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´╗┐Title: The Bible Book by Book - A Manual for the Outline Study of the Bible by Books
Author: Tidwell, Josiah Blake, 1870-1946
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Bible Book by Book - A Manual for the Outline Study of the Bible by Books" ***

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THE BIBLE BOOK BY BOOK

A MANUAL

For the Outline Study of the Bible by Books

BY

J.B. TIDELL, A.M., D.D.

Professor of Biblical Literature

In Baylor University

Waco, Texas

1916

Baylor University Press

Waco, Texas

 * * * * *

Preface to Second Edition.

In sending forth this second edition of The Bible Book by Book it has
seemed wise to make some changes in it. The descriptive matter has
been put in paragraph instead of tabular form; the analyses have been
made shorter and less complex; the lessons based on the Old Testament
books have been omitted or incorporated in the topics of study which
have been increased, It is believed that the make-up of the book is
better and more attractive.

The author feels a deep gratitude that the first edition has been so
soon sold. He indulges the hope that it has been found helpful and
sends out this edition with a prayer that it may prove more valuable
than did the former.

J.B. Tidwell

 * * * * *

Preface to First Edition.

The aim of this book is to furnish students of the Bible with an
outline which will enable them to gain a certain familiarity with its
contents. While it is intended especially for students in academies,
preparatory schools and colleges, the needs of classes conducted by
Women's Societies, Young People's Organizations, Sunday School Normal
Classes, Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. and advanced classes of the
Sunday Schools have been constantly in mind. Its publication has been
encouraged not only by the hope of supplying the needs mentioned but
by expressions that have followed public lectures upon certain books,
indicating a desire on the part of Christians in general for a book
that would, in a brief compass, give them some insight into the
purpose, occasion and general setting of each of the books of the
Bible.

The work has been done with a conviction that the students of American
schools should become as well acquainted with the sources of our
religion as they are required to do with the religions of ancient
heathen nations, and all the more so, since the most of our people
regard it as the true and only religion, and still more so, since "it
is made the basis of our civilization and is implied and involved in
our whole national life." It is believed by the Author that a
knowledge of the simple facts of the history, geography and chronology
of the Bible is essential to a liberal education and that to be
familiar with the prophecies, poetry, and ethics of the scripture is
as essential to the educated man of today as was a "knowledge of Greek
history in the time of Pericles or of English history in the reign of
Henry the VIII." And, in order that such knowledge may be gained,
effort has been made to put into the book only a minimum of matter
calculated to take the student away from the Bible itself to a
discussion about it and to put into it a maximum of such matter as
will require him to study the scripture at first hand.

Having intended, first of all to meet the needs of those whose
advantages for scripture study have been limited, the information has
been put in tabular form, giving only such facts as have been
carefully gathered from reliable sources, with but little attempt to
show how the conclusions were reached. It is expected that the facts
given may be mastered and that an interest may be created which will
lead to further study upon the subjects treated. And to this end some
of the studies have been made sufficiently complicated for college
work and instruction for such work given in suggestions for teachers,
leaders and classes. Besides the studies of the books there have been
introduced some matters of general interest which have been found
helpful as drills for academy pupils, and which will be found
interesting and helpful to all classes of students.

The general plan is the outgrowth of the experience of a few years of
teaching, but the material presented lays little claim to originality.
It has been gathered from many sources and may in some cases seem
almost like plagiarism, but due acknowledgment is here made for all
suggestions coming from any source whatsoever, including Dr. George W.
Baines, who read all the material except that on the New Testament.

Let it be said also, that in preparing these studies the Author has
proceeded upon the basis of a belief in the Bible as the Word of God,
a true source of comfort for every condition of heart and a safe guide
to all faith and conduct whether of individuals or of nations. It is
hoped therefore that those who may study the topics presented will
approach the scripture with an open heart, that it may have full power
to make them feel the need of God, that they may make its provisions
real in their experience and that it may bring to them new and changed
lives.

If the pastors shall deem it valuable as a book of reference for
themselves and to their members who are desirous of pursuing Bible
study, or if it shall be found serviceable to any or all of those
mentioned in paragraph one of this Preface, the Author will be amply
rewarded for the effort made.

J. B. TIDWELL.

Waco, Texas, August, 1914.

 * * * * *

Table of Contents.

Some Introductory Studies.

Chapter I.      Why We Believe the Bible.

Chapter II.     The Names of God.

Chapter III.    The Sacred Officers and Sacred Occasions.

Chapter IV.     Sacred Institutions of Worship and Seven Great
Covenants.

Chapter V.      The Divisions of the Scriptures.

Chapter VI.     The Dispensations.

Chapter VII.    Ages and Periods of Biblical History.

Chapter VIII.   Some General Matters and Some Biblical Characters.

The Bible Book by Book.

Chapter I.      Genesis.

Chapter II.     Exodus.

Chapter III.    Leviticus.

Chapter IV.     Numbers.

Chapter V.      Deuteronomy.

Chapter VI.     Joshua.

Chapter VII.    Judges and Ruth.

Chapter VIII.   First and Second Samuel.

Chapter IX.     First and Second Kings.

Chapter X.      First and Second Chronicles.

Chapter XI.     Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther.

Chapter XII.    Job.

Chapter XIII.   Psalms and Proverbs.

Chapter XIV.    Ecclesiastes and The Song of Solomon.

Chapter XV.     Isaiah.

Chapter XVI.    Jeremiah and Lamentations.

Chapter XVII.   Ezekiel and Daniel.

Chapter XVIII.  Hosea and Joel.

Chapter XIX.    Amos and Obadiah.

Chapter XX.     Jonah and Micah.

Chapter XXI.    Nahum and Habakkuk.

Chapter XXII.   Zephaniah and Haggai.

Chapter XXIII.  Malachi.

Chapter XXIV.   Matthew.

Chapter XXV.    Mark.

Chapter XXVI.   Luke.

Chapter XXVII.  John.

Chapter XXVIII. Acts.

Chapter XXIX.   Romans.

Chapter XXX.    First and Second Corinthians.

Chapter XXXI.   Galatians and Ephesians.

Chapter XXXII.  Philippians and Colossians

Chapter XXXIII. First and Second Thessalonians.

Chapter XXXIV.  First and Second Timothy.

Chapter XXXV.   Titus and Philemon.

Chapter XXXVI.  Hebrews and James.

Chapter XXXVII. First and Second Peter.

Chapter XXXVIII. First, Second and Third John and Jude.

Chapter XXXIX.  Revelation.

 * * * * *

Chapter I.

Why We Believe The Bible.

There are two lines of proof of the reliability of the scriptures, the
external and the internal. These different kinds of evidences may be
put down, without separation, somewhat as follows:

  1. The Formation and Unity of the Bible.   There are sixty-six
books written by nearly forty men, who lived at various times, and yet
these books agree in making a perfect whole. These writers were of
different classes and occupations. They possessed different degrees of
training and lived in widely different places and ages of the world.
The perfect agreement of their writings could not, therefore, be the
result of any collusion between them. The only conclusion that can
explain such unity is that one great and infinite mind dictated the
scripture.

  2. The Preservation of the Bible.   That the Bible is a divine book
is proven in that it has survived the wreck of empires and kingdoms
and the destruction of costly and carefully gathered libraries and
that, too, when there was no special human effort to save it. At times
all the constituted powers of earth were arrayed against it, but it
has made its way against the tide of fierce opposition and
persecution.

  3. Its Historical Accuracy.   The names of towns,  cities, battles,
kings, empires and great events, widely apart in time and place, are
given without a blunder. The ruins of cities of Assyria, Egypt and
Babylon have been unearthed and tablets found that prove the accuracy
of the Bible narrative. These tablets corroborate the stories of the
creation and fall of man, of the flood, the tower of Babel, the
bondage in Egypt, the captivity, and many other things. This accuracy
gives us confidence in the reality of the book.

  4. Its Scientific Accuracy.   At the time of the writing of the
Bible. there were all sorts of crude and superstitious stories about
the earth and all its creatures and processes. It was humanly
impossible for a book to have been written that would stand the teat
of scientific research, and yet at every point it has proven true to
the facts of nature. Its teachings areas to the creation of all animal
life is proven in science, in that not a single new species has come
into existence within the history of man and his research or
experiment. David said the sun traveled in a circuit (Ps. 19:6), and
science has proven his statement. Job said the wind had weight  (Job
28:25) and science has finally verified it. That the earth is
suspended In space with no visible support is declared by Job, who
said that "God hangeth the earth upon nothing", Job 26:7.
Besides these and other specific teachings of science which correspond
to Bible utterances, the whole general teachings of the scripture is
sustained by our investigations. Many theories have been advanced that
contradicted the Bible (at one time a French Institution of Science
claimed that there were eighty hostile theories), but not a single
such theory has stood. Wherever a teaching of science contradicting
the Bible has ever been advanced, it has been proven false, while the
Bible was found to correspond to the facts.

  5. Its Prophetic Accuracy. At least sixteen prophets prophesied
concerning future events. They told of the coming destruction of
cities and empires, calling them by name. They told of new kingdoms.
They told of the coming of Christ, his nativity, the place of his
birth, and the result of his life and death and made no mistake.

Christ  himself showed how their old prophecies were fulfilled in Him.
He told the destruction of Jerusalem and the nature of his Kingdom and
work, all of which has been shown to be true. No other but a Divine
book could have foretold the future in detail.

  6. The Richness and Universality of Its Teachings. Its contents are
fresh and new to every age and people. Its teachings furnish the
highest standards for right human government and for personal purity
of character. Its virtues are superior to all others. Every generation
finds new and wonderful treasures in it, and while hundreds of
thousands of books have been written about it, one feels that it is
still a mine, the riches of whose literary excellence, moral beauty
and lofty thought have scarcely been touched.

  7. The Fairness and Candor of Its Writers. In portraying its heroes,
the Bible does not attempt any gloss. Their faults are  neither
covered  up nor condoned, but condemned. This is unlike all other
books.

  8. Its Solution of Man's Difficulties. What is the origin of the
world? What is the origin of man? How came sin in the world? Will
there be punishment of sin that will satisfy the unfairness and
inequalities of life? Is there redemption for weak and helpless man?
Is there a future life? These are some of the questions that have
troubled man in all ages. The Bible alone answers them in a simple yet
adequate way. It alone gives us the knowledge of the way to secure
happiness. Its remedies alone furnish a certain balm for bruised human
hearts.

  9. Its Miracles. The Bible, which records how God sent his son and
others on special missions, also tells how He attested their work by
signs or miracles. These miracles were performed in the presence of
creditable witnesses and should, therefore, be believed. Moreover,
they are so different from the superhuman deeds of ancient mythology
as to stamp them as divine and true and at the same time to discredit
all the false.

Bible miracles are never for mere exploitation or for personal profit
to the one who performs the miracle. They are for the good of others.
The blind and deaf and lame are healed. The sick and dead are raised.
Lepers are cured and sins forgiven. Moreover, those who perform the
miracle claim no power of their own, but attribute it all to God and
only perform the miracle that God may be exalted.

 10. Its Spiritual Character. It is evident that man alone could not
have conceived the lofty ideas of the scripture. All his experience
proves that he can not produce anything so far beyond himself. These
high truths therefore, have come from a greater than man.

 11. Its Fruit. No other book will do for man what the Bible does. The
spread of its truths makes man better.   Wherever the Bible goes
civilization and enlightenment follow. This is so, no matter what the
former condition of the people. Where everything else fails, the Bible
succeeds in lifting men out of ignorance and shame.


 12. Its Own Claims to Divine Origin. (1) It clearly claims to be the
the word of God. (a) All scripture is given by inspiration Of God. 2
Tim. 3:16. (b) God spake unto the fathers by the prophets, Heb. 1:1.
(c) Holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost. 2
Peter 1:21. (d) He spake by the mouth of his holy prophets, Luke 1:70.
(e) Which the Holy Ghost by the mouth of David spake. Acts 1:16. (f)
God showed by the mouth of all his prophets. Acts 3:18. (g) By the
revelation of Jesus Christ, Gal. 1:12. (h) Not as the word of men, but
as it is in truth the word of God, 1 Thes. 2:13. (2) It claims to be a
good book and to be given for man's good. Both of these claims have
been amply justified. But it could not be a good book and claim what
is not true. This it would do if it ware not the Word of God.

 * * * * *

Chapter II.

The Names of God.

Several names are used for God, each having its own significance, and
every Bible reader should in some general way know the meaning of each
name. We cannot always distinguish the exact meaning, but the
following, while not all, will be of use in reading the English
translation.

  1. God. This comes from one word and two of its compound or forms
and will mean accordingly: (1) The Strong one used 225 times in the
Old Testament; (2) The Strong one as an object of worship; (3) The
Strong one who is faithful and, therefore, to be trusted and obeyed.
This last is a plural term and is used 2300 times in the Old
Testament. It is the name used when God said. "Let us make man" and
"God created man in his own image," etc., Gen. 1:26-27. It was by this
name that God the Trinity covenanted for the good of man before man
was created.

  2. LORD. Small capitals in the old version and translated Jehovah in
the in the revised translation. It means: (1) The self-existing one
who reveals himself; (2) God as Redeemer. It was under this name that
he sought man after the fall and clothed him with skins. Gen. 3:9-17;
(3) God who makesand keeps his covenants. It is used more than 100
times in connection with the covenants, as in Jer. 31:31-34 where he
promises a new covenant.

  3. Lord. Small letters except the L and always denotes God as Master
in his relation to us as servants. There are two kinds of servants-
hired and bought servants, the latter being always superior and more
beloved. The servant is expected to obey and is guaranteed protection
and support for his service.

  4. Almighty God. This means a Strong-breasted one, the Pourer or
Shredder forth of spiritual and temporal blessings. It refers to
God: (1) As a nourisher, strength-giver, satisfier and a strong one
who gives; (2) As the giver of fruitfulness which comes through
nourishment. He was to make Abraham fruitful, Gen. 17:1-8; (3) As
Giver of chastening. This he does in the way of pruning that there may
be more fruit.

  5. The Most High or Most High God. This means: (1) The Possessor of
heaven and earth, who as owner distributes the earth among the
nations; (2) The one who, as possessor, has dominion and authority
over both, Dan. 4:18, 37; Ps. 91:9-13.

  6. Everlasting God, This represents him as: (1) The God of the
mystery of the ages and, therefore, (2) The God of secrets; (3) The
God of everlasting existence whose understanding is past finding out,
Is. 40:28.

  7. LORD (Jehovah) God, This name is used: (1) Of the relation of
Deity to man, (a) as Creator, creating and controlling his destiny,
especially of his earthly relations, (b) as having moral authority
over him, (c) as redeemer; (2) Of his relation to Israel, whose
destiny he made and controlled.

  8. Lord (Jehovah) of Hosts. This refer: Usually to the host of
heaven, especially of angels; (2) To all the divine or heavenly power
available for the people of God; (3) The special name of deity used to
comfort Israel in time of division and defeat or failure, Is. 1:9,
8:11-14.

Note. Drill on the use of these names and find some scripture passage
illustrating the use of each.

 * * * * *

Chapter III.

The Sacred Officers and Sacred Occasions.

The Sacred Officers.

The following facts about the officers of the Bible should be familiar
to all Bible students.

  1. The Priests. They represent the people to God. The head of the
household was the first priest. Gen. 8:20. Later the first born or
oldest son became priests of the chosen people, Ex. 28:1. They served
in the tabernacle and later in the temple where they conducted
religious services, offered sacrifices for public and private sins and
were teachers and magistrates of the law.

  2. The Prophets. These speak for God to the people. They received
revelations from God and made them known to men. They were selected
according to God's own will to impart his spiritual gifts (1 Cor.
12:11) and extended down through those who wrote prophetic books to
Malachi. They were philosophers, teachers, preachers and guides to the
people's piety and worship. Abraham was the first to be called a
prophet (Gen. 20:7) and Aaron next (Ex. 7:1).

  3. The Scribes. The word means a writer and Seraiah is the first one
mentioned, 2 Sam. 8;17. As writers they soon became transcribers, then
interpreters and teachers or expounders. They became known as lawyers
and were accorded high standing and dignity. In the time of the kings
they were supported by the state as a learned, organized and highly
influential body of men. In Christ's time they were among the most
influential members of the Sanhedrin.

  4. The Apostles. These formed the beginning of Christ's church. They
were separate from the old order and were, therefore, under no
obligation to any caste. Nor were they tied to the old administration
of divine things. The word means a messenger or one sent. They were,
therefore, to be with him and to be sent forth to preach. Twelve were
chosen, and when Judas, one of them, betrayed him, Matthias was chosen
in his place (Acts 1:15-26). Paul was appointed in a special way
(Acts 9:1-43) and perhaps others. Barnabas was called an apostle
(Acts 14:14).

These men led the new movements (Acts 5:12-13) and devoted themselves
especially to ministerial gifts (Acts 8:14-18). They had first
authority in the church (Acts 9:27; 15:2; 1 Cor. 9:1; 12:28; 2 Cor.
10:8; 12:12; Gal. 1:17; 2:8-9).

  5. Ministers or Preachers-They are: (1) Those who minister to or
aid another in service, but as free attendants, not as slaves; (2)
They became the teachers and hence our term ministers (Acts 13:2; Rom.
15:16); (3) Today they are preachers and teachers of the word and
minister to the spiritual needs of God's people and of others.

Note. Read all the scriptures here referred to and invite others to be
given by the class. Then drill on these facts until they are familiar.

The Sacred Occasions.

  1. The Sabbath. For the meaning and use of the term see Lev. 25:4;
Math. 28:1; Lu. 24:1; Acts 25:7. The first mention is Gen. 2:2-3 and
the first mention of the weekly Sabbath is Ex. 16:22-30. It is
suggested in the division of weeks. Gen. 8:10-12; 29:27-28, and Israel
was directed to keep it, Ex. 20:8-11.

  2. The New Moons. They were special feasts on the first day of the
month (Num. 10:10) and were celebrated by sacrifices (Num. 28:11-15).
Among the ten tribes it was regarded as a time suitable to go to the
prophets for instruction, 2 K. 4:23.  3. The Annual Feasts. There were
several of these. (1) _The Passover_, April 14 (Ex. 12:1-51),
commemorating the exodus from Egypt and the saving of the first born.
(2) _Pentecost_, June 6 (Ex. 34:22; Lev. 23:15-16; Deut. 16:9-10; Num.
28:26-31), commemorating the giving of the Law.

  (3) _The Feast of Trumpets_, October 1 (Lev. 23:23-25; Num. 29:1-6),
the beginning of the civil year. (4) _The Day of Atonement_, October
10 (Lev. 16: 1-34; 23:27-32), atonement made for the sins of the
people. (5) _The Feast of Tabernacles_, October 15, lasting a week
(Lev. 23:34-43; Ex. 23:16; 34:22; Deut. 16:13-15), commemorating the
life in the wilderness. (6) _The Feast of Dedication_, December 25 (1
Kings 8:2; 1 Chron. 5:3), commemorating the dedication of the temple.
(7) _The Feast of Purim_, March 14 and 15 (Esth. 9:20-32),
commemorating the deliverance through Esther.

  4. The Sabbatical Year. The land of Israel should rest every seven
years as the people rested every seven days. No seeds must be sown or
vineyards pruned. All that grew was public property and the poor could
take it at will. All debts must then be forgiven except to foreigners
(Ex. 23:10-11; Lev. 25:2-7; Deut. 15:1-11).

  5. The Year of Jubilee. Every fiftieth year was known as Jubilee,
Lev. 25:8-55. It began on the tenth day of the seventh month and
during it the soil was unfilled just as on the Sabbatical year. All
alienated land went back to the original owner and the Hebrew bondmen
became free if they desired.

  6. The Lord's Day. It is the first day of the week and commemorates
the resurrection of Jesus and the finished work of redemption as the
Sabbath commemorated the finished work of creation.

Note. Find other scripture references to each of these occasions and
become familiar with the name, date and import of each.


 * * * * *

Chapter IV.

Sacred Institutions of Worship and Seven Great Covenants.

The Sacred Institutions of Worship.

  1. The Alter. Make a careful study finding: (1) The first mention of
it. (2) The different persons who are recorded as erecting altars,
Gen. 1-Ex. 20. (3) The materials of construction, Ex. 20:24-25. (4)
The purpose for which they were erected, including that of Joshua,
Josh. 22:10, 22-29.

  2. The Tabernacle, Ex. chs. 25-29. Study: (1) The instructions to
build it, including the offerings and articles to be given. (2) Its
furniture. (3) Its erection. (4) Its purpose, Ex. 29;42-45; Heb. Chs.
9-10. (5) Its history, when first set up, how long used, etc.

  3. The Temple. (1) _Solomon's Temple_. Study David's desire to build
and his preparation for it. 2 Sam. 7:1-2; 2 Chron. 28, 29; its
material, erection and dedication, 1 Kings 5-8; 2 Chron. 2:6; its
destruction by Nebuchadnezzar's general, 587 B. C. (2) _Zerubbabel
Temple_. Study the decree of Cyrus, return of the Jews, rebuilding and
dedication, Ezra Chs. 1-6; its destruction by Pompey 63 B. C. and by
Herod the Great 37 B. C. (3) _Herod's Temple_. It was begun 20 or 21 B.
C., John 2:20; Matt. 24:1-2; Matt. 13:1-2; Lu. 21:56, and destroyed
under Titus, A. D. 70.

  4. The Synagogue. Greek work meaning an assemblage. There were
synagogues wherever there were faithful Jews, about 1500 in Palestine
and perhaps 480 in Jerusalem. The officers were (1) Ruler. Lu. 8:49;
13:14; Mk 5:15, etc; (2) Elders, Lu. 7:3; Mk. 5:22, etc; (3)
Minister, Lu. 4:20. The service was one of prayer and reading and
expounding the scriptures. It was through the worship at the synagogue
that the apostles everywhere had opportunity to teach Christianity.

  5. The Church. The word means an assemblage and is most commonly
used of a local congregation of Christian workers. It is sometimes
called the church of Christ, Church of God, Saints, etc. Churches were
established in cities and in homes. It is not proper to call all the
Christians of a particular denomination a church. Nor can we call all
of any denomination in a given territory a church. It would be wrong
to say the Baptist church of the south. In the New Testament we can
get a rather clear idea of it as an institution by a study of a few
principal churches and leaders of the Christian movement after the
ascension of Christ.

The Seven Great Covenants.
There are two kinds of covenants. (1) Declarative or unconditional,
example, Gen. 9-11, "I will."   (2) Mutual or conditional, example,
"If thou wilt."    All scripture is a development of or is summed up
in seven covenants.

  1. The Adamic Covenant, Gen. 3:14-19. Outline the elements of the
covenant, showing the persons affected and the results or conditions
involved.

  2. The Noahic Covenant, Gen. 8:20-9:27. Outline the elements of the
covenant, and the results affected.

  3. The Abrahamic Covenant. Gen. 12:1-3; Acts 7:3. other details,
Gen. 13:14-17; 15:1-18; 17:1-8. Outline, giving the elements,
blessings proposed, temporal and spiritual or eternal. This is
sometimes called several covenants but it seems best to consider it
one that is enlarged upon from time to time.

  4. The Mosaic Covenant, Ex. 19-30. Given in two parts: (1) _Law of
Duty_ (10 commandments), (2) _Law of Mercy_, Priesthood and Sacrifices
Lev. 4:27:31; Heb. 9:1-7. (3) To whom given, Ex. 19:3 and to all, Rom.
2,12; 3:19, etc. (4) Its purpose: (a) Negative, Rom. 3:19-20, Gal.
2:16-21. etc; (b) Positive, Rom. 3:19, 7:7-13. (5) Christ's relation
to the Mosaic Covenant: (a) was under it, Gal. 4;4; Matt. 3:13, etc;
(b) Kept it, Jno. 8:46; 15:10; (c) Bore its curse for sinners, Gal.
3:10-13; 4:45; 2 Cor. 5:21, etc; (d) Took the place of and ended the
Priesthood and sacrifices, Heb. 9:11-15; 10:1-12, etc; (e) New
covenant provided for believers in Christ, Rom.8:1; Gal. 3:13-17.

  5. The Deuteronomic Covenant, Deut. 30:1-9. Outline its elements,
giving things promised and prophesied.

  6. The Davidic Covenant, 2 Sam. 7:5-19. (1) Elements of the covenant
and summary in the Old Testament. (2) In the New Testament.

  7. The New Covenant. (1) Formed, Heb. 8:6-13. (2) In prophecy. Jer.
31:31-34. (3) It is founded on the sacrifice of Christ. Matt. 26:
27-28; 1 Cor. 11:25; Heb. 9:11-12. (4) It is primarily for Israel, but
Christians are partakers, Heb. 10:11-22; Eph. 2:11-20. (5) Jews are
yet to be brought into it, Ezek. 20:34-37; Jer. 23:5-6; Rom. 11:25-27.

Note.   Try to see how all of these covenants met in Christ.

 * * * * *

Chapter 5.

The Division of the Scriptures.

In language and contents, the Bible is divided into two main
divisions.

1. The Old Testament, 39 Books. 2. The New Testament, 27 Books. Total.
66 Books.

The Jews were accustomed to divide the Old Testament into three main
parts, as follows:

  1. The Law-the first five books, Genesis to Deuteronomy, otherwise
called the Pentateuch and books of Moses.

  2. The Prophets. These are divided into the "former prophets" or
historical books and the "later prophets," or books, which we commonly
call the prophetic books.

  3. The Writings, which was made to include; (1) Poetical
books-Psalms, Proverbs and Job; (2) Five Rolls-Song of Solomon, Ruth,
Esther, Lamentations and Ecclesiastes; (3) Other Books: Daniel, Ezra,
Nehemiah and I and II Chronicles.

The Bible itself divides the Old Testament into the three following
divisions:

  1. The Law, which includes the first five books of the Bible, also
called the books of Moses.

  2. The Prophets, which includes the next twelve books, commonly
called historical books and the seventeen books we know as the
prophetic books.

  3. The Psalms, including the five poetical books.

The Books of the Bible

The books of the Old and New Testaments may each be divided into three
or five groups as follows:

First Into three groups.

1.   History.
  (1)   Old Testament-Genesis-Esther (17 books).

  (2)   New Testament-Matthew-Acts (5 books).

2.   Doctrine.

  (1)   Old Testament-Job-Song of Solomon (5 books).

  (2)   New Testament-Romans-Jude (21 books).

3.   Prophecy.  (1)   Old Testament-Isaiah-Malachi (17 books).

  (2)   New Testament-Revelation (1 book).

Second, into five groups.

1.   Old Testament.

  (1)    Pentateuch-Genesis-Deuteronomy (5 books).

  (2)    Historical Books-Joshua-Esther (12 books).

  (3)    Poetical Books-Job-Song of Solomon (5 books).

  (4)    Major Prophets-Isaiah-Daniel (5 books).

  (5)    Minor Prophets-Hosea-Malachi (12 books).

2.   New Testament.

  (1)   Gospels-Matthew-John (4 books).

  (2)   Acts-Acts (1 book).  (3)   Pauline Epistles-Romans-Hebrews (14
books).

  (4)   General Epistles-James-Jude (7 books).

  (5)   Revelation-Revelation (1 book).

Direction For Study. (1) Drill on the Scripture divisions, Jewish
divisions and the three and five groups of each Testament. (2) Drill
on the number of chapters in each book and on the abbreviation of
each. (3) Drill on books having the same number of chapters, as all
those having one chapter, two chapters, etc.

 * * * * *

Chapter VI.

The Dispensations.
A dispensation is a period of time during which God deals in a
particular way with man in the matter of sin and responsibility. The
whole Bible may be divided into either three or seven dispensations.

Three Dispensations.

  1._The Patriarchal Dispensation_. From creation to the giving of the
Law, Gen. 1-Ex. 19 and Job.

  2. _The Mosaic Dispensation_. From the giving of the Law to the
birth of Christ, Ex. 20-Mal. 4.

  3. _The Christian Dispensation_. From the birth of Christ to his
second coming, Matt.-Rev.

Seven Dispensations. In each of these, man is put in a given state or
condition, has a responsibility in it, fails to meet the
responsibility, and suffers consequent Judgment.

  1. _The Dispensation of Innocence_. From creation to the expulsion
from the garden, Gen. 1-3. In this period. Adam and Eve were under
obligations to keep their innocence by abstaining from the fruit of
the tree of knowledge of good and evil. Their failure has been the
most destructive and for reaching of all man's failures.

  2. _The Dispensation of Conscience_. From the fall to the flood,
Gen. 4-9. Man had a natural conscience, or knew good from evil, and
was under obligation to do good and not evil. The time covered B. C.
4004-2348=1636 years for 1 and 2.

  3. _The Dispensation of Human Governments_. From the flood to the
call of Abraham, Gen. 10-12. God gave the eight persons saved from the
flood power to govern the renewed earth. The time covered, B. C.
2348-1921.= 427 years.

  4. _The Dispensation of Promise_. From Abraham to the giving of the
law. Gen. 12-Ex.19.  God promised Abraham land, natural seed,
spiritual seed and other conditional promises. For the sake of study,
this dispensation is divided into two sections. (1) Abraham and the
chosen people, Gen. 12:50. (2) Moses and the Exodus, Ex. 1-19. The
time covered, B. C. 1921-1491=430 years.

  5. The Dispensation of the Law. From Sinai to Calvary or from Exodus
to the cross, Ex. 20-John 21. The history of Israel in the wilderness
and their lapses into idolatry and their other sins while in Canaan,
their captivity by Babylon and final dispersion are evidences of their
failure in this dispensation. All of the Old Testament was written
during this period. The time covered, B. C. 1491-A. D. 34=1525 years.

  6. The Dispensation of Grace. From Calvary to the second coming of
Christ, Act 8-Rev. Grace is God giving instead of requiring
righteousness. It is unmerited favor. During this dispensation,
perfect and eternal salvation is fully offered to both Jews and
Gentiles upon the condition of faith. It will end with the destruction
of the wicked. The time covered is not known.

  7. The Dispensation of the Kingdom. The Millennium (1000).
Directions for Study. (1) Drill the class on the names of
dispensations, the portion of scripture included and the period of
time covered. (2) Have each student to select for himself some
prominent person or historical event found in each dispensation with
which he will familiarize himself.

 * * * * *

Chapter VII.

Ages and Periods of Biblical History.

Bible history is commonly divided into the following ages or periods
according to the purpose to be served or the minuteness of the study
to be taken.

Seven Ages.

  1. The Adamic Age. Gen. 1-8-From the creation to the flood.

  2. The Noachian Age, Gen. 9-11-From the flood to the call of
Abraham.

  3. The Abrahamic Age, Gen. 12-Ex. 19-From the call of Abraham to the
giving of the law.

  4. The Mosaic Age, Ex. 20-1 Sam. 31-From the giving of the Law to
the reign of David.

  5. The Davidic Age. 2 Sam. 1-2 Kings 25-From David's ascension to
the throne to the restoration.

  6. The Ezraitic Age. Ezra-Mal.-From the restoration to the birth of
Christ.

  7. The Christian Age. Matt-Rev.-From the birth to the second  coming
of Christ.

Fifteen Historical Periods.

  1. _The Ante-diluvian Period_, From the creation to the flood. Gen.
1-6. The time covered, B. C. 4004 minus 2348 equal 1656 years.

  2.  _The Post-diluvian Period_. From the flood to the call of
Abraham. Gen. 7-11. Time covered, B. C. 2348 minus 1921 equal 427
years.

  3. _The Patriarchial Period_. From the call of Abraham to the
descent into Egypt. Gen. 12-50. Time covered. B. C. 1921 minus 1706
equal 215 years.

  4. _The Period Of Bondage_. From the descent into Egypt to the
Exodus Ex. 1-12. Time covered B. C. 1706 minus 1491 equal 215 years.

  5. _The Period of Wilderness Wandering_. From the exodus to the
entrance into Canaan. Ex. 2-Deut. 34. Time covered, B. C. 1491 minus
1451 equal 40 years.

  6. _The Period of the Conquest of Canaan_. From the entrance of
Canaan to the time of the Judges, Job. 1-Judge 2. Time covered, B. C.
1451 minus 1400 equal 51 years.

  7. _The Period of the Judges_. From the beginning of the Judges to
the beginning of the Kingdom. Judg. 3-Sam 8. Time covered, B. C, 1400
minus 1095 equal 305 years.

  8. _The Period of the Kingdom of Israel_. From the beginning to the
division of the Kingdom, 1 Sam.9; King 11; 1 Chron. 10;2 Chron. 9.
Time covered B. C. 1095 minus 975 equal 120 years.

  9. _The Period of the Two Kingdoms_. From the division of the
kingdom to the fall of Israel, 1 Kings 12; 2 Kings 18; 2 Chron. 10-29.
Time covered, B. C. 975 minus 722 equal 253 years.

 10. _The Period of the Kingdom of Judah_. From the fall of Israel to
the fall of Judah, 2 Kings 21-25; 2 Chron. 33-36. Time covered, B. C.

722 minus 587 equal 135 years.

 11. _The Period of Babylonian Captivity_. From the fall of Judah to
the restoration to Jerusalem. 2 Kings, Is., Jer, Eze., Dan. Time
covered, B. C. 587 minus 537 equal 50 years.

 12. _The Period of the Restoration_. From the return to Jerusalem to
the end of the Old Testament, Ezra, Neh., Esth., Hag., Zech. Time
covered, B. C. 537 minus 445 equal 92 years.

 13. _The Period Between the Testaments_. From the end of the Old
Testament to the Birth of Christ-no scripture. Time covered, B. C. 445
minus 4 equal 441 years.

 14. _The Period of the Life of Christ_. From the birth of Jesus to
the ascension. Matt.-John. Time covered, B. C. 4 minus A. D. 30 equal
34 years.

 15. _The Period of the Church after the Ascension_. From the
ascension to the second coming, Acts-Rev. Time covered A. D. 34 to the
end of the age.

Twenty-one Shorter Periods.

  1. From the Creation to the Fall, Gen. 1-3.

  2. From the Fall to the Flood. Gen. 4-8.

  3. From the Flood to Abraham, Gen. 9-11.

  4. From Abraham to Egypt. Gen. 12-50.

  5. From Egypt to Sinai. Ex. 1-19.

  6. From Sinai to Kadesh, Ex. 20-Num. 14.

  7. From Kadesh to the death of Moses, Num. 14-Dt. 34.

  8. Joshua's Conquest, Josh.  9. The Judges, Jud. 1-1 Sam. 7.

 10. Saul's Reign. 1 Sam. 8-end.

 11. David's Reign, 2 Sam.

 12. Solomon's Reign. 1 K. 1-11.

 13. The Divided Kingdom 1 K. 12-2 K. 17.

 14. From the captivity of Israel to the captivity of Judah. 2 K. 18-
25. 15. From the captivity of Judah to the Restoration, Dan. and Eze.

 16. From the Restoration to Malachi, Ezra, Neh., and Esther.

 17. From Malachi to the Birth of Christ, no scripture.

 18. From the Birth of Christ to the ascension, Matt-John. 19. From
the Ascension to the Church at Antioch, Acts 1-12.

 20. From Antioch to the Destruction of Jerusalem, Acts 13-28.

 21. From the Destruction of Jerusalem to the close of the New
Testament. John and Rev.

Note 1. The author's "Bible Period by Period" is based upon these
twenty-one periods and will furnish material for a study of the whole
story of the Bible.

Note 2. To the scripture given for each period should be added
corresponding scripture such as sections in Chron. corresponding to
that of Kings.

Directions for Study. (1) Drill  separately on the ages, fifteen
periods with the scripture and period covered by each until the class
is thoroughly familiar with them. Require the students to select some
event or character found in each age and period and drill on them
until they know something found in each.

 * * * * *

Chapter VIII.

Some General Matters and Biblical Characters.

Some General Matters.

Any intelligent reading of the Bible requires a knowledge of some
general matters. This chapter looks to the study of some of the most
important of them.

_Sacred Mountains and Hills_.

(1) Ararat, Gen. 8:4. (2) Lebanon. 1 K. 5:6; Josh, 13:5-6. (3) Hor,
Num. 34:7-8. (4) Hermon, Dt. 4:48; S. of S. 4:8. (5) Gilead, Gen.
31:25; Dt. 32:49. (7) Tabor, Josh. 19:22; Jud. 4:6. (8) Carmel, Is.
32:9; 1 K. 18-19. (9) Moriah, 2 Chron. 3:1-10. Zion, 2 Sam. 5:7-9; Ps,
87:2, 5. (11) Sinai, Ex. 19:1, 11 etc. (12) Horeb, Ex. 3:1; 1 K. 19:8
etc. (13) Calvary Mt. 27:45. (14) Olivet or Olives, Zech. 14:4: Mk.
13:3.

_The Jewish Months_.

  Hebrew Names                           Roman Names.

  1.  Nisan or Ahib                     March and April

  2.  Iyar or Ziv                       April and May.

  3.  Sivan                             May and June.

  4.  Tammuz                            June and July.

  5.  Ab                                July and August.

  6.  Elul                              August and September.

  7.  Tisri or Eharium                  September and October.

  8.  Marchesvan                        October and November.

  9.  Casleu or Chisleu                 November and December.

 10.  Tebeth                            December and January.

 11.  Shebat                            January and February.

 12.  Adar                              February and March.

_Politico-Religious Parties_.

  1. The Parties. (1) The Galileans. (2) Samaritans. (3) Proselytes.
(4) Hellenists. (5) Herodians. (6) Publicans.

  2. The Religious Classes. (1) Scribes. (2) Pharisees. (3)
Sadducees. (4)   Zealots. (5) Essenes.

Note. By reference to some good Bible dictionary become familiar with
the history and importance of all the topics of the chapter.

Some Biblical Characters.

_Twenty Principal Men_

(1) Adams, Gen. 1-3. (2) Noah, Gen. 5-9. (3) Abraham, Gen. 12-25. (4)
Jacob, Gen. 25-50. (5) Moses, Ex-Dt. (6) Joshua, Josh. (7) Gideon,
Jud. 6-8. (8) Samuel, 1 Sam. 1-25. (9) David, 2 Sam. and 1 Chron.
11-29. (10) Solomon, 1 K. 1-11, 2 K. 2.  (11) Hezekiah, 2 K. 18-20.
(12) Josiah, 2 K. 22-23. (13) Daniel, Dan. 1-12. (14) Ezra, Ezr. 7-10;
Neh. 8. (15) John the Baptist, Mt. Lu. Jno. (16) Peter, Four Gospels
and Acts. (17) Paul, Acts 9-28 and the Epistles. (18) John, the
Gospels and Revelation.

_Some Prophets_.

First Group. Tell something of the character and work of each of the
following: (1) Enoch, Jude 14; (2) Noah, 2 Pet. 2:5; Gen. 6:25-27; (3)
Samuel, 1 Sam. 9:9; 1 Chron. 29:29; (4) Nathan, 2 Sam. 7:2-4;12:2-7;
(5) Gad, 1 Sam. 22:5; 2 Sam. 24:11; (6) Ahijah, 1 K. 14:2; (7) Elijah,
1 K. 17-19; 1 Sam. 1-2; (8) Elisha, 2 K. 3-8; (9) Jonah, the book;
(10) Malachi, the book; (11) Agabus, Acts 21:10; (12) Daughters of
Philip, Acts 21:9.

Second Group. Sam. - King. What prophet prophesied to each of the
following kings and what message did he bring: (1) Saul. 1 Sam. 15:17.
(2) David, 2 Sam. 7:2-3; 12:2-7. (3) Solomon, (4) Rehoboam, 1 K.
12:22; (5) Asa. (6) Ahab, 1 K. 17:1 ff. (7) Jeroboam. (8) Joash, 2 K.
13:14. (9) Jeroboam II, 1 K. 11:29 ff. (10) Ahaz. Is. 7:1-3. (11)
Hezekiah, Is. 19:2. (12) Josiah and his sons, 2 K. 22:14.

Third Group. Which prophet prophesied against the following nations
and what was the nature of their prophecy: (1) Syria, Is. 17:3; Jer.
49:23; Amos. 1:3; Zech. 9:2; (2) Ninevah, Jonah, 1;1. Nahum 2:8 etc;
(3) Babylon, Is. 13:1; Jer. 25:12; (4) Moab, Is. 15:1 Jer. 25:21; Jer.
47; Eze. 25:8; Amos 2:1. (5) Ammon, Jer. 49:6; Eze. 21:28; Amos 1:13;
(6) Philistia, Is. 14:29. Zech. 9:6; Jer. 47:1. 4 Eze. 25:15; (7)
Egypt. Is. 19:1; Jer. 44:28; Eze. 29; (8) Tyre of Phoenicia.

_Some Women_.

First Group. In what connection and in what books of the Bible are the
following women considered? (1) Eve, Gen. 2:20; 4:1. (2) Sarah,
Gen.11, 29; 17:15. (3) Hagar, Gen. 16:1. (4) Rebekah, Gen. 24:15. (5)
Keturah, Gen. 25:1. (6) Rachel, Gen. 29: 16ff. (7) Leah, Gen. 29:16ff.
(8) Dinah, Gen. 30:21; 34:11. (9) Adah, Gen. 36:2. (10) Asenath, Gen.
41:45. (11) Shiphrah and Puah, Ex. 1:15. (12) Jehochebed, Ex. 6:20.
(13) Miriam. Ex. 2:4; 15:20; Num. 12:1 etc. (14) Zipporah, Ex. 2:21;
4:23; 18:20. (15) Rahab. Josh, 2:1-21. Heb. 11:31; Mt. 1:5. (16)
Deborah. Jud. 4:4. (17) Ruth, Ruth 1:4. (18) Hannah, 1 Sam. chs. 1-2.
(19) Bathshebah, 2 Sam. 11:3. (20) Abishag, 1 K. 1:3. (21) Jezebel, 1
K. 21:5. (22) Vashti, Esth. 1:19. (23) Esther, Esth. 2:7. (24) Mary.
Mt. 1:18; Lu. 1:27. (25) Elizabeth. Lu. 1:5. (26) Martha. Jno. 12:2.
(27) Sapphira, Acts 5:1. (28) Tabitha, Dorcas, Acts 9:36. (29) Lydia
Acts. 16:14.

Second Group. In what connection are the following mentioned; (1) The
witch of Endor, 1 Sara. 28:7. (2) The women of Tekoa. 2 Sam. 14. (3)
The queen of Sheba, 1 King 17:9. 10 (Elijah). (5) The woman of Shunem,
2 King 4:8 (Elisha). (6) The Samaritan woman. Jho. Ch. 4. (7) The
Syrophenician woman, Matt. 15:21-28. (8) Peter's mother in-law. Matt.
8: 14-17. (9) The widow of Nain, Lu. 7:11. (10) The daughter of
Jairus, Matt. 9:23-26.

Third Group. Who is the mother of: (I) Seth. Gen. 5:3. (2) Isaac, Gen.
21:1 ff. (3) Ishmael, Gen. 16:16. (4) Jacob, Gen. 25:20ff (5) Judah.
Gen. 29:35. (6) Joseph, (7) Ephraim. Gen. 41:52. (8) Moses, Ex. 6:20.
(9) Samuel. 1 Sam. 1:20. (10) Joab. I Chron. 2:16. (11) Absalom, 2
Sam. 3:3. (12) Solomon, 2 Sam. 12:24. (13) Rehoboam, I King 14:21-22.
(14) John the Baptist, Lu. 1:57.

 * * * * *

THE BIBLE BOOK BY BOOK.

A MANUAL.

For the Outline Study of the Bible by Books.

 * * * * *
Chapter I.

Genesis.

The Name means beginning, origin, or creation. The leading thought,
therefore, is creation and we should study it with a view to finding
out everything, the beginning of which is recorded in it. Certainly we
have the record of: (1) The beginning of the world which God created.
(2) The beginning of man as the creature of God. (3) The beginning of
sin, which entered the world through the disobedience of man. (4) The
beginning of redemption, seen alike in the promises and types of the
book and in the chosen family. (5) The beginning of condemnation, seen
in the destruction and punishment of individuals, cities and the
world.

The Purpose. The chief purpose of the book is to write a religious
history, showing how, after man had fallen into sin, God began to give
him a religion and to unfold to him a plan of salvation. In doing this
God is revealed as Creator, Preserver, Law-Giver, Judge and Merciful
Sovereign.

The Importance of Genesis to Science. While the book does not attempt
to explain many matters which are left to investigation, it does set
out several facts which indicate the general plan of the universe and
furnish a basis for scientific research. Among the more important
things indicated are that: (1) There was a beginning of things. (2)
Things did not come by chance. (3) There is a Creator who continues to
take interest in and control the universe. (4) There was orderly
progress in creation from the less and more simple to the greater and
more complex. (5) Everything else was brought into existence for man
who is the crowning work of creation.

The Religious Importance of the Book. The germ of all truth which is
unfolded in the scripture is found in Genesis and to know well this
book is to know God's plan for the blessing of man. Above all we learn
about the nature and work of God.

Analysis.

Note. In an ordinary academy class I would not tax the students with
the memory of more than the general divisions indicated by the Roman
notation, I, etc. But, in this, and all other outlines, drill the
class till these divisions, with the scripture included, are known
perfectly. I would also try to fix some event mentioned in each
section.

I. Creation, Chs. 1-2.

  1.  Creation in general, Ch. 1.

  2.  Creation of man in particular, Ch. 2.

II. Fall. Ch. 3.

  1 Temptation, 1-5.

  2. Fall, 6-8.

  3. Lord's appearance, 9-13.

  4. Curse, 14-21.  5. Exclusion from the garden, 22-24.

III. Flood, Chs. 4-9.
  1. Growth of sin through Cain, 4:1-24.

  2. Genealogy of Noah, 4: 25-5 end,

  3. Building of the Ark, Ch. 6.

  4. Occupying the Ark, Ch. 7.

  5. Departure from the Ark, Ch. 8.

  6. Covenant with Noah, Ch. 9.

IV. Nations, 10:1-11:9.

  1. Basis of Nations, Noah's sons, Ch. 10.   How?

  2. Occasion of forming the nations, 11:1-9.   Why?

V. Abraham, 11:10-25:18.

  1. Genealogy of Abram from Shem, 11:10 end.

  2. Call and promise, Ch. 12.

  3. Abraham and Lot, Chs. 13-14.

  4. Covenant, 15: 1-18: 15.

  5. Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, 18:16-19 end.

  6. Lives at Gerar, Ch. 20.

  7. Birth of Isaac, Ch. 21.

  8. Sacrifice of Isaac, Ch. 22.

  9. Death of Sarah, Ch. 23.

 10. Marriage of Isaac, Ch. 24.

 11. Death of Abraham and Ishmael, 25:1-18.

VI. Isaac. 26:19-36 end.

  1. His two sons, 25:19 end.

  2. Divine covenant. Ch. 26.

  3. Jacob's deception, Ch. 27.

  4. Jacob's flight into Haran, Ch. 28.

  5. Jacob's marriage and prosperity, Chs. 20-30.

  6. Jacob's return to Canaan. Chs, 31-35.

  7. Generations of Esau, Ch. 36.

VII. Jacob, including Joseph, Chs. 37-50.

  1. Jacob and Joseph, Chs. 37-45.

  2. Sojourn in Egypt, Chs. 46-48.

  3. Death of Jacob and Joseph, Chs. 49-50.
For Study and Discussion. (1) All that we may learn from this book
concerning the nature and work of God. (2) The different things the
origin of which this book tells: (a) Inanimate things, (b) Plant life,
(c) Animal life, (d) Human life, (e) Devices for comfort and safety,
(f) Sin and its varied effects, (g) Various trades and manners of
life, (h) Redemption, (i) Condemnation. (3) Worship as it appears in
Genesis, its form and development. (4) The principal men of the book
and the elements of weakness and strength in the character of each.
The teacher may make a list and assign them for study to different
pupils. (5) List the disappointments, family troubles and sorrows of
Jacob, and study them in the light of his early deception and fraud.
(6) The over-ruling divine providence seen in the career of Joseph,
with the present day lessons from the incidents of his life. (7) The
fundamental value of faith in the life and destiny of men. (8) The
Messianic promises, types and symbols of the entire book. List and
classify them.


 * * * * *

Chapter 2.

Exodus.

Name. The name Exodus means a going out or departure.

Subject The subject and key-word of the book is redemption (3:7, 8;
12:13 etc.), particularly that half of redemption indicated by
deliverance from an evil plight. It records the redemption of the
chosen people out of Egyptian bondage, which becomes a type of all
redemption in that it was accomplished (1) wholly through the power of
God, (2) by a means of a deliverer (3) under the cover of blood.

Purpose. At this point Old Testament history changes from that of the
family, given in individual biographies and family records, to that of
the nation, chosen for the divine purposes. The divine will is no
longer revealed to a few leaders but to the whole people. It begins
with the cruel bondage of Israel in Egypt, traces the remarkable
events of their delivery and ends with a complete establishment of the
dispensation of the Law. The aim seems to be to give an account of the
first stage in the fulfillment of the promises made by God to the
Patriarchs with reference to the place and growth of the Israelites.

Contents. Two distinct sections are usually given by students: the
historical, included in chapters 1-19 and the legislative, comprising
chapters 20-40. The first section records: the need of deliverance;
the birth, training and call of the deliverer; the contest with
Pharaoh; the deliverance and march through the wilderness to Sinai.
The second gives the consecration of the nation and the covenant upon
which it was to become a nation. The laws were such as to cover all
the needs of a primitive people, both moral, ceremonial and civic with
directions for the establishment of the Priesthood and Sanctuary.

Exodus and Science, Scientific research has gone far toward
establishing the truthfulness of the Exodus record, but has brought to
light nothing that in any way discounts it. It has shown who the
Pharaoh of the oppression and Exodus was (Rameses. II, the Pharaoh of
the oppression and Merenpth II, the Pharaoh of the Exodus.) and has
discovered Succoth. It has shown that writing was used long before the
Exodus and has discovered documents written before that period. It has
thus confirmed the condition of things narrated in the Bible.

Analysis.

I. Israel in Egypt, 1:1-12:36.

  1. The bondage, Ch. 1.

  2. The deliverer, Chs. 2-4.

  3. The contest with Pharaoh, 5:1-12:38.

II. Israel Journeying to Sinai, 12:37-18: end.

  1. The exodus and passover, 12:37-13:16.

  2. Journeying through Succoth to the Red Sea, 13:17-15:21.

  3. From the Red Sea to Sinai, 15:22-18 end.

III. Israel at Sinai, Chs, 10-40.

  1. The people prepared, Ch. 19.

  2. The moral law, Ch. 20.

  3. The civil law, 21:1-23:18.

  4. Covenant between Jehovah and Israel, 23:20-24 end.

  5. Directions for building the tabernacle, Chs. 25-31.


  6. The covenant broken and renewed, Chs. 32-34.

  7. The erection and dedication of the Tabernacle, 35-40.

For Study and Discussion. (1) The preparation of Israel and Moses for
the deliverance. (2) The conception of God found in Exodus: (a) As to
his relation to nature, (b) As to his relation to his enemies, (c) As
to his relation to his people, (d) As to his nature and purposes. (3)
The conception of man found in Exodus. (a) The need and value of
worship to him, (b) His duty to obey God. (4) The plagues. (5) The
divisions of the decalogue: (a) Those touching our relation to God.
(b) Those touching our relation to men. (6) The different conferences
between Jehovah and Moses, including Moses' prayer. (7) The current
evils against which the civil laws were enacted and similar conditions
of today. (8) The character of the different persons mentioned in the
book: (a) Pharaoh, (b) Moses, (c) Aaron, (d) Jethro, (e) Magicians.
(8) Amalek, etc. (9) The Messianic teachings of the book-here study
(a) the sacrifices, (b) the material, colors, etc., of the Tabernacle,
(c) the smitten rock, (d) Moses and his family.

 * * * * *

Chapter III.

Leviticus.

Name. By the rabbis, it was called "The Law of the Priest" and "The
Law of Offerings," but from the time of the Vulgate it has been called
Leviticus, because it deals with the services of the sanctuary as
administered by  the Levites.

Connection with Former Books. In Genesis, man is left outside of the
Garden and the remedy for his ruin is seen in the promised seed. In
Exodus, man is not only outside of Eden, but is in bondage to an evil
enemy and his escape from his bondage is shown to be in the blood of
the lamb, which is shown to be sufficient to satisfy man's need and
God's justice. In Leviticus there is given the place of sacrifice, as
an atonement for sin, and it is shown that God accepted the sacrifice
of the victim instead of the death of the sinner. It is a continuation
of Exodus, containing the Sinaitic legislation from the time of the
completion of the Tabernacle.

Contents. Except the brief historical sections found in chapters 8-10
and 24:10-14, it contains a system of laws, which may be divided into
(1) Civil, (2) Sanitary, (3) Ceremonial, (4) Moral and (5) Religious
laws, emphasis being placed on moral and religious duties.

Purpose. (1) To show that God is holy and man is sinful. (2) To show
how God can maintain his holiness and expose the sinfulness of man.
(3) To show how a sinful people may approach a Holy God. (4) To
provide a manual of law and worship for Israel. (5) To make Israel a
holy nation.

Key-Word. The key-word then is Holiness, which is found 87 times in
the book, while in contrast with it, the words sin and uncleanliness
(in various forms) occur 194 times, showing the need of cleansing. On
the other hand, blood, as a means of cleansing, occurs 89 times. The
key verse is, I think, 19:2, though some prefer 10:10 as the best
verse.

The Sacrifices, or Offerings. They may be divided in several ways,
among which the most instructive is as follows: (1) _National
Sacrifices_, which include (a) Serial, such as daily, weekly, and
monthly offerings, (b) Festal, as the Passover, Cycle of Months, etc.,
(c) for the service of the Holy Place, as holy oil, precious incense,
twelve loaves, etc. (2) _Official Sacrifices_, which include (a) those
for the priests, (b) those for princes and rulers, and (c) those for
the holy women, Ex. 38:8; 1 Sam. 2:22. (3) _Personal Sacrifices_,
including (a) the blood offering-peace offering, sin offering and
trespass offering, (b) the bloodless offerings-the meat, or meal,
offering.

Besides this general division, the offerings are divided into two
kinds, as follows: (1) _Sweet-savor Offerings_. These are atoning in
nature and show that Jesus is acceptable to God because he not only
does no sin, but does all good, upon which the sinner is presented to
God in all the acceptableness of Christ. These offerings are (a) the
burnt offering, in which Christ willingly offers himself without spot
to God for our sins, (b) the meal offering, in which Christ's perfect
humanity, tested and tried, becomes the bread of His people, (c) the
peace offering representing Christ as our peace, giving us communion
with God, and thanks. (2) _Non-Sweet-Savor Offerings_. These are
perfect offerings, overlaid with human guilt. They are (a) the sin
offering, which is expiatory, substitutional and efficacious,
referring more to sins against God, with little consideration of
injury to man, (b) the trespass offering, which refers particularly
to sins against man, which are also sins against God.

Analysis.

I. Law of Sacrifices, Chs. 1-7.
  1. Burnt offering, Ch. 1.

  2. Meal offering, Ch. 2.

  3. Peace offering, Ch. 3.

  4. Sin offering, Ch. 4.

  5. Trespass (or guilt) offering, 5:1-6:7.

  6. Instructions to priests concerning the offerings, 6:8-7 end.

II. Law of Purity. Chs. 11-22.

  1. Pure food, animals to be eaten, Ch. II.

  2. Pure body and house, rules for cleansing, Chs. 12-13.

  3. Pure nation, offering for sin on the day of atonement, Chs.
16-17.

  4. Marriages, Ch. 18.

  5. Pure morals, Chs. 19-20.

  6. Pure priests, Chs. 21-22.

IV. Law of Feasts, Chs. 23-25.

  1. Sacred feasts, Ch. 23.

  2. Parenthesis, or interpolation, lamps of the Tabernacle,
shew-bread, the blasphemer, Ch. 24.

  3. Sacred years, Ch. 25.

V. Special Laws, Chs, 26-27.

  1. Blessing and cursing, Ch. 26.

  2. Vows and tithes, Ch. 27.
For Study and Discussion. (1) Make a list of the several offerings and
become familiar with what is offered, how it is offered, the result to
be attained in each case. (2) The laws (a) for the consecration and
purity of the priests (Chs. 8-10 and 21-22), (b) governing marriages
(Ch. 18), (c) concerning clean animals and what may be used for food
(Ch, 11), (d) governing vows and tithes (Ch. 37). (3) The sacrifice of
the two goats and two birds, (a) the details of what is done with each
goat and each bird, (b) the lessons or truths typified by each goat
and bird. (4) The name, occasion, purpose, time and manner of
observing each of the feasts. (5) Redemption as seen in Leviticus, (a)
the place of the priest, (b) of substitution, (c) of imputation, (d)
of sacrifice and blood in redemption. (5) The nature of sin as seen in
Leviticus, (a) its effect on man's nature, (b) its effect on his
relation to God.

 * * * * *

Chapter IV.

Numbers.

Name. It is named from the two enumerations of the people, at Sinai,
Ch. 1. and at Moab, Ch. 26.

Connection with Former Books. Genesis tells of Creation, Exodus of
redemption, Leviticus of worship and fellowship, and Numbers of
service and work. In Leviticus Israel is assigned a lesson and in
Numbers she is getting that lesson. In this book as in Exodus and
Leviticus Moses is the central figure.

Central Thought. Service which involves journeying, which in turn
implies walk as a secondary thought. All the types of the books bear
upon this two-fold idea of service and walk.

Key-Phrase. "All that are able to go forth to war" occurs fourteen
times in the first chapter. There was fighting ahead and all who could
fight must muster in.

The History Covered is a period of a little more than thirty-eight
years (Num. 1:1; Deut. 1:3) and is a record (1) of how Israel marched
to the border of Canaan, (2) wandered thirty-eight years in the
wilderness while the old nation died and a new nation was trained in
obedience to God, (3) then returned to the border of the promised
land.

Analysis.

I. The Preparation at Sinai, 1:1-10:10.

  1. The number and arrangement of the tribes, Chs. 1-2.

  2. The choice and assignment of the Levites, Chs. 3-4.

  3. Laws for the purity of the camp, Chs. 5-6.

  4. Laws concerning the offerings for worship, Chs. 7-8.

  5. Laws concerning the passover and cloud, 9:1-14.

  6. Signals for marching and assembling 9:15-10:10.

 II. The Journey to Moab, 10:11-22:1.

  1. From Sinai to Kadesh, 10:11-14 end.

  2. From Kadesh to Kadesh (the wilderness wanderings), 19:1-20:21.

  3. From Kadesh to Moab, 20:22-22:1.

III. The Sojourn at Moab, 22:2-36 end.

  1. Balak and Balaam, 22:2-25 end.

  2. The sum of the people, Ch. 26.

  3. Joshua. Moses' successor, Ch. 27.

  4. Feasts and offerings, Chs. 28-30.

  5. Triumph over Midian, Ch. 31.

  6. Two and half tribes given land east of Jordan, Ch. 32.

  7. Wilderness journeys enumerated, Ch. 33.

  8. Divisions of Canaan and the cities of Refuge, Chs. 34-36.

For Study and Discussion. (1) Make a list of the different times when
God came to the relief of Israel, by providing guidance, protection,
food, etc. and from them study God's wonderful resources in caring for
his people. (2) Make a list of the different times and occasions when
Israel or any individual sinned or rebelled against God or His
leaders, and study the result in each case. (3) Make a list of the
miracles of the book and give the facts about each. Show which were
miracles of judgment and which were miracles of mercy. (4) The story
of the spies and the results of the mistake made as seen in all the
future history of Israel. (5) The story of Balak and Balaam. (6) God's
punishment of disobedient and sinful nations. (7) Doubt as a source of
complaint and discontent. (8) The types of Christ and Christian
experience: (a) The Nazarite; (b) Aaron's Budding Rod, 17:8; Heb 9:4;
(c) The Blue Ribband, 15:38; (d) The Red Heifer, 19:2; (e) The Brazen
Serpent, 21:9; (f) The cities of refuge, 35:13.

 * * * * *

Chapter V.

Deuteronomy.

Name. The name comes from the Greek word which means a second or
repeated law. It contains the last words of Moses which were likely
delivered during the last seven days of his life. It is not a mere
repetition of the law, but rather an application of the law in view of
the new conditions Israel would meet in Canaan, and because of their
former disobedience.

Purpose. To lead Israel to obedience and to warn them against
disobedience. The spirit and aim of the law is explained in such a way
as to present both encouragement and warning.

Contents. It consists of three addresses of Moses, given on the plains
of Moab at the close of the wilderness wanderings of Israel, in which
he gives large sections of the law formerly given, together with
additions necessary to meet the new conditions. There is also the
appointment of Joshua as Moses' successor and the farewell song of
blessing of Moses and the record of his death.

Style. The style is warmer and more oratorical than that of former
books. Its tone is more spiritual and ethical and its appeal is "to
know God," "love God" and "obey God."

Occasion and Necessity of the Book. (1) A crisis had come in the life
of Israel. The life of the people was to be changed from that of
wandering in the wilderness to that of residence in cities and
villages and from dependence upon heavenly manna to the cultivation of
the fields. Peace and righteousness would depend upon a strict
observance of the laws. (2) A new religion of Canaan against which
they must be put on guard. The most seductive forms of idolatry would
be met everywhere and there would be great danger of yielding to it.

The Key-Word. "Thou shalt," so often repeated as, "thou shall," and
"shalt not." The key-verses are 11:26-28.

Analysis.

I. Review of the Journeys, Chs. 1-4.

  1. Place of their camp, 1:1-5.

  2. Their history since leaving Egypt, 1:6-3 end.

  3. Exhortation to obedience, 4:1-40.

  4. Three cities of refuge on this side of Jordan. 4:41-49.

II. Review of the Law, Chs. 3-26.

  1. Historical and hortatory section, Chs. 5-11.

  2. Laws of religion. 12:1-16:17.

  3. Laws of political life. 16:18-20 end.

  4. Laws of society and domestic relations, Chs. 21-26.

III. Future of Israel Foretold, Chs. 27-30.

  1. Memorial tablets of stone. Ch. 27.

  2. Blessing and cursing, Ch. 28.

  3. Renewed covenant and Israel's future foretold. Chs. 29-30.

IV. Moses' Last Days, Chs. 31-34.

  1. Charge to Joshua, Ch. 31.

  2. Song of Moses, Ch. 32.

  3. Blessing of Moses, Ch. 33.

  4. Death of Moses, Ch. 34.

For Study and Discussion. (1) Make a list of the principal their past
history of which Moses reminds Israel in Chapters 1-4, and find where
in the previous books each incident is recorded. (2) From Chapter 11
make a list of reasons for obedience, the rewards of obedience and the
importance of the study of God's law. (3) The laws of blessing and
cursing (Ch. 28), make a list of the curses, the sin and the penalty,
the blessings, indicating the blessing and that for which it is
promised. (4) Make a list of the different countries or peoples
concerning whom Israel was given commandment or warning. (5) Moses'
farewell blessing on the several tribes (Ch. 33). Make a list of what
shall come to each tribe. (6) The names, location and purpose of the
cities of refuge and the lessons for today to be drawn from them and
their use. (7) The inflexibility of God's law.

 * * * * *

Chapter VI.

Joshua.

Historical Books of the Old Testament. The twelve books, including
those from Joshua to Esther, are called historical. They narrate the
history of Israel from the entrance of Canaan to the return from
captivity, which is divided into three periods or epochs. (1) _The
Independent Tribes_. This consists of the work of the conquest of
Canaan and of the experiences of the Judges and is recorded in Joshua,
Judges and Ruth. (2) _The kingdom of Israel_. (a) Its rise, 1 Sam. (b)
Its glory, 2 Sam., 1 K. 1-11, 1 Chron. 11-29, 2 Chron. 1-9. (c) _Its
division and fall_, 1 K. 12-22, 2 K. 1-25; 2 Chron. 10-36. (3) _The
Return from Captivity_, Ezr. Neh. and Est.

Name. Taken from Joshua, the leading character, who may be described
as a man of faith, courage, enthusiasm, fidelity to duty, and
leadership.

Connection with Former Books. Joshua completes the story of the
deliverance begun in Exodus. If Israel had not sinned in believing the
evil spies and turning back into the wilderness, we would not have had
the last twenty-one chapters of Numbers and the book of Deuteronomy.
Joshua then would have followed the fifteenth chapter of Numbers, thus
completing the story of God leading Israel out of Egypt into Canaan.

The Key-Word is redemption with the emphasis put upon possession while
redemption in Exodus put the stress upon deliverance. The two make
full redemption which requires being "brought out" and "brought in."

Purpose of the Book. (1) To show how Israel was settled in Canaan
according to the promise of God. (2) To show how, by the destruction
of the Canaanites, God punishes a people for their sins. (3) To show
that God's people are finally heirs of earth and that the wicked shall
be finally dispossessed.

Some Typical and Spiritual Matters. (1) The conflict with Canaan. In
the wilderness the conflict was with Amalek who was an illustration of
the never ending conflict of the flesh or of the "new man" and the
"old man." In Canaan the conflict is typical of our struggle against
principalities and powers and spiritual hosts in heavenly places, Eph.
6:10-18. (2) Crossing the Jordan is an illustration of our death to
sin and resurrection with Christ. (3) The scarlet line illustrates our
safety under Christ and his sacrifice. (4) The downfall of Jericho.
This illustrates the spiritual victories we win in secret and by ways
that seem foolish to men. (5) Joshua. Joshua is a type of Christ in
that he leads his followers to victory over their enemies; in that he
is their advocate in time of defeat and in the way he leads them into
a permanent home.

Analysis.

I. Conquest of Canaan, Chs. 1-12.

  1. The preparation, Chs. 1-2.

  2. Crossing the Jordan, Chs. 3-4.

  3. Conquest of Jericho, Chs. 5-6.

  4. Conquest of the South, Chs. 7-10.

  5. Conquest of the North, Ch. 11.

  6. Summary, Ch. 12.

II. Division of Lands, Chs. 13-22.

  1. Territory of the different tribes, Chs. 13-19.

  2. Cities of Refuge, Ch. 20.

  3. Cities of the Levites, Ch. 21.

  4. Return of the Eastern Tribes, Ch. 22.

III. Joshua's Last Counsel, and Death. Chs. 23-24.

  1. Exhortation to fidelity, Ch. 23.

  2. Farewell address and death, Ch. 24.

For Study and Discussion. (1) The cooperation of the two and one-half
tribes in the conquest of Canaan. (2) Make a list of the different
battles and indicate any in which Israel was defeated. (3) The portion
of the country allotted to each of the tribes of Israel. (4) The story
of the sins of Achan. Its results and his discovery and punishment.
(5) The story of the Gibeonites, their stratagem and consequent
embarrassment of Joshua. (6) Make a list of incidents or occurrences
that show a miraculous element running through the narrative. (7) The
story of Rabab, the harlot. (8) The names of the several tribes of
Canaan and the history of each. (9) The place of prayer and worship in
the narrative. Give instances. (10) Evidences found in the book that
God hates sin.

 * * * * *

Chapter VII.

Judges and Ruth.

Judges.

The Name. The name is taken from the Judges whose deeds it records.

The Character of the Book.
The book is fragmentary and unchronological in its arrangement. The
events recorded are largely local and  tribal instead of national,
but are of great value as showing the condition and character of the
people.


The Condition of the Nation. Israel was unorganized and somewhat
unsettled. They lacked moral energy and the spirit of obedience to
Jehovah and were constantly falling into idolatry and then suffering
at the hands of heathen nations. This condition is summed up in the
oft repeated words: "The children of Israel again did evil in the eyes
of the Lord" and "the Lord sold them into the hand of the oppressor."

The Contents. Judges records the conflict of the nation with the
Canaanite people and with itself; the condition of the country, people
and times and the faithfulness, righteousness and mercy of God. It
gives an account of "Seven apostasies, seven servitudes to the seven
heathen nations and seven deliverances." It furnishes an explanation
of these "ups and downs" and is not merely a record of historical
events but an interpretation of those events.

The Work of the Judges. The Judges were raised up as occasion required
and were tribesmen upon whom God laid the burden of apostate and
oppressed Israel. They exercised judicial functions and led the armies
of Israel against their enemies. They, therefore, asserted the
nation's principles and upheld the cause of Jehovah. As deliverers
they were all types of Christ.

The Key-word is Confusion and  the  key-verse  is  "every  man did
that which was right in his own eyes" 17:6, which would certainly
bring about a state of confusion.

Analysis.

  I. From the Conquest to the Judges, 1:1-3:6.

 II. The Judges and their Work. 3:7-16 end.
    1. Against Mesopotamia, 3:7-12.

    2. Against Moab, 3:13-30.

    3. Against Philistia, 3:31.

    4. Against the Canaanites, Chs. 4-5.

    5. Against the Midianites, Chs. 6-10.

    6. Against the Amorites, Chs. 11-12.

    7. Against the Philistines, Chs, 13-16.

III. The Idolatry of Micah, Chs. 17-18.

 IV. The Crime of Gibea, Chs. 19-21.

For Study and Discussion. (1) Learn the names of the Judges in order
with the time each served, or the period of rest after his work had
been accomplished. (2) The enemy each judge had to combat and what
work was accomplished by each judge. (3) What elements of strength and
of weakness are to be found in the character of each judge. (4) From
the story of Gideon and Sampson, point out New Testament truths. (5)
From the story of Jephthah and Deborah gather lessons for practical
life today. (6) Religious apostasy as a cause of national decay. (7)
Political folly and social immorality as a sign of national decay. (8)
The method of divine deliverance.

Ruth.

This book together with the Judges treats the life of Israel from the
rule of death of Joshua to the rule of Eli.

Name. From the principal character.

Contents. It is properly a continuation of Judges, showing the life of
the times in its greatest simplicity. It is also especially important
because it shows the lineage of David through the whole history of
Israel and thereby is a link in the genealogy of Christ.

Typical Matters. (1) Ruth is a type of Christ's Gentile bride and her
experience is similar to that of any devout Christian. (2) Boaz the
rich Bethlehemite accepting this strange woman in an illustration of
the redemptive work of Jesus.

The Key-words are love and faith.

Analysis.

  I. The Sojourn at Moab, 1:1-5.

 II. The Return to Jerusalem, 1:6-22.

III. Ruth and Boaz, Chs. 2-4.

   1. Gleaning the fields of Boaz, Ch. 2.

   2. Ruth married to Boaz, Chs. 3-4.

    A. A bold act, Ch. 3.

    B. Redemption of Naomi's inheritance, 4:1-12.

    C. Becomes wife of Boaz, 4:13-17.

    D. Genealogy of David, 4:18-22.

Some one has said that Ch. 1 is Ruth deciding, Ch. 2 is Ruth serving,
Ch. 3 is Ruth resting, Ch. 4 is Ruth rewarded.

For Study and Discussion. (1) Each of the characters of the book. (2)
The whole story of Ruth in comparison with the stories of Judges (Chs.
17-21) to get a view of the best and worst in their social conditions.
(3) The value of a trusting soul (Ruth).


 * * * * *

Chapter VIII. First and Second Samuel.

Name. The name is taken from the history of the life of Samuel
recorded in the early part of the book. It means "asked of God." The
two were formerly one book and called the "First Book of Kings," the
two books of Kings being one book and called Second Kings. Samuel and
Kings form a continuous story, and give us a record of the rise, glory
and fall of the Jewish Monarchy.

First Samuel.

Contents. This book begins with the story of Eli. the aged priest,
judge and leader of the people. It records the birth and childhood of
Samuel, who later becomes priest and prophet of the people. It tells
of Saul's elevation to the throne and of his final downfall. Along
with this is also given the growing power of David, who is to succeed
Saul as king.

The Prophets. Samuel was not only both judge and priest and prophet,
but as prophet he performed conspicuous services in several
directions. Probably the most notable of all his work was the
establishment of schools of prophets, which greatly dignified the work
of the prophets. After this time, the prophet and not the priest was
the medium of communication between God and his people.

Saul. As king, Saul began well and under favorable circumstances. He
gave himself to military exploits and neglected the finer spiritual
matters and soon made a complete break with Samuel, who represented
the religious-national class-and thereby lost the support of
the best elements of the nation. He then became morose and melancholy
and insanely jealous in conduct and could not, therefore, understand
the higher religious experiences that were necessary as a
representative of Jehovah on the throne of Israel.

Analysis.

  I. Career of Samuel, Chs. 1-7.

   1. His birth and call, Chs. 1-3.

   2. His conflict with the Philistines, Chs. 4-7.

 II. Career of Saul to his rejection, Chs. 8-15.

   1. Chosen as King, Chs. 8-10.

   2. Wars with Philistines, Chs. 11-14.

   3. He is rejected, Chs. 15.

III. Career of Saul after his rejection. Chs. 16-31.

   1. While David is at his court, Chs. 16-20.

   2. While David is a refugee in Judah. Chs. 21-26.

   3. While David is a refugee in Philistia. Chs. 27-31.

For Study and Discussion. (1) The story of Eli and his sons. (2) The
birth and call of Samuel. (3) The anointing of Saul. (4) The anointing
of David. (5) The evils of jealousy as seen in Saul. (6) The
importance  of respect for existing forms of government-see David's
attitude toward Saul. (7) How a man's attitude toward God and his
servants can make or mar his destiny. (8) Examples of how God uses
both good and bad carrying forward his purposes.

Second Samuel.

In this book, there is given the story of the career of David while
king of Israel. He was the strongest king Israel ever had and was
characterized as a fine executive, a skillful soldier and of a deeply
religious disposition. He was not without his faults, but in spite of
them developed a great empire.

Analysis.

  I. His Reign Over Judah a Hebren, Chs. 1-4.

 II. His reign Over All Israel, Chs. 5-10.

III. His Great Sin and Its Results, Chs. 11-20.

 IV. An Appendix, Chs. 21-34.

For Study and Discussion. (1) How David became king. (2) His victories
in war. (3) His great sin and some of its consequences. (4) His
kindness toward his enemies (see also his attitude toward Saul
recorded in First Samuel). (5) The kindness of God as illustrated by
the story of David's kindness to Mephibosheth, Ch. 9. (6) David's
psalm of praise, Chs. 22-23. (7) The different occasions when David
showed a penitent spirit (8) The great pestilence. Ch. 24.

 * * * * *

Chapter IX.

First and Second Kings.

Name. The name is taken from the Kings whose deeds they narrate.

Contents. It takes up the history of Israel where Second Samuel left
off and gives the account of the death of David, the reign of Solomon,
the Divided Kingdom, and the captivity.

Purpose. The political changes of Israel are given in order to show
the religious condition. Everywhere there is a conflict between faith
and unbelief, between the worship of Jehovah and the worship of Baal.
We see wicked kings who introduce false worship and righteous kings
who bring about reforms and try to overthrow false worship. Israel
yields to evil and is finally cut off, but Judah repents and is
restored to perpetuate the kingdom and to be the medium through
which Jesus came.

The Kingdom of Solomon. Solomon began in glory, flourished a while and
then ended in disgrace. He sacrificed the most sacred principles of
the nation in order to form alliances with other nations. He attempted
to concentrate all worship on Mount Moriah, probably hoping that in
this way he might control all nations. He finally became a tyrant and
robbed the people of their liberty.

The Two Kingdoms. This is a sad story of dissension and war and
defeat. Israel or the northern kingdom was always jealous of Judah. It
was by far the stronger and possessed a much larger and more fertile
land. There were nineteen king, from Jeroboam to Hoshea, whose names
and the number of years they reigned should be learned together with
the amount of scripture included in the story of each. Judah or the
southern kingdom was always a little more faithful to the true
worship. There were twenty kings, from Rehoboam to Zedekiah, whose
lives with the number of years they reigned and the scripture passages
describing each, should be tabulated and learned.

The Captivity. It is made clear that the captivity is because of sin.
God having spared them for a long time. (1) Israel was taken captivity
by the Assyrian Empire, whose capital was Nineveh. This marks the end
of the northern tribes. (2) Judah was captured by the Babylonian
Empire, but after a period of seventy years, the people were restored
to their own land.

Analysis of First Kings.

  I. The Reign of Solomon, Chs. 1-11.

   1. His accession, Chs. 1-4.

   2. Building the Temple, Chs. 5-8.

   3. His greatness and sin, Chs. 9-11.

 II. The Revolt and Sin of The Ten Tribes. Chs. 12-16.

III. The Reign of Ahab and the Career of Elijah, Chs. 17-22.

Analysis of Second Kings.

  I. The last days of Elijah, Chs. 1-2.

 II. The career of Elisha, Chs. 3-8.

III. The dynasty of Jehu, Chs. 9-14.

 IV. The fall of Israel, Chs. 15-17.

  V.  The Kingdom of Judah, Chs. 18-25.

For Study and Discussion (1) Contrast the character of David with that
of Solomon. Give the ideal elements and the defects of each. Also
compare them as rulers. (2) Contrast the character of Elijah with that
of Elisha. Point out the elements of strength and weakness in each.
Compare the great moral and religious truth taught by each as well as
the great deeds performed by them. (3) Study this as the cradle of
liberty. Note Elijah's resistance of tyrants and Ahab in the vineyard
of Naboth. Look for other instances. (4) Consider the place of the
prophets. Note their activity in the affairs of government. Glance
through these books and make a list of all prophets who are named and
note the character of their message and the king or nation to whom
each spoke. (5) Make a list of the kings of Israel and learn the story
of Jeroboam I, Omri, Ahab, Jehu, Jeroboam II and Hoshea. (6) Make a
list of the kings of Judah and learn the principal events and the
general character of the reign of Rehoboam, Jehoshaphat, Joash,
Uzziah, Ahaz, Hezekiah, Manasseh, Josiah and Zedekiah. (7) The fall of
Judah. (8) The failure of human governments, (a) the cause, (b) the
manifestation and result.

 * * * * *

Chapter X.

First and Second Chronicles.

Name. The name Chronicles was given by Jerome. They were the "words of
days" and the translators of the Septuagint named them the "things
omitted." They were originally one book.

Contents. Beginning with Adam the history of Israel is rewritten down
to the return of Judah from captivity.

Relation to Former Books. It covers the same field as all the others.
To this time the books have fitted one into another and formed a
continuous history. Here we double back and review the whole history,
beginning with Adam, and coming down to the edict of Cyrus which
permitted the exiled Jews to return to Jerusalem.

Religious Purpose of the Narratives. Several things show these books
to have a religious purpose. (1) God's care of his people and his
purpose to save them is given special emphasis. (2) The building of
the temple is given much prominence. (3) The kings who served God and
destroyed idols are given the most conspicuous place. (4) He follows
the line of Judah. only mentioning Israel where it seemed necessary.
In this way he was following the Messianic line through David. (5) The
priestly spirit permeates these books instead of the prophetic
elements  as in the earlier historical books. The aim, therefore,
seems to be to teach rather than to narrate. He seems to teach that
virtue and vice, in private or in national affairs, will surely
receive their dues-that God must be taken into account in the life of
individuals and of nations.

Analysis of First Chronicles.

 I. The Genealogies, Chs. 1-9.

II. The Reign of David, Chs. 10-29.

   1. Accession and great men, Chs.10-12.

   2. Zeal for Jehovah's house, Chs. 13-17.

   3. His victories, Chs. 18-20.

   4. The numbering of the people, Chs. 21.

   5. Provision for the temple, Chs. 22-29.

Analysis of Second Chronicles.

 I.  The Reign of Solomon, Chs. 1-9.

   1. Building of the temple, Cha. 1-4.

   2. Dedication of the temple, Chs. 5-7.

   3. Solomon's greatness and wealth, Chs. 8-9.

II. Judah After the Revolt of the Ten Tribes, Chs. 10-36.

   1. Reign of Rehoboam, Chs. 10-12.

   2. Victory of Abijah, Chs. 13.

   3. Reign of Asa, Chs. 14-16.

   4. Reign of Jehoshaphat, Chs. 21-28.

   5. Reign of Hezekiah, Chs. 29-32.

   6. Reign of Manasseh and Amon, Ch. 33.

   7. Reign of Josiah, Chs. 34-35.

   8. The captivity, Ch, 36.
For Study and Discussion. (1) The great men of David. (2) The
different victories won by David. (3) The dedication of the temple,
especially the prayer. (4) The wealth and follies of Solomon. (5) The
scripture and God's house as a means and source of all information,
see: (a) Asa's restoration of the altar and its vessels, (b)
Jehoshaphat's teaching the people God's law, (c) Joash and God's
restored house, (d) The reforms Of Josiah. (6) The reign of Manasseh.
(7) The nature of the worship of Judah. (8) The captivity. (9) The
value of true religion to a nation. (10) The evil results of idolatry.

 * * * * *

Chapter XI.

Ezra, Nehemiah and Ester.

Ezra and Nehemiah.

Name. Ezra and Nehemiah were formerly counted as one book and contain
the account of the restoration of the exiles to Jerusalem and the re-
establishment of their worship. They soon came to be called First and
Second Ezra. Jerome first called the second book Nehemiah. Wycliffe
called them the first and second Esdras and later they were called the
books of Esdras otherwise the Nehemiahs. The present names were first
given in the Geneva Bible (1560). Ezra is so called from the author
and principal character, the name meaning "help". Nehemiah is so
called from the principal character, whose name means "Jehovah
comforts."

Other Books. Three other books should be read in connection with this
study. (1) The book of Esther, which relates to this time and should
be read between chapters 6 and 7 of the book of Ezra. (2) The books of
Haggai and Zechariah. These two prophets were associated with the
first return of Zerubbabel and their words incited the Jews to
complete the temple in spite of opposition.


The Return from Captivity. The return consisted of three expeditions
led respectively by Zerubbabel. Ezra and Nehemiah. The time covered
can not be accurately calculated. It is probably not fewer than ninety
years. Some think it may have been as many as one hundred and ten
years.

Analysis of Ezra.

  I. The Rebuilding of the Temple, Chs. 1-6.

   1. The proclamation of Cyrus, 1.

   2. Those who returned, 2.

   3. The foundation laid, 3.

   4. The work hindered, 4.

   5. The work finished, 5-6.

 II. The Reforms of Ezra, Chs. 7-10.

   1. Ezra's Journey, 7-8

   2. The confession of sin, 9.

   3. The covenant to keep the law. 10.

For Study and Discussion. (1) The traits of character displayed
by Ezra. (2) The reforms of Ezra. (a) What were they? (b) Parallel
conditions of today. (3) The adversaries of Judah. (a) Who were they?
(b) The nature of their opposition. (4) The decree of Cyrus. (5) The
expedition of Zerubbabel and Ezra. (6) Ezra's commission and the
king's orders 7:1-26. (7) God's use of friends and enemies in
forwarding his purposes.

Analysis of Nehemiah.

  I. The Rebuilding of the Wall, Chs. 1-7.

   1. Nehemiah permitted to go to Jerusalem, 1-2.

   2. The work on the walls and its hindrance, 3-7.

 II. The Covenant to Keep the Law, Chs. 8-10.

   1. The law read, 8.

   2. Confession made, 9.

   3. The covenant made, 10.

III. The Walls Dedicated and Nehemiah's Reform, Chs. 11-13.

   1. Those who dwelt in the city, 11:1-12:26.

   2. The walls dedicated, 12:27-47 end.

   3. Evils corrected, Ch. 13.

For Study and  Discussion. (1)  Point out elements of strength in the
character  and  work of Nehemiah. (2) The greatness and difficulty of
Nehemiah's task, (a) the rubbish, (b) the size and length of the wall,
(c) the strength of their enemies. (3) The reforms of Nehemiah, (a)
religious, (b) moral, (c) political. (4) The public meeting and new
festival, 8:1-18. (5) The covenant 9:1-10:39. (6) The repeopling of
Jerusalem, Chs. 11-12.

Name. This is taken from its principal character, a Jewish maiden
became queen of a Persian King.

Purpose. To explain the origin  of  the feast of Purim work of
providence for God's people.

Time. The events narrated are thought to have occurred about 56 years
after the first return of Zerubbabel in 536 B. C. The King then would
be Xerxes the Great, and the drunken feast may have been preparatory
to the invasion of Greece in the third year of his reign.
Connection with Other Books. There is no connection between Esther and
the other books of the Bible. While it is a story of the time when the
Jews were returning to Jerusalem, and very likely should come between
the first and second return, and, therefore, between the sixth and
seventh chapters of Ezra, the incident stands alone. Without it we
would lose much of our knowledge of that period.

The Story. While Esther stands out as the principal character, the
whole story turns on the refusal of Mordecai to bow down to Haman,
which would have been to show him divine honor. He did not hate Haman
but, as a Jew could not worship any other than God. He dared to stand
for principle at the risk of his life.

The Name of God. One of the peculiarities of the book is that it
nowhere mentions the name of God, or makes any reference to him.
This may be because his name was held secret and sacred at that time.
However, God's power and His care of His people are everywhere implied
in the book.

Analysis

  I. Esther Made Queen, Chs. 1-2.

   1. Queen Vashti dethroned. Ch. 1.

   2. Esther made queen. Ch. 2.

 II. Haman's Plot and its Defeat. Chs. 3-8.

   1. Haman plots the destruction of the Jews. Ch. 3.

   2. The Jews' mourning and Mordecai's plea to Esther. Ch. 4.

   3. Esther banquets Haman and the King, Ch. 5.

   4. Mordecai highly honored for former service. Ch. 6.

   5. Esther's plea granted and Haman hanged, Ch. 7,

   6. The Jews allowed defense and Mordecai advanced, Ch. 8.

III. The Jews' Deliverance, Chs. 9-10.

   1. Their enemies slain, 9:1-16.

   2. A memorial feast is established. 9:17-32 end.

   3. Mordecai made great, Ch. 10.

For Study and Discussion. (1) The character of the king, Vashti,
Mordecai, Esther and Haman. (2) Mordecai's plea to Esther. (3) The
honor of Mordecai and humiliation of Haman, Ch. 6. (4) The destruction
of their enemies. (5) The feast of Purim, 9:17-32. (6) Truth about God
seen in this book. (7) Why not name the book Mordecai or Vashti-are
they not as heroic as Esther? (8) The race devotion of the Jews, then
and now. (9) Persian life as seen in the book.

 * * * * *

Chapter XII.

Job.

Name. Job, from its chief character, or hero, and mean "Persecuted."

Date. Neither the date nor the author can be determined with
certainty. I incline to the theory of the Job authorship.

Connection with Other Books. It stands alone, being one of the so-
called wisdom books of the Bible. It nowhere alludes to the Mosaic law
or the history of Israel.

Literary Characteristics. Chapters one and two and parts of chapter
forty-two are prose. All the rest is poetry. The different speakers
may have been real speakers, or characters created by one writer to
make the story. There is, however, little doubt that the story is
founded on historical facts.

The Problems of the Book. This book raises several great questions,
that are common to the race, and directly or indirectly discusses
them. Among those questions the following are the most important. (1)
Is there any goodness without reward? "Doth Job serve God or naught"?
(2) Why do the righteous suffer and why does sin go unpunished? (3)
Does God really care for and protect his people who fear him? (4) Is
adversity and affliction a sign that the sufferer is wicked? (5) Is
God a God of pity and mercy!

The Argument. The argument proceeds as follows: (1) There is a
conference between God and Satan and the consequent affliction of Job.
(2) The first cycle of discussion with his three friends in which they
charge Job with sin and he denies the charge. (3) The second cycle of
discussion. In this Job's friends argue that his claim of innocence is
a further evidence of his guilt and impending danger. (4) The third
cycle. In this cycle Job's friends argue that his afflictions are just
the kind that would come to one who yielded to temptations such as
those to which he is subject. In each of the three cycles of
discussion with his friends, Eliphaz, Bildad and Zophar, each argues
with Job except that Zophar remains silent in the third cycle. They
speak in the same order each time. (5) Elihu shows how Job accuses God
wrongly while vindicating himself and asserts that suffering instructs
us in righteousness and prevents us from sinning. (6) God intervenes
and in two addresses instructs Job. In the first address, Job is shown
the creative power of the Almighty and his own folly in answering God
whom animals by instinct fear. In the second address, Job is shown
that one should know how to rule the world and correct its evils
before one complains at or accuses God. (7) Job prays and is restored.

Purpose. The purpose of the book, then, is to justify the wisdom and
goodness of God in matters of human suffering and especially to show
that all suffering is not punitive.

Job's temptation. Job's temptation came by stages and consisted
largely in a series of losses as follows: (1) His property, (2) His
children, (3) His health, (4) His wife's confidence-she would have him
curse God and die. (5) His friends who now think him a sinner, (6) The
joy of life-he cursed the day of his birth, (7) His confidence in the
goodness of God-he said to God, "Why hast thou set me as a mark for
thee?" In his reply to Elihu he doubts the justice if not the very
existence of God.

Analysis.

  I. Job's Wealth and Affliction. Chs. 1-2.

 II. The Discussion of Job and His Three Friends. Cha. 3-31.


   1. The first cycle, 3-14.


   2. The second cycle, Chs. 15-21.

   3. The third cycle, Chs. 22-31.

III. The Speech of Elihu, Chs. 32-37.

 IV. The Addresses of God, Chs. 38-41.

   1. The first address, 38-39.

   2. The second address, 40-41.

  V. Job's Restoration, Ch. 42.

For Study and Discussion. (1) The personality and malice of Satan.
Point out his false accusations against Job and God, also the signs of
his power. (2) Concerning man look for evidence of: (a) The folly of
self-righteousness, (b) The vileness of the most perfect man in God's
sight, (c) The impossibility of man, by wisdom, apart from grace,
finding God. (3) Concerning God, gather evidence of his wisdom,
perfection and goodness. (4) Job's disappointment in his friends. (5)
Elements of truth and falsehood in the theory of Job's friends. (6)
Job's despair of the present, his view of Sheol and his view of the
future. Does he believe in a future life or think all ends with the
grave? (7) Does the book really explain why the righteous are allowed
to suffer? (8) Make a list of the striking passages especially worthy
of remembering.

 * * * * *

Chapter XIII.

Psalms and Proverbs.

Psalms.

Name. The Hebrew word means praises or hymns, while the Greek word
means psalms. It may well be called the "Hebrew Prayer and Praise
Book." The prevailing note is one of praise, though some are sad and
plaintive while others are philosophical.

Authors. Of the 150 Psalms, there is no means of determining the
authorship of 50. The authors named for others are David, Asaph, the
sons of Korah, Herman, Ethan, Moses and Solomon. Of the 100 whose
authorship is indicated, David is credited with 73, and in the New
Testament he alone is referred to as the author of them. Lu. 20:42.

Relation to the Other Old Testament Books. It has been called the
heart of the entire Bible, but its relation to the Old Testament is
especially intimate. All divine manifestations are viewed in regard to
their bearing on the inner experience. History is interpreted in the
light of a passion for truth and righteousness and as showing forth
the nearness of our relation to God.

The Subjects of the Psalms. It is very difficult to make any sort of
classification of the Psalms and any classification is open to
criticism. For this reason many groupings have been suggested. The
following, taken from different sources, may be of help. (1) Hymns of
praise, 8, 18, 19, 104, 145, 147, etc. (2) National hymns, 105, 106,
114, etc. (3) Temple hymns or hymns for public worship, 15, 24, 87,
etc. (4) Hymns relating to trial and calamity, 9, 22, 55, 56, 109,
etc. (5) Messianic Psalms, 2,16, 40, 72, 110, etc. (6) Hymns of
general religious character, 89, 90, 91, 121, 127, etc.

The following classification has been given in the hope of suggesting
the most prominent religious characteristics of the Psalms. (1) Those
that recognize the one infinite, all-wise and omnipotent God. (2)
Those that recognize the universality of his love and providence and
goodness. (3) Those showing abhorrence of all idols and the rejection
of all subordinate deities. (4) Those giving prophetic glimpses of the
Divine Son and of his redeeming work on earth. (5) Those showing the
terrible nature of sin, the divine hatred of it and judgment of God
upon sinners. (6) Those teaching the doctrines of forgiveness, divine
mercy, and the duty of repentance. (7) Those emphasizing the beauty of
holiness, the importance of faith and the soul's privilege of
communion with God.

Analysis.

1. Davidic Psalms. 1-41. These are not only ascribed to him but
reflect much of his life and faith.

2. Historical Psalms. 42-72.
These are ascribed to several authors, those of the sons of Korah
being prominent and are especially full of historical facts.

3. Liturgical or Ritualistic Psalms. 73-89.
Most of them are ascribed to Asaph and, besides being specially
prescribed for worship, they are strongly historical.

4. Other Pre-Captivity Psalms. 90-106.
Ten are anonymous, one is Moses' (Ps. 90) and the rest David's. They
reflect much of the pre-captivity sentiment and history.

5. Psalms of the Captivity and Return. 107-150. Matters pertaining to
the captivity and return to Jerusalem.

For Study and Discussion. (1) On what occasion were the following
Palms probably composed: (a) Psalm 3 (2 Sam. 15). (b) Psalm 24 (2 Sam.
6:12-17). (c) Psalm 56 (1 Sam. 21:10-15). (d) Psalms 75 and 76 (2
Kings 19:32-37). (e) Psalm 109 (1 Sam. 22:9-23). (f) Psalm 74 (2 Kings
25:2-18). (g) Psalm 60 (1 Chron. 18:11-13). (2) What is the subject of
Psalms 23, 84, 103,133 and 137? (3) What doctrine of the divine
character is taught in each of the following Psalms; 8, 19, 33, 46,
93, 115 and 139?


Proverbs.

Practical Value of the Book of Proverbs. The proverbs emphasize the
external religious life. They teach how to practice religion and
overcome the daily temptations. They express a belief in God and his
rule over the universe and, therefore, seek to make his religion the
controlling motive in life and conduct. They breathe a profound
religious spirit and a lofty religious conception, but put most stress
upon the doing of religion in all the relations of life. Davison says:
"For the writers of Proverbs religion means good sense, religion means
mastery of affairs, religion means strength and manliness and success,
religion means a well furnished intellect employing the best means to
accomplish the highest ends." This statement is correct as far as the
side of duty emphasized is concerned.

Nature of Proverbs. (1) There is a voice of wisdom which speaks words
of wisdom, understanding, knowledge, prudence, subtility, instruction,
discretion and the fear of Jehovah, and furnishes us with good advice
for every condition of life. (2) There is a voice of folly, which
speaks words of folly, simplicity, stupidity, ignorance, brutishness
and villainy, and lifts her voice wherever wisdom speaks. (3) Wisdom
is contrasted with folly, which often issues in simplicity and
scorning. (4) Wisdom is personified, as if it were God speaking about
the practical, moral, intellectual and religious duties of men. (5)
Christ finds Himself in the book, Lu. 24:27, and if Christ be
substituted for wisdom, where it is found, a new and wonderful power
will be seen in the book.

Scheme of the Considerations Found in Proverbs. The first sphere-the
home, father and children, 1:8-9 and Chs. 2-7. Key-word here is "my
son." The second sphere-friendship; companions is the important word.
1:10-19. The third sphere-the world beyond.

Analysis.

  I. Praise of Wisdom. Chs. 1-9. This is shown by contrast with folly.

   1. The design and some fundamental maxims, 1:1-19.

   2. Wisdom's warnings, 1:20 end.

   3. Wisdom will reveal God and righteousness and save one from
wicked men and strange women, Ch. 2.

   4. Description of the life of wisdom, Ch. 3.

   5. Wisdom the best way, Ch. 4.

   6. The strange woman, Ch. 5.

   7. Against various evils, Ch. 6.

   8. Wisdom's warnings against the seductions of an adulterous, Ch.
7.

   9. Wisdom makes an appeal, Ch. 8.

  10. Wisdom gives her invitations, Ch. 9.

 II. Practical Proverbs of Solomon. 10:1-22:16. These are separate and
cannot be classified.

III. Words of the Wise. 22:17-24 end. Sometimes called commendations
of justice. There are several authors, but no common topic.

 IV. Proverbs of Solomon, copied by the scribes of Hezekiah, Chs. 25-
29.

  V. Words of Agur. Ch. 30.
From one who has tried "to find out God unto perfection and found the
task above him."

 VI. Words of Lemuel, Ch. 31.

   1. The duty of Kings, 1-9.

   2. The praise of a virtuous woman or good wife, 10-31.

For Study and Discussion. (1) Collect passages that tell of the
rewards of virtue and piety. (2) Cite passages that show the evils of:
sloth or indolence, of wine-drinking and drunkenness, of tale-bearing,
of family contentions. (3) Make a list of the chief thoughts of the
book concerning God, man, and other great religious teachings of our
day. (4) What is said of a man who rules his own spirit, of a good
name, of obedience to parents, of fitly spoken words, of a beautiful
woman who lacks discretion, of a liberal soul, of a false balance, of
a soft answer, of a wise son. Find where the answers are found (5) The
Peril of following an unchaste love (woman), chapter 5. (6) Folly of
yielding to the wiles of an harlot, chapter 7. (7) The description of
a worthy woman, 31:10 end.

 * * * * *

Chapter XIV.

Ecclesiastes and the Song of Solomon.

Ecclesiastes.
Name. The Hebrew word means preacher and refers to or signifies one
who calls together and addresses assemblies.

The Personal or Human Element. Such expressions as "I perceived," "I
said in my heart," "I saw," etc., indicate that it is not the will of
God that is developed but a man is telling of his own ventures and
utter failure.

The General View or Key-phrase is "under the sun," with the sad
refrain, "vanity of vanities, all is vanity", and shows how a man
under the best possible conditions sought for joy and peace, trying at
its best every human resource. He had the best that could be gotten,
from human wisdom, from wealth, from worldly pleasure, from worldly
honor, only to find that all was "vanity and vexation of spirit." It
is what a man, with the knowledge of a holy God, and that He will
bring all into judgment, has learned of the emptiness of things "under
the sun" and of the whole duty of man to "fear God and keep his
commandments."

Purpose of the Book. The purpose, then, is not to express the doubts
or skepticism of the writer, not to record the complaining of a bitter
spirit. It is not the story of a pessimist or of an evil man turned
moralist. But it is intended to show that, if one should realize all
the aims, hopes and aspirations of life, they would not bring
satisfaction to the heart. His experience is used to show the result
of successful worldliness and self-gratification in contrast with the
outcome of the higher wisdom of the Godly life. We are shown that man
was not made for this world alone and not for selfish achievement or
gratification, but to fulfill some great plan of God for him which he
will accomplish through obedience and Divine service.

The Date and Authorship. The opening verse and certain other passages
such as some of the conditions as well as the characters of the
persons represented in the book give the impression that Solomon wrote
it, but there are other evidences that point to some other author.
Neither the author nor the date of writing has been definitely
determined.

Analysis.

  I. The Vanities of Life. Chs. 1-4. seen in both experience and
observation.

   1. The Vanity of what he has experienced, 1-2.

  2. The Vanity of what he has observed, 3-4.

 II. Practical Wisdom, Chs. 5-7.

   1. Some prudential maxims, Chs. 5.

   2. Some Vanities, Ch. 6.

   3. The best way to get along in life, Ch. 7.

III. Rules for a Happy Life, Chs. 8-11.

 IV. Conclusion of the Whole Matter, Ch. 13.

For Study and Discussion. (1) Make a list of all the different things
enumerated as a failure or vanity. (2) Make a list of the different
things coming to us as God's gift of providence. (3) Make a list of
prudential maxims or rules which teach how to live rightly and to lift
us above the tribulations and defeat of life. (4) Does the author
think seeking pleasure is the real business of life? (5) Does he deny
the value of altruistic service? (6) Does he believe in the future
life and in future rewards?

Song of Solomon.

Name. Song of Songs which is Solomon's. It is also called Canticles,
meaning Song of Songs and is so-called, perhaps, because of its very
great beauty.

The Subject. The subject is faithful love, seen in a woman who though
subjected to the temptations of an oriental court, remains faithful to
her old lover. She, a country girl of the north, attracts the
attention of the king who brings her to Jerusalem and offers her every
inducement to become the wife of the king. But upon final refusal she
is allowed to return home to her lover, a country shepherd lad.

Meaning of the Story. (1) To the Jews of that time it was a call to
purity of life, for a return to those relations which God had ordained
between man and woman. It was a protest against polygamy which had
become almost universal. Indeed, they regarded it as setting forth the
whole history of Israel. (2) To the Christian it sets forth in
allegory, Christ and his church  as Bridegroom and Bride and the
fullness of love which unites the believer and his Savior. (3) To all
the world there is shown the purity and constancy of a woman's love
and devotion to her ideals. It furnishes ideal which, if properly held
up, would cast out of human society all those monstrous practices that
come from unworthy ideals.

The Style. It is part dialogue and part monologue. Their love on both
sides is expressed in that sensuous way common among the oriental
peoples. Many of the allusions give rise to the belief that it was
written to celebrate the nuptials of Solomon and the daughter of
Pharaoh.

Analysis.

  I. The King's first attempt to win the Virgin's love. 1:1-2:7.

   1. She converses with the ladies of the court, 1:1-8.

   2. The King's first attempt fails to win her, 1:9-2:7.

 II. The King's second effort to win her love, 2:8-5:8.

   1. The virgin recalls her former happiness when with her lover at
home, 2:8-17.

   2. In a dream she goes in search of him, 3:1-5.

   3. The King shows her his glory and greatness, 3:6-11.

   4. She again rejects his love in spite of his praise of her beauty,
4:1-7.

   5. She longs for her absent lover, 4:8-5:1.

   6. She dreams of seeking in vain for him, 5:2-8.

III. The King's third attempt to win her, 5:9-8:4.

   1. The ladies of the court cannot understand  her faithfulness  to
her old lover. 5:9-6:3.

   2. The King's third effort to win her is met with the declaration
of her purpose to remain true to her absent lover, 6:4-8:4.

 VI. The Triumph of the Maiden, 8:5-14.
She returns to her home among the hills of the north and is reunited
with her shepherd lover.

For Study and Discussion. (1) Make a list of the passages by which the
woman's beauty is described. (2) Passages that suggest the relation of
the saved soul to Christ. (3) Passages that suggest the glory of the
church. (4) Some of the passages by which the love of the woman and of
the king is expressed. (5) The basis of human love. 2:2-3. (6) The
strength of human lover, 8:6-7. (7) The interpretation of human love
in terms of divine love.

 * * * * *

Chapter XV.

Isaiah.

Prophet. In the study of the messages of the prophets we should
understand that the meaning of the term prophets may be: (1) A person
employed in the public utterance of religious discourse, very much as
the preacher of today. This was the most common function of the
prophet. Some were reformers while others were evangelists or
revivalists. (2) One who performed the function of the scribes and
wrote the history and biography and annals of their nations. In this
capacity they compiled or wrote large portions of the books of the Old
Testament. (3) One who was able to discern the future and foretell
events which would transpire afterward.

The Prophetical Books. All take their name from the Prophets whose
messages they bear. They are written largely in the poetic style and
are usually divided into two divisions. (1) The major prophets which
include Isaiah. Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel and Daniel. (2) The
minor prophets, including the other twelve. This division is based on
the bulk of material in the books and is unscientific and misleading,
since it suggests that some are more important than others.
They are more appropriately divided according to their place in the
prophetic order or the period of Israel's history when they
prophesied, somewhat as follows: 1. _The Pre-exilic prophets_, or
those who prophesied before the exile. These are, (1) Jonah, Amos and
Hosea, prophets of Israel. (2) Obadiah, Joel, Isaiah, Micah, Nahum,
Habakkuk, Zephaniah, and Jeremiah, prophets of Judah. 2. _The exilic
prophets_, Ezekiel and Daniel. 3. _The Post-exilic prophets_, prophets
who prophesied after the captivity. All are of Judah and are Haggai,
Zechariah and Malachi.

Jeremiah's ministry perhaps extended into the period of the captivity.
There is great uncertainty about the chronology of Obadiah, Joel and
Jonah. There is differences of opinion as to whether certain of the
prophets belong to Judah or Israel. Micah is an example. The teacher
will be able to give reasons for this difference.

The Study of the Prophets. The student should hold in mind that the
prophet deals primarily with the moral and religious conditions of his
own people at the time of his ministry. His denunciations, warnings
and exhortations are, therefore, not abstract principles, but are
local and for Israel. The prophet was then first of all a Jewish
patriot and revivalist filled with the Holy Ghost and with zeal for
Israel.

The predictive elements of the prophetic books must be interpreted in
the light, (1) of a nearby or local fulfillment, such as of the
dispersion and restoration, and (2) of a far off and greater
fulfillment of which the first is only a forerunner, such as the
advent of the Messiah and his glorious reign over the whole earth. The
interpretation of prophecy should generally be in the literal, natural
and unforced meaning of the words. The following passages will show
how prophecy, already fulfilled, has been fulfilled literally and not
allegorically. Gen. 15:13-16; 16:11-12; Dt. 28:62-67; Ps. 22:1, 7, 8,
15-18; Is. 7:14; 53:2-9; Hos. 3:4; Joel 2:28-29: Mic. 5:2; Acts 2:16-
18; Matt. 21:4-5; Lu. 1:20, 31; Acts 1:5; Matt. 2:4-6; Lu. 21:16.17,
24; Acts 21:10-11.

In a given book of prophecy, the book should be read carefully and all
the different subjects treated, noted. This should be followed by a
careful study to find what is said about the several topics already
found. To illustrate, the prophet may mention himself, Jerusalem,
Israel, Judah, Babylon or Egypt, etc. One should learn what is said of
each. This will make necessary the student's learning all he can of
the history of the different subjects mentioned that he may understand
the prophecy about it.

The Prophet Isaiah. Several things are known of him. (1) He was called
to his work the last year of the reign of Uzziah. (2) He lived at
Jerusalem  during the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah, and
most of his life seems to have been spent as a sort of court preacher
or chaplain to the king. (3) He is the most renowned of all the Old
Testament prophets, his visions not being restricted to his own
country and times. He spoke for all nations and for all times, being
restricted to his own country and times. "He was a man of powerful
intellect, great integrity and remarkable force of character." (4) He
is quoted more in the New Testament than any of the other prophets
and, because of the relation of his teaching to New Testament times
and teachings, his prophesies have been called the "Bridge between the
old and new covenants." (5) He married and had two sons.

The Nature of His Teachings. In his inaugural vision recorded in the
sixth chapter Isaiah has impressed upon him some truths that shaped
his whole career. He saw: (1) The holiness and majesty of God; (2) The
corruption of those about him; (3) The certainty of awful judgment
upon the wicked; (4) The blessing of those whose lives are approved of
God; and (5) The salvation of a remnant that was to be the seed of a
new Israel. With these truths burning in his soul he pressed the
battle of righteousness into every sphere of life. He strove to
regenerate the entire national life. He tried to make not only
religious worship, but commerce and politics so pure that it could all
become a service acceptable to God. He, therefore, became a religious
teacher, preacher, social reformer, statesman and seer.

Conditions of Israel (The Northern Kingdom). Isaiah began to prophecy
when it was outwardly rich and prosperous under the rule of Jereboam
IL Inwardly it was very corrupt. It soon went to pieces, however (621
B. C.), being conquered and carried into captivity by the Assyrians.

Conditions of Judah (The Southern Kingdom). During the reigns of Ahaz,
Jotham and Uzziah, oppression, wickedness and idolatry existed
everywhere. Ahaz made an alliance with Assyria, which finally brought
destruction to Israel, but Hezekiah listened to Isaiah and made
reforms, and God destroyed the Assyrian army before Jerusalem was
destroyed.

Nature of the Contents of the Book. The contents of the Book have been
said to include: (1) Warnings and threats against his own people
because of their sins. (2) Sketches of the history of his times. (3)
Prophesies of the return of Israel from captivity. (4) Prophesies
concerning the coming of the Messiah. (S) Predictions of the judgment
of God on other nations. (6) Discourses that urge upon Israel moral
and religious reformation. (7) Visions of the future glory and
prosperity of the church. (8) Expressions of thanksgiving and praise.

The Center of Interest. The prophet deals primarily with the nation
and not with the individual. He speaks primarily of the present and
not of the future. These two facts must be kept constantly in mind as
we read and interpret the book.

Analysis.

  I. Discourses Concerning Judah and Israel, Chs. 1-12.

  1. Some promises and rebukes, Chs. 1-6.

  2. The book of Immanuel, Chs. 7-12.

 II. Prophesies against Foreign Nations, Chs. 13-23.
III. The Judgment of the World and the Triumph of God's People, Chs.
24-27.

   1. The judgments. Ch. 24.

   2. The triumph. Chs. 25-27.

 IV. Judah's Relation to Egypt and Assyria, Chs. 38-32.

  V. The Great Deliverance of Jerusalem, Chs. 33-39.

 VI. The Book of Consolation, Chs. 40-66.

   1. God's preparation for certain deliverance, Chs. 40-48.

   2. Jehovah's servant, the Messiah, will bring this deliverance.
Chs. 49-57.

   3. The restoration of Zion and the Messianic Kingdom, with promises
and warnings for the future. Chs. 58-66.

For Study and Discussion. (1) The sins of Israel and Judah that he
rebukes. (2) Other nations against which he makes predictions and what
he said of each. (3) Isaiah's call. Ch. 6. (4) Isaiah's errand to
Ahaz, Ch. 7. (5) The way in which Isaiah rests the sole deity of
Jehovah upon his ability to predict a future, Ch. 41. Give other
illustrations. (6) The express predictions of the Messiah as we find
them fulfilled in Jesus. (7) Point out the passages portraying the
future glory of the church and the spiritual prosperity of the race.
(8) Passages predicting the restoration of the Jews from captivity.
(9) Some predictions already fulfilled: (a) God's judgments on the
kings of Israel and the nation of Israel, Ch. 7. (b) The overthrow of
Sennacherib, Chs. 13 and 37. (c) Disasters which should overtake
Babylon, Damascus, Egypt, Moab and Idumea, Chs. 13, 15, 18, 19 and 34.
(d) Vivid and marvelous descriptions of the final fate of Babylon and
Idumea, 13:19-22; 34:10-17. (10) The theology of Isaiah or his views
on such subjects as the moral condition of man, the need of a
redeemer, the consequences of redemption, Divine Providence, the
majesty and holiness of God, the future life, etc.

 * * * * *

Chapter XVI.

Jeremiah and Lamentations.

The Author. (1) His name means "Exalted of Jehovah," and he is ranked
second among the great Old Testament writers. (2) He lived the last of
the sixth and the first of the fifth centuries before Christ. His
ministry began in 626 B. C., the thirteenth year of Josiah (1:2), and
lasted about forty years. He probably died in Babylon during the early
years of the captivity. (3) He was of a sensitive nature, mild, timid,
and inclined to melancholy. He was devoutly religious and naturally
shrank from giving pain to others. (4) He was uncommonly bold and
courageous in declaring the message of God, it was unpopular and
subjected him to hatred  and even to suffering wrong. He was unsparing
in the denunciations and rebukes administered to his nation, not even
sparing the prince. (5) He is called the weeping prophet. He was
distressed both by the disobedience and apostasy of Israel and by the
evil which he foresaw. Being very devoutly religious, he was pained by
the impiety of his time.

Condition of the Nations. (1) Israel, the northern kingdom, had been
carried into captivity and Judah stood alone against her enemies. (2)
Judah had fallen into a bad state, but Josiah, who reigned when
Jeremiah began his ministry, attempted to bring about reforms and
restore the old order. After his death, however, wickedness grew more
and more until, in the later part of the life of Jeremiah, Jerusalem
and the temple were destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar and Judah was led away
in captivity. (3) The world powers of the time of Jeremiah's birth
were Assyria and Egypt. They were contending for supremacy. But
Jeremiah lived to see both of them subdued and Babylon mistress of the
world. He foresaw also how Babylon would fall and how a kingdom
greater than all would rise wherein there would be righteousness and
peace.

Jeremiah.

The book of Jeremiah is composed principally of sketches of biography,
history and prophecy, but the events and chapters are not in
chronological order. It closes the period of the monarchy and marks
the destruction of the holy city and of the sanctuary and tells of the
death agony of the nation of Israel, God's chosen people. But he saw
far beyond the judgments of the near future to a brighter day when the
eternal purpose of divine grace would be realized. The book,
therefore, emphasizes the future glory of the kingdom of God which
must endure though Israel does perish. He made two special
contributions to the truth as understood in his time. (1) The
spirituality of religion. He saw the coming overthrow of their
national and formal religion and realized that, to survive that
crisis, religion must not be national, but individual and spiritual.
(2) Personal responsibility (31:29-30). If religion was to be a
spiritual condition of the individual, the doctrine of personal
responsibility was a logical necessity. These two teachings constitute
a great step forward.

Analysis.

  I. The Prophet's Call and Assurance, Ch. 1.

 II. Judah Called to Repentance, Chs. 2-22.

   1. Her sins set forth, Chs. 2-6

   2. The call to repentance, Chs. 7-10.

   3. The appeal to the covenant, Chs. 11-13.

   4. Rejection and captivity foretold, Chs. 14-22.

III. The Book of Consolation, Chs. 23-33.

   1. The restoration of the remnant, Chs. 22-29.

   2. The complete restoration, Chs. 30-33.

 IV. The Doom of Jerusalem Due to the People's Wickedness, Chs. 34-36.

  V. The History of Jeremiah and His Times, Chs. 37-45.

 VI.  Prophecies Against Foreign Nations, Chs, 46-51.

VII. Historical Appendix, Ch. 52.

Lamentations.

The name means elegies or mournful or plaintive poems. It was formerly
a part of Jeremiah and represents the sorrows of Jeremiah when the
calamities which he had predicted befell his people, who had often
despised and rejected him for his messages. He chose to live with them
in their suffering and out of his weeping pointed them to a star of
hope. There are five independent poems in as many chapters. Chapters
1, 2, 4 and 5 have each 22 verses or just the number of the Hebrew
alphabet. Chapter 3 has 66 verses or just three times the number of
the alphabet. The first four chapters are acrostic, that is each verse
begins with a letter of the Hebrew alphabet. In chapter three, each
letter is used in order and is three times repeated as the initial
letter of three successive lines.

Analysis.

  I. The Misery of Jerusalem, Ch. 1.

 II. The Cause of the People's Suffering, Ch. 2.

III. The Basis of Hope, Ch. 3.

 IV. The Past and Present of Israel, Ch. 4.

  V. The Final Appeal for Restoration, Ch. 5.

For Study and Discussion. (1) Make a list of the evils predicted
against the people because of their sins. (Example 19:7-9). (2) Make a
list of the different sins and vices of which Jeremiah accuses Israel.
(Example 2:12; 3:20, etc.) (3) Point out all the prophesies of Divine
judgment against other nations and analyze the punishment foretold.
(Example 5:18-25). (4) Study the case of fidelity to parents given in
Ch. 35. (5) Collect all passages in both books which tell of the
Messiah and of Messianic times and make a study of each (as 23:5-6).
(6) Select a few of the striking passages of Lamentations and show how
they apply to the facts of history. (6) The sign and type of the
destruction of the land. Chs. 13-14. (8) The potter an illustration of
God's power over nations, Chs. 18-19. (9) The illustration of the
return, seen in the figs, Ch. 24. (10) Jeremiah's letter to the
captive, Ch. 29. (11) Jeremiah's love for Judah-it saw their faults,
rebuked them for their sins, but did not desert them when they were in
suffering, because they despised his advice.

 * * * * *

Chapter XVII.

Ezekiel and Daniel.

Ezekiel.

The Prophet. His name means "God will strengthen". He was a priest and
was carried into captivity by Nebuchadnezzar. B. C. 597. He had a home
on the river Chebar where the Elders of Judah were accustomed to meet.
His wife died in the ninth year of his captivity. He was a man of very
powerful intellect and apparently from the better classes of those
carried into captivity. He is less attractive than Isaiah and less
constant in the flow of his thought than Jeremiah. He is not so timid
or sensitive as Jeremiah but has all his horror for sin and all of his
grief, occasioned by the wickedness of his people and the suffering
which they endured. In his boldness of utterance he was not surpassed
by his predecessors.

Nature of the Prophecy. The nature of the prophecy or the methods by
which he exercised or manifests his prophetic gift differs from that
of the other prophets. He does not so much predict as see visions of
them. Allegories, parables, similitudes and visions abound, some of
them symbolic of the future and others of existing facts and
conditions. The prophet remains on the banks of Chebar and in spirit
is transported to Jerusalem and the temple. Much of the book is in
character similar to Revelation and while the general subjects are
very plain, much of the meaning of the symbols is obscure. There are,
however, powerful addresses and eloquent predictions of Divine
judgments on the nations. It was probably due to the services of
Ezekiel that Israel's religion was preserved during the exile.

The Main Aspects of his Teaching. (1) Denunciation of Judah's sins and
the downfall of Jerusalem, Chs. 1-24. (2) Judgments upon foreign
nations, Chs. 25-32. (3) Repentance as a condition of salvation,
18:30-32. (4) The glorious restoration of Israel, li:16ff; 16:60ff;
27:22-24; 20:40ff; Chs. 33-48. (5) The freedom and responsibility of
the individual soul before God.  18:20-32. (6) The necessity of a new
heart and a new spirit, 11:19: 18:31; 36:26.

Condition of the Jews. (1) _Political and social condition_. They are
captives living in Babylon but are treated as colonists and not as
slaves. They increased in numbers and accumulated great wealth and
some of them rose to the highest offices. (2) _The religious condition
or outlook_. They had religious freedom and in this period they
forever gave up their idolatry. They sought out the books of the law,
revised the cannon, wrote some new books and perhaps inaugurated the
synagogue worship which became so powerful afterward.

Analysis.

  I. Ezekiel's Call, Chs. 1-3.

   1. Preliminary vision, Ch. 1.

   2. The call, Chs. 2-3.

 II. The Destruction of Jerusalem, Chs. 4-24.

   1. The siege and certain judgment of the city, Chs. 4-7,

   2. The condition of the city and the sins of the people, Chs. 8-19.

   3. Renewed proofs and predictions of the doom of Judah  and
Jerusalem, Chs. 20-24.

III. Predictions against Foreign Nations and Cities. Chs. 25-32.

 IV. Prophecies concerning the Restoration, Chs. 33-48.

   1. The restoration of Judah to the promised land, Chs. 33-39.

   2. The Messianic times, Chs. 40-48.

For Study and Discussion. (1) The condition, the particular sin and
the judgment promised upon each of the nations mentioned-has the
prediction been fulfilled? (2) The duties and responsibilities of a
preacher as illustrated by Ezekiel's watchman, Ch. 33. (3) The vision
of dry bones. Ch 37. (4) Judah and Israel under the figure of an evil
woman, Ch. 23. (5) The healing river, 47:1-12. (6) The teachings about
the Restoration, in the following passages: 36:8, 9, 29, 30, 34, 35,
25-27; 37:1-14; 24:11-24; 37:22; 26,27; 43:11-12. (7) The symbols and
types of the book.

Daniel.

Name. The name is taken from its leading character, Daniel, which
means "God is my Judge."

Author. It was very probably Daniel, though some think it may have
been one of his companions, and still others think the history may
have been gotten together and written about 166 B. C.

The Date. The date then would have been between the captivity, 605 B.
C., and the death of Daniel, 533 B. C., perhaps late in his life, or
if by some other (which I do not think likely) about 166 B. C.

The Prophet. He was probably born in Jerusalem and was one of the
noble young captives first carried into captivity by King
Nebuchadnezzar. He was educated by order of the king and soon rose to
great favor and was chosen to stand before the king in one of the
highest government positions under the Chaldean, Median and Persian
dynasties. He lived through the whole period of the captivity and
probably died in Babylon. It is said that not one imperfection of his
life is recorded. The angel repeatedly calls him "greatly beloved."

World Empires of the Book. (1) _The Babylonian Empire_ (625-536 B. C.)
with Nebuchadnezzar as the leading king and the one who carried Israel
captive. (2) _The Persian Empire_ (536-330 B. C.) which became a world
power through Cyrus, under whom the Jews returned to Jerusalem. (3)
_The Grecian Empire_, which, under the leadership of Alexander the
Great, subdued the entire Persian world. (4) _The Roman Empire_, which
was anticipated by and grew out of the Syrian Empire.

Purpose of the Book. The purpose of the book seems to be: (1) To
magnify Jehovah, who delivers his servants, who is God of all nations,
and who will punish idolatry, who is pure, righteous, etc. (2) To
encourage his countrymen to resist the forces that threaten the
foundation of their faith. This was done by the example of Daniel and
his companions whom Jehovah saved. (3) To give a prophecy or vision of
all times from the day of Daniel to the Messianic period. (4) To
outline the religious philosophy of history which would issue in a
great world state, which the Messianic King would rule by principles
of justice and right, and which would subdue all kingdoms and have
everlasting dominion. The main idea is the ultimate triumph of the
kingdom of God. As compared with former prophetic books there are two
new teachings. (1) Concerning angels. (2) Concerning a resurrection
from the dead.

Analysis.

  I. Daniel's History, Chs. 1-6.

   1. His youth and education, Ch. 1.

   2. Interpretation of Nebuchadnezzar's image dream. Ch. 2.

   3. In the fiery furnace. Ch. 3.

   4. Interpretation of Nebuchadnezzar's tree dream, Ch. 4.

   5. Interpretation of the hand-writing on the wall for Belshazzar,
Ch. 5.

   6. In the Lion's den, Ch. 6.

 II. Daniel's Vision of the Kingdom, Chs. 7-12.

   1. The four beasts, Ch. 7.

   2. The ram and the he-goat, Ch. 8.

   3. The seventy weeks, Ch. 9.

   4. The final vision, Chs. 10-12.

For Study and Discussion. (1) Make a list of the various visions of
Daniel and become familiar with the contents of each. (2) Make a list
of all the passages that refer to the fact of Daniel's praying and
point out some of the specific prayers with their answers. (3) Point
out the different attempts to overthrow or kill Daniel and tell the
cause, by whom he was opposed and how he escaped. (4) Make a list of
the different symbols such as the lion and learn the description given
of each symbolic animal. (5) Point out the several decrees made by the
different kings and learn what led to the decree, how it affected
Daniel, how it bore upon the worship of the people of his nation, how
it affected the worship of Jehovah, etc. (6) The difficulty and
possibility of right living in bad surroundings. (7) The openness of
Daniel's conduct. (8) The elements of strength of character displayed
by Daniel. (9) The inevitable conflict between good and evil.

 * * * * *

Chapter XVIII.

Hosea and Joel.

Hosea.

The Prophet. He is called the "Prophet of Divine Love." His name,
Hosea, means "Deliverance." He was a native and citizen of Israel and
followed Amos whom he may have heard in Bethel. He was a contemporary
with Isaiah and bore faithful testimony to corrupt Israel in the North
while Isaiah prophesied at Jerusalem and was to Israel what Jeremiah
became to Judah. He was prepared for his work through the lessons
which he learned from the sins of his unfaithful wife. (1) Through the
suffering which he endured because of her sins, he understood how God
was grieved at the wickedness of Israel and how her sins were not only
against God's law but an insult to divine love. (2) In love and at
great cost he restored his wayward wife and in that act saw a hope of
the restoration and forgiveness of Israel. His ministry extended over
more than sixty years and was perhaps the longest of any on record. It
continued 786-726 B. C., covering the last few years of the reign of
Jereboam II, to which Chs. 1-3 belong and the period of anarchy
following.

The Style and Method. His style is "abrupt, uneven, inelegant," but
also poetical, figurative and abounding in metaphors. His writings
must be interpreted with great care to get what is meant by his
symbolic speech. He reminds one of modern reformers and revivalists.
Through all the anger which the book reveals we see also the
surpassing beauty of reconciling love. One sees everywhere that the
supreme goal to which Hosea moves is the re-establishment of Israel's
fellowship of life and love with Jehovah.

Conditions of Israel. _Outwardly_ there was prosperity. Syria and Moab
had been conquered; commerce had greatly increased; the borders of the
land had been extended and the temple offerings were ample. _Inwardly_
there was decay. Gross immoralities were being introduced; worship was
being polluted and the masses of the people crushed, while the
Assyrian Empire was advancing and ready to crush Israel, whom, because
of her sins, God had abandoned to her fate.

They countenanced oppression, murder, lying, stealing, swearing, etc.
They had forgotten the law and their covenant to keep it and had
substituted the worship of Baal for that of Jehovah, thereby becoming
idolaters. They no longer looked to God in their distress but turned
to Egypt and Assyria for help, and thereby put security and prosperity
on a basis of human strength and wisdom instead of resting them upon a
hope of divine favor.


Analysis.

I. Israel's Sin. illustrated by the tragedy of Hosea's unfortunate
marriage, Chs. 1-3.

   1. His evil wife and their children, Ch. 1.

   2. Israel's unfaithfulness and return to God seen in the evil
women, Ch. 2.

   3. God's love restores Israel as Hosea does his wife, Ch. 3.

 II. The Prophetic Discourses, Chs. 4-14.

   1. Israel's sin, Chs. 4-8.

   2. Israel's coming punishment, Chs. 9-11.


   3. Israel's repentance and restoration, Chs. 12-14.
For  Study and Discussion. (1)    Make   a  list of all the
exhortations to penitence and reformation and study them. (2) Point
out the different utterances of judgment upon the people. (3) Make a
list of all the different sins condemned. (4) Make a list of the
expressions of tender love for the wayward and backsliding one. (5)
Make a list of all passages indicating grief and suffering because of
the sin and danger of the one loved. (6) Political and religious
apostacy. (7) Sin as infidelity to love-as spiritual adultery. (8) The
invitations of the book.

Joel.


The Prophet. His name means "Jehovah is God," but his birth-place and
conditions of life are unknown. He very probably prophesied in Judah
(2:15-17) and the time of his ministry is commonly thought to have
been during the reign of Joash, king of Israel, and Amaziah, king of
Judah. It seems certain his is one of the earliest (some think the
very earliest) of the prophetic books, and his references to the
temple and its services have caused some to conclude he was a priest.

The Prophecy. (1) The occasion of the prophecy was four successive
plagues of insects, particularly the locusts (2:25) and a drouth
(2:23) which had been unprecedented. These calamities the prophet
declares are the results of their sins and should call them to
repentance, that God may bless instead of curse their land. (2) The
people repent and the calamity is removed. This is used by the prophet
to foreshadow the coming destruction and restoration of Israel and
this restoration is also doubtless used to prefigure Christian church
and its triumph on earth. (3) The great subject is the terrible
judgments of God which were to come upon the people because of their
sins. (4) His great distinctive prophecy is 2;28-32 which was
fulfilled on the day of pentecost, Acts 2:16-21. (B) In it all, he is
emphasizing the rewards of the righteous and certain punishment of the
wicked and thus he appealed to both the hopes and the fears of men.
But the relief value of the book is its optimism. There was victory
ahead, the righteous would finally triumph and be saved and God's
enemies  will be destroyed. The conflict of good and evil and of
Israel and her enemies will end in entire and glorious triumph for
Israel and right.

Analysis.

  I. The Call to Repentance, Chs. 1:1-2:17.

   1. By the past scourge of locusts and drought, Ch. 1.

   2. By the scourge to come, 2:1-17.

 II. Israel's Repentance and Jehovah's Promised Blessing, 2:18-3:21.

   1. Material blessing, 2:18-27.

   2. In the world Judgment, Ch. 3.

For Study and Discussion. (1) Point out the different statements about
the drouth and locusts that indicate their severity and ruinous
effects. (2) Collect the passages referring to the Messianic age and
try to see how or what each foretells of that age. (3) Point out all
references to the sins of Israel. (4) Collect evidences of the divine
control of the universe as seen in the book.

 * * * * *
Chapter XIX.

Amos and Obadiah.

Amos.

The Prophet. His name means "Burden," and he is called the prophet of
righteousness. His home was at Tokea, a small town of Judea about
twelve miles south of Jerusalem, where he acted as herdsman and as
dresser of sycamore trees. He was very humble, not being of the
prophetic line, nor educated in the schools of the prophets for the
prophetic office. God called him to go out from Judah, his native
country, as a prophet to Israel, the Northern Kingdom. In obedience to
this call he went to Bethel, where the sanctuary was, and delivered
his bold prophecy. His bold preaching against the land Of Israel while
at Bethel aroused Amaziah the leading idolatrous priest, who
complained of him to the king. He was expelled from the kingdom, after
he had denounced Amaziah who had perhaps accused him of preaching as a
trade, 7:10-14, but we know nothing more of him except what is in this
book, which he perhaps wrote after he returned from Tekoa.

The Time of the Prophecy. It was during the reign of Uzziah, king of
Judah and of Jereboam II, king of Israel, and was outwardly a very
prosperous time in Northern Israel. But social evils were everywhere
manifest, especially the sins that grow out of a separation between
the rich and poor, 2:6-8, etc. Religion was of a low and formal kind,
very much of the heathen worship having been adopted.

The Significance of the Prophecy. One need but read the book of Amos
to see that he expects doom to come upon foreign nations, that he
foretells the wickedness of the Jews and their coming doom, showing
how the nation is to be dissolved and sold into captivity and that he
predicts the glory and greatness of the Messianic kingdom. He thinks
of Jehovah as the one true God, an all wise, all-powerful,
omnipresent, merciful and righteous person whose favor can only be
secured by a life of righteousness. He  sees that justice between men
is the foundation of society, that men are  responsible for their
acts, that punishment will follow failure to measure up to our
responsibility, that worship is an insult to God, unless the worshiper
tries to conform to divine demands.


  I. The Condemnation of the Nations. Chs. 1-2.

   1. Introduction, 1:1-2.
   2. Israel's neighbors shall be punished for their sins. 1:3-2:5.

   3. Israel's sins shall he punished, 2:6-16.

 II. The Condemnation of Israel, Chs. 3-6.

   1. For civil iniquities, Ch. 3.

   2. For oppression of the poor and for idolatry, Ch. 4.

   3. Repeated announcements of judgment with appeals to return and
do good, Chs. 5-6.

III. Five Visions Concerning Israel, Chs. 7:1-9:10.

   1. The locusts, 7:1-3.


   2. The fire, 7:4-6.

   3. The plumb line (a testing), 7:7-9, a historical interlude (the
conflict with Amaziah), 7:10-17.

   4. A basket of  summer fruit (iniquity ripe for punishment), Ch. 8.

   5. The destruction of the altar (No more services), 9:1-10.

 IV. Promised Restoration and Messianic Kingdom, 9;11-15.

For Study mid Discussion, (1) Gather from the book a list of
illustrations, sayings, etc., that are taken from the rustic or
agricultural usages. (2) Make a list of the different nations against
which he prophesies and point out the sin of each and the nature of
the punishment threatened. (3) Make a list of the different
illustrations used to show the greatness and power of God. (4) The sin
of wrong inter-relation of nations. (5) The responsibility of national
enlightenment. (6) Repentance as seen in this book. (7) The book's
evidence of the luxury of the time.

Obadiah.

The Prophet. His name means "servant of the Lord," but we know nothing
of him except what we can gather from his prophecy.

The Time. It was doubtless written after the fall of Jerusalem under
Nebuchadnezzar, 587 B. C. and before the destruction of Edom, five
years later, which would make the date about 585 B. C. This would make
him a contemporary of Jeremiah.

The Occasion of the prophecy is the cruelty of the Edomites in
rejoicing over the fall of Judah.

The Jews. It is said to be a favorite book with the Jews because of
the vengeance which it pronounces upon Edom, their brother. Its chief
importance lies in its predictions of doom upon Edom the descendants
of Esau, the twin brother of Jacob and the type of the unchangeable
hostility of the flesh to that which is born of the spirit.

The Teachings. (1) Jehovah is especially interested in Israel. (2) He
will establish a new kingdom, with Judea and Jerusalem as the center
and with holiness as the chief characteristic.

Analysis.

  I. Edom's punishment, 1-9.


   1. She must fall, 1-4.

   2. Her allies will desert her, 5-7.

   3. Her wisdom will fail her, 8-9.
 II. Edom's sin, 10-14

III. Guilt of the nations, 15-16.

 IV. Judah shall be restored,

For Study and Discussion. (1) The sin of pride. (2) The  sin   of
rejoicing in another's misfortune. (3) Punishment according to our sin
and of the same kind as was our sin.

* * * * *

Chapter XX.

Jonah and Micah.

Jonah.

The Prophet. His name means "done," and he is the son of Amittai. His
home was Gath-hepher, a village of Zebulun,  and he, therefore,
belonged to the ten tribes and not to Judah. He is first mentioned in
2 Kings 14:28, where he prophesied the success of Jeroboam II, in his
war with Syria, by which he would restore the territory that other
nations had wrested from Israel. He very likely prophesied at an early
date, though all attempts to determine the time of his prophecy or the
time and place of his death have failed.


The Prophecy. It differs from all the other prophecies in that it is a
narrative and more "the history of a prophecy than prophecy itself".
All the others are taken up chiefly with prophetic utterances, while
this book records the experiences and work of Jonah, but tells us
little of his utterances. The story of Jonah has been compared to
those of Elijah and Elisha (1 Kings 17-19, and 2 Kings 4-6).

Although full of the miraculous element, the evident purpose is to
teach great moral and spiritual lessons, and it is unfortunate that
its supernatural element has made this book the subject of infidel
attack. But the facts, though extraordinary, are in no way
contradictory or inconsistent. Indeed, Mr. Driver has well said that
"no doubt the outlines of the narrative are historical." Christ spoke
of Jonah and accredited it by likening his own death for three days to
Jonah's three days in the fish's belly.


It is the most  "Christian" of all the Old Testament books, its
central truth being the universality of the divine plan of redemption.
Nowhere else in the Old Testament is such stress laid upon the love of
God as embracing in its scope the whole human race.

Analysis.

  I. Jonah's First Call and Flight from Duty, Chs. 1-2.

   1. The call, flight and punishment, 1:1-16.

   2. The repentance and rescue, 1:17-2:10 (end).

 II. Jonah's Second Call and Preaching at Nineveh, Ch. 3.

   1. His second call. 1-2.

   2. His preaching against Nineveh. 2-4.

   3. Nineveh repents, 5-9.

   4. Nineveh is spared, 10.
III. Jonah's Anger and God's Mercy, Ch. 4.

   1. Jonah's anger, 1-4.

   2. The lessons of the gourd. 5-11.

For Study and Discussion. (1) The different elements of character
noticeable in Jonah. (2) The dangers of disobedience, to self and to
others. (3) The possibilities of influence for the man commissioned of
God. Jonah's influence on the sailors and on Nineveh. (4) God's care
for heathen nations (4-11), and its bearing upon the Foreign Mission
enterprise. (5) The nature of true repentance and God's forgiveness.
(6) The prophet, or preacher-his call, his message and place of
service.

Micah.

The Prophet. His name means "who is the Lord?" and he was Moresheth. a
small town of Gath. He was a younger contemporary of Isaiah and
prophesied to both Israel and Judah during the time of Jotham, Ahaz
and Hezekiah, kings of Judah; and of Pekah and Hoshea, the last two
kings of Israel. He sympathized deeply with the common people, being
moved by the social wrongs of his time (Ch. 2-3), and became the
people's advocate and defender as well as their accuser. He clearly
sets forth the wickedness of Judah and Israel, their punishment, their
restoration and the coming Christ. As compared with Isaiah, he was a
simple countryman, born of obscure parentage and recognized as one of
the peasant classes, while Isaiah was a city prophet of high social
standing and a counselor of kings.

The Great Truths of the Prophecy Are: (1) The destruction of Israel
(1:6-7) (2) The desolation of Jerusalem and the temple (3:12 and
7:13). (3) The carrying off of the Jews to Babylon (4:10). (4) The
return from captivity with peace and prosperity and with spiritual
blessing (4:1-8 and 7:11-17). (5) The ruler in Zion (Messiah) (4:8).
(6) Where and when he should be born (5:2). This is his great prophecy
and is accepted as final in the announcement to Herod.


  I. The Impending Calamity, Ch. 1.

 II. The Sins That Have Brought on This Calamity. Chs. 2-3.

   1. In their wickedness they refuse to hear the prophets and are led
into captivity, 2:1-11.

   2. The promised restoration, 2:12-13.

   3. The sins of the rich and of those in authority. Ch. 3.

III. The Promised Restoration and Glory, Chs. 4-5.

   1. The promised restoration of the city Zion, 4:1-5.

   2. The restoration and glory of Israel, 4:6-13 (end).
   3. The mighty messianic king to be given, Ch. 5.

 IV. God's Controversy With Israel. Chs. 6-7.

   1. God's charge and threat against them, Ch. 6.

   2. In lamentation and patience the righteous must wait for a better
time, 7:1-13.

   3. God will have mercy and restore, 7:14-20.

For Study and discussion. (1) The several accusations and threatenings
against Israel and Judah. (2) The different things mentioned to
describe the coming prosperity of Israel and of the Messianic period.
(3) The false authority of civil rulers, of moral leaders, of
spiritual teachers.

 * * * * *

Chapter XXI.

Nahum and Habakkuk.

Nahum.

The Prophet. His name means "consolation", and he was a native of
Elkosh, a small town of Galilee. We do not know where he uttered his
prophecy, whether from Philistia or at Nineveh. It is thought that he
escaped into Judah when the Captivity of the Ten Tribe began and that
he was at Jerusalem at the time of the Assyrian invasion.

The Prophecy. The date, if the above conclusions are to be relied
upon, would be in the reign of Hezekiah, King of Judah, which would be
between 720 and 698 B. C. Others put it between the destruction of
Thebes, 664 B. C. and the fall of Nineveh, 607 B. C. claiming that it
might be either during the reign of Josiah, 640-625 B. C. or in the
reign of Manasseh, 660 B. C. The theme of the book is the approaching
fall of Nineveh, the capital of Assyria, which held sway for centuries
and has been regarded as the most brutal of the ancient heathen
nations. The purpose, in keeping with the name of the author, was to
comfort his people, so long harassed by Assyria, which was soon to
fall and trouble them no more. The style is bold and fervid and
eloquent and differs from all the prophetic books so far studied in
that it is silent concerning the sins of Judah. It is a sort of
outburst of exultation over the distress of a cruel foe, a shout of
triumph over the downfall of an enemy that has prevented the
exaltation of the people of Jehovah.

Analysis.

  I. The Doom of Nineveh Pronounced, Ch. 1.

 II. the Siege and Fall of Nineveh, Ch. 2.

III. The Sins Which Will Cause Nineveh's Ruin, Ch. 3.

For Study and Discussion. (1) The striking features of the Divine
character seen in the book. How many in 1:2-3? (2) The description of
Nineveh-not only her wickedness, but her energy and enterprise. (3)
The doom predicted for Nineveh-analyze the predictions to the
different things to which she is doomed. (4) Pride as a God-ward sin
and its punishment. (5) Cruelty, The man-ward sin and its punishment.


Habakkuk.

The Prophet. His name means "embracing," and he very likely was a
contemporary of Jeremiah and prophesied between 608 B. C. and 638 B.
C. at a time of political and moral crisis. He may have been a Levite
connected with the Temple music.


The Prophecy. As Nahum prophesied the fall of Assyria for its
oppression of Israel, Habakkuk tells of God's judgments upon the
Chaldeans because of their oppression. The style is poetical and
displays a very fine imagery. (1) There is a dialogue between the
prophet and the Divine ruler. (2) There is a prayer or psalm which is
said not to be excelled in any language in the grandeur of its
poetical conceptions and sublimity of expression.

Its purpose grew out of the fact that they were no better off under
the rule of Babylon (Chaldeans) which had overthrown Assyria than they
were formerly while Assyria ruled over them. It intended to answer the
questions: (1) How could God use such a wicked instrument as the
Chaldeans (Barbarians) to execute his purposes? (2) Could the Divine
purpose be justified in such events? God's righteousness needed
vindicating to the people. (3) Why does wickedness seem to triumph
while the righteous suffer? This is the question of Job, applied to
the nation.


Analysis.


  I. The Problem of the Apparent Triumph of Sin, Ch. 1.

   1. Why does sin go unpunished? 1-4.

   2. God says he has used the Chaldeans to punish sin, 5-11.

   3. Are they confined to evil forever, 12-17.

 II. The Impending Punishment of the Chaldeans, Oh. 2.

   1. Waiting for the vision, 1-3.

   2. Vision of five destructive woes, 4-20.

III. An Age of Confidence in God, Ch.3.

   1. Prayer of the disquieted prophet, 1-2.

   2. Past history has shown that God will finally destroy Israel's
enemies, 3-15.


   3. The prophet must joyously trust God and wait when in
perplexity, 16-19.

For Study and Discussion. (1) The morals of the people. (2) The
character and deeds of the Chaldeans. (3) The Universal supremacy of
Jehovah. (4) The proper attitude amid perplexing problem. (5) Faith
and faithfulness as a guarantee of supremacy and life.

 * * * * *

Chapter XXII.

Zephaniah and Haggai.

Zephaniah.

The Prophet. He is a son of Cushi, a descendant of Hezekiah, and
prophesied about 630 B. C. during the reign of Josiah. His prophesies
may have aided in inaugurating and in carrying to success the reforms
of Josiah. His name means "hid of the Lord" in he is supposed to have
been a contemporary of Habakkuk.

The Prophecy. The prophecy seems to be based upon the ravages of the
Scythians, whom the nations had come to fear and whom Egypt had
bribed, and looks to the judgment of the Lord which cannot be
escaped. Its theme, therefore, is "The great day of the Lord" in which
suffering will come upon all nations with which the prophet is
familiar, Jerusalem and all Judea included. Converts would be won from
all parts of the world and these could worship Jehovah, "every one
from his place".

Analysis.

  I. The Coming Day of Wrath. Ch. 1.

   1. The destruction of all things, 1-6.

   2. The severe punishment of Judah, 7-18.

 II. Judgment Upon Evil Nations, 2:1-3:7.

   1. A plea for repentance, 2:1-3.

   2. The doom that shall engulf the nations, 2:4-end.

   3. Judah's obstinacy in sin, 3:1-7.

III. Promised Blessing for the Faithful Remnant, 3:8-20.

   1. Because of Israel's sin, the nation will be cleansed by
punishment and converted to God, 3:3-10.

   2. Purified Israel shall be honored in all the earth, 3:11-20.


For Study and Discussion, (1) Gather a list of all that is said to
induce repentance or the turning away from evil. (2) What sins are
condemned in Judah and other nations. Make a list of them. (3) Name
the special classes that are condemned, as princes. (4) Make a list of
the blessings promised for the coming Messianic days. (5) The purpose
of the Lord's judgments.

Haggai.

The Prophet. Haggai was born in Babylon and was one of those who
returned from captivity, under Zerrubbabel, according to the decree of
Cyrus. He prophesied during the period of the rebuilding of the
temple, as recorded in Ezra and he was the first prophet called to
prophesy after the Jews returned from the captivity in Babylon. He
began his teaching sixteen years after the return of the first band to
Jerusalem.

The Conditions Out of Which Grew the Prophecy. Under the decree of
Cyrus. King of Persia, Zerrubbabel, a descendant of King David, had
led a company of captives back to Jerusalem. They had set up the altar
and work on the temple had been begun, but the work had been
interrupted by the hostile Samaritans and others and for about
fourteen years almost nothing had been done. These years of inactivity
had dulled their zeal and they were rapidly becoming reconciled to the
situation and by reason of their weakness, compared with the great
task before them, they were beginning to despair of seeing their
people and beloved city and Temple restored to that glory pictured by
former prophets.

The Prophecy. Its purpose was to restore the hope of the people and to
give them zeal for the cause of God. This was accomplished by means of
four distinct visions, each of which shows their folly in not
completing the work, mid promises divine blessing. They hear God say,
"I am with you, and will bless you." The result is seen in that they
are enabled, in spite of opposition, to finish and dedicate it in
about four years.

Analysis.

  I. The Appeal to Rebuild the Temple, Ch. 1.

   1. The appeal, 1:11.

   2. The preparations to build, 12-15.

 II. The New Temple, 2:1-19.

   1. The superior glories of it, 2:1-9.

   2. The blessing of its holy service, 2:10-19.

III. The Messianic Kingdom, 2:10-23.

For Study and Discussion, (1) The rebukes uttered by the prophet. (2)
The encouragements he offers. (3) The historical confirmation of the
facts of this book found in Ezra. (4) False content and discontent.
(5) Basing conclusions upon the comparative strength of the friends
and enemies of a proposition, while leaving God out of the count.

 * * * * *

Chapter XXIII.

Zechariah and Malachi.

Zechariah.

The Prophet. His name means "Remembered of the Lord" and like Haggai
he appears to have been among the captives who returned from Babylon
with Zerubbabel. He was a co-laborer with Haggai, beginning his work
two mouths later and continuing into the second year following him.
The conditions of the times were the same as those described in
Haggai.

The Prophecy. The purpose is the same as that of Haggai. The time of
the first eight chapters is that of the rebuilding of the temple while
the remaining chapters, 9-14, are thought to have been written thirty
years later. It is distinguished for: (1) The symbolic character of
its visions. (2) The richness of his Messianic predictions found in
the second part. (3) The large place given to angelic mediation in the
intercourse with Jehovah.

The Contents. The contents have been said to contain: (1)
Encouragements to lead the people to repent and reform; (2)
Discussions about keeping up the days of fasting and humiliation
observed during the captivity; (3) Reflections of a moral and
spiritual nature; (4) Denunciations against some contemporary nations;
(5) Promises of the prosperity of God's people; (6) Various
predictions concerning Christ and his kingdom.

  I. Eight Visions Encouraging the Rebuilding of the Temple, Chs. 1-6.
Introduction, 1:1-6.

   1. The horseman among the myrtle trees, 1:7-17.

   2. The four horns and four carpenters, 1:18-21.
   3. The man with the measuring line, Ch. 2.

   4. Joshua, the High Priest, and Satan, Ch. 3.

   5. The Golden Candlestick, Ch. 4.

   6. The Flying Roll 5:1-4.

   7. The woman and ephah, 5:5-11 end.

   8. The four war chariots, 6:1-8.

      Appendix: Joshua crowned as a type of Christ, 6:9-15.

 II. Requirement of the Law and the Restoration  and  Enlargement
of Israel, Chs. 7-8.

   1. Obedience better than fasting. 7:1-7.

   2. Disobedience the source of all their past misery, 7:8-14 end.

   3. The restoration and enlargement which prefigure Christ "The
Jew," Ch.8.

III. Visions of the Messianic Kingdom. Chs. 9-14.

   1. The Messianic King, Ch. 9-10.

   2. The rejected Shepherd. Ch. 11,

   3. The restored and penitent people, Chs. 12-13.

   4. The divine sovereignty, Ch. 14.

For Study and Discussion. (1) The symbols and figures used in the
several visions. (2) The different ways of expressing or planning the
success of God's people and the overthrow of their enemies. (3) The
discussion of fasting, should they keep it up? What is superior to it?
etc. (4) The promises of these prophesies. (5) The denunciations and
judgments found in the book.

Malachi.

The Prophet.   His name means "Messenger of the Lord." or "My
Messenger". He was connected with the reform movement of Nehemiah and
Ezra and condemned the same  sins which they condemned. He must,
therefore, have lived about 100 years after Haggai and Zechariah, or
about 430-420 B. C. He was the last of the Old Testament inspired
prophets.



The Condition of the Time. The people had been restored to Jerusalem
and the temple and walls rebuilt. They had become sensual and selfish
and had grown careless and neglectful of their duty. Their
interpretation of the glowing prophecies of the exilic and pre-exilic
prophets had led them to expect to realize the Messianic kingdom
immediately upon their return. They were, therefore, discouraged and
grew skeptical (2:17) because of the inequalities of life seen
everywhere. This doubt of divine justice had caused them to neglect
vital religion and true piety had given place to mere formality. They
had not relapsed into idolatry but a spirit of worldliness had crept
in and they were guilty of many vices such as we see today in
professedly Christian communities.

The Prophecy. The purpose of this prophecy was to rebuke the people
for departing from the worship of the law of God, to call the people
back to Jehovah and to revive their national spirit. There are in it:
(1) Unsparing denunciations of social evils and of the people of
Israel. (2) Severe rebukes for the indifference and hypocrisy of the
priests. (3) Prophecies of the coming of the Messiah and the
characteristics and manner of his coming. (4) Prophecies concerning
the forerunner of the Messiah.

Analysis.

Introduction: Jehovah's love of Israel. 1:1-5. This is seen in the
contrast between Israeli and Egypt.

  I. Israel's Lack of Love of God, 1:6-2:16. It is proved.

   1. By their polluted offerings, 1:6 end.

   2. By the sins of the priests. 2:1-9.

   3. By their heathen marriages and by their divorces, 2:10-16.

 II. God Will Come and Judge His People, 2:17-4:6 end.

   1. His messenger will separate the righteous from the wicked, 2:17-
4:6.

   2. This is seen in the effect of their withholding or paying
tithes. 3:7-12.

   3. Faithful services will be rewarded. 3:13-4:6 end.

For Study and Discussion. (1) Make a list of the particular sins
rebuked. (2) Make a list of all the different things said about the
Messiah and his mission and also that of the forerunner. (3) Analyze
and study each of the seven controversies. 1:2, 7; 2:13, 14, 17; 3:7,
8, 14. (4) Compare the future destinies of the righteous and wicked as
revealed in this book, making a list of all that is said of each. (5)
Make a list of all the promises of the book.

 * * * * *

Chapter XXIV.

Matthew.

Each Gospel was written with a view to creating a definite result and
written to a particular people and they differ accordingly. In this
book, therefore, each Gospel is discussed with the hope of so
outlining its purpose and consequent peculiarities as to stimulate a
thorough study of the questions raised.

Date. Written about 60 A. D., but after Mark.

The Author. The Author always speaks of himself as "the publican,"
which may indicate his sense of humility, felt in having been exalted
from so low an estate to that of an apostle. He was the son of Alpheus
(Mar. 2:14; Lu. 5:27), and was called Levi until Jesus called him and
gave him the name Matthew, which means "Gift of God." We know nothing
of his work except his call and farewell feast (9:9-10), and that he
was with the apostles on the day of Pentecost. Thus silent and
observant and qualified by former occupation, he could well undertake
the writing of this book. It might be possible that he was chosen by
the others for this great task. We know nothing of his death.
Characteristics and Purpose.

1. It is not a Chronological but a Systematic and Topical Gospel.
There is order in the arrangement of materials so that a definite
result may be produced. Materials are treated in groups, as the
miracles in chapters eight and nine and the parables of chapter
thirteen. There is order and purpose also in the arrangement of these
groups of miracles and parables. The first miracle is the cure of
leprosy, and is a type of sin; while the last one is the withering of
the fig tree, which is a symbol of judgment. The first parable is that
of the seed of the kingdom, which is a symbol of the beginning or
planting of the kingdom; the last is that of the talents and
prophesies the final adjudication at the last day. This same orderly
arrangement is also observed in the two great sections of the book.
The first great section 4:17-16:20, especially sets forth the person
and nature of Jesus, while the second section, 16:20 end, narrates his
great work for others as seen in his death and resurrection.

2. It Is a Didactic or Teaching Gospel. While giving the account of a
number of miracles, the book is marked by several discourses of
considerable length, as The sermon on the Mount, chapters 3-7, the
denunciation of the Pharisees, chapter 23, the prophecy of the
destruction of Jerusalem and the end of the world, chapters 24-25, the
address to the apostles, chapter 10; and the doctrines of the
kingdom, 17:24-20:16. These portions and the parables noted above will
indicate how large a portion of the book is taken up in discourses.
The student can make lists of other and shorter sections of teaching.

3. It Is a Gospel of Gloom and Despondency. There are no songs of joy
like those of Zacharias, Elizabeth, Mary, Simeon, Anna and the Angels,
recorded in Luke. Nor do we see him popular and wise at the age of
twelve. Instead, we have his mother almost repudiated and left in
disgrace by Joseph and only saved by divine intervention. Jerusalem is
in trouble, the male children are killed and mothers are weeping for
them. The child Jesus is saved only by the flight into Egypt, his
whole life after the return from Egypt is covered in oblivion and he
is a despised Nazarite. The cross is one of desolation with no
penitent thief nor sympathy from any one, with his enemies reviling,
smiting their breasts and passing by. Nor is there much optimism or
expectation of success. The disciples are to be rejected and
persecuted even as their Lord; many are to be called and but few are
chosen; only a few are to find the narrow way; many are to claim
entrance into the Kingdom because they have prophesied in His name and
be denied. Even Matthew himself is a despised and rejected publican.

4. It Is a Kingly Gospel. The genealogy shows the royal descent of
Jesus. The Magi came seeking him that was "born king of the Jews," and
John the Baptist preaches that the "Kingdom of heaven is at hand."
Here we have the parables of the kingdom, beginning with "the Kingdom
of heaven," etc. In Luke a certain man made a great supper and had two
sons, while in Matthew it was a certain king. In the other evangelists
we always have the term gospel while, with one exception, Matthew
always puts it "the gospel of the Kingdom". The "keys of the kingdom"
are given to Peter. All the nations shall gather before him as he sits
on the throne and "the king say" unto them, and the "king shall
answer," etc. (Matt. 25:34, 40).

5. It Is an Official and an Organic Gospel. This is suggested in that
Matthew represents Satan as head of a kingdom; also, in that those
connected with Jesus' birth are official persons and most of the acts
are official in their nature. Pilate, the judge, washed his hands of
the blood of Jesus, the Roman guard pronounces him the Christ, and the
guards say he could not be kept in the tomb, Jesus denounces the
officials and calls his own disciples by official names. It is Peter,
not Simon, and Matthew, the apostolic name, and not Levi as in Luke.
Jesus indicates his official capacity in his rejection of the Jews,
telling them that the kingdom is taken away from them (21:43). He
makes ready for the establishing of his own kingdom and tells them who
is to wield the keys of the kingdom which is not to be bound by time
or national relations as was the former kingdom. In Matthew alone do
we find full instructions as to the membership, discipline and
ordinances of the church. Here alone are we given in the gospels the
command to baptize to administer the communion and the beautiful
formula for baptism in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost, and
here we have his official command to "Go" backed by all the authority
of heaven and earth.

In the further pursuit of this official work, we find Jesus giving
especial recognition to the Gentile believers-giving them full place
in his kingdom. The genealogy through grace and faith includes
Gentiles; the second chapter shows how the Gentile Magi do him honor;
the Roman centurion displays a faith superior to any Israelite; the
great faith of the Canaanite woman led him to heal her daughter, and
the Gentile wife of Pilate because of her dreams sends a warning that
he have "nothing to do" with him. All this tended to show the official
and organic way in which Jesus worked.

6.  It Is a Gospel of Jewish Antagonism and Rejection. On the one hand
the Jews antagonize and reject Jesus. On the other the Jews,
especially the scribes and Pharisees, are exposed and rejected by
Jesus. The Pharisees plotted against Jesus and resented his violation
of their regulations and customs concerning the Sabbath and their
ceremonies about eating and washing and his associations with
publicans and sinners. Their opposition culminated in their putting
him to death. On the other hand Jesus also rejects the Jews. John
calls them a generation of vipers and Jesus designated them with such
terms as hypocrites, blind guides and whited sepulchers, the climax
being reached in chapter 23. It is here that in their wickedness they
are unable to discern between the work of God and of Beelzebub. They
are told of the application of Isaiah's prophecy, that they have ears
and hear not and that on account of their unworthiness, the kingdom is
taken from them. The blasting of the fig tree with which the miracles
of Matthew ends shows what is to be the fate of the Jewish nation.

7. It Is a Jewish Gospel. This is seen in his use of Jewish symbols,
terms and numbers without explanation. He never explained the meaning
of a Jewish word, such as Corban, nor of a custom, such as to say that
the Jews eat not except they wash. The other evangelists do. He calls
Jerusalem by the Jewish terms, "City of the great king," and "Holy
City," and Christ the "Son of David" and the "Son of Abraham." He
speaks of the Jewish temple as the temple of God, the dwelling place
of God and the holy place. The genealogy is traced to Abraham by three
great Jewish events of history. All this would be calculated to win
the Jews, but, much more, the sixty-five quotations from the Old
Testament and the oft repeated attempt to show that deeds and sayings
recorded were that the "Scripture (or saying) might be fulfilled."
And, while not seeing as much in the numbers as Plummer and others,
one can hardly believe that all numbers, so characteristic of Jews,
are accidental here. The genealogy has three fourteens being multiples
of seven. There are fourteen parables, seven in one place and seven in
another. There are seven woes in chapter 23. There are twenty miracles
separated into two tens. The number seven usually, if not always,
divides into four and three, the human and the divine. Of the seven
parables in chapter 13, four touch the human or natural while three
refer to the divine or spiritual side of his kingdom. There are seven
petitions in the Lord's prayer, the first three relating to God and
the last four to man. A like division is perhaps true in the
beatitudes.

Subject. The Kingdom of God or of Heaven.

Analysis.

  I. The Beginning of the Kingdom, 1:1-4:16.

   1. Jesus, the King, is the Old Testament Messiah, chs. 1-2.


   2. Jesus, the King, is prepared for his work, 3:1-4:16.

 II. The Proclamation of the Kingdom, 4:17-16:20.

   1. The beginning of the proclamation, 4:17 end.

   2. By the Sermon on the Mount, chs. 5-7.

   3. By the miracles and connected teachings, chs. 8-9.

   4. By the sending of the Twelve and subsequent teachings and
miracles, chs. 10-12.

   5. By the seven parables and subsequent miracles, chs. 13-14.

   6. By the denunciation  of the  Pharisees with  attendant miracles
and teachings, 15:1-16:12.

   7. By the Great Confession, 16:12-20.

III. The Passion of the Kingdom, 6:21-27 end.

   1. Four predictions of the passion with intervening discourses and
miracles, 16:21-26:2.

    (A) At Caesarea Philippi, 16:21-17:21.

    (B) In Galilee near Capernaum, 17:22-20:16.

    (C) Near Jerusalem, 20:17-22 end.

    (D) At Jerusalem, 23:1-26:2.

   2. The events of the Passion, 26:3-27 end.

 IV. The Triumph of the Kingdom, Ch. 28.

   1. The resurrection of the King, 1-15.

   2. Provision for the propagation of the Kingdom, 16-20.

For Study and Discussion. (1) Some events of Christ's childhood, (a)
The story of the Magi. (b) The massacre of the infants, (c) The flight
to Egypt, (d) The return to Nazareth. (2) Two miracles, (a) Cure of
the blind man, 9:27-31. (b) Fish with money in its mouth, 17:24-27.
(3) Ten Parables, (a) The Tares, 13:24-30. (b) The draw net, 13:47-50.
(c) The unmerciful servant. 18:23-25. (d) The laborers in the
vineyard, 20:1-16. (e) The two sons, 21:28-32. (f) The marriage of the
king's son, 22:1-14. (g) The hidden treasure. 24:44. (h) The pearl,
24:45-46. (i) The ten virgins. 25:1-13. (j) The talents, 25:14-30. (4)
Ten passages in Christ's discourses: (a) Parts of the Sermon on the
Mount, chs. 5-7. (b) Revelation to babes, 11:25-27. (c) Invitations to
the weary, 11:28-30. (d) About idle words, 12:36-37. (e) Prophecy to
Peter, 16:17-19. (f) Humility and forgiveness, 18:14-35. (g) Rejection
of the Jews, 21:43. (h) The great denunciation, ch. 23. (i) The
judgment scene, 23:31-46. (j) The great commission and promise, 28:16-
20. (5) Some terms by which Jesus is designated in Matthew should be
studied. Let the student make a list of the different places where
each of the following terms are used and from a study of the passages
compared with any others form opinions as to the significance of the
term, (a) Son of Abraham, (b) Son of David, (c) Son of man, (d) Son of
God, (e) Christ, the Christ, (f) Jesus, (g) Lord, (h) Kingdom of
heaven or Kingdom of God. (6) Make a list of all the places where the
expression "That the saying (or scripture) might be fulfilled" and
tabulate all the things fulfilled. (7) Show how many times and where
the phrase "The Kingdom of Heaven" (or of God) occurs and from a study
of these passages tabulate in list the nature, characteristics and
purpose of the Kingdom. (8) Make a list of all the places mentioned
and become familiar with the history and geography of each and
memorize the leading events connected with each.

 * * * * *
Chapter XXV.

Mark.

Date. Probably written about A. D. 60, and before Matthew.

The Author. He was not an apostle and was variously designated as
follows; (1) John, whose surname was Mark, Acts 12:12, 25; 15:37; (2)
John only, Acts 13:5. 13; (3) Mark only, Acts 15:39; (4) always Mark
after this, Col. 4:10, Philemon 24, 2 Tim. 4:11, 1 Pet. 5:13. He was a
son of Mary, a woman of Jerusalem (Acts 12:12). Her home was the
gathering place of the disciples, whither Peter went after he was
delivered from prison. On this or some other visit Mark may have been
converted through the preaching of Peter, and this may have been the
cause of Peter calling him "his son" (1 Pet. 5:13), which doubtless
means son in the ministry. He returns with Paul and Barnabas from
Jerusalem to Antioch (Acts 12:25), and accompanies them, as minister
(Acts 13:5) on the first great missionary journey as far as Perga
(Acts 13:13). There he left them and returned home. On the second
missionary tour Paul declined to take him and separated from Barnabas,
Mark's cousin (Col. 4:10), who chose Mark for his companion (Acts
15:37-39). Ten years later he seems to be with Paul in his
imprisonment at Rome and was certainly counted a fellow worker by Paul
(Col. 4:10, Philemon 24). Paul found him useful and asked Timothy to
bring him to him in his last imprisonment (2 Tim. 4:11). He was with
Peter when he wrote his first epistle (1 Peter 5:13).

What he knew of the work of Jesus directly we do not know, probably
not much. The early Christian writers universally say that he was the
interpreter of Peter and that he based his gospel upon information
gained from him.

Characteristics and Purpose.

1. It Is a Gospel of Vividness and Details. He shows the effect of awe
and wonder produced upon those present by the works and teaching of
Jesus. He tells the details of the actions of Jesus and his disciples
and the multitudes. Jesus "looks around," "sat down," "went before".
He is grieved, hungry, angry, indignant, wonders, sleeps, rests and is
moved  with pity. The cock crows twice: "it is the hour", "a great
while before day," or "eventide," "there are two thousand swine", the
disciples and Jesus are on the sea, on Olivet, or in the court yard or
in the porch.  Everything is portrayed in detail.

2. It Is a Gospel of Activity and Energy. There is no story of his
infancy, but he starts with "The beginning of the gospel of Jesus
Christ". He portrays the active career of Jesus on earth. He,
however, lays emphasis upon the works rather than the words of Jesus.
Few discourses of any length and only four of the fifteen parables of
Matthew are given and those in the briefest form, while eighteen of
the miracles are given in rapid review. The rapid succession is
indicated by one Greek word, translated by the seven words
"immediately", "anon", "forthwith", "by and by", "as soon as",
"shortly", and "straightway", which occur forty-one times in this
gospel. The last meaning, straightway, is truest to the Greek idea and
may be called Mark's characteristic word. It indicates how with the
speed of a racer he rushed along and thereby furnishes us a breathless
narrative which Farrar says makes us "feel like the apostles who,
among the press of the people coming and going, were twice made to say
they 'had no leisure so much as to eat'." It moves as the scenes of a
moving picture show.

3. It Is a Gospel of Power Over Devils. Here as in no other gospel the
devils are made subject to Jesus. They recognize him as the "Son of
God" and acknowledge their subordination to him by pleading with him
as to what shall be done with them (5:7, 12).

4. It Is a Gospel of Wonder. Everywhere Jesus is a man of wonder that
strikes awe and terror and causes to wonder those who see and hear
him. Some of these may be studied, especially in the Greek, in 1:27;
2:13; 4:41; 5:28 6:50; 51; 7:37. As Archbishop Thompson puts it, "The
wonder-working Son of God sweeps over his Kingdom swiftly and meteor-
like" and thus strikes awe into the hearts of the on-lookers. He is "a
man heroic and mysterious, who inspires not only a passionate devotion
but also amazement and adoration".

5. It Is a Gospel for the Romans. The Romans were men of great power,
mighty workers who left behind them great accomplishments for the
blessing of humanity. So that Mark would especially appeal to them by
recording of Jesus his mighty deeds. He lets them see one who has
power to still the storm, to control disease and death, and even power
to control the unseen world of spirits. The Roman, who found deity in
a Caesar as head of a mighty Kingdom, would bow to one who had shown
himself King in every realm and whose kingdom was both omnipotent and
everlasting, both visible and unseen, both temporal and spiritual.

Then, too, the Roman cared nothing for Jewish Scripture or prophecy
and so he omits all reference to the Jewish law, the word law not
being found in the entire book. He only once or twice refers in any
way to the Jewish scriptures. He omits the genealogy of Jesus which
could have no value to a Roman. Then, too, he explains all doubtful
Jewish words, such as "Boanerges" (3:17), "Tabitha cumi" (5:41),
"corban" (7:11), "alba" (15:36). He reduced Jewish money to Roman
currency (12:42). He explains Jewish customs as not being understood
by them. (See 7:3; 13:3; 14:12; 15:42).

And once more by the use of terms familiar to him such as centurion,
contend, etc. "Mark showed the Roman a man who was a man indeed". He
showed them manhood crowned with glory and power; Jesus of Nazareth,
the Son of God; a man but a Man Divine and sinless, among sinful and
suffering men. Him, the God-man, no humiliation could degrade, no
death defeat. Not even on the cross could he seem less than the King,
the  Hero, the only Son. And as he gazed on such a picture how could
any Roman refrain from exclaiming with the awe-struck Centurion,
"Truly this was the Son of God".

Subject. Jesus the Almighty King.

Analysis.

  I. The Almighty King is Exhibited as the Son of God, 1:1-13.

   1. In the baptism and teaching of John, 1-8.

   2. In the baptism of Jesus, 9-11.

   3. In the temptation, 12-13.

 II. The Almighty King at Work in Galilee, 1:14-9 end.

   1. Begins his work, 1:14 end.

   2. Reveals his Kingdom, Chs. 2-5.

   3. Meets opposition, 6:1-8:26.

   4. Prepares his disciples for the end, 8:27-9 end.

III. The Almighty King Prepares for Death 10:1-14:31.

   1. He goes to Jerusalem, 10:1-11:11.

   2. In Jerusalem and vicinity, 11:12-14:31.

 IV. The Almighty King Suffers at the Hands of His Enemies. 14:32-
15:46.

   1. Agony of Gethsemane, 14:32-42.

   2. Arrest, 14:43-52.

   3. Jewish trial and denial of Peter, 14:53 end.

   4. Trial before Pilate. 15:1-15.

   5. The Crucifixion. 15:16-41.

   6. The Burial, 15:42 end.

  V. The Almighty King Triumphs Over His Enemies, Ch.16.

   1. The resurrection, 1-8.

   2. The appearances, 9-18.
   3. The ascension, 19-20.

For Study and Discussion. (1) Sections peculiar to Mark, (a) Growth of
the seed, 4:26-29. (b) Jesus' compassion on the multitudes, 7:32-37.
(c) The blind men healed gradually, 8;22-26. (d) Details about the
ass, etc., 11:1-14. (e) Concerning watching, 13:33-37. (f) Details
concerning Christ's appearances. 16:6-11. (2) The spiritual condition
of those affected by Jesus' miracles. Keeping in mind their condition
before and after the miracle: (a) Were they saved as well as well as
healed? (b) Did they or their friends exercise faith, or did Jesus act
voluntarily without any expression of faith? (3) What did Jesus do in
performing the miracle? (a) Did he use the touch? (b) Was he touched?
(c) Did he simply give command, etc? (4) From the following
scriptures 2:35; 1:45; 3:7-12; 6:6; 6:21-32; 6:46; 7:34-25; 8:27; 9:2;
11:11; 11:19; 14:1-12, make a list of the different places to which
Jesus retired and in connection with each indicate (in writing): (a)
Was it before or after a victory or conflict? (b) Was it in
preparation for or rest after the performance of a great work? (c)
Indicate in each case whether he went alone or was accompanied and, if
accompanied, by whom? (e) In each case also tell what Jesus did during
the period of retirement. Did he pray, teach, perform miracles or
what? (5) List the phrases "Son of man" and "Kingdom of God" and point
out the appropriateness and meaning of each. (6) List all references
to demons and to demon possessed people and study their nature, the
nature of their work, their power, wisdom, etc. (7) The facts
concerning the death of Jesus. 14:1-15:14. List them.

 * * * * *

Chapter XXVI.

Luke.

Date. It was probably written about A. D. 60 or 63, certainly before
the fall of Jerusalem, A. D. 70, and likely while Luke was with Paul
in Rome or during the two years at Caesarea.

Author. The author is Luke, who also wrote Acts, and was a companion
of Paul on his second missionary journey (Acts 16:11-40). He rejoins
Paul at Philippi (Acts 20:1-7) on the return from the third missionary
journey, remaining with him at Caesarea and on the way to Rome (Acts
Chs. 20-28), He is called the "Beloved physician" (Col. 4:14) and
Paul's "fellow laborer" (Philemon 24).

From the context of Col. 4:4 we learn that he was "not of the
circumcision" and, therefore, a Gentile. From his preface (Lu. 1:1) we
learn that he was not an eye witness of what he wrote. He is thought
to be "the brother" whose praise is in the gospel throughout all the
churches (2 Cor. 8:18), and, by tradition, is always declared to be a
Gentile and proselyte. As is indicated by the gospel itself, he was
the most cultured of all the gospel writers.

Characteristics and Purpose.

1. It Is a Gospel of Song and Praise. There are a number of songs such
as the song of Mary (1:46-55), the song of Zacharias (1:68-79), the
song of the angels (2:14) and the song of Simeon (2:29-33). There are
many expressions of praise such as (2:2; 5:29; 7:16; 13:13; 17:15;
18:43; 23:47).

2. It Is a Gospel of Prayer. Jesus prays at his baptism, (3:21), after
cleansing the leper (5:16), before calling the twelve (6:12), at his
transfiguration (9:28), before teaching the disciples to pray (11:1),
for his murderers as he was on the cross (23:34), with his last breath
(23:46). Luke gives us Christ's command to pray (21:36) and two
parables, the midnight friend (11:5-13) and the unjust judge (18:1-8)
to show the certain and blessed results of continued prayer.

3. It Is a Gospel of Womanhood. No other gospel gives her anything
like so large a place as Luke. Indeed, all of the first three chapters
or a greater part of their contents may have been given him, as he
"traced out accurately from the first" (1:3), by Mary and Elizabeth.
He gives us the praise and prophecy of Elizabeth (1:42-42), the song
of Mary (1:46-55). Anna and her worship (2:36-38), sympathy for the
widow of Nain (7:12-15), Mary Magdella the sinner (7:36-50), the woman
associates of Jesus (8:1-3), tender words to the woman with an issue
of blood (8:48), Mary and Martha and their disposition (10:38-42).
sympathy and help for the "daughter" of Abraham (13:16), the
consolation of the daughters of Jerusalem (23:28). These references
have been collected by others and are the most conspicuous ones and
serve to show how large a place woman is given in this gospel.

4. It Is a Gospel of the Poor and Outcast. More than any other of the
evangelists Luke reports those teachings and incidents in the life of
our Savior which show how his work is to bless the poor and neglected
and vicious. Among the more striking passages of this character are
the oft repeated references to the publicans (3:12; 5:27, 29, 30,
etc.), Mary Magdella, who was a sinner (7:36-50), the woman with an
issue of blood (8:43-48), the harlots (15:30), the prodigal son
(13:11-32), Lazarus, the beggar (16:13-31), the poor, maimed, halt and
blind invited to the supper (14:7-24). the Story of Zacchaeus (19:1-
9), the Savior's business declared to be to seek and save the lost
(8:10), the dying robber saved (23:39-43).

5. It Is a Gentile Gospel. The book is everywhere filled with a world
wide purpose not so fully expressed in the other evangelists. Here we
have the angels, announcement of great joy which shall be to all
people (2:10) and the song about Jesus as "a light for revelation to
the Gentiles" (2:32). The genealogy traces Christ's lineage back to
Adam (2:38) and thus connects him not with Abraham as a representative
of humanity. The fuller account of the sending out of the seventy
(10:1-24). the very number of whom signified the supposed number of
the heathen nations, who were to go, not as the twelve to the lost
sheep of the house of Israel, but to all those cities whither Jesus
himself would come, is suggestive of this broader purpose of Luke. The
good Samaritan (10:25-37) is Christ's illustration of a true neighbor
and in some way also intends to show the nature of Christ's work which
was to be without nationality. Of the ten lepers healed (17:11-19)
only one, a Samaritan, returned to render him praise, thus showing how
others than the Jews would not only be blessed by him but would do
worthy service for him. The Perean ministry, across the Jordan (9:51-
18:4, probably 9:51-19:28). is a ministry to the Gentiles and shows
how large a place Luke would give the Gentiles in the work and
blessings of Jesus.

6. It Is a Gospel for the Greeks. If Matthew wrote for Jews and Mark
for Romans, it is but natural that some one should write in such a way
as to appeal, specially, to the Greeks as the other representative
race. And, such the Christian writers of the first centuries thought
to be Luke's purpose. The Greek was the representative of reason and
humanity and felt that his mission was to perfect humanity. "The full
grown Greek would be a perfect world man", able to meet all men on the
common plane of the race. All the Greek gods were, therefore, images
of some form of perfect humanity. The Hindu might worship an emblem of
physical force, the Roman deify the Emperor and the Egyptian any and
all forms of life, but the Greek adored man with his thought and
beauty and speech, and, in this, had most nearly approached the true
conception of God. The Jew would value men as the descendants of
Abraham; the Roman according as they wielded empires, but the Greek on
the basis of man as such.

The gospel for the Greek must, therefore, present the perfect man, and
so Luke wrote about the Divine Man as the Savior of all men. Christ
touched man at every point and is interested in him as man whether low
and vile or high and noble. By his life he shows the folly of sin and
the beauty of holiness. He brings God near enough to meet the longings
of the Greek soul and thereby furnish him a pattern and brother suited
for all ages and all people. The deeds of Jesus are kept to the
background while much is made of the songs of others and the
discourses of Jesus as they were calculated to appeal to the cultured
Greek. If the Greek thinks he has a mission to humanity, Luke opens a
mission ground enough for the present and offers him an immortality
which will satisfy in the future.

7. It Is an Artistic Gospel. Renan calls Luke the most beautiful book
in the world, while Dr, Robertson says "the charm of style and the
skill in the use of facts place it above all praise". The delicacy and
accuracy, picturesqueness and precision with which he sets forth the
different incidents is manifestly the work of a trained historian. His
is the most beautiful Greek and shows the highest touches of culture
of all of the gospels.

Subject.   Jesus the World's Savior.

Analysis.

Introduction. The dedication of the gospel, 1:1-4.

  I. The Savior's Manifestation, 1:5-4:13.

   1. The announcement of the Forerunner, 1:5-25.

   2. The announcement of the Savior. 1:26-38.

   3. Thanksgiving of Mary and Elizabeth, 1:29-56.

   4. The birth and childhood of the Forerunner, 1:37 end.

   5. The birth of the Savior, 2:1-20.

   6. The childhood of the Savior. 3:1-4:13.

 II. The Savior's Work and Teaching in Galilee, 4:14-9:50.
   1. He preaches in the synagogue at Nazareth. 4:14-30.

   2. He works in and around Capernaum, 4:31-6:11.

   3. Work while touring Galilee, 6:12-9:50.

III. The Savior's Work and Teaching After Leaving Galilee Up to the
Entrance Into Jerusalem, 9:31-19:27.

   1. He journeys to Jerusalem, 9:51 end.

   2. The mission of the Seventy and subsequent matters, 10:1-11:13.

   3. He exposes the experience and practice of the day, 11:14-12 end.

   4. Teachings, miracles warnings and parables, 13:1-18:30.   5.
Incidents connected with his final approach to Jerusalem, 18:31-
19:27.

 IV. The Savior's Work and Teaching in Jerusalem, 19:28-22:38.
   1. The entrance to Jerusalem, 19:28 end.

   2. Questions and answers. Ch. 20.

   3. The widow's mites, 21:1-4.
   4. Preparation for the end, 21:5-22:38.

  V. The Savior Suffers for the World, 22:39-23 end.

   1. The agony in the garden, 22:39-46.

   2. The betrayal and arrest, 22:47-53.

   3. The trial. 22:54-23:26.

   4. The cross, 23:27-49.

   5. The burial, 23:30 end.

 VI. The Savior is Glorified, Ch. 24.

   1. The resurrection, 1-12.

   2. The appearance and teachings, 13-49.

   3. The ascension, 50 end.

For Study and Discussion, 1. Six miracles peculiar to Luke. (1) The
draught of fishes, 5:4-11. (2) The raising of the widow's son, 7:11-
18. (3) The woman with the spirit of infirmity, 13:11-17. (4) The man
with the dropsy, 14:1-6. (5) The ten lepers, 17:11-19. (6) The healing
of Malchus' ear. 22:50-51.

2. Eleven parables, peculiar to Luke. (I) The two debtors, 7:41-43.
(2) The good Samaritan, 10:25-37. (3) The importunate friend, 11:5-8.
(4) The rich fool, 12:16-19. (5) The barren fig-tree, 13:6-9. (6) The
lost piece of silver, 15:8-10. (7) The prodigal son, 15:11-32. (8) The
unjust steward, 16:1-13. (9) The rich man and Lazarus, 18:19-31. (10)
The unjust judge, 18:1-8. (11) The Pharisee and publican, 18:9-14.

3. Some other passages mainly peculiar to Luke. (1) Chs. 1-2 and 9:51-
18:14 are mainly peculiar to Luke. (2) John the Baptist's answer to
the people. 3:10-14. (3) The conversation with Moses and Elias, 9:30-
31. (4) The weeping over Jerusalem, 19:41-44. (5) The bloody sweat,
22:44. (6) The sending of Jesus to Herod, 23:7-12. (7) The address to
the daughters of Jerusalem, 23:27-31. (8) "Father forgive them",
23:34. (9) The penitent robber, 23:40-43. (10) The disciples at
Emmaus, 24:13-31; (11) Particulars about the ascension. 24:50-53.

4. The following words and phrases should be studied, making  a list
of the references where each occurs and a study of each passage in
which they occur with a view of getting Luke's conception of the term.
(1) The "son of man" (23 times). (2) The "son of God" (7 times). (3)
The "kingdom of God" (32 times). (4) References to law, lawyer, lawful
(18 times). (5) Publican (11 times). (6) Sinner and sinners (16
times). Mr. Stroud estimates that 59 percent of Luke is peculiar to
himself and Mr. Weiss figures that 541 have no incidences in the other
gospels.

 * * * * *

Chapter XXVII.

John.

The Author. From the evidence found in the gospel, we may learn
several things about the author. (1) _That he was a Jew_. This is seen
in his evident knowledge of Jewish opinions concerning such subjects
as the Messiah, and his knowledge of their customs, such as the
purification. (2) _He was an eye-witness to most of what he relates_.
This is seen in his exact knowledge of time, as to the hour or time of
day a thing occurred; in his knowledge of the number of persons or
things present, as the division of his garments into four parts; in
the vividness of the narrative which he could hardly have had without
first having seen it all. (3) _He was an apostle_. This is seen in his
knowledge of the thoughts of the disciples (2:11, 17); in his
knowledge of the private words of the disciples to Jesus and among
themselves (4:31, 33, etc.); in his knowledge of the private resorts
of the disciples (11:54. etc.); and in his knowledge of the Lord's
motives, etc. (2:24-25, etc.); and in his knowledge of Christ's
feelings (11:33). (4) _He was the son of Zebedee_ (Mar. 1:19-20), and
was probably one of John's two disciples whom he turned to Jesus (1-
40). (5) _He is one of the three most prominent of the apostles_,
being several times especially honored (Matt. 17:1-3. etc.), and is
prominent in the work of the church after Christ's ascension, as well
as in all their work before his death: (6) _He also wrote three
epistles and Revelation_. He outlived all the other apostles and is
supposed to have died on the Isle of Patmos as an exile about 100 A.D.

The Times and Circumstances of the Writings. These are so different
from those which influenced the other evangelists that one can hardly
escape the feeling that John's gospel is colored accordingly. The
gospel had been preached in all the Roman empire and Christianity was
no longer considered a Jewish sect, attached to the Synagogue.
Jerusalem had been overthrown and the temple destroyed. Christians had
been sorely persecuted, but had achieved great triumphs in  many
lands. All the rest of the New Testament except Revelation had  been
written. Some had arisen, who disputed the deity of Jesus and while
the gospel is not a mere polemic against that  false  teaching, it
does, by establishing the true teaching thoroughly undermine the
false. He perhaps wrote  to Christians of all  nationalities, whose
history had by this time been enriched by the blood of martyrs for the
faith. Instead of the Messiah in whom Jews would find a Savior or the
mighty worker in whom the Roman would find him, or the Ideal Man in
whom the Greeks would find him. John wrote concerning the eternal,
Incarnate Word in whose Spiritual Kingdom each, having lost his
narrowness and racial prejudice, could be forever united.

The Style and the Plan. This gospel differs from the others in
language and plan. It is both profound and simple and has several
elements of style as follows: (1) Simplicity. The sentences are short
and connected by coordinate conjunctions. There are but few direct
quotations, and but few dependent sentences, and most of them show the
sequence of things, either as a cause or a purpose. (2) Sameness. This
arises from the method of treating each step in the narrative as if
isolated and separate from all the rest rather than merging it into
the complete whole. (3) Repetition, whether in the narrative proper or
in the quoted words of the Lord, is very frequent. The following
examples will illustrate this: "In the beginning was the word and the
word was with God and the word was God." "The light shineth in
darkness and the darkness comprehendeth it not." "I am the Good
Shepherd; the Good Shepherd giveth his life." "Jesus then, when he saw
her weeping and the Jews that were weeping with her." "If I bear
witness of myself my witness is not true. There is another that
beareth witness of me; and I know that the witness which he witnesseth
of me is true." Let the student gather a list of all such repetitions.
(4) _Parallelism_, or statements expressing the same or similar
truths, such as the following are common. "Peace I leave with you, my
peace I give unto you"; "Let not your heart be troubled, neither let
it be afraid"; "I give unto them eternal life and they shall never
perish." This parallelism, which at the same time becomes repetition,
is seen in the way a subject or conclusion is stated and, after
elaboration, restated in a new and enlarged view, thus teaching the
truth in a gradually unfolding beauty and force. An illustration is
found in the statement, "I will raise him up in the last day," 6, 39,
70, 44. (5) _Contrasts_. The plan is more simple and more easily seen
all along than is that of any other of the Evangelists. On the one
hand, he shows how love and faith are developed in the believer until,
in the end, Thomas, who was the most doubtful of all, could exclaim,
"My Lord and my God." On the other hand, he shows the unbeliever
advanced from mere indifference to a positive hatred that culminated
in the crucifixion. This purpose is carried out by a process of
contrasting and separating things that are opposites, such as (a)
Light and darkness, (b) _Truth_ and falsehood, (c) Good and evil, (d)
Life and death, (e) God and Satan. In all of these he is convincing
his reader that Jesus is the Christ, the son of God.

Characteristics and Purpose.

1. It Is a Gospel of the Feasts. Indeed, if subtract from it those
miracles and teachings and other works performed in connection with
the feasts, we should have only a few fragments left. The value of the
book would be destroyed and the most beautiful and the profoundest
teachings of the gospel lost.

The student will do well from the following list of feasts to endeavor
to group around each all that John records as occurring in connection
with it. (1) The Feast of the Passover (2:13, 23), First Passover, A.
D. 27. (2) A Feast of the Jews (5:1), probably Purim. (3) Passover a
Feast of the Jews (6:4), Second Passover, A. D. 28. (4) Feast of the
Tabernacles (7:2). (5) Feast of the Dedication (10:22). (6) Passover
(11:55-56; 12:1, 12, 20; 13:29; 18:28). Third Passover, A. D. 29.

2. It Is a Gospel of Testimony.   John writes to prove that Jesus is
the Christ. He assumes the attitude of a lawyer before a jury and
introduces testimony until he fells certain of his case and then
closes the testimony with the assurance that much more could be
offered if it seemed necessary. There are seven lines of testimony.
(1) The testimony of John the Baptist. (2) The testimony of certain
other individuals. (3) The testimony of Jesus' works. (4) The
testimony of Jesus  himself (see the I am's). (5) The testimony of the
scripture. (6) The testimony of the Father. (7) The testimony of the
Holy Spirit.

3. It Is of Gospel of Belief. The purpose being to produce belief
there are given: numerous examples of belief, showing the growth of
faith; the secret of faith, such as hearing or receiving the word; the
results of faith, such as eternal life, freedom, peace, power, etc.

4. It Is a Spiritual Gospel. It represents the deeper mediations of
John, which are shaped so as to establish a great doctrine which,
instead of history, became his great impulse. To John "history is
doctrine" and he reviews it in the light of its spiritual
interpretation. It furnished a great bulwark against the Gnostic
teachers, who had come to deny the diety of Jesus. He also emphasized
and elaborated the humanity of Jesus. His whole purpose is "not so
much the historic record of the facts as the development of their
inmost meaning."

5. It Is a Gospel of Symbolism. John was a mystic and delighted in
mystic symbols. The whole book speaks in the language of symbols. The
mystic numbers three and seven prevail throughout the book not only in
the things and sayings recorded but in the arrangement of topics. Each
of the Eight Miracles is used for a "sign" or symbol, as the feeding
of the five thousand in which Jesus appears as the bread or support of
life. The great allegories of the Good-Shepherd, the sheep-fold and
the vine; the names used to designate Jesus as the Word, Light, the
Way, the Truth, the Life, etc., all show how the whole gospel is
penetrated with a spirit of symbolic representation.

6. It Is the Gospel of the Incarnation. "Matthew explains his
messianic function; Mark his active works and Luke his character as
Savior." John magnifies his person and everywhere makes us see "the
word made flesh." God is at no great distance form us. He has become
flesh. The word has come as the Incarnate Man. Jesus, this Incarnate
Man, is God and as such fills the whole book, but he, nevertheless,
hungers and thirsts and knows human experience. God has come down to
man to enable him to rise up to God.

Subject: Jesus, the Christ, God's Son.

Analysis.

Introduction or prologue, 1:1-18.

(1) The divine nature of the word.  1-5.

(2) The manifestation of the word as the world's Savior, 6-18.

  I. The Testimony of His Great Public Ministry, 1:19-12 end.

   1. He is revealed, 1:19-2:12.

   2. He is recognized, 2:13-3 end.

   3. He is antagonized, Chs. 5-11.

   4. He is honored, Ch. 12.

 II. The Testimony of His Private Ministry with His Disciples, Chs.
13-17.

   1. He teaches and comforts his disciples, Chs. 13-16.

   2. He prays for his disciples, Ch. 17.

III. The Testimony of His Passion. Chs. 18-19.

   1. His betrayal, 18:1-11.

   2. The Jewish or ecclesiastical trial, 18:12-27.

   3. The Roman or civil trial, 18:28-19:16.

   4. His death and burial, 19:17 end.

IV. The Testimony of His Resurrection and Manifestation, Chs. 20-21.

   1. His resurrection and manifestation to his disciples, Ch. 20.

   2. Further manifestations and instructions to his disciples, Ch.
21.

For Study and Discussion. (1) The events and discourses connected with
each feast mentioned above. (2) The seven lines of testimony mentioned
above. List examples of each. (3) The following miracles as "signs,"
pointing out what they symbolize about Jesus: (a) The Cana miracle,
2:1-11; (b) The nobleman's son, 4:48-54; (c) The impotent man, 5:1-16;
(d) Feeding five thousand, 6:3-14; (e) Walking on the sea, 6:16-20;
(f) Healing the blind man, 9:1-16; read all the chapter; (g) Raising
Lazarus, Ch. 11; (h) The draft of fishes, 21:1-11. (4) The following
discourses: (a) The conversation with Nicodemus, Ch. 3; (b) The
conversation with the woman at the well, Ch. 4; (c) The discourse on
the shepherd and the sheep, Ch. 10; (d) The discussions of chapter 13;
(e) The discourse on the vine, Ch. 15; (f) The Lord's prayer, Ch. 17.
(5) From the following passages find the cause or explanation of
unbelief, 1:45; 3:11, 19, 20; 5:16, 40, 42, 44; 6:42, 52; 7:41, 42,
48; 8:13, 14, 45; 12:26, 44; 20:9. (6) From the following study the
results of unbelief, 3:18, 20, 36; 4:13, 14; 6:35, 53, 58; 8:19, 34,
55; 14:1, 28; 15:5; 16:6, 9. (7) Make a list of all the night scenes
of the book and study them. (8) Study each instance of someone
worshiping Jesus. (9) Name each chapter of the book so as to indicate
some important event in it-as the vine chapter or Good Shepherd
chapter. (10) Find where and how many times each of the following
words and phrases occurs and study them as time will admit. (1)
Eternal life, 17 times, only 18 in all the other gospels, (2) believe,
(3) believe on, (4) sent, (5) life, (6) sign or signs (Revised
version), (7) work or works, (8) John the Baptist, (9) verily, always
double and used by Jesus, (10) receive, received, etc., (11) witness,
or testify, testimony, etc.. (12) truth, (13) manifest, manifested,
(14) "I am" (spoken by Jesus).

 * * * * *

Chapter XXVIII.

Acts.

The Author. The author is Luke who wrote the gospel of Luke. Facts
concerning him may be found in chapter twenty-seven. He wrote this
book about A. D. 63 or 64.

The Purpose. It was addressed to an individual as a sort of
continuation of the former thesis and aims to chronicle the growth and
development of the movement inaugurated by Jesus as it was carried on
by the apostles after the resurrection and ascension of Jesus. It is
taken up largely with the history of Christian work among the Gentiles
and only gives enough of the history of the Jerusalem church to
authenticate the work among the Gentiles. The chief purpose,
therefore, seems to be to give an account of the spread of
Christianity among the Gentiles. This view is further strengthened in
the fact that Luke himself was a gentile (Col. 4:10) and that he was a
companion of Paul (Col. 4:14) and the "we" section of Acts. The book
does not, therefore, claim to be a complete account of the labors of
the early apostles. But it does give in a simple, definite and
impressive manner an account of how the religion of Jesus was
propagated after his death and of how it was received by those to whom
it was first preached.

The Spirituality. In the Old Testament God the Father was the active
agent. In the gospels God the Son (Jesus) was the active agent. In
Acts (and ever after) God the Holy Spirit is the active agent. He is
mentioned about seventy times in Acts. The Savior had told the
apostles to wait at Jerusalem for the power of the Holy Ghost. Until
they were endued with His power they were very ordinary men. Afterward
they were pure in their purpose and ideals and were always triumphant
in their cause. The book is a record of mighty spiritual power seen in
action everywhere.

Analysis.

   Introduction, 1:1-3.

  I. The Church Witnessing in Jerusalem, 1:4-8:11.

   1. Preparation for witnessing, 1:4-2:4.

   2. First witnessing, 2:4-47 end.

   3. First persecution, 3:1-4:31.

   4. Blessed state of the church, 4:32-5:42.

   5. First deacons, 6:1-7.

   6. The first martyr, 6:8-8:1.

 II. The Church Witnessing in Palestine, 8:2-12:25.

   1. The witnesses are scattered abroad, 8:2-4.

   2. Philip witnesses in Samaria and Judea, 8:5-40.

   3. The Lord wins new witnesses, 9:1-11:18.

   4. Center of labor changed to Antioch, 11:19-30.

   5. The witnesses triumph over Herod's persecution, 12:1-25.

III. The Church Witnessing lo the Gentile World, 13:1-28:31.

   1. Witnessing in Asia, Chs. 13-14. Paul's First Missionary Journey.

   2. The first church council, 15:1-35.

   3. Witnessing in Europe, 15:36-18:22. Paul's Second Missionary
Journey.

   4. Further witnessing in Asia and Europe, 18:23-21:17. Paul's Third
Missionary Journey.

   5. Paul, the witness, rejected and attacked by the Jews at
Jerusalem, 21:18-23:35.

   6. Two years imprisonment at Caesarea, Chs. 24-26.

   7. Paul, the witness, carried to Rome, 27:1-28:15.

   8. Paul, the witness, at Rome, 28:16-31.

For Study and Discussion. (1) The first church conference for
business, 1:15-26. (2) The coming of the Holy Spirit, 2:1-4. (3)
Peter's sermon on the day of Pentecost, 2:5-47. (4) The first miracle,
ch. 3. (5) The first persecution, 4:1-31. (6) Death of Annanias and
Sapphira, 5:1-11. (7) The first deacons, 6:1-7. (8) The first martyr,
ch.7. (9) Philip's work in Samaria, 8:5-40. (10) Conversion of Saul,
9:1-31. (11) Conversion of Cornelius, 10:1-11:18. (12) List the
principal churches of the book, their location and what makes them
notable. (13) List the principal preachers of the book and note the
sermons or miracles, etc., that make them prominent. (14)The
sermons and addresses of the book, to whom each was delivered, its
purpose, etc.(15) The chief elements of power of these early
disciples. (16) The growth of Christianity and the hindrances it had
to overcome. (17) The great outstanding teachings of these early
Christians. (18) The tact and adaptation of the apostles (give
examples). (19) The different plans to kill Paul and the way by which
he escaped each. (20) The missionary journeys of Paul and his journey
to Rome as a prisoner.

* * * * *
Chapter XXIX.

Romans.

The Author. Paul, the author, was a Hebrew by descent, a native of
Tarsus in Cilicia, and educated by Gamaliel, the great Pharisaic
teacher. He was one of the most unmerciful persecutors of the early
Christians, but was converted by the sudden appearance to him of the
risen Lord. He began preaching at Damascus, but on account of
persecution went into Arabia. Returning from Arabia he visited
Jerusalem and Damascus, and then went to Cilicia, where he doubtless
did evangelistic work until Barnabas sought him at Tarsus and brought
him to Antioch, where he worked a year with Barnabas. After this they
went up to Jerusalem with contributions for the brethren. Upon return
to Antioch he was called by the Holy Ghost to mission work in which he
continued till his death, making at least three great missionary
journeys, during which and afterward he suffered "one long martyrdom"
till his death.

Paul's Epistles. Paul's epistles are commonly put into four groups as
follows: (1) _The Eschatological group_, or those dealing with the
second coming of Christ. These are I. and II. Thessalonians and were
written from Corinth about 62 to 63 A. D. (2) _The Anti-Judaic group_,
or those growing out of controversy with Judaistic teachers. They are
I. Corinthians. II. Corinthians, Galatians and Romans, written during
the third Missionary journey, probably at Ephesus, Philippi, and
Corinth. (3) _The Christological group_, which center their teachings
around the character and work of Jesus, and were written during the
imprisonment at Rome. They are Philippians, Colossians, Philemon,
Ephesians, and Hebrews (many think Paul did not write Hebrews). (4)
_The Pastoral Group_, or those written to young preachers touching
matters of church organization and government and practical
instructions concerning evangelists, pastors, and other Christian
workers. They are 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy and Titus.

All of Paul's epistles, unless it be Hebrews, fall very naturally into
five sections, as follows: (1) An introduction, which may contain a
salutation, usually including the subject of the epistle and the name
of those with Paul as co-laborers at the time of the writing, and a
thanksgiving for the good character or conduct of those whom he
addresses. (2) A Doctrinal Section, in which he discusses some great
Christian teaching, which needs special emphasis as the case of the
church or individual addressed. (3) A Practical Section, in which he
sets forth the practical application of the principles discussed in
the doctrinal section to the life of those addressed. (4) A Personal
Section, in which are personal messages and salutations sent to and by
various friends. (5) A Conclusion, in which may be found a benediction
or autograph conclusion to authenticate the letter, maybe both, with
other closing words.

The Occasion of the Roman Epistle. (1) Paul longed to go to Rome (Acts
19:21) and now hoped soon to do so (Romans 15:24-33). He may,
therefore, have wished them to know of his doctrine before his
arrival, especially as they had perhaps heard some false reports of
it. (2) It was just after he wrote Galatians and Paul's mind was full
of the doctrine of justification, and he may have desired to write
further upon the subject, giving special emphasis to the Divine side
of the doctrine as he had given to the human side of it in Galatians.
(3) Then, too, he may have been misunderstood in Galatians and desired
to enlarge upon his teaching. In Galatians man is justified by
believing, in Romans God gives his own righteousness to the believer
for his justification. (4) Phoebe, a woman of influence and Christian
character, a friend of Paul, was about to go to Rome from the coasts
of Corinth, and Paul not only had a good opportunity to send the
letter, but could do her a service by way of introducing her (16:1-2).

The Church at Rome. It was doubtless in a very prosperous condition
the time of Paul's writing. It was perhaps organized by some Jews
heard and believed while at Jerusalem, probably on the day of
Pentecost. While its membership included both Jews and Gentiles (1:6-
13; 7:1), it was regarded by Paul as especially a Gentile church (1:3-
7; 13-15).

Some Errors of Doctrine and Practice Had Crept in Which Needed
Correction. (1) They seem to have misunderstood Paul's teachings and
to have charged that he taught that the greater the sin the greater
the glory of God (3:8). (2) They may have thought him to teach that we
should sin in order to get more grace (6:1) and, therefore, may have
made his teaching of justification by faith an excuse for immoral
conduct. (3) The Jews would not recognize the Gentile Christians as
equal with them in Christ's Kingdom (1:9, 29, etc.). (4) Some of the
Gentile brethren, on the other hand, looked with contempt upon their
narrow and prejudiced and bigoted Jewish brethren (14:3). (5) Paul,
therefore, aimed to win the Jews to Christian truth and the Gentiles
to Christian love.

Paul's Connection With the Church. He had never been there up to this
time (1:11, 13, 15) and it is not likely that any other apostles had
been there. For then Paul would have not have been planning to go
since his rule was not to go where another had worked (15:20; 2 Cor.
10:14-16). This strikes a heavy blow at Catholicism, claiming that
Peter was first bishop of Rome. If Paul would not have followed him,
then Peter had not been there, and the most important test of papacy
is overthrown. Paul had, however, many intimate friends and
acquaintances at Rome, many of whom were mentioned in chapter 16.
Among them were his old friends, Aquila and Priscilia.

The Argument of the Book. The doctrines of the book are considered and
discussed under four main propositions: (1) All men are guilty before
God (Jews and Gentiles alike). (2) All men need a Savior. (3) Christ
died for all men. (4) We all, through faith, are one body in Christ.

Date. Probably from Corinth, about A. D. 58.

Theme. The gift of the righteousness of God as our justification which
is received through faith in Christ, or justification by faith.


Analysis.

   Introduction, 1:1-17.

  I. All Men Need of Righteousness, 1:18-3:20.

 II. All Men May Have Righteousness by Faith in Christ (justification)
3:21-4 end.

III. All Who Are Thus Justified Will Be Finally Sanctified, Chs. 5-8.
The believer's final redemption is thus guaranteed.

   1. By the new relation to God which this righteousness gives. Ch.
5.

   2. By the new realms of grace into which it brings him, Ch. 6 (no
death in this realm).

   3. By the nature given him, Ch. 7. This wars against the old nature
and will win.

   4. By the new possession (the Holy Spirit) which it gives, Ch. 8:1-
27.

   5. By the foreordained purpose of God for them, 8:28-39.

 IV. This Doctrine as Related to the Rejection of the Jews, chs. 9-11.

   1. The justice of their rejection, 9:1-29.

   2. The cause of their rejection, 9:30-10 end.

   3. The limitations of their rejection, ch. 11.

  V. The Application of This Doctrine to Christian Life, 12:1-15:13.

   1. Duty to God-consecration, 12-12.

   2. Duty to self-a holy life, 12:3 end.

   3. Duty to state authorities-honor, 13:1-7.

   4. Duty to society-love all, 13:8-10.

   5. Duty as to the Lord's return-watchfulness, 13:11-14.

   6. Duty to the weak -helpfulness and forbearance, 14:1-15:13.

   Conclusion. 15:14-16 end. (1) Personal matters, 14:14 end. (2)
Farewell greetings and warnings, ch. 16.

For Study and Discussion. (1) The greeting (1:1-7). What does it
reveal about, (a) The call, duty and standing of an apostle or
preacher? (b) The standing, privileges and duties of a church, or
individual Christian? (c) The relation of the old dispensation to the
new? (d) Christ's diety or his Messiahship in fulfillment of prophecy?
(e) The different persons of the Trinity? (2) Study sin as described
in 3:10-18, and what can be learned concerning: (a) The state of sin,
(b) The practice of sin, (c) The reason for sin. (3) Abraham as an
example of justification by faith, ch. 4. (4) The plan and method by
which God rescues men from sin, 5:6-11. (5) The contrast between Adam
and Christ. 5:12-31. Do we get more in Christ than we lost in Adam?
(6) Why a matter under grace should not continue in sin, 6:1-14. (7) A
converted man's relation to the law. 7:1-6. (8) The different things
done for us by the Holy Spirit, 8:1-27. (9) The practical duties of a
Christian, ch. 12. (10) Make a list of the following "key-words,"
showing how many times and were each occurs, and outline form the
scripture references the teachings about each. Power, sin and
unrighteousness, righteousness, justification, faith and belief,
atonement, redemption, adoption, propitiation, election,
predestination.

 * * * * *

Chapter XXX.

First and Second Corinthians.


The City of Corinth. It contained 400,000 inhabitants and was the
chief city of Greece when Paul visited it, being situated on a large
isthmus where the commerce of the world passed. The inhabitants were
Greeks, Jews, Italians and a mixed multitude from everywhere. Sailors,
merchants, adventurers and refugees from all the world crowded the
city, bringing with them the evils of every country, out of which grew
many forms of human degradation. Religion and philosopy had been
prostituted to low uses. Intellectual life was put above moral life,
and the future life was denied that they might enjoy the present life
without restraint.

The Church at Corinth. It was founded by Paul on the second missionary
journey (Acts 18:1-18). His spirit in founding the church is seen in 1
Cor. 2:1-2. While there Paul made his home with Aquila and Priscilla,
Jews who had been expelled from Rome (Acts 18:2-3), but who now became
members of the church. Apollos preached to this church and aided it in
Paul's absence (18:24-28; 19:1). Both Epistles are full of information
as to the condition of the church and the many problems which hit had
to face from time to time. It must be remembered that Corinth was one
of the most wicked cities of ancient times and that the church was
surrounded by heathen customs and practices. Many of its members had
but recently been converted from heathenism to Christianity and the
church was far from ideal.

First Corinthians.

The Occasion and Purpose of the Letter. Unfavorable news had come to
Paul concerning the Corinthian church and he had written them a letter
(5:9) which has been lost. In that letter he seems  to have commanded
them to give up their evil practices and promised to visit them. In
the meantime, members of the household of Chloe(1:11) and other
friends (16:17) came to him at Ephesus and brought news of their
divisions and of the evil practices of certain of their members.
Finally, they wrote him a letter asking his advice on certain matters
(7:1). From all this we learn (1) that there were four factions among
them, 1:2; (2) that there was gross immorality in the church as in the
case of the incestuous person, Ch. 5; (3) that they went to law with
each other, Ch. 6; (4) that many practical matters troubled them.
Paul, therefore, wrote to correct all these errors in doctrine and
practice.

Content. This letter contains some of the greatest passages in the New
Testament. It is, however, remarkable especially for the very
practical nature of its contents. It deals with many of the problems
of every day life and has been said not to discuss but one great
doctrine, that of the resurrection.

Date. From Ephesus in the spring of A. D. 57.

Analysis.

   Introduction, 1:1-9.

  I. Concerning Divisions and the Party Spirit. 1:10-4.

    Divisions are prevented:
   1. By Christ as the center of Christianity, 1:10 end.

   2. By spiritual mindedness, 2:1-3:4.

   3. By a right view of preachers, 3:5-4 end.

II. Correction of Moral Disorders, Chs. 5-6.

   1. The incestuous person, Ch. 5.

   2. Lawsuits, 6:1-11.

   3. Sins of the body, 6;12 end.

III. Answers to Questions and Cognate Matters, 7:1-16:4.

   1. Concerning marriage and celibacy, Ch. 7.

   2. Concerning things offered to idols. 8:1-11:1.

   3. Concerning head dress, 11:2-16.

   4. Concerning the Lord's supper, 11:17 end.

   5. Concerning spiritual gifts, Chs. 12-14.

   6. Concerning the resurrection, Ch. 15.

   7. Concerning collections for the saints, 16:1-4.

 IV. Personal Matters and Conclusion, 16:5 end.

For Study and Discussion. (1) Earthly wisdom and heavenly foolishness,
1:18-25. (2) Spiritual wisdom, 2:7-16. (3) Paul's apostolic labors,
4:9-13. (4) The scripture estimate of the human body, 6:12-20. (5)
Marriages and divorce, 7:25-50, letting "virgin" mean any single
person, male or female. (6) Paul's practice in the matter of his
rights, 9:1-23. (7) The Christian race, 9:24-27. (8) Love and its
nature, Ch. 13. (a) Superior to other gifts, 1-3. (b) Its ten marks,
4-6. (c) Its power, 7. (d) Its permanence, 8-13. (9) Spiritual gifts,
Chs. 12-14. Name and describe them. (10) The resurrection, Ch. 15. (a)
Calamities to result, if there were none-or the other doctrines here
made to depend on the resurrection; (b) The nature of the resurrected
body.

Second Corinthians.

The Occasion and Purpose of the Letter. From suggestions found here
and there in these two epistles it appears that much communication
passed between Paul and the church and that the two letters that have
come down to us are only some of a series. He suffered much perplexity
and grief because of the conditions of the church. He met Titus in
Macedonia on the third missionary journey (he had hoped for him with
news from Corinth while he was at Troas). He wrote this letter in
response to the messages brought by Titus. He expresses solicitude for
them, defends himself against the charges of his enemies, warns them
against errors, instructs them in matters of duty and expresses joy
that they have heeded his former advice.

The Character and Content. It is the least systematic of all Paul's
epistles. It abounds in emotion, showing mingled joy, grief and
indignation. It is intensely personal and from it we, therefore, learn
more of his life and character than from any other source. This makes
it of great value in any study of Paul himself. Section one has as its
great topic tribulation and consolation in tribulation, and has in it
an undercurrent of apology, darkened by a suppressed indignation.
Section two is colored by a sorrowful emotion. Section three
everywhere teems with a feeling of indignation. Through the whole
letter there runs an undercurrent of self-defense. The "key-note" of
this book, as well as of First Corinthians, is loyalty to Christ.

Date. It was written from Macedonia (probably Philippi) fall of A.D.
57.

Analysis.

   Introduction, 1:1-7.

  I. Paul's Trials, Principles and Consolation as a Preacher, 1:8-
7:16.

   1. His interest in the Corinthian church. 1:8-2:11.

   2.  His service both to God and men, 2:12 end.

   3. His appointment by the Holy Spirit, Ch. 3.

   4. His power given by God, Ch. 4.

   5. His hope of future blessedness, 5:1-19.

   6. His exhortation and appeal to the church. 5:20-7:4.

   7. His joy at their reception of the word, 7:5 end.

 II.  The Collection for the Poor Saints, Chs. 8-9.

   1. The appeal for liberality, 8:1-15.

   2. The sending of Titus and two other brethren, 8:16-9:5.

   3. The Blessedness of liberality, 9:6 end.

III. Paul's Apostolic Authority. 10:1-13:10.

   1. He vindicates his apostolic authority, 10:1-12:13.

   2. He warns them that his coming will be with apostolic authority,
12:14-13:10.

   Conclusion, 13:11 end.

For Study and Discussion. (1) Paul's reasons for not going to Corinth,
1:15-2:4. (2) The glory of the gospel ministry, 4:1-6. (3) His
affectionate injunction, 6:11-18. (4) The grace of liberality, Chs.
8-9. Make a list of (a) ways of cultivating this grace, (b) the
blessings it will bring to the possessor, to others and to the whole
church. (5) Paul's boasting, 11:16-12:20. (a) Of what things did he
boast? (b) When is boasting justifiable? (6) Paul's self-defense?
When should we defend ourselves? (7) The vision of the third heaven,
12:1-4. (8) The thorn in the flesh, 12:7-9. (9) The personal attacks
on Paul. Note the hints in 2:17; 4:3; 5:3; 10:8; 10:10; 11:6.

 * * * * *

Chapter XXXI.

Galatians and Ephesians.

Galatians.
The Country. (1) _Politically_ it was the Roman province which
included Lycaonia, Isauria, and parts of Phrygia and Pisidia. (2)
Geographically it was the center of the Celtic tribes, and in this
sense it seems to be used in this epistle and in Acts (Gal. 1:1; Acts.
13:14; 14:6; 16:6).

The Celtic People. They were descended from the Gauls who sacked Rome
in the fourth century B. C. and in the third century B. C. invaded
Asia Minor and northern Greece. A part of them remained in Galatia.
predominating in the mixed population formed out of the Greek, Roman
and Jewish people. They were quick-tempered, impulsive, hospitable and
fickle people. They were quick to receive impressions and equally
quick to give them up. They received Paul with enthusiastic joy, and
were then suddenly turned from him (Gal. 4:13-16).

The Churches of Galatia. Just how and by whom these churches were
established we do not know. The great highway from the East to Europe
passed through this region, making it possible for some of those
present at Pentecost to have sown the seed of the gospel there. It
could have sprung up from work done by Paul while at Tarsus from the
time of his return from Arabia to his going to Antioch with Barnabas.
But the scripture gives us no word about this.

On the second missionary journey Paul visited them (Acts 16:6) and
seems to have been taken sick while passing through and to have
preached to them while unable to travel (Gal. 4:14-15). They gladly
received his teaching, and churches seem to have sprung up. Paul also
visited them while on the third missionary journey (Acts 18:23) and
instructed and established them in the faith. The churches were
running well when Paul left them, but Judaizing teachers had now come
in and, acting upon their fickle and unstable  nature, had greatly
corrupted the simplicity of their faith.

The Occasion of the Epistle. (1) Judaizing teachers had gone among the
Galatians, claiming that the Jewish law was binding upon Christians,
admitting that Jesus was the Messiah, but claiming that salvation
must, nevertheless, be obtained by the works of the law. They
especially urged that all Gentiles be circumcised. (2) In order to
gain their point and turn the Galatians from their belief, they were
trying to weaken their confidence in Paul, their spiritual teacher.
They said he was not one of the twelve, and therefore, not one of the
apostles, and his teachings were not of binding authority. They
suggested that he had learned his doctrine from others, especially
from the apostles who were pillars of the church.

The Purpose of the Epistle. The purpose of the epistle was to root out
the errors of doctrine introduced by the Judaizers and to hold the
Galatians to their earlier faith. To do this it was necessary to
establish his apostolic authority and the divine origin of his gospel.
He also desired to show the practical value or application of his
teaching. He especially shows the value of Christian freedom and at
the same time shows that it is not license. In fulfilling these
purposes he gave us an inspired classic upon the fundamental doctrine
of justification by faith and forever settled the disturbing question
of the relation of Christians to the Jewish law.

Author and Date. It was written by Paul, probably from Corinth in A.D.
57.

Analysis.

   Introduction, 1:1-10.

  I. Authoritativeness of Paul's Gospel, 1:11-2 end.

   1. It is independent of man, 1:11 end.

   2. It is the gospel of an apostle, Ch. 2.

 II. Teaching of Paul's Gospel, Chs. 3-4. Justification by faith.

   1. Their experience proves it, 3:1-5.

   2. The example of Abraham attests it, 3:6-8.

   3. The scripture teaches it, 3:10-12.

   4. The work of Christ provides for it, 3:13-14.

   5. Its superior results demonstrate it. 3:15-4:20.

   6. The experiences of Sarah and Hagar and their sons illustrate it,
4:21 end.

III. Application of Paul's Gospel to Faith and Conduct, 5:1-6:10.

   1. He exhorts them to stand fast in the liberty of Christ; 5:1-12;
5:12. This liberty excludes Judaism.

   2. He exhorts them not to abuse their liberty, 5:13-6:10.

   Conclusion, 6:11 end.

For Study and Discussion. (1) The dangers of fickleness (1:6; 4:9;
15:16). (2) The methods of false teachers: (a) Their chief method is
to attack men prominent in the movement, (b) They usually put forward
some one else for leader; They would supplant Paul with Peter, (c) One
may well consider how a man will often allow the influence of another
to be undermined if he is himself exalted. (3) The reasons Paul gives
to show that his teaching is not of man, 1:11 end. (4) The
confirmation of Paul's divine call, 2:1-10. (5) Difference between
one under law and under faith, 4:1-7. (6) The lusts of the flesh, sins
of body and mind are included, 5:19-21. (7) The fruits of the spirit,
5:22-23. (8) The words, liberty, lust, flesh, spirit, works of the
law, live and die, servant and bondage, justified, righteousness,
faith and believe. (9) For more advanced study list and study passages
in Galatians that coincide with or correspond to passages in Romans.

Ephesians.

The City. It was the capital of pro-consular Asia, being about a mile
from the sea coast, and was the great religious, commercial and
political center of Asia. It was noteworthy because of two notable
structures there. First, the great theatre which had a seating
capacity of 50,000 people, and second, the temple of Diana which was
one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. It was 342 feet long
and 164 feet wide, made of shining marble, supported by a forest of
columns 56 feet high, and was 220 years in building. This made it the
center of the influence of Diana worship, of which we read in Acts
19:23-41. The statue with its many breasts betokened the fertility of
nature.

Next to Rome, Ephesus was the most important city visited by Paul. It
has been called the third capital of Christianity, it being the center
of work in Asia through which were founded all the churches of Asia,
especially the seven churches of Asia to which Jesus sent the messages
of Revelations. Jerusalem, the birth place of power, is the first, and
Antioch, the center of mission work, is the second capital.

Paul's Work at Ephesus. (1) Revisited there on the return from the
second missionary journey (Acts 18:18-21). and left with them Aquila
and Priscilla. (2) On the third missionary journey he spent about
three years there, (Acts 20:31). (3) During this second visit he had
such influence as to check the worship of Diana to such an extent as
to arouse the opposition of her worshippers and make it necessary for
him to depart into Macedonia (Acts 20:1). (4) On the return from the
third missionary journey he stopped at Miletus, thirty miles away, and
sent for the elders of Ephesus to whom he delivered a farewell address
(Acts 20:16-38).

The Epistle. The contents are much akin to those of Colossians, but
also differ greatly from them. (1) In each book half is doctrinal and
half practical. (2) Colossians discusses Christ-hood or Christ the
head of the church, while Ephesians discusses church-hood or the
church as the body of Christ. (3) In Colossians Christ is "All and in
all", in Ephesians the ascended Christ is seen in his church. (4) In
Colossians we have Paul in the heated arena of controversy; in
Ephesians he is quietly meditating upon a great theme.

It has been said to contain the profoundest truth revealed to men, and
the church at Ephesus was, perhaps, better prepared than  any other to
be the custodian of such truth, since Paul's long stay there had so
well prepared them to hear and understand it. It may have been written
as a circular letter to be sent in turn to several churches of which
the church at Ephesus was one.

Date. By Paul, probably from Rome, A. D. 62 or 63.

Theme. The church, Christ's mystical body.

Analysis.

   Salutation, 1:1-2.

 I. The Spiritual Blessings of the Church. 1:3-14.

   1. The origin of these blessings, v. 3.

   2. The blessings enumerated, 4-14.

 II. Prayer for the Readers, 1:15 end.

   1. That God may grant them the spirit of wisdom, the Holy Spirit,
15-17.

   2. That they may know what they have in Christ, 18-33.

III. The Great Work Done for Them, Ch. 2. Both Jews and Gentiles.

   1. They were regenerated, 1:10.

   2. They were organized, 11 end.

 IV. Paul's Mission and Prayer for Them, Ch. 3.
   1. His mission to preach the mystery of Christ. 1-13.

   2. His prayer for them and doxology of praise to God, 14 end.

  V. The Duty of the Churches as the Body of Christ, 4:1-6:20.

   1. Duty of individual members in relation to other members and to
the world. 4:1-5:21.

   2. Duties of individuals in their home relations, 5:22-6:9.

   3. Duties of individual members in their relation to the organized
efforts of the church. 6:10-20.

   Conclusion, 6:21 end.

For Study and Discussion. (1) The Christian's standing before God,
Chs. 1-2. Such words as sealed, chosen, quickened. (2) The blessings
of the church, make a list, 1:3-14. (3) The elements and
characteristics of the new life, 4:25-32. (4) The different things
done in an intelligent Christian life, 5:3-17. (5) The
exalted nature and office of Christ, 1:2-33; 2:13-22. (6) The eternal
purpose of God, 2:3-5; 2:4-7; 3:9-12. (7) Principles of Christian
sociology seen in the home relations such as husband and wife, child
and parents, and servant and master. (8) The Christian's relation to
Christ as seen in these relations.

* * * * *

Chapter XXXII.


Philippians and Colossians.

Philippians.


The City. It belonged to Thrace until 358 B. C., when it was seized by
Philip, king of Macedon, father of Alexander the Great It was the
place where Marcus Antonius and Octavius defeated Brutus and Cassius
(42 B. C.). which defeat overthrew the Roman Oligarchy, and Augustus
(Octavius) was made Emperor. Is was on the great highway through which
all trade and traders going eastward and westward must pass, and was,
therefore, a fit center of evangelism for all Europe. It was the place
where the first church Of Europe was established by Paul on his second
missionary journey, A. D. 52.

Paul's Connection with the Church. By a vision from God he went to
Philippi on the second missionary journey (Acts 16:9-12). He first
preached at a woman's prayer-meeting, where Lydia was converted. She
furnished him a home while he continued his work in the city. After
some time there arose great opposition to him and he and Silas were
beaten and put in prison, but through prayer they were released by an
earthquake which also resulted in the conversion of the jailer
(Acts ch. 16). He perhaps visited them again on his journey from
Ephesus to Macedonia (Acts 20 2 Cor 2:12-13; 7:5-6). He spent the
Passover there (Acts 20:6) and received messages from them (Phil.
4:16). They also sent him assistance (Phil. 18) and he wrote them this
letter.

The Character and Purpose of the Letter. It is an informal letter with
no logical plan or doctrinal arguments. It is the spontaneous
utterance of love and gratitude. It is a tender, warm-hearted, loving
friend and brother presenting the essential truths of the gospel in
terms of friendly intercourse. He found in them constant reasons for
rejoicing, and now that Epaphroditus who had brought their aid to him
was about to return from Rome to Philippi, he had an opportunity to
send them a letter of thanks (Phil. 4:18). It is remarkable for its
tenderness, warnings, entreaties and exhortations and should be read
often as a spiritual tonic.

Date. It was written by Paul during his imprisonment at Rome, about A.
D. 62.

Analysis.

   Introduction, 1:1-11.

  I. Paul's Present Situation and Feeling. 1:12-26.

 II. Some Exhortations, 1:27-2:18.

III. He Plans to Communicate with Them, 2:19 end.

 IV. Some Warnings, ch. 3.

   1. Against Judaizers, 1-16.

   2. Against false professors, 17 end.

  V. Final Exhortation. 4:1-9.

 VI. Gratitude for Their Gifts, 4:10-19.

   Conclusion, 4:20 end.

For Study and Discussion. (1) Paul as a good minister, 1:3-8. Paul's
prayer for the Philippians, 1:9-11. (3) The choice between life death,
1:19-26. (4) Humble-mindedness and its rewards as seen in Jesus 2:5-
11. (5) An upright Christian life, 2:12-18. (6) Paul's sense of
imperfection, 3:12-16. (7) Worthy meditations, 4:8-9. (8) Outline the
information the book gives concerning Paul's condition at the time of
the writing. (9) Point out all the teachings of the book on the
necessity of cultivating unselfishness and the blessing derived from
it. (10) The expression of joy and rejoicing. (11) The number of times
our Lord, under different names, is  referred to.

Colossians.

The City. It was situated about 100 miles east of Ephesus, and was of
little importance at the time of this epistle, though it had once been
of considerable influence. It was one of a group of three cities,
Laodicia and Hierapolis being the Other two, situated on the Lycus
river near where it flows into the famous Meander.

The Church of Colossae. It was perhaps founded by Epaphras (1:6-7;
4:12-13) who was directed by Paul in his work there "for us" "on our
behalf", (1:7). Paul though having a very vital connection with it.
had never visited the church (1:7; 2:1). He seems to have kept posted
about conditions in the church (1:3; 4, 9, 2:1), and to have approved
the work and discipline of the church (1:5-7, 23, 2:5-7; 4:12-13). He
was loved by them (1:8) and knew and loved some of them. See also
Phile 9.

Condition of the Church and Occasion for the Epistle.  False teachers
or a false teacher, had come among them and had greatly hindered the
prosperity of the church. The main source of all their false teaching
lay in an old eastern dogma, that all matter is evil and its source
also evil. If this  were true, God, who is in no wise evil, could not
have created matter. And since our bodies are matters they are evil
and God could not have created them. From this notion that our bodies
are evil two extremes of error arose: (1) That only by various ascetic
practices, whereby we punish the body, can we hope to save it, 2:20-
23. (2) That since the body is evil, none of its deeds are to be
accounted for. License was, therefore, granted to evil conduct, and
evil passions were indulged at pleasure and without impunity (3:5-8).

In seeking to find relief from this condition they formulated two
other false doctrines. (1) An esoteric and exclusive theory which was
a doctrine of secrets and initiation (2:2, 3, 8). By this doctrine
they declared that the remedy for man's condition was known to only a
few, and to learn this secret one must be initiated into their
company. (2) That since God could not have been creator of these
sinful bodies, they could not, therefore, come to him for blessing,
and so they formulated, in their theory, a series of intermediary
beings or Aeons, such as angels, that must have created us and whom we
must worship (2:18), especially as a means of finally reaching God.


All these false theories conspired to limit the greatness and
authority of Jesus Christ, and to limit the efficiency of redemption
in him (2:9-10). They are called by the one name, Gnosticism, and
present four aspects of error in this book. (1) Philosophic, 2:3, 4,
8. (2) Ritualistic, or Judaistic, 2:11, 14, 16-17. (3) Visionary, or
angel-worship, 1:16; 2:10, 15, 18. (4) Ascetic practices, 2:20-23.
There are three modern applications of the Colossian heresy. (1)
Ceremonialism, or ritualism. (2) Speculation. (3) Low standards of
righteousness.

The Epistle. The news of these false teachings was brought to Paul
probably by Epaphras. 1:7-8, and he wrote to combat them. It is
polemic in spirit and argues that we have everything in Christ, that
he is the source and Lord of all creation and that he alone can
forgive sins and reconcile us to God. It, therefore, represents more
fully than any other of Paul's epistles his doctrine of the person and
preeminence of Christ.

Analysis.

  I. Doctrinal Teachings, Ch. 1.

   1. Introduction, 1-14.


   2. Christ in relation to creation, 15-17.


   3. Christ in relation to the church, 18 end.

 II. Polemic Against False Teachings, ch. 2.

   1. Introduction, 1-7.

   2. Polemic against the general false teachings, 8-15,

   3. Polemic against the particular claims of the false teachers, 16
end.

III. Hortatory Section, 3:1-4:6.

   1. To a lofty Christian life, 3:1-4.

   2. To exchange the old vices for the Christian graces, 3:5-14.

   3. To make Christ sovereign over the whole of life, 3:15-17.

   4. To the Christian discharge of relative duties, 3:18-4:1.

   3. To a proper prayer life, 4:2-6.

 IV. Personal Section, 4:7 end.

For Study and Discussion. (1) Paul's prayer for them, 1:9-14. (2) The
preeminence of the Savior,1:5-20. (3) The false and true philosophy of
religion, 2:8-15. (4) The worldly vices, 3:5-8. (5) The Christian
graces, 3:9-14. (6) The lofty Christian life, 3:15-17. (7) All
references to the false teachings as in the words mystery, head, body,
Lord, fullness, etc. Note 2:3, 8, 11, 16, 18, and many others. (8)
Paul's view of Jesus. Study every reference to him.

 * * * * *

Chapter XXXIII.

First and Second Thessalonians.

The City of Thessalonica. It was founded by Cassander, King of Macedon
315 B. C., and was about a hundred miles west of Philippi. It was a
great commercial center of Paul's time, the inhabitants being Greeks,
Romans and Jews. It still exists under the name of Saloniki, and has a
population of from 75,000 to 85,000 about half of whom are Jews.

The Church of Thessalonica. Upon being delivered from prison at
Philippi. Paul continued his second missionary journey to
Thessalonica, having also Silas and Timothy with him (Acts 17:1-5). He
spent three Sabbaths there, but on account of the persecution of the
Jews, went from there to Berea, then to Athens, and then to Corinth
where he spent 18 months. The first letter bears testimony to the
splendid Christian character of these new converts from heathenism.
First Thessalonians.

This is probably the first epistle written by Paul and perhaps the
first written document of the Christian religion. It is not doctrinal,
has no element of controversy and is one of the most gentle and
affectionate of Paul's letters. It is notable for its special
salutations and refers to their expectations of the immediate return
of Jesus. Its main idea is _consolation_ (4:17-18), its keynote
_hope_ and its leading words _affliction and advent_. Its purpose was:
(1) to send affectionate greetings, (2) to console them in their
afflictions, (3) to correct their wrong, their mistaken views of
Christ's second coming, (4) to exhort then to proper living as against
certain immoral tendencies.

Date. From Corinth A. D. 53.

Analysis

  I. The Spiritual Condition of the Church, Ch. 1.

   1. Introduction. 1.

   2. Their faith, love and hope, 2-3.

   3. The cause of these, 4-5.

   4. The result of these, 6-10.

 II. Paul's Character and Conduct While With Them, 2:1-16.

   1. How he brought them the gospel, 1-12.

   2. How they received it, 13-16.

III. Paul's Interest in the Church Since Leaving Them. 2:17-3 end.

   1. Desired to visit them, 2:17 end.

   2. He sent Timothy to them and rejoices in his report of them, 3:1-
10.

   3. Benediction upon them, 3:11 end.

 IV. Exhortation for the Future, 4:1-5:11.

   1. To purity, 4:1-8.

   2. To brotherly love, 4:9-10.

   3. To honest industry, 4:11-12.

   4. To be comforted in the loss of their dead in Christ, 4:13-5:11.

   Conclusion, 5:12.

For Study and Discussion. (1) Things in the church for which Paul is
thankful, 1:2-6. (2) What is said about how the gospel was preached to
them, 2:1-16. (3) Paul's longing to know about them, 3:1-9. (4) The
duties enjoined, 4:1-12. (5) The second coming of Christ and the
resurrection, 4:13-18. (6) How we are prepared for the great day of
his coming, 5:3-10. (7) The several exhortations in 5:12-22. (8) The
human elements or explanation of Paul's power as a preacher Ch. 2. (9)
The deity of Jesus seen in the book.

Second Thessalonians.

This letter was also written from Corinth and during the same year. It
is the shortest letter Paul wrote to any church and is characterized
by its lack of special salutations and for its general idea of patient
waiting for our Lord. The occasion seems to be to correct their wrong
views of the second coming of Christ and the errors of life growing
out of it. It may be that they had misunderstood his own teaching to
be that the day of the Lord was already at hand (2:2).

Analysis.

   Introduction, 1:1-2.

  I. Thanksgiving and Prayer for in View of The Second Coming of
Christ, 1:2 end.

 II. Warnings about Christ's Second Coming. 2:1-12.

III. Their Escape at His Coming, 2:13 end.

 IV. Practical Matters, 3:1-15.

   1. Their prayers for each other, 1-5.

   2. Discipline for the disorderly, 6-15.

   Conclusion, 3:16 end.

For Study and Discussion. (1) Things commendable in the church, 13-14.
(2) Moral disorders of the church, 3:7-11. (3) How to deal with the
disorderly, 3:6, 14, 15. (4) How to deal with the idle, 3:12. (5)Facts
concerning Christ's second coming, from the whole book. (6) Facts
concerning the judgment of the wicked.
 * * * * *

Chapter XXXIV.

First and Second Timothy.

Timothy.

He was a native of Lycaonia. His father was a Greek, but his mother
and grandmother were Jews, 2 Tim. 1:5. He was taught the scriptures
from his very youth, 2 Tim. 3:15, and was probably converted during
Paul's first visit to Lystra, Acts 14:8-20. He was ordained as an
evangelist 1 Tim. 4:14; 2 Tim. 1:6, and, after Paul's second visit to
Lystra. he spent most of his time with Paul, Acts 16:1. He did much
valuable service for Paul, and was greatly esteemed by him. Acts
17:14; 18:5; 20:4; Rom. 16:21; 1 Cor. 4:17; 16:10. His name is
associated with Paul in writing a number of letters, 2 Cor. 1:1; Phil.
1:1; Col. 1:1. He was pastor at Ephesus and while there received these
letters, 1 Tim. 1:3-4. Paul desired to have him with him when death
came, 2 Tim. 4:9; 13, 21.

First Timothy.

This epistle was written while Timothy was pastor at Ephesus, probably
between A. D. 64 and 66. Its purpose was to instruct Timothy with
regard to his pastoral duties. It, therefore, reflects the condition
of the church and especially the errors which he would correct or
against which he wished to warn his "true child in the faith."

Analysis.

   Greeting, 1:1-2.

  I. The True Teachings of the Gospel, 1:3 end.

   1. Gnostic teachings and the true purpose of the law, 3-11.

   2. Paul's salvation. 12-17.

   3. Further warnings against false teachers, 18 end.

 II. Public Worship. Ch. 2.

   1. Prayer, 1-7.

   2. Conduct of men and women in church assemblies, 8 end.

III. Church Officers. Ch. 3.

   1. A bishop or pastor, 1-7.

   2. Deacons and deaconesses. 8-13.

   3. A personal word, 14 end.

 IV. Pastoral Duties, 4:1-6:2.

   1. As to the true doctrine, Ch. 4.

   2. Toward the various classes of the church, 5:1-20.

   3. Concerning himself, 5:21 end.

   4. In teaching slaves and their masters, 6:1-2.


  V. Final Warnings and Exhortations, 6:3 end.
   1. Against false teachers, 3-10.

   2. To be truly godly, 11-16.

   3. To teach the rich aright, 17-19.

   4. To be true to his charge, 20 end.

For Study and Discussion. (1) False teachings, 1:3-11; 4:1-8; 6:20-21.
(2) The kind of man a pastor should be, 4:12-5:2. (3) The kind of men
to select for church officers, 3:1-13. (Fifteen qualifications of a
pastor and seven of a deacon). (4) Church government and services of
worship, 2:1, 2, 8; 3:14, 15. (5) The word's doctrine or teaching,
godliness and faith meaning doctrine.

Second Timothy.

This letter was written from Rome just before his martyrdom A. D. 67.
It was written to further instruct Timothy and to explain his own
personal affairs. It is the last letter written by Paul, a sort of
last will and testimony and is of great importance as it tells as how
he fared just before his death. It is more personal in tone than First
Timothy and shows us how very pitiable was his plight in these last
days.

Analysis.

   Introduction, 1:1-5.

  I. Exhortations to Timothy. 1:6-2 end.

   1. To steadfastness in the gospel. 1:6 end.

   2. To patient endurance of suffering, 2:1-13.

   3. To faithfulness as a pastor, 2:14-26 end.

 II. Warnings to Timothy. 3:1-4:5.
   1. Concerning the perilous, 3:1-13.

   2. Concerning his duties in such times, 3:14-4:5.

III. Paul's View of Death, 4:6-18.


   1. His satisfaction and hope at its approach, 6-8.


   2. His hope during this loneliness and need, 9-18.
   Conclusion, 4:19 end.

For Study and Discussion. (1) Paul's condition when he wrote,1:17;
4:7, 13-16; 6:20. (2) The desire or appeal of 1:4; 3:8; 4:5, 9, 13,
21. (3) The exhortations to Timothy, 1:6, 7, 13, 14; 2:1-6, 15, 23;
3:14; 4:5. (4) perilous times to come, Ch. 3. (5) Paul's view of
death, 4:5-22.

 * * * * *

Chapter XXXV.


Titus and Philemon.

Titus.

The Author. We do not know much of the work of Titus.  But from Gal.
2:1-5; 2 Cor. 2:12-13; 7:2-16, and Titus 1:5 and 3:12 we learn: (1)
that he was a Gentile whom Paul carried to Jerusalem, (2) that by the
liberty of the gospel the Jerusalem council did not require him to be
circumcised. (3) that he a capable and an energetic missionary, (4)
that Paul had left him in Crete to finish the work which he had begun
there.

The Book. The book is written to counsel Titus concerning the work
Paul had left him to do (1:5). It contains: (1) the qualifications of
the presbyters to be selected; (2) the method of dealing with false
teachings; (3) instructions to the different classes of the church;
(4) exhortations to Titus himself.

Date. Probably written from Macedonia, A. D. 66.

Analysis.

   Greeting, 1:1-4.

  I. Qualifications and Duties of Bishops or Pastors, 1:5 end.

   1. The qualifications and duties, 5-9.

   2. Reasons for needing such officers, 10 end.

 II. Instruction in Practical Godliness, 2:1-3:11.

   1. Proper conduct for the different classes and its basis, Ch. 2.

   2. Proper conduct in the different life relations, 3:1-11.

   Conclusion. 3:12-15.

For Study and Discussion. (1) Qualifications of  presbyters 1:5-10.
(2) Lofty moral ideals for all Christians 2:1-15. (3) Savior and
salvation used seven times. (4) Good works or good things, the keyword
of the  epistles and used seven times. (5) Sound doctrine occurs seven
times in this form or as sound in the faith, uncorruption in doctrine,
sound speech or doctrine of God. (6) Sober-minded occurring six times,
at least in thought. These last three constitute the Epistle's idea of
real godliness.

Philemon.


Philemon lived at Colossae and was probably a convert of Paul and
member of the Colossian church. Onesimus was a slave of Philemon who
had robbed his master (v 18) and fled to Rome where he had been
converted under Paul's preaching (v 10). It is the only individual or
private letter written by Paul and is written to tell Philemon of the
conversion of Onesimus and to make a plea for him. Through the
kindness shown Onesimus we have revealed to us the great kindness of
the Apostle's heart. He speaks to Philemon not as an apostle in
authority, but as a friend to a friend, thereby showing his great
courtesy. The letter is of inestimable value as showing the power of
the gospel to win and transform a poor slave and to soften the harsh
relations between the different classes of ancient society.

Date, From Rome about A. D. 63.

Analysis.

1. Introduction, 1-7.

2. The purpose of the letter-an appeal to Onesimus, 8-21.

3. Closing matters, 22 end.

For Study and Discussion. (1) How Christianity deals with slaves. (2)
The effectiveness of the Christian religion in a life: (a) Even a
fugitive slave would confess his guilt, as, no doubt, Onesimus had
done to Paul; (b) It will make one desire to correct any wrongs one
has done, and willing, as was Onesimus, to go to the one wronged and
make confession; (c) It often raises one from worthlessness to great
usefulness (v 11); (d) It will not only make one useful to others in
temporal matters, but will make one profitable in things spiritual (v
13). (3) Concerning a real Christian helper, we may learn that, like
Paul: (a) He wilt not try to hide or cover up a man's past faults; (b)
He will sympathize with the poor fellow who has a bad record behind
him; (c) He will make it as easy as possible for such a convert to
right the past; (d) He will gladly use the very humblest Christian (v
13); (e) He will be courteous and recognize the rights of others, as
in the case of Philemon; (f) He will not force a man to do his duty,
but will use love and persuasion to bring him to it. (4) Make a list
of all the persons named and learn something of each.

* * * * *

Chapter XXXVI.

Hebrews and James.

Hebrews.

The Author. The writer nowhere indicates his name, and there is
difference of opinion as to who wrote it. I am personally inclined to
the view of those who regard Paul as the author, which for a long time
was the common view. The main points against his authorship are that
the language and style are dissimilar to Paul's and that it is less
like an epistle than any other book that bears his name. It seems
clear, however, that the thoughts and course of reasoning are Pauline
and the differences otherwise may be explained by the difference of
purpose and spirit in writing. For the arguments for and against his
authorship the student is referred to the larger commentaries and
introductions to the New Testament literature.


Those To Whom It Was Written. It was, no doubt, addressed to Hebrew
Christians, but whether to a special church or to those in a special
locality, is a matter of dispute. Several things, however, may be
learned about them. (1) They had steadfastly endured persecution and
the loss of property. (2) They had shown sympathy with other
Christians, 6:10; 10:32-34. (3) They had been Christians some time,
5:12. (4) They knew the writer whom they are, by their prayers, to
help restore to themselves, 13:19. (5) They knew Timothy who was to
visit them, 13:23. (6) They were now in danger of apostacy to Judaism
but had not yet resisted to blood, 12:3-4; 5:11; 6:9. Their danger of
going back to Judaism might arise from several sources. (1) There was
a tendency to disbelieve Christ and his claims, 3:12. (2) The
elaborate worship of the Temple compared with the simple worship of
the Christian church. (3) The Jews branded them as traitors and
taunted them for turning against the law, which was given by prophets,
angels, and Moses, and from the sanctuary ministered to by the priests
of God. (4) They were suffering persecution.

Purpose and Contents. The purpose was to prevent apostacy from
Christianity to Judaism and incidentally to comfort them in their
suffering and persecution. To accomplish this purpose the author
shows, by a series of comparisons, that the religion of Christ is
superior to that which preceded it. "Better" is the key-word, which
along with other terms of comparison such as "more excellent" is
constantly used to show the superiority of Christianity. It is very
much like a sermon, the author often turning aside to exhort, then
returning to the theme.

Date. It was written from Jerusalem, Alexandria or Rome some time
before A. D. 70, since the temple was still standing, 9:6-7; 10:1.

Analysis.


  I. Christianity is Superior to Judaism because Christ through Whom
it was Introduced is Superior to the Messengers of Judaism,  chs. 1-6.

   1. He is superior to prophets, 1:1-3.

   2. He is superior to angels. 1:4-2 end.

   3. He is superior to Moses, including Joshua, chs. 3-6.

   Three points in each of these comparisons are the same.

   1. He is God's son.

   2. He is man's Savior.

   3. He is man's high priest.

   Neither prophets nor angels nor Moses equal Jesus in these points.
   There are two notable exhortations, (a) 2:1-4; (b) 5:11-6 end.

 II. Christianity in Superior to Judaism because Its Priesthood is
Superior to that of Judaism, 7:1-10:18.

   1. Christ its priest is superior to the priests of Judaism, 7:1-
8:6.

   2. Its covenant is superior to that of Judaism, 8:7 end.

   3. Its tabernacle is superior to that of Judaism, ch. 9.

   4. Its sacrifice is superior to those of Judaism, 10:1-18.

III. Christianity is Superior to Judaism, because the Blessings it
Confers are Superior to those of Judaism. 10:19-11 end.

   1. In the liberty of approach to God, 10:19 end.

   2. In the superior ground of faith, 11:1-12:17.

   3. In our coming to Mount Zion instead of Mount Sinai, 12:18 end.

 IV. Practical Conclusion, ch. 13.

For Study and Discussion. (1) Description of Christ. 1:1-3. (2)
Christ's superiority to angels. 1:3-14. (3) Christ's humiliation for
our salvation, 2:9-18. (4) How is Christ superior to Aaronic priests,
3:14, 15; 5:1-7, 9; 7:28. (5) The two covenants, 8:6-12. (6) Typical
character of the old ordinances. 9:1-10:4. (7) Our assurance and hope,
6:13-20. (8) The danger of rejecting Christ, 10:26-31. (9) The benefit
of affliction, 12:4-11. (10) The comparisons of 12:18-29. (11) The
warning of 13.-8-15, (12) The exhortations of the book, as 2:1-4. Make
a list. (13) All the terms of comparison, as better and more
excellent. Make a list. (14) Every reference to Christ as high
priest. (15) Every reference to the Holy Spirit-What are his works and
where in the book is it taught?

James.

The Author. Three persons called James are mentioned in the New
Testament. One of these is James, the Lord's brother (Matt. 13:55),
who did not believe on Jesus until after the resurrection, Jno. 7:2-9;
Mar. 3:21, 31; Acts 1:13-14.   This James occupies and important place
as pastor at Jerusalem, and made an important speech at the council of
the Apostles, Acts 15: 13-21. He is mentioned elsewhere, in Acts,
12:17; Gal. 1:19; 2:9-12. Josephus tells us that he was stoned to
death about 62 A. D. on a charge of departing from the Jewish law.
This James, the Lord's brother, is supposed to  be the author of this
epistle.

To Whom Written. This letter was written to the Jews scattered
everywhere, 1:1, and evidently to Christian Jews, 2:1. Some of them
were rich, some poor, 2:1-10. They were lustful, greedy, and proud,
4:1-12, and were omitting to do the Lord's work as they should. 1:22-
27.

The Epistle. The chief characteristic of style is abruptness. Change
is made from one subject to another with no effort to connect them.
There is, therefore, no general subject, and a lack of close
connection between the points of analysis. "Faith without works is
dead" flashes in every section as a sort of bond of unity. It is
eloquent, stern and sincere, and has a distinct Jewish tone. It lacks
the doctrinal emphasis found in Paul and states the Christian faith in
terms of moral excellence and instructs them in the subject of
Christian morals.  It is notable for its omissions. It does not have
the resurrection or ascension and only mentions Christ's name twice.
Date and Place of Writing. It was no doubt written from Jerusalem
where he was pastor, but the date is much disputed. Some put it as
early as A. D. 40. Others among whom is Dr. Robertson say it was
written not later than A. D. 50. Still others put it about A. D. 61 or
62, just before the martyrdom of James. It is probably safe to say
that it was one of the very earliest of the New Testament books.

Analysis.

   Salutation, 1:1.

  I. Proper Attitude Toward Trials. 1:2-18.

 II. Proper Altitude Toward God's Word, 1:19-27 end.

III. Various Warnings. 2:1-4:12.

   1. Against respect of persons, 2:1-13.

   2. Against barren professions of faith, 2:14-26.

   3. Against the dangers of the tongue, 3:1-12.

   4. Against false wisdom, 3:13-18.

   5.  Against quarrels, greed and pride. 4:1-12.

 IV. Various Denunciations, 4:13-5:6.

  V.  Various Exhortations, 5:7-20 end.

For Study and Discussion. (1) From the following scriptures make a
list of all the things James advises us not to do: 1;6, 13, 16, 22;
2:1, 14; 3:1. 10; 4:1, 11, 13; 5:9, 12. (2) From the following
scriptures make a list of all the things James advises us to do; 1:2,
4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 22, 26; 2:8, 12; 3:13; 4:8. 5:7, 10, 12, 13, 16, 19.
(3) Make a sketch of heavenly wisdom, showing the different things
said about it, studying especially, 1:5-8 and 3:13-18. (4) Study the
ethics of speech and of the tongue, 1:19-21 and 3:1-12. (5) Life's
trial and temptations, 1:2-4, 12-15. (6) Make a list of ail the
figures of speech, especially similes and metaphors as "a doubter is
like a surge of the sea," 1:6. (7) James' rebuke of selfishness, 5:1-
6. (8) The utility and power of prayer, 5:13-18.

* * * * *
Chapter XXXVII.

First and Second Peter.

The Author. The author was the Apostle Peter, whose name before he
became a disciple, was Simon. He was born in Bethsaida and lived in
Capernaum where he followed the occupation of fishing. He was brought
to Jesus by Andrew, his brother, and became one of the leaders of the
Apostles, both before and after Christ's death. His career should be
studied as it is found in Acts. He was impetuous, brave and energetic,
and after the ascension performed many miracles.

First Peter.

Those Addressed. The sojourn of the dispersion (1:1) points to Jewish
Christians. They were strangers (sojourners) 1:1, 17; 2:11, who were
persecuted, 3:17; 4:12-19, but whose persecution came, not from the
Jews, but from pagans, 4:3-4. They had certain faults and wrong
tendencies, 2:1, 11, 12, 16; 8:8-12; 4:9; 5:2-3.

Purpose. To console them in their suffering, and to exhort them to
faithfulness and duty.

Date. Probably about 64-68 A. D.   Certainly not after 70 A. D., as he
was not doubt put to death before then.

Analysis.

   Introduction, 1:1-2.

  I. Thanksgiving for the Blessing of Grace, 1:3-12.

   1. For a living hope and an abiding inheritance, 3-5.

   2. For joyful faith during trials, 6-9.

   3. For salvation, 10-12.

 II. Obligations Growing out of the Blessings of Grace, 1:13-4:19.

   1. A right relation of the heart toward God and man, 1:13-2:10.

   2. Right conduct in life relations, 2:11-3:12.

   3. Right attitude toward suffering, 3:13-4:19 end.

III. Exhortations to Particular Classes, 5:1-9.

   Conclusion 5:10 end.

For Study and Discussion. (1) Peter's loyalty to Christ. (a) He makes
everything depend on Christ, his cross (1:18-19; 2:24; 3:18), his
suffering (2:21; 3:18; 4:13), his resurrection (1:3), his
manifestation (1:7-13), his exaltation (3:22; 4:11; 5:10). (b) He
calls Christ a living stone, 2:4-8. (c) He clings to Christ's
teaching, submission to rightful authority (2:13-16), forgiveness of
others (4:8; Matt. 18:22), humility (5:5). (2) The mercy of God our
hope 1:3-7. From this passage list what is said of spiritual
inheritors and their inheritance. (3) How to obtain the Christian
ideal, 1:13-21. (4) Spiritual development. 2:1-10. (5) Various deities
of society, 2:13-17; of domestic life 2:18; 3:1, 7; of Christian
brotherhood, 1:22, 2:1-5; 3:8-9; 4:8-11; 5:1-5. (6) The work of the
different persons of the Trinity. (7) The words precious, joy and
rejoicing, mercy, love and faith.

Second Peter.

The Occasion. The occasion of the epistle is found in the harm being
done to the church by false teachers, who were of two classes, the
libertines and the mockers about whom he warns.

Purpose. Its purpose was to exhort them to Christian growth and to
warn them against false teachers.

Comparison with First Peter. It has no reference to Christ's death,
suffering, resurrection and ascension. Glance through 1 Peter again to
see how often these are mentioned. The spirit manifested is one of
anxiety, severity, and denunciation, white in 1 Peter it is one of
mildness,  sweetness  and  fatherly dignity. It connects the second
coming of Christ with the punishment of the wicked, while 1 Peter
connects it with the glorification of the saints. Its key-note is
knowledge, while that of 1 Peter is hope.

Some Teachings. (1) To be holy, not to secure an inheritance, but
because we already have it. (2) To love the brethren, not to purify
our soul, but because it is pure. (3) That we sacrifice, not as
penance, but as an expression of praise.

Analysis.

   Introduction, 1:1-2.

  I. Progress in the Christian Life, 1:3-21 end.

   1. An exhortation to growth, 3-11.

   2. Reasons for these exhortations, 12-21.

 II. False Teachers, Ch. 2.

   1. The evil teachers and their followers, 1-3.

   2. Their punishment, 5-10.

   3. Their character, evil ways and end, 11-32.

III. The Second Coming of Christ, 3:1-13. He will bring both blessings
and destruction.

   Conclusion, 3:14-18.

For Study and Discussion. (1) What our salvation involves, 1:5-11. (2)
The characteristics of the false teachers, 2:1-3, 10, 12-14. (3) The
certain punishment of these false teachers, 2:4-6, 15, 16, 21, 22. (4)
The exhortations of the book such as to sobriety, 1:13. (5) The
predictions of the book.

 * * * * *

Chapter XXXVIII.

First, Second and Third John and Jude.

First John.

Author and Date. It was probably written from Ephesus, 80 or 85 A. D.
though some put it as early as A. D. 69, while others put it as late
as A. D. 95. The author nowhere indicates his name, but through all
the centuries it has been attributed to John, the beloved disciple.
For information concerning him see lesson twenty-eight.

The Readers. It was doubtless written primarily to the churches of
Asia Minor in which John by reason of his work at Ephesus had a
special interest. It is evident that those addressed were of all ages
and were hated of the world. They were inclined to worldliness and to
the danger of looking too lightly upon sin. They were also in danger
of being led into doubt by those who denied the deity of Jesus.

The Style. It is more in the form of a sermon or pastoral address than
of an epistle. It is written with a tone of conscious authority. The
thought is profound and mystical, but the language is simple both in
words and in sentences. The arguments are by immediate inference.
Their are many contrasts, parallelisms and repetitions with no figures
of speech except perhaps the words light and darkness.

The Purpose. The chief purpose was to tell them how they might know
that they had eternal life, 5:13. The accomplishment of this purpose
would also assure the fulfillment of the secondary purpose stated in
1:3, 4.

Theme. The evidence of eternal life.

Analysis

   Introduction, 1:1-4.

  I. How Those Who Possess Eternal Life will Live, 1:5-5:12.

   1. They will dwell in the light, 1:5-2:28.

   2. They will do righteousness, 2:29-4:6.

   3. They will live a life of love, 4:7-5:3.

   4. They will walk by faith, 5:4-12.

 II. What Those who Live such Lives may Know, 5:13-20.

   1. That they have eternal life. 13.

   2. That their prayers are answered, 14-17.

   3. That God's people do not live in sin, 18.

   4. Their true relation to God and to Christ, 19-20.

   Conclusion, 5:21.

   The following analysis made with the idea of the theme being
"Fellowship with God" (1:3-4) is very suggestive.

   Introduction, 1:1-4.

  I. God is Light and our fellowship with him depends upon our walking
in the light, 1:5-2:28.

 II. God la Righteous and our fellowship with him depends upon our
doing righteousness, 2-29, 4:6.

III. God is Love and our fellowship with him depends upon our having
and manifesting a spirit of love, 4:7-5:3.

 IV. God Is Faithful and our fellowship with him depends upon our
exercising faith in him, 5:4-12.

   Conclusion. 5:13-21 end.

For Study and Discussion. (1) The different things we may know and how
we may know them. Make a list giving reference, as, "know Him if we
keep His commandments" (2:3). (2) Make a list of the things defined in
the following scriptures, and give the definition in each case: 1:5;
2:25; 3:11, 3:23; 5:3; 5:4; 5:11; 5:14. (3) The several figures and
attributes of God, as light, righteousness and love. (4) The
requirements of deeds of righteousness, 1:6, 7; 2:9-11; 3:17-23. (5)
God's love for his children, 3:1-2; 4:8-11, 16, 19. (6) Christians'
duty to love one another, 2:10; 3:10-24; 4:7-21; 5:1-2. (7) The
propitiatory death of Jesus Christ, 1:7; 2:1-2; 4:10. (8) Difference
between Christians and non-Christians, 3:4-10. How many times do each
of the following words occur? Love, light, life, know, darkness, hate,
righteousness, sin, liar and lie, true and truth.

Second John.

It is a friendly, personal letter, written some time after the first
letter, to the "elect lady" who, as I think, was John's friend, and
not a church or some nation as has sometimes been argued. The aim is
evidently to warn his friend against certain false teachers.

Analysis.

1. Greeting, 1-3.

2. Thanksgiving, 4.

3. Exhortation to obedience. 5-6.

4. Warning against anti-Christs, 7-9.

5. How to deal with false teachers, 10-11.

6. Conclusion, 12-13.

For Study and Discussion. (1) The character of the children of the
elect lady. (2) Evidence of real discipleship. (3) How to deal with
false teachers.

This also is a private letter written, some time after First John, to
his personal friend, Gaius. There was some confusion about receiving
certain evangelists. Gaius had received them while Diotrephes had
opposed their reception. He commends Gaius for his Christian
hospitality and character.

Analysis.

1. Greeting, 1.

2. Prayer for his posterity, 2.

3. Commends his godly walk, 3-4.

4. Commends his hospitality, 5-8.

5. Complaint against Diotrephes, 9-10.

6. Test of relation to God, and worth of Demetrius, 11-12.

7. Conclusion, 13-14.

For Study and Discussion. (1) The character of Gaius and Diotrephes.
(2) Christian hospitality. (3) Such words as truth, sincerity and
reality.

Jude.

The author is named as Jude, the brother of James. He probably means
the James wrote the epistle of that name and is, therefore, the Lord's
brother.

Purpose. False teachers were boldly teaching their heresies in the
meetings of the congregation. These men were also very immoral in
conduct and the epistle is written to expose their errors and to
exhort his readers to contend for the true faith and to live worthy
lives. In many points it is very similar to the second letter of
Peter.

Date. It was probably written about A. D. 66. At any rate it must have
been written before A. D. 70 when Jerusalem was destroyed, as Jude
would hardly have failed to mention that event along with other
examples of punishment, 5-7.

Analysis.

   Introduction, 1-4.

  I. The Fate of Wicked Disturbers, 5-16.

   1. God punishes the wicked, 5-7.

   2. He will destroy these men, 8-16.

 II. How to Contend For the Faith, 17-23.

   1. Be mindful of the enemies, 17-19.

   2. Be strong (built up in the faith), 20-21.

   3. Maintain an evangelistic spirit, 22-23.

   Conclusion, 24-25.

For Study and Discussion. (1) Make a list of all the words and phrases
occurring in threes, as mercy, love, peace, or Cain, Baalam, Korah.
(2) Make a list of all the different things taught about the evil
workers mentioned, 8-10, 12, 13. 16, 19. (3) What the apostles had
foretold concerning them.

 * * * * *

Chapter XXXIX.

Revelation.

Author. John, the Apostle, while in exile on the Isle of Patmos, 1:1,
4, 9; 22:8.

Date.   About 95 or 96 A. D.

The Book. (1) It is a book of symbols and imagery, and constantly
creates excitement and wonder. (2) It is a book of wars, but war
always ends in peace. The word war occurs seven times in Revelation,
and only seven times in all the rest of the New Testament. (3) It is a
book of thunder, but the thunder and earthquake die away and are
followed by liturgies and psalms. (4) It is a book of the rewards of
the righteous. This is seen in the letters to the seven churches, and
in the victories of the right in all conflicts and wars of the book.
(5) It is, therefore, a book of optimism. Everywhere God overcomes
Satan, the Lamb triumphs, Babylon falls, etc.

Its Interpretation. There are several classes of interpreters, as
follows (1) _The Praeterist_, who thinks it has been fulfilled in its
primary sense. He makes all the prophesies and visions refer to Jewish
history down to the fall of Jerusalem, and to the history of Pagan
Rome. (2) _The Futurist_, who interprets literally and thinks all the
events of the book are to come just before or just after the second
coming of Christ. (3) _The Historical or Continuous School_. These
think some have been fulfilled, some are now being fulfilled, and some
will be fulfilled in the future. (4) _The Spiritualist_, who objects
to the other three classes of interpreters because they make so much
of the time element. He lays stress upon the moral and spiritual
element of the book and reads the book "as a representation of ideas
rather than of events."

Value. The chief value of the book seems to lie in its testimony to
the faith and hope of persecuted Christians and in the comfort and
inspiration it has brought to sorrowing and oppressed souls of every
age. It points outthat there will be an end of conflict, that God and
the Lamb will triumph that the enemies of our souls will be punished
and that the followers of God will be rewarded with eternal reward.

Analysis.

   Introduction, 1-8.

  I. The Seven Churches, 1:9-3 end,

   1. A preparatory vision of Christ, 1:9 end.

   2. The addresses to the churches, Chs. 2-3.

 II. The Seven Seals, 4:1-8:1.

   1. A preparatory vision of the throne, Chs. 4-5.

   2. Six seals opened in order, Ch. 6.

   3. An episode-sealing God's servants, Ch, 7.

   4. The seventh seal opened, 8:1.

III. The Seven Trumpets, 8:1l end.

   1. A preparatory vision, 8:2-6.

   2. Six trumpets sounded in order, 8:7-9 end.

   3. An episode-Little book, measuring the temple and two witnesses,
10:1-11:14

   4. The seventh trumpet sounded, 11:15 end.

 IV. The Seven Mystic Figures. Chs. 12-14.

   1. The sun-clothed woman, Ch. 12.

   2. The red dragon, Ch, 12.

   3. The man-child, Ch. 12.

   4. The beast from the sea, 13:1-10.

   5. The beast from the earth, 13:11-18.

   6. The Lamb on Mount Sion, 14:1-13. Three angels.

   7. The son of man on the cloud, 14:14-20. Three angels.

  V. The Seven Vials, Chs. 15-16.

   1. The preliminary vision, Ch. 15-a song of victory.
   2. Six vials poured out in order, 16:1-12.

   3. An episode, 16:13-16. The spirits of the devil gather the kings
of the earth to the battle of Armageddon.

   4. The seventh vial poured out, 16:17-21 (end).

 VI. Three Final Conflicts and Triumphs, 17:1-22:5.

   1. The first conflict and triumph, 17:1-19:10.

   2. The second conflict and triumph, 19:11-20:6.

   3. The third conflict and triumph, 20:7-22:5.

VII. The Epilogue Conclusion, 22:6-21 end.

   1. Three-fold testimony to the truth of the vision. Angel, Jesus.
John,  6-8.

   2. Directions of the angels concerning the prophecy, 9-10.

   3. The moral of the book, 11-17.

   4. John's attestation and salutation, 18-21.

For Study and Discussion. (1) The vision of Jesus, 1:9  end. (2)
The letters to the seven churches: (a) Which churches are given noting
but praise? (b) Which nothing but blame? (c) Which both praise and
blame? (d) What is commended and what condemned in each. (3) The
twenty-four elders, four living creatures, sealed book and the Lamb,
Chs. 4-5. (4) The sealing of God's servants, Ch. 7. (5) The little
book, Ch. 10. (6) The measuring rod and two witnesses; 11:1-14. (7)
Each of the seven mystic figures, Chs. 12-14. Describe each. (8)
Mystery Babylon, Ch. 17. (9) Song of triumph over Babylon, 19:1-10.
(10) The judgment of Satan, 20:1-10. (11) The description of the
general resurrection and judgment, 20:11-15; 22:10-15. (12) The
description of heaven, Chs. 21-22. (13) Verify the following points of
similarity in the seven seals, seven trumpets and seven vials, (a)
that heaven is opened and a preliminary vision before each series, (b)
that the first four in each series refer especially to the present
natural world, while the last three in each series refer more
particularly to the future or spiritual world, (c) that in each series
there is an episode after the sixth which is either an elaboration of
the sixth or an introduction to the seventh. (14) Compare these three
series again and note, (a) that they portray the same events in
similar language, (b) that the victory of the righteous and the
destruction of the wicked are portrayed in each, (c) that the victory
of the redeemed predominates in the first (seals) while the
destruction of the wicked predominates in the last (vials). (15) In
the series note the progress in the severity of punishment, (a) one-
fourth afflicted in the first (seals), (b) one-third afflicted in the
second (trumpets), (c) all are destroyed in the third (vials). (16)
From the following scriptures make a list allowing how nearly the same
thing is affected in each of the seven trumpets and vials, (a) 8:7 and
16:2, (b) 8:8 and 16:3, (c) 8:10-11 and 16:4-7, (d) 8:12 and 16:8-9,
(e) 9:9-11 and 16:10-11, (f) 9:13-21 and 16:12-16, (g) 11:15-18 and
16:17-21. (17) The contrasts and resemblances of the trumpets and
vials.

Trumpets. 1. Hail, fire blood cast on earth, one-third of the trees
burned.

Vails. 1. The Vial poured out on the earth, affliction upon the
followers of the beast.

Trumpets. 2. One-third of the sea made blood, one-third of its
creatures and of its ships destroyed.

Vails. 2. The whole sea made blood, and every soul therein destroyed.

Trumpets. 3. One-third of the rivers made bitter, many men destroyed

Vials. 3. All the rivers made blood and vengeance upon all men.

Trumpets. 4. One-third of the sun, etc., smitten, one-third of the day
darkened.

Vials. 4. The whole sun smitten, men are scorched, they blaspheme and
repent not.

Trumpets. 5. The stars of heaven fall into the pit; locusts sent
forth; men seek death.

Vials. 5. The throne and kingdom of the beast smitten, men suffer and
blaspheme and repent not.

Trumpets. 6. One-third of the men destroyed by the armies of the
Euphrates; men do not repent. Episode: God's two witnesses witness for
Him and work miracles. War against them by the beasts.

Vials. 6. A way prepared for the kings beyond the Euphrates. Episode:
The dragon's three unclean spirits witness for him and work miracles.
War by the world at Armageddon.

Trumpets. 7. Voices in heaven, judgment, earthquake, hail, etc.

Vials. 7, Voice in heaven, fall of Babylon, earthquake, hail, etc.

(18) The benedictions and doxologies of the book. (19) Things taught
about Jesus. (20) Things taught about Satan.

END.





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