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Title: Mary at the Farm and Book of Recipes Compiled during Her Visit - among the "Pennsylvania Germans"
Author: Thomas, Edith M.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Mary at the Farm and Book of Recipes Compiled during Her Visit - among the "Pennsylvania Germans"" ***

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With Illustrations


      We love our Pennsylvania, grand old Keystone State;
    Land of far famed rivers, and rock-ribbed mountains great.
      With her wealth of "Dusky Diamonds" and historic valleys fair,
    Proud to claim her as our birthplace; land of varied treasures rare.


The incidents narrated in this book are based on fact, and, while not
absolutely true in every particular, the characters are all drawn from
real life. The photographs are true likenesses of the people they are
supposed to represent, and while in some instances the correct names
are not given (for reasons which the reader will readily understand),
the various scenes, relics, etc., are true historically and
geographically. The places described can be easily recognized by any
one who has ever visited the section of Pennsylvania in which the plot
(if it can really be called a plot) of the story is laid. Many of the
recipes given Mary by Pennsylvania German housewives, noted for the
excellence of their cooking, have never appeared in print.






    "To do the best that I can, from morn till night.
      And pray for added strength with coming light;
    To make the family income reach alway,
      With some left over for a rainy day;
    To do distasteful things with happy face,
      To try and keep the odds and ends in place.
    To smile instead of frown at Fate,
      Which placed me in a family always late
    For meals; to do the sewing, mending and
      The thousand small things always near at hand,
    And do them always with a cheerful heart,
    Because in life they seem to be my part;
    To know the place of everything and keep
      It there, to think, to plan, to cook, to sweep,
    To brew, to bake, to answer questions,
      To be the mainspring of the family clock.
    (Or that effect) and see that no tick, tock
      Is out of time or tune, or soon or late,
    This is the only symphony which I
      Can ever hope to operate."



     I Mary's Letter Received at Clear Spring Farm

    II Mary's Arrival at the Farm

   III Schuggenhaus Township

    IV John Landis

     V The Old Farm-House and Garden

    VI Mary Confides in "Aunt Sarah" and Gives Her Views on Suffrage
       for Women

   VII Professor Schmidt

  VIII Uses of An Old-Fashioned Wardrobe

    IX Poetry and Pie

     X Sibylla Linsabigler

    XI New Colonial Rag Rugs

   XII Mary Imitates Navajo Blankets

  XIII "The Girls' Camp Fire" Organized by Mary

   XIV Mary Makes "Violet and Rose Leaf" Beads

    XV Mary and Elizabeth Visit Sadie Singmaster

   XVI The Old Parlor Made Beautiful (Modernized)

  XVII An Old Song Evening

 XVIII A Visit to the "Pennsylvania Palisades"

   XIX Mary Is Taught to Make Pastry, Patties and Rosenkuchcen

    XX Old Potteries and Decorated Dishes

   XXI The Value of Wholesome, Nutritious Food

  XXII A Variety of Cakes Evolved From One Recipe

 XXIII The Old "Taufschien"

  XXIV The Old Store on the Ridge Road

   XXV An Elbadritchel Hunt

  XXVI The Old Shanghai Rooster

 XXVII A "Potato Pretzel"

XXVIII Faithful Service

  XXIX Mary, Ralph, Jake and Sibylla Visit the Allentown Fair

   XXX Fritz Schmidt Explores Durham Cave

  XXXI Mary's Marriage


  Aunt Sarah
  The Old Spring House
  The Old Mill Wheel
  The Old Mill
  Old Corn Crib
  The New Red Barn
  The Old Farm-House
  Ralph Jackson
  Rocky Valley
  Professor Schmidt
  Frau Schmidt
  Old Time Patch-Work Quilts
  Old Time Patch-Work
  Home-Made Rag Carpet
  A Hit-and-Miss Rug
  A Brown and Tan Rug
  A Circular Rug
  Imitation of Navajo Blankets
  Rug With Design
  Rug With Swastika in Centre
  Home Manufactured Silk Prayer Rug
  Elizabeth Schmidt--"Laughing Water"
  Articles in the Old Parlor Before It Was Modernized
  Other Articles in the Old Parlor Before It Was Modernized
  Palisades, or Narrows of Nockamixon
  The Canal at the Narrows
  The Narrows, or Pennsylvania Palisades
  Top Rock
  Ringing Rocks of Bucks County, Pennsylvania
  High Falls
  Big Rock at Rocky Dale
  The Old Towpath at the Narrows
  Old Earthenware Dish
  Igraffito Plate
  Old Plates Fund in Aunt Sarah's Corner Cupboard
  Old Style Lamps
  Old Taufschien
  The Old Store on Ridge Road
  Catching Elbadritchels
  Old Egg Basket at the Farm
  A Potato Pretzel
  Loaf of Rye Bread
  A "Brod Corvel," or Bread Basket
  Church Which Sheltered Liberty Bell in 1777-78
  Liberty Bell Tablet
  Durham Cave
  The Woodland Stream
  Polly Schmidt
  An Old-Fashioned Bucks County Bake-Oven

[Illustration: MARY]



One morning in early spring, John Landis, a Pennsylvania German farmer
living in Schuggenhaus Township, Bucks County, on opening his mail
box, fastened to a tree at the crossroads (for the convenience of
rural mail carriers) found one letter for his wife Sarah, the envelope
addressed in the well-known handwriting of her favorite niece, Mary
Midleton, of Philadelphia.


A letter being quite an event at "Clear Spring" farm, he hastened with
it to the house, finding "Aunt Sarah," as she was called by every one
(Great Aunt to Mary), in the cheery farm house kitchen busily engaged
kneading sponge for a loaf of rye bread, which she carefully deposited
on a well-floured linen cloth, in a large bowl for the final raising.

Carefully adjusting her glasses more securely over the bridge of her
nose, she turned at the sound of her husband's footsteps. Seeing the
letter in his hand she inquired: "What news, John?" Quickly opening
the letter handed her, she, after a hasty perusal, gave one of the
whimsical smiles peculiar to her and remarked decisively, with a
characteristic nod of her head: "John, Mary Midleton intends to marry,
else why, pray tell me, would she write of giving up teaching her
kindergarten class in the city, to spend the summer with us on the
farm learning, she writes, to keep house, cook, economize and to learn
how to get the most joy and profit from life?"

"Well, well! Mary is a dear girl, why should she not think of
marrying?" replied her husband; "she is nineteen. Quite time, I think,
she should learn housekeeping--something every young girl should know.
We should hear of fewer divorces and a less number of failures of men
in business, had their wives been trained before marriage to be good,
thrifty, economical housekeepers and, still more important, good
homemakers. To be a helpmate in every sense of the word is every
woman's duty, I think, when her husband works early and late to
procure the means to provide for her comforts and luxuries and a
competency for old age. Write Mary to come at once, and under your
teaching she may, in time, become as capable a housekeeper and as good
a cook as her Aunt Sarah; and, to my way of thinking, there is none
better, my dear."

Praise from her usually reticent husband never failed to deepen the
tint of pink on Aunt Sarah's still smooth, unwrinkled, youthful
looking face, made more charming by being framed in waves of silvery
gray hair, on which the "Hand of Time," in passing, had sprinkled some
of the dust from the road of life.

In size, Sarah Landis was a little below medium height, rather stout,
or should I say comfortable, and matronly looking; very erect for a
woman of her age. Her bright, expressive, gray eyes twinkled
humorously when she talked. She had developed a fine character by her
years of unselfish devotion to family and friends. Her splendid sense
of humor helped her to overcome difficulties, and her ability to rise
above her environment, however discouraging their conditions,
prevented her from being unhappy or depressed by the small annoyances
met daily. She never failed to find joy and pleasure in the faithful
performance of daily tasks, however small or insignificant. Aunt Sarah
attributed her remarkably fine, clear complexion, seldom equalled in a
woman of her years, to good digestion and excellent health; her love
of fresh air, fruit and clear spring water. She usually drank from
four to five tumblerfuls of water a day. She never ate to excess, and
frequently remarked: "I think more people suffer from over-eating than
from insufficient food." An advocate of deep breathing, she spent as
much of her time as she could spare from household duties in the open

[Illustration: AUNT SARAH]

Sarah Landis was not what one would call beautiful, but good and
whole-souled looking. To quote her husband: "To me Sarah never looks
so sweet and homelike when all 'fussed up' in her best black dress on
special occasions, as she does when engaged in daily household tasks
around home, in her plain, neat, gray calico dress."

This dress was always covered with a large, spotlessly clean, blue
gingham apron of small broken check, and she was very particular about
having a certain-sized check. The apron had a patch pocket, which
usually contained small twists or little wads of cord, which, like
"The Old Ladies in Cranford," she picked up and saved for a possible

One of Aunt Sarah's special economies was the saving of twine and
paper bags. The latter were always neatly folded, when emptied, and
placed in a cretonne bag made for that purpose, hanging in a
convenient corner of the kitchen.

Aunt Sarah's gingham apron was replaced afternoons by one made from
fine, Lonsdale cambric, of ample proportions, and on special occasions
she donned a hemstitched linen apron, inset at upper edge of hem with
crocheted lace insertion, the work of her own deft fingers. Aunt
Sarah's aprons, cut straight, on generous lines, were a part of her

Sarah Landis declared: "Happiness consists in giving and in serving
others," and she lived up to the principles she advocated. She
frequently quoted from the "Sons of Martha," by Kipling:

  "Lift ye the stone or cleave the wood, to make a path more fair or flat,
  Not as a ladder from earth to heaven, not as an altar to any creed,
  But simple service, simply given, to his own kind in their human need."

"I think this so fine," said Aunt Sarah, "and so true a sentiment that
I am almost compelled to forgive Kipling for saying 'The female of the
species is more deadly than the male.'"

Aunt Sarah's goodness was reflected in her face and in the tones of
her voice, which were soft and low, yet very decided. She possessed a
clear, sweet tone, unlike the slow, peculiar drawl often aiding with
the rising inflection peculiar to many country folk among the
"Pennsylvania Germans."

The secret of Aunt Sarah's charm lay in her goodness. Being always
surrounded by a cheery atmosphere, she benefited all with whom she
came in contact. She took delight in simple pleasures. She had the
power of extracting happiness from the common, little every-day tasks
and frequently remarked, "Don't strive to live without work, but to
find more joy in your work." Her opinions were highly respected by
every one in the neighborhood, and, being possessed of an unselfish
disposition, she thought and saw good in every one; brought out the
best in one, and made one long to do better, just to gain her
approval, if for no higher reward. Sarah Landis was a loyal friend and
one would think the following, by Mrs. Craik, applied to her:

"Oh, the comfort, the inexpressible comfort, of feeling safe with a
person--having neither to weigh thoughts nor measure words, but
pouring them all right out, just as they are--chaff and grain
together, certain that a faithful hand will take and sift them, keep
what is worth keeping and then with the breath of kindness blow the
rest away."

She was never so happy as when doing an act of kindness for some poor
unfortunate, and often said. "If 'twere not for God and good people,
what would become of the unfortunate?" and thought like George
McDonald, "If I can put one touch of rosy sunset into the life of any
man or woman (I should add child) I shall feel that I have worked with

Aunt Sarah's sweet, lovable face was the first beheld by many a
little, new-born infant; her voice, the first to hush its wailing
cries as she cuddled it up to her motherly breast, and oft, with
loving hands, softly closed the lids over eyes no longer able to see;
whom the Gracious Master had taken into His keeping.

One day I overheard Aunt Sarah quote to a sorrowing friend these fine,
true lines from Longfellow's "Resignation": "Let us be patient, these
severe afflictions not from the ground arise, but celestial
benedictions assume the dark disguise."

[Illustration: THE OLD SPRING HOUSE]



The day preceding that of Mary's arrival at the farm was a busy one
for Aunt Sarah, who, since early morning, had been preparing the
dishes she knew Mary enjoyed. Pans of the whitest, flakiest rolls, a
large loaf of sweetest nut-brown, freshly-baked "graham bread," of
which Mary was especially fond; an array of crumb-cakes and pies of
every description covered the well-scrubbed table in the summer
kitchen, situated a short distance from the house. A large, yellow
earthenware bowl on the table contained a roll of rich, creamy "smier
kase" just as it had been turned from the muslin bag, from which the
"whey" had dripped over night; ready to be mixed with cream for the
supper table. Pats of sweet, freshly-churned butter, buried in clover
blossoms, were cooling in the old spring-house near by.

The farm house was guiltless of dust from cellar to attic. Aunt Sarah
was a model housekeeper; she accomplished wonders, yet never appeared
tired or flurried as less systematic housekeepers often do, who, with
greater expenditure of energy, often accomplish less work. She took no
unnecessary steps; made each one count, yet never appeared in haste to
finish her work.

Said Aunt Sarah, "The lack of system in housework is what makes it
drudgery. If young housekeepers would sit down and plan their work,
then do it, they would save time and labor. When using the fire in the
range for ironing or other purposes, use the oven for preparing dishes
of food which require long, slow cooking, like baked beans, for
instance. Bake a cake or a pudding, or a pan of quickly-made corn pone
to serve with baked beans, for a hearty meal on a cold winter day. A
dish of rice pudding placed in the oven requires very little
attention, and when baked may be placed on ice until served. If this
rule be followed, the young housewife will be surprised to find how
much easier will be the task of preparing a meal later in the day,
especially in hot weather."

       *       *       *       *       *

The day following, John Landis drove to the railroad station, several
miles distant, to meet his niece. As Mary stepped from the train into
the outstretched arms of her waiting Uncle, many admiring glances
followed the fair, young girl. Her tan-gold naturally wavy, masses of
hair rivaled ripened grain. The sheen of it resembled corn silk before
it has been browned and crinkled by the sun. Her eyes matched in color
the exquisite, violet-blue blossoms of the chicory weed. She possessed
a rather large mouth, with upturned corners, which seemed made for
smiles, and when once you had been charmed with them, she had made an
easy conquest of you forever. There was a sweet, winning personality
about Mary which was as impossible to describe as to resist. One
wondered how so much adorable sweetness could be embodied in one small
maid. But Mary's sweetness of expression and charming manner covered a
strong will and tenacity of purpose one would scarcely have believed
possible, did they not have an intimate knowledge of the young girl's
disposition. Her laugh, infectious, full of the joy of living, the
vitality of youth and perfect health and happiness, reminded one of
the lines: "A laugh is just like music for making living sweet."

Seated beside her Uncle in the carriage, Mary was borne swiftly
through the town out into the country. It was one of those
preternaturally quiet, sultry days when the whole universe appears
lifeless and inert, free from loud noise, or sound of any description,
days which we occasionally have in early Spring or Summer, when the
stillness is oppressive.

Frequently at such times there is borne to the nostrils the faint,
stifling scent of burning brush, indicating that land is being cleared
by the forehanded, thrifty farmer for early planting. Often at such
times, before a shower, may be distinctly heard the faintest twitter
and "peep, peep" of young sparrows, the harsh "caw, caw" of the crow,
and the song of the bobolink, poised on the swaying branch of a tall
tree, the happiest bird of Spring; the dozy, drowsy hum of bees; the
answering call of lusty young chanticleers, and the satisfied cackle
of laying hens and motherly old biddies, surrounded by broods of
downy, greedy little newly-hatched chicks. The shrill whistle of a
distant locomotive startles one with its clear, resonant intonation,
which on a less quiet day would pass unnoticed. Mary, with the zest of
youth, enjoyed to the full the change from the past months of
confinement in a city school, and missed nothing of the beauty of the
country and the smell of the good brown earth, as her Uncle drove
swiftly homeward.

"Uncle John," said Mary, "'tis easy to believe God made the country."

"Yes," rejoined her Uncle, "the country is good enough for me."

"With the exception of the one day in the month, when you attend the
'Shriners' meeting' in the city," mischievously supplemented Mary, who
knew her Uncle's liking for the Masonic Lodge of which he was a
member, "and," she continued, "I brought you a picture for your
birthday, which we shall celebrate tomorrow. The picture will please
you, I know. It is entitled, 'I Love to Love a Mason, 'Cause a Mason
Never Tells.'"

They passed cultivated farms. Inside many of the rail fences,
inclosing fields of grain or clover, were planted numberless sour
cherry trees, snowy with bloom, the ground underneath white with
fallen petals. The air was sweet with the perfume of the half-opened
buds on the apple trees in the near-by orchards and rose-like pink
blossoms of the "flowering" crab-apple, in the door yards. Swiftly
they drove through cool, green, leafy woods, crossing a wooden bridge
spanning a small stream, so shallow that the stones at the bottom were
plainly to be seen. A loud splash, as the sound of carriage wheels
broke the uninterrupted silence, and a commotion in the water gave
evidence of the sudden disappearance of several green-backed frogs,
sunning themselves on a large, moss-grown rock, projecting above the
water's edge; from shady nooks and crevices peeped clusters of early
white violets; graceful maidenhair ferns, and hardier members of the
fern family, called "Brake," uncurled their graceful, sturdy fronds
from the carpet of green moss and lichen at the base of tree trunks,
growing along the water's edge. Partly hidden by rocks along the bank
of the stream, nestled a few belated cup-shaped anemones or "Wind
Flowers," from which most of the petals had blown, they being one of
the earliest messengers of Spring. Through the undergrowth in the
woods, in passing, could be seen the small buds of the azalea or wild
honeysuckle, "Sheep's Laurel," the deep pink buds on the American
Judas tree, trailing vines of "Tea Berry," and beneath dead leaves one
caught an occasional glimpse of fragrant, pink arbutus. In marshy
places beside the creek, swaying in the wind from slender stems, grew
straw-colored, bell-shaped blossoms of "Adder's Tongue" or "Dog Tooth
Violet," with their mottled green, spike-shaped leaves. In the shadow
of a large rock grew dwarf huckleberry bushes, wild strawberry vines,
and among grasses of many varieties grew patches of white and
pink-tinted Alsatian clover.

Leaving behind the spicy, fragrant, "woodsy" smell of wintergreen,
birch and sassafras, and the faint, sweet scent of the creamy,
wax-like blossoms of "Mandrake" or May apple, peeping from beneath
large, umbrella-like, green leaves they emerged at last from the dim,
cool shadows of the woods into the warm, bright sunlight again.

Almost before Mary realized it, the farm house could be seen in the
distance, and her Uncle called her attention to his new, red barn,
which had been built since her last visit to the farm, and which, in
her Uncle's estimation, was of much greater importance than the house.

Mary greeted with pleasure the old landmarks so familiar to her on
former visits. They passed the small, stone school house at the
crossroads, and in a short time the horses turned obediently into the
lane leading to the barn a country lane in very truth, a tangle of
blackberry vines, wild rose bushes, by farmers called "Pasture Roses,"
interwoven with bushes of sumach, wild carrots and golden rod.

Mary insisted that her Uncle drive directly to the barn, as was his
usual custom, while she was warmly welcomed at the farm house gate by
her Aunt. As her Uncle led away the horses, he said, "I will soon join
you, Mary, 'to break of our bread and eat of our salt,' as they say in
the 'Shrine.'"

On their way to the house, Mary remarked: "I am so glad we reached
here before dusk. The country is simply beautiful! Have you ever
noticed, Aunt Sarah, what a symphony in green is the yard? Look at the
buds on the maples and lilacs--a faint yellow green--and the
blue-green pine tree near by; the leaves of the German iris are
another shade; the grass, dotted with yellow dandelions, and blue
violets; the straight, grim, reddish-brown stalks of the peonies
before the leaves have unfolded, all roofed over with the
blossom-covered branches of pear, apple and 'German Prune' trees.
Truly, this must resemble Paradise!"

"Yes," assented her Aunt, "I never knew blossoms to remain on the
pear trees so long a time. We have had no 'blossom shower' as yet to
scatter them, but there will be showers tonight, I think, or I am no
prophet. I feel rain in the atmosphere, and Sibylla said a few moments
ago she heard a 'rain bird' in the mulberry tree."

"Aunt Sarah," inquired Mary, "is the rhubarb large enough to use?"

"Yes, indeed, we have baked rhubarb pies and have had a surfeit of
dandelion salad or 'Salat,' as our neighbors designate it. Your Uncle
calls 'dandelion greens' the farmers' spring tonic; that and
'celadine,' that plant you see growing by the side of the house. Later
in the season it bears small, yellow flowers not unlike a very small
buttercup blossom, and it is said to be an excellent remedy for chills
and fevers, and it tastes almost as bitter as quinine. There are
bushels of dandelion blossoms, some of which we shall pick tomorrow,
and from them make dandelion wine."

"And what use will my thrifty Aunt make of the blue violets?"
mischievously inquired Mary.

"The violets," replied her Aunt, "I shall dig up carefully with some
earth adhering to their roots and place them in a glass bowl for a
centrepiece on the table for my artistic and beauty-loving niece; and
if kept moist, you will be surprised at the length of time they will
remain 'a thing of beauty' if not 'a joy forever.' And later, Mary,
from them I'll teach you to make violet beads."

"Aunt Sarah, notice that large robin endeavoring to pull a worm from
the ground. Do you suppose the same birds return here from the South
every Summer?"

"Certainty, I do."

"That old mulberry tree, from the berries of which you made such
delicious pies and marmalade last Summer, is it dead?"

"No; only late about getting its Spring outfit of leaves."



"Schuggenhaus," said Sarah Landis, speaking to her niece, Mary
Midleton, "is one of the largest and most populous townships in Bucks
County, probably so named by the early German settlers, some of whom,
I think, were my father's ancestors, as they came originally from
Zweibrucken, Germany, and settled in Schuggenhaus Township.
Schuggenhaus is one of the most fertile townships in Bucks County and
one of the best cultivated; farming is our principal occupation, and
the population of the township today is composed principally of the
descendants of well-to-do Germans, frequently called 'Pennsylvania

"I have often heard them called by that name," said Mary. "Have you
forgotten, Aunt Sarah, you promised to tell me something interesting
about the first red clover introduced in Bucks County?"

"Red clover," replied her Aunt, "that having bright, crimson-pink
heads, is the most plentiful and the most common variety of clover;
but knowing how abundantly it grows in different parts of the country
at the present time, one would scarcely have believed, in olden times,
that it would ever be so widely distributed as it now is.

"One reason clover does so well in this country is that the
fertilization of the clover is produced by pollenation by the busy
little bumble-bee, who carries the pollen from blossom to blossom, and
clover is dependent upon these small insects for fertilization, as
without them clover would soon die out."

"I admire the feathery, fuzzy, pink-tipped, rabbit-foot clover," said
Mary; "it is quite fragrant, and usually covered with butterflies. It
makes such very pretty bouquets when you gather huge bunches of it."

[Illustration: THE OLD MILL WHEEL]

"No, Mary, I think you are thinking of Alsatian clover, which is
similar to white clover. The small, round heads are cream color,
tinged with pink; it is very fragrant and sweet and grows along the
roadside and, like the common white clover, is a favorite with bees.
The yellow hop clover we also find along the roadside. As the heads of
clover mature, they turn yellowish brown and resemble dried hops;
sometimes yellow, brown and tan blossoms are seen on one branch. The
cultivation of red clover was introduced here a century ago, and when
in bloom the fields attracted great attention. Being the first ever
grown in this part of Bucks County, people came for miles to look at
it, the fence around the fields some days being lined with spectators,
I have been told by my grandfather. I remember when a child nothing
appeared to me more beautiful than my father's fields of flax; a mass
of bright blue flowers. I also remember the fields of broom-corn. Just
think! We made our own brooms, wove linen from the flax raised on our
farm and made our own tallow candles. Mary, from what a thrifty and
hard-working lot of ancestors you are descended! You inherit from your
mother your love of work and from your father your love of books. Your
father's uncle was a noted Shakespearean scholar."

Many old-time industries are passing away. Yet Sarah Landis, was a
housewife of the old school and still cooked apple butter, or "Lodt
Varrik," as the Germans call it; made sauerkraut and hard soap, and
naked old-fashioned "German" rye bread on the hearth, which owed its
excellence not only to the fact of its being hearth baked but to the
rye flour being ground in an old mill in a near-by town, prepared by
the old process of grinding between mill-stones instead of the more
modern roller process. This picture of the old mill, taken by Fritz
Schmidt, shows it is not artistic, but, like most articles of German
manufacture, the mill was built more for its usefulness than to please
the eye.

[Illustration: THE OLD MILL]

"Aunt Sarah, what is pumpernickel?" inquired Mary, "is it like rye

"No, my dear, not exactly, it is a dark-colored bread, used in some
parts of Germany. Professor Schmidt tells me the bread is usually
composed of a mixture of barley flour and rye flour. Some I have eaten
looks very much like our own brown bread. Pumpernickel is considered a
very wholesome bread by the Germans--and I presume one might learn to
relish it, but I should prefer good, sweet, home-made rye bread. I
was told by an old gentleman who came to this country from Germany
when a boy, that pumpernickel was used in the German army years ago,
and was somewhat similar to 'hard tack,' furnished our soldiers in the
Civil War. But I cannot vouch for the truth of this assertion."

"Aunt Sarah," said Mary later, "Frau Schmidt tells me the Professor
sends his rye to the mill and requests that every part of it be ground
without separating--making what he calls 'whole rye flour,' and from
this Frau Schmidt bakes wholesome, nutritious bread which they call
'pumpernickel,' She tells me she uses about one-third of this 'whole
rye flour' to two-thirds white bread flour when baking bread, and she
considers bread made from this whole grain more wholesome and
nutritious than the bread made from our fine rye flour."



The Bucks County farmer, John Landis, rather more scholarly in
appearance than men ordinarily found in agricultural districts, was
possessed of an adust complexion, caused by constant exposure to wind
and weather; tall and spare, without an ounce of superfluous fat;
energetic, and possessed of remarkable powers of endurance. He had a
kindly, benevolent expression; his otherwise plain face was redeemed
by fine, expressive brown eyes. Usually silent and preoccupied, and
almost taciturn, yet he possessed a fund of dry humor. An
old-fashioned Democrat, his wife was a Republican. He usually
accompanied Aunt Sarah to her church, the Methodist, although he was a
member of the German Reformed, and declared he had changed his
religion to please her, but change his politics, never. A member of
the Masonic Lodge, his only diversion was an occasional trip to the
city with a party of the "boys" to attend a meeting of the "Shriners."

Aunt Sarah protested. "The idea, John, at your age, being out so late
at night and returning from the city on the early milk train the
following morning, and then being still several miles from home. It's

He only chuckled to himself; and what the entertainment had been,
which was provided at Lulu Temple, and which he had so thoroughly
enjoyed, was left to her imagination. His only remark when questioned
was: "Sarah, you're not in it. You are not a 'Shriner.'" And as John
had in every other particular fulfilled her ideal of what constitutes
a good husband, Sarah, like the wise woman she was, allowed the
subject to drop.

A good, practical, progressive farmer, John Landis constantly read,
studied and pondered over the problem of how to produce the largest
results at least cost of time and labor. His crops were skillfully
planted in rich soil, carefully cultivated and usually harvested
earlier than those of his neighbors. One summer he raised potatoes so
large that many of them weighed one pound each, and new potatoes and
green peas, fresh from the garden, invariably appeared on Aunt Sarah's
table the first of July, and sometimes earlier. I have known him to
raise cornstalks which reached a height of thirteen feet, which were
almost equaled by his wife's sunflower stalks, which usually averaged
nine feet in height.

Aunt Sarah, speaking one day to Mary, said: "Your Uncle John is an
unusually silent man. I have heard him remark that when people talk
continuously they are either _very_ intelligent or tell untruths." He,
happening to overhear her remark, quickly retorted:

    "The man who speaks a dozen tongues,
      When all is said and done,
    Don't hold a match to him who knows
      How to keep still in one."

When annoyed at his wife's talkativeness, her one fault in her
husband's eyes, if he thought she had a fault, he had a way of saying,
"Alright, Sarah, Alright," as much as to say "that is final; you have
said enough," in his peculiar, quick manner of speaking, which Aunt
Sarah never resented, he being invariably kind and considerate in
other respects.

John Landis was a successful farmer because he loved his work, and
found joy in it. While not unmindful of the advantages possessed by
the educated farmer of the present day, he said, "'Tis not college
lore our boys need so much as practical education to develop their
efficiency. While much that we eat and wear comes out of the ground,
we should have more farmers, the only way to lower the present high
cost of living, which is such a perplexing problem to the housewife.
There is almost no limit to what might be accomplished by some of our
bright boys should they make agriculture a study. Luther Burbank says,
'To add but one kernel of corn to each ear grown in this country in a
single year would increase the supply five million bushels.'"



The old unpainted farm house, built of logs a century ago, had changed
in the passing years to a grayish tint. An addition had been built to
the house several years before Aunt Sarah's occupancy, The sober hue
of the house harmonized with the great, gnarled old trunk of the
meadow willow near-by. Planted when the house was built, it spread its
great branches protectingly over it. A wild clematis growing at the
foot of the tree twined its tendrils around the massive trunk until in
late summer they had become an inseparable part of it, almost covering
it with feathery blossoms.

[Illustration: Old Corn Crib]

[Illustration: The New Barn]

Near by stood an antique arbor, covered with thickly-clustering vines,
in season bending with the weight of "wild-scented" grapes, their
fragrance mingling with the odor of "Creek Mint" growing near by a
small streamlet and filling the air with a delicious fragrance. The
mint had been used in earlier years by Aunt Sarah's grandfather as a
beverage which he preferred to any other.

From a vine clambering up the grape arbor trellies, in the fall of the
year, hung numerous orange-colored balsam apples, which opened, when
ripe, disclosing bright crimson interior and seeds. These apples, Aunt
Sarah claimed, if placed in alcohol and applied externally, possessed
great medicinal value as a specific for rheumatism.

[Illustration: THE OLD FARM HOUSE]

A short distance from the house stood the newly-built red barn, facing
the pasture lot. On every side stretched fields which, in summer,
waved with wheat, oats, rye and buckwheat, and the corn crib stood
close by, ready for the harvest to fill it to overflowing. Beside the
farm house door stood a tall, white oleander, planted in a large,
green-painted wooden tub. Near by, in a glazed earthenware pot, grew
the old-fashioned lantana plant, covered with clusters of tiny
blossoms, of various shades of orange, red and pink.

In flower beds outlined by clam shells which had been freshly
whitewashed blossomed fuchsias, bleeding hearts, verbenas, dusty
millers, sweet clove-scented pinks, old-fashioned, dignified, purple
digitalis or foxglove, stately pink Princess Feather, various
brilliant-hued zinnias, or more commonly called "Youth and Old Age,"
and as gayly colored, if more humble and lowly, portulacas; the
fragrant white, star-like blossoms of the nicotiana, or "Flowering
Tobacco," which, like the yellow primrose, are particularly fragrant
at sunset. Geraniums of every hue, silver-leaved and rose-scented;
yellow marigolds and those with brown, velvety petals; near by the
pale green and white-mottled leaves of the plant called "Snow on the
Mountain" and in the centre of one of the large, round flower beds,
grew sturdy "Castor Oil Beans," their large, copper-bronze leaves
almost covering the tiny blue forget-me-nots growing beneath. Near the
flower bed grew a thrifty bush of pink-flowering almonds; not far
distant grew a spreading "shrub" bush, covered with fragrant brown
buds, and beside it a small tree of pearly-white snowdrops.

Sarah Landis loved the wholesome, earthy odors of growing plants and
delighted in her flowers, particularly the perennials, which were
planted promiscuously all over the yard. I have frequently heard her
quote: "One is nearer God's heart in a garden than any place else on
earth." And she would say, "I love the out-of-door life, in touch with
the earth; the natural life of man or woman." Inside the fence of the
kitchen garden were planted straight rows of both red and yellow
currants, and several gooseberry bushes. In one corner of the garden,
near the summer kitchen, stood a large bush of black currants, from
the yellow, sweet-scented blossoms of which Aunt Sarah's bees, those
"Heaven instructed mathematicians," sucked honey. Think of Aunt
Sarah's buckwheat cakes, eaten with honey made from currant, clover,
buckwheat and dandelion blossoms!

Her garden was second to none in Bucks County. She planted tomato
seeds in boxes and placed them in a sunny window, raising her plants
early; hence she had ripe tomatoes before any one else in the
neighborhood. Her peas were earlier also, and her beets and potatoes
were the largest; her corn the sweetest; and, as her asparagus bed was
always well salted, her asparagus was the finest to be had.

Through the centre of the garden patch, on either side the walk, were
large flower beds, a blaze of brilliant color from early Spring, when
the daffodils blossomed, until frost killed the dahlias, asters,
scarlet sage, sweet Williams, Canterbury bells, pink and white
snapdragon, spikes of perennial, fragrant, white heliotrope; blue
larkspur, four o'clocks, bachelor buttons and many other dear,
old-fashioned flowers. The dainty pink, funnel-shaped blossoms of the
hardy swamp "Rose Mallow'" bloomed the entire Summer, the last flowers
to be touched by frost, vying in beauty with the pink monthly roses
planted near by.

Children who visited Aunt Sarah delighted in the small Jerusalem
cherry tree, usually covered with bright, scarlet berries, which was
planted near the veranda, and they never tired pinching the tiny
leaves of the sensitive plant to see them quickly droop, as if dead,
then slowly unfold and straighten as if a thing of life.

Visitors to the farm greatly admired the large, creamy-white lily-like
blossoms of the datura. Farthest from the house were the useful herb
beds, filled with parsley, hoarhound, sweet marjoram, lavender,
saffron, sage, sweet basil, summer savory and silver-striped rosemary
or "old man," as it was commonly called by country folk.

Tall clusters of phlox, a riot of color in midsummer, crimson-eyed,
white and rose-colored blossoms topping the tall steins, and clusters
of brilliant-red bergamot near by had been growing, from time
immemorial, a cluster of green and white-striped grass, without which
no door yard in this section of Bucks County was considered complete
in olden times. Near by, silvery plumes of pampas grass gently swayed
on their reed-like stems. Even the garden was not without splashes of
color, where, between rows of vegetables, grew pale, pink-petaled
poppies, seeming to have scarcely a foothold in the rich soil. But
the daintiest, sweetest bed of all, and the one that Mary enjoyed
most, was where the lilies of the valley grew in the shade near a
large, white lilac bush. Here, on a rustic bench beneath an old apple
tree, stitching on her embroidery, she dreamed happy dreams of her
absent lover, and planned for the life they were to live together some
day, in the home he was striving to earn for her by his own manly
exertions; and she assiduously studied and pondered over Aunt Sarah's
teaching and counsel, knowing them to be wise and good.

A short distance from the farm house, where the old orchard sloped
down to the edge of the brook, grew tall meadow rue, with feathery
clusters of green and white flowers; and the green, gold-lined,
bowl-shaped blossoms of the "Cow Lily," homely stepsisters of the
fragrant, white pond lily, surrounded by thick, waxy, green leaves,
lazily floated on the surface of the water from long stems in the bed
of the creek, and on the bank a carpet was formed by golden-yellow,
creeping buttercups.

In the side yard grew two great clumps of iris, or, as it is more
commonly called, "Blue Flag." Its blossoms, dainty as rare orchids,
with lily-like, violet-veined petals of palest-tinted mauve and

On the sunny side of the old farm house, facing the East, where at
early morn the sun shone bright and warm, grew Aunt Sarah's pansies,
with velvety, red-brown petals, golden-yellow and dark purple. They
were truly "Heart's Ease," gathered with a lavish hand, and sent as
gifts to friends who were ill. The more she picked the faster they
multiplied, and came to many a sick bed "sweet messengers of Spring."

If Aunt Sarah had a preference for one particular flower, 'twas the
rose, and they well repaid the time and care she lavished on them. She
had pale-tinted blush roses, with hearts of deepest pink; rockland and
prairie and hundred-leaf roses, pink and crimson ramblers, but the
most highly-prized roses of her collection were an exquisite, deep
salmon-colored "Marquis De Sinety" and an old-fashioned pink moss
rose, which grew beside a large bush of mock-orange, the creamy
blossoms of the latter almost as fragrant as real orange blossoms of
the sunny Southland. Not far distant, planted in a small bed by
themselves, grew old-fashioned, sweet-scented, double petunias,
ragged, ripple, ruffled corollas of white, with splotches of brilliant
crimson and purple, their slender stems scarcely strong enough to
support the heavy blossoms.

In one of the sunniest spots in the old garden grew Aunt Sarah's
latest acquisition. "The Butterfly Bush," probably so named on account
of its graceful stems, covered with spikes of tiny, lilac-colored
blossoms, over which continually hovered large, gorgeously-hued
butterflies, vying with the flowers in brilliancy of color, from early
June until late Summer.

Aunt Sarah's sunflowers, or "Sonnen Blume," as she liked to call them,
planted along the garden fence to feed chickens and birds alike, were
a sight worth seeing. The birds generally confiscated the larger
portion of seeds. A pretty sight it was to see a flock of wild
canaries, almost covering the tops of the largest sunflowers, busily
engaged picking out the rich, oily seeds.

Aunt Sarah loved the golden flowers, which always appeared to be
nodding to the sun, and her sunflowers were particularly fine, some
being as much as fifty inches in circumference.

A bouquet of the smaller ones was usually to be seen in a quaint, old,
blue-flowered, gray jar on the farm house veranda in Summertime.
Earlier in the season blossoms of the humble artichoke, which greatly
resemble small sunflowers, or large yellow daisies, filled the jar.
Failing either of these, she gathered large bouquets of golden-rod or
wild carrot blossoms, both of which grew in profusion along the
country lanes and roadside near the farm. But the old gray jar never
held a bouquet more beautiful than the one of bright, blue "fringed
gentians," gathered by Aunt Sarah in the Fall of the year, several
miles distant from the farm.



    "There's no deny'n women are foolish,
    God A'mighty made them to match the men."

A short time after her arrival at the farm Mary poured into the
sympathetic ear of Aunt Sarah her hopes and plans. Her lover, Ralph
Jackson, to whom she had become engaged the past Winter, held a
position with the Philadelphia Electric Company, and was studying hard
outside working hours. His ambition was to become an electrical
engineer. He was getting fair wages, and wished Mary to marry him at
once. She confessed she loved Ralph too well to marry him, ignorant as
she was of economical housekeeping and cooking.

Mary, early left an orphan, had studied diligently to fit herself for
a kindergarten teacher, so she would be capable of earning her own
living on leaving school, which accounted for her lack of knowledge of
housework, cooking, etc.

Aunt Sarah, loving Mary devotedly, and knowing the young man of her
choice to be clean, honest and worthy, promised to do all in her power
to make their dream of happiness come true. Learning from Mary that
Ralph was thin and pale from close confinement, hard work and study,
and of his intention of taking a short vacation, she determined he
should spend it on the farm, where she would be able to "mother him."

"You acted sensibly, Mary," said her Aunt, "in refusing to marry Ralph
at the present time, realizing your lack of knowledge of housework and
inability to manage a home. Neither would you know how to spend the
money provided by him economically and wisely, and, in this age of
individual efficiency, a business knowledge of housekeeping is almost
as important in making a happy home as is love. I think it quite as
necessary that a woman who marries should understand housekeeping in
all its varied branches as that the man who marries should understand
his trade or profession; for, without the knowledge of means to gain a
livelihood (however great his love for a woman), how is the man to
hold that woman's love and affection unless he is able by his own
exertions to provide her with necessities, comforts, and, perhaps, in
later years, luxuries? And in return, the wife should consider it her
duty and pleasure to know how to do her work systematically; learn the
value of different foods and apply the knowledge gained daily in
preparing them; study to keep her husband in the best of health,
physically and mentally. Then will his efficiency be greater and he
will be enabled to do his 'splendid best' in whatever position in life
he is placed, be he statesman or hod-carrier. What difference, if an
honest heart beat beneath a laborer's hickory shirt, or one of fine
linen? 'One hand, if it's true, is as good as another, no matter how
brawny or rough.' Mary, do not think the trivial affairs of the home
beneath your notice, and do not imagine any work degrading which tends
to the betterment of the home. Remember, 'Who sweeps a room as for Thy
law, makes that and the action fine.'

"Our lives are all made up of such small, commonplace things and this
is such a commonplace old world, Mary. 'The commonplace earth and the
commonplace sky make up the commonplace day,' and 'God must have loved
common people, or He would not have made so many of them.' And, what
if we are commonplace? We cannot all be artists, poets and sculptors.
Yet, how frequently we see people in commonplace surroundings,
possessing the soul of an artist, handicapped by physical disability
or lack of means! We are all necessary in the great, eternal plan.
'Tis not good deeds alone for which we receive our reward, but for the
performance of duty well done, in however humble circumstances our lot
is cast. Is it not Lord Houghton who says: 'Do not grasp at the stars,
but do life's plain, common work as it comes, certain that daily
duties and daily bread are the sweetest things of life.' I consider a
happy home in the true sense of the word one of the greatest of
blessings. How important is the work of the housemother and homemaker
who creates the home! There can be no happiness there unless the
wheels of the domestic machinery are oiled by loving care and kindness
to make them run smoothly, and the noblest work a woman can do is
training and rearing her children. Suffrage, the right of woman to
vote; will it not take women from the home? I am afraid the home will
then suffer in consequence. Will man accord woman the same reverence
she has received in the past? Should she have equal political rights?
A race lacking respect for women would never advance socially or
politically. I think women could not have a more important part in the
government of the land than in rearing and educating their children to
be good, useful citizens. In what nobler work could women engage than
in work to promote the comfort and well-being of the ones they love in
the home? I say, allow men to make the laws, as God and nature
planned. I think women should keep to the sphere God made them
for--the home. Said Gladstone, 'Woman is the most perfect when most
womanly.' There is nothing, I think, more despicable than a masculine,
mannish woman, unless it be an effeminate, sissy man. Dr. Clarke
voiced my sentiments when he said: 'Man is not superior to woman, nor
woman to man. The relation of the sexes is one of equality, not of
better or worse, of higher and lower. The loftiest ideal of humanity
demands that each shall be perfect in its kind and not be hindered in
its best work. The lily is not inferior to the rose, nor the oak
superior to the clover; yet the glory of the lily is one and the glory
of the oak is another, and the use of the oak is not the use of the

"This present-day generation demands of women greater efficiency in
the home than ever before. And Mary, many of the old-time industries
which I had been accustomed to as a girl have passed away. Electricity
and numerous labor-saving devices make household tasks easier,
eliminating some altogether. When housekeeping you will find time to
devote to many important questions of the day which we old-time
housekeepers never dreamed of having. Considerable thought should be
given to studying to improve and simplify conditions of the home-life.
It is your duty. Obtain books; study food values and provide those
foods which nourish the body, instead of spending time uselessly
preparing dainties to tempt a jaded appetite. Don't spoil Ralph when
you marry him. Give him good, wholesome food, and plenty of it; but
although the cooking of food takes up much of a housekeeper's time, it
is not wise to allow it to take up one's time to the exclusion of
everything else. Mary, perhaps my views are old-fashioned. I am not a
'new woman' in any sense of the word. The new woman may take her place
beside man in the business world and prove equally as efficient, but
I do not think woman should invade man's sphere any more than he
should assume her duties."

"Aunt Sarah, I am surprised to hear you talk in that manner about
woman's sphere," replied Mary, "knowing what a success you are in the
home, and how beautifully you manage everything you undertake. I felt,
once you recognized the injustice done woman in not allowing them to
vote, you would feel differently, and since women are obliged to obey
the laws, should they not have a voice in choosing the lawmakers? When
you vote, it will not take you out of the home. You and Uncle John
will merely stop on your way to the store, and instead of Uncle John
going in to write and register what he thinks should be done and by
whom it should be done, you too will express your opinion. This will
likely be twice a year. By doing this, no woman loses her womanliness,
goodness or social position, and to these influences the vote is but
another influence. I know there are many things in connection with the
right of equal suffrage with what you do not sympathize.

"Aunt Sarah, let me tell you about a dear friend of mine who taught
school with me in the city. Emily taught a grammar grade, and did not
get the same salary the men teachers received for doing the same work,
which I think was unfair. Emily studied and frequently heard and read
about what had been done in Colorado and other States where women
vote. She got us all interested, and the more we learned about the
cause the harder we worked for it. Emily married a nice, big, railroad
man. They bought a pretty little house in a small town, had three
lovely children and were very happy. More than ever as time passed
Emily realized the need of woman's influence in the community. It is
true, I'll admit, Aunt Sarah, housekeeping and especially home-making
are the great duties of every woman, and to provide the most
wholesome, nourishing food possible for the family is the duty of
every mother, as the health, comfort and happiness of the family
depend so largely on the _common sense_ (only another name for
efficiency) and skill of the homemaker, and the wise care and though
she expends on the preparation of wholesome, nutritious food in the
home, either the work of her own hands or prepared under her
direction. You can _not_ look after these duties without getting
_outside_ of your home, especially when you live like Emily, in a
town where the conditions are so different from living as you do on a
farm in the country. Milk, bread and water are no longer controlled by
the woman in her home, living in cities and towns; and just because
women want to look out for their families they should have a voice in
the larger problems of municipal housekeeping. To return to Emily, she
did not bake her own bread, as you do, neither did she keep a cow, but
bought milk and bread to feed the children. Wasn't it her duty to
leave the home and see where these products were produced, and if they
were sanitary? And, knowing the problem outside the home would so
materially affect the health, and perhaps lives, of her children, she
felt it her distinctive duty to keep house in a larger sense. When the
children became old enough to attend school, Emily again took up her
old interest in schools. She began to realize how much more just it
would be if an equal number of women were on the school board."

"But what did the husband think of all this?" inquired Aunt Sarah,

"Oh, Tom studied the case, too, at first just to tease Emily, but he
soon became as enthusiastic as Emily. He said, 'The first time you are
privileged to vote, Emily, I will hire an automobile to take you to
the polls in style.' But poor Emily was left alone with her children
last winter. Tom died of typhoid fever. Contracted it from the bad
drainage. They lived in a town not yet safeguarded with sewerage. Now
Emily is a taxpayer as well as a mother, and she has no say as far as
the town and schools are concerned. There are many cases like that,
where widows and unmarried women own property, and they are in no way
represented. And think of the thousands and thousands of women who
have no home to stay in and no babies to look after."

"Mercy, Mary! Do stop to take breath. I never thought when I started
this subject I would have an enthusiastic suffragist with whom to

"I am glad you started the subject, Aunt Sarah, because there is so
much to be said for the cause. I saw you glance at the clock and I see
it is time to prepare supper. But some day I'm going to stop that old
clock and bring down some of my books on 'Woman's Suffrage' and you'll
he surprised to hear what they have done in States where equal
privileges were theirs. I am sure 'twill not be many years before
every State in the Union will give women the right of suffrage."

       *       *       *       *       *

After Mary retired that evening Aunt Sarah had a talk with her John,
whom she knew needed help on the farm. As a result of the conference,
Mary wrote to Ralph the following day, asking him to spend his
vacation on the farm as a "farm hand." Needless to say, the offer was
gladly accepted by Ralph, if for no other reason than to be near the
girl he loved.

Ralph came the following week--"a strapping big fellow," to quote
Uncle John, being several inches over six feet.

"All you need, young chap," said Mary's Uncle, "is plenty of good,
wholesome food of Sarah's and Mary's preparing, and I'll see that you
get plenty of exercise in the fresh air to give you an appetite to
enjoy it, and you'll get a healthy coat of tan on your pale cheeks
before the Summer is ended."

Ralph Jackson, or "Jack," as he was usually called by his friends, an
orphan like Mary, came of good, old Quaker stock, his mother having
died immediately after giving birth to her son. His father, supposed
to be a wealthy contractor, died when Ralph was seventeen, having lost
his fortune through no fault of his own, leaving Ralph penniless.

Ralph Jackson possessed a good face, a square, determined jaw, sure
sign of a strong will and quick temper; these Berserker traits he
inherited from his father; rather unusual in a Quaker. He possessed a
head of thick, coarse, straight brown hair, and big honest eyes. One
never doubted his word, once it had been given. 'Twas good as his
bond. This trait he inherited also from his father, noted for his
truth and integrity. Ralph was generous to a fault. When a small boy
he was known to take off his shoes and give them to a poor little
Italian (who played a violin on the street for pennies) and go home

Ralph loved Mary devotedly, not only because she fed him well at the
farm, as were his forefathers, the "Cave Men," fed by their mates in
years gone by, but he loved her first for her sweetness of disposition
and lovable ways; later, for her quiet unselfishness and lack of
temper over trifles--so different from himself.

When speaking to Mary of his other fine qualities, Aunt Sarah said:
"Ralph is a manly young fellow; likeable, I'll admit, but his hasty
temper is a grave fault in my eyes."

Mary replied, "Don't you think men are very queer, anyway, Aunt Sarah?
I do, and none of us is perfect."

[Illustration: RALPH JACKSON]

To Mary, Ralph's principal charm lay in his strong, forceful way of
surmounting difficulties, she having a disposition so different. Mary
had a sweet, motherly way, seldom met with in so young a girl, and
this appealed to Ralph, he having never known "mother love," and
although not at all inclined to be sentimental, he always called Mary
his "Little Mother Girl" because of her motherly ways.

[Illustration: ROCKY VALLEY]

"Well," continued Mary's Aunt, "a quick temper is one of the most
difficult faults to overcome that flesh is heir to, but Ralph, being a
young man of uncommon good sense, may in time curb his temper and
learn to control it, knowing that unless be does so it will handicap
him in his career. Still, a young girl will overlook many faults in
the man she loves. Mary, ere marrying, one should be sure that no love
be lacking to those entering these sacred bonds. 'Tis not for a day,
but for a lifetime, to the right thinking. Marriage, as a rule, is too
lightly entered into in this Twentieth Century of easy divorces, and
but few regard matrimony in its true holy relation, ordained by our
Creator. If it be founded on the tower of enduring love and not
ephemeral passion, it is unassailable, lasting in faith and honor
until death breaks the sacred union and annuls the vows pledged at
God's holy altar."

"Well," replied Mary, as her Aunt paused to take breath, "I am sure of
my love for Ralph."

"God grant you may both be happy," responded her Aunt.

"Mary, did you ever hear this Persian proverb? You will understand why
I have so much to say after hearing it."

    "'Says a proverb of Persia provoking mirth;
      When this world was created by order divine.
    Ten measures of talk were put down on the earth,
      And the woman took nine.'"

Speaking to Mary of life on the farm one day, Ralph laughingly said:
"I am taught something new every day. Yesterday your Uncle told me it
was 'time to plant corn when oak leaves were large as squirrels'
ears.'" Ralph worked like a Trojan. In a short time both his hands and
face took on a butternut hue. He became strong and robust. Mary called
him her "Cave Man," and it taxed the combined efforts of Aunt Sarah
and Mary to provide food to satisfy the ravenous appetite Mary's "Cave
Man" developed. And often, after a busy day, tired but happy, Mary
fell asleep at night to the whispering of the leaves of the Carolina
poplar outside her bedroom window.

But country life on a farm has its diversions. One of Mary's and
Ralph's greatest pleasures after a busy day at the farm was a drive
about the surrounding country early Summer evenings, frequently
accompanied by either Elizabeth or Pauline Schmidt, their nearest

One of the first places visited by them was a freak of nature called
"Rocky Valley," situated at no great distance from the farm.




A small country place named "Five Oaks," a short distance from "Clear
Spring" farm, was owned by a very worthy and highly-educated, but
rather eccentric, German professor. He came originally from
Heidelberg, but had occupied the position of Professor of German for
many years in a noted university in a near by town. A kind,
warm-hearted, old-fashioned gentleman was the Professor; a perfect
Lord Chesterfield in manners. Very tall, thin almost to emaciation,
although possessed of excellent health; refined, scholarly looking: a
rather long, hooked nose, faded, pale-blue eyes; snowy, flowing "Lord
Dundreary" whiskers, usually parted in the centre and twisted to a
point on either side with the exceedingly long, bony fingers of his
well-kept, aristocratic-looking white hands. He had an abrupt, quick,
nervous manner when speaking. A fringe of thin, white hair showed at
the lower edge of the black silk skull cap which he invariably wore
about home, and in the absence of this covering for his bald head, he
would not have looked natural to his friends.

The Professor always wore a suit of well-brushed, "shiny" black
broadcloth, and for comfort old-fashioned soft kid "gaiters," with
elastic in the sides. He was a man with whom one did not easily become
acquainted, having very decided opinions on most subjects. He
possessed exquisite taste, a passionate love of music, flowers and all
things beautiful; rather visionary, poetical and a dreamer; he was not
practical, like his wife; warm-hearted, impulsive, energetic Frau
Schmidt, who was noted for her executive abilities. I can imagine the
old Professor saying as Mohammed has been quoted as saying, "Had I two
loaves, I would sell one and buy hyacinths to feed my soul."
Impulsive, generous to a fault, quick to take offense, withal
warm-hearted, kind and loyal to his friends, he was beloved by the
students, who declared that "Old Snitzy" always played fair when he
was obliged to reprimand them for their numerous pranks, which ended
sometimes, I am obliged to confess, with disastrous results. The
dignified old Professor would have raised his mild, blue, spectacled
eyes in astonishment had he been so unfortunate as to have overheard
the boys, to whom he was greatly attached, call their dignified
preceptor by such a nickname.

The Professor's little black-eyed German wife, many years younger than
her husband, had been, before her marriage, teacher of domestic
science in a female college in a large city. "She was a most excellent
housekeeper," to quote the Professor, and "a good wife and mother."

The family consisted of "Fritz," a boy of sixteen, with big, innocent,
baby-blue eyes like his father, who idolized his only son, who was
alike a joy and a torment. Fritz attended the university in a near-by
town, and was usually head of the football team. He was always at the
front in any mischief whatever, was noted for getting into scrapes
innumerable through his love of fun, yet he possessed such a
good-natured, unselfish, happy-go-lucky disposition that one always
forgave him.

Black-eyed, red-cheeked Elizabeth was quick and impulsive, like her
mother. A very warm and lasting friendship sprung up between merry
Elizabeth and serious Mary Midleton during Mary's Summer on the farm,
although not at all alike in either looks or disposition, and
Elizabeth was Mary's junior by several years.

The third, last and least of the Professor's children was Pauline, or
"Pollykins," as she was always called by her brother Fritz, the
seven-year-old pet and baby of the family. A second edition of Fritz,
the same innocent, questioning, violet-blue eyes, fair complexion, a
kissable little mouth and yellow, kinky hair, she won her way into
every one's heart and became greatly attached to Mary, who was usually
more patient with the little maid (who, I must confess, was sometimes
very willful) than was her sister Elizabeth. Mary, who had never been
blessed with a sister, dearly loved children, and thought small
"Polly" adorable, and never wearied telling her marvelous fairy tales.

[Illustration: FRAU SCHMIDT]



Shortly after Mary's advent at the farm she one day said: "Aunt Sarah,
the contents of this old trunk are absolutely worthless to me; perhaps
they may be used by you for carpet rags."

"Mary Midleton!" exclaimed Aunt Sarah, in horrified tones, "you
extravagant girl. I see greater possibilities in that trunk of
partly-worn clothing than, I suppose, a less economically-inclined
woman than I ever would have dreamed of."

Mary handed her Aunt two blue seersucker dresses, one plain, the other
striped. "They have both shrunken, and are entirely too small for me,"
said Mary.

"Well," said her Aunt, considering, "they might be combined in one
dress, but you need aprons for kitchen work more useful than those
little frilly, embroidered affairs you are wearing. We should make
them into serviceable aprons to protect your dresses. Mary, neatness
is an attribute that every self-respecting housewife should
assiduously cultivate, and no one can be neat in a kitchen without a
suitable apron to protect one from grime, flour and dust."

"What a pretty challis dress; its cream-colored ground sprinkled over
with pink rose buds!"

Mary sighed. "I always did love that dress, Aunt Sarah, 'Twas so
becoming, and he--he--admired it so!"

"And HE, can do so still," replied Aunt Sarah, with a merry twinkle in
her kind, clear, gray eyes, "for that pale-green suesine skirt,
slightly faded, will make an excellent lining, with cotton for an
interlining, and pale green Germantown yarn with which to tie the
comfortable. At small cost you'll have a dainty, warm spread which
will be extremely pretty in the home you are planning with HIM. I have
several very pretty-old-style patchwork quilts in a box in the attic
which I shall give you when you start housekeeping. That pretty
dotted, ungored Swiss skirt will make dainty, ruffled sash curtains
for bedroom windows. Mary, sometimes small beginnings make great
endings; if you make the best of your small belongings, some day your
homely surroundings will be metamorphosed into what, in your present
circumstances, would seem like extravagant luxuries. An economical
young couple, beginning life with a homely, home-made rag carpet, have
achieved in middle age, by their own energy and industry, carpets of
tapestry and rich velvet, and costly furniture in keeping; but,
never--never, dear, are they so valued, I assure you, as those
inexpensive articles, conceived by our inventive brain and
manufactured by our own deft fingers during our happy Springtime of
life when, with our young lover husband, we built our home nest on the
foundation of pure, unselfish, self-sacrificing love."

Aunt Sarah sighed; memory led her far back to when she had planned her
home with her lover, John Landis, still her lover, though both have
grown gray together, and shared alike the joys and sorrows of the
passing years. Aunt Sarah had always been the perfect "housemother" or
"Haus Frau," as the Germans phrase it, and on every line of her
matured face could be read an anxious care for the family welfare.
Truly could it be said of her, in the language of Henry Ward Beecher:
"Whoever makes home seem to the young dearer and happier is a public

Aunt Sarah said earnestly to Mary, "I wish it were possible for me to
impart to young, inexperienced girls, about to become housewives and
housemothers, a knowledge of those small economics, so necessary to
health and prosperity, taught me by many years of hard work, mental
travail, experience and some failures. In this extravagant Twentieth
Century economy is more imperative than formerly. We feel that we need
so much more these days than our grandmothers needed; and what we
need, or feel that we need, is so costly. The housemother has larger
problems today than yesterday.

"Every husband should give his wife an allowance according to his
income, so that she will be able to systematize her buying and
occasionally obtain imperishable goods at less cost. Being encouraged
thus to use her dormant economical powers; she will become a powerful
factor in the problem of home-making along lines that will essentially
aid her husband in acquiring a comfortable competency, if not a
fortune. Then she will have her husband's interest truly at heart;
will study to spend his money carefully, and to the best advantage;
and she herself, even, will be surprised at the many economies which
will suggest themselves to save his hard-earned money when she handles
that money herself, which certainly teaches her the saving habit and
the value of money.

"The majority of housewives of today aren't naturally inclined to be
extravagant or careless. It is rather that they lack the knowledge and
experience of spending money, and spending it to the best advantage
for themselves and their household needs.

"'Tis a compulsory law in England, I have heard, to allow a wife pin
money, according to a man's means. 'Tis a most wise law. To a loyal
wife and mother it gives added force, dignity and usefulness to have a
sufficient allowance and to be allowed unquestioningly to spend that
money to her best ability. Her husband, be he a working or
professional man, would find it greatly to his advantage in the home
as well as in his business and less of a drain on his bank account
should he give his wife a suitable allowance and trust her to spend it
according to her own intelligence and thrift.

"Child, many a man is violently prejudiced against giving a young wife
money; many allow her to run up bills, to her hurt and to his, rather
than have her, even in her household expenditure, independent of his
supervision. I sincerely hope, dear, that your intended, Ralph
Jackson, will be superior to this male idiosyncrasy, to term it
mildly, and allow you a stated sum monthly. The home is the woman's
kingdom, and she should be allowed to think for it, to buy for it, and
not to be cramped by lack of money to do as she thinks best for it."

"But, Aunt Sarah, some housewives are so silly that husbands cannot
really be blamed for withholding money from them and preventing them
from frittering it away in useless extravagance."

"Mary, wise wives should not suffer for those who are silly and
extravagant. I don't like to be sarcastic, but with the majority of
the men, silliness appeals to them more than common sense. Men like to
feel their superiority to us. However, though inexperienced, Mary, you
aren't silly or extravagant, and Ralph could safely trust you with his
money. It makes a woman so self-respecting, puts her on her mettle, to
have money to do as she pleases with, to be trusted, relied upon as a
reasoning, responsible being. A man, especially a young husband, makes
a grave mistake when he looks upon his wife as only a toy to amuse
him in his leisure moments and not as one to be trusted to aid him in
his life work. A trusted young housewife, with a reasonable and
regular allowance at her command, be she ever so inexperienced, will
soon plan to have wholesome, nutritious food at little cost, instead
of not knowing until a half hour before meal time what she will serve.
She would save money and the family would be better nourished;
nevertheless, I would impress it on the young housewife not to be too
saving or practice too close economy, especially when buying milk and
eggs, as there is nothing more nutritious or valuable. A palatable
macaroni and cheese; eggs or a combination of eggs and milk, are
dishes which may be substituted occasionally, at less expense, for
meat. A pound of macaroni and cheese equals a pound of steak in food
value. Take time and trouble to see that all food be well cooked and
served, both in an attractive and appetizing manner. Buy the cheaper
cuts of stewing meats, and by long, slow simmering, they will become
sweet and tender and of equal nutritive value as higher priced
sirloins and tenderloins.

"But, Mary, I've not yet finished that trunk and its contents. That
slightly-faded pink chambray I'll cut up into quilt blocks. Made up
with white patches, and quilted nicely, a pretty quilt lined with
white, will be evolved. I have such a pretty design of pink and white
called the 'Winding Way,' very simple to make. The beauty of the quilt
consists altogether in the manner in which the blocks are put
together, or it might be made over the pattern called 'The Flying
Dutchman.' From that tan linen skirt may be made a laundry bag, shoe
pocket, twine bag, a collar bag and a table runner, the only expense
being several skeins of green embroidery silk, and a couple yards of
green cord to draw the bags up with, and a couple of the same-hued
skirt braids for binding edges, and," teasingly, "Mary, you might
embroider Ralph Jackson's initials on the collar and laundry bag."


A-12 Pine Tree Quilt
A-13 Tree of Life
A-14 Pineapple
A-15 Enlarged Block of Winding Way Quilt
A-16 Lost Rose in the Wilderness
A-17 Tree Quilt]

Mary blushed rosily red and exclaimed in an embarrassed manner, most
bewitchingly, "Oh!"

Aunt Sarah laughed. She thought to have Mary look that way 'twas worth
teasing her.

"Well, Mary, we can in leisure moments, from that coarse, white linen
skirt which you have discarded, make bureau scarfs, sideboard cover,
or a set of scalloped table mats to place under hot dishes on your
dining-room table. I will give you pieces of asbestos to slip between
the linen mats when finished. They are a great protection to the
table. You could also make several small guest towels with deep,
hemstitched ends with your initials on. You embroider so beautifully,
and the drawn work you do is done as expertly as that of the Mexican

"Oh, Aunt Sarah, how ingenious you are."

"And, Mary, your rag carpet shall not be lacking. We shall tear up
those partly-worn muslin skirts into strips one-half inch in width,
and use the dyes left over from dyeing Easter eggs. I always save the
dye for this purpose, they come in such pretty, bright colors. The
rags, when sewed together with some I have in the attic, we'll have
woven into a useful carpet for the home you are planning.'

"Oh! Aunt Sarah," exclaimed Mary, "do you mean a carpet like the one
in the spare bedroom?"

"Yes, my dear, exactly like that, if you wish."

"Indeed I do, and I think one like that quite good enough to have in a
dining-room. I think it so pretty. It does not look at all like a
common rag carpet."

"No, my dear, it is nothing very uncommon. It is all in the way it is
woven. Instead of having two gay rainbow stripes about three inches
wide running through the length of the carpet, I had it woven with the
ground work white and brown chain to form checks. Then about an inch
apart were placed two threads of two shades of red woolen warp,
alternating with two threads of two shades of green, across the whole
width, running the length of the carpet. It has been greatly admired,
as it is rather different from that usually woven. All the rag carpets
I found in the house when we moved here, made by John's mother,
possessed very wide stripes of rainbow colors, composed of shaded
reds, yellows, blues and greens. You can imagine how very gorgeous
they were, and so very heavy. Many of the country weavers use linen
chain or warp instead of cotton, and always use wool warp for the

"Aunt Sarah, I want something so very much for the Colonial bedroom I
should like to have when I have a home of my very own."

"What is it, dear? Anything, e'en to the half of my kingdom,"
laughingly replied her Aunt.

"Why, I'd love to have several rag rugs like those in your bedroom,
which you call 'New Colonial' rugs."

"Certainly, my dear. They are easily made from carpet rags. I have
already planned in my mind a pretty rag rug for you, to be made from
your old, garnet merino shirtwaist, combined with your discarded
cravenette stormcoat.

"And you'll need some pretty quilts, also," said her Aunt.

"I particularly admire the tree quilts," said Mary.

"You may have any one you choose; the one called 'Tree of Paradise,'
another called 'Pineapple Design,' which was originally a border to
'Fleur de lis' quilt or 'Pine Tree,' and still another called 'Tree of
Life,' and 'The Lost Rose in the Wilderness.'"

"They are all so odd," said Mary, "I scarcely know which one I think

"All are old-fashioned quilts, which I prize highly," continued her
Aunt. "Several I pieced together when a small girl, I think old-time
patchwork too pretty and useful an accomplishment to have gone out of

"You shall have a small stand cover like the one you admired so
greatly, given me by Aunt Cornelia. It is very simple, the materials
required being a square of yard-wide unbleached muslin. In the centre
of this baste a large, blue-flowered handkerchief with cream-colored
ground, to match the muslin. Turn up a deep hem all around outside
edge; cut out quarter circles of the handkerchief at each of four
corners; baste neatly upon the muslin, leaving a space of muslin the
same width as the hem around each quarter circle; briarstitch all
turned-in edges with dark-blue embroidery silk, being washable, these
do nicely as covers for small tables or stands on the veranda in

"Aunt Sarah," ecstatically exclaimed Mary, "you are a wizard to plan
so many useful things from a trunk of apparently useless rags. What a
treasure Uncle has in you. I was fretting about having so little to
make my home attractive, but I feel quite elated at the thought of
having a carpet and rugs already planned, besides the numerous other
things evolved from your fertile brain."

Aunt Sarah loved a joke. She held up an old broadcloth cape. "Here is
a fine patch for Ralph Jackson's breeches, should he ever become
sedentary and need one."

Mary reddened and looked almost offended and was at a loss for a


A-18 Fleur DeLys Quilt
A-19 Oak Leaf Quilt
A-20 One Block of Fleur DeLys Quilt
A-21 Winding Way Quilt
A-22 Tulip Quilt
A-23 Flower Pot Quilt]

Greatly amused, Aunt Sarah quoted ex-President Roosevelt: "'Tis time
for the man with the patch to come forward and the man with the dollar
to step back,'" and added, "Never mind, Mary, your Ralph is such an
industrious, hustling young man that he will never need a patch to
step forward, I prophesy that with such a helpmeet and 'Haus Frau' as
you, Mary, he'll always be most prosperous and happy. Kiss me, dear."

Mary did so, and her radiant smile at such praise from her honored
relative was beautiful to behold.

[Illustration: OLD RAG CARPET]



"Aunt Sarah," questioned Mary one day, "do you mind if I copy some of
your recipes?"

"Certainly not, my dear," replied her Aunt.

"And I'd like to copy some of the poems, also, I never saw any one
else have so much poetry in a book of cooking recipes."

"Perhaps not," replied her Aunt, "but you know, Mary, I believe in
combining pleasure with my work, and our lives are made up of poetry
and prose, and some lives are so very prosy. Many times when too tired
to look up a favorite volume of poems, it has rested me to turn the
pages of my recipe book and find some helpful thought, and a good
housewife will always keep her book of recipes where it may be readily
found for reference. I think, Mary, the poem 'Pennsylvania,' by Lydia
M.D. O'Neil, a fine one, and I never tire of reading it over and over
again. I have always felt grateful to my old schoolmaster. Professor
T----, for teaching me, when a school girl, to love the writing of
Longfellow, Whittier, Bryant, Tennyson and other well-known poets. I
still, in memory, hear him repeat 'Thanatopsis,' by Bryant and 'The
Builders,' by Longfellow. The rhymes of the 'Fireside Poet' are easily
understood, and never fail to touch the heart of common folk. I know
it appears odd to see so many of my favorite poems sandwiched in
between old, valued cooking recipes, but, Mary, the happiness of the
home life depends so largely on the food we consume. On the
preparation and selection of the food we eat depends our health, and
on our health is largely dependent our happiness and prosperity. Who
is it has said, 'The discovery of a new dish makes more for the
happiness of man than the discovery of a star'? So, dearie, you see
there is not such a great difference between the one who writes a poem
and the one who makes a pie. I think cooking should be considered one
of the fine arts--and the woman who prepares a dainty, appetizing dish
of food, which appeals to the sense of taste, should be considered as
worthy of praise as the artist who paints a fine picture to gratify
our sense of sight. I try to mix all the poetry possible in prosaic
every-day life. We country farmers' wives, not having the
opportunities of our more fortunate city sisters, such as witnessing
plays from Shakespeare, listening to symphony concerts, etc., turn to
'The Friendship of Books,' of which Washington Irving writes: 'Cheer
us with the true friendship, which never deceived hope nor deserted

"Yes," said Mary, "but remember, Aunt Sarah, Chautauqua will be held
next Summer in a near-by town, and, as Uncle John is one of the
guarantors, you will wish to attend regularly and will, I know, enjoy
hearing the excellent lectures, music and concerts."

"Yea," replied her Aunt, "Chautauqua meetings will commence the latter
part of June, and I will expect you and Ralph to visit us then. I
think Chautauqua a godsend to country women, especially farmers'
wives; it takes them away from their monotonous daily toil and gives
them new thoughts and ideas."

"I can readily understand, Aunt Sarah, why the poem, 'Life's Common
Things,' appeals to you; it is because you see beauty in everything.
Aunt Sarah, where did you get this very old poem, 'The Deserted

"Why, that was given me by John's Uncle, who thought the poem fine."

    "Sad is the sight, the city once so fair!
    An hundred palaces lie buried there;
      Her lofty towers are fallen, and creepers grow
      O'er marbled dome and shattered portico.

    "Once in the gardens, lovely girls at play,
    Culled the bright flowers, and gently touched the spray;
      But now wild creatures in their savage joy
      Tread down the flowers and the plants destroy.

    "By night no torches in the windows gleam;
    By day no women in their beauty beam;
      The smoke has ceased--the spider there has spread
      His snares in safety--and all else is dead."

"Indeed, it is a 'gem,'" said Mary, after slowly reading aloud parts
of several stanzas.

"Yes," replied her Aunt, "Professor Schmidt tells me the poem was
written by Kalidasa (the Shakespeare of Hindu literature), and was
written 1800 years before Goldsmith gave us his immortal work, 'The
Deserted Village.'"

"I like the poem, 'Abou Ben Adhem and the Angel,'" said Mary, "and I
think this true by Henry Ward Beecher:"

    "'Do not be troubled because you have not great virtues,
    God made a million spears of grass where He made one tree;
    The earth is fringed and carpeted not with forests but with grasses,
    Only have enough of little virtues and common fidelities,
    And you need not mourn because you are neither a hero nor a saint.'

"This is a favorite little poem of mine, Aunt Sarah. I'll just write
it on this blank page in your book."

    There's a little splash of sunshine and a little spot of shade,
    always somewhere near,
    The wise bask in the sunshine, but the foolish choose the shade.
    The wise are gay and happy, on the foolish, sorrow's laid,
    And the fault's their own, I fear.

    For the little splash of sunshine and the little spot of shade
    Are here for joint consumption, for comparison are made;
    We're all meant to be happy, not too foolish or too staid.
    And the right dose to be taken is some sunshine mixed with shade.

"Aunt Sarah, I see there is still space on this page to write another
poem, a favorite of mine. It is called, 'Be Strong,' by Maltbie

        Be Strong!
        We are not here to play, to dream, to drift;
        We have hard word to do, and loads to lift,
        Shun not the struggle; face it, 'tis God's gift.

        Be Strong!
        Say not the days are evil--who's to blame?
        And fold the hands and acquiesce--Oh, shame!
        Stand up, speak out, and bravely, in God's name.

        Be Strong!
        It matters not how deep intrenched the wrong,
        How hard the battle goes, the day how long;
        Faint not, fight on! Tomorrow comes the song,


        How lovely are life's common things.
          When health flows in the veins;
        The golden sunshine of the days
          When Phoebus holds the reins;

        The floating clouds against the blue;
          The fragrance of the air;
        The nodding flowers by the way;
          The green grass everywhere;

        The feathery beauty of the elm,
          With graceful-swaying boughs.
        Where nesting songbirds find a home
          And the night wind sighs and soughs;

        The hazy blue of distant hill,
          With wooded slope and crest;
        The crimson sky when low at night
          The sun sinks in the West;

        The thrilling grandeur of the storm,
          The lightning's vivid flash,
        The mighty rush of wind and rain,
          The thunder's awful crash.

        And then the calm that follows storm,
          And rainbow in the sky;
        The rain-washed freshness of the earth--
          A singing bird near by.

        And oh, the beauty of the night!
          Its hush, its thrill, its charm;
        The twinkling brilliance of its stars;
          Its tranquil peace and calm.

        Oh, loving fatherhood of God
          To give us every day
        The lovely common things of life
          To brighten all the way!

        (Susan M. Perkins, in the Boston Transcript)


    Abou Ben Adhem--may his tribe increase--
    Awoke one night from a deep dream of peace
    And saw, within the moonlight of his room,
    Making it rich and like a lily in bloom,
    An angel writing in a book of gold.
    Exceeding peace had made Ben Adhem bold,
    And to the presence in the room he said:
    "What writest thou?" The vision raised his head,
    And with a look made of all sweet accord,
    Answered: "The names of those who love the Lord."
    "And is mine one?" said Abou. "Nay, not so,"
    Replied the angel. Abou spoke low,
    But cheerily still, and Said, "I pray thee, then,
    write me as one that loves his fellow-men."
    The angel wrote and vanished. The next night
    It came again, with a great, wakening light,
    And showed the names whom love of God had blessed,
    And, lo! Ben Adhem's name led all the rest.




A very original character was Sibylla Linsabigler, who had been a
member of the Landis household several years. She was Aunt Sarah's
only maid servant, but she disliked being referred to as a servant,
and when she overheard "Fritz" Schmidt, as he passed the Landis farm
on his way to the creek for a days fishing, call to Mary: "Miss
Midleton, will you please send the butter over with the servant today,
as I shall not return home in time for dinner" Sibylla said, "I ain't
no servant. I'm hired girl What does that make out if I do work here?
Pop got mad with me 'cause I wouldn't work at home no more for him and
Mom without they paid me. They got three more girls to home yet that
can do the work. My Pop owns a big farm and sent our 'Chon' to the
college, and it's mean 'fer' him not to give us girls money for dress,
so I work out, 'Taint right the way us people what has to work are
treated these days," said Sibylla to herself, as she applied the broom
vigorously to the gay-flowered carpet in the Landis parlor. "Because
us folks got to work ain't no reason why them tony people over to the
Perfessor's should call me a 'servant.' I guess I know I milk the
cows, wash dishes, scrub floors, and do the washin' and ir'nin' every
week, but I'm no 'servant,' I'm just as good any day as that
good-fer-nothin' Perfesser's son," continued Sibylla, growing red in
the face with indignation. "Didn't I hear that worthless scamp, Fritz
Schmidt, a-referrin' to me and a-sayin' to Miss Midleton fer the
'servant' to bring over the butter? Betch yer life this here 'servant'
ain't a-goin' to allow eddicated people to make a fool of her. First
chance I get I'll give that Perfesser a piece of my mind."

Sibylla's opportunity came rather unexpectedly. The gentle,
mild-mannered Professor was on good terms with his sturdy, energetic
neighbor, John Landis, and frequently visited him for a neighborly
chat. On this particular day he called as usual and found Sibvlla in
the mood described.

"Good afternoon, Sibylla," said the Professor, good-naturedly. "How
are you today?"

"I'd be a whole lot better if some people weren't so smart," replied
Sibylla, venting her feelings on the broom. "Should think a Perfesser
would feel himself too big to talk to a 'servant'."

"On the contrary, my dear girl, I feel honored. I presume you are not
feeling as well as usual. What makes you think it is condescension for
me to address you?" asked the genial old man, kindly.

"Well, since you ask me, I don't mind a-tellin' you. Yesterday your
son insulted me, I won't take no insult from nobody, I am just as good
as what you are, even if I hain't got much book larnin'."

With this deliverance, Sibylla felt she had done full justice to the
occasion and would have closed the interview abruptly had not the
Professor, with a restraining hand, detained her.

"We must get to the bottom of this grievance, Sibylla. I am sure there
is some mistake somewhere. What did my son say?"

"Well, if you want to know," replied the irate domestic, 'I'll tell
you. He called me a 'servant.' I know I'm only a working girl, but
your son nor nobody else ain't got no right to abuse me by callin' me
a 'servant'."

"Ah! I see. You object to the term 'servant' being applied to you,"
said the Professor, comprehendingly. "The word 'servant' is
distasteful to you. You feel it is a disgrace to be called a servant.
I see! I see!" In a fatherly way, the old man resumed: "In a certain
sense we are all servants. The history of human achievements is a
record of service. The men and women who have helped the world most
were all servants--servants to humanity. The happiest man is he who
serves. God calls some men to sow and some to reap; some to work in
wood and stone; to sing and speak. Work is honorable in all,
regardless of the capacity in which we serve. There is no great
difference, after all, between the ordinary laborer and the railroad
president; both are servants, and the standard of measurement to be
applied to each man is the same. It is not so much a question of
station in life as it is the question of efficiency. Best of all, work
is education. There is culture that comes without college and
university. He who graduates from the college of hard work is as
honorable as he who takes a degree at Yale or Harvard; for wisdom can
be found in shop and foundry, field and factory, in the kitchen amid
pots and kettles, as well as in office and school. The truly educated
man is the man who has learned the duty and responsibility of doing
something useful, something helpful, something to make this old world
of ours better and a happier place in which to live. The word
'servant,' Sibylla, is a beautiful one, rightly understood. The
greatest man who ever lived was a servant. All His earthly ministry
was filled with worthy deeds. When man pleaded with Him to rest, He
answered: 'My Father worketh hitherto, and I work.' When one of
Christ's followers desired to express the true nature of his work and
office, he called himself a servant. He used a word, 'doulos,' which
means, in the Greek language, a slave or a bond-servant. By the word
'doulos' he meant to say that his mission in life was to work, to do
good, to serve. This man was a great preacher, but it is possible for
any one to become a 'doulos' in so far as he is willing to serve God
and his fellowman. You see, Sibylla, the spirit of Christian work and
brotherly love is the spirit of 'doulos.' The word has been
transformed by service and unselfish devotion to duty. Great men who
have blessed the world, and good and noble women who have helped to
uplift humanity, have done it through service. It is just as honorable
to bake well, and cook well, and to do the humblest daily tasks
efficiently, as it is to play well on the piano and talk fluently
about the latest books."

At the conclusion of the Professor's little talk on the dignity of
labor, a new light shone in Sibylla's eyes and a new thought gripped
her soul. The spirit of "doulos" had displaced her antipathy toward
the word servant.

"I'll take that butter over to the Professer's home right away," she
said, to herself.

Before leaving Sibylla, the Professor quoted from the "Toiling of
Felix," by Henry Vandyke:

     "Hewing wood and drawing water, splitting stones and cleaving
     sod, All the dusty ranks of labour, in the regiment of God, March
     together toward His triumph, do the task His hands prepare;
     Honest toil is holy service, faithful work is praise and prayer."

     They who work without complaining, do the holy will of God.

     Heaven is blest with perfect rest, but the blessing of earth is

Sibylla Linsabigler was a healthy, large-boned, solidly-built, typical
"Pennsylvania German" girl. Her clear, pinkish complexion looked as if
freshly scrubbed with soap and water. A few large, brown freckles
adorned the bridge of her rather broad, flat nose. She possessed red
hair and laughing, red-brown eyes, a large mouth, which disclosed
beautiful even, white teeth when she smiled, extraordinary large feet
and hands, strong, willing and usually good-natured, although
possessed of a quick temper, as her red hair indicated. Kind-hearted
to a fault, she was of great assistance to Aunt Sarah, although she
preferred any other work to that of cooking or baking. She kept the
kitchen as well as other parts of the house, to quote Aunt Sarah,
"neat as a pin," and did not object to any work, however hard or
laborious, as long as she was not expected to do the thinking and
planning. She was greatly attached to both Aunt Sarah and Mary, but
stood rather in awe of John Landis, who had never spoken a cross word
to her in the three years she had lived at the farm.

Sarah Landis, knowing Sibylla to be an honest, industrious girl,
appreciated her good qualities, thought almost as much of Sibylla as
if she had been her daughter, and treated her in like manner, and for
this reason, if for no other, she received willing service from the

Sibylla, a swift worker at all times, never finished work so quickly
as on Wednesday and Saturday evenings, when she "kept company" with
Jake Crouthamel. "Chake," as Sibylla called him, was a sturdy,
red-faced young farmer, all legs and arms. He appeared to be put
together loosely at the joints, like a jumping-jack, and never
appeared at ease in his ill-fitting "store clothes." He usually wore
gray corduroy trousers and big cowhide boots, a pink and white striped
shirt and red necktie.

Sibylla did not notice his imperfections, and thought him handsome as
a Greek god.

Jake, an honest, industrious young fellow, worked on a near-by farm,
owned his own carriage, and had the privilege of using one of the farm
horses when he wished, so he and Sibylla frequently took "choy rides,"
as Sibylla called them.

Jake Crouthamel was usually called "Boller-Yockel," this name having
been accorded him on account of his having delivered to a purchaser a
load of hay largely composed of rag-weed. The man called him an old
"Boller-Yockel," and the name had clung to Jake for years.



Several days had elapsed since that on which Mary's Aunt had planned
to use the contents of her trunk to such good advantage, when Mary,
coming into the room where her Aunt was busily engaged sewing,
exclaimed: "Don't forget, Auntie, you promised to teach me to crochet
rag rugs!"

[Illustration: A "HIT-AND-MISS" RUG]

"Indeed, I've not forgotten, and will make my promise good at once,"
said Aunt Sarah. "We shall need quantities of carpet rags cut about
one-half inch in width, the same as those used for making rag carpet.
Of course, you are aware, Mary, that heavier materials should be cut
in narrower strips than those of thinner materials. You will also
require a long, wooden crochet needle, about as thick as an ordinary
wooden lead pencil, having a hook at one end, similar to a common bone
crochet needle, only larger. For a circular rug, crochet about twelve
stitches (single crochet) over one end of a piece of candle wick or
cable cord; or, lacking either of these, use a carpet rag of firm
material; then draw the crocheted strip into as small a circle as
possible, fasten and crochet round and round continuously until
finished. The centre of a circular or oblong rug may be a plain color,
with border of colored light and dark rags, sewed together
promiscuously, called 'Hit and Miss.'

[Illustration: A BROWN AND TAN RUG]

"Or you might have a design similar to a 'Pin-wheel' in centre of the
circular rug, with alternate stripes, composed of dark and
light-colored rags."

"I'd like one made in that manner from different shades that
harmonize, browns and tans, for instance," said Mary.

"You may easily have a rug of that description," continued her Aunt.
"With a package of brown dye, we can quickly transform some light,
woolen carpet rags I possess into pretty shades of browns and tans."

[Illustration: RUG]

"For a circular rug, with design in centre resembling a pin-wheel,
commence crocheting the rug same as preceding one. Crochet three rows
of one color, then mark the rug off into four parts, placing a pin to
mark each section or quarter of the rug. At each of four points
crochet one stitch of a contrasting shade. Crochet once around the
circle, using a shade similar to that of the centre of rug for design,
filling in between with the other shade. For the following row,
crochet two stitches beneath the one stitch (not directly underneath
the stitch, but one stitch beyond), filling in between with the other
color. The third row, add three stitches beneath the two stitches in
same manner as preceding row, and continue, until design in centre is
as large as desired, then crochet 'Hit or Miss' or stripes. Do not cut
off the carpet rags at each of the four points after crocheting
stitches, but allow each one to remain and crochet over them, then
pick up on needle and crochet every time you require stitches of
contrasting shade. Then crochet several rows around the rug with
different shades until rug is the required size. The under side should
be finished off as neatly as the right, or upper side. Mary, when not
making a design, sew the rags together as if for weaving carpet. When
crocheting circular rugs, occasionally stretch the outside row to
prevent the rug from curling up at edges when finished, as it would be
apt to do if too tightly crocheted. If necessary, occasionally add an
extra stitch. Avoid also crocheting it too loosely, as it would then
appear like a ruffle. The advantage of crocheting over a heavy cord is
that the work may be easily drawn up more tightly if too lose."



On her return from an afternoon spent at Professor Schmidt's, Mary
remarked to Aunt Sarah, "For the first time in my life I have an
original idea!"

"Do tell me child, what it is!"

"The 'New Colonial' rag rugs we have lately finished are fine, but I'd
just love to have a Navajo blanket like those owned by Professor
Schmidt; and I intend to make a rag rug in imitation of his Navajo

"Yes," answered her Aunt, "I have always greatly admired them myself,
especially the large gray one which covers the Professor's own chair
in the library. The Professor brought them with him when he returned
from 'Cutler's Ranch' at Rociada, near Las Vegas, New Mexico, where he
visited his nephew, poor Raymond, or rather, I should say, fortunate
Raymond, an only child of the Professor's sister. A quiet, studious
boy, he graduated at the head of his class at an early age, but he
inherited the weak lungs of his father, who died of consumption.
Raymond was a lovable boy, with a fund of dry humor and wit--the idol
of his mother, who, taking the advice of a specialist, accompanied her
boy, as a last resort, to New Mexico, where, partly owing to his
determination to get well, proper food and daily rides on the mesa, on
the back of his little pinto pony, he regained perfect health, and
today is well, happily married and living in Pasadena, California, so
I have been told by Frau Schmidt, who dearly loves the boy."

"But Mary, forgive an old woman for rambling away from the subject in
which you are interested--Navajo blankets. Ever since we planned to
make a rug with a swastika in the centre, I nave been trying to evolve
from my brain (and your Uncle John says my bump of inventiveness is
abnormally large) a Navajo rag rug for the floor of the room you
intend to furnish as Ralph's den, in the home you are planning. Well,
my dear, a wooden crochet hook in your deft fingers will be the magic
wand which will perform a miracle and transform into Navajo blankets
such very commonplace articles as your discarded gray eiderdown
kimona, and a pair of your Uncle's old gray trousers, which have
already been washed and ripped by Sibylla, to be used for making
carpet rags. These, combined with the gray skirt I heard you say had
outlived its day of usefulness, will furnish the background of the
rug. The six triangles in the centre of the rug, also lighter stripes
at each end of the rug, we will make of that old linen chair-cover and
your faded linen skirt, which you said I might use for carpet rags;
and, should more material be needed, I have some old, gray woolen
underwear in my patch bag, a gray-white, similar to the real Navajo.
The rows of black with which we shall outline the triangles may be
made from those old, black, silk-lisle hose you gave me, by cutting
them round and round in one continuous strip. Heavy cloth should be
cut in _very_ narrow strips. Sibylla will do that nicely; her hands
are more used to handling large, heavy shears than are yours. The
linen-lawn skirt you may cut in strips about three-fourths of an inch
in width, as that material is quite thin. I would sew rags of one
color together like carpet rags, not lapping the ends more than
necessary to hold them together. The rug will be reversible, both
sides being exactly alike when finished. I should make the rug about
fifty-three stitches across. This will require about six and
one-fourth yards of carpet rags, when sewed together, to crochet once
across. I think it would be wise to cut all rags of different weight
materials before commencing to crochet the rug, so they may be well
mixed through. I will assist you with the work at odd moments, and in
a short time the rug will be finished."

The rug, when finished, was truly a work of art, and represented many
hours of labor and thought. But Mary considered it very fascinating
work, and was delighted with the result of her labor--a rug the exact
imitation of one of the Professor's genuine Indian Navajo blankets,
the work of her own hands, and without the expenditure of a penny.

Mary remarked: "I do not think all the triangles in my rug are the
exact size of the paper pattern you made me, Aunt Sarah. The two in
the centre appear larger than the others."

"Well," remarked her Aunt, "if you examine closely the blankets owned
by Professor Schmidt, you will find the on the ones woven by Navajo
Indians are not of an equal size."

'Tis said Navajo blankets and Serapes will become scarce and higher in
price in the future, on account of the numerous young Indians who have
been educated and who prefer other occupations to that of weaving
blankets, as did their forefathers; and the present disturbance in
Mexico will certainly interfere with the continuance of this industry
for a time.


[Illustration: RUG WITH DESIGN]

"Mary, while you have been planning your Navajo rug, I have been
thinking how we may make a very attractive as well as useful rug. You
remember, we could not decide what use to make of your old, tan
cravenette stormcoat? I have been thinking we might use this, when
cut into carpet rags, for the principal part of the rug, and that old,
garnet merino blouse waist might be cut and used for the four corners
of a rug, and we might have gay stripes in the centre of the rug to
form a sort of design, and also put gay stripes at each end of the

"And you might crochet a rug, plain 'Hit or Miss,' of rather
bright-colored rags."

"Yes," said Mary, "I think I will crochet a swastika in the centre of
a rug, as you suggest, of bright orange, outlined with black, and a
stripe of orange edged with black at each end of the rug to match the
centre. Don't you think that would be pretty, Aunt Sarah?"


"Yes indeed, but Mary, don't you think the swastika would show more
distinctly on a rug with a plain background?"

"Perhaps it would," replied Mary, "but I think I'll crochet one of
very gayly-colored rags, with a swastika in the centre."

[Illustration: A "PRAYER RUG" OF SILK SCRAPS.]

"Aunt Sarah," said Mary, "do tell me how that pretty little rug
composed of silk scraps is made."

"Oh, that _silk_ rug; 'twas given me by Aunt Cornelia, who finished it
while here on a visit from New York. I never saw another like it, and
it has been greatly admired. Although possessed of an ordinary amount
of patience, I don't think I'll ever make one for myself. I don't
admire knitted rugs of any description, neither do I care for braided
rugs. I think the crocheted ones prettier. But, Mary, this small silk
rug is easily made should you care to have one. I will commence
knitting one for you at once. You will then find a use for the box of
bright-colored silks you possess, many of which are quite too small to
be used in any other manner. Professor Schmidt calls this a 'Prayer
Rug.' He said: 'This rug, fashioned of various bright-hued silks of
orange, purple and crimson, a bright maze of rich colors, without any
recognizable figure or design, reminds me of the description of the
'Prayer Carpet' or rugs of the Mohammedans. They are composed of
rich-hued silks of purple, ruby and amber. 'Tis said their delicacy of
shade is marvelous and was suggested by the meadows of variegated
flowers.' But this is a digression; you wished directions for making
the rug.

"Use tiny scraps of various bright-hued silks, velvets and satins, cut
about 3-1/2 inches long and about one-half inch in width. Ends should
always be cut slanting or bias; never straight. All you will require
besides the silk scraps, will be a ball of common cord or twine, or
save all cord which comes tied around packages, as I do, and use that
and two ordinary steel knitting needles. When making her rug, Aunt
Cornelia knitted several strips a couple of inches in width and the
length she wished the finished rug to be. The strips when finished she
sewed together with strong linen thread on the wrong side of the rug.
She commenced the rug by knitting two rows of the twine or cord. (When
I was a girl we called this common knitting 'garter stitch.') Then,
when commencing to knit third row, slip off first stitch onto your
other needle; knit one stitch, then lay one of the tiny scraps of silk
across or between the two needles; knit one stitch with the cord. This
holds the silk in position. Then fold or turn one end of silk back on
the other piece of silk and knit one stitch of cord to hold them in
place, always keeping silk on one side, on the top of rug, as this rug
is not reversible. Continue in this manner until one row is finished.
Then knit once across plain with cord, and for next row lay silk
scraps in and knit as before. Always knit one row of the cord across
plain after knitting in scraps of silk, as doing this holds them
firmly in position. Of course, Mary, you will use judgment and taste
in combining light and dark, bright and dull colors. Also, do not use
several scraps of velvet together. Use velvet, silk and satin
alternately. Should any scraps of silk be longer than others after
knitting, trim off evenly so all will be of uniform size. When her rug
was finished, Aunt Cornelia spread it, wrong side uppermost, on an
unused table, covered it with a thick boiled paste, composed of flour
and water, allowed it to dry thoroughly, then lined the rug with a
heavy piece of denim. This was done to prevent the rug from curling up
at edges, and caused it to lie flat on floor; but I think I should
prefer just a firm lining or foundation of heavy burlap or denim."

"Thank you, Aunt Sarah, for your explicit directions. I cannot fail to
know just how to knit a silk rug, should I ever care to do so. I think
the work would be simply fascinating."



One day in early June, when all nature seemed aglow with happiness, we
find Mary earnestly discussing with Elizabeth Schmidt the prosaic,
humdrum life of many of the country girls, daughters of well-to-do
farmers in the vicinity.

"I wish," said Mary, wrinkling her forehead thoughtfully, "I could
think of some new interest to introduce into their lives; some way of
broadening their outlook; anything to bring more happiness into their
commonplace daily toil; something good and helpful for them to think

All at once Mary, who was not usually demonstrative, clapped her
hands, laughed gleefully and said: "I have it, Elizabeth. The very
thing! Suppose we start a 'girls' campfire,' right here in the
country? I don't think we shall have any trouble to organize."

"And you, because you understand all about it, will be the Guardian,"
said Elizabeth.

At first Mary demurred, but, overcome by Elizabeth's pleading, finally
gave a reluctant consent. They then made out a list of the girls they
thought might be willing to join, Mary promising to write at once for
a handbook. They separated, Elizabeth to call to see the girls, and
Mary to interview their parents. Their efforts were rewarded with
surprisingly gratifying results, for many of the girls had read about
the "Campfire Girls" and were anxious to become members.

       *       *       *       *       *

One afternoon, several weeks later, had you gone into the old apple
orchard, at the farm, you would have seen thirteen eager young girls,
ranging in age from fourteen to sixteen, listening intently to Mary,
who was telling them about the "Campfire Girls." What she told them
was something like this:

"Now girls, we are going to have a good time. Some of our good times
will be play and some work. When you join, you will become a 'Wood
Gatherer,' and after three months' successful work, if you have met
certain qualifications, you will be promoted to the rank of 'Fire
Maker.' Later on, when you come to realize what it means to be a
'Torch Bearer,' you will be put in that rank. The first law which you
learn to follow is one which you must apply to your daily life. It is:
Seek beauty, give service, pursue knowledge, be trustworthy, hold on
to health, glorify work, be happy. 'The Camp Fire' has meant so much
to girls I have known, for their betterment, and has been so helpful
in many ways, you surely will never regret becoming a member of the
organization, or be anything but happy if you keep their laws. There
will be no dues, except what is collected for good times, and no
expense except the cost of your ceremonial costume, epaulettes and
honor beads. The latter are quite inexpensive. The honors are divided
into several classes, and for each honor a bead is given as a symbol
of your work. A special colored bead is given for each class. We shall
meet about once every week. The monthly meeting is called the 'Council
Fire.' I will tell you later about the 'Wohelo' ceremony. By the way,
girls, 'Wohelo' stands for work, health and love. You see, the word is
composed of the first two letters of each word."

The girls appeared to be greatly interested, and Mary felt very much
encouraged. Some of the girls left to talk it over with the homefolks,
while others, wishing to learn more of the organisation, plied Mary
with numerous questions. Finally, in desperation, she said: "Girls, I
will read you the following from the 'Camp Fire Girls' Handbook, which
I received this morning:"

'The purpose of this organization is to show that the common things of
daily life are the chief means of beauty, romance and adventure; to
aid in the forming of habits making for health and vigor, the
out-of-door habit and the out-of-door spirit; to devise ways of
measuring and creating standards to woman's work, and to give girls
the opportunity to learn how to "keep step," to learn team work,
through doing it; to help girls and women serve the community, the
larger home, in the same way they have always served the individual
home; to give status and social recognition to the knowledge of the
mother, and thus restore the intimate relationship of mothers and
daughters to each other.'

"Well, girls," said Mary, as she laid aside the book, "I think you all
understand what a benefit this will be to you, and I will do all in
my power to help you girls, while I am at the farm this summer. It is
too late to tell you any more today. The information I have given you
will suffice for the present. Three cheers for our Camp Fire! which
will be under way in two months, I trust."

       *       *       *       *       *

The members of "Shawnee" Camp Fire held their first Council Fire, or
Ceremonial Meeting, the second week in July. The girls, all deeply
interested, worked hard to secure honors which were awarded for
engaging in domestic duties well known to the home, for studying and
observing the rules of hygiene and sanitation, and for learning and
achievements in various ways. They held weekly meetings and studied
diligently to win the rank of Fire Maker.

A girl, when she joins, becomes a Wood Gatherer; she then receives a
silver ring.

The weeks pass swiftly by, and it is time for another Camp Fire. The
girls selected as their meeting place for this occasion farmer
Druckenmuller's peach orchard, to which they walked, a distance of
about three miles from the home of Elizabeth Schmidt. They left about
two o'clock in the afternoon, intending to return home before
nightfall, a good time being anticipated, as they took with them lunch
and materials for a corn-roast.

The peach orchard in question, covering many acres, was situated at
the foot of a low hill. Between the two flowed an enchanting,
fairy-like stream, the cultivated peach orchard on one side, and on
the opposite side the forest-like hill, covered with an abundance of
wild flowers.

When the afternoon set for the Council Fire arrived, had you happened
to meet the fifteen merry, chattering girls, accompanied by two older
girls, Mary and Lucy Robbins (the country school teacher), as
chaperones, wending their way to the orchard, you, without a doubt,
would have smiled and a question might naturally have arisen regarding
their sanity. They certainly possessed intelligent faces, but why
those queer-shaped Indian dresses? And such an awkward length for a
young girl's dress! And why was their hair all worn hanging in one
braid over each shoulder, with a band over the forehead? Why so many
strings of gaudy beads around their necks? These questions may all be
answered in one single sentence: The girls are dressed in Ceremonial


A great many delays along the way were caused by girls asking the
names of the different wild flowers and weeds they noticed in passing.
One of the girls stopped to examine a prickly-looking plant about two
feet high, with little, blue flowers growing along the stem, and asked
if any one knew the name of it. They were about to look it up in a
small "Flower Guide" owned by one of the girls, when some one said:
"Why, that is a weed called 'Vipers Bougloss,'" They also found
cardinal flower, thorn apple, monkey flower and jewel-weed in
abundance, wild sunflower, ginseng, early golden rod, "Joe-pie-weed,"
marshallow, black cohosh and purple loose-trifle. The girls also
noticed various birds.

On a tall tree one of the girls espied a rose-breasted Grosbeak, rare
in this part of Bucks County. They all stopped and watched for a short
time a white-bellied Nut-hatch. The girls were startled as a Scarlet
Tanger flew past to join his mate, and they at last reached their
rendezvous, the orchard.

By half-past three they were all seated in a circle waiting for the
ceremonies to begin. Mary Midleton, their Guardian, stepped to the
front, saying: "Sunflower, light the fire." Sunflower, through several
months of daily attainment, had become a Fire-maker and was very proud
of the Fire-maker's bracelet she was entitled to wear. Sunflower was
given that name because she always looked on the bright side of
everything; she looked like a sunflower, too, with her tanned face and
light, curly hair.

All the girls had symbolical names given them. "Lark" was so named
because of her sweet voice and because she loved to sing; "Sweet
Tooth," on account of her love for candy; "Quick Silver," because she
was quick, bright and witty; "Great Buffalo," a girl who was very
strong; Elizabeth Schmidt, "Laughing Water," so named because she
laughed and giggled at everybody and everything; "Babbling Brook,"
because it seemed an utter impossibility for her to stop talking;
"Burr," because she sticks to ideas and friends; "Faith," quiet and
reserved; "Comet," comes suddenly and brings a lot of light; "Black
Hawk," always eager at first, but inclined to let her eagerness wear
off: "Pocahontas," because she never can hurry; "Ginger Foot," a
fiery temper, "Gypsy," so named on account of her black hair; "Bright
Eyes," for her bright, blue eyes; "Rainbow," for her many ways, and
because she is pretty.

As "Sunflower" took the matches and knelt by the pile of wood and
lighted the fire, she recited the Ode to the Fire:

"Oh, Fire! Long years ago, when our fathers fought with great beasts,
you were their protector. From the cruel cold of winter you saved.
When they needed food, you changed the flesh of beasts into savory
meat for them. Through all ages your mysterious flame has been a
symbol of the Great Spirit to them. Tonight we light this fire in
remembrance of the Great Spirit Who gave you to us."

Then the girls sang the chant or chanted:

    Wohelo for aye,
    Wohelo for aye,
    Wohelo for aye,
    Wohelo for work,
    Wohelo for health,
    Wohelo for love.

Then they recited the Wood-gatherer's Desire:

"It is my desire to be a Campfire Girl and keep the law of the Camp
Fire, which is 'To Seek Beauty, Give Service, Pursue Knowledge, Be
Trustworthy, Hold onto Health, Glorify Work, Be Happy,'"

None had yet attained the highest rank, that of Torch Bearer, won by
still greater achievement, the Camp having been organized so recently.
Their motto was "The light which has been given to me, I desire to
pass undimmed to others."

"Gypsy," the secretary, then read the "Count" for the last meeting and
called the roll, and the girls handed in the list of honors they had
won in the last month. Some amused themselves playing games, while
others gathered more wood.

At five o'clock the corn and white and sweet potatoes were in the fire
roasting. A jolly circle of girls around the fire were busily engaged
toasting "Weiners" for the feast, which was finally pronounced ready
to be partaken of. The hungry girls "fell to" and everything eatable
disappeared as if by magic; and last, but not least, was the toasting
of marshmallows, speared on the points of long, two-pronged sticks
(broken from near-by trees), which were held over the fire until the
marshmallows turned a delicate color. When everything had been eaten,
with the exception of several cardboard boxes, corn cobs and husks,
the girls quickly cleared up. Then, seated around the fire, told what
they knew of Indian legends and folklore.

Noticing the sun slowly sinking in the West, they quickly gathered
together their belongings and started homeward singing, "My Country,
'tis of Thee, Sweet Land of Liberty."

Thus broke up the second Council Fire, and in the heart of each girl
was the thought of how much the Campfire was helping them to love God
and His works.



"Aunt Sarah," exclaimed Mary one day, "you promised to tell me exactly
how you made those 'Rose Beads' you have."

"Yes, my dear, and you must make the beads before the June roses are
gone. The process is very simple. If you would have them very sweet,
get the petals of the most fragrant roses. I used petals of the
old-fashioned, pink 'hundred leaf' and 'blush roses.' Gather a
quantity, for you will need them all. Grind them to a pulp in the food
chopper, repeat several times and place the pulp and juice into an
_iron_ kettle or pan. This turns the pulp black, which nothing but an
iron kettle will do; cook, and when the consistency of dough it is
ready to mold into beads. Take a bit of the dough, again as large as
the size you wish your beads to be when finished, as they shrink in
size when dried, and make them of uniform size, or larger ones for the
centre of the necklace, as you prefer. Roll in the palms of your
hands, until perfectly round, stick a pin through each bead, then
stick the pins into a bake board. Be careful the bead does not touch
the board, as that would spoil its shape. Allow the beads to remain
until perfectly dry. If they are to have a dull finish, leave as they
are. If you wish to polish them, take a tiny piece of vaseline on the
palm of the hand and rub them between the palms until the vaseline is
absorbed. Then string them on a linen thread. Keep in a closed box to
preserve their fragrance. Those I showed you, Mary, I made many years
ago, and the scent of the roses clings 'round them still.'"

"Did you know, Mary, that beads may be made from the petals of the
common wild blue violet in exactly the same manner as they are made
from rose leaves?"

"No, indeed, but I don't think the making of beads from the petals of
roses and violets as wonderful as the beads which you raise in the
garden. Those shiny, pearl-like seeds or beads of silvery-gray, called
'Job's Tears,' which grow on a stalk resembling growing corn; and to
think Professor Schmidt raised those which Elizabeth strung on linen
thread, alternately with beads, for a portiere in their sitting-room."

"Yes, my dear, the beads must be pierced before they become hard;
later they should be polished. Did you ever see them grow, Mary? The
beads or 'tears' grow on a stalk about fifteen inches high and from
the bead or 'tear' grows a tiny, green spear resembling oats. They are
odd and with very little care may he grown in a small garden."

"They certainly are a curiosity," said Mary.



Farmer Landis, happening to mention at the breakfast table his
intention of driving over to the "Ax Handle Factory" to obtain wood
ashes to use as a fertilizer, his wife remarked, "Why not take Mary
with you, John? She can stop at Singmaster's with a basket of carpet
rags for Sadie. I've been wanting to send them over for some time."
Turning to Mary, she said: "Poor little, crippled Sadie! On account of
a fall, which injured her spine, when a small child, she has been
unable to walk for years. She cuts and sews carpet rags, given her by
friends and neighbors, and from their sale to a carpet weaver in a
near-by town, helps her widowed mother eke out her small income."

"I'd love to go see her," said Mary. Elizabeth Schmidt also expressed
her willingness to go, when asked, saying: "I am positive mother will
add her contribution to the carpet rags for Sadie, I do pity her so
very much."

"Yes," said Mary's Aunt, "she is poor and proud. She will not accept
charity, so we persuade her to take carpet rags, as we have more than
we can possibly use."

On reaching the Singmaster cottage, the girls alighted with their
well-filled baskets, Mary's Uncle driving on to the "Ax Handle
Factory," promising to call for the girls on his return. The sad,
brown eyes of Sadie, too large for her pinched, sallow face, shone
with pleasure at sight of the two young girls so near her own age, and
she smiled her delight on examining the numerous bright-colored
patches brought by them. Thinking the pleasure she so plainly showed
might appear childish to the two girls, she explained: "I do get so
dreadfully tired sewing together so many dull homely rags. I shall
enjoy making balls of these pretty, bright colors."

"Sadie," Mary inquired, "will you think me inquisitive should I ask
what the carpet weaver pays you for the rags when you have sewed and
wound them into balls?"

"Certainly not," replied Sadie. "Four cents a pound is what he pays
me. It takes two of these balls to make a pound," and she held up a
ball she had just finished winding.

"Is _that all_ you get?" exclaimed Elizabeth.

"Have you ever made rag rugs?" inquired Mary.

"No, I have never even seen one. Are they anything like braided mats?"

"Yes, they are somewhat similar to them, but I crochet mine and think
them prettier. I have made several, with Aunt Sarah's assistance. I'll
come over and teach you to make them one of these days, should you
care to learn, and I'm positive you will find ready sale for them. In
fact, I've several friends in the city who have admired the ones I
have, and would like to buy rugs for the Colonial rooms they are
furnishing. Sadie, can you crochet?"

"Oh, yes. I can do the plain stitch very well."

"That is all that will be necessary. You will become very much
interested in inventing new designs, it is very fascinating work, and
it will be more remunerative than sewing carpet rags. Aunt Sarah will
send you more carpet rags if you require them, and should you wish
dull colors of blue or pink, a small package of dye will transform
white or light-colored rags into any desired shade, to match the
furnishings of different rooms. I think the crocheted rugs much
prettier than the braided ones, which are so popular in the 'Nutting'
pictures, and the same pretty shades may be used when rugs are

When Farmer Landis came for the girls, he found them too busily
engaged talking to hear his knock at the door. During the drive home
Mary could think and talk of nothing but Sadie Singmaster, and the
rugs she had promised to teach her to make at an early day. Elizabeth,
scarcely less enthusiastic, said: "I've a lot of old things I'll give
her to cut up for carpet rags."

Reaching home, Mary could scarcely wait an opportunity to tell Aunt
Sarah all her plans for Sadie's betterment. When she finally did tell
her Aunt, she smiled and said: "Mary, I'm not surprised. You are
always planning to do a kind act for some one. You remind me of the
lines, 'If I Can Live,' by Helen Hunt Jackson." And she repeated the
following for Mary:


    If I can live
    To make some pale face brighter and to give
    A second luster to some tear-dimmed eye,
      Or e'en impart
      One throb of comfort to an aching heart,
    Or cheer some wayworn soul in passing by;

    If I can lend
    A strong hand to the fallen, or defend
    The right against a single envious strain,
      My life, though bare,
      Perhaps, of much that seemeth dear and fair
    To us of earth, will not have been in vain.

    The purest joy,
    Most near to heaven, far from earth's alloy,
    Is bidding cloud give way to sun and shine;
      And 'twill be well
      If on that day of days the angels tell
    Of me, she did her best for one of Thine.



When John Landis came into possession of "Clear Spring" Farm, where
his mother had lived during her lifetime, she having inherited it from
her father, the rooms of the old farm house were filled with quaint,
old-fashioned furniture of every description. "Aunt Sarah," on coming
to the farm to live, had given a personal touch and cheery, homelike
look to every room in the house, with one exception, the large,
gloomy, old-fashioned parlor, which was cold, cheerless and damp. She
confessed to Mary she always felt as if John's dead-and-gone
ancestors' ghostly presences inhabited the silent room. The windows
were seldom opened to allow a ray of sunlight to penetrate the dusk
with which the room was always enveloped, except when the regular
weekly sweeping day arrived; when, after being carefully swept and
dusted, it was promptly closed. A room every one avoided, Aunt Sarah
was very particular about always having fresh air and sunlight in
every other part of the house but his one room. The old fireplace had
been boarded up many years before Aunt Sarah's advent to the farm, so
it could not be used. One day Mary noticed, while dusting the room
(after it had been given a thorough sweeping by Sibylla, Aunt Sarah's
one maid servant), that the small, many-paned windows facing the East,
at one end of the parlor, when opened, let in a flood of sunshine; and
in the evening those at the opposite end of the long room gave one a
lovely view of the setting sun--a finer picture than any painted by
the hand of a master. Mary easily persuaded her Aunt to make some
changes in the unlivable room. She suggested that they consult her
Uncle about repapering and painting the room and surprise him with the
result when finished.

Aunt Sarah, who never did things by halves, said: "Mary, I have long
intended 'doing over' this room, but thought it such a great
undertaking. Now, with your assistance, I shall make a sweep of these
old, antiquated heirlooms of a past generation. This green carpet,
with its gorgeous bouquets of roses, we shall have combined with one
of brown and tan in the attic. Your Uncle shall take them with him
when he drives to town and have them woven into pretty, serviceable
rugs for the floor."

"And, oh! Aunt Sarah," cried Mary, "do let's have an open fireplace.
It makes a room so cheery and 'comfy' when the weather gets colder, on
long winter evenings, to have a fire in the grate. I saw some lovely,
old brass andirons and fender in the attic, and some brass
candlesticks there also, which will do nicely for the mantel shelf
over the fireplace. I'll shine 'em up, and instead of this
hideously-ugly old wall paper with gay-colored scrawley figures, Aunt
Sarah, suppose we get an inexpensive, plain, tan felt paper for drop
ceiling and separate it from the paper on the side wall, which should
be a warm, yellow-brown, with a narrow chestnut wood molding. Then
this dull, dark, gray-blue painted woodwork; could any one imagine
anything more hideously ugly? It gives me the 'blues' simply to look
at it. Could we not have it painted to imitate chestnut wood? And
don't you think we might paint the floor around the edges of the rug
to imitate the woodwork? Just think of those centre panels of the door
painted a contrasting shade of pale pink. The painter who did this
work certainly was an artist. A friend of mine in the city, wishing to
use rugs instead of carpets on her floors, and not caring to go to the
expense of laying hardwood floors, gave the old floors a couple of
coats of light lemon, or straw-colored paint, then stained and grained
them a perfect imitation of chestnut, at small expense. The floors
were greatly admired when finished, and having been allowed to dry
thoroughly after being varnished, proved quite durable. I will write
to my friend at once and ask her exactly how her floors were treated."

"Now, Mary, about this old-style furniture. The old grandfather clock
standing in the corner, at the upper end of the room, I should like to
have remain. It is one hundred and fifty years old and belonged to my
folks, and, although old-fashioned, is highly valued by me."

"Of course," said Mary, "we'll certainly leave that in the room."

"Also," said Aunt Sarah, "allow the old cottage organ and large,
old-fashioned bookcase belonging to your Uncle to remain. He has
frequently spoken of moving his bookcase into the next room, when he
was obliged to come in here for books, of which he has quite a
valuable collection."


A-24 Seed Wreath
A-25 Wax Fruit
A-26 Old Parlor Mantel
A-27 Old Clock
A-28 Boquet of Hair Flowers ]

"Oh," said Mary, "no need of that. We will move Uncle John in here,
near the bookcase, when we get our room fixed up. Aunt Sarah, we will
leave that old-fashioned table, also, with one leaf up against the
wall, and this quaint, little, rush-bottomed rocker, which I just dote

"Why, dear," exclaimed Aunt Sarah, "there are several chairs to match
it in the attic, which you may have when you start housekeeping for
your very own. And," laughingly, said her Aunt, "there is another old,
oval, marble-topped table in the attic, containing a large glass case
covering a basket of wax fruit, which you may have."

"No, Aunt Sarah," said Mary, "I don't believe I want the fruit, but I
will accept your offer of the table. Well, Aunt Sarah, I know you
won't have this old, black what-not standing in the corner of the
room. I do believe it is made of spools, strung on wire, as supports
for the shelves; then all painted black, imitation of ebony, I
suppose. It must have been made in the Black Age, at the same time the
old corner cupboard was painted, as Uncle John told me he scraped off
three different layers of paint before doing it over, and one was
black. It was originally made of cherry. It certainly looks fine now,
with those new brass hinges and pretty, old-fashioned glass knobs."

"Yes, Mary," replied her Aunt, "and there is an old corner cupboard in
the attic which belonged to my father, that you may have, and, with a
very little labor and expense, Ralph can make it look as well as mine.
It has only one door and mine possesses two."

"Aunt Sarah," exclaimed Mary, "you are a dear! How will I ever repay
you for all your kindness to me?"

"By passing it on to some one else when you find some one needing
help," said Aunt Sarah.

"Such a collection of odd things, Aunt Sarah, as are on this what-not
I never saw. Old ambrotypes and daguerreotypes of gone and forgotten
members of the 'freinshoft,' as you sometimes say. I don't believe you
know any of them."

"Yes, the red plush frame on the mantel shelf contains a picture of
John's Uncle, a fine-looking man, but he possessed 'Wanderlust' and
has lived in California for many years.

"Oh, you mean the picture on the mantel standing near those twin
gilded china vases, gay with red and blue paint?"

"Yes; and that small china and gilt stand with little bowl and pitcher
was given me when a small child."

"Suppose I bring a basket and we will fill it with articles from the
mantel and what-not," said Mary, "and carry them all to the attic,
until you have a rummage sale some day. We'll burn these 'everlasting'
and 'straw' flowers, and pampas grass, and this large apple stuck full
of cloves. Here is a small china dog and a little china basket with a
plaited china handle decorated with gilt, and tiny, pink-tinted china
roses. And these large, glass marbles containing little silver eagles
inside; also this small, spun-glass ship and blue-and-pink-striped
glass pipe. Aunt Sarah, some of your ancestors must have attended a
glass blowers' exhibition in years past."

"This branch of white coral, these large snail shells (when a child I
remember holding them to my ear to hear a noise resembling the roar of
the ocean), and this small basket, fashioned of twigs and tendrils of
grape vine, then dipped in red sealing wax, certainly is a good
imitation of coral, and this plate, containing a miniature ship
composed of green postage stamps, we will place in your corner

"And, Aunt Sarah, I suppose this deep, glass-covered picture frame
containing a bouquet of hair flowers, most wonderfully and fearfully
made, was considered a work of art in days past and gone, as was also
the crescent in a frame on the opposite side of the room, composed of
flowers made of various seeds of grain and garden vegetables. Those
daisies, made of cucumber seeds with grains of red corn for centres,
and those made of tiny grains of popcorn with a watermelon seed in
centre, are cute. The latter look like breastpins with a circle of
pearls around the edge. And this glass case on the table, containing a
white cross, covered with wax tube roses, ivy leaves and fuchsias
drooping from the arms of the cross, sparkling with diamond dust! The
band of green chenille around its base matches the mat underneath,
composed of green zephyr of different shades, knitted, then raveled to
imitate moss, I suppose; and, no doubt, this marble-topped table has
stood here for fifty years, in this same spot, for the express purpose
of holding this beautiful (?) work of art."

"The hair flowers and the seed wreath were made by John's sister,"
replied Aunt Sarah.

"Aunt Sarah," exclaimed Mary, "I've an original idea. This oval,
marble-topped table has such strong, solid legs of black walnut,
suppose we remove the marble slab and have a large, circular top made
of wood at the planing mill? Wait; I'll get my tape measure. About
thirty-two inches in diameter will do. The new top we shall stain to
match the walnut frame, and it could be easily fastened to the table
with a couple of screws; and, after the marble top has been well
scoured, we'll use it in the kitchen as a bake board on which to roll
out pie crust."

Her Aunt as usual acquiesced to all Mary's suggestions.

"You're a dear, Aunt Sarah!" exclaimed Mary, as she gave her a hug,
"and I'll embroider big, yellow daisies with brown centres of French
knots on gray linen for a new table cover. Won't they look just

"Yes, Mary, and I'll buy a large, new lamp with a pretty shade, as I
feel sure your Uncle will like to sit here evenings to read his papers
and farm journals."

"And don't forget the Shriners' little magazine, _The Crescent_, which
amuses him so greatly. Aunt Sarah, I do wish those stiff,
starchy-looking, blue-white Nottingham lace curtains at the windows
had grown yellow with age. They would be ever so much prettier and
softer looking, and they are such a pretty, neat design, too."

"Oh!" replied her Aunt, "that may be easily remedied. I'll just dip
them into a little weak liquid coffee and that will give them a creamy
tint, and take out the stiffness."

"Now," said Mary, "what shall we do with these stiff, ugly,
haircloth-covered chairs and sofa?"

"Why," replied Aunt Sarah, "we shall buy cretonne or art cloth, in
pretty shades of brown and tan or green, to harmonize with the wall
paper, and make slip covers for them all. We could never think of
dispensing with the sofa. It is a very important article of furniture
in German households. The hostess usually gives the person of greatest
distinction among her guests the place of honor beside her on the

"These chairs have such strong, well-made, mahogany frames it would be
a pity not to use them. Now," continued Mary, "about the pictures on
the wall. Can't we consign them all to the attic? We might use some
of the frames. I'll contribute unframed copies of 'The Angelus' and
'The Gleaners,' by Millet; and I think they would fit into these plain
mahogany frames which contain the very old-fashioned set of pictures
named respectively 'The Lovers,' 'The Declaration,' 'The Lovers'
Quarrel' and 'The Marriage.' They constitute a regular art gallery.
I'll use a couple of the frames for some small Colonial and apple
blossom pictures I have, that I just love, by Wallace Nutting. Mine
are all unframed; 'Maiden Reveries,' 'A Canopied Roof' and a 'Ton of
Bloom,' I think are sweet. Those branches of apple trees, covered with
a mass of natural-looking pink blossoms, are exquisite."

"Yes," remarked Aunt Sarah, "they look exactly like our old Baldwin,
Winesap and Cider apple trees in the old, south meadow in the Spring.
And, Mary, we'll discard those two chromos, popular a half century
ago, of two beautiful cherubs called respectively, 'Wide Awake' and
'Fast Asleep,' given as premiums to a popular magazine. I don't
remember if the magazine was 'Godey's,' 'Peterson's' or 'Home Queen';
they have good, plain, mahogany frames which we can use."

"And, Aunt Sarah," said Mary, "we can cut out the partition in this
large, black-walnut frame, containing lithograph pictures of General
George Washington, 'the Father of his Country' (we are informed in
small letters at the bottom of the picture), and of General Andrew
Jackson, 'the hero of New Orleans.' Both men are pictured on
horseback, on gayly-caparisoned, prancing white steeds, with scarlet
saddle cloth, edged with gold bullion fringe. The Generals are
pictured clad in blue velvet coats with white facings of cloth or
satin vest and tight-fitting knee breeches, also white and long boots
reaching to the knee. Gold epaulettes are on their shoulders, and both
are in the act of lifting their old-fashioned Continental hats, the
advancing army showing faintly in the background. How gorgeously they
are arrayed! We will use this frame for the excellent, large copy you
have of 'The Doctor' and the pictured faces of the German
composers--Beethoven, Wagner, Mendelssohn, Haydn, Schubert and Mozart,
which I have on a card with a shaded brown background, will exactly
fit into this plain frame of narrow molding, from which I have just
removed the old cardboard motto, 'No place like home,' done with
green-shaded zephyr in cross-stitch."


A-29 An Old Sampler
A-30 Old Woven Basket
A-31 Wax Cross
A-32 Old Spinning Wheel]

"Now, Mary, with the couple of comfortable rockers which I intend
purchasing, I think we have about finished planning our room."

"If you are willing, Aunt Sarah, I should like to make some pretty
green and brown cretonne slips to cover those square sofa pillows in
place of the ones made of small pieces of puffed silk and the one of
colored pieces of cashmere in log cabin design, I do admire big, fat,
plain, comfortable pillows, for use instead of show. And we must have
a waste paper basket near the table beside Uncle John's chair. I shall
contribute green satin ribbon for an immense bow on the side of the
basket. Oh! Aunt Sarah! You've forgotten all about this odd, woven
basket, beside the what-not, filled with sea shells. I don't care for
the shells, but the basket would make a lovely sewing basket."

"You may have the basket, Mary, if you like it. It came from Panama,
or perhaps it was bought at Aspinwall by John's Uncle, many years ago,
when he came home on a visit from California, by way of the Isthmus,
to visit old friends and relatives. John's Mother always kept it
standing on the floor in one corner of the room beside the what-not."

"Aunt Sarah, why was straw ever put under this carpet?"

"The straw was put there, my dear, to save the carpet, should the
boards on the floor be uneven. My Mother was always particular about
having _cut rye straw_, because it was softer and finer than any
other. It was always used in those days instead of the carpet linings
we now have. I remember sometimes, when the carpet had been newly
laid, in our home, immediately after house cleaning time, the surface
of the floor looked very odd; full of bumps and raised places in
spots, until frequent walking over it flattened down the straw. This
room happens to have a particularly good, even floor, as this part of
the house was built many years later than the original, old farm
house, else it would not do to have it painted."

"Aunt Sarah, may I have the old spinning wheel in the attic? I'd love
to furnish an old Colonial bedroom when I have a home of my very own.
I'll use the rag carpet you made me for the floor, the old-fashioned,
high-post bed Uncle John said I might have, and the 'New Colonial'
rugs you taught me to make.

"Yes, my dear, and there is another old grandfather's clock in the
attic which you may have; and a high-boy also, for which I have no
particular use."

"Aunt Sarah, we shall not put away this really beautiful old sampler
worked in silk by Uncle John's grandmother when a girl of nine years.
It is beautifully done, and is wonderful, I think. And what is this
small frame containing a yellowed piece of paper cut in intricate
designs, presumably with scissors?"

"Look on the back of the picture and see what is written there, my
dear," said her Aunt.

Mary slowly read: "'This is the only picture I owned before my
marriage. I earned the money to buy it by gathering wheat heads.'"

"It belonged to my grandmother," said Aunt Sarah. "In old times, after
the reapers had left the field, the children were allowed to gather up
the wheat remaining, and, I suppose, grandmother bought this picture
with the money she earned herself, and considered it quite a work of
art in her day. It is over one hundred years old."



Aunt Sarah and Mary spent few idle moments while carrying out their
plans for "doing over" the old parlor. Finally, 'twas finished. Mary
breathed a sigh of satisfaction as the last picture was hung on the
wall. She turned to her Aunt, saying, "Don't you think the room looks
bright, cheery and livable?"

"Yes," replied her Aunt, "and what is more essential, homey, I have
read somewhere, 'A woman's house should be as personal a matter as a
spider's web or a snail's shell; and all the thought, toil and love
she puts into it should be preserved a part of its comeliness and
homelikeness forever, and be her monument to the generations.'"

"Well, Aunt Sarah," replied Mary, "I guess we've earned our monument.
The air that blows over the fields, wafted in from the open window, is
sweet with the scent of grain and clover, and certainly is refreshing.
I'm dreadfully tired, but so delighted with the result of our labors.
Now we will go and 'make ready,' as Sibylla says, before the arrival
of Ralph from the city. I do hope the ice cream will be frozen hard.
The Sunshine Sponge Cake, which I baked from a recipe the Professor's
wife gave me, is light as a feather. 'Tis Ralph's favorite cake. Let's
see; besides Ralph there are coming all the Schmidts, Lucy Robbins,
the school teacher, and Sibylla entertains her Jake in the kitchen. I
promised to treat him to ice cream; Sibylla was so good about helping
me crack the ice to use for freezing the cream. We shall have an 'Old
Song Evening' that will amuse every one."

Quite early, as is the custom in the country, the guests for the
evening arrived; and both Mary and Aunt Sarah felt fully repaid for
their hard work of the past weeks by the pleasure John Landis evinced
at the changed appearance of the room.

The Professor's wife said, "It scarcely seems possible to have changed
the old room so completely."

Aunt Sarah replied, "Paint and paper do wonders when combined with
good taste, furnished by Mary."

During the evening one might have been forgiven for thinking Professor
Schmidt disloyal to the Mother Country (he having been born and
educated in Heidelberg) had you overheard him speaking to Ralph on his
favorite subject, the "Pennsylvania German." During a lull in the
general conversation in the room Mary heard the Professor remark to
Ralph: "The Pennsylvania Germans are a thrifty, honest and industrious
class of people, many of whom have held high offices. The first
Germans to come to America as colonists in Pennsylvania were, as a
rule, well to do. Experts, when examining old documents of Colonial
days, after counting thousands of signatures, found the New York
'Dutch' and the Pennsylvania 'Germans' were above the average in
education in those days. Their dialect, the so-called 'Pennsylvania
German' or 'Dutch,' as it is erroneously called by many, is a dialect
which we find from the Tauber Grund to Frankfurt, A.M. As the German
language preponderated among the early settlers, the language of
different elements, becoming amalgamated, formed a class of people
frequently called 'Pennsylvania Dutch'."

Professor Harbaugh, D.D., has written some beautiful poems in
Pennsylvania German which an eminent authority, Professor Kluge, a
member of the Freiburg University, Germany, has thought worthy to be
included among the classics. They are almost identical with the poems
written by Nadler in Heidelberger Mundart, or dialect.

Mary, who had been listening intently to the Professor, said, when he
finished talking to Ralph: "Oh, please, do repeat one of Professor
Harbaugh's poems for us."

He replied, "I think I can recall several stanzas of 'Das Alt
Schulhaus an der Krick.' Another of Professor Harbaugh's poems, and I
think one of the sweetest I have ever read, is 'Heemweeh.' Both poems
are published in his book entitled 'Harbaugh's Harfe,' in Pennsylvania
German dialect, and possess additional interest from the fact that the
translations of these poems, in the latter part of the same book, were
made by the author himself."

"Oh, do repeat all that you remember of both the poems," begged Mary.

The Professor consented, saying: "As neither you nor Mr. Jackson
understand the Pennsylvania German dialect, I shall translate them
for you, after repeating what I remember. 'Heemweeh' means
Homesickness, but first I shall give you 'Das Alt Schulhaus an der


    Heit is 's 'xactly zwansig Johr,
      Dass ich bin owwe naus;
    Nau bin ich widder lewig z'rick
    Un schteh am Schulhaus an d'r Krick,
      Juscht neekscht an's Dady's Haus.

    Ich bin in hunnert Heiser g'west,
      Vun Marbelstee' un Brick,
    Un alles was sie hen, die Leit,
    Dhet ich verschwappe eenig Zeit
      For's Schulhaus an der Krick.

           *       *       *       *       *

    Der Weisseech schteht noch an der Dhier--
      Macht Schatte iwwer's Dach:
    Die Drauwerank is ah noch grie'--
    Un's Amschel-Nescht--guk juscht mol hi'--
      O was is dess en Sach!

           *       *       *       *       *

    Do bin ich gange in die Schul,
      Wo ich noch war gans klee';
    Dort war der Meeschter in seim Schtuhl,
    Dort war sei' Wip, un dort sei' Ruhl,--
      Ich kann's noch Alles sch'.

    Die lange Desks rings an der Wand--
      Die grose Schieler drum;
    Uf eener Seit die grose Mad,
    Un dort die Buwe net so bleed--
     Guk, wie sie piepe rum!

           *       *       *       *       *

    Oh horcht, ihr Leit, wu nooch mir lebt,
      Ich schreib eich noch des Schtick:
    Ich warn eich, droll eich, gebt doch Acht,
    Un memmt uf immer gut enacht,
      Des Schulhaus an der Krick!

[Footnote A: From "Harbaugh's Harfe." Published by the Publication and
Sunday School Board of the Reformed Church, Philadelphia, Pa. Used by


    Today it is just twenty years,
      Since I began to roam;
    Now, safely back, I stand once more,
    Before the quaint old school-house door,
      Close by my father's home.

    I've been in many houses since,
      Of marble built, and brick;
    Though grander far, their aim they miss,
    To lure heart's old love from this
      Old school-house at the creek.

           *       *       *       *       *

    The white-oak stands before the door,
      And shades the roof at noon;
    The grape-vine, too, is fresh and green;
    The robin's nest!--Ah, hark!--I ween
      That is the same old tune!

           *       *       *       *       *

     'Twas here I first attended school,
      When I was very small;
    There was the Master on his stool,
    There was his whip and there his rule--
      I seem to see it all.

    The long desks ranged along the walls,
      With books and inkstands crowned;
    Here on this side the large girls sat,
    And there the tricky boys on that--
      See! how they peep around!

           *       *       *       *       *

    Ye, who shall live when I am dead--
      Write down my wishes quick--
    Protect it, love it, let it stand,
    A way-mark in this changing land--
      That school-house at the creek.


    Ich wees net was die Ursach is--
      Wees net, warum ich's dhu:
    'N jedes Johr mach ich der Weg
      Der alte Heemet zu;
    Hab weiter nix zu suche dort--
      Kee' Erbschaft un kee' Geld;
    Un doch treibt mich des Heemgefiehl
      So schtark wie alle Welt;
    Nor'd schtart ich ewe ab un geh,
      Wie owe schun gemeldt.

    Wie nacher dass ich kumm zum Ziel,
      Wie schtarker will ich geh,
    For eppes in mei'm Herz werd letz
      Un dhut m'r kreislich weh.
    Der letschte Hiwel schpring ich nuf;
      Un ep ich drowe bin,
    Schtreck ich mich uf so hoch ich kann
      Un guk mit Luschte hin;
    Ich seh's alt Schtee'haus dorch die Beem,
      Un wott ich war schunm drin.

           *       *       *       *       *

    Wie gleich ich selle Babble Beem,
      Sie schtehn wie Brieder dar;
    Un uf'm Gippel--g'wiss ich leb!
      Hockt alleweil 'n Schtaar!
    'S Gippel biegt sich--guk, wie's gaunscht--
      'R hebt sich awer fescht;
    Ich seh sei' rothe Fliegle plehn,
      Wann er sei' Feddere wescht;
    Will wette, dass sei' Fraale hot
      Uf sellem Baam 'n Nescht!

           *       *       *       *       *

    Guk! werklich, ich bin schier am Haus!--
      Wie schnell geht doch die Zeit!
    Wann m'r so in Gedanke geht.
      So wees m'r net wie weit.
    Dort is d'r Schhap, die Walschkornkrip,
      Die Seiderpress dort draus;
    Dort is die Scheier, un dort die Schpring--
      Frisch quellt des Wasser raus;
    Un guk! die sehm alt Klapbord-Fens,
      Un's Dheerle vor'm Haus.

           *       *       *       *       *

    Zwee Blatz sin do uf dare Bortsch,
      Die halt ich hoch in Acht,
    Bis meines Lebens Sonn versinkt
      In schtiller Dodtes-Nacht!
    Wo ich vum alte Vaterhaus
      'S erscht mol bin gange fort.
    Schtand mei' Mammi weinend da,
     An sellem Rigel dort:
    Un nix is mir so heilig nau
      Als grade seller Ort.

           *       *       *       *       *

    Was macht's dass ich so dort hi' guk,
      An sell End vun der Bank!
    Weescht du's? Mei' Herz is noch net dodt,
      Ich wees es, Got sei Dank!
    Wie manchmal sass mai Dady dort,
      Am Summer-Nochmiddag,
    Die Hande uf der Schoos gekreizt,
      Sei Schtock bei Seite lag.
    Was hot er dort im Schtille g'denkt?
      Wer mecht es wisse--sag?


    I know not what the reason is:
     Where'er I dwell or roam,
    I make a pilgrimage each year,
     To my old childhood home.
    Have nothing there to give or get--
      No legacy, no gold--
    Yet by some home-attracting power
      I'm evermore controlled;
    This is the way the homesick do,
      I often have been told.

           *       *       *       *       *

    As nearer to the spot I come
      More sweetly am I drawn;
    And something in my heart begins
      To urge me faster on.
    Ere quite I've reached the last hilltop--
      You'll smile at me, I ween!--
    I stretch myself high as I can,
      To catch the view serene--
    The dear old stone house through the trees
      With shutters painted green!

           *       *       *       *       *

    How do I love those poplar trees;
      What tall and stalely things!
    See! on the top of one just now
      A starling sits and sings.
    He'll fall!--the twig bends with his weight!
      He likes that danger best.
    I see the red upon his wings,--
      Dark shining is the rest.
    I ween his little wife has built
      On that same tree her nest.

           *       *       *       *       *

    See! really I am near the house;
      How short the distance seems!
    There is no sense of time when one
      Goes musing in his dreams.
    There is the shop--the corn-crib, too--
      The cider-press--just see!
    The barn--the spring with drinking cup
      Hung up against the tree.
    The yard-fence--and the little gate
      Just where it used to be.

           *       *       *       *       *

    Two spots on this old friendly porch
      I love, nor can forget,
    Till dimly in the night of death
      My life's last sun shall set!
    When first I left my father's house,
      One summer morning bright,
    My mother at that railing wept
      Till I was out of sight!
    Now like a holy star that spot
      Shines in this world's dull night.

           *       *       *       *       *

    What draws my eye to yonder spot--
      That bench against the wall?
    What holy mem'ries cluster there,
      My heart still knows them all!
    How often sat my father there
      On summer afternoon;
    Hands meekly crossed upon his lap,
      He looked so lost and lone,
    As if he saw an empty world,
      And hoped to leave it soon.

At the conclusion of his recital, Mary heartily thanked the Professor,
and, at his request, obediently seated herself at the old, but still
sweet-toned cottage organ, and expressed her willingness to play any
old-time songs or hymns requested, and saying, "I know Aunt Sarah's
favorite," commenced playing, "My Latest Sun is Sinking Fast,"
followed by "This Old-Time Religion," "Jesus, Lover of My Soul," "One
of the Sweet Old Chapters," "Silver Threads Among the Gold" and the
sweet old hymn, "In the Summer Land of Song," by Fanny Crosby.

At John Landis' request, she played and sang "Auld Lang Syne." "When
You and I Were Young, Maggie," "Old Folks at Home" and "Old Black

Lucy Robbins, when asked for her favorites, replied; "In the
Gloaming," "The Old, Old Home'" "The Lost Chord" and "Better Bide a

The Professor then asked his daughter Elizabeth to give them the music
of a song from German Volkslied, or Folk Song, with the words of which
all except Mary and Ralph were familiar. Professor Schmidt sang in his
high, cracked voice to Elizabeth's accompaniment the words of the
German song, beginning:

    Du, Du liegest mir in Herzen
      Du, Du liegst mir in Sinn
    Du, Du machst mir viel Schmerzen
      Weist nicht wie gut ich Dir binn
      Ja, ja, ja, ja, Du weist nicht wie gut ich Dir bin.

The young folks all joined in the chorus. Fritz Schmidt asked
Elizabeth to play "Polly Wolly Doodle" for little Pollykins, which
Frit sang with gusto. Fritz then sang the rollicking German song,
"Lauderbach," to an accompaniment played by Mary, and followed by
singing "Johnny Schmoker," with appropriate gestures in the chorus
commencing "My Pilly, Willy Wink, das is mein fifa," etc., ending with
"My fal, lal, lal, my whach, whach, das ist mein doodle soch," which
he emphasised by shrugging his shoulders, to the no small enjoyment of
the young folks, who thought the silly, old German song no end of fun.
This was followed by a favorite college song, "Mandalay," by Fritz.

Then Elizabeth Schmidt played and sang a pretty little German song
called "Meuhlen Rad," meaning The Mill Wheel, taught her by her


    In einen kuhlen grunde
      Da steht ein meuhlen rad;
    Mein libste ist versch wunden,
      Die dort gewhoned hat;
    Sie sat mir treu versprochen,
      Gab ihr ein ring dabei;
    Sie hat die treu gebrochen,
      Das ringlein sprang entzwei.

She translated it for the benefit of Ralph and Mary: "In a cool,
pleasant spot, stands a mill. My loved one, who lived there, has
disappeared. She promised to be true to me, and I gave her a ring. She
broke her promise and the ring broke in two."

Fritz then caught his little sister Pauline around the waist and
waltzed her to one end of the long room, saying: "Mary, play the
piece, 'Put On Your Old Gray Bonnet,' and Pollykins and I will do the
cakewalk for you."

Polly, who had become quite a proficient little dancer under her
sister's teaching, was very willing to do her share in the evening's
entertainment, and it was pronounced a decided success.

Mary then said, "I'll play my favorite schottische, composed by our
old friend, the Professor. I have not yet procured a copy of his
latest piece of music, 'The Passing of the Dahlias.' I think it is
still with the publishers."

Mary, after playing "Rock of Ages," left the room to see about serving
refreshments, when Elizabeth Schmidt took her place at the instrument.
After playing "The Rosary," she turned to Ralph, who had been greatly
amused by the German songs on the program, all of which were quite new
to him, and said: "What shall I play for you?"

He replied, "'My Little Irish Rose'--no, I mean 'The River Shannon.'"

"Don't you mean 'That Grand Old Name Called Mary?'" mischievously
inquired Fritz Schmidt, who could not refrain from teasing Ralph,
which caused a laugh at his expense, as all present were aware of his
love for Mary. Elizabeth, to cover Ralph's confusion, quickly replied:
"I'll play my favorite, 'The End of a Perfect Day.'"

The party was pronounced a success, and broke up at a late hour for
country folks. Before leaving, Mary's Uncle said: "Now, let's sing
'Home, Sweet Home,' and then all join in singing that grand old hymn,
'My Country, 'Tis of Thee,' to the new tune by our friend, the Bucks
County Editor."




All hailed with delight Aunt Sarah's proposal that the Schmidt and
Landis families, on the Fourth of July, drive over to the Narrows,
visit Aunt Sarah's old home at Nockamixon, and see the "Ringing Rocks"
and "High Falls," situated a short distance from the rocks, near which
place picnics were frequently held. John Landis readily agreed to the
proposed plan, saying, "The meadow hay and clover are cut, and I'll
not cut the wheat until the fifth day of July."

The third of July was a busy day at both farm houses, preparing savory
food of every description with which to fill hampers for the next
day's outing. Small Polly Schmidt was so perfectly happy, at the
thought of a proposed picnic, she could scarcely contain herself, and
as her sister Elizabeth said, "did nothing but get in every one's
way." Little Polly, being easily offended, trudged over to the Landis
farm to see Mary, with whom she knew she was a great favorite.

The morning of the Fourth dawned bright and clear. Quite early, while
the earth was still enveloped in a silvery mist, and on the lattice
work of filmy cobwebs, spun over weeds and grass, dewdrops, like tiny
diamonds, sparkled and glistened, until dissolved by the sun's warm
rays, the gay party left home, for the "Palisades" were quite a
distance from the farm, to drive being the only way of reaching the
place, unless one boarded the gasoline motorcar, called the "Cornfield
Express" by farmers living in the vicinity of Schuggenhaus Township.

There is something indescribably exhilarating about starting for an
early drive in the country before sunrise on a bright, clear morning
in midsummer, when "the earth is awaking, the sky and the ocean, the
river and forest, the mountain and plain." Who has not felt the sweet
freshness of early morning before "the sunshine is all on the wing" or
the birds awaken and begin to chatter and to sing? There is a hush
over everything; later is heard the lowing of cattle, the twitter of
birds and hum of insect life, proclaiming the birth of the new day.
Passing an uncultivated field, overgrown with burdock, wild carrots,
mullein, thistle and milk weed, Mary alighted and gathered some of the
pods of the latter, inclosing imitation of softest down, which she
used later for filling sofa pillows.

"Look at those pretty wild canaries!" exclaimed Aunt Sarah, "yellow as
gold, swinging on the stem of a tall weed."

"Professor Schmidt, can you tell me the name of that weed?" questioned
Mary. "I have always admired the plant, with its large leaves and
long, drooping racemes of crimson seeds.

"That," replied the Professor, "is a foreign plant, a weed called
Equisetum from 'Equi,' a horse, and 'Setum'--tail. The country folk
hereabout call it 'Horsetail.' It belongs to the Crptogamous or
flowerless plants. There are only four specimens of this plant in
America. I, too, have always greatly admired the plant."

The Professor was quite a noted botanist. There were few flowers,
plants or weeds of which he was ignorant of the name or medicinal
value. Another bird lazily picked seeds from the thistle blossoms.
"See," exclaimed Aunt Sarah, "one bird has a spear of grass in its

"Yellow star grass," said the Professor, "with which to make a nest.
They never mate until the last of June, or first part of July. The
tiny, little robbers ate up nearly all my sunflower seeds in the
garden last summer."

"Well," replied Mary, "you know, Professor, the birds must have food.
They are the farmer's best friend. I hope you don't begrudge them a
few sunflower seeds, I love birds. I particularly admire the
'Baltimore Oriole,' with their brilliant, orange-colored plumage; they
usually make their appearance simultaneously with the blossoms in the
orchard in the south meadow; or so Aunt Sarah tells me. I love to
watch them lazily swinging on the high branches of tall trees. On the
limb of a pear tree in the orchard one day, I saw firmly fastened, a
long, pouch-like nest, woven with rare skill. Securely fastened to the
nest by various colored pieces of twine and thread was one of smaller
size, like a lean-to added to a house, as if the original nest had
been found too small to accommodate the family of young birds when
hatched. The oriole possesses a peculiar, sweet, high-whistled trill,
similar to this--'La-la-la-la,' which always ends with the rising

Fritz Schmidt, who had been listening intently to Mary, gravely
remarked, "An oriole built a nest on a tall tree outside my bedroom
window, and early every morning, before the family arise, I hear it
sing over and over again what sounds exactly like 'Lais Die Beevil!'
which translated means 'Read your Bible'."

"Even the birds are 'Dutch,' I believe, in Bucks County," said Fritz.
"I think these must be German Mennonites, there being quite a
settlement of these honest, God-fearing people living on farms at no
great distance from our place."


As they drove along the country road, parallel with the Delaware
River, just before reaching the Narrows. Mary was greatly attracted by
the large quantities of yellow-white "sweet clover," a weed-like plant
found along the Delaware River, growing luxuriantly, with tall, waving
stems two to four feet high. The clover-like flowers, in long, loose
racemes, terminating the branches, were so fragrant that, like the
yellow evening primrose, the scent was noticeable long before one
perceived the flowers. And, strange to tell, sweet clover was never
known to grow in this locality until the seed was washed up on the
bank of the river some ten or twelve years previous to the date of my
story, when the Delaware River was higher than it was ever before
known to be.

"The first place we shall visit," said Aunt Sarah, "will be my
grandmother's old home, or rather, the ruins of the old home. It
passed out of our family many years ago; doors and windows are missing
and walls ready to tumble down. You see that old locust tree against
one side the ruined wall of the house?" and with difficulty she broke
a branch from the tree saying, "Look, see the sharp, needle-shaped
thorns growing on the branch! They were used by me when a child to pin
my dolls' dresses together. In those days, pins were too costly to
use; and look at that large, flat rock not far distant from the house!
At the foot of that rock, when a child of ten, I buried the 'Schild
Krote Family' dolls, made from punk (when told I was too big a girl to
play with dolls). I shed bitter tears, I remember. Alas! The sorrows
of childhood are sometimes deeper than we of maturer years realize."

"Why did you give your family of dolls such an odd name, Aunt Sarah?"
questioned Mary.

"I do not remember," replied her Aunt. "Schild Krote is the German
name for turtle. I presume the name pleased my childish fancy."

"Suppose we visit my great-great-grandfather's grave in the near-by
woods. I think I can locate it, although so many years have passed
since I last visited it."

Passing through fields overgrown with high grass, wild flowers and
clover, they came to the woods. Surprising to say, scarcely any
underbrush was seen, but trees everywhere--stately Lebanon cedars,
spruce and spreading hemlock, pin oaks, juniper trees which later
would be covered with spicy, aromatic berries; also beech trees. Witch
hazel and hazel nut bushes grew in profusion. John Landis cut a large
branch from a sassafras tree to make a new spindle on which to wind
flax, for Aunt Sarah's old spinning wheel (hers having been broken),
remarking as he did so, "My mother always used a branch of sassafras
wood, having five, prong-like branches for this purpose, when I was a
boy, and she always placed a piece of sassafras root with her dried

The Professor's wife gathered an armful of yarrow, saying, "This is an
excellent tonic and should always be gathered before the flowers
bloom. I wonder if there is any boneset growing anywhere around here."

Boneset, a white, flowering, bitter herb, dearly beloved and used by
the Professor's wife as one of the commonest home remedies in case of
sickness, and equally detested by both Fritz and Pauline.


Mary gathered a bouquet of wild carrot, or "Queen Anne's Lace," with
its exquisitely fine, lace-like flowers with pale green-tinted
centres. Mary's Uncle could not agree with her in praise of the dainty
wild blossoms. He said: "Mary, I consider it the most detested weed
with which I am obliged to contend on the farm."

[Illustration: TOP ROCK]

After quite a long, tiresome walk in the hot sun, they discovered the
lonely grave, covered with a slab of granite surrounded by a small
iron railing and read the almost illegible date--"Seventeen Hundred
and Forty." Ralph said, "If he ever sighed for a home in some vast
wilderness, his wish is granted." It certainly was a lonely grave in
the deep woods, and gave all the members of the party a sad and eerie
feeling as they wended their way out into the sunlight again, to the
waiting carriages, and were soon driving swiftly along the Narrows,
as they have been called from time immemorial by the inhabitants,
although I prefer the name of Pennsylvania Palisades, as they are
sometimes called.

Said Professor Schmidt: "Numerous tourists visit the Narrows every
year. The Narrows are said to resemble somewhat the Palisades on the
Hudson. I have seen, the latter and think these greatly resemble them
and are quite as interesting and picturesque."

"The name Narrows is derived from the fact that at this place the
Delaware River has forced itself through the rocky barrier," continued
the Professor, "hedged in on one side by cliffs of perpendicular rock,
three hundred feet high, extending some distance along the river,
leaving scarcely room at some places for the river and the canal. Some
quite rare plants grow here, said to be found in few other localities
in the United States. You see the highest flat rock along the Narrows?
It is called 'Top Rock' and rises to a height of more than three
hundred feet. We shall drive around within a short distance of it;
then, after passing a small house, we are obliged to walk across a
field of ploughed ground; follow the well-beaten path between trees
and undergrowth, and 'Top Rock' is before us. Stepping upon the high
ledge of rock projecting out over the road beneath, we discover it may
also be reached by following a precipitous path and clinging to bushes
and trees, but none of the party venture. Recently the body of a man
who had been searching for rare birds' eggs on the side of this
self-same rock was found dead on the path below the rocks. What caused
his fall is not known. No wonder Aunt Sarah says it makes her dizzy
when you boys skip stones across the river while standing on the

The beautiful view of the Delaware River and the scenery on the
opposite side was something long to be remembered. While the party
were going into raptures over the beautiful sight, Professor Schmidt
turned to Mary and remarked: "In those rocks which rise in
perpendicular bluffs, several hundred feet above the level of the
river, are evidence that prehistoric man may have inhabited the caves
in these same walls of rock along the Delaware. From implements and
weapons found, it does not require any great effort of imagination to
believe the 'Cave Man' dwelt here many centuries ago."

Fritz Schmidt was much interred in his father's conversation, and
from that time on called Ralph Jackson Mary's "Cave Man."

Leaving Top Rock, the party wended their way back to the waiting
carriages in the road, and drove to the "Ringing or Musical Rocks."
They had been informed that their nearest approach to the rocks was to
drive into the woods to reach them. Passing a small shanty at the
roadside, where a sign informed the passerby that soft drinks were to
be obtained, the party dismounted and found, to their surprise, a
small pavilion had been erected with bench, table and numerous seats
composed of boards laid across logs, where camp meetings had formerly
been held. As the large trees furnished shade, and a spring of fresh
water was near by, they decided to "strike" camp and have lunch before
going farther into the woods.

Aunt Sarah and the Professor's wife spread a snowy cloth over the
rough wooden table, quickly unpacked the hampers, and both were soon
busily engaged preparing sandwiches of bread, thinly sliced, pink cold
ham and ground peanuts, fried chicken and beef omelette; opening jars
of home-made pickles, raspberry jam and orange marmalade.

"Oh!" said Pauline, "I'm so hungry for a piece of chocolate cake. Let
me help shell the eggs, so we can soon have dinner."

"Here's your fresh spring water," called Fritz, as he joined the
party, a tin pail in his hand, "We had such an early breakfast, I'm as
hungry as a bear."

The party certainly did full justice to the good things provided with
a lavish hand by Frau Schmidt and Aunt Sarah. All were in high
spirits. The Professor quoted from the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam--

    Here with a loaf of bread beneath the bough.
    A flask of wine, a book of verse and thou,
    Beside me singing in the wilderness,
    And wilderness is Paradise enow.

Ralph cast a look at Marry, unnoticed by any one else, as much as to
say, "The old tentmaker voiced my sentiments."


[Illustration: HIGH FALLS]

After the hampers had been repacked and stowed away in the carriages,
they with the horses were left in the shade while the party walked to
"High Falls," at no great distance from the camp. "High Falls," a
beautiful waterfall about thirty feet high and fifty feet wide, is
situated several hundred feet east of the Ringing Rocks. The water,
before dashing below, passes over a large, solid, level floor of rock.
After gazing at the Falls and picturesque surroundings, they searched
through the woods for the Ringing Rocks, a peculiar formation of rocks
of irregular shape and size, branching out from a common centre in
four directions. The rocks vary in size from a few pounds to several
tons in weight. Arriving there, Aunt Sarah said: "Ralph, you will now
find use for the hammer which I asked you to bring." Ralph struck
different rocks with the hammer, and Fritz Schmidt struck rocks with
other pieces of rock, and all gave a peculiar metallic sound, the
tones of each being different. The rocks are piled upon each other to
an unknown depth, not a particle of earth being found between them,
and not a bush or spear of grass to be seen. They occupy a space of
about four and a half acres and are a natural curiosity well worth
seeing. The young folks scrambled over the rocks for a time, and,
having made them ring to their hearts' content, were satisfied to
return to camp and supper.

[Illustration: BIG ROCK AT ROCKY DALE]

"Not far distant from High Falls," said John Landis, when all were
comfortably seated near the table, with a sandwich in hand, "is a
place called Roaring Rocks, also a freak of nature. I remember, when a
boy, I always went there in the fall of the year, after the first hard
frost, to pick persimmons. The water could he distinctly heard running
underneath the rocks at a considerable depth."

Ralph Jackson remarked to Aunt Sarah: "I never imagined there were so
many interesting, natural features right here in Bucks County."

"Oh, yes," exclaimed the impressible Fritz Schmidt, "we have a few
things besides pigs and potatoes."

"Yes, Ralph," said the Professor, "there are still several places of
interest you will like to see. 'Stony Garden' is another very
interesting freak of nature. It is about two and a half miles from the
small town of 'Snitzbachsville,' as Fritz calls the hamlet, and 'tis a
wild spot. About an acre is covered with trap rock. The stones are of
odd shapes and sizes and appear as if thrown into the forest in the
wildest confusion. No earth or vegetation is found about them. 'Tis
said the rocks are similar to those found at Fingal's Cave, Ireland,
and also at the Palisades on the Hudson, and are not found anywhere
else in this section of the country."

"And Ralph," said Fritz, "I want to show you 'Big Rock,' at Avondale,
where a party of us boys camped one summer for two weeks. Oh! but I
remember the good pies given us by a farmer's wife who sold us milk
and eggs, and who lived just across the fields from our camp."

"I think," said John Landis, "it is time we began hitching up our
horses and starting for home. We have a long drive before us, and,
therefore, must make an early start. Sarah, get the rest of the party
together and pack up your traps."

At that moment the Professor came in sight with an armful of ferns,
the rich loam adhering to their roots, and said: "I'm sure these will
grow." Later he planted them on a shady side of the old farm house at
"Five Oaks," where they are growing today. Professor Schmidt, after a
diligent search, had found clinging to a rock a fine specimen of
"Seedum Rhodiola," which he explained had never been found growing in
any locality in the United States except Maine. Little Pauline, with a
handful of flowers and weeds, came trotting after Mary, who carried an
armful of creeping evergreen called partridge berry, which bears
numerous small, bright, scarlet berries later in the season. Ralph
walked by her side with a basket filled to overflowing with quantities
of small ferns and rock moss, with which to border the edge of the
waiter on which Mary intended planting ferns; tree moss or lichens,
hepaticas, wild violets, pipsissewa or false wintergreen, with dark
green, waxy leaves veined with a lighter shade of green; and wild
pink geraniums, the foliage of which is prettier than the pink
blossoms seen later, and they grow readily when transplanted.

Aunt Sarah had taught Mary how to make a beautiful little home-made
fernery. By planting these all on a large waiter, banking moss around
the edges to keep them moist and by planting them early, they would be
growing finely when taken by her to the city in the fall of the
year--a pleasant reminder of her trip to the "Narrows" of the Delaware
River. Frau Schmidt brought up the rear, carrying huge bunches of
mint, pennyroyal and the useful herb called "Quaker Bonnet."


Driving home at the close of the day, the twinkling lights in farm
house windows they swiftly passed, were hailed with delight by the
tired but happy party, knowing that each one brought them nearer home
than the one before. To enliven the drowsy members of the party, Fritz
Schmidt sang the following to the tune of "My Old Kentucky Home,"
improvising as he sang:

    The moon shines bright on our "old Bucks County home,"
      The meadows with daisies are gay,
    The song of the whipporwill is borne on the breeze,
      With the scent of the new mown hay.
    Oh! the Narrows are great with their high granite peaks,
      And Ringing Rocks for ages the same;
    But when daylight fades and we're tired and cold,
      There's no place like "hame, clear alt hame."

The last lingering rays of the sun idealized the surrounding fields
and woods with that wonderful afterglow seen only at the close of day.
The saffron moon appeared to rise slowly from behind the distant
tree-tops, and rolled on parallel with them, and then ahead, as if to
guide them on their way, and the stars twinkled one by one from out
the mantle of darkness which slowly enveloped the earth. The trees
they swiftly passed, when the moonbeams touched them, assumed
gigantic, grotesque shapes in the darkness. Mary quoted from a
favorite poem, "The Huskers," by Whittier:

    'Till broad and red as when he rose, the sun
      Sank down at last,
    And, like a merry guest's farewell, the day
      In brightness passed.

    And lo! as through the western pines,
      On meadow, stream and pond,
    Flamed the red radiance of a sky,
      Set all afire beyond.

    Slowly o'er the eastern sea bluffs,
      A milder glory shone,
    And the sunset and the moon-rise
      Were mingled into one!

    As thus into the quiet night,
      The twilight lapsed away,
    And deeper in the brightening moon
      The tranquil shadows lay.

    From many a brown, old farm house
      And hamlet without name,
    Their milking and their home tasks done,
      The merry huskers came.

"You mean 'The Merry Picknickers Came,'" said Fritz Schmidt, as Mary
finished, "and here we are at home. Good night, all."



Mary's Aunt taught her to make light, flaky pastry and pies of every
description. In this part of Bucks County a young girl's education was
considered incomplete without a knowledge of pie-making. Some of the
commonest varieties of pies made at the farm were "Rivel Kuchen," a
pie crust covered with a mixture of sugar, butter and flour crumbled
together; "Snitz Pie," composed of either stewed dried apples or
peaches, finely mashed through a colander, sweetened, spread over a
crust and this covered with a lattice-work of narrow strips of pastry
laid diamond-wise over the top of the pie; "Crumb" pies, very popular
when served for breakfast, made with the addition of molasses or
without it; Cheese pies, made of "Smier Kase;" Egg Custard, Pumpkin
and Molasses pie.

Pies were made of all the different fruits and berries which grew on
the farm. When fresh fruits were not obtainable, dried fruits and
berries were used. Pie made from dried, sour cherries was an especial
favorite of Farmer Landis, and raisin or "Rosina" pie, as it was
usually called at the farm, also known as "Funeral" pie, was a standby
at all seasons of the year, as it was invariably served at funerals,
where, in old times, sumptuous feasts were provided for relatives and
friends, a regular custom for years among the "Pennsylvania Germans,"
and I have heard Aunt Sarah say, "In old times, the wives of the
grave-diggers were always expected to assist with the extra baking at
the house where a funeral was to be held."

It would seem as if Bucks County German housewives did not like a
dessert without a crust surrounding it.

The Pennsylvania German farmers' wives, with few exceptions, serve the
greatest variety of pies at a meal of any class of people I know; not
alone as a dessert at twelve o'clock dinner, but frequently serve
several different varieties of pie at breakfast and at each meal
during the day. No ill effects following the frequent eating of pie I
attribute to their active life, the greater part of which, during the
day, was usually spent in the open air, and some credit may he due the
housewife for having acquired the knack of making _good_ pie crust,
which was neither very rich nor indigestible, if such a thing be

The combination of fruit and pastry called pie is thought to be of
American invention. Material for pies at a trifling cost were
furnished the early settlers in Bucks County by the large supply of
fruit and vegetables which their fertile farms produced, and these
were utilized by the thrifty German housewives, noted for their wise
management and economy.

The Professor's wife taught Mary to make superior pastry, so flaky and
tender as to fairly melt in one's mouth; but Mary never could learn
from her the knack of making a dainty, crimped edge to her pies with
thumb and forefinger, although it looked so very simple when she
watched "Frau Schmidt" deftly roll over a tiny edge as a finish to the

Mary laughingly told the Professor's wife (when speaking of pies) of
the brilliant remark she made about lard, on first coming to the farm.
Her Aunt Sarah, when baking pies one day, said to her, "Look, Mary,
see this can of snowy lard, rendered from pork, obtained from our fat
pigs last winter!"

"Why, Aunt Sarah!" exclaimed Mary, "is lard made from pork fat? I
always thought lard was made from milk and butter was made from

The Professor's wife possessed, besides a liking for pies, the
German's fondness for anything pertaining to fritters. She used a set
of "wafer and cup irons" for making "Rosen Kuchen," as she called the
flat, saucer-like wafer; and the cup used for serving creamed
vegetables, salads, etc., was similar to pattie cases.

"The 'Wafer and Cup Irons,'" said Frau Schmidt, "were invented by a
friend of mine, also a teacher and an excellent cook, besides; she
gave me several of her original recipes, all to be served on wafers or
in patties. You shall have a set of the irons when you start
housekeeping. Mary. You will be surprised at the many uses you will
find for them. They are somewhat similar to Rosette Irons, but I think
them an improvement. They are pieces of fluted steel fastened to a
long handle and one is cup-shaped. This latter is particularly fine
for making patties. Then the cup may be filled and served on
saucer-like wafers, which I call 'Rosen Kuchen,' or the 'Rosen Kuchen'
may be simply dusted with a mixture consisting of one cup of sugar,
one teaspoonful of cinnamon and a quarter teaspoonful of powdered
cardamon seed, and served on a plate, as dainty cakes or wafers."

Aunt Sarah, when cooking fritters, always used two-thirds lard and
one-third suet for deep frying, but "Frau Schmidt" taught Mary to use
a good brand of oil for this purpose, as she thought food fried in oil
more digestible and wholesome than when fried in lard. The patties or
wafers were easily made. "Frau Schmidt" placed the long-handled iron
in hot fat, the right temperature for frying fritters. When the iron
was heated she quickly and carefully wiped off any surplus fat, then
at once dipped the hot wafer iron into a bowl containing the batter
she had prepared (the recipe for which she gave Mary), then dipped the
iron into the hot fat; when the batter had lightly browned she gently
dropped it from the iron onto brown paper, to absorb any fat which
might remain. These are quickly and easily prepared and, after a few
trials, one acquires proficiency. Pattie cases or cup-shapes are made
in a similar manner. They are not expensive and may be kept several
weeks in a cool, dry place. When wanted for table use, place in a hot
oven a few minutes to reheat. They make a dainty addition to a
luncheon by simply dusting the "Rosen Kuchen" with pulverised sugar.
Creamed vegetables of any variety may be served on them by placing a
spoon of cream dressing on top of each, over which grate yolk of hard
boiled egg; or use as a foundation on which to serve salads; or serve
fruit on them with whipped cream. The patties or cups may be used to
serve creamed chicken, oysters, or sweetbreads if no sugar be used in
the batter. These pattie cases are exactly like those sold at
delicatessen counters, in city stores, and are considered quite an
addition to a dainty luncheon. They are rather expensive to buy, and
we country housewives cannot always procure them when wanted, and they
may be made at home with a small amount of labor and less expense.

"The Germans make fritters of almost everything imaginable," continued
the Professor's wife. "One day in early Spring I saw a German neighbor
gathering elderberry blossoms, of which she said she intended making
fritters. I asked her how they were made, being curious, I will
confess. She sent me a plate of the fritters and they were delicious.
I will give you her recipe should you care for it. Mary, have you ever
eaten a small, sweet wafer called 'Zimmet Waffle?' My mother made them
at Christmas time, in Germany. Should I be able to procure a small
'waffle,' or I should call it wafer, iron, in the city, I will teach
you how they are made. I think them excellent. My mother made a cake
dough similar to that of pound cake. To one portion she added
cinnamon, to the other chocolate, and the last portion was flavored
with vanilla. A piece of dough the size of a small marble was placed
in the wafer iron, which was then pressed together and held over the
fire in the range, by a long handle, until the wafer was crisp and
brown. They are delicious and will keep indefinitely."

The Professor's wife finished speaking to Mary, and turned to her
daughter Elizabeth, saying, "It is time I mix the dough if we are to
have 'Boova Shenkel' for dinner today. I see the potatoes have steamed

"Oh, goody!" said Pauline, "I just love 'Boova Shenkel!'"

"Then," said her Mother, "run down into the cellar and get me three
eggs for them, and Mary, I'll write off the recipe for you, if you
wish it, as I feel sure you'll like them as well as Pauline. And
Elizabeth, dust powdered sugar over this plate of 'Rosen Kuchen,' and
you, Mary and Pauline, leave this hot kitchen and have lunch out in
the 'Espalier,' as your Father calls it."

"I think," said Mary to Elizabeth, after they were seated in the
shade, prepared to enjoy the "Rosen Kuchen," "this little, natural,
home-grown summer-house is the oddest and prettiest little place I've
ever seen."

"Yes," assented Elizabeth, "Father said he made it as nearly like as
possible to a large one at Weisbaden, no great distance from his old
home in Germany. He says the 'Frauer Esche,' meaning Weeping Ash, at
Weisbaden, had tables and benches placed beneath spreading branches of
the tree, and picnics were frequently held there. This one was made by
the larger branches of the Weeping Ash, turning downward, fastened by
pieces of leather to a framework nailed to the top of posts in the
ground, about two yards apart, surrounding the tree. The posts, you
notice, are just a little higher than an ordinary man, and when the
leaves thickly cover the tops and sides, protecting one from the
sun's rays, it is an ideal Summer-house. We frequently sit here
evenings and afternoons; Mother brings her sewing and Pauline her doll
family, which, you know, is quite numerous."

"I never saw a Summer-house at all like it," said Mary.

The Professor's wife not only taught Mary the making of superior
pastry and the cooking of German dishes, but what was of still greater
importance, taught her the value of different foods; that cereals of
every description, flour and potatoes, are starchy foods; that cream,
butter, oil, etc., are fat foods; that all fruits and vegetables
contain mineral matter; and that lean meat, eggs, beans, peas and milk
are muscle-forming foods. These are things every young housekeeper
should have a knowledge of to be able to plan nourishing, wholesome,
well-balanced meals for her family. And not to serve at one time a
dish of rice, cheese and macaroni, baked beans and potatoes. Serve
instead with one of these dishes fruit, a vegetable or salad. She
said, "beans have a large percentage of nutriment and should be more
commonly used." She also said graham and corn bread are much more
nutritious than bread made from fine white flour, which lacks the
nutritious elements. Indian corn is said to contain the largest amount
of fat of any cereal. It is one of our most important cereal foods and
should be more commonly used by housewives; especially should it be
used by working men whose occupation requires a great amount of
physical exercise. Particularly in cold weather should it be
frequently served, being both cheap and wholesome.

The Professor's wife laughingly remarked to Mary, "When I fry fritters
or 'Fast Nacht' cakes, Fritz and Pauline usually assist such a large
number of them in disappearing before I have finished baking, I am
reminded of 'Doughnutting Time,' by J.W. Foley. Have you never read
the poem? I sometimes feel that it must have been written by me."


    Wunst w'en our girl wuz makin' pies an' doughnuts--'ist a Lot--
    We stood around with great, big eyes, 'cuz we boys like 'em hot;
    And w'en she dropped 'em in the lard, they sizzled 'ist like fun,
    And w'en she takes 'em out, it's hard to keep from takin' one.

    And 'en she says: "You boys'll get all spattered up with grease."
    And by-um-by she says she'll let us have 'ist one apiece;
    So I took one for me, and one for little James McBride,
    The widow's only orfunt son, 'ats waitin' there outside.

    An' Henry, he took one 'ist for himself an' Nellie Flynn,
    'At's waitin' at the kitchen door and dassent to come in,
    Becuz her Mother told her not; and Johnny, he took two,
    'Cus Amey Brennan likes 'em hot, 'ist like we chinnern do.

    'En Henry happened 'ist to think he didn't get a one
    For little Ebenezer Brink, the carpet beater's son,
    Who never gets 'em home, becuz he says, he ain't quite sure,
    But thinks perhaps the reason wuz, his folkeses are too poor.

    An 'en I give my own away to little Willie Biggs
    'At fell down his stairs one day, an' give him crooked legs,
    'Cuz Willie always seems to know w'en our girl's goin' to bake.
    He wouldn't ast for none. Oh, no! But, my! he's fond of cake.

    So I went back an' 'en I got another one for me,
    Right out the kittle smokin' hot, an' brown as it could be;
    An' John he got one, too, becuz he give his own to Clare,
    An' w'en our girl she looked, there wuz 'ist two small doughnuts

    My! she wuz angry w'en she looked an' saw 'ist them two there,
    An' says she knew 'at she had cooked a crock full an' to spare;
    She says it's awful 'scouragin' to bake and fret an' fuss,
    An' w'en she thinks she's got 'em in the crock, they're all in us.

[Footnote A: The poem "Doughnutting Time," from "Boys and Girls,"
published by E.P. Dutton, by permission of the author, James W.

       * * * * * * *

The Professor's wife gave Mary what she called her most useful recipe.
She said, "Mary, this recipe was almost invaluable to me when I was a
young housekeeper and the strictest economy was necessary. Sift into a
bowl, one cup of flour, one even teaspoonful of baking powder (I use
other baking powders occasionally, but prefer 'Royal'), then cut
through the flour either one tablespoonful of butter or lard, add a
pinch of salt, and mix into a soft dough with about one-half cup of
sweet milk. Mix dough quickly and lightly, handling as little as
possible. Drop large spoonfuls of the batter in muffin pans and bake
in a quick oven for tea biscuits; or, sift flour thickly over the
bread board, turn out the dough, roll several times in the flour, give
one quick turn with the rolling-pin to flatten out dough, and cut out
with small cake cutter, (I prefer using a small, empty tin, 1/2 pound
baking powder can, to cut out cakes.) Place close together in an agate
pan and bake, or bake in one cake in a pie tin and for shortcake; or
place spoonfuls of the dough over veal or beef stew and potatoes or
stewed chicken, and cook, closely covered, about fifteen minutes. Of
course, you will have sufficient water in the stew pan to prevent its
boiling away before the pot-pie dumplings are cooked, and, of course,
you know, Mary, the meat and potatoes must be almost ready to serve
when this dough is added. Then I frequently add one teaspoonful of
sugar to the batter and place spoonfuls over either freshly stewed or
canned sour cherries, plums, rhubarb or apples. In fact, any tart
fruit may be used, and steam, closely covered, or place large
tablespoonful of any fruit, either canned or stewed, in small custard
cups, place tablespoonfuls of batter on top and steam or bake, and
serve with either some of the stewed fruit and fruit juice, sugar and
cream, or any sauce preferred."

"The varieties of puddings which may be evolved from this one
formula," continued the Professor's wife, "are endless, and, Mary, I
should advise you to make a note of it. This quantity of flour will
make enough to serve two at a meal, and the proportions may be easily
doubled if you wish to serve a large family."

"Then, Mary, I have a recipe taken from the 'Farmers' Bulletin' for
dumplings, which I think fine. You must try it some time. Your Aunt
Sarah thinks them 'dreadfully extravagant.' They call for four
teaspoonfuls of baking powder to two cups of flour, but they are
perfect puff balls, and this is such a fast age, why not use more
baking powder if an advantage? I am always ready to try anything new I
hear about."

"Yes," replied Mary, "I just love to try new recipes, I will
experiment with the dumplings one of these days. Aunt Sarah says I
will never use half the recipes I have; but so many of them have been
given me by excellent and reliable old Bucks County cooks, I intend to
copy them all in a book, and keep for reference after I leave the



One day, looking through the old corner cupboard, Mary exclaimed,
"Aunt Sarah, you certainly possess the finest collection of quaint old
china dishes I have ever seen. I just love those small saucers and
cups without handles; yes, and you have plates to match decorated with
pinkish, lavender peacock feathers, and those dear little cups and
saucers, decorated inside with pink and outside with green flowers,
are certainly odd; and this queerly-shaped cream jug, sugar bowl and
teapot, with pale green figures, and those homely plates, with dabs of
bright red and green, they surely must be very old!"

[Illustration: Old Earthenware Dish]

"Yes, dear, they all belonged to either John's mother or mine. All
except this one large, blue plate, which is greatly valued by me, as
it was given me many years ago by a dear old friend, Mary Butler, a
descendant of one of the oldest families in Wyoming Valley, whose,
forefathers date back to the time of the 'Wyoming Massacre,' about
which so much has been written in song and story.

"The very oddest plates in your collection are those two large
earthenware dishes, especially that large circular dish, with sloping
sides and flat base, decorated with tulips."

[Illustration: SGRAFFITO PLATE Manufactured by One of the Oldest
Pennsylvania German Potterers in 1786]

"Yes, Mary, and it is the one I value most highly. It is called
sgraffito ware. A tulip decoration surrounds a large red star in the
centre of the plate. This belonged to my mother, who said it came from
the Headman pottery at Rockhill Township, about the year 1808. I know
of only two others in existence at the present time; one is in a
museum in the city of Philadelphia and the other one is in the Bucks
County Historical Society at Doylestown, Pa. The other earthenware
plate you admire, containing marginal inscription in German which when
translated is 'This plate is made of earth, when it breaks the potter
laughs,' is the very oldest in my collection, the date on it, you see,
is 1786. Those curved, shallow earthenware pie plates, or 'Poi
Schissel,' as they are frequently called in this part of Bucks County,
I value, even if they are quite plain and without decoration, as they
were always used by my mother when baking pies, and I never thought
pies baked in any other shaped dish tasted equally as good as hers.
These pie plates were manufactured at one of the old potteries near
her home. All the old potters have passed away, and the buildings have
crumbled to the ground. Years ago, your mother and I, when visiting
the old farm where the earlier years of our childhood were passed,
stopped with one of our old-time friends, who lived directly opposite
the old Herstine pottery, which was then in a very dilapidated
condition; it had formerly been operated by Cornelius Herstine (we
always called him 'Neal' Herstine)."


"Together we crossed the road, forced our way through tangled vines
and underbrush, and, peering through windows guiltless of glass, we
saw partly-finished work of the old potters crumbling on the ground.
The sight was a sad one. We realized the hand of time had crumbled to
dust both the potter and his clay. Still nearer my old home was the
McEntee pottery. From earliest childhood our families were friends. We
all attended the 'Crossroads' School, where years later a more modern
brick structure was built, under the hill; not far distant from 'The
Narrows' and the 'Ringing Rocks.' Yes, Mary, my memory goes back to
the time when the McEntee pottery was a flourishing industry, operated
by three brothers, John, Patrick and Michael. When last I visited them
but few landmarks remained."

"Was there a pottery on your father's farm, Aunt Sarah?" inquired

"No. The nearest one was the McEntee pottery, but the grandson of the
old man who purchased our old farm at my father's death had a limekiln
for the purpose of burning lime, and several miles distant, at the
home of my uncle, was found clay suitable for the manufacture of
bricks. Only a few years ago this plant was still in operation. My
father's farm was situated in the upper part of Bucks County, in what
was then known as the Nockamixon Swamp, and at one time there were in
that neighborhood no less than seven potteries within two miles of
each other."

"Why," exclaimed Mary, "were there so many potteries in that

"'Twas due, no doubt, to the large deposits of clay found there, well
suited to the manufacture of earthenware. The soil is a clayey loam,
underlaid with potter's clay. The old German potters, on coming to
this country, settled mostly in Eastern Pennsylvania, in the counties
of Bucks and Montgomery. The numerous small potteries erected by the
early settlers were for the manufacture of earthenware dishes, also
pots of graded sizes. These were called nests, and were used
principally on the farm for holding milk, cream and apple-butter. Jugs
and pie plates were also manufactured. The plates were visually quite
plain, but they produced occasionally plates decorated with
conventionalized tulips, and some, more elaborate, contained besides
figures of animals, birds and flowers. Marginal inscriptions in
English and German decorate many of the old plates, from which may be
learned many interesting facts concerning the life and habits of the
early settlers. I think, judging from the inscriptions I have seen on
some old plates, it must have taxed the ingenuity of the old German
potters to think up odd, original inscriptions for their plates."

"Aunt Sarah, how was sgraffito ware made? Is it the same as
slip-decorated pottery?"

"No, my dear, the two are quite different. The large plate you so
greatly admired is called sgraffito or scratched work, sometimes
called slip engraving. It usually consists of dark designs on a
cream-colored ground. After the plates had been shaped over the mold
by the potter, the upper surface was covered by a coating of white
slip, and designs were cut through this slip to show the earthenware
underneath. This decoration was more commonly used by the old potters
than slip decorating, which consisted in mixing white clay and water
until the consistency of cream. The liquid clay was then allowed to
run slowly through a quill attached to a small cup, over the
earthenware (before burning it in a kiln) to produce different
designs. The process is similar to that used when icing a cake, when
you allow the icing to run slowly from a pastry tube to form fanciful
designs. I have watched the old potters at their work many a time when
a child. The process employed in the manufacture of earthenware is
almost the same today as it was a century ago, but the appliances of
the present day workmen are not so primitive as were those of the old
German potters. Mary, a new pottery works has been started quite
lately in the exact locality where, over one hundred years ago, were
situated the Dichl and Headman potteries, where my highly-prized, old
sgraffito plate was manufactured. I hear the new pottery has improved
machinery for the manufacture of vases, flower pots, tiles, etc. They
intend manufacturing principally 'Spanish tiles' from the many acres
of fine clay found at that place. The clay, it is said, burns a
beautiful dark, creamy red. As you are so much interested in this
subject, Mary, we shall visit this new pottery some day in the near
future, in company with your Uncle John. It is no great distance from
the farm. Quite an interesting story I have heard in connection with a
pottery owned by a very worthy Quaker in a near-by town may interest
you, as your father was a Philadelphia Quaker and Ralph's parents were
Quakers also."

[Illustration: A-38 Schmutz Amschel]

[Illustration: A-39 Antiquated Tin Lantern]

[Illustration: A-40 Schmutz Amschel]

[Illustration: A-41 Fluid Lamp]

[Illustration: A-42 Candle Mould]

"Yes, indeed, Aunt Sarah! I'd love to hear the story."

"This Quaker sympathized with the colored race, or negroes, in the
South. This was, of course, before slavery was abolished. You don't
remember that time, Mary, You are too young. It is only history to
you, but I lived it, and when the slaves ran away from their owners
and came North to Philadelphia they were sent from there, by
sympathizers, to this Quaker, who kept an underground station. The
slaves were then placed, under his direction, in a high 'pot wagon,'
covered with layers or nests of earthenware pots of graduated sizes. I
heard the driver of one of these pot wagons remark one time that when
going down a steep hill, he put on the brake and always held his
breath until the bottom of the hill was reached, fearing the pots
might all be broken. The wagon-load containing earthenware and slaves
was driven to Stroudsburg, where the pots were delivered to a
wholesale customer. Here the runaways were released from their cramped
quarters and turned over to sympathizing friends, who assisted them in
reaching Canada and safety. I have frequently met the fine-looking,
courtly old gentleman who owned the pottery, and old Zacariah Mast,
the skilled German potter whom he employed. They were for many years
familiar figures in the little Quaker town, not many miles distant.
Both passed away many years ago."

Mary, who still continued her explorations of the corner cupboard,
exclaimed: "Oh! Aunt Sarah! Here is another odd, old plate, way back
on the lop shelf, out of sight."

"Yes, dear, that belonged to your Uncle John's mother. It has never
been used and was manufactured over one hundred years ago at an old
pottery in Bedminister Township, Bucks County. Some of those other
quaint, old-fashioned plates also belonged to John's mother. Your
Uncle loves old dishes and especially old furniture; he was so anxious
to possess his grandfather's old 'Solliday' clock. In the centre of
the face of the clock a hand indicated the day of the month and
pictures of two large, round moons on the upper part of the clock's
face (resembling nothing so much as large, ripe peaches) represented
the different phases of the moon. If new moon, or the first or last
quarter, it appeared, then disappeared from sight. It was valued
highly, being the last clock made by the old clockmaker; but John
never came into possession of it, as it was claimed by an elder
sister. I value the old clock which stands in the parlor because 'twas
my mother's, although it is very plain. This old cherry, corner
cupboard was made for my grandmother by her father, a cabinetmaker, as
a wedding gift, and was given me by my mother. Did you notice the
strong, substantial manner in which it is made? It resembles mission

"Do tell me, Aunt, what this small iron boat, on the top shelf, was
ever used for? It must be of value, else 'twould not occupy a place in
the cupboard with all your pretty dishes."

"Yes, dearie, 'twas my grandmother's lamp, called in old times a
'Schmutz Amschel' which, translated, means a grease robin, or bird. I
have two of them. I remember seeing my grandmother many a time, when
the 'Amschel' was partly filled with melted lard or liquid fat, light
a piece of lamp wick hanging over the little pointed end or snout of
the lamp. The lamp was usually suspended from a chain fastened to
either side. A spike on the chain was stuck into the wall, which was
composed of logs. This light, by the way, was not particularly
brilliant, even when one sat close beside it, and could not be
compared with the gas and electric lights of our present day and
generation. That was a very primitive manner of illumination used by
our forefathers.

"Mary, did you notice the gayly-decorated, old-fashioned coffee pot
and tea caddy in the corner cupboard? They belonged to my grandmother;
also that old-fashioned fluid lamp, used before coal-oil or kerosene
came into use; and that old, perforated tin lantern also is very

"Mary, have you ever read the poem, The Potter and the Clay?' No? Then
read it to me, dear, I like it well; 'tis a particular favorite of
mine, I do not remember by whom it was written."


(Jeremiah xviii 2-6.)

    The potter wrought a work in clay, upon his wheel;
    He moulded it and fashioned it, and made it feel,
    In every part, his forming hand, his magic skill,
    Until it grew in beauty fair beneath his will.

    When lo! through some defect, 'twas marred and broken lay,
    Its fair proportions spoiled, and it but crumbling clay;
    Oh, wondrous patience, care and love, what did he do?
    He stooped and gathered up the parts and formed anew.

    He might have chosen then a lump of other clay
    On which to show his skill and care another day,
    But no; he formed it o'er again, as seemed him good;
    And who has yet his purpose scanned, his will withstood?

    Learn thou from this a parable of God's great grace
    Toward the house of Israel, His chosen race;
    He formed them for His praise; they fell and grieved Him sore,
    But He will yet restore and bless them evermore.

    And what He'll do for Israel, He'll do for thee;
    Oh soul, so marred and spoiled by sin, thou yet shall see
    That He has power to restore, He will receive,
    And thou shall know His saving grace, only believe.

    Despair not, He will form anew thy scattered life,
    And gather up the broken parts, make peace from strife;
    Only submit thou to His will of perfect love,
    And thou shall see His fair design in Heaven above.



"Yes, my dear," said Frau Schmidt (continuing a conversation which had
occurred several days previously between herself and Mary), "we will
have more healthful living when the young housewife of the present day
possesses a knowledge of different food values (those food products
from which a well-balanced meal may be prepared) for the different
members of her household. She should endeavor to buy foods which are
most nourishing and wholesome; these need not necessarily consist of
the more expensive food products. Cheaper food, if properly cooked,
may have as fine a flavor and be equally as nutritious as that of
higher price.

"And, Mary, when you marry and have a house to manage, if possible, do
your own marketing, and do not make the mistake common to so many
young, inexperienced housewives, of buying more expensive food than,
your income will allow. Some think economy in purchasing food
detrimental to their dignity and to the well-being of their families;
often the ones most extravagant in this respect are those least able
to afford it. Frequently the cause of this is a lack of knowledge of
the value of different foods. The housewife with a large family and
limited means should purchase cheaper cuts of meat, which become
tender and palatable by long simmering. Combine them with different
vegetables, cooked in the broth, and serve as the principal dish at a
meal, or occasionally serve dumplings composed of a mixture of flour
and milk, cooked in the broth, to extend the meat flavor. Frequently
serve a dish of rice, hominy, cornmeal and oatmeal, dried beans and
peas. These are all nutritious, nourishing foods when properly cooked
and attractively served. And remember, Mary, to always serve food well
seasoned. Many a well-cooked meal owes its failure to please to a lack
of proper seasoning. This is a lesson a young cook must learn. Neither
go to the other extreme and salt food too liberally. Speaking of salt,
my dear, have you read the poem, 'The King's Daughters,' by Margaret
Vandegrift? If not, read it, and then copy it in your book of


  The King's three little daughters, 'neath the palace window straying,
  Had fallen into earnest talk that put an end to playing;
  And the weary King smiled once again to hear what they were saying;
  "It is I who love our father best," the eldest daughter said;
  "I am the oldest princess," and her pretty face grew red;
  "What is there none can do without? I love him more than bread."
  Then said the second princess, with her bright blue eyes aflame;
  "Than bread, a common thing like bread! Thou hast not any shame!
  Glad am I, it is I, not thou, called by our mother's name;
  I love him with a better love than one so tame as thine,
  More than--Oh! what then shall I say that is both bright and fine?
  And is not common? Yes, I know. I love him more than wine."
  Then the little youngest daughter, whose speech would sometimes halt,
  For her dreamy way of thinking, said, "Nay, you are both in fault.
  'Tis I who love our father best, I love him more than salt."
  Shrill little shrieks of laughter greeted her latest word,
  As the two joined hands exclaiming. "But this is most absurd!"
  And the King, no longer smiling, was grieved that he had heard,
  For the little youngest daughter, with her eyes of steadfast grey,
  Could always move his tenderness, and charm his care away;
  "She grows more like her mother dead," he whispered day by day,
  "But she is very little and I will find no fault,
  That while her sisters strive to see who most shall me exalt,
  She holds me nothing dearer than a common thing like salt."

  The portly cook was standing in the courtyard by the spring,
  He winked and nodded to himself, "That little quiet thing
  Knows more than both the others, as I will show the King."
  That afternoon, at dinner, there was nothing fit to eat.
  The King turned angrily away from soup and fish and meat,
  And he found a cloying sweetness in the dishes that were sweet;
  "And yet," he muttered, musing, "I cannot find the fault;
  Not a thing has tasted like itself but this honest cup of malt."
  Said the youngest princess, shyly: "Dear father, they want salt."

  A sudden look of tenderness shone on the King's dark face,
  As he sat his little daughter in the dead queen's vacant place,
  And he thought: "She has her mother's heart; Ay, and her mother's grace;
  Great love through channels will find its surest way.
  It waits not state occasions, which may not come or may;
  It comforts and it blesses, hour by hour, and day by day."



"Aunt Sarah," questioned Mary one day, "will you tell me how it is
possible to evolve a number of cakes from one recipe?"

"Certainly I will, my dear," said her Aunt. "For instance, take the
simple recipe from which I have for years baked layer cake. You may
have other recipes given you, equally as good, but I feel positive
none better. The cake made from this recipe is not rich enough to be
unwholesome, but a good, reliable, inexpensive, easily-made cake, with
which I have never had a failure.

"The recipe, as you know, consists of 1-1/4 cups of granulated sugar,
1/2 cup of a mixture of butter and sweet lard (or use all butter), 1/2
cup sweet milk, 2 cups flour and 2 teaspoonfuls baking powder. 3 eggs.

"The simplest manner of baking this cake is in two square cake pans.
When baked, take from pans and ice each cake with a boiled chocolate
icing and put together as a layer cake, or ice each cake with a plain,
boiled white icing and, when this is cold, you may spread over top of
each cake unsweetened chocolate, which has been melted over steam
after being grated. When cake is to be served, cut in diamonds or
squares. Or add to the batter 1 cup of chopped hickory nut meats, bake
in 2 layers and cut in squares.

"For a chocolate loaf cake, add two generous tablespoonfuls of
unsweetened melted chocolate to the batter just before baking. If you
wish a chocolate layer cake, use the same batter as for the chocolate
loaf cake, bake in two layer pans and put together with white boiled

"Or, add to this same batter one scant teaspoonful of cinnamon,
ginger, 1/2 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg and cloves, a cup of raisins
or dried currants, and you have a small fruit cake.

"Or, add a small quantity of thinly-shaved citron to the original
recipe, flavor with lemon, bake in a loaf and spread a white icing
flavored with lemon extract over top of cake, and you have a lemon

"Or, add chocolate and spices to one-half the batter (about one-half
as much chocolate and spices as were used in batter for fruit cake)
and place spoonfuls of the light and dark batter alternately in a cake
pan, until all batter has been used, and you will have a cheap,
old-fashioned Marble cake.

"Or, bake cake over original recipe, in two-layer pans, placing
between layers either tart jelly, a creamy cornstarch filling, grated
cocoanut, apple cream filling, or you might even use half the recipe
given for the delicious icing or filling for Lady Baltimore cake.

"Lastly, bake small cakes from this same recipe. Mary, you should have
small pans for baking these delicious little cakes, similar to those I
possess, which I ordered made at the tinsmith's. I took for a pattern
one Frau Schmidt loaned me. They are the exact size of one-quarter
pound boxes of Royal baking powder. Cut the box in three pieces of
equal height, and your cakes will be equally as large in diameter as
the baking powder box, but only one-third as high. I think I improved
on Frau Schmidt's cake tins, as hers were all separate, I ordered
twelve tins, similar to hers, to be fastened to a piece of sheet iron.
I had two of these iron sheets made, containing twenty-four little
pans. I place a generous tablespoonful of the batter in each of the
twenty-four small pans, and cakes rise to the top of pans. Usually I
have batter remaining after these are filled. Ice all the cake except
the top with a white boiled icing or chocolate icing. These small
cakes keep exceedingly well, and are always liked by young folks and
are particularly nice for children's parties".

"Speaking of cakes, Aunt Sarah," said Mary, "have you ever used
Swansdown cake flour? I have a friend in the city who uses it for
making the most delicious Angel cake, and she gave me a piece of Gold
cake made over a recipe in 'Cake Secrets,' which comes with the flour,
and it was fine. I'll get a package of the flour for you the first
time I go to the city. The flour resembles a mixture of ordinary flour
and cornstarch. It is not a prepared flour, to be used without baking
powder, and you use it principally for baking cakes. I have the recipe
for both the Gold and Angel cakes, with the instructions for baking
same. They are as follows:"


"For the Angel cake, use one even cupful of the whites of egg (whites
of either eight large or nine small eggs); a pinch of salt, if added
when beating eggs, hastens the work. One and one-quarter cups
granulated sugar, 1 cup of Iglehart's Swansdown cake flour. Sift flour
once, then measure and sift three times. Beat whites of eggs about
half, add 1/2 teaspoonful of cream of tartar then beat whites of eggs
until they will stand of their own weight. Add sugar, then flour, not
by stirring, but by folding over and over, until thoroughly mixed.
Flavor with 1/2 teaspoonful of vanilla or a few drops of almond
extract. As much care should be taken in baking an Angel Food cake as
in mixing. Bake in an ungreased patent pan. Place the cake in an oven
that is just warm enough to know there is a fire inside the range. Let
the oven stay just warm through until the batter has raised to the top
of the cake pan, then increase the heat gradually until the cake is
well browned over. If by pressing the top of the cake with the finger
it will spring back without leaving the impression of the finger, the
cake is done through. Great care should be taken that the oven is not
too hot to begin with, as the cake will rise too fast and settle or
fall in the baking. It should bake in from 35 to 40 minutes' time.
When done, invert the pan and let stand until cold before removing it.
Should you see cake browning before it rises to top of pan, throw your
oven door open and let cold air rush in and cool your oven instantly.
Be not afraid. The cold air will not hurt the cake. Two minutes will
cool any oven. Watch cake closely. Don't be afraid to open oven door
every three or four minutes. This is the only way to properly bake
this cake. When cake has raised above top of pan, increase your heat
and finish baking rapidly. Baking too long dries out the moisture,
makes it tough and dry. When cake is done it begins to shrink. Let it
shrink back to level of pan. Watch carefully at this stage and take
out of oven and invert immediately. Rest on centre tube of pan. Let
hang until perfectly cold, then take cake carefully from pan. When
baking Angel cake always be sure the oven bakes good brown under
bottom of cake. If cake does not crust under bottom it will fall out
when inverted and shrink in the fall."

"I never invert my pans of Angel cake on taking them from oven," said
Mary's Aunt, "as the cakes are liable to fall out even if the pan is
not greased. I think it safer to allow the pans containing the cakes
to stand on a rack and cool without inverting the pan.

"Suppose, Mary, we bake a Gold cake over the recipe from 'Cake
Secrets,' as eggs are plentiful; but we haven't any Swansdown flour. I
think we will wait until we get it from the city."


Yolks of 8 eggs; 1-1/4 cups granulated sugar, 3/4 cup of butter, 3/4
cup water, 2-1/2 cups of Swansdown cake flour, 2 heaping teaspoonfuls
of baking powder, 1/2 teaspoonful lemon extract. Sift flour once, then
measure. Add baking powder and sift three times. Cream butter and
sugar thoroughly; beat yolks to a stiff froth; add this to creamed
butter and sugar, and stir thoroughly through. Add flavor, add water,
then flour. Stir very hard. Place in a slow oven at once. Will bake in
from 30 to 40 minutes. Invert pan immediately it is taken from oven.

Mary, this batter may also be baked in layers with any kind of filling
desired. The Angel cake receipt is very similar to an original recipe
Frau Schmidt gave me; she uses cornstarch instead of Swansdown flour
and she measures the eggs in a cup instead of taking a certain number;
she thinks it more exact.

"Aunt Sarah, did you know Frau Schmidt, instead of using flour alone
when baking cakes, frequently uses a mixture of flour and cornstarch?
She sifts together, several times, six cups of flour and one cup of
cornstarch, and uses this instead of using flour alone.

"I dearly love the Professor's wife--she's been so very good to me,"
exclaimed Mary.

"Yes," replied her Aunt, "she has very many lovable qualities."

Mary's liking for bright, energetic Frau Schmidt was not greater than
the affection bestowed on Mary by the Professor's wife, who frequently
entertained Mary with tales of her life when a girl in Germany, to all
of which Mary never tired listening. One Aunt, a most estimable woman,
held the position of valued and respected housekeeper and cook for the
Lord Mayor of the city wherein she resided. Another relative, known as
"Schone Anna," for many years kept an inn named "The Four Seasons,"
noted for the excellent fare served by the fair chatelaine to her
patrons. The inn was made famous by members of the King's household
stopping there while in the town during the Summer months, which was
certainly a compliment to her good cooking. One of the things in which
she particularly excelled was potato cakes raised with yeast. Frau
Schmidt had been given a number of these valuable recipes by her
mother, all of which she offered to Mary. One recipe she particularly
liked was "Fast Nacht Cakes," which the Professor's wife baked always
without fail on Shrove Tuesday (or "Fast Nacht" day), the day before
the beginning of Lent. This rule was as "unchangeable as the law of
Medes and Persians," and it would have been a very important event,
indeed, which would have prevented the baking of these toothsome
delicacies on that day.





Aunt Sarah had long promised to show Mary her Grandmother's
"Taufschien," and she reverently handled the large old family Bible,
which contained between its sacred pages the yellowed paper, being the
birth and christening certificate of her grandmother, whom we read was
born in 1785, in Nockamixon Township, was confirmed in 1802, and was
married in 1805 to the man who was later Aunt Sarah's grandfather. The
old certificate was signed by a German Reformed minister named Wack,
who history tells us was the first young man of that denomination to
be ordained to the ministry in America. Folded with this "Taufschien"
is another which has never been filled out. This is printed in German.
Pictures of women, perhaps they are intended to represent angels, with
golden wings, clothed in loose-flowing crimson drapery and holding
harps in their hands; birds with gayly-colored plumage of bluish
green, crimson and yellow, perched on branches of what presumably
represent cherry trees, also decorate the page. Religious hymns
printed on the "Taufschiens," encircled with gay stripes of light blue
and yellow, dotted with green, further embellish them. On one we read:

    "Infinite joy or endless woe,
      Attend on every breath;
    And yet, how unconcerned we go
      Upon the brink of death."

"Mary, this old 'Taufschien' of my grandmother's is one of my most
cherished possessions. Would you like to see your Uncle's old deed,
which he came into possession of when he inherited the farm from his

Carefully unfolding the stiff old parchment or pigskin deed, yellowed
and brown spotted with age, Mary could faintly decipher the writing
wherein, beautifully written, old-fashioned penmanship of two hundred
years ago stated that a certain piece of land in Bucks County,
Beginning at a Chestnut Oak, North to a post; then East to a large
rock, and on the South unsettled land, which in later years was
conveyed to John Landis.

"This deed," said Mary's Aunt, "was given in 1738, nearly two hundred
years ago, by John, Thomas and Richard Penn, sons of William Penn by
his second marriage, which occurred in America. His eldest son, John
Penn, you have no doubt heard, was called 'The American,' he having
been born in this country before William Penn's return to Europe,
where he remained fifteen years, as you've no doubt heard."

At the bottom of the deed a blue ribbon has been slipped through cuts
in the parchment, forming a diamond which incloses what is supposed to
be the signature of Thomas Penn.

"Aunt Sarah, I am not surprised that you value this old deed of the
farm and these 'Taufschiens' of your grandmother I should frame them,
so they may be preserved by future generations."



Aunt Sarah found in Mary a willing listener when talking of the time
in years past when her grandfather kept a small "Country Store" on the
Ridge Road in Bucks County. She also remembered, when a child of ten,
accompanying her grandfather on one of his trips when he drove to
Philadelphia to purchase goods for his store.

"They had no trolley cars in those days?" asked Mary.

"No, my dear, neither did they have steam cars between the different
towns and cities as we have now."

"At grandfather's store could be bought both groceries and dry goods.
The surrounding farmers' wives brought to the store weekly fresh print
butter, eggs, pot cheese and hand-case, crocks of apple-butter, dried
sweet corn, beans, cherries, peach and apple 'Snitz,' taking in
exchange sugar, starch, coffee, molasses, etc. My father tapped his
sugar maples and mother cooked down the syrup until thick, and we used
that in place of molasses. They also took in exchange shaker flannel,
nankeen, indigo blue and 'Simpson' gray calico, which mother
considered superior to any other, both for its washing and wearing
qualities. The farmers who came occasionally to the store to shop for
different members of the family frequently bought whole pieces of
calico of one pattern, and," affirmed Aunt Sarah, "I knew of one
farmer who bought several whole pieces of one pattern with rather
large figures on a dark wine ground, resembling somewhat the gay
figures on an old paisley shawl. He said 'twas a good, serviceable
color, and more economical to buy it all alike, and remarked: 'What's
the difference, anyway? Calico is calico.' From the same piece of
calico his wife made dresses, aprons and sunbonnets for herself and
daughters, shirts for the farmer and his sons (the boys were young,
fortunately), and patchwork quilts and comfortables from the

"Rather monotonous, I should think," said Mary. "I am surprised his
wife did not make him wear coat and trousers made from the same piece
of calico."


"The dry goods," continued Aunt Sarah, "retained the scent of coffee,
cheese and dried fruits some time after being purchased but no one
minded that in those days. I still remember how perfectly wonderful to
me when a child appeared the large, wide-mouthed glass jars containing
candy. There were red and white striped mint sticks, striped yellow
and white lemon sticks and hoarhound and clear, wine-colored sticks
striped with lines of white, flavored with anise-seed. One jar
contained clear lemon-colored 'Sour Balls,' preferred by us children
on account of their lasting qualities, as also were the jujubees,
which resembled nothing so much as gutta percha, and possessed equally
as fine flavor; also pink and yellow sugar-frosted gumdrops. In a case
at one end of the counter were squares of thick white paper covered
with rows of small pink, also white, 'peppermint buttons,' small
sticks, two inches in length, of chewing gum in waxed paper, a white,
tasteless, crystalline substance resembling paraffine. What longing
eyes I frequently cast at the small scalloped cakes of maple sugar,
prohibitive as regards cost. They sold for a nickel, am I was always
inordinately fond of maple sugar, but the price was prohibitive. I
seldom possessed more than a penny to spend in those days, and not
always that. Father raised a large family, money was never plentiful,
and we relished the plain, cheap candies usually sold in those days
more than many children of the present day do the finest and most
expensive cream chocolates, to many of whom in this extravagant age a
dollar is not valued more highly than was a penny by us in years gone
by. And 'Candy Secrets!' I don't believe you know what they are like.
I've not seen any for years. They were small, square pieces of
taffy-like candy, wrapped in squares of gilt or silver paper,
inclosing a small strip of paper containing a couple of sentimental
lines or jingle. Later came 'French Secrets.' They consisted of a
small oblong piece of candy about an inch in length, wrapped in tissue
paper of different colors, having fringed ends, twisted together at
either end. These also inclosed a tiny strip of paper containing a
line or two. Small, white candy hearts contained the words in pink
letters, 'Little Sweetheart,' 'I Love You,' 'Name the Day,' etc. These
were invariably distributed among the young folks at small parties and
created no end of merriment."

"Mary, old as I am, I still remember the delight I experienced when a
little, rosy-cheeked urchin surreptitiously passed me around the
corner of my desk at the old 'Cross Roads School' a 'Secret,' with the
words, 'Do you love me?' My grandmother always kept a supply of
hoarhound and peppermint lozenges in her knitting basket to give us
children should we complain of hoarseness. My, but 'twas astonishing
to hear us all cough until grandmother's supply of mints was
exhausted. I think. Mary, I must have had a 'sweet tooth' when a
child, as my recollections seem to be principally about the candy kept
in my grandfather's store. I suppose in those early days of my
childhood candy appealed to me more than anything else, as never
having had a surfeit of sweets, candy to me was a rare treat. I
remember, Mary, when a little child, my thrifty mother, wishing to
encourage me to learn to knit my own stockings, she, when winding the
skein of German yarn into a ball, occasionally wound a penny in with
the yarn. I was allowed to spend the penny only after I had knitted
the yarn and the penny had fallen from the ball. What untold wealth
that penny represented! And planning how to spend it was greater
pleasure still. Many a pair of long old-fashioned, dark blue and
red-striped stockings, were finished more quickly than otherwise would
have been done without the promised reward. I became proficient in
knitting at an early age," continued Aunt Sarah; "a truly feminine
occupation, and as I one time heard a wise old physician remark,
'Soothing to the nerves,' which I know to be true, having knitted many
a worry into the heel of a sock. I learned at an early age the value
of money, and once having acquired the saving habit, it is not
possible to be wasteful in later life."



Fritz Schmidt, like many another Bucks County boy, had frequently
heard the rural tale of a mythical bird called the "Elbadritchel,"
supposed to be abroad, particularly on cold, dark, stormy nights, when
the wind whistled and blew perfect gales around exposed corners of
houses and barns. 'Twas a common saying among "Pennsylvania Germans,"
at such times, "'Tis a fine night to catch 'Elbadritchels.'"


For the information of those who may not even have heard of this
remarkable creature, it is described as being a cross between a
swallow, a goose and a lyre bird. Have you ever seen an
"Elbadritchel?" No one has to my certain knowledge, so I cannot vouch
for the truth of this description of it.

Fritz Schmidt had never taught to question the truth of the tale. So,
when one cold, stormy night several boys from neighboring farms drove
up to the Schmidt homestead and asked Fritz to join them in a hunt for
"Elbadritchels," he unhesitatingly agreed to make one of the number,
unaware that he had been selected as the victim of a practical joke,
and, as usual, was one of the jolliest of the crowd. They drove
through a blinding downpour of rain and dismounted on reaching a
lonely hill about three miles distant. They gave Fritz a bag to hold.
It was fashioned of burlap and barrel hoops, inside of which they
placed a lighted candle, and Fritz was instructed how to hold it in
order to attract the "Elbadritchel." They also gave him a club with
which to strike the bird when it should appear.

The boys scampered off in different directions, ostensibly to chase up
the birds, but in reality they clambered into the waiting wagon and
were rapidly driven home, leaving Fritz alone awaiting the coming of
the "Elbadritchel." When Fritz realized the trick played on him, his
feelings may be better imagined than described. He trudged home, cold
and tired, vowing vengeance on the boys, fully resolved to get even
with them.



Much of Aunt Sarah's spare time was devoted to her chickens, which
fully repaid her for the care given them. She was not particular about
fancy stock, but had quite a variety--White Leghorns, Brown Leghorns,
big, fat, motherly old Brahma hens that had raised a brood of as many
as thirty-five little chicks at one time, a few snow-white, large
Plymouth Rocks and some gray Barred one. The _latter_ she _liked_
particularly because she said they were much, more talkative than any
of the others; they certainly did appear to chatter to her when she
fed them. She gave them clean, comfortable quarters, warm bran mash on
cold winter mornings, alternating with cracked corn and "scratch feed"
composed of a mixture of cracked corn, wheat and buckwheat, scattered
over a litter of dried leaves on the floor of the chicken house, so
they were obliged to work hard for their food.

[Illustration: Old Egg Basket]

A plentiful supply of fresh water was always at hand, as well as
cracked oyster shell. She also fed the chickens all scraps from the
table, cutting all meat scraps fine with an old pair of scissors hung
conveniently in the kitchen.

She was very successful with the little chicks hatched out when she
"set" a hen and the yield of eggs from her hens was usually greater
and the eggs larger in size than those of any of her neighbors. This I
attribute to her excellent care of them, generous diet, but
principally to the fact of the elimination of all the roosters among
the flock during the season between the "first of May and December
first," with one exception. "Brigham," an immensely large, old, red
Shanghai rooster, a most pompous and dignified old chap. A special pet
of Aunt Sarah's, she having raised him from a valuable "setting" of
eggs given her, and as the egg from which "Brigham," as he was called,
emerged, was the only one of the lot which proved fertile, he was
valued accordingly and given a longer lease of life than the other
roosters, and was usually either confined or allowed to roam outside
the chicken yard during the summer months; in the winter, being a
swift runner, he usually gobbled up two shares of food before the hens
arrived. That accounted for his great size. The old rooster was also
noted for his loud crowing.

One day in early Spring, John Landis came into the house hurriedly,
saying, "Sarah, your old Shanghai rooster is sick."

"Yes," answered his wife, "I missed hearing him crow this morning; he
is usually as regular as an alarm clock."

She hurried to the barnyard, picked up poor Brigham, wrapped him
carefully in a piece of blanket and laid him in a small shed. The next
morning she was awakened by the lusty crowing of Brigham, who was
apparently as well as ever. The next day the same thing happened. Aunt
Sarah found him, as she supposed, in a dying condition, and the
following morning he was fully recovered. It was quite puzzling until
one day John Landis came into the kitchen laughing heartily and said,
"Sarah, I am sorry to inform you of the intemperate habits of your
pet, Brigham. He is a most disreputable old fellow, and has a liking
for liquor. He has been eating some of the brandied cherries which
were thrown into the barnyard when the jug containing them was
accidentally broken at house cleaning time.

"Well, Sarah, old Brigham was not sick at all--only 'ingloriously'
drunk." In the fall of the same year Aunt Sarah spied Brigham one day
on top of one of the cider barrels in the shed busily engaged eating
the pummace which issued from the bung-hole of the barrel. John
Landis, on hearing of Brigham's last escapade, decided, as the rooster
was large as an ordinary-turkey, to serve him roasted at Mary's

Fritz Schmidt remarked one day in the presence of Sibylla: "Chickens
must possess some little intelligence; they know enough to go to bed
early. Yes, and without an 'alarm clock,' too, Sibylla, eh?"

She walked away without a word to Fritz. The alarm clock was a sore
subject with her, and one about which she had nothing to say. Sibylla
had never quite forgiven Fritz for the prank played on her. He,
happening to hear John Landis tell Sibylla a certain hour he thought a
proper time for Jake Crouthamel to take his departure Sunday evenings,
Fritz conceived the brilliant (?) idea of setting the alarm clock to
"go off" quite early in the evening. He placed the clock at the head
of the stairs, and in the midst of an interesting conversation between
the lovers the alarm sounded with a loud, whizzing noise, which
naturally made quick-tempered Sibylla very angry. She said on seeing
Fritz the next morning: "It was not necessary to set the 'waker' to go
off, as I know enough to send 'Chake' home when it's time."

Fritz, happening to tell the story to the editor of a small German
Mennonite paper, edited in a near-by town, it was printed in that
paper in German, which caused Sibylla, on hearing it, to be still more
angry at the Professor's son.



In the early part of September Mary's Aunt suggested she try to win
the prize offered at the Farmers' Picnic in a near-by town for the
best "Raised Potato Cake." Aunt Sarah's rye bread invariably captured
first prize, and she proposed sending both bread and cake with Sibylla
and Jake, who never missed picnic or fair within a radius of one
hundred miles.

[Illustration: "POTATO PRETZEL"]

Mary set a sponge the evening of the day preceding that of the picnic,
using recipe for "Perfection Potato Cake," which Aunt Sarah considered
her best recipe for raised cakes, as 'twas one used by her mother for
many years.

On the day of the picnic, Mary arose at five o'clock, and while her
Aunt was busily engaged setting sponge for her loaf of rye bread, Mary
kneaded down the "potato cake" sponge, set to rise the previous
evening, now rounded over top of bowl and light as a feather.

She filled a couple of pans with buns, molded from the dough, and set
them to rise. She then, under her Aunt's direction, fashioned the
"Pretzel" as follows: She placed a piece of the raised dough on a
large, well-floured bake board, rolled it over and over with both
hands until a long, narrow roll or strip was formed about the width of
two fingers in thickness and placed this strip carefully on the baking
sheet, which was similar to the one on which Aunt Sarah baked rye
bread; shaped the dough to form a figure eight (8) or pretzel,
allowing about two inches of space on either side of baking sheet to
allow for raising. She then cut a piece of dough into three portions,
rolled each as thick as a finger, braided or plaited the three strips
together and placed carefully on top of the figure eight, or pretzel,
not meeting by a space of about two inches. This braided piece on the
top should not be quite as thick as bottom or first piece of the
pretzel. She then rolled three small pieces of dough into tiny strips
or rolls the size of small lead pencils, wound them round and round
and round into small scrolls, moistened the lower side with water to
cause them to adhere, and placed them on the dividing line between the
two halves of the figure eight. She placed an old china coffee cup
without a handle, buttered on outside, in centre of each half of the
figure eight, which kept the pretzel from spreading over the pan. With
a small, new paint brush she brushed over the top of Pretzel and Buns,
a mixture, consisting of one yolk of egg, an equal quantity of cream
or milk (which should be lukewarm so as not to chill the raised dough)
and one tablespoon of sugar. This causes the cakes, etc., to be a rich
brown when baked, a result to be obtained in no other manner.

When the pretzel was raised and had doubled in size 'twas baked in a
moderately hot oven.

Mary's surprise and delight may easily be imagined when Sibylla, on
her return from the picnic, handed her the prize she had won, a
two-pound box of chocolates, remarking, "Mary, you and Aunt Sarah both
got a prize--her's is in the box what Jake's got."

The box on being opened by Aunt Sarah contained a very pretty,
silver-plated soup ladle, the prize offered for the best loaf of rye

"Aunt Sarah," inquired Mary one day, "do you think it pays a
housekeeper to bake her own bread?"


"Certainly, it pays, my dear. From a barrel of flour may be baked
three hundred or more one-pound loaves of bread; should you pay five
cents a loaf, the bread which may be made from one barrel of flour if
bought from a bake shop would cost you fifteen dollars. Now, you add
to the cost of a barrel of flour a couple of dollars for yeast, salt,
etc., which altogether would not possibly be more than ten dollars,
and you see the housewife has saved five dollars. It is true it is
extra work for the housewife, but good, wholesome bread is such an
important item, especially in a large family, I should advise the
thrifty housekeeper to bake her own bread and bake less pie and cake,
or eliminate less important duties, to be able to find time to bake
bread. From the bread sponge may be made such a number of good, plain
cakes by the addition of currants or raisins, which are more wholesome
and cheaper than richer cakes."

"I think what you say is true, Aunt Sarah," said Mary.

"Frau Schmidt always bakes her own bread, and she tells me she sets a
sponge or batter for white bread, and by the addition of Graham
flour, cornmeal or oatmeal, always has a variety on her table with a
small expenditure of time and money."




The home-making instinct was so strongly developed in Mary that her
share in the labor of cooking and baking became a pleasure.
Occasionally she had failures--what inexperienced cook has not?--yet
they served only to spur her on to fresh efforts. She had several
small scars on her wrist caused by her arm coming in contact with the
hot oven when baking. She laughingly explained: "One bar on my arm
represents that delicious 'Brod Torte' which Frau Schmidt taught me to
bake; the other one I acquired when removing the sponge cake from the
oven which Uncle John said 'equaled Aunt Sarah's' (which I consider
highest praise), and the third bar I received when taking from the
oven the 'Lemon Meringue,' Ralph's favorite pie, which he pronounced
'fine, almost too good to eat.'" Mary was as proud of her scars as a
young, non-commissioned officer of the chevron on his sleeve, won by
deeds of valor.

The lessons Mary learned that summer on the farm while filling her
hope chest and preparing her mind for wifehood were of inestimable
value to her in later years. She learned not only to bake, brew and
keep house, but from constant association with her Aunt she acquired a
self-poise, a calm, serene manner, the value of which is beyond price
in this swift, restless age.

One day, while having a little heart-to-heart talk with Mary, her Aunt
said: "My dear, never allow an opportunity to pass for doing a kind
act. If ever so small, it may cheer some sad, lonely heart. Don't wait
to do _big things_. The time may never come. If only a kind word,
speak it at once. Kind words cost so little, and we should all be more
prodigal with them; and to a tired, sad, discouraged soul, a kind word
or act means so very much; and who is there that has not at some time
in life known sorrow and felt the need of sympathy? Were our lives all
sunshine we could not feel in touch with sorrowing friends. How
natural it is for our hearts to go out in sympathy to the one who says
'I have suffered.' Give to your friend the warm hand-clasp and cheery
greeting' which cost us nothing in the giving. 'Tis the little lifts
which help us over stones in our pathway through life. We think our
cross the heaviest when, did we but know the weight of others, we'd
not willingly exchange; and remember Mary, 'there are no crown-bearers
in Heaven that were not cross-bearers below.' Have you ever read the
poem, 'The Changed Cross?' No? Well, I will give it to you to copy in
your book of recipes. Should you ever, in future years, feel your
cross too heavy to bear, read the poem. How many brave, cheery little
women greet us with a smile as they pass. But little do we or any one
realize that instead of a song in their hearts the smiles on their
lips conceal troubles the world does not suspect, seeking to forget
their own sorrows while doing kindly acts for others. They are the
real heroes whom the world does not reward with medals for bravery,
'To stand with a smile upon your face against a stake from which you
cannot get away, that, no doubt, is heroic; but the true glory is not
resignation to the inevitable. To stand unchained, with perfect
liberty to go away, held only by the higher claims of duty, and let
the fire creep up to the heart, that is heroism.' Ah! how many good
women have lived faithful to duty when 'twould have been far easier to
have died!"


Matt. xxv: 23.

  It may seem to you but a trifle, which you have been called to do;
  Just some humble household labor, away from the public view,
  But the question is, are you faithful, and striving to do your best,
  As in sight of the Blessed Master, while leaving to Him the rest?

  It may be but a little corner, which you have been asked to fill;
  What matters it, if you are in it, doing the Master's will?
  Doing it well and faithfully, and doing it with your might;
  Not for the praise it may bring you, but because the thing is right.

  In the sight of man you may never win anything like success;
  And the laurel crown of the victor may never your temples press;
  If only you have God's approval, 'twill not matter what else you miss,
  His blessing is Heaven beginning, His reward will be perfect bliss.

  Be faithful in every service, obedient to every call;
  Ever ready to do His bidding, whether in great things or small;
  You may seem to accomplish little, you may win the praise of none;
  But be sure you will win His favor, and the Master's great "Well Done."

  And when at His blessed coming, you stand at His judgment seat;
  He'll remember your faithful service and His smile will be Oh! so sweet!
  He will bid you a loving welcome, He'll make you to reign for aye,
  Over great things and o'er many, with Him, through eternal day.


    It was a time of sadness, and my heart,
    Although it knew and loved the better part,
    Felt wearied with the conflict and the strife,
    And all the needful discipline of life.

    And while I thought on these as given to me,
    My trial tests of faith and love to be,
    It seemed as if I never could be sure
    That faithful to the end I should endure.

    And thus, no longer trusting to His might,
    Who says, "We walk by faith and not by sight";
    Doubting and almost yielding to despair,
    The thought arose--My cross I cannot bear.

    Far heavier its weight must surely be
    Than those of others which I daily see;
    Oh! if I might another burden choose,
    Methinks I should not fear my crown to lose.

    A solemn silence reigned on all around,
    E'en nature's voices uttered not a sound;
    The evening shadows seemed of peace to tell,
    And sleep upon my weary spirit fell.

    A moment's pause and then a heavenly light
    Beamed full upon my wondering, raptured sight;
    Angels on silvery wings seemed everywhere,
    And angels' music filled the balmy air.

    Then One more fair than all the rest to see--
    One to whom all the others bowed the knee--
    Came gently to me as I trembling lay,
    And, "Follow Me!" He said, "I am the Way."

    Then speaking thus, He led me far above,
    And there, beneath a canopy of love,
    Crosses of divers shapes and sizes were seen,
    Larger and smaller than my own had been.

    And one there was, most beauteous to behold,
    A little one, with jewels set in gold;
    Ah! this methought, I can with comfort wear,
    For it will be an easy one to bear.

    And so, the little cross I quickly took,
    But all at once, my frame beneath it shook;
    The sparkling jewels fair were they to see,
    But far too heavy was their weight for me.

    "This may not be," I cried, and looked again
    To see if there was any here could ease my pain;
    But one by one I passed them slowly by,
    Till on a lovely one I cast my eye.

    Fair flowers around its sculptured form entwined,
    And grace and beauty seemed in it combined;
    Wondering, I gazed and still I wondered more,
    To think so many should have passed it o'er.

    But Oh! that form so beautiful to see,
    Soon made its hidden sorrows known to me;
    Thorns lay beneath those flowers and colors fair;
    Sorrowing, I said. "This cross I may not bear."

    And so it was with each and all around,
    Not one to suit my need could there be found;
    Weeping, I laid each heavy burden down,
    As my guide gently said: "No cross, no crown."

    At length to him I raised my saddened heart,
    He knew its sorrows, bid its doubts depart;
    "Be not afraid," He said, "but trust in Me,
    My perfect love shall now be shown to thee."

    And then with lightened eyes and willing feet,
    Again I turned my earthly cross to meet;
    With forward footsteps, turning not aside
    For fear some hidden evil might betide.

    And there, in the prepared, appointed way,
    Listening to hear, and ready to obey,
    A cross I quickly found of plainest form,
    With only words of love inscribed thereon.

    With thankfulness, I raised it from the rest,
    And joyfully acknowledged it the best;
    The only one of all the many there
    That I could feel was good for me to bear.

    And while I thus my chosen one confessed,
    I saw a heavenly brightness on it rest;
    And as I bent my burden to sustain,
    I recognized my own old cross again.

    But, oh! how different did it seem to be!
    Now I had learned its preciousness to see;
    No longer could I unbelievingly say:
    "Perhaps another is a better way."

    Oh, no! henceforth my own desire shall be
    That He who knows me best should choose for me,
    And so whate'er His love sees good to send,
    I'll trust its best, because He knows the end.

    And when that happy time shall come
    Of endless peace and rest,
    We shall look back upon our path
    And say: "It was the best."



Late in September Jake and Sibylla drove to the Allentown Fair. It was
"Big Thursday" of Fair week. They started quite early, long before
Ralph Jackson, who had come from the city the day previous, to take
Mary to the Fair, had arisen.


Sheltered Liberty Bell, 1777-78. Photographed from the print of an old
wood cut used in a German newspaper in the year 1840]

Mary, while appreciating Sibylla's good qualities, never failed to be
amused at her broad "Pennsylvania German" dialect.

The morning of the "Fair," Mary arose earlier than usual to allow
Sibylla and Jake to get an early start, as it was quite a distance
from the farm to the Fair grounds. As they were about to drive away,
Sibylla, alighting from the carriage, said, "I forgot my
'Schnupftuch.'" Returning with it in her hand, she called, as she
climbed into Jake's buggy, "Gut-by, Mary, it looks fer rain."

"Yes" said Jake, "I think it gives rain before we get back yet. The
cornfodder in the barn this morning was damp like it had water on it."

And said Mary, "The fragrance of the flowers was particularly
noticeable early this morning." Jake, as it happened, was no false
prophet. It did rain before evening.

Later in the day, Mary and Ralph drove to a near-by town, leaving
horse and carriage at the hotel until their return in the evening, and
boarded a train for Allentown. On arriving there, they decided to walk
up Hamilton Street, and later take a car out to the Fair grounds. As
they sauntered slowly up the main street, Mary noticed a small church
built between two large department stores and stopped to read a tablet
on the church, which informed the passerby that "this is to
commemorate the concealment of the Liberty Bell during the
Revolutionary War. This tablet was erected by the Liberty Bell Chapter
of the Daughters of the Revolution."

The First Zion's Reformed Church was founded in 1762. In front of the
Church a rough block of granite, erected to the memory of John Jacob
Mickley, contained the following inscription: "In commemoration of the
saving of the Liberty Bell from the British in 1777. Under cover of
darkness and with his farm team, he, John Mickley, hauled the Liberty
Bell from Independence Hall, Philadelphia, through the British lines,
to Bethlehem, where the wagon broke down. The Bell was transferred to
another wagon, brought to Allentown, placed beneath the floor of the
_Second_ Church building of Zion's Reformed Church, where it remained
secreted nearly a year. This _tablet_ was placed by the order of the
Assembly of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, June 2nd, 1907, under
the auspices of the Pennsylvania Daughters of the Revolution."

This was all very interesting to a girl who had been born and reared
in Philadelphia; one who in earliest childhood had been taught to love
and venerate the "old Bell."

Ralph was quite as interested in reading about the old Bell as was
Mary, and said; "Did you know that the City of Philadelphia purchased
the State House property, which included the Bell, in 1818, in
consideration of the sum of seventy thousand dollars? No building is
ever to be erected on the ground inside the wall on the south side of
the State House, but it is to remain a public green and walk forever?"


"No," replied Mary, "I did not know that. I don't think we will see
anything of greater interest than this at the Fair."

"I understand," said Ralph, "this is the third church building built
on this site, where the original church stood in which the Bell was

Mary, possessing a fair share of the curiosity usually attributed to
the "female of the species," on noticing the church door standing
ajar, asked Ralph to step inside with her, thinking to find the
caretaker within; but no one was visible. A deep silence reigned in
the cool, dim interior of the House of God.

One could almost feel the silence, 'twas so impressive. Slowly they
walked up the wide church aisle and stood before the quaint baptismal
font. A stray sunbeam glancing through one of the beautiful,
variously-colored memorial windows, lighted up the pictured saint-like
faces over the chancel, making them appear as if imbued with life.
Mary softly whispered to Ralph, as if loath to profane the sacredness
of the place by loud talking, "I seem to hear a voice saying, 'The
Lord is in His holy temple.'" Quietly retracing their steps, they,
without meeting any one, emerged into the bright sunlight and were
soon in the midst of the turmoil and traffic incident to the principal
business street of a city.

The young folks boarded a trolley and in a short time reached the Fair
grounds, which offered many attractions to Ralph as well as Mary. The
latter was interested in the fine display of needlework, fruits,
flowers and vegetables of unusual size. Aunt Sarah's bread won a
prize. A blue ribbon attached to Frau Schmidt's highly-prized,
old-fashioned, patchwork quilt, showed it to be a winner. Ralph, being
interested in the pens of fancy chickens, prize cattle, etc., Mary
reluctantly left the woman's department of fancy work, and other
interesting things, and accompanied him. On their way to the outlying
cattle sheds they noticed two lovers sitting on a bench. Upon a second
glance they were convinced that it was Jake and Sibylla. Jake, beaming
with happiness, said, "Sibylla vos side by me yet?" They were busily
engaged eating a lunch consisting of rolls with hot "weiners" between
the two halves, or, as Jake called them, "Doggies," munching pretzels
and peanuts between sips of strong coffee, both supremely happy. A
yearly visit to the Allentown Fair on "Big Thursday," was _the event_
in their dull, prosaic lives.

[Illustration: DURHAM CAVE]



It appeared to be nothing new for Fritz Schmidt to get into trouble;
rather the contrary. One day in early Fall, after the first frost, he,
in company with a number of boys, drove to Durham, not many miles
distant from his home, in search of persimmons, the crop of which, on
account of the severity of the preceding winter, old farmers had
predicted would be exceedingly heavy.

Fritz did not tell the boys of his intention to explore a cave which
he had been told was in the neighborhood, thinking it would be a good
joke to explore the cave first, then tell the boys later of his

The old gentleman from whom Fritz gained his information relative to
the cave aroused the boy's curiosity by saying, "Very many years ago,
a skeleton was found in Durham cave and one of the bones, on
examination, proved to be the thigh bone of a human being. How he came
there, or the manner of his death, was never known." A large room in
the cave is known as "Queen Esther's Drawing Room," where, tradition
has it "Queen Esther," or Catharine Montour, which was her rightful
name, at one time inhabited this cave with some of her Indian

Fritz accidentally stumbled upon the mouth of the cave. None of the
other boys being in sight, Fritz quickly descended into the cave,
which was dark as night. By lighting a second match as quickly as one
was burned, he explored quite a distance, when, accidentally dropping
his box of matches, the burning match in his hand, at the same moment,
flickered faintly, then went out, leaving Fritz in darkness. Imagine
the feelings of the boy, as he groped unsuccessfully on the floor of
the cavern for the lost match box. Finally, he gave up in despair.
Fritz was not a cowardly boy, but while searching for the matches, he,
without thinking, had turned around several times, lost his bearings
and knew not in which direction to go to reach the opening of the
cave. He heard strange noises which he imagined were bats flopping
their wings. There appeared to be something uncanny about the place,
and Fritz devoutly wished himself out in the sunshine, when a
quotation he had frequently heard his father use came into his mind:
"More things are wrought by prayer than this world dreams of." So
Fritz knelt down and prayed as he had been taught to pray at his
mother's knee, but more earnestly than he had ever prayed before in
his life, that God would help him find his way out of the cave,
believing that his prayer would be answered. And who shall say it was
not answered? For, stumbling onward in the darkness, not knowing if he
were coming toward the cave's entrance or going in the opposite
direction, he eventually hailed with joy a faint streak of light which
he followed, and it soon brought him to the mouth of the cave. He was
surprised on joining his companions to find they had not been alarmed
at his absence. He had been in the cave only thirty minutes, but to
him it had seemed hours. Fritz says to this day he has a horror of
Durham Cave or "The Devil's Hole," as it was formerly called.




His vacation ended, after a busy season at the farm, Ralph Jackson
returned to his work in the city, strong and robust. He had acquired
the coat of tan which Mary's Uncle had predicted. Physically strong as
the "Cave Man" of old, he felt capable of moving mountains, and as was
natural, he being only a human man, longed for the mate he felt God
had intended should one day be his, as men have done since our first
gardener, Adam, and will continue to do until the end of time.

When visiting the farm, an event which occurred about every two weeks,
Ralph constantly importuned Mary to name an early day for their

Mary, with a young girl's impulsiveness, had given her heart
unreservedly into the keeping of Ralph Jackson, her first sweetheart.
Mary was not naturally cold or unresponsive, neither was she lacking
in passion. She had had a healthy girlhood, and a wholesome home life.
She had been taught the conventional ideals of the marriage relations
that have kept the race strong throughout the centuries. Mary
possessed great strength of character and fine moral courage.
Frequently, not wishing to show her real feeling for the young man;
too well poised to be carried off into the wrong channel, defended and
excused by many over-sentimental and light-headed novelists of the
day, she sometimes appeared almost indifferent to the impetuous youth
with warm, red blood leaping in his veins, who desired so ardently to
possess her.

Mary's Aunt had taught her the sanctity of parenthood, also that women
are not always the weaker sex. There are times when they must show
their superiority to "mere man" in being the stronger of the two,
mentally if not physically, and Ralph Jackson knew when he called Mary
"wife" she would endow him with all the wealth of her pure womanhood,
sacredly kept for the clean-souled young man, whose devotion she
finally rewarded by promising to marry him the second week in October.

Sibylla Linsabigler, a good but ignorant girl, accustomed to hearing
her elder brothers speak slightingly regarding the sanctity of love
and marriage, was greatly attached to Mary, whom she admired
exceedingly, and looked up to almost as a superior being. She
unconsciously imitated many of Mary's ways and mannerisms, and sought
to adopt her higher ideals of life and standard of morals.

One Sunday, as Jake Crouthamel was spending the evening with Sibylla,
as was his usual custom, he attempted some slight familiarity, which
annoyed Sibylla greatly. Jake, noticing the young girl's displeasure
at his action, remarked, "I think me Sibylla, you are stuck up yet" (a
grave fault in the Bucks County farm hand's opinion).

"No, Chake," Sibylla replied, "I ain't, but Mary, she say a man gives
a girl more respect what keeps herself to herself before she is
married, and I lofe you Chake and want that you respect me if we

Fritz and Elizabeth Schmidt, on hearing the news of Mary's approaching
marriage, promptly begged the privilege of decorating the old farm
house parlor for the expected ceremony. They scoured the surrounding
woods and countryside for decorations; along old stone fences and
among shrubbery by the roadside they gathered large branches of Bitter
Sweet. Its racemes of orange-colored fruit, which later in the season
becomes beautiful, when the orange gives place to a brilliant red, the
outer covering of the berry turns back upon the stems, forming one of
the prettiest pictures imaginable in late Autumn. They also gathered
branches of feathery wild clematis, which, after the petals had
fallen, resembled nothing so much as a cluster of apple seeds, each
seed tipped with what appeared like a tiny osprey feather. From the
woods near the farm they gathered quantities of trailing ground pine
and rainbow-tinted leaves from the numerous brilliant scarlet and
yellow maples, which appeared brighter in contrast to the sober-hued
trees of shellbark, oak and chestnut.

[Illustration: POLLY SCHMIDT.]

The wedding gifts sent to Mary were odd, useful and numerous. The
Campfire Girls, to whom she became endeared, gave her a "Kitchen
Shower," consisting of a clothes basket (woven by an old basketmaker
from the willows growing not far distant), filled to overflowing with
everything imaginable that could possibly be useful to a young
housekeeper, from the half dozen neatly-hemmed linen, blue ribbon
tied, dish clothes, to really handsome embroidered articles from the
girls to whom she had given instructions in embroidery during the past

Sibylla's wedding present to Mary was the work of her own strong,
willing hands, and was as odd and original as useful. 'Twas a "door
mat" made from corn husks, braided into a rope, then sewed round and
round and formed into an oval mat. Mary laughingly told Sibylla she
thought when 'twas placed on her kitchen doorstep she'd ask every one
to please step over it, as it was too pretty to be trod on, which
greatly pleased the young girl, who had spent many hours of loving
thought and labor on the simple, inexpensive gift.

Mary received from Professor Schmidt a small but excellent copy of one
of the world's most famous pictures, "The Night Watch," painted by
Rembrandt, in 1642.

"My dear," said the old Professor, "I saw what _was said to be_ the
original of this painting, the property of Queen Wilhelmina of
Holland, at the St. Louis Exposition in 1904. It was in a small,
separate building. The size of the picture was fifteen feet by twenty
feet. It is the largest and best known of Rembrandt's works. It
acquired the wrong title of 'Night Watch' in a period when, owing to
the numerous coats of varnish and the effect of smoke and dust, it had
gotten so dark in appearance that only the most lucid parts could be
discerned. Nowadays, nobody doubts that the light falling from the
left on the boisterous company is that of the sun. The musketeers are
remarching out of the high archway of their hall, crossing the street
in front of it, and going up a bridge. The architecture of the
building is a product of Rembrandt's imagination. The steps, also,
which we see the men descending, were put there simply to make those
at the back show out above those in the front ranks. The march out was
to be above all a portrait group. Sixteen persons had each paid their
contributions, a hundred guilders on the average, to have their
likenesses transmitted to posterity, and every one of them was
therefore to be fully visible."

"It is certainly a wonderful picture," said Mary, "and while I have
seen few pictures painted by old masters, I think, even with my
limited knowledge of art, I cannot fail to appreciate this excellent
copy, and I thank you heartily. Professor, and shall always be
reminded of you when I look at this copy of a great work."

Mary would not go empty-handed to Ralph at her marriage. Her "hope
chest" in the attic was full to overflowing, and quite unique in
itself, as it consisted of an old, in fact ancient, wooden dough-tray
used in times past by Aunt Sarah's grandmother. Beside it stood a
sewing table, consisting of three discarded broom handles supporting a
cheese-box cover, with wooden cheese-box underneath for holding Mary's
sewing; stained brown and cretonne lined. Mary valued it as the result
of the combined labor of herself and Ralph Jackson. A roll of new,
home-made rag carpet, patchwork quilts and "New Colonial" rugs, jars
of fruit, dried sweet corn, home-made soap, crocks of apple butter,
jellies, jams and canned vegetables all bore evidence of Mary's busy
Summer at the farm.

The day of Mary's marriage, the twelfth of October, dawned clear and
bright, sunshine warm as a day in June. In the centre of the
gayly-decorated old farm house parlor, wearing a simple, little,
inexpensive dress of soft, creamy muslin, we find Mary standing beside
Ralph, who is looking supremely satisfied and happy, although a trifle
pale and nervous, listening to the solemn words of the minister.
Ralph's "I will" sounded clearly and distinctly through the long room.
Mary, with a sweet, serious, faraway look in her blue eyes, repeated
slowly after the minister, "I promise to love, honor and"--then a long
pause. She glanced shyly up at the young man by her side as if to make
sure he was worth it, then in a low, clear tone, added, "obey."

Ralph Jackson certainly deserved the appellation "Cave Man" given him
by Fritz Schmidt. He was considerably more than six feet in height,
with broad, square shoulders, good features, a clear brain and a sound
body. He had never used intoxicants of any description. He sometimes
appeared quite boyish in his ways, for on account of his matured look
and great size he was frequently judged to be older than he really

Aunt Sarah had provided a bounteous repast for the few friends
assembled, and while looking after the comfort of her guests tears
dimmed the kindly, gray eyes at the thought of parting from Mary.

Small Polly Schmidt, as flower girl at the wedding, was so excited she
scarcely knew if she should laugh or cry, and finally compromised by
giving Mary what she called a "bear hug," much to Mary's amusement.
Fritz gravely said: "Allow me to congratulate you, Mr. Jackson," and
turning to Mary, "I wish you a beautiful and happy life, Mrs.
Jackson." Mary blushed becomingly on hearing her new name for the
first time.

Bidding farewell to friends, Mary and Ralph, accompanied by her Uncle,
were driven by "Chake" to the depot in a near-by town, where they
boarded the train for the little, newly-furnished home in the suburbs
of Philadelphia, the deed of which was Mary's wedding gift from her
Uncle, in appreciation of her faithful service on the farm during the
summer and for the brightness she had brought into his life and the
lives of those with whom she had come in contact, as every one at the
farm had felt the captivating charm and winning sweetness of the young

As the train came in sight, the old gentleman, in a voice husky with
emotion, bade the young couple, just starting the journey of life
together, an affectionate farewell, and repeated solemnly, almost as a
benediction, "Es Salamu Aleikum."




"The young housewife," said Aunt Sarah to Mary, in a little talk on
small economies in the household, "should never throw away pieces of
hard cheese. Grate them and keep in a cool, dry place until wanted,
then spread lightly over the top of a dish of macaroni, before baking;
or sprinkle over small pieces of dough remaining after baking pies,
roll thin, cut in narrow strips like straws, and bake light brown in a
hot oven, as 'Cheese Straws.'"

Wash and dry celery tips in oven, and when not wished for soup they
may be used later for seasoning. The undesirable outer leaves of a
head of lettuce, if fresh and green, may be used if cut fine with
scissors, and a German salad dressing added. The heart of lettuce
should, after washing carefully, be placed in a piece of damp cheese
cloth and put on ice until wanted, then served at table "au natural,"
with olive oil and vinegar or mayonnaise dressing to suit individual
taste. Should you have a large quantity of celery, trim and carefully
wash the roots, cut them fine and add to soup as flavoring. Almost all
vegetables may be, when well cooked, finely mashed, strained, and when
added to stock, form a nourishing soup by the addition of
previously-cooked rice or barley. Add small pieces of meat,
well-washed bones cut from steaks or roasts, to the stock pot. Small
pieces of ham or bacon (left-overs), also bacon or ham _gravy_ not
thickened with flour may be used occasionally, when making German
salad dressing for dandelion, endive, lettuce or water cress, instead
of frying fresh pieces of bacon.


It is a great convenience, also economical, to keep a good salad
dressing on hand, and when the white of an egg is used, the yolk
remaining may he added at once to the salad dressing (previously
prepared). Mix thoroughly, cook a minute and stand away in a cool
place. Young housekeepers will be surprised at the many vegetables,
frequently left-overs, from which appetizing salads may be made by the
addition of a couple tablespoonfuls of mayonnaise, besides nut meats,
lettuce, watercress, celery and fruit, all of which may be used to
advantage. A good potato salad is one of the cheapest and most easily
prepared salads. A German dressing for dandelions, lettuce or potatoes
may be prepared in a few minutes by adding a couple of tablespoonfuls
of salad dressing (which the forehanded housewife will always keep on
hand) to a little hot ham or bacon gravy. Stirring it while hot over
the salad and serving at once.

A cup of mashed potatoes, left over from dinner, covered and set aside
in a cool place, may be used the next day, with either milk or potato
water, to set a sponge for "Dutch Cake," or cinnamon buns with equally
good results as if they had been freshly boiled (if the potatoes be
heated luke-warm and mashed through a sieve); besides the various
other ways in which cold boiled potatoes may be used.

Fruit juices or a couple tablespoonfuls of tart jelly or preserved
fruit may be added to mincemeat with advantage. Housewives should make
an effort to give their family good, plain, nourishing, wholesome
food. The health of the family depends so largely on the quality of
food consumed. When not having time, strength or inclination to bake
cake, pies or puddings, have instead good, sweet, home-made bread and
fruit; if nothing else, serve stewed fruit or apple sauce. Omit meat
occasionally from the bill of fare and serve instead a dish of
macaroni and cheese and fruit instead of other dessert. Serve a large,
rich, creamy rice pudding for the children's lunch. When eggs are
cheap and plentiful make simple custards, old-fashioned cornmeal
puddings, tapioca, bread puddings and gelatine with fruits. These are
all good, wholesome, and not expensive, and in Summer may be prepared
in the cool of the early morning with small outlay of time, labor or
money. Plan your housework well the day before and have everything in
readiness. The pudding may be placed in the oven and baked white
preparing breakfast, economizing coal and the time required for other
household duties.

Every wife and mother who does her own housework and cooking these
days (and their number is legion) knows the satisfaction one
experiences, especially in hot weather, in having dinner and luncheon
planned and partly prepared early in the morning before leaving the
kitchen to perform other household tasks.

Another small economy of Aunt Sarah's was the utilizing of cold mashed
potatoes in an appetizing manner. The mashed potatoes remaining from a
former meal were put through a small fruit press or ricer to make them
light and flaky. To one heaped cup of mashed potatoes (measured before
pressing them through fruit press) she added 3/4 cup of soft, stale
bread crumbs, 1/4 cup of flour sifted with 1/4 teaspoonful of baking
powder. Mix in lightly with a fork yolk of one egg, then the stiffly
beaten white, seasoned with salt and a little minced onion or parsley,
or both. With well-floured hands she molded the mixture into balls the
size of a shelled walnut, dropped into rapidly boiling water and
cooked them uncovered from 15 to 20 minutes, then skimmed them from
the water and browned in a pan with a little butter and served on
platter with meat, a pot roast or beef preferred. From the above
quantity of potatoes was made five potato balls.


Never waste stale bread, as it may be used to advantage in many ways.
The young housewife will be surprised at the many good, wholesome and
appetizing dishes which may be made from stale bread, with the
addition of eggs and milk.

Take a half dozen slices of stale bread of equal size and place in a
hot oven a few minutes to become crisped on the outside so they may be
quickly toasted over a hot fire, a delicate brown. Butter them and for
breakfast serve with a poached egg on each slice.

A plate of hot, crisp, nicely-browned and buttered toast is always a
welcome addition to the breakfast table.

Serve creamed asparagus tips on slices of toast for luncheon.

The economical housewife carefully inspects the contents of her bread
box and refrigerator every morning before planning her meals for the
day, and is particular to use scraps of bread and left-over meat and
vegetables as quickly as possible. Especially is this necessary in hot
weather. Never use any food unless perfectly sweet and fresh. If
otherwise, it is unfit for use.

Loaves of bread which have become stale can be freshened if wrapped in
a damp cloth for a few minutes, then remove and place in a hot oven
until heated through.

For a change, toast slices of stale bread quite crisp and serve a
plate of hot, plain toast at table, to be eaten broken in small pieces
in individual bowls of cold milk. Still another way is to put the
stiffly-beaten white of an egg on the centre of a hot, buttered slice
of toast, carefully drop the yolk in the centre of the beaten white
and place in hot oven a few minutes to cook. Serve with a bit of
butter on top, season with pepper and salt. Serve at once.

Another way to use stale bread is to toast slices of bread, spread
with butter, pour over 1 cup of hot milk, in which has been beaten 1
egg and a pinch of salt. Serve in a deep dish. Or a cup of hot milk
may be poured over crisply-toasted slices of buttered bread, without
the addition of an egg.


In a bowl containing 1 cup of soft bread crumbs pour 1 cup of sweet
milk, then add the slightly-beaten yolks of three eggs, a little
pepper and salt, then the stiffly-beaten whites of the three eggs.
Place in a fry-pan a tablespoonful of butter and 1 of lard or
drippings; when quite hot pour the omelette carefully in the pan. When
it begins to "set" loosen around the edges and from the bottom with a
knife. When cooked turn one side over on the other half, loosen
entirely from the pan, then slide carefully on a hot platter and serve
at once. Garnish with parsley.


Still another way is to make croutons. Cut stale bread into small
pieces, size of dice, brown in hot oven and serve with soup instead of
serving crackers. Small pieces of bread that cannot be used otherwise
should be spread over a large pan, placed in a moderate oven and dried
until crisp. They may then be easily rolled fine with a rolling-pin or
run through the food chopper and then sifted, put in a jar, stood in a
dry place until wanted, but not in an air-tight jar. Tie a piece of
cheese-cloth over the top of jar. These crumbs may be used for
crumbing eggplant, oysters, veal cutlets or croquettes. All should be
dipped in beaten white of eggs and then in the crumbs, seasoned with
salt and pepper, then floated in a pan of hot fat composed of 2/3 lard
and 1/3 suet. All except veal cutlets. They should be crumbed, not
floated in deep fat, but fried slowly in a couple tablespoonfuls of
butter and lard.

Also fry fish in a pan of hot fat. Shad is particularly fine, prepared
in this manner (when not baked). Cut in small pieces, which when
breaded are floated in hot fat. If the fat is the right temperature
when the fish is put in, it absorbs less fat than when fried in a
small quantity of lard and butter.


Cut wheat bread in slices not too thin. Place in a warm, not hot,
oven, and allow it to remain until thoroughly dry and crisp. Place in
a toaster or a wire broiler over a hot fire and toast a golden brown
and allow it to remain in the oven until toasted. Keep in cool place
until used. Zweibach is considered more wholesome than fresh bread.


Cut stale bread into slices about 3/4 inch thick. Cut slices in half,
and soak for a few minutes, turning frequently, in the following
mixtures: 1 pint of sweet milk, 3 eggs, 1 teaspoonful flour mixed
smooth with a little of the cold milk and a pinch of salt. Fry half
dozen slices of thinly-sliced bacon in a pan. Put bacon, when fried,
in oven to keep hot. Dip the slices of soaked bread in fine, dried
bread crumbs and fry quickly in the bacon fat (to which has been added
one tablespoon of butter) to a golden brown. Serve at once on the same
platter with the bacon, or instead of using bacon fat, fry the
crumbed bread in sweet drippings, or a tablespoonful each of lard and
butter. This is an appetizing and wholesome breakfast or luncheon
dish, served with a tart jelly, either currant or grape.


Partly fill a large tureen with slices of crisply-browned and buttered
toast. (Slices of bread which have become dry and hard may be used for
this dish.) When ready to serve, not before, pour over the toasted
slices 1 quart of hot milk to which 1 teaspoonful of flour or
cornstarch has been added, after being mixed smoothly with a little
cold milk or water and cooked a few minutes until thick as cream. Add
also a pinch of salt.

If milk is not plentiful, prepare one pint of milk and dip each slice
of toasted bread quickly in a bowl of hot water; place in a deep dish
and quickly pour over the hot milk, to which a tablespoonful of butter
has been added, and serve at once.


Bread, called the "Staff of Life," on account of its nutritive value,
should head the list of foods for human consumption. Bread making
should stand first in the "Science of Cooking," as there is no one
food upon which the comfort, health and well-being of the average
family so largely depends as upon good bread. There is absolutely no
reason why the housewife of the present day should not have good,
sweet, wholesome, home-made bread, if good yeast, good flour and
common-sense are used. The milk or water used to mix with flour for
making bread sponge should be lukewarm. If too hot, the loaves will be
full of holes and coarse grained. If too cold the bread, chilled, will
not rise as it should have done had the liquid used been the right
temperature. Good bread may be made by using milk, potato water or
whey (drained from thick sour milk), and good bread may be made by
simply using lukewarm water. I prefer a mixture of milk and water to
set sponge. Milk makes a fine-grained, white bread, but it soon dries
out and becomes stale. Bread rises more slowly when milk is used. When
mashed potatoes are used, the bread keeps moist a longer time. Should
you wish extra fine, white, delicate bread, add one cup of sweet cream
to the liquid when setting sponge. When milk is used the dough is
slower in rising, but makes a creamy-looking and fine-flavored bread.
When one Fleischman yeast cake is used in any recipe the ordinary
half-ounce cake of compressed yeast is intended, twenty-eight cakes in
a pound. These are usually kept in a large refrigerator in a
temperature of 44 degrees and should not be kept longer in the home
than three days in Summer or six days in Winter, and should always be
kept in a cool place until used, if the cook would have success when

Use the best hard, Spring wheat flour obtainable for baking bread, or
any sponge raised with yeast, as this flour contains a greater
quantity of gluten and makes bread of high nutritive value.

Winter wheat maybe used for cake-making and for baking pastry with
excellent results, although costing less than Spring wheat.

Always sift flour before using, when setting sponge for bread. When
mixing sponge use one quart liquid to about three pounds of flour.
"Aunt Sarah" always cut several gashes with a sharp knife on top of
loaves when ready to be placed in oven. She also made several cuts
across the top of loaves with a hot knife when set to rise to allow
gas to escape. If an impression made on a loaf of bread with the
finger remains, the bread is light. If the dent disappears, then the
loaf is not light enough to be placed in the oven; give it more time
to rise. An experienced cook, noted for the excellence and size of her
loaves of bread, said she always inverted a pail over the pan
containing loaves of bread when set to rise, and allowed the bread to
remain covered after being placed in the oven. Loaves will rise to a
greater height if this is done. Remove the covering to allow loaves to
brown a short time before taking them from the oven. "Aunt Sarah"
frequently placed four loaves in her large roasting pan, covered the
pan, when set to rise, and allowed the cover to remain until loaves
were nearly baked. She brushed the top and sides of loaves with melted
butter when set to rise to allow of their being broken apart easily. A
more crusty loaf is secured by placing each loaf singly in
medium-sized bread tins.

Aunt Sarah considered Fleischman's compressed yeast the best
commercial yeast in use, both quick and reliable, but thought better
bread was never made than that made by her mother, as she had been
taught to make it in years past, by the old-fashioned and slower
"sponge method." She was invariably successful in making sweet,
wholesome bread in that manner. She used home-made potato yeast or
"cornmeal yeast cakes," under different names, always with good

Good bread may be made either by the old-fashioned "sponge" method or
"straight." Sponge method consists of a batter mixed from liquid yeast
(usually home-made potato yeast is used) and a small part of the flour
required for making the bread. This batter was usually set to rise at
night and mixed up in the centre of a quantity of flour, in an
old-fashioned wooden dough tray. The following morning enough flour
was kneaded in to form a dough, and when well-raised and light, this
dough was formed into loaves and placed in pans for the final rising.
The more easily and more quickly made "straight" dough, when using
Fleischman's compressed yeast, is mixed in the morning and all the
ingredients necessary are added at one time. It is then set to rise
and, when the dough has doubled in bulk, it is kneaded down and when
risen to once and half its size, shaped into loaves, placed in pans to
rise and, when risen to top of pans, bake.

Better bread may be made from flour not freshly milled. Flour should
be kept in a dry place; it improves with moderate age. Stand flour in
a warm place to dry out several hours before using if you would have
good bread.

When baking bread the heat of the oven should not be _too great_ at
_first_, or the outside of the bread will harden too quickly and
inside the loaves will not be thoroughly baked before the crust is
thick and dark. The temperature of the oven and time required for
baking depend upon the size of the loaves, yet the bread should be
placed in rather a quick oven, one in which the loaves should brown in
about fifteen minutes, when the heat may be reduced, finishing the
baking more slowly.

Small biscuits and rolls can stand a much hotter oven and quicker
baking than large loaves, which must be heated slowly, and baked a
longer time. A one-pound loaf should bake about one hour. On being
taken from the oven, bread should be placed on a sieve, so that the
air can circulate about it until it is thoroughly cooled. In the
_Farmers' Bulletin_, we read: "The lightness and sweetness depend as
much on the way bread is made as on the materials used." The greatest
care should be used in preparing and baking the dough and in cooking
and keeping the finished bread. Though good housekeepers agree that
light, well-raised bread can readily be made, with reasonable care and
attention, heavy, badly-raised bread is unfortunately very common.
Such bread is not palatable and is generally considered to be
unwholesome, and probably more indigestion has been caused by it than
by any other badly-cooked food. As compared with most meats and
vegetables, bread has practically no waste and is very completely
digested, but it is usually too poor in proteins to be fittingly used
as the sole article of diet, but when eaten with due quantities of
other food, it is invaluable and well deserves its title of "Staff of

When the housewife "sets" bread sponge to rise over night, she should
mix the sponge or dough quite late, and early in the morning mold it
at once into shapely-looking loaves (should the sponge have had the
necessary amount of flour added the night before for making a stiff

Being aware of the great nutritive value of raisins and dried
currants, Aunt Sarah frequently added a cup of either one or the
other, well-floured, to the dough when shaping into loaves for the
final rising.

Aunt Sarah frequently used a mixture of butter and lard when baking on
account of its being more economical, and for the reason that a lesser
quantity of lard may be used; the shortening qualities being greater
than that of butter. The taste of lard was never detected in her bread
or cakes, they being noted for their excellence, as the lard she used
was home-rendered, almost as sweet as dairy butter, free from taste or
odor of pork. She always beat lard to a cream when using it for baking
cakes, and salted it well before using, and I do not think the small
quantity used could be objected to on hygienic principles.

I have read "bread baking" is done once every three or four weeks, no
oftener, in some of the farm houses of Central Europe, and yet stale
bread is there unknown. Their method of keeping bread fresh is to
sprinkle flour into a large sack and into this pack the loaves, taking
care to have the top crusts of bread touch each other. If they have to
lie bottom to bottom, sprinkle flour between them. Swing the sack in a
dry place. It must swing and there must be plenty of flour between the
loaves. It sounds more odd than reasonable, I confess.


1 quart sweet milk (scalded and cooled).
1 tablespoonful lard or butter.
2 table spoonsful sugar.
1/2 tablespoonful salt.
1 cup wheat flour.
3 quarts rye flour (this includes the one cup of wheat flour).
1 Fleischman yeast cake or 1 cup of potato yeast.

[Illustration: "BUCKS COUNTY" RYE BREAD]

Pour 1 quart of luke-warm milk in a bowl holding 7 quarts. Add butter,
sugar and salt, 1-1/2 quarts rye flour and 1 cup of yeast, or one
Fleischman's yeast cake, dissolved in a little lukewarm water. Beat
thoroughly, cover with cloth, and set in a warm place to rise about
three hours, or until it almost reaches the top of bowl. When light,
stir in the remaining 1-1/2 quarts of rye flour, in which one cup of
wheat is included; turn out on a well-floured bake board and knead
about twenty minutes. Shape dough into one high, round loaf, sprinkle
flour _liberally_ over top and sides of loaf, and place carefully into
the clean bowl on top of a _well-floured_ cloth. Cover and set to rise
about one hour, when it should be light and risen to top of bowl.
Turn the bowl containing the loaf carefully upside down on the centre
of a hot sheet iron taken from the hot oven and placed on top of
range. A tablespoonful of flour should have been sifted over the sheet
iron before turning the loaf out on it. Remove cloth from dough
carefully after it has been turned from bowl and place the sheet iron
containing loaf _immediately in the hot oven_, as it will then rise at
once and not spread. Bake at least sixty minutes. Bread is seldom
baked long enough to be wholesome, especially graham and rye bread.
When baked and still hot, brush the top of loaf with butter and wash
the bottom of loaf well with a cloth wrung out of cold water, to
soften the lower, hard-baked crust. Wrap in a damp cloth and stand
aside to cool where the air will circulate around it. Always set rye
bread to rise early in the morning of the same day it is to be baked,
as rye sponge sours more quickly than wheat sponge. The bread baked
from this recipe has the taste of bread which, in olden times, was
baked in the brick ovens of our grandmother's day, and that bread was
unexcelled. I know of what I am speaking, having watched my
grandmother bake bread in an old-fashioned brick oven, and have eaten
hearth-baked rye bread, baked directly on the bottom of the oven, and
know, if this recipe be closely followed, the young housewife will
have sweet, wholesome bread. Some Germans use Kumel or Caraway seed in
rye bread.

Aunt Sarah's loaves of rye bread, baked from the above recipe, were
invariably 3-1/2 inches high, 14-1/2 inches in diameter and 46 inches
in circumference and always won a blue ribbon at Country Fairs and
Farmers' Picnics.

In the oven of Aunt Sarah's range was always to be found a piece of
sheet iron 17 inches in length by 16 inches in width. The three edges
of the sheet iron turned down all around to a depth of half an inch,
the two opposite corners being cut off about a half inch, to allow of
its being turned down. It is a great convenience for young housewives
to possess two of these sheet-iron tins, or "baking sheets," when
baking small cakes or cookies, as being raised slightly from the
bottom of the oven, cakes are less liable to scorch and bake more
evenly. One sheet may be filled while baking another sheetful of
cakes. In this manner a large number of cakes may be baked in a short
time. This baking sheet was turned the opposite way, upside down, when
baking a loaf of rye bread on it, and when the loaf of bread was
partly baked the extra baking sheet was slipped under the bottom of
the one containing the loaf, in case the oven was quite hot, to
prevent the bottom of the bread scorching. Wheat bread may be baked in
the same manner as rye bread, substituting wheat flour for rye. These
baking sheets may be made by any tinsmith, and young housewives, I
know, would not part with them, once they realize how invaluable they
are for baking small cakes on them easily and quickly.


To one quart of potato water, drained from potatoes which were boiled
for mid-day dinner, she added about 1/2 cup of finely-mashed hot
potatoes and stood aside. About four o'clock in the afternoon she
placed one pint of lukewarm potato water and mashed potatoes in a bowl
with 1/4 cup of granulated sugar and 1/2 a dissolved Fleischman's
yeast cake, beat all well together, covered with a cloth and stood in
a warm place until light and foamy. About nine o'clock in the evening
she added the reserved pint of (lukewarm) potato water and 1/2
tablespoonful of salt to the yeast sponge, with enough warmed,
well-dried flour to stiffen, and kneaded it until dough was
fine-grained. She also cut through the dough frequently with a sharp
knife. When the dough was elastic and would not adhere to
molding-board or hands, she placed it in a bowl, brushed melted lard
or butter over top to prevent a crust forming, covered warmly with a
cloth and allowed it to stand until morning. Frau Schmidt always rose
particularly early on bake day, for fear the sponge might fall or
become sour, if allowed to stand too long. She molded the dough into
four small loaves, placed it in pans to rise until it doubled its
original bulk. When light she baked it one hour. Bread made according
to these directions was fine-grained, sweet and wholesome. She always
cut several gashes across top of loaf with a sharp knife when loaves
were set to rise, to allow gas to escape.


At 6.30 A.M. place in a quart measure 1/2 cup of sweet cream and
3-1/2 cups of milk, after being scalded (1 quart all together). When
lukewarm, add 1 Fleischman yeast cake, dissolved in a little of the
luke warm milk, 3 tablespoonfuls sugar and 1 tablespoonful salt. Add 3
cups each of white bread flour and 3 cups of graham flour (in all 6
cups or 1-1/2 quarts of flour). Mix well together and stand in a warm
place, closely covered, a couple of hours, until well-risen. Then stir
sponge down and add about 2-1/2 cups each of graham and of white
flour. (Sponge for graham bread should not be quite as stiff as a
sponge prepared from white flour.) Set to rise again for an hour, or
longer; when light, stir down sponge and turn on to a well-floured
board. Knead well, divide into four portions, mold into four small,
shapely loaves, brush with soft butter, place in well-greased pans,
set to rise, and in about one hour they should be ready to put in a
moderately-hot oven. Bake about fifty minutes. Graham bread should be
particularly well-baked. Brush loaves, when baked, with butter, which
makes a crisp crust with a nutty flavor.

Should cream not be available, one quart of scalded milk, containing
one tablespoonful of butter, may be used with good results. If cream
be used with the milk, no shortening is required in the bread. Bread
is considered more wholesome when no shortening is used in its


2 cups sour milk
2 cups sweet milk or water.
1 teaspoon soda (Salaratus)
Graham flour.
1/2 cup molasses.
1 tablespoonful melted butter.
Pinch of salt.

Stiffen about as thick as ordinary molasses cake. Bake at once.


1 cup sweet milk (scalded).
1 cup cold water.
1 cake Fleischman's yeast
  (dissolved in a small quantity of luke-warm water).
1-1/2 teaspoonfuls sugar.
1 rounded teaspoonful salt.
1 tablespoonful butter.
Flour, about 1-1/2 quarts.

This makes good bread and, as bread is apt to chill if set over night
in a cold kitchen, or sour if allowed to stand over night in summer,
set this sponge early in the morning. Stiffen with flour and knead
about 25 minutes; place the dough in a covered bowl in a warm place to
rise about two hours and when well-risen and light, knead and stand
one hour. Then mold into shapely loaves, place in pans, brush tops of
loaves with melted butter, and when doubled in bulk, in about 45
minutes put in an oven which is so hot you can hold your hand in only
while you count thirty, or if a little flour browns in the oven in
about six minutes, it is hot enough for bread. The oven should be hot
enough to brown the bread slightly five minutes after being put in.
Medium-sized loaves of bread require from 3/4 of an hour to one hour
to bake. When bread is sufficiently baked it can be told by turning
the loaf over and rapping with the knuckles on the bottom of the loaf.
If it sounds hollow, it is thoroughly baked, and should be taken from
the oven. Stand loaves up on end against some object, where the air
can circulate around them, and brush a little butter over the top to
soften the crust. An authority on the chemistry of foods cautious
housewives against cooling loaves of bread too rapidly after taking
from the oven, and I should like to add a word of caution against
eating fresh breads of any kind. Bread should be baked at least twelve
hours before being eaten. The sponge for this bread was set at 6
o'clock in the morning; bread was baked at 10.30.

From 1 pint of liquid, 1 cake of yeast and about 1-1/2 quarts of flour
were made two loaves of bread. More yeast is required to raise a
sponge containing sugar, eggs and shortening than is required to raise
bread sponge containing only liquid, flour and yeast.


Should you care to have a couple of loaves of graham bread instead of
all-wheat, take a generous cup of the above sponge before it is
stiffened beyond a thick batter, and add one tablespoonful of brown
sugar or molasses, stiffen with graham flour (not quite as stiff as
when making wheat bread), rub butter or lard on top of dough, cover
and set in a warm place to rise. When light, mold into one small loaf
(never make graham bread into large loaves), place in oblong pan,
cover, let stand until light, about 1-1/2 hours, when it should have
doubled in size; put in oven and bake thoroughly. When the loaf is
taken from the oven, brush butter over the top. This keeps the crust

If a wholesome loaf of "Corn Bread" is wished, use fine, yellow,
granulated cornmeal to stiffen the sponge instead of graham flour; do
not make dough too stiff.


1 pint boiling water.
1 pint sweet milk.
1/2 Fleischman's yeast cake dissolved in luke-warm water.
1/2 tablespoon salt.

When the milk and water are lukewarm add the yeast cake and salt. Then
add enough whole wheat flour to make a thin batter. Let stand in a
warm place three or four hours. Then stir in as much wheat flour
(whole wheat) as can be stirred in well with a large spoon, and pour
into well-greased pans. Let rise to double its bulk; then bake from
three-fourths to one hour, according to the size of the loaves. This
quantity makes three loaves.


3 cups graham flour.
1 cup wheat flour.
4 teaspoons baking powder.
1 cup chopped English walnuts.
1 cup sugar.
1 small teaspoon "Mapleine" flavoring (if liked).
1/2 cup milk.
Pinch salt.
1/2 cup floured raisins (seeded).

Put in a good-sized bread pan and bake on hour in a moderate oven.
Strange as it may seem, this bread is lighter and better if allowed to
stand a half hour before being placed in the oven to bake.


The Professor's wife seldom used any liquid except water to set a
sponge for bread. She seldom used any shortening. She taught Mary to
make bread by the following process, which she considered superior to
any other. From the directions given, housewives may think more time
devoted to the making of a couple of loaves of bread than necessary;
also, that too great a quantity of yeast was used; but the bread made
by "Frau Schmidt" was excellent, quickly raised and baked.

The whole process consumed only about four hours' time, and how could
time be more profitably spent than in baking sweet, crusty loaves of
bread, even in these strenuous days when the efficient housekeeper
plans to conserve strength, time and labor?

First, two Fleischman's compressed yeast cakes were placed in a bowl
and dissolved with 4 tablespoonfuls of luke-warm water; she then added
1 cup of lukewarm water, 1/2 tablespoonful of sugar and 1/2
teaspoonful of salt and stirred all well together. The bowl containing
this yeast foam was allowed to stand in a warm place, closely covered,
one hour.

At the end of that time the yeast mixture should be light and foamy.
It was then poured into the centre of a bowl containing about 4-1/2
cups of _warmed_ flour, mixing the foamy yeast with a _portion_ of the
flour to make a soft sponge, leaving a wall of flour around the inside
edge of bowl, as our grandmothers used to do in olden times when they
mixed a sponge for bread of liquid flour and yeast, in one end of the
old-fashioned wooden "dough tray," using a wooden stick or small
paddle for stirring together the mixture.

The bowl containing the sponge was placed in a warm place to rise. In
about 15 or 20 minutes 1/2 cup of lukewarm water was added to the
sponge, stirring in all the outside wall of flour until a dough, the
proper consistency for bread, was formed. The dough was turned out on
the molding board and given a couple of quick, deft turns with the
hands for several minutes, then placed in the bowl and again set to
rise in a warm place, free from draughts, for 25 or 30 minutes. When
light, with hands slightly greased with butter, she kneaded the dough
a short time, until smooth and elastic, divided the dough into two
portions, placed each loaf in warmed, well-greased bread pans and
stood in a warm place about 1/4 hour. Then turned the contents of
bread pans onto bake-board, one at a time. Cut each loaf into three
portions, rolled each piece into long, narrow strips with the palms of
the hands. Pinched ends of the three strips together and braided or
plaited them into a braid almost the length of bread pan. Placed each
braided loaf in a bread pan and set to raise as before. When
well-raised, brush the top of loaves with melted butter. Bake about
three-quarters of an hour in a moderately-hot oven. An old-fashioned
way of testing the heat of the oven was to hold the hand in the oven
while counting thirty. Should one be unable to bear the heat of oven a
longer time, then the temperature was correct for baking bread. Should
one be able to allow the hand to remain in the oven a longer time, the
heat of the oven should be increased.

As a result of carefully following these minute directions, even an
inexperienced housewife should have sweet, wholesome bread.

Frau Schmidt insisted that rolling portions of dough separately before
combining in a loaf, as for braided loaves, caused the bread to have a
finer texture than if just shaped into round loaves.


For a loaf of oatmeal bread, place 1 cup of crushed oats, or common
oatmeal, in a bowl, pour over 1/2 cup of hot milk. When luke warm, add
1 cup of sponge, or batter, reserved from that raised over night for
making loaves of white bread; 1 teaspoonful butter, 1 teaspoonful
sugar and 1/2 teaspoonful salt, and about 2 scant cups of white flour.
Knead a few minutes, set to rise in a warm place, closely covered,
about one hour or until doubled in bulk. Then knead down and form into
a shapely loaf, place in a pan, brush melted butter over lop (this
improves crust), and when raised, doubled in bulk (in about one hour),
place in a moderately hot oven and bake from 40 to 45 minutes. Raisins
may be added to this loaf, if liked. Mary preferred this oatmeal loaf
to graham bread.

The sponge or batter from which this oatmeal-loaf was made had been
prepared in the following manner:

To 1-1/2 cups of luke-warm potato water was added 1 teaspoonful of
sugar, 1 cake of yeast; when dissolved, add 1-1/2 cups of white bread
flour. Beat all together well, stand closely-covered in a warm place
until the following morning. From one cup of this sponge was made one
oatmeal loaf, and to the other cup of sponge white flour was added for
a loaf of white bread or rolls.


Prepare the following "Yeast Sponge" at noon, the day preceding that
on which you bake bread: Place in a bowl (after the mid-day meal) 1
quart of potato water (containing no salt), in which potatoes were
boiled; also two medium-sized, finely-mashed potatoes, 1 tablespoonful
of sugar and, when luke warm, add 1 cup of good home-made or baker's
yeast. Mix all well together; then divide this mixture and pour each
half into each of two 1-quart glass fruit jars. Place covers tightly
on jars and shake each jar well, to mix yeast and potato-water
thoroughly. Stand yeast in a warm place near the kitchen range over
night. Jars should be _covered only_ with a napkin. The sponge should
become light and foamy. In the morning use this freshly-prepared yeast
to set sponge for bread.

When preparing to set bread, place in a large bowl 1 pint of potato
water, 1 tablespoonful of sugar, 1 pint of the yeast sponge, 1/2
teaspoonful of salt, and use about 3 pounds of sifted flour,
well-dried and warmed. Knead from 15 to 20 minutes, until a stiff
dough is formed. The dough should be fine-grained and elastic and not
stick to bake board. Place dough in the bowl to rise; this should lake
about four hours. When well-risen and light knead down and set to rise
again, about 1-1/2 hours. When light, mold into three large, shapely
loaves; place in pans and allow to stand one hour. When loaves have
doubled in bulk, are very light and show signs of cracking, invert a
pan over top of loaves (if that was not done when loaves were put in
pans), and place in a rather hot oven to bake. Brush melted butter
over loaves of bread when set to rise, it will cause bread to have a
crisp crust when baked. The old-fashioned way of testing the heat of
an oven was to hold the hand in the oven, if possible, while one
counted thirty.

The pint of yeast remaining in jar may be kept in a cool place one
week, and may be used during this time in making fresh "yeast foam."
This should always be prepared the day before baking bread. Always
prepare double the quantity of "yeast foam." Use half to set bread,
and reserve half for next baking. Bread baked from this recipe has
frequently taken first prize at County Fairs and Farmers' Picnics.

When baking bread, the oven should be quite hot when bread is first
placed therein, when the bread should rise about an inch; then the
heat of the oven should he lessened and in a half hour a brown crust
should begin forming; and during the latter part of the hour (the time
required for baking an ordinary-sized loaf) the heat of the oven
should be less, causing the bread to bake slowly. Should the heat of
the oven not be great enough, when the loaves are placed within for
baking, then poor bread would be the result. This method of making
bread will insure most satisfactory results, although more troublesome
than ordinary methods.


Take a Vienna loaf of bread, twelve-hours old, cut away all the crust
with a clean-cut knife, then break away gently (with your fingers
only) small finger-lengths of the bread, place in a moderate oven and
brown a golden brown, and it is ready to serve. 'Tis said six loaves
will be required for one pound of this pulled bread. 'Tis easily
prepared in the home, but quite costly, when purchased. Many people
prefer "pulled bread" to fresh bread, as it is more wholesome.


2 pounds dried pears.
2 pounds dried prunes.
2 quarts juice of fruit and water.
1 pound dried currants.
1 pound seeded raisins.
1 pound blanched and shredded almonds.
1 pound chopped English walnut meats.
1-1/2 ounces finely-shredded citron.
1-1/2 ounces orange peel.
1/2 ounce chopped figs.
1 ounce ground cinnamon.
1/4 ounce ground cloves.
2-1/2 ounces anise seed.
6 pounds flour (warmed and sifted).
2 cakes compressed yeast.
1-1/2 cups sugar.
1 large tablespoon butter.
1 tablespoon salt.
4 tablespoons brandy or sherry.

The whole recipe will make 12 loaves of bread.

This delicious German bread was usually made by "Aunt Sarah" one week
before Christmas. It may be kept two weeks, and at the end of that
time still be good. It is rather expensive as regards fruit and nuts,
but as no eggs are used, and a very small quantity of butter; and as
bread containing fruit is so much more wholesome than rich fruit cake.
I think American housewives would do well to bake this German bread
occasionally. Mary took one-fourth the quantity of everything called
for in the recipe, except yeast. She used 3/4 of a cake of
Fleischman's yeast and 1/4 of each of the other ingredients, and from
these baked three loaves of bread. The prunes and pears should be
covered with cold water at night and allowed to stand until the
following morning, when, after stewing until tender, the juice should
be drained from the fruit and water added to the fruit-juice to
measure two quarts. Remove pits from prunes, cut pears and prunes in
small pieces; stand aside. Clean currants and raisins, blanch and
shred almonds, chop walnut meats, citron, orange peel and figs; add
cinnamon, cloves and anise seed. Mix together flour and one quart of
the fruit juice; add the compressed yeast cakes (dissolved in a little
warm water), knead well, set a sponge as for ordinary bread; when
raised, add the remaining quart of fruit juice, sugar, butter and
salt. A small quantity of brandy or sherry may be added, but if not
liked, fruit juice may be substituted.

Add the remaining ingredients, and knead thoroughly. Allow dough to
raise from two to three hours and when light form into loaves and
allow to stand an hour, when bake. This quantity of dough should be
made into twelve small loaves. Should the flour and liquid used be
warmed before mixing, the dough will raise more quickly. It simplifies
the work if the fruits and nuts be prepared the day before the bread
is baked.


1 quart potato water.
1 mashed potato.
1 tablespoonful butter or lard.
1 tablespoonful sugar.
1 Fleischman yeast cake, or 1 cup good yeast.
1/2 tablespoonful salt.
Flour to stiffen (about three quarts).

At 9 o'clock in the evening put in a large bowl the mashed potato, the
quart of luke-warm potato water (water in which potatoes were boiled
for dinner), butter or sweet lard, sugar, salt, and mix with flour
into a batter, to which add the Fleischman's or any good yeast cake,
dissolved in a little luke-warm water. Beat well and stir in flour
until quite stiff, turn out on a well-floured bake-board and knead
well about 25 minutes, until the dough is smooth, fine-grained and
elastic, and does not stick lo the bake-board or hands. Chop a knife
through the dough several times; knead and chop again. This makes the
bread finer and closer-grained, or, so Aunt Sarah thought. Knead in
all the flour necessary when first mixing the bread. When sufficiently
kneaded, form into a large, round ball of dough, rub all over with
soft lard, or butter, to prevent forming a crust on top and keep from
sticking to bowl, and set to rise, closely-covered with a cloth and
blanket, in a warm place until morning. In the morning the bread
should be very light, doubled in quantity. Take out enough dough for
an ordinary loaf, separate this into three parts, roll each piece with
the hand on the bake-board into long, narrow pieces. Pinch the three
pieces together at one end and braid, or plait, into a narrow loaf.
Brush over top with melted butter; set to rise in a warm place in a
bread pan, closely-covered, until it doubles in size--or, if
preferred, mold into ordinary-shaped loaves, and let rise until
doubled in size, when bake in a moderately-hot oven with steady heat.

Frequently, when the "Twist" loaves of bread were quite light and
ready to be placed in the oven, Aunt Sarah brushed the tops with yolk
of egg, or a little milk, then strewed "Poppy Seeds" thickly over. The
poppy seeds give an agreeable flavor to the crust of the bread.


A portion of the white bread dough may be made into raised rolls.
These rolls are excellent without additional shortening, or, in fact,
without anything else being added. Mold pieces of the bread dough into
balls the size of a walnut; roll each piece flat with the rolling pin,
dip in melted butter, fold and place close together in a bake pan. Let
rise _very_ light, then bake about 15 minutes in a very hot oven. If a
teaspoonful of flour browns in about two minutes in the oven, it is
the right temperature for rolls.


Take pieces of the bread dough, the size of a walnut, cut into three
pieces, mold with the hand into round balls the size of small marbles;
dip each one in melted butter, or butter and lard, and place three of
these in each Gem pan. (These pans may be bought six or twelve small
pans fastened together, and are much more convenient than when each
one must be handled separately when baking). Allow small rolls to
become _very light_, bake in a hot oven, and you will find them
excellent. Dipping the rolls in melted butter makes them crisp. Serve
hot, or place in a hot oven a few minutes until heated through, if
served after they have become cold.


This excellent, nutritious bread, is made from the whole-ground grain.
Every part of the grain is used in the flour, when ground. To bake
this bread, sift together one quart of this "whole-ground" rye flour
and two quarts of white-bread flour. Early in the morning of the day
on which bread is to be baked, prepare a thick batter, or sponge,
consisting of one quart of potato water (or the same quantity of
luke-warm, scalded milk, or a mixture of the two); add one
tablespoonful of a mixture of lard and butter and two boiled, mashed
potatoes. Two tablespoonfuls of sugar, one-half tablespoonful of salt
and one Fleischman's compressed yeast cake, dissolved in a small
quantity of water; add about five cups of the mixed, sifted flour,
beat the batter well, and stand in a warm place, covered, from one and
a half to two hours. When well-risen and light, stir in balance of
flour gradually, until all except one cup has been added; then turn
onto a bake-board and knead well. This sponge should not be quite as
stiff as for wheat bread. Turn the dough onto a clean, well-floured
cloth in a large bowl, set to rise and bake according to directions
for baking "Hearth-baked Rye Bread" or, if preferred, form into
loaves, place in bread pans and, when light, bake.


One quart of scalded milk, when lukewarm, add the following: 1/2 cup
of butter and lard (mixed), 1 egg, 1 tablespoonful of sugar, 1
teaspoonful of salt and 1 Fleischman's yeast cake; add flour to form a
thick batter; beat all thoroughly. Mix the above at 9.30 P.M., stand
in a warm place, closely-covered, over night. The following morning
add more flour; dough should not be mixed quite as stiff as for bread.
Allow it to raise in a warm place. When well-risen, place on bread
board, roll, cut into small biscuits; dip each biscuit in melted
butter, fold together, place in pans a distance apart, and when they
have doubled in size, bake in a hot oven.


This country cook invariably baked good bread and always used
potato-water in preference to any other liquid for setting sponge.
She stood aside water, in which potatoes had been boiled for dinner
(usually about one quart or less) and added two finely-mashed
potatoes. About 3 or 4 o'clock in the afternoon of the day _before_
that on which she intended baking bread, she dissolved one cake of
yeast (she used the small cornmeal commercial yeast cakes, sold under
different names, such as National, Magic, etc.) in a half-cup of
luke-warm water, added 1/2 teaspoon of salt and sufficient warmed,
well-dried flour to make a thin batter. She placed all in a bowl and
stood it in a warm place, closely-covered, until about 9 o'clock in
the evening, when she added this sponge, which should be light and
foamy, to the potato water, which should be lukewarm. She also added 1
tablespoon of salt and enough flour to make a rather thick batter.
Heat thoroughly and allow this sponge to stand, well-covered, in a
warm place until morning, when add 1 tablespoon sugar, 1 tablespoon
butter or lard and warmed flour enough to make a stiff dough. Turn out
on the bread board and knead for about twenty minutes, until the dough
does not stick to the hands. Place stiffened dough into howl; allow it
to rise until bulk is doubled. Mold into loaves, adding as little
extra flour as possible. Cut several gashes on top of loaves, brush
with melted butter, place in bread pans, and when loaves have doubled
in bulk, place in moderately hot oven and bake about one hour.


Place in a bowl 3/4 cup graham flour and 1/2 cup of yellow, granulated
cornmeal. Sift into this 3/4 cup of white flour, 1 teaspoonful of
baking powder and 1/2 teaspoonful of salt. Mix all ingredients
together to form a batter by adding 1 cup of sour milk, in which has
been dissolved 3/4 teaspoonful of soda. Then add 2 tablespoonfuls of
molasses. Pour into a well-greased quart can (the tin cans in which
coffee is frequently sold will answer nicely), cover closely, place in
a kettle of boiling water, steam about three hours; stand in oven a
short time after being steamed. Cut in slices and serve as bread, or,
by the addition of raisins or currants, and a little grated nutmeg or
other flavoring, a very appetizing and wholesome pudding may be served
hot, with sugar and cream or any pudding sauce preferred.


Place in a bowl 4 cups of clean bran and 2 cups of white flour, sifted
with 2 teaspoonfuls of baking powder, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 1
tablespoonful of melted butter. Mix into a soft batter with 2 cups of
sweet milk; add 1/2 cup of molasses. Fill two layer cake pans and bake
in a hot oven about 25 minutes. This is so easily and quickly made.
The young housewife may mix, when commencing to prepare lunch, and
when the meal is ready to serve the bread will be baked, and it is an
excellent laxative.


1 quart dried pears.
1 pint of pear juice.
1 Fleischman's yeast cake.
1 scant cup brown sugar.
2 eggs.
1/4 teaspoonful soda.
1 pound of soaked raisins.
3/4 cup of a mixture of lard and butter.
1 teaspoonful of fennel seed.
Pinch of salt.
2 teaspoonfuls of ground cinnamon.
Flour to stiffen, as for ordinary bread.

Cover one quart of dried pears with cold water and cook slowly about
20 minutes until they have cooked tender, but not soft (the night
before the day on which the bread is to be baked).

Then drain the juice from stewed pears, which should measure 1 pint;
when lukewarm, add 1 yeast cake, dissolved in a small quantity of
lukewarm water, and about 3 cups of flour and a pinch of salt. Stand,
closely-covered, in a warm place over night to raise.

The following morning, add 1/4 teaspoonful of baking soda, dissolved
in a little warm water, to counteract any acidity of batter. Cream
together sugar, butter and lard, add eggs one at a time, men the
well-floured, diced pears, also raisins, cinnamon and fennel seed, and
enough flour to stiffen as for ordinary bread. Knead well, let rise;
it will require some time, as the fruit retards the raising process.
When light, turn onto a bake-board, cut into four portions, mold into
four shapely loaves, place in pans, brush with melted butter and when
quite light, place in a moderate oven and bake one hour. This bread
will keep well several weeks, if kept in a tin cake box.

This recipe is much simpler than Aunt Sarah's recipe for making
"Hutzel Brod," but bread made from this recipe is excellent.


2 cups of buttermilk, or thick, sour milk.
1/2 cup of sugar.
1/4 cup of molasses.
1 tablespoonful of melted butter.
1 egg.
1 teaspoonful of soda.
3/4 teaspoonful of salt.
3-1/2 cups of graham flour.
1/2 cup of white flour, sifted with 3/4 teaspoonful of baking powder.

The egg was placed in a bowl, and not beaten separately; sugar and
butter were creamed together, before being added; then mix in salt and
molasses, and gradually add buttermilk, in which the soda had been
dissolved; then add white and graham flour, 3/4 cups of raisins may be
added, if liked. Bake in a bread pan in a moderately hot oven.


Early in the morning 1 cup of oatmeal porridge, left over from that
which had been cooked for breakfast, was placed in a bowl and added
gradually 2 cups of scalded, luke-warm milk, 1 tablespoon of a mixture
of lard and butter, 1/4 cup New Orleans molasses and one Fleischman's
yeast cake, dissolved in a little of the milk; stir in about 3 cups of
bread flour and stand in a warm place about 1-1/4 hours to rise; then
add 3-1/2 cups more of bread flour and 1 teaspoonful of salt. Stir
well with a spoon, and pour into three small bread tins; let rise,
when well-risen, bake about 3/4 of an hour in a moderately hot oven.
This is a delicious and wholesome bread and no kneading is necessary.
1-1/2 cups of the cooked oatmeal might be used, then use less white
bread flour when mixing.


2 cups buttermilk, or sour milk.
1/2 cup brown sugar,
2 cups graham flour.
1 cup wheat flour.
1 teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in a little of the milk.
1 teaspoonful of baking powder, sifted with the wheat flour.

Mix all together, add one cup of seeded raisins, 1/4 cup of ground
peanuts and 1/4 cup chopped walnut meats. Bake in an ordinary bread


For this old-fashioned, "country" bread, set a sponge in the evening,
consisting of 1 cup of luke-warm water, 1 Fleischman's compressed
yeast cake and 2 tablespoonfuls of saffron water, obtained by steeping
1/2 tablespoonful of dried saffron flowers in a small quantity of
boiling water a short time. Use about 2 cups of flour to stiffen the
sponge. Cover bowl containing sponge and stand in a warm place until
morning, when add the following: 3/4 cup of soft A sugar, 1/4 cup lard
and 1/8 cup of butter (beaten to a cream); then add one egg. Beat
again and add this mixture to the well-risen sponge. Add also 3/4 cup
of seeded raisins and about 1-3/4 cups of flour.

The dough should be almost as stiff as ordinary bread dough. Set to
rise about one hour. Then divide the dough and mold into two shapely
loaves. Place in oblong bread pans. Let rise about 1-1/2 hours. Brush
melted butter over top of loaves and bake in a moderately hot oven, as
one would bake ordinary bread.

This bread is a rich, golden yellow, with a distinctive, rather
bitter, saffron flavor, well-liked by some people; saffron is not

"Speaking of saffron bread," said John Landis, to his niece, Mary, "I
am reminded of the lines I was taught when quite a small boy:"

    "Wer will gute kuchen haben, der muss sieben sachen haben;
    Eier, butter un schmalz, milch, zucker un mehl;
    Un saffron mach die kuchen gehl."

"Of course, Mary, you do not understand what that means. I will
translate it for you. 'Who would have good cakes, he must have seven
things--eggs, butter and lard, milk, sugar and flour, and saffron
makes the cakes yellow.'"


2 quarts of sifted flour.
1 pint of boiled milk (lukewarm).
1 tablespoon sugar.
1/2 cup butter and lard, mixed.
3/4 cake compressed yeast, or 3/4 cup yeast.
1 teaspoon salt.

At 5 o'clock P.M. set sponge with half or three-fourths of the flour
and all the other ingredients.

About 9 o'clock in the evening, knead well, adding the balance of the
flour. Cover and let stand in a warm place until morning. In the
morning, roll out about 3/4 of an inch thick, cut into small rolls,
place in baking pans far enough apart so they will not touch, and when
raised quite light, bake.

Or, take the same ingredients as above (with one exception; take one
whole cake of compressed yeast), dissolved in half a cup of luke-warm
water, and flour enough to make a thin batter. Do this at 8.30 in the
morning and let rise until 1 o'clock; then knead enough flour in to
make a soft dough, as soft as can be handled. Stand in a warm place
until 4.30, roll out quite thin; cut with small, round cake-cutter and
fold over like a pocketbook, putting a small piece of butter the size
of a pea between the folds; set in a warm place until 5.30, or until
very light; then bake a delicate brown in a hot oven. If made quite
small, 70 rolls may be made from this dough.

To cause rolls of any kind to have a rich, brown glaze, when baked,
before placing the pan containing them in the oven, brush over the top
of each roll the following mixture, composed of--yolk of 1 egg, 1
tablespoon of milk, and 1 teaspoon of sugar.


1 quart scalded milk (lukewarm).
3/4 cup of butter, or a mixture of butter and lard.
1/2 cup of sugar.
1 teaspoonful of salt.
2 Fleischman's yeast cakes.
Whites of 2 eggs.

Quite early in the morning dissolve the two yeast cakes in a little of
the milk; add these, with one-half the quantity of sugar and salt in
the recipe, to the remainder of the quart of milk; add also 4 cups of
flour to form the yeast foam. Beat well and stand in a warm place,
closely-covered, one hour, until light and foamy.

Beat the sugar remaining and the butter to a cream; add to the yeast
foam about 7 to 8 cups of flour, and the stiffly-beaten whites of the
two eggs.

Turn out on a well-floured bread board and knead about five minutes.
Place in a bowl and let rise again (about one hour or longer) until
double in bulk, when roll out about one inch in thickness. Cut small
biscuits with a 1/2 pound Royal Baking Powder can.

Brush tops of biscuits with a mixture consisting of yolk of one egg, a
teaspoonful of sugar and a little milk; this causes the biscuits to
have a rich brown crust when baked.

Place biscuits on pans a short distance apart, let rise until doubled
in bulk; bake in a rather quick oven.

From this recipe was usually made 55 biscuits. One-half of this recipe
would be sufficient for a small family.

Mary's Aunt taught her the possibilities of what she called a "Dutch"
sponge--prepared from one Fleischman's yeast cake. And the variety a
capable housewife may give her family, with the expenditure of a small
amount of time and thought.

About 9 o'clock in the evening Mary's Aunt placed in a bowl 2 cups of
potato water (drained from potatoes boiled for dinner). In this she
dissolved one Fleischman's yeast cake, stirred into this about 3 cups
of well-warmed flour, beat thoroughly for about ten minutes. Allowed
this to stand closely covered in a warm place over night. On the
following morning she added to the foamy sponge 1-1/2 cups lukewarm,
scalded milk, in which had been dissolved 1 tablespoonful of a mixture
of butter and lard, 2 generous tablespoonfuls of sugar and 1
teaspoonful of salt. About 6-1/4 cups of well-dried and warmed flour;
she stirred in a part of the flour, then added the balance. Kneaded
well a short time, then set to raise closely covered in a warm place
2-1/2 to 3 hours.

When dough was light it was kneaded down in bowl and allowed to stand
about one hour, and when well risen she placed 2 cups of light bread
sponge in a bowl, and stood aside in warm place; this later formed the
basis of a "Farmers' Pound Cake," the recipe for which may be found
among recipes for "Raised Cakes."

From the balance of dough, or sponge, after being cut into 3 portions,
she molded from the one portion 12 small turn-over rolls, which were
brushed with melted butter, folded together and placed on tins a
distance apart and when _very_ light baked in a quick oven.

From another portion of the sponge was made a twist or braided loaf.

And to the remaining portion of dough was added 1/2 cup of currants or
raisins, and this was called a "Currant" or "Raisin Loaf," which she
served for dinner the following day.

The rolls were placed in the oven of the range a few minutes before
breakfast and served hot, broken apart and eaten with maple syrup or
honey and the delicious "Farmers' Pound Cake" was served for supper.

Aunt Sarah baked these on ironing day. The kitchen being unusually
warm, as a result of the extra heat required in the range for heating
flatirons, caused the dough to rise more quickly than otherwise would
have been the case.


Frau Schmidt thought bread more easily digested and wholesome if
ingredients of a loaf be stirred together instead of kneaded. This is
the method she taught Mary. She poured into a bowl 3 cups of
luke-warm water, added 1 cake of Fleischman's yeast, dissolved in a
little of the water; sifted in gradually about 8-1/2 cups of flour,
added 1 tablespoonful of sugar, 1/2 teaspoonful of salt, mixed all
well together with a spoon until a stiff dough was formed, which she
molded into two shapely loaves, handling as little as possible; placed
in bread pans, allowed to stand several hours to raise, and when light
baked. Mary said, "This bread may be more wholesome than old-fashioned
bread, which has been kneaded, but I prefer Aunt Sarah's bread,
well-kneaded, fine-grained and sweet," but, she continued, "I will
make an exception in favor of Aunt Sarah's 'Stirred Oatmeal' bread,
which, I think, fine."


At 6 o'clock in the morning place in a bowl 1 cup of finely-mashed
(boiled) potatoes (the cup of left-over mashed potatoes may be used as
a matter of economy). Add 1 cup of potato water (the water drained
from boiled potatoes), in which 1/2 cake of Fleischman's yeast had
been dissolved, add 1 cup of flour and 1 teaspoon of sugar. Stand in a
warm place to raise, from 1 to 1-1/4 hours. At the expiration of that
time add to the foamy sponge 1 large tablespoonful of butter or lard,
1 egg and 1/2 teaspoonful of salt, beaten together before adding. Add
about 2 cups of flour, beat thoroughly and allow to raise another
hour; then roll out the dough about 1 inch in thickness and cut into
small biscuits, dip each one in melted butter and place on pans, a
short distance apart, stand about one hour to raise, when bake in a
rather hot oven. These Potato Biscuits are particularly nice when
freshly baked, and resemble somewhat biscuits made from baking powder.
From this recipe was made two dozen biscuits.


9 medium-sized potatoes.
5 tablespoons sugar.
2 tablespoons salt.
1 quart water.

Grate the raw potatoes quickly, so they will not discolor, pour over
the grated potato the quart of boiling water, add salt and sugar, cook
several minutes until the consistency of boiled starch, let cool, and
when lukewarm add 1 cup of good yeast. Stir all together in a crock,
cover and let stand in a warm place three or four hours, when it is
foamy and rises to top of crock, stir down several times, then fill
glass fruit jars, cover and stand away in a cool place until needed.

This yeast will keep about ten days. Use one cup to about three pounds
of flour, or one quart of liquid, when setting sponge for bread. Save
one cup of this yeast to start fresh yeast with.


1 cup of boiled mashed potatoes.
1 cup sweet milk.
1 cup water in which 1 Fleischman yeast cake was dissolved.
2 cups soft A sugar.
1/2 cup butter and lard mixed.
2 eggs.
A little salt.
About 7 cups of flour.

Cream the sugar, butter and eggs together. Add mashed potatoes, milk
and cup of water containing yeast, alternately with the flour, until
about 7 cups of flour have been used, making a dough as stiff as can
be stirred with a spoon. Stand, covered, in a warm place by the range
until morning. These should be set to rise about nine o'clock in the
evening. The following morning take pieces of the dough, on a
well-floured bake board; roll about one inch thick, to fit in pie
tins, place in pie tins to raise; when doubled in bulk spread with
melted butter and sprinkle sugar thickly over top and bake in a
moderately hot oven until lightly browned on top. This quantity of
dough makes six cakes.

Instead of brushing the cakes with above mixture, place in a bowl 1/2
cup of soft A sugar, 1/2 cup flour, a tiny pinch of salt and baking
powder each and 2 tablespoonfuls of butter (not melted), mix all
together as crumbly as possible, then the crumbs were sprinkled
thickly over tops of cakes, which had been brushed with a mixture of
milk and sugar. Place cakes in oven when raised; bake 20 minutes.

This recipe was given Mary by an old "Bucks County" cook, noted for
the excellence of her raised cakes.


Early in the morning mix a sponge or batter consisting of 1/2 cup of
potato water (water drained from boiled potatoes) and 1/2 cup of
lukewarm, scalded milk, one Fleischman's compressed yeast cake,
dissolved in the 1/2 cup of lukewarm potato water, 1 teaspoonful
sugar, pinch of salt and about 1-1/2 cupfuls of warmed flour. Stand
this sponge in a warm place, closely covered, about 3/4 of an hour, to
raise. At the end of that time add to the light, well-risen sponge,
the following: 3 tablespoonfuls of a mixture of lard and butter, and
1/3 cup of soft A sugar, creamed together. Add one large egg. Beat
well. Lastly, add about 2 cupfuls of flour. Mix all together
thoroughly, and let raise again about 1-1/2 hours. Divide the
well-risen sponge into four portions. Roll each piece with rolling-pin
into lengthwise pieces about 1/2 inch thick and spread with one
tablespoonful of melted butter, scant 2 tablespoonfuls of brown sugar,
dust over this a small quantity of cinnamon, and 1 tablespoonful of
dried currants. Shape into a long, narrow roll with the hands, on a
well-floured bake-board. Cut each roll into five pieces. Pinch one end
of each piece together and place each bun, cut side down, a short
distance apart, in an iron pan which has been well greased, having
brushed a little melted butter and a sprinkling of sugar over pan.
Allow these to rise in a warm place as before, about 1-1/2 hours,
until quite light, as having the extra sugar, butter and currants
added retards their rising as quickly as would plain biscuits.

Bake 20 to 25 minutes in a moderate oven.

From this quantity of material was made 20 cinnamon buns.


Scant 1/2 cup lard and butter.
2 cups sifted flour.
2 whole eggs and the yolks of 2 more.
3 tablespoons sugar.
1/4 cup cream.
1/4 milk.
1 Fleischman's yeast cake.
1/8 teaspoon salt.

The yeast cake was dissolved in the 1/4 cup lukewarm milk, a couple
tablespoons of flour were added and mixed into a batter, and stood in
a warm place to rise. The butter and sugar were stirred to a cream,
salt was added, the eggs were beaten in, one at a time, next was added
the sponge containing the yeast, the lukewarm cream, and the sifted
flour. Grease slightly warmed Gem pans, sift a little flour over them,
fill two-thirds full with the soft dough, set in a warm place to rise
to tops of pans, and when quite light bake in a medium hot oven about
25 minutes. The oven should be hot enough to allow them to rise
quickly. Put something underneath the pans in the oven to prevent
bottom of cakes from burning. These may be set about 8 o'clock in the
morning if cakes are wished for lunch at noon. These are not cheap, as
this quantity makes only 12 cakes, but they are light as puffballs.
The Professor's wife served them when she gave a "Kaffee Klatch." She
doubled the recipe, baked the cakes in the morning, and placed them in
the oven to heat through before serving. The cakes should be broken
apart, not cut. The cakes made from this recipe are particularly fine.


1 cup hot mashed potatoes.
1-1/2 cups sugar.
1 scant cup butter and lard.
1 cup home-made yeast or 1 yeast cake dissolved in 1 cup
lukewarm water.
3 eggs.

At 5 o'clock in the afternoon set to rise the following: One cup of
sugar and one cup of hot mashed potatoes; when lukewarm add one cup of
flour and one cup of yeast; beat all together, stand in a warm place
to rise and at 9 o'clock in the evening cream together 1 cup of a
mixture of lard and butter, 1 cup of sugar, 3 eggs and pinch of salt;
add the sponge and beat well. Stir as stiff as you can stir it with a
large spoon, cover, set in a warm place to rise until morning, when
roll out some of the dough into cakes about one inch thick, put in pie
tins to rise, and when light, make half a dozen deep impressions on
top of each cake with the forefinger, spread with melted butter and
strew light-brown sugar thickly over top, or mix together 1 cup sugar,
butter size of an egg, 2 tablespoons flour, 2 tablespoons boiling
water, beat well and spread the mixture on cakes just before placing
in oven. Bake the cakes about 20 minutes in a moderate oven. This is a
very old recipe used by Aunt Sarah's grandmother, and similar to the
well-known German cakes called "Schwing Felders."


1 cup bread dough.
1 egg.
1/2 cup soft A sugar.
1 tablespoon lard or butter.
1/4 teaspoon soda.

When her bread dough was raised and ready to put in the pans she
placed a cupful of it in a bowl and added the egg, sugar, butter, soda
(dissolved in a little hot water); some dried raisins or currants, and
just enough flour so it might be handled easily. Put in a small agate
pan four inches deep, let rise until light, dust pulverized sugar over
top and bake about 25 or 30 minutes in a moderate oven.

Double the materials called for, using 2 _cups_ of well-risen bread
dough or sponge, and you will have a good-sized cake.


To a bowl containing 1 cup of scalded milk, add 1 tablespoonful of
lard and 1 cup of sugar. When lukewarm add 1 yeast cake
(Fleischman's), dissolved in 1 cup of lukewarm water, and about 5 cups
of good flour. Set to rise at night about nine o'clock, the next
morning roll out pieces about one and a half inches thick, to fit in
medium-sized pie tins. Set in a warm place to rise. When light, brush
top with melted butter and strew sugar thickly over and bake from 15
to 20 minutes in a moderately hot oven. These cakes are _inexpensive_
and _good_; _no eggs_ or _butter_ being used.


In the evening mix a sponge consisting of 1/2 cup of mashed potatoes,
1/2 cup sugar, 1 cup of yeast or 1 cake of Fleischman's yeast
dissolved in a cup of lukewarm water; 1/2 cup of a mixture of butter
and lard and a pinch of salt and flour to thicken until batter is
quite thick. Stand in a warm place, closely covered, until morning,
when add 2 eggs and 1/2 cup of sugar and flour to stiffen as thick as
sponge can be stirred with a spoon. Set to rise; when light roll out
one inch thick, place in pie tins, brush tops with melted butter and
brown sugar, set to rise, and, when well risen, bake.


Place in a mixing bowl 2 cups of warm, mashed potatoes and add 3/4 of
a cup of shortening (a mixture of lard and butter), (or use Aunt
Sarah's substitute for butter); one cup of A sugar and 1 teaspoonful

Beat all to a cream. When lukewarm, add 2 eggs and either 1 yeast cake
dissolved in 1 cup of lukewarm water, or 1 cup of potato yeast; use
about 2 cups of flour to make a thin batter. Set to raise over night
or early in the morning. When well risen add about 4 cups of flour.
Make about as stiff a dough as can be stirred well with a mixing
spoon. Place soft dough on a bake-board; roll out into a sheet about
one-half inch thick; cut into squares about the size of a common soda
cracker; bring each of the four corners together in the centre like an
envelope; pinch together; place a small piece of butter (about
one-eighth teaspoonful) on the top where the four corners join. Stand
in a warm place to rise. When well risen and light place in the oven.
When baked, take from oven, and while hot dip all sides in melted
butter and dust granulated or pulverized sugar over top. These are
not as much trouble to prepare as one would suppose from the
directions for making. The same dough may be cut in doughnuts with a
tin cutter and fried in hot fat after raising, or the dough may be
molded into small, round biscuits if preferred, and baked in oven.


About nine o'clock in the evening a batter was mixed composed of the

1 cup milk.
1 cup hot water.
1 teaspoonful of sugar.
1 cup yeast (or one cake of Fleischman's yeast dissolved in
one cup of lukewarm water).
1 pinch of salt.
3-1/2 cups of flour.

Stand in a warm place until morning. Then add 1/2 cup of butter and
1-1/2 cups of soft A sugar, creamed together, and from 3 to 4 cups of
flour. The dough should be as stiff as can be stirred with a spoon.
Set to rise in a warm place; when light and spongy, roll out on a
well-floured bake-board and cut into round cakes with a hole in the
centre. Let rise again, and when well risen fry a golden brown in deep
fat and sift over pulverized sugar. This recipe will make 45
doughnuts. These are good and economical, as no eggs are used in this


For these quaint-looking, delicious biscuits, a sponge was prepared
consisting of:

1 pink milk.
3 eggs.
1/2 cup mixture butter and lard.
1 yeast cake (Fleischman's).
About 7 cups flour.

Set to rise early in the morning. When well risen (in about 3 hours),
roll dough into a sheet about 1/4 inch in thickness, cut with a
half-pound baking powder can into small, round biscuits, brush top of
each one with melted butter (use a new, clean paint brush for this
purpose), place another biscuit on top of each one of these, and when
raised very light and ready for oven brush top of each biscuit with a
mixture consisting of half of one yolk of egg (which had been reserved
from the ones used in baking), mixed with a little milk. Biscuits
should have been placed on a baking sheet some distance apart, let
rise about one hour until quite light, then placed in a quick but not
_too hot_ an oven until baked a golden brown on top.

Mary gave these the name of "Quaker Bonnet" Biscuits, as the top
biscuit did not raise quite as much as the one underneath and greatly
resembled the crown of a Quaker bonnet.

From this quantity of dough was made three dozen biscuits. These are
not cheap, but extra fine.


Explicit directions for the making of these excellent raised cakes was
given Mary by an old, experienced Pennsylvania German cook. They were
prepared from the following recipe: Early in the morning 1 pint of
milk was scalded. When lukewarm, add 3-1/2 cups of flour and 1 cake of
Fleischman's compressed yeast (which had been dissolved in 1
tablespoonful of lukewarm water). Beat the mixture well. Cover and
stand in a warm place to rise. When well risen, which should be in
about 2 hours, add the following mixture, composed of 3/4 cup of sugar
and 1/2 cup of butter, creamed together; 1/2 teaspoonful of salt; 1
egg was beaten into the mixture, and about 2 cups of flour were added,
enough to make a dough as stiff as can be stirred with a spoon. Dough
should not be as stiff as for bread. Let stand about 1 hour. When well
risen and light, divide into four portions. Roll out each piece of
dough to thickness of one inch. Place cakes in medium-sized pie tins
and allow them to stand about one hour. When well risen, doubled in
bulk, make half dozen deep impressions on top of each cake with the
forefinger. Brush top of each cake with 1/2 tablespoonful of melted
butter. Sprinkle over 2 tablespoonfuls of soft A sugar and sift over a
little pulverized cinnamon, if liked, just before placing cakes in
oven. Bake cakes from 20 to 25 minutes in a moderately hot oven. From
this dough may be made four cakes.

Excellent biscuits may also be made from this same dough, by simply
moulding it into small biscuits and place in a pan some distance
apart. Let rise and brush tops of biscuits with a mixture composed of
a part of an egg yolk, a tablespoonful of milk and 1/2 teaspoonful
sugar. This causes the biscuits to have a rich, brown color when

The sponge from which these cakes or biscuits were made was mixed and
set to rise at 6 o'clock in the morning, and the baking was finished
at 11 o'clock. Sponge should be set to rise in a warm room. If these
directions are carefully followed the housewife will invariably have
good results. Always use hard Spring wheat for bread or biscuits,
raised with yeast; and Winter wheat, which costs less, will answer for
making cake and pastry. In cold weather always warm flour before
baking, when yeast is used for baking raised cakes. Soft A sugar or a
very light brown is to be preferred to granulated.


At 5 o'clock P.M. set a sponge or batter, consisting of 1 cup of
mashed potatoes, 2 cups of sugar, 1 cup of sweet milk, scalded and
cooled, 1/2 cake of yeast, dissolved in 1 cup of lukewarm water, 2
eggs 3/4 cup of a mixture of lard and butter, add 3 cups of flour,
beat well, stand in a warm place to raise; at 9 o'clock add about 6
cups of flour. Stand until morning in a warm place, near the range.
The following morning turn out on a floured bake-board, roll out cakes
one inch thick, place in pie tins, when ready for the oven; punch half
a dozen small holes in the top of cakes, in which place small bits of
butter. Sprinkle sugar over liberally and cinnamon if liked. Bake in a
moderate oven.


1 cup freshly-boiled mashed potatoes.
1 cup scalded sweet milk.
1 cup sugar.
Flour about 6 cups.
1 cake Fleischman's yeast.
2 eggs.
1/2 cup butter and lard mixed.
1/2 cup potato water.

At 7 o'clock in the morning Mary mixed a sponge consisting of a cup of
mashed potatoes, 1 cup scalded milk, 1/2 cup sugar, 1-1/2 cups of
flour and the cake of Fleischman's yeast, dissolved in half a cup of
lukewarm potato water. This was set to rise in a warm place near the
range for several hours until light. Then she creamed together 1/2 cup
of sugar, 2 eggs and 1/2 cup of butter and lard, or use instead the
"Substitute for Butter." Added the creamed sugar, butter and eggs to
the well-risen sponge and about 4-1/2 cups of flour. Sift a couple of
tablespoons of flour over top of sponge, and set to rise again about
1-1/2 hours. When light, take cut pieces of the sponge on a
well-floured bread-board, knead for a minute or two, then roll out
with a rolling-pin inlo pieces about one inch thick, place in
well-greased small pie tins, over which a dust of flour has been
sifted, set to rise about 1-1/2 hours. When light and ready for oven
brush top with milk, strew crumbs over or brush with melted butter and
strew sugar over top; after punching half dozen holes in top of each
cake, bake in a moderately hot oven from 20 to 25 minutes until a rich
brown, when cakes should be baked. Five potato cakes may be made from
this sponge, or four cakes and one pan of biscuits if preferred. Use
soft "A" sugar rather than granulated for these cakes, and old
potatoes are superior to new. Or when these same cakes were raised,
ready to be placed in the oven, Mary frequently brushed the tops of
cakes with melted butter, strewing over the following: 1 cup of flour
mixed with 1/2 cup of sugar and yolk of 1 egg, and a few drops of
vanilla. This mixture rubbed through a coarse sieve and scattered over
cakes Mary called "Streusel Kuchen."


Place in a bowl 1 cup of milk, scalded and cooled until lukewarm; add
1 tablespoonful of sugar and dissolve one cake of yeast in the milk.
Mix in 1 cup of flour and stand in a warm place to raise 3/4 of an
hour. Then cream together in a separate bowl 1/2 cup soft "A" sugar,
1/2 cup of butter or "butter substitute," add 1 egg and a pinch of
salt; stir in 1-1/4 cups of flour, 1/2 cup of well-floured raisins,
and 1/2 teaspoonful of vanilla flavoring. Add the yeast mixture and
allow it to raise about 2 hours longer. At the expiration of that time
turn the well-risen sponge out on a floured bake-board. After giving
the dough several deft turns on the board with the hand, place in a
well-greased fruit cake pan, which has been dusted with flour. Stand
pan containing cake in a warm place, let rise until very light,
probably 1-1/4 hours, when brush the top of cake with a small quantity
of a mixture of milk and sugar. Sift pulverized sugar thickly over
top. Place the cake in a moderately hot oven, so the cake may finish
rising before commencing to brown on the top. Bake about 35 minutes.


1 cup sugar.
3/4 cup butter and lard.
4 eggs.
1 pint milk.
1 Fleischman's yeast cake.
4 cups flour.

Cream together the sugar, butter, lard and eggs, add the milk, which
has been scalded and allowed to cool; flour, and yeast cake, dissolved
in a half cup of lukewarm water; beat well. Set this sponge to rise in
a warm place, near the range, as early as possible in the morning.
This will take about 1-1/2 hours to rise. When the sponge is light add
about 3 cups more of flour. The dough, when stiff as can be stirred
with a spoon, will be right. Take about 2 cups of this sponge out on a
well-floured bake-board, divide in three pieces, and braid and form
into a wreath or "Krantz," or they may be made out into flat cakes and
baked in pie tins after they have been raised and are light. Sprinkle
sugar thickly over top after brushing with milk containing a little
sugar, before placing in oven. These should rise in about 1-1/2 hours.
Place in a moderately hot oven and bake from 20 to 25 minutes. This
recipe Frau Schmidt translated from the German language for Mary's
especial benefit.

This coffee wreath is particularly fine if small pieces of crushed
rock candy be sprinkled liberally over the top and blanched almonds
stuck a couple of inches apart over the top just before placing the
cake in the oven, after the cakes had been brushed with a mixture of
milk and sugar.


1 pint sweet milk.
3/4 cup sugar.
3 eggs.
1 yeast cake or 1 cup yeast.
1/3 cup butter.
2 tablespoons rock candy.
1 orange.
2 tablespoons chopped almonds.

Set to rise early in the morning. To the scalded milk, when lukewarm,
add the yeast and flour enough to make a batter, cover, set to rise
until light, near the range, which will take several hours. Then add
the sugar, butter and eggs beaten to a cream, grated rind and juice of
orange, a couple tablespoons finely-chopped almonds, and add enough
flour to make a soft dough, as stiff as can be stirred with a spoon;
set to rise again, and when light, divide the dough in two portions,
from which you form two wreaths. Roll half the dough in three long
strips on the floured bake-board with the hands, then braid them
together. Place a large coffee cup or bowl inverted on the centre of a
large, round or oval, well-greased pan, lay the wreath around the
bowl. The bowl in the centre of the pan prevents the dough from
running together and forming a cake. Brush the top of the wreath with
a little milk, containing teaspoon of sugar, over the top of the
wreath, stick blanched, well-dried almonds, and strew thickly with
crushed rock candy or very coarse sugar.

Let rise until light, then bake. This makes two quite large wreaths.

The Professor's wife told Mary when she gave her this recipe, this
almond wreath was always served at the breakfast table on Christmas
morning at the home of her parents in Germany, and was always baked by
her mother, who gave her this recipe, and it was found on the
breakfast table of Frau Schmidt Christmas morning as regularly as was
made "Fast Nacht Kuchen" by Aunt Sarah every year on "Shrove Tuesday,"
the day before the beginning of the Lenten season.


2 tablespoons of butter or lard.
2 eggs.
1 cup "Soft A" sugar.
1/2 yeast cake.
1 pint milk.
1/2 teaspoonful of salt.

She scalded the milk, added butter and eggs, well beaten, when the
milk was lukewarm, then added yeast, dissolved in a little lukewarm
water, sugar, salt and flour to make a thin batter. Beat all together
five minutes, stood the batter, closely covered, in a warm place, over
night. In the morning, added flour to make a soft dough, kneaded
lightly for ten minutes, placed in bowl and set to rise again. When
light, she rolled out dough one inch in thickness, placed in pie tins,
and when raised a second time spread over the cakes the following
mixture before placing in oven: 1 cup sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls of
flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of boiling water and butter size of an egg,
beaten well together. Bake 20 minutes.


Place in a bowl 2 cups of light, well-raised bread sponge (when all
flour necessary had been added and loaves were shaped ready to be
placed in bread pan for final rising). Cream together 3/4 cup of a
mixture of lard and butter, add 2 eggs, first yolks then stiffly
beaten whites, also add 1-1/2 cups soft A sugar. Add to the 2 cups of
bread sponge in bowl and beat well until fully incorporated with the
dough, then add 1/2 cup of lukewarm milk, in which had been dissolved
1/2 teaspoonful of salaratus.

Beat all together until mixture is smooth and creamy, then add 2 cups
of bread flour and 1/2 teaspoon of lemon flavoring. Beat well and add
1-1/2 cups of either currants or raisins, dusted with flour. Pour
mixture into an agate pudding dish (one holding 3 quarts, about 2-1/2
inches in depth and 30 inches in circumference). Stand in a warm place
3 to 4 hours to raise; when raised to top of pan place in a moderately
hot oven and bake about 40 minutes, when, taken from oven, dust with
pulverized sugar thickly over top of cake.

This cake should be large as an old-fashioned fruit cake, will keep
moist some time in a tin cake box, but is best when freshly baked.


1/3 cup sugar
1/3 cup butter
1 cup hot milk
1 yeast cake
2 eggs
2-1/2 cups flour.

As Aunt Sarah taught Mary to bake this, it was fine. She creamed
together in a bowl the sugar and butter, poured the hot milk over
this, and when lukewarm, added the compressed yeast cake, dissolved in
1/4 cup of lukewarm water. She then added two small, well-beaten eggs,
about 2-1/2 cups flour, or enough to make a stiff _batter_, and 1/2
teaspoonful salt. Beat thoroughly, cover and set to rise in a warm
place about 1-1/2 hours or until doubled in bulk. This was set to rise
quite early in the morning. When light, beat thoroughly and with a
spoon spread evenly on top of well-greased, deep pie tins, which have
been sprinkled with a little flour.

Spread the crumbs given below over the top of cakes, cover and let
rise 15 minutes and bake a rich brown in moderate oven.

For the crumbs, mix together in a bowl 1 heaped cup of fine, soft,
stale bread crumbs, 2-1/2 tablespoonfuls light brown sugar, 3/4 of a
teaspoonful cinnamon, pinch of salt, 1/4 cup of blanched and chopped
almonds, and 2 tablespoonfuls of soft butter. This sponge or dough
should be unusually soft when mixed, as the crumbs sink into the dough
and thicken it. Add only the quantity of flour called for in recipe.


3 tablespoons honey.
3/4 quart milk.
2 quarts flour.
1 yeast cake.
1/2 cup butter.
2 eggs.

Without fail, every year on Shrove Tuesday, or "Fast Nacht," the day
before the beginning of Lent, these cakes were made. Quite early in
the morning, or the night before, the following sponge was set to
rise: The lukewarm, scalded milk, mixed into a smooth batter with 1
quart of flour; add 1 Fleischman's yeast cake, dissolved in a very
little water. Beat well together, set in a warm place to rise over
night, or several hours, and when light, add the following, which has
been creamed together: eggs, butter and lard, a little flour and the
honey. Beat well, and then add the balance of the flour, reserving a
small quantity to flour the board later. Set to rise again, and when
quite light roll out on a well-floured board, cut into circles with a
doughnut cutter, cut holes in the centre of cakes, let rise, and then
fry in deep fat; dust with pulverised sugar and cinnamon, if liked.
These are regular German doughnuts, and are never very sweet. If liked
sweeter, a little sugar may be added. From this batter Mary made 18
"fried cakes," or "Fast Nacht Kuchen," as the Germans call them. She
also made from the same dough one dozen cinnamon buns and two Dutch
cakes. The dough not being very sweet, she sprinkled rivels composed
of sugar, flour and butter, generously over the top of the "Dutch
cakes." The dough for doughnuts, or fried cakes, should always have a
little more flour added than dough for "Dutch cakes" or buns; baked in
the oven. If _too soft_, they will absorb fat while frying.


2 cups milk.
1 heaped cup soft A sugar.
1/2 cup butter and lard.
1 egg.
1 Fleischman's yeast cake.

These German Coffee Cakes should be set to rise either early in the
morning or the night before being baked. Scald 2 cups sweet milk and
set aside to cool. Cream together in a bowl 1 heaped cup of A sugar,
1/2 cup butter and lard and the yolk of egg. Add this to the lukewarm
milk alternately with 6-1/2 cups flour and the yeast cake dissolved in
1/3 cup lukewarm water. Beat all together, and, lastly, add the
stiffly-beaten white of egg. Cover and set in a warm place to rise
over night, or, if set to rise in the morning, stand about 2-1/2 hours
until light. Put an extra cup of flour on the bake-board, take out
large spoonfuls of the dough, mix in just enough flour to roll out
into flat cakes, spread on well-greased pie tins, stand in a warm
place until light, about 1-1/4 hours. When the cakes are ready for the
oven, brush melted butter over the top, strew thickly with brown
sugar, or spread rivels over top, composed of 1/2 cup sugar, 1/2 cup
flour and 2 tablespoonfuls of butter, crumbled together. Strew these
over the cakes just before placing them in the oven of range.


For these German-raised cakes, take 1/2 cup mashed potatoes and 1/2
cup of potato water, 1/2 cup lard and butter mixed, creamed with 1/2
cup sugar. Mix with these ingredients about 3-1/2 cups of flour and 1
cup of yeast. Set this sponge to rise at night in a warm place, well
covered. The next morning add to the light, well-risen sponge, 2 eggs,
1/2 cup sugar and about 1-1/2 cups flour. Let stand in a warm place
until light. Then roll out pieces size of a plate, one inch thick;
place on well-greased pie tins, let rise, and when light and ready for
the oven brush over tops with melted butter and strew over the tops of
cakes the following: Mix 1 cup of flour, 1/2 cup of sugar and yolk of
1 egg. Flavor with a few drops of vanilla (or use vanilla sugar, which
is made by placing several vanilla beans in a jar of sugar a short
time, which flavors sugar). Rub this mixture of flour, sugar and yolk
of egg through a coarse sieve and strew over tops of cakes.

Or, this same recipe may be used by taking, instead of 1 cup of yeast,
one Fleischman yeast cake, dissolved in 1 cup of lukewarm water.
Instead of sponge being set to rise the night before the day on which
the cakes are to be baked, the sponge might be set early in the
morning of the same day on which they are to be baked--exactly in the
same manner as if sponge was set the night before; when light, add
eggs, sugar and balance of flour to sponge, and proceed as before.


Use 1 scant cup of liquid to 1 good cup of flour, usually, for
"Griddle Cake" batter. Use baking powder with sweet milk, 1 heaping
teaspoonful of Royal baking powder is equivalent to 1 teaspoonful of
cream of tartar and 1/2 teaspoonful of salaratus (baking soda)
combined. Use either baking powder or salaratus and cream of tartar
combined, when using sweet milk. Use 1 teaspoonful of baking soda to 1
pint of sour milk. Allow a larger quantity of baking powder when no
eggs are used. Have all materials cold when using baking powder. When
milk is only slightly sour, use a lesser quantity of soda and a small
quantity of baking powder.


As "Aunt Sarah" made this, it required 1 cup of sweet milk, 2 eggs, 1
tablespoonful of butter, 3 tablespoonfuls of sugar, flour to make a
stiff batter, about 2-3/4 cups (almost three cups) of flour sifted
with 3 scant teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Served immediately when
taken from the oven, this is an excellent substitute for bread for


One and one half cups of sour milk, 1/3 cup of shortening, a mixture
of lard and butter, 1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of sugar, 2 cups of yellow
cornmeal, 1 cup of white bread flour, 1 egg, 1 teaspoon of soda,
dissolved in a little hot water, a little salt. Mix all together, add
the stiffly-beaten white of egg last. Pour batter in an oblong bread
tin, bake about 45 minutes in a quick oven. Granulated corn meal was
used for this cake.


3 cups sifted flour.
1 teaspoon salt.
1 teaspoon sugar.
1 tablespoon butter and lard.
1/4 cake Fleischman's yeast.
2 eggs.
2 cups boiled milk.

Place the flour, salt, sugar, butter, lard and yeast cake, dissolved
in water, in a bowl and mix well; then add the eggs and milk, which
should be lukewarm. Set to rise in a warm place over night. In the
morning do not stir at all, but carefully place tablespoonfuls of the
light dough into warm, well-greased Gem pans, let stand a short time,
until quite light, then bake in a hot oven 15 to 20 minutes and serve
hot for breakfast. These should be light and flakey if made according
to directions.


1 cup cold boiled rice.
Yolk of egg and white beaten separately.
1 teaspoon sugar.
1/2 teaspoon salt.
1 cup sweet milk.
2 cups flour.
2 teaspoonfuls baking powder.

Put the rice, yolk of egg, sugar and salt in a bowl and beat together;
then add 1 teacup sweet milk alternately with the flour, in which has
been sifted the baking powder. Add the stiffly-beaten white of egg;
bake in muffin pans in hot oven. This makes about fifteen muffins.


Beat together, in the following order, 2 eggs, 1 tablespoonful of
white sugar, 1-1/2 cups of sweet milk, 1 teaspoonful of salt; to which
add 1 cup of granulated yellow corn meal and 2 cups of white flour,
sifted, with 3 scant teaspoonfuls of Royal baking powder. Lastly, add
1 tablespoonful of melted (not hot) butter. Pour batter in bread pan
and bake in a hot oven 25 to 30 minutes. Serve hot. Do not cut with a
knife when serving, but break in pieces. When the stock of bread is
low this quickly-prepared corn bread or "pone" is a very good
substitute for bread, and was frequently baked by Mary at the farm.
Mary's Aunt taught her to make a very appetizing pudding from the
left-over pieces of corn bread, which, when crumbled, filled 1 cup
heaping full; over this was poured 2 cups of sweet milk; this was
allowed to stand until soft; when add 1 large egg (beaten separately),
a generous tablespoonful of sugar, a couple of tablespoonfuls of
raisins, a pinch of salt; mix well, pour into a small agate pudding
pan, grate nutmeg over the top, and bake in a moderate oven 1 hour or
a less time. Serve with sugar and cream.


Four eggs, whites and yolks were beaten separately, 2 tablespoonfuls
of milk, were added; 1 teaspoonful of chopped parsley; mix lightly
together, add salt to season. Place 2 tablespoonfuls of butter in a
fry pan. When butter has melted, pour mixture carefully into pan. When
cooked, sprinkle over a small quantity of finely minced parsley. Roll
like a "jelly roll." Place on a hot platter and serve at once, cut in


One quart of flour was measured; after being sifted, was placed in a
flour sifter, with 4 heaping teaspoonfuls of Royal baking powder and 1
teaspoonful of salt. Sift flour and baking powder into a bowl, cut
through this mixture 1 tablespoonful of butter and lard each, and mix
into a soft dough, with about 1 cup of sweet milk. 1 egg should have
been added to the milk before mixing it with the flour. Reserve a
small quantity of the yolk of egg, and thin with a little milk. Brush
this over the top of biscuits before baking.

Turn the biscuit dough onto a floured bake-board. Pat out about one
inch thick. Cut into rounds with small tin cake cutter. Place a small
bit of butter on each biscuit and fold together. Place a short
distance apart on baking tins and bake in a quick oven.


One pint of sour milk, 2 eggs (beaten separately), a little salt, 1
large teaspoon of melted butter, 1 teaspoonful of molasses, 1 good
teaspoon of soda, sifted with enough flour to make a smooth batter.
Beat hard and then add the 2 yolks and the stiffly-beaten whites of
eggs. Bake small cakes on a hot, well-greased griddle. Serve with
honey or maple syrup.


Sift together in a bowl 1 pint of flour, 1 teaspoon of salt, 2
teaspoons of Royal baking powder, mixed to a smooth batter, with about
1 pint of sweet milk. Add two yolks of eggs, 1 tablespoon of melted
butter. Lastly, add the 2 stiffly-beaten whites of eggs. 1 teaspoon of
baking molasses added makes them brown quickly. Bake on a hot griddle,
well greased.


One pint of sour milk, 1 quart of sweet milk, 1 teaspoon salt, 1
tablespoon butter, whites of three eggs and yolks of two and 1
teaspoon of baking soda, and flour to make a rather thin batter. Beat
the two yolks of the eggs until light and creamy, then add 1/2
teaspoon of baking powder, little flour, then the sour milk with soda
dissolved in it, stirring all the time. Then add 1 tablespoon of
melted or softened butter, then the sweet milk; beat well; and lastly,
add the stiffly-beaten whites of the three eggs. Bake in hot waffle


One pint of stale bread crumbs (not fine, dried crumbs), covered with
1 pint of sour milk. Let stand over night. In the morning add 1
tablespoon of butter, yolks of 2 eggs and a little salt, 1/2 teaspoon
of salaratus (good measure), 3/4 cup of granulated corn meal, to which
add a couple of tablespoons of bread flour, enough to fill up the cup.
Stir all well together, add the 2 stiffly-beaten whites of eggs and
drop with a tablespoon on a hot, greased griddle. Make the cakes
small, as they do not turn quite as easily as do buckwheat cakes. This
makes about two dozen cakes. These are good.


Mix to a smooth batter, 4 cups of sour buttermilk, 5 cups of flour,
and add 1 tablespoon of melted butter, 1 teaspoon salt, 1 tablespoon
of molasses. Add the well-beaten yolks of 3 eggs, 1-1/2 teaspoonfuls
of baking soda, dissolved in a little hot water. Lastly, add the
stiffly-beaten whites of 3 eggs. Place about 3 tablespoonfuls of the
batter on hot, well-greased waffle irons. If buttermilk cannot be
procured, sour milk may be used with good results, providing the milk
is quite sour. From this quantity of batter may be made twelve
waffles. Serve with maple syrup or honey.


To 1 pint of sour milk add about 3 slices of stale bread and allow the
bread to soak in this mixture over night. In the morning beat up
smoothly with 1 egg yolk, 1 teaspoonful of soda, a pinch of salt and
enough cornmeal and white flour, in equal quantities, to make a
moderately thin batter. Lastly, add the stiffly-beaten white of egg,
bake on a hot griddle. Cakes should be small in size, as when baked
cakes are less readily turned than other batter cakes. These cakes are
economical and good.


2 cups thick sour milk (quite sour).
2 tablespoonfuls sweet milk.
1 egg.
1/2 teaspoonful salt.
2 cups flour.
1 teaspoonful baking soda (good measure).

Pour the milk in a bowl, add yolk of egg. Sift together flour, baking
soda and salt, four times. Beat all well together. Then add the
stiffly-beaten white of egg, and bake at once on a hot griddle, using
about two tablespoonfuls of the batter for a cake. Serve with butter
and maple syrup or a substitute.

This recipe, given Mary by an old, reliable cook, was unfailing as to
results, if recipe be closely followed. The cakes should be
three-fourths of an inch thick, light as a feather, and inside, fine,
like bread, not "doughy," as cakes baked from richer batters
frequently are.

From this recipe was made eighteen cakes.


Sift together 1 quart of flour, 2 teaspoonfuls of baking powder and
1/2 teaspoonful of salt. Mix into a batter, a little thicker than for
griddle cakes, with sweet milk; add yolks of 3 eggs, 3 tablespoonfuls
of melted butter; lastly, stir in lightly the 3 stiffly-beaten whites
of eggs. Bake on a hot, well-greased waffle iron and serve with maple


About 12 o'clock noon dissolve 1 cake of yeast (the small, round or
square cornmeal cakes) in 1 pint of lukewarm water. Add to this 1
tablespoonful wheat flour, 1 tablespoonful yellow cornmeal, and enough
good buckwheat flour to make a thin batter. Set in a warm place near
the range to rise. About 6 or 7 o'clock in the evening add this sponge
to 1 quart and 1 pint of lukewarm potato water (water drained from
boiled potatoes), 1 tablespoonful of mashed potatoes added improves
the cakes; add salt. They need considerable. Stir in enough buckwheat
flour to make quite a stiff batter, beat hard and set to rise,
covered, in a warm place over night. The next morning add 1
teaspoonful salaratus, dissolved in a little hot water; 1
tablespoonful of baking molasses and a little warm milk, to thin the
batter; or water will answer. The batter should be thin enough to
pour. Let stand a short time, then bake on a hot griddle. Half this
quantity will be enough for a small family. Then use only 1/2
teaspoonful salaratus. Bake golden brown on hot griddle. Serve with
honey or maple syrup. If this recipe for buckwheat cakes is followed,
you should have good cakes, but much of their excellence depends on
the flour. Buy a small quantity of flour and try it before investing
in a large quantity, as you cannot make good cakes from a poor brand
of flour.


One cup of sweet milk heated to boiling point; stir in 2 heaping
tablespoonfuls yellow, granulated cornmeal; add a tablespoonful of
butter or lard and salt to taste. As soon as the mixture has cooled,
stir in 1 tablespoonful of wheat flour. If the batter should be too
thick, stir in enough cold, sweet milk to make it run easily from the
spoon. Add 1 heaping teaspoonful of Royal baking powder. Drop
spoonfuls on hot, greased griddle, and bake. This quantity makes cakes
enough to serve three people, about sixteen small cakes. This is an
economical recipe, as no eggs are used.



Add 1 tablespoonful of butter and 1 tablespoonful lard to 1 cup of
cold, boiled rice; 2 yolks of eggs, the whites beaten separately and
added last; 2 cups of flour, 1 teaspoonful salt and 2 teaspoonfuls
baking powder, sifted together; 1 teaspoonful of sugar and 1
teaspoonful of molasses, and enough sweet milk to make a thin batter.
Bake in hot waffle irons. With these serve either maple syrup or a
mixture of sugar and cinnamon.


These truly delicious pancakes were always baked by "Aunt Sarah" when
eggs were most plentiful. For them she used, 1 cup flour, 5 fresh
eggs, 1/2 cup milk.

The yolks of 5 eggs were broken into a bowl and lightly beaten. Then
milk and flour were added gradually to form a smooth batter. Lastly,
the stiffly-beaten whites of eggs were added. Large spoonfuls were
dropped on a hot, well-greased griddle, forming small cakes, which
were served as soon as baked. These cakes require no baking powder.
Their lightness depends entirely on the stiffly-beaten whites of eggs.


The Professor's wife gave Mary this cheap and good recipe for griddle
cakes: 1 pint of quite sour, thick milk; beat into this thoroughly 1
even teaspoon of baking soda, 1/2 teaspoon each of salt and sugar and
2 cups of flour, to which had been added 1 tablespoon of granulated
cornmeal and 1 rounded teaspoon of baking powder before sifting. No
eggs were used by the Professor's wife in these cakes, but Mary always
added yolk of 1 egg to the cakes when she baked them.


1 cup of white flour.
1/2 cup cornmeal (yellow granulated cornmeal).
1 cup of sweet milk.
2 teaspoonfuls baking powder.
1 tablespoonful sugar.
1/2 teaspoonful salt.
1 tablespoonful butter.
1 tablespoonful lard.
1 egg.

Sift together flour, salt and baking powder, sugar, and add 1/2 cup of
granulated, yellow cornmeal. Mix with 1 cup milk, 1 beaten egg, and
the 2 tablespoonfuls of butter and lard. Beat thoroughly. Add a
tablespoonful more of flour if not as stiff as ordinary cake batter.
Pour in well-greased bread tin and bake about 40 minutes in a hot


Place in a flour sifter 2 cups of flour, 2 teaspoonfuls baking powder,
1/2 teaspoonful of salt and 1/2 teaspoonful of sugar. Sift twice; stir
together 1/2 cup of sweet milk and 1/2 cup of thick, sweet cream.
Quickly mix all together, cutting through flour with a knife, until a
soft dough is formed, mixing and handling as little as possible. Drop
spoonfuls into warmed muffin tins and bake at once in a hot oven.
Serve hot.

These are easily and quickly made, no shortening other than cream
being used, and if directions are closely followed will be flakey
biscuits when baked.

Aunt Sarah was always particular to use pastry flour when using baking
powder, in preference to higher-priced "Hard Spring Wheat," which she
used only for the making of bread or raised cakes, in which yeast was


2 cups of flour.
3 even teaspoonfuls of baking powder.
2 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
1 cup of sweet milk.
2 eggs.
1 tablespoonful of butter.

Sift flour and baking powder in a bowl; add 1 tablespoonful of sugar
and a pinch of salt; add the 2 yolks of eggs to the 1 cup of milk, and
mix with the flour and baking powder; lastly, add the stiffly-beaten
whites of eggs. Place large spoonfuls of the batter in small Gem
pans. Bake in a hot oven 20 minutes. These muffins are fine.


2 eggs.
1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
1 cup of granulated yellow cornmeal.
1-1/2 cups of sweet milk.
2 cups of white flour.
3 teaspoonfuls of baking powder.
1 tablespoonful melted butter.
A pinch of salt

Beat together eggs and sugar, add milk and cornmeal and the white
flour, sifted, with baking powder and salt; add the 1 tablespoonful of
melted butter. Bake 20 minutes in warmed Gem pans, in a hot oven.
Mary's Aunt taught her to utilize any left-over muffins by making a
very appetizing pudding from them called "Indian Sponge" Pudding, the
recipe for which may be found among pudding recipes.


1 pint of flour.
3 teaspoonfuls of baking powder.
2-1/2 tablespoonfuls of butter or lard.
1 egg.
1/2 teaspoon of salt.
Milk or water.

Sift together flour, baking powder and salt, and cut butter or lard
through the flour. Add 1 beaten egg to about 1 cup of sweet milk, and
add gradually to the flour, cutting through it with a knife until a
soft dough is formed, mixing and handling as little as possible.
Divide the dough into two portions, roll out one portion quickly and
place on a large pie tin; spread the top of cake with softened (not
melted) butter, lay the other cake on top and bake in a quick oven.
When baked and still hot, the cakes may be easily separated without
cutting; when, place between layers, and, if liked, on top of the
cake, crushed, sweetened strawberries. "Frau" Schmidt thought a
crushed banana added to the strawberries an improvement. Serve the hot
shortcake with sweet cream and sugar.

Or, the recipe for baking a plain (not rich) layer cake might be used
instead of the above. When baked and cooled, spread between the layers
the following:

To the stiffly-beaten white of 1 egg, add 1 cup of sugar; beat well.
Then add 1 cup of crushed strawberries. Beat all together until the
consistency of thick cream. Serve cold.


Sift together 4 cups of flour, 2 teaspoonfuls of baking soda and 1
teaspoonful of salt, four times.

Separate 3 fresh eggs. Place the yolks in an earthenware mixing bowl.
Beat well with a spoon. Then add 3-1/2 cups of sour milk or sour
buttermilk and 1/2 cup of sour cream, and 1 teaspoonful of melted
butter. Mix a smooth batter with the sifted flour and soda. Lastly,
add the stiffly-beaten whites of 3 eggs. Mix the batter quickly and
thoroughly. Bake on a hot, well-greased waffle iron and serve at once.

The waffles may be buttered as soon as baked and sugar sifted over, or
a saucer containing a mixture of cinnamon and sugar, or a small jug of
maple syrup may be served with them. Twelve waffles were made from
this recipe.


Sift together three times (through a fine sieve) 8 tablespoonfuls of
cream of tartar, 4 tablespoonfuls of baking soda (salaratus), 4
tablespoonfuls of flour. Cornstarch may be substituted for flour. This
latter ingredient is used to keep the cream of tartar and soda
separate and dry, as soda is made from salt and will absorb moisture.
This recipe for making a pure baking powder was given Mary by Fran
Schmidt, who had used it for years with good results.


When cooking any article to be immersed in fat use about this
proportion: 2 pounds of sweet lard to 1 of suet, which had been
previously tried out. It is cheaper, also more wholesome, to use part
suet than to use all lard. Save all pieces of left-over fat, either
raw or cooked, from steaks, roasts, bacon or ham. Cut all up into
small pieces and place in a pan in the oven until tried out, or put in
a double boiler and stand over boiling water until fat is tried out.
Strain and stand aside to be used as drippings. To clarify this fat,
pour boiling water over, let cook a short time, strain and stand away
in a cool place, when a cake of solid fat will form on top, which may
be readily removed and used as drippings, or it may be added to the
kettle of fat used for deep frying. Always strain fat carefully after
frying croquettes, fritters, etc. Should the frying fat become dark
add to the can of soap fat the economical housewife is saving. Return
the clear-strained fat to the cook pot, cover carefully, stand aside
in a cool place, and the strained fat may be used times without number
for frying. The housewife will find it very little trouble to fry
fritters, croquettes, etc., in deep fat, if the fat is always strained
immediately after using, and returned to the cook pot, kept especially
for this purpose. Stand on the hot range when required and the fat
will heat in a few minutes, and if the fat is the right temperature,
food cooked in it should not be at all greasy. When the housewife is
planning to fry fritters or croquettes she should, if possible, crumb
the articles to be fried several hours before frying, and stand aside
to become perfectly cold. When the fat for frying is so hot a blue
smoke arises, drop in the fritters or croquettes, one at a time, in
order not to chill the fat or plunge a frying basket, containing only
a couple of fritters at a time, in the hot fat, as too many placed in
the fat at one time lowers the temperature too quickly and causes the
fritters to be greasy and soggy. To test the fat before dropping in
the fritters, if a small piece of bread is dropped in the fat and
browns in about one minute the fat is the right temperature for frying
fritters, and fritters fried at the correct temperature should be a
rich brown and not at all greasy. When removing fritters from hot fat
place on coarse brown paper to absorb any remaining fat. Fritters
composed of vegetables, or oysters, should be served on a platter
garnished with parsley, and fritters composed of fruit, should have
pulverized sugar sifted over them liberally. Should a small piece of
bread brown in the fat while you count twenty, fat is the correct
temperature for frying croquettes, but is too hot for frying crullers
or any food not previously cooked.


Boil until tender, 8 medium-sized (not pared) potatoes; when quite
cold remove parings and grate them; fry one finely-chopped onion in a
little butter until a yellow-brown; add this, also 1 egg, to the
potatoes, season with salt and pepper and add flour enough to mold
into balls; use only flour enough to hold the mixture together. The
chopped onion may be omitted, and instead, brown small, dice-like
pieces of bread in a little butter, shape dumplings into balls the
size of walnuts, place a teaspoonful of the browned bread crumbs in
the centre of each and add also a little chopped parsley. Drop the
dumplings in salted boiling water and cook uncovered from 15 to 20
minutes. When dumplings rise to the top they should be cooked
sufficiently, when remove from kettle with a skimmer to a platter; cut
dumplings in half and strew over them bread crumbs, browned in butter.


For this excellent "Pennsylvania German" dish, which I am positive has
never before been published, take 2-1/2 pounds of stewing meat (beef
preferred), season with salt and pepper and cook slowly several hours
until tender.

For the filling for the circles of dough, take 12 medium-sized white
potatoes, pared and thinly sliced, steamed until tender; then add
seasoning to taste of salt and pepper, 2 tablespoonfuls of butter, 2
tablespoonfuls of finely-minced parsley and 1 finely-chopped onion
(small); lastly, add 3 eggs, lightly beaten together, to the mixture.
Allow this to stand while the pastry is being prepared in the
following manner:

Pastry--Sift into a bowl 2-1/2 cups of flour, 2 teaspoonfuls of baking
powder and 1/2 teaspoonful of salt, 1 generous teaspoonful of lard
and 1 of butter. Cut through the flour, mix with water into a dough as
for pie crust. Roll thin, cut into about ten circles, and spread some
of the mixture on each circle of dough. Press two opposite edges
together like small, three-cornered turnover pies; drop these on to
the hot meat and broth in the cook pot, closely covered. Cook slowly
from 20 to 30 minutes. Before serving the "Boova Shenkel" pour over
the following:

Cut slices of stale bread into dice and brown in a pan containing 1
large tablespoonful of butter and a couple tablespoonfuls of fat
(which had been skimmed from top of broth before "Boova Shenkel" had
been put in cook pot), add about 1/2 cup of milk to diced, browned
bread; when hot, pour over the "Boova Shenkel" and serve with the meat
on a large platter.


Place 2 cups of cold, boiled rice, well drained, in a bowl and add 1/2
cup of grated cheese, a little salt, 1/4 cup flour and the
stiffly-beaten white of one egg. Mix all together and mold into balls
about the size of a small egg, with a little of the flour; then roll
them in fine, dried bread crumbs, and stand away until perfectly cold.
When preparing for lunch, beat the yolk of the egg with a little milk,
dip the rice balls into this, then into fine, dried bread crumbs, drop
in deep fat and fry a golden brown. Drain on brown paper and serve,
garnished with parsley.


One quart of cold, boiled, skinned potatoes, grated. (Boil without
paring the day before they are to be used, if possible.) Put into a
frying pan 1 tablespoonful of butter, 1 finely-minced onion (small
onion), and fry until a light brown. Remove from fire and mix with
this: 2 heaped tablespoonfuls flour, 1 tablespoonful of finely-cut
parsley, 2 eggs (whites beaten separately), and 2 slices of bread, cut
fine. Add grated potatoes and bread crumbs, alternately, mixing
together lightly with a fork; add the other ingredients, season well
with salt and pepper, form into round balls the size of a walnut and
drop into a stew-pan of boiling, salted water, containing a teaspoon
of butter. Do not cover the stew-pan while they are cooking. As soon
as the dumplings rise to the top, skim one out and cut in half to see
if it is cooked through. They should take from 15 to 20 minutes to
cook. Skim out of the boiling water on a platter. Cut each dumpling in
half, pour over them bread crumbs browned in a pan containing a little
lard and butter, and serve. The onion may be omitted and only
finely-chopped parsley used, if desired, or use both. Or place the
halved dumplings in pan containing a little lard and butter and
chopped onion (if the latter is liked), and brown on each side, then


Boil 1 cup of well-washed rice in 6 or 8 cups of rapidly-boiling
water, until tender. The rice, when cooked and drained, should fill 3
cups. Prepare a cream sauce of 1 pint of milk, 3 heaping
tablespoonfuls of flour and 2 tablespoons of butter and 2 egg yolks.
Stir in 3 cups of flaky, cooked rice, while rice is still hot. When
the mixture has cooled, mold into small cone shapes with the hands,
stand aside until perfectly cold. Dip the croquettes into the whites
of eggs, then roll them in fine, dried bread crumbs and fry in deep
fat. If a cube of bread browns in the fat in a little longer time than
a half minute, the fat is the right temperature. Eighteen croquettes
were made from this quantity of rice.

Lemon Sauce--To serve with rice croquettes, cream together 1/2 cup of
sugar, 1 tablespoonful of butter, 1 egg, 2 cups of boiling water was
added and all cooked together until the mixture thickened. When cooled
slightly add the juice and grated rind of one lemon. Serve in a
separate bowl, and pass with the croquettes.


Slice off tips of kernels from cobs of corn and scrape down corn-pulp
from cobb with a knife. To 1 pint of pulp add 2 eggs, 2 heaping
tablespoonfuls of flour, 1/2 teaspoonful of salt and a pinch of
cayenne pepper and of black pepper; add the 2 yolks of eggs, then
stir in lightly the stiffly-beaten white of eggs and flour. Fry in
only enough butter to prevent them sticking to the pan. Drop into pan
by spoonfuls size of an ordinary fried oyster, brown on both sides and
serve hot.


From one banana was made 4 fritters. The banana was halved, cut
lengthwise and then cut cross-wise. The batter will do for all fruits,
clams, corn or oysters. Make a sauce of the liquor, mixed with same
quantity of milk, with a tablespoon of butter added, chopped parsley
and flour to thicken. When making oyster or clam fritters use same
rule as for fruit fritters, using clam juice and milk instead of all

For the "fritter batter," sift together 1 pint of flour, 2
teaspoonfuls baking powder and a pinch of salt. Stir slowly into it a
pint of milk, then the well-beaten yolks of 3 eggs, and, lastly, the
stiffly-beaten whites of eggs. Beat hard for a few minutes and fry at
once in smoking hot fat. Orange sections make delicious fritters, or
halves of fresh or canned peaches may be used.

Allow the bananas to stand one-quarter hour in a dish containing a
small quantity of lemon juice and sugar before putting them in the
batter. Lay the slices of bananas or sections of orange in the batter,
then take up a tablespoonful of the batter with one slice of banana
for each fritter, drop into hot fat one at a time, and fry a golden
brown. Sift pulverized sugar over and serve hot. If a small piece of
bread browns in one minute in the fat it is the right temperature to
fry any previously uncooked food.


Scrape and boil 5 or 6 parsnips in salted water until tender and
drain. If old parsnips, cut out the centre, as it is tough and woody.
Mash parsnips fine, add 1 egg yolk (white beaten separately), and
added last a little salt, 1 large tablespoonful flour, 1/4 teaspoonful
baking powder, mold into small cakes, dredge with flour, and fry
quickly to a golden brown in a tablespoonful of butter and one of
drippings. Serve at once.


This is an old-fashioned "Pennsylvania German" favorite. The end of a
ham bone, containing a very little meat, was placed in a large kettle
with a small quantity of water, with "Schnitz," or sliced, sweet,
dried apples, which had been dried without removing the parings. When
the apples were cooked tender in the ham broth; dumplings, composed of
the following, were lightly dropped on top of the apples and broth and
cooked, closely covered, from 15 to 20 minutes. Do not uncover kettle
the first ten minutes. When dumplings have cooked place them with the
"Schnitz" on a large platter, and serve at once.


One and one-half quarts of flour was sifted with 2-1/2 tablespoonfuls
of Royal baking powder, 1 teaspoonful of butter was cut through the
flour in small bits, 1 egg was beaten and enough milk or water added
to the egg to mix the flour into quite a soft dough. Sometimes instead
of molding the dough into balls large spoonfuls were placed over the
apples. Aunt Sarah had used this recipe for many years. This is a very
old recipe, and from it was made a larger quantity than ordinary
housekeepers usually require. Half the quantity, about 1-1/2 pints of
flour to 1-1/4 tablespoonfuls of baking powder, mixed according to the
directions given in the first part of recipe, would be about the
correct proportions for a family of ordinary size.

Aunt Sarah frequently substituted sour cherries and a teaspoonful of
butter was added instead of ham and "Schnitz." Dumplings prepared from
this recipe may be dropped on stewed chicken and broth and cooked or
steamed, make an excellent pot-pie. Should there be more dough mixed
than required for dumplings, place a panful in the oven and bake as
biscuits. More baking powder is required when dough is steamed or
boiled than when baked in the oven.


Place in a bowl 2 cups grated, pared, _raw_ potatoes; drain off any
liquid formed, then add 1 small onion, also grated; large egg or 2
small eggs, salt and pepper, 1 tablespoonful chopped parsley, 1/4
teaspoonful baking powder (good measure), and a couple tablespoonfuls
of flour to thicken just enough to make the fritters hold together;
then drop by spoonfuls in deep, hot fat, and fry a rich brown. The
fritters form into odd shapes a trifle larger than a fried oyster,
when dropped in the fat.

Should the fritter batter separate when dropped in the fat, add more
flour, but if too much flour is added they are not as good as when a
lesser quantity is used. Drain the fritters on brown paper and garnish
the platter upon which they are served with parsley. Mary's Uncle was
very fond of these fritters. He preferred them to fried oysters, and
always called them "potato boofers." I would not answer for the
wholesomeness of these fritters. In fact, I do not think any fried
food particularly wholesome.


Prepare a batter from the following:

1 cup of sweet milk.
2 eggs.
Pinch of salt.
1 cup of flour, good measure.

Gradually mix the flour with the milk to form a smooth batter, free
from lumps. Add yolks, then the slightly-beaten whites of eggs. Fasten
the long handle to a wafer iron, shaped like a cup or saucer, and
stand it in hot fat, a mixture of 2/3 lard and 1/3 suet, or oil; when
heated, remove at once, and dip quickly into the batter, not allowing
the batter to come over top of the wafer iron. Then return it to the
hot fat, which should cover the wafer iron, and in about 25 or 30
seconds the wafer should be lightly browned, when the wafer may be
easily removed from the iron on to a piece of brown paper to absorb
any fat which may remain. This amount of batter should make about
forty wafers. On these wafers may be served creamed oysters,
vegetables, chicken or fruit. When using the wafers as a foundation on
which to serve fruit, whipped cream is a dainty adjunct. One
teaspoonful of sugar should then be added to the wafer batter. These
wafers may be kept several weeks, when by simply placing them in a hot
oven a minute before serving they will be almost as good as when
freshly cooked. Or the wafers may be served as a fritter by sifting
over them pulverized sugar and cinnamon.


These delicious Bavarian steamed dumplings are made in this manner: 1
cake of Fleischman's compressed yeast was dissolved in a cup of
lukewarm milk, sift 1 pint of flour into a bowl, add 1 teaspoonful of
sugar and 1 teaspoonful of salt. Mix the flour with another cup of
lukewarm milk, 1 egg and the dissolved yeast cake and milk (two cups
of milk were used altogether). Work all together thoroughly, adding
gradually about 1-1/2 cups of flour to form a soft dough. Do not mix
it too stiff. Cover the bowl with a cloth; stand in a warm place until
it has doubled the original bulk. Flour the bread board and turn out
dough and mold into small biscuits or dumplings. Let these rise for
half an hour, butter a pudding pan and place dumplings in it, brushing
tops with melted butter. Pour milk in the pan around the dumplings to
about two-thirds the depth of the dumplings; set pan on inverted pie
tin in oven and bake a light brown. Serve with any desired sauce or
stewed fruit. Or, after the shaped dough has raised, drop it in a
large pot of slightly-salted boiling water, allowing plenty of room
for them to swell and puff up, and boil continuously, closely covered,
for 20 minutes. This quantity makes about 30 small dumplings. Should
you not wish so many, half the quantity might be molded out, placed in
a greased pie tin, and when light, which takes half an hour, bake in a
moderately hot oven, and you will have light biscuits for lunch.

The thrifty German Hausfraus make fritters of everything imaginable,
and sometimes unimaginable. Mary was told one day by a German neighbor
how she prepared a fritter she called:


She gathered elderberry blossoms, rinsed off the dust, and when free
from moisture dipped the blossoms into fritter batter, holding the
stem ends, then dropped them into hot fat, and when golden brown,
drained a minute on coarse, brown paper before serving, dusted them
with powdered sugar; cinnamon may also be dusted over if liked. Mary
pronounced them "fine," after tasteing, and said: "They certainly are
a novelty." Perhaps something like this suggested the Rosette Iron, as
it is somewhat similar.


Pare and core 4 large tart apples. Cut each apple into about 4 round
slices and allow the sliced apples to lie a couple of hours in a dish
containing 2 tablespoonfuls of brandy, mixed with a half teaspoonful
of cinnamon and a half teaspoonful of sugar. Drain the sliced apples,
then a few at a time should be dropped in the following batter,
composed of: 1 cup of flour sifted with 1/2 teaspoonful of Royal
baking powder, 1/4 teaspoonful of salt, add the yolks of 2 eggs and 1
cup of milk to form a smooth batter, then add the stiffly-beaten
whites of eggs. Fry light brown, in deep, hot fat, and sift over
powdered sugar. "Fried Apples" are an appetizing garnish for pork
chops; the apples should be cored, _not pared_, but should be sliced,
and when cut the slices should resemble round circles, with holes in
the centre. Allow the sliced apples to remain a short time in a
mixture of cinnamon and brandy, dry on a napkin, and fry in a pan,
containing a couple of tablespoonfuls of sweet drippings and butter.


Aunt Sarah's raised dumplings from bread sponge were greatly relished
at the farm.

When bread sponge, which had been set to rise early in the morning,
and all flour necessary for loaves of bread had been added and loaves
were being shaped to place in bread tins, Aunt Sarah reserved an
amount of sponge sufficient for one loaf of bread, added a little
extra salt, shaped them into small balls, size of a lemon, placed them
on a well-floured board some distance apart to raise; when light (at
12 o'clock, if the dinner hour was 12.20), she carefully dropped the
light balls of dough into a large pot of rapidly boiling, slightly
salted water, covered closely, and boiled about 20 minutes, (Do not
have more than one layer of the dumplings in cook pot, and do not
place too close together; allow room for them to expand.)

Test by tearing one apart with a fork. Serve at once, and serve with a
roast, to be eaten with gravy, with butter, or they may be eaten as a
dessert, with jelly or maple syrup.

Aunt Sarah frequently added an equal quantity of fine, dried bread
crumbs and flour and a little extra salt to a thin batter of bread
sponge (before all the flour required for bread had been added), made
about as stiff a dough as for ordinary loaves of bread; molded them
into balls. When sufficiently raised, boiled them either in water or
meat broth in the same manner as she prepared dumplings; made _only_
of _flour_.

This is a small economy, using _bread crumbs_ in place of _flour_, and
these are delicious if prepared according to directions. Remember to
have a large quantity of rapidly boiling water in which to cook the
dumplings, not to allow water to stop boiling an instant and to keep
cook pot closely covered for 20 minutes before removing one, and
breaking apart to see if cooked through. These are particularly nice
served with stewed apricots.


Boil a good-sized soup bone for several hours in plenty of water, to
which add salt and pepper to taste and several small pieces of celery
and sprigs of parsley to flavor stock. Strain the broth or stock into
a good-sized cook pot and set on stove to keep hot.

For the liver dumplings, scrape a half pound of raw beef liver with a
knife, until fine and free from all veins, etc. Place the scraped
liver in a large bowl, cut three or four good-sized onions into dice,
fry a light brown, in a pan containing 1 tablespoonful of lard and
butter mixed. Cut into dice 3/4 to a whole loaf of bread (about 2
quarts). Beat 2 eggs together, add 1 cup of sweet milk, season well
with salt and pepper, and mix all together with 1 large cup of flour.
If not moist enough to form into balls when mixed together, add more
milk. Keep the mixture as soft as possible or the dumplings will be
heavy. Flour the hands when shaping the balls, which should be the
size of a shelled walnut. Stand the pot containing stock on the front
of the stove, where it will boil, and when boiling, drop in the
dumplings and boil, uncovered, for 15 minutes. When cooked, take the
dumplings carefully from the stock on to a large platter, pour the
stock over the dumplings and serve.

These are excellent, but a little troublesome to make. One-half this
quantity would serve a small family for lunch.


Place a cook pot on the range, containing the end piece of a small
ham; partly cover with water. This should be done about three hours
before serving, changing the water once. Soak sweet, unpared, sliced,
dried apples over night in cold water. In the morning cook the dried
apples (or schnitz) in a small quantity of the ham broth, in a
separate stew-pan, until tender. Remove ham from broth one-half hour
before serving. Sweeten the broth with a small quantity of brown
sugar, and when the broth commences to boil add raised dumplings of
dough, which had been shaped with the hands into round balls about the
size of an ordinary biscuit. Cook 25 minutes. Do not uncover the
cook-pot after the dumplings have been dropped into the broth until
they have cooked the required length of time. When the dumplings have
cooked a sufficient time carefully remove to a warm platter containing
the cooked apple schnitz. Thicken the broth remaining with a little
flour, to the consistency of cream. Pour over the dumplings and serve
at once.

Dumplings--At 9.30 in the evening set a sponge consisting of 1 cup of
lukewarm milk, 1 tablespoonful sugar, 1 tablespoonful of butter, 1
egg, 3/4 of an yeast cake, add flour enough to form a sponge (as stiff
as may be stirred with a mixing spoon). Set to raise in a warm place
over night. In the morning add more flour to the risen sponge until
nearly as stiff as for bread. Form into round dumplings, place on a
well-floured bake-board to rise slowly. Twenty-five minutes before
serving drop dumplings into the hot broth in a large cook-pot.

There should be only one layer of dumplings, otherwise they will be


3 cups of stale bread (cut like dice).
3/4 cup of flour.
1/2 teaspoonful baking powder.
3/4 cup milk.
2 tablespoonfuls butter.
1 egg.
1 teaspoonful of finely-minced parsley.
1/2 teaspoonful finely-minced onion (if liked).
Pinch of salt.

Place two cups of diced bread in a bowl and pour over 3/4 cup of milk.
(Reserve 1 cup of diced bread, which brown in 1 tablespoonful of
butter, to be added to the mixture later.) Allow milk and bread to
stand 10 or 15 minutes; then add 1 tablespoonful of melted butter, 1
egg, flour and baking powder, and salt; fried, diced bread and
parsley, and mix all together. With well-floured hands form the
mixture into balls size of a walnut, and drop at once into rapidly
boiling salted water and cook 15 minutes. Stew pan should be closely
covered. When cooked, remove to platter with perforated skimmer, and
serve at once, or drop dumplings into a pan containing 1 tablespoonful
of melted butter, and brown on all sides before serving.


To serve a family of six or seven, place 2 pounds of beef and 4 pork
chops, cut in small pieces, in a cook-pot. Season with a little
chopped onion, pepper and salt. This should be done about three or
four hours before dinner. One hour before serving prepare the dough
for pot pie. Pare white potatoes, slice and dry on a napkin, sift 2
cups of flour with 1 teaspoonful of baking-powder, pinch of salt, cut
through the sifted flour, 1 level tablespoonful of shortening. Moisten
dough with 1 egg and enough milk to make dough stiff enough to handle.
(Almost 1 cup of milk, including the egg.) Cut off a small piece of
dough, size of a small teacup, roll thin and take up plenty of flour
on both sides. Take up all flour possible. Cut this dough into four
portions or squares. Have the meat more than covered with water, as
water cooks away.

Place a layer of potatoes on meat (well seasoned), then the pared
potatoes and small pieces of dough alternately, never allowing pieces
of dough to lap; place potatoes between. Roll the last layer out in
one piece, size of a pie plate, and cover top layer of potatoes with
it. Cover closely and cook three-quarters of an hour from the time it
commences to boil. Then turn out carefully on a platter and serve at


In the evening a sponge was prepared with yeast for bread. All the
flour required to stiffen the dough for loaves of bread being added at
this time. The bread sponge was stood in a warm place to rise over
night. In the morning, when shaping the dough into loaves, stand aside
about one pint of the bread dough. Later in the morning form the pint
of dough into small balls or dumplings, place on a well-floured bake
board and stand in a warm place until doubled in size. Then drop the
dumplings into a cook pot containing stewed prunes, a small quantity
of water, a little sugar and lemon peel, if liked. The dried prunes
had been soaked over night in cold water, and allowed to simmer on the
range in the morning. The prune juice should be hot when the dumplings
are added. Cook dumplings one-half hour in a closely covered cook-pot
and turn out carefully on to a warmed platter, surrounded by prune
juice and prunes.


Grate pulp from six cars of corn; with a knife scrape down the pulp
into a bowl, add 2 eggs, beaten separately, a couple tablespoonfuls of
milk, 1 large tablespoonful of flour, 1/4 teaspoonful of baking powder
and a pinch of salt. Drop with a spoon on a well-greased griddle. The
cakes should be the size of a silver half dollar. Bake brown on either
side and serve hot. These should not be fried as quickly as griddle
cakes are fried, as the corn might then not be thoroughly cooked.


Mash and season with butter and salt half a dozen boiled white
potatoes, add a little grated onion and chopped parsley. Sift together
in a bowl 1 cup of flour, 1 teaspoonful baking powder and a little
salt. Add a small quantity of milk to one egg if not enough liquid to
mix into a soft dough. Roll out like pie crust, handling as little as
possible. Cut into small squares, fill with the potato mixture, turn
opposite corners over and pinch together all around like small,
three-cornered pies. Drop the small triangular pies into boiling,
salted water a few minutes, or until they rise to top; then skim out
and brown them in a pan containing a tablespoonful each of butter and
lard. I have known some Germans who called these "Garden Birds." Stale
bread crumbs, browned in butter, may be sprinkled over these pies when
served. Serve hot.

These are really pot pie or dumplings with potato filling. Mary's Aunt
always called these "Mouldasha." Where she obtained the name or what
its meaning is, the writer is unable to say.


Cream together 1 cup sugar and 1 egg, then add one cup of milk
alternately with 2 cups of flour, sifted with 2 teaspoonfuls of baking
powder. Add 1/2 teaspoonful of vanilla and enough flour to make a
stiff batter.

Take about 1/2 a teaspoonful of the batter at a time and drop into
boiling hot fat, and brown on both sides; then drain on coarse, brown
paper and, when cool, dust with pulverized sugar. These cakes are
cheap and good, and as no shortening is used are not rich. Do not make
cakes too large, as they then will not cook through readily.


The Professor's wife gave Mary this recipe, given her by an
Englishwoman. The recipe was liked by her family, being both
economical and good. When serving roast beef for dinner, before
thickening the gravy, take out about half a cup of liquid from the pan
and stand in a cool place until the day following. Reheat the roast
remaining from previous day, pour the half cup of liquid in an iron
fry pan, and when hot pour the following batter in the pan with the
fat and bake in a moderately hot oven about 25 minutes. Or the batter
may be poured in pan about 25 minutes before meat has finished

The batter was composed of 1 cup of flour, sifted with 1 small
teaspoonful of baking powder and 1/2 teaspoonful of salt, mixed smooth
with 1 cup of sweet milk. Add 2 well-beaten eggs. When baked cut in
small pieces, surround the meat on platter, serve instead of potatoes
with roast. The addition of baked dough extends the meat flavor and
makes possible the serving of a smaller amount of meat at a meal.


One cup sugar, 1 cup sour cream, 2 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of butter, 1
teaspoonful soda, pinch of salt. About 3-1/2 cups of flour. (Use extra
flour to dredge the bake-board when rolling out crullers.) This is a
very good recipe for crullers, in which the economical housewife may
use the cup of cream which has turned sour. This necessitates using
less shortening, which otherwise would be required. Cream together
sugar, butter, add yolks of eggs. Dissolve the soda in a small
quantity of sour cream. Mix cream alternately with the flour. Add
pinch of salt. Add just enough flour to roll out. Cut with small
doughnut cutter with hole in centre. Fry in hot fat. Dust with
pulverized sugar.


Cream together 1 cup sugar and 2 teaspoonfuls butter, 1/2 a grated
nutmeg, and a pinch of salt. Add 2 eggs, beaten without separating
yolks from whites, and 1 cup of sweet milk. Then add 4 cups of flour
(or 1 quart), prepared as follows: Measure 1 quart of unsifted flour
and sift twice with 2 generous teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Use this
to thicken the batter sufficiently to roll out and use about 1 extra
cup of flour to flour the bake-board. Turn out one-half the quantity
of dough on to a half cup of flour on the bake-board. Roll out dough
half an inch thick. Cut out with round cutter, with hole in centre,
and drop into deep, hot fat. Use 2/3 lard and 1/3 suet for deep
frying; it is cheaper and more wholesome than to use all lard. When
fat is hot enough to brown a small piece of bread while you count 60,
it is the correct temperature for doughnuts. The dough should be as
soft as can be handled. When cakes are a rich brown, take from fat,
drain well on coarse, brown paper, and when cool dust with pulverized
sugar and place in a covered stone jar. Never use fat as hot for
frying doughnuts as that used for frying croquettes, but should the
fat not be hot the doughnuts would be greasy. These doughnuts are
excellent if made according to recipe.


Cream together 1-1/2 cups pulverized sugar, 3 eggs, add 1 cup sweet
milk, 1/2 teaspoonful of salt, 3-1/2 cups of flour, sifted after
measuring with 2 teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Drop teaspoonfuls of
this carefully into boiling fat.

They should resemble small balls when fried. Batter must not be too
stiff, but about the consistency of a cup-cake batter.

Boil them in a mixture of cinnamon and sugar when all have been fried.


Stock is the basis of all soups made from meat, and is really the
juice of the meat extracted by long and gentle simmering. In making
stock for soup always use an agate or porcelain-lined stock pot. Use
one quart of cold water to each pound of meat and bone. Use cheap cuts
of meat for soup stock. Excellent stock may be made from bones and
trimmings of meat and poultry. Wash soup bones and stewing meat
quickly in cold water. Never allow a roast or piece of stewing meat to
lie for a second in water. Aunt Sarah did not think that wiping meat
with a damp cloth was all that was necessary (although many wise and
good cooks to the contrary). Place meat and soup bones in a stock pot,
pour over the requisite amount of soft, cold water to extract the
juice and nutritive quality of the meat; allow it to come to a boil,
then stand back on the range, where it will just simmer for 3 or 4
hours. Then add a sliced onion, several sprigs of parsley, small
pieces of chopped celery tops, well-scraped roots of celery, and allow
to simmer three-quarters of an hour longer. Season well with salt and
pepper, 1 level teaspoonful of salt will season 1 quart of soup.
Strain through a fine sieve, stand aside, and when cool remove from
lop the solid cake of fat which had formed and use for frying after it
has been clarified. It is surprising to know the variety of soups made
possible by the addition of a small quantity of vegetables or cereals
to stock. A couple tablespoonfuls of rice or barley added to
well-seasoned stock and you have rice or barley soup. A small quantity
of stewed, sweet corn or noodles, frequently "left-overs," finely
diced or grated carrots, potatoes, celery or onions, and you have a
vegetable soup. Strain the half can of tomatoes, a "left-over" from
dinner, add a tablespoonful of butter, a seasoning of salt and pepper,
thicken to a creamy consistency with a little cornstarch, add to cup
of soup stock, serve with croutons of bread or crackers, and you have
an appetizing addition to dinner or lunch.

The possibilities for utilizing left-overs are almost endless. The
economically-inclined housewife will be surprised to find how easily
she may add to the stock pot by adding left-over undesirable pieces of
meat and small quantities of vegetables. One or two spoonfuls of cold
left-over oatmeal may also be added to soup with advantage,
occasionally. Always remove the cake of fat which forms on top of soup
as soon as cooled, as soup will turn sour more quickly if it is
allowed to remain. If soup stock be kept several days in summer time,
heat it each day to prevent souring.

Pieces of celery, onion, parsley, beans and peas may all be added to
soup to make it more palatable. Also fine noodles. The yolk of a
hard-boiled egg dropped into the soup kettle and heated through,
allowing one for each plate of soup served, is a quick and appetizing
addition to a soup of plain broth or consomme.


Slice thinly 3 potatoes, 3 carrots, 3 turnips, the undesirable parts
of 2 heads of celery, 2 stalks of parsley and 3 onions. Cook the
onions in a little butter until they turn a yellow brown, then add
the other ingredients. Season well with salt and black pepper, also a
pinch of red pepper. Put all together in a stew-pan, cover with three
quarts of water, stand on range and simmer about three hours. Strain
soup into stew-pan, place on range, and when hot add Marklose Balls.


Take marrow from uncooked beef soup bones, enough to fill 2
tablespoons, cut fine, add 2 eggs, 1 teaspoonful grated onion to
flavor, pepper and salt, stiffen with 1 cup of bread crumbs, shape
into balls size of marbles, drop into hot broth and cook uncovered
from 15 to 20 minutes.

Aunt Sarah purchased two good-sized soup bones containing considerable
meat. After extracting 2 tablespoonfuls of marrow from the uncooked
bones, she put the bones in a stew-pan with a couple of quarts of
water, a large onion, chopped fine, and a piece of celery, and cooked
for several hours, then skimmed off scum which arises on top of broth,
removed the soup bones and meat and added a couple of tablespoonfuls
of grated carrot, pepper and salt to taste, cooked a short time, and
then added the marrow balls, a little chopped parsley and a couple of
tablespoonfuls of boiled rice. Two tablespoonfuls of marrow will make
about 15 balls, with the addition of crumbs, eggs, etc.


Mash the yolks of 2 hard-boiled eggs fine and smooth with a little
soft butter. Beat the white of 1 egg, and add with about 2
tablespoonfuls of flour, salt and pepper. Mix all together. Use a
little flour to mold the mixture into balls the size of quite small
marbles. Do not make too stiff. Drop these into hot broth or soup and
cook about five minutes. This quantity will make 12 small balls.


Mary was taught to make these by the Professor's wife. She beat
together either 1 or 2 raw eggs, 1/2 cup flour, 1 tablespoonful
butter, a little salt, and just enough milk to thin the mixture enough
so it may be dropped by half teaspoonfuls into hot soup stock or
broth. Cook these small dumplings about 10 minutes. Serve in soup


Put two dozen oysters through food chopper, cook oyster liquor and
oysters together five minutes, heat 1 pint milk and 1 tablespoon
flour, mixed smooth with a little cold milk, and 1 tablespoonful
butter. Let come to a boil, watching carefully that it does not burn.
Pour all together when ready to serve. Serve in bouillon cups with
crackers. This recipe was given Mary by a friend in Philadelphia, who
thought it unexcelled.


Place about 3 pounds of cheap stewing beef in a cook-pot with
sufficient water and cook several hours, until meat is quite tender;
season with salt and pepper. About an hour before serving chop fine 3
medium-sized potatoes and 2 onions and cook in broth until tender. Ten
or fifteen minutes before serving add noodle.

To prepare noodles, break 2 fresh eggs in a bowl, fill 1/2 an egg
shell with cold water, add the eggs, and mix with flour as stiff as
can conveniently be handled. Add a little salt to flour. Divide dough
into sheets, roll on bake-board, spread on cloth a short time and let
dry, but not until too brittle to roll into long, narrow rolls. Cut
this with a sharp knife into thin, thread-like slices, unroll, drop as
many as wished into the stew-pan with the meat and cook about 10 or 15
minutes. Place the meat on a platter and serve the remainder in soup
plates. The remaining noodles (not cooked) may be unrolled and dried
and later cooked in boiling salted water, drained and placed in a dish
and browned butter, containing a few soft, browned crumbs, poured over
them when served. The very fine noodles are generally served with soup
and the broad or medium-sized ones served with brown butter Germans
usually serve with a dish of noodles, either stewed, dried prunes, or
stewed raisins. Both are palatable and healthful.


Cook 1 large stalk of celery, also the root cut up in dice, in 1 pint
of water, 1/2 hour or longer. Mash celery and put through a fine
sieve. Add 1 pint of scalded milk, and thicken with a tablespoonful of
flour, mixed with a little cold milk. Add 2 tablespoonfuls of butter,
pepper and salt, and simmer a few minutes. Just before serving add a
cup of whipped cream. Serve with the soup, small "croutons" of bread.


Rinse a stew-pan with cold water, then put in 1 pint of milk and let
come to a boil. Heat 15 oysters in a little oyster liquor a few
minutes, until the oysters curl up around the edges, then add the
oysters to one-half the hot milk, add a large tablespoonful of butter,
season well with salt and pepper, and when serving the stew add the
half pint of boiling hot milk remaining. This quantity makes two small
stews. Serve crackers and pickled cabbage. When possible use a mixture
of sweet cream and milk for an oyster stew instead of all milk. An old
cook told Mary she always moistened half a teaspoonful of cornstarch
and added to the stew just before removing from the range to cause it
to have a creamy consistency.


Clam broth may be digested usually by the most delicate stomach. It
can be bought in cans, but the young housewife may like to know how to
prepare it herself. Strain the juice from one-half dozen clams and
save. Remove objectionable parts from clams, cut in small pieces, add
1/2 pint of cold water and the clam juice, let cook slowly about 10
minutes, strain and season with pepper and salt, a little butter and
milk, and serve hot.


Take broken-lip bones and undesirable pieces of roast turkey, such as
neck, wings and left-over pieces of bread filling, put in stew-pot,
cover with water, add pieces of celery, sliced onion and parsley, cook
several hours, strain, and to the strained liquor add a couple
tablespoonfuls of boiled rice, season with salt and pepper and serve.
Some of the cold turkey might also be cut in small pieces and added to
the soup.


Cook quarter peck of green peas until very tender, reserve one-half
cup, press the remainder through a sieve with the water in which they
were boiled. Season with salt and pepper. Mix 1 tablespoonful of
flour, 1 tablespoonful of butter with 1 cup of hot milk. Mix flour
smooth with a little cold milk before heating it. Cook all together a
few minutes, then add the one cup of peas reserved. If soup is too
thick add a small quantity of milk or water.


One quart of canned tomatoes, 1 tablespoonful sugar, 1 onion, and a
sprig of parsley, cut fine, and 1 carrot and 2 cloves. Stew until soft
enough to mash through a fine, wire sieve. Place one quart of sweet
milk on the stove to boil. Mix 1 large tablespoonful of cornstarch
smooth, with a little cold milk, and stir into the hot milk. Add 1
large tablespoonful of butler and 1/4 teaspoonful (good measure) of
soda. Let cook one minute, until it thickens, add 1 teaspoonful of
salt. Do not add the milk to the strained tomatoes until ready to
serve. Then serve at once.


Chop 12 clams fine, add enough water to the clam broth to measure one
quart, cook all together about 15 minutes; add 3 pints of scalding hot
milk, season with 1-1/2 tablespoonfuls butter and salt and pepper to
taste. Serve crackers with the soup.


Cut 1/4 pound of rather "fat" smoked bacon in tiny pieces the size of
dice; fry until brown and crisp. Take 25 fresh clams, after having
drained a short time in a colander, run through a food chopper and
place in ice chest until required. Pour the liquor from the clams into
an agate stew-pan; add 6 medium-sized potatoes and 4 medium-sized
onions, all thinly sliced; also add the crisp bits of bacon and fat,
which had fried out from the bacon, to the clam juice. Cook all
together slowly or simmer 3 or 4 hours. Add water to the clam liquor
occasionally as required. Ten or fifteen minutes before serving add 1
cup of hot water and the chopped clams (clam juice if too strong is
liable to curdle milk). Allow clams to cook in the clam broth 10 to 15
minutes. Boil 2 quarts of sweet milk, and when ready to serve add the
hot milk to the chowder, also 1 teaspoonful of chopped parsley.
One-half this quantity will serve a small family. Serve crisp crackers
and small pickels, and this chowder, served with a dessert, makes an
inexpensive, nourishing lunch.


Put a pint of diced, raw potatoes in a stew-pan over the fire, cover
with 1 quart of water, to which a pinch of salt has been added. Cook
until tender, but not fine, then add water so that the water in the
stew-pan will still measure one quart should some have boiled away.
Place a small iron fry-part on the range, containing 1 tablespoonful
of sweet lard; when melted, it should measure about 2 tablespoonfuls.
Then add 4 tablespoonfuls of flour, a pinch of salt and stir
constantly, or rather mash the flour constantly with a spoon, being
careful not to allow it to scorch, until a rich brown; add this to the
diced potatoes and the quart of water in which they were boiled, stir
until the consistency of thick cream, or like clam chowder. Should
there be a few, small lumps of the browned flour not dissolved in the
chowder, they will not detract from the taste of it; in fact, some are
very fond of them. Perhaps some folks would prefer this, more like a
soup; then add more hot water and thin it, but be careful to add more
seasoning, as otherwise it would taste flat and unpalatable. Very few
people know the _good flavor_ of _browned flour_. It has a flavor
peculiarly its own, and does not taste of lard at all. I would never
advocate _any_ seasoning except butter, but advise economical
housewives to try this, being very careful not to scorch the flour and
fat while browning.

A mixture of butter and lard may be used in which to brown the flour
should there be a prejudice against the use of lard alone.


Another palatable, cheap and easily prepared dish is called Bean
Chowder. Small soup beans were soaked over night in cold water. Pour
off, add fresh water and cook until tender. Then add browned flour
(same as prepared for Potato Chowder) and the water in which the beans
were cooked. When ready to serve, the beans were added. More water may
be added until broth is thin enough for soup, then it would be called
"brown bean soup."


Buy a soup bone, cook with a chopped onion, one stalk of celery and a
sprig of parsley until meat falls from bone. Season with salt and
pepper. Strain the broth into a bowl and stand aside until perfectly
cold. Then remove the cake of fat formed on top of soup and add it to
drippings for frying. The broth may be kept several days if poured
into a glass jar and set on ice. When wanted to serve, heat 1 pint of
broth, add 2 tablespoonfuls of cream to yolks of 2 eggs. Stir well.
Pour boiling hot broth over the cream and yolks of eggs and serve at
once in bouillon cups. Serve crackers also. Do not cook mixture after
cream and yolks of eggs have been added. This is very nourishing.


One and one-half quarts of milk, poured into a double boiler and
placed on the range to heat. One cup of flour was placed in a bowl;
into the flour 1 raw egg was dropped and stirred with a knife until
mixed, then rubbed between the fingers into fine rivels. It may take
a little _more_ flour; the rivels should be dry enough to allow of
being rubbed fine. When the milk commences to boil drop the rivels in
by handfuls, slowly, stirring constantly. Salt to taste. Let cook 15
minutes. Eat while hot, adding a small piece of butter as seasoning.
This should be a little thicker than ordinary rice soup.


This recipe for far-famed "Philadelphia Pepper Pot" was given Mary by
a friend living in the Quaker City, a good cook, who vouched for its

The ingredients consist of the following:

1 knuckle of veal.
2 pounds of plain tripe.
2 pounds of honeycomb tripe.
1 large onion,
1 bunch of pot-herbs.
4 medium-sized potatoes.
1 bay leaf--salt and cayenne pepper to season.
1/2 pound of beef suet--and flour for dumplings.

The day before you wish to use the "Pepper Pot" procure 2 pounds of
plain tripe and 2 pounds of honeycomb tripe. Wash thoroughly in cold
water place in a kettle. Cover with cold water and boil eight hours;
then remove tripe from water, and when cold cut into pieces about 3/4
of an inch square. The day following get a knuckle of veal, wash and
cover with cold water--about three quarts--bring slowly to the
simmering point, skimming off the scum which arises, simmer for three
hours. Remove the meat from the bones, cut into small pieces, strain
broth and return it to the kettle. Add a bay leaf, one large onion,
chopped, simmer one hour; then add four medium-sized potatoes, cut
like dice, and add to the broth. Wash a bunch of pot-herbs, chop
parsley (and add last), rub off the thyme leaves, cut red pepper in
half and add all to broth; then add meat and tripe and season with
salt; _if liked hot_, use a pinch of cayenne pepper. For the
dumplings, take 1 cup of beef suet, chopped fine, 2 cups flour, pinch
of salt, mix well together and moisten with enough cold water to allow
of their being molded or rolled into tiny dumplings, the size of a
small marble. Flour these well to prevent sticking together. When all
are prepared drop into soup, simmer a few minutes, add parsley and
serve at once.


Take 6 potatoes, half the quantity of onions, carrots, turnips,
cabbage and a stalk of celery, cut up into dice-shaped pieces, place
all in a stew-pan and cover with a couple quarts of hot water. Let
cook about two hours, until all the vegetables are tender, then add 1
tablespoonful of butter, a large cup of milk, and about a
tablespoonful of flour mixed smooth with a little cold milk, cook a
few minutes, add a tablespoonful minced parsley, and serve.


Take one pint of rice water which has been drained from one cupful of
rice boiled in 2-1/2 quarts of water 25 minutes (the rice to be used
in other ways), and after the rice has drained in a sieve add to the
rice water 1 cup stewed, strained tomatoes (measure after being
strained), 1 teaspoonful butter, 1 teaspoonful flour mixed with a
little cold water, salt, pepper, and 1 tablespoonful of the cooked
rice, and you have a palatable soup, as the water in which the rice
was boiled is said to be more nutritious than the rice.


How many young cooks know how to bone a shad? It is a very simple
process, and one becomes quite expert after one or two trials. And it
fully repays one for the extra time and trouble taken, in the
satisfaction experienced by being able to serve fish without bones.
With a sharp knife cut the fish open along the back bone on the
outside of the fish, but do not cut through the bone, then carefully
cut the fish loose along the back bone on each side, cut the centre
bone away with the smaller bones branching out on each side attached.
Cut the shad into sizable pieces after being washed in cold water and
dried on a cloth to take up all the moisture. Dip pieces of fish into
white of egg containing a teaspoonful of water, roll in fine, dried
bread crumbs, season with salt and pepper, drop in hot fat, and fry a
rich brown. Serve on a platter, surrounded by a border of parsley.

Some small portions of the fish will adhere to the bones, however
carefully the fish has been boned. The meat may be picked from the
bones after cooking in salt water until tender. Flake the fish, and
either make it into small patties or croquettes.

Shad roe should be parboiled first and then dredged with flour on both
sides and fried in drippings or a little butter.


Shred or flake cold, cooked fish, which has been carefully picked from
bones. To 2 cups of fish add an equal amount of mashed potatoes, a
small half cup of cold milk, 1 tablespoonful butter, yolk of 1 egg,
lightly beaten, 1 teaspoonful of chopped parsley, season with salt and
pepper. Mix all well together, and when cold, form in small
croquettes. Dip into white of egg containing 1 tablespoonful of water,
roll in fine, dried bread crumbs and fry in hot fat. Shad, salmon,
codfish, or any kind of fish may be prepared this way, or prepare same
as "Rice Croquettes," substituting-fish for rice.


Shad roe should be carefully taken from the fish, allowed to stand in
cold water, to which a pinch of salt has been added, for a few
minutes, then dropped in boiling water, cooked a short time and
drained. Dredge with flour and fry slowly in a couple tablespoonfuls
of butter and lard or drippings until a golden brown. Be particular
not to serve them rare. Serve garnished with parsley.

Or the shad roe may be parboiled, then broken in small pieces, mixed
with a couple of lightly beaten eggs and scrambled in a fry-pan,
containing a couple of tablespoonfuls of butter and sweet drippings.
Serve at once. Garnish with parsley or water cress.


Take about 50 fresh oysters. Place a layer of oysters in a baking dish
alternately with fine, dried crumbs, well seasoned with pepper and
salt and bits of butter, until pan is about two-thirds full. Have a
thick layer of bread crumbs for the top, dotted with bits of butter.
Pour over this half a cup or less of strained oyster liquor and small
cup of sweet milk. Place in oven and bake from 40 to 50 minutes.


2 dozen oysters.
1 cup rich milk.
3 tablespoonfuls flour.
Yolks of 2 raw eggs.
1 generous tablespoonful butter.
1 tablespoonful finely-minced parsley.

Drain oysters in a colander and chop rather coarsely.

Mix flour smooth with a little cold milk. Place the remainder of the
milk in a saucepan on the range. When it commences to boil add the
moistened flour and cook until the mixture thickens, stirring
constantly to prevent burning, or cook in a double boiler. Add yolks
of eggs and butter, 1/2 teaspoonful salt and 1/4 teaspoonful of black
pepper and a pinch of cayenne pepper. Then add chopped oysters, stir
all together a few minutes until oysters are heated through. Then turn
into a bowl and stand aside in a cool place until a short time before
they are to be served. (These may be prepared early in the morning and
served at six o'clock dinner.) Then fill good-sized, well-scrubbed
oyster shells with the mixture, sprinkle the tops liberally with
fine-dried, well-seasoned bread crumbs. (Seasoned with salt and
pepper.) Place the filled shells on muffin tins to prevent their
tipping over; stand in a hot oven about ten minutes, until browned on
top, when they should be heated through. Serve at once in the shells.
Handle the hot shells with a folded napkin when serving at table. This
quantity fills thirteen oyster shells. Serve with the oysters small
pickles, pickled cabbage or cranberry sauce as an accompaniment.


After eating planked shad no one will wish to have it served in any
other manner, as no other method of preparing fish equals this. For
planked shad, use an oak plank, at least two inches thick, three
inches thick is better. Planks for this purpose may be bought at a
department store or procured at a planing mill. Place plank in oven
several days before using to season it. Always heat the plank in oven
about 15 minutes before placing fish on it, then have plank _very
hot_. Split a nicely-cleaned shad down the back, place skin side down,
on hot plank, brush with butter and sprinkle lightly with pepper and
salt. Put plank containing shad on the upper grating of a hot oven of
coal range and bake about 45 minutes. Baste frequently with melted
butter. The shad should be served on the plank, although not a very
sightly object, but it is the proper way to serve it. The flavor of
shad, or, in fact, of any other fish, prepared in this manner is
superior to that of any other. Fish is less greasy and more wholesome
than when fried. Should an oak plank not be obtainable, the shad may
be placed in a large roasting pan and baked in oven. Cut gashes across
the fish about two inches apart, and place a teaspoonful of butter on
each. Bake in oven from 50 to 60 minutes. Serve on a warmed platter,
garnished with parsley, and have dinner plates warmed when serving
fish on them. Do not wash the plank with soap and water after using,
but instead rub it over with sandpaper.


When fish has been cleaned, cut off head and scrape dark skin from
inside. Soak salt mackerel in cold water over night, skin side up,
always. In the morning; drain, wipe dry and place on a greased
broiler, turn until cooked on both sides. Take up carefully on a hot
platter, pour over a large tablespoonful of melted butter and a little
pepper, or lay the mackerel in a pan, put bits of butter on top, and
set in a hot oven and bake. Garnish with parsley.


Soak codfish several hours in cold water. Cook slowly or simmer a
short time. Remove from fire, drain, and when cold squeeze out all
moisture by placing the flaked fish in a small piece of cheese-cloth.
To one cup of the flaked codfish add an equal quantity of warm mashed
potatoes, yolk of 1 egg, 1 tablespoonful of milk and a little pepper.
Roll into small balls with a little flour. Dip in white of egg and
bread crumbs, and when quite cold fry in deep fat. Garnish with


Procure fine, large, fresh oysters for frying. Drain in a colander
carefully, look over, and discard any pieces of shell. Roll each
oyster in fine, dried bread crumbs, well seasoned with salt and
pepper, then dip them in a lightly-beaten egg, and then in bread
crumbs. Allow them to stand several hours in a cool place before
frying. Place a few oysters at one time in a wire frying basket, and
immerse in smoking hot fat. Should too great a number of oysters be
placed in the fat at one time it would lower the temperature of the
fat and cause the oysters to become greasy. Drain the oysters when
fried on heavy, brown paper, to absorb any remaining fat, and serve at

For all deep frying use two-thirds lard and one-third suet, as suet is
considered to be more wholesome and cheaper than lard. Two items to be
considered by the frugal housewife.

If fat for deep frying is the right temperature a crust is at once
formed, and the oysters do not absorb as great a quantity of fat as
when fried in only enough butter and drippings to prevent scorching,
as they must then be fried more slowly. Serve pickled cabbage and
tomato catsup when serving fried oysters.


Aunt Sarah always prepared oysters in this manner to serve roast
turkey. At the very last minute, when the dinner was ready to be
served, she placed 50 freshly-opened oysters, with their liquor, in a
stew-pan over a hot fire. The minute they were heated through and
commenced to curl up, she turned them in a hot colander to drain a
minute, then turned the oysters into a stew-pan containing two large
tablespoonfuls of hot, melted butter, and allowed them to remain in
the hot butter one minute, shaking the pan lo prevent scorching,
seasoned them with salt and pepper, and turned all into a heated dish
and sent to the table at once. These are easily prepared and are more
wholesome than fried oysters.


Place well-scrubbed shells, containing fresh oysters, in a deep agate
pan, which will fit in a kettle containing a small amount of boiling
water. Cover very closely until the shells open easily. These may be
served in the shell with hot, melted butter, in a side dish, or they
may be removed from the shell to a hot bowl and seasoned with hot
butter, salt and pepper.


To 2 tablespoonfuls of tomato catsup add 1/2 tablespoonful of grated
horseradish, 1/2 tablespoonful of lemon juice, 1/2 teaspoonful of
tabasco sause, 1/2 tablespoonful of vinegar, 1 saltspoonful of salt.
Stand on ice one hour at least.

To serve--The freshly-opened oysters on half shell were placed on a
plate, in the centre of which was placed a tiny glass goblet
containing a small quantity of the mixture, into which the oysters
were dipped before being eaten.


Boil 50 oysters five minutes, drain. When cold, cut into small pieces,
add 1/2 cup of bread crumbs and mix all together with a thick cream
sauce composed of 1/2 cup of cream or milk thickened with flour, to
which add 1 large tablespoonful of butter; season with salt, a dash of
red pepper and 1 teaspoonful of finely-minced parsley. Stand this
mixture on ice until quite cold and firm enough to form into small
croquettes. Dip in egg and bread crumbs and fry in deep fat until a
golden brown.

Serve at once on a platter garnished with sprigs of parsley From
these ingredients was made 12 croquettes.


Place in a bowl 2 tablespoonfuls of tomato catsup, 1 teaspoonful of
grated horseradish, 2 tablespoonfuls of very finely cut celery juice
and pulp of 2 lemons. Season with salt and pepper. Mix this with
oysters which have been cut in small pieces. Serve in halves of
lemons, from which the pulp has been carefully removed.

Place on ice a short time before serving. Crisp crackers should be
served at the same time this is served.


One can of salmon, from which all bones have been removed, 1 cup of
cracker crumbs, 1/2 cup of milk, 1 tablespoonful of butter, which had
been melted; 2 eggs beaten, salt and pepper to season. Mix all
together, bake in a buttered pudding dish one-half hour or until
browned on top. Serve hot.


A half cup of canned salmon, a left-over from lunch the preceding day,
may be added to double the quantity of cream dressing, and when heated
through and served on crisply-toasted slices of stale bread, make a
tasty addition to any meal.

Of course, it is not necessary to tell even unexperienced housewives
never under any circumstances allow food to stand in tins in which it
was canned; do not ever stand food away in tin; use small agateware
dishes, in which food, such as small quantities of left-overs, etc,
may be reheated. Never use for cooking agate stew-pans, from the
inside of which small parties have been chipped, as food cooked in
such a vessel might become mixed with small particles of glazing, and
such food when eaten would injure the stomach.


1 cup cream.
4 tablespoonfuls of bread crumbs.
1 tablespoonful of butter.
3 dozen stewing oysters.

Season with paprika, tiny pinch of nutmeg and salt. Boil the cream,
add bread crumbs and butter. Chop oysters fine, add seasoning. Serve
hot in pattie cups or on toast. Serve small pickles or olives. Good
dish for chafing dish.


Every young housewife should be taught that simmering is more
effective than violent boiling, which converts water into useless
steam. Even a tough, undesirable piece of "chuck" or "pot roast" may
be made more tender and palatable by long-continued simmering than it
would be if put in rapidly boiling water and kept boiling at that
rate. Meat may be made more tender also by being marinated; that is,
allowing the meat to stand for some time in a mixture of olive oil and
vinegar before cooking it. In stewing most meats a good plan is to put
a large tablespoonful of finely-minced beef suet in the stew-pan; when
fried out, add a little butter, and when sizzling hot add the meat,
turn and sear on both sides to retain the juice in the meat, then add
a little hot water and let come to a boil; then stand where the meat
will just simmer but not slop cooking for several hours. The meat then
should be found quite tender. Cheaper cuts of meat, especially,
require long, slow cooking or simmering to make them tender, but are
equally as nutritious as high-priced meats if properly prepared.

To quote from _The Farmers' Bulletin_: "The number of appetizing
dishes which a good cook can make out of the meat 'left over' is
almost endless. Undoubtedly more time and skill are required in their
preparation than in the simple cooking of the more expensive cuts. The
real superiority of a good cook lies not so much in the preparation of
expensive or fancy dishes as in the attractive preparation of
inexpensive dishes for every day. In the skillful combination of
flavors. Some housewives seem to have a prejudice against
economizing. If the comfort of the family does not suffer and the
meals are kept as varied and appetizing as when they cost more, with
little reason for complaint, surely it is not beneath the dignity of
any family to avoid useless expenditure, no matter how generous its
income. And the intelligent housekeeper should take pride in setting a
good table."

This is such an excellent article, and so ably written and true, that
I feel it would be to the advantage of every young housewife to read
and profit by it.


Buy about three pounds of beef, as for an ordinary pot roast. Place in
a large bowl. Boil vinegar (or, if vinegar is too sharp, add a little
water, a couple of whole cloves and a little allspice); this should
cover the piece of meat. Vinegar should be poured over it hot; let
stand a couple of days in a cool place uncovered; turn it over
occasionally. When wanted to cook, take from the vinegar and put in a
stew-pan containing a little hot fried-out suet or drippings in which
has been sliced 2 onions. Let cook, turn occasionally, and when a rich
brown, stir in a large tablespoonful of flour, add 1-1/2 cups of hot
water, cover and cook slowly for two or three hours, turning
frequently. Half an hour before serving add small pared potatoes, and
when they have cooked tender, serve meat, gravy and potatoes on a
large platter.

The writer knew an old gentleman who had moved to the city from a
"Bucks County farm" when a boy, who said that he'd walk five miles any
day for a dish of the above as his mother had prepared it in former

Mary was surprised at the amount of valuable information to be
obtained from the different _Farmers' Bulletins_ received at the farm,
on all subjects of interest to housewives, and particularly farmers'
wives. All books were to be had free for the asking.

The dishes Mary prepared from recipes in the _Farmers Bulletin_ on
"economical use of meat in the home," were especially liked at the
farm, particularly "Stewed Shin of Beef" and "Hungarian Goulash" (a
Hungarian dish which has come to be a favorite in the United States).


2 pounds top round of beef.
1 onion.
A little flour.
2 bay leaves.
2 ounces salt pork.
6 whole cloves.
2 cups of tomatoes.
6 peppercorns.
1 stalk celery.
1 blade mace.

Cut the beef into 2-inch pieces and sprinkle with flour. Fry the salt
pork until a light brown; add the beef and cook slowly for about
thirty-five minutes, stirring occasionally. Cover with water and
simmer about two hours. Season with salt and pepper or paprika. From
the vegetables and spices a sauce is made as follows: Cook in
sufficient water to cover for 20 minutes; then rub through a sieve,
and add to some of the stock in which the meat was cooked. Thicken
with flour, using 2 tablespoonfuls (moistened with cold water) to each
cup of liquid, and season with salt and paprika. Serve the meat on a
platter with the sauce poured over it. Potatoes, carrots and green
peppers cooked until tender and cut into small pieces or narrow strips
are usually sprinkled over the dish when served, and noodles may be
arranged in a border upon the platter.


When buying beefsteak for broiling, order the steak cut 1 inch to
1-1/4 inches thick. Place the steak on a well-greased, hot broiler and
broil over a clear, hot fire, turning frequently. It will take about
ten minutes to broil a steak 1-inch thick. When steak is broiled place
on a hot platter, season with butter, pepper and salt, and serve at
once. Serve rare or otherwise, but serve _at once_. Broil-steak
unseasoned, as salt extracts juice from meat. Steak, particularly,
loses its savoriness if not served _hot_. What to a hungry man is more
nutritious and appetizing than a perfectly broiled, rare, juicy,
steak, served hot? And not a few young and inexperienced cooks serve
thin steaks, frequently overdone or scorched, containing about the
same amount of nourishment a piece of leather would possess, through
lack of knowledge of knowing just how. Often, unconsciously. I will
admit; yet it is an undiluted fact, that very many young housewives
are indirectly the cause of their husbands suffering from the
prevailing "American complaint," dyspepsia, and its attendant evils.
And who that has suffered from it will blame the "grouchy man" who
cannot well be otherwise. So, my dear "Mrs. New Wife," be warned in
time, and always remember how near to your husband's heart lies his
stomach, and to possess the former you should endeavor to keep the
latter in good condition by preparing, and serving, nourishing,
well-cooked food.


4 pounds of shin of beef.
1 medium-sized onion.
1 whole clove and bay leaf.
1 sprig of parsley.
1-1/2 tablespoonfuls flour.
1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of butler or savory drippings.
1 small slice of carrot.
1/2 tablespoonful of salt.
1/2 teaspoonful of pepper.
2 quarts boiling water.

Have the butcher cut the bone in several pieces. Put all the
ingredients but the flour and butter in a stew-pan and bring to
a boil. Set the pan where the liquid will just simmer for six
hours, or after boiling for five or ten minutes put all into the fireless
cooker for eight or nine hours. With the butter, flour and
1/4 cup of the clear soup from which the fat has been removed
make a brown sauce. To this add the meat and marrow removed
from the bone. Heat and serve. The remainder of the liquid
in which the meat has been cooked may be used for soup.


Take the tough ends of two sirloin steaks and one tablespoonful
of kidney suet, run through a food chopper; season with pepper
and salt, form into small cakes, dredge lightly with flour, fry
quickly, same manner steak is fried, turning frequently. The kidney
fat added prevents the Hamburg steak being dry and tasteless.
"A tender, juicy broiled steak, flaky baked potatoes, a good cup
of coffee and sweet, light, home-made bread, a simple salad or
fruit, served to a hungry husband would often prevent his looking
for an affinity," said Aunt Sarah to her niece Mary.



5 pounds of a cheap cut of beef.
4 cups of potatoes cut into small pieces.
2/3 cup each of turnips and carrots cut into 1/2-inch cubes.
1/2 an onion chopped.
1/4 cup of flour.
Season with salt and pepper.

Cut the meat into small pieces, removing the fat. Fry out the fat and
brown the meat in it. When well browned, cover with boiling water.
Boil for five minutes and then cook in a lower temperature until meat
is done. If tender, this will require about three hours on the stove,
or five hours in the fireless cooker. Add carrots, onions, turnips and
pepper and salt during the last hour of cooking, and the potatoes
fifteen minutes before serving. Thicken with the flour diluted with
cold water. Serve with dumplings. If this dish is made in the tireless
cooker the mixture must be reheated when the vegetables are put in.
Such a stew may also be made of mutton. If veal or pork is used the
vegetables may be omitted or simply a little onion used. Sometimes for
variety the browning of the meat is dispensed with. When white meat,
such as chicken, veal or fresh pork is used, the gravy is often made
rich with cream or milk thickened with flour.


2 cups of flour.
4 teaspoons (level) of baking powder.
2/3 cup of milk or a little more if needed.
1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
2 teaspoonfuls of butter.

Mix and sift the dry ingredients. Work in butter with the tips of the
fingers. Add milk gradually, roll out to thickness of half inch. Cut
with biscuit cutter. Place in a buttered steamer over a kettle of hot
water and cook from 12 to 15 minutes. If the dumplings are cooked with
the stew enough liquid should be removed to allow of their being
placed directly upon the meat and vegetables. Sometimes the dough is
baked and served as biscuits, over which the stew is poured. If the
stew is made with chicken or veal it is termed a fricassee.

This recipe tells of such an economical way of extending the meat
flavor that I think every young housewife should know it. Mary copied
it from _The Farmers' Bulletin_, an article on the "Economical Use of
Meat in the Home." The dumplings, as she prepared them from this
recipe, were regular fluff balls, they were so light and flaky. I
would add, the cook-pot should be closely covered while cooking or
steaming these dumplings, and the cover should not be raised for the
first ten minutes.

A lesser quantity of baking powder might be used with equally good
results, but these dumplings are certain to be light and flaky. A
larger quantity of baking powder should be used when dough is steamed
or boiled than if dough is baked, if one expects good results.


Mary learned, through reading _The Farmers' Bulletin_, different
methods of extending the meat flavor through a considerable quantity
of material, which would otherwise be lacking in distinctive taste,
one way to serve the meat with dumplings, generally in the dish with
it; to combine the meat with crusts, as in meat pies or meat rolls, or
to serve the meat on toast or biscuits. Borders of rice, hominy or
mashed potatoes are examples of the same principles, applied in
different ways.

By serving some preparation of flour, rice, hominy or other food, rich
in starch, with the meat, we get a dish which in itself approaches
nearer to the balanced ration than meat alone, and one in which the
meat flavor is extended through a large amount of the material.

The measurements given in the above recipes call for a level spoonful
or a level cup, as the case may be.

In many American families meat is eaten two or three times a day. In
such cases, the simplest way of reducing the meat bill would be to
cut down the amount used, either by serving it less often or by using
less at a time. Deficiency of protein need not be feared, when one
good meat dish a day is served, especially if such nitrogenous
materials as eggs, milk, cheese and beans are used instead. In
localities where fish can be obtained fresh and cheap, it might well
be more frequently substituted for meat for the sake of variety as
well as economy. Ingenious cooks have many ways of "extending the
flavor" of meat; that is, of combining a small quantity with other
materials to make a large dish as in meat pies, stews and similar

The foregoing information may be useful to other young, prospective
housekeepers who may never have read "the very instructive articles on
The Economical Use of Meat in the Home,' in the _Farmers' Bulletin_."


When buying a pot roast, "Aunt Sarah" selected a thick, chunky piece
of meat, weighing several pounds, and a small piece of beef suet which
she cut into small bits, placed pan containing them on hot range,
added a small, sliced onion, and when fat was quite hot she added the
quickly rinsed piece of meat, and quickly seared it to retain the
juice; added 1 cup of hot water, a sprig of parsley, seasoning of salt
and pepper; cooked a short time, then allowed it to stand on the range
closely covered, where it would simmer gently several hours; turning
the meat frequently, adding a small amount of water occasionally, as
the broth was absorbed by the meat. An inexperienced cook will be
surprised to find how tender, palatable, and equally nutritious, an
inexpensive cut of meat may become by slow simmering. When the pot
roast has become tender, remove from the broth and place on a _hot
platter_; this latter is a small item, but dishes may be quickly
heated in a hot oven and meat and vegetables are more appetizing if
served hot on warmed plates. "Forgive this digression; I fear the pot
roast will cool even on a warmed platter." After removing the meat
from the pan add a large tablespoonful of flour, moistened with a
small quantity of cold water, to the broth in the pan for gravy; cook
until thickened, strain sliced onion and parsley from the broth, add
seasoning of salt and pepper, serve on the platter with the meat; the
onion added, gives the gravy a fine flavor and causes it to be a dark,
rich brown in color.


Rub the piece of meat with salt, pepper, ginger and minced onion.
Prepare a stuffing as for chicken of crumbled, stale bread, etc., or
soak pieces of stale bread in cold water. Squeeze dry and season with
a little minced onion, parsley, a little melted butter, salt and
pepper, and moisten all with one egg. Fill the breast of veal with
this stuffing, sew together, place in roasting pan with a small
quantity of water, to which a tablespoonful of butter has been added.
Roast in a moderately hot oven until well done, basting frequently.


Take breast of beef or veal, without fat or bones, quickly rinse off
meat and wipe with a cloth. Place in a stew-pot with one chopped
onion, one sliced tomato, a bay leaf, season with pepper and salt, add
a small quantity of hot water, cook, closely covered, several hours.
To be tender this meat requires long, slow cooking, when it cooks and
browns at the same time. Strain the broth and thicken for gravy and
pour around the meat on platter when serving.


Two pounds of veal, from leg, cut into small pieces for stewing; 4
good-sized onions, cut rather fine; measure about 1/2 cup of sweet
lard, place onions in pan with some of this lard and fry a light
brown. Add meat and cook meat and onions together about one-half hour,
adding lard gradually until all is used and the meat is golden brown.
Then cover with water and stew, closely covered, about two hours or
longer, until meat is ready to serve; then add more water until meat
is covered. Season with salt and paprika. Add about three
tablespoonfuls of vinegar (not too sour; cook must judge this by
tasting); then add 1/2 pint of sweet cream. Thicken gravy with flour
mixed smooth with a little water. Place on platter surrounded with
gravy. With this was always served baked or steamed sweet potatoes.


Three pounds of the cheaper cut of beef, cut in pieces a couple inches
square; brown in a stew-pan, with a sliced onion, a sprig of parsley
and a coupe tablespoonfuls of sweet drippings or suet; cook a few
minutes, add a little water, and simmer a couple of hours; add sliced
turnips and a few medium-sized potatoes. Should there he a larger
quantity of broth than required to serve with the meat and vegetables,
a cup or more of the broth may form the basis of a palatable soup for
lunch the following day.


Three and one-half pounds raw beef, or a mixture of beef and veal may
be used, run through a food chopper. A cheap cut of meat may be used
if, before chopping, all pieces of gristle are trimmed off. Place the
chopped meat in a bowl, add 8 tablespoonfuls of fine, dried bread
crumbs, 1 tablespoonful of pepper, 1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of salt. Taste
the meat before adding all the seasoning specified, as tastes differ.
Add 3 raw eggs, 4 tablespoonfuls of sweet milk or cream, 2
tablespoonfuls of butter, a little sweet marjoram or minced parsley.
Mix all together and mold into two long, narrow rolls, similar to
loaves of bread. Place 1 tablespoonful each of drippings and butter in
a large fry-pan on the range. When heated, place beef rolls in, and
when seared on both sides add a small quantity of hot water. Place the
pan containing meat in a hot oven and bake one hour. Basting the meat
frequently improves it. When catering to a small family serve one of
the rolls hot for dinner; serve gravy, made by thickening broth in pan
with a small quantity of flour. Serve the remaining roll cold, thinly
sliced for lunch, the day following.


Use either veal chops or veal cutlets, cut in small pieces the size of
chops; pound with a small mallet, sprinkle a little finely-minced
onion on each cutlet, dip in beaten egg and bread crumbs, well
seasoned with salt and pepper. Place a couple tablespoonfuls of a
mixture of butter and sweet drippings in a fry-pan; when hot, lay in
the breaded cutlets and fry slowly, turning frequently and watching
carefully that they do not scorch. These take a longer time to fry
than does beefsteak. When a rich brown and well cooked take up the
cutlets on a heated platter and serve, garnished with parsley.


Cut 1-1/2 pounds of thick veal steak into small pieces, dredge with
flour, season with salt and pepper, and fry brown in a pan containing
bacon fat (fat obtained by frying several slices of fat, smoked
bacon). Remove the meat from the pan, add a couple tablespoonfuls of
flour to the remaining fat stir until browned, then pour in the
strained liquor from a pint can of tomatoes. Add one slice of onion
and one carrot, then return the meat to the sauce; cover closely and
simmer three-quarters of an hour. When the meat is tender, place on a
hot platter, add a pinch of red pepper to the sauce and a little more
salt if required, and strain over the meat on the platter. This was a
favorite dish of Mary's Uncle, and he said she knew how to prepare it
to perfection.


Procure 2 sirloin steaks, 1-1/2 inches thick, and a small piece of
suet. Cut the tenderloin from each steak, and as much more of the
steak as required for one meal. Place the finely-cut suet in a hot
fry-pan; this should measure 1 tablespoonful when tried out, add one
teaspoonful of butter, when the fat is very hot and a blue smoke
arises place pieces of steak, lightly dredged with flour, in the pan
of hot fat, place only one piece at a time in the fat; sear the meat
on one side, then turn and sear on the other side; then place the
other pieces of meat in the pan and continue in the same manner,
turning the steak frequently. The hot butter and suet sear the steak,
thus the juice of the meat is retained, making the meat more
palatable; season with salt and pepper, place on a hot platter and
serve at once.


Chop meat fine; beef, chicken, lamb or veal; mince a small onion and
fry in a tablespoonful of butler; add a tablespoonful of flour, the
yolk of one egg, the chopped meat and a little broth, gravy, or milk
to moisten, salt and pepper. Stir all together and turn the whole
mixture into dish to cool. When cool, shape with well-floured hands
into balls the size of a shelled walnut. Dip in beaten white of egg,
then into bread crumbs, and fry in deep fat until crisp and brown.
Place only three or four meat balls in a frying basket at one time.
Too many at a time chills the fat; but if plunged in boiling hot fat,
then a crust is formed at once over the outside, which prevents the
grease from penetrating. When the meat balls are browned nicely, lay
them on brown paper to absorb any grease that may adhere to them. To
try whether the fat is the right temperature, drop a small piece of
bread in it, and if it browns while you count twenty, the fat is hot
enough for any form of croquettes. Garnish with parsley or watercress.


Three pounds raw veal, chopped fine; 1 teaspoonful salt, 1 teaspoonful
pepper, 2 tablespoonfuls butter, 2 raw eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls water.
Mix all together with 6 tablespoonfuls fine, rolled, dried bread
crumbs and mold into a long, narrow loaf. Roll the loaf in two extra
tablespoonfuls of bread crumbs. Place in a hot pan, pour 3
tablespoonfuls melted butter over the top, and bake in hot oven two
hours or less, basting frequently. Slice thinly when cold. Should the
veal loaf be served hot thicken the broth with flour and serve this
gravy with it.


Place sweetbreads in cold water, to which 1/2 teaspoonful salt has
been added, for a short time, then drain and put over the fire with
hot water. Cook ten minutes. Drain and stand aside in a cool place
until wanted. Remove stringy parts, separate into small pieces about
the sue of an oyster, dip in beaten white of egg and then in bread
crumbs. Put in a pan containing a little hot butter and drippings and
fry light brown. Serve hot. Garnish platter with parsley.


Have _beef_ liver cut in slices about one inch thick; quickly rinse
and wipe dry. Remove the thin skin on the edge and cut out all the
small, tough fibres. If liver from a _young_ beef it can scarcely be
told from calves' liver when cooked, and is considerably cheaper. Fry
a dozen slices of fat bacon in a pan until crisp and brown. Take from
the pan on a warm platter and place in oven. Put the pieces of liver,
well dredged with flour, into the pan containing the hot bacon fat,
also a little butter, and fry slowly until well done, but not hard and
dry. Turn frequently and season with salt and pepper. Take the liver
from the pan, add one tablespoonful of flour to the fat remaining in
the pan, stir until smooth and brown, then add about one cup of sweet
milk or water, stir a few minutes until it thickens and season with
salt and pepper. Should the liver be a little overdone, put it in the
pan with the gravy, cover and let stand where it will just simmer a
few minutes, then turn all on a hot platter and serve the bacon on a
separate dish.


Fry quickly a large sirloin steak. Place in the oven, on a warm
platter. Add a large tablespoonful of butter to the fry pan, also a
can of sifted peas, which have been heated and drained, season with
pepper and salt, shake pan to prevent burning and when hot turn on to
platter containing steak and serve at once. This makes an appetizing
luncheon dish.


Put a tablespoonful of butter in a frying pan, add 1/2 cup of chipped
beef cut fine and brown it in the butter, then add 1/4 cup of water.
Let stand and simmer for a short time, then add a cup of sweet milk,
thicken to the consistency of thick cream by adding 1 tablespoonful of
flour mixed smooth with a small quantity of cold milk, season with
salt and pepper. This is an economical way of using small pieces of
dried beef not sightly enough to be served on the table. Serve with
baked potatoes for lunch, or pour over slices of toasted bread, or
over poached eggs for an appetizing breakfast dish.


Parboil sweetbreads in water 10 minutes. Remove stringy parts and dry
on a napkin. Separate the sweetbreads into small pieces with a _silver
knife_, never use _steel_, put in a stewpan with enough cream to
cover, add butter, pepper and salt to taste. Flour enough to thicken a
little, let all come to a boil. Fill small pattie shells with the
mixture and serve hot.


2 cups finely chopped meat (beef or veal).
1 tablespoonful butter.
2 tablespoonfuls flour (or a little more flour).
2 tablespoonfuls chopped parsley.
1 scant cup of milk.

Put milk on to boil. Mix flour smooth with a little cold milk before
adding to boiling milk, add the butter and cook all together until a
creamy consistency, then add the chopped meat well seasoned with salt
and pepper and the chopped parsley. Mix well and let cool. Shape into
croquettes, dip in white of egg and bread crumbs. Let stand until
perfectly cold, then fry brown, in deep hot fat.

Chicken, beef, veal and mutton may be prepared in the same manner.
When dipping croquettes, 1 tablespoonful of water may be added to the
white of egg and 2 tablespoonfuls of water if the whole of the egg is
used. Use the whites of eggs for dipping croquettes if possible.
Croquettes may be made the day before wanted, and placed in a
refrigerator or cool place. Croquettes should be cold before frying.


After the rabbit has been skinned, and carefully cleaned, wash quickly
and let stand over night in cold water to which salt has been added;
also a pinch of red pepper. Place on the range in the morning (in a
stew-pan with fresh warm water). When it comes to a boil, drain off,
add one pint of hot water containing two sliced onions and a little
ginger. This prevents the flavor of wild game, objectionable to some.
When the meat has cooked tender, drain, dust pieces with flour, and
brown quickly in a pan containing a couple tablespoonfuls of hot lard,
butter, or drippings.

If you wish the meat of the rabbit white, add a thin slice of lemon to
the water when cooking meat.


Select leg or loin, or if a larger roast is wanted, leg and loin
together. Carefully rinse the piece of meat. Place in pan, dust
lightly with pepper. Have the oven hot and place pan in without
putting water in pan. Brown on one side, then turn and brown on the
other. Then put about 1/2 cup of water in roasting pan, and if oven is
too hot, leave door open for a few minutes. Allow 25 minutes for each
pound of lamb.


Take a fillet of beef, rub both sides well with a mixture of finely
chopped onion, minced parsley, salt and pepper. Then spread over the
fillet a small quantity of raw, chopped, well-seasoned meat, roll
together and tie. Place in a stew pan with a small quantity of water,
cook closely covered until tender. Serve with gravy.


Dust four or five pork chops with flour and fry in a pan, not too
quickly. When nicely browned, remove to a warm chop plate and stand in
warming oven while preparing the following: Slice or cut in small
pieces four good-sized, sweet, red peppers and a half teaspoon of
finely chopped hot pepper, add to the fat remaining in the pan in
which the chops were fried, and cook about ten minutes, until peppers
are tender (stirring them frequently). When sufficiently cooked, add
one tablespoon of vinegar, pepper and salt to taste, cook one minute
longer and serve on the same dish with the chops.


When preparing to cook a ham, scrape, wash and trim it carefully.
Place ham in a large cook pot or boiler, partly cover with cold water,
let come to a boil, then move back on range where the water will
merely simmer, just bubble gently around the edge of the boiler. A
medium sized ham should be tender in five or six hours. When a fork
stuck into the ham comes out readily, the ham is cooked. Take from the
boiler and skin carefully, removing all the discolored portions of the
smoked end, stick 2 dozen whole cloves into the thick fat, and
sprinkle a couple tablespoonfuls of brown sugar and fine bread crumbs
over top. Place in a very hot oven a short time, until the fat turns a
golden brown. Watch carefully to see that it does not scorch. When
cold, slice thin and serve. Aunt Sarah frequently added a pint of
cider to the water in which the ham was boiled. She said this improved
the flavor of the ham.


When about to fry a slice of uncooked ham, do young housewives know
how very much it improves the flavor of the ham if it is allowed to
stand for ten or fifteen minutes in a platter containing a large
teaspoonful of sugar and a little cold water? Turn several times, then
wipe quite dry with a clean cloth and fry in a pan containing a little
hot drippings and a very little butter (one-half teaspoonful) just
enough to prevent its sticking to the pan. Do not fry as quickly as
beefsteak. After a slice of ham has been cut from a whole ham, if lard
be spread over the end of ham from which the slice has been cut, it
will prevent the cut place from becoming mouldy.


Place pork roast in a covered roasting pan containing a small cup of
hot water, season with pepper and salt and sweet marjoram and sprinkle
a little powdered sage over it, and stand in a very hot oven. After
the meat has been roasting for a half hour, have less heat in your
oven, allow about 25 minutes to every pound of pork, or longer if
necessary, but be sure it is _well done_. When served, _underdone_
pork is very unwholesome and unappetizing. When meat is sufficiently
roasted, pour off all the fat in the pan except a small quantity, to
which add 1/2 cup of boiling water, pepper and salt and serve. Serve
baked apples or apple sauce with pork.


Dip pork chops in egg, then into bread crumbs to which has been added
salt, pepper, and a very little sage and sweet marjoram. Some prefer
chops simply dredged with flour. Fry about 25 minutes or until cooked
through and nicely browned, but not scorched. 'Tis said, "The frying
of chops in a perfect manner is the test of a good cook."


Nine pounds of fresh pork (lean and fat intermixed as it comes). Cut
meat in small pieces, run through a meat cutter. Sprinkle over the
finely chopped meat 3 tablespoonfuls salt, 2 tablespoonfuls of black
pepper, 4 tablespoonfuls of powdered sage if bought at a chemist's.
Aunt Sarah used but three tablespoonfuls of her own home-grown sage,
as the flavor was much stronger than dried sage. Some folks add 2
tablespoonfuls of summer savory, but Aunt Sarah did not care for the
flavor. Cloves, mace and nutmeg may also be added if one likes
highly-spiced food. This is a matter of taste. A good plan is to
season the small pieces of meat before chopping, as this distributes
the seasoning through the sausage. Fill well cleaned casings, with the
finely chopped meat. Or form sausage into small pats, fry brown on
both sides and serve with home-made buckwheat cakes.


To keep sausage one year, take sausage which has been put in casings
(skins in long links) and cook until heated through in a fry pan half
filled with hot water. Take sausage from the water, cut in 4-inch
length pieces (stick sausage with prongs of a fork, to prevent skins
bursting) and fry brown on both sides, as if preparing it for the
table. Place, while hot in quart jars, fill jars as compactly as
possible, then pour the hot fat remaining in pan over top. Seal
air-tight and it will keep well one year if jars are perfectly


Two pig's feet, weighing together about 1-1/2 pounds. After thoroughly
cleansing with a vegetable brush, place in a stewpan and cover with
cold water. Allow water to come to a boil then move stew-pan to place
on range where contents will cook slowly for a number of hours, or
until the meat is loosened from the bones, then strain liquid, which
should measure a scant three cups. (If a lesser quantity of liquid,
add hot water until you have the required amount.) Add also 3
tablespoonfuls of sharp cider vinegar, about 3/4 teaspoonful of salt
and a dust of black pepper.

Pour this mixture over the meat, which should have been separated from
bones, allowing a few smaller bones to remain with the meat, which
should have been placed in a bowl with several thin slices of lemon,
if liked. Stand bowl in a cool place over night or until the "Souse"
is of a jelly-like consistency. When cold, remove any surplus grease
from the top of "Souse." Turn it from the bowl on to a platter. Serve
cold. Garnish with thin slices of lemon and sprigs of parsley. This
will furnish about 2-1/4 pounds of souse.


Small pieces of cold roast beef, veal or steak may all be utilized by
being put through the food chopper. To 1 cup of finely-chopped cold
meat add 1/4 cup of stale bread, which has soaked for a few minutes in
cold water. The water having been squeezed from the bread, it was
added to the meat, as was also a small quantity of finely-minced onion
or parsley, and either the yolk or while of 1 egg and a seasoning of
salt and pepper. Add left-over gravy, to cause the mixture to be soft
enough to form into small rolls or cakes, and fry in a pan containing
a couple tablespoonfuls of sweet drippings. Mashed potatoes may be
substituted for the bread with equally good results. The meat mixture
may be formed into small cone shapes, dipped in egg, then rolled in
fine bread crumbs and fried in deep fat.

Very appetizing sandwiches may he made from cold pieces of fried ham,
run through food chopper. Spread this on thinly-sliced, buttered
bread, with a dish of prepared mustard, spread over the prepared ham.
Small bits of boiled ham, which cannot be sliced, may also be used in
this manner.

The fat was cut from left-over pieces of roast beef (place a couple of
tablespoonfuls of fat in a pan on the range until the fat has fried
out), then add a little finely-minced onion and the beef cut in pieces
the size of a small marble, brown in the fat a few minutes, then add a
small quantity of vinegar and water, and thicken to the consistency of
cream (with a little flour moistened with cold water, before being
added). This Aunt Sarah made frequently, being a frugal housewife, and
called "Salmagundi."


Singe the fowl, after it has been picked; then with a small vegetable
brush quickly scrub it well, with luke-warm water. Do not let it lie
in the water. When perfectly clean rinse in cold water, wipe dry, cut
out the oil sack, remove craw from neck, draw the fowl, being careful
not to break the gall in the process, as that would cause the meat, as
well as giblets, to have a bitter taste. Take out the lungs, the
spongy red pieces lying in crevices near the bones of the back, and
pour cold water through the fowl until you have thoroughly rinsed and
chilled it, and no blood remains inside. I think fowls should be
rinsed thoroughly inside and outside with cold water (many good cooks
to the contrary). Wipe the inside of the fowl perfectly dry with a
clean cloth, and it is ready for the "filling." Separate the liver and
heart from entrails and cut open the piece containing the gizzard;
wash the outer part, and put the giblets on to cook with a little hot
water; if wanted to use with the filling. If the fowl is wanted to
cook or steam the day following, do not cut in pieces and let stand in
water over night, as I have known some quite good cooks to do, as that
draws the flavor from the meat and makes it tasteless. If the giblets
are not to be cooked and added to dressing, place them inside the
fowl, tie feet together, and hang up in a cool place until wanted.
When serving a turkey dinner with its accompaniments one finds so many
things to be attended to in the morning, especially if the fowl is
cooked on a Sunday. It will be found a great help to the cook to have
the turkey or chicken stuffed with bread filling the day before it is
to be roasted, ready to pop in the oven in the morning.


Chop the cold, cooked liver, heart and gizzard into tiny dice; add
this to a bowl containing one quart of crumbled stale bread, seasoned
with 1 teaspoonful of salt, 1/4 teaspoonful pepper, 1/2 of a small,
finely-minced onion, 1/4 teaspoonful sweet marjoram and a teaspoonful
of chopped parsley. Stir into the crumbs 3 tablespoonfuls of melted
butter, moisten all with one egg beaten with 2 tablespoonfuls of milk.
Sir all together lightly with a fork. Fill the body of the chicken,
put a couple of spoonfuls of this dressing into the space from which
the craw was taken, tie the neck with a cord, sew up the fowl with a
darning needle and cord, after filling it. (Always keep a pair of
scissors hanging from a nail conveniently near the sink in your
kitchen, as it saves many steps.) The secret of _good filling_ is not
to have it _too moist_, and to put the filling into the fowl _very
lightly_; on no account press it down when placing it in the fowl, as
that will cause the best of filling to be heavy and sodden. Rather put
less in, and fill a small cheese cloth bag with what remains, and a
short time before the fowl has finished roasting, lay the bag
containing the dressing on top of fowl until heated through, then turn
out on one side of platter and serve with the fowl. Instead of the
chopped giblets, add 2 dozen oysters to the dressing, or a few
chestnuts boiled tender, mashed and seasoned with butter, pepper and
salt and added to the crumbled bread. This makes a pleasant change. Do
not use quite as many crumbs if chestnuts or oysters are added. Place
fowl in covered roasting pan, put a couple of pieces of thinly-sliced
bacon on the breast of fowl, put two cups of hot water in the pan and
set in a very hot oven for the first half hour, then reduce the heat
and baste frequently. An ordinary eight-pound turkey takes from two to
three hours to roast; a chicken takes about twenty minutes to the

When the fowl has been sufficiently roasted, remove from pan to a hot
platter. Pour off some of the fat in the pan and add a small quantity
of milk to the broth remaining. Thicken with flour, for gravy, season
with salt and pepper and sprinkle one teaspoonful chopped parsley over
gravy after being poured into the gravy boat ready to serve. The yolk
of one egg added makes a richer gravy to serve with chicken.


Cut one small spring chicken in pieces, dip each piece in a batter
composed of 1 beaten egg, 1 cup of milk, a pinch of salt, 1/2
teaspoonful of baking powder, sifted with flour enough to form a
batter. Dip the pieces of chicken in this batter, one at a time, and
fry slowly in a pan containing a couple tablespoonfuls of hot butter
and lard, until a golden brown. Place the fried chicken on a platter.

Make a gravy by adding to the fat remaining in the pan--1 cup of milk,
1 tablespoonful of corn starch. Allow this to brown and thicken. Then
pour the gravy over the chicken and serve garnished with parsley or


Cut a nicely cleaned chicken into nine pieces. (Do not separate the
meat from the breast-bone until it has been cooked.) Put in a cook pot
and partly cover with boiling water. Add one small onion and a sprig
of parsley, and let simmer about 1-1/2 hours, or until tender. If an
old fowl it will take about one hour longer. Add salt and pepper.
Strain the broth, if very fat, remove a part from broth. After
separating the white meat from the breast-bone, put all the meat on a
platter. Add 1/4 cup of sweet milk to the strained broth, thicken with
a couple tablespoonfuls of flour, mixed smooth with a little cold
water. Let come to a boil, and add one teaspoonful of chopped parsley.
Pour the chicken gravy over the platter containing the meat, or serve
it in a separate bowl. Or you may quickly brown the pieces of stewed
chicken which have been sprinkled with flour in a pan containing a
little sweet drippings or butter. Should the chicken not be a very fat
one, add yolk of one egg to the gravy.

Or, instead of stewing the chicken, place in the upper compartment of
a steamer, and steam until tender and serve. The day following that on
which stewed or steamed chicken was served, small undesirable
left-over pieces of the chicken were added (after being picked from
the bones) to the gravy remaining from the day before, heated
thoroughly and poured hot over a platter containing small baking
powder biscuits broken in half or slices of toasted bread, which is
economical, extending the meat flavor.


Potatoes are one of the most valuable of vegetables. White potatoes,
after being pared, should be put in a stew-pan over the fire with a
little boiling water, but not enough to cover them. The water should
be kept boiling continuously. About thirty minutes from the time they
commence boiling will be the time required for cooking potatoes of
ordinary size. It spoils potatoes to have the water stop boiling even
for a short time. Add half a teaspoonful of salt to the potatoes when
partly boiled and when cooked sufficiently drain the water from them
at _once_ and sprinkle a little salt over the dry potatoes. Close the
lid of the stew-pan tightly, give it a quick shake, when the potatoes
will he found dry and flaky. Mash fine with a potato masher, adding a
tablespoonful of butter and a couple tablespoonfuls of milk. Let stand
a minute on the hot range to heat the milk, then beat all together
with a fork until creamy. Add more salt if necessary. That is quite
important, as potatoes require considerable salt. Cover the potatoes
with a cloth. Never allow to stand with the lid of the stew-pan over
them, as it will draw moisture. Serve white potatoes as soon as
possible after being cooked, as they are not appetizing when allowed
to stand any length of time.


All young housewives may not know "that there is more real food value
in potatoes baked 'in their jackets' than is found in preparing this
well-known tuber in any other way." The secret of a good baked potato
lies in having a hot oven, but not too hot. Scrub good sized potatoes,
or, for a change, they may be pared before baking, place in a hot
oven, and bake about 45 minutes, when they should be a snowy, flaky
mass inside the skins, palatable and wholesome. When fully baked they
should fed soft to the touch when pressed. Take from oven, pinch one
end of potato to break the skin to allow the gas to escape. Always
break open a baked potato. Never cut with a knife.

Medium-sized potatoes, pared, cut in half lengthwise, and baked in a
hot oven 25 to 40 minutes, until the outside of the potato is a light
brown, make a pleasant change from boiled potatoes. When baked the
proper length of time and served at once, the inside of potato should
be light and flaky. The housewife should occasionally serve rice or
macaroni and omit potatoes from the bill of fare, especially in the
spring of the year.

Potatoes should always be served as soon as baked, if possible.
Potatoes may be baked in less than a half hour in a gas oven.


Early in the season when small, early potatoes are more plentiful and
cheaper than large ones, the young housewife will be able to give her
family a change, while practicing economy, as there are various ways
of using small potatoes to advantage.

First, new potatoes, if about the size of marbles, may be scraped,
boiled in salted water, and served with a thin cream dressing,
sprinkled liberally with chopped parsley, or the boiled potatoes,
while still hot, may be quickly browned in a pan containing a couple
tablespoonfuls of hot drippings or butter. They are much better
prepared in this manner if the potatoes are put in the hot fat while
still warm. Or the small boiled potatoes may be cut in thin slices,
browned in a couple tablespoonfuls of butter or drippings and two eggs
beaten together stirred over the potatoes a few minutes before they
are ready to serve. The small potatoes may also be scraped and dropped
in hot, deep fat and fried like fritters.

When possible, the small potatoes should be well cleansed with a
vegetable brush and boiled without paring. They may then be easily
skinned after they are cooked. Some of the more important ingredients
are lost when potatoes are pared, and it is also more economical to
boil them before paring. The cold boiled potatoes may be cut up and
used for potato salad, or thinly sliced after being skinned and placed
in a baking dish alternately with a cream sauce consisting of milk,
butter and flour, and seasoned with salt and pepper, having the first
and last layer cream sauce. Sprinkle bread crumbs liberally over the
top, dot with hits of butter and bake in a moderate oven about 20
minutes until the top is nicely browned. Serve in the dish in which
they were baked.

Or peel one-half dozen medium-sized raw potatoes, cut into small,
narrow strips about 1/3 inch wide, dry on a napkin and fry in very
hot, deep fat about six minutes, then lift from fat, drain, sprinkle
salt over and serve hot. These are a nice accompaniment to broiled

Peel and slice, or cut in dice, 6 or 8 cold boiled potatoes, cut into
in a stew-pan with 2 tablespoonfuls of butter, salt and pepper to
season, heat all together, shaking pan occasionally. Add 1/2 cup of
cream, sprinkle a small teaspoonful of parsley over and serve hot.
Instead of slicing or dicing cold boiled potatoes (in the usual
manner) to be fried, if they be cut in lengthwise sections like an
orange (one potato should make about 8 pieces) and fried quickly in
enough hot fat to prevent burning, they can scarcely be distinguished
from raw potatoes cut in the same manner and fried in deep fat, and
are much easier to prepare. They should be served at once.

Another manner of preparing potatoes is to slice raw potatoes as
thinly as possible on a "slaw-cutter," place in a fry-pan with a
couple of tablespoonfuls of a mixture of butter and sweet drippings.
Watch carefully, as they should be fried quickly over a hot fire,
turning frequently. When brown, serve at once.

Raw _sweet_ potatoes cut about as thick as half a section of an
orange, fried in a couple tablespoonfuls of a mixture of sweet
drippings and butter, prove a change, occasionally.


In a baking dish place layers of pared, thinly sliced, raw white
potatoes. Season with a very little salt and pepper and scatter over
small bits of butter. A very little finely minced onion or parsley may
be added if liked. To 1 quart of the sliced potatoes use a scant half
pint of milk, which should almost cover the potatoes. Either sift over
the top 1 tablespoon of flour or 2 tablespoons of fine, dried bread
crumbs and bits of butter; place in hot oven and bake about 3/4 of an
hour, until top is browned nicely and potatoes are cooked through. Old
potatoes are particularly good prepared in this manner.


Place in an agate pudding dish 6 pared and halved (lengthwise) raw
sweet potatoes. Scatter over them three tablespoons of sugar, 2 large
tablespoons of butter cut in small bits, and about 1/2 a cup (good
measure) of water. Stand in a hot oven and bake about 3/4 of an hour.
Baste frequently with the syrup formed in the bottom of the dish. The
potatoes when baked should look clear and the syrup should be as thick
as molasses. Serve in the dish in which they were baked. Should the
oven of the range not be very hot, the dish containing the potatoes
may be placed on top the range and cooked about 25 minutes before
placing in oven to finish baking.


To 1 pint of hot mashed potatoes, or cold boiled ones may be used,
squeezed through a fruit press; add 1 tablespoon of butter, pinch of
salt, 2 eggs, whites beaten separately. When cool, form into small
cone-shapes, dip in bread crumbs, then into egg, then into crumbs
again, and fry in deep fat. Drain on paper and serve on platter
garnished with parsley.


Aunt Sarah's way of making particularly fine potato chips: She pared
six large white potatoes, one at a time. As she wished to slice them
to fry, she rinsed the potatoes, rolled them on a clean cloth to dry
them. She sliced the potatoes thinly on a "slaw" cutter. She patted
the sliced potatoes between old linen napkins, until all moisture was
absorbed, then dropped them into hot fat, consisting of two-thirds
lard and one-third suet. Place only one layer of potatoes at a time in
the fat. The chips quickly turn light brown; then remove with a
perforated skimmer to a colander lined with coarse brown paper, to
absorb any remaining fat. Should the fat be the right temperature, the
chips will be entirely free from grease. Dust salt over the chips
while hot. She _never_ allowed chips to stand in salt water, as many
cooks do. She usually made potato chips when frying doughnuts, and
always fried potato chips first; after frying doughnuts in the fat fry
several large slices of potato in it, as the potato clarifies it. Six
large, thinly sliced potatoes will make about five quarts of potato
chips when fried and may be kept several weeks in a dry place. The
potato chips may be re-heated by placing in a hot oven a few minutes
before serving.


Pare the egg-plant, cut in slices one-half inch thick, sprinkle salt
on slices; let stand under heavy weight several hours. Wipe slices dry
with a napkin and dip in a mixture of white of one egg, and one
tablespoon of water, then dip them in fine rolled bread crumbs and fry
a rich brown in deep fat. Drain and serve. Catsup should always be
served with eggplant.


Place a fry-pan on stove containing about two tablespoonfuls of
butter, add a couple of finely chopped sweet peppers and a finely
minced small onion. Let all simmer on stove. Measure the chopped
pepper and add an equal amount of finely crumbled bread. Season with
salt and pepper and fill (well-washed) peppers from which the stem and
seeds have been removed. Stand the peppers in a bake dish containing a
small amount of water. Place in a hot oven about twenty-five minutes,
or until peppers are tender. Serve hot.


Place hot peppers (well-washed) from which seeds have been removed
into a bake dish containing a very little hot water. Stand in a hot
oven until tender and skins turn a yellow brown, turning them over
occasionally. Remove the outside skin, chop fine, add a small quantity
of finely minced onion, pepper and salt and enough vinegar to moisten.
If sweet peppers are used add a pinch of cayenne pepper. Serve as a
relish in place of pickles or chow-chow. This recipe was given Marry
by a friend who had lived in Mexico. The outside skin of the peppers
may be more readily removed if upon being removed from the oven the
peppers are sprinkled with water, then covered with a cloth and
allowed to steam a short time.


A half head of cabbage was cut into small pieces and cooked in hot
salted water until cabbage was tender. The water was drained from the
boiled cabbage, which was placed in an agate pudding dish alternately
with cream sauce composed of one cup of milk; one small tablespoonful
of flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of butter, seasoned with salt and pepper.
Sprinkle a few crumbs and place bits of the butter over top. Bake in
oven about 25 minutes and serve hot. This dish is almost equal to
cauliflower in flavor, especially if after the cabbage has cooked ten
or fifteen minutes the water is drained from it and fresh substituted.
And it is said, "Cauliflower is only cabbage with a college


Cut all except two inches from the tops of beets. Scrub thoroughly
with a vegetable brush, then pour scalding water over beets. When
perfectly cleansed, place in a cook-pot, partly cover with boiling
water, stand on range and when beets have cooked tender remove outside
skin. Strain and stand aside one cup of water in which beets were
boiled, which should be dark wine color. When beets are to be served
to the one cup of strained beet juice add one tablespoonful of sugar,
one-fourth cup of not _very sharp_ vinegar. Add one teaspoon of
butter. Thicken this liquid with one and one-fourth tablespoonfuls of
a mixture of corn starch and flour. When cooked to the consistency of
cream add the quartered beets, season with pepper and salt, stand on
back part of range a few minutes, serve hot. To three cups of the
quartered beets use one and one-half cups of cream dressing.


Wash young beets, cut off tops. Boil one hour or until tender, one
tablespoonful of sugar having been added to the water in which beets
were boiled. Rub off skins, cut in quarters, strew over them one
tablespoon of butter cut in small pieces, stand in oven just long
enough for the butter to melt. Or cut the beets in slices one-fourth
of an inch thick and while still warm place in a bowl and pour over
them half a cup of hot vinegar and water to which had been added one
tablespoonful of sugar, a pinch of salt and pepper; serve cold.


A vegetable in taste, similar to very sweet, red beets in shape,
greatly resembling carrots. Wash the mangelwurzel and place in a
stew-pan with boiling water and cook until tender (allow about an inch
of top to remain when preparing to cook). Skin the mangelsurzel, slice
and pour over the following, which has been heated in a stew-pan over
the fire: One cup of vinegar and water combined, one tablespoonful of
sugar, one teaspoonful of salt, a dust of pepper. Stand aside until
cold then serve. Or serve hot like buttered beets. Some "Bucks
County" farmers raise mangelwurzel simply to feed to their cattle, but
Aunt Sarah preferred them when young and tender to beets, and always
raised them for her table.


Cut one-half head of cabbage fine on a slaw cutter. Place in a
stew-pan over fire, with about four tablespoonfuls of water, one
tablespoonful of butter, a couple tablespoonfuls of flour, one
teaspoonful of sugar and a pinch of salt. Cover and steam twenty
minutes. Then add three tablespoons of vinegar. Stir in one beaten
egg. Cover and let stand where it will keep hot until ready to serve.


Place in a pan on the range one tablespoon of diced, smoked bacon, fry
a few minutes, watch closely it does not scorch. Add one tablespoonful
of sweet lard, when hot, add four thinly sliced, medium-sized onions
and four chopped tomatoes and 1-1/2 quarts of string beans, cut in
inch lengths. Season with salt and a pinch of red pepper. Simmer all
together three hours. After cooking one hour add about one cup of hot
water, stirring occasionally to prevent scorching, add a little more
water if necessary; when beans are tender and ready to serve there
should be a small quantity of liquid, resembling tomato sauce, with
the beans.


Wash one-half peck of spinach thoroughly through a half dozen waters,
until free from sand. Place in a stew-pan containing a small quantity
of _boiling_ water and one teaspoon of butter. Cook until tender,
drain, chop fine. Place a large tablespoonful of butter in stew-pan
and when hot add chopped spinach, season with salt and pepper; serve
in a warmed dish, garnished with either chopped or sliced hard boiled
eggs. A German cook, noted for the fine flavor of her cooked spinach
and green peas, said her secret consisted in adding a teaspoon of
butter to the vegetables while cooking.


Another way of utilizing left-over cold boiled potatoes particularly
relished by "Pennsylvania Germans," whose liking for the humble onion
is proverbial, is to fry onions with potatoes in a fry-pan containing
a couple tablespoonfuls of sweet drippings and butter; when heated
place a half dozen thinly sliced cold boiled potatoes, half the
quantity of thinly sliced raw onions, well seasoned with pepper and
salt, cover and steam for ten or fifteen minutes, when uncover and fry
until light brown; serve at once. Or the thinly-sliced onions, after
skins have been removed, may be sliced thinly across the onion, placed
in a fry-pan and partly covered with boiling water; stand on hot range
and steam, closely covered, about fifteen minutes, or until onions are
tender, then drain off water, should any remain, add a small
tablespoonful of butter, salt and pepper to season, fry quickly a
light brown; pan should be uncovered. Serve at once with liver or
bacon. Onions are considered more wholesome prepared in this manner
than if fried.


Wash asparagus and cut off about an inch of the tough ends, scrape off
thin skin. Place pieces of asparagus tips (all in one direction) in
the top part of perforated section of a double boiler. Fill lower part
of steamer with hot water and steam about three-quarters of an hour or
less time, until tender. The fine flavor of the vegetable is retained
when steamed. When cooked tender turn out on a hot platter and pour
cream sauce over the tips, or the cream sauce may be served
separately, or the asparagus may be served on freshly toasted slices
of bread, over which the cream sauce should be poured.


All the members of the Landis family unanimously agreed in declaring
the dish "Frau Schmidt" taught Sarah Landis to prepare from the
delicious edible Fungi, known as "Pasture" mushrooms (gathered by
Professor Schmidt from rich, wind-swept pastures early in the fall of
the year until the coming of frost) were good enough to tickle the
palate of an epicure.

Sarah Landis was very particular to use _none_ unless pronounced
_edible mushrooms_, and not poisonous toad-stools, by Professor
Schmidt, who was a recognized authority. Said the Professor, "The
edible variety may be easily recognized by one having a knowledge of
the vegetable. The cap may be readily peeled, and the flesh of the
'Pasture' mushroom, when cut or broken, changes in color to a pale
rose pink, and they possess many other distinctive features, easily
recognized, when one has made a study of them."

The following is the manner in which the mushrooms were prepared by
Fran Schmidt:


One-half pound or about twenty-four small mushrooms were peeled,
washed carefully in cold water, placed in a small stew-pan containing
two generous tablespoonfuls of butter, covered closely and allowed to
simmer or steam for twenty minutes in butter and liquid, drawn from
the mushrooms by steaming, then uncover and allow liquid in sauce-pan
and mushrooms to cook about ten minutes longer, then sprinkle two
teaspoonfuls of flour over the mushrooms, brown a minute, stir into
this 1/2 cup of milk, or enough to make a sauce the consistency of
cream, season well with salt and pepper to taste. Have ready prepared
six crisply toasted and buttered slices of stale bread. Place four
mushrooms and a couple of tablespoonfuls of the mushroom sauce on each
slice of bread and serve hot. The combination of toast and mushrooms
results in a particularly fine flavor.


Scald ripe tomatoes by pouring boiling water over them and allowing
them to stand a few minutes. Skin them and cut in small pieces. Place
in a stew-pan with 1 tablespoonful of butter, season _well_ with
pepper and salt, cook about 25 minutes, add 1/2 teaspoonful of sugar
and thicken with 1 teaspoonful of flour mixed smooth with a little
water. Let cook a few minutes, then serve. If tomatoes are very tart a
small pinch of baking soda, added when cooked, will counteract


Sweet corn on the cob should be cooked as soon as possible after
taking it from stalk, as after being removed it soon loses its
sweetness. Do not remove the husk until it is to be boiled. Place corn
in a kettle of rapidly boiling water, not salted; rather add a pinch
of sugar if corn is not as sweet as liked. Cover the kettle to prevent
steam escaping. Do not use a _large quantity of water_. Corn is
sweeter if steamed. Boil from ten to fifteen minutes. If corn is not
cooked in that time, it should be used uncooked for corn fritters, as
corn if _not_ young and tender may be grated and from it excellent
corn fritters may be made.


Cut large, solid, ripe tomatoes in half-inch slices; one ordinary
tomato makes 3 slices. Dredge thickly with flour. Fry several slices
of bacon in an iron pan, take bacon from pan when fried and put in
warming oven. Lay the well-floured slices of tomatoes in hot bacon fat
and one tablespoon of butter and fry brown on both sides. Serve on hot
platter with bacon. Or fry slices of well floured tomato in pan
containing just enough butter and drippings to keep them from sticking
to the bottom of pan, over a hot fire. Fry quickly, browning on each
side. Season with salt and pepper. If the tomatoes are very sour,
sprinkle a _very little_ sugar over them before frying. When brown,
lift the tomatoes carefully from pan and place in a circle around the
inside edge of a warm chop plate, add a lump of butter to the pan and
a small half cup of sweet milk. Let come to a boil, thicken with a
little flour mixed smoothly with a little cold milk, and cook until
the consistency of thick cream. Season with salt and pour in centre of
chop plate, surrounded with fried slices of tomatoes. Dust pepper over
top and serve hot.

This is a delicious way of serving tomatoes. Or slices of the fried
tomatoes may be served on slices of crisply toasted bread over which
place a couple tablespoons of the cream dressing.


Wash a half dozen ripe red tomatoes. Cut the top from each and remove
about the half of the inside of tomato. Sprinkle a very tiny pinch of
sugar in each. This small quantity of sugar is not noticed, but
counteracts the acidity of the tomato. To one and one-half cups of
soft bread crumbs add one small finely minced onion and season highly
with salt and pepper, also add one teaspoon of chopped parsley. Mix
all together and fill the tomatoes with the mixture. Place a small bit
of butter on each tomato. Place in a bake dish containing a half cup
of water, a piece of butter, one teaspoonful of sugar, a sprig of
parsley and pepper and salt to season. Stand in a hot oven and bake
from 25 to 30 minutes. The centres which were removed from tomatoes
may be utilized in various ways.


Place in a bowl a half pint of canned tomatoes, one-fourth teaspoon of
sugar and season with salt and pepper. Add about four tablespoonfuls
of flour sifted with one-half teaspoon of baking powder and one
tablespoon of butter. Use only flour enough to hold the mixture
together when fried. Drop spoonfuls some distance apart in a fry-pan
containing several tablespoons of hot lard, butter, suet or drippings.
Fry on both sides and serve hot. In winter, when the housewife is
unable to obtain fresh tomatoes, she will find this dish a good
substitute to serve occasionally.


Put one quart of small soup beans to soak over night in cold water to
cover. In the morning drain the beans, cover with boiling water, add
one tablespoonful of molasses and cook until tender, but not too soft.
Drain. Do not use this water. Put the beans in an earthen bake dish.
In the centre of the bake dish place one pound of clean, scored smoked
bacon, and pour over the beans the water in which the bacon had been
simmering for an hour. Add water, if not enough, to almost cover the
beans, salt and pepper to taste. Place in oven and bake about three
hours, or until beans are tender and a rich brown on top. Add more hot
water if beans bake dry, until the last half hour, then allow the
water to cook away.

Serve stewed tomatoes, baked apples or apple sauce as an
accompaniment to baked beans. This is not a recipe for "Boston Baked
Beans." Just a "plain country recipe," but it will be found very

If part of a dish of beans remain after a meal, re-heat the day
following in "tomato sauce." Aunt Sarah always baked a pan of corn
bread or Johnny cake, to serve hot with baked beans.

When the housewife serves a dish of baked beans at a meal, serve also
a quart of stewed tomatoes. The day following a "tomato sauce" may be
quickly prepared by adding a well-cooked carrot and an onion to the
"left-over" tomatoes. Press all through a coarse sieve, adding a
little water if too thick; re-heat beans in this; serve hot. A
delicious "cream of tomato soup" may be prepared by substituting milk
or cream to which a small pinch of baking soda has been added,
omitting the beans.


Wash one cup of hominy through several waters. (The grains should
resemble kernels of corn.) Cover with cold water and stand in a cool
place over night. In the morning, drain. Place the hominy in an agate
pudding dish holding 2 quarts, cover with boiling water, add more
water as the grains swell and water boils away, and 1 teaspoonful of
salt. The hominy should be placed on the range to cook early in the
morning on the day it is to be served and continue cooking slowly
until late afternoon, when all the water should have been absorbed and
each grain should be large, white and flaky. The dish should be about
three-quarters full.

A half hour before serving the hominy, at a six o'clock dinner, add a
generous tablespoonful of butter and about 3/4 of a cup of hot milk
and stand on back of range until served. This is a remarkably cheap,
wholesome and appetizing dish if served properly and is easily


Scrape, then grate enough raw parsnips to fill two cups, put in a
bowl and add the yolk of one egg, pinch of salt, 1 tablespoonful of
milk, 1 tablespoonful of flour, lastly add the stiffly-beaten white of

Form into small round cakes, dust with flour and fry brown on both
sides in a pan containing a tablespoonful of butter and one of
drippings. Or these may be crumbed and fried in deep fat. These are
much finer flavored than if parsnips had been cooked before being


Cut heads of cabbage in half, after trimming off outside leaves. Cut
out centres or hearts, cut cabbage fine on a regular old-fashioned
cabbage cutter, which has a square box on top of cutter to hold the
pieces of cabbage when being pushed back and forth over the cutter. If
not possible to procure this, use small slaw cutter for the purpose.

Partly fill a large pan with the cut cabbage, and mix enough salt,
with the hands, through the cut cabbage to be palatable when tasted,
no more. This was the rule taught Aunt Sarah by her Grandmother, and
always followed by her. Then put the salted cabbage into a wooden cask
or small tub to the depth of several inches. Pound the cabbage down
well with a long-handled, heavy, wooden mallet, something like a very
large wooden potato masher. Then mix another panful of finely cut
cabbage, lightly salted, into the tub and pound down well, as before.
Continue in this manner until the tub is partly filled with cabbage,
pounding down well at the last until the liquid formed by the cabbage
and salt rises above the cabbage. Cover the kraut with a layer of
large, clean cabbage or grape leaves, then cover top with a clean
piece of muslin cloth, place a round, clean board on top and put a
well-scrubbed, heavy stone on the board to weight it down. Stand the
tub in a warm place several days, to ferment. When fermentation
begins, the liquor rises over the top of the board. Remove the scrum
which rises to top, in about six days, and stand in a cool part of the
cellar after washing stone and cloth with cold water, return to top of
kraut and in two weeks the sauer kraut will be ready to use. Should
the sauer kraut require extra liquid at any time, add one quart of
water in which has been dissolved two teaspoonfuls of salt. Squeeze
the sauer kraut quite dry when taking it from the brine to cook. Boil
about two quarts of the sauer kraut several hours with a piece of
fresh pork and a little water until the pork is thoroughly cooked
through, when the sauer kraut should be cooked tender.

Some prefer "frankfurters" cooked with the kraut instead of pork, and
others do not care for the German dish without the accompaniment of
drop dumplings. Serve mashed potatoes and simple dessert with sauer

Aunt Sarah taught Mary to save the hearts of the cabbage usually
thrown aside when making sauer kraut. The hearts were trimmed all one
size, like small triangles. She cooked them in salted water until
tender, drained them and served with a cream dressing, and they had
much the flavor of a dish of cauliflower.

Frau Schmidt always placed several tart apples among her sauer kraut
when making it, and thought it improved the flavor of the kraut; gave
it a "winey" flavor, obtained in no other manner. A sour apple, cored
and cooked with sauer kraut is considered by some cooks an
improvement. The apple, of course, is not eatable. Aunt Sarah _never_
placed apples with her sauer kraut.


For these dumplings, 1 egg was broken into a bowl and well beaten.
Then a pinch of salt was added and 1/2 cup of sweet milk. Enough flour
was added to make a soft dough, and one tablespoonful of baking powder
was sifted with a very little flour into the batter, then a little
more flour was added to make the dough the right consistency. Form the
dough into small balls, handling as little as possible. Drop on top of
the hot cooked "sauer kraut" in cook-pot on range and boil, closely
covered, about 20 minutes.

Aunt Sarah taught Mary to cook green vegetables, peas, spinach, etc.,
in a stew-pan _uncovered_, if she wished them to retain their natural
color. Also, that old potatoes may be freshened by being allowed to
stand a short time in cold water before being cooked, but they should
not stand too long a time in cold water, as it draws the starch from
them and causes them to be tasteless, and to lose part of their
nourishing qualities.

Also that one teaspoonful of salt will usually season one quart of
vegetables, to be put in when the vegetables begin to cook.
Cauliflower, cabbage, lettuce and watercress should stand in a pan
containing water and a little vinegar for a half hour. This will cause
insects to drop to the bottom of the pan.

Changing the water on cabbage and onions when partly cooked will
improve their flavor.


Young housewives possessing a bed of parsley in their kitchen gardens,
wishing to preserve it for use during the winter, may like to know how
Aunt Sarah taught Mary to dry it in a manner to preserve its bright
green color.

She washed the parsley in cold water and while still moist placed it
on agate pans and dried it _quickly_ in a _very hot_ oven. Watch
carefully as it scorches easily. Place the parsley when dried, in tin
cans covered to exclude the dust.


Bake good-sized potatoes in oven about 45 minutes. Smaller potatoes
require less time to bake.

Boil ordinary sized potatoes 25 to 30 minutes.

_Steam_ asparagus from 30 to 40 minutes.

Boil young beets about 60 minutes or longer.

Old beets, two hours, or until tender.

Green corn on cob about 10 or 15 minutes.

Cauliflower, 30 minutes.

Cabbage, 30 to 40 minutes.

Turnips and carrots, 40 minutes.

String beans, 60 minutes to 2 hours.

Lima beans, 45 minutes to 1 hour.

Onions about 1 hour.

Squash about 30 minutes.

Parsnips, 30 to 40 minutes.

Sweet potatoes, good size, 40 minutes.

Spinach, 25 minutes.

Tomatoes, 25 minutes.

Salt should be added to the water when boiling potatoes, carrots,
cabbage, parsnips, turnips and onions, even if liquid in which they
were boiled is drained from them after being cooked, before being
seasoned. Add a small pinch of baking soda to the water in which
string beans are boiled, and they will cook tender in less time.
Especially should this be done if the beans are not young and tender.


Young housekeepers will be surprised to learn of the various
attractive, appetizing dishes which may be prepared by combining them
with a "cream sauce." After cooking vegetables until tender in salted
water, they should be drained and served with a cream sauce poured
over. The art of making a smooth, creamy sauce of the proper
consistency is easily acquired. A good rule for "common cream sauce"
is 1 cup of milk, water, or meat broth, thickened with 1 tablespoonful
to 1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of flour, or a combination of flour and
cornstarch. Mix flour, or cornstarch, with a small quantity of cold
milk or water, to a smooth paste, before adding it to liquid; add,
usually, one tablespoonful of butter. Place the mixture in a saucepan
and cook until the consistency of cream, add 1/2 teaspoonful of salt
just before removing from the fire, and dust pepper over when serving.
When mixing gravy to serve with roast beef or veal, omit butter. For a
thick sauce use either 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of flour and the same
amount of butter. This thick sauce may be used to mix with meat for
croquettes in the proportion of 1 cup of sauce to 2 cups of chopped
cold roast lamb, beef, veal or chicken. Should a richer sauce be
desired, add 1 or more yolks of eggs to the cream sauce. Some of the
numerous dishes which might be served by the young housewife to vary
the daily bill of fare by the addition of "cream sauce," are: Small,
new potatoes, cauliflower, onions, cabbage asparagus tips, thinly
sliced carrots, celery, mushrooms, fish, oysters, chicken, veal and
sweetbreads. All of these, when coked, may be served on slices of
toasted bread, or served in Pattie-cases, with cream sauce, or served
simply with cream sauce.


The art of preparing savory gravies and sauces is more important in
connection with the serving of the cheaper meats than in connection
with the cooking of the more expensive cuts.

There are a few general principles underlying the making of all sauces
or gravies, whether the liquid used is water, milk, stock, tomato
juice or some combination of these. For ordinary gravy, 2 level
tablespoonfuls of flour or 1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of cornstarch, or
arrow root, is sufficient to thicken a cup of liquid. This is true
excepting in recipes where the flour is browned. In this case, about
1/2 tablespoonful more should be allowed, for browned flour does not
thicken so well as unbrowned. The fat used may be butter or the
drippings from the meat, the allowance being 2 tablespoonfuls to a cup
of liquid. The easiest way to mix the ingredients is to heat the fat,
add the flour and cook until the mixture ceases to bubble, and then to
add the liquid. This is a quick method and by using it there is little
danger of getting a lumpy gravy. Many persons, however, think it is
not a wholesome method, and prefer the old-fashioned one of thickening
the gravy by means of flour mixed with a little cold water. (Aunt
Sarah was one who thought thus.) The latter method is not "practicable
for brown gravies," to quote the _Farmers' Bulletin_.

The _Farmers' Bulletin_ further adds:

"Considering the large amount of discussion about the digestibility of
fried food and of gravies made by heating flour in fat, a few words on
the subject at this point may not be out of order. It is difficult to
see how heating the fat before adding the flour can be unwholesome,
unless the cook is unskillful enough to heat the fat so high that it
begins to scorch. Overheated fat, as has already been pointed out,
contains an acrid, irritating substance called 'Acrolein,' which may
readily be considered to be unwholesome. It is without doubt the
production of this body by overheating which has given fried food its
bad name. There are several ways of varying the flavor of gravies and
sauces. One should be especially mentioned here. The _flavor of
browned flour_--The good flavor of browned flour is often overlooked.
If flour is cooked in fat, until it is a dark brown color, a
distinctive and very agreeable flavor is obtained.

"This flavor combines very well with that of currant jelly, and a
little jelly added to a brown gravy is a great improvement. The flavor
of this should not be combined with that of onions or other
highly-flavored vegetables."


This formula for preparing a good, sweet, wholesome substitute for
butter to be used for baking and frying was given Aunt Sarah by a
thrifty German hausfrau, who prepared and used it in her large family
many years. Aunt Sarah always kept a supply on hand. It was made as

10 pounds of fine solid kidney suet.
10 pounds of clean pork fat.
10 pounds of butter.

The suet cut in small pieces was put in a large boiler of water,
boiled until all was melted, and the fat extracted from the suet. It
was then all poured through a fine sieve into a vessel containing hot
water (the larger the quantity of hot water the finer the fat will
be). Stand aside to become cold and solid. The boiling process
prevents the peculiar taste which _fried_ lard and suet usually
possess. Treat the pork fat in a similar manner. Allow the suet and
pork fat to stand until the following morning, when remove the solid
fat from the boiler of water, wipe off all moisture and add both pork
fat and suet fat to the melted butter, which had been prepared in the
following manner: The butter was melted in a porcelain lined boiler
and allowed to cook until all salt and other foreign substance had
settled and the butter had the appearance of clear oil. At this point
the butter should be watched carefully, as when settled it might
quickly boil over, when you would be liable to lose your butter,
besides suffering serious consequences. Now the liquid butter, suet
and pork fat are all put together into a large boiler and allowed to
melt together on the back part of the range. This will probably be
done in the morning. After the noon meal is finished move the boiler
containing fat to front part of range; let come to a boil, skimming it
occasionally as it boils up. It needs close watching now, the fat
being liable to cook over the top of boiler, when the "fat" will
surely be "in the fire." Carefully pour into stone crock, and it may
be kept for months in a cool place. The fat which has been first
poured off the top, if it has been carefully skimmed, will keep
longest. The last taken from the boiler should be put in a stone crock
to use first. This may be prepared in lesser quantities, or a smaller
quantity of butter might be used to mix with the lard and suet.
Although the preparation is to be preferred composed of equal
quantities of butter, lard and suet, adding milk to the first water in
which the suet is boiled is quite an improvement. After filling the
crocks with the fat, take the boiled-out suet and hard scraps and
settlings of butter remaining and go through the same process and you
will have a small jar of cooking fat for immediate use. A little
trouble to do this, I admit, but one is well paid by having good,
sweet, inexpensive cooking fat. I should advise a young housekeeper to
experiment with one pound each of clarified suet and pork fat after it
is rendered, and one pound of butter before attempting the preparation
of a larger quantity.


Aunt Sarah strained fresh, sweet milk into small, brown earthenware
crocks kept for this purpose, scrupulously clean. The crocks were kept
in the spring-house or cellar in summer (in cold weather the milk
should be kept in a warmer place to allow cream to form on the top of
the milk). When the cream was thick and sour she skimmed the cream
from off the top of milk every day, stirring the cream well together
every time she added fresh cream to that on hand. Aunt Sarah churned
twice a week; sour cream should not be kept a longer time than one
week. The churn was scalded with boiling water, then rinsed with cold
water; this prevented the butter adhering to the churn. The cream
should be at a temperature of 60 degrees when put in the churn, but
this would be almost too cold in Winter. In very hot weather the
temperature of the cream should be 56 degrees. Aunt Sarah tested the
cream with a small dairy tube thermometer. She churned steadily and
usually had butter "come" in about 25 minutes, but should the cream he
too cold or too warm it would be necessary to churn a longer time. If
the cream is too warm, stand vessel containing cream on ice; if too
cold, stand in a warm place near the range. When the sour cream had
been churned a certain length of time and granules of butter had
formed, she drained off the buttermilk and poured water over the
granules of butter. Water should be two degrees colder than the
buttermilk. After churning a few minutes the lump of butter was
removed from the churn, placed in a bowl, washed thoroughly several
times in very cold water, until no buttermilk remained. The butter was
worked thoroughly, with a wooden paddle, until all buttermilk had been
extracted. One small tablespoonful of salt was added to each pound of
butter. She worked the butter well, to incorporate the salt, and
molded it into shape. Aunt Sarah did not knead the butter, but
smoothed it down, then lifted it up from the large, flat, wooden bowl
in which it was molded. When the butter was to be molded into _small
shapes_, she scalded the small wooden molds, then dipped them into
cold water before using; this prevented the butter adhering to the
molds. Before commencing to churn butter, Aunt Sarah was particular to
have her hands scrupulously clean. All the utensils used were washed
in hot water, then rinsed in cold water, both hands and utensils. She
frequently wrapped small pats of freshly-churned butter in small
squares of clean cheese-cloth and placed in a stone crock with a
cover. Placed in the crock was usually, with the butter, a bunch of
sweet clover blossoms, which imparted to the butter a delicious


Stand a pan containing three quarts of milk in a warm place until it
becomes sour and quite thick. Stand the pan containing the thick milk
on the back part of the range, where it will heat gradually but not
cook. When the "whey" separates from the curd in the centre and forms
around the edges it is ready to use. Should the sour milk become _too
hot_ on the range, or _scald_, the curds, or smier-kase, will not
become soft and creamy. When the curd has separated from the "whey,"
pour the contents of the pan into a cheese-cloth bag and hang in the
open air to drip for several hours, when it should be ready to use.

From three quarts of sour milk you should obtain one good pound of
smier-kase. To prepare it for the table place one-half the quantity in
a bowl and add one teaspoonful of softened butter, a pinch of salt
and mix as smoothly as possible. Or the smier-kase may be molded into
small rolls, and a small quantity of finely-chopped Pimento added.
This will keep fresh several days if kept in a cool cellar or


For deep frying Mary was taught to use lard and kidney suet combined.
The latter had been tried out by cutting suet in small pieces. The
suet, in an iron pan, was placed in a moderately hot oven until fat
was tried out. To prevent suet when rendered having a taste of tallow,
place in the upper part of boiler, over one containing hot water, and
stand on a hot range until all is tried out, or melted, instead of
putting it in oven. Strain into a jar and stand aside in a cool place
until wanted. Take one-third of this tried-out suet to two-thirds lard
when frying croquettes, oysters, cruellers or fritters. Suet contains
food value equal to that of lard and food fried in this fat, combined
with lard, is more wholesome than if fried in lard alone--if any food
fried in fat _ever is_ wholesome. And suet is more economical than
lard if rendered at home. Mary was taught by her Aunt to save all the
trimmings from steaks, fat left over from roasts, boiled ham, sausage,
bacon fat, etc. When different fats have been tried out, to clarify
them, add to every pound and a half of combined fat or drippings a
half cup of boiling water and a pinch of baking soda. Boil until water
evaporates and fat is clear. Strain into a bowl and keep in a cool
place. Clean, sweet drippings are preferred by most cooks to lard for
many purposes. All young housewives do not know that ham or bacon fat
may be substituted for half the shortening called for in many recipes
for molasses cakes (where spices are used) with good results. Also
that the grease rendered from clean fat of chickens, which greatly
resembles butter when tried out and cold, may be combined with an
equal quantity of other shortening in making cakes in which spices are
used. The difference in the taste of cake made from this fat, if
rendered sweet and clean, will not be noticed. Equal parts of ham or
bacon fat, pork chops or sausage fat, combined with butter, are
excellent for frying cornmeal mush, eggs, sweet potatoes, egg bread
and calves' liver. Also sliced tomatoes have a particularly fine
flavor if fried in bacon fat. Should fat removed from top of stock pot
have a flavor of vegetables, pour boiling water over, strain and stand
aside to cool; then remove the clean cake of fat on top of the water
and add to bowl of drippings. This is one of the small economies which
will, I think, appeal to the frugal young housewife. If possible,
procure an iron pot for deep frying. After using, strain the fat
remaining, adding sediment in the bottom of cook-pot to the can of
soap fat; then return the clean, strained fat to the cook pot. Keep in
a cool place, closely covered, and if careful not to scorch the fat.
It may be used over and over again, and croquettes, etc., may be
prepared in a few moments by simply heating the kettle of fat in which
to fry them.

Aunt Sarah frequently filled small glass jars with rendered mutton
suet, scented with violet essence, to be used for chapped lips and


For this excellent omelette or "eierkuchen," as Aunt Sarah called it,
she used the following:

3 fresh eggs.
1 cup sweet milk.
3 level tablespoonfuls of flour.

She placed on the range a small fry pan (size of a tea plate),
containing one tablespoonful of butter. She then placed 3
tablespoonfuls of flour in a bowl, mixed smoothly with a portion of
the cup of milk, then added the three yolks of eggs which had been
lightly beaten and the balance of the milk and a pinch of salt.
Lastly, she stirred in lightly the stiffly-beaten whites of eggs.
Poured all into the warmed fry-pan and placed it in a moderately hot
oven until lightly browned on top. The omelette when cooked should be
light and puffy, and remain so while being served. Double the omelette
together on a hot platter and sprinkle finely chopped parsley over the
top. Serve immediately.


Eggs to be hard boiled should be carefully placed in boiling water
and cooked 15 minutes from the time the water commences to boil again.
If cooked a longer time, the white of egg will look dark and the outer
part of yolk will not be a clear yellow, as it should, to look
appetizing when served.


The quicker way to prepare eggs is to drop them in a stew-pan
containing boiling water, and let boil 3-1/2 to 4 minutes, when the
white part of the egg should be "set" and the yolk soft, but a soft
boiled egg is said to be more easily digested if dropped into a
stew-pan of rapidly boiling water; remove the stew-pan of boiling
water the minute the eggs have been put in from the front part of the
range to a place where the water will keep hot, but not allow the eggs
to boil. Let the eggs remain in the hot water from 8 to 10 minutes. On
breaking the egg open, the yolk will be found soft, and the white of
the egg a soft, jelly-like consistency. This latter is the way Aunt
Sarah taught Mary.


Beat the yolks of three eggs until light, then add three
tablespoonfuls of water. Beat the whites of the eggs separately. Turn
the stiffly-beaten whites of the eggs into the bowl containing the
yolks of eggs and water. Stir lightly together and add a pinch of
salt. Turn all into a small fry-pan containing a generous
tablespoonful of butter and cook on top of stove until the eggs are
set, then place the pan containing omelette in a hot oven and finish
cooking. When cooked, turn out on a hot platter and spread over the
top the following, which was prepared while the omelette was cooking.
In a small fry-pan place a tablespoonful of finely-chopped bacon. When
fried brown add half a small tomato, finely chopped, 1/4 of an onion,
chopped fine, and a little chopped green pepper. Cook all together for
a short time and season with salt and pepper. After spreading the
mixture on the omelette, fold over and serve on a hot platter. This
recipe had been given Frau Schmidt years before by a friend and she
used no other for making omelette. Always make small omelettes. They
are more satisfactory. Use a small pan no larger than a small tea
plate, and, if wished, make two small, rather than one large one.
Always serve immediately.


Place the yolks of three eggs in a bowl and beat until light. Add a
teaspoonful of cream and 1/2 teaspoonful of flour mixed together; 1/2
cup of chopped mushrooms, salt and pepper and a dust of baking powder.
Lastly, the stiffly-beaten whites of the eggs. Turn into a pan
containing two tablespoonfuls of melted butter, stand on range a few
minutes until eggs are set, then finish cooking in a hot oven. Serve
at once.

A few cold, steamed mushrooms (left-overs), if finely chopped, and
added to a plain omelette or roast, will improve the flavor.


Two eggs beaten separately, 1 scant cup of milk, 1 tablespoonful of
flour, 6 clams run through a food-chopper. Place in a bowl the
tablespoon of flour and mix smooth with a little of the milk. Then add
the two yolks of eggs and beat well together. Add the milk, salt and
pepper, the chopped clams, and lastly the stiffly-beaten whites of
eggs, and add a trifle more flour, if necessary. Drop a couple of
tablespoons at a time in a large fry-pan containing a couple of
tablespoons of butter or drippings. They spread out about the size of
a small saucer. Fry as many at a time as the pan will conveniently
hold without running together. Turn when browned lightly on one side,
and when the other side has cooked fold together and serve at once.
Garnish with parsley. These are very easily made for luncheon, and are
very nice served with fried chicken.


Boil half a dozen eggs until hard. Remove shells, cut in halves, mash
the yolks to a smooth paste with about 1/2 teaspoon mixed mustard, 1
teaspoon softened butter, pepper and salt to taste. Some like a small
quantity of cold boiled minced ham added. When ingredients are well
mixed, press enough of this mixture into the cup-shaped whites of eggs
to form a rounding top. Serve on a platter of parsley. To boil eggs
uniformly, they should be placed in a wire basket and plunged into
boiling water and boiled not longer than 15 to 20 minutes from time
water commences to boil, then pour cold water over and shell them.


Four eggs, boiled hard, cut in halves lengthwise, then across, each
egg cut in four pieces. A cream sauce was made using 1/2 cups sweet
milk, 1-1/2 tablespoons flour, 1 generous tablespoon of butter,
seasoned with salt. After letting milk come to a boil and adding flour
mixed smoothly with a little cold milk or water, add butter and cook
until a thick creamy consistency, then add the quartered eggs to
sauce. Stand a few minutes until heated through. Pour the creamed eggs
over four or five slices of nicely-toasted bread. Sprinkle a little
finely-chopped parsley and a pinch of pepper over top and serve at
once. This is a delicious and quickly prepared luncheon dish.

A very wholesome and digestible way to prepare an egg is to put yolk
and white of a fresh egg together in a bowl, beat lightly, pour over
the egg a pint of rich milk, which has been heated to the boiling
point. Add a pinch of salt. Stir constantly while slowly adding the
milk. The hot milk should slightly cook the egg. Eat slowly with
crackers or toasted bread.


Aunt Sarah for many years preserved eggs in water glass, or soluble
glass, also known as "Sodium Silicate," a thick liquid about the
consistency of molasses. It is not expensive and may easily be
procured at any drug store. She used the water glass in the proportion
of 10 quarts of water to one pint of the water glass. The water glass,
although in liquid form, is usually sold by the pound, and 1-1/2
pounds equals one pint. The water should always he boiled and allowed
to cool before combining with the water glass.

She was particular to use none but perfectly clean, fresh eggs. She
placed the eggs, narrow end down, in an earthenware crock which had
been well scalded and cooled. When the water glass had been thoroughly
mixed through the water she poured the mixture over the eggs in the

A stronger solution might be used to preserve the eggs, but Aunt Sarah
declared she used eggs for baking cake which were good at the
expiration of a year, which had been preserved in a mixture of 10
quarts of water to a pint of water glass, and she considered this
proportion perfectly reliable. So I do not see the need of using a
large quantity of the water glass, although many recipes call for a
mixture of one pint of water glass to only 8 quarts of water.

Fresh eggs may be added daily until the crock is filled, having the
mixture at least one inch above the last layer of eggs. It is best not
to wash the eggs before packing, as this removes the natural
mucilaginous coating on the outside of the shell. Place clean, fresh
eggs carefully into the crock containing the water glass and water,
with a long-handled spoon to avoid cracking the shell. Stand the crock
containing eggs in a cool place, cover with a cloth tied over top of
crock, avoiding frequent change of temperature; they should keep one
year. The water glass solution may become cloudy, and resemble a
soft-soap mixture, but this is a natural condition and does not affect
the eggs.

April is considered the best month for packing eggs. Infertile eggs
are to be preferred to others. Carefully remove the eggs from the
water glass mixture with a long-handled spoon when wanted to use, as
the shells are sometimes not quite as hard as when placed in the
crock. The eggs may be used for cooking, baking, in fact, for any
purpose except soft-boiled but should you wish to boil them, a tiny
puncture should be made in the shell of these eggs before boiling.

Ten quarts of water to one pint of water glass will cover about 12 or
13 dozen eggs.


Place an egg in a tumbler, fill tumbler with cold water. If eggs are
fresh they will remain in the bottom of tumbler. If not strictly fresh
the egg will float on the top, or near the top of tumbler of water.


For this she used 1 pint of sour cream, 1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of flour,
1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of mustard (pulverized dry mustard), 3 eggs, 1/4
cup butter (or 1/4 cup of olive oil may be used instead, if liked),
1/2 cup good sour vinegar, 1/2 teaspoonful of black pepper and a pinch
of red pepper (cayenne), salt to taste, 1/2 teaspoonful of sugar.
Place in a bowl the 1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of flour with the same
quantity of mustard; mix smoothly with a little of the sour cream.
Then add the eggs, beaten in one at a time, or use, instead, the yolks
of five eggs. When using the whites for angel cake or any white cake
Aunt Sarah usually made salad dressing from the remaining yolks of
eggs. Add the sour cream and vinegar, salt and pepper. Mix all well
together and strain through a fine sieve and cook in a double boiler
over hot water until a creamy consistency. Pour in glass jars. This
dressing will keep well on ice or in a cool place for two weeks. If
too thick, thin with a little vinegar, water or milk when using it.
About 3/4 of a cup of this dressing was used for mixing with 1 cup of
the meat of cold, cooked chicken in making chicken salad. The white
meat of chicken was cut in dice and 3/4 cup of celery was also cut in
small pieces, a couple of hard boiled eggs, cut in dice, were added
and the whole was carefully mixed with the salad dressing. Cold boiled
veal or pork may be used instead of chicken for salad. Potato salad
was sometimes prepared by using a small quantity of this dressing,
adding, also, minced onion, parsley and celery. Hot slaw was prepared
by heating a couple of tablespoonfuls of the salad dressing and mixing
with shredded cabbage. Or use as a dressing for lettuce when not
served "Au Natural" with olive oil and vinegar at the table.

Should very _thick_, sour cream be used in making "Aunt Sarah's salad
dressing," use a mixture of sour cream and sweet milk, instead of all
sour cream.


Thinly slice one large green cucumber and one medium-sized onion (if
liked). Sprinkle over about one teaspoonful of salt. Allow to stand a
short time, then place in a piece of cheese-cloth and squeeze out all
the moisture possible. Place cucumbers, when drained, in the dish in
which they are to be served, add a couple tablespoonfuls of sour
vinegar, mix well. Then pour over enough thick sour cream to half
cover and a dust of pepper. Cucumbers are considered less unwholesome,
prepared in this manner.


Aunt Sarah pared and cut 1-1/2 cups of uncooked carrots in thin
strips, not much larger than common match sticks, and cooked in salted
water until tender. When drained, pour over them a couple of
tablespoonfuls of vinegar. Allowed to stand until cold. When ready to
prepare the salad she drained off vinegar remaining. Lined a salad
bowl with lettuce leaves or parsley, placed inside this a border of
halved or sliced cold hard-boiled eggs; mixed the carrots lightly with
salad dressing, placed them in the centre of the bowl and served ice
cold. This is a particularly delicious, as well as an appetizing
looking, salad. I have never eaten this elsewhere than at Aunt Sarah's


Two dressed chickens were cooked tender. When cold, meat was removed
from bones and cut in dice (not too fine). Cut half the amount of
celery you have of meat into small pieces.

Dressing for salad was composed of the following: Three well-beaten
yolks of eggs. Pour over these 1 pint of boiling hot cider vinegar,
stand on back of range to thicken. Place in a bowl 3 freshly boiled
and finely mashed white potatoes, add 1 tablespoonful of dry mustard,
6 teaspoonfuls of olive oil, 1 tablespoonful of salt, 1 tablespoonful
of pepper. Mix all well together, then add the thickened vinegar. Beat
together until creamy and stand aside until chilled.

Drop the three whites of eggs in hot water, remove when cooked, chop
fine and when cold add to the chicken meat and celery.

Pour the dressing over all the ingredients, stir lightly with a fork
and stand in a cold place until chilled before serving.


Boil one dozen small potatoes without paring. Remove the skin and cut
potatoes size of dice, also a small onion, finely minced. Put small
pieces of bacon in a pan and fry brown and crisp. Add a large
tablespoonful of vinegar and a pinch of salt. Pour the hot bacon fat
and vinegar over the diced potatoes, toss them up lightly with a fork
and serve hot.


This is the manner in which Aunt Sarah made turnip salad: She pared
and sliced thin on a slaw cutter 5 large, solid turnips, put them in a
stew-pan which she placed on the range, adding about 1/4 cup hot
water, 1 teaspoonful of butter and 1/4 teaspoonful of sugar (no more).
She covered the stew-pan closely and steamed about half an hour until
the turnips were tender. Then mixed together 1 teaspoonful of flour
with 1 tablespoonful of vinegar and yolk of one egg. This was poured
over the stewed turnips, just allowed to come to a boil, then removed
from the fire. Add a little salt and serve hot.


For dandelion, watercress, endive or lettuce, a dressing was made
thus: The leaves of vegetables used for salad, after being carefully
rinsed and looked over, were cut fine, and the following dressing
poured over hot and served at once.

A small quantity of bacon was finely minced and fried crisp. To about
2 tablespoonfuls of bacon and fat after being fried, 3 tablespoonfuls
of vinegar and 1 of sour cream, were added pepper and salt and a very
little flour mixed with cold water, to make it the consistency of
cream. The yolk of one raw egg may be added to the dressing if liked.
An easier way for the busy housewife to do is to simply add a couple
of tablespoonfuls of Aunt Sarah's Salad Dressing, add also a small
quantity of water, flour and fried, diced bacon; serve hot at once.


A bowl of cold, boiled, diced or thinly-sliced potatoes, three hard
boiled eggs, also diced, and about half the quantity of celery chopped
in half-inch pieces, and a little minced onion, just enough to give a
suspicion of its presence. She mixed all together lightly with a
silver fork and mixed through some of the following salad dressing,
which is fine for anything requiring a cold salad dressing.


One tablespoonful of flour, 1 tablespoonful of mustard, 2 cups of
sweet or sour cream, 1 tablespoonful of sugar, 1/2 cup of good sharp
vinegar, yolks of four eggs, small teaspoonful of salt. Omit sugar
when using the dressing for potato or chicken salad. This salad
dressing may also be used for lettuce.


Three tablespoonfuls of olive oil to 1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar.
Season with salt and pepper. Use this quantity for 1 pint of salad.


Cut the pulp from one grape fruit into small pieces, add an equal
amount of chopped apples, a few English walnuts chopped coarsely.
Serve on lettuce leaves with fruit salad dressing. This recipe was
given Mary by a friend who knew her liking for olive oil.

Grape fruit is delicious, served cut in halves with the addition to
each half; of a couple tablespoonfuls of pineapple juice, a
tablespoonful of orange juice or tiny pieces of orange pulp, topped
with a marachino cherry. A small quantity of sugar should have been
added. The sections of grape fruit should each have been cut loose
from the white skin inclosing pulp with a small knife or scissors.


1 tablespoonful flour.
1 tablespoonful butter.
1 tablespoonful mustard.
1/2 tablespoonful sugar.
1 teaspoonful salt.
1 egg.
3/4 cup milk.
3/4 cup vinegar.

Use a double boiler, put in it the first five articles, stir together
until smooth; add the well-beaten egg and the milk. Let cook, stirring
hard. Then add vinegar, and beat all with an egg-beater until the
mixture is smooth and creamy. Let cool before using.

Aunt Sarah frequently used this salad dressing over sliced, cold, hard
boiled eggs when other salad materials were not plentiful. Serve on
lettuce leaves.


A bowl was lined with crisp lettuce leaves, over this was spread a
layer of cold boiled potatoes, cut in dice, a little finely minced
onion, a layer of chopped celery, another layer of diced potatoes,
then a layer of sliced tomatoes and one hard boiled egg, thinly
sliced. Pour a good salad dressing over and serve ice cold.


A sauce to serve with boiled meat was prepared by Aunt Sarah in the
following manner: She put half a cup of milk in a stew-pan, let come
to a boil, added one large tablespoonful of cracker crumbs, 1 large
teaspoonful of butter, 2 large tablespoonfuls of freshly grated
horseradish, seasoned with pepper and salt. Also a pinch of salt,
sugar and pepper added to grated horseradish, then thinned with
vinegar, is an excellent accompaniment to cold meat.


Before making this dressing for salads, Mary placed a large soup plate
or a shallow bowl in the refrigerator, also a bottle of olive oil and
two egg yolks. All should be quite cold. Put the yolks on the cold
plate, add 1/4 teaspoonful of salt, the same of mustard. Mix well and
then, with a fork, stir or blend the olive oil into it drop by drop.
After about 1/2 cup of oil has been blended in, add lemon juice, a
drop or two at a time. Then more oil, and when it becomes very thick
add more lemon juice. A pint or even more oil may, with care, be
blended into two yolks. Care must be taken not to mix oil in too fast,
or the egg and oil will separate, making a mixture resembling curdled
custard. If this should happen, take another plate, another egg yolk,
and begin over again, blending a drop or two at a time in the curdled
mixture. Then add more oil and lemon juice as before.


Two tablespoonfuls mustard, 1 tablespoonful of sugar, 1/2 cup cream, 1
tablespoon salt, yolks of two eggs and 1/2 cup of vinegar. Beat all
well together, first mixing the mustard until smooth with a small
quantity of cream, then add the other ingredients. (Mary used only 1
tablespoonful of mustard, and substituted 1 tablespoonful of flour
instead of the second tablespoonful of mustard and thought it improved
the dressing.) This mustard dressing may also be served at table, to
be eaten with lettuce.


The meat of one boiled chicken cut in small pieces, three-fourths as
much celery, also cut in small pieces. Three hard boiled eggs cut in
dice. Take 2 teaspoonfuls salt, 2 teaspoonfuls pepper, 4 teaspoonfuls
mustard, 1 cup of sweet cream and 1 raw egg. Use vinegar to thin the
mustard. Beat the raw egg, add to cream, egg and butter (mash yolks of
hard boiled eggs and butter together). Mix all the ingredients
together and cook until it thickens (all except chicken meat, celery
and hard boiled whites of eggs, which should be placed in a large bowl
after cutting in small pieces). The salad dressing should he put in
another bowl and stood on ice until cold, then mix the salad dressing
carefully through the chicken meat, celery, etc., one hour before
using. Cover with a plate until ready to serve. Or "Aunt Sarah's Salad
Dressing" could be used over the chicken, celery, etc. This is a very
old but an excellent recipe used by Aunt Sarah's mother for many


Chop fine with a knife, but do not shred with a slaw cutter, 1 pint of
finely chopped cabbage, adding 1 teaspoonful of salt, 2 teaspoonfuls
of sugar, 1 teaspoonful of whole mustard seed, 1/2 a chopped red,
sweet pepper, a pinch of red cayenne pepper and 1/2 pint of vinegar.
Mix all well together and serve with fried oysters, oyster stew and
deviled oysters.

This "pepper hash" is delicious if a couple tablespoonfuls of thick
cream be added just before serving.

Should very sour cider vinegar be used in this recipe, the housewife
will, of course, dilute it with water.


Use small green or yellow string-beans, which snap when broken, called
by some "snap beans." String them carefully. (If quite small and
tender this should not be necessary.) Rub well with the hands through
several waters. This removes the strong bean taste. Have your kettle
half filled with boiling water on the range over a brisk fire. Put a
tablespoon of butter in the water, add beans by handfuls until all are
in and cook until tender. Turn the beans in a colander to drain. When
cool add a chopped onion, salt and pour enough good vinegar over to
cover, and allow to stand two days, when strain vinegar from beans.
Boil vinegar, add water if vinegar is quite sour and pour hot over
the beans. Fill quart glass jars with the beans and pour vinegar over,
within an inch of top of jar; pour pure olive oil over top of beans,
screw on jar covers tightly and stand in a cool place until wanted to
use. In the winter, when fresh salads were scarce, Aunt Sarah opened a
can of these beans. If they were very sour she poured cold water over,
allowed to stand an hour, drained and added a little fresh olive oil.
Every one called her "bean salat," as the Pennsylvania Germans call
it, delicious. The instructions regarding the preparing and cooking of
string beans for salad will answer for beans used as a vegetable,
omitting vinegar, of course. There is a great difference in the manner
of cooking vegetables. Aunt Sarah always added an onion and a sprig of
parsley when cooking beans to serve as a vegetable.


To quote from the _Farmers' Bulletin_: "Whether meat salads are
economical or not depends upon the way in which the materials are
utilized. If in chicken salad, for example, only the white meat of
chicken, especially bought for the purpose, and only the expensive
inside stems of expensive celery are used, it can hardly be cheaper
than plain chicken. But, if portions of meat left over from a previous
serving are mixed with celery grown at home, they certainly make an
economical dish, and one very acceptable to most persons. Cold roast
pork or tender veal, in fact, any white meat, can be utilized in the
same way. Apples cut into cubes may be substituted for part of the
celery. Many cooks consider that with the apple the salad takes the
dressing better than with the celery alone. Many also prefer to
marinate (_i.e._, mix with a little oil and vinegar) the meat and
celery or celery and apples before putting on the final dressing,
which may be either mayonnaise or a good boiled dressing."

Celery should not be allowed to stand in water. To keep fresh until
used it should be wrapped in a piece of damp cheese-cloth and placed
in an ice box or cool cellar.

Lettuce should be broken apart, carefully rinsed, and put loosely in a
piece of damp cheese-cloth and placed on ice to crisp before using.


Scald coffee pot well before using (never use metal). Place in it five
tablespoons ground coffee. (A good coffee is made from a mixture of
two-thirds Java to one-third Mocha.) Beat up with the ground coffee
one whole egg. Should the housewife deem this extravagant, use only
the white of one egg, or peel off the white skin lining inside of egg
shells and use. Add three tablespoons cold water and mix well
together. Stand on range to heat; when hot add one quart of
_freshly-boiled_ hot water. Allow coffee to boil to top of coffee pot
three times (about eight minutes), pour over one tablespoon cold water
to settle. Stand a few minutes where it will keep hot, not boil. Place
a generous tablespoon of sweet thick cream in each cup and pour coffee
through a strainer over it. Always serve hot.

A larger or smaller amount of coffee may be used, as different brands
of coffee vary in strength and individual tastes differ, but five
tablespoons of coffee, not too coarsely ground and not pulverized, to
one quart of water, will be the correct proportions for good coffee.
Use cream and you will have a delicious, rich, brown beverage not
possible when milk is used. Better coffee may be made if whole grains
of roasted coffee be bought, reheated in oven and freshly ground
whenever used, rather finely ground but not pulverized. Coffee, when
ground for any length of time, loses strength. If coffee is ground
when purchased, always keep it in closely covered cans until used. Or
buy green coffee berries and roast them in oven; when coffee has been
roasted, stir one whole raw egg through the coffee berries; when dry,
place in covered cans, then no egg will be needed when preparing
coffee. As a substitute for cream, use yolk of fresh egg mixed with a
couple tablespoonfuls of milk.


Mix four tablespoonfuls of cocoa to a smooth paste with one cup of
boiling water. Add one more cup boiling water and boil fifteen or
twenty minutes. Add four tablespoonfuls of sugar, then add 4 cups of
hot boiled milk. A few drops of essence of vanilla improves the
flavor. Add a couple tablespoonfuls whipped cream on top of each cup
when serving, or, instead of cream, place a marshmallow in each cup
before pouring in cocoa. This quantity is for six cups of cocoa.


One square of Baker's unsweetened chocolate shaved thinly or grated,
mixed to a smooth paste with 1 cup of boiling water. Boil from fifteen
to twenty minutes. Add 1 cup of boiling milk and 2 even tablespoonfuls
of sugar. Flavor with a few drops of vanilla, if liked, and add
whipped cream to each cup when serving. This is for 2 cups of


It sometimes becomes necessary to boil drinking water, which usually
has a flat, insipid taste. Do young housewives know it is said that
after water has been boiled and when quite cool if a bottle be half
filled and shaken well the water will become aerated, and have the
taste of fresh spring water?


To make tea always scald the teapot, which should be agate,
earthenware or china, never metal. Always use water that has been
_freshly_ boiled, and use it boiling hot. Never, under any
circumstances, boil tea, as tannin is then extracted from the leaves,
and the tea will have a bitter taste. Do not allow tea to stand any
length of time unless strained from tea leaves. Use one teaspoon of
tea for each cup, unless liked stronger, when add one extra teaspoon
to each three cups of tea. Some contend that tea is better, if at
first a small quantity of boiling water is poured over the leaves,
allowing it to steep three minutes--then pour over the remaining
quantity of boiling water and let stand about four minutes, when it is
ready to serve with cream and sugar, if liked. Should any tea remain
after serving do not throw away, but strain at once from tea leaves
and when cool place in a glass jar in refrigerator to be used as iced


For two quarts of delicious iced tea, place in an agate teapot one
generous tablespoon of good tea (never buy a cheap, inferior grade of
tea). Pour over the tea leaves one quart of freshly boiled, scalding
hot water; let stand five minutes, keep hot (not boil), strain from
the leaves into a pitcher, then pour over the tea leaves another quart
of hot water, allow it to stand a few minutes, then strain as before.
Add the juice of one lemon and sugar to taste. When cooled stand on
ice and add chipped ice to tumblers when serving.


To boil a pudding in a bag, dip the bag, which should be made of thick
cotton or linen, in hot water, dredge the inside well with flour
before putting batter into the bag. When the pudding has boiled a long
enough time, dip the bag quickly in cold water, and the pudding will
turn out easily. Allow five large eggs to 1 quart of milk usually to
make custard solid enough to keep its shape when turned from the mold.
One teaspoonful of extract will flavor one quart. Always stand
individual cups in a pan partly filled with hot water. Place pan
containing custard cups in a moderate oven and bake slowly forty
minutes. Always sift flour over beef suet when chopping it to be used
in puddings. Pour boiling water over Pecans (nuts), allow to stand
several hours. When cracked, the shell may be easily removed, leaving
the nuts whole.

Blanch almonds by pouring boiling water over them. Allow them to stand
a short time, when the brown skin may be easily removed. Dry
thoroughly by standing in a rather cool oven, then put in glass jars
and they are ready to use. Almonds are used particularly by the
Germans in various ways. One hausfrau adds chopped almonds to cooked
oatmeal for her children's breakfast and they are frequently used as
an ingredient; also to decorate the tops of raised cakes. When dried
currants and raisins are bought by the frugal housewife they are
quickly washed in cold water, carefully picked over, then turned on to
a sieve to drain. Raisins are seeded, then spread over pans, placed in
a warm oven about 15 minutes, then spread on a plate and allowed to
stand in a dry place for several days. When thoroughly dried place in
glass jars and stand aside until required. Currants or raisins should
always be well floured before adding to cake or pudding. The "German
hausfrau" usually serves stewed prunes or raisins with a dish of
noodles or macaroni.


One of the simplest and cheapest of desserts depends partly on the
quality of the ingredients used, but chiefly on the manner of making
for its excellence. If prepared according to directions, you will have
a pudding both rich and creamy. Use 1 quart of good sweet milk (do not
use either skimmed milk or water), 3 tablespoonfuls of whole uncoated
rice (no more), 2-1/2 tablespoonfuls of sugar, pinch of salt, vanilla
or almond flavoring.

Wash the rice well, mix all together in a pudding dish, bake from
2-1/2 to 3 hours in an oven with a slow, even heat. When a skin forms
on the top of the pudding, carefully stir through the rice. Do this
frequently. This gives the pudding a rich, creamy consistency. When
grains of rice are tender allow pudding to brown over top and serve
either hot or cold. Raisins may be added, if liked, or raisins may be
stewed separately and served with the rice, which many think a great
improvement to the pudding. Many think rice pudding should always be
flavored with grated nutmeg. Aunt Sarah, while using nutmeg flavoring
in various other dishes, never used it for her rice pudding.

When mixing a boiled pudding Aunt Sarah frequently substituted a large
tablespoon of fine dried bread crumbs instead of the same amount of
flour. She said, "'Twas a small economy," and, she thought, "the
pudding's improved" by the use of bread crumbs.


Prepare a syrup of 1 cup sugar, 2 cups of hot water and 1 tablespoon
of butter. Pour all into an agate pudding dish. Add to this syrup 2
heaping cups of pared, sliced sour apples.

Let all come to a boil. For the dumplings, sift together one cup of
flour and two even teaspoons of baking powder. Add a pinch of salt.
Mix into a soft dough or batter with about 3/4 cup of sweet milk or
cream. Drop six or eight spoonfuls of this batter into the boiling
syrup on top of apples. Cover closely and cook on top of range twenty
minutes without uncovering. Serve hot. These dumplings should be light
as puff balls. Peaches may be substituted for apples and are


1 pint of milk.
2 eggs.
1/2 cup granulated sugar.

Melt 1/2 cup of sugar in an iron pan on stove and allow it to brown.
Add a part of the hot milk, stirring constantly until brown sugar is
dissolved. Add balance of the pint of hot milk. Stir all together,
then stand aside to cool. When cold, add eggs and bake in oven in
custard cups. Stand cups in hot water while baking.


Pour 1 quart of boiling milk over 1-1/2 pints of soft bread crumbs.
Put the mixture into a buttered pudding dish with 1 teaspoonful salt.
Cover closely with a plate and let stand about half an hour. At the
end of that time beat into it three eggs, 1 teaspoonful lemon extract,
and beat until perfectly smooth. Bake in a moderately hot oven
three-quarters of an hour. Serve with the following sauce: 6
tablespoonfuls pulverized sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls butter, 1
tablespoonful lemon juice. Beat all together to a cream; when it is
ready to serve. No sugar is needed in this pudding if this sweet sauce
is used.


Place 1 cup of fine dried bread crumbs in a bowl. Pour over the crumbs
2 cups of milk and allow to stand a short time. Beat together 2 eggs
and scant 1/2 cup sugar, add 1 tablespoon of butter. Mix all the
ingredients together thoroughly; then add 1/2 cup of chopped raisins,
which have been seeded and floured. Pour the batter in the
well-buttered top part of a double boiler over hot water. Steam about
2-1/2 to 3 hours. Serve hot with sauce used for cottage pudding, or
serve with sugar and cream.


Into a well-buttered pudding dish put a layer of sliced sour apples.
On the top of these a layer of stale bread crumbs with small bits of
butter and sugar sprinkled over them, more sliced apples and bread
crumbs, having the crumbs for the top layer. To about three apples use
1 cup of bread crumbs, 1/2 cup sugar, piece of butter size of walnut
and bake in oven until apples are tender. Serve with cream.


1 quart of sweet milk.
5 large eggs.
3 tablespoons sugar.
Grated nutmeg or vanilla flavoring.

Scald milk. Beat whites of eggs separately. Add milk when cooled to
the beaten yolks. Add sugar and flavoring. Stir in stiffly beaten
whites of eggs, pour into custard cups, stand them in a dripping pan
half filled with boiling water. Stand the pan in a moderate oven about
twenty minutes, or until custard is "set." This quantity fills about
eight small custard cups. The water surrounding the custard cups
should not be allowed to boil, but the custard should cook slowly.

Grate nutmeg thickly over top of each custard before placing in the
oven. Scalding the milk before using improves the custard.


Sift into a bowl 1/4 cup of pastry flour and 1 teaspoonful of baking
powder. Add 1 cup Graham flour, pinch of salt and 1/2 cup granulated
sugar. Mix all thoroughly, then add 1/2 cup of finely chopped kidney
suet. Add 1 cup of seedless raisins mixed with one extra tablespoonful
of white flour. Mix into a batter with 1 cup of sweet milk, to which
add yolk of one egg. Lastly, add the stiffly beaten white of egg.
Flavor with either a little grated nutmeg or essence of vanilla.

Make a strong, unbleached muslin bag 7 by 12 inches. Pour the batter
into the bag, which had been previously dipped in cold water, the
inside of the bag sifted over with flour, and tie bag at top with a
string, allowing room for the pudding to swell. Place the bag in the
perforated compartment of a steamer, over boiling water, and boil
continuously 1-1/2 hours, or longer, without removing lid of steamer
oftener than absolutely necessary.

Serve Graham Pudding hot with sauce used for "cottage pudding," or
serve simply with sugar and cream, or a sauce may be served composed
of 1/2 cup of pulverized sugar, creamed with 1/4 cup of butter. Add 1
tablespoonful of lemon juice or flavor with vanilla. Stand sauce in a
cool place a short time and serve cold on hot pudding.


Place 1-3/4 cups of soft stale (either white or graham) bread crumbs
in a pudding dish. Pour 2 cups of hot milk over the crumbs, cover with
a plate and allow it to stand about thirty minutes, then add yolks of
2 eggs, 1/2 teaspoonful of salt, 1 tablespoonful of sugar and grated
yellow rind of orange or lemon for flavoring. Beat the mixture until
perfectly smooth, add the stiffly beaten whites of two eggs. Bake in a
moderately hot oven. Serve hot with the following sauce:


Three large tablespoonfuls of pulverized sugar and 1 tablespoonful of
butter were beaten together until smooth and creamy, 1 teaspoonful of
lemon juice was added. The sauce, when quite cold, was served with the
warm pudding.


Cream together 1 cup of sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls of butter, 1 egg,
white beaten separately, and added last, 1 cup of sweet milk, pinch of
salt, 2 cups of flour, sifted with 2 heaping teaspoonfuls of Royal
baking powder, 1/2 cup of dried currants, well floured. Add stiffly
beaten white of egg. Bake in a small oblong bread pan.


One cup of milk, 1/2 cup of water, 1 large teaspoonful of butter, a
scant tablespoonful of flour moistened with a small quantity of water,
before adding. Sweeten to taste, add 1/2 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg.
Cook all together a few minutes, allow the mixture to partly cool,
then stir in the yolk of one egg; stand on stove to heat, but not to
cook. Serve hot over freshly baked, warm cottage pudding, cut in


Aunt Sarah pared and quartered six medium-sized tart apples, placed in
the bottom of an agate pudding dish, poured over them one cup of hot
water and 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar. She allowed this to stand on the
range and cook while she mixed the following dough.

Into a bowl she sifted 1 pint of flour with 2 teaspoons baking powder,
one teaspoonful of sugar, a little salt. Cut 1 tablespoonful of butter
through the flour. Lightly mixed all together into a soft dough with
about 3/4 cup sweet milk. Should she have a left-over yolk of egg,
that was added to the milk. She rolled dough out lightly on the bread
board, cut vents in the crust to allow steam to escape and spread it
over the top of the dish containing the hot apples; placed in a hot
oven to bake until light brown on top. Serve with sugar and cream.

Aunt Sarah called this "Apple Strudel," but the German recipe for
"Apple Strudel," handed down by her Grandmother, was quite different.
An ordinary noodle dough was made, placed on a clean cloth on the
table and rolled as thin as tissue paper. Small bits of butter were
scattered over this, covered with tart apples, thinly sliced,
sprinkled with cinnamon, sugar and chopped raisins, rolled up and
baked in the oven until brown on top, basting frequently with a thin
syrup composed of sugar, butter and water.


1 pint of milk.
1/2 cup of sugar
1 cup bread crumbs.
Juice and grated rind of one lemon.
2 eggs.
1/3 cup of butter.

3 tablespoonfuls of pulverized sugar used for top. Soak the bread
crumbs in milk. Beat the butter and sugar together. Add yolks of eggs,
soaked bread crumbs and grated lemon rind and about 3/4 of the juice
of the lemon. Bake in a buttered pudding dish until firm, then cover
the pudding with a meringue composed of the stiffly beaten whites of
eggs, 3 tablespoonfuls of pulverized sugar and the remaining lemon
juice. Place in oven to brown. Stand on ice; serve cold.


1 cup suet, chopped fine.
1 cup sugar.
1 cup sweet milk.
2 eggs.
1 teaspoonful cinnamon.
1 cup raisins.
1 cup currants.
3 cups flour sifted with 2 teaspoonfuls baking powder.

Steam 2-1/2 hours, then place in oven two or three minutes. This
quantity will partly fill three empty 1-pound baking powder cans;
allowing room to swell. These puddings are equally as good as when
freshly prepared if placed in a steamer a short time before serving
until heated through.


One cup of pulverized sugar and 1 large tablespoonful of butter
creamed together. One teaspoonful of vanilla. Add one whole egg or the
yolks of two eggs, or the whites of two eggs, whichever you happen to


1 cup sweet milk.
1 cup chopped suet.
1 cup molasses.
1 cup raisins.
1 teaspoonful soda dissolved in a little water.
1 teaspoonful salt.


A small quantity of cinnamon, allspice, nutmeg, and a _very little_
clove. Flour to make a batter a little thicker than that of ordinary
cake. Steam about 3 hours. This pudding is also inexpensive and
equally as good as the former recipe.

Beat 1 egg very light, add 1 cup brown sugar, 1 teaspoonful vanilla.
Beat all together until creamy. Serve at once.


Scald 1 quart of sweet milk. While hot stir in 3 tablespoonfuls of
cornmeal, 3 tablespoonfuls of flour mixed smooth with a little cold
milk. Add 1 tablespoonful of butter. Let cool. Then add to the mixture
1/2 cup sugar, 1/4 cup molasses, 1 well-beaten egg, 1/2 teaspoonful of
ginger, 1/2 teaspoonful cinnamon, 1/4 pint cold milk, a small pinch of
soda and 1/2 cup of floured, seeded raisins. Bake 2 hours in a
moderate oven. Serve with sugar and cream.


Two eggs and 1 small cup of granulated sugar creamed together. Four
tablespoonfuls of cold water. Add 1 cup of sifted flour containing 1
teaspoonful of baking powder, and 1 cup of huckleberries, pitted
cherries, or raisins and bake. Serve with milk or any sauce liked.
This recipe was given Mary by a friend, who called it her emergency
pudding, as it may be easily and quickly prepared from canned sour
cherries from which liquid has been drained, or any tart fruit, when
fresh fruit is not in season.


Four tablespoonfuls of pearl tapioca soaked in cold water over night.
The next morning drain the tapioca, boil 1 quart of sweet milk, beat
the yolks of 4 eggs light, stir them into the tapioca, adding 4
tablespoonfuls of sugar. Beat all together and gradually add the hot
milk. Return to the fire and stir until it commences to boil. Take
from the range and pour in a glass dish. Flavor with 1 teaspoonful of
vanilla. Whip the whites of the eggs to a standing froth and stir
into the cooling pudding When cold stand on ice until ready to serve.
One-half cup of shredded cocoanut may be added if liked.


For the dough place in a bowl 1 pint of flour sifted with 2
teaspoonfuls of Royal baking powder and a pinch of salt. Cut through
this a scant 1/2 cup of butter. Mix this with sufficient sweet milk to
make a soft dough. Roll out dough half an inch thick, cut in strips
and in case whole, ripe, pared peaches, leaving top and bottom of the
peach exposed. Or solid canned peaches may be used. Put two halves of
peach together and place a strip of dough around the peach. Pinch
dough well together, place in a bake dish. Prepare a syrup of 2 cups
of sugar and 1 cup of water. Let come to a boil, pour around the
dumplings and bake a half hour in a moderately hot oven. These are
delicious. The recipe was given Mary by a friend who was an excellent
cook. From this dough may also be baked excellent biscuits.


Place 1 pint of milk on the range in a double boiler. Melt half a cup
of sugar in an iron pan over the fire until a golden brown. When
melted add four tablespoonfuls of boiling water. Allow mixture to cook
one minute, then add it to the milk. Remove from the fire and add 1
teaspoonful of vanilla. When cool stir in 4 well-beaten eggs with 2
tablespoonfuls of sugar. Pour the mixture in a small pudding dish.
Stand in a pan of boiling water, place in oven to bake until a
jelly-like consistency. When cooled serve plain or with whipped cream.


Remove skin from stalks of rhubarb, wash and cut into half-inch pieces
a sufficient quantity to half fill a medium-sized agate or earthenware
pudding dish. Place in a stew-pan on range, cook slowly with a couple
tablespoons of sugar and a very small amount of water. Sift together
in a bowl 1 pint of flour, 1-1/2 teaspoons of baking powder and a
pinch of salt. With a knife cut through the flour 2 tablespoonfuls of
butter, moisten with one beaten egg and sufficient milk added to make
a soft dough or batter. Drop tablespoons of this thick batter over top
of dish containing hot stewed rhubarb. Place at once in a hot oven,
bake quickly until crust is a light brown. Serve on individual dishes,
placing over each a couple tablespoonfuls of the following sauce. The
combined flavor of rhubarb and vanilla is delicious.


Beat 1 egg very light, add 1 cup of light brown sugar and 1 teaspoon
of vanilla flavoring. Beat all together until foamy. Serve at once,
cold, on the hot pudding.


Add 1 cup of cold boiled rice to 2 cups of sweet milk, mix together
slowly. Add 1/4 cup sugar, the well-beaten yolks of 2 eggs, let all
cook together a few minutes. Remove custard from the fire and pour
over the stiffly-beaten whites of two eggs. Beat well with an
egg-beater. Place in a glass dish and serve cold.


One quart of finely _crumbled stale bread_ (not dried crumbs). Fill
buttered cups two-thirds full of crumbs and pour over the following
custard, composed of one pint of milk and three eggs. Allow to stand a
few minutes, then place the cups in a pan partly filled with hot
water, place the pan in a moderately hot oven and bake thirty minutes.
No sugar is required in this pudding if the following sweet sauce be
served with it:


Mix one tablespoonful of cornstarch with a half cup of sugar. Pour
over one cup of boiling water, add one generous teaspoonful of butter.
Cook all together until clear, take from the fire and add one
well-beaten egg and one teaspoonful of vanilla. Serve hot.


Pour three cups of milk in a stew-pan, place on range and let come to
a boil. Then stir slowly into the boiling milk 1-1/4 cups of buckwheat
flour and 1/4 teaspoonful of salt. Keep stirring constantly until a
thick mush. Serve at once with sugar and cream. I have never eaten
this pudding anywhere except in "Bucks County." It is cheap, quickly
and easily prepared and well liked by many country folk in Bucks


One cup of tapioca soaked in 1 quart of cold water several hours.
Place in stew-pan, set on stove and cook until clear. Add sugar to
taste and 1 pint can of peaches. Boil two or three minutes, remove
from range and pour into the dish in which it is to be served. Stand
aside to cool.


One cup of beef suet chopped fine or run through a food-chopper, 1/2
cup sour milk, 1 egg, 1 teaspoonful soda, pinch of salt. 1/2 cup
sugar, 1 teaspoonful cinnamon, 1 cup raisins, seeded and floured.
Flour enough to make as stiff as ordinary cake batter. Boil or steam
in a muslin bag three hours. This is a very inexpensive and good
pudding. Dust a small quantity of flour over suet before chopping.
Serve with the following sauce:


One large tablespoonful of butter, 1 teacup water, 1/2 teacup milk,
scant tablespoonful of flour, grated nutmeg to flavor. Sweeten to
taste, add a pinch of salt. Cook and let cool. Beat up yolk of egg,
add to sauce, stand on back of stove to heat, not cook. Serve hot over
the pudding.


Pour 1 pint of cold water over 1/2 cup tapioca. Allow to stand until
the following morning, when cook until clean. Slice 6 tart apples.
Place in bottom of pudding dish, strew sugar over, then pour over the
tapioca; place over this a layer of thinly sliced apples over which
dust sugar. Place in oven and bake until the apples are cooked. Serve
with sugar and cream. Several thin slices of lemon added before baking
impart a fine flavor.


Place in a bowl 1/2 cup butter and 1 cup of granulated sugar. Beat to
a cream. Add yolks of 2 eggs and 1/2 cup of syrup molasses or maple
syrup, in which had been dissolved 1 teaspoonful baking soda. Then add
1 cup sweet milk, alternately, with about 3-1/2 cups flour, 1/2 cup of
walnut meats, run through food-chopper or crushed with rolling pin,
3/4 cup of seeded raisins, 1/2 teaspoonful ground cinnamon, 1/2
teaspoonful grated nutmeg, 1/4 teaspoonful ground cloves, a pinch of
salt and the stiffly beaten whites of the two eggs.

The batter should be placed in two empty one-pound tin coffee cans,
about two-thirds full, covered tightly with lid and placed in a pot of
boiling water which should be kept boiling constantly for three hours;
when steamed the pudding should almost fill the cans. If the cans were
well buttered and flour sifted over, the pudding when steamed may be
easily removed to a platter. Slice and serve hot with the following

Beat one cup of pulverized sugar to a cream with 2 heaping
tablespoonfuls of butter. Add white of one egg (unbeaten). Beat all
together until creamy. Add 3/4 of a teaspoonful of lemon extract and
stand sauce in a cold place or on ice one hour before serving on
slices of hot pudding. This is a delicious pudding.


Crumble cold corn muffins, or corn cake, a quantity sufficient to fill
two cups. Soak in 1 quart of sweet milk three or four hours, then add
3 well-beaten eggs, 3 tablespoonfuls of sugar and a pinch of salt.
Beat all well together. Place in a pan and bake 1 hour in a moderately
hot oven. Serve hot with whipped cream and sugar or with a sauce made
by beating to a cream a heaping tablespoonful of butter, 1 cup of
granulated sugar, 1 egg and a very little vanilla flavoring.


1-1/2 quarts of milk.
5 eggs.
2 heaping tablespoonfuls of corn starch.
1 scant cup of sugar.
1 teaspoonful of vanilla.

Pour milk in a double boiler and place on range to cook. Moisten
cornstarch with a little cold milk and add to remainder of the milk
when boiling hot. Stir thoroughly, then beat yolk of eggs and sugar
until light, stir in stiffly beaten whites and when all are mixed stir
into the scalding milk. Let come to a boil again and add vanilla or
almond flavoring. Pour into individual molds to cool. Serve cold with
a spoonful of jelly or preserved strawberry with each serving.


This is a good, cheap, wholesome pudding.

1 cup corn meal.
2 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
1 teaspoonful of soda.
1 tablespoonful of melted butter.
1/4 teaspoonful of salt.
2/3 cup flour.
1 cup sour milk.

Mix batter together as you would for cake, then add 4 pared, thinly
sliced, tart apples to the batter. Stir all together. Bake in a quick
oven in a bread pan and serve hot with cold cream and sugar. Raisins
may be substituted for apples if preferred.


Soak over night in cold water 3 even tablespoonfuls of pearl tapioca.
In the morning add tapioca to one quart of milk, 3 tablespoonfuls of
sugar, a pinch of salt. Grate nutmeg over top. Bake in a moderate oven
about three hours, stirring occasionally.


Partly fill an earthenware pudding dish with pieces of sponge cake or
small cakes called "Lady Fingers;" cut up with them a few macaroons.
Place one pint of wine over fire to heat, add to the wine the
following mixture, composed of 1 spoonful of cornstarch mixed smooth
with a little water, 3 yolks of eggs and 3 spoonfuls of sugar. Mix all
together and stir until thickened. Pour the thickened mixture over the
cake. When cooled cover with the stiffly-beaten whites of the 3 eggs,
spread sliced almonds thickly over top and brown in oven a few
minutes. Serve cold.


Half a box of Knox gelatine, 1 quart of milk, 4 eggs. Put gelatine in
milk, let stand 1 hour to dissolve. Set over fire to boil, then add
beaten yolks of eggs with 1 cup granulated sugar. Remove from fire
while adding this. Stir well. Return to range and let boil. Stand
aside to cool. Beat whites of eggs to a froth and beat into custard
when cooled. Pour into a glass dish in which it is to be served. Stand
in a cold place and serve with cream.


One cup of molasses, 1 egg, 1 cup sweet milk, 1/2 teaspoonful soda, 1
teaspoonful of salt, 1 tablespoonful brown sugar, 1 cup raisins, 2-1/2
cups Graham flour. Mix all ingredients together. Steam three hours.


One cup milk, 2 eggs, 1 cup molasses, 1/2 teaspoonful nutmeg, 1/2
teaspoonful salt, 2 teaspoonfuls baking powder, 1 cup bread crumbs,
1/2 cup corn meal, 1 cup chopped beef suet, 1/4 cup finely minced
citron, 1 cup seeded raisins, 1/2 cup currants. Flour to make a stiff
batter. Steam fully three hours, turn from the mold, strew chopped
almonds over top. Serve pudding hot with sauce for which recipe is

Aunt Sarah invariably served this pudding on Thanksgiving Day, and all
preferred it to old-fashioned "English Plum Pudding."


Cream together 1 cup of pulverized sugar, scant 1/2 cup of butter,
beat whites of 2 eggs in, one at a time, and one teaspoonful of lemon
flavoring; stand on ice a short time before serving. Serve sauce very


Line the sides of a pudding dish holding two quarts with seven slices
of stale bread from which crust had been removed. Beat together 3
eggs, 3 tablespoonfuls of sugar and 3 cups of sweet milk (and add the
juice and grated rind of one lemon, or half a grated nutmeg). Pour in
the centre of pudding dish. With a spoon dip some of the custard over
each slice of bread. Bake about 30 minutes and serve hot with the
following sauce:

One cup of water, 1/2 cup milk, 1 teaspoonful butter, scant
tablespoonful of flour mixed smooth with a little water before adding
it. Sweeten to taste, add grated nutmeg or vanilla to flavor. Cook all
together, then add the yolk of one egg. Place on stove a minute to
heat. Add a pinch of salt. Serve hot over the pudding in individual


Oatmeal to be palatable and wholesome should be thoroughly cooked,
that is, steamed over a hot fire two hours or longer. Use a double
boiler of agateware. Place in the upper half of the boiler about 5
cups of water and stand directly over the hottest part of the range.
When the water boils furiously, and is full of little bubbles (not
before), stir into the boiling water about 2 cups of oatmeal (if
porridge is liked rather thick), and about 1 teaspoonful of salt.
(Tastes differ regarding the thickness of porridge.) Let stand
directly on the front of the range, stirring only enough to prevent
scorching, and cook ten minutes, then stand upper part of double
boiler over the lower compartment, partly filled with boiling water;
cover closely and let steam from two to three hours. In order to have
the oatmeal ready to serve at early breakfast the following morning,
put oatmeal on to cook about five o'clock in the evening, while
preparing supper, and allow it to stand and steam over boiling water
until the fire in the range is dampened off for the night. Allow the
oatmeal to stand on range until the following morning, when draw the
boiler to front part of range, and when breakfast is ready (after
removing top crust formed by standing), turn the oatmeal out on a dish
and serve with rich cream and sugar, and you will have a good,
wholesome breakfast dish with the flakes distinct, and a nutty flavor.
Serve fruit with it, if possible. A good rule for cooking oatmeal is
in the proportion of 2-1/2 cups of water to 1 cup of oatmeal.

The cereals which come ready prepared are taking the place of the
old-time standby with which mothers fed their growing boys. If you
wish your boys to have muscle and brawn, feed them oats. To quote an
old physician, "If horses thrive on oats, why not boys who resemble
young colts?"

For example, look at the hardy young Scot who thrives and grows hearty
and strong on his oatmeal "porritch." Chopped almonds, dates or figs
may be added to oatmeal to make it more palatable. Use cup measuring
1/2 pint for measuring cereals as well as every other recipe calling
for one cup in this book.


Boil 1 cup of whole, thoroughly cleansed, uncoated rice in 3 quarts of
rapidly boiling water (salted) about 25 minutes, or until tender,
which can be tested by pressing a couple of grains of rice between the
fingers. Do not stir often while boiling. When the rice is tender turn
on to a sieve and drain; then put in a dish and place in the oven, to
dry off, with oven door open, when the grains should be whole, flaky,
white and tempting, not the soggy, unappetizing mass one often sees.
Serve rice with cream and sugar. Some prefer brown sugar and others
like crushed maple sugar with it. Or rice may be eaten as a vegetable
with salt and butter. Rice is inexpensive, nutritious and one of the
most easily digested cereals, and if rightly cooked, an appetizing
looking food. It is a wonder the economical housewife does not serve
it oftener on her table in some of the numerous ways it may be
prepared. As an ingredient of soup, as a vegetable, or a pudding,
croquettes, etc., the wise housekeeper will cook double the amount of
rice needed and stand half aside until the day following, when may be
quickly prepared rice croquettes, cheese balls, etc. On the day
following that on which rice has been served, any cold boiled rice
remaining may be placed in a small bake dish with an equal quantity of
milk, a little sugar and flavoring, baked a short time in oven and
served with a cup of stewed, seeded raisins which have slowly steamed,
covered with cold water, on the back of the range, until soft and


Place on the range a cook-pot containing 9 cups of boiling water (good
measure). Sift in slowly 2 cups of yellow granulated corn meal,
stirring constantly while adding the meal, until the mixture is smooth
and free from lumps. Add 1-1/4 level teaspoonfuls of salt and 1/4
teaspoonful of sugar, and cook a short time, stirring constantly, then
stand where the mush will simmer, or cook slowly for four or five

Serve hot, as a porridge, adding 1/2 teaspoonful of butter to each
individual bowl of hot mush and serve with it cold milk or cream.
Should a portion of the mush remain after the meal, turn it at once,
while still hot, in an oblong pan several inches in depth, stand until
quite cold. Cut in half-inch slices, sift flour over each slice and
fry a golden brown in a couple tablespoonfuls of sweet drippings and
butter. Or dip slices of mush in egg and bread crumbs and fry brown in
the same manner. Some there are who like maple syrup or molasses
served with fried mush.

This proportion of corn meal and water will make porridge of the
proper consistency and it will be just right to be sliced for frying
when cold. Long, slow cooking makes corn meal much more wholesome and
palatable, and prevents the raw taste of cornmeal noticeable in mush
cooked too quickly. The small quantity of sugar added is not noticed,
but improves the flavor of the mush.


In early spring, when the family tire of winter foods and it is still
too early for vegetables from the home garden, and the high price of
early forced vegetables in the city markets prevent the housewife, of
limited means from purchasing, then the resourceful, economical
housewife serves macaroni and rice in various ways and makes
appetizing dishes of the fruits she canned and preserved for Winter
use, combined with tapioca and gelatine. Milk and eggs tide her over
the most difficult time of the year for young, inexperienced cooks.
When the prices of early vegetables soar beyond the reach of her
purse, then she should buy sparingly of them and of meat, and
occasionally serve, instead, a dish of macaroni and cheese, or rice
and cheese, and invest the money thus saved in fruit; dried fruits, if
fresh fruits are not obtainable.

Macaroni is such a nutritious food that it should be used frequently
by the young housewife as a substitute for meat on the bill of fare.
Also occasionally serve a dish of baked beans or a dish composed of
eggs, or milk combined with eggs, instead of the more expensive meat
dish, all equally useful as muscle-builders, and cheaper than meat.
The wise housewife will learn which foods furnish heat for the body
and those which produce fat and energy, and those which are
muscle-builders, and endeavor to serve well-balanced meals of the
foods belonging to the three classes and thus with fruit and
vegetables she will make wise provision for her family.


Put 2 cups or 1/2 pound of macaroni (either the long sticks broken in
pieces or the "elbow" macaroni, as preferred) in a kettle holding
several quarts of rapidly boiling, salted water, and cook about 25
minutes, or until tender. Drain in a colander and allow cold water to
run over it for several seconds. This prevents the macaroni sticking
together. Place the macaroni in a buttered baking dish and pour over a
hot "cream sauce" composed of 1 cup of milk and 1 cup of water, 2
tablespoonfuls of flour, 2 even tablespoonfuls of butter and a pinch
of salt. (Too much salt is apt to curdle the milk.) Spread over the
top of macaroni about 3 tablespoonfuls of grated cheese, or, if
preferred, sprinkle over the top 3 tablespoonfuls of well-seasoned
dried bread crumbs and small bits of butter. Stand the bake-dish
containing the macaroni in a hot oven ten or fifteen minutes, until
lightly browned on top. Serve hot in the dish in which it was baked.
Stewed tomatoes are a nice accompaniment to this dish. Double the
quantity of macaroni may be cooked at one time and a part of it kept
on ice; the following day serve in tomato sauce, thus utilizing any
left-over tomatoes.

The macaroni may be cooked while the housewife is using the range,
early in the morning. Drain the macaroni in a colander and stand aside
in a cool place. It may be quickly prepared for six o'clock dinner by
pouring over a hot cream sauce and grated cheese and quickly browning
in the oven.

Or the macaroni, when cooked tender in salt water, may be quickly
served by pouring over it a hot cream sauce, before the macaroni has
become cold. Serve at once.

Housewives should be particular when buying macaroni to get a brand
made from good flour.


Sift flour and baking powder together several times before adding to
cake batter. Aunt Sarah usually sifted flour and baking powder
together four times for cakes. Flour should always be sifted before
using. Baking powder should be sifted through the flour dry. Salaratus
(or baking soda) should, usually, be dissolved before using in a
teaspoonful of hot water, unless stated otherwise. Cream of tartar
should be sifted with the flour. Flour should be added gradually and
batter stirred as little as possible afterwards, unless directions are
given to the contrary. Much beating after flour has been added is apt
to make cake tough. Cake will be lighter if baked slowly at first
After it has raised increase heat slowly so it will brown nicely on
top. The batter, if heated slowly, will rise evenly. This does not
mean a cool oven. To prevent cakes sticking to pans, grease pans well
with lard, and sift a little flour lightly over pan. Use baking powder
with sweet milk. Saleratus is always used with sour milk. Use 1
teaspoonful of saleratus to 1 pint of sour milk. Cream of tartar and
saleratus combined may be used with sweet milk instead of baking
powder. One heaping teaspoonful of Royal baking powder is equivalent
to 1 teaspoonful of cream of tartar and 1/2 teaspoonful of saleratus
combined. Either baking powder or a combination of saleratus and cream
of tartar may be used in a cake in which sweet milk is used. Usually
take 1-1/2 to 2 scant teaspoonfuls of baking powder to two cups of
flour. Saleratus should be used alone with sour milk. Put baking
molasses in a stew-pan over fire and allow it to just come to boil;
cool before using it. It will not sour as quickly in warm weather, and
the cake baked from it will have a better flavor. The cup used in
measuring ingredients for cakes holds exactly one-half pint. All cakes
are improved by the addition of a pinch of salt. When lard is used
instead of butter, beat to a cream and salt well. In mixing cakes,
beat butter and sugar together until light and creamy, then add the
beaten yolks of eggs, unless stated otherwise as for angel cake, etc.,
then the flavoring, then mix in the flour and liquid alternately. The
baking powder, flour and salt should have been sifted together three
or four times before being added. Lastly, fold in lightly the stiffly
beaten whites of eggs. Fruit well dredged with flour should be added
last, if used. Cool the oven if too hot for baking cakes by placing a
pan containing cold water in the top rack of oven. Sponge cake
particularly is improved by doing this, as it makes the cake moist.
Stir sponge cake as little as possible after adding flour, as too much
stirring then will make cake tough. Sift flour several times before
using for sponge cake, as tins causes the flour to become lighter.
Layer cake, and most small cakes, require a quick oven. The oven door
should not be opened for 12 minutes after cake has been placed in
oven. Rich cakes, loaf cakes and fruit cakes must bake long and
slowly. The richer the cake, the slower the heat required in baking.
To test the oven, if the hand can bear the heat of the oven 20 or 25
seconds, the oven then is the right temperature. After placing a loaf
cake in oven do not open the oven door for 20 minutes. If oven be not
hot enough, the cake will rise, then fall and be heavy. Angel cake,
sunshine cake and sponge cake require a moderate oven.

Raisins and dried currants should be washed and dried before using in
cake. All fruit should be dredged with flour before being added to
cake. Citron may be quickly and easily prepared by cutting on a slaw
cutter or it may be grated before being added to cake. When a recipe
calls for butter the size of an egg it means two tablespoonfuls. A
tablespoonful of butter, melted, means the butter should be measured
first, then melted. Aunt Sarah frequently used a mixture of butter and
lard in her cakes for economy's sake, and a lesser quantity may be
used, as the shortening quality of lard is greater than that of
butter. When substituting lard for butter, she always beat the lard to
a cream before using it and salt it well. If raisins and currants are
placed in oven of range a few minutes to become warmed before being
added to cake, then rolled in flour, they will not sink to bottom of
cake when baked.


1-1/2 cups sugar.
1/2 cup butter and lard.
3 small eggs or 2 large ones.
1/2 cup sweet milk.
2 cups flour.
1/2 teaspoonful saleratus.
1 teaspoonful cream of tartar.
Grated yellow rind and juice of half a lemon.

Beat sugar and butter to a cream and add the yolks of eggs. Add the
milk, then the flour and cream of tartar and saleratus; and the
flavoring. Lastly, the stiffly-beaten whites of eggs.

This makes one loaf cake. The original of this recipe was a very old
one which Frau Schmidt had used many years. Every ingredient in the
old recipe was doubled, except the eggs, when five were used. Mary
thought this cake fine and from the recipe, when she used half the
quantity of everything, she baked a fine loaf cake, and from the
original recipe was made one good sized loaf and one layer cake.
Thinly sliced citron added to this cake is a great improvement.


One cup sugar, 1/2 cup butter and lard, mixed; 2 cups flour and 2
teaspoonfuls of baking powder, 2 eggs, 1/2 cup sweet milk.

Crumb together with the hands the sugar, butter, flour and baking
powder sifted together. Take out 1/2 cup of these crumbs to be
scattered over top of cake. To the remainder add the yolks of the
eggs, well beaten, and the sweet milk, and lastly the stiffly beaten
whites of eggs. Put the mixture in a well-greased pan (a deep custard
pie tin will answer), scatter the half cup of crumbs reserved over top
of cake and bake about 3/4 of an hour in a rather quick oven. When
cake is baked, sprinkle over 1 teaspoonful of melted butter and dust
top with cinnamon.


She creamed together 1 cup of sugar, 1 tablespoonful of lard, 1
tablespoonful of butter and added 1-1/2 cups of luke-warm milk. Add 3
cups flour (good measure), sifted with three scant teaspoonfuls of
baking powder. Add a half cup of raisins, seeded and cut in several
pieces, if liked, but the cakes are very good without. Spread in two
pans and sprinkle sugar and cinnamon on top and press about five small
dabs of butter on top of each cake. Put in oven and bake at once.
These are a very good substitute for "raised Dutch cakes," and are
much more quickly and easily-made and, as no eggs are used, are quite
cheap and very good.


1-1/4 cups granulated sugar.
3 eggs.
1/2 cup butter and lard mixed. (Use all butter if preferred.)
1/2 cup sweet milk.
2 cups flour sifted with 2 teaspoonfuls Royal baking powder.

Cream together sugar and shortening. Add yolks of eggs, beating well,
as each ingredient is added. Then add milk and flour alternately, and
lastly the stiffly beaten white of eggs. Stir all together. Bake in
two square layer pans, and put together with chocolate or white icing.
Or ice the cakes when cold and cut in squares.


Boil together 1 cup of granulated sugar and 5 tablespoonfuls boiling
water ten or twelve minutes, or until a small quantity dropped from
spoon spins a thread. Stir this into the stiffly-beaten white of one
egg until thick and creamy. Flavor with lemon, almond or vanilla
flavoring and spread on cake. Dip knife in hot water occasionally when
spreading icing on cake.

A delicious icing is composed of almonds blanched and pounded to a
paste. Add a few drops of essence of bitter almonds. Dust the top of
the cake lightly with flour, spread on the almond paste and when
nearly dry cover with ordinary icing. Dry almonds before pounding them
in mortar, and use a small quantity of rose water. A few drops only
should be used of essence of bitter almonds to flavor icing or cake. A
pinch of baking powder added to sugar when making boiled icing causes
the icing to become more creamy, or add a pinch of cream of tartar
when making boiled icing. Or, when a cake iced with "boiled icing" has
become cold, spread on top of icing unsweetened, melted chocolate.
This is a delicious "cream chocolate icing."


2 cups light brown sugar.
1 cup chopped raisins.
2 eggs.
1 cup sour milk.
1/2 cup butter.
2 cups flour.
1 teaspoonful each of soda, cloves, cinnamon, allspice and
a little grated nutmeg.

Cream sugar and butter together, add yolks of eggs, then the sour
milk in which the soda has been dissolved, flour and spices, and
lastly stir in the stiffly beaten white of eggs. Bake in two-layer


Two cups sugar, 3/4 cup of milk or cream, 2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
Boil until it forms a soft ball when a small quantity is dropped in
water, and flavor with vanilla. Beat until cold and spread between
layers of cake. Also on top and sides.


This is a decidedly good cake and no eggs are required. Cream together
1 cup brown sugar, 1/4 cup butter. Add 1 cup of sour milk, 1-3/4 cups
flour, then sift over 1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of cocoa. Add 1 level
teaspoonful saleratus, dissolved in a little of the sour milk, and 1
teaspoonful vanilla. Bake in a small loaf. Use the following icing:

1/4 cup of grated chocolate, 3/4 cup milk, 1/2 cup sugar, boiled
together until thick, and spread on cake.


1/2 cup of New Orleans molasses.
1 cup of light brown sugar.
1/2 cup of shortening (composed of butter, lard and sweet
1/2 teaspoonful of ginger, cinnamon and cloves each.
2 teaspoonfuls of baking soda (saleratus), sifted with 3-1/2
cups flour.
1 cup boiling water.
2 eggs.

Beat to a cream the sugar and shortening in a bowl; add molasses, then
pour over all one cup of boiling water. Beat well. Add flour, soda and
spices, all sifted together. Beat into this the two unbeaten eggs (one
at a time), then add about 3/4 of a cup of coarsely chopped _black
walnut_ meats or the same quantity of well-floured raisins may be
substituted for the walnut meats.

The cakes may be baked in muffin pans. In that case fill pans about
two-thirds full. The above quantity makes eighteen. They can also be
baked in a pan as a loaf cake. This cake is excellent, and will keep
fresh several days. These cakes taste similar to those sold in an
Atlantic City bake-shop which have gained a reputation for their


3 cups flour.
2-1/2 heaping teaspoonfuls baking powder.
2 cups sugar (soft A or light brown).
1/2 cup lard and butter mixed.
2 eggs.
1 cup sweet milk.
Pinch of salt.
Flavoring--vanilla or grated orange rind.

Line three small pie tins with pie crust. Sift together into a bowl
the flour and baking powder and add light brown or A sugar, and the
butter, lard and salt. Rub this all together with the hands until well
mixed and crumbly. Take out 1 cupful of these crumbs and stand aside.
Add to the rest of the mixture the yolks of eggs, whites being beaten
separately and added last. Add slowly 1 cup of sweet milk. Mix it in
gradually until the mixture is creamed, then add a small quantity of
grated orange peel, lemon or vanilla flavoring. Lastly, stir in the
stiffly beaten whites of eggs. Pour the mixture into each one of the
three unbaked crusts, then sprinkle the cup of crumbs thickly over the
tops. Bake in a moderate oven. These are very good, cheap cakes for
breakfast or lunch.


1/2 cup molasses.
1 cup sugar.
1/2 cup thick sour cream.
1/2 cup sour milk.
1/2 cup finely chopped peanuts.
1 egg.
1 teaspoonful soda dissolved in little hot water.
2-3/4 cups flour.
1 cup seeded raisins.

Mix together like ordinary cake. Bake in a fruit cake pan in a slow
oven about forty minutes. This excellent cake requires no shortening,
as cream is used.


1 egg.
1 cup sweet milk.
1 cup granulated sugar.
2 cups flour.
1/4 cup butter.
2 teaspoonfuls baking powder.

Cream together sugar and yolk of egg, then beat into this mixture the
butter and add the milk. Then stir the flour, a small quantity at a
time, into the mixture, keeping it smooth and free from lumps. Add the
stiffly beaten white of egg. Use any flavoring or spice preferred.
Bake in a quick oven.

This is not simply a very cheap cake, but a decidedly good one, and
made from inexpensive materials. Follow the recipe exactly or the cake
may be too light and too crumbly if too much baking powder is used, or
heavy if too much butter is used. By varying the flavor and baking in
different forms it is as good as a number of more expensive recipes.
It makes three layers of any kind of layer cake, or bake in Gem pans.


1/2 cup brown sugar.
1 egg.
1/2 cup lard.
2 large cups flour.
1/2 cup New Orleans molasses.
1 tablespoonfnl of ginger.
1 teaspoonful soda dissolved in half cup lukewarm water.

Beat sugar and lard to a cream, then beat in the yolk of egg, molasses
and flour and soda dissolved in water. Lastly, add the stiffly-beaten
white of egg. Bake 45 minutes in hot oven.


Place in a stew-pan the following ingredients:

1 cup brown sugar.
1 cup cold water.
2 cups seeded raisins.
1/3 cup sweet lard, or a mixture of lard and butter.
1/4 grated nutmeg.
2 teaspoonfuls cinnamon.
1/2 teaspoonful ground cloves.
Pinch of salt.

Boil all together three minutes. When cold add I teaspoonful of soda
dissolved in a little hot water. Add about 1-3/4 cups flour sifted
with 1/2 teaspoonful of baking powder. Bake in a loaf in a moderately
hot oven about thirty minutes. This cake is both good and economical,
as no butter, eggs or milk are used in its composition. The recipe for
making this excellent, cheap cake was bought by Aunt Sarah at a "Cake
and Pie" sale. She was given permission to pass it on.


1 small cup pulverized sugar.
2 tablespoonfuls of cocoa.

Mix smooth with a very little boiling water. Spread over cake.


Cook together 2 cups of granulated sugar, 1-1/4 cups of water a little
less than 12 minutes. Just before it reaches the soft ball stage, beat
in quickly 25 marshmallows; when dissolved and a thick, creamy mass,
spread between layers and on top of cake.

This is a delicious creamy icing when made according to directions. If
sugar and water be cooked one minute too long, the icing becomes
sugary instead of creamy. One-half the above quantity will ice the top
of a cake nicely.


For this cake was used:

2 cups granulated sugar.
4 eggs.
2-1/8 cups flour.
1-1/2 teaspoonfuls of baking powder.
1 cup boiling hot milk.

Separate the eggs, place yolks in a bowl, add the sugar and beat until

Add the stiffly beaten whites of eggs alternately with the sifted
flour and baking powder; lastly add the cup of boiling hot milk;
should the milk not be rich, add one teaspoon of butter to the hot
milk. The cake batter should be thin as griddle cake batter, pour into
a tube pan and place at once in a _very moderate_ oven; in about 15
minutes increase the heat and in about 25 minutes more the cake, risen
to the top of pan, should have commenced to brown on top.

Bake from 15 to 20 minutes more in a moderately hot oven with steady
heat; when baked the top of the cake should be a light fawn color and
texture of cake light and fine grained.

Mary was told by her Aunt that any sponge cake was improved by the
addition of a teaspoon of butter, causing the sponge cake to resemble
pound cake in texture.


1 cup New Orleans molasses.
1 cup sugar.
1/2 cup shortening (lard and butter mixed).
1 cup hot water.
1 large teaspoonful soda dissolved in the one cup of hot water.
1 teaspoonful of ginger.
1/2 teaspoonful of cinnamon.
1 quart of flour.

Stir sugar and shortening together. Add molasses, beat all thoroughly,
then add hot water and flour. Stir hard. Bake in two layer pans in
quick oven about 30 minutes. Use cake while fresh.


2 cups granulated sugar.
2-1/4 cups of flour.
3/4 cup of boiling water.
4 large eggs.
2 even teaspoonfuls baking powder.
1 teaspoonful lemon juice.

Put whites of eggs in a large mixing bowl and beat very stiff. Add
sugar (sifted 3 times), then add the well-beaten yolks, flour (sifted
3 times with baking powder), add lemon juice. Lastly, add the hot
water. Bake about 50 minutes in a tube pan in a moderately hot oven
with a steady heat. Stand a pan of hot water in the upper rack of oven
if the oven is quite hot. It improves the cake and causes it to be
more moist. This is an excellent sponge cake and easily made, although
the ingredients are put together the opposite way cakes are usually
mixed, with the exception of angel cake. When this cake was taken from
oven, powdered sugar was sifted thickly over the top. Use cup holding
1/2 pint, as in all other cake recipes.


Mary was taught by her Aunt, when preparing a dish calling for yolks
of eggs only, to place the white of eggs not used in a glass jar which
she stood in a cold place or on ice. When she had saved one even
cupful she baked an angel cake over the following recipe:

One heaping cup of pulverized sugar (all the cup will hold), was
sifted 8 times. One cup of a mixture of pastry flour and corn starch
(equal parts) was also sifted 8 times. The whole was then sifted
together 4 times. The one cupful of white of eggs was beaten very
stiff. When about half beaten, sprinkle over the partly-beaten eggs
one scant teaspoonful of cream of tartar, then finish beating the
whites of eggs. Flavor with almond or vanilla. Then carefully sift
into the stiffly beaten whites of eggs sugar, flour and corn starch.
Fold into the whites of eggs rather than stir. Aunt Sarah always baked
this cake in a small, oblong bread pan. This cake should be baked in a
_very_ moderate oven, one in which the hand might be held without
inconvenience while counting one hundred; the oven should be just hot
enough for one to know there was fire in the range. Do not open the
oven door for 15 minutes, then increase the heat a little; if not too
hot, open the oven door a moment to cool and bake slowly for about 55


1 cup butter and lard, mixed.
4 eggs.
1 cup New Orleans molasses.
1 cup sour milk.
1 pound dried currants.
1/4 pound thinly sliced citron.
2 teaspoonfuls baking soda.
4 cups flour.
2 pounds raisins, seeded.

A little grated nutmeg, ginger, cinnamon and a very small quantity of

Bake in one large fruit cake pan or in two good sized pans about 1-3/4
hours. This cake should not be kept as long a time as a more expensive
fruit cake, but may be kept several weeks. This was Aunt Sarah's best
recipe for an excellent, inexpensive fruit cake.


4 eggs.
2 cups granulated sugar.
3 cups flour.
1 teaspoonful baking soda.
1 cup cold water.
Juice of 1 lemon.
2 teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar and pinch of salt.

Beat eggs well, then sift in sugar and half of flour in which cream of
tartar has been mixed. Dissolve the soda in a little water and add
also the lemon juice and lastly add the balance of flour. Bake in
layer cake pans two inches deep.


Boil 1 pint of sweet milk and add to it, stirring constantly, the
following mixture: Two tablespoonfuls corn starch, mixed with a little
water before boiling, 1 cup of sugar and 1 well-beaten egg. Allow all
to cook a few minutes in a double boiler about 15 minutes. Split the
sponge cakes when baked and put custard between when cooled.



1-3/4 cups granulated sugar.
1 scant cup butter or a mixture of butter and lard.
Whites of 6 eggs.
1 cup milk.
3 scant cups flour sifted with 2 teaspoons of baking powder.
Flavor with essence of lemon.


Yolks of 4 eggs.
1/2 cup of a mixture of butter and lard.
3/4 cup milk (scant measure).
1/2 cup brown sugar.
1 tablespoon of molasses.
2 tablespoons of cinnamon.
1 tablespoon of cloves.

One cup or a little more flour sifted with one teaspoon of baking
powder. Place spoonfuls of the dark and light batter alternately in a
cake pan until all has been used.

Bake in a moderately hot oven from 45 to 50 minutes.

From this recipe may be made two good sized cakes.

I should advise using one-half the quantity for both dark and light
part of cake called for in recipe, which would make one good sized
cake. Should this whole recipe be used, the cake baked from it would
be of the size of a very large fruit cake.


She creamed together 1 cup of light brown sugar and 2 tablespoonfuls
of butter. Then added 1 cup of New Orleans molasses. The molasses had
been allowed to come to a boil, then cooled.

She sifted into the mixture 4 cups of flour alternately with 1 cup of
sweet milk in which 2 even teaspoonfuls of soda had been dissolved.
She beat all well together, then added yolk of one large egg, and
lastly the stiffly beaten white of the egg. Beat the mixture again and
bake in 2 square layer cake pans in a hot oven about 25 minutes. This
is an excellent cake if directions are closely followed.


Boil 1 scant half cup water with 1 cup sugar until it spins a thread,
or forms a soft, firm ball in cold water. Pour slowly over the stiffly
beaten white of egg, beating while it is being poured. Melt 2 squares
or 2 ounces of unsweetened chocolate by standing the bowl containing
it in hot water. Add 1 teaspoonful hot water to chocolate. Stir the
egg and sugar mixture slowly into the melted chocolate. Beat until
stiff enough to spread on cake.


1-1/2 cups sugar.
1/2 cup butter.
3/4 cup milk.
Whites of 4 eggs.
1 cup hickory nut meats, chopped.
2 cups flour sifted with 2 teaspoonfuls baking powder.

Mix together as ordinary cake. Bake in a loaf.


Three cupfuls of light brown sugar, 1/2 cup of sweet lard and yolk of
one egg creamed together until light. Then add 1-1/2 cups sour milk
alternately with 4 cups of flour and 1-1/2 teaspoonfuls of cinnamon;
1-1/2 teaspoonfuls of ginger, 1/2 teaspoonful of cloves and half of a
grated nutmeg, 1 tablespoonful of thinly shaved or grated citron is an
improvement to cake, but may be omitted. Beat all together, then add 1
teaspoonful of soda dissolved in a small quantity of the sour milk.
Lastly, add the stiffly beaten white of one egg and one cup seeded
raisins dredged with a little flour. Put the cake batter in a large,
well-greased fruit cake pan, lined with paper which had been greased
and a trifle of flour sifted over, and bake in an oven with a steady
heat about one hour and fifteen minutes. This is a very good,
_inexpensive_ cake and will keep moist some time if kept in a tin cake
box. The fruit might be omitted, but it improves the cake.


1 cup and 2 tablespoonfuls granulated sugar.
1-1\2 cups flour.
1 cup and 2 tablespoonfuls scalded milk.
3 teaspoonfuls baking powder.
Pinch of salt.
Whites of 2 eggs.

Place milk in top part of double boiler and heat to boiling point.
Sift dry ingredients together four times and then pour in the hot milk
and stir well together. Lastly, add the stiffly beaten whites of eggs.
Fold them in lightly, but do not beat. The batter will be quite thin.
Do not grease the tins. No flavoring is used. Bake in two square layer
tins, put together with any icing preferred. Bake in a moderate oven.
This is a good, economical cake to bake when yolks of eggs have been
used for other purposes.


One-half cup of brown sugar, 1/2 cup of sweet milk and 1/2 cup of
grated, unsweetened chocolate. Boil all together until thick as cream;
allow it to cool.

Mix 1/2 cup of butter with 1/2 cup of brown sugar. Add two beaten
eggs, 2/3 of a cup of sweet milk and vanilla flavoring to taste. Beat
this into the boiled mixture and add 2 cups of flour sifted with 2
teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Bake in three layers and put together
with chocolate icing, or cocoa filling.


1-1/2 cups pulverized sugar.
1 tablespoonful butter, melted.
2-1/2 tablespoonfuls cocoa.

Place all the ingredients in a bowl and mix to a smooth paste with
cold coffee. Flavor with vanilla and spread on cake. Tins cocoa
filling should not be boiled.


2 eggs.
1-1/2 cupfuls sugar.
1 large tablespoonful butter.
1 cup milk.
2 cups flour sifted with 2 teaspoonfuls baking powder.
Juice and grated yellow rind of half an orange.

Bake in moderate oven in loaf or layers. If a loaf cake, ice top and
sides with the following icing:

1-1/2 cupfuls pulverized sugar, 1 tablespoonful warm water and grated
rind and juice of half an orange. Mix all together to a cream and
spread over cake.


1 pint of New Orleans molasses.
3/4 cup butter and lard, mixed.
4 eggs.
1 cup sour milk
2 good teaspoonfuls soda.
4 cups flour.
Grated rind of 1 orange.

Bake in a long dripping pan, cut out in square pieces, or it may be
baked in a large pan used for fruit cake. It will fill two medium
sized cake pans.


1/4 cup butter (generous measure).
1 cup light brown sugar.
1 cup apple sauce (not sweetened).
1 level teaspoonful soda.
2 cups flour.
1 teaspoonful cinnamon.
1/2 teaspoonful cloves.
1 small nutmeg, grated.
Pinch of salt.
1 cup raisins.

Cream together butter, sugar and spices. Add apple sauce and flour.
(Dissolve the soda in apple sauce.) Add a cup of seeded raisins or
raisins and currants, if preferred. This recipe may be doubled when it
makes a very good, cheap fruit cake, as no eggs are required, and it
both looks and tastes like a dark fruit cake.


One cup pulverized sugar, piece of butter size of a walnut. Moisten
with a little water and spread on cake.


This delicious black chocolate or "Schwarz" cake, as Aunt Sarah called
it, was made from the following recipe:

1-1/2 cups of sugar.
1/2 cup butter.
1/2 cup sweet milk.
1 even teaspoon of soda (saleratus).
3 eggs.
1 teaspoonful of vanilla.
2 cups flour.
1-1/2 teaspoon of Royal baking powder.

Before mixing all the above ingredients place in a stewpan on the
range 1/2 cup of grated chocolate and 1/2 cup sweet milk; allow them
to come to a boil, then stand this mixture aside to cool and add to
the cake mixture later.

Cream together sugar and butter, add yolk of eggs; soda dissolved in
the milk, then add flour and baking powder sifted together alternately
with the stiffly beaten white of eggs. Then beat in last the
chocolate and milk mixture which has cooled. Bake in layer cake pans.

Use the following chocolate filling:

1/2 cup sugar.
1/2 cup milk.
Yolk of one egg.
1/2 teaspoon of corn starch (good measure).
1/4 cake of Baker's unsweetened chocolate.

Boil all together until quite thick and spread between layers of cake.


2 cups Sugar.
2 tablespoonfuls butter.
1 cup sweet milk.
3 cups flour.
3 eggs.
2 teaspoonfuls Royal baking powder.

Add the stiffly beaten whites of eggs last and bake in two layers.
Flavor with lemon or vanilla.


Beat white of 1 egg very stiff. Add 1 cup of granulated sugar and beat
well. Quickly grate one raw apple into the egg and sugar, add the
juice of 1/4 lemon and beat 20 minutes, when it will be light and
foamy. This icing is soft and creamy. Coarsely chopped nut meats may
be added if liked. Cake must be eaten with a fork, but is delicious.


Cream together 1/2 pound of sugar and 1/2 pound of butter. Beat into
this the eggs separately, until five eggs have been used. Add flour
and 1 small teaspoonful of baking powder. Bake in a moderate oven
about 55 minutes; 1/2 pound of flour is used in this cake. This cake
is extra fine.


Stir to a cream a half cup butter, 1-1/2 cups pulverized sugar, 1
tablespoonful milk and 1 teaspoonful vanilla. It is then ready to use
for icing a cake.


2 cups sugar.
1/2 cup butter and lard, mixed.
3 eggs (yolks only).
1 cup milk.
3 cups flour, sifted several times with the
2 teaspoonfuls cream of tartar and 1 teaspoonful soda (saleratus).

Mix like an ordinary cake.


To the stiffly beaten whites of 3 eggs add 1 cup of pulverized sugar.
Spread this on each one of the layers of the cake and on top. Strew a
half of a grated cocoanut over. To the other half of grated cocoanut
add 4 tablespoonfuls of pulverized sugar and strew over top of the


Yolks of 6 eggs.
1/2 cup butter.
1 large cup granulated sugar.
1/2 cup sweet milk.
2-1/2 cups flour.
2 heaping teaspoonfuls baking powder.

Cream sugar and butter, add yolks. Beat well, then add milk and flour.
Stir all together and bake in square pans in a hot oven.


1 cup granulated sugar.
Whites of 7 small fresh eggs and 5 yolks.
2/3 cup of flour, or scant cup of flour.
1/3 teaspoonful cream of tartar and a pinch of salt.

Beat the yolks of eggs thoroughly, then beat the whites about half;
add cream of tartar and beat until very stiff. Stir in sugar sifted
lightly through your flour sifter. Then add beaten yolks, stir
thoroughly, sift the flour five times. The last time sift into the
batter, stirring only enough to incorporate the flour. Bake in a tube
pan from 40 to 50 minutes in a very moderate oven. This is a
particularly fine cake, but a little difficult to get just right.
Place cake in a cool oven; when cake has risen turn on heat. This cake
should be baked same as an angel cake.


1 cup sugar.
1/2 cup butter.
2 eggs.
1/2 cup sweet milk.
2 cups flour sifted with
2 teaspoonfuls baking powder.
1/2 cup chocolate.

Grate the chocolate, mix with 1/4 cup of milk and yolk of 1 egg,
sweeten to taste; cook the chocolate; when cooled add to the above
mixture. Bake in three layer tins. Put white boiled icing between the
layers. The boiled icing recipe will be found on another page.


11 eggs (whites only).
1-1/2 cups granulated sugar (sifted 3 times).
1 cup flour (sifted 5 times).
1 teaspoonful cream of tartar.
1 teaspoonful vanilla.

Place white of eggs in a large bowl and beat about half as stiff as
you wish them to be when finished beating. Add cream of tartar,
sprinkle it over the beaten whites of eggs lightly, and then beat
until very stiff. Sift in sugar, then flour very lightly. Fold into
the batter, rather than stir, with quick, even strokes with spoon. Put
quickly in tube pan, bake in moderate oven from 35 to 50 minutes. Do
not open oven door for first 15 minutes after cake has been placed in

If cake browns before it rises to top of pan open oven door two
minutes; when cake has risen to top of pan finish baking quickly. The
moment cake shrinks back to level of pan remove from oven. This is an
old, reliable recipe given Mary by her Aunt, who had baked cake from
it for years.


2 cups brown sugar.
3/4 cup lard and butter, mixed.
2 eggs.
1/2 cup Baker's chocolate, melted.
1/2 cup sour milk.
1/2 cup warm water.
1 teaspoonful vanilla.
Pinch of salt.
1 teaspoonful saleratus.
3 cups flour.

Dissolve the saleratus in a little vinegar or warm water. Mix as an
ordinary loaf cake.


5 eggs.
1 cup granulated sugar.
1 cup sifted flour.

Beat whites of eggs very stiff and stir in thoroughly, then fold the
flour, stirring only just enough to mix it in. If stirred too much,
the cake will be tough. Bake in a tube pan. This is a delicious cake
if carefully made according to directions. No butter or baking powder
is used. Bake in a very moderate oven at first, gradually adding more
heat until cake is baked.


Grate outside rind of 1 orange into a bowl; 1-1/2 cups sugar and 1/2
cup butter and lard, mixed. Cream all together. Add yolks of three
eggs, 1 cup of sweet milk, 2-1/2 cups flour, sifted with 2-1/4
teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Lastly, add the stiffly beaten whites
of the eggs. Bake in two layers.


Grated rind and juice of half an orange, half the white of one egg,
beaten stiff. Add pulverized sugar until stiff enough to spread
between cakes and on top. (About two cups of sugar were used.)


1 cup granulated sugar.
1-1/4 cups flour.
4 egg yolks.
Pinch of salt.
1/2 cup boiling water.
1 large teaspoonful baking powder.

The yolks of eggs left from making "Pennsylvania Dutch Kisses" may be
used for this cake by the addition of an extra yolk of egg. Beat the
yolks quite light, then add the sugar and beat until light and frothy.
Add the flour sifted with the baking powder and salt. Lastly, add the
half cup of boiling water. Bake in a rather quick oven from 25 to 30
minutes in two square layer cake pans. Cover cakes first ten minutes
until they have risen. When baked turn cakes out of pans on to a
cloth. Take one at a time from the oven, spread as quickly as possible
with a tart jelly, either currant or grape, and roll as quickly as
possible, as when the cakes become cool they cannot be rolled without
breaking. Roll up in a cloth and when cool and ready to serve slice
from end of roll. These cakes are very nice when one is successful,
but a little difficult to get just right.


1 cup sugar.
2 cups flour.
1 egg.
1-1/2 teaspoons baking powder
Piece of butter the size of egg.
Pinch of salt.
1 cup milk.
A little grated nutmeg.

Beat the butter to a cream and gradually add the sugar. Then add the
unbeaten egg and beat all together thoroughly. Add milk and flour and
beat hard for five minutes. Add baking powder, salt and nutmeg. Pour
into two small greased pie-tins and before putting in oven sprinkle
sugar and cinnamon over top. This is an excellent breakfast cake,
easily and quickly made.


Mary's Aunt taught her to make this exceptionally fine cake, yellow as
gold, in texture resembling an "angel cake," from the following
ingredients: The whites of 6 eggs, yolks of 3 eggs, 3/4 cup of fine,
granulated sugar, 1/2 cup of high-grade flour, 1/2 teaspoonful of
cream of tartar (good measure), a few drops of almond extract or 1/2
teaspoonful of vanilla.

Mix ingredients together in the following manner: Sift sugar and flour
separately 3 times. Beat yolks of eggs until light, add sugar to yolks
of eggs and beat to a cream. The whites of eggs were placed in a
separate bowl and when partly beaten the cream of tartar was sifted
over and the whites of eggs were then beaten until dry and frothy. The
stiffly beaten whites of eggs were then added alternately with the
flour to the yolks and sugar. Carefully fold in, do not beat. Add
flavoring, pour batter in a small, narrow bread tin, previously
brushed with lard, over which flour had been dusted. The cake when
baked may be readily removed from the tin after it has cooled.

Bake cake in a very moderate oven about 60 minutes. After cake has
been in oven 15 or 20 minutes increase heat of oven. An extra fine,
large cake may be baked from this recipe if double the quantity of
ingredients are used.


2 cups brown sugar.
1/2 cup butter and lard, mixed.
2 eggs.
1/2 cup boiling water.
2 ounces Baker's chocolate.
2 cups flour.
1 teaspoonful soda.
1/2 cup sour cream or milk.

Cream butter and sugar and add yolks of eggs; then sour milk into
which the soda has been dissolved. Add hot water, then the eggs. Bake
in layers or loaf. Ice with boiled chocolate icing. If a little of the
sour milk is saved until last, the soda dissolved in that, and then
added to the cake batter, it will give a brick red appearance. This is
an excellent cake.


Cream together 1 cup sugar, 1/4 cup butter, 1 egg (white of egg beaten
separately), add 3/4 cup milk, 2 cups flour sifted with 2 teaspoonfuls
baking powder. The stiffly beaten white of egg added last. Bake in two
layers. For the filling, to put between layers, beat the white of one
egg to a stiff, dry froth; add one tablespoonful of sugar, mix
together, spread between layers of cake and on top and over this strew
freshly grated cocoanut Grate cocoanut intended for cake the day
before using. After it has been grated toss up lightly with a fork and
stand in a cool place to dry out before using.


1 cup butter.
2 cups sugar.
3-1/2 cups flour.
1 cup sweet milk.
Whites of 6 eggs.
2 level teaspoonfuls baking powder sifted with the flour.
1 teaspoonful rosewater.

Mix in the usual way and bake in three layers.


Dissolve 3 cups of sugar in a cup of boiling water. Cook until it
spins a thread, about ten or twelve minutes. Take from fire and pour
over three stiffly beaten whites of eggs, then add a cup of nut meats
(blanched and chopped almonds). One cup of chopped raisins may also be
added if liked. Stir until thick and creamy. Allow cake to get cold
before icing.

One-half this recipe for icing will be sufficient for an ordinary


3 cups sugar.
3 eggs.
1 lb. seeded raisins.
1 cup milk.
1 cup butter.
1 lb. currants.
1 lb. chopped almonds.
Flavor with almond extract.
4 cups flour sifted with 2 teaspoonfuls of Royal baking powder.
1/2 lb. figs.
1/4 lb. citron.

Beat to a cream sugar, butter and yolks of eggs. Then add milk and
flour alternately and fruit and almonds. Lastly, add stiffly beaten
whites of eggs. Flour fruit before adding. Chop figs. Cut citron fine
or shave it thin. This is a cheaper recipe than the one for a
"Christmas fruit cake," but this is a very good cake.


2 cups sugar.
1/2 cup butter and lard, mixed.
1 cup milk.
Add a few drops of almond flavoring.
3 cups flour.
2 teaspoonfuls baking powder.
Whites of five eggs.

Cream together the butter and sugar, add flour sifted with baking
powder alternately with the stiffly beaten whites of eggs. The five
yolks of eggs left from baking white cake may be used when making
salad dressing. Use five yolks instead of three whole eggs, as called
for in recipe for salad dressing.


One-quarter cup grated, unsweetened chocolate, 1/4 cup milk, half a
cup sugar. Boil all together until thick and creamy. This quantity
will be sufficient to ice the top of one ordinary cake. Spread icing
on cake before icing cools. When this icing is used for layer cake,
double the recipe.


1 lb. granulated sugar.
1 cup butter.
1 cup milk.
4 eggs.
1 lb. chopped raisins. (Citron may be used instead of raisins.)
1/2 a nutmeg, grated.
5 scant cups of flour.
5 teaspoonfuls baking powder.

Mix together same as ordinary cake and bake in a loaf. This Aunt
Sarah considered one of her finest cake recipes. She had used it for
years in her family. The friend who gave this recipe to Aunt Sarah
said: "A couple of tablespoonfuls of brandy will improve the cake."


Grate the yellow outside rind of 1 orange into a bowl. Add 1-1/2 cups
sugar and 3/4 cups butter and beat to a cream. Then add yolks of 3
eggs. Then stir in 1 cup milk, 2-1/2 cups flour with 2 heaping
teaspoonfuls baking powder. Lastly, add the stiffly beaten whites of 3
eggs. Bake in three layers.


Use the white of one egg, the grated rind and juice of large orange
and enough pulverized sugar to stiffen. Spread between layers.


1-1/4 cups granulated sugar.
4 eggs.
1-1/2 cups flour.
4 tablespoonfuls boiling water.
1-1/4 teaspoonfuls baking powder.
Pinch of salt; flavor to suit taste.

Cream yolks and sugar thoroughly, then add the stiffly beaten whites
of eggs, then flour, then boiling water. Bake in a tube pan about 40
minutes. This is a very easily made cake, which seldom fails and was
bought with a set of "Van Dusen cake pans," which Aunt Sarah said:
"She'd used for many years and found invaluable."


1-1/2 cups pulverized sugar, 1 cup of butter, 2 cups flour, 1/2 cup of
corn starch, 2 teaspoons of baking powder sifted through flour and
corn starch, 1 cup of milk, the whites of 4 eggs. Mix like ordinary
cake. Bake as a loaf cake. Ice top the following: 1 cup of light brown
sugar, 1/4 cup milk, 1/2 tablespoonful of butter, 1/4 teaspoonful of
vanilla. Cook all together until a soft ball is formed when dropped in
water. Beat until creamy and spread on top of cake.


Sift together, three times, the following:

1 cup of flour.
1 cup of sugar (granulated).
3 even teaspoonfuls of baking powder.

Scald one cup of milk and pour hot over the above mixture. Beat well.

Fold into the mixture, carefully, the stiffly beaten whites of 2 eggs.
Flavor with a few drops of almond extract. Bake in a _moderate oven_,
exactly as you would bake an angel cake.

This is a delicious, light, flaky cake, if directions are closely
followed, but a little difficult to get just right.


4 eggs.
2 cups sugar.
1 cup butter.
1 cup milk.
1/2 teaspoonful baking soda.
1 teaspoonful cream of tartar.
1 teaspoonful cinnamon.
1/4 teaspoonful grated nutmeg.
1 cup dried currants.
4 to 4-1/2 cups flour.

Make about as stiff as ordinary cake mixture. The butter, sugar and
yolks of eggs were creamed together. Cinnamon and nutmeg were added.
Milk and flour added alternately, stirring flour in lightly; sift
cream of tartar in with the flour. Add the baking soda dissolved in a
very little water, then add the well-floured currants, and lastly add
the stiffly beaten whites of eggs. Bake in a large cake pan, generally
used for fruit cake or bake two medium-sized cakes. Bake slowly in a
moderately hot oven. These cakes keep well, as do most German cakes.


5 cups flour.
1 cup sugar.
1 cup raisins.
1 cup of liquid coffee.
1 cup lard.
1 cup molasses.
1 tablespoonful saleratus.
Spices to taste.

Mix like any ordinary cake. This is a very old recipe of Aunt Sarah's
mother. The cup used may have been a little larger than the one
holding a half pint, used for measuring ingredients in all other cake


1 cup brown sugar.
I tablespoonful lard.
1 cup cold water.
Pinch of salt.
2 cups raisins.
1/2 teaspoonful cloves.
1 teaspoonful cinnamon.

Boil all together three minutes, cool, then add 1 teaspoonful of soda
and 1/2 teaspoonful of baking powder sifted with 2 cups of flour.


Cream together in a bowl half a pound of pulverized sugar and half a
pound of butter; then add yolks of five eggs, 1 grated lemon rind, 1
pint of milk, 1-1/2 pounds of flour sifted with 4 teaspoonfuls of
baking powder, 2 teaspoonfuls of vanilla extract. Bake at once in a
moderately hot oven. Mary baked an ordinary-sized cake by using
one-half of this recipe. The cake was fine grained, similar to a pound
cake, although not quite as rich, and she added a couple
tablespoonfuls of thinly shaved citron to the batter before baking.
This is a particularly fine cake.


1-1/2 cups sugar.
1/2 cup butter.
3/4 cup water.
3 eggs.
1-1/2 teaspoonfuls baking powder.
Flour to stiffen.

Save out white of one egg for icing. Bake cake in three layers. Chop
1 cup of hickory nut meats and add to the last layer of cake before
putting in pan to bake. Use the cake containing nut meats for the
middle layer of cake. Put layers together with white boiled icing.


1 pound sugar.
1 pound butter.
3/4 pound flour.
1 pound raisins, seeded.
1 pound almonds.
1/2 pound thinly shaved citron.
1 lemon.
1 nutmeg.
12 eggs.

Mix ingredients as for pound cake. A fine cake, but expensive.


1 pound butter, scant measure.
1 pound pulverized sugar.
1 pound flour (full pound).
10 eggs.
1 pound English walnut kernels.
1 pound raisins.
3/4 lb. citron, candied orange and lemon peel.
1 cup brandy.
1 teaspoonful baking powder.

Bake 2-1/2 to 3 hours. This is an excellent cake.


5 eggs.
The weight of 5 eggs in sugar.
The weight of 4 eggs in flour.
1 cup raisins.
1 cup currants.
The weight of 3 eggs in butter.
1/2 teaspoonful baking powder.
2 tablespoonfuls of brandy.
1/2 cup finely shaved citron.
1/2 cup English walnut or shellbark meats.
Small quantity of candied orange and lemon peel.

This recipe was given Mary by an English friend, an excellent cook and
cake-baker, who vouches for its excellence.


1 pound butter.
1 pound sugar.
1 pound flour.
2 pounds raisins.
2 pounds currants.
Spices of all kinds.
1/4 pound thinly sliced citron.
8 eggs.
1 tablespoonful molasses.
1 cup sour milk.
1 teaspoonful soda.

Mix together in ordinary manner. Cream butter and sugar, add yolks of
eggs, sour milk and soda; add flour alternately with stiffly beaten
whites of eggs. Lastly, the well-floured fruit. Bake two hours in a
moderate oven. This quantity makes one very large cake, or two medium
sized ones, and will keep one year. Line inside of pan with
well-greased heavy paper to prevent bottom of cake baking too hard.

Aunt Sarah never cut this cake until one month from time it was baked,
as it improves with age and may be kept one year.


Cream together 3/4 pound butter and 1 pound sugar and yolks of 10
eggs. Then add 10 whites of eggs well beaten alternately with 1 pound
of sifted flour.

Bake in a moderate oven with a steady heat. The bottom of pan should
be lined with well-greased paper.


Place in a bowl 1 cup of New Orleans molasses and 3/4 of a cup of
sweet milk. Add 1 teaspoonful of baking _soda_. (For this cake Aunt
Sarah was always particular to use the _Cow_-brand soda), dissolved in
a very little hot water. Aunt Sarah always used B.T. Babbitt's
saleratus for other purposes.

Stir all ingredients together well, then add gradually three even cups
of flour, no more, and beat hard. The cake mixture should not be very
thick. Pour into three medium-sized pie-tins lined with pastry and
bake in a moderately hot oven. These are good, cheap breakfast cakes,
neither eggs nor shortening being used.


Six yolks of eggs and 1 cup sugar, creamed together. Beat about 15
minutes. Add 1 teaspoonful allspice, 1 teaspoonful cloves, 1 cup
Baker's chocolate, which had been grated, melted and cooled; 1 cup
stale rye bread crumbs, crushed fine with rolling-pin. Lastly, add the
stiffly beaten whites of 6 eggs, a pinch of salt and 1/2 teaspoonful
of baking powder sifted over the batter. Put into a small cake pan and
bake half an hour in a moderate oven. When eggs are cheap and
plentiful this is an economical cake, as no flour is used. It is a
delicious cake and resembles an ordinary chocolate cake.


1/2 cake of Baker's unsweetened chocolate (grated).
1 cup granulated sugar.
1/2 cup milk.
1 teaspoonful vanilla.
1/2 cup butter.
1-1/2 to 2 cups flour.
2 eggs.
2 teaspoonfuls baking powder.

Boil together chocolate, sugar and milk. Add butter and when cool add
yolk of eggs; then the flour, flavoring and stiffly beaten whites of 2
eggs. Beat all thoroughly and bake in a loaf or layers.


Boil together 5 tablespoonfuls grated chocolate, 3/4 cup granulated
sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls milk, 1 egg.

When the mixture begins to thicken and look creamy, spread on cake. If
baked in layers, ice on top and between the two layers.


Cream together 3/4 cup butter and 2 cups sugar. Add whites of 5 eggs,
1 cup milk, 1 teaspoonful cream of tartar, 1/2 teaspoonful soda sifted
with 3 cups flour and 1 grated cocoanut. Bake in a loaf. This is an
excellent old recipe of Aunt Sarah's.


Cream together:

1 cup of sugar.
1/2 cup lard and butter, mixed.
Yolk of 2 eggs.
1/2 cup pulverized cocoa.
1/2 cup of creamed mashed potatoes, cold.
A little ground cinnamon and grated nutmeg.
A few drops of essence of vanilla.
1/4 cup of sweet milk.
1/2 cup finely chopped nut meats.

One teaspoonful of baking powder sifted with one cup of flour added to
the batter alternately with the stiffly beaten whites of eggs. Bake in
two layers, in a moderately hot oven. Ice top and put layers together
with white icing. This is a delicious, if rather unusual cake.


1/2 cup butter.
1 cup sugar.
4 eggs.
2 tablespoonfuls water.
1/4 pound of thinly shaved citron.
1-1/2 cups flour.
1-1/4 teaspoonfuls baking powder.
Several drops of almond flavoring.

Bake in a loaf in a moderate oven about 45 minutes after mixing
ingredients together as for any ordinary cake. This is a very good


1 cup butter.
2 cups granulated sugar.
1 cup of a mixture of sour milk and cream.
4 eggs.
1 teaspoonful soda.
1/2 teaspoonful cloves.
1 teaspoonful cinnamon.
1/2 teaspoonful nutmeg.
1 teaspoonful vanilla extract.
2 tablespoonfuls cocoa.
3 cups flour.

Mix all like any ordinary cake. From one-half this recipe was baked an
ordinary sized loaf cake.


One cup of flour, 1 teaspoonful of baking powder and 1 cup of
granulated sugar were sifted together. Two eggs were broken into a
cup, also 1 large tablespoonful of melted butter. Fill up the cup with
sweet milk, beat all ingredients well together. Flavor with vanilla
and add 2 extra tablespoonfuls of flour to the mixture. Bake in two
layer cake pans.

Place the following mixture between the two layers: 1/2 cup of grated
chocolate, 1/2 cup sugar and 1/4 cup of liquid coffee. Cook together a
short time until the consistency of thick cream, then spread between


Two cups of pulverized sugar, 1 cup of butter, 1 cup sweet milk,
whites of 8 eggs, 1 teaspoonful soda, 2 teaspoonfuls of cream of
tartar, 3 cups of flour. From same proportions of everything, only
using the 8 yolks instead of whites of eggs, may be made a yellow
cake, thus having two good sized layer cakes with alternate layers of
white and yellow. Put cakes together with white icing. This was an old
recipe of Aunt Sarah's mother, used when cream of tartar and soda took
the place of baking powder.


For these small cakes take 6 eggs, 1 cup of sugar and 3/4 cup of flour
and 1/2 teaspoonful of baking powder, a pinch of salt, flavor with
lemon. Beat yolks of eggs separately, then add sugar and beat to a
cream, then add the stiffly beaten whites of eggs alternately with the
sifted flour and baking powder; add a pinch of salt and flavoring.
Bake in small muffin tins in a very moderate oven.


2 cups granulated sugar.
3 eggs (not separated, but added one at a time to the sugar
        and shortening which had been creamed together).
1 scant cup butter and lard, mixed.
2 teaspoonfuls baking powder.
Pinch of salt
1 tablespoonful sweet milk.
Grated rind of 2 lemons and juice of one.

Stiffen the dough with about 3-1/2 cups flour and use about 1 extra
cup of flour to dredge the bake-board when rolling out dough and for
sifting over the greased baking sheets so the cakes will come off
readily. Roll dough very thin and cut in any desired shape. From this
recipe may be made 100 small cakes. The baking sheet (for which I gave
measurements in bread recipe) holds 20 of these small round cakes. Do
all young housewives know that if dough for small cakes be mixed the
day before baking and stood in a cool place, the cakes can be cut out
more easily and the dough may be rolled thinner, and as less flour may
then be used, the cakes will be richer?

Aunt Sarah always cut these cakes with a small round or heart-shaped
cutter and when all were on the baking sheet she either placed a half
of an English walnut meat in the centre of each cake or cut out the
centre of each small cake with the top of a pepper box lid before
baking them.


2-1/2 cups rolled oats (oatmeal).
1 tablespoonful melted butter.
3/4 cup sugar.
1 teaspoonful baking powder.
2 large eggs.
Pinch of salt.

Beat eggs, add salt and sugar, mix baking powder with oats and stir
all together. Drop from a teaspoon on to flat pan or sheet iron, not
too close together, as they spread. Flatten very thin with a knife
dipped in cold water and bake in a moderate oven a light brown. These
cakes are fine and easily made. Did you not know differently, you
would imagine these cakes to be macaroons made from nuts, which they
greatly resemble.


1 cup molasses, 1 cup sugar, 1 cup of a mixture of lard and butter, 1
egg, 1 teaspoonful of ginger, 1 teaspoonful of cinnamon, 1/2 a grated
nutmeg, 1 teaspoonful of soda dissolved in 1 teaspoonful of vinegar.
About 3 cups of flour should be added.

Dough should be stiff enough to roll out very thin, and the cakes may
be rolled thinner than would be possible otherwise, should the
cake-dough stand aside over night, or on ice for several hours, until
thoroughly chilled. Cut cakes small with an ordinary cake cutter and
bake in a quick oven. These are excellent and will remain crisp some
time if kept in a warm, dry place.


This is a recipe for good, old-fashioned "German Christmas cakes,"
from which Aunt Sarah's mother always baked. She used:

1 pound dark brown sugar.
3 whole eggs and yolks of 3 more.
1/4 pound citron finely shaved on a "slaw-cutter."
1/2 pound English walnut meats (chopped fine).
1 quart flour sifted with 2 teaspoonfuls of baking powder.

Mix well together. Do not roll thin like ginger snaps, but about a
half inch thick. Cut out about size of a large coffee cup. Bake in a
moderate oven and when cold ice the cakes with the following icing:


Boil 2 cups of sugar and 1/2 cup of water seven minutes. Pour over the
stiffly beaten whites of three eggs; ice the cakes. Place cakes in a
tin box when icing has become cold and these will keep quite a long
time. I have eaten high-priced, imported Lebkuchen no better than
those made from this recipe.


One quart of New Orleans molasses, 3 eggs, butter size of an egg.
Place all together in a stew-pan on range, allow it to come to boil,
stirring constantly, and when cool stir in one tablespoonful of
saleratus dissolved in a very little vinegar, and about 3 pounds of
flour. Do not have cake dough too stiff. Dough should stand until the
following day. Roll out at least 1/2 inch thick. Cut cakes as large
around as an ordinary coffee cup or cut with a knife into small,
oblong pieces, a little larger than half a common soda cracker. Bake
in a moderate oven. Should too much flour be used, cakes will be hard
and dry instead of soft and spongy. This very old and excellent recipe
had belonged to the grandmother of Sarah Landis. Cakes similar to the
ones baked from this recipe, also those baked from recipe for "honey
cakes," were sold in large sheets marked off in oblong sections,
seventy years ago, and at that time no "vendue," or public sale, in
certain localities throughout Bucks County, was thought complete
unless in sound of the auctioneer's voice, on a temporary stand, these
cakes were displayed on the day of "the sale," and were eagerly bought
by the crowd which attended such gatherings.


The whites of four eggs should be beaten very stiff and when partly
beaten sprinkle over 1/2 teaspoonful of cream of tartan Finish beating
egg whites and sift in slowly 1/2 cup of fine granulated sugar, then
sift 1/2 cup of flour (good measure). Flavor with a few drops of
almond flavoring. Bake in small Gem pans, placing a tablespoonful of
butter in each. Sift pulverized sugar over tops of cakes. Bake 20
minutes in a _very_ moderate oven. The recipe for these dainty little
cakes was given Mary by a friend who, knowing her liking for angel
cake, said these were similar in taste.


Three-fourths cup sugar, 3 eggs, 2-1/2 tablespoonfuls olive oil 2 cups
flour, 1/2 teaspoonfuls baking powder, 1/2 cup sweet almonds, pinch
of salt. A couple of drops of almond extract.

In a bowl place 3/4 cup of granulated sugar. Add 3 well-beaten eggs, 2
cups of flour sifted with 1-1/2 teaspoonfuls of baking powder and a
pinch of salt. Mix all well together. Add 1 cup whole (blanched)
almonds and 2-1/2 tablespoonfuls of good olive oil.

Knead the dough thoroughly. Do not have dough too stiff. Divide the
dough into four equal parts, roll each portion of dough on a
_well-floured_ bake board into long, narrow rolls. Place the four
rolls on a baking sheet over which flour had been previously sifted.
Place the rolls a short distance apart and bake in a quick oven about
twenty minutes or until light brown on top. On removing the baking
sheet from the oven cut rolls at once, while the almonds are still
warm, into two-inch pieces. From this recipe was made thirty pieces of
almond bread. The olive oil, used as shortening, is not tasted when
baked. These are a very good little cake, and not bread, as their name
would lead one to suppose.


One quart of boiled honey (if possible procure the honey used by
bakers, as it is much cheaper and superior for this purpose than the
clear, strained honey sold for table use). Add to the warm honey two
generous tablespoonfuls of butter, yolks of four eggs, two ounces of
salaratus (baking soda), dissolved in a very small quantity of
vinegar, just enough to moisten the salaratus. Add just enough flour
to enable one to stir well with a spoon. Work the dough a half hour
and allow it to stand until the following day, when cut cakes from the
dough which had been rolled out on the bake-board one-half inch thick.
The dough should be only just stiff enough to roll out, as should the
dough be _too soft_ the cakes will become hard and crisp, instead of
light and spongy, and if too great a quantity of flour is added the
cakes will not be good. As the thickening qualities of flour differ,
the exact amount required cannot be given. When about to cut out
cakes, the bake-board should be well-floured. Cut the cakes the size
of the top of a large coffee-cup, or roll out in one-half inch thick
on a well-floured baking sheet and mark in small, oblong sections
with a knife, they may then be easily broken apart when baked. These
cakes should he baked in a moderately hot oven and not a _hot oven_.

These are the real, old-time honey cakes as made by Aunt Sarah's
grandmother on a "Bucks County" farm, and Mary's Aunt informed her she
still remembered in her earlier days having bought these cakes at
"Bucks County" sales or "vendues," as they were then designated.


2 eggs.
1/2 pound butter.
1/2 pound sugar.
1/2 pound flour.
Pinch of salt.
Flavor with lemon essence.

Mix the same as other small cakes. Drop spoonfuls quite a distance
apart on the cold pan or tin on which they are to be baked as the
dough spreads. These are very thin, delicious wafers when baked.


1 cup lard and butter, mixed.
2 cups granulated sugar, and
2 eggs, all creamed together; then add
1 teaspoon soda (mix with a little sour milk).
Flavor with vanilla.

Beat all well together. Add flour enough that they may be rolled out,
no more. Flour bake-board well; cut dough with cake cutter into small
round cakes and bake in a rather quick oven. This recipe will make a
large number of cakes if dough be rolled thin as a wafer. Frau Schmidt
was able to keep these cakes some time--under lock and key. If cake
dough be mixed one day and allowed to stand over night, cakes may be
rolled out much more easily and cut thinner.


Three eggs (whites only), 3/4 pound of pulverized sugar, 1/2 pound of
almond paste (which may be bought ready prepared). Beat eggs very
stiff, add other ingredients. Drop teaspoonfuls on a baking sheet and
bake in a moderate oven 15 or 20 minutes. Macaroons prepared from this
recipe are delicious and resemble those sold by confectioners.


Two pounds of flour, 1/2 pound of butter, 2/3 pound of almonds, 2
pounds of honey in liquid form, the grated yellow rind of one lemon,
1/2 teaspoonful of cloves, 1/2 teaspoonful of cinnamon, 1 ounce of
hartshorn, dissolved in a small quantity of water. Boil together honey
and butter, remove from fire, and when mixture has cooled add the
hartshorn, coarsely chopped almonds and flour. Allow this mixture to
stand several days, roll out 1/3 inch thick. Cut in small round cakes,
place a whole almond in centre of each cake. Bake a light brown in a
moderate oven.


Two cups of New Orleans molasses, 1 cup of lard, 1 tablespoonful of
ginger, 1 teaspoonful of cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoonful of cloves, 1/2 a
grated nutmeg, 1 tablespoonful of saleratus dissolved in a small
quantity of hot water. Add enough flour to form a _very_ stiff dough.
Stand dough aside until the following day, when roll out very thin on
a well-floured bake-board. Cut with a small round cake cutter and bake
in a hot oven. These are good, cheap small cakes.


One cup of hickory nut meals, 1 cup of pulverized sugar, 1 egg, a
pinch of salt, 2 teaspoons of flour. Mix all ingredients together.
Drop small pieces on a sheet-iron and bake.


Two pounds of sugar, 8 large eggs, 3/4 pound of almonds (shelled), 1/4
pound of citron, 1/4 of a pound each of candied orange and lemon peel,
the grated yellow rind of one lemon, 4 teaspoonfuls of cinnamon, 1
teaspoonful allspice, about 2 pounds flour. Separate the eggs. Cream
the yolks of eggs and sugar well together. Then add the almonds (which
have been blanched by pouring boiling water over them, when the skins
may be readily removed), the citron and lemon peel chopped fine. Then
add 1 level teaspoonful of different spices. Then add the stiffly
beaten whites of eggs, alternately, with the sifted flour. The recipe
called for two pounds of flour, but "Frau" Schmidt said; "She was
never able to use the whole amount, so she added just enough flour to
prevent the mixture spreading when dropped on the baking sheet by


Two cups sugar, 3 eggs (beaten separately), 1 cup butter, 1 cup milk,
3-1/2 cups flour, 3 teaspoonfuls baking powder, 1/4 of nutmeg, grated,
1 cup currants. Mix all together and bake in a broad, shallow pan.
This is similar to Spanish Bun. When cake is cooled, but not cold, cut
in two-inch squares or diamonds before removing from the pan in which
the cake was baked.


For these German cakes Frau Schmidt used the following: 3 pounds of
flour, 2 pounds of sugar syrup, 1/8 teaspoonful of black pepper, 1/4
pound of lard, 1/4 teaspoon of cardamom powder, 1/4 pound of butter,
1/2 teaspoonful of cloves, 1/2 pound of brown sugar and 2 eggs.

Use as much "Hirschhorn Salz" as can be placed on the point of a knife
("Hirschhorn Salz" translated is carbonate of ammonia and is used for
baking purposes). Allow the syrup to heat on the range. Skim off the
top. When syrup has cooled mix all ingredients together and stand
aside for one week or longer, when form the dough into small balls
size of a hickory nut. Place on greased pans and bake half hour in a
slow oven.


Cream together 1-1/2 cups of light brown sugar, 1/2 cup of lard and
butter, mixed, and the yolk of one egg. Add 1/2 cup of hot water and
3/4 teaspoonful of saleratus (baking soda) dissolved in a little
boiling water; add 2-1/2 cups of oatmeal the stiffly beaten white of
egg and 2-1/2 cups of white flour. Mix all together. Dredge the bake
board with flour, roll thin. Cut out with a small round cake cutter.
Sift a little flour over the well-greased baking sheets, on which
place cakes and bake in a moderately hot oven.


1/2 pound sugar, 1/2 pound butter.
1/2 pound of seeded raisins (chopped).
1/2 pound blanched and chopped almonds.
1 teaspoonful cinnamon, 1 teaspoonful of allspice.
Grated rind and juice of 1 lemon.
2 cakes German sweet chocolate, grated.
3 whole eggs and 2 extra whites of eggs.
2 teaspoons baking powder, 3 cups flour.
1 tablespoon vanilla, 2 tablespoons of brandy.

Cream butter and sugar, add eggs, one at a time. Then add all the
ingredients. Mix with flour. Flour bake board and take a handful of
dough and roll with the hands in shape of a sausage roll. This
quantity of dough makes eight rolls. Place on greased baking sheets a
short distance apart, so they will not touch when being baked. Bake
them in a _warm_, not hot, oven. Take from the oven when baked and cut
while still warm into small slices across the roll. Slices should be
about three-quarters of an inch wide. Cover the three sides with the
following icing:

Beat together until smooth and creamy 1 cupful of sweet cream, adding
enough confectioners' sugar to make it spread.

You may expedite the work by preparing raisins and almonds the day

The Professor's wife always served these almond cakes with coffee when
she gave a "kaffee klatch" to her country friends.


Two cups of molasses (New Orleans), 1 cup of light brown sugar, 1 egg,
1 tablespoonful of soda, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 1 tablespoonful
of ginger and about 5-1/2 cups of flour.

Place molasses and sugar in a sauce-pan on the range, cook together
until sugar is dissolved, no longer.

Mix the soda and vinegar and when foamy add to the sugar and molasses
with a portion of the required amount of flour; then add the egg and
the flour remaining. Turn dough out on a well-floured bake-beard, roll
out into a thin sheet and cut out small cakes with a tin cutter. Bake
in a moderately hot oven.

No shortening of any kind was used in these cakes. One hundred cakes
were baked from the above ingredients.


Three cups of sugar, 1 cup of butter, 2 eggs, 1 cup of sweet milk, 1
cup of grated cocoanut, 2 teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Mix all
together, sift flour with baking powder, add flour to form a dough
just stiff enough to roll out, no more. Cut with a small tin cake
cutter into round cakes and bake.


Two cups of white sugar, 1 cup of grated, unsweetened chocolate, 2
eggs, 1/2 cup of butter, 2 teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Flavor with
vanilla. Mix together sugar, butter and eggs, add melted chocolate and
flour to stiffen, just enough flour being used to allow of their being
cut with a cake cutter. The baking powder should have been sifted with
a small amount of flour before adding.


2 cups "A" sugar.
Pinch of salt.
1 cup melted butter.
1 teaspoonful baking soda.
4 eggs.
About 3 cups of flour.

Mix in just enough flour so the cake dough may be rolled out quite
thin on a floured board, using as little flour as possible. Cut out
small cakes and bake lightly in a moderately hot oven.

The butter, when melted, should fill one cup; pour it over the two
cups of sugar in a bowl and beat until smooth and creamy; add the
eggs, beating one at a time into the mixture. Sift the teaspoonful of
baking soda several times through the flour before adding to the cake
mixture. Stand this dough in a cold place one hour at least before
cutting out cakes. No flavoring is used. Sift granulated sugar thickly
over cakes before placing them in oven to bake.

From these ingredients were made over one hundred cakes. One-half this
recipe might be used for a small family. The cakes keep well in a dry,
cool place.

This old recipe of Aunt Sarah's mother derived its name "Belsnickel"
from the fact that the Belsnickels, who invariably visited the houses
of "Bucks County" farmers on Christmas Eve, were always treated to
some of these delicious little Christmas cakes.


One cup of pulverized sugar, whites of 3 eggs, 1 heaping cup of nut
meats (Mary used hickory nut meats), a pinch of salt. To the very
stiffly beaten whites of eggs add sugar, salt and lastly the nut
meats. Drop teaspoonfuls of this batter on a greased, floured baking
tin. Bake in a moderate oven.


For these small cakes Aunt Sarah creamed together 1/2 cup of
granulated sugar, 1/4 cup butter. One quite large egg was used. The
egg yolk was added to the creamed sugar and butter and thoroughly
beaten, then scant 1/2 cup of milk was added, and one heaping cup of
fine dried bread crumbs sifted with 3/4 teaspoonful of baking powder
and 1/4 cup of finely chopped or rolled _black_ walnut meats. Lastly,
add the stiffly beaten white of egg. Flavor with grated nutmeg. Bake
in small muffin pans in a moderate oven. This makes nine small cakes.
No flour is used in these cakes, but, instead of flour, bread crumbs
are used.


1/4 pound of butter.
1/4 pound of flour.
1/4 pound of sugar.
2 eggs.

Cream together butter and sugar, add yolks of eggs, beat well, then
add stiffly beaten whites of eggs and flour alternately.

Flavor with essence of vanilla, drop from spoon on to _cold_ iron pan,
not too close together, as the cakes will spread. Bake quickly in a
hot oven until outer edge of cakes have browned.


One-half pound of almonds, blanched and chopped fine, 1/2 pound of
pulverized sugar, whites of 4 eggs. Place sugar and almonds in a pan
on the range, until colored a light yellow-brown. Beat whites of eggs
very stiff, mix all ingredients together, then drop with a spoon on
tins waxed with bees' wax, and bake in a quick oven.


4 eggs.
1 pound sifted pulverized sugar
2 quarts flour, sifted twice.
2 small teaspoonfuls baking powder.

Beat whites and yolks of eggs separately, mix with sugar and beat
well. Add flour until you have a smooth dough. Roll out pieces of
dough, which should be half an inch thick. Press the dough on a
floured form or mold, lift the mold, cut out the cakes thus designed
and let lie until next day on a floured bread board. The next day
grease pans well, sprinkle anise seed over the pans in which the cakes
are to be baked; lay in cakes an inch apart and bake in a moderate
oven to a straw color. The form used usually makes six impressions or
cakes 1-1/2 inches square, leaving the impression of a small figure or
flower on surface when dough is pressed on form.


1 cup sugar.
1 cup butter and lard, mixed (scant measure).
1 cup chopped nut meats.
1 cup chopped raisins.
2 eggs, beaten separately, whites added last.
1 teaspoonful baking soda dissolved in 4 tablespoonfuls sour milk.
1 teaspoonful vanilla.
Little grated nutmeg.
2 cups oatmeal (uncooked).
2 cups white flour.

Drop with tablespoon on well-greased baking sheet over which has been
sifted a little flour. Bake in rather quick oven. This recipe makes 65
small cakes.


Sift together 2 cups flour and 3 teaspoonfuls baking powder. Add 1
egg, 1/2 cup sugar, 1/2 cup peanuts and pecan nut meats, mixed (run
through food-chopper), 1/2 cup sweet milk, 1/2 teaspoonful salt. Beat
sugar and yolk of egg together add milk, stiffly beaten white of egg,
chopped nut meats and flour, alternately. Add salt. Place a large
spoonful in each of 12 well-greased Gem pans. Allow to stand in pans
about 25 minutes. Bake half an hour.


1/2 cup butter.
4 tablespoonfuls milk.
1 cup sugar.
1/2 teaspoonful grated nutmeg.
2 eggs.
1/2 cup chopped walnut meats.
3 cups flour.
3 teaspoonfuls baking powder.

Cream butter and sugar, add milk slowly, add well-beaten eggs. Beat
well, add flour and baking powder, sifted together. Roll thin. Cut
with a small cake cutter any desired.


Cream together 1-1/2 cups of sugar, 1/2 cup of butter, a small
teaspoonful of salt. Dissolve 1 teaspoonful of soda in 4
tablespoonfuls of warm water, two eggs. Sift 3 cups of flour, add 1
teaspoonful of ginger, 1 teaspoonful of cloves, 1/2 teaspoonful of
grated nutmeg, 1 pound of English walnuts, 1 pound of seeded raisins.
Drop by teaspoon on a cold sheet iron and bake in a moderate oven.
These are excellent.


10 eggs
3/4 pound sugar.
3/4 pound butter.
1 pound flour.

Mix like ordinary cake. Divide this into three parts. Flavor one part
with vanilla, 1 with chocolate and the other with cinnamon. These
latter will be darker than the first. Place a piece of dough as large
as a small marble in a small hot, well-greased waffle or wafer iron.
Press two sides of iron together, which flattens out cake, and hold by
a long handle over fire, turning it over occasionally until cakes are
baked. The cake, when baked, is a delicious, thin, rich wafer, about
the size of half a common soda cracker. I have never eaten these
Christmas cakes at any place excepting at Aunt Sarah's. The wafer iron
she possessed was brought by her Grandmother from Germany. The waffle
or wafer irons might be obtained in this country.


1/2 pound butter.
1/2 ounce cinnamon.
1/2 pound sugar.
3 eggs.

Work together and form into small balls. Place in hot buttered wafer
irons, hold over fire and bake. This is an old German recipe which
Frau Schmidt's grandmother used.


2 pounds sugar syrup.
1/4 pound granulated sugar.
1/4 pound butter.
1/4 pound coarsely chopped almonds.
Grate yellow part of one lemon rind.
1/4 ounce cinnamon.
1/4 ounce cloves.
1 drachm of powdered cardamom.
1 ounce of hartshorn, dissolved in a little milk.

Place syrup in stew-pan on range to heat, add butter, almonds, spices,

Remove from range, stir in flour gradually. Use about 10 cups of
flour. When cool add the dissolved hartshorn. Allow the cake dough to
stand in a warm place eight to ten days before baking.

Then place a portion of the cake dough on a greased baking sheet which
has been sprinkled lightly with flour, roll cake dough out on the
sheet about 1/3 inch in thickness; place in a _very moderate_ oven.
When well dried out and nicely browned on top cut the sheets into
small squares, the size of ordinary soda crackers.

This is a very old recipe given Mary by Frau Schmidt.


One pint of roasted peanuts, measured, after being shelled. Rub off
the brown skin, run through a food-chopper. Cream together 2
tablespoonfuls of butter, 1 cup of sugar. Add 3 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls
of milk, 1/4 teaspoonful of salt and the chopped peanuts. Add flour to
make a soft dough. Roll out on a floured board, cut with a small cake
cutter and bake in a moderate oven. This recipe was given Mary by a
friend living in Allentown.


Have all the materials cold when making pastry. Handle as little as
possible. Place in a bowl 3-1/2 cups flour, 3/4 teaspoonful salt and 1
cup good, sweet lard. Cut through with a knife into quite small pieces
and mix into a dough with a little less than a half cup of cold water.
Use only enough water to make dough hold together. This should be done
with a knife or tips of the fingers. The water should be poured on the
flour and lard carefully, a small quantity at a time, and never twice
at the same place. Be careful that the dough is not too moist. Press
the dough with the hands into a lump, but do not knead. Take enough of
the dough for one pie on the bake board, roll lightly, always in one
direction, line greased pie tins and fill crust. If fruit pies,
moisten the edge of the lower crust, cover with top crust, which has
been rolled quite thin. A knife scraped across the top crust several
times before placing over pie causes the crust to have a rough, flaky,
rich-looking surface when baked. Cut small vents in top crust to allow
steam to escape. Pinch the edges of fruit pies well together to
prevent syrup oozing out. If you wish light, flaky pie crust, bake in
a hot oven. If a sheet of paper placed in oven turns a delicate brown,
then the oven is right for pies. The best of pastry will be a failure
if dried slowly in a cool oven.

When baking a crust for a tart to be filled after crust has been
baked, always prick the crust with a fork before putting in oven to
bake. This prevents the crust forming little blisters.

Aunt Sarah always used for her pies four even cups of flour, 1/4
teaspoonful baking powder and one even cup of sweet, _rich, home-made
lard_, a pinch of salt with just enough cold water to form a dough,
and said her pies were rich enough for any one. They certainly were
rich and flaky, without being greasy, and she said, less shortening
was necessary when baking powder was used. To cause her pies to have a
golden brown color she brushed tops of pies with a mixture of egg and
milk or milk and placed immediately in a hot oven.

Mary noticed her Aunt frequently put small dabs of lard or butter on
the dough used for top crust of pies before rolling crust the desired
size when she wished them particularly rich.

Aunt Sarah always used pastry flour for cake and pie. A smooth flour
which showed the impression of the fingers when held tightly in the
hand (the more expensive "bread flour") feels like fine sand or
granulated sugar, and is a stronger flour and considered better for
bread or raised cakes in which yeast is used, better results being
obtained by its use alone or combined with a cheaper flour when baking


This is a good, old-fashioned recipe for lemon pie, baked with two
crusts, and not expensive. Grate the yellow outside rind from one
lemon, use juice and pulp, but not the white part of rind; mix with 2
small cups of sugar, then add 1 cup of water and 1 cup of milk, and 1
large tablespoonful of corn starch, moistened with a little of the one
cup of water. The yolks of 2 eggs were added. Mix all ingredients and
add the stiffly beaten whites of eggs. This quantity will fill three
small pastry crusts. The mixture will measure nearly one quart. Pour
into the three crusts, moisten edges of pies, place top crusts on each
pie. Pinch edges of crust together and bake in hot oven.


For superior pastry use 1-1/2 cups flour, 1 cup lard, 1/2 teaspoonful
salt and about 1/4 cup of cold water, or three scant tablespoonfuls.
Put 1 cup of flour on the bake board, sprinkle salt over, chop 1/4 cup
of sweet lard through the flour with a knife, until the pieces are
about the size of a cherry. Moisten with about 1/4 cup of ice cold
water. Cut through the flour and lard with a knife, moistening a
little of the mixture at a time, until you have a soft dough, easily
handled. Roll out lightly the size of a tea plate. Take 1/3 of the
lard remaining, put small dabs at different places on the dough (do
not spread the lard over), then sprinkle over 1/3 of the remaining
half cup of flour and roll the dough into a long, narrow roll, folding
the opposite ends in the centre of the roll. Roll out lightly (one
way), then add lard and flour; roll and repeat the process until flour
and lard have all been used. The pastry may be set aside in a cold
place a short time before using. If particularly fine pastry is
required, the dough might be rolled out once more, using small dabs of
butter instead of lard, same quantity as was used of lard for one
layer, then dredged thickly with flour and rolled over and over, and
then ends folded together, when it should be ready to use. When wanted
to line pie-tins, cut pieces off one end of the roll of dough and roll
out lightly. The layers should show plainly when cut, and the pastry
should puff nicely in baking, and be very rich, crisp and flaky. When
preparing crusts for custards, lemon meringues and pies having only
one crust, cut narrow strips of pastry about half an inch wide, place
around the upper edge or rim of crust and press the lower edge of the
strip against the crust; make small cuts with a knife about 1/3 inch
apart, all around the edge of this extra crust, to cause it to look
flaky when baked. This makes a rich pie crust.

A very good crust may be made by taking the same proportions as used
for superior pastry, placing 1-1/2 to 2 cups flour on the bake board,
add salt, cut 1/2 cup lard through the flour, moistening with water.
Roll out crust and line pie-tins or small patty pans for tarts. This
pastry is not quite as fine and smooth as the other, but requires less
time and trouble to make.

The Professor's wife taught Mary to make this pastry, but Mary never
could learn from her the knack of making a dainty, crimped,
rolled-over edge to her pies, which she made easily with a deft twist
of her thumb and forefinger.


Line two large pie-tins with pie crust, prick with a fork before
placing crusts in oven to bake. When baked stand aside to cool while
you prepare the following filling: The juice and grated rind of 1
lemon, 1 pint sweet milk, 1 cup sugar, yolks of three eggs, 3
tablespoonfuls flour, butter size of a walnut. Cream together sugar,
flour, yolks of eggs, then add lemon, mix well then add to the scalded
milk on the range and cook until thick. Let cool, but do not allow to
become quite cold, spread on the two crusts, which have been baked.
When quite cold add 3 tablespoonfuls of sugar to the stiffly beaten
whites of the three eggs, spread on top of pies, sift 1 tablespoonful
pulverized sugar on top of meringue and set in a quick oven until fawn
color. Serve cold.

When mixing pie dough, should you have mixed more than needed at one
time, line _agate_ pie-tins with crust (never stand away in tin). They
may be kept several days in a cool place and used later for crumb
cakes or custards. Or a crust might be baked and used later for lemon
meringues, etc.


Line pie-tins with rich pie crust, sift over each 1 tablespoonful
flour and 2 tablespoonfuls sugar. Place on the crust enough good, tart
baking apples, which have been pared, cored, halved and placed (flat
surface down) on the crust. Put bits of butter over the top and
between the apples, about 1 large tablespoonful altogether, and
sprinkle about 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar over, add about 1
tablespoonful of cold water when pies are ready to place in oven.
These pies should be baked in a very hot oven. When apples are soft
take pies from oven and serve one pie, hot; stand the other one aside
until quite cold.

To the stiffly beaten white of one egg add one tablespoonful sugar.
Stir together and place a spoonful on the top of each half of apple
and place in oven until meringue has browned and serve pie cold. Peach
tarts may be made in a similar manner, omitting the meringue and
substituting peaches for apples.


"Rosina" pie, as Aunt Sarah called it, was composed of 1 lemon, 1 egg,
1 cup sugar, 1 tablespoonful flour, 1 cup large, blue, seeded
raisins. Cover the raisins with one cup of cold water; let soak two
hours. Cream egg and sugar together, add juice and grated rind of one
quite small lemon, or half a large one. Mix the tablespoonful of flour
smooth with a little cold water, add to the mixture, then add raisins
and to the water in which they were soaked add enough water to fill
the cup and cook until the mixture thickens. When cool fill pie-tins
with the mixture, bake with upper and under crust about 20 minutes in
hot oven. Aunt Sarah used a _generous_ tablespoonful of flour for this


Cover a bowlful of well-washed dried apples with cold water and allow
to soak over night. The following morning cook until tender and mash
through a colander. If quite thick a small quantity of water should be
added. Season with sugar to taste. Some apples require more sugar than
others. Add cinnamon, if liked. Aunt Sarah never used any spices in
these pies. Bake with two crusts or place strips cross-wise over the
pie of thinly rolled dough, like lattice work. These are typical
"Bucks County" pies.


Line a pie-tin, one holding 3 cups of liquid, with rich pastry. For
the filling for pie mix together the following: 1 cup of steamed
pumpkin, which had been mashed through a colander, 1 egg, beaten
separately, 1 tablespoonful of flour, 2-1/2 tablespoonfuls of sugar,
1/8 teaspoonful of salt, 1/2 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, same of
ginger, 1-1/2 cups of milk (scant measure). The mixture should measure
exactly 3 cups, after adding milk. Pour this mixture into the
pastry-lined pie-tin and bake in a moderate oven until top of pie is a
rich brown.


Melt one square of Baker's unsweetened chocolate, or 1/4 cup of
powdered cocoa, mix with this 1/2 cup of granulated sugar and 1/4 cup
of corn starch. When well mixed add yolks of 3 eggs, a pinch of salt,
2 cups of milk; cook all together in a double boiler until thickened.
When cool flavor with vanilla. Fill pastry-lined pie crust with the
mixture. Beat the 3 whites of eggs to a froth, mix with a couple
tablespoonfuls of pulverized sugar, spread on top of pie, stand in
oven until light brown.


Aunt Sarah made these to perfection and called them "Pebble Dash" pie.
They are not really pies, they resemble cakes, but having a crust we
will class them with pies. She lined three small sized pie-tins with
rich pie crust. For the crumbs she placed in a bowl 3 cups of flour, 1
cup brown sugar and 3/4 cup of butter and lard, mixed and rubbed all
together with the hands, not smooth, but in small rivels. For the
liquid part she used 1 cup baking molasses, 1 cup hot water, 1
teaspoonful baking soda dissolved in a few drops of vinegar and
stirred this into the molasses and water. She divided the liquid among
the three pans, putting one-third in each crust, over which she
sprinkled the crumbs. Bake one-half hour in a moderate oven. These
have the appearance of molasses cakes when baked.


Cook together a short time 1/2 cup molasses, 1 egg, 1 tablespoonful
flour, 1 cup sugar, 2 cups cold water. Moisten the flour with a little
cold water before adding to the other ingredients. When cooled add 1
teaspoonful of vanilla. Pour this mixture in the bottom of each of
four common sized pie-tins, lined with pastry, and sprinkle over the
following crumbs:


Two cups flour, 1/2 cup butter and lard, mixed, 1/2 teaspoonful soda
and 1 cup sugar, rubbed together with the hands to form crumbs.
Scatter these crumbs over the four pies.

These are not thick pies, but simply what the recipe calls
them--vanilla "crusts."


Aunt Sarah sometimes filled the bottom crusts of two small pies
(either cheese pie or plain custard) with a layer of fresh cherries
and poured the custard over the top of the cherries and baked same as
a plain custard pie.

Aunt Sarah might be called extravagant by some, but she always made
egg desserts when eggs were cheap and plentiful, in the Spring. In
Winter she baked pies and puddings in which a fewer number of eggs
were used and substituted canned and dried fruits for fresh ones. In
summer she used fresh fruit when in season, ice cream and sherbets.
She never indulged in high-priced, unseasonable fruits--thought it an
extravagance for one to do so, and taught Mary "a wise expenditure in
time means wealth."

For banana custard pie she substituted sliced banana for cherries on
top of pie.


Place in a bowl 1 cup flour, 1/2 cup sugar (good measure), 1/2 cup
butter and lard, or all butter is better (scant measure). Some like a
little grating of nutmeg, especially if part lard is used. Mix or
crumb the ingredients well together with the hands to form small
lumps, or rivels. Line pie-tins with a rich pastry crust and strew the
rivels thickly over and bake in a quick oven. A couple tablespoons of
molasses spread over the crumbs is liked by some. This is a favorite
pie or cake of many Pennsylvania Germans.


Two cups of water, 1-1/2 cups of sugar, 2 rounding tablespoonfuls of
corn starch, 4 eggs, 1 tablespoonful of butter, 2 small lemons. Mix
the water, sugar and corn starch dissolved in a little cold water,
pour in sauce-pan, place on range and stir mixture until thickened.
Beat separately the yolks of 4 eggs and the whites of 2, then add both
to the above mixture. Remove from the fire, add the juice of two small
lemons and grated rind of one; add butter. Fill two previously baked
pastry shells with the cooled mixture. Beat the remaining whites of
egg (another white of an egg added improves the appearance of the
pie.) Add one tablespoonful of pulverized sugar to each egg used;
place the stiffly beaten whites of egg rockily over tops of pies stand
in oven until a delicate shade of brown. This is a delicious pie.


Line two medium-sized pie-tins with pastry crust in which pour the
following mixture, composed of 1/2 cup of granulated sugar and one
egg, creamed together; then add 1/2 cup of cold water and the grated
yellow rind and juice of one lemon.

For the top of pies: Cream together 1 cup of sugar, 1/4 cup of lard
and 1 egg, then add 1/2 cup of sour milk alternately with 1-1/2 cups
of flour, sifted with 1/2 teaspoonful of baking soda and 1/2
teaspoonful of cream of tartar. Place 1/2 of this mixture on top of
each pie. Bake in oven.


The best pumpkin for pie is of a deep orange yellow with a rough,
warty surface. Remove the soft, spongy pulp and seeds of the pumpkin,
pare and cut into small pieces. Steam until tender. Put in a colander
to drain, then mash through colander with wooden potato masher. For
one deep pie allow one pint of the stewed pumpkin, beat in 2 eggs, one
at a time, 1/2 teaspoonful salt, 1 teaspoonful ginger, 1/2 teaspoonful
grated nutmeg, 1/2 teaspoonful cinnamon, 2/3 cup sugar, 1 scant pint
milk. Beat all together. This mixture should barely fill a quart
measure. Pour in a deep pie-tin lined with rich crust, grate nutmeg
over the top of pie and bake from 45 to 50 minutes in a moderate oven.
Have the oven rather hot when the pie is first put in to bake and then
reduce the heat, else the filling in the pie will boil and become
watery. If liked, two tablespoonfuls of brandy may be added to the
mixture before filling the crust. In that case, use two tablespoonfuls
less of milk.


Boil one medium-sized potato, mash fine, add 1 large tablespoonful of
butter and a generous 1/2 cup sugar. Beat to a cream. When the mixture
has cooled add yolks of 2 eggs, 1/2 cup sweet milk and grated rind and
juice of half a lemon. Lastly, stir in the stiffly beaten whites of
the two eggs. Bake in a medium-sized pie-tin with one crust in a
moderately hot oven about 25 minutes, until a rich brown on top. This
is a delicious pie and would puzzle a "Bucks County lawyer" to tell of
what it is composed.


Two cups of rhubarb, uncooked, do not skin it, cut in half-inch
pieces. Cream together 1 cup of sugar, 1 tablespoonful of cornstarch,
2 eggs (reserve white of one egg). Add the 2 cups of rhubarb to this
mixture and place all in a pie-tin lined with pastry. Place in oven
and bake until rhubarb is tender. Remove from oven and when pie has
cooled spread over it the stiffly beaten white of the egg, to which
had been added one tablespoonful of sugar. Place pie in oven and brown
a light fawn color.


Grate the yellow rind from a lemon (discard the white part of rind),
grate the remainder of the lemon, also pare and grate 1 apple. Add
1-1/2 cups of sugar, then add 2 well-beaten eggs. Pour this mixture
into 1 large pie-tin lined with rich pastry; place on a top crust,
pinch edges, moistened with water, together; bake in an oven with a
steady heat. When pie has baked sift pulverized sugar thickly over top
and serve cold. From these materials was baked a fair sized pie.


Line a pie-tin with rich pastry; place oil this crust 2 tablespoonfuls
of flour and 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar; then add 2 cups of
well-washed and stemmed green currants, previously mixed with 1
tablespoonful of cornstarch, moistened with a small quantity of cold
water. Add 1 cup of sugar (from which had been taken the 2
tablespoonfuls placed on crust;) add 2 tablespoonfuls of water; cover
with a top crust, cut small vents in crust, bake in a moderate oven.
When crust loosens from side of pan the pie should be sufficiently


Place in a mixing bowl 3/4 cup flour (generous measure), 1/2 cup
granulated sugar, 1 generous tablespoonful of butter.

Crumble all together with the hands until quite fine. Then to 1/4 cup
of New Orleans (baking) molasses add 1/4 cup of boiling water and 1/4
teaspoonful of soda (saleratus). Beat together the molasses, water and
soda until the mixture is foamy and rises to top of cup. Then pour
into a medium-sized pie-tin, lined with pie crust (the pie-tin should
not be small or the mixture, when baking, will rise over top of pan).
Sprinkle the prepared crumbs thickly over the molasses mixture and
with a spoon distribute the crumbs well through the mixture. Bake in a
moderate oven from 25 to 30 minutes and you will have the
old-fashioned pie your Grandmother used to bake.

When her baking finished, she had dough remaining for an extra crust.
Children always called this "molasses candy pie," as 'twas quite
different from the "molasses cake batter" usually baked in crusts.


This pie was composed of 3/4 cup of chopped cranberries, 3/4 cup of
seeded and chopped raisins, 3/4 cup of sugar, 3/4 cup of cold water, 1
tablespoonful of flour, 1 teaspoonful of vanilla all together and bake
with two crusts.


Line an agate pie-pan (one used especially for custards two inches in
depth, holding exactly one quart) with a rich pastry. Break five large
eggs in a bowl, heat lightly with an egg-beater and add 1/2 cup of
sugar. Boil 3 cups of sweet milk, pour over the eggs and sugar, add 1
teaspoonful of butter and a pinch of salt, 1/2 teaspoonful of vanilla.
The mixture should fill a one-quart measure. When the custard has
cooled, pour either into the deep pie-pan, lined with pastry, holding
one quart, or into two ordinary pie-tins holding one pint each. Place
the custard pie in a quick oven, that the crust may bake before the
custard soaks into the crust; then allow oven to cool and when the
custard is "set" (which should be in about 35 minutes) remove from the
oven and serve cold. The custard should be the consistency of thick
jelly. Scalding the milk produces a richer custard.


Line a pie-tin with rich crust, skin rhubarb and cut into half-inch
pieces a sufficient quantity to fill 3 cups. Mix together 1 cup of
sugar and 1/4 cup of flour. Place a couple tablespoonfuls of this on
the bottom crust of pie. Mix sugar and flour remaining with 3 cups of
rhubarb and fill the crust. Moisten the edge of crust with water,
place on top crust, press two edges of crust together (having cut
small vents in top crust to allow steam to escape). Bake in a moderate
oven about 30 minutes, when top crust has browned pie should be baked.


Bake crusts in each of two pie-tins. For filling, 1 pint of milk, 1
generous tablespoonful of corn starch, 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar, 2
yolks of eggs (well beaten), 1 teaspoonful of vanilla. Cook all
together until mixture thickens and when cooled put in the two baked

Mix the stiffly beaten whites of two eggs with two tablespoonfuls of
pulverized sugar and spread over cream filling in pies and brown
lightly in oven.

Always prick the lower crust of a pie carefully with a fork to allow
the air to escape; this will prevent blisters forming in the crusts
baked before filling crusts with custards.


To 1 cup of hot apple sauce (unsweetened) add a tiny pinch of baking
soda, 1 tablespoonful of butter, 1 cup of sugar, grated rind and juice
of half a lemon or orange, 2 egg yolks, 1/2 cup of sweet cream and 1
large teaspoonful of corn starch. Line a pie-tin with pastry, pour in
this mixture and bake. When the pie has cooled spread over top a
meringue composed of the two stiffly beaten whites of eggs and two
tablespoonfuls of pulverized sugar flavored with a little grated
orange or lemon peel. Brown top of pie in oven.


Place in a bowl 1 cup (good measure) of soft, crumbled stale bread.
Pour over this one cup of boiling water, add 1 teaspoonful (good
measure) of butter and beat until smooth, then add 1 cup of sugar, the
grated rind and juice of 1 lemon and the beaten yolks of 2 eggs. This
mixture should measure about 1 pint. Pour into a pie-tin lined with
rich pastry and bake. When cold spread over a meringue made of the
stiffly beaten whites of the 2 eggs and 3 tablespoonfuls of granulated
sugar. Place in the oven until the meringue is a light fawn color and
serve cold.


Boil together 1 cup brown sugar and 2 tablespoons butter until a soft,
wax-like consistency. Mix together 2 heaping teaspoons flour, yolk of
1 egg and 1 cup of milk. Beat until smooth; stir this into the sugar
and butter mixture and cook until thick. Flavor with lemon or vanilla,
pour into baked crust and spread over top the beaten white of 1 egg to
which has been added tablespoon sugar and brown in oven.


One peck of green tomatoes, chopped fine; 3 lemons, 2 seeded raisins,
5 pounds of granulated sugar, 1 cup of vinegar, 1 teaspoonful of
cloves, 1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of nutmeg, 1 tablespoonful of cinnamon.
Cook tomatoes 3-3/4 hours, then add the other ingredients and cook all
together 30 minutes. A small quantity of grated orange peel, finely
minced citron, cider, brandy or canned fruit juice may be added to
improve the flavor of the mince meat. Fill air-tight jars with the hot
mixture and screw on jar-tops. This mince meat may be prepared in
season when tomatoes are plentiful; is both good and cheap and is a
splendid substitute for old-fashioned mince meat.


Into a bowl grate the yellow outside rind of a large, juicy orange;
add the juice and pulp, but not any of the tough part enclosing
sections. Add 1 tablespoonful of lemon juice, 1 cup of granulated
sugar, which had been beaten to a cream with 2 tablespoonfuls of
butter, the yolks of 3 eggs, 2 large tablespoonfuls of corn starch,
mixed smoothly with a little cold water, and 1 cup of boiling water.
Cook all together until thickened and when cool spread on a rather
large pie-tin, lined with a baked crust of superior pastry. Add to the
stiffly beaten whites of 3 eggs 3 tablespoonfuls of pulverized sugar.
Place meringue over top of pie and place in oven until a light fawn


The day preceding that on which mince meat is to be prepared, boil 5
pounds of beef. To the well-cooked, finely-chopped meat add 10 pounds
of tart apples, chopped into coarse bits; 2 pounds of finely-chopped
suet, 2 pounds of large blue raisins, seeded; 2 pounds of dried,
cleaned currants, 1/2 pound of finely-shaved citron, 2 tablespoonfuls
of cinnamon, 1 tablespoonful of cloves, 1 tablespoonful of grated
nutmeg, 1 small tablespoonful of salt, 1 pint of baking molasses, 1
pint of brandy or cider which had been boiled down. Mix all well
together, add more spices, if liked, also juice of 1 orange or lemon.
Place all ingredients in a large preserving kettle, allow the mixture
to heat through. Fill glass jars, seal and stand away until used. Add
more cider, should it he required, when baking pies.


Two pounds lean beef (uncooked), chopped fine, 1/2 pound beef suet,

Put the beef and suet in a large stone jar, pour over it 2/3 of a
quart of whiskey. Let stand covered with a lid for a week, then add 2
pounds large, seeded raisins, 2 pounds Sultana raisins, 2 pounds
currants, 1/2 pound citron, juice and grated rind of 2 oranges and of
2 lemons, 1 teaspoonful salt, 1 tablespoon ground cinnamon, 2 grated
nutmegs, 1/2 teaspoon ground allspice, 1 pound sugar. Let stand two
weeks, then it is ready to use. When you wish to bake pies take out as
much of the mince meat as you wish to use and add chopped apples, two
parts of mince meat to one part chopped apples, and add more sugar if
not as sweet as liked. If too thick, add a little sherry wine and
water, mixed. Fill bottom crust with some of the mixture, cover with
top crust and bake. There must be just enough liquor in the jar to
cover the meat, as that preserves it. This seems like a large quantity
of liquor to use, but much of the strength evaporates in baking, so
that only an agreeable flavor remains; that is, to those who like
liquor in mince meat; some people do not. Others there are who think
mince meat not good unless made with something stronger than cider.
Mince pies made by this recipe are excellent. This recipe was given
Mary by a friend, a noted housekeeper and cook.


Line a medium-sized pie-tin with pastry. Cover the crust thickly with
thinly-sliced, uncooked pumpkin, cut in inch lengths. Place on the
pumpkin 1 tablespoonful of syrup molasses, 1 tablespoonful of vinegar,
1 tablespoonful flour and sweeten with sugar to taste, dust over the
top a little ground cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg; cover pie with a top
crust and bake in a moderately hot oven. When baked the pumpkin
filling in the pie should resemble diced citron and the pie have
somewhat the flavor of green tomato pie. (The vinegar may be omitted
and the result be a very good pie.)


Line two medium-sized pie-tins with rich pastry and bake. For the
custard filling: 3 egg yolks, 2 cups granulated sugar, 1 quart of

Cook all together, then add 1 tablespoonful of corn starch and one of
flour (moistened with a little cold water before adding). Cook all
together until the mixture thickens. Flavor with one teaspoonful of
vanilla. Allow the mixture to cool.

Grate one good-sized cocoanut, mix half of it with the custard and
fill into the two crusts. Spread over the tops of the two pies the
stiffly beaten whites of the three eggs to which you have added a
small quantity of sugar. Over this sprinkle the remaining half of the
grated cocoanut, stand in the oven a few minutes, until top of pie is
lightly browned.


Pulp the grapes. Place pulp in a stew-pan and cook a short time. When
tender mash pulp through a sieve to remove seeds. Add skins to pulp.
Add one scant cup of sugar and rounded teaspoonful of butter. Line a
pie plate with rich pastry, sprinkle over one tablespoonful of flour.
Pour in the grape mixture and sift another tablespoonful of flour over
the top of mixture and cover with a top crust in which vents have been
cut, to allow the steam to escape, and bake in a hot oven. Allow two
small cups of grapes to one pie.


One quart of cherries, 1/2 cup of flour for juicy sour cherries,
(scant measure of flour), 1-1/2 cups sugar.

Pit the cherries, saving cherry juice. Mix together sugar and flour
and place about 1/3 of this on a pie-tin lined with pastry. Fill with
cherries and juice and sprinkle remaining sugar and flour over. Bake
with an upper crust, having vents cut in to allow steam to escape.


Make a rich crust, line a pie-tin and fill with clean, hulled
strawberries. Allow one quart to each pie. Sweeten to taste; sprinkle
a generous handful of flour over the berries, having plenty of flour
around the inside edge of pie. Use 1/2 cup of flour all together. Cut
a teaspoonful of butter into small bits over top of berries, cover
with top crust with vents cut in to allow steam to escape, pinch edges
of crust together to prevent juice escaping from pie, and bake.


To 2 apples, cooked soft and mashed fine (after having been pared and
cored) add the yolk of one egg (well beaten) one minute before
removing the cooked apple from the range. Then add 1 small cup of
sugar, a piece of butter the size of a hickory nut, 1 teaspoonful of
flour; flavor with either lemon or vanilla. Line a pie-tin with rich
pastry crust. Pour in the mixture and bake in a quick oven. This makes
a delicious old-fashioned dessert.


Prepare the following for one cheese cake, to be baked in a pie-tin
lined with pastry crust:

One heaping cup of rich, creamy "smier kase," or cottage cheese, was
placed in a bowl, finely mashed with a spoon until free from lumps.
Then mixed smooth with 2 tablespoonfuls of sweet milk, 1 tablespoonful
of softened butter was added, a pinch of salt, about 3/4 cup of sugar,
1-1/4 table spoonfuls of flour (measure with an ordinary silver
tablespoon). One large egg was beaten into the mixture when it was
smooth and creamy, 1 cup of milk was added. After adding all the
different ingredients the mixture should measure about 3-3/4 cups and
should be very thin. Pour the mixture into a pastry-lined pie-tin.
This is one of the most delicious pies imaginable, if directions given
are closely followed. Bake in a moderately hot oven until cheese
custard is "set" and nicely browned on top, then allow the oven door
to remain open about five minutes before removing the "pie," as I
should call it, but Bucks County farmers' wives, when speaking of
them, invariably say "cheese cakes." Should the housewife possess
"smier kase," _not_ rich and creamy, use instead of the one
tablespoonful of sweet milk, one tablespoonful of sweet cream.


Grated yellow rind and juice of one lemon, 1 cup of sugar, 1 cup of
molasses, 1 egg, butter, size of a walnut; 1 tablespoonful of corn
starch, 3/4 cup of water. Cream together the butter, sugar and egg,
add the corn starch moistened with a little cold water, add grated
rind and juice of one lemon, molasses, and lastly add water. Cook all
ingredients together. When cool fill 2 or 3 small pie-tins lined with
rich pastry; cover with top crust and bake.


24 medium-sized cucumbers.
6 medium-sized onions.
3 red peppers.
3 green peppers.

Pare cucumbers, then cut in inch lengths. Slice onions and peppers
quite thin. Place all in a large earthenware bowl and sprinkle over
about 1/2 cup of table salt; mix all well together, let stand four or
five hours, when place in a colander; cover with a plate and drain off
all the salt water possible or squeeze through a cheese-cloth bag.

Boil together for 10 minutes the following; 1 quart of vinegar, 1
tablespoonful of cloves, 1 teaspoonful of turmeric powder (dissolved
in a little of the vinegar) and 1 scant cup of sugar. Add the
cucumbers, peppers and onions to the hot vinegar. Let come to a boil
and allow all to boil two minutes, then place in sterilised jars and


Yolks of 4 eggs.
1/2 cup sugar.
1 tablespoonful mixed yellow mustard.
1 tablespoonful olive oil.
1 teaspoonful salt.
1 tablespoonful vinegar with flavor of peppers.

Thin with vinegar and boil until thick. Add 1 teaspoonful of grated

To flavor vinegar cover finely-cut green and red peppers with vinegar
and allow all to stand about 24 hours, then strain and use the


Chop fine 12 sweet red peppers, 12 sweet green peppers and 8 small
onions. Put all in a bowl and cover with boiling water and let stand
five minutes. Drain off, cover again with boiling water and let stand
ten minutes. Then place in an agate colander or muslin bag and let
drain over night. The following morning add 1 quart of good sour
vinegar, 1-1/2 cups sugar, 2 even teaspoonfuls salt and boil 20
minutes. While hot fill air-tight jars. This is excellent.


Shred red cabbage, not too fine, and sprinkle liberally with salt.
Stand in a cool place 24 hours. Then press all moisture from the
cabbage, having it as dry as possible; stand the earthen bowl
containing the cabbage in the sun for a couple of hours. Take a
sufficient quantity of vinegar to cover the cabbage. A little water
may be added to the vinegar if too sour. Add 1 cup sugar to a gallon
of vinegar and a small quantity of celery seed, pepper, mace, allspice
and cinnamon. Boil all about five minutes and pour at once over the
cabbage. The hot vinegar will restore the bright red color to the
cabbage. Keep in stone jar.


24 cucumbers, 1 quart of small onions, 6 peppers, 2 heads of
cauliflower, 4 cups of sugar, or less; celery or celery seed, 3 quarts
of good vinegar, 1/2 pound of ground yellow mustard, 1 tablespoonful
turmeric powder, 3/4 cup of flour.

The seeds were removed from the cucumbers and cucumbers were cut in
inch-length pieces, or use a few medium-sized cucumbers cut in several
pieces and some quite small cucumbers. (The quantity of cucumbers when
measured should be the same as if the larger ones had been used.) One
quart of small whole onions, 6 peppers, red, green and yellow, two of
each, cut in small pieces. Place all together in an agate preserving
kettle and let stand in salt water over night. In the morning put on
the range, the vegetables in agate kettle, let boil a few minutes,
then drain well. Take three quarts of good vingar, 4 cups of sugar, if
liked quite sweet; 2 teaspoons of either celery seed or celery cut in
small pieces. Put the vinegar, sugar and celery in a preserving
kettle, stand on stove and let come to a boil; then add the other
ingredients. When boiling have ready a half pound of ground mustard,
3/4 cup of flour, 1 tablespoon of turmeric powder, all mixed to a
smooth paste with a little water. Cook until the mixture thickens. Add
all the other ingredients and boil until tender. Stir frequently to
prevent scorching. Can while hot in glass air-tight jars.


Always use the cucumbers which come late in the season for pickles.
Cut small green cucumbers from vine, leaving a half-inch of stem.
Scrub with vegetable brush, place in a bowl and pour over a brine
almost strong enough to float an egg; 3/4 cup of salt to seven cups of
cold water is about the right proportion. Allow them to stand over
night in this brine. Drain off salt water in the morning. Heat a small
quantity of the salt water and pour over small onions which have been
"skinned." Use half the quantity of onions you have of cucumbers, or
less. Allow the onions to stand in hot salt water on back of range a
short time. Heat 1 cup of good sharp cider vinegar, if too sour, add
1/2 cup of water, also add 1 teaspoonful of sugar, a couple of whole
cloves; add cucumbers and onions (drained from salt water, after
piercing each cucumber several times with a silver fork). Place a
layer at a time in an agate stew-pan containing hot vinegar. Allow
them to remain a few minutes until heated through, when fill heated
glass jars with cucumbers and onions; pour hot vinegar over until jars
are quite full. Place rubbers on jars and screw on tops. These pickles
will be found, when jars are opened in six months' time, almost as
crisp and fine as when pickles are prepared, when taken fresh from the
vines in summer. Allow jars to stand 12 hours, when screw down tops
again. Press a knife around the edge of jar tops before standing away
to be sure the jars are perfectly air-tight.


Cut the tops from the stem end of twelve sweet (not hot) red peppers
or "rot pfeffers," as Aunt Sarah called them. Carefully remove seeds,
do not break outside shell of peppers. Cut one head of cabbage quite
fine on a slaw-cutter; add to the cabbage 1 even tablespoonful of fine
salt, 2 tablespoonfuls of whole yellow mustard seed (a very small
amount of finely shredded, hot, red pepper may be added if liked quite
peppery). Mix all together thoroughly, fill peppers with this mixture,
pressing it rather tightly into the shells; place tops on pepper
cases, tie down with cord. Place upright in stone jar, in layers;
cover with cold vinegar. If vinegar is very strong add a small
quantity of water. Tie heavy paper over top of jar and stand away in a
cool place until used. These may be kept several months and will still
be good at the end of that time.


500 small cucumbers.
2 oz. of allspice.
3 gallons vinegar.
1/4 pound of black pepper.
3 quarts salt.
1 oz cloves.
6 ounces of alum.
Horseradish to flavor.

Add sugar according to strength of vinegar. Place cucumbers and
pieces of horseradish in alternate layers in a stone jar, then put
salt over them and cover with boiling water. Allow pickles to stand 24
hours in this brine, then pour off brine and wash pickles in cold
water. Boil spices and vinegar together and pour over the pickles. In
two weeks they will be ready to use. Pickles made over this recipe are


18 large red tomatoes.
10 medium-sized onions.
10 sweet peppers (green or red).
1 cup sugar.
3 scant tablespoonfuls salt.
1-1/2 cups vinegar (cider vinegar).

Tie in a small cheese cloth bag the following:

1 large teaspoonful whole allspice.
1 large teaspoonful whole cloves.
About the same quantity of stick cinnamon.

Chop tomatoes, onions and peppers rather finely; add vinegar, sugar
and salt and the bag of spices and cook slowly about 2-1/2 hours. Fill
air-tight glass jars with the mixture while hot. This is a
particularly fine recipe of Aunt Sarah's.

This quantity will fill five pint jars. Canned tomatoes may be used
when fresh ones are not available.


1-1/2 peck ripe tomatoes, washed and cut in small pieces; also four
large onions, sliced. Stew together until tender enough to mash
through a fine sieve, reject seeds. This quantity of tomato juice
should, when measured, be about four good quarts. Put tomato juice
into a kettle on range, add one pint of vinegar, 1/4 teaspoon cayenne
pepper, 1-1/2 tablespoons sugar, 1-1/2 tablespoons salt; place in a
cheese cloth bag 1 ounce of whole black pepper, 1 ounce whole cloves,
1 ounce allspice, 1 ounce yellow mustard seed and add to catsup. Boil
down one-half. Bottle and seal while boiling hot. Boil bottles and
corks before bottling catsup. Pour melted sealing-wax over corks to
make them air-tight, unless self-sealing bottles are used.


One cup of sharp vinegar, 1 cup of water, 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar, 8
whole cloves and a pinch of black, and one of red pepper. Heat all
together and pour over beets which have been sliced after being boiled
tender and skins removed, and pack in glass jars which have been
sterilized and if jars are air-tight these keep indefinitely.


Young housewives, if they would be successful in "doing up fruit,"
should be very particular about sterilizing fruit jars, both tops and
rubbers, before using. Heat the fruit to destroy all germs, then seal
in air-tight jars while fruit is scalding hot. Allow jars of canned
fruit or vegetables to stand until perfectly cold. Then, even should
you think the tops perfectly tight, you will probably be able to give
them another turn. Carefully run the dull edge of a knife blade around
the lower edge of jar cap to cause it to fit tightly. This flattens it
close to the rubber, making it air-tight.

To sterilize jars and tops, place in a pan of cold water, allow water
to come to a boil and stand in hot water one hour.

For making jelly, use fruit, under-ripe. It will jell more easily,
and, not being as sweet as otherwise, will possess a finer flavor. For
jelly use an equal amount of sugar to a pint of juice. The old rule
holds good--a pound of sugar to a pint of juice. Cook fifteen to
twenty minutes. Fruit juice will jell more quickly if the sugar is
heated in the oven before being added.

For preserving fruit, use about 3/4 of a pound of sugar to 1 pound of
fruit and seal in air-tight glass jars.

For canning fruit, use from 1/3 to 1/2 the quantity of sugar that you
have of fruit.

When making jelly, too long cooking turns the mixture into a syrup
that will not jell. Cooking fruit with sugar too long a time causes
fruit to have a strong, disagreeable flavor.

Apples, pears and peaches were pared, cut in quarters and dried at the
farm for Winter use. Sour cherries were pitted, dried and placed in
glass jars, alternately with a sprinkling of granulated sugar. Pieces
of sassafras root were always placed with dried apples, peaches, etc.


For this excellent apple butter take 5 gallons of cider, 1 bucket of
"Schnitz" (sweet apples were always used for the "Schnitz"), 2-1/2
pounds of brown sugar and 1 ounce of allspice. The cider should be
boiled down to one-half the original quantity before adding the
apples, which had been pared and cored. Cider for apple butter was
made from sweet apples usually, but if made from sour apples 4 pounds
of sugar should be used. The apple butter should be stirred
constantly. When cooked sufficiently, the apple butter should look
clear and be thick as marmalade and the cider should not separate from
the apple butter. Frau Schmidt always used "Paradise" apples in
preference to any other variety of apple for apple butter.


A delicious cranberry sauce, or jelly, was prepared by "Aunt Sarah" in
the following manner: Carefully pick over and wash 1 quart of
cranberries, place in a stew-pan with 2 cups of water; cook quickly a
few moments over a hot fire until berries burst open, then crush with
a potato-masher. Press through a fine sieve or a fruit press,
rejecting skin and seeds. Add 1 pound of sugar to the strained pulp in
the stew-pan. Return to the fire and cook two or three minutes only.
Long, slow cooking destroys the fine flavor of the berry, as does
brown sugar. Pour into a bowl, or mold, and place on ice, or stand in
a cool place to become cold before serving, as an accompaniment to
roast turkey, chicken or deviled oysters.


Remove the gossamer-like covering from small yellow "ground cherries"
and place on range in a stew-pan with sugar. (Three-fourths of a pound
of sugar to one pound of fruit.) Cook slowly about 20 minutes, until
the fruit looks clear and syrup is thick as honey. Seal in pint jars.

These cherries, which grow abundantly in many town and country gardens
without being cultivated, make a delicious preserve and a very
appetizing pie may be made from them also.

Aunt Sarah said she preferred these preserved cherries to

Frau Schmidt preferred the larger "purple" ground cherries, which,
when preserved, greatly resembled "Guava" jelly in flavor.


This was composed of 2 quarts of the pulp and juice combined of ripe
Kieffer pears, which had been pared and cored, (Measured after being
run through a food chopper.) The grated yellow rind and juice of five
medium-sized tart oranges, and 6-1/2 cups granulated sugar. Cook all
together about forty minutes, until a clear amber colored marmalade.
Watch closely and stir frequently, as the mixture scorches easily.
This quantity will fill about twenty small jelly tumblers. If the
marmalade is to be kept some time, it should be put into air-tight
glass jars.

The recipe for this delicious jam was original with the Professor's
wife, and Fritz Schmidt, being particularly fond of the confection,
gave it the name "Wunderselda," as he said "'twas not 'served often.'"


Bartlett pears may be used, pared and cut in halves and core and seeds
removed, or small sweet Seckel pears may be pared. Left whole, allow
stems to remain, weigh, and to 7 pounds of either variety of pear take
one pint of good cider vinegar, 3 pounds granulated sugar, a small
cheese cloth bag containing several tablespoonfuls of whole cloves and
the same amount of stick cinnamon, broken in pieces; all were placed
in a preserving kettle and allowed to come to a boil. Then the pears
were added and cooked until tender. The fruit will look clear when
cooked sufficiently. Remove from the hot syrup with a perforated
spoon. Fill pint glass jars with the fruit. Stand jars in a warm oven
while boiling syrup until thick as honey. Pour over fruit, in jars,
and seal while hot.


Thinly pare ripe peaches. Cut in quarters and remove pits. Place
peaches in a preserving kettle with 1/2 cup of water; heat slowly,
stirring occasionally. When fruit has become tender mash not too fine
and to every three pounds of peaches (weighed before being cooked)
allow 1-1/2 pounds of granulated sugar. Cook sugar and fruit together
about three-quarters of an hour, stirring frequently, until marmalade
looks clear. Place in pint glass, air-tight jars. Aunt Sarah always
preferred the "Morris White," a small, fine flavored, white peach,
which ripened quite late in the fall, to any other variety from which
to make preserves and marmalade.


4 pounds of fruit.
2 lemons.
1/4 pound of ginger root.
4 pounds of sugar.
1 cup water.

Use a hard, solid pear, not over ripe. Pare and core the fruit and cut
into thin slivers. Use juice of lemons and cut the lemon rind into
long, thin strips. Place all together in preserving kettle and cook
slowly one hour, or until the fruit looks clear. Should the juice of
fruit not be thick as honey, remove fruit and cook syrup a short time,
then add fruit to the syrup. When heated through, place in pint jars
and seal. This quantity will fill four pint jars and is a delicious


2 ripe pineapples,
4 quarts Kieffer pears.
4 pounds granulated sugar.

Both pears and pineapples should be pared and eyes removed from the
latter. All the fruit should be run through food-chopper using all the
juice from fruit. Mix sugar with fruit and juice and cook, stirring
constantly until thick and clear. (Watch closely, as this scorches
easily if allowed to stand a minute without stirring.) Pour into glass
pint jars and seal while hot. Any variety of pear may be used, but a
rather hard, solid pear is to be preferred. A recipe given Mary which
she found delicious.


Separate pulp and skins of grapes. Allow pulp to simmer until tender,
then mash through a sieve and reject seeds. Add pulp to skins. Take
1/2 pound of sugar to one pound of fruit. Cook until thick, seal in
air-tight jars.


Pit cherries and cover with cold water and let stand over night. Drain
in the morning. To 6 heaping cups of pitted cherries take 2 level cups
of sugar, 1/2 cup water. Put all together into stew-pan on range, cook
a short time, then add 1 teaspoonful of corn starch mixed with a
little cold water and stir well through the cherries; let come to a
boil, put in jars and seal. This quantity fills five pint jars. This
is the way one country housekeeper taught Mary to can common _sour_
cherries for pies and she thought them fine.


Cut orange peel in long, narrow strips, cover with cold water and boil
20 minutes. Pour off water, cover with cold water and boil another 20
minutes, then drain and take equal weight of peel and sugar. Let
simmer 1 hour, then dip slices in granulated sugar. Stand aside to


Pitted, red sour cherries were weighed, put through food-chopper, and
to each pound of cherries and juice add 3/4 pound of granulated sugar.
Cook about 25 minutes until syrup is thick and fruit looks clear. Fill
marmalade pots, cover with parafine when cool, or use pint glass jars
and seal. One is sure of fruit keeping if placed in air-tight jars.


Pour 1 quart of water, good measure, in an agate stew-pan on the range
with three pounds of granulated sugar. When boiling add 3 large,
grated quinces, after paring them. Grate all but the core of quinces.
Boil from 20 to 25 minutes, until it looks clear. Pour into tumblers.
When cold, cover and stand away until used.


Twelve pounds of peaches, 1 quart of vinegar, 3 pounds brown sugar.
Rub the fuzz from the peaches. Do not pare them. Stick half a dozen
whole cloves in each peach. Add spices to taste, stick-cinnamon, whole
doves and mace. Put spices in a small cheese cloth bag and do not
remove the bag, containing spices, when putting away the peaches.
Scald sugar, vinegar and spices together and pour over the peaches.
Cover closely and stand away. Do this twice, one day between. The
third time place all together in a preserving kettle. Cook a few
minutes, then place fruit in jars, about three-quarters filled. Boil
down the syrup until about one-quarter has boiled away, pour over the
peaches, hot, and seal in air-tight jars. This is an old and very good
recipe used by "Aunt Sarah" many years.


Always pick currants for jelly before they are "dead ripe," and never
directly after a shower of rain. Wash and pick over and stem currants.
Place in a preserving kettle five pounds of currants and 1/2 cup of
water; stir until heated through then mash with a potato masher. Turn
into a jelly bag, allow drip, and to every pint of currant juice add
one pound of granulated sugar; return to preserving kettle. Boil
twenty minutes, skim carefully, pour into jelly glasses. When cold
cover tops of glasses with melted parafine.


Pineapple honey was made in a similar manner to quince honey, using
one large grated pineapple to one quart of cold water and three pounds
of sugar. Boil 20 minutes.


Pare the pineapples, run through a food chopper, weigh fruit, and to
every pound of fruit add three-quarters of a pound of sugar. Mix sugar
and fruit together and stand in a cool place over night. In the
morning cook until fruit is tender and syrup clear; skim top of fruit
carefully; fill jars and seal.


Wash and drain ten pounds of ripe grapes, separate the skins from the
pulp, stew pulp until soft, mash through a sieve, reject seeds.

Place pulp and skins in a preserving kettle, add a half pound of
seeded raisins and juice and pulp of 4 oranges. Measure and add to
every quart of this 3/4 of a quart of sugar. Cook slowly, until the
consistency of jam. A cup of coarsely-chopped walnut meats may be
added, if liked, a few minutes before removing jam from the range.
Fill pint jars and seal.


Skin and cut enough rhubarb in half-inch pieces to weigh three pounds.
Add 1/2 cup cold water and 2 pounds of granulated sugar, and the
grated yellow rind and juice of 2 large oranges. Cook all together,
stirring occasionally to prevent scorching, a half hour, or until
clear. This is a delicious jam.


When making apple sauce, cut good, tart apples in halves after paring
them, cut out the cores, then cook, quickly as possible, in half
enough boiling water to cover them. Cover the stew-pan closely. This
causes them to cook more quickly, and not change color. Watch
carefully that they do not scorch. When apples are tender, turn into
sieve. Should the apples be quite juicy and the water drained from the
apples measure a half pint, add a half pound of sugar, cook 15 or 20
minutes, until it jells, and you have a glass of clear, amber-colored
jelly. Add 1 teaspoonful of butter and sugar to taste to the apple
sauce, which has been mashed through the sieve. Apple sauce made thus
should be almost the color of the apples before cooking. If the apple
sauce is not liked thick, add some of the strained apple juice instead
of making jelly; as some apples contain more juice than others.


Cut rhubarb into small pieces, put in stew-pan with just enough water
to prevent sticking fast. When cooked tender, mash fine with potato
masher, and to three cups of rhubarb, measured before stewing, add 1
cup of granulated sugar, also 1 dozen almonds which had been blanched
and cut as fine as possible, and stewed until tender, then added to
hot rhubarb and sugar. Cook all together a short time. Serve either
hot or cold. A large quantity may be canned for Winter use.

The addition of almonds gave the marmalade a delicious flavor A good
marmalade may be made by adding the juice and thinly shaved outside
peel of several lemons to rhubarb. Put all together in kettle on range
with sugar. Cook over a slow fire until proper consistency. Turn into
jars and leave uncovered until day following, when cover and seal


For this marmalade take 1 large grape fruit, 2 large oranges and 1
lemon. After thoroughly washing the outside of fruit, slice all as
thinly as possible, rejecting the seeds. Measure and add three times
as much water as you have fruit. Let all stand over night. The next
morning boil 15 minutes, stand over night again, in a large bowl or
agate preserving kettle. The next morning add 1 pound (scant measure)
of sugar to each pint of the mixture and boil until it jells. This is
delicious if you do not object to the slightly bitter taste of the
grape fruit. Put in tumblers, cover closely with paraffin. This
quantity should fill 22 tumblers, if a large grape fruit is used.


Slice whole oranges very thin and cut in short pieces after washing
them. Save the seeds. To each pound of sliced oranges add 3 pints of
cold water and let stand 24 hours. Then boil all together until the
chipped rinds are tender. All the seeds should be put in a muslin bag
and boiled with the oranges. Allow all to stand together until next
day, then remove the bag of seeds, and to every pound of boiled fruit
add a half pound of sugar. Boil continuously, stirring all the time,
until the chips are quite clear and the syrup thick as honey on being
dropped on a cold dish. The grated rind and juice of 2 lemons will
improve the taste of marmalade if added at last boiling. When cooked
sufficiently the marmalade should be clear. Pour at once into glass
jars and cover closely.


After sour cherries have been pitted, weigh them and cover with
vinegar and let stand 24 hours. Take from the vinegar and drain well,
then put into stone crocks in layers, with sugar, allowing 1 pound of
sugar to 1 pound of cherries. Stir twice each day for ten days, then
fill air-tight jars and put away for Winter use. These are an
excellent accompaniment to a roast of meat.


When canning peaches make a syrup composed of 1 cup of sugar to 2 cups
of water.

Place in preserving kettle and when sugar has dissolved cook thinly
pared peaches, either sliced or cut in halves, in the hot syrup until
clear, watching closely that they do not cook too soft. Place
carefully in glass jars, pour hot syrup over and seal in jars.

Aunt Sarah also, occasionally, used a wash-boiler in which to can
fruit. She placed in it a rack made of small wooden strips to prevent
the jars resting on the bottom of the boiler; filled the jars with
uncooked fruit or vegetables, poured over the jars of fruit hot syrup
and over the vegetables poured water, placed the jars, uncovered, in
the boiler; water should cover about half the height of jars. Boil
until contents of jars are cooked, add boiling syrup to fill fruit
jars and screw the tops on tightly.


Use 5 pounds of pears, not too soft or over-ripe, cut like dice. Cover
with water and boil until tender, then add 5 pounds of sugar. Peel 2
oranges, cut in dice the night before using; let diced orange peel
stand, covered with cold water until morning. Then cook until orange
peel is tender. Add this to the juice and pulp of the two oranges. Add
one pound of seeded raisins and cook all together until thick honey.
Put in glass jars and seal.


The juice of 3 lemons, mixed with 3 cups of sugar. Add 3 eggs,
beating 1 in at a time. Add 2 cups of water and 2 tablespoonfuls of
butter. Cook all together 20 minute, until thick as honey.


Aunt Sarah used no preservative when canning beans. She gathered the
beans when quite small and tender, no thicker than an ordinary
lead-pencil, washed them thoroughly, cut off ends and packed them into
quart glass jars, filled to overflowing with cold water. Placed jar
tops on lightly, and stood them in wash boiler in the bottom of which
several boards had been placed. Filled wash boiler with luke warm
water about two-thirds as high as tops of jars, cooked continuously
three to four hours after water commenced to boil. Then carefully
lifted jars from wash boiler, added boiling water to fill jars to
overflowing, screwed on cover and let stand until perfectly cold, when
give jar tops another turn with the hand when they should be
air-tight. A good plan is to run the dull edge of a knife around the
outer edge of the jar to be sure it fits close to the rubber, and will
not admit air. Beans canned in this manner should keep indefinitely.


After washing fruit, piece each plum several times with a silver fork,
if plums be preserved whole. This is not necessary if pits are
removed. Weigh fruit and to each pound of plums take about 3/4 pound
of granulated sugar. Place alternate layers of plums and sugar in a
preserving kettle, stand on the back of range three or four hours,
until sugar has dissolved, then draw kettle containing sugar and plums
to front of range and boil so minutes. Remove scum which arises on top
of boiling syrup. Place plums in glass jars, pour boiling syrup over
and seal.

A good rule is about four pounds of sugar to five pounds of plums.

Should plums cook soft in less than 20 minutes, take from syrup with a
perforated skimmer, place in jars and cook syrup until as thick as
honey; then pour over fruit and seal up jars.


A genuine old-fashioned recipe for apple butter, as "Aunt Sarah" made
it at the farm. A large kettle holding about five gallons was filled
with sweet cider. This cider was boiled down to half the quantity. The
apple butter was cooked over a wood fire, out of doors. The cider was
usually boiled down the day before making the apple butter, as the
whole process was quite a lengthy one. Fill the kettle holding the
cider with apples, which should have been pared and cored the night
before at what country folks call an "apple bee," the neighbors
assisting to expedite the work. The apples should be put on to cook as
early in the morning as possible and cooked slowly over not too hot a
fire, being stirred constantly with a long-handled "stirrer" with
small perforated piece of wood on one end. There is great danger of
the apple butter burning if not carefully watched and constantly
stirred. An extra pot of boiling cider was kept near, to add to the
apple butter as the cider boiled away. If cooked slowly, a whole day
or longer will be consumed in cooking. When the apple butter had
almost finished cooking, about the last hour, sweeten to taste with
sugar (brown sugar was frequently used). Spices destroy the true apple
flavor, although Aunt Sarah used sassafras root, dug from the near-by
woods, for flavoring her apple butter, and it was unexcelled. The
apple butter, when cooked sufficiently, should be a dark rich color,
and thick like marmalade, and the cider should not separate from it
when a small quantity is tested on a saucer. An old recipe at the farm
called for 32 gallons of cider to 8 buckets of cider apples, and to 40
gallons of apple butter 50 pounds of sugar were used. Pour the apple
butter in small crocks used for this purpose. Cover the top of crocks
with paper, place in dry, cool store-room, and the apple butter will
keep several years. In olden times sweet apples were used for apple
butter, boiled in sweet cider, then no sugar was necessary. Small
brown, earthen pots were used to keep this apple butter in, it being
only necessary to tie paper over the top. Dozens of these pots, filled
with apple butter, might have been seen in Aunt Sarah's store-room at
the farm at one time.


When canning red tomatoes select those which ripen early in the
season, as those which ripen later are usually not as sweet. Wash the
tomatoes, pour scalding water over, allow them to stand a short time,
when skins may be easily removed. Cut tomatoes in several pieces,
place over fire in porcelain-lined preserving kettle and cook about 25
minutes, or until an orange-colored scum rises to the top. Fill
perfectly clean sterilised jars with the hot tomatoes fill quickly
before they cool. Place rubber and top on jar, and when jars have
become perfectly cold (although they may, apparently, have been
perfectly air-tight), the tops should be given another turn before
standing away for the Winter; failing to do this has frequently been
the cause of inexperienced housewives' ill success when canning
tomatoes. Also run the dull edge of a knife blade carefully around the
top of jar, pressing down the outer edge and causing it to fit more
closely. Aunt Sarah seldom lost a jar of canned tomatoes, and they
were as fine flavored as if freshly picked from the vines. She was
very particular about using only new tops and rubbers for her jars
when canning tomatoes. If the wise housewife takes these precautions,
her canned tomatoes should keep indefinitely. Aunt Sarah allowed her
jars of tomatoes to stand until the day following that on which the
tomatoes were canned, to be positively sure they were cold, before
giving the tops a final turn. Stand away in a dark closet.


Twelve pounds of pared peaches (do not remove pits), 6 pounds of sugar
and 1 gill of vinegar boiled together a few minutes, drop peaches into
this syrup and cook until heated through, when place peaches in
air-tight jars, pour hot syrup over and seal.


Three quarts of sweet corn cut from the cob, 1 cup of sugar 3/4 cup of
salt and 1 pint of cold water. Place these ingredients together in a
large bowl; do this early in the morning and allow to stand until noon
of the same day; then place all together in a preserving kettle on the
range and cook twenty minutes. Fill glass jars which have been
sterilized. The work of filling should be done as expeditiously as
possible; be particular to have jar-tops screwed on tightly. When jars
have become cool give tops another turn, to be positive they are
air-tight before putting away for the Winter. When preparing this
canned corn for the table, drain all liquid from the corn when taken
from the can, pour cold water over and allow to stand a short time on
the range until luke-warm. Drain and if not _too_ salt, add a small
quantity of fresh water, cook a few minutes, season with butter, add a
couple tablespoonfuls of sweet milk; serve when hot. This canned corn
possesses the flavor of corn freshly cut from the cob. Sarah Landis
had used this recipe for years and 'twas seldom she lost a can.


In season when ears of sweet corn are at their best for cooking
purposes, boil double the quantity necessary for one meal, cut off
kernels and carefully scrape remaining pulp from cob. Spread on agate
pans, place in a hot oven a short time (watch closely) and allow it to
remain in a cooled oven over night to dry. When perfectly dry place in
bags for use later in the season.

When the housewife wishes to prepare dried corn for the table, one cup
of the dried corn should be covered with cold water and allowed to
stand until the following day, when place in a stew-pan on the range
and simmer slowly several hours; add 1/2 teaspoonful of sugar, 1
tablespoonful of butter, salt and pepper. This corn Aunt Sarah
considered sweeter and more wholesome than canned corn and she said
"No preservatives were used in keeping it."

When chestnuts were gathered in the fall of the year, at the farm,
they were shelled as soon as gathered, then dried and stored away for
use in the Winter. Aunt Sarah frequently cooked together an equal
amount of chestnuts and dried corn; the combination was excellent. The
chestnuts were soaked in cold water over night.

The brown skin of the chestnuts may be readily removed after being
covered with boiling water a short time.


Aunt Sarah's preserved cherries were fine, and this was her way of
preparing them: She used 1 pound of granulated sugar to 1 quart of
pitted cherries. She placed the pitted cherries on a large platter and
sprinkled the sugar over them. She allowed them to stand several hours
until the cherries and sugar formed a syrup on platter. She then put
cherries, sugar and juice all together in a preserving kettle, set on
range, and cooked 10 minutes. She then skimmed out the cherries and
boiled the syrup 10 minutes longer, then returned the cherries to
syrup. Let come to a boil. She then removed the kettle from the fire,
spread all on a platter and let it stand in the hot sun two successive
days, then put in glass air-tight jars or in tumblers and covered with
paraffin. A combination of cherries and strawberries preserved
together is fine, and, strange to say, the flavor of strawberries

A fine flavored preserve is also made from a combination of cherries
and pineapple.


One tablespoonful of granulated gelatine soaked in enough milk to
cover. Place 2 cups of sugar and 3/4 cup of milk in a stew-pan on the
range and boil until it spins a thread; that is, when a little of the
syrup is a thread-like consistency when dripped from a spoon. Allow it
to cool. Add dissolved gelatine and 1 quart of sweet cream. One box of
strawberries, or the same amount of any fruit liked, may be added to
the mixture; freeze as ordinary ice cream.

This dessert as prepared by Aunt Sarah was delicious as any ice cream
and was used by her more frequently than any other recipe for a frozen


Frau Schmidt gave Mary this simple recipe for making any variety of

2 cups of sugar, 1 tablespoonful of flour, mixed with the sugar and
boiled with 1 quart of water; when cold, add 1 quart of any variety of

Freeze in same manner as when making ice cream.


When preparing this ice cream Mary used the following: Three cups of
cream and 1 cup of milk, 1 egg and 1 cup of pulverized sugar (were
beaten together until light and creamy). This, with 1 teaspoonful of
vanilla flavoring, was added to the milk and cream. The cream should
be scalded in warm weather. The egg and sugar should then be added to
the scalded milk and cream, stirring them well together. When the
mixture has cooled, strain it into the can of the freezer. Three
measures of cracked ice to one of salt should be used. The ice and
salt, well-mixed, were packed around the freezer. The crank was turned
very slowly the first ten minutes, until the mixture had thickened,
when it was turned more rapidly until the mixture was frozen.


This recipe for ice cream is simple and the ice cream is good. A
boiled custard was prepared, consisting of 1 quart of milk, 4 eggs,
between 3 and 4 cups of granulated sugar. When the custard coated the
spoon she considered it cooked sufficiently. Removed from the fire.
When cold she beat into the custard 1 quart of rich cream and 1
teaspoonful of vanilla, turned the mixture into the freezer, packed
outside tub with ice and salt. It was frozen in the ordinary manner.


For this rich, frozen dessert Mary beat 4 eggs lightly, poured slowly
over them 1 cup of hot maple syrup, cooked in a double boiler,
stirring until very thick. She strained it, and when cold added 1
pint of cream. She beat all together, poured into a mold, packed the
mold in ice and salt, and allowed it to stand 3 hours. This is a very
rich frozen dessert, too rich to be served alone. It should be served
with lemon sherbet or frozen custard with a lemon flavoring, as it is
better served with a dessert less rich and sweet.


This recipe for a delicious and easily prepared ice cream was given
Mary by a friend living in Philadelphia and is not original. She found
the ice cream excellent and after having tried the recipe used no
other. A custard was made of 1 quart of scalded milk, 6 eggs, 3 cups
of sugar. The eggs were beaten light, then sugar was added, then the
hot milk was poured over and all beaten together. She put all in a
double boiler and stirred about ten minutes, until thick and creamy. A
small pinch of soda was added to prevent curdling. When the custard
was perfectly cold she stirred in three cups of sweet, cold cream,
flavored with either vanilla or almond flavoring, and beat all
together five minutes, then turned the mixture into the freezer,
packed well with pounded ice and coarse salt. She covered the freezer
with the ice and salt and threw a heavy piece of old carpet or burlap
over the freezer to exclude the air. She let it stand one hour, then
carefully opened the can containing the cream, not allowing any salt
to get in the can. With a long, thin-handled knife she scraped down
the frozen custard from the sides of the freezer, and with a thin
wooden paddle beat it hard and fast for about five minutes. This made
the cream fine and smooth. Any fruit may now be added, and should be
mixed in before the cream is covered. The cream should be beaten as
quickly as possible and covered as soon as the fruit has been added.
Aunt Sarah usually made peach ice cream when peaches were in season.
Fine ripe peaches were pared and pitted, then finely mashed, 2 small
cups of sugar being added to a pint of mashed peaches. She allowed the
peach mixture to stand one hour before adding to the beaten cream.
When the mashed peaches had been added to the cream, she fastened the
lid and drained off part of the water in outer vessel, packed more ice
and salt about the can in the freezer, placed a weight on top to hold
it down, covered closely with a piece of old carpet to exclude the
air, left it stand three or four hours. The beating was all the labor
required. The dasher or crank was not turned at all when making the
ice cream, and when frozen it was delicious.

Mary was told by her Aunt of a friend in a small town, with a
reputation for serving delicious ice cream, who always made ice cream
by beating with a paddle, instead of making it by turning a crank in a


One quart of rich, sweet milk, 2 tablespoons of corn starch, 4 eggs, 1
cup of sugar, small tablespoon of vanilla. Cook the milk in a double
boiler, moisten corn starch with a little milk. Stir it into the hot
milk until it begins to thicken. Beat sugar and eggs together until
creamy, add to the hot milk, cook a minute, remove from fire, add the
vanilla, and when cool freeze. Crush the ice into small pieces, for
the finer the ice the quicker the custard will freeze, then mix the
ice with a fourth of the quantity of coarse rock salt, about 10 pounds
ice and 2 pounds salt will be required to pack sides and cover top of
a four-quart freezer. Place can in tub, mix and fill in ice and salt
around the can, turn the crank very slowly until the mixture is
thoroughly chilled. Keep hole in top of tub open. When mixture is
cold, turn steadily until it turns rather hard. When custard is
frozen, take out inside paddle, close the freezer, run off the salt
water, repack and allow to stand several hours. At the end of that
time it is ready to serve.


This is a delicious dessert, taught Mary by Aunt Sarah. She used 1
quart sweet cream, 1-1/2 cups sugar, beaten together. It was frozen in
an ice cream freezer. She then pared and cut the eyes from one ripe
pineapple and flaked the pineapple into small pieces with a silver
fork, sprinkled sugar over and let it stand until sugar dissolved. She
then stirred this into the frozen cream and added also the beaten
white of one egg. Packed ice and salt around freezer and allowed it to
stand several hours before using. Mary's Aunt always cooked pineapple
or used canned pineapple with a rich syrup when adding fruit before
the cream was frozen.


Mary made ice cream when peaches were plentiful; she used 1 quart of
sweet cream, sweetened to taste (about 2 cups sugar) and 2 quarts of
ripe peaches mashed and sweetened before adding to cream. Freeze in
ordinary manner. If peaches were not fine flavored, she added a little
almond flavoring.


This is the way Frau Schmidt taught Mary to make this dessert. She
used for the purpose 1 quart of water, 5 lemons, 2 tablespoons
gelatine, 2 large cups sugar. She soaked the gelatine in about 1 cup
of water. She squeezed out the juice of lemons, rejecting seeds and
pulp. She allowed a cup of water out of the quart to soak the
gelatine. This mixture was put in an ice cream freezer and frozen.


1-1/2 quarts milk.
2 cups sugar.
5 eggs.
2-1/2 tablespoonfuls of flour.

Scald the milk in a double boiler. Moisten flour (she preferred
_flour_ to corn starch for this purpose) with a small quantity of cold
milk, and stir into the scalded milk. Beat together egg yolks and
sugar until light and creamy, then add the stiffly beaten whites of
eggs and stir all into the boiling milk. Cool thoroughly, flavor with
vanilla and freeze as you would ice cream. When partly frozen crushed
strawberries or peaches may be added in season. A little more sugar
should then he added to the fruit, making a dessert almost equal to
ice cream. In Winter one cup of dried currants may be added, also one
tablespoonful of sherry wine, if liked.


Scald one pint of sweet milk in a double boiler. Stir into it one cup
of sugar and one rounded tablespoonful of flour, which had been mixed
smoothly with a small quantity of the milk before scalding. Add two
eggs which had been beaten together until light and creamy. At the
same time the milk was being scalded, a fry-pan containing one cup of
granulated sugar was placed on the range; this should be watched
carefully, on account of its liability to scorch. When sugar has
melted it will be brown in color and liquid, like molasses, and should
then be thoroughly mixed with the foundation custard. Cook the whole
mixture ten minutes and stand aside to cool; when perfectly cold add a
pinch of salt, one quart of sweet cream, and freeze in the ordinary


Aunt Sarah taught Mary to prepare this cheap and easily made dessert
of the various berries and fruits as they ripened. Currants,
strawberries, raspberries and cherries were used. They were all
delicious and quickly prepared. The ice for freezing was obtained from
a near-by creamery. The cherries used for this were not the common,
sour pie cherries, so plentiful usually on many "Bucks County Farms,"
but a fine, large, red cherry, not very sour. When about to prepare
cherry sherbet, Mary placed over the fire a stew-pan containing 1
quart of boiling water and 1 pound of granulated sugar. Boiled this
together 12 minutes. She added 1 tablespoonful of granulated gelatine
which had been dissolved in a very little cold water. When the syrup
had cooled, she added the juice of half a lemon and 1 quart of pitted
cherries, mixed all together. Poured it in the ice cream freezer,
packed around well with coarse salt and pounded ice. She used 1 part
salt to 3 parts ice. She turned the crank slowly at first, allowed it
to stand a few minutes, then increased the speed. When the mixture was
firm she removed the dasher. She allowed the water to remain with the
ice and salt, as the ice-cold water helped to freeze it. She filled in
ice and salt around the can in the freezer and on top of the can;
covered the top of the freezer with a piece of old carpet and allowed
it to stand a couple of hours, when it was ready to serve. Almost any
fruit or fruit juice, either fresh or canned, may be made into a
delicious dessert by this rule.

One quart of boiling water and 1 pound of sugar boiled together to
form a syrup, then add 1 quart of juice or fruit and juice to measure
exactly one quart. Mix together according to directions and freeze.


Grape sherbet was made in this manner: The grapes were washed, picked
from the stems and placed in a stew-pan over the fire. When hot remove
from the fire and mash with a potato-masher and strain through a jelly
bag, as if preparing to make jelly. Boil together 1 pound of
granulated sugar and 1 quart of water, about 12 minutes. While hot add
1 pint of grape juice and 1 teaspoonful of granulated gelatine, which
had been dissolved in a very little cold water, to the hot syrup. When
the mixture was partly frozen add the stiffly beaten white of 1 egg
and 1 tablespoonful of pulverized sugar, beaten together. All were
stirred together, covered and stood away until cold. Then placed in a
freezer, iced as for ice cream, and frozen in the same manner as for
cherry sherbet. The juice of all berries or fruits may be extracted in
the same manner as that of grapes.


To 6 pounds of stemmed Concord grapes add 1 quart of water, allow them
to simmer on range until grapes have become soft. Strain through a
piece of cheese-cloth, being careful to press only the juice through,
not the pulp of the grapes. Return the grape juice to the preserving
kettle and add 3/4 of a pound of sugar. Allow the juice to just
commence to boil, as cooking too long a time spoils the flavor of the
juice. Bottle at once, while juice is hot. Bottles must be sterilized
and air-tight if you expect grape juice to keep. Cover corks with
sealing wax.


"Aunt Sarah" Landis possessed the very finest flavored vinegar for
cooking purposes, and this is the way it was made. She having a very
plentiful crop of fine strawberries one season, put 6 quarts of very
ripe, mashed strawberries in a five-gallon crock, filled the crock
with water, covered the top with cheese-cloth and allowed it to stand
in a warm place about one week, when it was strained, poured into jugs
and placed in the cellar, where it remained six months, perhaps
longer, when it became very sharp and sour, and had very much the
appearance of white wine with a particularly fine flavor. This was not
used as a beverage, but as a substitute for cider in cooking.


In Autumn, when cider was cheap and plentiful on the farm, 3 quarts of
cider was boiled down to one, or, in this proportion, for use in mince
meat during the Winter. A quantity prepared in this manner, poured
while hot in air-tight jars, will keep indefinitely.


Boil two cups of granulated sugar and one cup of water together for a
few minutes until the sugar is dissolved, then add the juice of six
well-scrubbed, medium-sized lemons; let come to a boil and add the
grated yellow rind of three of the lemons. Be careful not to use any
of the white skin of the lemons, which is bitter. Put in air-tight
glass jars. This quantity fills one pint jar. A couple tablespoonfuls
added to a tumbler partly filled with water and chipped ice makes a
delicious and quickly prepared drink on a hot day.


Add to the stiffly beaten white of one egg the slightly beaten yolk
of egg. Pour into glass tumbler, fill with cold sweet milk, sweeten
with sugar to taste and a little grated nutmeg on top or a
tablespoonful of good brandy. This is excellent for a person needing
nourishment, and may be easily taken by those not able to take a raw
egg in any other form. The egg nogg will be more easily digested if
sipped slowly while eating a cracker or slice of crisply toasted


Gather one quart of rose leaves, place in a bowl, pour over one quart
of boiling water, let stand nine days, then strain, and to each quart
of strained liquid add one pound of granulated sugar. Allow to stand
until next day, when sugar will be dissolved. Pour into bottles, cork
tightly, stand away for six months before using. Aunt Sarah had some
which had been keeping two years and it was fine.


Four good quarts of dandelion blossoms, four pounds of sugar, six
oranges, five lemons. Wash dandelion blossoms and place them in an
earthenware crock. Pour five quarts of boiling water over them and let
stand 36 hours. Then strain through a muslin bag, squeezing out all
moisture from dandelions. Put the strained juice in a deep stone crock
or jug and add to it the grated rind and juice of the six oranges and
five lemons. Tie a piece of cheese-cloth over the top of jug and stand
it in a warm kitchen about one week, until it begins to ferment. Then
stand away from stove in an outer kitchen or cooler place, not in the
cellar, for three months. At the end of three months put in bottles.
This is a clear, amber, almost colorless liquid. A pleasant drink of
medicinal value. Aunt Sarah always used this recipe for making
dandelion wine, but Mary preferred a recipe in which yeast was used,
as the wine could be used a short time after making.


Four quarts of dandelion blossoms. Pour over them four quarts of
boiling water; let stand 24 hours, strain and add grated rind and
juice of two oranges and two lemons, four pounds of granulated sugar
and two tablespoonfuls of home-made yeast. Let stand one week, then
strain and fill bottles.


Two cups of grape juice, 4 cups of water, 1-1/2 cups of sugar, juice
of 3 lemons and 3 oranges, sliced oranges, bananas and pineapples.
Serve the punch in sherbet glasses, garnished with Marachino cherries.


A very excellent substitute for maple syrup to serve on hot griddle
cakes is prepared from 2 pounds of either brown or white sugar and
1-3/4 cups of water, in the following manner: Place the stew-pan
containing sugar and water on the back part of range, until sugar
dissolves, then boil from 10 to 15 minutes, until the mixture thickens
to the consistency of honey. Remove from the range and add a few drops
of vanilla or "mapleine" flavoring. A tiny pinch of cream of tartar,
added when syrup commences to boil, prevents syrup granulating; too
large a quantity of cream of tartar added to the syrup would cause it
to have a sour taste.


Blanch 2 pounds of shelled almonds or peanuts (the peanuts, of course,
have been well roasted) by pouring 1 quart of boiling water over them.
Allow them to stand a short time. Drain and pour cold water over them,
when the skin may be easily removed. Place in a cool oven until dry
and crisp. Put a small quantity of butter into a pan. When hot, throw
in the nuts and stir for a few minutes, sprinkle a little salt over.
Many young cooks do not know that salted peanuts are almost equally
as good as salted almonds and cheaper. Peanuts should always be
freshly roasted and crisp.


When peanuts have been blanched, are cold, dry and crisp, run them
through a food chopper. Do not use the _very finest_ cutter, as that
makes a soft mass. Or they may be crushed with a rolling pin. Season
with salt, spread on thinly-sliced, buttered bread. They make
excellent sandwiches. Or run peanuts through food chopper which has an
extra fine cutter especially for this purpose. The peanuts are then a
thick, creamy mass. Thin this with a small quantity of olive oil, or
melted butter, if preferred. Season with salt and you have "peanut
butter," which, spread on slices of buttered bread, makes a delicious
sandwich, and may frequently take the place of meat sandwiches. Nuts,
when added to salads, bread or cake, add to their food value.


On a thinly-cut slice of toasted bread lay a crisp lettuce leaf and a
thin slice of broiled bacon. On that a slice of cold, boiled chicken
and a slice of ripe tomato. Place a spoonful of mayonnaise on the
tomato, on this a slice of toasted bread. Always use stale bread for
toast and if placed in a hot oven a minute before toasting it may be
more quickly prepared.


Place 2 cups of New Orleans molasses and 3/4 cup of brown sugar in a
stew-pan on the range and cook; when partly finished cooking (this may
be determined by a teaspoonful of the mixture forming a soft ball when
dropped in water), add 1 tablespoonful of flour, moistened with a
small quantity of water, and cook until a teaspoonful of the mixture
becomes brittle when dropped in cold water; at this stage add 1 scant
teaspoonful of baking soda (salaratus). Stir, then add 1 cup of
coarsely chopped black walnut meats; stir all together thoroughly, and
pour into buttered pans to become cool.


Grate 1 medium-sized cocoanut, place in a bowl, add 2 pounds of
confectioners' sugar, mix with the cocoanut; then add the stiffly
beaten white of 1 egg and 1 teaspoonful of vanilla; knead this as you
would bread for 10 or 15 minutes. If the cocoanut is a large or a dry
one, about 1/2 pound more sugar will be required. Shape the mixture
into small balls, press halves of English walnut meats into each ball,
or have them plain, if preferred. Stand aside in a cool place a half
hour. Melt a half cake of Baker's unsweetened chocolate, add a half
teaspoonful of paraffin, roll the small balls in this chocolate
mixture until thoroughly coated. Place on waxed paper to dry. From the
ingredients in this recipe was made 3 pounds of candy.


Two cups of granulated sugar, 1 cup of sweet milk, 1/4 cup of butter,
1/4 cake or 2 squares of Baker's unsweetened chocolate. Cook all
together until when tried in water it forms a soft ball. Remove from
fire, flavor with vanilla, beat until creamy, pour in buttered pan and
when cooled cut in squares.


Place in an agate stew-pan 2 cups of granulated sugar, 1 cup of sweet
milk, butter size of an egg. Cook all together until it forms a soft
ball when a small quantity is dropped into cold water. Then beat until
creamy. Add a half a cup of any kind of chopped nut meats. Spread on
an agate pie-tin and stand aside to cool.

For the top layer take 1 cup of sugar, 1/2 cup milk and butter size of
an egg, 2 small squares of a cake of Baker's unsweetened chocolate.
Cook together until it forms a soft ball in water. Beat until creamy.
Add half a teaspoonful of vanilla, spread over top of first layer of
candy and stand away until it hardens and is quite cold.


Four tablespoonfuls New Orleans molasses, 9 tablespoonfuls sugar, 3
tablespoonfuls water, 2 teaspoonfuls butter, 1 teaspoonful vanilla.
Boil all together until it becomes brittle when a small quantity is
dropped in water. Pour the mixture into buttered pans and when cool
enough to handle, pull with the hands until a light creamy yellow
shade. Pull into long, thin strips, cut into small pieces with
scissors. This taffy is fine if boiled a long enough time to become
crisp and brittle, and you will be surprised at the quantity this
small amount of sugar and molasses will make.


To make hard soap without boiling, empty a can of "Lewis Perfumed Lye"
(or any other good, reliable brand of lye) into a stone jar with 1
tablespoonful powdered borax. Add 2-1/2 pints of cold water to the
lye. Stir until dissolved. Be very careful not to allow any of the lye
to touch hands or face. Wear old gloves when emptying can and stirring
lye. Stand the dissolved lye in a cool place. The tin cans containing
the fat to be used for soap (which have accumulated, been tried out,
strained, and put in empty tin cans at different times) should be
placed in the oven of range for a few minutes. When warm they may be
turned out readily into a large stew-pan. Put over fire and when all
has dissolved and melted, strain through cheese-cloth bag into an
agate dish pan. When weighed you should 5-1/2 pounds of clear fat. A
recipe telling exact quantity of fat and lye usually comes with can of
lye. When temperature of fat is 120 degrees by your thermometer
(luke-warm), the lye should have been allowed to stand about 1 hour
from the time it was dissolved. It should then be the right
temperature to mix with strained, luke-warm fat or grease not over 80
degrees by thermometer. Now slowly pour the dissolved lye over the
fat (a half cup of ammonia added improves soap), stir together until
lye and grease are thoroughly incorporated, and the mixture drops from
the stirrer like honey. The soap may be scented by adding a few drops
of oil of cloves, if liked. Stir the mixture with a small wooden
paddle or stick. Stir slowly from 5 to 10 minutes, not longer, or the
lye and fat may separate. Pour all into a large agate dish pan lined
with a piece of clean muslin. Throw an old piece of carpet over the
top and stand near the range until evening, when, if made early in the
morning, a solid cake of soap, weighing 8-1/2 pounds, may be turned
out on a bake-board (previously covered with brown paper) and cut into
20 pieces of good hard soap. Lay the pieces of soap in a basket, cover
to protect from dust, and stand in a warm room to dry thoroughly
before using. Soap made according to these directions should be solid
and almost as white as ivory if the fat used has not been scorched.

This soap is excellent for scrubbing and laundry purposes. The greater
length of time the soap is kept, the better it will become. The grease
used may be clarified by adding water and cooking a short time. Stand
away and when cool remove fat from top, wiping off any moisture that
may appear. Soap-making is a _small economy_. Of course, the young
housewife will not use for soap _any fat_ which could be utilized for
frying, etc., but she will be surprised to find, when she once gets
the saving habit, how quickly she will have the quantity of fat needed
for a dollar's worth of soap by the small outlay of the price of a can
of lye, not counting her work. The young, inexperienced housewife
should be careful not to use too small a stew-pan in which to heat the
fat, and should not, under any circumstance, leave the kitchen while
the fat is on the range, as grave results might follow carelessness in
this respect.


Before painting the floor it was scrubbed thoroughly with the
following: One-half cup of "household ammonia" added to four quarts of
water. The floor, after being well scrubbed with this, was wiped up
with pure, clean water and allowed to get perfectly dry before
painting. For the ground color, or first coat of paint on the floor,
after the cracks in floor had been filled with putty or filler, mix
together five pounds of white lead, one pint of turpentine and about a
fourth of a pound of yellow ochre, add 1 tablespoon of Japan dryer.
This should make one quart of paint a light tan or straw color, with
which paint the floor and allow it to dry twenty-four hours, when
another coat of the same paint was given the floor and allowed to dry
another twenty-four hours, then a graining color, light oak, was used.
This was composed of one pint of turpentine, one teaspoon of graining
color and two tablespoons of linseed oil, and 1 tablespoon of Japan
dryer, all mixed together. This was about the color of coffee or
chocolate. When the wood had been painted with this graining color,
before drying, a fine graining comb was passed lightly over to imitate
the grain of wood. This was allowed to dry twenty-four hours, when a
coat of floor varnish was given. The room was allowed to dry
thoroughly before using. The imitation of natural chestnut was


When a recipe calls for one cup of anything, it means one even cup,
holding one-half pint, or two gills.

One cup is equal to four wine glasses.

One wine glass is equal to four tablespoons of liquid, or one-quarter

Two dessertspoonfuls equal one tablespoonful.

Six tablespoonfuls of liquid equal one gill.

Two tablespoonfuls dry measure equal one gill.

Two gills equal one cup.

Two cups, or four gills, equal one pint.

Four cups of flour weigh one pound and four cups of flour equal one

One even cup of flour is four ounces.

Two cups (good measure) of granulated sugar weigh one pound and
measure one pint.

Two cups butter equal one pound.

A pint of liquid equals one pound.

A cup of milk or water is 8 ounces.

Two tablespoonfuls liquid equal one ounce.

One salt spoonful is 1/4 teaspoonful.

Four tablespoonfuls equal one wine glass.

Piece of butter size of an egg equals two ounces, or two tablespoons.

A tablespoonful of butter melted means the butter should be first
measured then melted.

One even tablespoonful of unmelted butter equals one ounce.

One tablespoonful sugar, good measure, equals one ounce.

Ordinary silver tablespoon was used for measuring, not a large mixing


_To Cook_--                     _Cook for_--

Bread, white           280°          40 minutes
Biscuit, small         300°          30 minutes
Biscuit, large         300°          30 minutes
Beef, roast rare       300°          15 minutes per pound
Beef, roast well done  320°          15 minutes per pound
      { Fruit          260°           2 hours
      { Sponge         300°          30 minutes
Cake  { Loaf           300°          40 minutes
      { Layer          300°          15 minutes
      { Cookies        300°           5 minutes
Chickens               340°           2 hours
Custards               260° to 300°  20 minutes
Duck                   340°           3 hours
Fish                   260° to 300°   1 hour
Ginger Bread           260° to 300°  20 minutes
Halibut                260° to 300°  45 minutes
Lamb                   300°           3 hours
Mutton, rare           260° to 300°  10 minutes per pound
Mutton, well done      300°          15 minutes per pound
Pie crust              300°          30 minutes
Pork                   260° to 300°   2-1/2 hours
Potatoes               300°           1 hour
         { Bread       260° to 300°   1 hour
         { Plum        260° to 300°   1 hour
Puddings { Rice        260° to 300°  30 minutes
         { Tapioca     260° to 300°  30 minutes
Rolls                  260° to 300°  20 minutes
Turkeys                280°           3 hours
Veal                   280°           2-1/2 hours

When a teacher of "Domestic Science," the Professor's wife was
accustomed to using a pyrometer, or oven thermometer, to determine the
proper temperature for baking. She explained its advantages over the
old-fashioned way of testing the oven to Mary and gave her a copy of
the "Cooking Schedule," to put in her recipe book, which Mary found of
great assistance, and said she would certainly have a range with an
oven thermometer should she have a home of her own, and persuaded Aunt
Sarah to have one placed in the oven door of her range.




Small Economies, "Left-Overs" or "Iverich Bleibst" 162
The Many Uses of Stale Bread 164
  "Brod Grummella" 165
  "Croutons" and Crumbs 165
  "Zweibach" 166
  German Egg Bread 166
  Creamed Toast 167

Bread and Rolls 167
  "Bucks County" Hearth-Baked Rye Bread 171
  Frau Schmidt's Good White Bread (Sponge Method) 173
  Excellent Graham Bread 173
  Graham Bread (An Old Recipe) 174
  "Mary's" Recipe for Wheat Bread 174
  Frau Schmidt's Easily-Made Graham Bread 175
  Whole Wheat Bread 176
  Nut Bread 176
  "Frau" Schmidt's "Quick Bread" 177
  An "Oatmeal Loaf" 178
  "Aunt Sarah's" White Bread (Sponge Method) 179
  Recipe for Pulled Bread 180
  Aunt Sarah's "Hutzel Brod" 180
  Aunt Sarah's White Bread and Rolls 182
  Aunt Sarah's Raised Rolls 183
  Clover-Leaf Rolls 183
  "Polish" Rye Bread (As Baked in Bucks County) 183
  Perfect Breakfast Rolls 184
  An Old Recipe for Good Bread 184
  Steamed Brown Bread 186
  A Wholesome Bread (Made From Bran) 186
  "Frau" Schmidt's "Hutzel Brod" 186
  Aunt Sarah's "Quickly Made Brown Bread" 187
  "Stirred" Oatmeal Bread 187
  Nut and Raisin Bread 188
  "Saffron" Raisin Bread 188
  Raised Rolls 189
  "Grandmother's" Pine Raised Biscuits 190
  "Stirred" Bread 191
  Potato Biscuits 192
  Aunt Sarah's Potato Yeast 192

Raised Cakes 193
  "Perfection" Potato Cakes 193
  Mary's Recipe for Cinnamon Buns 194
  "Kleina Kaffe Kuchen" 194
  "Grossmutter's" Potato Cakes 195
  Aunt Sarah's "Bread Dough" Cake 196
  "Good, Cheap" Dutch Cakes 196
  Recipe for "Light Cakes" (Given to Mary by a Farmer's Wife) 197
  Butter "Schimmel" 197
  "Bucks County" Doughnuts 198
  Extra Fine "Quaker Bonnet" Biscuits 198
  Bucks County Cinnamon "Kuchen" 199
  Moravian Sugar Cakes 200
  "Mary's" Potato Cakes 200
  "German" Raisin Cake 201
  "Kaffee Krantz" (Coffee Wreath) 202
  "Mondel Krantz" 203
  The Professor's Wife's Recipe for Dutch Cakes 204
  Farmer's Pound Cake 204
  German "Coffee Bread" 205
  "Fast Nacht Kuchen" (Doughnuts) 206
  "Kaffee Kuchen" (Coffee Cake) 207
  "Streusel Kuchen" 207

Muffins, Biscuits, Griddle Cakes and Waffles 208
  Sally Lunn (As Aunt Sarah Made It) 208
  Aunt Sarah's Recipe for "Johnny Cake" 209
  "Mary's" Breakfast Muffins 209
  Rice Muffins 209
  Indian Pone 210
  "Pfannkuchen" (Pancakes) 210
  "Extra Fine" Baking Powder Biscuits 210
  "Flannel" Cakes Made From Sour Milk 211
  "Flannel" Cakes With Baking Powder 211
  Frau Schmidt's Recipe for Waffles 211
  "Crumb" Corn Cakes 212
  Grandmother's Recipe for Buttermilk Waffles 212
  "Bread" Griddle Cakes 212
  Never Fail "Flannel" Cakes 213
  Waffles Made From Sweet Milk and Baking Powder 213
  "Bucks County" Buckwheat Cakes 213
  Delicious Corn Cakes 214
  Rice Waffles (As Aunt Sarah Made Them) 214
  "German" Egg-Pancakes (Not Cheap) 215
  "Frau Schmidt's" Griddle Cake Recipe 215
  Mary's Recipe for Corn Cakes 215
  Aunt Sarah's Delicious Cream Biscuits 216
  Mary's Muffins 216
  "Corn Muffins" (As Made by Frau Schmidt) 217
  Strawberry Short Cake (As Frau Schmidt Made It) 217
  Perfection Waffles 218
  Recipe for Making "Baking Powder" 218

Fritters, Croquettes, Dumplings and Crullers 219
  "Kartoffle Balla" (Potato Balls) 220
  "Boova Shenkel" 220
  Rice Balls With Cheese 221
  "Kartoffle Klose" 221
  Rice Croquets (and Lemon Sauce) 222
  Corn Oysters 222
  Banana Fritters 223
  Parsnip Fritters 223
  Aunt Sarah's "Schnita and Knopf" 224
  A Very Old Recipe for "Knopf" (or Dumplings) 224
  "Kartoffle Kuklein" (Potato Fritter or Boofers) 224
  Rosettes, Wafers and Rosenkuehen 225
  "Bairische Dampfnudein" 226
  "Heller Bluther Kuklein" 226
  "Apyl Kuklein" (Apple Fritters) 227
  Dumplings Made From "Bread Sponge" 227
  "Leber Klose" (Liver Dumplings) 228
  Frau Schmidt's "Old Recipe for Schnitz and Knopf" 229
  "Brod Knodel," or Bread Dumplings 230
  "German" Pot Pie 230
  "Zwelchen Dampfnudeln" 231
  Green Corn Fritters 231
  "Mouldasha" (Parsley Pies) 232
  Inexpensive Drop Crullers 232
  Batter Baked With Gravy 232
  "German" Sour Cream Crullers 233
  Grandmother's Doughnuts 233
  Fine "Drop Crullers" 234

Soups and Chowders 234
  Vegetable Soup 235
  "Marklose" Balls for Soup 236
  Egg Balls for Soup 236
  "Suppee Schwangen" 236
  Cream of Oyster Bouillon 237
  "German" Noodle Soup 237
  Cream of Celery 238
  Oyster Stew 238
  Clam Broth 238
  Turkey Soup 239
  Cream of Pea Soup 239
  Tomato Soup 239
  "Frau" Schmidt's Clam Soup 239
  Clam Chowder 240
  Brown Potato Chowder 240
  Bean Chowder 241
  Bouillon 241
  "Farmer's" Rice 241
  Philadelphia "Pepperpot" 242
  "German" Vegetable Soup 243
  A Cheap Rice and Tomato Soup 243

Fish, Clams and Oysters 243
  Boned Shad 243
  Croquettes of Cold Cooked Fish 244
  Shad Roe 244
  Scalloped Oysters 245
  Deviled Oysters 245
  Planked Shad 246
  Broiled Mackerel 246
  Codfish Bails 246
  Fried Oysters 247
  Panned Oysters 247
  Oysters Steamed in the Shell 248
  A Recipe Given Mary for "Oyster Cocktail" 248
  Oyster Croquettes 249
  Frau Schmidt's Way of Serving "Oyster Cocktails" 249
  Salmon Loaf 249
  Creamed Salmon 249
  Oyster Canapes 250

Meat 250
  "Sauergebratens" (German Pot Roast) 251
  "Hungarian Goulash" 252
  Broiled Steak 252
  Stewed Shin of Beef 253
  Hamburg Steak 253
  Meat Stew With Dumplings 254
  Extending the Meat Flavor 255
  Preparing a Pot Roast 256
  Stuffed Breast of Veal 257
  "Gedampftes Rinderbrust" 257
  "Paprikash" 257
  Beef Stew 258
  Savory Beef Roll 258
  Veal Cutlets 259
  Meat "Snitzel" 259
  Sirloin Steaks 259
  Meat Balls 260
  Veal Loaf 260
  Sweet Breads (Breaded) 261
  Fried "Liver and Bacon" 261
  Beef Steak Served With Peas 261
  Creamed "Dried Beef" 262
  Creamed Sweetbreads 262
  Meat Croquettes 262
  Stewed Rabbit 263
  Roast Lamb 263
  "Gefullte Rinderbrust" (Stuffed Breast of Beef) German Style 263
  Fried Peppers With Pork Chops 264
  Boiled Ham 264
  Sliced Ham 264
  Roast Pork 265
  Pork Chops 265
  "Home-Made" Sausage 265
  Aunt Sarah's Method of Keeping Sausage 266
  Souse 266
  Utilizing Cold Meat "Left-Overs" 267

Fowl 267
  Roast Chicken or Turkey 267
  Bread Filling (As Aunt Sarah Prepared It) 268
  Fried Chicken With Cream Gravy 269
  Stewed or Steamed Chicken 270

Vegetables 270
  White Potatoes 270
  Baked Potatoes 271
  Various Ways of Using Small Potatoes 271
  Scalloped Potatoes 273
  Candied Sweet Potatoes 273
  Sweet Potato Croquettes 274
  Potato Chips 274
  Fried Eggplant 274
  Baked Stuffed Peppers 275
  Chili (As Prepared in New Mexico) 275
  Baked Cabbage 275
  Crimson Creamed Beets 276
  Buttered Beets 276
  Pickled "Mangelwurzel" 276
  German Steamed Cabbage 277
  Bean "Snitzel" 277
  Boiled Spinach 277
  Fried Onions and Potatoes 278
  Steamed Asparagus (Pine) 278
  Pasture Mushrooms 278
  Steamed Mushrooms (Delicious) 279
  Stewed Tomatoes 279
  Sweet Corn 280
  Fried Tomatoes With "Cream Sauce" 280
  Baked "Stuffed Tomatoes" 280
  "Canned Tomatoes," Fried or (Tomato Fritters) 281
  "Bucks County" Baked Beans 281
  Cooked Hominy 282
  Grated Parsnip Cakes 282
  To make "Sauer Kraut" 283
  Dumplings to Serve With "Sauer Kraut" 284
  Parsley Dried to Preserve Its _Green_ Color 285

Time Required to Cook Vegetables 285

Common Cream Sauce 286

Preparation of Savory Gravies 287

The Good Flavor of "Browned Flour" 287

Butter, Cheese and Suet 283
  A Substitute for Butter (As Aunt Sarah Prepared It) 288
  "Butter"--As It Was Made at the Farm, "By Aunt Sarah" 289
  "Smier Kase," or Cottage Cheese 290
  Uses of Sweet Drippings and Suet 291

Eggs 292
  "Eierkuchen," or Omelette 292
  Hard Boiled Eggs 292
  Soft Boiled Eggs 293
  An Egg and Tomato Omelette 293
  Mushroom Omelette 294
  A Clam Omelette 294
  Deviled Eggs 294
  Eggs in Cream Sauce 295
  Aunt Sarah's Method of Preserving Eggs in "Water Glass" 295
  To Test Fresh Eggs 296

Salads 297
  Aunt Sarah's Salad Dressing 297
  Dutch cucumber Salad 298
  Carrot Salad 298
  "An Old Recipe" for Chicken Salad 298
  German Potato Salad 299
  German Turnip Salad 299
  "German" Salad Dressing 299
  Mary's Potato Salad 300
  Mary's Recipe for Salad Dressing 300
  "Fruit" Salad Dressing 300
  Grape Fruit Salad 300
  "A Good, Inexpensive" Salad Dressing 301
  Imitation "Lobster Salad" 301
  "German" Horseradish Sauce 301
  Mayonnaise Dressing (In Which Olive Oil is Used) 302
  Mustard Dressing to Serve With Sliced Tomatoes 302
  Chicken Salad 302
  Pepper Hash 303
  German Bean Salad 303
  Meat Salads 304

Beverages 305
  Coffee 305
  Cocoa 305
  Chocolate 306
  Boiled Water 306
  Tea 306
  Iced Tea 307

Puddings 307
  Rice Pudding 308
  Frau Schmidt's Apple Dumplings 308
  "Caramel Custard" as Mary Prepared It 309
  Aunt Sarah's Bread Pudding 309
  "Steamed" Bread Pudding 309
  An Economical "Bread and Apple Pudding" 310
  Cup Custards 310
  Frau Schmidt's Graham Pudding 310
  "Sponge" Bread Pudding (Sauce) 311
  Aunt Sarah's Cottage Pudding (Sauce) 311
  Apple "Strudel" 312
  "Lemon Meringue" Pudding 312
  Suet Pudding (Sauce) 313
  Steamed Fruit Pudding (Sauce) 313
  Cornmeal Pudding 314
  Huckleberry Pudding 314
  Tapioca Custard 314
  Delicious Baked Peach Pudding 315
  Caramel Custard 315
  "Aunt Sarah's" Rhubarb Pudding 315
  "Vanilla Sauce" for Rhubarb Pudding 316
  Rice Custard 316
  "Mary's" Cup Pudding (From Stale Bread) (Sauce) 316
  "Buckwheat Minute" Pudding 317
  Peach Tapioca 317
  Aunt Sarah's Plain Boiled Pudding 317
  Pudding Sauce 317
  Apple Tapioca 318
  Steamed Walnut Pudding 318
  "Cornmeal Sponge" Pudding 318
  Mary's Corn Starch Pudding 319
  Apple Johnny Cake (Served as a Pudding) 319
  A Good and Cheap Tapioca Pudding 319
  "Gotterspeise" 320
  Spanish Cream 320
  Graham Pudding 320
  "Pennsylvania" Plum Pudding (For Thanksgiving Day) (Sauce) 320
  "Slice" Bread Pudding 321

Cereals 321
  Oatmeal Porridge 321
  Cooked Rice 322
  Cornmeal Mush 323

Macaroni 324
  Baked Macaroni and Cheese 324

Cakes 325
  Cake Making 325
  Frau Schmidt's Lemon Cake 327
  Fine "Krum Kuchen" 328
  Aunt Sarah's "Quick Dutch Cakes" 328
  A Reliable Layer Cake 328
  Boiled Icing 329
  A Delicious "Spice Layer Cake" (Icing) 329
  An Inexpensive Cocoa Cake 330
  Aunt Sarah's Walnut Gingerbread 330
  Aunt Sarah's "German Crumb Cakes" Baked in Crusts 331
  "Sour Cream" Molasses Cake 331
  Economy Cake 332
  Ginger Cake 332
  A Very Economical German Clove Cake (Icing) 333
  Cake Icing for Various Cakes 333
  Mary's Recipe for "Hot Milk Sponge" Cake 334
  Cheap "Molasses Gingerbread" 334
  Aunt Sarah's Extra Fine Large Sponge Cake 335
  Angel Cake (Aunt Sarah's Recipe) 335
  Aunt Sarah's Good and Cheap "Country Fruit Cake" 336
  A "Sponge Custard" Cake 336
  Custard 336
  Grandmother's Excellent "Old" Recipe for Marble Cake 337
  Mary's Molasses Cakes 337
  Chocolate Icing for Molasses Cake 338
  Hickory Nut Cake 338
  "Light Brown" Sugar Cake 338
  "Angel Food" Layer Cake 339
  Mary's Chocolate Cake 339
  Cocoa Filling 339
  A Cheap Orange Cake 340
  Frau Schmidt's Molasses Cake 340
  Apple Sauce Cake 340
  Icing 341
  "Schwarz" Cake (and Chocolate Filling) 341
  Apple Cream Cake 342
  Apple Cream Pilling for Cake 342
  A "Half Pound" Cake 342
  A Delicious Icing (Not Cheap) 342
  Cocoanut Layer Cake 343
  The Filling 343
  Gold Layer Cake 343
  Sunshine Sponge Cake 343
  An Inexpensive Dark "Chocolate Layer Cake" 344
  Angel Cake 344
  Mary's Chocolate Loaf (Made With Sour Milk) 345
  Inexpensive Sunshine Cake 345
  Mary's Recipe for Orange Cake and Filling for Cake 345
  Roll Jelly Cake 346
  Aunt Sarah's Cinnamon Cake 346
  Gelb Kuchen (Yellow Cake) 347
  Devil's Food Cake 347
  A Cheap Cocoanut Layer Cake 348
  Lady Baltimore Cake and Icing 348
  An Inexpensive "White Fruit Cake" 348
  A Good and Cheap "White Cake" 349
  Chocolate Icing (Very Good) 349
  Tip-Top Cake 349
  Orange Cake and Filling 350
  Cheap Sponge Cake 350
  Caramel Cake and Icing 350
  A White Cake 351
  "Dutch" Currant Cake (No Yeast Used) 351
  An "Old Recipe" for Coffee Cake 352
  A "Cheap" Brown Sugar Cake 352
  Fran Schmidt's "German Christmas Cake" 352
  Aunt Sarah's "Shellbark Layer Cake" 352
  Imperial Cake (Baked for Mary's Wedding) 353
  A Light Fruit Cake (for Christmas) 353
  English Cake (Similar to a White Fruit Cake) 353
  Grandmother's Fruit Cake (Baked for Mary's Wedding) 354
  An Old Recipe for Pound Cake 354
  "Bucks County" Molasses Cakes (Baked in Pastry) 354
  "Brod Torte" 355
  A Delicious Chocolate Cake 355
  Chocolate Icing 355
  A White Cocoanut Cake 355
  A Potato Cake (No Yeast Required) 356
  A Citron Cake 356
  Aunt Amanda's Spice "Kuchen" 356
  A Good, Cheap Chocolate Cake 357
  An Tee Cream Cake 357
  Small Sponge Cakes 357

Small Cakes and Cookies 357
  "Aunt Sarah's" Little Lemon Cakes 357
  Oatmeal Crisps 358
  Aunt Sarah's Ginger Snaps 359
  German "Lebkuchen" (Icing) 359
  Grandmother's Molasses Cakes 360
  Angel Cakes (Baked in Gem Pans) 360
  "Almond Brod" 360
  "Grossmutter's" Honey Cakes 361
  Lemon Wafers or Drop Cakes 362
  Frau Schmidt's Sugar Cookies 362
  Almond Macaroons 362
  "Honig Kuchen" (Honey Cakes) 363
  Frau Schmidt's Molasses Snaps 363
  Hickory Nut Cakes 363
  "Lebkuchen" 364
  Fruit Jumbles 364
  Brown Pfeffernussen 364
  Small Oatmeal Cakes 365
  Frau Schmidt's Recipe for "German" Almond Slices 365
  "July Ann's" Ginger Snaps 366
  Cocoanut Cookies 366
  Chocolate Cookies 366
  Small "Belsnickel" Christmas Cakes 367
  "Pennsylvania Dutch" Kisses 367
  Little Crumb Cakes 367
  Delicious Vanilla Wafers (As Mary Made Them) 368
  Macaroons (As Aunt Sarah Made Them) 368
  "Springerles" (German Christmas Cakes) 368
  Oatmeal Cookies 369
  Peanut Biscuits 369
  Plain Cookies 370
  Walnut Rocks 370
  Cinnamon Wafers (As Aunt Sarah Made Them) 370
  Zimmet Waffles (As Made by Frau Schmidt) 371
  "Braune Lebkuchen" 371
  Peanut Cookies 371

Pies 372
  Flaky Pie Crust 372
  Aunt Sarah's Lemon Pie 373
  The Professor's Wife's Superior Pastry 373
  Mary's Lemon Meringue (Made With Milk) 374
  Apple Tart 375
  Raisin or "Rosina" Pie 375
  Snitz Pie 376
  Mary's Recipe for "Plain Pumpkin" Pies 376
  Chocolate Pie 376
  "Pebble Dash," or Shoo Fly Pie (As Aunt Sarah Made It) 377
  Vanilla Crumb "Crusts" (the Crumbs for Crusts) 377
  "Kasha Kuchen" or Cherry Cake 378
  "Rivel Kuchen" 378
  Aunt Sarah's Lemon Meringue 378
  A Country Batter Pie 379
  Pumpkin Pie (Aunt Sarah's Recipe) 379
  White Potato Custard (Aunt Sarah's Recipe) 380
  "Rhubarb Custard" Pie 380
  "Lemon Apple" Pie 380
  Green Currant Pie 380
  A Country "Molasses" Pie 381
  A Mock Cherry Pie 381
  Aunt Sarah's Custard Pie 381
  Plain Rhubarb Pie 382
  Mary's Cream Pie 382
  Apple Custard Pie 383
  Lemon Pie With Crumbs 383
  Aunt Sarah's Butter Scotch Pie 383
  Green Tomato Mince Meat 383
  Orange Meringue (a Pie) 384
  Grandmother's Recipe for "Mince Meat" 384
  "Twentieth Century" Mince Meat 385
  A "Dutch" Recipe for Pumpkin Pie 385
  Mary's Cocoanut Custard Pie 386
  Grape Pie 386
  Sour Cherry Pie 386
  Aunt Sarah's "Strawberry" Pie 387
  "Florendine" Pie 387
  Aunt Sarah's "Cheese Cake," or Pie 387
  "Frau" Schmidt's Lemon Pie 388

Pickles 388
  Spiced Cucumbers 388
  Mixed Sauce to Serve With Meats 389
  Pepper Relish 389
  Pickled Red Cabbage 389
  Mustard Pickles 390
  Aunt Sarah's Cucumber Pickles 390
  "Rot Pfeffers" Filled With Cabbage 391
  An Old Recipe for Spiced Pickles 391
  Aunt Sarah's Recipe for "Chili Sauce" 392
  Tomato Catsup 392
  Pickled Beets 393

Marmalades, Preserves and Canned Fruits 393
  "Frau" Schmidt's Recipe for Apple Butter 394
  Cranberry Sauce 394
  Preserved "Yellow Ground Cherries" 395
  "Wunderselda" Marmalade 395
  Aunt Sarah's Spiced Pears 395
  Peach Marmalade 396
  Aunt Sarah's Ginger Pears 396
  Pear and Pieapple Marmalade 397
  Grape Butter 397
  Canned Sour Cherries 397
  Candied Orange Peel 397
  Aunt Sarah's "Cherry Marmalade" 398
  Aunt Sarah's "Quince Honey" 398
  Pickled Peaches 398
  Currant Jelly 398
  Pineapple Honey 399
  Preserved Pineapple 399
  Grape Conserve 399
  Mary's Recipe for Rhubarb Jam 400
  Apple Sauce 400
  Rhubarb Marmalade as "Frau Schmidt" Made It 400
  Grape Fruit Marmalade 401
  Orange Marmalade 401
  Cherry "Relish" 401
  Canned Peaches 402
  Pear Conserve 402
  Lemon Honey 402
  Canned String Beans 403
  Preserved "German Prunes" or Plums 403
  "Bucks County" Apple Butter 404
  Canned Tomatoes 404
  Euchered Peaches 405
  Aunt Sarah's Method of Canning Corn 405
  Dried Sweet Corn 406
  Preserved Cherries 407

Frozen Desserts 407
  Aunt Sarah's Frozen "Fruit Custard" 407
  Sherbet 407
  Ice Cream (A Simple Recipe Given Mary) 408
  Frau Schmidt's Ice Cream 408
  Maple Parfait 408
  Ice Cream Made by Beating With Paddle 409
  Aunt Sarah's Recipe for Frozen Custard 410
  Pineapple Cream 410
  Mary's Recipe for Peach Cream 411
  Lemon Sherbet 411
  Frau Schmidt's Frozen Custard 411
  Caramel Ice Cream 412
  Cherry Sherbet 412
  Grape Sherbet 413

Wines and Syrups 413
  Unfermented Grape Juice 413
  Vinegar Made From Strawberries 414
  Boiled Cider for Mince Pies 414
  Lemon Syrup 414
  Egg Nogg 414
  Rose Wine 415
  Dandelion Wine 415
  Dandelion Wine (Made With Yeast) 416
  Grape Fruit Punch 416
  A Substitute for Maple Syrup 416

Salted Almonds or Peanuts 416
  Peanut Butter 417
  A Club Sandwich 417

Candies 417
  Walnut Molasses Taffy 417
  Cocoanut Creams 418
  Fudge (As Made by Mary) 418
  A Delicious Chocolate Cream Candy 418
  Mary's Recipe for Molasses Taffy 419

Recipe for Making Hard Soap Without Boiling 419

To Imitate Chestnut Wood 420

Measures and Weights 422

Cooking Schedule 423

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Mary at the Farm and Book of Recipes Compiled during Her Visit - among the "Pennsylvania Germans"" ***

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