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Title: The Art of Modern Lace Making
Author: The Butterick Publishing Co.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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       *       *       *       *       *



                    THE ART
                      OF
              MODERN LACE-MAKING.

       *       *       *       *       *

                     PRICE:
         FIFTY CENTS OR TWO SHILLINGS.

       *       *       *       *       *

                  PUBLISHED BY
      The Butterick Publishing Co. (Limited).
             _London and New York._

                     1891

              PRINTED IN NEW YORK.

                [Illustration]



INTRODUCTION.


Owing to the growing popularity of the fascinating art of lace-making
and the appeals of our readers to place it within their reach, we have
prepared this pamphlet. In making it a perfect instructor and a reliable
exponent of the favorite varieties of lace, we have spared neither time
nor expense, and are most happy to offer to our patrons what a
celebrated maker of Modern Lace has pronounced as "the finest book upon
lace-making to be found on either continent."

The illustrations, in the main, are direct reproductions from genuine,
hand-made modern laces, such as any lady may make who masters the
instructions found upon these pages.

The beauty of these laces is beyond question, their durability all that
can be desired, and their textures may be varied from an extreme
delicacy to a sumptuous opposite. In introducing the art of modern
lace-making into the realms of our readers, we feel all of the pleasure
we are sure we thus convey.

                                  The Butterick Publishing Co.,
                                                           Limited.



CONTENTS.


Pages 5 to 9--
    Lace-Making, Ancient and Modern Methods.

Pages 9 to 19--
    Stitches used in Modern Lace-Making.

Pages 19 to 22--
    Fancy Braids Cords, Rings and Buttons.

Pages 22 to 96--
    Designs, Lace Articles, Edgings, etc., etc., in Modern Lace.

Pages 96 to 125--
    Darned Net Samples, Kerchiefs, Tidies, Edgings, Insertions, etc.,
    etc., with Designs for the same and other Articles.



Lace-Making

ANCIENT AND MODERN METHODS.


The art of making lace in one form or another has existed from the
earliest ages. There are Scriptural references to various web-like
fabrics, which were of rude construction, no doubt, but whose general
characteristics were identical with those productions of modern skill
which have for centuries been known as lace. Homer and other ancient
writers constantly mention net-works of fancifully embroidered
materials; gold thread-work was known to the Romans; and as Egyptian
robes of state are depicted upon the tombs of the earlier dynasties as
being fashioned from a looped net-work or crochet, it is probable that
the Israelites learned the art from the Egyptians. Museums contain
specimens of lace dating back to periods that to us of the present day
seem mere dreams of reigns and eras, and history includes a scattered
literature of lace which proves that the art must have been practised
almost from the beginning.

Up to the Sixteenth Century, however, open work embroidery was the
favorite decoration, and from it the tangible origin of lace seems
derived. During the Renaissance period the first book of embroidery
patterns and lace-work appeared. The earliest volume bearing a date was
printed at Cologne in 1527; and it was during the reign of Richard III.
of England that the word lace was first used in the descriptions of the
royal wardrobe.

At first the best known laces were those of Venice, Milan and Genoa. The
Italians claim the invention of point or needle-made lace; but the
Venetian point is now a product of the past, and England and France
supply most of the fine laces of the present time.

Lace-makers in the various European countries are trained to the work
from childhood; but it is said that the makers of Honiton lace, the
fabric of which Queen Victoria's wedding gown was made, are rapidly
decreasing in numbers, so that there are few persons now living who
understand the construction of this exquisite "pillow" lace. The costly
point and Honiton and the dainty Mechlin and Valenciennes of bygone days
can only be produced by trained lace-workers, whose skilful fingers
weave bobbins of cobweb-like thread to and fro over the "pillow"
necessary to antique methods; and for this reason fine lace-making is
practically beyond the skill of the amateur. Besides, some of the
threads in the very filmy laces are so fine that they cannot be
successfully manipulated except in a moist atmosphere, such as that of
Great Britain; and even there some of the more exquisite specimens must
perforce be made in underground rooms, since it is only there that the
proper degree of moisture can be obtained. In dry climates these
gossamer-like threads would roughen and break at almost the slightest
touch.

Referring to the known origin of some of the earlier laces, a writer
upon the subject says:

"They say it was a woman, Barbara Uttmann, who invented pillow lace in
the 16th century. Women have ever been patrons of lace-making. Victoria
has kept the Honiton laces in fashion, and it was the Duchess of Argyle
who introduced lace-making in Scotland. The Countess of Erne and Lady
Denny and Lady Bingham began it in Ireland, and Lady De Vere gave her
own Brussels point for patterns when the first Irish point was made at
Curragh. It was Elizabeth of Denmark who introduced lace-making in that
country, and the Archduchess Sophia who started lace schools in Bohemia.
"Now at least I can have laces," said Anne of Austria, when Louis XIII.,
her husband died, and her court was famous for its cleanliness and its
Spanish point. Colbert had three women as coadjutors when he started
lace-making in France. It was because Josephine loved point d'Alençon
that Napoleon revived it. Eugenie spent $5,000 for a single dress
flounce, and had $1,000,000 in fine laces."

Victoria's favorite, Honiton, is not considered a particularly beautiful
lace, although its weaving is so tedious and difficult. "Real Honiton
laces," so says an authority, "are made up of bits and bits fashioned by
many different women in their own little cottages--here a leaf, there a
flower, slowly woven through the long, weary days, only to be united
afterward in the precious web by other workers who never saw its
beginning. There is a pretty lesson in the thought that to the
perfection of each of these little pieces the beauty of the whole is
due--that the rose or leaf some humble peasant woman wrought carefully,
helps to make the fabric worthy the adorning of a queen or the
decoration of an altar, even as the sweetness and patient perfection in
any life makes all living more worthy and noble. A single flower upon
which taste and fancy were lavished, and which sustained and deft labor
brought to perfection, represents the lives of many diligent women
workers.

It has become so much the fashion to worship all things ancient that
most lovers of fine lace would prefer to have it a century old; and yet
there never was a time when laces were more beautiful, more artistic and
more unique in design than just at the present day; for modern laces
preserve the best features of the laces that have gone before them, and
have added so many new inspirations that except for the sentiment, the
romance or the history connecting this scrap with a title, that with a
famous beauty, and another with some cathedral's sacred treasure, the
palm would certainly be given to the gauze-like production of the poor
flax thread spinner of the present day."

Not all people know the difference between point lace which is made with
the needle, and pillow lace which is made with the bobbins--but much of
the beautiful point lace of the present day is made with the needle, and
its beauty stands a favorable comparison with the more costly pillow
lace.

Strictly modern lace-making is a result of American ingenuity, and it
has so simple a basis and is so easy to learn that any woman of average
skill may, with little difficulty, produce by its different processes,
laces that are really magnificent and quite as substantial and useful as
they are exquisitely beautiful. In America modern lace-making has been
developed to a high degree of perfection by its pioneer, Mrs. Grace B.
McCormick, in whose designing rooms at No. 923 Broadway, New York, may
be seen specimens of modern laces of every variety, from dainty
needle-point to a very elaborate kind known as the Royal Battenburg.
This English name for an American production was selected in honor of
the Battenburg nuptials, which occurred about the time a patent for
making the lace was applied for at Washington. Only a few years have
elapsed since this plucky little woman made a single piece of lace
edging from common braid as an experiment, and sold it for a trifling
sum. Love for the work and perseverance have enabled her to overcome
obstacles that would have discouraged a woman of ordinary energy, and
she has gradually improved upon her earlier methods until modern lace
occupies a front rank among the numerous dainty forms of needle-work of
the day.

One of the finest specimens lately placed on exhibition is a table-cloth
intended for use at elaborate dinners. It is made of the finest table
linen and Royal Battenburg lace. The cloth is, of course, very large,
and the lace, in the form of wide insertion, is let in above the border
and is also arranged to divide the center into three squares. An outside
border of edging to match completes this exquisite production, which has
been two years in course of construction, and is valued at four hundred
and seventy-five dollars. The same style of lace may be made by any one
who studies the art and in any width or form, and it may be produced in
many textures, although really intended for heavy effects. The making of
such lace possesses a great charm for womankind in general, and will
undoubtedly retain favor as long as needlecraft remains a pastime and
employment with the gentler sex.


MATERIALS.

The requirements of modern lace-making are few. The products are classed
as Honiton, Point, Duchesse, Princesse, Royal Battenburg or Old English
Point, etc., etc.; but all are made with various braids arranged in
different patterns and connected by numerous kinds of stitches, many
different stitches often appearing in one variety of lace.

The materials required are neither numerous nor expensive. The following
is a complete list: Tracing cloth, leather or _toile cirée_, lace braids
of various kinds, linen thread, two or three sizes of needles, a good
thimble and a pair of fine sharp scissors.

For each kind of lace there is a special sort of braid in various
patterns, and the selection of the thread depends entirely upon the
variety and quality of lace to be made. This selection should be left to
the decision of the teacher or the skilled maker of laces, as she knows
from experience the proper combinations of materials. Thus, in making
Honiton and point lace, thread in twelve different degrees of fineness
is used; and as the braids also vary in size, the thread must always be
adapted to the braid. For Battenburg lace the thread is in eight sizes,
the finest being used only for "whipping curves" or drawing edges into
the outlines required. The "Ideal Honiton" is a new lace made with fancy
Honiton braid and wash-silk floss in dainty colors, and is exquisite for
doilies, mats, table scarfs and center-pieces.

Designs sold by lace-makers are usually drawn upon tracing cloth, as
this is flexible and much more agreeable to work upon than any other
material. The tracing cloth, when the braid is arranged, is basted to a
foundation of leather or _toile cirée_; or smooth wrapping-paper may be
basted under the design and will furnish all the support that is
necessary, while being lighter than the _toile cirée_.

It must be remembered that the work is really wrong side out while in
progress, so that it will not show its true beauty until finished and
removed from the foundation or pattern. According to the braid and
thread selected, these laces may be made of fairy-like fineness or of
massive elegance--general results being dainty enough for the gown of a
bride or sumptuous enough for the adornment of an altar.

Lace-making establishments will furnish designs of any width or shape
desired, and will also originate designs for special articles for which
there are only occasional calls. Regular edging designs are ordinarily
made in four widths--from quite narrow to very wide; and not
infrequently a handkerchief design is enlarged sufficiently to form a
square for a table or a fancy stand.

In filling in the spaces of any design or pattern, the worker may choose
the stitches that please her best, if she does not like those
accompanying the design that she has selected or that has been sent
her.



STITCHES USED IN MODERN LACE-MAKING.


As in all fancy work which has a set of foundation stitches peculiar to
it that may be varied according to the proficiency and ingenuity of the
maker, so has Modern Lace a series of primary stitches from which may be
evolved many others. A large number of illustrations of stitches, some
of which are primary or foundation stitches, while others are
combinations, are here presented, with full instructions for making; and
the entire series given will make perfectly plain to the student the
ease with which she may combine or invent stitches, when those of the
design she is to work are not to her liking. The first stitch given is
the main foundation stitch.


PLAIN POINT STITCHES.

NOS. 1 AND 2.--POINT DE BRUXELLES OR BRUSSELS POINT.--Among the stitches
most used in lace-making is Point de Bruxelles or Brussels point. It is
simply a button-hole stitch worked loosely, and it must be done with
regularity, as the beauty of the work depends almost wholly upon the
evenness of the stitches. Brussels point is occasionally used as an
edge, but is more frequently seen in rows worked back and forth to fill
in spaces, or as a ground work. The illustrations clearly represent the
method of making this stitch.

[Illustration: No. 1.--Point de Bruxelles (Brussels Point).]

[Illustration: No. 2.--Point de Bruxelles Worked in Rows.]

NO. 3.--POINT DE VENISE, OR VENICE POINT.--This stitch is worked from
left to right, like Brussels point. Work 1 loose button-hole stitch, and
in this stitch work 4 button-hole stitches tightly drawn up, then work
another loose button-hole stitch, then 4 more tight button-hole stitches
in the loose one; repeat to the end of the row, and fasten off.

[Illustration: No. 3.--Point de Venise (Venice Point).]

NO. 4.--PETIT POINT DE VENISE, OR LITTLE VENICE POINT.--This stitch is
worked in the same manner as point de Venise, but one tight stitch only
is worked in each loose button-hole stitch. This is a most useful stitch
for filling in small spaces.

[Illustration: No. 4.--Petit Point de Venise (Little Venice Point).]

NO. 5.--ITALIAN LACE STITCH.--Commence at the right side and pass the
thread to the left.

_First row._--Make a loose button-hole stitch into the braid to form a
loop, then pass the needle under the line of thread, making the loops an
eighth of an inch apart.

_Second row._--Pass the thread back to the left, make a button-hole
stitch in every loop, and pass the needle under the line of thread after
each button-hole stitch.

[Illustration: No. 5.--Italian Lace Stitch.]

NO. 6.--COBWEB LACE STITCH.--Commence at the right side, pass the thread
to the left, work 3 button-hole stitches, miss the space of 3, which
will leave a small loop, and continue these details to the end.

_Second row._--Pass the thread back to the left side, work 3 button-hole
stitches in each loop, taking up the line of thread with the loop, as
seen in the engraving.

[Illustration: No. 6.--Cobweb Lace Stitch.]

NO. 7.--POINT BRABANÇON.--This stitch is worked as follows from left to
right:

_First row._--Make 1 long, loose point de Bruxelles, and 1 short loose
one alternately, to end of row.

_Second row._--Make 7 tight point de Bruxelles in the 1 long, loose
stitch, and 2 short, loose point de Bruxelles in the short, loose stitch
on previous row, and repeat across the row.

_Third row._--Same as first.

[Illustration: No. 7.--Point Brabançon.]

NO. 8.--POINT DE VALENCIENNES, OR VALENCIENNES STITCH.--This stitch
appears complicated, but is really easy to work. Begin at the left hand
and work 6 point de Bruxelles stitches at unequal distances, every
alternate stitch being the larger.

_Second row._--Upon the first large or long stitch, work 9 close
button-hole stitches, then 1 short point de Bruxelles stitch under the
one above, then 9 close stitches, and so on to the end of the row (right
to left).

_Third row._--Make 5 close button-hole stitches in the 9 of previous
row, 1 short point de Bruxelles, 2 close, in the Bruxelles stitch, 1
short point de Bruxelles, 5 close, 1 short point de Bruxelles, 2 close,
1 short, 5 close, 1 short and repeat.

_Fourth row._--Make 5 close, 1 short point de Bruxelles, 2 close, 1
short, 5 close, 1 short, 2 close, 1 short, and repeat. Continue the rows
until sufficient of the pattern is worked.

[Illustration: No. 8.--Point de Valenciennes (Valenciennes Stitch).]

NO. 9.--POINT D'ESPAGNE, OR SPANISH POINT.--This variety of stitch is
worked from left to right as follows: Insert the needle in the edge of
the braid, keeping the thread turned to the right, and bringing it out
inside the loop formed by the thread (see illustration No. 9); the
needle must pass from the back of the loop through it. Pass the needle
under the stitch and bring it out in front, thus twice twisting the
thread, which produces the cord-like appearance of this stitch. At the
end of each row fasten to the braid and sew back, inserting the needle
once in every open stitch.

[Illustration: No. 9.--Point d'Espagne (Spanish Point).]

NO. 10.--GENOA LACE STITCH.--Commence at the right side, and work as
follows:

_First row._--Work 4 button-hole stitches, miss the space of 3, work 3,
miss the space of 3, work 4. Continue to the end.

_Second row._--Work 9 stitches close together, 3 into the spaces of the
4, and 3 more into the loop at each side of it. Miss the 3 stitches, and
make 9 as before.

_Third row._--Make 9 close stitches, 3 into the last 3 spaces of the 9,
3 into the loop, and 3 into the first spaces of the 9 next, and so on to
the end.

_Fourth row._--Repeat the first, making the 3 stitches into the loop,
and the 4 into the center spaces of the nine.

[Illustration: No. 10.--Genoa Lace Stitch.]

NO. 11.--FLEMISH LACE STITCH.--Commence at the right side, and work as
follows:

_First row._--Work 2 button-hole stitches close together, miss the space
of 2, work 2, miss the space of 8; this will leave a large loop and a
small one alternately.

_Second row._--Make 8 button-hole stitches in the larger loops and 2 in
the small ones.

_Third row._--Repeat the first row, making 2 stitches in each loop of
the second row.

[Illustration: No. 11.--Flemish Lace Stitch.]

NO. 12.--POINT DE FILLET, OR NET GROUNDWORK STITCH.--This stitch is also
represented at No. 21, on page 13, but the method of making the knot is
here illustrated. It is used for ground-work where Brussels net is not
imitated, and is very effective wherever it is used. It is begun in the
corner or crosswise of the space to be filled. A loose point de
Bruxelles stitch is first taken and fastened to the braid, then passed
twice through the braid as shown in the illustration, and worked in rows
backward and forward as follows: 1 point de Bruxelles stitch, then
before proceeding to the next stitch, pass the needle _under_ the knot,
_over_ the thread, and again _under_ it, as shown in the illustration.
This stitch is very quickly worked.

[Illustration: No. 12. Point de Fillet (Net Groundwork Stitch).]

NO. 13.--POINT DE REPRISE.--This stitch is worked by darning over and
under two threads forming a triangle. The space is filled by parallel
and crosswise bars placed at equal distances, and on the triangles thus
produced point de reprise is worked.

[Illustration: No. 13.--Point de Reprise.]

NO. 14.--POINT TURQUE, OR TURKISH POINT.--This easy and effective stitch
is very appropriate for filling either large or small spaces; the thread
employed should be varied in thickness according to the size of the
space to be filled.

_First row._--Work a loop into the braid, bringing the thread from right
to left, passing the needle through the twist and through the loop (see
engraving), draw up tight and repeat.

_Second row._--1 straight thread from right to left.

_Third row._--Work the same as first, using the straight thread in place
of the braid, and passing the needle through the loop of the previous
row, as shown in the illustration.

[Illustration: No. 14.--Point Turque (Turkish Stitch).]

NO. 15.--TREBLE POINT D'ESPAGNE.--This stitch is worked in exactly the
same way as the open and close varieties just mentioned, as follows: 3
close stitches, 1 open, 3 close to the end of each row. Sew back, and in
the next row make 1 open, 3 close, 1 open, 3 close to the end; repeat
the rows as far as necessary, taking care that the close and open
stitches follow in regular order. Diamonds, stars, squares, blocks and
various other pretty patterns may be formed with this stitch.

[Illustration: No. 15.--Treble Point d'Espagne.]

NO. 16.--POINT D'ESPAGNE (CLOSE).--This stitch is worked like open point
d'Espagne (see No. 9, page 10) but so closely as to only allow the
needle to pass through in the next row. It is also worked from left to
right, and is fastened to the braid at the end of each row.

[Illustration: No. 16.--Point d'Espagne. (Close.)]

NO. 17.--POINT DE GRECQUE OR GRECIAN POINT.--Point de Grecque is made
from left to right, and is worked backward and forward. It is begun by 1
stitch in loose point de Bruxelles and followed by 3 of close point
d'Espagne; then 1 Bruxelles, 3 point d'Espagne, to the end of the row;
in returning work in the same manner.

[Illustration: No. 17.--Point de Grecque (Grecian Point).]

NO. 18.--POINT DE CORDOVA.--This stitch is useful as a variation, and
resembles the point de reprise of Guipure lace making. It is worked in a
similar manner, over and under the sides of squares formed by
intersecting straight lines of the thread.

[Illustration: No. 18.--Point de Cordova.]

NO. 19.--POINT D'ALENÇON, WITH TWISTED STITCH.--This stitch is used to
fill in narrow spaces where great lightness of effect is desired, and is
usually seen along the sides of insertions and the tops of edgings.
Plain point d'Alençon is worked over and under in bars in a sort of
herring-bone pattern, and a twisted stitch is made as seen in the
engraving, by twisting the thread three times around each bar and
knotting it at the angles as pictured. The effect is similar to one of
the drawn-work hem-stitches.

[Illustration: No. 19.--Point d'Alençon, with Twisted Thread.]

NO. 20.--POINT D'ANGLETERRE.--This lace is worked as follows: Cover the
space to be filled in with lines of thread about an eighth of an inch
apart, then form cross-lines, intersecting those already made and
passing alternately under and over them; work a rosette on every spot
where two lines cross by working over and under the two lines about 16
times round; then twist the thread twice round the ground-work thread,
and begin to form another rosette at the crossing threads.

[Illustration: No. 20.--Point d'Angleterre.]

NO. 21.--POINT DE FILLET AND POINT DE REPRISE.--The net-work seen in
this engraving is the first stitch mentioned, while the block-work is
the second. Both are clearly illustrated and need no written explanation
of the methods employed in making them.

[Illustration: No. 21.--Point de Fillet And Point de Reprise.]

NO. 22.--POINT DE TULLE.--This stitch is used as a ground-work for very
fine work, and is worked in rows backward and forward in the same
stitch as open point d' Espagne. When this is completed the work is gone
over a second time by inserting the needle under one twisted bar,
bringing it out and inserting it at + and bringing it out again at the
dot. This produces a close double twist which is very effective.

[Illustration: No. 22.--Point de Tulle.]

NO. 23. FAN LACE STITCH.--Commence at the right side, and work as
follows:

_First row._--Make 1 button-hole stitch and miss the space of 8, which
will leave a long loop.

_Second row._--Make 8 button-hole stitches in each loop.

_Third row._--Make 7 stitches into the spaces between the 8, and so
decrease one in every row until only one remains, as may be seen by
referring to the illustration.

[Illustration: No. 23.--Fan Lace Stitch.]

NO. 24.--ROSE POINT LACE STITCH.--Make a foundation of single threads,
crossing them to form the large squares. Work a button-hole stitch at
each crossing to make it firm. Now begin at the top, at the right side
and fill the first square with Brussels net stitches, finishing at the
lower left corner. Fill every alternate square in the same way as seen
in the picture.

Now cross the open squares diagonally with two threads, twisting each
thread around the adjoining one as represented. (Carry one thread across
all the squares from corner to corner first, then twist back, fastening
at the corner started from; cross these threads in the same way from the
opposite direction). When twisting the thread back from the last set of
crossings, make a rosette at each center crossing as follows: Keep the
space open with a pin and trace round it with a darning movement five or
six times; commence at the single thread and work a close button-hole
stitch over the tracing entirely around, and then twist along the single
thread to the center of the next square. This is a very effective design
for spaces.

[Illustration: No. 24.--Rose Point Lace Stitch.]


WHEELS AND ROSETTES.

Wheels and rosettes are used to fill up spaces, or in combination, to
form lace.

NO. 25.--ROSETTE IN RAISED POINT D'ANGLETERRE.--This rosette is worked
in a manner similar to the English wheel, the difference being that
after each stitch is passed round and under the bars, the thread is
passed loosely around in the reverse direction, as shown in the
illustration, before proceeding to make the next stitch.

[Illustration: No. 25.--Rosette in Raised Point d'Angleterre.]

NO. 26.--MECHLIN LACE WHEELS.--This is one of the prettiest stitches in
point lace, but also one of the most difficult to work correctly. It is
made thus: Work a number of diagonal bars in button-hole stitch on a
single thread in one direction, then begin at the opposite side in the
same way, and work 5 or 6 stitches past the spot where the two lines
cross; pass the thread round the cross twice, under and over the thread
to form a circle. Work in button-hole stitch half of one-quarter, make a
dot by putting a fine pin in the loop instead of drawing the thread
tight, and work 3 button-hole stitches in the loop held open by the pin,
then take the pin out and continue as before. Beginners will do well to
omit the dot, leaving the loop only on the wheel. Mechlin wheels are
also worked in rows upon horizontal and parallel lines of thread.

[Illustration: No. 26.--Mechlin Lace Wheels.]

NO. 27.--ENGLISH WHEEL.--This is worked in the same manner as Sorrento
wheels, but instead of _winding_ the thread over and under the bars, the
needle is inserted under each bar, and brought out again between the
thread and the last stitch; this produces a kind of button-hole stitch,
and gives the square, firm appearance possessed by this wheel.

[Illustration: No. 27.--English Wheel.]

NOS. 28 AND 30.--SORRENTO WHEEL.--This is worked by fastening the thread
in the pattern to be filled up, as indicated by the letters. Fasten it
first to the place _a_, then at place _b_, carrying it back to the
middle of the first formed bar by winding it round; fasten again at _c_,
carrying it back again to the center by winding it around the bar, and
so on to all the letters; then work over and under the bars thus formed.

[Illustration: No. 28.--Sorrento Wheel.]

[Illustration: No. 30.--Sorrento Wheel.]

NO. 29.--CLOSE ENGLISH WHEELS.--These wheels may be used in open spaces
and may be very easily made from the engraving. They are much like the
wheels used in drawn work--indeed, many of the stitches used in lace are
identical with those used in drawn-work.

[Illustration: No. 29.--Close English Wheels.]


BARS AND PICOTS.

The word "Bar" is applied to the many stitches used to connect the
various parts of point lace, and the beauty of the work depends greatly
upon the class of bar selected and its suitability to the lace stitches
used.

NOS. 31 AND 32.--RALEIGH BARS.--These bars are much used in making
Battenburg lace and are very effective. They are worked over a
foundation or net-work of coarse thread, and are twisted in places so
that they will more easily fall into the desired form.

By following the numbering from 1 to 21, in No. 31, a square place may
be easily filled, and portions of this arrangement applied to form
ground-work of any shape desired. Upon this ground-work tight point de
Bruxelles stitches are made, and the dot worked upon these in one of the
following ways:

[Illustration: No. 31.--Net-work for Working Raleigh Bars.]

DOT OR PICOT.--_First Method._--Make 5 tight point de Bruxelles
stitches, 1 loose point de Bruxelles; pass the needle under the loop and
over the thread, as shown in point de Venise bars at No. 47, on page 18,
and draw up, leaving a small, open loop as in tatting. Work 5 tight
point de Bruxelles stitches, and repeat.

_Second Method._--Proceed as above directed, but instead of continuing
the tight stitches, work two or three tight stitches in the loop thus
formed and repeat.

[Illustration: No. 32.--Raleigh Bars.]

_Third Method._--Work 4 tight point de Bruxelles stitches; 1 loose,
through which pass the needle point, wind the thread three or four times
round the point (see No. 48, page 18), press the thumb tightly on this,
and draw the needle and thread through the twists. This is a quick mode
of making the picot, and imitates most closely the real Spanish lace.

Illustration No. 48 shows how this stitch may also be
applied as a _regular_ ground-work, but the beauty of old point
ground-work bars consists of variety in form.

NO. 33.--ITALIAN GROUND STITCH.--Commence at the left side, and work as
follows:

_First row._--Make a loose button-hole stitch to form a loop a quarter
of an inch wide, and then make a plain stitch into the loop to twist it,
and continue to the end.

_Second row._--Make two plain stitches into each loop, working back to
the left.

_Third row._--Repeat first row.

[Illustration: No. 33.--Italian Ground Stitch.]

NO. 34.--OPEN LACE BARS.--Pass a thread from right to left. Make it firm
by working a second stitch into the braid; work 2 button-hole stitches
on this line of thread, close together. Then work 1 button-hole stitch
on the lower thread at the left hand side, and draw it close to the 2
stitches on the line of thread. Miss the space of 2 and repeat.

[Illustration: No. 34.--Open Lace Bars.]

NOS. 35 AND 36.--SORRENTO BARS.--Each of the bars is worked from right
to left, a straight thread being carried across and fastened securely
with a stitch. The return consists of a simple twist under and over the
straight thread; three of these bars are usually placed close together
at equal distances between the groups. The thread is sewn carefully over
the braid in passing from one spot to another.

[Illustration: No. 35.--Sorrento Bars.]

[Illustration: No. 36.--Sorrento Bars.]

NOS. 37 AND 38.--VENETIAN BARS.--The bar at No. 37 is so simple that it
really needs no description. It is worked over two straight threads in
reverse button-hole stitch. No. 38 shows the Venetian bar used as the
veining of a leaf and worked upon Sorrento bars.

[Illustration: No. 37.--Venetian Bars.]

[Illustration: No. 38.--Venetian Bars.]

NO. 39.--POINT D'ANVERS BARS.--Two upright bars form the foundation. The
thread is carried over and under them as seen in the engraving, the side
loops being added by the method depicted at the top of the point.

The over and under work in point d'Anvers bars, without the side loops,
is often used for plain bars for filling in odd spaces or wheels in
heavy lace.

[Illustration: No. 39.--Point d'Anvers Bars.]

NO. 40.--POINT GRECQUE BARS.--These bars are so simply made that they
are great favorites with beginners. They are begun at the top of the
point, one straight thread being carried to the bottom; then the cross
bars are worked after the method seen in the illustration.

[Illustration: No. 40.--Point Grecque Bars.]

NO. 41.--BARS OF POINT D'ANGLETERRE.--These bars may be worked singly or
to fill up a space, as in the illustration. Work rosettes as in point
d'Angleterre; when each rosette is finished twist the thread up the
foundation thread to the top, fasten with one stitch, then pass it under
the parallel line running through the center and over into the opposite
braid; repeat on each side of each rosette, inserting the threads as
seen in the illustration.

[Illustration: No. 41.--Bars of Point d'Angleterre.]

NO. 42.--POINT DE VENISE BARS (EDGED).--Begin at the right hand and
stretch a line of thread to the left side of the braid, fastening it
with one tight stitch of point de Bruxelles. Upon this line work a
succession of tight point de Bruxelles stitches. Then in every third
stitch work one point de Venise stitch.

[Illustration: No. 42.--Point de Venise Bars (Edged).]

NO. 43.--D'ALENÇON AND SORRENTO BARS.--At Nos. 35 and 36 (page 16), a
description of the method of making Sorrento bars is given, while at No.
19 (page 12), is a description of plain and fancy d'Alençon stitches.
The two methods are combined in the work seen at No. 43 where the
process is so clearly illustrated that a mere novice in lace-work could
not fail to produce it perfectly. The combined stitch is used in filling
in spaces, etc., etc.

[Illustration: No. 43.--d'Alençon And Sorrento Bars.]

NO. 44.--PICOT OR DOT ON SORRENTO BAR.--This dot is worked between rows
of point de Bruxelles, 3 twisted stitches being worked into the loop
left by the twisted thread; this forms a picot resembling satin stitch
in appearance.

[Illustration: No. 44.--Picot or Dot on Sorrento Bar.]

NO. 45.--D'ALENÇON BARS.--These bars are worked upon point de Bruxelles
edging, and are only applied to the inner part of a pattern, never being
used as ground-work bars. The thread is merely passed three times over
and under the point de Bruxelles stitches, the length of these bars
being regulated by the space to be filled; when the third bar is
completed a tight point de Bruxelles stitch fastens off the bars, and
the thread is passed through the next point de Bruxelles stitch.

[Illustration: No. 45.--d'Alençon Bars.]

NO. 46.--PLAIN VENETIAN BARS.--These bars are worked so as to form
squares, triangles, etc., in button-hole stitch upon a straight thread.

The _arrow_ in the illustration points to the direction for working the
next stitch.

[Illustration: No. 46.--Plain Venetian Bars.]

NO. 47.--DOTTED POINT DE VENISE BARS.--These pretty bars are worked as
follows: Stretch the thread from right to left; on this work 5 tight
stitches of point de Bruxelles, then insert a pin in this last stitch to
hold it open and loose, pass the needle under the loose stitch and over
the thread, as clearly shown in the illustration, and in this loop work
3 tight point de Bruxelles stitches. Then work 5 more stitches and
repeat to end of row.

[Illustration: No. 47.--Dotted Point de Venise Bars.]

The making of the dots or purls before mentioned as picots, is an
important feature in bar work. All three names are employed for the same
class of stitch.

NO. 48.--THIRD METHOD OF MAKING PICOTS OR DOTS.--This method has been
fully described in connection with the making of Raleigh Bars at Nos. 31
and 32 (page 15), and requires no further description at this point. All
dots and picots render work much more effective, and may be introduced
at will by the worker.

[Illustration: No. 48.--Third Method of Making Picots or Dots.]

In making modern lace, the various kinds require appropriate braids.
There are three classes of these braids--those for Battenburg lace,
those for plain Honiton and point, and those for the newest kind of
lace, which is called the "Ideal Honiton." Each class of braids contains
many designs and widths, and a large number of them, together with
various cords, buttons and rings also used are illustrated on following
pages.



FANCY BRAIDS, CORDS, RINGS AND BUTTONS.


BRAIDS.

The braids, cords, rings and buttons illustrated upon the following two
pages are all used in modern lace-making. They are all made of pure
linen thread, and according to the fancy, the lace including them may be
heavy or light. Royal Battenburg lace, as originated, was heavy--in some
cases massive; but at present many lighter varieties are made, as will
be surmised upon an inspection of the braids for its manufacture which
are represented on the pages mentioned. As shown by No. 1, these braids
are about a third narrower than their actual width, and the picot edges
numbered 16 and 17 are plain tatting made for the purpose, as the picot
edges woven for lighter laces are not heavy enough for Battenburg lace.
The numbers opposite the specimens are simply for convenience in
ordering, if the order is sent the lady mentioned in another part of the
book as the Pioneer of Lace-Making in America; but in ordering from
other lace-makers or manufacturers of braids, these numbers will be of
little use, as every lace-maker or manufacturer has his or her own
individual identifications for materials. Almost any of the braids, or
those very similar, may be found at large fancy stores, but in buying
them at such stores, be careful to get _linen_ braids, as cotton braids
do not make pretty lace, neither do they wear or launder well. In
ordering these braids from other lace-makers or from fancy stores, it
will be necessary to forward the illustration of the kind wanted, as the
braids cannot be described with sufficient accuracy to obtain the
desired varieties. Some are sold by the yard, some by the dozen yards
and others by the piece, according to the position to be occupied in the
work.

The point, Honiton and Princess braids are represented full size, and
are much daintier in texture than the Battenburg braids. Of this class
of braids (see No. 2) are made the plain Honiton and point laces, and
the braids for these two laces combined produce the Princess lace--a
creation whose beauty fully entitles it to its royal name.

The braids seen at No. 3, page 21, are those which are used in making
the new "Ideal Honiton" lace represented in another portion of the book.
As illustrated, these braids are three-quarters of their proper widths,
the top braid, No. 38, being just one inch wide in the fabric itself.
The "Ideal Honiton" is one of the prettiest laces made, and is very
appropriate for tidies, doilies, squares and scarfs. It is daintily
secured to the finest of lawn in charming designs, and then the lawn is
cut out from beneath it. (See doily, page 33).

The cords seen at No. 4 are used in making Battenburg laces, and greatly
increase the beauty of the work in addition to forming a distinctive
species of lace. After the ordinary Battenburg is worked with quite
thick braid, the cord, in any size desired, is used to follow one edge
of the design, as will be seen from illustrations upon other following
pages.


RINGS AND BUTTONS.

The rings and buttons illustrated, are made throughout of linen thread
in layers of button-hole stitches, and are sold by the dozen or gross.
Buttons arranged as grapes (see No. 50, page 21), add greatly to the
sumptuous effect of a heavy lace, and may be purchased already arranged
as illustrated, or they may be arranged by the purchaser of a quantity
of them. The latter method is a good plan if spaces are to be filled
with clusters which must be of a certain shape.

[Illustration: No. 1.--Braids used in Making Battenburg Lace.]

[Illustration: No. 2.--Braids used in Making Honiton, Point and Princess
Lace.]

[Illustration: No. 3.--Braids used in Making "Ideal Honiton" Lace.]

[Illustration: No. 4.--Cords, Rings and Buttons used in Making
Battenburg Lace.]



DESIGNS, LACE ARTICLES, EDGINGS, INSERTIONS, ETC., IN MODERN LACE.


Of necessity, most of the designs and specimens given on this and the
following pages are smaller than the articles they represent, but they
afford a correct idea of the method of making and the beauty of Modern
Lace, and also its adaptability to dainty accessories of the toilet and
the household. As before mentioned any design desired can be obtained
from any lace-making establishment in any size, width or shape,
according to the requirements of the article or lace to be made, and
individual taste. Ingenious students will no doubt be able to adapt for
themselves the designs offered, but it is not advisable for those who
have no talent in the matter of drawing or designing to undertake an
elaborate adaptation, though they may easily accomplish a simple one.
Besides, a professional designer will furnish the design for a moderate
sum, perfectly outlined upon tracing cloth, with ink, and with the
proper filling-in stitches perfectly delineated; and if the student
wishes it, will select the thread and braid appropriate for the design;
or the student may select the braid she fancies, and the designer will
then select the thread suitable for the braid.


No. 1.

DESIGN FOR A LACE HANDKERCHIEF.

This design is suitable for point lace braid, but is of course very much
reduced in size, in order to show the effect and arrangement of a design
ready for working, as sent out from the lace-maker's. By a reference to
the various stitches illustrated on preceding pages, the stitches shown
in one corner of the design may be readily identified. The following
engraving shows how braid is applied to a design before the stitches are
begun.

[Illustration: No. 1.--Design for a Lace Handkerchief.]


No. 2.

METHOD OF PLACING BRAID UPON DESIGNS.

This illustration shows the method of arranging braid upon designs for
modern lace, and how, after the braid is basted along the pattern, the
tracing cloth is basted to _toile cirée_ or to smooth, light
brown wrapping paper to provide sufficient firmness for working.

The following instructions apply particularly to engraving No. 2, but
their principle should be observed and applied to any design decided
upon, as good results in lace-making largely depend upon the arrangement
of the braid.

Run on a straight line of braid for the lower edge, with fine stitches,
working as shown, from left to right. Take another piece of braid, or
the other end of the same piece, and begin to lay the braid by "running"
stitches in its center, keeping it as smooth and even as possible. The
outer edge presents no difficulty, but the inner edge will not lie
evenly without being drawn in by a needle and thread, as follows: Fasten
whipping thread securely, and insert the needle in and out of the edge
of the braid, as if for fine gathering; this thread when drawn up will
keep the braid in its place. Two or three fastening-off stitches should
be worked when each circle, half circle, or rounded curve of a pattern
is finished, as the drawing or gathering thread remains in the work, and
forms an important, though unseen, part of its structure.

Before cutting off the braid run a few stitches across it to prevent it
from widening. Joins should be avoided, but when a join is
indispensable, stitch the braid together, open and turn back the ends,
and stitch each portion down separately. When passing the thread from
one part to another, run it along the center of the braid, allowing the
stitches to show as little as possible. In commencing, make a few
stitches, leaving the end of the thread on the wrong side and cutting it
off afterwards. In fastening off, make a tight button-hole stitch, run
in three stitches, bring the needle out at the back, and cut off.

[Illustration: No. 2.--Method of Placing Braid upon Designs.]


No. 3.

ROYAL BATTENBURG LACE BUREAU-SCARF.

The engraving on the opposite page represents the article above
mentioned, and shows the effectiveness of this magnificent and durable
lace. In actual size the scarf is about a yard and one-half long and
one-half yard wide, and is made of a heavy Battenburg braid, having a
fancy edge (See Nos. 5 or 7, on page 20) and cord, rings and buttons.
The main part of the design is outlined with the braid, cord is used as
a veining for the leaves, and the rings and buttons are introduced here
and there over the surface, as seen in the picture. Raleigh bars with
picots connect the border and center designs, while the palms along the
border as well as other small spaces are filled in with point Turque and
point de Grecque stitches. Sorrento bars are also used in some of the
long leaf-like spaces, while in a few of the circular spaces point
d'Angleterre rosettes are introduced. These rosettes are also frequently
called "spiders," and are made, according to the space, large or small;
and according to the requirements of the braid selected, heavy or light.

For convenience in giving the name of this lace, the full title is
rarely used--"Battenburg Lace" being considered sufficient to identify
the fabric from the other and lighter laces.

Battenburg lace is made both heavy and light, according to personal
taste or the object for which the lace is intended, but it was
originally designed for heavy work only.

[Illustration: No. 3.--Royal Battenburg Lace Bureau-scarf.]


No. 4.

POINT LACE DOILY FOR A TOILET CUSHION.

This dainty doily may be made of the point lace braids illustrated at
Nos. 30 and 31, together with the picot edging No. 36, seen on page 20.
In filling in the spaces, thread suitable for the braid is used, and the
stitches are point de Valenciennes, point d'Espagne, Sorrento bars,
point de Bruxelles, open rings and "spiders." As all of these stitches,
with many others are illustrated in that section of this book devoted to
stitches, it will be unnecessary to repeat the details for making, as
they are fully given in the department mentioned. It will also be
understood that most of the articles illustrated are not of full size,
but in some instances are nearly so. The doily just described is
illustrated about three-quarters of its actual size; but by using a fine
braid a doily of fairy-like texture, and just the size of the engraving
may be produced. Any one accustomed to drawing may enlarge this or any
of the designs given, but only clever fingers should try this
experiment.

[Illustration: No. 4.--Point Lace Doily for a Toilet Cushion.]


No. 5.

BATTENBURG EDGING, WITH CORD.

This is a very elegant looking lace, though simply made after the
regular Battenburg method. A plain braid (No. 10, page 20) is chosen to
form the outlines, and after the stitches are filled in, cord of a
suitable size is carried around the petals and foliage of the design,
and rows of it are also used to indicate the vine, though the latter may
be outlined with the tape and then with the cord. The petals of the
blossoms are filled in in point de Bruxelles and point de Venise
stitches, while point d'Espagne and point Brabançon are used for the
foliage and vine. Point Grecque and d'Alençon bars are also used at the
very heart of the blossom, and Raleigh net-work bars connect the design
to the edge and are dotted here and there with "spiders."

[Illustration: No. 5.--Battenburg Lace, with Cord.]


No. 6.

BATTENBURG INSERTION, WITH CORD.

This insertion matches the edging or lace above described, and is,
therefore, made in exactly the same way, except that the design is
double. Both the edging and insertion may be made of any width desired;
and the design will be found very pretty for fancy-edge or plain braids
without the cord. Buttons or rings may be used in place of the "spiders"
seen in the engravings if preferred.

[Illustration: No. 6.--Battenburg Insertion, with Cord.]


No. 7.

DESIGN FOR A HONITON LACE CAP.

The design illustrated is, of necessity, much smaller than the cap it is
intended for; but the clever student may easily enlarge it to, or design
one for herself of the size required. Lace-makers will duplicate designs
in any size desired for a moderate sum, thus saving the amateur much
work and at the same time putting her to little expense.

The design here illustrated might also be used for handkerchief corners,
scarf-ends, etc., etc.; and any of the stitches illustrated on preceding
pages may be selected for filling-in purposes.

[Illustration: No. 7.--Design for a Honiton Lace Cap.]


No. 8.

DESIGN FOR A CORNER IN BATTENBURG, POINT, OR HONITON LACE.

According to the article to be decorated, this design will be found
appropriate for either of the braids used for the laces above mentioned.

For table scarfs, tidies, heavy borders, etc., etc., the Battenburg
braids should be selected; but for handkerchiefs or doilies, the point
or Honiton braids are the proper ones to choose for this design.

Raleigh bars, Brussels point and any other stitches preferred, may be
used in filling in the spaces. When a design is procured from a
lace-maker a portion of it is always marked with the stitches to be
used; but this is not an arbitrary matter, since the one who is to make
the lace, may desire to and may insert other stitches in preference to
those indicated.

[Illustration: No. 8.--Design for a Corner in Battenburg, Point, or
Honiton Lace.]


No. 9.

DOILY IN "IDEAL HONITON" LACE-WORK AND LINEN LAWN.

One of the prettiest and the very newest of the modern laces is here
illustrated. It is made of two of the many varieties of Honiton braids,
wash-silk floss and linen lawn. The braid is basted smoothly upon a
square of lawn in the design illustrated (though individual taste will
no doubt suggest many other equally pretty designs), after which the
_inner_ edges of the braid are permanently secured by a "short and long
stitch." This is merely a short and long button-hole stitch _reversed_
so that the cross loops are on the edge of the braid, while the stitches
them selves extend beyond the braid, into the lawn, as seen in the
engraving. Two short stitches alternate with single long ones throughout
this part of the work. The outer edges are then fastened to the square
by tiny button-hole scollops. Then the lawn is cut from under the
squares formed by the braid, and the openings are button-holed through
the lawn and braid so that the edges of the lawn will not fray. When
this is done the spaces are filled in with fancy stitches, and when they
are completed the lawn is cut away from the edge-scollops with a pair of
fine sharp, scissors. In the doily illustrated "spiders" and point de
Venise stitches are used for filling in the spaces. The floss used may
be white or tinted, the latter washing as well as the white; but as a
rule, white or yellow flosses are selected in preference to other
colors. "Ideal Honiton" scarfs, tidies, doilies, pillow shams, tray
cloths, etc., etc., may be purchased with the braid already basted on in
a pretty design and with the necessary threads or floss, or they may be
designed at home, and by either method will result in a beautiful
variety of modern lace.

[Illustration: No. 9.--Doily of "Ideal Honiton" Lace and Linen Lawn.]


No. 10.

DESIGN FOR A CORNER IN BATTENBURG LACE.

Although this design is intended for Battenburg lace, and may be made up
of any of the braids used for that kind of lace, it will also be found
suitable for the finer point or Honiton braids for handkerchiefs,
doilies, mats, etc., etc. As illustrated it would be suitable for a
handkerchief. Enlarged and followed in Battenburg braid it would make a
very handsome border for a table-scarf, curtains or draperies, or a
substantial decoration for a gown of wash fabric or other goods. Raleigh
bars, "spiders" and point de Bruxelles stitches are used for filling in,
and a dainty picot edge is sewed to the outer line of the braid. Plain
or fancy braid may be used for this design. If fancy loop-edge braid is
selected, the picot edge will not be needed, the loops taking its
place.

[Illustration: No. 10.--Design for a Corner in Battenburg Lace.]


No. 11.

BATTENBURG EDGING.

The edging here illustrated is represented about one-third less than its
actual width, but the design is so distinctly brought out that its
beauty in any width may be readily conceived. It is formed of fancy
Battenburg braid, but may be made from a plain variety if preferred. The
design is known as the fern leaf and is easy to follow. Sorrento bars
are used to connect the work, and "spiders" are made here and there to
add variety to the work. Point de Bruxelles stitches are used to fill in
the spaces at the sides of the leaves, and, with the fancy braid,
produce a very dainty, delicate effect.

[Illustration: No. 11.--Battenburg Edging.]


No. 12.

BATTENBURG INSERTION.

This insertion is made to match the edging seen above it, but is much
wider than the edging, though formed of the same braid. Either design
could be varied so as to result in an edging and insertion of equal
width, or the edging could be arranged for an insertion, and the
insertion illustrated changed into an edging.

[Illustration: No. 12.--Battenburg Insertion.]


No. 13.

FINGER-BOWL DOILY OF PRINCESS LACE AND LINEN LAWN.

Princess lace, (also known as Duchesse lace) as elsewhere mentioned,
results from combining Honiton and point lace braids in one design; and
a charming specimen of this lovely lace is here illustrated.

The doily is pictured only a trifle smaller than its actual size, and
even in its full size is a very dainty affair. After the braids are
basted along the design, they are then connected by twisted bars that
are an adaptation from the point d'Alençon bars with the twisted stitch;
and the spaces are filled in in small d'Angleterre rosettes or
"spiders." As few bars as possible are employed for the spiders, in
order to produce a very delicate effect. The lawn center is added last.

[Illustration: No. 13.--Finger-Bowl Doily of Princess Lace and Linen
Lawn.]


No. 14.

DESIGN FOR INSERTION, OR A CENTER-PIECE, IN BATTENBURG LACE.

As suggested by the title, the design here presented may be used for
insertion, or for a center to a table cloth or scarf, or a handsome
spread. As represented it is intended for a center-piece, and the lace
from which the engraving was made is about half-a-yard long and
one-fourth of a yard wide. The ground-work is formed of Raleigh bars
made with picots, and the loops of braid are filled in with twisted
point d'Alençon bars.

This center-piece is very pretty made of ribbon with silk thread for the
bars, and in this event it may be made of any color desired, and added
to a spread or scarf of Surah silk or fine cloth, for which a border to
match may be made.

[Illustration: No. 14.--Design for Insertion, or a Center-piece, in
Battenburg Lace.]


No. 15.

QUEEN ANNE TRAY-CLOTH OF BATTENBURG LACE AND LINEN.

This pretty cloth is intended for a Queen Anne tray, and its lace edges
curve upward and just over the rim of the tray when it is laid upon it.
The center is of fine table-linen, while the edge is formed of
Battenburg braid, buttons and fancy stitches. As will be seen, the
corner spaces are filled in with point d'Angleterre rosettes or
"spiders," the large border spaces and corresponding corner ones are
filled in with picot bars, while the very fine work seen in the
triangles and square spaces are point de Venise stitches, and
half-spiders are made in the other triangles. The narrow, straight inner
border is composed of bars and tiny buttons arranged as represented. The
cloth is hem-stitched before the braid is laid on, and the corners are
cut out from underneath after the work is otherwise completed.

[Illustration: No. 15.--Queen Anne Tray-Cloth of Battenburg Lace and
Linen.]


No. 16.

DESIGN FOR A BUTTERFLY IN POINT LACE. (FULL SIZE).

Butterflies for the corners of handkerchiefs, scarf-ends and the points
of caps or coiffures are favorite designs in point and Honiton laces.
The one illustrated is very dainty and exceedingly simple to execute.
The upper portion of each wing has a point de reprise ground-work, but
the solid sections are tiny spiders instead of point de reprise
triangles. The outer tips of the wings are filled in with Raleigh bars,
while similar bars, point de Bruxelles stitches and a point d'Angleterre
rosette complete the lower wings. Any of the fine point or Honiton
braids may be chosen for the outlining of the butterfly, and a fine
over-and-over stitch or fine cord may be used to mark the lines
extending from the head.

[Illustration: No. 16.--Design for a Butterfly in Point Lace. (Full
Size).]


No. 17.

DESIGN FOR A DOILY OR HANDKERCHIEF OF POINT OR HONITON LACE.

This design, as illustrated, is of course too small for either a doily
or handkerchief, but an expert lace-maker can enlarge it to any size
desired; and the clever amateur will find no difficulty in doing the
same thing, as the outlines are not at all intricate, and may be easily
followed. In sending for the braid for this, or similar designs, it is
advisable to permit the lace-maker addressed to select them, and of
course, the thread, since her long experience enables her at once to
correctly judge what materials are appropriate for the articles you wish
to make, especially if she knows the size the article is desired to be.
The stitches, as here indicated, are point d'Angleterre rosettes, and
point de fillet, with small "spiders" on the latter. A dainty
picot-braid edges the design.

[Illustration: No. 17.--Design for a Doily or Handkerchief of Point or
Honiton Lace. (Half Size.)]


No. 18.

"CARDINAL'S POINT" LACE.

This engraving represents a modern adaptation of an ancient lace which
may be made of fancy Battenburg braid and plain Raleigh bars. The design
is not especially definite in its outlines, and may be imitated with any
variations which may seem pleasing to the copyist. The picots are made
after the method directed at the illustration of point de Venise bars in
the department devoted to stitches. "Cardinal's point" of genuine make
is of Italian origin, and in the earlier eras, was largely used for the
decoration of church vestments and draperies.

[Illustration: No. 18.--"Cardinal's Point" Lace.]


Nos. 19 and 20.

BATTENBURG EDGING AND INSERTION, WITH CORD.

These two engravings show a very pretty design for Battenburg lace made
with a cord finish. The application of the cord has been fully described
elsewhere, where a different design of the same kind of work is given.
In the present instance the spaces are filled in with twisted bars,
"spiders" and rosettes in point d'Angleterre. The specimens from which
the engravings were made are a trifle wider than seen in the pictures;
but the width is a matter of individual taste, and also a result of the
braid selected. A professional lace-maker will enlarge or adapt the
design to accord with personal requirements.

[Illustration: No. 19.--Battenburg Edging, with Cord.]

[Illustration: No. 20.--Battenburg Insertion, with Cord.]


No. 21.

TAPE-GUIPURE DESIGN, FOUND IN AN OLD CHURCH.

The design here illustrated was found in the old church of Santa
Margherita, in Italy. It was drawn on parchment, and was undoubtedly
intended as a design for altar lace. It was mentioned in a book of
accounts for the year 1592, found in the archives of the church
designated and is therefore of antique origin; but it may be easily
adapted to modern methods of lace-making, and could be appropriately
filled in with either Italian or Genoa lace stitches or with a
combination of both, and twisted bars. Done with fancy Battenburg braid,
it would be quite similar in effect to the "Cardinal's Point"
illustrated on another page.

[Illustration: No. 21.--Tape-Guipure Design, found in an Old Church.]


No. 22.

BATTENBURG CHURCH LACE.

The engraving opposite illustrates a magnificent specimen of Modern
Church Lace made of Battenburg braid with a limited introduction of
Honiton braid. The specimen itself is considerably wider than
represented, but as the width is a matter of individual taste, the
engraving will serve as a design for a narrow church lace.

Sorrento bars are used to connect the braids and to form foundations for
the spiders or rosettes here and there inserted, and the lace is
delicately bordered with a dainty picot-braid. The fancy stitches in the
main portions of the cross are point de Valenciennes, while those in the
minor sections are point de Bruxelles.

Point de fillet is used for the central portion of the large T-shaped
symbol, while the stitch forming the other symbol is one never used
except for church lace, and consists of two or three sets of fine
stitches so interlaced as to seem to form one solid stitch.

In making church lace any insignia desired can be introduced by a
professional designer--an accomplishment that is usually beyond the
inventive powers of the novice in lace-making.

[Illustration: No. 22.--Battenburg Church Lace.]


No. 23.

ENGLISH NEEDLE-POINT.

This is a very handsome design combining the lily and the rose. The
foundation work is made with unbleached linen braid having an ornamental
edge, and the filling-in is done with fine and coarse linen thread in
various stitches. Raleigh bars with picots define the upper edge of the
edging, and Sorrento bars on which buttons are worked form the ground
work.

Point de Grecque, point d'Angleterre, d'Alençon bars plain and twisted,
point de Bruxelles and "spiders" are also used in making this lace, as
will be seen from a close inspection of the engraving.

This specimen of lace is very handsome when developed in black silk
braids and silk thread, for black costumes.

[Illustration: No. 23.--English Needle Point.]


No. 24.

PUNCH-GLASS DOILY OF POINT LACE AND LAWN.

As represented this doily is about three-fourths of its actual size. It
is made of fine linen lawn, and a set generally comprises a dozen. Fine
point lace braid is used to outline the design, and then rosettes in
point d'Angleterre, and "spiders" or small rosettes are made in the
openings as represented. The alternate outer scallops are filled in with
point de Bruxelles stitches, and a dainty picot-braid is added to the
edge by the usual over-and-over stitch.

[Illustration: No. 24.--Punch-Glass Doily of Point Lace and Lawn.]


No. 25.

POINT LACE COLLAR AND CUFF.

A very handsome point lace set is here illustrated, and may be easily
followed by an expert lace-maker; but it will be wiser for the novice to
obtain a pattern or design of the shape and size desired, from a
professional lace-maker. Point de Grecque, point de Bruxelles, point de
Venise, Sorrento bars, and rosettes and rings are all employed in
carrying out this design. As elsewhere mentioned, any fine stitch
preferred may be used for filling-in purposes when those suggested or
marked out upon a design are not admired.

[Illustration: No. 25.--Point Lace Collar and Cuff.]


No. 26.

DESIGN FOR TABLE SCARF IN BATTENBURG LACE.

The scarf-end from which this design was copied is about ten inches
deep, and it is about fourteen or fifteen inches wide. It will be seen
from these dimensions, that it is impossible to produce a full-size
design of it on these pages, but one of any size desired may be obtained
at any lace-makers; or, a clever student of lace-making may enlarge the
design to suit her own requirements. According to the size of the
scarf-end, wide or narrow braid must be selected, with thread to
correspond. The stitches used in filling in are point de fillet, point
de Bruxelles and point d'Angleterre, and Raleigh, Sorrento and d'Alençon
bars, and rosettes and "spiders."

[Illustration: No. 26.--Design for a Table Scarf in Battenburg Lace.]


No. 27.

APPLE DESIGN FOR A CORNER IN BATTENBURG LACE.

This design is for the corner of a scarf, spread, tidy or pillow-sham
and is very popular, as it is effective though simply made. The fine
stitches are point de Bruxelles, while the others are Raleigh, Sorrento
and point Grecque bars. Plain or fancy braid, or a combination of both
may be used in this design with a charming effect.

[Illustration: No. 27.--Apple Design for a Corner in Battenburg Lace.]


No. 28.

ROMAN PUNCH-GLASS DOILY IN POINT LACE.

Doilies of this description are generally made about four inches square.
The engraving opposite pictures the doily mentioned as somewhat smaller,
but the design is sufficiently large to enable the student to make her
doilies as large as she desires them to be, as it is easy to
follow. The corner spaces are filled in with twisted bars and rings
worked at the same time; but rosettes or spiders may be worked in place
of the rings if preferred. The corner spaces are filled in in point
Brabançon, and for those at each side point de Bruxelles is used. The
doily is edged with a fine picot-braid that finishes it daintily, and
very sheer linen lawn is used for the center.

[Illustration: No. 28.--Roman Punch-Glass Doily in Point Lace.]


No. 29.

MODERN RUSSIAN LACE.

The design illustrated may be followed in Battenburg braid or plain lace
tape, and any of the fancy stitches mentioned and described among the
rosettes, bars and picots may be employed for filling-in purposes. Cream
white or unbleached braids or tapes are prettier for Russian lace than
pure white. Russian lace is a very durable as well as effective trimming
for household draperies, and also for gowns of wash fabrics or those of
cotton fabrics which will not need renovating.

[Illustration: No. 29.--Modern Russian Lace.]


No. 30.

RUSSIAN LACE.

This engraving represents a specimen of genuine Russian lace made of
fine braid, and wrought with bars similar to Raleigh bars, except that
they have no picots. The Russians have always been noted for their
exquisite needle-work, but as a nation they have never had any
established lace manufactory. The workers of the small amount of lace
produced are scattered about at their own houses, and many of them are
poor ladies of gentle birth. Most of the laces, however, are made by the
peasantry, who bring them to St. Petersburg where sale for them is
found.

[Illustration: No. 30.--Russian Lace.]


No. 31.

BOW-KNOT DESIGN FOR MODERN LACE.

This fashionable design may be developed in various widths and braids as
an insertion, or as an appliqué on lawn. The ground-work may be formed
of Raleigh bars, or of twisted bars made like the net-work for Raleigh
bars. The loops of the bows may be filled in with point de Bruxelles or
any fine stitch preferred. The design is pretty for bordering table
scarfs, tidies, valances and curtains when heavy braids are selected.
The finer braids render the design appropriate for handkerchiefs and
dainty trimming laces.

[Illustration: No. 31.--Bow-Knot Design for Modern Lace.]


No. 32.

PRINCESS LACE DOILY DESIGN.

The design here illustrated may be enlarged or simplified to please
individual taste, and it may be made of Honiton braid as well as point.
The connecting stitches may be point de Bruxelles, Raleigh and Sorrento
bars, "spiders" or any of the fine stitches described and illustrated in
the department devoted to stitches. A dainty picot braid follows the
outer edge of the doily. This design, enlarged sufficiently, would form
an elegant pattern for a lace handkerchief.

[Illustration: No. 32.--Princess Lace Doily Design.]


No. 33.

ALTAR LACE (BATTENBURG).

This very elegant specimen of altar lace is, in reality, about nine or
ten inches deep; but, for want of space the engraving represents it as
only about half as wide. The design, however, is perfect in detail, and
the illustration fully displays its effectiveness, and discloses the
variety of connecting and filling-in stitches used. A delicate
Battenburg braid is chosen for the foundation, and in addition to
regular lace stitches, those from drawn work are here and there
interspersed. The cross is filled in in point de Venise, (or side stitch
as it is sometimes called), and the same stitch is seen in the central
design at each side of the cross. Drawn-work effects are seen also in
these central figures and along the borders. Sorrento bars are here made
and knotted at the center like drawn strands, or are connected by
rosettes or "spiders" made in drawn-work style. At the center of the
cross is a large drawn-work wheel, while small Maltese crosses and
half-crosses are made elsewhere in the work by the drawn-work method,
Sorrento bars taking the place of the usual strands. The central section
of the border at the right of the cross is done in point de Bruxelles
which is afterward button-holed as in bar-work, and a button-hole picot
edge follows the lower outlines of the pattern. Raleigh bars with picots
form the connecting ground-work throughout the work. This beautiful
specimen shows two distinct methods of filling in the sections between
the crosses. Either may be used alone, or the two may be used
alternately with the crosses.

[Illustration: No. 33.--Altar Lace (Battenburg.)]


No. 34.

BATTENBURG OR POINT LACE COLLAR AND CUFF.

These engravings represent a very graceful design for a lace collar and
cuffs. As suggested in the title, the set may be made of point or
Battenburg braid. The leaf-points are all filled in with d'Alençon bars
in the twisted stitch, while the centers are completed with rosettes or
small open "spiders," and the latter are distributed elsewhere as will
be seen by inspecting the engraving. Point de Grecque is also introduced
into some of the spaces, and Raleigh bars are used for the ground-work.
Any of the stitches previously described may be used in making such a
collar if those mentioned are not admired; and the addition of buttons
or rings will improve the work greatly.

[Illustration: No. 34.--Battenburg or Point Lace Collar and Cuff.]


No. 35.

FLOUNCE IN BATTENBURG LACE.

A very elegant flounce of Battenburg lace may be made after the design
represented on the opposite page. The picture shows the flounce just
one-half its actual width; but even this width would be very handsome as
a band for the bottom of a dress. By a close inspection of the stitches
seen and a reference to these illustrated in the department devoted to
stitches, the various kinds here used may be easily identified. They
consist of point de Venise, point de Bruxelles, Sorrento and
d'Alençon bars and "spiders." A fine picot braid edges each
side of the flounce. The design can be obtained in any width desired
from a reliable lace-maker.

[Illustration: No. 35.--Flounce in Battenburg Lace (One-Half the Actual
Width).]


No. 36.

BUTTERFLY DESIGN FOR POINT LACE.

This design is for point lace braid, and is very easily made. Fancy bars
made after an adaptation from the d'Alençon bars, and point de Venise
stitches are used for filling in. The butterfly may be used as a portion
of an edging design, or as a corner or center for any small article to
be decorated. The lines extending from the head are made with a fine
over-and-over stitch, or a fine cord.

[Illustration: No. 36.--Butterfly Design for Point Lace.]


No. 37.

VENETIAN POINT LACE.

This is a design containing many of the features of antique lace
patterns, and is made of narrow tape and fine cord combined with fancy
stitches. The lace from which the engraving is made is about twice as
wide as the picture represents it, but as the pattern differs in its
sections for several inches at a time, the design could not be given
full size. It will be seen that in the section illustrated no two
figures are alike. The filling-in stitches consist of combinations and
groupings of many of the stitches previously illustrated and described.

[Illustration: No. 37.--Venetian Point Lace.]


No. 38.

BUTTERFLY DESIGN FOR FINE BATTENBURG LACE.

This design, developed in Battenburg lace with d'Alençon and Sorrento
bars and small "spiders" or dots, makes a pretty ornament for centers or
corners, or is effective when introduced as a part of an edging design.
Point or Honiton braids may also be made up by this design.

[Illustration: No. 38.--Butterfly Design for fine Battenburg Lace.]


No. 39.

DESIGN FOR INSERTION.

A very pretty design for insertion is here given. The braid may be
basted as seen in the picture, and then the bars may be made of single
threads, and of single threads over-wrought with button-hole stitches.
Or, any of the bars or other stitches described, may be used to connect
the braid and fill in the spaces. Tiny "spiders" are already used to
fill in the circles.

[Illustration: No. 39.--Design for Insertion.]


No. 40.

DESIGN FOR A LACE BORDER AND CORNER.

A great deal must be left to the ingenuity of the worker in filling in
this design, which is not of the orthodox modern variety but may be
readily transformed into that class by an adaptation of modern stitches.
With the methods of the latter well mastered, the worker will have no
trouble in bringing out the design just as it is illustrated; but she
may also by the exercise of a little judgment and taste substitute many
other pretty filling-in stitches for those here pictured.

[Illustration: No. 40.--Design for a Lace Border and Corner.]


No. 41.

DESIGN FOR A BUTTERFLY IN POINT LACE.

Another butterfly design is here given for point lace, though it may
also be developed in a larger size in Battenburg braid for decorative
purposes. The filling-in stitches are d'Alençon and Raleigh bars, point
de Venise and point de Bruxelles, and point d'Angleterre rosettes.

[Illustration: No. 41.--Design for a Butterfly in Point Lace.]


No. 42.

ITALIAN LACE.

This lace is of a conventional Italian pattern, and is filled in with
the Italian lace and ground-stitches, and Sorrento bars. The lower edge
is very daintily completed with a button-hole effect. The design is
simple, elegant, and popular, and may be wrought in Battenburg or the
finer braids, and in any width desired, the braid selected and the width
decided upon determining the use to which the lace shall be put.

[Illustration: No. 42.--Italian Lace (Half Size).]


No. 43.

MODERN VENETIAN POINT.

The engraving shows a reduced representation of a very elegant specimen
of modern lace--the reduction in size being necessary in order to
present the whole design. In making the lace, narrow braid and cord are
used for the foundation of the design, and then the filling-in stitches
are made and at the same time rings and buttons and bars and picots are
introduced. Some of the filling-in stitches are combinations--as in the
figures with very open bars where point d'Espagne and point Brabançon
are combined, and at the middle section of the central figure where
point de Valenciennes and point Brabançon are combined. Other stitches
used are d'Alençon bars, Raleigh bars, church stitch, point de
Bruxelles, "spiders," Sorrento bars, and picots. The greater the variety
in the filling-in stitches, the more beautiful the lace. A picot edge
finishes the lace in a very dainty manner along its lower outline, while
a cord forms the upper edge.

[Illustration: No. 43.--Modern Venetian Point.]


No. 44.

DESIGN FOR MODERN LACE.

This design may be made up in Battenburg braid, or of point or Honiton
braid according to the texture of the lace desired. In making it for
garments or articles that are to be renovated occasionally, the
Battenburg braids are advisable; but for daintier uses, point or Honiton
may be chosen. The Raleigh-bar stitch, point de Bruxelles, and "spiders"
may be used in following the outlines given for stitches.

[Illustration: No. 44.--Design for Modern Lace.]


No. 45.

CORNER IN MODERN LACE.

The suggestions given above will also apply to this design, which may be
used for a table spread, or a handkerchief, according to the braid
selected. As illustrated, the design is of pretty dimensions for a doily
or a toilet-cushion cover, or for a handkerchief. All of the bar work
seen may be done with single threads instead of the complete Raleigh
method, and the rosettes or "spiders" may be larger or smaller as
preferred.

[Illustration: No. 45.--Corner in Modern Lace.]


No. 46.

PILLOW-SHAM OF BATTENBURG LACE AND LINEN.

A very elaborate pillow-sham is here illustrated. It is made of
Battenburg braid and appropriate thread, together with an intermingling
of rings, and forms one of the most elegant appointments of a handsomely
furnished bed-room. The pattern is very distinct and is called the "rose
and leaf" design. The ground-work is formed of rings and Raleigh bars,
while the centers of the roses and their leaves are filled in in various
fancy stitches which include the crosses and rosettes used in
drawn-work, Sorrento bars, points de Venise and Bruxelles, d'Alençon
bars, etc., etc. If desired the linen square may be made larger, and the
lace but one row of blossoms in width. The square is made of the finest
household linen and is completed with a broad hem-stitched hem before
the lace is added. The lace design may be obtained in any width desired
by sending to a professional lace-maker; or, a clever student may be
able to enlarge the design herself.

[Illustration: No. 46.--Pillow-Sham of Battenburg Lace and Linen.]


No. 47.

DESIGN FOR PRINCESS OR DUCHESSE LACE COLLAR AND CUFFS.

Although this design is represented very small, it is sufficiently clear
to convey a good idea of its outlines, and enable a student of average
ability to adapt it to collar and cuffs of any size desired. Raleigh
bars are used in connecting the various portions of the braids, while
any of the fine stitches preferred may be chosen to fill in around the
loops of the blossoms and foliage. A fine picot braid finishes the edge.

[Illustration: No. 47.--Design for Princess or Duchesse Lace Collar and
Cuffs.]


No. 48.

ENGLISH NEEDLE-POINT LACE.

This engraving illustrates a very beautiful specimen of modern-point
lace in a design combining the lily and the rose. Raleigh bars and
buttons render the heavy part of the work effective, while the daintier
point stitches and bars are used to fill in the floral sections--coarse
and fine thread being used in the work.

This lace, like any of the varieties now fashionable may be made wide or
narrow, or fine or coarse by designs furnished as required by
lace-makers in general; and the patterns may also be developed in silk
or ribbon needle-point, which is a style of ornamentation appearing
extensively as a decoration for scarfs, piano and table covers, mantel
valences, etc., etc.

[Illustration: No. 48.--English Needle-Point Lace.]


No. 49.

ROYAL BATTENBURG LACE.

This design was among the first ones of this lace to appear, and is
fully entitled to its royal name. Fancy Battenburg braid was selected
for the foundation, and various stitches chosen for filling-in purposes.
Among the stitches are point de Bruxelles, made similarly to the Italian
lace stitch, point de fillet, plain Raleigh bars, point d'Alençon,
rosettes, rings and point de Grecque. The central figure conveys a hint
of the outlines of the royal crown, and the lace is really sumptuous in
design and texture. In 1883, Mrs. Grace McCormick, the originator of the
design and lace was awarded a diploma for her work which was forwarded
from Washington, where she applied for a patent for her specimens of
Royal Battenburg lace, of which this is one.

[Illustration: No. 49.--Royal Battenburg Lace.]


No. 50.

ROMAN LACE (CORAL PATTERN).

The design here given is for a lappet or scarf-end, and will afford a
suggestion for the making of larger articles or edging in similar
arrangements of braid. It will be observed that the braid forms
irregular lines that recall the branchings of coral, and it will be a
very easy matter for an amateur lace-maker to similarly arrange her
braid for any purpose she desires. Fine Raleigh bars form the connecting
work, and a button-hole picot-finish is made along the edge of the braid
which forms the border. In making an edging, a definite outline could be
kept for the lower edge, and above this an irregular or indefinite
outline arranged.

[Illustration: No. 50.--Roman Lace (Coral Pattern).]


No. 51.

TIDY OF BATTENBURG LACE.

The tidy here illustrated is made entirely of Battenburg lace, and is a
beautiful specimen of this kind of work. The border design is the same
as the one previously described for a pillow-sham, except that but one
row of the blossoms and foliage is used. The center is composed of rows
of braid crossed to form squares or open spaces that are filled in with
rosettes in point d'Angleterre. This center is attached to the braid at
the inner edge of the border by a series of bars arranged in d'Alençon
style and then wrought with the thread after the method used in d'Anvers
bars. This tidy, enlarged, forms an elegant design for a pillow-sham.
When laid over a tinted silk spread or pillow, a sham of this design
shows its full beauty. When the braid is basted on in the outlines
desired, the remainder of the work will be a pleasing pastime, as none
of it is so fine as to require very close attention.

[Illustration: No. 51.--Tidy of Battenburg Lace.]


No. 52.

MODERN LACE.

A handsome specimen of lace is here illustrated. It will be observed
that the braid from which it is made is woven like fine binding braid,
and in this respect differs from any of the lace-braids herein
illustrated. It will also be seen that no two figures of the design are
alike, and that various stitches are used in completing them, many being
combinations of or adaptations from the stitches illustrated at the
beginning of this pamphlet. The engraving is sufficiently plain to
enable the worker to decide which stitches are used alone or in
combination, and to guide her correctly in their application. The
picot-edge is done in point de Venise stitch.

[Illustration: No. 52.--Modern Lace.]


No. 53.

MODERN-POINT LACE EDGING.

This is an easy design to follow and is simply made. Heavy Sorrento bars
with picot loops form the ground-work, while the filling-in stitches are
of the same class done in fine thread in regular squares and also a
combination of point de fillet and point de Grecque. A dainty
picot-finish is added at the lower edge. This edging is pretty for
bordering draperies or decorating dresses, and may be made as fine or as
coarse as desired.

[Illustration: No. 53.--Modern-Point Lace Edging.]


No. 54.

SQUARE IN MODERN-POINT LACE.

In this design will be observed a favorite combination--the rose and the
butterfly. Close inspection will also disclose that the filling-in
stitches are of a diverse character, and that to this diversification
much of the beauty of the work is due. As most of the stitches are
easily recognized, and as the copyist can easily adapt methods for the
combinations seen, it will not be necessary to definitely describe them.

The square may be used for a scarf-end in connection with the edging No.
53 seen on page 91, if the braid selected is sufficiently fine. When
coarser braid is chosen, the square will be pretty for doilies, tidies
or the center of a table spread. The design may be daintily made up of
ribbon, with silk for the stitches. In this event it may be set into a
scarf or drapery of China or Surah silk with charming results.

[Illustration: No. 54.--Square in Modern-Point Lace.]


No. 55.

LOUIS XIV. CURTAIN-LACE.

This is a very popular decoration for curtains and vestibule doors and
is made of heavy écru or white net and braid. The design selected is
generally a border with a corner piece, and sometimes a center piece.
The specimen here given is simply a square of the net decorated as
illustrated to convey an idea of this at present fashionable curtain
lace. The design is first traced on tracing cloth that is then underlaid
with brown paper to hold it stiffly in place. The net is then laid over
this and smoothly basted down so that the tracing shows through plainly.
Then écru or white Battenburg braid is used to follow the design, and is
shaped into the leaves and flowers seen, rings being used for the
centers of the blossoms and écru or white cord for the stems. The net is
cut from under the rings at the centers of the large roses, and each
opening is filled in with point de fillet and English wheels. The effect
is very rich and the work is not difficult to do.

When a curtain is thus embroidered or decorated with braid, it is
bordered the same as the square illustrated, or upon that principle,
with rows and points of Battenburg braid. Ribbon is often used in this
way for tidies, bureau scarfs and various other little household
decorations, and in this event the flower and foliage tints may be
carried out in the design.

[Illustration: No. 55.--Louis XIV. Curtain-Lace.]



DARNED-NET SCARFS, KERCHIEFS, TIDIES, EDGINGS, INSERTIONS, ETC., ETC.,
WITH DESIGNS FOR THE SAME AND OTHER ARTICLES.


Bobbin net, or "bobbinet," or "net" as it is now commonly called, was
first made by machinery in 1809, and was so called because the threads
from which it was made were wound upon bobbins, and _twisted_ into
meshes instead of being _looped_ in knitting style as they were previous
to the invention of the machine. The latter was invented by John
Heathcoat, the son of an English farmer; but to France must be given the
credit of introducing the "darned work" by which some of its costliest
net laces were first made. From these laces originated the industry of
darning net by machinery and by hand, and in all grades from fine
silk-blonde and Brussels net to the coarsest wash net, such as is used
for curtains and draperies.

In the earlier days the pattern was stamped on the net by means of
wooden blocks, and the net was then placed in a frame, and the darner
with her left hand under the lace followed the design with her needle
and cotton, linen or silk floss held over the work in the right hand.
This method may be employed at the present time; or, the design may be
drawn on thick paper and the net basted over it; or, if the net is
coarse the design may be followed by counting the meshes and inserting
the needle and floss accordingly; or the design may be transferred to
the net itself by black or colored pencils, or stamping. The darner must
decide for herself which method for holding the work she will use. Some
of the most expert darners simply hold the net loosely in their hands
and copy the design by eye alone. Wash-silk floss, India floss which is
of linen but looks like silk, and ordinary darning flosses are all used
for this work. Darned net is liked for many purposes, as will be
observed by the variety of designs and illustrations given on these
pages.


No. 1.

SCARF-END OF DARNED NET.

This illustration pictures a very pretty scarf-end, but presents it only
half of its actual width. The scarf is about a yard in length and is
darned with linen floss and edged with the finest feather-edge braid.
The center portions of the flowers and foliage are cut out after the
solid darning is made, and the spaces are then filled in with a fancy
mesh done with fine cotton in point de Bruxelles stitch.

[Illustration: No. 1.--Scarf-End of Darned Net (Half Size).]


No. 2.

NARROW CUFF OF DARNED NET.

This engraving presents a cuff of darned net in its actual width. The
design is also suitable for an edging and may be easily changed into an
insertion. Feather-edge braid is used to complete the cuff. A collar may
be made to match if desired.

[Illustration: No. 2.--Narrow Cuff of Darned Net.]


No. 3.

CORNER OF KERCHIEF OF DARNED NET.

This kerchief is made similarly to the scarf-end illustrated on page 97,
and as represented, the corner is only one-half its actual size. The
kerchief itself is about twenty-two inches square and is very dainty in
effect. The stars which fill in the central portion are very simple to
make, and the eyelets in each are punched with a bodkin and then worked
once around in point de Bruxelles or button-hole stitch. The kerchief is
made of fine Brussels net and the darning is done with India floss.

[Illustration: No. 3.--Corner of Kerchief of Darned Net (Half Size).]


No. 4.

TIDY OF DARNED NET.

This engraving represents a charming little tidy made of coarse wash-net
darned with wash-silk floss in Oriental colorings. The tidy has an inch
wide hem and is about eleven inches wide and twelve long. The hem is
fastened down by three rows of darning stitches, the outer row being
deep garnet, the middle row bright old-rose and the inner row deep
orange. One small fan is made of the orange and pale-blue, another of
the old-rose with sulphur-yellow, and the third peacock-blue and
crimson. One large fan is made of pale-pink and silver-gray (darned
together), and wood-brown; another is made of the garnet and the
sulphur-yellow, while the third is made of orange and pale-blue. The
scrolls meeting at the center are made, one of wood-brown, one of
sulphur-yellow and one of garnet, and the rest of the design is made in
different shades of dull green. Laid over white, this tidy is very
effective. It may be darned in one color on white, black or écru net if
preferred, and with linen floss.

[Illustration: No. 4.--Tidy of Darned Net.]


No. 5.

TIE-END OF DARNED NET.

A tie-end in its actual width is here illustrated. The tie is about
three-quarters of a yard long, and is darned in all-over style in the
design seen in the engraving, with linen floss. A line of fine
feather-edge braid finishes the tie in a dainty manner. This design may
be used for any other article preferred, and its details will also
suggest other designs of a similar character which may be invented by
the worker. This scarf as well as the others just described, may be made
up in black if preferred; and in this event it will be easier for the
darner to follow the meshes if she bastes her net over a white
background. The design may or not be traced on this background.

[Illustration: No. 5.--Tie-end of Darned Net (Full Width).]


No. 6.

DARNED-NET EDGING, WITH OVER-WROUGHT STITCH.

This handsome edging is darned upon a wide strip of net with coarse and
fine embroidery cotton, and after the pattern is completed the lower
edge of the net is cut away. The coarse cotton is used to outline the
design and fill in some of the central portions, while the fine is
darned in between the outer and center portions, and is used for the
over-wrought portions. These portions are "run" back and forth loosely
to form a raised foundation for the buds and rose-centers before the
over-wrought work is done. The edging is given full-size and no
difficulty will be experienced in following the design or making the
lace; and the design may be adapted to any article of wear that can be
made of darned net. A scarf or kerchief, dotted with rosebuds made like
those of this design would be a very dainty article of personal
adornment; and the buds might be made of pale-pink or yellow floss with
a charming effect. The floral idea might be further carried out by using
shaded green floss for the foliage.

[Illustration: No. 6.--Darned-Net Edging, with Overwrought Stitch (Full
Size).]


Nos. 7 and 8.

DARNED-NET EDGINGS.

It will not be necessary to give special instructions for either of the
edgings here illustrated, as both are given full size and the designs
are perfectly distinct. No. 7 is finished with a button-holed scallop
from which the net is cut away when the work is completed. Either edging
may be made of white, écru or black net as preferred, and the floss may
be white or tinted, or of cotton, linen or silk.

In making No. 8 upon black net, silver or gilt thread or colored flosses
will be found very effective. Black net thus darned is very pretty for
ruching and jabots for dress-waists.

In making darned edgings, net may be purchased in various edging widths,
and in this style is often called "footing." When bobbin net (or
bobbinet as it is now called) was first invented, it was made only one
inch wide but now it may be purchased three and one-half yards wide if
desired.

[Illustration: No. 7.--Darned-Net Edging.]

[Illustration: No. 8.--Darned-Net Edging.]


No. 9.

PILLOW-SHAM OF DARNED NET.

This engraving represents one of the many uses to which darned net is
put. Moderately coarse net was selected, and the darning was done with
linen floss in the various patterns seen, and which are repeated in a
larger form on the following pages. The sham was hemmed after the
darning was finished, and a frill of darned-net edging was then added.
Tinted silk or sateen should be laid under such a sham in order to bring
out the beauty of the work. The ambitious darner may make a bed-spread
to correspond with her shams, if she has the time to devote to the task
and the patience to complete it; and in making such a set, she need not
confine herself to the designs here given, but may select any others she
admires, or may originate a design herself. Individual ideas as to
decoration so widely differ, that clever workers are sure to evolve
designs of various characters and a generally uniform beauty. Blossoms,
leaves, carvings, Oriental figures, brocades, etc., etc., all afford
dainty ideas for designs for darned net.

[Illustration: No. 9.--Pillow-Sham of Darned Net.]


No. 10.

CENTER OF PILLOW-SHAM.

This engraving presents an enlarged representation of the center of the
pillow-sham seen on page 109, and also shows its suitability for the
center of a tidy. The inner design is very easy to follow, as will be
seen by referring to No. 12 on page 113, where a large illustration of
it is seen supplemented by a vine-border at each side. The outer border
of this center-piece is very simple, and may be darned in diamonds as
large or as small as desired.

[Illustration: No. 10.--Center of Pillow-Sham.]


No. 11.

SECTION OF PILLOW-SHAM.

In looking at the sham illustrated on page 109, the design illustrated
at No. 11 will be seen at either side of the middle-stripe design. As
here represented it will be easy to copy either for a pillow-sham or for
any article of decoration or personal use desired. The ingenious worker
will find many methods of combining it with other designs or applying it
as an insertion, a border or an edging; and she may also use her own
taste as to darning with white or colored floss, or using white, écru,
fancy-colored or black net.

[Illustration: No. 11.--Section of Pillow-Sham.]


No. 12.

SECTION OF PILLOW-SHAM.

This design has been mentioned in connection with the pillow-sham seen
upon page 109, and the engraving represents it perfectly. It may be
employed for the purpose mentioned or adapted to any other use required,
and may be copied exactly or varied to suit individual taste. Black net
darned with gold thread in this design would be pretty for decorating a
black silk gown or trimming a black hat.

[Illustration: No. 12.--Section of Pillow-Sham.]


No. 13.

SECTION OF PILLOW-SHAM.

Another portion of the pillow-sham mentioned is here illustrated, but
the design is quite as appropriate for any other decorative purpose.
Yokes for night-dresses may be darned in this pattern, or in any of the
ones previously given, with a very pretty effect; and when tinted
ribbon, mull or lawn is laid under the darned stripes, the effect is
very dainty indeed. Yokes to children's dresses may also be darned in
this pattern or the others, and little caps or hoods may be made to
match and lined with a tinted or white fabric.

[Illustration: No. 13.--Section of Pillow-Sham.]


No. 14.

END OF DRAPERY-SCARF OF DARNED NET.

The end of the drapery-scarf from which this engraving was made is about
fourteen inches square, and the sides are turned under for about a
quarter of an inch, or a little more, and darned down closely to
represent a selvedge. The design is Oriental in outline and is easy to
follow. As represented the scarf is made of white net and darned with
white linen floss; but the Oriental effect may be carried out more
perfectly if the darning is done with colored flosses with an
intermingling of silver or gilt thread. White, black, écru or colored
net may be used. Two ends are made and then gathered to a smaller square
of net. This small square is then drawn together through the center
under a bow of wide satin ribbon, and the scarf is then fastened to the
article of furniture it is to decorate. To its ends may be added
tassels, rings or any edge-finish that is in accord with the materials
of the scarf. Black net darned with gold, crimson, peacock-blue, and
pale-yellow and pale-olive, results in a charmingly Eastern or Oriental
effect.

[Illustration: No. 14.--End of Drapery-Scarf of Darned Net.]


No. 15.

DESIGN FOR A CORNER OR SQUARE OF DARNED NET.

A very pretty design, as simple as it is effective, is here represented.
According to the purpose for which the work is intended, and the color
of the net selected, the darning may be done in cotton, linen or silk,
and in white, black, écru or colors. The pattern may be modified in any
way pleasing to the taste, or diversified by the introduction of
portions of other designs or individual ideas.

[Illustration: No. 15.--Design for a Corner Or Square of Darned Net.]


No. 16.

BORDER FOR DARNED NET.

A pretty border for tidies, draperies, flounces, yokes, collars or any
article requiring a border is here illustrated. Any of the suggestions
given above may be adopted in making this border, which may be used
separately or in combination with other borders, according to individual
taste. Gold thread upon black or white net would, in this design, result
in a very effective dress decoration.

[Illustration: No. 16.--Border for Darned Net.]


No. 17.

DESIGN FOR DARNED NET.

This pretty pattern may be used as a border, insertion or stripe for
personal or household articles, and is one of the most popular designs
in use. It is very easy to follow and is illustrated full size. It might
be used to border the lower edge of a wide flounce for a petticoat, or,
with equal propriety, applied to a tidy or a window drapery, providing
the worker regulates the size of the design appropriately for the work
in hand. For window draperies it would need to be much broader and
larger in other ways than as represented.

[Illustration: No. 17.--Design for Darned Net.]


No. 18.

EDGING OF DARNED NET.

The design here presented is of full size, and very easy to work. A
dainty edge in button-hole stitch is worked for the border, and the net
is afterward cut out to form the tiny scallops. This is a pretty pattern
for neck and wrist frills, jabots or ruffles, or for the adornment of
kerchiefs for the neck or pockets, or for any purpose for which lace
edging is selected.

[Illustration: No. 18.--Edging of Darned Net.]


No. 19.

DESIGN FOR DARNED NET.

This engraving represents a flounce of darned-net in its actual size or
width. It will be seen that the design is simple, but at the same time
very effective. The flounce is for a child's dress made of net darned
all over in the pattern seen in the picture, and worn over a tinted silk
slip. The all-over work is very pretty indeed, and the design may be put
to any of the many uses for which darned net is suitable. It is pretty
for yokes, pillow-shams, counterpanes, infants' dresses and
carriage-robes, parasol-covers, sofa-pillow covers, and in fact for any
article that may be made of lace.

The points of the flounce are darned back and forth in selvedge effect;
but they may be worked in button-hole stitch if preferred. A touch of
color may be given the work by using a little tinted or colored floss
with the white, though the latter is most generally selected for darning
net. In using tints, more delicate shades will be found in silk
darning-flosses.

[Illustration: No. 19.--Design for Darned Net.]


No. 20.

DESIGN IN DARNED NET.

This design is extremely simple, and it may be used separately as a
border or insertion, or in combination with parts of other designs in
making up a large or elaborately-worked article. It is dainty enough for
the decoration of an infant's garment if desired for such ornamentation,
or heavy enough for elaborating an adult's attire.

[Illustration: No. 20.--Design in Darned Net.]


No. 21.

DESIGN FOR A YOKE OR SECTION OF A GARMENT IN DARNED NET.

The yoke, sleeves, collar, cuffs and flounce of a child's dress were
beautifully darned in the design illustrated by this engraving, and the
effect was far more charming than can be conveyed by a picture. The
little gown was airy enough for a sprite, and its greatest cost was in
the outlay of the time devoted to its construction; and even this could
not be counted a real outlay, as only odd moments of leisure were
employed in making the pretty garment. White net, white floss and white
India lawn were the composing materials.

[Illustration: No. 21.--Design for a Yoke or Section of a Garment in
Darned Net.]


Nos. 22 and 23.

DESIGNS FOR DARNED NET.

Both of these designs are very pretty for diverse purposes, and also
very easy to follow. Either may be used as a heading, an insertion or a
border, separately or in conjunction with other designs. Many of the
suggestions given concerning other designs upon previous pages will
apply to these two designs, which fact leaves little to suggest for them
individually. Each darner will think out for herself many uses to which
to put designs, many combinations in which they will prove effective,
and many colorings suggested by the tints which govern her room or her
wardrobe; all of which would be an impossible task for any one person,
unacquainted with the surroundings of all our students to accomplish.
One idea from one person will suggest another idea to a second person,
and thus, in the lace-work at the beginning and after part of this book,
as in all fancy work, upon an evolution of ideas must rest the great
responsibility of an endless variety of designs.

[Illustration: No. 22.--Design for Darned Net.]

[Illustration: No. 23.--Design for Darned Net.]



Mrs. Grace B. McCormick,

LACE-MAKER FOR THE BEST FAMILIES OF NEW YORK AND OTHER CITIES,

_Designer and Manufacturer of Modern Hand-Made Laces_,

AND

Importer of Materials for Laces, Needle-Work and General Household
Decorative Work, and also of Fine Linens and Linen Lawn.

[Illustration]

Designs for Borders, Pillow-Shams, Edgings, Insertions, Tray-Cloths,
Center-Pieces, Buffet and Bureau Scarfs, Tidies, Pin-Cushion Covers,
Doilies, Collars and Cuffs, Coiffures, Dress Sets, Panels,
Handkerchiefs, Flounces, Vestibule and Window Curtains, And All
Household Garnitures; also Exceptionally Rich Designs for Church and
Altar Laces, etc., etc.

THESE DESIGNS WILL BE FURNISHED FOR

_Royal Battenburg, Honiton, English Needle-Point, Princess, Russian and
"Ideal Honiton" Laces, in ANY SIZE or SHAPE REQUIRED._

ALSO DESIGNS FOR DARNED NET.

Particular attention paid to MAKING ESTIMATES, and Drafting SPECIAL
DESIGNS and Selecting the PROPER BRAIDS, THREADS, NEEDLES, ETC., ETC.,
for the same.

ALSO, ALWAYS ON HAND A FINE ASSORTMENT OF

Imported and American Samples of CROCHETED LACES; also CROCHETED MATS,
DOILIES, TIDIES, SCARF-ENDS, Etc., Etc.

       *       *       *       *       *

Curtains and Fine Laces Skilfully Cleaned and Repaired.

       *       *       *       *       *

ALL INFORMATION DESIRED CONCERNING

_Modern or Antique Laces, Materials, Quantities and Prices, cheerfully
Supplied upon_

Receipt of _Inquiry_, _Full Address_ and _Return Postage_.

Address,

     _MRS. GRACE B. McCORMICK_,
                              923 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.

       *       *       *       *       *


Transcriber's Note:

Summarized here are the corrections applied to the text.

corner or crosswise of the space
  "crosswise" was printed as "crossswise"

cloth is basted to _toile cirée_
  "cirée" was printed as "circé"

match may be made.
  this was printed as "may be mad"

what materials are appropriate
  "appropriate" was printed as "appropiate"

as it is easy to follow.
  "is" was missing in text

No. 31.
  The heading was missing.

d'Alençon bars and "spiders."
  "d'" was missing

also be developed in a larger size
  "in" was printed twice

No. 45.
No. 44.
  Headings 44 and 45 where mixed up





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