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´╗┐Title: Sketch of Grammar of the Chippeway Languages - To Which is Added a Vocabulary of some of the Most Common Words
Author: Summerfield, John
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Sketch of Grammar of the Chippeway Languages - To Which is Added a Vocabulary of some of the Most Common Words" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

by the Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions

[Transcriber's Note:

This e-text consists of two books:
  _Spellings for the Schools in the Chipeway Language_
  _Sketch of Grammar of the Chippeway Language_

In the first book (Spellings...), the hyphen - is used to separate
syllables. In the second book (Grammar...) the hyphen seems to
represent the glottal stop.

In the word lists of the first book, the first entry in each column was
sometimes-- but not consistently-- capitalized. This capitalization has
been retained, whether or not the e-text layout replicates the original.

A few punctuation marks in the paradigms and vocabulary lists have been
supplied or regularized. Other errors and anomalies are listed at the
end of the text. Bracketed text is in the original unless otherwise

       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *

Spellings for the Schools
  in the

Ah-na-she-nah-pa, Oo-te-ke-too-we-nun;
Ka-ke-ke-noo-ah-mah-ween-twah e-kewh,
Ka-nah-wah-pahn-tah-gigk Mah-ze-nah-e-kun.

Printed for the Canada Conference Missionary Society.

  A  B  C  D  E  F  G
  H  I  J  K  L  M  N
  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U
  V  W  X  Y  Z

  a  b  c  d  e  f  g  h  i  j
  k  l  m  n  o  p  q  r  s
  t  u  v  w  x  y  z &

  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8
  9  0  ,  ;  :  .  ?  !  -


_Words of one Syllable._

Kah       Neeje     Squach
nah       keeje     shwas
sah       weeje     quaich
wah       moose     paske
keene     koose     kaugk
neene     noose     mongk
weene     meezhe    shongk
meene     peezhe    jeese
owh       neezhe    aahe
howh      weezhe    tdush
ewh       moozhe

_Words of two Syllables accented on the second._

Ah keh       ah toon      me nick
ah keeng     e mah        me quom
ah kik       e kewh       me zeh
ah mik       e newh       me squeh
ahn doohm    e qua        me tigk
ah nungk     I yahdt      nah maih
ah owh       kah yawsk    ne gigk
ah pa        ke tahn      ne peh
ah pweh      ke quis      ne peeng
ah sin       ke nwazhe    ne sing
ah tick      mah quah

_Words of two Syllables, accented on the second._

Ne sweh         oo ninje        qui yuck
oo chawzhe      oon taus        shing quawk
oo kaudt        oo pin          shing koub
oo kowh         oo saum         shing kaugk
oo kun          Oo zidt         tah zheh
oo mah          oo skonzhe      te pigk
oo nick         oo taih         wah zhusk

_Words of two syllables accented on the 1st & 2nd._

Ah zheh      ke kooh      me kaunce
a shkum      ke zhick     me nance
a sance      ke zis       me quaich
a squach     ki ya        me quon
a tah        koo koosh    me tdush
a yaudt      mah che      me owh
a zheh       mah kuk      me zhusk
che mon      mah mick     nah nindt
che pywh     mah noo      na kowh
ka che       mahn tdah    na yaub
ka kate      ma quah      ne win
ka gooh      me chim      ning kah
ke kah       me kun

_Words of three syllables accented on the 1st & 2nd._

noo sa        poo neh       wa quain
noo tdin      se peh        wau poose
noo tding     sah keh       we kah
noong koom    sau kie       we nin
oo jee        she shebe     we yause
pah mah       tain ta       we pidt
pa kah        wa nain       ween sah
pe toon

_Words of three Syllables, accented on the second and third._

Ah je chaugk      ah zhoo gun       nah kah mooh
ah kah mingk      a me quahn        ne zhe kaih
ah neen teh       a yah chick       oo me meh
ah ne moosh       a yah yun         oo nah kun
ah ne peesh       a zhah yun        oo ne shkaudt
ah noo kee        ka yah peh        oo que son
ah pa kish        mah ke sin        oon tah shahn
ah quing koos     mah ne toonce     oo ske zhick
ah she kun        mah ne toosh      oo se tongk
ah wah kahn       mah ske moodt     pe je nuck
ah wa seeh        me ke seh         shah wain tung
ah yah pa         me sah owh        shah wa nim

_Words of three Syllables, accented on the second and half accent
  on the third._

E nah shka       mah noo min      me she nuck
e qua sance      me quain tun     me tig koonce
e shkoo ta       me sah poose     mun tah min
ke na pigk       me she min       nah ma koos
ke noo zhai      me she kaih      nah ma pin

_Words of three Syllables accented on the first and third._

Pah ke tin
wau be gun
wau bah maudt
wau be min

_Words of three syllables accented on the last._

Ah nah quodt      ke she kuck       pe pah kim
e we te           koo se non        pe she keh
ing koo che       me nah wah        sah ke maih
ing koo twaus     me ne zis         sah ke toodt
ish pe ming       me ze saih        se wah quahn
ka ah koo         moo koo mon       shah kah nosh
kah kah keh       mun ne too        shong qua sheh
kah nah ka        mun ne toogk      shoo ne yah
kah ke nick       nah koo shah      tah be schooch
kah ke nah        nah too way       tah que shin
kah shah kance    neen ah windt     ta pain tungk
kah sah meh       ne se tum         ta pwa tungk
kah moo keede     ning ke che       tain ta seh
kah we kah        noo se non        wah ne toodt
ka ka keh         nowh ah quay      wah wah noon
ka koo weene      oo che pway       wa koo nain
ka ke quait       oo ke mah         wa wa neh
ke me wun         oo me squeem      weje e shin
ke nah wah        pah pah say       wig ke waum
ke ke che         pe me zeh         we nah wah
ke she kudt       pe na sheeh       we wah quahn

_Words of four syllables, accented on the second and fourth._

Ah chit ah mooh       oo mah kah keh
ah kuck koo jeesh     oo mong ke zheh
ah sun ah kooh        oo tah pe nick
ah wah se seh         oo tah pe nun
e nah pe yook         oo ta e min
ke pah e kun          oo que se mon
ke pim oo say         oo wig ke waum
ke tah e kun          pah ske se gun
me squah ta seh       she kah kah winzhe
ne pwah kah win       ta pwa tah wick
ne wah pah tahn       wah oo na seh
oo ka yah wis

_Words of four syllables accented on the sixth._

Ah quah tah sheeh    na pwah kah chick
ah se ke nauk        pah kah ah quaih
ah zhah wah maig     too too shah boo
ain tah che yungk    waug ke koo mon
ke zhe tah yook      wah wah ska sheh
maun nah ta nis

_Words of five syllables, a full accent on the last, and half accent
  on the second._

Ah kin tah soo win      neeng ke te mah kis
ah nah me ah win        ne skah te se win
ah ne she nah pay       nin tah wa mah took
ah quah ne pe sahn      ne te ke koo took
ah sin ne se kah        oo kah ke qua win
ke moo te schke win     oo zhe pe e kun
ke nah we schke win     pah kun te se win
mah ze nah e kun        pah pah ke wah yahn
me ne te we nun         shah wa ne te win
me skoo te se min       sah ke e te win
me tig quah ke zin      ween tah mah we shin
mon nain e te win       we too kah we shin
ne kah ne se took

_Words of five syllables, accented on the first, the third and last._

Pa zhe go kah zhee
peen tah kah ta waun
oo ke mah we win
oo te ke too win
she pe koo pah tick
wah ne squa se win

_Accented on the two first and last._

Too toosh pim me tay

_Words of six syllables accented on the third and last._

Kah ke pah te se win
kah ke qua we ne neh
kah nah wah pa me shin
kah nah wa ne me shin
mah noo min e ka zheeh
mah kah ta e ne neh
e she wa pe se win
ta pwa yain tah moo win

_Accented on the second and last._

Ke too ke mah me non
kah ke pah te se win
na nahn tah we e waidt
oo mah ze nah e kun
wah wah pe koo noo jhee

_Accented on the third and two last._

ka ke noo ah mah kaidt
mah che ah ye e wish
ah koo koo pe nah gun
ah wah che wun nah gun

_Accented on the 4th and last._

Ahn e me tah koo zin.


_Ke-sha-mun-ne-too Oo-que-son Oo-tah-ne-me-tah-koo-se-win._

Neeng-ke-che noo-se-non, Ish-pe-ming a-yah-yun.
Ka-che-mun-ne-too-we-ne-kah-soo-yun. Ke-ke-che-ke-too-ke-mah-we-win
pe-tah-we-she-nom. A-na-ne-me-wong-kane oo-mah-ke-zhe ah-keeng
ne-kah-e-she-we-pe-se-min; tah-pe-schooch a-she-wa-buk e-we-ty
Ish-pe-ming. Me-she-she-nom ka-ne-tah-soo ke-she-kuk me-chim
pe-mah-te-se-win. Ki-ya pa-kah-shah-wa-ne-me-she-nom
che-sah-ke-che-wa-pe-nah-mah-we-yong mah-che-ah-ye-e-wish,
nah-sab-e-koo a-she shah-wa-ne-mong-ke-twah oo-kooh
kah-pah-tah-e-yah-me-ke-chik, ki-ya keen e-she-shah-wa-ne-me-she-nom.
Ka-goo we-kah ing-koo-chee ah-ne-e-she-we-she-she-kah-kane
che-nah-ne-sah-ne-se-yong; mah-noo sah-koo kah-ke-nah
shah-koo-te-nah-mah-we-she-nom mah-che-ah-ye-e-wish.
Keen-mah-ween ke te-pain-tahn ke-che-oo-ke-mah-we-win,
ki-ya euh ke-che-e-she-wa-pe-se-win, ki-ya euh ah-nah-me-ah-win
ka-che-me-nwa-tah-quok, kah-ke-nik ki-ya kah-ke-nik.--Amen.


Ah-noo-shoo-tah-mah-ka-win, che-pwah-we-se-ningk.

O Ke-sha-mun-ne-too Ish-pe-ming a-yah-yun, Shah-wain-tah-mah-we-she-nom
mahn-tdah me-chim pe-mah-te-se-win, kah-pah-ke-te-nah-mah-we-yongk;
me-tdush ka-oon-je mah-skah-we-se-yongk che-ah-noo-ke-tah-koo yun;
me-owh Jesus Christ a-pa-ne-moo-yongk. Amen.


Ah-noo-shoo-tah-mah-ka-win, kah-e-squah, we-se-ningk.

O Ke-sha-mun-ne-too, neeng-keche Noo-se-non, me-quaich wa-wa-neh
kah-we-se-ne-yongk noo-koom, ki-ya ain-tah-soo-ke-she-kuck
shah-wain-ne-me-yongk; me-sab-owh Jesus Christ kah-ke-nigk
ka-ah-pa-ne-moo yongk. Amen.

       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *

Sketch of Grammar
of the

To Which Is Added a Vocabulary
of some of the most common Words.




The following pages were written as an exercise for my leisure hours,
while attending the Oneida Conference Seminary during the past winter.
As it is the first attempt that, to my knowledge, has ever been made to
reduce the Chippeway language to any system, it cannot be expected to be
otherwise than imperfect, and perhaps may hereafter be found to be, in
some respects, erroneous. It is, however, as free from errors as my
present means have enabled me to make it. It has been printed at the
request of my friends, by a fellow student, at his own suggestion and


Cazenovia, April 10, 1834.


The Letters used in the Chippeway Language, are twenty-one, viz.
A, a; B, b; C, c; D, d; E, e; G, g; H, h; I, i; J, j; K, k; M, m; N, n;
O, o; P, p; Q, q; S, s; T, t; U, u; W, w; Y, y; Z, z. F, L, R, V, and X,
are not used.

There are, in the Chippeway Language, ten parts of Speech, namely,
the _article_, the _noun_, the _pronoun_, the _adjective_, the _verb_,
the _participle_, the _adverb_, the _preposition_, the _conjunction_,
and the _interjection_.


There is but one Article, used definitely both in the masculine and
neuter genders, viz. Owh, the, m.; Ewh, the, n.


A Noun is the name of any person, place, or thing; as, Eneneh, man;
Kahdahnahqueeng, Kingston; metig, tree.

Nouns are of two sorts, Common and Proper.

Common Nouns stand for kinds containing many sorts, or for sorts
  containing many individuals under them; as, Ahwaseeh, animal; eneneh,
  man; kegownh, fish; penaseh, bird.

Proper Nouns are the names appropriated to individuals, as, Charles,
  Cazenovia, Ganges. [N.B. Proper names, with a few exceptions, are the
  same as in English.]

To Nouns belong gender, person, number, and case.


Gender is the distinction of nouns with regard to sex.

Nouns have three genders, the masculine, the feminine, and the neuter.

The masculine gender denotes males; as, Eneneh, man.

The feminine gender is applied to animals, fishes, and birds; as,
  Nahbak, a she bear, &c.

The neuter gender denotes things without sex; as, Wewahquon, a hat.


Number is the distinction of objects as one or more.

Nouns are of two numbers, the singular and the plural.

The singular number implies but one object; as, Mahzenahegun, a book.

The plural number implies more than one; as, Mahzhenahegahnun, books.


Nouns have three cases, the nominative, the possessive, and the

The nominative case simply expresses the name of a thing, &c.;
  as, Owh quewesanceoobahkahmegezeh, the boy plays.

The possessive case expresses the relation of property or possession,
  and always ends with the letter _o_; as, Noosayo wegewaum, my father's

The objective case expresses the object of an action or of relation;
  as John owejeahn Charles, John assists Charles.

Nouns may be declined in the following manner:

                   Singular.          Plural.
  _Nom. Case_,     Eneneh, man.       Enenewug, men.
  _Poss. Case_,    Eneneho, man's.    Enenewugo, men's.
  _Obj. Case_,     Eneneh, man.       Enenewug, men.


A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun, to avoid repeating the same
word; as, Pahpenatum eneneh, the man is happy; Pahpenatum, he is happy.


There are three personal pronouns, viz. Neen, I; keen, thou; ween, he;
with their plurals, Nenahwind, we; kenahwah, ye or you; wenahwah, they.

Personal pronouns have person, number, gender and case.

The persons of pronouns are three in each number, viz.

  Neen, I, is the first person,        }
  Keen, thou, is the second person,    } Singular.
  Ween, he, is the third person,       }
  Nenahwind, we, is the first person,     }
  Kenahwah, you, is the second person,    } Plural.
  Wenahwah, they, is the third person,    }

_Number._--Pronouns have two numbers, the singular and the plural.

_Case._--Pronouns have three cases, the nominative, the possessive, and
the objective.

Pronouns cannot be declined. The cases of each person have the same

  First person.  _Singular._    _Plural._
      _Nom._     Neen, I.       Nenahwind, we.
      _Poss._    Neen, mine.    Nenahwind, ours.
      _Obj._     Neen, me.      Nenahwind, us.


An Adjective is a word added to a noun to express its quality; as,
quahnoj eneneh, a good man; menwawezheh eneneh, an industrious man.

Adjectives are not varied to agree with their nouns, nor do they have
any regular comparison.

The following is a list of Numeral Adjectives:

  Pazhick,                   1
  Neezhe,                    2
  Nesweh,                    3
  Newin,                     4
  Nahnun,                    5
  Ingoodwahsweh,             6
  Neswahsweh,                7
  Shahsweh,                  8
  Shongsweh,                 9
  Metahsweh,                10
  Metahsweh ahshepazhick,   11
  ---- ahsheneezhe,         12
  ---- ahshenesweh,         13
  ---- ahshenewin,          14
  ---- ahshenahnun,         15
  ---- ahsheingoodwahsweh,  16
  ---- ahsheneswahsweh,     17
  ---- ahsheswahsweh,       18
  ---- ahsheshongsweh,      19
  Nestahnah,                20
  Nestahnah ahshepachick,   21
  ---- ahsheneezhe,         22
  ---- ahshenesweh,         23
  ---- ahshenewin,          24
  ---- ahshenahnun,         25
  ---- ahsheingoodwahsweh,  26
  ---- ahsheneswahsweh,     27
  ---- ahsheshahsweh,       28
  ---- absheshongsweh,      29
  Nesemetahnah,             30
  Nemedahnah,               40
  Nahnemedahnah,            50
  Ingoodwahsemedahnah,      60
  Neswahsemedahnah,         70
  Swahsemedahnah,           80
  Shonggahswehmedahnah,     90
  Ingoodwak,               100
  Nezhwak,                 200
  Neswak,                  300
  Newak,                   400
  Nahnwak,                 500
  Ingoodwahswak,           600
  Nezhahswak,              700
  Shawhswak,               800
  Shongahswak,             900
  Medahswak,              1000
  Neezhemedahswak,        2000
  Medahswehdahswak,     10,000
  Nestahnahdahswak,     20,000
  Nemedahnahdahswak,    40,000


A Verb is a word which signifies to be, to do, or to suffer; as,
Nedahyah, I am; Nedebahkoonewa, I rule; Nedebahkoonegoo, I am ruled.

Verbs are of three kinds, active, passive, and neuter.

A Verb Active expresses an action, and necessarily implies an agent and
  an object acted upon; as, Nezhahgeah James, I love James.

A Verb Passive expresses passion or a suffering or the receiving of an
  action, and implies an object acted upon, and an agent by which it is
  acted upon; as, Chezhahwaneding, to be loved; John oojezhahwanemah
  neen, John is loved by me.

A Verb Neuter expresses neither action nor passion, but being or a state
  of being; as, Nenebah, I sleep; Nenahmahdub, I sit.

Verbs have number, person, mood and tense.


Verbs have two numbers, the singular and the plural.

There are three persons in each number; as,

  Pers.  _Singular._                   _Plural._
    1.   Nezhahwanega, I love.         Nezhahwanegamin, we love.
    2.   Kezhahwanega, thou lovest.    Kezhahwanegaim, you love.
    3.   Zhawanega, he loves.          Zhahwanegawug, they love.


The moods are five, Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative, Potential, and
the Infinitive.

The Indicative declares or affirms positively, or it asks a question;
  as, Zhahwanega, he loves; Zhahwaneganah? Does he love?

The Subjunctive expresses action or passion in a doubtful manner;
  as, Kespin zhahwanegaid, if he loves.

The Imperative is used for commanding, exhorting, and entreating;
  as, Mahjahn keen, depart thou; Noodahmooyook, do thou listen.

The Potential implies possibility, liberty, power, will; as, Tahgemewan
  kahnahbuge, it may rain; Kegahwesenemin kiya kahmenequamin, we shall
  eat and drink.

The Infinitive simply expresses the signification of the verb;
  as, Cheezechegang, to do; Chegegedoong, to speak.


Verbs have six tenses, the present, the imperfect, the perfect, the
pluperfect, the first and second future tenses.

The present tense represents a present action as taking place at the
  time in which it is mentioned; as, Nebop, I laugh; Newob, I see;
  Nedenadum, I think.

The imperfect tense denotes past action or event however distant,
  finished, but without defining the exact time of its completion;
  as, Oodanongezahbahneeg ahpe naquaskahwod, they were travelling to
  the town when he met them.

The perfect tense refers not only to what is past but also conveys
  an allusion to the present time; as, Ahzheh negegezhetoon
  nemahzhenahegun, I have finished my letter.

The pluperfect tense represents a thing, not only as past, but also
  as prior to some other point of time specified in the sentence;
  as, Ahzehnegegezhetonahbun letter chebwabedahgweshing, I had finished
  my letter before he arrived.

The first future tense represents the action as yet to come, either
  with or without respect to the precise time when; as, Owh kezis
  tahbemookahum wahbung, the sun will rise to-morrow.

The second future tense represents a future action that will be
  accomplished before another future action; as, Negahwesenenahbun
  nahwahquaig, I shall have dined at twelve o'clock.

A Verb is conjugated in the following manner:

TO LOVE.--Indicative Mood.

_Present Tense._

_Sing._  1. Nezhahwanega,     I love.
         2. Kezhahwanega,     Thou lovest.
         3. Zhahwanega,       He loves.
_Plur._  1. Nezhahwanegamin,  We love.
         2. Kezhahwanegaim,   Ye or you love.
         3. Zhahwanegawug,    They love.


_Sing._  1. Negezhahwanega,     I loved.
         2. Kegezhahwanega,     Thou lovedst.
         3. Kezhahwanega,       He loved.
_Plur._  1. Negezhahwanegamin,  We loved.
         2. Kegezhahwanegaim,   Ye or you loved.
         3. Kezhawanegawug,     They loved.


_Sing._  1. Ahzehnegezhahwanega,     I have loved.
         2. Ahzehkegezhahwanega,     Thou hast loved.
         3. Ahzehkezhahwanega,       He has loved.
_Plur._  1. Ahzehnegezhahwanegamin,  We have loved.
         2. Ahzehkegezhahwanegaim,   Ye or you have loved.
         3. Ahzehkezhahwanegawug,    They have loved.


_Sing._  1. Ahzehnegezhahwaneganahbun,   I had loved.
         2. Ahzehkegezhahwaneganahbun,   Thou hadst loved.
         3. Ahzehkezhahwanegabun,        He had loved.
_Plur._  1. Ahzehnegezhawanegaminahbun,  We had loved.
         2. Ahzehkegezhahwanegamwahbun,  You had loved.
         3. Ahzehkezhahwanegabahneeg,    They had loved.

_First Future._

_Sing._  1. Negahzhahwanega,     I shall or will love.
         2. Kegahzhahwanega,     Thou shalt or wilt love.
         3. Tahzhahwanega,       He shall or will love.
_Plur._  1. Negahzhahwanegamin,  We shall or will love.
         2. Kegahzhahwanegaim,   You shall or will love.
         3. Tahzhahwanegawug,    They shall or will love.

_Second Future._

_Sing._  1. Negahzhahwaneganahbun,    I shall have loved.
         2. Kegahzhahwaneganahbun,    Thou wilt have loved.
         3. Tahzhahwanegabun,         He will have loved.
_Plur._  1. Negahzhahwanegaminahbun,  We shall have loved.
         2. Kegahzhahwanegamwahbun,   You will have loved.
         3. Tahzhahwanegabahneeg,     They will have loved.


_Present Tense._

_Sing._  1. Tahgahneenegazhahwanega,    Let me love.
         2. Zhahwanegain, or          } Love thou, or do thou love.
                Kezhahwaneganah,      }
         3. Tahgahween tahzhahwanega,   Let him love.

_Plur._  1. Tahgahnenahwind           } Let us love.
                gahzhahwanegamin,     }
         2. Zhahwanegayook, or        } Love ye or you, or
                Kezhahwanegaimnah,    }    do you love.
         3. Tahgahwenahwah            } Let them love.
                tahzhahwanegawug,     }


_Present Tense._

_Sing._  1. Nedahzhahwanega,     I may love.
         2. Kedahzhahwanega,     Thou mayest love.
         3. Tahzhahwanega,       He may love.
_Plur._  1. Nedahzhahwanegamin,  We may love.
         2. Kedahzhahwanegaim,   You may love.
         3. Tahzhahwanegawug.    They may love.

_Imperfect Tense._

_Sing._  1. Nedahgezhahwanega,     I might love.
         2. Kedahgezhahwanega,     Thou mightest love.
         3. Tahgezhahwanega,       He might love.
_Plur._  1. Nedahgezhahwanegamin,  We might love.
         2. Kedahgezhahwanegaim,   You might love.
         3. Tahgezhahwanegawug,    They might love.

_Perfect Tense._

_Sing._  1. Nedahgewezhahwanega,     I may have loved.
         2. Kedahgewezhahwanega,     Thou mayst have loved.
         3. Tahgewezhahwanega,       He may have loved.
_Plur._  1. Nedahgewezhahwanegamin,  We may have loved.
         2. Kedahgewezhahwanegaim,   You may have loved.
         3. Tahgewezhahwanegawug,    They may have loved.

_Pluperfect Tense._

_Sing._  1. Nedahgewezhahwaneganahbun,    I might have loved.
         2. Kedahgewezhahwaneganahbun,    Thou mightest have loved.
         3. Tahgewezhahwanegabun,         He might have loved.
_Plur._  1. Nedahgewezhahwanegaminahbun,  We might have loved.
         2. Kedahgewezhahwanegamwahbun,   You might have loved.
         3. Tahgewezhahwanegabahneeg,     They might have loved.


_Present Tense._

_Sing._ Kespin zhahwanegayaun,  If I love.
        Kespin zhahwanegayun,   If thou lovest.
        Kespin zhahwahnegaid,   If he loves.
_Plur._ Kespin zhahwanegayong,  If we love.
        Kespin zhahwanegayaig,  If you love.
        Kespin zhahwanegawod,   If they love.


_Pres._ Chezhahwanegang, To love.
_Perf._ Chegezhahwanegang, To have loved.
_Fut._  Ahyegwahwezhahwanegang, To be about to love.


_Present,_ Zhahwaneding, Loving.
_Perfect,_ Zhahwanemind, Loved.

Conjugation of the Verb TO BE.


_Present Tense._

_Sing._  Nedahyah,     I am.
         Kedahyah,     Thou art.
         Ahyah,        He is.
_Plur._  Nedahyahmin,  We are.
         Kedahyaum,    Ye or you are.
         Ahyahwug,     They are.

_Imperfect Tense._

_Sing._  Nedahyahnahbun,    I was.
         Kedahyahnahbun,    Thou wast.
         Ahyahbun,          He was.
_Plur._  Nedahyahmenahbun,  We were.
         Kedahyahmwahbun,   You were.
         Ahyahbahneeg,      They were.

_Perfect Tense._

_Sing._  Negeahyahnahbun,  I have been.
         Kegeahyahnahbun,  Thou hast been.
         Keahyahbun,       He has been.
_Plur._  Negeahyahmin,     We have been.
         Kegeahyaum,       You have been.
         Keahyahwug,       They have been.

_Pluperfect Tense._

_Sing._  Nedahgeweahyahnahbun,  I had been.
         Kedahgeweahyahnahbun,  Thou hadst been.
         Keweahyahbun,          He had been.
_Plur._  Nedahgeweahyahmin,     We had been.
         Kedahgeweahyaum,       You had been.
         Keahyahbahneeg,        They had been.

_First Future Tense._

_Sing._  Negahahyah,     I shall be.
         Kegahahyah,     Thou wilt be.
         Tahahyah,       He will be.
_Plur._  Negahahyahmin,  We shall be.
         Kegahahyaum,    You will be.
         Tahahyahwug,    They will be.

_Second Future Tense._

_Sing._  Negahgeahyahnahbun,    I shall have been.
         Kegahgeahyahnahbun,    Thou wilt have been.
         Tahgeahyahbun,         He will have been.
_Plur._  Negahgeahyahmenahbun,  We shall have been.
         Kegahgeahyahmwahbun,   You will have been.
         Tahgeahyahbahneeg,     They will have been.


_Sing._  Tahgahnenegahahyah,            Let me be.
         Ahyaun kegeahyahun,            Be thou or do thou be.
         Tahgahweendahahyah,            Let him be.
_Plur._  Tahgahnenahwindnegahahyahmin,  Let us be.
         Ahyahyook,                     Be ye or you or do you be.
         Tahgahdahahyahwug,             Let them be.


_Present Tense._

  Koonemah-nedahahyah,     I may be.
  Koonemah-kedahahyah,     Thou mayst be.
  Koonemah-dahahyah,       He may be.
  Koonemah-nedahahyahmin,  We may be.
  Koonemah-kedahahyaum,    You may be.
  Koonemah-dahahyahwug,    They may be.

_Imperfect Tense._

  Koonemah-nedahgeahyah,     I might be.
  Koonemah-kedahgeahyah,     Thou mightest be.
  Koonemah-tahgeahyah,       He might be.
  Koonemah-nedahgeahyahmin,  We might be.
  Koonemah-kedahgeahyaum,    You might be.
  Koonemah-tahgeahyahwug,    They might be.

_Perfect Tense._

  Koonemah-nedahgeahyahnahbun,  I may have been.
  Koonemah-kedahgeahyahnahbun,  Thou mayst have been.
  Koonemah-tahgeahyahbun,       He may have been.
  ---- nedahgeahyahminnahbun,   We may have been.
  ---- kedahgeahyahmwahbun,     You may have been.
  ---- tahgeahyahbahneeg,       They may have been.

_Pluperfect Tense._

  ---- nedahgeweahyahnahbun,    I might have been.
  ---- kedahgeweahyahnahbun,    Thou mightest have been.
  ---- tahgeweahyahbun,         He might have been.
  ---- nedahgeweahgahmenanbun,  We might have been.
  ---- kedahgeweahyahmwahbun,   You might have been.
  ---- tahgeweahyahbahneeg,     They might have been.


_Present Tense._

_Sing._ Kespin ahyahyaun,  If I be.
        Kespin ahyahyun,   If thou be.
        Kespin ahyaud,     If he be.
_Plur._ Kespin ahyahyong,  If we be.
        Kespin ahyahyaig,  If you be.
        Kespin ahyahwaud,  If they be.

_Imperfect Tense._

_Sing._ Kespin ahyahyahbaun,    If I were.
        Kespin ahyahyahbun,     If thou wert.
        Kespin ahyahpun,        If he were.
_Plur._ Kespin ahyahyongebun,   If we were.
        Kespin ahyahyaigoobun,  If you were.
        Kespin ahyahwahpun,     If they were.


_Present._   Cheahyong,    To be.
_Perfect._   Chegeahyong,  To have been.


_Pres._ Ahyong,  Being.
_Perf._ Ahyod,  Been.

Conjugation of the Passive Verb TO BE LOVED.


_Present Tense._

  Nezhahwanemegoo,     I am loved.
  Kezhahwanemegoo,     Thou art loved.
  Zhahwanemah,         He is loved.
  Nezhahwanemegoomin,  We are loved.
  Kezhahwanemegoom,    You are loved.
  Zhahwanemahwug,      They are loved.


  Nezhahwanemegoonahbun,    I was loved.
  Kezhahwanemegoonahbun,    Thou wast loved.
  Zhahwanemahbun,           He was loved.
  Nezhahwanemegoomenahbun,  We were loved.
  Kezhahwanemegoomwahbun,   You were loved.
  Zhahwanemahbahneeg,       They were loved.


  Negezhahwanemegoo,     I have been loved.
  Kegezhahwanemegoo,     Thou hast been loved.
  Kezhahwanemah,         He has been loved.
  Negezhahwanemegoomin,  We have been loved.
  Kegezhahwanemegoom,    You have been loved.
  Kezhahwanemahwug,      They have been loved.


  Negezhahwanemegoonahbun,    I had been loved.
  Kegezhahwanemegoonahbun,    Thou hadst been loved.
  Kezhahwanemahbun,           He had been loved.
  Negezhahwanemegoomenahbun,  We had been loved.
  Kegezhahwanemegoomwahbun,   You had been loved.
  Kezhahwanemahbahneeg,       They had been loved.

_First Future._

  Negahzhahwanemegoo,     I shall be loved.
  Kegahzhahwanemegoo,     Thou wilt be loved.
  Tazhahwanemah,          He will be loved.
  Negahzhahwanemegoomin,  We shall be loved.
  Kegahzhahwanemegoom,    You will be loved.
  Tahzhahwanemahwug,      They will be loved.

_Second Future._

  Negahgezhahwanemegoo,     I shall have been loved.
  Kegahgezhahwanemegoo,     Thou wilt have been loved.
  Tahgezhahwanemah,         He will have been loved.
  Negahgezhahwanemegoomin,  We shall have been loved.
  Kegahgezhahwanemegoom,    You will have been loved.
  Tahgezhahwanemahwug,      They will have been loved.


  Tahgahnenegah zhahwanemegoo,        Let me be loved.
  Tahgahkegah zhahwanemegoo,          Be thou loved or do thou be loved.
  Tahgahween tahzhahwanemah,          Let him be loved.
  Tahgahnenahwind                   } Let us be loved.
    negahzhahwanemegoomin,          }
  Tahgahkenahwah kahzhahwanemegoom,   Be you loved or do you be loved.
  Tahgahwenahwah tahzhahwanemahwug,   Let them be loved.


_Present Tense._

  Nedahkoonemahzhahwanemegoo,     I may be loved.
  Kedahkoonemahzhahwanemegoo,     Thou mayest be loved.
  Tahkoonemahzhahwanemah,         He may be loved.
  Nedahkoonemahzhahwanemegoomin,  We may be loved.
  Kedahkoonemahzhahwanemegoom,    You may be loved.
  Tahkoonemahzhahwanemahwug,      They may be loved.

_Imperfect Tense._

  Nedahgekoonemahzhahwanemegoo,     I might be loved.
  Kedahgekoonemahzhahwanemegoo,     Thou mightest be loved.
  Tahgekoonemahzhahwanemah,         He might be loved.
  Nedahgekoonemahzhahwanemegoomin,  We might be loved.
  Kedahgekoonemahzhahwanemegoom,    You might be loved.
  Tahgekoonemahzhahwanemahwug,      They might be loved.

_Perfect Tense._

  Nedahgekoonemahkezhahwanemegoo,     I may have been loved.
  Kedahgekoonemahkezhahwanemegoo,     Thou mayest have been loved.
  Tahgekoonemahkezhahwanemah,         He may have been loved.
  Nedahgekoonemahkezhahwanemegoomin,  We may have been loved.
  Kedahgekoonemahkezhahwanemegoom,    You may have been loved.
  Tahgekoonemahkezhahwanemahwug,      They may have been loved.

_Pluperfect Tense._

  Nedahgekoonemahkezhahwanemegoonahbun,   I might have been loved.
  Kedahgekoonemahkezhahwanemegoonahbun,   Thou mightest have been loved.
  Tahgekoonemahkezhahwanemahbun,          He might have been loved.
  Nedahgekoonemahkezhahwanemegoomenahbun, We might have been loved.
  Kedahgekoonemahkezhahwanemegoomwahbun,  You might have been loved.
  Tahgekoonemahkezhahwanemahbahneeg,      They might have been loved.


_Present Tense._

  Kespin zhahwanemegooyaun,  If I be loved.
  Kespin zhahwanemegooyun,   If thou be loved.
  Kespin zhahwanemind,       If he be loved.
  Kespin zhahwanemegooyong,  If we be loved.
  Kespin zhahwanemegooyaig,  If you be loved.
  Kespin zhahwanemindwah,    If they be loved.

_Imperfect Tense._

  Kespin zhahwanemegooyahbaun,     If I were loved.
  Kespin zhahwanemegooyahbun,      If thou wert loved.
  Kespin zhahwanemindebun,         If he were loved.
  Kespin zhahwanemegooyonggebun,   If we were loved.
  Kespin zhahwanemegooyaiggoobun,  If you were loved.
  Kespin zhahwanemindwahbun,       If they were loved.


_Present._ Chezhahwanemegoong, To be loved.
_Perfect._ Chegezhahwanemegoong, To have been loved.


_Present._ Zhahwanemegoong, Being loved.
_Perfect._ Zhahwanemind, Loved.


A Participle is a word derived from a Verb, and has the nature of a verb
and also of an adjective.

Verbs have two participles, the present and the perfect.

The present participle denotes action or being continued, but not
  finished. It generally ends in _ing_, _eng_, or _g_; as,
  Tebahkooneding, Ruling, &c.

The perfect participle denotes action or being, finished. This can also
  be distinguished by its ending in _ed_ or _d_; as Pahpid, laughed;
  Shoshomequanid, smiled.


An Adverb is a word used to modify the sense of a verb, &c.; as, Kagate
quahnoj eneneh, a truly good man.

List of Adverbs:

1. Ingooding, once; neshing, twice; nesing, thrice.

2. Netum, first; Esquache, lastly.

3. Omah, here; ahnedeh, where; negoojee, somewhere; kahweenegoojee,
  nowhere; ishpeming nahkayah, upward; nesahye-ee nahkayah, downward;
  esquayong nahkayah, backward; negaun nahkayah, forward, &c.

4. Noogoom, now; chekezheguk, to-day; mawezhah, long ago; pejenahgooh,
  yesterday; noomahyah, lately; wahbung, to-morrow; bahmah, by and by;
  kahmahsheh, not yet; kahyahsekah, instantly; waweeb, immediately.

5. Pahgee, little; ahneenmenik, how much.

6. Koonemah, perhaps; mekahweh, perchance.

7. Kagate, verily; aahe, yes, &c.

8. Kah, no; kahweengahnahga, not at all.

9. Ahneen, how; ahneeshnah, why; ahnahpe, when.

10. Nahwuj, more; kagahkoo, most.


Prepositions serve to connect words with one another and to show the
relation between them; as, Cazenove angkeojemahjahkezhodt York, he went
from Cazenovia to York.

List of Prepositions:

Pahzhejahye-ee, over; ahnahmahye-ee, under; shepahye-ee, through;
  ishpeming, above; nesahye-ee, below; keoonjee, from; peoonjee, from;
  ahwashema, beyond; chegahye-ee, near; negaun, before; Ishquayong,
  behind; wahsah, off; oogejahye-ee, on or upon; magwaahye-ee, among;
  ahzheh, after; ahpahgahjeahye-ee, against; ahgahmahye-ee, across;
  kewetahye-ee, around; nahwahye-ee, amidst; enahkayah, toward, &c.


A Conjunction is a word used to connect sentences, so as out of two to
make one.

Conjunctions are of two sorts, the Copulative and the Disjunctive.

The following are some of the Conjunctions:

_Cop._ Kiya, and; Kespin, if; Owh, that; nahyanze, both; dushween, then;
  ahpe, since; mesah, therefore; ahnesh, wherefore.

_Dis._ Atah, but; ahzheh, as; dush, than; koone, though; mahmesahwahwah,
  unless; kespuge, except; pooch, yet.


An Interjection is a word used to express the sudden emotions of the
speaker; as, Tahwah! pemahdezewin nelojegootoge! Alas! I fear for life!
O neboowin! Ahneshekewesahgandahmoowin? O death! Where is thy sting?

List of Interjections:

  _Earnestness_ or _Grief_; O! ah! tahwah, alas!
  _Joy_; Yahhahne! yahhahne! &c.
  _Wonder_; Mahmahkahdahkahmig, strange! hahe, hah!
  _Aversion_; Saih! ahwas, away!
  _Attention_; Nah, hark! Nahbin, behold!
  _Surprise_ or _Fear_; Ingee! Tauneyohne! yohe!
  _Laughter_; Ha! ha! ha!
  _Requesting silence_; Easta, hist! pezahnahbin, silence!
  _Calling_; ahneene, halloo!
  _Salutation_; Mequaich, welcome!

A FABLE--[Translated from the English.]


Kegahweendahmoonin kache dahkooahyod ahdesookaun, kecheoneshesheh

Wahgoosh ingooding keezhahgoobun haberdashero dahdahwawegahmig. Emah
metahskahkahmig ahyahtanegoobun kache gwahnahjewong mask, keoonje
ozhechegahdagoobun ahwegah cheahyood mamahjenood ahpe herongh azhe
obahkahmegezhejin. Ewh mask egewh mawezhah, meowh ahpe owh ahdesookaun
tebaindahgowk, ahgwahnahung kahkenah ewh ostegwan dahgooh helmiting,
kiya kahwekah mamahjenood ezheoobahkahmegezhese ayahsenenegoon.
Mahmahdah wechegawenebun, owhdush ezhechegang kahweendush
kedahwahbahdah zhenon ewh odangowh owh wabahkahmegezid, kiya koonemah
anahnookewenegwain nahchebahpid or mahwid, ewh mask ahpun ewh nahsob

Owh wahgoosh kahgezheyaindum, wahjapezeh. Oge quakenon ewh mask
menahwah kiya menahwah. Oge gahnahwahbahdaun emah ahgwahjeeye-ee,
kiya gahnahwahbahdaun emah peenjahye-ee.

Ewh ahgwahjeeye-ee keche shooshoo ahyahgoobun kiya
kegezhechegahdagoobun! Ewh peenjahye-ee webahgoobun. Kagate onesheshin
oostegwan ayaug omah, ekedoo owh wahgoosh; kagate mejenahwa yahdahkahmig
kahwenaindib ahyahsenoog!

Nahnind quahnoj quewesansug ahyahwug kiya equasansug kemahzheh
ekoogenedwah oowh enaindahmoowod kahween kagoo ohbahbah mahndahsenahwah,
ewh atah oobeshegadahgoosewenewah, ahgoonwatahtesuwod kagoo
chekekadahmoowod medush azhe quakeskahwod enahkahkayah wahwazheowening.
Koonemah eneneh odah ahtood ewh onindj emah ostegwahning onowh pazhik
kiya tahekedooh kahekedood owh wahgoosh kagate sahquahnoj owh oostegwan
omah ayog kagate sah mejenah wayahdahkahmig ahyah senoog ewh wenaindib.

Eneneh tahezhah ishpeming, ahyahnzig menoo bemahdezewin, ahyahnzig
kechetwahwezewin, ahyahnzig ogemahwewin, ahyahnzig kekenooahmahdewin,
ahyahwahsig wejekewayun; kah dushween tahezhahsee ewhety ishpeming
ahyahwahsig Christ.

A man may go to heaven without health, without wealth, without honor,
without learning, without friends; but he can never go to heaven
without Christ.


It is difficult with us to speak the words themselves.--The words
_odoon_, _onik_, _okod_, _ozid_, _okun_, do not mean respectively,
_mouth_, _arm_, _leg_, _foot_, _bone_; but _his mouth_, _his arm_, _his
leg_, _his foot_, _his bone_. By leaving out the letter _o_ we have the
words _mouth_, _arm_, _&c._ themselves: thus, _doon_, _nik_, _kod_,
_zid_, _kun_. The former is the usual way of speaking, the latter is

By the following illustration it will be better understood how words are

                        _my_      _thy_ or _your_   _his_
  Nindj,    _a hand_,   nenindj,      kenindj,      onindj,
  Nik,      _an arm_,   nenik,        kenik,        onik,
  Doon,     _a mouth_,  nedoon        kedoon,       odoon,
  Bid,      _a tooth_,  nebid,        kebid,        owebid,
  Daih,     _a heart_,  nedaih,       kedaih,       odaih,
  Kown,     _a liver_,  nekown,       kekown,       okown,
  Kun,      _a bone_,   nekun,        kekun,        okun,
  Skunze,   _a nail_,   neskunze,     keskunze,     oskunze,
  Kod,      _a leg_,    nekod,        kekod,        okod,
  Bowm,     _a thigh_,  nebowm,       kebowm,       obowm,
  Dis,      _a navel_,  nedis,        kedis,        odis,
  Pun,      _a light_,  nepun,        kepun,        opun,
  Zid,      _a foot_,   nezid,        kezid,        ozid,
  Yos,      _flesh_,    neyos,        keyos,        oweyos,
  Yowh,     _a body_,   neyowh,       keyowh,       oweyowh,
  Oose,     _father_,   noose,        koose,        osun,
  Gah,      _mother_,   negah,        kegah,        ogeen,
  Siyahn,   _brother_,  nesiyahn,     kesiyahn,     osiyayun,
  Shema,    _sister_,   neshema,      keshema,      oshemayun,
  Tahwug,   _an ear_,   netahwug,     ketahwug,     otahwug.


[Transcriber's Note:
The order of entries is as in the original.]

Aahe, adv. yes
Ahbenoojhee, n. a child
Ahbewin, n. a room
Ahnind, adj. some
Ahpe, adv. then, when
Ahkeh, n. the earth
Ahkeeng, in the earth
Ahzheh, adv. after
Ahneendeh, adv. where?
Ahyahyun, v. art thou
Ahweyah, n. a certain one
Ahnung, sing.   } n. a star
Ahnungoog, plu. }
Ahyah, v. he is, was
Ahneen, adv. how?
Ahwon, n. fog, dew, mist
Ahsin, n. a stone
Ahnewh, n. a bullet
Ahnahquod, n. a cloud
Ahnookewin, n. a work
Ahnemeke, n. thunder
Ahkoozewin, n. sickness
Ahpahbewin, n. a saddle, or a thing to sit on
Ahpwahgun, n. a pipe
Ahnahpe, adv. when
Ahgwahnahung, pt. covered
Ahgwahjeeng, outdoors
Ahpequashemoon, n. pillow
Ahkookoobenahgun, } n. a basket, the latter signifies a vessel to carry
Ahwahjewahnahgun, }      or gather with
Ahnahmeahwin, n. religion
Aindahnahbid, v. sitteth
Aindahyaun, n. my house or home
Aiskum, adv. more
Anwahchegaid, n. a prophet
Amequahn, n. a spoon
Atah, conj. but
Ahsamah, n. tobacco
Ahnahmahkahmig, } under the earth or ground
Ahnahmahkeeng,  }
Ahgahming, n. other side
Ahyahmook, v. receive it, or take it
Ahshum, v. feed him, or give him something to eat
Ahgahwahta, n. a shadow
Ahwashema, prep. beyond
Ahgwewin, n. a garment
Ahgookayowh, n. a bait, or something to allure animals to a snare
Ahgahjewin, n. bashfulness
Ahquahnebesohn, n. rainbow
Azhenekahdaig, } n. name of a thing or place. In asking a question
Adahming,      }      we say what is the name of that thing or place?

Ahgwahjeeye-ee, n. outside
Anahnookewenegwain, business, or it was his business
Anaindahmon, n. thy will
Azheahyog, v. as it is
Azhegooh, v. as we
Azhemahmahjenoojin, part. played or acted
Ahgoonwatahdezoowod, v. they refuse
Ahyahsenenegoon, when there is none or no
Ainind, pt. called
Ahwas, adv. away
Ahsub, n. a net
Ahyog, is here
Ahpugn, adv. always, usually, the same
Ahmooh, n. a bee
Ahmik, n. a beaver
Ahnim, n. a mean fellow
Ahnit, n. a spear
Ahnebeesh, n. a leaf
Ahnwabewin, n. a rest
Ahnahmeawegahmig, n. a church, meeting-house, or praying-house
Ahskekoomon, n. lead
Ahskahtowhe, n. a skin or hide
Asquach, adv. falsely, vain
Ahdesookaun, n. story, fable
Ahnwahtin, not boisterous
Ahwebah, n. or adj. calm
Ahkahkahzha, n. coal
Ahyegagah, adv. soon, directly
Ahnoodezeh, adv. greedy
Ahnowh, prep. though
Ahtoon, put it down
Ahneenmenik, adv. how much
Ahneendeh, adv. where
Ahneendehnahkayah, adv. which way
Ahnahmahye-ee, prep. under
Ahpahgahjeahye-ee, prep. against
Ahyahwug, v. there are
Ahgahmahye-ee, prep. across
Ahneeshnah, adv. why
Ahdick, n. a rein-deer
Ahjedahmoo, n. a red squirrel
Ahsahnahgoo, n. a black squirrel
Ahgwegoos, n. a chip-monk
Ahkuckoojeesh, n. a ground-hog
Ahdoomahkoomasheeh, n. a monkey, which signifies louse catcher or hunter
Ahnemoosh, n. a dog
Aasebun, n. a raccoon
Aayabegoo, n. an ant
Aayanee, n. opossum
Ahzhahwahmaig, n. a salmon
Ahshegun, n. rock-bass
Ahgwahdahsheh, n. sun-fish
Ahwahsesee, n. cat-fish
Ahmahkahkee, n. a toad
Ahgoonaqua, n. tree-toad
Ahndaig, n. a raven
Ahshahgeh, n. a crane
Ahsegenak, n. a black-bird
Ahjegahdashib, n. water-hen
Ahsenesekab, n. gravel
Ahkik, n. a kettle
Ahbewh, n. a paddle
Ahzod, n. poplar
Ahneshenahbay, n. an Indian man
Apahgeeshemoog, n. west
Ahahwa, n. a species of duck
Ahwahkaun, n. cattle
Ahgahwosk, n. gypsum
Ahshahwask, n. a sword
Ahgwesemon, n. a pumpkin
Ahgwejekinzhaegun, n. an and-iron
Ahskebug, n. a green leaf
Ahgahwahtaown, n. an umbrella
Ahdahwaweneneh, n. a merchant
Ahkahnok, n. a corn-cob
Azheshahwask, n. a rifle
Ahnejemin, n. pease
Auskig, n. a seal
Ahgookewahsegun, n. sealing-wax
Ahpahgedoon, v. throw it

Bakah, v. to stop
Bahmah, adv. by and by
Bazhig, adj. one
Bahtay, n. smoke
Bahgaun, n. a nut
Bahbegwon, n. a bugle
Bakahnuk, adj. the other
Bahnahjetoon, v. destroy it
Bahtahzewin, n. sin
Bahgundahegawegahmig, n. a barn, or a house to thresh grain in
Bewegahegun, n. a chip
Bemahdezewin, n. life
Beezhahyaun, v. if I come
Bemoosain, v. to walk
Bewahbik, n. iron
Bedoon, v. bring it, or fetch it
Benetoon, v. clean it
Boodahwahgun, n. chimney, fire-place
Bewuyh, n. fur

Chegahye-ee, prep. near
Cheahnwabing, v. to rest
Cheshahdahegun, n. broom, sweeping instrument
Chepahping, pt. laughing
Chebwah, prep. before
Chebuyh, n. a corpse, dead body
Chemaun, n. a boat, a canoe
Chemenewung, v. to yield fruit
Chese, n. a turnip
Chahchaum, v. to sneeze
Cheahyong, v. to be

Dush, conj. but
Dushween, adv. then, there.
  Weendush, and he;
  owhdush, and the;
  medush, and then;
  egewhdush, and they
Doombenon, v. to lift
Doon, n. a mouth
Dahdahwawegahnig, n. a store or shop
Danguyh, n. the face

Eneneh, n. a man
Enenewug, n. men
Equa, n. a woman
Equawug, n. women
Equasance, n. a girl, or little woman
Emeh, adv. there (near,)--sometimes means, into, or in the
Ewhety, adv. there (distant,) in that place
Egewh, pro. them
Enah! int. hark! see!
Enewh, pro. these
Ezhah, v. to go
Ewh, a. the
Eskooday, n. fire
Esquache, adj. last
Ezhahdah, v. let us go
Esquahdaim, n. a door
Enaindahmoowin, n. mind, thought, will
Ekedoowin, n. a word
Eebahdun, n. butter
Enenahbik, n. a rock
Enenahtig, n. a maple-tree
Ezhechegaid, n. means or manner
Ekedooh, v. to say, or he said
Enahkayah, prep. towards
Ewedehnahkayah, adv. that way
Enaindahming, pt. thinking
Equah, n. a louse.

How, v. let us
Hah! int. the same as Ha! in English.

Ishpeming, n. heaven, or above
Inggoojhee, adv. somewhere
Ingoodwahsweh, adj. six
Ishpemesahgoong, n. chamber
Ingoodwak, adj. one hundred
Inggooding, adv. once
Inggwahekaun, n. the grave
Innoozoowahgun, n. a name-sake
Ingee! int. This word is used by children when they are afraid of
  something that is large
Inggoodoogunze, n. a cluster of fruit.

Keshamunedoo, n. Merciful Spirit or Being
Kechemunedoo, n. God, or Great Good Spirit
Kecheahjechaugk, n. Great Holy Spirit
Kecheogemah, n. King, or great Chief
Kedemahganemeshin, have mercy on me
Kegekaindaun, v. thou knowest
Kechegahmeh, n. a lake
Kegezhaib, n. the morning
Ketegahnans, n. a garden
Kedahyah, v. thou art
Kedahyaum, v. you are
Ke-ne-nah? Is it you?
Kahween, adv. no sir, no, no
Kah, adv. no
Keen, pro. you, or thou
Koosay, n. sing. your father
Koone, n. snow
Kezis, n. the sun
Kiya, conj. and
Kegwis, n. your son
Kegah, n. your mother
Ketegaun, n. a field
Kahkenah, adj. all, whole
Koosenon, n. our father
Koosewah, n. pl. your father
Koosemah, v. may, might
Kahgequawin, n. law
Kahbabeboon, all winter
Kahbanebin, all summer
Kahgenig, adv. forever
Kahwekah, adv. never
Kagooshish, n. something
Kebemoosay, v. he walked
Kedaun, n. your daughter
Kezheguk, n. day
Kezhik, n. sky
Kahweenegoojee, adv. nowhere
Kegedoon, v. to speak, (in the imperative mood.)
Ke-ekedooh, v. he said
Kedenin, I tell you
Keskeezhik, n. your eye
Kooskoozin, v. to awake
Kespin, conj. if
Kesenah, adj. cold
Kagooh, shall not
Keche, adj. great
Kechauze, n. your nose
Ketegaweneneh, n. a husbandman
Keskejewahyaun, n. a waist-coat
Kewadenoong, n. north
Kekewaown, n. a flag
Kagate, adv. truly, verily
Koondun, v. swallow it
Kahmahsheh, adv. not yet
Kahskahdin, v. to congeal, to freeze
Kagooween, you shall not, or thou shall not
Kagebahdezid, n. a fool
Kenebood, pt. died
Kategang, v. to sow or plant
Keskahkezhegang, v. to reap
Kahgega, adj. eternal
Kazhedin, adv. immediately
Keahgoonwatum, v. he denied
Ketezeh, } adj. old
Kekahe,  }
Kegaung, n. a virgin
Kegowh, n. a fish
Keskemon, n. a whet-stone
Keskeboojegun, n. a saw
Kechepezoon, n. a girdle, a sash, a belt
Kebeshang, adj. deaf
Kepahgah, adj. thick
Kebesquang, adj. hoarse
Kesahgehenah? Do you love me?
Kenahweskewin, n. falsehood
Kashahweahyah, adj. loose
Kondahegwahsowin, n. thimble, an instrument used to push with in sewing
Kahyahtenewaid, n. a mid-wife
Kahezhewabuk, it was so
Kekenahwahjechegun, n. a sign or mark
Kegedooweneneh, n. a speaker or lawyer
Kahgahgewinze, n. hemlock
Kahgahgeh, n. wind-pipe
Kekindewin, n. a covenant
Kezebegahegahnahboo, n. soap suds
Kahskahkoonegun, n. corn-crib
Kahskahegun, n. a scraper
Koozhe, n. a beak
Koonekahdin, n. frost, snow
Kechemekun, n. a high-way
Kagah, adv. mostly
Kahweengagoo, n. nothing
Kegahweendahmoon, I will tell you
Kahgequaweneneh, n. an exhorter, or preacher
Kegowhyekaweneneh, n. a fisherman
Kekaindahmoowad, v. to learn, to know
Kahgahnahga, do not
Kemahzeh, adv. badly
Kegezhechegahdagoobun, pt. completed
Kahgezheyaindum, adj. sagacious
Kagahgoo, adv. almost
Kahyask, n. a gull
Kahgahgehshee, n. a crow
Kookoosh, n. a hog
Kookookoo-ooh, n. an owl
Kenoozha, n. a pike
Kewetahye-ee, prep. around
Kedahgahbezhew, n. a wild-cat
Kaugk, n. a porcupine
Kahgebahdezewin, n. foolishness
Keskekechegun, n. a partition

Mahnedoo, n. a spirit
Mahjahn, v. march on
Mahzhenahegun, n. a book, paper, &c.
Mahjemunedoo, n. an evil spirit, or the devil
Mahzhenenee, n. an image
Mahskemoodance, n. satchel
Mahkahday, n. powder, or black
Megwon, n. a feather, quill
Mekun, n. a road
Mejim, n. food
Mezhusk, n. hay, weed, grass
Menesis, n. hair, of the head
Mequom, n. ice
Metig, n. a tree
Mesheh, n. fire-wood
Metigmahkuk, n. a trunk
Meowh, only, the one to whose
Minjemeneshin, v. hold me
Metigmahkezin, n. shoe, or wooden shoe
Me-ewhmenek, it is enough
Mahdwayahbegahegun, n. a fiddle, or a sonorific instrument,
  whose strings are capable of vibrating
Megezeh, n. an eagle
Moozhuk, adv. often
Mookoomon, n. a knife
Moozwahgun, n. scissors
Menookahmeh, n. spring, a season of the year
Menahwahzeh, adj. cheerful
Mequamdun, v. remember it
Mezhenahwa, n. a disciple
Mahkundwaweneneh, n. a robber
Mahmahweh, adv. together
Mezheshenom, v. give us
Mesquagin, n. purple
Mahkahdaeneneh, n. a black man
Mahkahdaequa, n. a black woman
Mawezhah, adv. anciently, long ago
Metegwob, n. a bow
Moskin, n. full
Mahdwawa, n. a sound
Menoodahchin, adv. enough
Menekaun, n. seed
Menequang, v. to drink
Mahskoosen, n. a marsh, a bog, a fen
Mamangwah, n. a butterfly
Mahskeeg, n. a swamp
Mahmahjenoowin, n. miracle
Mahnahtaneseweneneh, n. a shepherd
Mahskahwezewin, strength
Mahjetong, v. to begin
Mahkuk, n. a pail, or box
Mahkahkoosug, n. a barrel
Megahzooweneneh, n. a soldier, a man of war, or a fighting man
Mahmahkahdezing, v. to boast
Megoos, n. an awl
Menis, n. an island
Mahwewin, v. to cry
Memenik, v. be quiet
Mahskekeh, n. medicine
Mahnedoosh, n. an insect, a worm
Mahbah, this one
Mesahkoodoonahgun, n. beard, the hair that grows on the lips and chin
Mondahmin, n. corn
Mechekahnok, n. a fence
Metegoominzhe, n. an oak
Mahskooda, n. plains, flats, or level ground
Mahgeahyah, adj. big
Mahgoobedoong, v. to squeeze
Mayahgezid, n. a stranger
Menahwah, adv. again, more and more
Mamahjenoojin, v. he played
Metahskahkahmig, n. the ground, or on the ground
Menoomenik, adj. sufficient
Mamahjenood, n. an actor
Magwaahye-ee, prep. among
Mahnahtanis, n. a sheep
Meshebezhee, n. a lion
Mahengun, n. a wolf
Mesahbooze, n. a goat
Mahquah, n. a bear
Moaze, n. a moose
Mahskoodaysay, n. a quail
Mahnoomenekashee, n. a mud-hen
Mezhesay, n. a turkey
Mesahmaig, n. a whale
Mahzhahmagoos, n. trout
Mahnoomin, n. rice
Mezheh, adv. everywhere
Magwah, adv. while
Manmooyahwahgaindahmoowin, n. thankfulness
Meshejemin, n. a currant, (fruit)
Mahzahn, n. a thistle
Mahjegooday, n. a petticoat
Menekahnekah, adv. seedy
Mejenahwayahdahkahmig, n. pity
Mahmahdahwechegawenebun, it was a strange custom
Menesenoo, n. a hero
Mesquahsin, n. brick, which signifies, red stone
Mesahowh, that is
Moosay, n. a worm
Moong, n. a loon
Meene, n. a kind of fruit
Mahjekewis, adj. the eldest
Meskoodesemin, n. a bean
Mategwahkezinekaid, n. a shoe-maker
Menahwenahgowd, v. look pleasant
Meneweyook, v. be fruitful
Megeskun, n. a hook
Mezesok, n. a horse-fly
Mahwahdooskahegun, n. a rake
Mookoojegun, n. a plane, or drawing-knife
Mahskemood, n. a bag
Moonegwana, n. a meadow-lark
Meshawa, n. an elk
Mahskekeweneneh, n. a physician.

Nebahgun, n. a bed, a place to sleep on
Newewesin, I want to eat
Nonggon, adj. light
Nee, } pro. I, me, my
Ne,  }
Negah, n. my mother
Neezhe, adj. two
Nesweh, adj. three
Newin, adj. four
Nahnun, adj. five
Newob, v. I see
Noongoom, adv. now
Nahgudge, adv. little while
Nedaih, n. my heart
Nekod, n. my leg
Noodin, n. wind
Nahdin, v. go and fetch it
Nezid, n. my foot
Nagowh, n. sand
Noodosh, adj. least
Neenatah, but me, only me
Nezhekaih, adj. alone
Netum, adj. first
Negaun, prep. before
Nahpahna, n. flour
Nahsahkoonun, open it
Nebahkahda, I am hungry
Nahbahgesug, n. a board
Nahgahmoowin, n. a hymn, or a song
Nahme-eding, pt. meeting
Nahongahnik, n. a maid
Nahwahye-ee, n. diameter
Nejekewa, n. a comrade
Nejee, n. a friend
Nanahdahwe-ewaid, n. a saviour
Nahbequon, n. a vessel, a ship
Nahbequahneshee, n. a sailor, or a man that sails or attends ships
Nebewah, n. many
Nahboob, n. soup
Neweahyahwah, I want him
Nasawin, n. breath
Nedezedaahe, v. I dare
Nahzequaegun, n. a curry-comb
Nekebee, covered with water, or overflowed
Nayob, back again
Nahgowh, n. a sleeve
Nedenaindum, v. I think
Nahwahquay, n. the middle of the day, noon
Neskahdezewin, n. anger
Nasagwahbedaoonance, n. a pin, which signifies to prick with
Negekaindaun, v. I know
Nebwahkahwin, n. wisdom
Newahwezhandum, v. I am glad
Nahmahdahbin, v. sit thou
Nahmahdahbing, v. to sit
Noodahgoozing, pt. roaring
Nedekedoowin, my word
Negetim, I am lazy
Nezheka, adv. apart
Nesahye-ee, adv. down
Negaunnahkayah, adv. forward
Nesahye-ee, prep. below
Nahwahye-ee, prep. amidst
Nahmaih, n. a sturgeon
Nahmabin, n. mullet
Nekah, n. a wild goose
Nahkayah, n. a way
Nebeh, n. water
Nebeeng, In the water

Ogemah, n. a chief
Oojechog, n. a soul
Oondaus, v. to come
Omah, adv. here
Owh, a. the
Oowh, pro. this
Oogooh, pro. those, their
Oogemekaun, he found it
Oogeoozhetoon, he made it
Oodahpenun, take it
Oonekig, n. a parent
Oopegagun, n. a rib
Opequoj, n. an air-bladder
Oonzegun, n. a boiler, or a kettle
Oodanggowh, n. his face,
  --[_for an explanation of this and several of the following words,
  see page 21_]

  [Transcriber's Note:
  See section "Formation of Words," immediately before Vocabulary list.]

Oochauze, n. his nose
Oodoon, n. his mouth
Onowh, n. his cheek
Ostegawn, n. his head
Oskezhizk, n. his eye
Omahmowh, n. eyebrow
Odanegoom, n. nostril
Odaih, n. heart
Onik, n. arm
Otahwug, n. ear
Okod, n. leg
Ozid, n. foot
Onoogun, n. hip
Onindj, n. hand
Ojetud, n. tendon
Oquagun, n. neck
Opequon, n. back
Obowm, n. thigh
Okahkegun, n. breast
Ozhebeenguyh, n. tear
Omesud, n. paunch
Odoosquahyob, n. vein
Okun, n. bone
Odaewaun, n. their heart
Oskunze, n. nail of the finger and the hoof of a horse,
  or all kinds of hoofs
Odaun, n. daughter
Ootanowh, n. town, city, village, however we say kecheotanowh
  for great town or city, by adding nance, it means small town
  or village
Odataig, n. gills of a fish
Onejegun, n. fin of a fish
Ozhegown, n. tail of a fish
Okodahkik, n. a pot, a kettle that has legs, or a leg-kettle
Oozaum, adv. too much
Oogee, pro. he
Opin, n. a potatoe
Obewuyh, n. fur
Omemee, n. a pigeon
Onegwegun, n. a wing
Oskenahway, n. a youth, a young man
Odahbaun, n. a sled
Ongwahmezin, be ye faithful
Oogaah, n. pickerel
Ogejebeeg, surface of the water
Ozhahwahnoong, n. south
Okayahwis, n. herring
Oojeeg, n. a fisher
Ogah, n. mother
Oose, n. father
Opecheh, n. a robin
Onesheshid, a clever one
Ookoozhe, n. a beak
Oskezegookahjegun, n. spectacle
Onahgooshig, n. the evening
Okahquon, n. shin
Ogeeozheaun, he made them
Ogeeozhetoon, he made it
Oskunzhekahjegun, n. a horse-shoe
Oombahquahegun, n. a lever

Pabahmahjemood, n. a messenger
Poonahkunjegun, n. anchor
Pookedoonze, n. a pear
Pahdahkemoojeskahjegun, n. a spur
Pewakoodahmahgun, n. shavings
Pahketaegun, n. a hammer
Pemenegun, n. a gimlet, an auger
Penahquahn, n. a comb
Pezhekeence, n. a calf
Pesahkahmegeboojegun, n. a harrow
Pequahegun, n. a hill
Pabahbahgahne, n. a pancake
Pazhegwahnoong, one place
Panggwon, adj. dry
Pahquonge, n. a stump
Pahgasaun, n. a plum
Pahpenadumoowin, n. happiness
Pahquazhegun, n. bread
Pahskezegun, n. a gun
Pahquazhegunush, n. wheat
Pahnezid, adj. holy
Pazhegoogahzhee, n. a horse or an animal not cloven-footed
Pashebeegun, n. a rule
Peshegaindahgoozewin, n. glory
Pepoon, n. winter
Pezahneewawin, n. peace
Pahzegween, v. to arise
Penasewug, n. fowls
Pewahbum, v. come and see him
Pewahbundun, v. come and see it
Pajeewe, adj. weak
Pesahgeskebik, n. darkness
Pesekun, put it on
Peenzekahwahgun, n. a coat or loose garment
Pahwahbekezegun, n. a stove or an iron box that is capable of
  being warmed through
Pahzhejeahje-ee, prep. over
Peendahgun, n. a pocket or pouch
Peendig, n. inside
Paquahkoostegowng, block-headed
Pequahquod, n. a ball or knot
Poodahwain, make fire
Poodahjegun, n. a musical or blowing instrument
Pookedaemin, n. a mandrake
Pahmetahgun, n. a servant
Pahbegwah, adj. rough
Pahquahskezhegun, n. a scythe
Papahmebahegood, n. a rider, a name for a dragoon
Pamahdezid, the living
Pahsquagin, n. leather
Pahbahgewahyaun, n. a shirt, calico
Pengwahshahgid, adj. naked
Pezindun, v. to hear, to listen
Pinggweh, n. ashes
Pungee, adj. little, not enough
Peendegaye-ee, prep. within
Pegwih, n. gum, wax
Pemeday, n. oil, grease
Pequok, n. an arrow
Pooch, v. must
Pahkahahquay, n. a cock,--this bird has derived its name from
  its crowing; so nearly all birds
Pahpahsay, n. a wood-pecker; this, from its pecking
Penaih, n. a partridge
Pahkaunnahkayah, adv. another way

Quatahmegwaindahgoozid, n. the Almighty
Quewesance, n. a boy
Quahnoj, adj. good
Quakenun, turn it over
Quesqueshin, n. a whistle
Quahbahegun, n. a shovel
Quahnahjewun, adj. handsome
Quaich, adj. tenth
Quiyuk, adv. straight, right
Quaichegooh, just as

Shahgooda-a, n. a coward
Shahwanemeshin, bless me
Shewetahgun, n. salt
Shahwemin, n. a grape
Shemahgun, n. a shield
Shooneyah, n. silver, money
Shenganedewin, n. hatred
Sahnahgud, adj. difficult
Sahkahown, n. a cane
Sanahbanh, n. silk, or ribin
Sasahbob, n. a rope, thread
Shongahswak, adj. nine hundred
Shewahbik, n. alum, or iron of an acid taste
Shewon, adj. sour
Shonggahsweh, adj. nine
Sebeeh, n. a river
Sebeeng, in the river
Shegah, n. a widow
Shinggwok, n. a pine tree
Shahgahnosh, a white man
Shinggoos, n. a weasel
Shonggwasheh, n. a mink
Shepahye-ee, prep. through
Shegog, n. a skunk
Shesheeb, n. a duck
Sahgahquahegun, n. a nail
Shegwanahbik, n. a grind-stone
Shegwanahwis, n. fish-worm
Shesheeb-ahkik, n. a tea-kettle; (see shesheeb and ahkik,)
Sahgedoonabejegun, n. a bridle
Sahgahegun, n. a screw
Shegahgahwinze, n. an onion
Shahboonegaunce, n. a needle, it signifies to pull or push through

Tahnahgwud, v. appear
Tedebawe, n. the shore
Tebahegezeswon, n. a watch or clock
Tabanegaid, n. Lord
Tabahkoonewaid, n. a judge or ruler
Tebahkoonegawin, n. judgment
Tabwayaindahmoowin, n. a creed
Takoonewaid, n. a constable
Tabwawin, n. truth
Tahbeskooch, v. to equal
Tahweahyah, n. space
Tabwatun, v. believe thou
Tebahegun, n. a measure; by adding ce, we have, cup
Toodooshahboo, n. milk
Tawaegun, n. a drum; (see mahdwayahbegahegun,)
Tegowh, n. a wave
Tebik, n. night
Tahgah, v. to let
Tahwah, int. alas!

Undoom, call him
Umba, come and let us go

Wah, pro. what
Wahwon, n. an egg
Weyos, n. flesh, meat
Webid, n. a tooth
Ween, pro. him
Wewon, his wife
Waquain, pro. whoever
Wewahquon, n. a hat
Wahbegun, n. clay
Wahsayah, n. light
Wagoonan, what is it?
Wekah, long before
Wahbemin, n. an apple
Weendun, tell it
Wanain, who is it?
Weyowh, n. a body
Wahjewh, n. a mountain or hill
Wahowh, pro. this
Wenegun, n. marrow
Wenesis, n. hair
Wanankeen, who art thou?
Wesabgun, adj. bitter
Wagoosing, n. the son
Wahbeda, v. to ripen
Wenin, n. fat
Wahnekaun, n. a ditch
Wahbezewin, n. paleness
Weenzhoob, n. gall
Wenud, adj. dirty
Wahwahbegoonojhee, n. a mouse
Wahsahkoonajegun, n. a candle, or a thing that produces light
Wahsachegun, n. a window
Wahbahnahnug, n. the morning-star
Wahsahmoowin, n. lightning
Wesenewagun, n. a table, or something to eat on
Wegewaum, n. a house
Wetookahweshin, help me
Wetoopahmeshin, eat with me
Wanepuzhe, adv. freely
Wahyaskud, in the beginning
Weendahmahweshin, tell me
Wahgedahkahmig, on land
Wawaneh, thank you
Wahsahgung, n. pepper, or a bitter substance
Wahskoobung, adj. sweet
Wekahnesun, his brother
Wahwazhetaun, v. prepare thou
Wahnahgak, n. bark
Wahbemoojechaugown, n. a looking-glass; something used to see the
  image in
Weendegooh, n. a giant
Weyahgahsahne, n. dust
Wedookoodahdedah, let us help each other
Wequajeoong, v. to struggle
Wenaindib, n. brains
Wahbezhasheh, n. a martin
Wahwahskasheh, n. a deer
Wahwahtaseh, n. a lightning-bug
Wahwahyayah, adj. round
Wahgoosh, n. a fox
Wahnesquazewin, n. carelessness
Wahgahquod, n. an axe
Wahbahbik, n. tin
Wahbejeskezhegwa, adj. wall-eyed
Wob, v. to see
Wahzeswon, n. a nest
Wahbooyon, n. a blanket
Wahnechega, v. to misdo
Wahnewenon, v. to mislead
Wahbemenahboo, n. cider
Wesahgok, n. ash
Wegwos, n. birch tree, and its bark
Wegoobeminze, n. bass-wood
Wak, n. spawn

Zhahwanedewin, n. love
Zahzahgewejegun, n. an offering
Zagezewin, v. to fear
Zegahundahgawin, n. baptism
Zhahgemaih, n. a musketoe
Zheezebahquod, n. sugar.

       *       *       *       *       *
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Errors and anomalies

Spelling Book:

Words of four syllables accented on the sixth.
  _text unchanged_
  _text has space after -te- _

Grammar Book:

Nestahnah ahshepachick
  _spelling as in original_
necessarily implies an agent and an object acted upon
  _text reads "an abject"_

quakeskahwod enahkahkayah wahwazheowening
  _text reads enahka/yah at line break_

[Vocabulary List]
Mahnedoo, n. a spirit
  _text reads "s spirit"_
Mahdwayahbegahegun, n. a fiddle, or a sonorific instrument,
  whose strings are capable of vibrating
  _text reads "cabable"_
Nasagwahbedaoonance, n. a pin, which signifies to prick with
  _text reads "signifiies"_

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Sketch of Grammar of the Chippeway Languages - To Which is Added a Vocabulary of some of the Most Common Words" ***

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