 448; 921, (40379), Fig. 453;
  922, (40386). This and the three following specimens are small baskets
  called by the Zuñians _āh´-wēhl-wi-āh-pä-sāhl-tsān-nā_.

923-928. 923, (40387); 924, (40388); 925, (40389); 926, (40395). This
  and the two following bear the same figures as observed on Fig. 452.
  927, (40397); 928, (40398).

929. (40399). This basket is ornamented with the conventional little
  water animal, inside and out; it also presents the head and tail of a
  snake, the body of which encircles the base of the basket. The head of
  the snake is decorated with a crest and a horn-like projection
  immediately before the eyes. The tongue and teeth are also represented
  in colors on the specimen. The rim is serrated and painted black with
  a small line conforming to the black band immediately under it.

930. (41016). Is without a handle, but noticeable for the representation
  of a bird, on each side of which are two of the little water animals.

931. (41017). Basket without handle and four pyramids with serrated
  edges, and representation of horned toad on sides.

932. (41019). Basket with handle, large toad on each side, and a
  dragonfly on each side of the toad.


These are always small, but vary in size from one and a half to three
inches in height. They are usually in the form of water vases or
globular jars, though sometimes of a true cup shape, and occasionally
cubical. They are generally single, but quite often double, and
occasionally triple and quadruple. To the large-sized single ones the
Zuñians apply the name of _hĕl-i-pō-kā-tēhl-le_; and to those of smaller
sizes, _hĕl-i-pō-kā-tēhl-tsān-nā_. They are usually without handles, but
sometimes these are present. The double ones are connected only by a bar
extending from the body of one to that of the other; and the triple and
quadruple ones in a similar manner. They are of red and white ware like
the other pottery; the decorations on the white are similar to those
already described, so far as they can be adapted to these small

We shall give the numbers without remarks, except to note unusual forms
and figures.

Single cups:

933-938. 933, (39881); 934, (39888); 935, (39938); 936, (39939); 937,
  (39944); 938, (39945); with figures of the little aquatic animal so
  frequently represented on the earthenware baskets used in rain dances.

939-942. 939, (39949); 940, (40036); 941, (40111); 942, (40112); square,
  box-shaped, of brown ware and very rude.

943-946. 943, (40323); 944, (40324); 945, (40325); 946, (40326); with
  terraced margin like that so common in baskets used in the sacred

947-952. 947, (40327); 948, (40328); 949, (40329); 950, (40330); 951,
  (40331); 952, (40332). With meander band of simplest form.

953-961. 953, (40333), terraced margin; 954, (40334); 955, (40335); 956,
  (40338); 957, (40339); 958, (40340); 959, (40341), true cup with
  looped handles; 960, (40342); 961, (40343), with straight cylindrical

962-968. 962, (40345); 863, (40346); 964, (40347); 965, (40348), form of
  the ordinary glass tumbler; 966, (40349); 967, (40352); 968, (40587).
  Mug-shaped, with broad, horizontal rim.

969-974. 969, (40588); 970, (40589); 971, (40590); 972, (40591); 973,
  (40592); 974, (40593). With simple meander band.

975. (40594). The artist has evidently attempted to figure on this the
  true meander (Greek fret), but has failed.

976. (40595). Marked with the grotesque horned toad so common on the
  earthenware baskets.

977-979. 977, (40596); 978, (40597); 979, (40598). Spherical in form,
  decorated with figures of the grotesque bird heretofore mentioned.

980-983. 980, (40599), bowl-shaped; 981, (40645); 982, (40647); 983,
  (40648). Bird with a scroll arising out of its back.

984-994. 984, (40649); 985, (40650); 986, (40651); 987, (40684); 988,
  (40826); 989, (40828), Fig. 455; 990, (40829); 991, (40830); 992,
  (39768); 993, (39982); 994, (39983).

Double cups (_hĕl-i-pō-kā-tēhl-i-pä-chin_). The little water animal is a
common figure on these.

995-998. 995, (39931); 996, (39932), Fig. 454; 997, (39948); 998,
  (40350). This has the connecting bar arched so as to form a handle.

999-1004. 999, (40351); 1000, (40433); 1001, (40444); 1002, (40445);
  1003, (40447); 1004, (40349). The last five are plain.

1005-1007. 1005, (40448); 1006, (40449); 1007, (40450). With scalloped
  margin, double bars, the upper one arched; grotesque figures of horned

1008-1017. 1008, (40451); 1009, (40452); 1010, (40454); 1011, (40455);
  1012, (40456); 1013, (40457); 1014, (40610), double bar or bar and
  handle; 1015, (40681), Fig. 456; 1016, (40682); 1017, (40854), square,
  without bar.

Triple cups:

1018-1023. 1018, (40605); 1019, (40606); 1020, (40609); 1021, (40680);
  1022, (40693); 1023, (40856).

Quadruple cups, to which is applied the same Zuñi name as that given to
those provided with triple and quadruple cups.

1024, 1025. 1024, (40612), Fig. 457; 1025, (40613). Brown, square,
united directly at the sides without bars.

1026-1029. 1026, (40652); 1027, (40855); 1028, (40856), square; 1029,
  (40859), square.


These are similar in form and decorations to the paint cups, and are
also round and square, single, double, and quadruple. They are usually
small, holding from less than half a pint to a pint. The different names
applied to them will be given as they are reached in the list. The
double and quadruple ones are connected together in the same manner as
the multiple paint-pots,

Single cups:

1030. (39878). Square with figures of chickens on the sides.

_Mā-pō-kā-tēhl-le_ is the name by which the round or vase-shaped vessels
are designated. They are numbered as follows:

1031. (39905). Fig. 459. The figures on this specimen appear to be
  intended as representations of some neuropterous insect, but possibly
  they represent birds.

1032-1037. 1032, (40653); 1033, (40654); 1034, (40655); 1035, (40656);
  1036, (40657); 1037, (40658). Some of these appear, from the fragments
  of bars attached to them, to have belonged to double specimens.

1038, 1039. 1038, (40633); 1039, (40832). These two are red ware.

1040-1049. 1040, (40833); 1041, (40834); 1042, (40835); 1043, (41006);
  1044, (41007); 1045, (41008), Fig. 458; 1046, (41170); 1047, (40603);
  1048, (40606); and 1049, (40664), are square.

Double cups:

The round form has the same name as the single salt cup, but the square
pattern is named _Mā´-pō-kā-thlē-lō-ne_. The following specimens belong
to the latter class:

1050-1057. 1050, (39900); 1051, (39901); 1052, (40416); 1053, (40604);
  1054, (40662); brown 1055, (40683); 1056, (40831); 1057, (40661).

1058-1068. The following are round: 1058, (40410); 1059, (40411); 1060,
  (40412); 1061, (40413); 1062, (40414); 1063, (40415); 1064, (40440);
  1065, (40659); 1066, (40660); 1067, (40666); 1068, (40667).

1069. (40836). Quadruple. This and the last three preceding specimens
  are ornamented like Fig. 458.

  Fig. 454 (39932) (⅓)
  Fig. 455 (40828) (⅓)
  Fig. 456 (40681) (½)
  Fig. 457 (40612) (½)
  Fig. 458 (41008) (⅓)
  Fig. 459 (39905) (⅓)
  Figs. 454-459.--Zuñi Paint and Condiment Cups.]

  Fig. 460 (40059) (⅓)
  Fig. 461 (40140) (⅓)
  Figs. 460, 461.--Zuñi Effigies.]

  Fig. 462 (40740) (¼)
  Fig. 463 (40738) (¼)
  Figs. 462, 463.--Zuñi Effigies.]

  Fig. 464 (40739) (¼)
  Fig. 465 (40066) (⅓)
  Fig. 466 (40743) (⅓)
  Fig. 467 (40754) (¼)
  Figs. 464-467.--Zuñi Effigies.]

  Fig. 468 (40748) (¼)
  Fig. 469 (40767) (½)
  Figs. 468, 469.--Zuñi Effigies.]

  Fig. 470 (41026) (⅓)
  Fig. 471 (39910) (⅓)
  Figs. 470, 471.--Zuñi Effigies.]


These figures, which are of small size, the largest not exceeding one
foot in length, are quite rude, rendering it difficult in some cases to
tell what animal is intended, the only exceptions to this rule being
some figures of owls, in which the Zuñians appear to have made the
nearest approach to the true form. They are generally of white ware,
decorated with colors. Often these decorations are arbitrary, but as a
general rule there has been an evident attempt to imitate nature so far
as it could be done with the various shades of brown and black.

Some of the larger pieces, especially the owls, have an opening at the
top or on the back, as though designed for water vessels.

The objects most commonly represented are owls (which largely
predominate), antelope, elk, ducks, and chickens. The human form, the
pig, sheep, horse, &c., are occasionally represented.

Owls, _mū-hū-que_ and _mū-hū-que-tsān-nā_. These are nearly always
represented with feet, and in most cases with legs. The body is usually
disproportionately large, as are also the legs; the bill is small, and
the wings are represented by small lateral projections; the tail is
short. The eyes are generally well represented. The feathers, as will be
seen, by reference to the figures, are quite well shown. The figures
nave an opening on the top of the head.

As there is a strong similarity in form, and the mode of decorating them
is shown in the figures, no special remarks on the different specimens
are necessary.

1070-1077. 1070, (39875); 1071, (39876); 1072, (39877); 1073, (39921);
  1074, (39942); 1075, (39957); 1076, (40054); 1077, (40059), shown in
  Fig. 460; this is one of the very few without feet.

1078-1096. 1078, (40064); 1079, (40065); 1080, (40068); 1081, (40138);
  1082, (40140), Fig. 461; 1083, (40261); 1084, (40142), small; 1085,
  (40262); 1086, (40141); 1087, (40142); 1088, (40409); 1089, (40734);
  1090, (40735), without feet; 1091, (40736); 1092, (40737); 1093,
  (40738), Fig. 463, very large; 1094, (40740), Fig. 462; 1095, (40741);
  1096, (40742).

1097-1112. 1097, (40743), Fig. 466; 1098, (40744); 1099, (40745); 1100,
  (40746), without feet; 1101, (40747); 1102, (40748), Fig. 468; 1103,
  (40749); 1104, (40750); 1105, (40751); 1106, (40752); 1107, (40753);
  1108, (40754), Fig. 467; 1109, (40755); 1110, (40756); 1111, (40757);
  1112, (40758), without decorations.

1113-1120. 1113, (40759); 1114, (40760); 1115, (40761); 1116, (40762);
  1117, (40763); 1118, (40764); 1119, (40765); 1120, (40766), bearing a
  single young owl on its back.

1121. (40767). Shown in Fig. 469, bearing three young owls on its back.

1122. (41043).

1123, 1124. 1123, (40066), Fig. 465, and 1124, (40739), Fig. 464. Two
owl-shaped water vessels from Zuñi.

Duck-shaped canteens, _ē-yāh-mē-hē-to_, are usually represented in a
swimming posture, without feet, though occasionally the standing posture
is adopted. The feather decorations are not so generally used as on the
owls; several specimens bear on the back or sides the figure of the
grotesque bird with spread wings. These specimens, like the owl images,
have an orifice on the top of the head as though intended for water
vessels, but are seldom used as such at the present time.

1125. (39910). Shown in Fig. 471.

The following are similar:

1126, 1127. 1126, (39879); 1127, (39889).

1128. (36911). With feet, in standing posture.

1129. (40063). With wings, without feet.

1130. (41023). This and the three following specimens have feather
  decorations and are small. _Ē-yāh-mē-hē-tō-tsān-nā_ of the Zuñians.

1131-1133. 1131, (41024); 1132, (41025); 1133, (41027).

1134. (41026), Fig. 470. Chickens. The cock, _tō-kōk-ke_; the hen,
  _tō-kōk-kā_. The general term applied to the young, without reference
  to sex, is _sä-pi-pe_.

1135. (39919). Represented in Fig. 472.

1136, 1137. 1136, (41028); 1137, (41029).

1138. (41030). Shown in Fig. 476.

1139, 1140. 1139, (41031); 1140. (41032).

1141, 1142. 1141, (41033); 1142, (41034).

1148-1147. 1143, (41035); 1144, (41036); 1145, (41037), Fig. 475; 1146,
  (41038); 1147, (41039).

1148-1151. 1148, (41040); 1149, (41041), Fig. 474; 1150, (41042); 1151,
  (41216), this piece represents a hen with three young chickens on her
  back, as in Fig. 473.

1152-1155. 1152, (39897); 1153, (41044); 1154, (41045); 1155, (41046),
  Fig. 477. Antelope. (_māh-ā-wi._) The form and decorations are shown
  in Figs. 477 and 478.

1156-1161. 1156, (41047); 1157, (41048); 1158, (41050), Fig. 478; 1159,
  (41219); 1160, (41210); 1161, (41211).

1162. (41049). Elk, _shō-hi-ta_.

1163-1166. 1163, (41212), Fig. 480; 1164, (41213); 1165, (41214); 1166,
  (41217). Pigs, _pits-ō-te_. The figures show the forms and decorations
  with sufficient accuracy to make further description unnecessary.

1167. (41218). Ox, _wē-ä-si_. But a single example in the collection.
  Shown in Fig. 479.

1168-1170. 1168, (41219); 1169, (41220); 1170, (41221). Sheep,
  _Kān-ē-lū_. These, like the pigs, are usually marked with spots. One
  specimen has these spots in the form of an S, or sigmoid figure.

1171. (41222). The Big Horn (_Ovis montana_), _Hä-li-tkū_. This is the
  only specimen obtained and is a very rude figure, not easily

1172. (41224). The Lynx, _Tē-pi_. Orifice in the top of the head.
  Decorated with spots.

1173. (41225). The Horse, _Tūsch_. Decorations, spots, and lines
  representing hair. A very poor figure; without the name would be

1174. (41226). Man on horseback, _I-mäl-tō-yi_. The figure of the man is
  evidently intended to represent a Mexican, as shown by the ordinary
  hat and clothing. The saddle is represented, but there is no bridle or
  other trappings.


1175. (40071). Indian boy without clothing and wearing moccasins.

1176. (40076). _Wi-hā_. Baby.

1177. (40860). _Klem-chi-ka_. Man with hat and clothing.

1178. (40861). Nude female figure.

1179. (40862). Man with hat and clothing.

1180. (40863). Nude female figure.

  Fig. 472 (39919) (⅓)
  Fig. 473 (41216) (⅕)
  Fig. 474 (41041) (⅓)
  Fig. 475 (41037) (¼)
  Fig. 476 (41030) (⅓)
  Figs. 472-476.--Zuñi Effigies.]

  Fig. 477 (41046) (⅕)
  Fig. 478 (41050) (⅓)
  Fig. 479 (41218) (⅕)
  Fig. 480 (41212) (⅕)
  Figs. 477-480.--Zuñi Effigies.]

  Fig. 481 (39927) (⅓)
  Fig. 482 (40061) (⅓)
  Fig. 483 (40631) (⅓)
  Figs. 481-483.--Zuñi Clay Moccasins.]

1181. (41223). Human hand, _ah-sin-ne_. Represents the hand and wrist.
  Rather good figure. The wrist is surrounded by a colored scalloped
  band, as a bracelet.

Moccasins. _Mō-quā-we_. These are usually very correct in form, the
differences between the right and left being always properly
represented. Sometimes they are made singly, but usually in pairs,
united directly or by a little straight bar or curved handle at the
posterior end. White with color decorations, or brown or lead-colored
without decorations, diminutive in size. The following specimens are
without decorations:

1182-1190. 1182, (39924); 1183, (39925); 1184, (39946); 1185, (39947);
  1186, (40055); 1187, (40626); 1188, (40629); 1189, (40634); 1190,
  (40635). The last two have loops at the heel and were used as paint

Decorated with colors:

1191. (40637). Pair still united.

1192. (39927). Shown in Fig. 481.

1193. (40060). With lines; handle at the heel.

1194, 1195. 1194, (40061), Fig. 482; 1195, (40628), decorated with
grotesque bird.

1196. (40630). With same figure.

1197. (40631). Represented in Fig. 483.

1198. (40633). This pretty pair is profusely ornamented with serrate
  lines from the tip to the ankles.

1199, 1200. 1199, (40634) and 1200, (40636). Single, decorations, same
as in the preceding; probably belong to one pair, as part of the
connecting band remains on them.

1201. (40804). Anomalous. _Tkhä-pō-kā-tēhl-le_. In the form of a low or
  depressed vase, with two handles, decorated with scroll figures;
  margin straight.

1202. (40805). Vase-shaped, with single handle; a scalloped and an
  undulate band around the body. Margin straight.

1203. (42375). Toy house. Composed of clay and willow sticks. Made by


The following specimens are employed in the manufacture of pottery and
for decorative purposes:

1204, 1205. 1204, (41230) and 1205, (41231). Are specimens of a whitish
clay or kaolin, of which a solution is made and applied to the outer
surfaces of earthenware. This whiting in a coarser state is used for
white-washing their chimneys and rooms.

1206. (41265). Is a dark carbonaceous clay which the Zuñi Indians obtain
  from near the summit of a mesa on which stand the ruins of their
  ancient village--or, at least, where they claim to have resided during
  the Spanish invasion of their country. As this clay is one of the
  principal elements in the manufacture of Zuñi pottery, a quantity of
  it was procured and numbered as one of the specimens of the

1207. (41901). Small nodules of azurite used by the Indians in
  decorating their altars, &c.

1208. (41902). White clay or kaolin, same as Nos. 1204 and 1205.

1209. (41903). Finer quality of white clay.

1210, 1211. 1210, (41904) and 1211, (41905). Are specimens of the above
of a coarser quality.

1212. (41906). Tierra amarilla, or yellow micaceous clay, of which the
  Rio Grande Indians make many varieties of vessels.

1213. (42342). A yellowish sandy clay, which is used as one of the
  coloring pigments in decorating pottery. This clay burns to a reddish
  hue and gives to the pottery those lines of a brick-red color.

1214. (42343). Very dark colored ore, resembling magnetic iron ore; this
  stone is reduced in a small mortar, and a paint made of it for
  decorating their ware black, which result is obtained by baking.



1215. (40108). A globular-shaped water basket, with a small neck, about
  two inches long and three in diameter.

1216. (40109). Double-lobed, canteen-shaped water basket, with both
  outer and inner surfaces coated with gum. The neck is about the size
  of that of the preceding basket. The centre is compressed to about the
  size of the neck; the bottom flat.

1217. (40110). Similar to the preceding.

1218. (40115). This specimen is a good representation of the basketry
  manufactured by the Zuñians, used for carrying peaches. It is well
  shown in Fig. 484.

1219-1235. 1219, (40116); 1220, (40117); 1221, (40118); 1222, (40119);
  1223, (40120); 1224, (40121); 1225, (40122); 1226, (40123); 1227,
  (40124); 1228, (40125); 1229, (40126), Fig. 488; 1230, (40127); 1231,
  (40128); 1232, (40129); 1233, (40130); 1234, (40131); 1235, (40132),
  are Zuñi baskets of the same character, of coarse willow ware. Sizes
  and shapes somewhat similar.

1236. (40133). This specimen is an illustration of one form quite
  common. We found them in general use for bringing ripe peaches from
  the field. Fig. 484 shows very clearly the manner of weaving them.

1237-1240. 1237, (40134); 1238, (41135); 1239, (41136); 1240, (41137),
  are all samples of the same basketry. These baskets are called by the
  Zuñians _hu-chi-pŏn-nē_.

1241. (40143). A small platter-shaped corn, basket of the same coarse
  structure. They are called _tsi-i-lē_.

1242-1247. 1242, (40144); 1243, (40145); 1244, (40146); 1245, (40147);
  1246, (40148); and 1247, (40149) are similar examples of corn baskets.

1248-1257. 1248, (40401); 1249, (40402); 1250, (40403); 1251, (40404);
  1252, (40405); 1253, (40406); 1254, (40407); 1255, (40478); 1256,
  (40479); and 1257, (40480) are a variety of examples of the corn
  basket or _hu-chi-pŏn-ne_.

1258. (40881). Toy basket of Navajo manufacture, of closely-woven fibre,
  about three inches in diameter. A string is attached to it for wearing
  it on the breast as an ornament, called _hō-in-hlän-tsān-nā_.

1259, 1260. 1259, (40882), and 1260, (40883). Small cup or rather
saucer-shaped baskets similar in construction to the preceding two

1261. (40884). Is a corn basket of the same manufacture as the
  preceding, of much larger size, and called _hō-in-hlän-nā_.

1262-1264. 1262, (40917); 1263, (40918); 1264, (40919) _Tsi´-i-lē_;
  large-sized, coarsely woven, tray-like baskets.

1265. (40920). Toy basket; coarse, _tsi-i-lā-tsān-nā_.

1266-1268. 1266, (40921); 1267, (40922); 1268, (40923). Navajo water
  baskets, jug-shaped, _kō-sē-tŏm-mē_.

1269. (41208). Large flaring or bowl-shaped basket of Apache
  manufacture; water-tight; used for holding flour and meal; very
  compactly woven; called by the Zuñis _hō-in_.

1270. (41209). Very large specimen of the same ware woven with different
  colored fibres, so as to present a decorated inner surface.

1271. (41227). _Tklā-lim-ne_ or basket with abrupt sides. Navajo

1272-1275. 1272, (41228), Fig. 485; 1273, (41229); 1274, (41230); and
  1275, (41231) are examples of the coarsely-woven flat basketry used
  frequently for winnowing small grain. The illustration shows the
  details sufficiently without further description.

1276. (41248). Basket tray for bread, of the closely-woven class, called

1277. (41256). Toy basket, _tsi-li-tsān-nā_.


The following are ring-shaped pads made of yucca leaves interwoven in
such a manner as to leave the centre open sufficiently to fit the top of
the head. These pads are used in carrying water, by placing the pad on
the head into which the base of the vase fits. They are used also to
hold water jars and vases on the ground, thus protecting the bottom of
the vessels from wearing away. They are called in Zuñi _hā-kin-ne_.

1278-1287. 1278, (40464); 1279, (40465); 1280, (40466); 1281, (40467);
  1282, (40468); 1283, (40469); 1284, (40470); 1285, (40471); 1286,
  (40472) are examples of this pad, of which Fig. 486, 1287r. (40473),
  is an illustration.

The following are objects of the same kind:

1288-1292. 1288, (40474); 1289, (40475); 1290, (40924); 1291, (40925);
  1292, (40926).


In the collection are a number of wooden spoons or ladles of various,
sizes. These utensils were not frequently met with. The readiness with
which the Indians can make pottery or earthern ladles, a large number of
which are in the collection, has caused these to supersede the former.
The wooden spoons are always chiseled from a single piece of wood. See
Fig. 490.

  Fig. 490 (40876) (¼)]

1293-1297. 1293, (40876); 1294, (40877); 1295, (40878); 1296, (41020);
  1297, (41022) are specimens of spoons and ladles of wood. The large
  ones are called _täm-shŏ-kŏn-nā-tsān_, the smaller, _täm-shŏ-kŏn tsān

1298. (41276). A wooden chair, made entirely of wood and in imitation,
  of a common chair, ornamented with carvings.

1299. (42292). Meat-block in the form of a stool, one side of which is
  used for chopping, the other to sit upon.

1300. (40827). Rotary drill, with stone disk and flint point, usually
  employed in perforating turquoise and other hard substances for
  ornaments. See Figure 494. Called by the Zuñis _klā-tŏ-ne_.

1301. (40809). A small rectangular wooden box with a lid, used as a
  treasure-box, for holding choice trinkets and ornaments such as
  feathers, &c., called _la-pŏ-ka kle-tŏn-tsān-nā_.

1302. (41279). Wooden gun rack, made of pieces of flat wood, of a
  rectangular form, with notches in the upright sides for holding guns
  and bows. It is common in Zuñi.

1303. (41192). A wooden comb used in connection with the loom. It is
  provided with teeth about one inch long; these teeth are placed
  between the perpendicular threads and with the hand brought down
  firmly on the cross-threads or yarn until it is perfectly compact. The
  blankets woven in this manner are water-tight. This comb is called

1304-1307. 1304, (42043); 1305, (42044); 1306, (42045); and 1307,
  (42046); are combs above described, used with looms.

1308. (40810). A wooden comb of the same character.

  Fig. 484 (40133) (¼)
  Fig. 485 (41228) (¼)
  Fig. 486 (40473) (⅓)
  Fig. 487 (41725) (¼)
  Fig. 488 (40126) (⅓)
  Fig. 489 (41184) (¼)
  Figs. 484-489.--Zuñi Basketry, and Toy Cradles.]

1309. (41700). Bundle of fine grass stems for a comb.

1310. (41282). Comb and brush, combined, made from dried grass stems;
  one end is used as a comb, the other as a brush.

1311. (41277). Wooden spade or shovel quite like an ordinary spade, used
  by the Indians for shoveling snow from the roofs of their houses, and
  for taking bread from their bakeovens. See Fig. 495.

1312. (40879). Wooden digger and corn-planter, called _tā-sā-quin-ne_.
  This is the only specimen of the kind in the collection. The foot is
  used in digging as we use a spade. In making holes in the ground for
  planting grain, one foot is placed on the short projection, and the
  individual using it walks along, each alternate step making a hole in
  the ground into which to drop the grain. See Fig. 496.

1313. (41262). Medicine sticks to influence rain. These little sticks
  are found hidden beneath the rafters of nearly every house in Zuñi.

1314. (41275). Wooden war-club, which the Zuñis claim was one of their
  original weapons of war. See Fig. 491.

1315. (41856). A peculiar warty squash or gourd hollowed out and filled
  with pebbles to make a rattling sound, used in most of the dances. See
  Fig. 497.

  Fig. 497 (41856) (⅓)]

1316. (41281). Gourd dance rattle.

1317. (41196). Squash or gourd for making rattles.

1318. (41197). Smooth-surfaced squash for rattle.

1319. (41189). Gourd painted red, yellow, and black, which is suspended
  to a pole held in the dance called by the Zuñis _tŏm-tschūl-tŏn-ne_.

1320. (41190). Yellow gourd, with black band, and having alternate
  squares of white and black around the centre, through which a stick is
  passed for holding it in the hand during a dance. The gourd is placed
  on the stick in an inverted position. On the top of the stick a bunch
  of feathers is attached. This ornament is generally used in their
  social dances, in which the young men and women mingle. See Fig. 492.

1321. (41193). Water gourds.

1322. (41194). Gourd with opening in the end of the handle.

1323-1334. 1323, (41198); 1324, (41199); 1325, (41200); 1326, (41201);
  1327, (41202); 1328, (41203); 1329, (41204); 1330, (41205); 1331,
  (41206); 1332, (41207); 1333, (41234); 1334, (41235), are wooden birds
  carved and painted to represent such as they are accustomed to seeing
  daily. Those represented are the magpie, prairie lark, oriole, humming
  bird, and swallow. The latter is shown in Fig. 493. The object is
  attached to a stick in such a manner that the wings can be made to
  move up and down by pulling a string, in imitation of the bird in

1335. (41184). Toy or baby cradle, called _wi-hā-klem-tsān-nā_, (see
  Fig. 489), with a wooden doll arranged to show the manner of securing
  children in cradles.

1336. (41725). Cradle with wooden doll, Fig. 487, composed of woven

1337. (41724). Toy drum, _tō´-sō-än-än-tōm-me_.

1338. (41285). Spinning top.


1339. (40905). _Wia-vi_, or wafer bread.

1340. (41261). Meal from Indian maize.

1341. (41263). Chili, or ground-red pepper.

1342. (41264). Dried peaches; Indian style.

1343. (41266). Dried squash; Indian style.

1344. (41267). Indian beans.

1345. (41271). Corn parched by the Indians.

1346. (41272). Native salt of Zuñi.

1347. (41273). Zuñi bread.

1348. (41274). Zuñi bread used in the dance.

1349. (41280). Zuñi bread.

1350. (41283). Zuñi sprouted wheat, from which a juice or wine is

1351. (42050). Horse beans cultivated by the Indians.


1352. (41172). Root used as medicine.

1353. (41173). Root used as medicine.

1354. (41175). Root used as medicine, called by the Zuñians

1355. (41174). Bark for coloring buckskin red.

1356. (41907). Plant for coloring black.

1357. (41908). Plant used for decorating pottery black, the oil or juice
  of which is used.

  Fig. 491 (41275) (1/7)
  Fig. 492 (41190) (⅛)
  Fig. 493 (41235) (⅙)
  Fig. 494 (40827) (⅕)
  Fig. 495 (41277) (1/10)
  Fig. 496 (40879) (1/10)
  Figs. 491-496.--Zuñi War Club, Dance Ornaments, etc.]

  Fig. 500 (41713)
  Fig. 501 (41808)
  Fig. 502 (41838)
  Figs. 500-502.--ZUÑI SASHES.]



1358. (41284). Bone awl, with iron shaft.

1359-1361. 1359, (41851); 1360, (41852); and 1361, (41853), Fig. 498,
  are specimens of a rattle or musical instrument made from the shell of
  a turtle which is highly esteemed by the Pueblo tribes. The flesh of
  the turtle is carefully removed from the shell, leaving it hollow. To
  the edges of the breast plate are attached the toes of goats or sheep.
  These toes coming in contact with the hollow shell produce a peculiar
  sound, in keeping with the sound caused by the gourd rattles used in
  the same ceremony. The rattle is fastened to the rear of the right leg
  near the knee when employed in the dances.

  Fig. 498 (41853) (⅓)]


1362. (41287). Lasso or lariat of plaited leather.

1363. (41219). Hopple strap; ends locked by small blocks of wood. See
  Fig. 499.

  Fig. 499 (41219) (⅕)]


1364. (41251). Moki scarf, from Zuñi.

1365. (41552). Child’s shirt of calico, _ō-chū-ōtsn-nā_.

1366. (41253). Squaw’s knit leggings.

1367, 1368. 1367, (41801) and 1368, (41807). Are sashes of Moki
manufacture, handsomely embroidered at each end in colors.

1369, 1370. 1369, (41712) and 1370, (14713). Are worsted woven belts for
the waist, called _eh-ni-ne_. See Fig. 500.

1371. (41714). Worsted garter, called _eh-ni-ne tsān-nā_.

1372. (41801). Finely-woven white cotton with embroidered edge, of which
  the following are examples:

1373-1375. 1373, (41802); 1374, (41803), and 1375, (41804).

1376. (41805). Blue woolen scarf.

1377. (41806). Scarf.

1378. (41807). Sash. See Fig. 501.

1379. (41808). Sash. See Fig. 502.

1380. (41809). Navajo blanket, used as a squaw’s dress, with red border.

1381. (41810). Similar blanket.

1382. (41811). Navajo blanket with blue border. The following are
  similar to the preceding:

1383-1388. 1383, (41812); 1384, (41813); 1385, (41814); 1386, (41815);
  1387, (41816); and 1388, (41817).

1389. (41818). Saddle-blanket, in colors.

1390-1395. 1390, (41819); 1391, (41820); 1392, (41821); 1393, (41822);
  1394, (41823); and 1395, (41824), are also saddle-blankets.

1396. (41825). Imperfect large robe of wool.

1397. (42223). Sample of green yarn used by the Zuñians in making belts
  and blankets.

1398. (42201). War trophy, worn as shoulder belt; the band which passes
  over the shoulder is ornamented with arrow-points which are fastened
  in the plaiting. The plaited portion is made of the skin dress of a
  slain Navajo. So highly did the Zuñians prize this trophy that I was
  obliged to promise its return before I was allowed to take it away. A
  sketch was made of it, after which it was returned to the Indians.

1399. (42268). A Zuñi charm, made from a piece of shell rounded and
  pierced near one end to-receive a string.

  Fig. 503 (41726) (⅙)]

1400. (41726). Head-dress worn by maidens in dances. Fig. 503 shows the
  form. The flower is sometimes red and yellow; this is attached to one
  side of the band which goes over the head; to the other side is
  attached a horn-shaped ornament. The flower is called _ātē än-ne_. The
  horn on the left is called _sai´änne_. The band that encircles the
  head is called _gĕm-me_. The following are articles of the same kind,
  differing only in ornamentation:

1401-1408. 1401, (41727); 1402, (41728); 1403, (41729); 1404, (41730);
  1405, (41731); 1406, (41732); 1407, (41733); and 1408, (41734).

1409. (41698). Wool rosette; part of head-dress.

1410. (41699). Cotton rosette; part of head-dress.

1411. (41697). Charm of wild turkey feathers.

  Fig. 504 (42207) (⅓)
  Fig. 505 (42208) (⅓)
  Fig. 506 (42337) (⅓)
  Fig. 507 (42213) (⅓)
  Fig. 508 (42311)
  Figs. 504-508.--Wolpi Axes and Metate.]

1412. (42206). Grooved axe of black fine-grained sandstone, about eight
  inches long; water-worn to its present shape, afterward grooved to
  render it suitable for use.

1413. (42207). Fig. 504. Grooved axe, of basalt. The only specimen of
  this particular form in the collection.

1414. (42208). Fig. 505. Large stone celt of coarse sandstone, light
  gray color. It is shaped more like a wedge than the cut indicates. It
  is difficult to conjecture what this implement could have been used
  for. The sandstone of which it is made is too soft for either
  splitting or hammering. As it is about ten inches long and has four
  flat sides it may have been a grinder, as many of those implements are
  not unlike it in length and appearance. Its surface is quite rough and

1415. (42209). Sandstone maul, grooved, surface rough.

1416. (42210). Triangular-shaped maul, grooved in the middle; of coarse
  basalt. This and similar mauls evidently at one time had handles fixed
  to them, but at the present day it is not uncommon to see the modern
  Pueblo Indians holding them in the hand to crush their grain, chili or
  red-pepper pods in round mortars.

1417. (42211). Grooved axe of basalt.

1418. (42212). Small grooved axe of metamorphic rock.

1419. (42213). Fig. 507. Water-worn boulder of quartzite, grooved around
  the centre.

1420. (42214). Basaltic maul, grooved in the middle like the preceding.
  Used by the Indians at the present day for pounding chili or red

1421. (42216). Grooved axe of greenstone, quite long, well shaped, and
  nicely polished.

1422. (42217). Grooved axe of greenstone, similar to the preceding.

1423. (42218). Grooved axe of sandstone; top square.

1424. (42219). Axe of basalt, grooved on three sides.

1425. (42220). Grooved axe of greenstone.

1426. (42221). Grooved axe of quartz.

1427. (42222). Grooved axe of sandstone. Groove very near the top.

1428. (42223). Grooved axe of greenstone, well polished.

1429. (42224). Grooved axe of schistose rock, much flattened, with a
  small second groove below the larger one. 1430. (42225). Small grooved
  axe of greenstone, body rather square, top quite small, with the
  groove very near it.

1431. (42226). Axe of basalt, grooved on three sides near its top, which
  is flat.

1432. (42227). Grooved on three sides.

1433. (42228). Grooved axe.

1434. (42319). Grooved axe made from a fragment of a grinder.

1435. (42320). Same as preceding.

1436. (42321). Rough chipping or stone hammer.

1437. (42322). Large grooved maul of a ferruginous substance.

1438. (42323). Large egg-shaped grooved maul of coarse sandstone.

1439. (42326). Large grooved maul of irregular shape and surface;
  finegrained sandstone.

1440-1447. 1440, (42327); 1441, (42328); 1442, (42329); 1443, (42330);
  1444, (42331); 1445, (42332); 1446, (42333); 1447, (42334), are all
  quite similar to the two preceding mauls, and are all of sandstone.

1448. (42335). A very large grooved maul, almost square, and weighing
  about fifteen pounds.

1449. (42336). Grooved maul of very coarse-grained sandstone; short and

1450. (42337). Fig. 506. Grooved maul of compact sandstone. The body of
  the maul is almost round, though the cut makes it appear flat. Several
  such specimens were collected, and in all instances they show that
  they have been better preserved than the axes. This is probably due to
  the fact that their shape adapts them to grinding foods and grain, and
  hence they are not used for splitting or cutting.

1451. (42339). Rough stone maul of sandstone, grooved in the middle.

1452. (42350). Small grooved axe of sandstone from the ruins of Pecos.

1453. (42246). Celt of a very black slate stone.

1454. (42247). Celt. This is a very fine specimen, of yellow polished
  slate of about the same texture as the preceding one. It is about
  twelve inches long, and tapers gradually from the broad edge to the


1455-1460. 1455, (42279); 1456, (42287); 1457, (42289); 1458, (42309);
  1459, (42310); 1460, (42311), are ordinary specimens of the metate
  placed together in the shape of a mill. See Fig. 508.

1461, 1462. 1461, (42313), and 1462, (42314), are rubbing stones.

1463. (42338). Broken metate rubber.

1464. (42249). Rubbing stone.

1465. (40139). Rude rubber of silicified wood.

1466. (42274). Small quartz rubber.

1467. (42275). Small greenstone rubber.

1468-1473. 1468, (42276); 1469, (42277); 1470, (42278); 1471, (42316);
  1472, (42317); 1473, (42318), are all fragrants of rubbers.

1474. (42290). Bound sandstone pestle, each end ovate.

1475. (42294). Square sandstone pestle.

1476. (42295). Small round pestle, with rounded ends.


Nearly all the pestles and mortars from Wolpi present evidences of age.
They are nearly all of coarse sandstone, and were used for bruising food
and grain. They are usually quite large, heavy, and round. As they are
generally of soft yielding rocks, the cavities are worn very deep in
most of them.

1477. (42281). Large flat food mortar.

1478. (42282). Paint mortar, made from a round sandstone boulder about
  five inches in diameter.

1479. (42283). Grain mortar.

1480. (42284). Mortar made from a round somewhat flattened sandstone

1481. (42285). Food mortar of indurated sandstone, about four inches
  thick and eight inches in diameter, irregularly round, the depression
  being about three inches deep.

1482. (42286). Mortar for crushing grain; this is an unusually fine
  specimen. It is about seven inches high, and an almost round body,
  about an inch and a half thick at the top of the rim; the cavity is
  quite a perfect oval in shape, about five inches deep; bottom flat.

1483. (42288). Mortar similar to the above, but having a projection on
  one side like the ear of a kettle.

1484. (42291). Mortar and pestle. The mortar is nearly square; cavity
  about five inches deep and seven in diameter. The pestle has a groove
  round the middle.

1485. (42292). Paint mortar about one inch thick and nearly square.

1486. (42293). Round quartzitic boulder; one side flat, the other with a
  small cavity.

1487. (42307). Bowl-shaped food mortar, about ten inches in diameter and
  five inches high.


1488. (42270). Stone knife with two notches or grooves near the large

1489. (42271). Forty specimens of arrow-heads and small perforators,
  flint and agate; most of them very well shaped.

1490. (42253). Sandstone gaming ball, painted.

1491-1493. 1491, (42254); 1492, (42255); and 1493, (42256), are all
  sandstone gaming balls.

1494. (42257). Fig. 509. Hollow tube. The figure represents one made
  from potters’ clay, the other is of siliceous material. These pipes
  are not in use at the present time, but are frequently found around
  the ruins and in possession of the Indians.

1495. (42261). Stone image, probably intended to represent a rabbit. It
  is of fine-grained stone. Shown in Fig. 513. There are quite a number
  of these little images from Wolpi and Zuñi; as they appear to
  represent rabbits, it is presumed that they are quite old, and
  possibly antedate the introduction of domestic animals among the

1496. (42296). Small paint muller of jasper.

1497. (42297). Square quartzitic paint muller.

1498. (42298). Triangular paint rubber of quartz.

1499-1503. 1499, (42299), quartz; 1500, (42300); 1501, (42301); 1502,
  (42303); and 1503, (42304), are all quartz paint pestles made from
  half sections of small semi spherical boulders; the large end, which
  is flat, being used for the grinding part.

1504. (42305). Part of a grooved axe.

1505. (42306). Rubbing stone with four rubbing surfaces.

1506. (42262). Fig. 512. This undoubtedly represents some animal.

1507. (42263). Fig. 510. This evidently represents some animal other
  than the rabbit. The body is long and slender, and is provided with a

1508. (42264). Small sandstone image, which is a good representation of
  a bear; grooved around the neck, with mouth and eyes and short tail.
  None of these little images are provided with anything more than short
  stubs for limbs.

1509. (42265). Very small sandstone image, quite similar to No. 1507.

1510. (40114). Wolpi neck ornament, Fig. 511, _hu-wat-he-qua-ve_, of red
  slate stone notched at each end, as shown in the cut, and perforated
  at the upper edge to receive a cord, with which it is suspended to the
  neck. Though a rare ornament, it possesses no particular known



These are of the usual form, and for the most part of the usual size
found at Zuñi; but there are also a number of very large specimens of
the white ornamented, black, and red ware, having a capacity of ten or
twelve gallons.

White decorated ware:

1511. (41356). Decorations exactly the same type as that shown in Fig.
  359, except that there is a regular meander around the shoulder. The
  type is shown in Fig. 514.

  Fig. 509 (42257) (½)
  Fig. 510 (42263) (½)
  Fig. 511 (40114) (½)
  Fig. 512 (42262) (⅓)
  Fig. 513 (42261) (⅓)
  Figs. 509-513.--Wolpi Pipe, Effigies, and Ornament.]

  Fig. 514 (41602) (¼)
  Fig. 514.--Wolpi Water Vase]

  Fig. 515 (40646) (1/7)
  Fig. 516 (42374) (1/7)
  Figs. 515, 516.--Wolpi Cooking Pots.]

The following belong to the same type as the above, the variations being
but slight, the large circular space with scroll being the chief

1512. (41601). Figure on the neck as on the body of Fig. 372.

1513. (41602). Shown in Fig. 514.

1514. (41603). The block containing the smaller circle is here solid and
  square; there is a zig-zag band around the neck as on the margins of
  some Zuñi bowls.

1515. (41604). This varies in having in place of the block with the
  small circle, a regularly checkered block.

1516. (41606). This has only the large diamond figures on the body, and
  a band of s’s round the shoulder.

1517. (41607). Like No. 1514.

1518. (41454). With handles on sides; fringe-like band around the

1519. (41455). Simple linear band around the body.

1520. (41456). Figures of a trident or three-pronged fork; and ladle on
  the body.

The following are plain brown and red ware, some of them very large. The
neck is but slight, and they are often more pot-shaped than olla form.
Without ornamentation.

Brown or red.

1521-1533. 1521, (41632); 1522, (41633); 1523, (41635); 1524, (41636);
  1525, (41637); 1526, (41638); 1527, (41639); 1528, (41640); 1529,
  (41641); 1530, (41642); 1531, (41643); 1532, (41649); 1533, (41650).

1534. (41644).

1535. (40646). Fig. 515.

1536. (41647).

1537. (41648).

1538. (42374). Very large pot, used for cooking. Name, _nu-a-mash-pe_.
  Represented in Fig. 516.


These are similar to those obtained at Zuñi; sub-globular in form, one
side more distinctly flattened on which to lie, the other very convex.
Usually with two handles, sometimes loops, and sometimes studs or knobs.
Occasionally ornamented white ware, but most generally unadorned brown
or red ware. The latter showing, on some pieces, at least, a slight,
perhaps accidental, glazing. They vary in size from six or seven gallons
down to less than a pint.

As the various figures used in decorations have been described, only
those which are unusual will be noticed here.

White decorated ware:

1539. (41320). Underside as usual, blown. Scalloped band in direction of
  mouth and handle, transverse double scalloped band across the upper

1540. (41362). Similar to the last.

1541. (41342). Simple bands and scrolls.

1542, 1543. 1542, (41401) and 1543, (41447). Similar.

Brown ware without ornamentation:

1544-1567. 1544, (41321); 1545, (41322); 1546, (41323); 1547, (41324);
  1548, (41325); 1549, (41326); 1550, (41327); 1551, (41328); 1552
  (41329); 1553, (41330); 1554, (41331); 1555, (41332); 1556, (41333);
  1557, (41334); 1558, (41335); 1559, (41336); 1560, (41337); 1561,
  (41338); 1562, (41339); 1563, (41340); 1564, (41341); 1565, (41343);
  1566, (41344); 1567, (41345).

1568-1569. 1568, (41609) and 1569, (41611). These have only the large
  diamond figures on the body, and a zig-zag line around the neck.

1570. (41610). The large diamonds serrate on the outer margin; neck with
  doubly oblique serrate lines.

1571. (41613). As in Fig. 514, except that the neck, instead of the
  zigzag, has oblique diamonds.

1572. (41614). This varies from the preceding in having only a narrow
  scalloped band around the neck.

1573. (41620). Only the large scrolls, nothing on the neck.

1574. (41622). Similar to the preceding, except that each alternate
  scroll is replaced by a rosette in a circle.

1575. (41615). Like No. 1515, except that the neck has a scalloped band
  with birds’ heads.

1576. (41618). Large diamonds on the body alternately with rosettes, by
  the side of which is a bird.

1577. (41621). Similar to Fig. 514, except that the black has no circle
  in it.

1578. (41358). Small with a broad checkered band around the body.

1579. (41605). With narrow scalloped band around the neck; triangular
  figures pointing to right and left on the body with cross lines
  between the bases.

1580. (41608). Outline figures of terraced hills with cactus growing
  from them, and curved scalloped lines above.

1581. (41612). Scalloped band around the neck; oblique, heavy, double
  diamond figures with scrolls on the body.

1582. (41617). No decorations on the neck; body with the spear points or
  long triangles, and serrate oblique lines as on Zuñi bowls.

1583. (41616). Line of little circles on the neck; triangles of lines,
  pointing to the left on the body.

1584. (41619). Similar in form and decorations to Fig. 371 (Zuñi),
  except that the upper side of the band is formed of triangles instead
  of scrolls.

1585. (41629). This is really a double-handled jar.

1586. (41630). Scalloped band around bottom, serrated squares near rim.

  Fig. 517 (41364) (¼)
  Fig. 518 (41363) (⅓)
  Fig. 519 (41366) (⅓)
  Figs. 517-519.--Wolpi Vessels.]

1587. (41631). Scrolls on the neck; birds with crest feathers, and
  flowers on the body.

1588. (41634). Very small, with numerous scalloped lines arranged in
  diamond form.

1589. (41644). Series of double perpendicular scallops.

1590. (41468). Similar to No. 1586.


The following are very small water vessels, probably intended for

1591. (41449). Figures of birds on body.

1592. (41450). The usual diamond and scroll on body.

1593-1603. 1593, (41346); 1594, (41347); 1595, (41348); 1596, (41349);
  1597, (41350); 1598, (41351); 1599, (41352); 1600, (41353); 1601,
  (41354); 1602, (41355); 1603, (41448).

Small toy canteens:

1604-1607. 1604, (41439); 1605, (41440); 1606, (41442); 1607, (41443).

The following three are cup-shaped, with an ear on each side to which to
attach a string, the top is closed, with a round orifice in the middle,
and they are either medicine or little paint vessels and not canteens,
as given in the original field catalogue:

1608-1610. 1608, (41444); 1609, (41445); 1610, (41446).

Water jugs and bottles are of various forms, which will be described
under their respective numbers. They are usually of the white decorated
ware. The brown ware is always undecorated.

1611. (41363). See Fig. 518.

1612. (41364). Brown ware shown in Fig. 517.

1613. (41365). Brown ware, cylindrical, constricted in the middle and
  with small orifice.

1614. (41393). Without handle.

1615. (41366). Fig. 519. A water jar made in imitation of a common gourd
  cultivated by many of the Pueblo tribes. The body is ornamented on
  both sides with a curved line and birds, as seen in the figure. A
  small circular orifice is left at the base of the handle.

1616. (41367). As in Fig. 520.

1617. (41368). Shown in Fig. 522.

1618-1619. 1618, (41369), and 1619, (41370). Similar to the preceding.

1620. (41407). Regularly shaped jug with handle decorated with
  geometrical figures.

1621. (41433). Brown ware, regular jug with two handles.

1622. (41434). Similar to preceding, but without handles.

1623. (41469). Bottle shaped. Brown ware. Represented in Fig. 521.

The following are similar:

1624-1628. 1624, (41373); 1625, (41374); 1626, (41375); 1627, (41376);
  1630, (41377).

1629. (41393). Brown ware, with single constriction, without handle.

1630. (41394). Similar.


Those obtained were chiefly very small. As will be seen, the ladle to a
very large extent supplies with this people the place of the cup.

1631. (41409). Regular handled cup; white ware, with a broad band in
  which are white crescents.

1632. (41461). Shaped as preceding. White ware, all except a marginal
  uncolored band marked with cross or checkered lines.

1633. (41526). Small white ware, outside without decorations; scalloped
  marginal band inside; with handle.

1634. (41527). Sides straight; with handle, decorated on the outside
  with triangular figures so common on bowls.

1635. (41430). With similar decorations.

Toy cups. Usually brown ware without ornamentation:

1636. (41415). White ware with a band of scrolls.

1637-1641. 1637, (41417); 1638, (41426); 1639, (41427); 1640, (41428);
  1641, (41429). These five are brown ware.

1642. (41435). A pretty pitcher-shaped vessel ornamented with interlaced
  or cross lines forming a regular net-work.


The bowls vary in size, as do those from Zuñi, but as a general rule
they are small, or of but medium size; quite a number of those obtained
are very small. In form they are generally like those from Zuñi, but
some are biscuit-shaped, as those from Tesuke; others are true basins;
and a few are square, and perhaps should not be classed as bowls, though
we have included them under that general term. The decorations on the
larger ones of regular form are very similar to those seen on Zuñi
bowls. The colors black and red or brown are usually lighter and
brighter than on the Zuñi pottery:

1643. (41357). Regular Form. Decorations on the inner face only;
  marginal zigzag line, with diamond and scroll below.

1644. (41359). Outer and inner surface decorations as in Fig. 412.

1645. (41361). Decorations only a double-scalloped inner marginal band.

1646. (41400). Very small; a simple inner band.

1647. (41463). Small. This and the following small specimens are
  decorated on the inside with what appears to be intended for an Indian
  head, with a tuft of hair.

1648-1653. 1648, (41464); 1649, (41465); 1650, (41467); 1651, (41529);
  1652, (41530); 1653, (41534).

1654-1657. 1654, (41538); 1655, (41539); 1656, (41589); 1657, (41565).

1658. (41466). No outer decorations; inner surface with the usual
  diamond and scroll figure.

  Fig. 520 (41367) (⅓)
  Fig. 521 (41469) (⅓)
  Fig. 522 (41368) (⅓)
  Figs. 520-522.--Wolpi Water Jars.]

1659-1660. 1659, (41528); 1660, (41531).

1661. (41540). Shown in Fig. 523.

1662-1663. 1662, (41541), and 1663, (41599), are marked only with a
  broad inner marginal band of geometrical figures.

1664. (41532). No outer decorations; inner with diamond and scroll and
  triangular figures.

The following have the outer surface decorated as in the Zuñi pattern,
shown in Figs. 416 and 417. The inner decorations vary slightly.

With crenate or zigzag line on inner margin, and scroll diamond, or
scrolls only:

1665-1671. 1665, (41544); 1666, (41547); 1667, (41562); 1668, (41568);
  1669, (41576); 1670, (41590); 1671, (41577).

With similar marginal band and pentagonal scrolls and bird:

1672-1673. 1672, (41548), and 1673, (41549).

1674. (41550). With inner marginal band of geometrical figures; no other
  inner decorations.

1675. (41561). Broad marginal band only.

1676. (41574). Inside with crenate marginal band; geometrical figures

1677. (41584). Heavy, scalloped inner band with T-shaped spaces in the
  scallops. Scrolls below.

1678. (41581). Broad checkered inner band only.

1679. (41592). Similar checkered band with scroll figures below.

1680. (41596). With terraced marginal band, and terraced or pyramidal
  figures below.

1681. (41627). Marginal band of geometrical figures only.

1682. (41543). Biscuit-shaped. Outside with three rows or bands of large

1683. (41545). No outer decorations; inner crenate marginal line;
  scrolls and diamond below. The following are similar:

1684-1697. 1684, (41554); 1685, (41558), marginal band of lance points;
  1686, (41564); 1687, (41567); 1688, (41569); 1689, (41573); 1690,
  (41575); 1691, (41578); 1692, (41579); 1693, (41582); 1694, (41585);
  1695, (41588); 1696, (41591), this has also the triangular bird; 1697,

1698. (41551). No outer decorations; zigzag marginal line; flowers and
  lines below.

1699. (41552). This has a very pretty design on the outside, a band of
  diamonds, a little cross in each, and a dotted line above and below.
  The inner decorations of this and the following consist of a broad
  band only, of geometrical or architectural figures. Outer decorations
  various, which alone are mentioned.

1700-1701. 1700, (41553), bird in a wreath; 1701, (51555), lines of

1702-1703. 1702, (41556), and 1703, (41563). Same as the preceding.

1704. (41570). Similar to the preceding, with scroll band below.

1705. (41572). Triangular figures.

1706. (41597). Scalloped lines arranged in large diamonds, with a flower
  in the center of the diamond.

1707. (41626). Scrolls and crescents.

1708. (41628). Same as No. 1706.

1709. (41559). Checkered band and scrolls inside, band of crescents

1710. (41566). Inner marginal band as in outer decorations found on Zuñi

1711. (41571). No outer decorations; inner geometrical figures but no

1712. (41593). Checkered band, and scrolls inside; broad marginal band
  with lower side scalloped.

1713. (41594). With no outer figures; radiating simple and serrate lines

1714. (41595). No outer decorations; scalloped or crenate band, and
  geometrical figures on inner surface.

1715. (41600). No outer decorations; birds and flowers or rosettes.

1716. (41625). No outer decorations; inside with successive scallops,
  and the conventional bird form between squares, one above the other.

1717-1718. 1717, (41560), and 1718, (41624). Brown ware without

Minute bowls, usually without decoration, but sometimes figured,
especially on the outside, with simple outline figures.

1719-1727. 1719, (41418); 1720, (41419); 1721, (41421); 1722, (41422);
  1723, (41423); 1724, (41424); 1725, (41457); 1726, (41458); 1727,
  (41459), with short handle; the decoration in this is true
  herring-bone pattern.

1728. (41460). Square basins. These are comparatively small and resemble
  in shape a common knife-basket or tray, but without handle or

1729. (41533). Outside with figures of birds, flowers and diamonds.

1730. (41535). Outer band with scrolls along the under edge or margin;
  diamond with scroll on inside.

1731. (41537). Inside similar to No. 1730; outside usual triangular

1732. (41536). Outside similar, inside with four faces in outline.

1733. (41542). Plain brown.

1734. (41546). Outside the usual triangular figures; inside bird figures
  and slender leaf-stalks.

1735. (41557). Outside triangular figures; inside double scroll.

1736. (41586). Outside oblique, double serrate bands; inside broad
  marginal checkered band; bottom four faces.

  Fig. 523 (41540) (⅓)
  Fig. 524 (41385) (½)
  Fig. 525 (41518) (½)
  Figs. 523-525.--Wolpi Eating Bowl, Cooking Vessel and Ladle.]


These are usually unadorned and of brown or black ware. The number
obtained was not large, and they vary greatly in character. They are
generally of medium size or small, and some which appear to be used as
cooking vessels have a handle on the side and resemble pitchers and
cups. Some have two handles and are shaped like an urn or olla; others
appear to be true pots. The want of uniformity among this tribe in the
use of vessels of this kind renders its difficult to class them
according to use. I will, therefore, group them according to form.
Except one or two of the little pots none of them are ornamented.

Pot-shaped vessels:

1737-1739. 1737, (41360); 1738, (41379); 1739, (41385); two handles as
  in Fig. 524.

1740-1741. 1740, (41380), and 1741, (41405). Without handle, the latter
  possibly used as a drinking vessel.

1742-1746. 1742, (41381); 1743, (41382); 1744, (41383); 1745, (41384);
  1746, (41386); each with a handle on one side; they resemble pitchers
  or cups.


1747. (41416). Like a small water-vessel.

1748. (41442). Olla-shaped, with handles; decorated with a band of loops
  around the middle.

1749. (41451). Olla.

1750-1751. 1750, (41452), and 1751, (41453). Cylindrical jars without

1752-1753. 1752, (41293), and 1753, (41294). Large black Cooking pots of
  the usual shape.

1754. (42367). Flat jar-shaped vessel, red ware, with regular ears on
  the sides with holes through them. Cooking vessel; new.

1755. (42369). Small globular red bowl, half burned.

1756. (42370). Part of a corrugated vessel. It is yellow, but partly
  burned; it looks fresh and new, but is really old, having been out of
  the ground of old ruins near Wolpi.


Of these vessels, which are extensively used by the Shinumos, there are
various forms with an almost endless variation in decoration, being
generally of ornamented white ware. Some of them bear a strong
resemblance to the skillets used on cooking stoves, the handle being
looped, but the bowl is more saucer-shaped. Others, as shown in Figs.
527 and 529, are evidently fashioned after gourds. Some are somewhat of
the form shown in Figs. 439 and 440, but the handle is more distinct.
Others are true cup-shaped vessels, with the handles projecting from the
middle of the side. A few are double with a single handle.

Skillet-shaped vessels. Usually decorated in the bowl. As these figures
are generally similar to those already described, special notice will be
taken only of such forms as vary from the normal shape and figures.

1757-1758. 1757, (41396), and 1758, (41395). Gourd shaped; similar to
  those shown in Figs. 527 and 529.

1759-1760. 1759, (41378), and 1760, (41397). Outside covered with

1761. (41398). Outside covered with scrolls.

1762. (40408). Outside decorated with oblique serrate lines.

1763. (41411). Ladles with two bowls. Handle with the head of an animal,
  probably a wild-cat, at the tip; figures of birds in the bowls.

1764. (41412). Shown in Fig. 528.

1765. (41413). Handle broken; bowls with only a scalloped marginal band.

1766-1767. 1706, (41470); 1767, (41476). Cup-shaped, with short handles;
  shaped like a small olla.

1768. (41477). Handle with animal head on the tip; outside covered with
  checkered figures.

1769. (41479). Handle as in the preceding; oblique, doubly serrate lines
  on outside of bowl.

1770-1772. 1770, (41480); 1771, (41481); 1772, (41482); face in the bowl
  of the last.

1773-1774. 1773, (41483), and 1774, (41484); the handle of the latter
  represents an animal’s head, with face turned toward the bowl.

1775-1777. 1775, (41388); 1776, (41389); 1777, (41425). The handle of
  this represents, in shape, the head of a woman and child, and the bowl
  contains the figures of two faces.

1778-1783. 1778, (41462); 1779, (41471); 1780, (41472); 1781, (41473);
  1782, (41474); 1783, (41475). The last of these has a minute head of a
  woman on the end of the handle, which is solid.

1784-1785. 1784, (41485), and 1785, (41486). Bowls elaborately
  ornamented with geometrical figures and a circle of serratures, in
  which is a figure resembling a duck with spread wings seen from above.

1786-1788. 1786, (41487); 1787, (41488); 1788, (41489); the last with a
  woman’s head on the tip of the solid handle.

1789-1793. 1789, (41498); 1790, (41499); 1791, (41508); 1792, (41514);
  1793, (41490). The last of these as also the following seven pieces
  have bent, gourd-like handles, slightly curved or hooked at the end,
  solid and somewhat rounded.

1794-1800. 1794, (41491); 1795, (41492); 1796, (41493); 1797, (41494);
  1798, (41496); 1799, (41497); 1800, (41500).

1801. (41495). Like No. 1788, as are also the following ten specimens:

1802-1811. 1802, (41502); 1803, (41504); 1804, (41505); 1805, (41507);
  1806, (41515) 1807, (41518), Fig. 525; 1808, (41519); 1809, (41522);
  1810, (41523); 1811, (41525).

1812. (41506). This is square; an unusual form.

  Fig. 526 (41410) (½)
  Fig. 527 (41396) (½)
  Fig. 528 (41412) (⅓)
  Fig. 529 (41395) (⅓)
  Fig. 530 (41392) (⅓)
  Figs. 526-530.--Wolpi Ladles and Basket.]

1813-1822. 1813, (41509); 1814, (41510); 1815, (41511); 1816, (41512);
  1817, (41513); 1818, (41516); 1819, (41517); 1820, (41520); 1821,
  (41521); 1822, (41503).

1823-1824. 1823, (41524), and 1824, (41501). Shaped somewhat like an

1825. (41399). Water vessel in the shape of a bird, with tail and wings

1826. (41406). Cup with bird’s head on one side, tail opposite, and
  slight projections to represent wings on the side. Brown ware.

1827. (41410). A double cup or ladle shown in Fig. 526.

1828. (41414). Like Fig. 531, ornamented with oblique scalloped stripes
  on outside; geometrical figures inside.

1829-1830. 1829, (41431), and 1830, (41432). Square salt-boxes; the
  former of white ware, with square figures on the outside; the latter
  brown, unornamented.

1831. (41436). Cup-shaped basket, brown ware; woman’s head on top of

1832. (41437). Similar basket, white ornamented ware, handle plain.

1833. (41437). Similar small, brown, cup-shaped basket.

1834. (41478). Biscuit-shaped bowl, with ornamental diamonds on outside.


1835. (41371). Basket similar to those used by the Zuñians in sacred
  dances, with terraced margin, plain band inside, and comb-like figures

1836. (41372). Similar basket, bottom flat, and sides straighter than
  the preceding, decorated on the outside with oblique double serrate

1837-1838. 1837, (41387), and 1838, (41392). Baskets with straight
  margins, both with geometrical figures on the outside. The latter is
  shown in Fig. 530.

1839. (41390). Fig. 532, water-vase with bowl-shaped base.

1840. (41391). Fig. 531 Basin with looped handle arising from the center
  of the inside; ornamented white ware.


The clay images or statuettes obtained from the Shinumo pueblos are not
objects of worship as supposed by many persons, but appear to be used to
adorn their dwellings just as similar articles are used by civilized
races. This is evident from their form and ornamentation which rudely
represent the ordinary clothing worn by these Indians, and in the female
figures the usual mode of wearing the hair either in a bunch at the back
of the head or in two wheel-shaped knots at the sides. In a few
instances ear ornaments, made of pieces of shells or beads, are found
attached to the ears.

I am not aware that these images are used in their dances or religious
ceremonies. If they are objects of worship it must be in the family
only, or a secret worship of which I obtained no information.

Images are introduced, however, in their dances and religious rites, but
these are made of wood and highly ornamented, some of which were
obtained and are hereafter described.

1841. (42026). Composed of the same clays of which the general pottery
  is made, with small lines of a brick-red color up and down the body;
  black lines over the shoulder and around the body, terminating so as
  to represent hands; small earlets, made of blue beads, suspended from
  the ears; face in white, with black spots to represent month and eyes;
  horn-shaped cap, extending obliquely back from the head. Represents a
  male figure.

1842. (42027). Same as above, except the head, which has a square bunch
  at its back, representing the one method of wearing the hair by the
  Shinumos. Male figure.

1843. (42028). Same as No. 1841, especially in regard to the horn-shaped
  protrusion from the back of the head.

1844. (42029). Plain flat image, probably intended to represent a

1845. (42030). This image is quite characteristic of this class of
  objects. The cut shows all but the colors, which are the same as
  described above, the form only differing from No. 1841 in having two
  horns curving back from the head. Seen in Fig. 533.

1846. (42031). Differs only from the rest in having a small hat on the

1847. (42032). Female figure, but with a black band around under the
  chin, apparently representing whiskers; dark brown body.

1848. (42033). Female figure with wheel-shaped knot on each side of the
  head representing the manner of wearing the hair by the Shinumo women,
  the body of the figure cream colored, face red, eyes and mouth black;
  black necklace. Special parts of the body represented in red.

1849. (42034). Male figure ornamented with red vertical lines.

1850. (42035). Fig. 534. The cut presents all the lines on the image as
  well as the form. The small wheels on each side of the head referred
  to under No. 1848 show the style of wearing the hair; the black
  markings shown on the cut are red on the figure. Female.

1851. (42036). Body red, marked with black and dark red lines; red and
  black spots on back of head to represent the hair.

1852-1853. 1852, (42037); 1853, (42038); dark red bodies with black and
  red lines.

1854-1856. 1854, (42039); 1855, (42040); 1856, (42041); similar to the
  preceding; the last with the wheel-shaped knots representing the hair.

  Fig. 531 (41391) (⅓)
  Fig. 532 (41390) (⅓)
  Fig. 533 (42030) (½)
  Fig. 534 (42035) (½)
  Figs. 531-534.--Wolpi Basin, Vase, and Clay Statuettes.]

  Fig. 535 (42085) (¼)
  Fig. 536 (42058) (⅕)
  Figs. 535, 536.--Wolpi Meal Baskets.]



The following specimens are examples of the tray-like baskets made from
round willows:

1857. (42085). Fig. 535 shows the mode of its construction.

1858-1871. 1858, (42076); 1859, (42077); 1860, (42078); 1861, (42079);
  1862, (42080); 1863, (42081); 1864, (42082); 1865, (42083); 1866,
  (42084); 1867, (42086); 1868, (42087); 1869, (42088); 1870, (42089);
  1871, (42090).

The following numbers refer to specimens of the spiral or coiled
basketry, all the features of which are shown in Fig. 536, except the
color decoration:

1872-1907. 1872, (42058); 1873, (42051); 1874, (42052); 1875, (42053);
  1876, (42054); 1877, (42055); 1878, (42056); 1879, (42057); 1880,
  (42059); 1881, (42060); 1882, (42061); 1883, (42062); 1884, (42063);
  1885, (42064); 1886, (42065); 1887, (42066); 1888, (42067); 1889,
  (42068); 1890, (42069); 1891, (42070); 1892, (42071); 1893, (42072);
  1894, (42090); 1895, (42073); 1896, (42074); 1897, (42075); 1898,
  (42091); 1899, (42092); 1900, (42093); 1901, (42094); 1902, (42095);
  1903, (42096); 1904, (42097); 1905, (42098); 1906, (42099); 1907,

The following are canteen or water baskets, previously described, as to
method of making and using them:

1908-1912. 1908, (42101); 1909, (42102); 1910, (42103); 1911, (42104);
  1912, (42105); are vase-shaped baskets, of which Fig. 537 is a
  representative example.

The following are specimens of the same ware, differing only in form and

1913-1920. 1913, (42106); 1914, (42107); 1915, (42108); 1916, (42109);
  1917, (42110); 1918, (42111); 1919, (42112); 1920, (42113).

1921-1925. 1921, (42114); 1922, (42115); 1923, (42116); 1924, (42117);
  1925, (42118), are only noticeable on account of their peculiar form.
  They are almost top-shaped, with an acute apex at the bottom. The
  mouth is small, like that of a jug. In one instance (42114) the body
  slopes from top and bottom to the center, almost forming a ridge. Very
  few of this form were obtained.

1926. (42119). A double-lobed canteen basket. Many of the clay
  water-vessels in the collection are made in imitation of this
  double-lobed basket.

1927-1931. 1927, (42120); 1928, (42121); 1929, (42122); 1930, (42123);
  1931, (42124). Ordinary forms of the water-basket.

1932. (42125). A fine, large, and quite perfect specimen, of the jug or
  water-basket, with ears of horse-hair and string attached for use.
  Quite a number of the ancient water-jars are of this form, and both
  bear evidence of antiquity.

1933. (42149). Fig. 538 is a good illustration of this form.

1934-1937. 1934, (42146); 1935, (42147); 1936, (42148); 1937, (42150),
  are of the same class of cemented basket-ware. The small
  fruit-baskets, made of round willows and with much less care, are also
  of many forms. Some are square, others round, and some with a peculiar
  flattened body; of the latter there are but few in the collection.
  They belong to the older class of basketry.

The following specimens belong to that class:

1938-1941. 1938, (42126); 1939, (42127); 1940, (42128); 1941, (42129).

1942. (42130). A specimen of a much finer quality than the preceding. It
  is long and vase-shaped, with a wide mouth and flaring rim, and woven
  up from the bottom in oblique ridges.

1943. (42131). A coarsely constructed bowl-shaped basket, of which type
  the following are also specimens:

1944-1951. 1944, (42132); 1945, (42133); 1946, (42134); 1947, (42135);
  1948, (42136); 1949, (42137); 1950, (42138); 1951, (42139).

1952. (42140). Specimen of the older basketry, with large depressed
  body, flat bottom, and jar-like mouth.

1953-1956. 1953, (42141); 1954, (42142); 1955, (42143); 1956, (42144),
  are also different forms of the peach-basket.

1957. (42145). Fig. 540. A large floor or hearth mat frequently found in
  use among the Pueblos. The specimen in the collection exhibits some
  skill and taste in weaving it. The material of which it is made is a
  small round willow.

1958. (42151). A large deep basket, constructed by weaving coarse willow
  twigs around four upright posts or large sticks. It has a capacity of
  about two bushels.

1959. (42152). This is a small square basket of the same character.

1960. (42153). A specimen of this ware. It is shown in Fig. 539,
  exhibits a coarse, loose manner of construction. These are used as

1961-1962. 1961, (42154), and 1962, (42155). These are examples of the
  same kind.

1963. (42156). This specimen represents the finest quality of baskets in
  the collection. They are all more or less tastefully ornamented during
  the process of plaiting them. They are skillfully and closely woven,
  and are used for holding the finest of their flour and meal. These are
  undoubtedly of Apache manufacture. Fig. 541.

1964. (42157). Has been selected as an illustration of this class of
  baskets, of which the following are examples, differing but little in

  Fig. 537 (42105) (¼)
  Fig. 538 (42149) (¼)
  Figs. 537, 538.--Wolpi Baskets.]

  Fig. 539 (42153) (⅓)
  Fig. 540 (42145) (⅛)
  Figs. 539, 540.--Wolpi Fruit Basket and Floor Mat.]

  Fig. 541 (42157) (⅕)
  Fig. 542 (42160) (⅕)
  Figs. 541, 542.--Wolpi Baskets.]

  Fig. 543 (42183) (⅙)
  Fig. 544 (42199) (¼)
  Fig. 545 (42171) (⅓)
  Figs. 543-545.--Wolpi Baskets.]

1965-1971. 1965, (42158); 1966, (42159); 1967, (42160), Fig. 542; 1968,
  (42162); 1969, (42163); 1970, (42164); 1971, (42165). The two last are
  almost flat; the rest saucer or bowl shaped and quite deep.

1972. (42166). Basket of coarse willow ware; platter-shaped.

1973. (42167). Conical-shaped basket of closely woven variety.

1974. (42168). Hemispherical-shaped basket of the same class; small.

1975. (42169). Cylindrical basket; small.

1976-1981. 1976, (42170); 1977, (42171); 1978, (42172); 1979, (42173);
  1980, (42174); 1981, (42175). Small cylindrical-shaped peach-baskets
  made of flat yucca leaves. Fig. 545 is an illustration of that class.

1982-1987. 1982, (42195); 1983, (42196); 1984, (42197); 1985, (42198);
  1986, (42199), Fig. 544; 1987, (42200). Examples of the same class.

The following baskets are made from the broad leaves of the yucca, woven
or plaited crosswise in a very simple manner, and wrapped at the rims
with leaves of the same plant. The texture of the weaving is quite
coarse, not sufficiently close to hold any material smaller than corn or

1988-2006. 1988, (42176); 1989, (42177); 1990, (42178); 1991, (42179);
  1992, (42180); 1993, (42181); 1994, (42182); 1995, (42183); 1996,
  (42184); 1997, (42185); 1998, (42186); 1999, (42187); 2000, (42188);
  2001, (42189); 2002, (42190); 2003, (42191); 2004, (42192); 2005,
  (42193); 2006, (42194), are all specimens of this class well shown in
  Fig. 543.


2007. (41706). A Shinumo blanket loom, with a blanket partly completed,
  with all the fixtures and implements employed in the art of blanket
  weaving. This art, however, attains its highest degree amongst the

2008-2009. 2008, (41707), and 2009, (41708), are looms exhibiting
  different modes of weaving.

2010. (41709). A loom with a partly finished garment.

2011. (41683). Fig. 546. Blanket-stick for tightening strands of
  blankets during the process of weaving. After the thread is passed
  through from one side to the other this stick is placed over the
  thread and then firmly beaten down. The following numbers are
  implements of the same kind. They are called _soo-qua_.

2012-2020. 2012, (41684); 2013, (41685); 2014, (41686); 2015, (41687);
  2016, (41688); 2017, (41689); 2018, (41690); 2019, (41691); 2020,

2021. (41888). Blanket stretcher, _tu-he-que-hey_.

2022. (41166). Reed frames, used in weaving belts and garters, called

The following are objects of the same kind:

2023-2027. 2023, (41667); 2024, (41668a); 2025, (41668b); 2026, (41669);
  2027, (41670). Implement to show the process of making belts.

2028. (42372). Small notched stick used in weaving belts.

2029-2030. 2029, (41998), and 2030, (41999). Short pointed sticks for
  stretching and drying skins.

2031. (41676). Spindle whorl, _pa-tu-he-kah_. This is a common object of
  use amongst all the Pueblos. Fig. 547 is an illustration of one of
  these implements, showing the shaft with spun yarn below the disk. As
  previously mentioned, this spindle whorl is almost identical with the
  drill used for perforating stone and shell charms and ornaments. The
  addition of a cross stick and strings, with the flint tip, are only
  necessary to convert it into a drill. In both the drills and whorls
  the disks are made of horn, stone, bone, and wood. For the drill see
  Fig. 494.

2032-2037. 2032, (41677); 2033, (41678); 2034, (41679); 2035, (41680);
  2036, (41681); 2037, (41682). All spindle whorls.

2038. (41658). Bow and three arrow-shafts.

2039. (41659). Bow.

2040. (41660). Bundle of four arrow-shafts.

2041-2044. 2041, (41661); 2042, (41662); 2043, (41663); 2044, (41664),
  are bundles of thirty-five arrow-shafts.

2045. (41651). Bow and six iron-pointed arrows.

2046. (41652), (41653). Bows.

2047. (41654). Bow and quiver.

2048. (41655). Quiver and twenty-six iron-pointed arrows.

2049. (41656). Child’s bow and two arrows.

2050. (41720). Boy’s bow with two arrows.

2051. (41976), Fig. 548. Stick used for hunting rabbits; it is in the
  form of a boomerang.

2052-2055. 2052, (41977); 2053, (41978); 2054, (41979), Fig. 549; 2055,
  (41980). Same objects as the last. In the Zuñi tongue this stick is
  called _kle-ān-ne_, and in Shinumo _pu-wich-he-cu-he_.

2056. (41924). Saddle-tree.

2057. (41925). Stirrups, _pu-tut-hum-pee_.

2058. (41119). Sinch hooks, _cu-rah-bat-tow_.

2059. (42000). Wooden hoe, made in imitation of European hoe.

2060. (41693). Wooden forceps, _wat-cha_.

2061. (41909). Pronged stick for rake, called _ta-wish-wy-lah_. See Fig.

2062-2063. 2062, (41916), and 2063, (41917). Small yoke-shaped
  implements for drying the skins of small animals by stretching the
  skin over them.

2064. (41863). Wooden treasure-box, of which the following numbers refer
  to specimens, and which are well shown in Figs. 552 and 554:

  Fig. 546 (41683) (1/10)
  Fig. 547 (41676) (1/7)
  Fig. 548 (41976) (⅕)
  Fig. 549 (41979) (⅕)
  Figs. 546-549.--Wolpi Wooden Implements.]

  Fig. 550 (41909) (1/10)
  Fig. 551 (41178) (⅕)
  Fig. 552 (41866) (⅕)
  Fig. 553 (41191) (⅓)
  Fig. 554 (41865) (⅙)
  Figs. 550-554.--Wolpi Implements.]

  Fig. 555 (41931) (⅙)
  Fig. 556 (41926) (⅙)
  Fig. 557 (41932) (⅕)
  Fig. 558 (41940) (⅕)
  Figs. 555-558.--Wolpi Dance Ornaments.]

2065-2069. 2065, (41864); 2066, (41865); 2067, (41866); 2068, (41867);
  2069, (41868).

2070. (41985). Baby cradle, with hoops over the head for net work; made
  of slats, _mu-hu-tah_.

2071. (41986). Baby cradle made of willow work.

2072. (41987). Cradle without top.

2073. (41988). Toy cradle, of basket work.

2074. (41989). Toy cradle of boards.

2075. (41710). Toy whirligig, made of a disk with two holes through
  which strings are passed.

2076. (41711). Specimen of Indian corn.

2077-2078. 2077, (41715), and 2078, (41716).

2079. (41694). Paint toy, of wood, _tat-chi_.

2080. (41695). Bird snares, made of small sticks like the ramrod of a
  gun, arranged with horse hairs, _wa-wa-shi_.

2081. (42371). Bunch of very small reed-like grass, called
  _nen-a-wash-pi_ or rain broom.

2082-2083. 2082, (41889), and 2083, (41890). Whirling sticks.

2084-2886. 2084, (41177); 2085, (41178); 2086, (41179). Specimens of a
  peculiar drum-stick in general use by the Shinumo, Zuñi, and other
  Pueblo Indians. It is made from a stick, one end of which is shaved
  off sufficiently to admit of bending the end thus shaved round in the
  form of a hoop, and then tightly securing it. The hoop portion is used
  in beating the drum. Fig. 551 is an illustration of one of these

2087. (41180). Calabash, or gourd, for holding food or water.

2088-2090. 2088, (41181); 2089, (41182); 2090, (41183). Ordinary forms
  of the same vessel.

2091. (41191). Gourd, perforated, with a staff through the center,
  painted in many colors; held on a pole in dances. See Fig. 553.


2092. (41926). Is a flat piece of wood about twenty inches long and five
  in width, with a notched handle at the lower end. Two bunches of
  feathers are attached to each edge of it, and a bunch at the top. The
  form of the ornamentations is shown in Fig. 556; the colors employed
  in these ornamentations are brilliant red, yellow, blue, and black.
  The entire design is intended to represent the body of a human being.
  These objects are carried in the hand in their dances.

2093-2097. 2093, (41927); 2094, (41928); 2095, (41929); 2096, (41930);
  2097, (41931). These are other examples which are well represented in
  Fig. 555.

2098-2100. 2098, (41932), Fig. 557; 2099, (41933); and 2100, (41934),
  are sticks, carried in the main dance. They represent lightning.

2101-2102. 2101, (41935), and 2102, (41936). Small notched sticks,
  ornamented with blades of grass and wild-turkey feathers; carried in
  the dance.

2103-2106. 2103, (41937); 2104, (41938); 2105, (41939); 2006, (41940).
  Wooden objects highly colored with various devices depicted on them.
  These are worn on the head in dances. Mowers are represented on some;
  on others, the human face, &c. Fig. 558, an illustration made from one
  of them.

2107-2108. 2107, (41941), and 2108, (41942). Small frames, over which
  canvas is stretched, to the edges of which are attached various small
  ornaments; used in dances.

2109. (41943). Small hoop with canvas stretched over it, on which are
  painted five small objects like stars, used in dances.

2110. (41944). Leather dance-mask, painted.

2111. (41945). Dance-mask.

2112. (41946). Pair of split horns worn in dances.

2113. (41947). Head-dress made in the form of scallops.

2114. (41948). Head-dress of painted sheep-horns.

2115. (41949). Head-dress crown made of basket-ware, to which are
  attached three projections intended for horns, Fig. 559.

2116. (41950). Corn-husk ornament for the dance.

2117-2118. 2117, (41671), and 2118, (41972). Wooden objects made in
  imitation of a sun-flower, with zigzag or snake-like sticks attached
  to them, which are used as ornaments in the corn dance, called

2119-2120. 2119, (41673), and 2120, (41674). Shuttle-cocks, made by
  inserting the ends of two hawk-feathers in a small block. They are
  carried in dances.

2121. (42042). Dance-rattle made from a small gourd, embellished in
  colors of black, red, and white. The gourd is perforated at each side,
  through which a stick is passed for a handle, cross S’s on each side.
  See Fig. 562.

2122. (41982). Notched stick, with shoulder blade of sheep or deer, for
  musical instrument. See Fig. 561.

2123-2124. 2123, (41983), and 2124, (41984). Notched sticks without the

2125. (41701). Dance ornaments, called _tau-ah-qu-la_, made by attaching
  semi-circular sticks or hoops to a small pole; ornamented with colors.

2126-2129. 2126, (41702); 2127, (41703); 2128, (41704); 2129, (41705),
  are ornaments of the same character as the preceding.

2130. (41857). Painted gourd-rattle for dances, of which the following
  numbers are specimens variously ornamented:

2131-2135. 2131, (41858); 2132, (41859); 2133, (41860); 2134, (41861);
  2135, (41862), of which the illustration of the latter is an example.
  See Fig. 560.

  Fig. 559 (41949) (⅙)
  Fig. 560 (41862) (⅓)
  Fig. 561 (41982) (⅙)
  Fig. 562 (42042) (½)
  Fig. 563 (41752) (¼)
  Fig. 564 (41877) (¼)
  Fig. 565 (41922) (¼))
  Figs. 559-565.--Wolpi Head-dress, Ornaments, &c.]

  Fig. 566 (41959) (⅕)
  Fig. 567 (41953) (⅕)
  Fig. 568 (41967) (¼)
  Fig. 569 (41956) (⅕)
  Figs. 566-569.--Wolpi Effigies.]

2136. (41883). Flat wooden block, painted, for head ornament.

2137. (41884). Cylindrical blocks, with a cup-shaped cavity in one end,
  used as gaming blocks.

2138-2139. 2138, (41885), and 2139, (41886), are specimens of this block
  called _sosh-he-wey_.

2140. (41887). Spherical grooved block, painted to represent a melon,
  used in the melon dance.

2141. (41918). Wooden top, _ree-am-pee_.

2142. (41920). Wooden balls, probably to represent eyes.

2143. (41921). Ball attached to the end of a painted stick, the use of
  which is not known; probably used in connection with dancing

2144. (41900). Small implement of wood used as a dance ornament.

2145. (41752). Wooden ornament for the head, worn in dancing ceremonies.
  Two little leather balls are attached to the dotted end; shown in Fig.

2146. (41754). Two small wooden balls with black ends and a white band
  around the middle; a dance ornament.

2147. (41756). Ornaments for the wrist; made of wooden rings.

2148. (41753). A similar object, painted in various bright colors.

2149-2150. 2149, (41881), and 2150, (41882), are slatted wooden
  cylinders with conical blocks attached to them. Ornaments for dancing

2151. (41876). Wooden ball attached to slatted gourd-neck, used as an
  ornament in the dance.

2152. (41877). See Fig. 564.

2153-2154. 2153, (41878), and 2154, (41879). Specimens varying from the
  preceding only in colors.

2155. (41922). Necklace of acorn hulls, _tuck-we-tah-qua-we_. Fig. 565.

2156. (41923). The same kind of an ornament.


These objects vary in form, size, and decoration, the largest being
about thirty inches high, the smallest not more than five. They are
objects of worship in one form or another. The illustrations in the
woodcuts and colored plates will convey a better idea of them than could
be given in a description. They are entirely composed of wood, with
feathers and other small ornaments attached to them occasionally.

2157. (41951). This is the largest one of these images in the
  collection, very highly ornamented with bright variegated colors. See
  Fig. 571.

2158. (41952). One of these objects, differing only in size and manner
  of decoration.

2159. (41953). This is a specimen of one of these images exhibited in
  Fig. 567. The form is common to many of them, showing the pyramidal
  projections attached to the head, with feathered tips.

2160-2161. 2160, (41954), and 2161, (41955). Similar objects.

2162. (41956). Fig. 569. This exhibits a female figure with variegated
  colors, and in addition to the pyramidal projections from the head has
  two round sticks with a ball and crown.

2163-2164. 2163, (41957), and 2164, (41958). Similar to Fig. 569.

2165. (41959). Fig. 566. The general characteristics of this specimen
  are the same as those already referred to, but it differs in the
  arrangement of the head attachments; two rows of pyramids are shown;
  the lower one is inverted; the two rows are separated by three arches;
  the upper pyramids are ornamented at the tips with feathers. A
  necklace of acorn hulls is around the neck, with a shell ornament
  attached to it. Garters are represented at the knees. In this
  specimen, as in many others, the feet are only represented by stubs.
  The body is decorated to represent fancifully colored clothing.

2166-2168. 2166, (41960); 2167, (41961); 2168, (41962). Similar to the

2169. (41963). This is well shown in Fig. 570.

2270-2172. 2170, (41964); 2171, (41965); 2172, (41966). Objects of the
  same character.

2173. (41967). This specimen (Fig. 568) differs considerably in form
  from those previously mentioned. As will be observed by reference to
  the figure, it has a conical projection from the top of the head,
  representing a hat with a feather at the top, with two short, round
  blocks at the base of the hat, and two round balls to represent ears.
  The skirt is of cloth. The specimen is brilliantly decorated with

2174. (41968). Shows the form and details of carving, highly colored.

2175. (41969). A brilliantly colored image, which is well shown in
  colors in Fig. 572.

2176-2180. 2176, (21970); 2177, (41971); 2178, (21972); 2179, (21973);
  2180, (41974), are similar objects.



2181. (40113). Large ladle from horn of mountain sheep, called
  _ál-ly-ku_. See Fig. 573.

2182-2188. 2182, (41891); 2183, (41892); 2184, (41893); 2185 (41894);
  2186 (41895); 2187 (41897); and 2188 (41898). No. 2182 is a bone awl
  or perforator, of which the others are examples, as shown in Fig. 575.

2189-2192. 2189, (41990); 2190, (41991); 2191, (41992); 2192, (41193).
  Goats’ horns perforated with small round holes, through which arrow
  shafts are passed to smooth and straighten them. Fig. 576 is an
  illustration of one of them, called _hoth-quen_.

  Fig. 570 (41963)
  Fig. 571 (41951)
  Fig. 572 (41969)

  Fig. 573 (40113) (¼)
  Fig. 574 (41855) (⅓)
  Fig. 575 (41891) (⅓)
  Fig. 576 (41992) (¼)
  Figs. 573-576.--Wolpi Ladle, Rattle, &c.]

2193-2196. 2193, (41994); 2194, (41995); 2195, (41996); 2196, (41997).
  Bundles of arrow shafts.

2197. (41855). Bunch of ox hoofs or toes used as a rattle in dances.
  These same objects are frequently attached to the edges of turtle
  shells for the same purpose. See Fig. 574 in Zuñi collection.

2198-2199. 2198, (41763), and 2199, (41764). Small hoops with painted
  net-work stretched across them; dance ornaments.

2200-2201. 2200, (42346), and 2201, (42347). Shell ornaments,

2202. (41854). Medicine shells.


2203. (41737). Cap made from the skin of a panther’s head, with feathers
  attached to the top of it, called _pow-how-wi-ta-nah-chi_.

2204. (41738). Head-dress made of the skin of a panther’s head, so as to
  preserve the natural appearance of the animal, with feather ornaments

2205. (41740). Fur cap, ornamented with feathers.

2206. (41743). Boy’s sling, _tow-wow-kin-pi_.

2207. (41842). Large rabbit-skin robe, made by twisting strands of
  rabbit-skins with the fur attached, and then sewing the strands
  together, _tah-ru-pe_.

2208. (41843). Small robe of the same character.

2209. (42354). Buckskin wrist-guards, faced with metal, Fig. 579. These
  guards are common with nearly all tribes of Indians, and are designed
  to protect the wrist from the string of bows used in war and in

2210. (41869). Women’s buckskin leggings.

2211. (41870). Women’s buckskin leggings.

2212. (41739). Anklet of buckskin, _pi-la-wak-chi_.

2213. (41741). Anklet of buckskin.

2214. (41828). A pair of men’s moccasins, which the accompanying
  illustration shows well. They are made of buckskin, but differ from
  the usual manner of making moccasins, called _pow-chi_. See Fig. 578.

2215. (41721). Baby’s moccasins, _tow-tow-chi-we-ha_.

2216. (41722). Pair child’s moccasins, _tow-tow-chi-we-ha_.

2217. (41723). Woman’s moccasins, _tow-chi_.

2218. (41829). Pair of child’s moccasins, _pow-tow-chi-u-wez-ha_. The
  following are specimens of children’s moccasins:

2219-2222. 2219, (41830); 2220, (41831); 2221, (41832); 2222, (41833).

2223. (41755). Small gaming ball covered with goat skin.

2224. (41745). Buckskin paint bag, beaded.

2225. (41746). Buckskin paint bag, beaded.

2226. (41747). Buckskin paint bag, ornamented with fringe.

2227. (41748). Buckskin paint bag, ornamented with fringe.

2228. (41827). Deer-skin pouch, _la-hab-ush-i-wa_.

2229. (41657). Small deer-skin quiver and one arrow.

2230. (41841). Buckskin embroidered with beads.

2231. (41871). Buckskin dyed black.

2232. (41872). Buckskin dyed black.

2233. (41873). Buckskin dyed black.

2234-2235. 2234, (41717), and 2235, (41719), are riding whips made of
  plaited leather or raw-hide, called _wi-wa-pi_. See Fig. 580.

2236. (41176). A flat drum, made by stretching goat-hide over a wide
  hoop, and tightened by lacing crosswise around the edge with a cord of
  the same hide. One side is plain, the other is decorated with a
  figure, which is not interpreted. This specimen is from Shinumo, but
  it does not differ from those used by many of the other Pueblo tribes.
  Fig. 581.

2237. (42351). Fig. 577. Leather wristlets, ornamented with wild turkey

2238-2239. 2238, (42352), and 2239, (42353), are objects of the same
  kind, differing somewhat in ornamentation.

2240. (42354). Ornamental wristlets with metal facing.

2241. (42355). Buckskin wrist-guard, to protect the wrist from the
  bowstring when shooting arrows.

2242-2243. 2242, (42356), and 2243, (42357), are similar objects, made
  of leather.

2244. (42358). Anklets of leather or rawhide strips.

2245. (42359). Anklets.

2246-2247. 2246, (41749), and 2247, (41750). Leather bags for fire

2248. (41850). Leather attachments for moccasins.

2249. (41765). Leather gaming ball, _tat-chi_.

2250. (41758). Leather or rawhide lash rope with rings, called

2251. (41874). Specimen of undressed rawhide.

2252. (41875). Rawhide bag, painted, _cah-he-ne-si-vah_.

2253. (41844). Narrow strip of canvas, painted to represent some
  fanciful feature. The following are specimens of the same:

2254-2258. 2254, (41845); 2255, (41846); 2256, (41847); 2257, (41848);
  2258, (41849).


2259. (41834). Woven belts or sashes, of which the following are
  examples, and which are well shown in colors by Figs. 582 and 583:

2260-2269. 2260, (41713); 2261, (41803); 2262, (41255); 2263, (41823);
  2264, (41835); 2265, (41836); 2266, (41837); 2267, (41838); 2268,
  (41839); 2269, (41840).

2270. (41718). Woven waist belt, ornamented with sheep and goats’ toes,
  attached to the lower edge of the belt.

2271. (41751). Head ornament of braided hair.

  Fig. 577 (42351)
  Fig. 578 (41828) (⅕)
  Fig. 579 (42354) (⅓)
  Fig. 580 (41719) (⅙)
  Fig. 581 (41176) (⅙)
  Figs. 577-581.--Wolpi Wristlets, Moccasins, etc.]

  Fig. 582 (41255)
  Fig. 583 (41823)
  Figs. 582-583.--SHINUMO BLANKETS. ¼ NATURE]

2272. (42361). Flat circular pad, composed of hair, over which the
  Shinumo women wear their hair, which appears like two wheels over the

2273. (41767). Head ornament for flower dance, called _tah-chi_.

2274. (41769). Ornament similar to the preceding.

2275. (41766). Maiden’s hair strings for head-dress, called

2276. (41735). Rosette for head-dress in dance.

2277. (41736) Rosette with hair tufts attached; dance ornament for the

2278. (41744). Woolen tassel, ornament for dress.

2279. (41762). Neck ornament, with feathers attached, called

2280. (41759). Feather charms.

2281. (41761). Woven band for the head, called _mong-at-a_.

  Fig. 584 (42365) (¼)]

2282. (42365). Fig. 584. Anklets, ornamented with porcupine quills; some
  are beaded.

The following are specimens of the anklets, variously ornamented:

2283-2286. 2283, (42362); 2284, (42363); 2285, (42364); 2286, (42366).

2287. (41742). Woman’s knit leggings.

2288. (41826). Woven hair sinch or saddle-girt, _ah-chis-clah_.

2289. (41757). Braided lasso or lariat.




These are mostly of the usual form, though some should, probably on
account of their shape, be designated as jars. A few have the margin
undulate, and some are without any distinct neck.

They are generally well made and very symmetrical, of white ware, with
decorations in black, brown, or red colors.

2290. (41295). Small, with opposite handles or ears, resembling rats
  peeping into the vessel; body decorated with broad oblique stripes and
  figures resembling corn blades. Shown in Fig. 585.

2291. (42382). Small, decorated with birds fighting, their feathers
  ruffled. Fig. 612.

2292. (42384). Small, with a single broad undulate band around the body,
  having a white stripe in the middle marked with a row of dots.

2293. (42385). Fig. 586. Scalloped and straight band around the neck;
  body with two interlaced undulate bands, with triangles alternately in
  the inclosed and upper spaces.

2294. (42380). Red base, upright black bands in the center, with brown
  band below neck, and oblique bars extending from rim downward. See
  Fig. 610.

2295. (42381a). Fig. 587. The leaves in the decorations of this piece
  are probably designed to represent corn blades. There is something
  about the figures here used which leads one to believe they are, in
  part, at least, symbolical.

2296. (42386). Fig. 588. Large. Large flower ornaments surrounding large
  birds with crests and ruffled feathers, one in each space. The
  large-billed bird may be intended for a raven; the other the
  California quail.

2297. (42387). Small margin, with images of three birds with spread
  wings on it; figures of two birds, with a few small flowers covering
  the body. See Fig. 611.

2298. (42388). Small. Zigzag band around the neck; figures on the body
  as in Fig. 585.

2299. (42389). Jar-shaped; zigzag band extending on neck and shoulder; a
  straight and scalloped band just below the shoulder.

2300. (42390). No neck, broadest near the top; birds, and flowers with
  stem. Small.

2301. (41391). Without neck; birds only, small.

2302. (42392). Without neck. Birds picking grass. Small flowers.

2303. (42393). Scalloped margin; birds only, small.

2304. (42394), Fig. 589. Scalloped margin. Deer, which seems to be
  biting the leaves of a plant.

2305. (42395). Fig. 590.

2306. (42396). Jug-shaped, scalloped margin, with four bands of
  crescents on the body.

2307. (42397). Jug-shaped, with square month; zigzag line around the
  neck. Scrolls and oblique diamond figures on the body; small.

2308. (42398). Fig. 591. Ears in the form of animals peeping into the

2309. (42399). Small, with crude images of animals on the margin; birds
  alone on the body.

2310. (42400). Small; no neck, square mouth; image of a rabbit at each
  corner on the rim; birds and checkered square on the body.

2311. (42401). Small and similar to preceding, except that there are
  only corn leaves and a little square on the body.

2312. (41402). Similar in form to the preceding; image of an animal at
  one corner only; zigzag line around the neck; double undulate line
  around the body, with dots above and below.

2313. (41403). Similar to No. 2310, except that it is more slender and
  jar-shaped; image of a dog or coyote at each corner; figure of a ladle
  and a diamond on the body.

  Fig. 585 (41295) (⅓)
  Fig. 586 (42385) (⅓)
  Fig. 587 (42381) (¼)
  Figs. 585-587.--Laguna Water Vases.]

  Fig. 588 (42386) (¼)
  Fig. 589 (42394) (⅓)
  Fig. 590 (42395) (⅓)
  Fig. 591 (42398) (⅓)
  Fig. 592 (41298) (⅓)
  Figs. 588-592.--Laguna Water Vessels.]

  Fig. 593 (41299) (½)
  Fig. 594 (42412) (⅓)
  Fig. 595 (42413) (⅓)
  Fig. 596 (42409) (⅓)
  Figs. 593-596.--Laguna Water Jars.]

2314. (41404). Jar-shaped, with a round mouth, one animal on the margin;
  triangular lines on the body.

2315. (42406). Regular shaped olla of medium size; large figure of leaf
  twigs arranged in the form of a Maltese cross, surrounded on the side
  by broad curved lines or stripes.

The following are but slightly decorated:

2316-2317. 2316, (42376), and 2317, (42378). With one or two simple
  narrow bands or lines.

2318. (42780). With slight oblique lines on the neck, and a few broad
  upright lines in two groups on the body.

2319-2320. 2319, (42379), and 2320, (42381b). Without decorations of any


2321. (41299). Fig. 593, Canteen with the images of four dogs or coyotes
  on it. Leaf decorations.

2322. (41300). Canteens, regular form. Irregular figures.

2323. (42412). Fig. 594. Canteen of regular form, scalloped band, leaves
  and geometrical figures.

2324. (42413). Fig. 595. Olla-shaped canteen. The top is depressed and
  ornamented with a scalloped band; immediately below this is a broad
  band consisting of two plain, narrow stripes, between which is a row
  of oblong figures arranged in a zigzag pattern; around the middle of
  the vessel there is a sparsely serrate band, interrupted at intervals
  by small circles, in each of which there is the form of a cross.

2325. (42409). Fig. 596. The ornamentation on this piece is rather
  peculiar and worthy of attention, especially the bands around the

2326. (42411). Double pepper and salt box, square form, with two handles
  side by side; birds mounted on the handles; figures of elk on the
  sides and ends in procession.

2327. (42475). Moccasin; rude.


These are well formed, evidently in imitation of those introduced by the
white population. All similar in form, with handles. White ware with
decorations; of medium size.

2328. (41298). Shown in Fig. 592.

2329. (42405). Diamond scroll in the upper zone; a band of triangles
  with points directed upward in lower zone.

2330. (42406). Flower or rosette in upper zone, one on each side; no
  other figures.

2331. (42407). Broad band around the neck, from which two long-pointed
  triangles or acuminate figures point downwards; then another simple
  straight band, and below this a zigzag band.

2332. (42408). Scroll band around the neck; a band of hour-glass figures
  around the shoulder.

2333. (42410). With an undulate band around the bowl.


These are of white decorated ware, and in the form of birds and
quadrupeds; the orifice being usually in the top of the head, but in
birds it is occasionally at the tail, and in the quadruped forms
sometimes in the breast.


These are frequently without feet, &c.; one or two double ones are on

2334-2347. 2334, (41301); 2335, (41302), Fig. 597; 2336, (41303), Fig.
  598; 2337, (41304); 2338, (41305); 2339, (42414), Fig. 608; 2340,
  (42415), Fig. 599; 2341, (42418), Fig. 609; 2342, (42419); 2343,
  (42423); 2344, (42426); 2345, (42427); 2346, (42428); 2347, (42429),
  are all similar to that represented in the Figures; some of them are
  intended to represent other birds than ducks.

2348. (42417). Fig. 600. With two heads on a pedestal.

2349. (42420). Two heads, but not on a pedestal; a handle on the back in
  the form of a fox or dog. See Fig. 605.

2350-2352. 2350, (42421); 2351, (42422); 2352, (42424). Similar to those
  shown in Fig. 598, but the decorations are scrolls and triangular
  figures. The first has a flower or rosette on the breast.

2353. (42425). Two-headed; not on pedestal; lines, triangles, &c.

2354. (42435). With a crest and long tail; apparently a rooster.


2355. (41306). Fig. 601. This represents a sheep. The orifice is in
  front of the head.

2356-2357. 2356, (41307), Fig. 609, and 2357, (41309). These are
  probably intended for sheep, but they are so rude that it is not
  possible to determine with any certainty. Bark colored.

2358. (41308). A cow; although rude, the characteristics are well given,
  even to the hoofs and udder; spotted on the back and breast. Coloring
  on the sides intended to represent hair.

2359. (42430). Shown in Fig. 606.

2360. (42431). Fig. 602. This and the preceding figure are evidently
  intended to represent rabbits.

2361-2362. 2361, (42432), and 2362, (42433). Similar to the last;
  apparently intended for a figure of the ass (_Burro_), though the
  spots on the former are inappropriate. The latter is decorated on the
  side with the figure of another quadruped.

2363. (42434). Animal unknown.

2364-2365. 2364, (42436), and 2365, (42437). Animal not determinable;
  decorated with spots.

  Fig. 597 (41302) (⅓)
  Fig. 598 (41303) (⅓)
  Fig. 599 (42415) (½)
  Fig. 600 (42417) (⅓)
  Figs. 597-600.--Laguna Effigies.]

  Fig. 601 (41306) (⅓)
  Fig. 602 (42431) (⅓)
  Fig. 603 (42438) (⅓)
  Fig. 604 (42444) (⅓)
  Figs. 601-604.--Laguna Effigies.]

  Fig. 605 (42420)
  Fig. 606 (42430)
  Fig. 607 (41307)
  Fig. 608 (42414)
  Fig. 609 (42418)
  Figs. 605-609--LAGUNA POTTERY. ⅓ NATURE.

  Fig. 610 (42380)
  Fig. 611 (42387)
  Fig. 612 (42382)
  Fig. 613 (42473)
  Fig. 614 (42469)
  Fig. 615 (42471)
  Figs. 610-615.--LAGUNA POTTERY. (1/[illegible]) NATURE.]

  Fig. 616 (41297) (½)
  Fig. 617 (42452) (⅓)
  Figs. 616, 617.--Laguna Eating Bowls.]

2366-2371. 2366, (42438), Fig. 603; 2367, (42439); 2368, (42440); 2369,
  (42441); 2370, (42442); 2371, (42443). Antelope and elk. The first is
  evidently an antelope, and possibly the third and fifth. The rest are
  certainly elk. Decorations simple.

2372. (42444). Probably a dog or coyote, with scrolls and diamond
  figures. See Fig. 604.

2373. (42445). Probably a horse.

Human figures--dolls.

2374-2377. 2374, (42447); 2375, (42448); 2376, (42449); 2377, (42450).
  Females; simple.

2378. (42446). Is a pretty fair representation of a chair.


The Laguna bowls are mostly of two sizes, either large or small. The
former are eating bowls and are of the general form, or perhaps more
hemispherical than usual. The small ones vary in shape from the
preceding form to that of a flat-bottomed basin. The decorations present
but little similarity to those we have previously described from other
tribes; white ware with colored decorations.

Small bowls. Decorations all external:

2379. (41296). Square mouth, with two sides somewhat flattened. Scrolls
  and leaf-like figures on the outside.

2380. (41297). Fig. 616. Shown in the figure.

2381. (42451). Basin-shaped, with a handle on one side and a lip on the
  other; simple marginal and basal band with oblique lines.

2382. (42452). Fig. 617. Same form, with handle on which is seated some
  animal, apparently a dog, no lip. Band of diamond figures with central
  spaces. These two are the only specimens which have handles.

The following are quite small, basin-shaped, decorated with leaflike

2383-2388. 2383, (42453); 2384, (42454); 2385, (42457); 2386, (42458);
  2387, (42459); 2388, (42460).

The two following are small, of regular form:

2389. (42455). With two zigzag lines around the body.

2390. (42456). With geometrical figures.

Large bowls.

2391. (41265). No external decorations; radiating lines and large spaces

2392. (42474). Inner zigzag marginal line as on Zuñi bowls; outer
  decorations also somewhat like the usual triangular figures on the
  Zuñi bowls.

The following are without inner decorations:

2393-2395. 2393, (42466); 2394, (42468); 2395, (42472). With broad band
  of geometrical figures; the first with a narrow scalloped band
  bordering the large band below.

2396-2397. 2396, (42461), and 2397, (42473), Fig. 613. With irregular
  geometrical figures; no band.

2398. (42469). With diamond marginal band; irregular figures below. Fig.

2399. (42470). The large circular scroll with irregular figures; no

2400. (42471). Scalloped circle with a square in it, and leaf-like
  figures. Fig. 615.




There are but few pieces of this pottery, yet a careful examination of
these since my return increases my desire to procure more. The Acoma
bears a strong resemblance, especially in the ornamentation, to that
from Laguna. All that was obtained was of white ware with decorations in
color. In this pottery, in most cases where animals are figured, they
have a base or ground on which to stand.

2401. (39578). Medium size, figures of birds, ant-hills, and cactus. No
  band on the neck.

2402. (39581). Fig. 618.

2403. (39582). Very pretty specimen, quite symmetrical, broad
  jar-shaped, a scalloped band on the neck with little tassels suspended
  from it, possibly intended to imitate fringe. Large triangles on the
  body pointing to the right, each tipped with a flower.

2404. (39730). Small scalloped band around the neck similar to Fig. 624.

2405. (41310). Large double band of triangles on the neck; body with a
  band of large diamonds, or squares placed as diamonds, with checkered
  centers and crescents.

2406. (41313). No band on the neck; birds and ant hills.

2407. (41314). No band on neck; large elk and some irregular figures.

2408. (41315). No band on neck; bird on the ground amid leaves and

2409. (41316). Fig. 619. The ornamentation on this is more than usually

2410. (41318). Scalloped margin, no neck-band; belt of large open
  diamonds around the body, each upper corner capped with three leaves.
  See Fig. 621.

2411. (41317). Large size; a double band of crescents around the neck;
  then on the shoulder an arched band with a central stripe of diamonds;
  below this a double line of inverted crescents, and below this a large
  three-leafed plant. See Fig. 620.

  Fig. 618 (39581) (¼)
  Fig. 619 (41316) (¼)
  Figs. 618, 619.--Acoma Water Vases.]

  Fig. 620 (41317)
  Fig. 621 (41318)
  Fig. 622 (42377)
  Figs. 620-622.--ACOMA POTTERY. ⅕ NATURE.]

2412. (42378). Plain.

2413. (42383). Small, with lines of outline crescents around the body.

2414. (42377). See Fig. 622.


White decorated ware with handles:

2415. (41311). Regular form, of medium size, with a broad zigzag band
  around the neck and another around the body. The latter has in each
  large fold something like an arrow-head with point broken off.

2416. (41312). Olla-shaped neck with snort oblique bands; body with
  large and small triangles.


The following specimens are small:

2417. (42461). Shaped exactly like the small soup bowl in use at the
  present day among the whites; with foot encircled by a vine with
  well-formed leaves. A pretty piece.

2418. (42462). Regular form, with an outline zigzag band.

2419. (42463) and (42464). Very small, conical in shape, the former
  marked with slender lines running around it, the latter with dots.




Size: height 6 to 9 inches, diameter 6 to 15 inches.

These are of the same form as those of Zuñi, but the curves and outlines
are much more graceful, and there is a delicacy in the finish which
places them above the Zuñi pottery and indicates a greater freedom and
confidence in the ceramic artist. The rim is often slightly flared, the
neck more distinct and regularly formed.

The only figure given of this interesting group is not one of the
regularly formed specimens. They are all white ware with decorations in

2420. (39501). Scalloped band around the neck; body divided into three
  compartments by upright double lines with rosette in one and twigs in
  the others.

2421. (39502), Pueblo or terraced figures around the body bordered by an
  undulate line below. This is of special interest.

2422. (39503). Decorated with sunflower, the stem and leaves on the
  body; straight and undulate lines around the neck.

2423. (39504). Decorated with straight and undulate bands.

2424. (39505). With figures of birds on the neck; and a tolerably well
  executed true meander or Greek fret around the body. Evident imitation
  of European pattern.

2425. (39506). Straight and undulate lines on the neck, triangle
  pointing downwards, leaves and insects on the body.

2426. (39509). Depressed; with rosettes and geometrical figures on the
  upper half of the body.

2427. (39634). Globular in form, without neck; scalloped marginal band;
  figures of chickens on the body.

2428. (39731). Fig. 624. Small size.

2429. (39733). Small size, similar in form to the preceding, with
  scalloped band around the neck, and scalloped arches on the body.
  Shown in Fig. 623.

Globular vessels with handles, used for holding water. These are of two
forms: those which are almost or quite spherical, with wide month at the
top; and those which resemble tea-pots, and open through a spout in the
form of the head of a bird or other animal. These are sometimes
globular, with opening at the top. Size shown in the illustrations.

2430. (39557). Undulate band around the margin; figures of fish on the

2431. (39558). Undulate line round the margin; figures of deer, bird,
  and fruit.

2432. (39559). With figures of triangles and leaves on the body.

2433. (39560). With head of a bird projecting from one side; marked with
  outline triangular and lunar figures on the body.

2434. (39561). Head of an animal projecting from one side.

Canteen-shaped vessels, with openings through a spout in the form of the
head of some animal. In some instances, where these are in the form of a
bird with the head for a spout, at the opposite end or side is the
representation of a tail, but often the latter is wanting. Handle
single, and usually on the top, unless otherwise specially mentioned.

2435-2436. 2435, (39563), and 2436, (39567). These are bird-shaped, with
  simple meander bands round the neck, and procession or herd of sheep
  or goats on the body. Head and tail shown. The former is seen in Fig.

2437. (39564). Form of a bird without tail; decorations simple.

2438. (39565). Shown in Fig. 626.

2439. (39568). Bird without tail; figure of an Indian with a gun in his
  hand, leading a calf followed by a cow.

2440. (39569). Bird with rude tail; figures of fishes and bird and a
  scalloped band below.

2441. (39570). Bird without tail; feather figures on breast; oblique
  checkered band to represent wing.

  Fig. 623 (39733) (⅓)
  Fig. 624 (39731) (⅓)
  Figs. 623, 624.--Cochiti Water Vessels.]

  Fig. 625 (39563) (⅓)
  Fig. 626 (39565) (⅓)
  Figs. 625, 626.--Cochiti Water Vessels.]

  Fig. 627 (39573) (⅓)
  Fig. 628 (39720) (⅓)
  Figs. 627, 628.--Cochiti Water Vessels.]

  Fig. 629 (39725) (⅓)
  Fig. 630 (39511) (⅓)
  Figs. 629, 630.--Cochiti Water Vessels.]

  Fig. 631 (39717) (⅓)
  Fig. 632 (39721) (⅓)
  Figs. 631, 632.--Cochiti Water Vessels.]

  Fig. 633 (39718) (⅓)
  Fig. 634 (39714) (⅓)
  Figs. 633, 634.--Cochiti Water Vessels.]

2442. (39571). With two heads opposite, handle crosswise between them;
  serrate bands around the necks; figures of birds on the body.

2443. (39572). Representing a double-headed duck, with a single tail at
  opposite end; square handle; outline flower or rosette on the body.

2444. (39573). Form and decorations shown in Fig. 627. Probably intended
  for a dog.

2445. (39574). Form like preceding; decorations, fish, and grass; latter
  well shown.

2446. (39575). Similar in form to preceding, but with the fore-legs
  added. Decorations, collar or band around the neck and fish, on the

2447. (39579). Without handle, canteen-shaped, with dark head on one
  side; decorated with flowers and birds.

2448. (39696). Bird’s head on top, tail present, no handle; jug-shape;
  feather on back, scrolls and flower on the side.

2449. (39697). Animal’s head; no tail; open on top as well as through a
  spout; scalloped margin; birds and twigs on the body.

2450. (39698). Similar in form to the preceding, and with similar

2451. (39699). Similar in form, but not open on top. Man, boy, and
  birds, with lines or shading to represent the ground.

2452-2458. 2452, (39701); 2453, (39713); 2454, (39715); 2455, (39720);
  Fig. 628; 2456, (39725), Fig. 629; 2457, (39727); 2458, (39730). These
  are somewhat of bird form, with globular body and without tail. Nos.
  2455, 2456, and 2457 are open on top, the others are not. Decorated
  with figures of birds, and sometimes flowers or twigs. The bird
  figures on No. 2453 (39713) are evidently intended for turkeys. This
  is without handle, and open at the top.

2459. (39700). Bird without tail; figures of deer and some other animal,
  also trees.

2460. (39703). Duck-shaped, without tail; rude figures of animals and

2461. (39511). Fig. 630.

2462. (39704). Bird-shape, no tail; outline figures of Indians.

2463-2465. 2463, (39706); 2464, (39712); 2465, (39721), Fig. 632. Usual
  bird form as shown, and with similar animal figures.

2466. (39705). Resembles specimen shown in Fig. 629.

2467-2468. 2467, (39707), and 2468, (39708). Same form; decorations in
  outline, former of plants, latter of animals; rude.

2469. (39709). Same form; figure of an Indian chasing a deer.

2470-2471. 2470, (39710), and 2471, (39717). Fig. 631. Decorated with
  figures of fish.

2472. (39711). Usual form; oblique; double serrate band and figures of

2473. (39714). Fig. 634.

2474. (39718). Fig. 633.

2475. (39719). Fig. 635.

2476. (39722). Fig. 636. This belongs to the globular group above

2477. (39723). Similar to the preceding and belongs to the same group;
  with figures of sheep and fish.

2478. (39724). Fig. 637.

2479. (39726). Fig. 638. A true canteen.

2480. (39728).

2481. (39729). Fig. 639.

2482. (39508). Bird with tail more elongate in form than usual. Oblique
  checkered band on the side.

2483. (39514). Similar to water jars in the form of birds, and without

2484. (39562). Fig. 640.

2485. (39515). Rosette of leaves on the back; tail well formed, probably
  represents the dove.

2486. (39516). No head, merely a spout; decorations simple.

2487. (39517). Evidently intended for a hen.

2488. (39518). Fig. 642.

2489. (39584). Simulates a hen; feathers on the back, deer on the sides.

2490. (39585). With handle, wings rudely figured. Shown in Fig. 641.

2491. (39586). Similar in form to No. 2480; wings represented by figure,
  behind them the figures of a bird, evidently a duck, resembling the
  head of the vessel. Of the usual tea-pot shape.

2492. (39583). Without handle, canteen-shaped; open on top, with head
  apparently of turtle on one side: decorations, bird and rosette.

2493. (39580). Fig. 643. Simple jar.

2494. (39576). Fig. 644. Figure of a priest.

2495-2496. 2495, (39777), and 2496, (39778). Simple water jars of black
  ware, pitcher-shaped, with slight projection on the body for handle.
  These were evidently obtained from some other tribe.


There is but one specimen of Cochiti manufacture in the collection.

2497. (39512). Of ordinary shape; white ware, decorated with black on
  the inside only; a central ring with radiating corn-leaf figures.


All small. White ware, slightly decorated unless otherwise specified.

2498. (39520). Head of some animal too rude to identify.

2499. (39521). Double-headed bird figure on a pedestal.

2500. (39526). Black ware. Sitting annual; very rude.

2501. (39527). Black ware. Probably jack-rabbit; handle at the back.

  Fig. 635 (39719) (⅓)
  Fig. 636 (39722) (⅓)
  Figs. 635, 636.--Cochiti Water Vessels.]

  Fig. 637 (39724) (⅓)
  Fig. 638 (39726) (⅓)
  Figs. 637, 638.--Cochiti Water Vessels.]

  Fig. 639 (39729) (⅓)
  Fig. 640 (39562) (⅓)
  Figs. 639-640.--Cochiti Water Vessels.]

  Fig. 641 (39585) (⅓)
  Fig. 642 (39518) (¼)
  Figs. 641, 642.--Cochiti Water Vessels.]

  Fig. 643 (39580) (⅓)
  Fig. 644 (39576) (⅓)
  Figs. 643, 644.--Cochiti Water Vessels.]

  Fig. 645 (39857) (½)
  Fig. 646 (39825) (⅓)
  Fig. 647 (39824) (⅓)
  Figs. 645-647.--Cochiti Effigies.]

2502. (39528). Black ware. Young birds. The three last mentioned are
  most likely from some other pueblo.

2503. (39824). Fig. 647. Black ware.

2504. (39825). Fig. 646. Black ware.

2505-2506. 2505, (39826), and 2506, (39827). Similar grotesque figures
  of black ware.

2507. (39854). Double-headed figure of a bird on pedestal.

2508. (39855). Bird on pedestal; ruffled back.

2509-2518. 2509, (39856); 2510, (39857), Fig. 645; 2511, (39858); 2512;
  (39859); 2513, (39860); 2514, (39861); 2515, (39769); 2516, (39775);
  2517, (39883); 2518, (39862), are figures of birds on pedestals,
  except No. 2514, which is the figure of a little duck, and probably is
  a toy water vessel.

2519. (39524). A toy cup or basket in the shape of an olla, with handle,
  the figure of the little water insect or worm appears on this, the
  only instance in the Cochiti pottery.




There are but nine pieces of this pottery, and all but two of these are
small images or drinking vessels in the form of birds.

2520. (39510). A double globe jar or canteen. White ground, with
  ornamentations in black, as seen in Fig. 649. Depression in the center
  is probably designed to receive a band or cord to carry it with.

2521. (39513). Large black bowl; no ornamentation.

Images of black ware; two pieces; a bird on pedestal and a quadruped.

2522-2523. 2522, (39652a); 2523, (39652b).

2524-2525. 2524, (39653), and 2525, (39654). Human images, very rude.

2526. (39658). Bird on pedestal.

Small drinking vessels in the form of birds. White ornamented ware.

2527. (39655). With four rows of dots on the side; no tail.

2528. (39656). With handle; tail and neck ornamented.

2529. (39657). No ornamentation except a line or two and some dots on
  the head. Fig. 648.




2530. (39809). Stone metate for grinding grain, brown sandstone.

2531. (39810). Quartzitic stone mortar for grinding mineral pigment.

2532. (39811). Quite small mineral pigment mortar of quartz rock.

2533. (39821). Gaming ball of fine-grained sandstone.

2534. (42215). Discoidal quartz pounder.

2535. (42341). Fig. 650. Paint mortar. This mortar was made from a
  somewhat rounded sandstone boulder by grinding out a cavity. In the
  cut, which was drawn for another purpose, the pestle is represented
  with a small cup-shaped cavity on one side of it, in which the fluid
  pigment from the mortar was poured and used with the brush of the
  artist for decorative purposes. This is the only specimen of the kind
  in the collection, and the only one found where the pestle combines
  the cup with it.

  Fig. 650 (42341) (⅓)
  Fig. 648 (39657) (½)
  Fig. 649 (39510) (⅓)
  Figs. 646-649.--Santo Domingo Canteen and Effigy.]



This group, though comparatively small, contains some of the largest and
grandest pieces in the entire collection, some of the vases being twenty
inches in height and twenty-two in diameter, having a capacity of ten
gallons. It consists of white ware with decorations in black, bearing a
strong resemblance to that of Cochiti, brown micaceous, and polished
brown ware without ornamentation, and black ware without ornamentation.

Tinajas or vases. Well formed and similar in shape to those from

2536. (39507). With oblique diamond figures on the neck, and geometrical
  figures on the body.

2537. (39520). Upper half only decorated with rude figures of leaves and

2538. (39523). Similar to the preceding.

2539. (39525). Without neck; a broad and true meander band around the
  middle, with three-leaved flower above and below on each coil.

2540. (39530). Neck ornamented with a straight and an undulate line;
  body as in No. 2539.

2541. (39531). With rosette and triangular figures somewhat similar to
  those on Zuñi ollas.

2542. (39532). Decorations similar to those on Cochiti olla, No. 2421.

2543. (39801). Covered; a beautiful specimen, probably the most chaste
  and artistic of the entire collection.

2544. (39533). Fig. 651. Similar to the preceding.

2545. (39534). Serrate band around the neck; body with broad band and
  large circular spaces, each having four dark indentations.

2546. (39542). Neck with straight and undulate lines and short sigmoid
  figures; body with figures of a plant.

2547. (39549). Neck similar to the preceding; body with a zigzag line
  dotted along the upper side, and small ovoid spots above and below it,
  one in each indentation.

2548. (39635). Plain black, polished, large.

2549. (39639). Like the last.

2550. (39660). Large size; dotted line around the neck; heavy band
  around the shoulder, with sharp and long serrations pointing downward;
  body with alternate ornamental ovals and four-pointed stars.

2551. (39661). Straight and undulate lines around the neck; body divided
  into spaces by broad, double-scalloped, perpendicular stripes, having
  the middle white with an undulate line in the white portion; the
  intermediate spaces have a sun-shaped figure in the upper corner, from
  which a double serrate stripe descends obliquely.

2552. (39664). Birds and undulate line on the neck; a straight line with
  ring dots on the shoulder, broad meander band, with triple leaf
  ornament around the body.

2553. (39665). Neck with meander as in the preceding; a slender vine,
  well made, around the body.

2554. (39682). Rather slender; undulate margin; vine around the neck;
  body with broad band of three-leaved flowers.

2555. (39683). Neck with straight and undulate lines; body with undulate
  line terraced above as heretofore described, but above this is a row
  or band of small distinct ovals.

2556. (39685). Black, without ornamentation.

2557. (39686). Large bowl-shaped olla, without neck, decorated with
  vine, cross, scrolls, &c.

2558. (39687).

2559. (39740). Upper half with marginal scalloped band, from which hang,
  obliquely, leaves with bent spines on their margin; below this a
  serrate and then a double straight line.

2560. (39741). Squatted in shape. Vine with leaves around the middle of
  the body.

2561. (39772). Small; slender vine around the neck, dotted line around
  the shoulder, and three-leafed vine around the body.

2562. (39773). With flaring rim; scalloped band around the margin;
  regular zigzag line around the shoulder, from each lower point of
  which descend plants.

2563. (39789). Same decorations as No. 2539, but of the regular form.

2564. (39800). Small scalloped lines around the body.

2565. (39802). Brown, without ornamentation.

2566. (39803).

2567. (39805).

2568. (39806). Fig. 652.

2569. (39813). Fig. 654.

2570. (39814).

2571. (39815). Neck colored, with a white zigzag line running through
  it; body with curious, large leaf-like ornaments of an angular shape.

2572. (39817). With similar leaf-like figures, but narrower and
  differently arranged. Shown in Fig. 653. The piece is injured, and the
  cords seen in the figure were tied about it by the natives to keep it
  from, going to pieces.

2573. (39816). With a large zigzag band around the upper half of the
  body, terraced above and below.

2574. (39818). Very large and beautiful specimen, decorated on the body
  somewhat like some of the Zuñi pottery. The large circular scrolls are
  formed of a vine with leaves on the outer side. There are but few of
  the triangular figures seen in the Zuñi piece; there is a regular and
  true serrate marginal band; below this on the neck a broad band with
  diamond spaces.

2575. (39819). With a broad band around the neck composed of squares
  placed obliquely, with an oblong white space in each; body with a
  simple, narrow, straight band or double line.

2576. (39822). Large scalloped band around the neck, a little leaf
  pendant from each point; the body with alternate large stars and
  ornamental diamonds.

2577. (39823). This has the rim slightly flaring, a scalloped band and
  leaves around the neck; the body profusely decorated with geometrical
  figures. This belt is divided into four spaces, in each of which there
  is a checkered, terraced pyramid pointing downward; the lower part and
  sides of each space is occupied with triangular and sagittate figures.

2578. (39868). Small; neck with a row of ovals; the shoulder with a true
  herring-bone band; a vine with spiny leaves around the body.

2579. (39865).

  Fig. 651 (39533) (¼)
  Fig. 652 (39806) (⅕)
  Figs. 651, 652.--Tesuke Water Vases.]

  Fig. 653 (39817) (⅓)
  Fig. 654 (39813) (⅓)
  Figs. 653, 654.--Tesuke Water Vases.]


2580. (39812). Plain double-bellied water bottle of micaceous ware. See
  Fig. 655.

2581. (39834).

2582. (41366). Water jug. Fig. 519.

2583. (39790). Jar or urn of white ware, with two handles ornamented
  with the usual meander.


2584. (39745). A regular well-formed pitcher, with proper lip and
  handle. White ware ornamented with serrate lines, triangles, and
  circle. The only one from this tribe.


The Tesuke bowls vary considerably in form, some having the slope
straight, others flaring and of the usual form, others biscuit-shaped.
No large specimens were obtained.

2585. (39613). Usual bowl-shape, with flaring margin; no external
  decorations; inner surface with circular scrolls.

2586. (39647). Biscuit-shaped, with broad meander band externally; no
  decoration internally.

The following are similar in form and decoration:

2587-2590. 2587, (39666); 2588, (39669); 2589, (39788); 2590, (39648).
  Outside plain; inner marginal band a slender vine.

The following numbers are plain, of brown micaceous ware,
biscuit-shaped, small:

2591-2593. 2591, (39667); 2592, (39668); 2593, (39835).

The following are of the same ware, platter-shaped:

2594-2599. 2594, (39672); 2595, (39678); 2596, (39679); 2597, (39680);
  2598, (39681); 2599, (39792).

2600. (39793). Square.

2601. (39797). Regular bowl-shaped, with foot.

2602. (39673). Biscuit-shaped, with band of straight and undulate lines.

2603. (39674). No outer decorations; inside with radiating serrate
  lines, and leaves.

2604. (39675). No inner decorations; on outside a marginal serrate band,
  and a band of leaves around the body.

2605. (39676). Biscuit-shaped; vine, with leaves, around the middle.

2606. (39677). Uo outer ornaments; on inner surface a center leaf-cross,
  and above this, radiating lines.

2607. (39688). Decorated on inner surface only. A central flower and
  submarginal band of oval leaves.

2608. (39742). Biscuit-shaped; zigzag line, with two leaves at each
  point on the outside.

2609. (39743), Plain red, flower-pot shaped.

2610. (39744). Flower-pot shaped, with zigzag lines or vines running up
  and down, a leaf at each point.

2611. (39776). Largest bowl of the group.

2612. (39787). Regular shape; zigzag band on the outside.

2613. (39798). Small, regular shape, with vines on the inside.

2614. (39799). Small figures and birds on the inside.


These are always plain black ware, and are of several forms.

Pots. Shaped like the Zuñi vessels.

2615-2632. 2615, (39601); 2616, (39602); 2617, (39605); 2618, (39606);
  2619, (39607); 2620, (39608); 2621, (39611); 2622, (39670); 2623,
  (39671); 2624, (39689); 2625, (39735); 2626, (39736); 2627, (39737);
  2628, (39738); 2629, (39794); 2630, (39795), with handle; 2631,
  (39828); 2632, (39874).


2633-2635. 2633, (39603); 2634, (39604); 3635, (39615), with handle. See
  Fig. 657.


2636-2646. 2636, (39609); 2637, (39610); 2638, (39612); 2639, (39614);
  2640, (39690); 2641, (39691); 2642, (39692); 2643, (39693); 2644,
  (39694); 2645, (39695), shown in Fig. 659; 2646, (39739).


2647. (39791). Ornamented bird on pedestal.

Blackbirds on pedestals:

2648-2657. 2648, (39804); 2649, (39807); 2650, (39808); 2651, (39820);
  2652, (39829); 2653, (39830); 2654, (39831), Fig. 656; 2655, (39832),
  Fig. 658; 2656, (39833); 2657, (39836).



2658. (39751). _O-sha_. Root used as medicine for rheumatism, internally
  and externally.

2659. (39752). _Zerba-lobo_. Wolf root, for pulmonary complaints.

2660. (39753). _O-cha_. Root used for rheumatism.

2661. (39754). _Ka-cha-na_. Root, semi-medicinal and magic. To prevent
  breach or wounds, and for sore eyes; external use.

  Fig. 655 (39812) (⅓)
  Fig. 656 (39831) (½)
  Fig. 657 (39615) (½)
  Fig. 658 (39832) (½)
  Fig. 659 (39695) (½)
  Figs. 655-659.--Tesuke Vessels.]




This is all black and frequently polished ware without ornamentation.
The method of producing the black polish is explained in another part of
the catalogue.

Bowls and ollas. Black, without ornamentation. Some of these are of
comparatively large size.

2662-2670. 2662, (39645); 2663, (39748), Fig. 662; 2664, (39749); 2665,
  (39750); 2666, (39779); 2667, (39780), Fig. 660; 2668, (39781); 2669,
  (39782); 2670, (39786). A very pretty covered jar; cover with a
  handle. Fig. 672.

2671. (39838). Small with scalloped margin.

2672. (39866).

2673. (39629). Fig. 661. Vase with depressed band around the center; rim
  forming a band; base small.

2674. (39834). Double lobed bottle or canteen. See Fig. 671.


These are of black polished ware without decoration of any kind, and of
various forms, globular, bowl-shaped, and platter-shaped or true

Globular and small:

2675-2676. 2675, (39556), and 2676, (39616).


2677-2678. 2677, (39617), and 2678, (39618). With flared and notched

2679-2680. 2679, (39619), Fig. 667, and 2680, (39620). These two with
  flared and scalloped rim.

2681. (39621). A cooking vessel.

2682-2689. 2682, (39628), Fig. 669; 2683, (39632), Fig. 663; 2684,
  (39646), Fig. 664; 2685, (39633); 2686, (39636); 2687, (39637); 2688,
  (39638); 2689, (39643).


2690-2691. 2690, (39630), and 2691, (39640). Scalloped rim.

2692-2698. 2692, (39641); 2693, (39642); 2694, (39646), see Fig. 664;
  2695, (39649), scalloped rim; 2696, (39784); 2697, (39785); 2698,

2699. (39793). Fig. 668. Small platter-shaped dish of black polished


2700. (39794). Small pot, no handle.

2701. (39795). Small pot with handle.

2702-2705. 2702, (39623); 2703, (39626), Fig. 670; 2704, (39627); 2705,
  (39629). Small pots without handles, with a constriction or
  indentation around the middle.

2706-2707. 2706, (39837), and 2707, (39840). Small pitchers with handles
  and lips.

2708. (39839). Canteen with spout and mouth above.


Bird figures, polished, on pedestals. All similar to those shown in the

2709-2720. 2709, (39841); 2710, (39842); 2711, (39843); 2712, (39844);
  2713, (39845); 2714, (39846); 2715, (39847); 2716, (39848), Fig. 666;
  2717, (39849), Fig. 665; 2718, (39850); 2719, (39554); 2720, (39555).
  The last two are hollow, with an orifice in the back; no pedestal.

2721. (39553). Canteen in shape of a bird; no pedestal.




2722-2723. 2722, (39587) and 2723, (39588). These two with handles on
  each sides. Sides straight.

2724-2725. 2724, (39589), and 2725, (39590). Biscuit-shaped, as shown in
  Fig. 675.

2726. (39591). Platter-shaped, with scalloped margin.

2727. (39592). Red ware, of medium size, with outer broad marginal band
  of triangular figures.

Pots. Plain, black:

2728-2731. 2728, (39593); 2729, (39594); 2730, (39747); 2731, (39625).
  Canteen-shaped, with handles or ears at or near the top; small
  circular orifice. See Fig. 673.

2732. (39650). A similar vessel of black ware, with larger orifice, the
  margin of which is scalloped. Large ears or handles near the top on
  each side. Bottom oval, and an impressed band around middle of body.
  In some of the canteen-shaped vessels this depression is for holding
  the cord with which the vessel is transported. See Fig. 674.

  Fig. 660 (39780) (⅓)
  Fig. 661 (39629) (½)
  Fig. 662 (39748) (⅓)
  Fig. 663 (39632) (½)
  Fig. 664 (39646) (⅓)
  Fig. 665 (39849) (½)
  Fig. 666 (39848) (½)
  Figs. 660-666.--Santa Clara Pottery.]

  Fig. 667 (39619) (⅕)
  Fig. 668 (39793) (¼)
  Fig. 669 (39628) (¼)
  Fig. 670 (39626) (¼)
  Fig. 671 (39834) (¼)
  Fig. 672 (39786) (¼)
  Figs. 667-672.--SANTA CLARA POTTERY.]

  Fig. 673 (39625) (½)
  Fig. 674 (39650) (⅓)
  Fig. 675 (39590) (⅓)
  Figs. 673-675.--San Juan Pottery.]

2733. (39659). A jug-shaped pitcher of decorated red ware, with regular
  handle neatly formed. Ornamented with a looped vine and twigs, with
  leaves well drawn; neck slender and orifice with lip, but less in
  proportion than in ordinary pitcher.



2734. (39926). Fig. 676. A very singular and pretty water vessel,
  obtained at the Jemez pueblo. White ware decorated in black and brown.
  It is probable that the peculiar form is given from mere fancy, and
  not for the purpose of adapting it to any particular use, as it
  appears to be simply a water vessel.

  Fig. 676 (39926) (⅓)]



This is a light brown micaceous ware, and the pieces are all small, or
comparatively so. They consist of pots, pitchers, and cups.

This small collection, though not obtained directly from the Jicarilla
Apaches, is attributed to them, for the reason that wherever found among
other tribes it is by them accredited to the Apaches. It is
manufactured, however, by some of the Pueblos along the Rio Grande, and
occasionally by the more western Pueblos. The party did not visit the
Apaches mentioned, and are not positively certain that they manufacture
pottery. These facts are mentioned in this connection to show that there
is some question as to the origin of this small collection.

Vase-shaped pots:

2735-2741. 2735, (39535); 2736, (39536); 2737, (39537); 2738, (39538);
  2739, (39539); 2740, (39540); 2741, (39544). This and the next two
  have the rims scalloped.

2742-2744. 2742, (39545); 2743, (39546); 2744, (39547).


2745-2751. 2745, (39595); 2746, (39596); 2747, (39597); 2748, (39598);
  2749, (39599); 2750, (39600); 2751, (39851).

Pitchers and cups, with handles of regular form:

2752. (39543). Finger impressions around the middle.

2753-2754. 2753, (39540), and 2754, (39548). Scalloped margin.

2755. (39770). With an undulate impressed line around the middle.


2756. (39852). Incense-burner, somewhat in the shape of a beaver hat,
  with a rim in the form of a bird; a small orifice in the middle.

2757. (39853). Bird image.



2758. (39756). Flint scraper. Rudely shaped, of hard cherty rock, flat
  on the inner face, convex on the back.

2759. (39757). An irregular square flat piece of sand-stone, on one side
  of which is a small circular cup-shaped depression.

2760. (39758a). A small mortar composed of fine-grained sand-stone,
  half broken away; being of quite soft stone, it was probably used for
  pulverizing food of some kind.

2761. (39758b). Quartz mortar made from, a round water-worn boulder.
  The cavity is symmetrical; diameter five inches.

2762. (39759). Half of a cherty water-worn boulder from which flakes for
  flints have been chipped.

2763. (39760). Small round cherty boulders, frequently used in chipping
  for flints, but in this instance they seem to have been used as

2764. (39761). Hammer made from a section of a broken rubbing or
  grinding stone of calcareous rock.

2765. (39762). Maul from broken rubbing stone or grinder, grooved at
  each end; rhyolite.

2766. (39763). Rudely shaped sinker (or what is called a sinker),
  rounded at each end and grooved in center; schistose rock.

2767. (39764). Rudely shaped chisel or celt of metamorphic schist.

2768. (39759). Rough chipping stone; agate.

2769. (39760). Three irregular round balls of flint-stone, flaked by


2770. (41771). Fragments of pottery from the old and new court,
  exhibiting Spanish glaze.

2771. (41772). Pottery fragments, decorated in colors. Old and new

2772. (41773). Ancient fragments, glazed.

  Fig. 677 (40814). (⅓)
  Fig. 678 (40813). (⅓)
  Fig. 679 (40815). (¼)
  Fig. 680 (40816). (¼)
  Figs. 677-680.--Water Vessels from Cañon de Chelly.]

2773. (41774). Fragments of pottery from the old court, showing glaze
  with white ground.

2774. (41775). Miscellaneous fragments of pottery from various parts of
  the ruins.

2775. (41794). Fragments of pottery, showing white coating, from new

2776. (41796). Pottery fragments, showing Spanish glaze inside; new

2777. (41797). Fragments with edges chipped.

2778. (41798). Rim pieces of black pottery were from the old court.

2779. (41799). Fragments of red pottery from new court.

2780. (41800). Fragments of plain pottery from both old and new courts.

2781. (42344). Specimens of adobe mortar from the walls of the Pecos

2782. (42345). Specimen of same.

2783. (42373). Chimney pots from Casa Blanca, Old Pecos.

2784. (42374). Very large cooking pot in fragments from Casa Blanca, Old


2785. (41276). Beam of wood from the old court.




2786-2789. 2786, (40813), Fig. 678; 2787, (40814), Fig. 677; 2788,
  (40815), Fig. 679; 2789, (40816), Fig. 680. These pieces are white
  ware, decorated with black. The colors in great part still remain,
  showing that they are comparatively modern. The lines represent colors
  and not indentations.

2790. (40796). Fig. 681. Upper part broken; supposed to have been a
  pitcher, as part of the handle remains. From Cliff House ruins, Cañon
  de Chelly. Red ware. Comparatively modern.

The following articles are ancient ware, from the same place as the

2791. (40600). Small vase of white ware, probably comparatively modern.
  The design, though simple, is somewhat peculiar and different from
  what is usually found on pottery of the present day. See Fig. 683.

2792. (42202). Fig. 682. Similar in form, size, and color to the
  preceding; the design, as will be seen by reference to the figure, is
  a common one.

2793. (40812). Pitcher. White ware, with black decorations. See Fig.

2794-2795. 2794, (40819), Fig. 691, and 2795, (40820), Fig. 688.
  Pitchers, white; ware figured.

2796. (40824). Very small pitcher with handle; of uncolored ware.

2797. (42203). A very pretty pitcher of white ware, with decorations in
  black, much faded, showing age, although so well and truly formed it
  is evidently not modern. Fig. 692.

2798. (40601). A round-bottomed pitcher-shaped vessel, white ware with
  black lines; the colors are much faded, showing age. Fig. 689. The
  design is evidently of a previous age, and we will be justified,
  perhaps, in saying that it belongs to the period of transition from
  the rigid lines and angles to the curves.

2799. (40811). Fig. 687, Small pitcher, _e-musch-ton-tsān-nā_,
  originally of white ware; bowl uncolored.


2800. (40823). Small bowl, with handle each side, white, with black
  colors. Fig. 684.

2801. (40825). A small paint-pot shown in Fig. 685.

2802. (40857). Fig. 686. A small pot, apparently blackened by fire,
  unadorned except with the spine-like projections around the lower
  half; probably used for a paint-pot.


2803-2806. 2803, (40817), Fig. 693; 2804, (40818), Fig. 696; 2805,
  (40821), Fig. 695; 2806, (40822), Fig. 694. These are the old
  corrugated ware, but with the exception of the third they do not show
  the action of fire, but were probably used for cooking vessels.



  Fig. 697 (39873) (¼)]

2807. (39873). Fig. 697. A corrugated pot 11 inches high and 10 inches
  in diameter at the widest point. Evidently coil-made; the different
  coils slightly overlap each other tile-fashion. On the inside it is
  smooth and does not show the coils. It has been blackened by the fire,
  the original color having been a dark slate, the natural color of
  the clay. It was evidently but slightly burned at first; very ancient.

  Fig. 681 (40796) (⅕)
  Fig. 682 (42202) (⅓)
  Fig. 683 (40600) (½)
  Fig. 684 (40823) (½)
  Fig. 685 (40825) (½)
  Fig. 686 (40857) (½)
  Figs. 681-686.--Ancient Pottery from Cañon de Chelly.]

  Fig. 687 (40811) (⅓)
  Fig. 688 (40820) (½)
  Fig. 689 (40601) (½)
  Fig. 690 (40812) (¼)
  Fig. 691 (40819) (⅓)
  Fig. 692 (42203) (⅓)
  Figs. 687-692.--Ancient Pottery from Cañon de Chelly.]

  Fig. 693 (40817) (¼)
  Fig. 694 (40822) (⅓)
  Fig. 695 (40821) (¼)
  Fig. 696 (40818) (⅓)
  Figs. 693-696.--Cooking Vessels from Cañon de Chelly.]




2808. (39529). Black, polished olla, rather large; from Ponake Pueblo.

2809. (39551). Unadorned moccasin from Pueblo of New Mexico.

2810. (41770). Fragments of pottery, ornamented, colored, and plain,
  from ruins near Pueblo of Nutria.

2811. (41776). Fragments of plain pottery from Agricultural Camp, six
  miles east of San Antonio Springs.

The following specimens are from the same locality:

2812-2818. 2812, (41777), painted; 2813, (41778), corrugated; 2814,
  (41779), ribbed; 2815, (41780), bird’s head painted on it; 2816,
  (41781), painted; 2817, (41782), corrugated; 2818, (41783), ribbed.

2819. (41784). Fragments of pottery from Old Zuñi Mesa, three miles
  southeast of Zuñi.

2820-2822. 2820, (41785); 2821, (41786); 2822, (41787), are fragments of
  the corrugated, ribbed, indented, and decorated ware, from the Zuñi

2823-2825. 2823, (41791); 2824, (41792); 2825, (41793), are also
  fragments of pottery from the Zuñi Mesa.

2826. (41795). Fragments of pottery from top of Zuñi Church.

2827-2829. 2827, (41788); 2828, (41789); 2829, (41790). Fragments of
  ancient pottery from the environs of Wolpi. The specimens are of the
  corrugated and laminated forms and are decorated in color.

2830. (41981). Notched stick, with bone, used as musical instrument. See
  description of similar objects from Wolpi.

2831. (42224). Small wooden ladle; locality not known.

2832. (42049). Fragment of pottery with the edges ground off, probably a
  pottery trowel, from Pictograph Rocks, about sixty miles east of Fort
  Wingate, N. Mex.

2833. (42252). Fragment of pottery from Wolpi may be a charm, but likely
  a pottery smoother or trowel.

2834. (42348). Chips of jasper and fragments of pottery from mound in
  Missouri, opposite St. Louis.

2835. (42368). Handle of pottery ladle from Wolpi.

2836. (42370). Portion of large yellow corrugated vessel from near


The following numbers are specimens of statuettes, of micaceous clay,
representing human beings in various attitudes, both male and female.
They are attributed to the Cochiti Pueblos, but as they were obtained in
Santa Fé from traders, the correctness of their origin may be doubted.
They were made, however, by some of the Rio Grande Pueblos not very
remote from Santa Fé:

2837-2858. 2837, (42001); 2838, (42002); 2839, (42003); 2840, (42004);
  2841, (42005); 2842, (42006); 2843, (42007); 2844, (42008); 2845,
  (42009); 2846, (42010); 2847, (42011); 2848, (42012); 2849, (42013);
  2850, (42014); 2851, (42015); 2852, (42016); 2853, (42017); 2854,
  (42018); 2855, (42019); 2856, (42020); 2857, (42021); 2858, (42022).

       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *


Problems in Figure numbering and identification are listed separately.

[List of Illustrations]
Figs. 460-461. Zuñi effigies
  _text reads “469-461”_
Figs. 681-683. Water vessels from Cañon De Chelly        420
Figs. 684-686. Bowls from Cañon De Chelly                420
  _text reads “620” for both page numbers_

those represented by Figs. 359, 363, 364, and ----
  _dash of omission in original_
is impossible to give any general / description
  _text reads “genera”_
485. (40489). Plain marginal band
  _text reads “maginal”_
having reference to size, viz.:
  _period missing in original_
913, / (40357), varies in having the head of a bird.
  _text reads “abird”_
1008-1017. 1008, (40451); 1009, (40452);
  _text reads “10009”_
pottery or earthern ladles
  _form “earthern” in original_
1468-1473 ... are all fragrants of rubbers.
  _so in original: “fragments”?_
2058. (41119). Sinch hooks, _cu-rah-bat-tow_.
2288. (41826). Woven hair sinch or saddle-girt, _ah-chis-clah_.
  _forms “sinch” and “girt” in original_
2359. (42430). Shown in Fig. 606.
  _text reads “Shown on”_
2413. (42383). Small, with lines of outline crescents around the body.
  _text reads “cresents”_
Bowl-shaped: // 2633-2635.
  _text reads “Bowel-shaped”_
adapting it to any particular use
  _text reads “paruticular”_
2753-2754. 2753, (39540), and 2754, (39548). Scalloped margin.
  _text reads “Scollaped”_

[Irregularities in Figure Identification]
Some corrections are conjectural. Numbers were only changed when there
was a discrepancy between a catalog entry and its associated Figure.

123. (42245). Fig. 355.
  _text reads “Fig. 335”_
Fig. 370 (41146)
  _text reads “40146”_
191. (40777) ... Fig. 377.
Fig. 377 (40777)
  _main text reads “40792”; figure caption reads “40797”_
237. (39928). A jar shown in Fig. 399.
  _text reads “39528”_
288. (39887). Fig. 396.
Fig. 396 (39837)
  _numbers “39887” and “39837” both appear to be wrong_
463. (39971)
  _so in original, but see no. 903 and fig. 442 below_
The following numbers belong to the type represented in Figs. 356, 411,
    and 412 .... 514[39979] - 520[40523]:
  _“356” in original is wrong: “410”?_
Fig. 419 (40189)
  _text reads “40139”_
804, (41092), shown in Fig. 434.
  _text reads “Fig. 34”_
903. (39971). Fig. 442.
Fig. 442 (39971)
  _so in original, but see no. 463 above_
Fig. 475 (41037)
  _text reads “41097”_
1167. (41218) ... Shown in Fig. 479.
  _text reads “Fig. 429”_
1336. (41725) ... Fig. 487
  _text reads “41275”_
1378. (41807). Sash. See Fig. 501.
1379. (41808). Sash. See Fig. 502.
Fig. 501 (41808)
Fig. 502 (41838)
  _correct labeling could not be deduced_
1513. (41602). Shown in Fig. 514.
  _so in original, but may be “41609”_
Fig. 514 (41602)
  _text reads “41609”; may be correct_
1611. (41363). See Fig. 518.
  _text reads “41353”_
1615. (41366). Fig. 519. A water jar
  _also listed as item 2582, with same Figure reference_
Fig. 538 (42149)
  _text reads “42129”_
1963. (42156) ... Fig. 541.
1964. (42157)
Fig. 541 (42157)
  _correct labeling could not be deduced_
Fig. 542 (42160)
  _text reads “40160”_
2234-2235. 2234, (41717), and 2235, (41719) ... See Fig. 580.
  _text reads “Fig. 550”_
Fig. 566 (41958)
  _text reads “41959”_
2356-2357. 2356, (41307), Fig. 607
  _text reads “Fig. 609”_
2396-2397 ... 2397, (42473), Fig. 613
  _figure reference missing in text_
2400. (42471) ... Fig. 615.
  _text reads “42473”_
2414. (42377). See Fig. 622.
  _text reads “42317”_
2582. (41366). Water jug. Fig. 519.
  _also listed as item 1615, with same Figure reference_
2682-2689 ... 2684, (39646), Fig. 664
2692-2698 ... 2694, (39646), see Fig. 664
  _duplicate reference as in original_

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Illustrated Catalogue Of The Collections Obtained From The Indians Of New Mexico And Arizona In 1879 - Second Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the - Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1880-81, - Government Printing Office, Washington, 1883, pages 307-428" ***

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