By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Animal Figures in the Maya Codices
Author: Tozzer, Alfred M. (Alfred Marston), 1877-1954, Allen, Glover M. (Glover Morrill), 1879-1942
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Animal Figures in the Maya Codices" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

Transcriber's Note

A number of typographical errors and inconsistencies have been
maintained in this version of this book. They have been marked with a
[TN-#], which refers to a description in the complete list found at the
end of the text.

The following less-common characters are used in this version of the
book. If they do not display properly, please try changing your font.

ă       a with breve
ɔ       open o
ħ       h with stroke
š       s with caron
ṭ       t with dot under
†       Dagger
‡       Double dagger

The following codes are used for characters that are not able to be
represented in the text format used for this version of the book.

[ɔ.]    open o with dot under
[p.]    p with dot under
[^q]    q with circumflex
[ts.]   ts with dot under

                   OF THE

              VOL. IV.--No. 3.

               ANIMAL FIGURES
                   IN THE
                MAYA CODICES


           ALFRED M. TOZZER, PH.D.
           GLOVER M. ALLEN, PH.D.

              CAMBRIDGE, MASS.
               FEBRUARY, 1910

Salem Press:


It has been thought desirable, for the advancement of the study of Maya
hieroglyphs, that the interpretation of the conventionalized animal
figures, which so frequently occur in the Maya codices, should be
undertaken. The Peabody Museum Committee on Central American Research
therefore requested Dr. A. M. Tozzer to prepare a paper on the subject,
and to secure the valuable cooperation of Dr. Glover M. Allen, a
zoologist familiar with the animals of Mexico and Central America, to
aid in the identification of the various species of animals which under
varying forms are used in connection with the glyphs.

While it is possible that some of the determinations given in this paper
may require further confirmation, it is evident that the combined
studies of Dr. Tozzer and Dr. Allen cannot fail to be useful to students
of the Maya hieroglyphic writing.

August, 1909.


The vowels and consonants have their continental sounds with the
following exceptions:--

  =ă=      like _u_ in hut
  =ai=     like _i_ in island
  =k=      (Beltran's _c_) ordinary palatal _k_
  =q=      (Beltran's _k_) velar _k_
  =[ɔ.]=   (Beltran's _ɔ_) _ts_ explosive or fortis
  =ɔ=      (Beltran's _tz_) _ts_ non-explosive
  =š=      (Beltran's _x_) like _sh_ in hush
  =tš=     (Beltran's _ch_) like _ch_ in church
  =[ts.]=  (Beltran's _cħ_) _ch_ explosive
  =[p.]=   (Beltran's _pp_) _p_ explosive
  =t=      (Beltran's _tħ_) _t_ explosive


   1.  Mollusca: _Fasciolaria gigantea, Oliva_.
   2.  Insecta: Honey bee (_Melipona_).
   3.  Insecta and Myriapoda.
   4.  Arachnoidea, Arachnida, Crustacea.
   5.  Myriapoda, Pisces.
   6.  Pisces.
   7.  Amphibia.
   8.  Amphibia, Reptilia.
   9.  Reptilia: Rattlesnake (_Crotalus_).
  10.  Reptilia: Serpents.
  11.  Reptilia: Serpents.
  12.  Reptilia: Iguana, Lizards.
  13.  Reptilia: Crocodile
  14.  Reptilia: Turtles.
  15.  Aves: Herons, Frigate-bird.
  16.  Aves: Ocellated Turkey (_Agriocharis ocellata_).
  17.  Aves: King Vulture (_Sarcorhamphus papa_).
  18.  Aves: King Vulture (_S. papa_), Black Vulture (_Catharista urubu_).
  19.  Aves: Vultures.
  20.  Aves: Harpy Eagle (_Thrasaetos harpyia_).
  21.  Aves: Yucatan Horned Owl (_Bubo virginianus mayensis_).
  22.  Aves: Yucatan Horned Ow[TN-1] (_B. v. mayensis_).
  23.  Aves: Yucatan Screech Owl (_Otus choliba thompsoni_).
  24.  Aves: Quetzal (_Pharomacrus mocinno_).
  25.  Aves: Blue Macaw (_Ara militaris_).
  26.  Aves: Parrots, Turkeys.
  27.  Aves: Miscellaneous.
  28.  Various animals.
  29.  Mammalia: Armadillo and miscellaneous.
  30.  Mammalia: Deer, Hare.
  31.  Mammalia: Yucatan Deer (_Odocoileus yucatanensis_).
  32.  Mammalia: Yucatan Peccary (_Tayassu angulatum yucatanense_),
                 Yucatan Deer (_O. yucatanensis_).
  33.  Mammalia: Yucatan Peccary (_T. a. yucatanense_).
  34.  Mammalia: Jaguar, Puma.
  35.  Mammalia: Jaguar, Coyote, Bear.
  36, 37.  Mammalia: Dog (_Canis_).
  38.  Mammalia: Leaf-nosed Bat (_Vampyrus_ or _Phyllostomus_).
  39.  Mammalia: Monkey (_Cebus_) and miscellaneous.


   1.  Top of Altar T, Copan (Mandslay,[TN-2] I. Pl. 95)             320

   2.  Pottery whistle from Uloa Valley, Honduras, representing a
       vulture. Peabody Museum Memoirs. I. No. 4, fig. 15            332

   3.  }
   4.  } Glyphs of Maya month _Moan_ showing moan-bird
   5.  } characteristics                                             339
   6.  }

   7.  Quetzal from the bas-relief of the Temple of the Cross,
       Palenque                                                      341

   8.  }
   9.  } Glyphs for Maya month _Kankin_ (Ribs of dogs)               364
  10.  }

  11.  }
  12.  }
  13.  } Glyphs for Maya month _Zotz_ (Bats)                         365
  14.  }

  15.  Pottery whistle from Uloa Valley, Honduras (Peabody Museum
       Memoirs, I, No. 4, fig. 14), representing an ape              366

  16.  }
  17.  }
  18.  } Glyphs for Maya day _Chuen_                                 367
  19.  }

  20.  }
  21.  }
  22.  } Glyphs of God C. (Schellhas, Peabody Museum Papers, IV,     368
  23.  } No. 1)
  24.  }


The various peoples inhabiting Mexico and Central America in early
pre-Columbian times were accustomed to record various events, especially
in regard to their calendar and the religious ceremonials in relation to
it, on long strips of skin or bark. These were usually painted on both
sides and folded together like a screen. Several of these codices are
still in existence from the Nahua and Zapotec areas in Mexico, but only
three have come down to us from the Maya region which is included in the
peninsula of Yucatan, the states of Tabasco and Chiapas in Mexico, and
portions of Guatemala and Honduras. These three manuscripts are the
Dresden Codex in the Royal Public Library at Dresden, the
Tro-Cortesianus (formerly considered to have been two, the Troano and
the Cortesianus) in the National Archaeological Museum at Madrid, and
the Peresianus in the National Library at Paris. These pre-Columbian
manuscripts have all been published in facsimile. (See bibliography.)

These remains of a once extensive literature show evidence not only of
considerable intellectual attainments on the part of their authors but
also of a high degree of artistic skill in the drawings and
hieroglyphics. The frequent occurrence in these manuscripts of
representations of animals showing various degrees of elaboration and
conventionalization has led us to undertake the task of identifying
these figures as far as possible and studying the uses and significance
of the several species, a field practically untouched.[284-*]
Förstemann in his various commentaries on the Maya codices (1902, 1903,
1906), Brinton (1895), and deRosny[TN-3] (1876) have only commented briefly
upon this side of the study of the manuscripts. Seler (1904a) and some
others have written short papers on special animals. During the
preparation of this paper there has appeared a brief account by Stempell
(1908) of the animals in the Maya codices. The author has, however,
omitted a number of species and, as we believe, misidentified others. In
making our identifications we have given the reasons for our
determinations in some detail and have stated the characteristics
employed to denote the several species.

We have not limited ourselves entirely to the Maya manuscripts as we
have drawn upon the vast amount of material available in the stone
carvings, the stucco figures, and the frescoes found throughout the Maya
area. This material has by no means been exhausted in the present paper.
In addition to the figures from the Maya codices and a comparatively few
from other sources in the Maya region, we have introduced for comparison
in a number of cases figures from a few of the ancient manuscripts of
the Nahuas and the Zapotecs to the north. The calendar of these two
peoples is fundamentally the same as that of the Mayas. The year is made
up in the same way being composed of eighteen months of twenty days each
with five days additional at the end of the year. There is therefore a
more or less close connection as regards subject matter in all the
pre-Columbian codices of Mexico and Central America but the manner of
presentation differs among the different peoples of this region.


[284-*] The first two parts of Dr. Seler's Treatise, "Die Tierbilder der
mexikanischen und der Maya-Handschriften" published in the _Zeitschrift
für Ethnologie_, Vol. 41, have appeared during the time when this paper
was passing through the press. The most excellent and exhaustive
treatment by Dr. Seler would seem to render the present paper
unnecessary. It has seemed best, however, to continue with its
publication inasmuch as its field is narrower and more space is devoted
to the Maya side of the question to the exclusion of the Mexican. Dr.
Seler, on the other hand, while by no means neglecting the Maya, has
spent more time in explaining the Mexican figures.



Before taking up the different animals in the codices it may be well to
consider some of the more common ways in which the figures occur and
their connection with the surrounding figures.

MANNER OF REPRESENTATION. The entire body of the animal may be
represented realistically or the head alone may be shown. The animal
head is frequently attached to a human body. The animal may appear
conventionalized to a greater or less extent and the head in turn may
change in the same way until only a single characteristic of the animal
remains by which to identify it as, for example, the spots of the jaguar
or the feathering around the eye of the macaw. In the case of the
glyphs, a term employed to designate the regular and usually square
characters appearing in lines or columns throughout the codices and
inscriptions, we find both the realistic drawing and that where
conventionalism has come in.

THE TONALAMATL. The Maya codices are made up, for the most part, of the
records of the sacred period of two hundred and sixty days, a period
called in Nahuatl, _tonalamatl_, and other numerical calculations. The
_tonalamatl_ was used for purposes of divination in order to find out
whether good or bad fortune was in store for an individual. It is not
necessary at this place to go into the different means taken to record
this period of time or its methods of use. It may be well, however, to
explain the usual distribution of the pictures in the codices, including
those of animals, in connection with the representation of the
_tonalamatl_. A normal period is shown in Dresden 6c-7c. A column of
five day signs occurs in the middle of 6c with a single red dot over it.
To the right of this column stretches a horizontal line of numbers
consisting of alternate groups of black and red lines and dots. Under
each pair of red and black numbers there is usually a human form and
over each pair a group of four glyphs belonging to the figure below.
Schellhas (1904) has classified the various figures of gods appearing in
these vignettes of the _tonalamatl_ and lettered them. References
throughout the paper will be made to the gods by letters and the reader
is referred to Schellhas' paper. Animal figures often take the place of
these gods as in the second picture in Dresden 7c where the screech owl
is shown with human body. The greater number of animal figures in the
codices occur in some connection with these _tonalamatls_.

MYTHOLOGICAL ANIMALS. Where figures are shown with human body and animal
head standing alone in the place usually occupied by one of the various
deities in the _tonalamatl_, there can be little doubt that they have a
mythological meaning and are to be taken, either as gods themselves, or
as representing certain of the gods. All of the animals are by no means
shown in this position. The screech owl, or Moan bird (as in Dresden
10a) appears most frequently in this way. The king vulture (Dresden 8a),
the dog (Dresden 7a), and the parrot (Dresden 40b) come next in
descending importance. The animals represented as copulating (as in
Dresden 13c) might also be considered as mythological animals as well as
the full drawings of the jaguar (Dresden 8a) and the other animals when
they occur alone in the regular vignette of the _tonalamatl_. The four
priests in Dresden 25a-28a should also be regarded as representing, in
all probability, the dog as a mythological animal. The idea of
worshipping animals as gods in themselves is strengthened by noting the
ease with which the Maya people worshipped the horse which was left
behind by Cortes in his march from Mexico across to Honduras
(Villagutierre, 1701, pp. 100-101).

ASTRONOMICAL IDEAS. Animals frequently have a part to play in relation
to the constellations. Throughout the codices and, to a less degree, in
the stone carvings, we find what have usually been considered to be
glyphs for several of the constellations. Numerous calculations in the
codices make it clear that the Mayas had a good knowledge of astronomy.
These glyphs are usually oblong in shape and three or more are arranged
together end to end. We have called these the constellation bands.
Various attempts have been made to identify these signs of the various
constellations. Animals frequently are pictured below these bands. The
dog with fire brands in his paws and often attached to his tail is shown
in several places coming head downward from one of these bands (as in
Dresden 36a). The peccary is also shown in the same position although
the fire brands do not appear (Dresden 68a). A figure with macaw head
occurs once standing beneath one of these bands with fire brands in his
hands (Dresden 40b). The serpent (as in Dresden 36a), the
lizard-crocodile-like animal in Dresden 74, the turtle (Tro-Cortesianus
71a), the vulture (Dresden 38b), the turkey (Tro-Cortesianus 10b), and
the deer (Tro-Cortesianus 47a) all appear in connection with these
constellation bands. It is impossible at this time to decide upon the
part these various animals play in relation to distinct constellations.
In addition to the animals named, several of the gods, especially god B,
are found below these bands. One of these signs, the one identified by
Förstemann as standing for Saturn, is composed of the head of the
crocodile more or less conventionalized.

Förstemann (1902, p. 27) identifies the turtle with the summer solstice
and the snail as the animal associated with the winter solstice. There
does not seem to be any one animal used in connection with any one of
the cardinal points. In Tro-Cortesianus 88c the dog seems to be
associated with the north as shown by the glyph which is ordinarily
regarded as connected with that direction, the ape with the west, and an
unidentifiable bird sitting on a _Cimi_ (death) sign with the south. The
east is connected in this place with a human figure. It should be
stated, however, that it is not absolutely certain that the usual
assignment of the cardinal points, each to its special direction, is
correct. The signs for the east and west as well as those for the north
and south may be reversed. With the exception of the assignment of the
offering-glyphs to the various cardinal points which will be discussed
later (p. 290) this is almost the only case where a clear relation can
be made out between the various animals and the signs for the four
directions. There is no definite relation as is seen, for example, in
the Vaticanus 3773, 17, 18 where the quetzal is noted perched on the
tree of the east, the eagle on that of the north, the humming bird on
that of the west, and the jaguar on the tree of the south.

COPULATION. The conception, the period of pregnancy, the infant baptism,
and possibly, the naming of children are shown in both the
Tro-Cortesianus (91-95) and the Dresden (13-23). Animals are frequently
shown copulating with various gods or with one another. In Dresden 13c,
the deer and god M and the vulture and the dog; in 19c, the vulture and
a woman; in Tro-Cortesianus 91d, a god and a woman; and in 92d, an
armadillo and a deer both with female figures. These animals probably
represent in some way the totems of the man or woman in question and are
shown in place of the human figure. The Lacandones, a Maya people, show
at the present time the remains of a totemic system (Tozzer, 1907, pp.
40-42). The deer (_Ke_) gens is found at the present time. In the
greater number of cases where copulation is shown a god and a female
figure are pictured. The presentation of the new-born children by women
with bird head-dresses, also occurring in this same section of both
manuscripts, is discussed later (p. 291).

ANIMAL SACRIFICES. Various ceremonials occurring at intervals throughout
the Maya year which included sacrifices to the gods, evidently took up a
large part of the time of the people. Animals composed by far the major
part of the gifts made to the gods. This was especially true in regard
to the ceremonies occurring at the beginning of each year. According to
the Maya calendar there were four days only which could come at the
beginning of the year and these came in succession. Landa (1864, pp.
210-233), the first Bishop of Yucatan, gives a minute description of the
rites of the four years which were named according to the initial day.
He also relates the manner in which the various animals are employed as
offerings in these rites and also in others taking place at the
beginning of the various months.[289-*]

The rites which took place at the beginning and the end of the year are
shown in Dresden 25-28 and in Tro-Cortesianus 34-37. The dog, the deer,
and the turkey are the most important of the animals shown as being
offered to the gods in this connection. It will not be necessary to
consider these animals in detail at this place as they are each taken up

OFFERINGS SHOWN BY GLYPHS. It is, however, in another connection than
that just considered that the animals are shown as offerings far more
frequently throughout the Maya manuscripts. In the ceremonies of the
four years, the animals and birds are, for the most part, represented
entire and purely as pictures. Offerings are also shown in the form of
glyphs. These may occur in connection with the figures of the gods or in
the lines of hieroglyphs above the pictures. When they are used in the
former relation they are usually shown as resting in a bowl or dish
(Dresden 35a). It frequently happens that when a god is making an
offering represented by the entire animal or a glyph of the animal in
the main picture, there is a corresponding glyph of the offering above
in the line of hieroglyphics (Dresden 23b).

The fish, iguana, turkey, deer and possibly the lizard are the usual
animals shown as glyphs in this connection. The frigate bird occurs once
in the Dresden (35a) and once in the Tro-Cortesianus (34a) as an
offering. The dog, curiously enough, does not seem to be represented by
an offering-glyph although he has a glyph of his own when appearing in
other connections. The iguana and fish are shown entire although drawn
very small; the head is the only part usually shown of the turkey and
the haunch of venison of the deer. The head and feet of the lizard, as
has been noted, may also be shown by a glyph. The turkey and iguana
glyphs are very often found with a _Kan_ sign indicating an offering of
maize and bread as well as that of the animal. In connection with glyphs
showing various offerings of food, there is one which occurs especially
in the Tro-Cortesianus (as in 106a). This shows a row of points
themselves running to a point over a _Kan_ sign. This, as will be
pointed out later (p. 318) may also represent an iguana. The jar
containing a representation of the honey comb (as in Tro-Cortesianus
107b) might come in here in the consideration of the offering-glyphs.

In many instances the common offerings shown by glyphs are found
associated with the signs for the four cardinal points but there does
not seem to be any strict uniformity as to the special offering
associated with each direction. In Dresden 29b, the lizard glyph is
found in the same group with the sign commonly assigned to the east, the
turkey with the south, the iguana with the west, and the fish with the
north while in Dresden 29c, the deer is associated with the east, the
fish with the south, the iguana with the west, and the turkey with the
north. The iguana is usually found with the sign for the west and the
fish with that of the south. The others vary greatly in the assignment
of the various directions.

Schellhas (1904, p. 17) considers that the fish, the lizard, "the
sprouting kernel of maize or (according to Förstemann, parts of a
mammal, game)" and a vulture's head are symbols of the four elements.
The head which Schellhas interprets as that of the vulture is certainly
the head of a turkey. He remarks that these signs of the four elements
appear with god B in the Dresden manuscript. Other gods, as he also
notes, are found with these four offering-glyphs. There seems to be a
fifth glyph, however, (as in Dresden 29b) which we have interpreted as
that of a lizard.

ANIMALS AS RAIN BEARERS. Various animals are associated with the rain
and water. The serpent is most frequently represented in this
connection. Snails, fish, the turtle, and the frog, as well as the
lizard-crocodile figure in Dresden 74 are naturally found associated
with water. The vulture-headed figure in Dresden 38b and the vulture as
a bird in Tro-Cortesianus 10a both appear in the rain. The peccary
(Dresden 68a), and the turkey (Tro-Cortesianus 10b) appear associated
with the rain as well as with the constellation bands. The scorpion
(Tro-Cortesianus 7a) encloses the rain within its legs.

The connection of an old female figure occurring in many places in the
codices with the rain will be discussed later (p. 316) when considering
the serpent. It remains at this place to comment upon the woman in
Tro-Cortesianus 30b from whose breasts water is flowing. She is
represented as having animal figures seated on her two outstretched
hands and on her right foot together with another animal at her side.
God B sits on her left foot. This picture immediately recalls
representations in the Mexican codices where the various parts of the
body of a god are associated with various day signs, ten of which have
animal names. In the Maya picture, a jaguar is shown on the right hand,
a peccary on the left, a dog on the right foot, and a rabbit beside the
body at her right. The peccary is not represented among the Nahua day
signs but the other three are found, namely the _oceolotl_ (jaguar),
_itzcuintli_ (dog), and _tochtli_ (rabbit).

ANIMAL HEAD-DRESSES. Animal figures appear perhaps most frequently as
head-dresses of the various gods in the codices. Here, as elsewhere,
from all that can be made out, the religious character is uppermost as
in addition to being a decoration, they undoubtedly have some religious
signification. Birds occur by far most commonly in this connection. Both
male and female figures seems to have these head-dresses. The same bird
is often found as the head-dress of several different gods as, for
example, the turkey which appears with gods A, B, C, E, and N. The
vulture, on the other hand, when used as a head-dress for male figures,
appears exclusively with god F. The whole bird is seldom represented on
the head-dress of the male figures. It is usually only the head and a
part of the body of the bird which forms but a portion of the whole
head-covering. Landa (1864, p. 148)[292-*] notes the dress of the leader
in the rites. He wears a jacket of red feathers worked with other
feathers and from it hang long plumes. He also wears a feather

Entire birds appear as the sole head-covering only in connection with
female figures and then only in one section of the Dresden (16-18) and a
parallel passage in the Tro-Cortesianus (94-95). In both these places
the conception and the bearing of children are shown together with their
baptism. The bird above the head of each female figure seems to be a
badge of office, possibly the totems which are held by the women and
given to the children. The parrot, quetzal, vulture, screech owl and the
horned owl appear in this connection. It is to be noted that the birds
associated with these women are not really represented as head-dresses
at all. They are quite different from the head decoration composed of a
bird's head and feathers seen in other parts of the manuscripts. In the
Dresden especially, these birds above the women's heads are shown in
almost every case standing with the claws clasping the necklace at the
back of the neck. Landa (1864, pp. 144-154) gives an interesting account
of the method of baptising children. He also states (p. 304)[292-†]
that in the month _Yaxkin_ an old woman brought the little girls to the
general feast. This old woman was dressed in a garment of feathers. It
was understood that this devoted old woman was not permitted to become
intoxicated[293-*] lest she should lose in the road the plume of her

The serpent appears as a head-dress exclusively with female figures and
then usually when the woman is in the act of offering something or is
associated with water or rain. The centipede occurs only with god D.
Quadrupeds are employed as head-dresses only very seldom. The head of a
deer is, in three places, used as a part of the head decoration of god M
and the head of a jaguar appears in two places only.

SECULAR OCCUPATIONS. Animals appear frequently in scenes showing various
occupations. These, although appearing at first sight as secular, have
to do with the religion of the people and they show in every case acts
undertaken in behalf of the deities. It is almost exclusively in the
Tro-Cortesianus that these religious-secular occupations are shown.

Hunting scenes occur in one section of this codex (38-49). The whole aim
of the hunt in these pages is to obtain animals for sacrifice. In almost
every case the various animals are shown as being captured alive, either
in a pitfall or a trap of the "jerk-up" type. This was undoubtedly in
order that the animal might be killed the moment it was offered to the
gods by having its heart cut out. Deer are most commonly represented in
this hunting section although peccaries and armadillos also appear.
Fishing is shown in one place at least (Dresden 33a).

The practice of agriculture is shown in Tro-Cortesianus 24-28. The
sprouting grain is represented as being eaten by a vulture and a jaguar.
Certain gods in this section which relates to the planting of maize are
shown as being attacked by vultures and blow-flies. Another occupation
of the natives depicted in the Tro-Cortesianus (103-112) is apiculture.
This, again, has clearly some religious significance. Pottery-making is
shown in the same manuscript (95-101). It is, however, a purely
religious ceremony. The renewal of the incense-burners is shown.
Animals occur very infrequently in this section. The quetzal and two
vultures are noted seated on top of an oven-like covering under which is
the head of god C, probably representing the idol. There are several
other occupations shown in this codex such as weaving (79c) and the
gathering of the sap of the rubber tree (102b), but as animals do not
occur in any connection with these operations, it is not necessary to
dwell upon them.

ANIMAL GLYPHS. It remains finally to speak of the various animals which
are represented in glyph form as well as drawn in full in the pictures
proper. The creatures pictured in the codices are often accompanied by
their glyphs which appear in the lines of signs directly above. In many
cases, the animal pictured below is not represented by its glyph above
and, vice versa, the animal glyph may appear without its picture below.
The same is seen also in connection with the representation of the gods
and their glyphs. Both the picture and the glyph usually appear but
either may appear alone. Many times when the glyph, either of a god or
an animal, is shown with no accompanying picture, the reason seems to be
that there is no room for the latter on account of the numerical
calculations which take up all the space.

There are some animals in the codices which are represented by glyphs
very frequently. Among these are the screech owl (the Moan, the bird of
death), which has several different glyphs by which it is recognized,
the dog which, in addition to its own glyph, may be represented by the
day sign _Oc_, the king vulture, the turtle, the bee (if we consider the
day sign _Cauac_ stands for this insect), and the centipede. Among the
animals whose glyphs only seldom appear may be mentioned the macaw, the
peccary, the tree-toad (god P), the quetzal, and the jaguar. The glyph
for the black vulture (Tro-Cortesianus 26c), the ape (Tro-Cortesianus
88c), the deer (Peresianus 10), the eagle (Tro-Cortesianus 107c), and
the serpent (Tro-Cortesianus 106c) seem to appear but once. It might
also be well to mention in this place the glyphs for various molluscs
which are used not to represent the shell but to give the value of zero
to the numerical calculations.

In the inscriptions glyphs frequently occur which represent animals
either showing the whole body or simply the head. In the eastern façade
of the Monjas at Chichen Itza there are glyphs for both the king and the
black vulture and the peccary. The macaw and the turtle seem also to be
represented by glyphs in the inscriptions. The _Tun_ period glyph shows
vulture-like characteristics and the _Uinal_ period glyph certainly
resembles the lizard. The glyphs representing the various animal
offerings have already been discussed under a special heading (p. 289).


[289-*] p. 162. "Las mugeres no usavan destos derrammamientos, aunque
eran harto santeras; mas de todas las cosas que aver podian que son aves
del cielo, animales de la tierra, o pescados de la agua, siempre les
embadurnavan los rostros al demonio con la sangre dellos."

p. 164. "Y otras cosas que tenian ofrecian; a algunos animales les
sacavan el corazon y lo ofrecian, a otros enteros, unos vivos, otros
muertos, unos crudos, otros guisados.... Que sin las fiestas en las
quales, para la solemnidad de ellas, se secrificavan animales, tambien
por alguna tribulacion o necessidad."

p. 254. "Tenian buscados todos animales y savandijas del campo que
podian aver y en la tierra avia, y con ellos se juntavan en el patio del
templo en el qual se ponian los _Chaques_.... Sacavan con liberalidad
los coraçones a las aves y animales, y echavanlos a quemar en el fuego;
y sino podian aver los animales grandes como tigres, leones o largartos,
hazian los coraçones de su encienso, y si los matavan trayanles los
coraçones para aquel fuego."

[292-*] "Vestido salia con un jaco de pluma colorado y labrado de otras
plumas de colores, y que le cuelgan de los estremos otras plumas largas
y una como coroza en la cabeça de las mesmas plumas."

[292-†] "Y a las niñas se les dava una vieja, vestida de un habito de
plumas, que las traia alli y por esto la llamavan _Ixmol_, la
allegadera.... Aquella devota vieja allegaria con que se emborachava en
casa por no perder la pluma del officio en el camino."

[293-*] "Intoxication was obligatory with the men in many of the
religious rites. This is reported by the early Spanish historians and is
the case at the present time among the Lacandones." (See Tozzer, 1907,
p. 136.)



In the descriptions of the animals which follow the general plan will be
to consider first the identification purely from a zoological point of
view, and, secondly, the connection and, wherever possible, the meaning
of the use of the various animal figures wherever they occur.


FASCIOLARIA GIGANTEA. Representations of this marine shell are found in
several places in the codices. It is the only large _Fusus_-like species
on the western coast of the Gulf of Mexico, and, indeed, is the largest
known American shell. It is therefore not strange that it should have
attracted the attention of the Mayas and found a place in their
writings. Several figures are shown that represent _Fasciolaria_ (Pl. 1,
figs. 1-9). One in the Codex Vaticanus 3773 (Pl. 1, fig. 3) in common
with those shown in Pl. 1, figs. 2, 6, 9, has the spire represented by
segments of successively smaller size. The species of _Fasciolaria_
occurring on the Yucatan and adjacent coasts is characterized by
numerous prominent bosses or projections on its later whorls, and these,
too, appear in conventionalized form in most of the representations. In
Pl. 1, fig. 2, the second whorl, and in figs. 6, 9, the third whorl is
shown with three stout tubercles in side view, corresponding to those
found in this region of the shell. Figs. 7, 8 (Pl. 1) are glyphs
representing the same species, but as in fig. 4, the spire is omitted,
though the knobs are present. Round spots of color are evidently
intended by the markings on the shells shown in figs. 3, 5, 6 (Pl. 1).
Fig. 5, shows a further modification of the spire, which here is made
like the head of a serpent.

The _Mollusca_ in the codices are not always associated with the water
although this is usually the case. God N (Pl. 1, fig. 1) sitting with
the shell around his body is represented as in the rain and the shells
in Pl. 1, figs. 4, 6, appear under water. The snail (Maya, _šot_) is
considered by the Nahuas as the symbol of birth and death. The first
idea is well brought out in Pl. 1, fig. 2, where the human figure is
emerging from a shell. The same idea among the Mayas is seen in Pl. 1,
fig. 1, where god N is coming from a shell. As god N is usually
associated with the end of the year, we may have here the complementary
idea of death associated with the shell. The same meaning is brought out
in the Bologna Codex (Pl. 1, fig. 3) where the shell is decorated with
flint points, the symbol of death. As the tortoise is often identified
with the summer solstice, as previously pointed out, so the snail is
associated with the winter solstice.

Förstemann's identification of the head-dress of god D (Dresden 5c), god
A (Dresden 9c, 13a), and god E (Dresden 11c) as representing snails is
not clear. Stempell (1908, p. 739) also follows the same course thinking
that the knob-like prominences represent the stalked eyes of snails.
This seems quite unlikely as such representations are usually short and
occur in too widely dissimilar connections. Moreover, there are
sometimes three of these instead of but a single pair (Dresden 14a). A
similar attempt has been made by Brinton to identify the head-dress of
the death god (god A) as the snail. The head-dress in Dresden 13a and
13b associated with god A looks far more like the head and upper jaw of
some mammal.

OLIVA. A univalve shell frequently represented is of an oval shape,
pointed at each end, with a longitudinal lip and a short spire at one
extremity. This is doubtless a species of _Oliva_, a marine shell. Mr.
Charles W. Johnson informs us that _O. reticulata_ is the species
occurring on the Yucatan shores, while _O. splendidula_ is found in
other parts of the Gulf of Mexico. Representations of this shell are
shown in Pl. 1, figs. 10-12. In figs. 10, 11, the lip and spire are
apparent but in fig. 12 the lip only is seen as a white fissure against
the general dark background. An earthenware vessel representing a tapir
(Pl. 28, fig. 1) shows a string of _Oliva_ shells about the animal's
neck and similar strings very often decorate the belts worn by the
personages represented on the stelae of Copan.

The shell in the codices is found in most cases to represent zero in the
Maya numerical calculations. Just as a bar has the meaning five, and a
dot one, so the shell often has the signification of zero. This is seen
especially in the numeration by position in the codices (Pl. 1, figs. 7,
8, 10-14).

OTHER MOLLUSCA. In addition to the species just described at least two
or three others occur in the Nuttall Codex, but so conventionalized that
it is out of the question to hazard a guess at their identity. One (Pl.
1, figs. 16, 17) is a bivalve with long pointed shell, another (Pl. 1,
figs. 18-20) is rounder with conventionalized scroll-like markings.
Figs. 21, 22 (Pl. 1) may be a side view of the closed bivalve shown in
figs. 16, 17, or possibly a species of cowry. In like manner, fig. 13 is
probably a side view of the mollusc shown in fig. 14, for it is seen
that in each case the figure showing the two opened valves has a
bipartite extended foot, whereas that of the single valve is simple.
This doubling of the single median foot of the bivalve may be an
artistic necessity for the sake of balance, or perhaps represents both
foot and siphon at the same end. Figs. 23, 24 (Pl. 1) seem to represent
molluscs still further reduced and conventionalized. These molluscs from
the Nuttall Codex (Pl. 1, figs. 15-24) are almost all found represented
in the blue water, whereas those which stand for zero in the Maya
codices have no immediate association with either water or rain.


THE HONEY BEE (_Melipona_). A portion of the Tro-Cortesianus appears to
treat of apiculture, as previously noted, or, at all events, contains
numerous figures of bees, some of which are shown in Pl. 2. As stated by
Stempell (1908, p. 735) this is doubtless a species of _Melipona_,
probably _M. fulvipes_ or _domestica_. It is well known that this bee
was kept by the ancient Mexicans, and what appear to be improvised hives
are shown in Pl. 2, figs. 7, 10, where the combs are noted depending
from the ceiling or walls. These combs are seen to be composed of cells
roughly four-sided for the most part, though in fig. 11 several
hexagonal cells are present in the mass of comb held by the black god,
M. Darwin, in his _Origin of Species_, has called attention to the form
of the comb built by this bee, and considers its irregular cells of from
three to six sides intermediate in their degree of perfection between
those of the bumble bee (_Bombus_) and the honey bee of Europe (_Apis
mellifica_). The _Caban_ form in connnection[TN-4] with the hive in fig.
10 may have some phonetic signifiance[TN-5] as _kab_ is honey in Maya.
This sign occurs very frequently in the pages devoted to apiculture.

The figures of the bees in the codex show a number of interesting
variations. In figs. 1-3, 5, 11, the insect is less conventionalized
than in figs. 4, 6 (Pl. 2). The hairy feet are well indicated as well as
the segmented body and a single pair of wings. All the figures show an
anterodorsal view so that, on account of the size of the first pair of
legs, only the tops of the second pair appear in Pl. 2, figs. 1, 3, 5.
In fig. 2, however, two pairs are seen, and in figs. 4, 6, the
anthropomorphic tendency is further shown by providing the insect with
two pairs of limbs each with four or five digits, and a conventionalized
face, eyes and mouth. In Pl. 2, fig. 1, the bee is represented without
mouthparts but antennae only. This may indicate a drone or a queen bee
that takes no active part in the work of gathering honey or making comb.
Fig. 2 is perhaps the least reduced of any of the figures and shows the
worker bee with antennae and mouthparts.

The so-called "cloud balls" of the day sign _Cauac_ (Pl. 2, fig. 8) may
represent the honey comb. _Cauac_ is usually supposed to have some
connection with lightening[TN-6] and thunder although Valentini agrees with
the authors in associating _Cauac_ with the bees and honey. The
_Cauac_-like forms in Pl. 2, figs. 7, 10, have been described above as
hives. The representation of legs in the full drawing of a bee as four
large limbs, an anterior and a posterior pair, coupled with the method
of drawing the insect as seen from above and in front, may have led to
its final expression by an X-shaped mark shown in connection with the
hives (Pl. 2, figs. 7, 10). The X is also seen in the day sign _Cauac_.

Apiculture was common among the various peoples of Central America and
Mexico. Las Casas speaks of hives of bees and Gomara states that the
bees were small and the honey rather bitter. Clavigero (Vol. 1, p.
68)[300-*] mentions six varieties of bees which were found in
Mexico;--the first is the same as the common bee of Europe, the second
differs from the first only in having no sting and is the bee of Yucatan
and Chiapas which makes the fine clear honey of aromatic flavor. The
third species resembles in its form the winged ants but is smaller than
the common bee and without a sting. The fourth is a yellow bee, smaller
than the common one but, like it, furnished with a sting. The fifth is a
small bee without a sting which constructs hives of an orbicular form in
subterranean cavities and the honey is sour and somewhat bitter. The
_Tlalpipiolli_, which is the sixth species, is black and yellow, of the
size of the common bee, but has no sting.

The natives of the country at the present time often cultivate hives of
bees in logs which they hollow out for this purpose and keep in a
specially constructed shelter. It is, however, rather the ceremonial
side of apiculture that is the interesting feature and this is clearly
emphasized in the Tro-Cortesianus. The section in this manuscript (80b,
103-112), as has been noted, is taken up almost exclusively with the
culture of the bee and in all probability represents a definite
religious ceremony or series of rites which are connected intimately
with bees and honey. Landa (1864, p. 292)[300-†] states that in the
month _Tzoz_ the natives prepare for a ceremony in behalf of the bees
which takes place in the following month, _Tzec_. In the month _Mol_
another fiesta is undertaken in behalf of these insects so that the
gods may provide an abundance of flowers for the bees (Landa, 1864, p.

It seems clear therefore that we have represented in the pages of the
Tro-Cortesianus referred to, the rites carried out in this connection.
The more or less realistic drawings of the bees (Pl. 2, figs. 1-6, 9)
represent the god of the bees and to him offerings of food and incense
are being made. Pl. 2, fig. 11, shows the war god (M) with his eagle
head-dress offering a mass of honey in the comb to the god of the bees.

Curiously enough the bee does not seem to be represented in the Dresden
Codex. Förstemann's identification of the head-dress of the goddess in
Dresden 9a as a bee does not seem to us to be correct.

In addition to the bees, there occurs in the Nuttall Codex 4 (Pl. 3,
fig. 4) a curious representation of an insect with a pointed beak-like
structure and a spine at the posterior extremity of its human-like body.
It is engaged in apparent conflict with a man and may represent a

BLOW-FLY (_Sarcophaga_). Two figures in the Tro-Cortesianus (Pl. 3,
figs. 1, 2) are of special interest since they appear to have been
frequently regarded as picturing snakes attacking men. These are
thick-bodied sinuous creatures distinguished by the curious conformation
of the mouth and by a lateral row of dots that may represent the
metameric spiracles or, as commonly, a demarcation between dorsal and
ventral surfaces. That these are maggots of a blow-fly (_Sarcophaga_)
there can be little doubt, not only on account of their mouth parts
which are similar to those of the agave maggot (see later) but also
because of their relation to God F whom they are devouring. The latter
in fig. 1 is doubtless dead as shown by the closed eye and it is the
habit of the blow-fly to deposit its eggs in the nasal cavity of dead
animals as well as elsewhere on the body. The fact that in each case a
maggot is attacking the god's nose may indicate that this habit was
known to the artist who, consequently, shows the larvae in this
position. In Pl. 3, fig. 2, the god's eye is not closed but his passive
attitude while the maggot devours his hand and nose does not indicate
that he is in full possession of his strength. In addition to the
blow-fly, a screw-fly (_Chrysomyia_) lays its eggs on the bodies of
animals, often on persons sleeping, and these may hatch almost at once
into small maggots that penetrate the skin. It may be, therefore, that
the larvae here considered belong to this genus.

In addition to god F, in Tro-Cortesianus 24d, there is another
representation of the same god being attacked by a vulture. This bird is
evidently eating his nose. In this case the god is shown with the closed
eye as in 27d. In Tro-Cortesianus 25d the fly seems to be attacking the
mouth of god F. From the fact that no other god is ever found in this
connection it may be suggested that there may be some relation between
god F as a god of human sacrifice and the fact that his dead body is
being eaten by blow-flies and vultures. A portion of the body of the
person sacrificed was usually eaten by those taking part in the

LEPIDOPTEROUS INSECTS. In Tro-Cortesianus 28c (Pl. 3, fig. 3) is shown a
second insect larva with curiously formed mouth parts. It is represented
as attacking agave which is springing from the ground as shown by the
_Caban_ signs in the codex. Hough (1908, p. 591) has shown this to be
the larva of _Acentrocneme kollari_ Felder, "called by the Mexicans
_guson_, and in Nahuatl _mescuillin_." This grub, he says, is white,
about an inch long, and tunnels the fleshy leaves of the agave. It is
greatly prized as an article of food for "_gusones_ to this day are
collected in April, boiled, wrapped in the epidermis of the agave, sold
on the streets of Mexico, and are eaten with avidity. To all appearances
they are nourishing and palatable, and it is said that connoisseurs
prefer them to oysters or swallows' nests." Hough believes "that the
discovery of the sap-yielding quality of the agave was through search
for these larvae."

In the Nuttall Codex occur numerous representations of insects, some of
which appear to represent butterflies or moths (Pl. 3, figs. 5-8) but
these are quite unidentifiable. That shown in fig. 6 is colored blue in
the original, while the others are of various colors. Possibly the round
markings on the wings in figs. 5, 8, represent the ocelli on the wings
of certain species of moths. In this connection, too, it is interesting
to compare the conventionalized butterfly with its single eye and
pointed antennae from the Aubin manuscript (Pl. 3, fig. 9) with one
drawn on the same plan from the Nuttall Codex (Pl. 3, fig. 8).


Representations of a centipede (probably a species of _Scolopendra_)
occur in the Dresden Codex and in several others examined. That shown in
Pl. 5, fig. 1, from the Vaticanus 3773, is perhaps the least
conventionalized.[303-*] This figure appears partly to encircle a
temple, behind which the major portion of its length is hidden and hence
is not here shown. The bipartite structure coming from the animal's head
doubtless represents the mouthparts, and at its base on either side
arise antennae. The first pair only of legs is shown with a pinching
claw, possibly intended as a conventionalized hand, while the rest are
simple. The plumes decorating the posterior extremity are of course
extraneous and represent the tail of the quetzal or trogon.

In the Dresden Codex, god D constantly appears in connection with a
head-dress from which depends a centipede, greatly reduced and
conventionalized. Two forms of this centipede are shown in Pl. 3, figs.
15, 18. The body appears to consist of four or five segments each with
its pair of ambulatory appendages (though there may not always be the
same number of each) terminated by a circular segment with a
conventionalized three-knobbed structure, apparently corresponding to
the portion that bears the quetzal plume in Pl. 5, fig. 1. The outline
of the head in Pl. 3, fig. 15, is shown in dotted line but by solid line
in fig. 18. One of the antennae appears to be omitted from the former
figure, also, but both are present in the latter. The insect-like head
is made on much the same plan as that of the bee (Pl. 2, fig. 11), the
facial portion divided by a median line into a right and a left half
with a small triangle below for a mouth. The eyes, however, instead of
being circular like those of the bee are made as narrow elongated
projections extending inward from the dorsal margin of the facial disc.

The glyphs for god D in Dresden 7b (Pl. 3, fig. 11), Dresden 7c, and
Dresden 14b (Pl. 3, fig. 12) undoubtedly show three forms of the sign
for god D, only one of which (fig. 12) is given by Schellhas (1904, p.
22) among the signs of this god. In each of these cases the centipede
head surrounded by dots is shown in connection with the main part of the
glyph. In Dresden 44b (Pl. 3, fig. 13) there is a glyph which seems to
show the same centipede head although it has no connection with god D in
the place where it is found. In Dresden 27 (Pl. 3, fig. 14), moreover,
still another variant of the glyph for god D seems to occur. This shows
a prefix clearly representing the centipede and the "moon sign" is the
main part of the glyph. Directly beside this in the codex is found the
_Ahau_-like sign for god D and god D himself is represented in the
middle section of the page.

The association of god D with the centipede may be explained by the fact
that as this god is regarded as the Moon or Night god, so the centipede
is an animal which frequents dark places. Another point in this
connection may be made if we consider the head of the centipede in the
head-dress and in the glyphs as representing the day sign _Akbal_ (Pl.
3, fig. 10) as _Akbal_ in Maya means night. It must be admitted,
however, that the head might represent the day sign _Chuen_ almost as
well as _Akbal_. The centipede is connected with death and destruction
in the same way as the owl. Both are shown in Vaticanus 3773, 13,
associated with the "house of drought."


With one possible exception no crustaceans were found depicted in the
Maya codices, but we have introduced figures of two from the Nuttall
Codex. The first of these (Pl. 4, fig. 5) is probably a crayfish,
perhaps _Cambarus montezumae_. It seems unlikely that the so-called
Spanish lobster (_Palinurus_) can be intended or the powerful spined
antennae would have been shown. It is interesting to note that the
stalked eyes are clearly pictured. The second example seems to be a crab
(Pl. 4, fig. 6). Two large chelae of nearly equal size are simply drawn
and four rounded projections at the top of the figure appear to
represent the walking legs. Its rotund form and subequal chelae suggest
the land crab, _Geocarcinus_, but exact determination is of course
impossible. What is certainly a large crab, perhaps of the same species,
is shown in Tro-Cortesianus 88c (Pl. 36, fig. 1) in connection with a
dog whose feet it seems about to pinch with its two large chelae. The
shell is ornamented in a conventionalized way as if with scales.


In Codex Borbonicus 9 (Pl. 4, fig. 4) there is represented a
stout-bodied form of spider with two sharply pointed chelicerae
projecting from the conventionalized mouth. These characteristics
together with the absence of any web, suggest a large predacious
species, probably the tarantula (_Tarantula_ sp.) which is common in
Mexico. The acute powers of observation shown by the artist are evinced
in this figure since he draws the spider correctly with eight legs
instead of the six or ten sometimes seen in drawings by our own


The scorpion (Maya, _sinaan_) figures prominently in the
Tro-Cortesianus, two drawings from which are shown (Pl. 4, figs. 1, 2).
As here conventionalized, the jointed appendages are represented as
composed of an indefinite number of round segments. The large chelate
pedipalps are also prominently figured but the smaller walking legs are
commonly omitted. In Pl. 4, fig. 1, however, there is a pair of
posterior chelate appendages which are probably added to give a more
anthropoid cast to the figure. The slight projections along the sides of
the body in Pl. 4, fig. 2, probably do not represent the legs. In
another drawing (Tro-Cortesianus 44b) these are also present but further
reduced so as not to exceed the heavy fringe of spines surrounding the
body. In Pl. 4, fig. 1, the fringe alone appears. The formidable nature
of the scorpion is of course due to the poisonous sting at the tip of
the attenuated abdomen or "tail." In the Maya pictures this portion is
usually shown as a grasping organ. Thus in fig. 1 it is similar to the
chela and holds a cord by which a deer has been caught. In fig. 2 the
"tail" is terminated by a hand. The same thing is seen in
Tro-Cortesianus 44b where the hand seizes a cord by which a deer is
snared. The scorpion is represented in the drawings with a
conventionalized face that is very characteristic. The facial disc is
divided into three parts by a median area of straight or irregular
lateral boundaries ending anteriorly in two in-turned scrolls suggesting
the alae of the nose. A circular eye is present in each of the lateral
divisions of the face while from the oral region projects a forked

It is of course hazardous to attempt a specific identification of these
figures but, as pointed out by Stempell (1908, p. 739), there are two
large scorpions in Yucatan (_Centruroides margaritatus_ and _C.
gracilis_) which are probably the species pictured in the codices.

The representations of the scorpion in the Tro-Cortesianus are almost
always associated with scenes of the hunt. As the deer is caught in a
trap so Förstemann considers that Pl. 4, fig. 1, shows a trap with five
appliances, the "tail" one alone being effective. Brinton (1895, p. 75)
notes that the Mayas applied the term _sinaan ek_, "scorpion stars" to a
certain constellation and suggests that it was derived from the
Spaniards. There is certainly some association between the scorpion and
water as, in Tro-Cortesianus 7a, the fore and hind legs of the animal
enclose a body of water. The scorpion "tail" alone appears in
Tro-Cortesianus 31a and 82a as the tail of a god. Its significance is
difficult to make out. Destruction is indicated by the scorpion in the
Aubin manuscript as suggested by Seler (1900-1901, p. 71).

In the Nuttall Codex there is a remarkably beautiful conventionalization
of a scorpion (Pl. 4, fig. 3) in which the tripartite nature of the head
is still preserved though it is so reduced as to resemble the calyx of a
flower. The "tail", as elsewhere, and the legs are present.


Figures of fish (Maya _kai_) occur commonly in the Maya codices in
various connections as well as in the stone carvings, but none of these
seems certainly identifiable. Among the representations, however, there
are clearly several species. One (Pl. 5, figs. 2, 6, 7-9; Pl. 6, fig. 9)
has a single dorsal fin, powerful teeth, and a generally ferocious
aspect and may represent some large predacious variety, perhaps a tunny.
The distinct operculum in most of the figures would preclude their
representing a shark. Other figures picture similar fish without the
prominent teeth (Pl. 5, fig. 4, 5; Pl. 6, figs. 2, 6, 10, 13). In two
cases the scales are diagramatically shown by straight or crescentric
lines (Pl. 5, fig. 4, 8). A third species of fish is shown provided with
two dorsal fins (Pl. 6, figs. 3, 11; Pl. 7, fig. 6, the last an
excellent stone carving). Others (Pl. 6, figs. 7, 14-17) represent
fishes without dorsal fins, one of which (fig. 7) from its length may be
an eel, possibly _Muraena_.

In the Nuttall Codex occurs a remarkable fish with an unmistakable wing
arising just behind the head nearly at the dorsal line. While this may
represent a flying fish (_Exocetus_), the head is so bird-like that the
whole may be merely a combination figure.

Of frequent occurrence in the Dresden is a glyph, two modifications of
which are here shown (Pl. 6, figs. 4, 5). Stempell suggests that the
vertical lines on the posterior portion of such figures may be gill
slits and that hence they may represent sharks in which these orifices
are without an operculum.

As with the molluscs, so with the fish, we naturally find them usually
associated with the water. This may be seen especially well in the
Nuttall Codex. In Dresden 33a (Pl. 6, fig. 13) the fish is clearly
associated with the operation of fishing as two figures are seated on
the edge of a body of water in the act of casting a net. An eel is shown
in the water under god B in Dresden 65b (Pl. 6, fig. 7) and fish are
shown just below the claws of a crocodile in text figure 1. In Dresden
44a god B holds a fish in his hands. As will be pointed out later (p.
314) this god is frequently associated with water. In Dresden 44c a fish
appears between god B and an unidentifiable deity. In the Maya codices
the greater number of representations of fish are in connection with
sacrifice. In Dresden 27 (Pl. 6, fig. 6) the fish is pictured resting on
two _Kan_ signs, the symbol of maize or bread, and these in turn on a
flat bowl. In Dresden 29b (Pl. 5, fig. 9) the fish is represented
between the red and black numbers of the _tonalamatl_. Here again the
fish is shown as an offering.

In two cases only do we find the fish used as a part of the head-dress
and in each case the fish is graphically shown as held in the mouth of a
heron. One of these is in the Dresden Codex 36b (Pl. 5, fig. 3) and one
in the stone carving of the Temple of the Cross at Palenque (Pl. 15,
fig. 5). Fish are often represented on the stone carvings as feeding
upon a water plant. This is seen in the border at the bottom of the
Lower Chamber of the Temple of the Tigers at Chichen Itza (Pl. 5, figs.
2, 4; Pl. 6, fig. 2). In several instances at Copan fish are shown as
forming the sides of the Great Cycle glyph at the beginning of an
Initial Series (Pl. 6, figs. 14-17). It has often been suggested that as
the word fish in Maya is _kai_ (usually written _cay_), there may be
some phonetic significance here, combining the fish, _kai_, with the
usually drum-like sign for stone, _tun_, making _kai tun_ or _katun_.
This is the term usually given not to the Great Cycle but to the period
composed of twenty _tuns_ and is probably derived from _kal_ meaning
twenty and _tun_, a stone.


FROGS. Figures undoubtedly representing frogs (Maya _mutš_ or _uo_)
or toads are found in several places in the codices and in the stone
carvings, but it is quite impossible to refer them definitely to any of
the numerous species occurring in Central America, if, indeed, the
artists had any one species in mind. In the Tro-Cortesianus frogs are
not uncommon. In 31a there are four (Pl. 7, fig. 1) with water coming
from their mouths. They are characterized by their stout tailless
bodies, flattened heads and toothless mouths. In 101d (Pl. 7, figs. 2,
3) there are two, the first painted blue with spots of darker blue and
the second white and represented as broken in two in the middle. The
signs of death above the latter clearly show that a dead animal is
indicated. Pl. 7, fig. 6, shows the end of Altar O from Copan on which a
frog and a fish are pictured, the former in dorsal view, the latter in
lateral aspect. The peculiar pointed snout of this frog is similar to
that of the frog shown in Pl. 7, fig. 7, also in dorsal view. A somewhat
similar creature (Pl. 29, fig. 6) we have included and though it may
represent an opossum it has little to distinguish it from the figures of

God B in Tro-Cortesianus 12b should be associated with the frog. His
legs are those of a frog and he appears as if swimming in the water.
Frog in Maya is _Uo_ which is also the name of the second month of the
Maya year. The first day of this month, according to Landa, corresponds
to August 5 of our year and this is the height of the rainy season in
the Maya region. The sign for _Uo_ does not, however, resemble a frog in
any way. The frog above one of the figures in the Lower Chamber of the
Temple of the Tigers at Chichen Itza (Pl. 7, fig. 7) has clearly some
relation to the name or totem of the warrior. The Nahua custom is seen

Toads are probably intended in Pl. 7, figs. 4, 5. In these the great
breadth of the head and mouth together with the short inflated body
combine to produce a very toad-like appearance. It is not unlikely that
they represent the huge marine toad, _Bufo marinus_, common from
southern Mexico to Brazil and in the West Indies. There seems to be no
distinction in the treatment of frogs and toads in the codices.

TREE-TOAD (_Hyla eximia_). Of great interest are the figures in
Tro-Cortesianus 26a and b (Pl. 8, figs. 1, 3), showing a god with
expanded finger tips and characterized further by the presence of two
parallel black stripes from the hinder and lower margins of the eye
respectively. The knob-like finger tips at once suggest one of the
tree-toads, and the presence of the two lines seems to indicate _Hyla
eximia_ as the species represented. In this tree-toad there is a long
black lateral line running posteriorly from the tympanum and above it a
shorter line just as in the drawings. It appears to be a common species
in the valley of Mexico though but little seems to have been written of
its habits. At the beginning of the rainy season it repairs to pools of
water to breed and is then very noticeable from its loud voice. No doubt
its importance in the Maya economy was from its conspicuousness at the
beginning of the rainy period. This fact is brought out more strongly
when we consider that these gods representing the tree-toad are
associated with agriculture and the sowing of grain at the beginning of
the rainy season. Förstemann (1902, p. 35) identifies these figures as
god F. They are quite unlike the usual representation of this god and
are clearly god P as Schellhas (1904, p. 39) indicates. It is
interesting to note that the two black lines behind the eye are also
seen in the other gods shown in Tro-Cortesianus 26a and b although the
knob-like finger tips are lacking. The glyph for this tree-toad god is
recognized in the fifth place at the top of the same page (Pl. 8, fig.
2) by the same two black lines under and behind the eye.


SERPENT. It would be impossible in the present paper to enter into any
lengthy discussion of the use of the serpent (Maya _kan_) in Mexico and
Central America. It seems to be one of the main elements in the religion
and consequently in the art of the Mayas and Mexican peoples. It is
represented again and again in many forms and varied combinations. It
underlies the whole general trend of Maya art. The serpent is often
associated with feathers. The culture hero of the Nahuas,
_Quetzalcoatl_ (feathered serpent) corresponds to a similar god among
the Mayas, _Kukulcan_ (also meaning feathered serpent). The feathers of
the quetzal are the ones commonly used in connection with the serpent.

Any attempt at identification of the species represented is beset by
grave difficulties for so conventionalized have the figures often become
that, except in the case of the rattlesnake with its rattles, there are
no characteristic marks by which the species may be known. It is natural
to suppose that the species used for artistic purposes would be those
that are most noteworthy because of their size, coloring, or venomous
qualities. No doubt a number of harmless species were also used in the
religious ceremonies.[311-*] Such may be those used as hair ornaments in
many of the figures (Pl. 8, figs. 7-13, 15) and in which no indication
of a rattle is to be seen. The fierce eye of these reptiles is shown by
means of an exaggerated overhanging brow occasionally embellished by
recurved crests (Pl. 8, figs. 10, 11, 13, 15). These crests are
sometimes shown as two or three stalked knobs (Pl. 10, fig. 7) that
Stempell was misled into identifying as the eyes of snails. Various
heads of snakes usually with fangs exposed and tongue protruding are
pictured in Pl. 8, figs. 4, 6; Pl. 9, figs. 2, 4-6: one snake with a
spiny back is shown in Pl. 8, fig. 5, but obviously it represents merely
the artist's endeavor to present as terrifying a creature as possible.

Various types of rattlesnakes are shown in Pl. 9. The presence of the
rattle is of course the characteristic, and this portion alone is
likewise used, in one case, at least, as a glyph (Pl. 9, fig. 7). It
cannot be denied, however, that some or most of the snakes in which no
rattles appear, are nevertheless intended for rattlers. It may have been
that the figures were so well understood that the addition of rattles in
the drawings was quite unnecessary. This, however, is quite conjectural.
The species of rattlesnake is probably _Crotalus basiliscus_ or _C.
terrificus_ of southern Mexico and adjacent regions, not _C. horridus_
or _adamanteus_ as supposed by Stempell since these two species are
confined to the United States. Among the figures shown on Pl. 9, it is
noteworthy that five of the rattlesnakes show no fangs. Some are
spotted, but in a wholly arbitrary manner. Three are unmarked. One is
shown coiled about the base of a tree (Pl. 9, fig. 5), another coiled
ready to strike though the rattle is pictured trailing on the ground
instead of being held erect in the center of the coil as usually is done
(Pl. 9, fig. 9). A rattlesnake is shown held in the hand of a man in Pl.
9, fig. 8.

In Pl. 10, fig. 1, is shown a rattle-less snake with prominent fang,
coiled about the top of an altar which may represent a tree or bush.
From the latter fact, it might be concluded that it was a tree or
bush-inhabiting species, possibly the deadly "bush-master" (_Lachesis
lanceolatus_). Other figures (Pl. 10, figs. 3, 7; Pl. 11, figs. 1, 2)
are introduced here as examples of the curious head ornamentation
frequently found in the drawings. The two first are merely serpents with
the jaws extended to the utmost, and with a characteristic head
decoration. The last is provided with an elaborate crest. The size and
markings of the two serpents shown in Pl. 11, as well as their want of
rattles suggest that they may represent some species of large _Boidae_
as _Loxocemus bicolor_ or _Boa_ (sp?).

After having commented upon the various serpents occurring in the
codices and in several other places, we will now take up the manner and
connection in which the various figures occur. We shall pass over
completely the use of the "serpent column" at Chichen Itza, the
importance of the serpent motive in the development of the masked panel
as worked out by Spinden, and the countless representations of the
plumed serpent in the whole field of Maya design and decoration. In the
single Temple of the Tigers at Chichen Itza, the feathered serpent
occurs in the round as a column decoration supporting the portico, as
carved on the wooden lintel at the entrance to the Painted Chamber,
again and again on the frescoes of this room,[313-*] in the Lower
Chamber as dividing the bas-relief into zones or panels, and, finally,
as the center of the whole composition of this bas-relief. It will be
seen, therefore, that it will be necessary in a short paper, to limit
ourselves to the representations of the serpent in the Maya codices.

The serpent is most frequently associated with god B. Schellhas (1904,
p. 17), Fewkes (1894), Förstemann (1906), and Thomas (1882), seem to
agree that god B is to be identified as _Kukulcan_, the most important
of the deities of the Mayas and, as pointed out before, appearing in the
Nahua mythology, as _Quetzalcoatl_, and in the Quiche myths as
_Gucumatz_. It was also noted that the name means both in Maya and in
Nahuatl, the "feathered serpent" or the "bird serpent." Other
authorities consider god B as _Itzamna_, another of the main gods of the
Mayas. Seler interprets god B as the counterpart of the Nahua rain god,
_Tlaloc_. It is certain that when god B and the serpent are associated
together water and rain are usually indicated. God H, "the _Chicchan_
god," also has some relation to the serpent. As pointed out by Schellhas
(1904, pp. 28-30), this god often appears characterized by a skin-spot
or a scale of the serpent on his temple of the same shape as the
hieroglyph of the day _Chicchan_ (serpent). The glyph belonging to this
deity also shows the _Chicchan_ sign as its distinguishing mark. Similar
signs appear on the body of the serpent in many places, as in
Tro-Cortesianus 30a (Pl. 11, fig. 1).

We have already noted that the serpent, god B, and water are frequently
shown together, so the serpent also appears associated with water and
rain, when no figure of god B is present. From this connection, it can
be argued that there is some relation between the serpent and the coming
of the rains. These facts would give strength to the theory that god B
is to be identified as a rain god. In Dresden 33a, 35a, god B is seated
on the open jaws of a serpent, while the body of the reptile encloses a
blue field evidently signifying water. The number nineteen appears on
this blue color. It will be noted that there are nineteen spots on the
serpents in Pl. 11, figs. 1, 2. In Tro-Cortesianus 3a-6a, corresponding
scenes seem to be shown. The body of the serpent encloses water, and
here the number eighteen appears in each case. God B occurs always in
front of the serpent and his head appears as the head of the reptile in
the first instance. In Dresden 35a, 36a, the head of god B is pictured
as the head of the serpent in the midst of the water. In Dresden 37b
(Pl. 10, fig. 8), B is holding a snake in the water.

Water appears in connection with the serpent and god B in many places in
the Tro-Cortesianus. In 9, god B is pictured pouring water from a jar, a
common method of showing the idea of rain in the codices. In 12b, B
again is shown perhaps representing a frog, and behind him a serpent.
The reptiles in 13b-18b, are all associated with the idea of rain, the
turtle and frog also appearing in this section. In 30a (Pl. 11, fig. 1),
god B and a female figure are both pouring water from a jar, as they
stand on the body of a serpent. In 32a, the black god (L) is seen in the
rain, and a serpent is near, while in 32b and 33b (Pl. 9, fig. 1), the
serpent forms the belt of god L, and a female figure and water are seen
in both cases. The blue color of the snake and of god B in 31b (Pl. 11,
fig. 2) may also suggest water.

God B also occurs in connection with the serpent in Dresden 42a (Pl. 8,
fig. 14), where the god is seated on the reptile, in Tro-Cortesianus,
10b, where the head of the same god is the head of the snake, and in
Tro-Cortesianus 19a, where god B again and god A are each seated on the
open jaws of a serpent.

The astronomical role of the serpent is noted in Dresden 56b, 57b (Pl.
10, fig. 3), Tro-Cortesianus 5b, 12b, 15b, and 67b, where the snake is
shown in connection with a line of constellation signs, the _kin_ or sun
sign prominent in most of the drawings. In the "battle of the
constellations" in Dresden 60, the serpent appears forming a sort of
altar, the seat of a figure which is supported by another figure. A
serpent head also appears at the foot of the latter figure.

That the serpent appears associated with the idea of time seems clear
from the fact of the long number series in Dresden 61, 62 (Pl. 10, fig.
7), and 69, which are shown in the spaces made by the winding of the
serpents' bodies. In Tro-Cortesianus 13a-16a, four large reptiles appear
in connection with the lines of day signs.

The study of the serpent used as a head-dress is interesting. As noted
previously, quite a different kind of snake seems to be represented when
used in this connection. Two other points come out in this
investigation, namely, that it is only with female figures that the
serpent is employed as a head-dress, and in far the greater number of
cases the women are shown, either in the act of offering something, or
of pouring water from a jar. The usual type of serpent head-dress is
seen in Dresden 9c (Pl. 8, fig. 11), 15b (Pl. 8, fig. 12), 18a (Pl. 8,
fig. 13), 22b (Pl. 8, fig. 10), and 23b (Pl. 8, fig. 8). In the first
case, the offering is a jicara or gourd of some sacred drink
(_baltše_?), in the second and third examples, the dish is clearly
shown, but the offering is unidentifiable, in the fourth case, maize (a
_Kan_ sign), and in the last, a fish resting on a dish. In Dresden 20a
(Pl. 8, fig. 15), a woman with serpent head-dress is seen associated
with the Moan-headed figure, possibly in the act of offering it as a

In Dresden 39b (Pl. 8, fig. 7), 43b (Pl. 8, fig. 9), and 70, a similar
serpent head-dress is shown on a female figure in the act of pouring
water from a jar. In Tro-Cortesianus, the serpent head-dresses differ in
type only, and in two out of the four cases where they appear, water is
shown flowing from the breasts (30b) of the female figure or from the
mouth (32b). The woman thus represented in connection with the water is
god I, the water goddess of Schellhas. She is, as he notes (1904, p. 31)
usually the figure of an old woman. "Evidently, we have here the
personification of water in its quality of destroyer, a goddess of
floods and cloud-bursts." We are not at all sure that we have here a
distinct god as similar female figures with serpent head-dresses occur
frequently in the Dresden Codex with no suggestion of water. The failure
to find any distinct glyph for this goddess seems to strengthen the view
of not considering her as a separate deity. Finally, in our
consideration of head-dresses, the serpent is to be seen in
Tro-Cortesianus 79c on the head of the first woman who is weaving.
Possibly, a conventionalized serpent forms the head covering of the
second figure who is represented as dead.

The serpent in Dresden 26c-28c (Pl. 10, fig. 1) coiled around the altar
which rises from a _Tun_ sign is not easily explained. In 25c, the altar
is replaced by god B and in the former cases, the reptiles may stand for
this god with whom they are often associated.[316-*] The serpent seems
closely connected with the idea of offerings as the body of a snake is
shown in several instances as the support of the jar containing the
various gifts in Tro-Cortesianus 34a, 34b, 35a, 35b, 36a, 36b, and
possibly 52c (Pl. 9, fig. 3).

Finally the serpent is to be noted in a number of miscellaneous
connections:--in Dresden 36b (Pl. 19, fig. 11), as being attacked by a
black vulture,[317-*] in Tro-Cortesianus 40b (Pl. 9, fig. 4) a
rattlesnake is biting the foot of one of the hunters, and in
Tro-Cortesianus 66b, where the serpent has a human head and arm coming
from its open jaws. This is a very frequent method of representing the
serpent in the Maya stone carvings. In Tro-Cortesianus 60c, 100d (Pl. 9,
fig. 8), twice, 106a, and 111b, the rattlesnake is shown as a sprinkler
for the holy water in the hand (in the first, second and fourth
examples) of god D. Landa (1864, p. 150)[317-†] describes in the
ceremony of the baptism of children, that the leader of the rite wore on
his head a kind of mitre embroidered with plumage in some manner and in
his hand a small holy-water sprinkler of wood, carved skillfully, of
which the filaments were the tails of serpents, similar to serpents with

In spite of the importance of the serpent in the manuscripts and stone
carvings, it never seems to appear as a separate deity. With one
exception, no glyph is to be found representing this reptile as is the
case with many of the animals. Tro-Cortesianus 106c (Pl. 9, fig. 7) is
this exception showing the rattles of a snake which are found in the
line of glyphs above two of the bees. No serpent appears in the picture.

The Nahuatl day, _Couatl_, has the signification serpent, as suggested
before, in discussing the meaning of the name _Quetzalcoatl_ or
_Quetzalcouatl_. This day sign occurs throughout the Mexican
manuscripts as the head of a serpent (Pl. 8, figs. 4, 6; Pl. 9, fig. 2;
Pl. 10, figs. 2, 4-6).

IGUANA. Of the lizards represented, the iguana (Maya _hu_) is the most
striking, and is readily identified on account of the prominent spines
along the back. As noted by Stempell, there are two or three species of
large lizards in Central America commonly called iguana, and it is
probable that the one here considered is the _Ctenosaura acanthura_ of
Yucatan or _Iguana tuberculata_ of South and Central America.

In the manuscripts the iguana is almost exclusively represented as an
offering (Pl. 12, figs. 1-6). It is usually found on top of the _Kan_
sign, meaning maize or bread,[318-*] and this, in turn, resting in a
bowl (Pl. 12, figs. 3, 4, 6). Landa (1864, p. 230)[318-†] gives a
pleasing confirmation of this offering of an iguana with bread. It is
possible that the object shown in Tro-Cortesianus 12b (Pl. 12, fig. 13)
may be the conventionalized representation of this lizard. It must be
admitted that this interpretation is very doubtful. The triangular
points suggest the lizard, but the pointed character of the sign as a
whole in no way resembles the back of this reptile. It is found
associated with three _Kan_ signs. In Cakchiquel, a dialect of the Maya
stock, _K'an_, according to Guzman and Brinton (1893, p. 24) is the name
applied to the female of the iguana or the lizard, and this is believed
to be the original sense of the Maya term. It may also be noted that the
Nahua day sign _Cuetzpalin_, meaning lizard, is the one which
corresponds with the Maya day _Kan_. Pl. 12, figs. 10, 12, 14, show
representations of the day corresponding to _Cuetzpalin_ in the Aubin
and Nuttall codices. These show a stout spineless species with a short
thick tail and may be the Gila monster (_Heloderma horridum_), a large
and somewhat poisonous species having much these proportions.

Further offerings are shown in Pl. 12, figs. 7, 8. These seem to be the
heads and forefeet of lizards, but, from the shape of the head, perhaps
not of iguanas.

In Stela D of Copan, the _Uinal_ period glyph seems to be represented by
a spineless lizard covered with scales (Pl. 12, fig. 9). Frog-like
characteristics also appear. This stone monument is remarkable from the
fact that the glyphs are all more or less realistic representations of
human and animal forms. It should be noted that there certainly seems to
be some connection between the _Uinal_ period glyph and the lizard. Pl.
13, fig. 9, represents a _Uinal_ glyph from the Temple of the Foliated
Cross at Palenque and the lizard form is clearly seen in the eyebrow and
the upper jaw. Compare also Pl. 13, fig. 11, and Pl. 28, fig. 3. A
collection of glyphs of this period shows clearly the lizard-like
character of the face.

That some connection existed between the lizard and the idea of rain
seems clear from a reference in the _Relacion de la Ciudad de Merida_
(1900, p. 51).[319-*] Finally the lizard is shown in Dresden 3a (Pl. 12,
fig. 11) directly in front of god H beside the scene of human sacrifice.

CROCODILE. The text figure (1) shows a dorsal view of a crocodile (Maya,
_ayin_) carved on the top of Altar T at Copan. The general form is
considerably conventionalized with limbs elongated and provided with
human hands and long toes. The protuberances of the back are roughly
shown by oval markings, which are here continued on the legs. The large
scales of the ventral surfaces also appear at the sides of the body, and
along the posterior edges of the limbs. The tail is shortened and
bifurcate. The most interesting portion, however, is the head. The snout
is distinctly pinched in at the base, though broadened again distally.
In the alligator the snout is broad and tapers but little. As in other
representations of the crocodile, the lower jaw does not appear, and
even in this dorsal view the artist seems to have deemed it necessary to
show the row of teeth as if in side view, or as though they projected
laterally from the mouth. What may represent ears or ear plugs are shown
one on each side behind the eyes. There are few other examples of full
drawings of the crocodile in the Maya writings. Dresden 74 shows an
animal which has been considered to represent a crocodile or alligator
but it seems to have more of the characteristics of a lizard.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.

Figures of a crocodile (_Crocodilus americanus_) are frequent in the
Nuttall Codex, where there is one large figure of the entire animal (Pl.
13, fig. 8), making its way along under water. It is shown with numerous
dorsal spines, a long tail, and powerful claws. Curiously, however, it
has no lower jaw and the same is true of the numerous glyphs
representing the head of the animal. This is so pronounced a
characteristic, that it may be doubted if the open-mouthed head and the
single limb shown in Pl. 13, fig. 2, really picture the same animal,
though otherwise apparently referable to the crocodile. In the various
glyphs showing the head of this species, the prominent, elongate eyebrow
and the absence of the lower jaw are noteworthy points, while the teeth
may vary in number from three to six.

The glyphs (Pl. 13, figs. 1, 3-7) represent the Nahua day sign
_Cipactli_ corresponding to the Maya day _Imix_. In the band of
constellation signs in Dresden 52b (Pl. 13, fig. 10), there occurs a
single figure with a long curled eyebrow and lacking the lower jaw. In
the upper jaw three teeth are indicated. A comparison of this figure
with the glyphs in the Nuttall Codex seems to leave little doubt that it
represents a crocodile. This is the sign which Förstemann (1906, p. 206)
interprets as standing for Saturn. Pl. 13, fig. 12, is certainly the
same sign as it stands in relatively the same position in the
constellation band on Dresden 53a. It represents the highly
conventionalized head of a crocodile. On Stela 10 from Piedras Negras
(Maler, 1901-1903, Pl. 19) the same glyph is seen.

The range of the alligator in North America does not extend to Yucatan,
hence the crocodile, which does occur there, is taken as the original of
all these figures. There is nothing in the latter that would distinguish
it from the alligator.

TURTLES. Representations of the turtle (Maya, _ak_) are not uncommon
among the Mayas. At Uxmal there is a ruined building called _Casa de las
Tortugas_ on which at intervals around the cornice there are carvings of
turtles. Turtles of at least two species occur in the Tro-Cortesianus.
With one exception, they seem to be limited to this codex. That shown on
Pl. 14, figs. 1-3, 5, is a large species with the dorsal scutes
represented by large diamond-shaped pieces. There is little that might
be considered distinctive about these turtles, although one (Pl. 14,
fig. 5) has the anterior paddles much larger than the posterior,
indicating a sea turtle. What is doubtless the same turtle is pictured
in several places in the Nuttall Codex. In one of the figures in the
latter manuscript, the shell is shown apparently in use as a shield (Pl.
14, fig. 4). This would indicate one of the large sea turtles, and there
is not much doubt that either the Loggerhead turtle (_Thalassochelys
cephalo_) or the Hawksbill (_Chelone imbricata_) is here intended.

Quite another species is that shown in Pl. 14, fig. 6. That this is a
freshwater turtle is plainly indicated by the parasitic leeches that are
noted fastened by their round sucking-discs to the sides of its body.
The long neck, pointed snout, and apparent limitation of the dorsal
spinous scutes to the central area of the back may indicate the snapping
turtle (_Chelydra serpentina_) or possibly a species of the genus
_Cinosternum_ (probably _C. leucostomum_). It is hardly likely that it
is one of the true soft-shelled turtles (_Trionyx_), as the range of
that genus is not known to include Mexico. The turtle from Nuttall 43
(Pl. 14, fig. 11) may belong to the same species as its scutes seem
rather few, or it may be that the view shown here is of the ventral side
and that the scales indicate the small plastron of one of the sea

The turtle appears alone as one of the figures in the _tonalamatl_ in
several cases in the Tro-Cortesianus, 13a, 17a (Pl. 14, fig. 3), 72b
(Pl. 14, fig. 6). It is found associated with the toad appearing in the
rain in Tro-Cortesianus 17b (Pl. 14, fig. 2) and alone in the rain in
13a. In Tro-Cortesianus 81c (Pl. 14, fig. 5), it appears in front of an
unidentifiable god.

Schellhas has called the turtle an animal symbolical of the lightning
basing his opinion, as Brinton (1895, p. 74) tells us, on Dresden 40b
where a human figure with animal head is holding two torches in his
hands. This figure does not seem to us to represent a turtle, as is
commonly supposed, but a parrot, as will be pointed out later (p. 343).
Förstemann (1902, p. 27) identifies the turtle with the summer
solstice, as has been noted before, explaining that the animal is slow
of motion, and is taken to represent the time when the sun seems to
stand still. He bases his theory (1904, p. 423) in part on the fact that
the sign for the Maya month _Kayab_, which is the month in which the
summer solstice occurs, shows the face of the turtle (Pl. 14, fig. 10).
This undoubtedly is correct, but he seems to us wrong in classing as
turtles the figure in Dresden 40b (Pl. 25, fig. 1) with its accompanying
glyph (Pl. 25, fig. 6).

The turtle is found in connection with two sun (_kin_) signs beneath a
constellation band in Tro-Cortesianus 71a. Resting upon his body are
three _Cauac_ signs. The single representation of the turtle in the
Dresden Codex is on page 49 (Pl. 14, fig. 12) where a god is pictured
with a turtle's head. The heavy sharp beak indicates that he represents
one of the sea turtles previously mentioned. He is shown transfixed by a
spear and corresponds to the other figures in the lower parts of pp.
46-50. These all have some connection with the Venus period which is
considered in these pages.[323-*]

A number of glyphs representing the turtle are found throughout the
codices (Pl. 14, figs. 7-10). They are all characterized by the heavy
beak. It may be noted that these glyphs are virtually the same as the
sign for the first _a_ in Landa's alphabet. As the turtle is called _ak_
or _aak_ in Maya, the reason is clear for the selection of this sign for
an _a_ sound. These turtle glyphs often occur alone; one, however, (Pl.
14, fig. 7) is found in connection with the swimming turtle in
Tro-Cortesianus 17a (Pl. 14, fig. 3). Figs. 7-9 agree in having the
small scrolls at the posterior end of the eye. The head shown in Pl. 14,
fig. 10, has quite a different eye, though otherwise similar. Its
resemblance to the glyph on Pl. 25, fig. 9, is marked and suggests the
parrot. Schellhas (1904, p. 44) gives in his fig. 64, a glyph for the
turtle which seems clearly to be a glyph for the parrot (Pl. 25, fig.


HERONS (_Ardea herodias_; _Hydranassa tricolor ruficollis_). Only a few
water birds are shown in the Maya works. Several are found, however,
that seem to picture herons (Pl. 15, figs. 1-7). The best of these (fig.
5), a carving from the west side panel of the Temple of the Cross at
Palenque shows a crested heron standing on one foot and holding in its
bill a fish. A second figure (Pl. 15, fig. 1) is from the stucco
ornament from the Palace, House B, at Palenque. It is less carefully
executed, but seems to be a long-necked bird with a crest and outspread
wings curiously conventionalized. In the Nuttall Codex there is another
unmistakable heron (Pl. 15, fig. 4) with the same general
characteristics, though the crest is less prominent, here represented as
a series of erectile feathers separated at their tips. This elongation
of the crest seems to be carried still farther in what seems to be the
head and neck of a heron from Dresden 37b (Pl. 15, fig. 3) with erectile
feathers at intervals along its length.

The heron is seldom employed as a head-dress. In the Lower Chamber of
the Temple of the Tigers at Chichen Itza, one of the warriors wears a
bird head-dress (Pl. 15, fig. 2), which from the length of the bill is
probably made from a heron's head, though the crest seems greatly
exaggerated. The bas-relief on which this is found is strongly Nahua in
feeling and execution. This head covering may indicate, according to the
Nahua fashion, the tribe to which the warrior belongs. Again in Dresden
36a (Pl. 15, fig. 7), a man is shown wearing as a head-dress the head
and neck of a heron that holds in its bill a fish. This head resembles
very closely that of the heron in fig. 1. What appears to be a similar
head is shown in Pl. 15, fig. 6. It is interesting to note that the
heron with a fish (Pl. 15, fig. 5) from Palenque also forms a part of a
complicated head-dress.

It is, of course, uncertain to which of the several herons occurring in
Central America these representations refer. Possibly the Great Blue
heron (_Ardea herodias_) or the Louisiana heron (_Hydranassa tricolor
ruficollis_) is intended. It seems not unlikely also, that one of the
white egrets may be shown as their crests are fairly conspicuous.

FRIGATE-BIRD (_Fregata aquila_). We have included here two figures (Pl.
15, figs. 8, 9) that undoubtedly represent a single species of bird. It
is characterized by a deeply forked tail and long beak, which has part
way on its length, a circular object surrounded by a circle of dots. It
seems still problematical what this object may be. In one figure (fig.
9), the beak is strongly hooked, in the other (fig. 8) it is straight,
but as the latter is plainly a much more carelessly made drawing, we may
infer that the hooked bill is more nearly correct. This would exclude
the Terns (_Sterna_), to which Stempell has referred the figures. It
seems probable that the frigate-bird (_Fregata aquila_) is the species
intended, as this is not only a large conspicuous form on these coasts,
but it has a long and strongly hooked beak and forked tail. The length
of the beak would probably exclude from consideration, the
swallow-tailed kite that also occurs in the region.

Both these birds are pictured, evidently as an offering or sacrifice. It
is very seldom that the whole bird is represented in this connection,
and still more infrequent to find anything but the turkey, which is the
usual bird of sacrifice. The figure from the Dresden Codex (Pl. 15, fig.
9) rests upon the usual bowl or jar, that from the Tro-Cortesianus (Pl.
15, fig. 8) is pictured upon a grotesque animal head, three _Kan_ signs
and these upon the jar.

In the Tro-Cortesianus 20c, 21c, there occur several representations of
man-like forms with very peculiar heads. The latter are each provided
with a beak-like projection, on which appears the circle surrounded by
dots noted above in connection with the frigate-bird. Brinton concludes
that this mystic symbol is a representation of the curious knob on the
bill of the male white pelican, and therefore identifies these curious
figures as pelicans. Stempell follows Brinton in this, but considers
that they are the brown pelican (_P. fuscus_), since the white pelican
is rare or casual, as far south as Yucatan. Unfortunately, however, for
this supposition, the brown pelican lacks the curious knob that Brinton
believed to be represented by the circle of dots. Moreover, this same
sign occurs on the drawings of the bills of the frigate-bird and the
ocellated turkey, and is evidently not of specific significance. To our
minds it is doubtful if the figures under discussion are birds at all,
and we are unable to assign them a name with any degree of confidence. A
peculiar glyph occurs in connection with them which may be an aid to
their ultimate identification. Brinton calls the glyph the "fish and
oyster sign."

OCELLATED TURKEY (_Agriocharis ocellata_). This turkey (Maya _ku[ɔ.]_)
is an important species in the Maya economy, and is seen frequently in
the manuscripts. This is a smaller bird than the more northern true
turkey (_Meleagris_) and is characterized by the presence of curious
erect knobs on the top of the naked head. These are shown in
conventionalized form in the various figures (Pl. 16), and afford a
ready means of identification. On the bill of the bird shown in
Tro-Cortesianus 10b (Pl. 16, fig. 2) occurs again the curious symbol, a
circle surrounded by dots, previously noted under the frigate-bird and
pelican. It probably has some special significance. Other figures of
ocellated turkeys show but little in addition to the points just
discussed. One shown in Pl. 16, fig. 7, from Codex Vaticanus 3773,
however, has a circular ring about the eye and the wattles are indicated
as projections merely. In fig. 13, they are apparently shown as stalked
knobs found elsewhere in connection with serpent head ornaments. It is
only the head in this latter figure, which is considered in this

In the Nuttall Codex, there frequently occur representations of a bird
that was evidently used for sacrificial purposes. It is shown with
erectile head feathers and a ring of circular marks about the eye (Pl.
26, figs. 12, 14; Pl. 27, figs. 2-3) or with concentric circles (Pl. 27,
fig. 1). These figures are not surely identifiable, but probably
represent this turkey. Possibly they are the chachalaca (_Ortalis vetula
pallidiventris_), a gallinaceous bird, commonly kept in
semi-domestication in Mexico, whose bare eye ring and slightly erectile
head feathers may be represented by the drawings. It is probable that
this turkey is the bird represented frequently in the Maya codices as a
bird of sacrifice. The head alone usually appears in this connection,
among other places, in Dresden 34a (Pl. 16, fig. 10), 41c (fig. 14), 29c
(fig. 16), 28c (fig. 17), and in Tro-Cortesianus 12b (Pl. 16, fig. 11),
105b (fig. 12), 107b (fig. 15). In several of these places the head is
represented as resting on one or more _Kan_ signs, again meaning bread,
as well as on the vessel or jar. In Dresden 26c (Pl. 16, fig. 9), the
whole turkey is pictured as an offering, as in the preceding case noted
in Dresden 35a (Pl. 15, fig. 9). The whole bird as an offering may also
appear in Tro-Cortesianus 4a (Pl. 16, fig. 4) corresponding to the
offering of venison and iguana on the following pages. This
representation of the entire bird is very rare although the fish, when
used as an offering, is always represented as a whole and the iguana is
in most cases when used in the same connection. Landa (1864, p.
222)[327-*] confirms the offering of the heads of birds with bread.

It is, however, the sacrifice of a bird, probably a turkey, by
decapitating, that is especially interesting, as the operation as shown
in the Dresden Codex 25c (Pl. 26, fig. 2), 26c, 27c, 28c, in the rites
of the four years, is described in full by Landa. In the codex, a priest
is represented as holding in his hand before an altar, a headless bird.
Landa (1864, pp. 212, 218, 224, 228)[327-†] tells us that in the
_Kan_, the _Muluc_, the _Ix_, and the _Cauac_ years, the priests burnt
incense to the idol, decapitated a "_gallina_" (undoubtedly a turkey),
and presented it to the god.

The turkey is also used as a head-dress. Only in one case, however,
Tro-Cortesianus 95c (Pl. 16, fig. 5), is the whole bird represented in
this connection. This is clearly of totemic significance here, as it
occurs in that part of the codex where birth and infant baptism are
shown. In many other places there are curious partial representations of
bird heads in the front of head-dresses which may or may not be
identified as heads of turkeys. Among these are the head-dress of god H
in Dresden 7c, of god E in Dresden 11e, of god C in Dresden 13b, of god
A in Dresden 23c, and a female divinity in Dresden 20a (Pl. 16, fig.
13). Schellhas (1904, p. 43) identifies these birds as vultures.

That the turkey is connected with the rain seems clear. This is
especially the case among the Nahuas. In the Aubin manuscript the rain
god, _Tlaloc_, often appears in the disguise of the turkey-cock
(_uexolotl_), and in the Vaticanus 3773, 14, the turkey (Pl. 16, fig. 7)
is represented in the "House of Rain," in contrast to the owl shown in
the "House of Drought" (Seler, 1902-1903, p. 75). It might be noted also
that Fewkes (1892, p. 228) shows that the turkey is emblematic of the
rain among the pueblo peoples. The same idea seems to be present among
the Mayas, as we note in the Tro-Cortesianus 10b (Pl. 16, fig. 2) the
turkey is pictured in the rain and surrounded on three sides by bands of
constellation signs.

Two methods of capturing the turkey are shown in the Tro-Cortesianus 93a
and 91a (Pl. 16, figs. 1, 3). By the first, the bird is captured alive
in a sort of wicker basket, which drops over it at the proper moment.
The second method is by the "twich-up" or snare, which consists of a
noose tied to a bent sapling and properly baited. In connection with Pl.
16, fig. 1, it may be suggested that possibly this represents a cage
rather than a trap, in which the bird is confined. The Lacandones at the
present time often keep their totem animals in captivity (Tozzer, 1907,
p. 40).

KING VULTURE (_Sarcorhamphus papa_). Numerous figures of vultures appear
in the codices and elsewhere. Indeed, they are among the most common of
the birds depicted. Two species only seem to occur in the writings, the
king vulture and the black vulture. The former is a large black and
white bird with the head and the upper part of the neck unfeathered,
except for numerous short, almost bristle-like plumules. These naked
portions are often colored red and there is a large more or less
squarish fleshy knob at the base of the upper ramus of the beak. This
conspicuous protuberance has been seized upon as a characteristic in the
conventionalized figures, and serves to identify the king from the black
vulture. In addition, a series of concentric circles about the eye seems
to be a rather constant mark of the king vulture, though they are also
sometimes found in connection with figures which, from the absence of
the rostral knob, must represent black vultures (Pl. 18, figs. 18, 27;
Pl. 19, figs. 7, 10, 11). In the case of the bird shown in Pl. 19, fig.
1, the knob is hardly apparent, and the same is true of Pl. 19, fig. 13.
Both these may represent king vultures. A remarkable figure is that
shown in Pl. 17, fig. 4, in which an ocellated turkey and a king vulture
confront each other with necks intertwined. The short hair-like black
feathers of the head are represented in this as well as in Pl. 17, fig.
11, and in the glyph carved in stone (Pl. 17, fig. 10), which from the
presence of the knob is probably a king vulture. The characteristic knob
is shown in a variety of ways. Thus, in Pl. 17, fig. 1, it is greatly
developed and resembles a large horn with a falcate tip. In Pl. 17, fig.
4, it is sharply angular and nearly square. Frequently, it is a circle
with a centered ring surmounted by one or two additional rings or
terminated by a mitre-shaped structure (Pl. 17, figs. 2, 5-7, 8-12). A
very simple form was found in the carving shown in Pl. 17, fig. 13,
where a long projecting knob is seen at the base of the culmen.

The king vulture seems to have a part to play as a mythological being,
as it is pictured as a god with human body and bird head in the act of
cohabiting with a woman in Dresden 19a, and with a dog in Dresden 13c
(Pl. 17, fig. 3). Moreover, the same vulture god is represented on a
blue background and under a band of constellation signs in Dresden 38b,
and is also to be noted in Dresden 8a. Förstemann (1906, p. 66) shows
that the thirteenth day of the Maya month is reached in the _tonalamatl_
reckoning at this place. This day is _Cib_, which corresponds to the
Nahua day _Cozcaquauhtli_, which has the meaning vulture, and here, as
previously noted, the vulture god is represented. In Tro-Cortesianus 22c
(Pl. 17, fig. 2) and 10a,[330-*] the king vulture appears alone, in the
first instance with a blue background, and in the second with a
background representing rain. Rain is also shown in connection with the
vulture god in Dresden 38b, and the black vulture in Tro-Cortesianus 18b
(Pl. 19, fig. 13).

The king vulture is found employed as a head-dress twice out of the
three times it appears in any connection with female figures,
Tro-Cortesianus 26c (Pl. 17, fig. 12) with male figure, and 94c (Pl. 17,
fig. 11) and 95c with female figures. The last two clearly have to do
with the baptism and naming of infants, as previously explained.

The study of the glyph used to indicate the vulture is interesting, for
we find it recurring again and again throughout the Maya codices and
often when there is no other drawing of the animal, as in Dresden 39c
(Pl. 17, fig. 5; Pl. 18, fig. 19). The first example (glyph 6) is
clearly the head of the king vulture, whereas the second (glyph 3) is
probably the head of the black vulture. The glyph in Dresden 38b (Pl.
17, fig. 7) appears in connection with the vulture god directly below
it. In Dresden 11b (Pl. 18, fig. 1), it occurs alone and no figure
appears in the usual place below. The _Tun_ period glyph (Pl. 17, fig.
10) frequently shows vulture characteristics especially in the nostril
of the face. The teeth, however, often appearing in the _Tun_ glyph
would be against this theory. The blending of bird and mammal
characteristics is not uncommon in the Maya drawings, however.

The Nahua day sign, _Cozcaquauhtli_, as previously noted, has the
meaning vulture, and we naturally find this bird frequently represented
in the Mexican codices. In the Nuttall Codex, the head of the king
vulture occurs repeatedly as a glyph for this day. In its less modified
forms (Pl. 18, figs. 2-4), the beak is merely a pair of flattened rami,
surmounted proximally by the conspicuous quadrangular knob. The minute
hair-like feathers on the otherwise naked head are shown as a fringe at
the throat and crown, while a conventionalized ear is represented
posteriorly. A series of interesting figures (Pl. 18, figs. 5-10)
illustrates steps in the further reduction of this head to a small glyph
in which only the beak with its large squarish knob remains (Pl. 18,
fig. 10).

BLACK VULTURE (_Catharista urubu_). It is difficult to assign any single
characteristic to the figures representing the black vulture (Maya,
_t[vs.]om_) other than the long raptorial beak. A number of drawings
probably depict black vultures, though this cannot be certainly
affirmed. Such are those shown in Pl. 18, figs. 11, 12, 14, 17; Pl. 19,
figs. 2-4, 13, 14. Stempell considers the vulture shown in Pl. 18, fig.
13, to be a king vulture, but it has no knob on the beak, and thus is
quite likely the black vulture. The fact that its head is shaped much
like that of the god with the king vulture head (Pl. 17, fig. 3) would
indicate merely the individuality of the artist. The coloring of the
species under discussion is uniformly black in the Dresden and
Tro-Cortesianus, except in certain cases where the birds are shown in
outline only, as in Pl. 19, fig. 12. It is not certain, however, that
these two last are black vultures, though they suggest the species. The
two birds shown in Pl. 19, figs. 5, 6, are almost surely black vultures,
and, as represented in the manuscript, are descending upon a man.
Stempell thinks they may be ravens, but this is very doubtful, for the
raven probably was unknown to the Mayas, since its range is to the
northward. What appears to be a crest is seen on the head of the bird in
Pl. 19, fig. 4. The black coloring and the shape of the bill otherwise
suggest the black vulture, though perhaps the crest would indicate the
harpy eagle. Similarly, Pl. 19, fig. 14, is provided with a sort of tuft
or crest, but its general appearance is suggestive of the vulture. A
pottery whistle (text fig. 2) from the Uloa Valley evidently represents
a black vulture. The head of the bird shows the characteristic wrinkled
appearance seen in the drawings, with the heavy beak. The absence of the
rostral knob would preclude its being a king vulture.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.

It is natural that this bird should find an important place in the Maya
writing, as it is an abundant species in the region considered, and of
great importance as a scavenger. The black vulture seems to lack the
mythological character associated with the king vulture. It appears
usually in connection with death and in the role of a bird of prey. This
is especially true in the Tro-Cortesianus where in 24d, 26d (Pl. 19,
figs. 5, 6) and 28c, it is attacking a human being, in the first and
last cases represented as dead. In 86a and 87a, the bird is shown
plucking out the eye of a man. In Dresden 3a (Pl. 19, fig. 7), it
appears at the top of the tree above the human sacrifice and seems to be
in the act of consuming the victim. In Tro-Cortesianus 91c, it also
appears in a tree. In Tro-Cortesianus 40a (Pl. 17, fig. 9), and 42a (Pl.
19, fig. 1), it is shown as eating the entrails of a deer. In the first
case, the bird looks like a king vulture, although this is the only
instance where this species is shown as a bird of prey. In
Tro-Cortesianus 28b and 36b (Pl. 18, fig. 17), the black vulture appears
eating the Kan sign. In the first example, the _Kan_ represents the
newly sowed corn, in the second, the _Kan_ is held by god F. Landa
(1864, p. 230)[333-*] records that in the _Cauac_ year there was a
ceremony to prevent the ants and the birds devouring the corn. In
Dresden 34b and 35b, the vulture is shown on top of the head-dress of
god F, evidently the enemy of the harvest and, again, on 35b (Pl. 19,
fig. 4) on top of the _Cauac_ sign. Its role as a bird of prey is
further shown in Dresden 36b (Pl. 19, fig. 11), where it is shown
attacking a serpent.

This vulture is associated with god B in Dresden 69b, with god M in
Tro-Cortesianus 70a (Pl. 18, fig. 12), and with god D in Tro-Cortesianus
67a (Pl. 17, fig. 1). The last may be the king rather than the black
vulture, as suggested above. The black vulture occurs only once as the
usual head-dress, in Dresden 17b (Pl. 18, fig. 13), and here in
connection with a female figure and the idea of birth. Two birds,
probably vultures, appear over the enclosure around the head of god C in
Tro-Cortesianus 100b (Pl. 19, fig. 12). In the Lower Chamber of the
Temple of the Tigers occurs a black vulture in bas-relief with a
necklace represented (Pl. 19, fig. 14).

The glyph of the king vulture has already been discussed. There are
other glyphs which seem to show the black vulture, although it is quite
possible that no sharp distinction was made between the two in regard
to the glyphs at least. In one case (Pl. 18, fig. 18), the wrinkled skin
of the head and neck is indicated much as in the case of the king
vulture. A few other glyphs are shown (Pl. 18, figs. 16, 19, 22, 27), as
well as a variety from the Nuttall Codex in which the minute hair-like
feathers of the head are variously represented, usually much exaggerated
as a sort of crest or comb. Pl. 18, fig. 22, is interesting as being the
only case in the Maya codices where the whole figure is shown in the
glyph. As noted in the case of the glyphs of the king vulture, the
greater number of these occur quite alone. They seem to indicate that a
full drawing of the bird is meant to be understood as occurring below.

Several of the carved glyphs (Pl. 19, figs. 8-10) show the black vulture
heads in some detail with the conspicuously open nostril and hooked
beak. A carving of the entire bird may be shown on Stela D from Copan
(Pl. 28, fig. 5), where the naked head and neck are marked off by lines
indicating wrinkled skin. The same lines on the neck of the bird
depicted on Pl. 28, fig. 2, will probably identify it as a vulture, and,
if the square ornament above the beak certainly is part of the figure,
it is unquestionably the king vulture. The knob is not, however, clearly
on the bird's beak. There are two interesting glyphs which occur on the
eastern façade of the Monjas at Chichen Itza. The glyphs in this
inscription are unlike the usual Maya hieroglyphs, although several of
the so-called constellation signs can be made out. The two glyphs in
question represent the entire body possibly of a vulture, that on Pl.
17, fig. 13, probably the king vulture, and that on Pl. 18, fig. 14, the
black vulture.

HARPY EAGLE (_Thrasaetos harpyia_). In the Nuttall Codex, what is
undoubtedly the harpy eagle is of frequent occurrence. This great bird
is not uncommon in the forests of southern Mexico and Central America,
and must have attracted the notice of the people from its size. The
elongated feathers at the back of the head form a conspicuous crest, a
feature that characterizes this species in most of the representations.
A stone carving from Chichen Itza (Pl. 20, fig. 10) pictures a harpy
eagle eating an egg-shaped object, and another similarly engaged is
copied from the Codex Vaticanus 3773 (Pl. 20, fig. 14). The former is
considered to be a vulture by Maudslay, but the presence of feathers
covering the head excludes this interpretation. In two stone glyphs (Pl.
20, fig. 1, 3), occurs a large bird apparently devouring something held
in its talons, as in Pl. 20, fig. 10. From this general resemblance, it
seems probable that both represent the harpy, although no crests are
shown on the glyphs. In the Dresden and the Tro-Cortesianus occur a few
figures of crested birds that probably are the same species. The crest
feathers are reduced to two, however, or, in some cases, what may be a
third projecting forward from the base of the bill (Pl. 20, figs. 5, 7,
12, 13). The last two figures are not certainly identifiable, though it
is probable that they represent the harpy.

The eagle seems to be the bird associated with warriors in the codices.
Seler (1900-1901, p. 89) notes that the eagle and the jaguar are both
the mark of brave warriors among the Nahuas. In the Aubin manuscript,
the warrior god, _Yaotl_, is always associated with the eagle
(_quauhtli_). In the Maya pantheon, god M is usually considered the war
god, as he is almost always armed with a spear. He is seen in Dresden 74
(Pl. 20, fig. 13), and in Tro-Cortesianus 109c with an eagle as a
head-dress. There are other gods, however, who wear a similar head
covering. God L appears in Dresden 14b (Pl. 20, fig. 7) and again in 14c
(Pl. 20, fig. 5) with an eagle head-dress. God D in Dresden 23c (Pl. 20,
fig. 11) has an eagle coming from a _Tun_ sign on top of his head. The
eagle is probably represented at the prow of a boat in Dresden 43c (Pl.
20, fig. 12) in which god B is rowing. In Tro-Cortesianus 88c (Pl. 20,
fig. 4), a bird which may represent the eagle appears sitting on a
_Cimi_ (death) sign. Above in the glyphs the character for the south is
shown. Here, clearly, there is some connection between the signs of the
cardinal points in the line of glyphs and the various creatures pictured

There seems to be only one glyph which can in any way be taken for that
of the eagle in the Maya manuscripts and this appears only once, in
Tro-Cortesianus 107c (Pl. 20, fig. 9). This identification may be
questioned, as there is no drawing of an eagle associated with the
glyph. Attention has already been called to the two stone glyphs in Pl.
20, figs. 1, 3. There are various drawings of the glyph for the eagle in
the Nahua and Zapotecan codices (Pl. 20, fig. 8), as the Nahua day,
_Quauhtli_, has the meaning eagle. It is interesting to note in the
glyph from the Nuttall Codex (Pl. 20, fig. 8) the tips of the feathers
are crowned with stone points, a frequent way of representing birds of
prey among the Mexican peoples.

YUCATAN HORNED OWL (_Bubo virginianus mayensis_). Stempell makes a
serious mistake by confusing the eared owl shown in full face with that
shown in profile in the drawings, for he considers both to represent the
great horned owl. The figures are, however, quite different in every
way. The owl in full face view is unquestionably the great horned owl
(Maya, _ikim_), the Yucatan form of which is recognized by the
subspecific title _mayensis_. This is the bird opposed to the
"Moan-bird" which, as will be shown later, is associated with death. In
Pl. 21 are some truly remarkable figures which seem to represent this
horned owl, the first modelled in stucco from Palenque, the second
carved in stone from Yaxchilan, and the third carved in wood from Tikal.
Figs. 1 and 3 show the bird in flight with extended wings. The two
erectile tufts of feathers or "horns" are conspicuously represented in
fig. 3, at either side of the bird's head and between them the flat top
of the crown is secondarily divided in like manner into three parts,
representing the "horns" and the top of the head. The beetling brows,
heavy hooked beak, and spread talons combine to give a fierce and
spirited mien to the great bird. Pl. 21, fig. 2, may be a greatly
conventionalized owl in which the essential characteristics of the bird
are reproduced in a rectangular design. The large bill is conspicuous in
the center, and in each upper corner terminates one of the ears. The
eyes are represented by rectangular areas at the base of the bill, each
with three vertical bars across it. Below the beak, or at either side of
the tip, are the feet, each with the claw cross-hatched. What seem to be
the reduced and highly conventionalized wings fill the lower corner of
each side of the figure.

The shield in the center of the Tablet of the Sun at Palenque (Pl. 22,
fig. 6) shows a face in which the motif seems to be the full-face view
of the horned owl. The hooked bill curves over the mouth at each side of
which is the curious scroll seen in the same connection in the figures
of Pl. 21. The ears are somewhat shorter in proportion than usual and
below each, at the sides of the face, is a large ear-plug, similar to
that elsewhere found. The eyes are still further conventionalized with a
decorative scroll surrounding each. Another example of the
conventionalized owl's head is on Stela 1 from Cankuan (Maler, 1908, Pl.
13). We are not yet ready to advance an explanation of the reason why
the owl should occupy such a prominent position in the art of the Mayas.

In only one case is the horned owl found in the Maya manuscripts. In
Tro-Cortesianus 95c (Pl. 22, fig. 2), this owl appears as the head-dress
of a woman in that portion of the codex where baptism and naming are
shown. An owl's head seems to be shown on the end of a warrior's staff
in the bas-relief of the Lower Chamber of the Temple of the Tigers at
Chichen Itza (Pl. 22, fig. 4). Pl. 22, figs. 5, 7, show two owls from
the Aubin manuscript; the first is considered to be the screech owl
(_chiqualli_) and the second the horned owl (_tecolotl_, in Nahuatl).
Pl. 22, figs. 1, 3, show two drawings of owls from Nahua manuscripts.

YUCATAN SCREECH OWL or MOAN BIRD (_Otus choliba thompsoni_). A second
species of owl is represented by the figures on Pl. 23. This has
likewise two feathered tufts or "ears" on its head and is always shown
with the head, at least, in profile, but the tufts one in front, the
other at the back of the head. The facial disc is not very prominent the
beak rather long, the tail short, and the plumage somewhat mottled. A
dark ring usually surrounds the eye. It is, with little doubt, the
screech owl, the only other form of eared owl commonly met with in the
Central American region, and in Yucatan is represented by the race above
indicated. This owl, under the name of the Moan bird,[338-*] is always
associated with the idea of death among the Mayas. The familiarity of
this species and its mournful quavering cry uttered at night have no
doubt led to its association with death and mystery as with owls in
other parts of the world.

This Moan bird has an important place in the Maya pantheon, as it is the
representative in many places of god A, the Death god. It appears with a
human body in Dresden 7c (Pl. 23, fig. 1), 10a (Pl. 23, fig. 8), and 11a
(Pl. 23, fig. 3) and in Tro-Cortesianus 66a (Pl. 23, fig. 2). In each of
these places, it occupies the space in which one of the regular gods is
usually found. In Dresden 10a, the day reached in the _tonalamatl_
reckoning is _Cimi_, meaning death, and here, as has been noted, is
found the Moan bird, the symbol of death, with another sign of death in
the circle just above the head of the bird (Pl. 23, fig. 8).

This owl is used as a head-dress itself, but always for women, Dresden
16a (Pl. 23, fig. 19), 18b (Pl. 23, fig. 5), Tro-Cortesianus 94c (Pl.
23, fig. 4), and 95c (Pl. 23, fig. 20). It occurs in both manuscripts in
the pages mentioned several times before, where birth, baptism, and the
naming of children are shown. The curious figure, with a head similar to
Pl. 23, fig. 21, carried on the back of some of the women, is the Moan
sign, referring to the idea of death, possibly to still-birth, as
copulation and birth are shown in this section of the codex (Dresden
18c, 19c). The Moan is found associated with man only once in the
manuscripts. In Tro-Cortesianus 73b (Pl. 23, fig. 18), he is found
perching on a curious frame-like structure in which god B is sitting.

There are several glyphs representing the Moan bird or screech owl; the
first type is easily identifiable, as the head of the bird is clearly
pictured (Pl. 23, figs. 11-14, 16). This head is frequently associated
with the number thirteen (Dresden 8b). It may occur in the line of
glyphs (Dresden 16c), and refer to the Moan pictured below, or it may
occur in the line of glyphs with no picture corresponding to it below
(Dresden 53b). Pl. 23, fig. 15, from Dresden 38c has been placed with
these drawings, although the identification is not certain. It may
refer, however, to the large Moan head below, on which god B is sitting
(Pl. 23, fig. 11). The second type of glyph does not resemble in any way
the Moan, but they are clearly signs for it, as they are often found in
connection with the picture of the Moan, Dresden 7c (Pl. 23, figs. 6, 7,
21) and 10a. In both places fig. 7 is associated with the number
thirteen. Schellhas also places Pl. 23, fig. 17, among the Moan signs.

[Illustration: FIGS. 3, 4, 5, 6.

One of the eighteen Maya months is named Muan, and some of the glyphs
appearing for this month in the codices certainly represent the Moan or
screech owl. This is especially so with text figs. 3-6. Förstemann
(1904a) considers that the month Muan and, consequently, the sign as
well, refer to the Pleiades.

In connection with the screech owl referring to death, it is interesting
to note that among the Nahuas the owl is considered of unlucky augury
and is usually found in the "House of Death" and "of Drought", as
contrasted with the turkey, considered as a bird of good fortune, and
found in the "House of Rain."

COPPERY-TAILED TROGAN or QUETZAL (_Pharomacrus mocinno_). The quetzal is
common locally in certain parts of southern Mexico. Its brilliant
metallic green plumage and the greatly elongated tail feathers make it a
very notable bird. The feathers of the head are erect and stand out as a
light crest, those of the anterior portion being slightly recurved. The
delicate erect feathers of the head are well indicated in Vaticanus
3773, 17 (Pl. 24, fig. 9) and the tail, also, in this figure, is only
slightly conventionalized with an upward instead of the natural downward
sweep. In most of the representations, the crest feathers are
indicatd[TN-7] by large plumes, the most anterior of which project
forward. They may be even further modified into three knobs shown in
Dresden 7c (Pl. 24, fig. 1). The two characteristics of the quetzal,
namely its erect head feathers and its extraordinarily long tail
feathers, are often used separately. Thus the tail, which is commonly
drawn with the outer feather of each side strongly curled forward,
appears by itself in Pl. 24, fig. 8, or it may be seen as a plume in the
head-dress of a priest or warrior and in other connections as an
ornament. A greatly conventionalized drawing of the bird is also shown
in Pl. 24, fig. 11, in which the head bears a curious knob and the
dorsal feather of the tail is upcurled in the manner of the other
drawings. It is not at once apparent why the long drooping tail feathers
should be shown thus recurved. Possibly these feathers, when used by the
Mayas for plumes, curled over by their own weight, if held erect, so
that the representations are a compromise between the natural appearance
and that when used as ornament in the head decoration.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.

The color of the bird and the very long tail feathers have already been
mentioned, and these explain the reason of the importance of this bird
among the Mayas. It is claimed by several old authorities that the
quetzal was reserved for the rulers, and that it was death for any
common person to kill this bird for his own use. It seems from a
statement in Landa (1864, p. 190)[341-*] that birds were domesticated
for the feathers. This bird occurs again and again in various
modifications throughout the Maya art. The feathers of the quetzal are
the ones usually associated with the serpent, making the rebus,
_Quetzalcoatl_, the feathered serpent, the culture hero of the Nahuas,
or _Kukulcan_, which has the same signification among the Mayas. It is
impossible to mention here all the various connections in which the
quetzal appears. The feathers play an important part in the composition
of the head-dresses of the priests and warriors, especially those in the
stone carvings. A quotation has already been given from Landa, showing
the use made of feathers in the dress of the people. Text fig. 7 shows
perhaps the most elaborate representation of this bird. It is found on
the sculptured tablet of the Temple of the Cross at Palenque. The
quetzal is shown seated on top of a branching tree which was long taken
to represent a cross. A similar representation is seen on the tablet of
the Temple of the Foliated Cross from the same ruined city. In the Codex
Fejervary-Mayer, there are four trees in each of which there is a bird.
A quetzal is perched in the one corresponding to the east, which is
regarded as the region of opulence and moisture. Seler (1901, p. 17)
suggests that the quetzal in the tree on the two bas-reliefs at Palenque
may represent a similar idea and that temples which would show the other
three trees and their respective birds had not been built in that

The representation of the quetzal as an entire bird is, after all,
comparatively rare. The most realistic drawing is seen on a jar from
Copan in the collections of the Peabody Museum. The whole body of the
bird is shown as a head-dress in a few places in the codices where birth
and the naming of children are pictured. In Dresden 16c (Pl. 24, fig. 3)
and Tro-Cortesianus 94c (Pl. 24, fig. 6), the quetzal is the head-dress
of women. In Dresden 13b (Pl. 24, fig. 2), a partial drawing of the bird
is shown as a part of the head-dress of god E, in Dresden 7c (Pl. 24,
fig. 1) of god H, and in Tro-Cortesianus 110c of god F. The feathers
alone appear as a female head decoration in Dresden 20c (Pl. 24, fig.
8). It occurs as a sacrifice among the rites of the four years in
Tro-Cortesianus 36b (Pl. 24, fig. 12). In Tro-Cortesianus 70a (Pl. 24,
fig. 5), it is found in the act of eating fruit growing over the "young
god." In Tro-Cortesianus 100b (Pl. 24, fig. 4), the bird is perched over
the encased head of god C.

There seems to be a glyph used for the quetzal. In those drawn in Pl.
24, figs. 10, 17, it is noticeable that the anterior part only of the
head is shown. The first is a glyph from the tablet of the Temple of the
Sun at Palenque, and at least suggests the quetzal by the feathers on
the top of the head, as also Pl. 24, fig. 13, a glyph from Copan, Stela
10, where the entire head appears in a much conventionalized form. Other
glyphs are shown in Pl. 24, figs. 14-16, in which there is a single
prominent recurved feather shown over the eye, succeeded by a few
conventionalized feathers, then one or more directed posteriorly. It is
to be noted that whereas in many previous examples of glyphs the full
drawing of the animal or bird has been found in connection with them,
here with the quetzal glyphs there is no instance where a drawing of the
bird occurs with them. A curious human figure (Pl. 24, fig. 19), with a
head decoration similar to the frontal curve and markings on the quetzal
glyphs (fig. 14-16), may possibly represent this bird in some relation.

BLUE MACAW (_Ara militaris_). A large macaw (Maya, _mox_ or _ṭuṭ_) is
undoubtedly pictured in the figures in Pl. 25. The least
conventionalized drawing found is that shown in Dresden 16c (Pl. 25,
fig. 2), a bird characterized by long narrow tail feathers, a heavy
bill, and a series of scale-like markings on the face and about the eye.
Further conventionalized drawings are found in Pl. 25, figs. 3, 10, 13,
and Pl. 26, fig. 1. In all these the tail is less characteristic, though
composed of long, narrow feathers, and the facial markings are reduced
to a ring of circular marks about the eye. These last undoubtedly
represent, as supposed by Stempell, the bare space about the eye found
in certain of these large parrots. In addition, the space between the
eye and the base of the bill is partially bare with small patches of
feathers scattered at somewhat regular intervals in rows. It is probable
that this appearance is represented by the additional round marks about
the base of the bill in Pl. 25, figs. 1, 2, 5, 8, the last two of which
show the head only. There has hitherto been some question as to the
identity of certain stone carvings, similar to that on Stela B from
Copan, of which a portion is shown in Pl. 25, fig. 8. This has even been
interpreted as the trunk of an elephant or a mastodon, but is
unquestionably a macaw's beak. In addition to the ornamental
crosshatching on the beak, which is also seen on the glyph from the same
stela (Pl. 25, fig. 5), there is an ornamental scroll beneath the eye
which likewise is crosshatched and surrounded by a ring of subcircular
marks that continue to the base of the beak. The nostril is the large
oval marking directly in front of the eye.

The animal in Dresden 40b (Pl. 25, fig. 1) has always been considered
to be a tortoise (Schellhas, 1904, p. 44, and Förstemann, 1904). This
animal, together with the dog, is found beneath the constellation signs
carrying firebrands; both are regarded as lightning beasts. By comparing
the head of the figure shown in Pl. 25, fig. 1, with figs. 2, 4, 5, of
the same plate, the reasonableness of the identification of this head as
that of a macaw and not that of a tortoise appears clear. The same
figure occurs in Tro-Cortesianus 12a (Pl. 25, fig. 3) carrying a torch.

In order to make this point clearer, we will take up the consideration
of the glyphs at this place, rather than at the end of the section as
usual. As the macaw in Pl. 25, fig. 1, has been hitherto identified as a
turtle, so the glyph found in connection with it (Pl. 25, fig. 6) has
been considered to stand for the turtle. Pl. 25, fig. 7, is another
drawing of the same glyph. By comparing the markings on the face of fig.
1, it is seen that a similar ring surrounds the eye shown on the glyph.
The second glyph (Pl. 25, fig. 7) is better drawn and shows, in addition
to the eye ring, the slightly erectile feathers at the back of the head.
Comparison with the glyphs representing turtles (Pl. 14, figs. 7-10)
hitherto confused with these macaw glyphs shows differences, the most
important of which are of course the eye ring and the feathers at the
back of the head.

Various other glyphs occur which undoubtedly represent the heads either
of macaws or smaller parrots. They are, for the most part, glyphs from
the stone inscriptions. A crest, resembling that depicted on the head of
the quetzal, is found on a glyph on Altar Q from Copan (Pl. 25, fig.
10). The eye ring, however, seems to indicate the macaw which also has
slightly erectile feathers on the head. Much doubt is attached to the
identification of the glyph of the month _Kayae_[TN-8] from Stela A,
Quirigua (Pl. 25, fig. 9). It resembles closely the glyphs of the turtle
(Pl. 14, figs. 7-9) and especially that on Pl. 14, fig. 10. The Quirigua
glyph has a prominent fleshy tongue, however, like the parrot. From the
fact that the glyph is certainly that for the month _Kayab_ and the
_Kayab_ glyphs in the codices (Pl. 14, fig. 10) resemble the sign for
_a_, in the Landa alphabet which seems to stand for _ak_ (turtle), we
are led to identify this as a turtle rather than a parrot.

The use of the macaw as a lightning beast has already been commented
upon. The parrot is also used in the codices as a head-dress. As with
several other birds the only places in the manuscripts where the whole
bird is shown is in connection with the bearing of children and the
baptism. Here the parrot head-dress is seen on women, Dresden 16c (Pl.
25, fig. 2) and Tro-Cortesianus 94c (Pl. 25, fig. 13). There seems to be
an exception to the whole bird appearing as a head-dress exclusively
with women in Tro-Cortesianus 26c (Pl. 26, fig. 1), where god F appears
with a head-dress composed of the whole bird. The bird is also seen as a
head-dress on Altar Q from Copan (Pl. 26, fig. 3). The head of the macaw
appears as part of the head-dress of god H in Dresden 11a (Pl. 26, fig.
13), god E in Dresden 11b (Pl. 26, fig. 11), god F in Dresden 14b, god D
in Tro-Cortesianus 89a (Pl. 26, fig. 5) and of women in Dresden 12b (Pl.
26, fig. 6) and 19a (Pl. 26, fig. 9). In the rites of the four years in
Tro-Cortesianus 37b, there are two birds which are quite different from
those we have been considering, but which may represent macaws (Pl. 25,
fig. 12; Pl. 26, fig. 10).

In the Nuttall Codex, occur several figures of heavy-billed birds that
may be macaws or other smaller parrots of the genera _Amazona_ or
_Pachyrhynchus_. They are not, however, certainly identifiable (Pl. 26,
figs. 4, 7).

IMPERIAL WOODPECKER (_Campephilus imperialis_). We have here introduced
two drawings from the Nuttall Codex (Pl. 27, figs. 5, 6) which seem to
represent the Imperial ivory-billed woodpecker, a large species that
occurs in the forests of certain parts of Mexico. The figures show a
long-billed bird with acutely pointed tail feathers, a red crest, and
otherwise black and white plumage. The red crest of the woodpecker is of
course highly conventionalized in the drawings where it is shown as of a
number of erect feathers instead of the prominent occipital tuft of
this bird. The crest and particularly the pointed tail feathers and long
beak combined with the characteristic coloring seem to leave little
doubt as to the identity of the species figured. This bird does not seem
to appear in the Maya drawings.

RAVEN (_Corvus corax sinuatus_) (?). There occurs in the Nuttall Codex a
figure of a large black bird (Pl. 27, fig. 7), which may be a black
vulture, but which, from the presence of what appear as prominent
bristles over the nostril, may also be a raven. These bristles are
rather prominent in ravens and quite lacking in the vulture, so that we
are led to identify the drawing as representing the former bird. We have
found no other figures that suggest ravens.

MISCELLANEOUS BIRDS. Four drawings of birds from the Aubin manuscript are
shown here (Pl. 27, figs. 8-11), in order that the conventionalization of
the bird form may be seen. The first two are supposed to represent the
parrot (_cocho_) and the last two the turkey cock (_uexolotl_). There is
little in the drawings by which they can be differentiated. In the codex,
the heads of the parrots are colored red. There is no doubt, however,
about the identification, as they occur in the same relative position on
every page of the manuscript and are two of the thirteen birds associated
with the thirteen gods, the "Lords of the House of Day" (Seler,
1900-1901, pp. 31-35). From the foregoing, it may be seen that where
there is no question about the identification, the drawing of the bird
form is rather carelessly done and no great attempt is made to indicate
the special characteristics of the different birds.

As has been shown previously, it is not always possible to identify
without question many of the forms appearing in the manuscripts. This is
especially true with birds. In Tro-Cortesianus 20c, an unidentifiable
bird, painted blue, appears on the top of the staff carried by god F.
The head-dress of this same god in Tro-Cortesianus 27c is a bird form
and in Tro-Cortesianus 55b, the _tonalamatl_ figure is a bird whose
identity cannot be made out with certainty.


OPOSSUM (_Didelphis yucatanensis_, _D. mesamericana_). Figures
representing opossums are not with certainty identifiable in the Maya
writings. We have provisionally identified as a frog the animal shown in
Pl. 29, fig. 6, although at first sight the two median round markings
might be taken to represent a marsupial pouch. Stempell considers the
animals found in the upper division of Dresden 25-28 as opossums of one
of the above species, and this seems very possible. They are shown with
long tails, slightly curved at the tips, and with long head and
prominent vibrissae. A rather similar figure is found in the Nuttall
Codex (Pl. 34, fig. 7). There is nothing, however, that seems to
preclude their being dogs and, in our opinion, they represent this

NINE-BANDED ARMADILLO (_Tatu novemcinctum_). This is the common species
of armadillo (Maya, _wetš_) found throughout the warmer portion of
Mexico and Central America, where it is frequently used as an article of
food, and its shell-like covering is utilized in various ways. Several
representations of it occur in the Tro-Cortesianus (Pl. 29, figs. 1-4),
where it is characterized by its scaly covering, long ears and tail, and
the moveable bands about the body.

This animal is associated with the bee culture, as it is represented
twice in Tro-Cortesianus 103a (Pl. 29, figs. 1, 3) seated below a bee
under an overhanging roof. The hunting scenes in the Tro-Cortesianus
also show the armadillo; in 48a (Pl. 29, fig. 4) and in 91a it is shown
in a pit-fall. In the last case the _Cauac_ signs are clearly seen on
top of the trap, whereas in the former case the same signs seem to be
indicated by the crosses. Finally, this same animal occurs seated in
Tro-Cortesianus 92d (Pl. 29, fig. 2) facing a female figure. There seems
to be no glyph used in connection with this animal.

YUCATAN BROCKET (_Mazama pandora_). Among the numerous representations
of deer in the Maya writings, there is but one that appears to show the
brocket. This occurs in Tro-Cortesianus 92a (Pl. 30, fig. 2), where a
hoofed animal with a single spike-like horn is shown, seemingly impaled
on a stake set in the bottom of a pit-fall. As stated by Stempell, this
animal from the character of its horns is probably to be identified as a
brocket, though there is nothing to preclude its being a young spike
buck of some species of _Odocoileus._

YUCATAN DEER (_Odocoileus yucatanensis_; _O. thomasi_). Several species
of small deer (Maya, _ke_) occur in Mexico and Central America whose
relationships are not yet thoroughly understood (Pls. 30-32). The
species of Yucatan and southern Mexico have small lyrate antlers with
few, short tines, rather different from the broader type of the more
northern species with well developed secondary tines. The former type of
antlers seems to be indicated by the conventionalized structure shown in
Pl. 32, figs. 8-12. These probably represent the Yucatan deer or its
ally Thomas's deer of southern Mexico. Two of the figures, both from the
Nuttall Codex, show the lower incisor teeth (Pl. 32, figs. 8, 11),
though in other cases these are omitted. The larger part of the figures
of deer represent the does which have no antlers. For this reason it is
impossible to distinguish females of the brocket from those of the other
species of deer, if indeed, the Mayas themselves made such a
distinction. The characteristics of deer drawings are the long head and
ears, the prominently elevated tail with the hair bristling from its
posterior side (the characteristic position of the tail when the deer is
running), the hoofs, and less often the presence of incisors in the
lower jaw only and of a curious oblong mark at each end of the eye,
possibly representing the large tear gland.

The deer plays a large part in the Maya ceremonials. It is an important,
perhaps the most important animal offering as a sacrifice to the gods.
Several pages of the Tro-Cortesianus (38-49) are given over to the hunt
and the animal usually represented is the deer, the hunters are shown,
the methods of trapping, the return from the chase, and the rites in
connection with the animals slain. Tro-Cortesianus 48b (Pl. 30, fig. 1)
shows the usual method of trapping where the deer is caught by a cord
around one of the fore legs. Tro-Cortesianus 91a pictures the same
method and 92a (Pl. 30, figs. 2) shows where the deer is caught on a
spike in another type of trap. In Tro-Cortesianus 86a (Pl. 31, fig. 5)
the deer appears with a rope around his body held by a god who is not
easily identified.

Interesting descriptions of the hunt are given in several of the early
accounts.[349-*] It will be noted that the hunt was usually connected
with the religious rites and the offering of deer meat and various parts
of the body of the deer had a ceremonial importance. Attention is called
to similar practices among the Lacandones, the inhabitants of the
region of the Usumacinta at the present time (Tozzer, 1907), where the
greater part of the food of the people must, first of all, be offered to
the gods before it may be eaten by the natives.

The figures of the deer in the codices are clearly associated with god
M, and the latter may be considered a god of the hunt as well as a god
of war. It is very unusual to find a quadruped used as a head-dress in
any way, and yet in several cases we find god M has the head of a deer
as a sort of head covering, Tro-Cortesianus 50b (Pl. 31, fig. 6), 51c
(Pl. 31, fig. 7) and 68b. In the first two cases, the god seems to be
supplied with a bow and arrow. In a passage in Landa (1864, p.
290)[350-*] there is a description of this very scene.

In the month _Zip_, the hunters each took an arrow and a deer's head
which was painted blue; thus adorned they danced. God M is found in one
case in the Dresden in connection with the deer. In Dresden 13c the
animal is represented as female and is shown in intercourse with god M.

An offering of venison is frequently pictured in the manuscripts. Landa
(1864, p. 220)[350-†] also furnishes a parallel for this. The haunches
of venison arranged as offerings in dishes are realistically seen in a
number of representations of religious rites, as in Dresden 28c (Pl. 31,
fig. 14) in the last of the rites of the dominical days, 35a (Pl. 31,
fig. 12) and in Tro-Cortesianus 5a above the serpent enclosing the body
of water, 65a in front of god B or D and 105b (Pl. 31, fig. 13) and 108a
(Pl. 31, fig. 15), both of which are in connection with the bee

The head of the deer, rather than the legs, is also shown as an
offering, in Tro-Cortesianus 69b with god B and Tro-Cortesianus 78 (Pl.
31, fig. 10) in the line of glyphs. The whole deer may be represented as
an offering in Tro-Cortesianus 2b (Pl. 31, fig. 8).[351-*]

There are some examples in the manuscripts where the deer is pictured
quite apart from any idea of the hunt or an offering. In Tro-Cortesianus
14b, it is shown on top of the body of one of the large snakes and in
Tro-Cortesianus 29c (Pl. 31, fig. 3), it appears seated on the end of a
snake-like curve. The deer occurs in Tro-Cortesianus 30b (Pl. 30, fig.
6) in connection with the goddess from whose breasts water is flowing.
God B appears in Dresden 41c (Pl. 31, fig. 1) seated on a red deer. The
same animal is also to be noted in Dresden 60a (Pl. 30, fig. 5) in
connection with the combat of the planets.[351-†] A deer is seen in
Tro-Cortesianus 92d seated on a mat opposite a female figure in the same
manner as the armadillo on the same page and a dog on the preceding
page. These, as previously noted, probably refer to cohabitation. On Pl.
32, fig. 9, is a deer from the Peresianus and Pl. 32, fig. 12, shows
another from Stela N, east, from Copan.

The Nahua day _Maçatl_ signifies deer and we naturally find a large
number of glyphs representing this animal among the day signs in the
Mexican manuscripts (Pl. 31, fig. 9; Pl. 32, figs. 8, 10, 11).

YUCATAN PECCARY (_Tayassu angulatum yucatanense_; _T. ringens_).
Peccaries (Maya, _qeqem_) of the _T. angulatum_ group are common in
Mexico and Yucatan, and a number of local forms have been named. The
white-lipped peccaries also occur, but in the figures it is impossible
to distinguish the species. These animals are characterized by their
prominent snout, curly tail, bristling dorsal crest, and rather
formidable tusks, as well as by the possession of hoofs. By these marks
most of the figures are readily identifiable (Pl. 32, fig. 1; Pl. 33,
figs. 1, 2, 4-6, 9). The tail is, however, often omitted as well as the
erect line of bristles down the back. The presence of hoofs and the
possession of a truncated pig-like snout are sufficiently
characteristic. In the Dresden Codex occur several figures of undoubted
peccaries. Two of these are pictured in Pl. 32, figs. 2, 4. In each the
hoofs and curly tail appear, and in the latter figure the bristling back
is conventionally drawn by a series of serrations. These marks are
sufficient to identify the animals. Their heads are further
conventionalized, however, by a great exaggeration of the snout beyond
that slightly indicated in Pl. 32, fig. 1, and Pl. 33, figs. 6, 9. Other
representations of the peccary, are shown in Pl. 32, fig. 5, a man with
a peccary's head, and fig. 7 in which the animal's hoofs are replaced by
human hands and feet. In both cases the form of the head remains
characteristic. A curious combination is shown in Pl. 32, fig. 3, an
animal whose head and fore feet are those of a peccary, while the hind
feet have five toes, and there is a long tail. The addition of what look
like scales is found in a figure from the Dresden (Pl. 32, fig. 6).

The peccary is found in several different connections in the
manuscripts. As deer are found associated with the hunt, so, but to a
much more limited extent, the peccary. It is represented pictured as
being captured in snares of the familiar "jerk-up" type. Similar
drawings show this animal caught by the foreleg and held partially
suspended, Tro-Cortesianus 49a (Pl. 33, fig. 9),[352-*] 49c (Pl. 33,
fig. 1), and 93a (Pl. 33, fig. 4). Tro-Cortesianus 41b also shows the
peccary associated with hunting scenes. Another realistic drawing of
this animal in Dresden 62 (Pl. 33, fig. 6)[352-†] represents him as
seated on the open jaws of a serpent connected with a long number
series. We are unable to explain the signification of the appearance of
the animal in this connection. The peccary is pictured in
Tro-Cortesianus 27b (Pl. 33, fig. 5) seated on the left hand of the
goddess from whose breasts water is flowing.

The peccary seems to be associated with the sky, as it is seen in a
conventionalized form in four instances (Dresden 44b, 45b, (Pl. 32, fig.
4)[TN-9] coming from a band of constellation signs and in Dresden 68a (Pl.
32, fig. 2) coming from a similar band with god E sitting
underneath.[353-*] Above each of these conventionalized figures occur
the corresponding glyph forms (Pl. 33, figs. 7, 8), which show merely
the head with the exaggerated upturned snout. There is a striking
resemblance between these snouts and those of the stone mask-like
figures so frequently represented as a façade decoration in northern
Yucatan. The presence in the mouths of the faces there represented of a
recurved tusk in addition to other teeth is a further resemblance to the
drawings of peccaries. Stempell (1908, p. 718) has reproduced a
photograph of these extraordinary carvings and considers them the heads
of mastodons, apparently solely on account of the shape of the upturned
snout, whose tip in many of the carvings turns forward. They certainly
do not represent the heads of mastodons, but we are not ready to say
that the peccary is the prototype of these carvings, although the
similarity between the glyphs (Pl. 33, figs. 7, 8) and the masks is
worthy of note. One point which does not favor this explanation is the
fact that on the eastern façade of the Monjas at Chichen Itza where the
mask-like panel is seen at its best, we find a realistic drawing of a
peccary (Pl. 33, fig. 2) on the band of glyphs over the doorway, and it
in no way suggests the head on the panel and is quite different from the
head already noted as the glyph of the peccary in the codices.

BAIRD'S TAPIR (_Tapirella bairdi_). No undoubted representations of
tapirs occur in the manuscripts here considered. Possibly tapirs did
not live in the country occupied by the Maya peoples. At the present
time they are found only to the south of Yucatan. In Central America
Baird's and Dow's tapirs are native, the latter, however, more on the
Pacific coast. We have included a drawing of an earthenware vessel (Pl.
28, fig. 1) that represents a tapir, about whose neck is a string of
Oliva shells. The short prehensile trunk of the tapir is well made and
the hoofs are likewise shown. A greatly elongated nose is found in many
of the drawings of the deities, but it does not seem clear that these
represent trunks of tapirs, or, as suggested by Stempell, mastodons! Two
such heads are shown in Pl. 39, figs. 7, 9. These offer a considerable
superficial resemblance to that of a tapir, but as no other drawings
that might be considered to represent this animal are found, it seems
very questionable if the long noses are other than parts of grotesque
masks. The superficial resemblance of the curious nose pieces of the
masks on the panel of the Maya façades to elephants' trunks does not
seem to us especially significant, as otherwise the carvings are quite
unlike elephants. They have no great tusks as an elephant should, but,
instead, short recurved teeth similar to those representing peccary
tusks, as already pointed out.

RABBIT (_Sylvilagus_ or _Lepus_). Rabbits and hares from their
familiarity, their long ears, and their peculiar method of locomotion,
seem always to attract the notice of primitive peoples. Several species
occur in Mexico, including the Marsh rabbit (_Sylvilagus truei_; _S.
insonus_), various races of the Cottontail rabbit (_S. floridanus
connectens_; _S. f. chiapensis_, _S. f. yucatanicus_; _S. aztecus_; _S.
orizabae_, etc.) and several Jack rabbits (_Lepus alleni pallitans_; _L.
callotis flavigularis_, _L. asellus_). It is, of course, quite
impossible to determine to which of these species belong the few
representations found. Several drawings, shown in Pl. 30, figs. 3, 4, 7,
8, are at once identifiable as rabbits from their long ears, round
heads, and the presence of the prominent gnawing teeth.[354-*] In two
of the figures (Pl. 30, figs. 7, 8), the entire animal is shown, sitting
erect on its haunches, the first with one ear in advance of the other, a
trait more characteristic of the jack rabbit than of the short-eared
rabbits. For convenience of comparison, we have placed beside these two
figures one of a deer in much the same position. It is at once
distinguished, however, by its long head, longer bushy tail, and by the
marks at each end of the eye. What at first sight appear to be two
gnawing teeth of the rabbit seem to be the incisors of the lower jaw.
This is the animal identified by Stempell as a dog.

The animal shown to be a rabbit in Dresden 61 (Pl. 30, fig. 8) is
pictured seated on the open jaws of a serpent in the same way as the
peccary on the following page. These two animals, together with two
representations of god B and the black god (Dresden 61), are each
clearly connected with the serpents on which they are sitting.

The Nahua day _Tochtli_ signifies rabbit and naturally the animal occurs
throughout the Mexican manuscripts as representing this day (Pl. 30,
figs. 3, 4).

OTHER RODENTS. We have included in Pl. 29, figs. 5, 7, 8, three
undetermined mammals. The second of these is characterized by the two
prominent gnawing teeth of a rodent and by its long tail. It may
represent a pack rat (_Neotoma_) of which many species are described
from Mexico. In its rounded ears and long tail, fig. 5 somewhat
resembles fig. 7, but it lacks the gnawing incisors. Still less
satisfactory is fig. 8 from Tro-Cortesianus 24d, at whose identity it
seems unsafe to hazard a guess. It is shown as eating the corn being
sowed by god D.

JAGUAR (_Felis hernandezi_; _F. h. goldmani_). Throughout its range, the
jaguar (Maya, _balam_ or _tšakmul_) is the most dreaded of the
carnivorous mammals. It is, therefore, natural that the Mayas held it in
great awe and used it as a symbol of strength and courage. A few
characteristic figures are shown in Pl. 34, figs. 1-3; Pl. 35, figs.
5-14. The species represented is probably _Felis hernandezi_, the
Mexican race of jaguar, or one or the other of the more or less nominal
varieties named from Central America. The distinguishing mark of the
jaguar, in addition to the general form with the long tail, short ears
and claws, is the presence of the rosette-like spots. These are
variously conventionalized as solid black markings, as small circles, or
as a central spot ringed by a circle of dots (Pl. 35, fig. 12).
Frequently the solid black spots are used, either in a line down the
back and tail or scattered over the body. The tip of the tail is
characteristically black, and the teeth are often prominent. Such a
figure as this (Pl. 35, fig. 10) Stempell considers to be a water
opossum (_Chironectes_), for the reason that it is held by the goddess
from whose breast water is flowing. This can hardly be, however, for not
only are the markings unlike those of the water opossum, but the large
canine tooth indicates a large carnivore. Moreover, the water opossum is
a small animal, hardly as big as a rat, of shy and retiring habits, and
so is unlikely to figure in the drawings of the Mayas.

As for the significance of the jaguar in the life of the Mayas, it may
be said that this animal seems to have played a most prominent part. At
Chichen Itza, the building on top of the southern end of the eastern
wall of the Ball Court, usually called the Temple of the Tigers, has a
line of jaguars carved in stone as frieze around the outside of the
building, and in the Lower Chamber of the same structure, the figure of
a jaguar (Maudslay, III, Pl. 43) serves as an altar. The front legs and
the head of a jaguar often are seen as the support of a seat or altar on
which a god is represented as at Palenque in the Palace, House E
(Maudslay, IV, Pl. 44) and in the Temple of the Beau Relief (Holmes,
1895-1897, Pl. 20). Altar F at Copan (Pl. 35, fig. 7) shows the same
idea. The head of a puma or jaguar (Pl. 34, fig. 6) appears in the
bas-relief of the Lower Chamber of the Temple of the Tigers, evidently
representing a part of an altar. A realistic carving of a jaguar was
found on a stone near the Temple of the Cones at Chichen Itza (Maudslay,
III, Pl. 52, fig. a), and another occurs near the present hacienda of
Chichen Itza carved in relief on a ledge of rock.

In the Maya manuscripts the jaguar appears in a number of connections.
Its mythological character is shown in Dresden 8a (Pl. 35, fig. 5),
where it is pictured as the _tonalamatl_ figure. The day reached here in
the reckoning is _Ix_, and this corresponds to the Nahua _Oceolotl_,
which means jaguar. In Dresden 26, in the pages showing the ceremonies
of the years, the jaguar is carried on the back of the priest, evidently
representing one of the year bearers (_Ti cuch haab_). Balam, the name
of the jaguar, is the title given to the four _Bacabs_ or _Chacs_, the
gods of the four cardinal points. In Tro-Cortesianus 64a, two jaguar
heads are noted as the end of curious bands of _Caban_ signs over a
flaming pot. The second one is shown as dead. A jaguar head is employed
in two places in the Tro-Cortesianus, 34a and 36a, as a head-dress for a
god who is in the act of sowing corn. This animal appears very
infrequently in the pages of the Tro-Cortesianus given over to the
hunting scenes, 41c, 40c, 43b, and, even here, it never appears in the
same way as the deer and peccary, as an animal for sacrifice.

The jaguar as a predacious beast is noted in Tro-Cortesianus 28b (Pl.
35, fig. 8), where it is attacking god F in a similar way as the
vultures in the preceding picture. The jaguar appears in Tro-Cortesianus
30b (Pl. 35, fig. 10) seated on the right hand of the goddess from whose
breasts water is flowing. The figure in Tro-Cortesianus 12b between the
various offerings may be a jaguar or a dog, more probably from its
connection with an offering, the dog. A curious modification of the
jaguar may be shown in Tro-Cortesianus 20a (Pl. 34, fig. 2), where a god
is seated on the gaping jaws of some animal whose identity is uncertain.
It may be a serpent, although the black-tipped tail from which the head
appears to come certainly suggests the jaguar.

There are several carved glyphs in stone that probably represent
jaguars. Two of these (Pl. 28, fig. 4; Pl. 35, fig. 9) have the
characteristic round spots, but others are unmarked, and suggest the
jaguar by their general character only (Pl. 35, fig. 6). This latter
may, of course, represent the puma quite as well. A realistic jaguar
head appears as a glyph in Tro-Cortesianus 2a (Pl. 35, fig. 13). The
more usual glyph for the jaguar is more highly conventionalized,
although the spots and the short rounded ear are still characteristic
(Pl. 35, fig. 11). A slight modification of this glyph appears in
Dresden 8a in connection with the full drawing of the animal below.

The Nahua day _Oceolotl_, as already noted, means jaguar, and the jaguar
glyph is found among the day signs (Pl. 34, fig. 3). Seler (1904, p.
379) associates the jaguar in the Vaticanus and the Bologna with
_Tezcatlipoca_. He notes that the second age of the world, in which the
giants lived and in which _Tezcatlipoca_ shone as the sun, is called the
"jaguar sun." _Tezcatlipoca_ is supposed to have changed himself into a

PUMA (_Felis bangsi costaricensis_). As shown by Stempell, there can be
little doubt that some one of the mainly nominal species of Central
American puma is represented in Dresden 47 (Pl. 34, fig. 7). This animal
is colored reddish in the original, as is the puma, is without spots,
although the tip of the tail, as in the pictures of the jaguar, is
black. The animal is represented as being transfixed with a
spear.[358-*] Another animal colored red in Dresden 41c seems to
represent a puma. God B is shown seated upon him. A crude figure from
the Painted Chamber of the Temple of the Tigers (Pl. 34, fig. 5) is
probably the same species of puma. The cleverly executed head, shown in
profile in Pl. 34, fig. 6, is also perhaps the same animal, although it
may possibly represent the jaguar. One or the other of these two cats is
also intended, in Pl. 34, fig. 4, a drawing of a piece of pottery.

COYOTE (_Canis_). Two figures from the Nuttall Codex have been included
as possibly representing coyotes (Pl. 35, figs. 1, 2). They are chiefly
characterized by their prominent ears and bristling hair, and seem to be
engaged in active combat. Coyotes of several species occur in Mexico and
though not generally regarded as aggressive animals are of a predacious
nature. No drawings of the coyote have been noted in the Maya codices.

DOG (_Canis_). The dog (Maya, _peq_) evidently played an important part
in the life of the Mayas as it does with other races of men generally.
On Pls. 36, 37, we have included certain figures of dogs from several
manuscripts. These may represent two breeds, for it is well known that
both a hairy and a hairless variety were found by the early discoverers
in Mexico.[359-*] Hairiness is more or less clearly indicated in the
following figures:--Pl. 36, figs. 1-7, 12; Pl. 37, figs. 4, 5. The
figures of dogs usually agree in having a black mark about the eyes that
frequently is produced as a downward curved tongue from the posterior
canthus. Sometimes, as in Pl. 37, figs. 1-3, 10, this tongue is not
blackened. Commonly also black patches are elsewhere distributed on the
body, generally on the back. These markings are probably the patches of
color separated by white areas that occur frequently in dogs or other
animals after long domestication.[359-†] We have included among the
figures of dogs two in which the eye is differently represented and
which are unspotted (Pl. 37, figs. 4, 6). These modifications may have
some special significance, but otherwise the animals appear most closely
to represent dogs.

We have already suggested that the animal attired in man's clothing, and
walking erect in Dresden 25a-28a is likewise a dog, though Stempell
believes it to represent the opossum in support of which he calls
attention to its prominent vibrissae and slightly curled tail.

The dog played a large part in the religion both of the Mayas and the
Mexican peoples. It was connected especially with the idea of death and
destruction. The Lacandones of the present time make a small figure of a
dog to place on the grave (Tozzer, 1907, p. 47). This is but one of the
many survivals of the ancient pre-Columbian religion found among this
people. The dog was regarded as the messenger to prepare the way to the
other world. Seler (1900-1901, pp. 82-83) gives an interesting parallel
of the Nahua idea of the dog and his connection with death. He
paraphrases Sahagun as follows: "The native Mexican dogs barked, wagged
their tails, in a word, behaved in all respects like our own dogs, were
kept by the Mexicans not only as house companions, but above all, for
the shambles, and also in Yucatan and on the coast land for sacrifice.
The importance that the dog had acquired in the funeral rites may
perhaps have originated in the fact that, as the departed of both sexes
were accompanied by their effects, the prince by the women and slaves in
his service, so the dog was assigned to the grave as his master's
associate, friend, and guard, and that the persistence of this custom in
course of time created the belief that the dog stood in some special
relation to the kingdom of the dead. It may also be that, simply because
it was the practice to burn the dead, the dog was looked on as the Fire
God's animal and the emblem of fire, the natives got accustomed to speak
of him as the messenger to prepare the way in the kingdom of the dead,
and thus eventually to regard him as such. At the time when the
Spaniards made their acquaintance, it was the constant practice of the
Mexicans to commit to the grave with the dead a dog who had to be of a
red-yellow color, and had a string of unspun cotton round his neck, and
was first killed by the thrust of a dart in his throat. The Mexicans
believed that four years after death, when the soul had already passed
through many dangers on its way to the underworld, it came at last to
the bank of a great river, the Chicunauhapan, which encircled the
underworld proper. The souls could get across this river only when they
were awaited by their little dog, who, recognizing his master on the
opposite side, rushed into the water to bring him over." (Sahagun, 3
Appendix, Chap. 1.)

As might be expected from the foregoing, there are abundant evidences in
the manuscripts of the presence of the dog in the various religious
rites and especially those which have to do with the other world, the
Kingdom of the Dead. In Tro-Cortesianus 35b, 36b, 37a, 37b, the pages
showing the rites of the four years, the dog appears in various
attitudes. In 35b and 36b, it bears on his back the _Imix_ and _Kan_
signs, in 37a (Pl. 37, fig. 8) it is shown as beating a drum and
singing, in 37b (Pl. 36, fig. 2) it is beside a bowl containing _Kan_
signs. In all of these places, the dogs seem to be represented among the
various birds and animals which are to be sacrificed for the new years.
Landa (1864, p. 216)[361-*] states that in the _Kan_ year a dog was
sacrificed. In the _Muluc_ year, Landa (1864, p. 222)[361-†] records
that they offered dogs made of clay with bread upon their backs and a
_perrito_ which had black shoulders and was a virgin. It has already
been noted that two of the dogs represented in Tro-Cortesianus 35b and
36b have a _Kan_ and _Imix_ sign fastened to the back. Moreover, we have
also pointed out that the _Kan_ sign frequently seems to have the
meaning of maize or bread. It will be noted that in Tro-Cortesianus 36b
two human feet are shown on each of which is a dog-like
animal.[361-‡] These may indicate the dance in which dogs were
carried as noted by Landa. Cogolludo (1688, p. 184)[361-§] also mentions
a similar dance. Still another reference in Landa (1864, p. 260)[362-*]
mentions that in the months _Muan_ and _Pax_ dogs were sacrificed to the

Reference has already been made to the identification of the four
priests at the top of Dresden 25-28 as having the heads of dogs rather
than of opossums. It may be suggested that in the rôle of the conductor
to the other world the dog is represented as carrying on his back in
each case the year which has just been completed and therefore is dead.
This, of course, would necessitate the identification of god B, the
jaguar, god E, and god A as representing in turn the four years.

The dog, according to Sahagun's account (p. 360) was looked upon as the
"Fire God's animal," and as an emblem of fire. This idea is seen
frequently in the Maya manuscripts where the dog with firebrands in his
paws or attached to his tail is coming head downward from a line of
constellation signs, as in Dresden 36a (Pl. 37, fig. 3), 40b (Pl. 37,
fig. 1) or is standing beneath similar signs as in Dresden 39a (Pl. 37,
fig. 2) and probably in Tro-Cortesianus 13a. His tail alone has the
firebrand in Tro-Cortesianus 36b. Firebrands are carried by figures
which have been identified by us as dogs in Tro-Cortesianus 24c (Pl. 37,
fig. 6), 25c, and 90a. Here the animal is represented as in the air
holding his firebrands over a blazing altar beside which god F is
seated. In two out of the four cases, F is shown as dead. The dog in
these latter examples has his eye composed of the _Akbal_ sign. This
same glyph can also be made out with difficulty on the forehead of the
dog shown in Dresden 36a (Pl. 37, fig. 3). As has been noted, _Akbal_
means night and possibly death as well. It is certain that destruction
is indicated in the preceding examples as well as in Tro-Cortesianus 87a
and 88a (Pl. 37, fig. 4) where the dog is holding four human figures by
the hair.

Beyer (1908, pp. 419-422) has identified the dog as the Pleiades and
various other suggestions have been made that the dog represents some
constellation. The more common form of spotted dog is shown as a single
_tonalamatl_ figure in Tro-Cortesianus 25d and 27d (Pl. 36, fig. 14) and
an unspotted variety in Dresden 7a (Pl. 37, fig. 10). The dog is
frequently shown as copulating with another animal or with a female
figure. In Dresden 13c (Pl. 37, fig. 7) the second figure is a vulture,
in Dresden 21b (Pl. 37, fig. 5) it is a woman and also in
Tro-Cortesianus 91c (Pl. 36, fig. 12).

The same animal appears also in a number of scenes not included in the
preceding. In Tro-Cortesianus 88c (Pl. 36, fig. 1) a dog is seated on a
crab and seems to be connected with the idea of the north as this sign
is noted above the figure; in Tro-Cortesianus 66b (Pl. 36, fig. 3) a dog
and another animal (Pl. 32, fig. 3) are seated back to back under a
shelter; in Tro-Cortesianus 30b a dog is seated on the right foot of the
woman from whose breasts water is streaming; in Dresden 29a (Pl. 37,
fig. 12) god B is shown seated on a dog; and, finally, in Dresden 30a
(Pl. 37, fig. 9) god B holds the bound dog by the tail over an altar.

The dog appears from numerous references to be used in connection with a
prayer for rain. Comargo (1843) in his history of Tlaxcallan states that
when rain failed, a procession was held in which a number of hairless
dogs were carried on decorated litters to a place devoted to their use.
There they were sacrificed to the god of water and the bodies were

The glyphs associated with the dog are interesting as we have, as in the
case with the deer, one showing a realistic drawing of a dog's head in
Tro-Cortesianus 91d (Pl. 37, fig. 13) and several others far more
difficult of interpretation. Pl. 37, fig. 11, seems to stand for the dog
as it is found in several places where the dog appears below, Dresden
21b, 40b. It is thought by some to represent the ribs of a dog which
appear in somewhat similar fashion in Pl. 37, fig. 8. Some of the
glyphs in the codices for the month _Kankin_ show the same element (text
figs. 8-10).

[Illustration: Figs. 8, 9, 10.

The Nahua day sign _Itzcuintli_ signifies dog and corresponds to the
Maya Oc (Pl. 36, figs. 9-11). This in turn is considered by many to
stand for the dog as the animal of death and signifies the end. The
sore, cropped ears of the domesticated dog are supposed to be
represented in this sign, Oc. Nahua and other day signs for _Itzcuintli_
(dog) are shown in Pl. 36, figs. 4, 6, 13.

BEAR (_Ursus machetes_; _U. horriaeus_). In northern Mexico, in
Chihuahua and Sonora, occur a black bear (_Ursus machetes_) and the
Sonoran grizzly (_U. horriaeus_). It is unlikely that the Mayas had much
acquaintance with these animals since they range more to the northward
than the area of Maya occupation. Stempell has identified as a bear, a
figure in Dresden 37a (Pl. 35, fig. 3). This represents a creature with
the body of a man walking erect but with the head apparently of some
carnivorous mammal, as shown by the prominent canine tooth. This appears
as a _tonalamatl_ figure. The resemblance to a bear is not very clear.
Less doubt attaches to the figure shown in Pl. 35, fig. 4, which seems
almost certainly to depict a bear. The stout body, absence of a tail,
the plantigrade hind feet, and stout claws, all seem to proclaim it a
bear of one of the two species above mentioned. This picture is found in
connection with one of the warriors shown in the bas-relief of the Lower
Chamber of the Temple of the Tigers at Chichen Itza. It seems clearly to
designate the figure in much the same way as figures are named in the
Mexican writings, _i.e._, by having a glyph showing this nearby.
Attention has already been called to the fact that here at Chichen Itza,
and, especially on this bas-relief, there is much which shows a strong
influence from the north. The two figures in Tro-Cortesianus 43a are
probably bears. Förstemann (1902, p. 68) considers that they are men
masked as _Chacs_ or _Bacabs_.

LEAF-NOSED BAT (_Vampyrus spectrum_; _Artibeus jamaicensis_; or
_Phyllostomus hastatus panamensis_). Several remarkably diabolical
representations of bats (Maya, _soɔ_, usually written _zotz_) occur
among the Maya remains. These all show the prominent nose leaf
distinguishing the family _Phyllostomatidae_ and, as the Mayas probably
used the largest and most conspicuous of the native species for artistic
representation, it is likely that some one of the three species above
mentioned is the one here shown.

[Illustration: FIGS. 11, 12, 13, 14.

The bat had a place in the Maya pantheon. One of the months of the Maya
year (_Zotz_) was named after this animal and the glyph for this month
shows the characteristic nasal appendage. This is to be seen more
clearly in the glyphs selected from the stone inscriptions (Pl. 38,
figs. 1, 2, 4-6) than in those from the codices (text figs. 11-14)
although the nose leaf is still visible in the latter. The day sign
_Akbal_ (night) occurs as the eye in the figures from the manuscripts. A
carving showing the whole body of the bat is used as a glyph in Stela D
from Copan (Pl. 38, fig. 3). This may also represent the Bat god who is
associated with the underworld, "the god of the caverns." This god is
pictured on the "Vase of Chama" (Pl. 38, fig. 7) figured by Dieseldorff
(1904, pp. 665-666) and by Gordon (1898, Pl. III). Seler (1904a) has
discussed the presence of this god among the Mayas, the Zapotecs, and
the Nahuas. The bat does not seem to occur in the Maya manuscripts as a
god, although there are glyphs which seem to refer to this god (Dresden
17b), as pointed out by Seler, when there is no other representation of
this deity.

No doubt in the times of the Maya civilization, these bats haunted the
temples by day as they do now, and thus became readily endowed with a
religious significance.

[Illustration: FIG. 15.

CAPUCHIN MONKEY (_Cebus capucinus,--C. hypoleucus_ Auct.)[TN-10] With the
possible exception of one or two figures, monkeys (Maya, _maaš_ or
_baaɔ_) are not represented in the Maya codices examined. In
Tro-Cortesianus 88c (Pl. 39, fig. 4) occurs a curious nondescript animal
with what seem to be hoofs on the forefeet, a somewhat bushy tail of
moderate length, and a head that appears to be distinctly bonneted,
somewhat as in the representations of the capuchin. Stempell regards
this as a monkey, though recognizing that the short bushy tail is unlike
that of any Central American species. The figure seems quite as likely a
peccary or possibly a combination of a deer with some other animal. A
glyph (Pl. 39, fig. 5) found directly above the figure just referred
to, suggests a monkey, though it cannot be surely identified. A pottery
whistle from the Uloa Valley (text fig. 15) shows two monkeys standing
side by side with a posterior extension for the mouth piece. Their heads
are shaped as in other representations of this monkey with a distinct
cap or bonnet and facial discs. A pottery stamp from the same locality
shows a monkey with a long tail (Gordon, 1898, Pl. 11, fig. f). It
recalls the drawings of monkeys given by Strebel (1899, Pls. 1-4).

In the Nuttall Codex are numerous heads and a few other figures of a
monkey, which from the erect hair of the crown, curling tail, and
distinctly indicated facial area must be the common bonneted or capuchin
monkey of Central America. This species does not occur in Yucatan. What
is undoubtedly the same animal is shown as a head glyph in Pl. 39, fig.
8, from the Aubin manuscript. The identifications of the head-forming
glyphs in the Nuttall and the Aubin manuscripts are certainly correct as
the Nahua day sign (_Oçomatli_) means ape.

[Illustration: FIGS. 16, 17, 18, 19.

Text figs. 16-19, show some of the signs for the day _Chuen_ from the
Maya codices. This is the day corresponding to the day Oçomatli of the
Nahuas. There is little resembling an ape in the Maya signs although it
has been remarked that the sign may show the open jaws and teeth of this

Förstemann (1897) as noted by Schellhas (1904, p. 21) alludes to the
fact that the figure of god C, which occurs also in the sign for the
north, in the _tonalamatl_ in Dresden 4a-10a occurs in the day _Chuen_
of the Maya calendar, and this corresponds to the day _Oçomatli_, the
ape, in the Nahua calendar. This would suggest a connection between god
C and the ape and this may be seen in the glyphs for god C (text figs.
20-24). Förstemann sees "an ape whose lateral nasal cavity (peculiar to
the American ape or monkey) is occasionally represented plainly in the
hieroglyph picture." He also associates god C with the constellation of
Ursa Minor.

[Illustration: FIGS. 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.

It will be seen from the detailed examination of the fauna shown in the
codices that after all a comparatively small part of the animal life of
the country occupied by the Maya speaking peoples is represented. The
drawings in some cases are fairly accurate, so that there is little
difficulty in determining the species intended by the artist. At other
times, it is hazardous to state the exact species to which the animal
belongs. It is only in a comparatively small number of cases, however,
that there is any great doubt attached to the identification. It will be
noted that the drawings of the Dresden manuscript are much more
carefully and accurately done than those of the Tro-Cortesianus. A
greater delicacy and a more minute regard for detail characterize the
Dresden drawings in general.

In the animals selected for reproduction by the Mayas, only those were
taken which were used either in a purely religious significance for
their mythological character (and here naturally there is to be noted an
anthropomorphic tendency) or animals were chosen which were employed as
offerings to the many different gods of the Maya pantheon. The religious
character of the whole portrayal of animal life in the codices is
clearly manifest, and it is this side of the subject which will come out
more clearly as the manuscripts are better known.


[300-*] Quoted in Thomas, 1882, pp. 115, 116.

[300-†] "En el mes de _Tzoz_ se aparejavan los señores de las
colmenares para celebrar su fiesta en _Tzec_."

[301-*] "En este mes (_Mol_) tornavan los colmenares a hazer otra fiesta
como la que hizieron en _Tzec_, para que los dioses proveessen de flores
a las avejas."

[303-*] Strebel (1899, Pl. 11) gives several realistic reproductions of
the centipede from pottery fragments.

[309-*] Attention is also called to two whistles representing frogs in
the _Memoirs of the Peabody Museum_, I, _No._ 4 (Gordon, 1898), Pl. 9,
figs, i, j.

[311-*] We have added here a Spanish description from the _Relacion de
la Ciudad de Mérida_ (1900, pp. 66, 67) of the varieties of serpent
found in the country. "Ay una suerte de culebra que llaman los naturales
taxinchan, de una tercia de largo, que para andar hinca la cabeza en el
suelo y da un salto, y de aquella suerte dando saltos anda, la espalda y
la cabeza tiene dorada y la punta dela cola este se cria en los montes,
y quando pica a alguna persona le haze reventar sangre por todos los
poros del cuerpo que pareze que suda sangre y si no es le haze algun
rremedio muere dentro de un dia natural y para la mordedura desta
culebra tienen por rremedio los naturales dar a bever ala tal persona
chile y hoja de piciete molido junto y desleido en agua, y con esto
guarecen e sanan--ay biboras muy grandes y ponzoñosas de una vara e mas
de largo, y tan gruesa como un brazo, que tienen cascabeles en la punta
de la cola, y si muerden matan sino se rremedio con brebedad, y tienen
los naturales por rremedio beber chile e piciete como para la mordedura
del taxinchan--ay otras suertes de culebras que se llaman cocob, de tres
y cuatro varas de largo y tan gruesas como una lanza gineta, que tanbien
son muy ponzoñosas, y al que pican haze salir sangre por todo el cuerpo
y por los ojos, como el taxinchan, ... procuraban guarecerse desta
ponzoña con juros y encantamentos, que avia grandes en cantadores y
tenian sus libros para conjurarlas y encantarlas, y estos encantadores,
con pocas palabras que dezian, encantaban y amansaban las culebras
ponzoñosas, las cojian y tomaban con las manos sin que les hiziese mal
ninguno--tanbien ay culebras bobas sin ponzoñas, de dos varas y mas de
largo y tan gruesas como el brazo, y suelen ponerse sobre arboles juntos
alos caminos, y quando pasa alguna persona se deja caer encima y se le
enrosça y rebuelve al cuerpo y a la garganta, y apretando le procura
ahogarle y matarle, a sucedido matar algunos yndios caçadores yendo
descuidados--tanbien tienen estas culebras distinto natural para comer y

[313-*] Pl. 9, figs. 5, 9, show drawings of the rattlesnake which occur
on the fresco.

[316-*] The reader is also referred to the bas-relief of the Lower
Chamber of the Temple of the Tigers at Chichen Itza where a serpent is
shown behind a low altar.

[317-*] Förstemann (1906, p. 15) agrees with Schellhas that this may be
a rebus for the name _Quetzalcoatl_ or _Kukulcan_. As the bird is a
vulture rather than a quetzal this could hardly be the case.

[317-†] "Y con isopo en el mano de un palo corto muy labrado, y por
barbas o pelos del isopo ciertas colas de unas culebras que son como

[318-*] Brinton (1893, p. 25) notes that the equivalent of _Kan_ in the
Nahuatl of Miztitlan is _xilotl_ which means ear of corn. This seems to
show the correctness of the usual identification of the _Kan_ sign as
meaning maize or bread (_pan_).

[318-†] "Y les ofrecían dos pellas de una leche o resina de un arbol
que llaman _kik_, para quemar y ciertas iguanas y pan y una mitra y un
manojo de flores y una piedra preciosa de las suyas."

[319-*] "Y pintaban un largarto que significaba el Diluvio--y la tierra
e sobre este largarto hazian un gran monton de leña y ponianle fuego."

[323-*] See in this connection Seler, 1904.

[327-*] "Y ofrecerle cabeças de pavos y pan y bevidas de maiz."

[327-†] (Kan year) "Sahumavan la imagen, degollavan una gallina y se
la presentavan o offrecian ... y assi le hazian muchas offrendas de
comidas y bevidas de carne y pescado, y estas offrendas repartian a los
estrangeros que alli se hallavan."

(Muluc year) "Y despues degollavanle la gallina como al passado."

(Ix year) "Y degollavan la gallina ... a la estatua de _Kac-u-Uayeyab_
ofrescian una cabeça de un pavo, y empanados de codornices y otras
coasa[TN-11] y su bevida."

(Cauac year) "Coma solian y degollavanle la gallina ... un hombre muerto
y en cima un paxaro cenicero llamad _kuch_, en señal de mortandad
grande, ca por muy mal año tenian este."

[330-*] Förstemann identifies this bird as a black eagle.

[333-*] "Este año en que la letra era _Cauac_ y reynava el
_Bacab-Hozanek_ tenian, allende de la pronosticada mortandad, por ruyn,
por que dezian les avian los muchos soles de matar los maizales, y comer
las muchas hormigas lo que sembrassen y los paxaros, y porque esto no
seria en todas partes avria en algunos comida, la qual avrian con gran

[338-*] Brinton (1895, p. 74), according to our interpretation, makes a
mistake when he considers the crested falcon as the Moan, "in Maya
_muan_ or _muyan_." He adds, "Some writers have thought the moan bird
was a mythical animal but Dr. C. H. Berendt found the name still applied
to the falcon. In the form _muyan_, it is akin in sound to _muyal_,
cloud, _muan_, cloudy, which may account for its adoption as a symbol of
the rains, etc."

[341-*] "Crian paxaros para su recreacion y para las plumas para hazer
sus ropas galanas."

[349-*] _Relacion hecha por el Licenciado Palacio al Rey. D. Felipe II_
(1866, p. 31). "Lo que hacian en los sacrificios de la pesca y caza, era
que tomaban un venado vivo y llevábanlo al patio del cu é iglesia que
tenian fuera del pueblo y allí lo ahogaban y lo desollaban y le salaban
toda la sangre en una olla, y el hígado y bofes y buches los hacian
pedazos muy pequeños y apartaban el corazon, cabeza y pies, y mandaban
cocer el venado por si, la sangre for[TN-12] sí, y mientras esto se
cocia, hacian su baile. Tomaban el Papa y sábio la cabeza del venado por
las orejas, y los cuatro sacerdotes los cuatro pies, y el mayordomo
llevaba un brasero, do se quemaba el corazon con ulí y copa, é incensaban
al ídolo que tenian puesto y señalado para la caza y pesca. Acabado el
mitote, ofrecian la cabeza y piés al ídolo y chamuscábanla, y despues de
chamuscada, la llevaban á casa del Papa y se la comia y el venado y su
sangre comian los demás sacerdotes delante del ídolo; á los pescados les
sacaban las tripas y los quemaban ante el dicho ídolo. Lo propio era con
los demás animales."

_Relacion de Cotuta y Tibolon_ (1898, p. 105). "Un dios que dezian que
eran benados en matando un yndio un benado benia luego a su dios y con
el coraçon le untaba la cara de sangre y sino mataba algo aquel dia
ybase a su casa aquel yndio le quebraba y dabale de cozes diziendo que
no era buen dios."

Cogolludo (1688, Book I, Chap. VII, p. 43) "Correan tan poco los
venados, y tan sin espantarse de la gente, que los soldados de á cavallo
del exercito los alcancavan, y alançeavan, muy á su placer, y de esta
suerte mataron muchos de ellos, con que comieron algunos dias despues
... Que en que consistia aquella novedad, de aver tanta maquina de
venados, y estar tan mansos? Les dieron por respuesta; Que en aquellos
Pueblos los tenian por sus Dioses á los venador; porque su Idolo Mayor
se les avia aparecido en aquella figura."

[350-*] "Y con su devocion invocavan los caçadores a los dioses de la
caça, ... sacava cada uno una flecha y una calabera de venado, las
quales los _chaces_ untavan con el betun azul; y untados, vailavan con
ellas en las manos unos."

[350-†] In the _Muluc_ years, he states "davan al sacredote una pierna
de venado" and also in the same month, "Ofrecian a la imagen pan hecho
como yemas de uevos y otros como coraçones de venados, y otro hecho con
su pimienta desleida."

[351-*] Förstemann (1902, p. 20) identifies this animal as a rabbit!

[351-†] Förstemann identifies this animal as a dog.

[352-*] This animal has been identified by Stempell as an agouti
notwithstanding the hoofs and tusks.

[352-†] Förstemann (1906, p. 228) suggests that this animal is a bear.

[353-*] Attention is called to the curious half-human, half-animal
figure in Tro-Cortesianus 2a which may suggest the figures in Dresden
44a, 45a and which are here identified as peccaries. Both are descending
from the band of constellation signs and the heads of each are not
greatly dissimilar.

[354-*] Förstemann (1906, p. 229) suggests that fig. 8 is a walrus!

[358-*] Seler (1904) gives an interesting explanation of the reason why
the puma and the other corresponding figures are shown hit with a spear.

[359-*] _Relacion de la Ciudad de Merida_ (1898, p. 63): "Ay perros
naturales dela tierra que no tienen pelo ninguno, y no ladran, que
tienen los dientes ralos e agudos, las orejas pequeñas, tiesas y
levantadas--a estos engordan los yndios para comer y los tienen por gran
rregalo--estos se juntan con los perros de españa y enjendran y los
mestizos que dellos proceden ladran y tienen pelo y tambien los comen
los yndios cano alos demas, y tambien los yndios tienen otra suerte de
perros que tienen pelo pero tan poco ladran y son del mesmo tamaño que
los demas."

[359-†] Brinton (1895, p. 72) regards these spots as representing

[361-*] "Y que le sacrificassen un perro o un hombre ... porque hazian
en el patio del templo un gran monton de piedras y ponian al hombre o
perro que avian de sacrificiar en alguna cosa mas alta que el."

[361-†] "Avian de ofrescerle perros hechos de barro con pan en las
espaldas, y avian de vailar con ellos en las manos las viejas y
sacrificarle un perrito que tuviesse las espaldas negras y fuesse

[361-‡] These might quite as well be rabbits as dogs.

[361-§] "De los Indios de Cozumèl dize, que aun en su tiempo eran
grandes Idolatras, y usaban un bayle de su gentilidad, en el qual
flechaban un perro [^q] auian de sacrificar."

[362-*] "Donde sacrificavan un perro, manchado por la color del cacao
... y ofrecianles yguanas de las azules y ciertas plumas de un paxaro."


Aubin Manuscript, See Seler 1900-1901.

Beyer, Herman.
  1908, The symbolic meaning of the dog in ancient Mexico; in _American
    Anthropologist_ (N. S.), Vol. X, pp. 419-422, Washington.

Bologna Codex, See Cospiano Codex.

Borbonicus Codex, See Hamy, 1899.

Borgia Codex, See Seler, 1904-1906.

Brasseur de Bourbourg, Charles Etienne.
  1869-1870, Manuscrit Troano. Etudes sur le système graphique et la
    langue des Mayas; 2 vols., 4^o Paris.

Brinton, Daniel Garrison.
  1893, The native calendar of Central America and Mexico; in
    _Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society_; Vol. XXXI, pp.
    258-314, Philadelphia.

1895, A primer of Mayan hieroglyphics; in _Publications of the
University of Pennsylvania, Series in Philosophy, Literature, and
Archaeology_, Vol. III, No. 2, pp. 152, Boston.

Camargo, Domingo Muñoz.
  1843, Histoire de la République de Tlaxcallan; in _Nouvelles Annales
    des Voyages et des Sciences Géographique_; IV Série, Tome 3, Paris.
    (Spanish edition published by Chavero, Mexico, 1892.)

Cogolludo, Diego Lopez.
  1688, Historia de Yucatan; 4^o, pp. 791, Madrid.

Cortesianus Codex, See Rada y Delgado, 1893.

Cospiano Codex (formerly Bologna).
  1899, Published in facsimile, Paris. (Loubat edition.)

Dieseldorff, Erwin P.
  1904, A clay vessel with a picture of a vampire-headed deity; in
    _Bureau of Ethnology, Bulletin 28_, pp. 665-666, Washington.
    (Translation of German edition published in _Zeitschrift für
    Ethnologie_, 1894, pp. 576-577.)

Dresden Codex, See Förstemann, 1880 and 1892.

Fejérváry-Mayer Codex, See Seler, 1901.

Fewkes, J. Walter.
  1892, The Mam-zraú-ti; a Tusayan ceremony; in _American Anthropologist_,
     Vol. V, pp. 217-246.

  1894, A study of certain figures in a Maya codex; in _American
     Anthropologist_, Vol. VII, pp. 260-274.

Förstemann, Ernst.
  1880, Die Maya-Handschrift der königlichen öffentlichen Bibliothek zu
    Dresden; 4^o, Preface pp. xvii, 74 colored plates, Leipzig.

  1892, Second edition of 1880, Dresden.

  1902, Commentar zur Madrider Mayahandschrift (Codex Tro-Cortesianus);
    8^o, pp. 160, Danzig.

  1903, Commentar zur Pariser Mayahandschrift (Codex Peresianus); 8^o,
    pp. 32, Danzig.

  1904, Tortoise and shell in Maya literature; in _Bureau of Ethnology,
    Bulletin_ 28, pp. 423-430, Washington. (Translation of German
    edition of 1892. Dresden.)

  1904a, The Pleiades among the Mayas; in _Bureau of Ethnology,
    Bulletin_ 28, pp. 523-524, Washington. (Translation of German
    edition published in _Globus_, Vol. XVI, No. 15, p. 246, 1894.)

  1904b, The Day Gods of the Mayas; in _Bureau of Ethnology, Bulletin_
    28, pp. 557-572, Washington. (Translation of German edition
    published in _Globus_, Vol. LXIII, Nos. 9, 10, 1898.)

  1906, Commentary of the Maya manuscript in the Royal Public Library of
    Dresden; in _Papers of the Peabody Museum_, Vol. IV, No. 2, pp.
    48-266. Cambridge. (Translation, revised by the author, of the
    German edition of 1901.)

Gann, Thomas.
  1897-1898, Mounds in Northern Honduras; in _Bureau of Ethnology_, 19th
    annual report, part 2, pp. 661-691, Washington.

Gordon, George Byron.
  1898, Researches in the Uloa Valley, Honduras; in _Memoirs of the
    Peabody Museum_, Vol. I, No. 4, pp. 44, Cambridge.

Hamy, Ernest T.
  1899, Codex Borbonicus. Manuscrit Mexicain de la Bibliothèque der
    Palais Bourbon; Text and plates, Paris.

Holmes, William Henry.
  1895-1897, Archaeological studies among the ancient cities of Mexico;
    _Field Museum of Natural History, Publications_ 8 and 16,
    _Anthropological Series_, Vol. I, No. I, Chicago.

Hough, Walter.
  1908, The pulque of Mexico; in _Proceedings of the United States
    National Museum_, Vol. XXXIII, pp. 577-592, Washington.

Landa, Diego de.
  1864, Relación de las cosas de Yucatan; Spanish text with French
    translation published by Brasseur de Bourbourg; 8^o, pp. 516,
    Paris. (The references in the text are to this edition). Spanish
    edition published by Juan de Dios de la Rada y Delgado, Madrid,
    1884, as an appendix to his translation of Leon de Rosny's article,
    Essai sur le déchiffrement de l'écriture hiératique de l'Amérique
    Centrale. Second Spanish edition in Colección de Documentos inéditos
    (2d Series); Madrid, 1900, Vol. XIII, pp. 265-411.

  1900, See second Spanish edition under 1864. (This contains much that
    is not given in the 1864 edition.)

Maler, Teoberto.
  1901-1903, Researches in the Usumatsintla Valley; in _Memoirs of the
    Peabody Museum_, Vol. II, Cambridge.

  1908, Explorations of the Upper Usumatsintla and adjacent region; in
    _Memoirs of the Peabody Museum_, Vol. IV, No. 1, Cambridge.

Maudslay, Alfred P.
  1889-1902, Biologia Centrali-Americana, or Contributions to the
    knowledge of the flora and fauna of Mexico and Central America.
    Archaeology; Text and 4 vols. plates, London.

Nuttall Codex.
  1902, Reproduced in facsimile by the Peabody Museum, Cambridge.

  1686, Relacion hecha por el Licentiado Palacio al Rey. D. Felipe II en
    la que describe la Provincia de Guatemala, las costumbres de los
    Indios y otras casas notables; in _Colección de Documentos inéditos
    relativos al descubrimiento, conquista y organizacion de las
    antiguas posesiones Españales[TN-13] de América y Oceania_; Tomo VI,
    pp. 7-40, Madrid.

Peresianus Codex, See Rosny, 1887.

Perez, Juan Pio.
  1866-1877, Diccionario de la lengua Maya; sm. 4^o, pp. 437, Merida.

Rada y Delgado, Juan de Dios de la.
  1893, Codice Maya denominado Cortesianus que se conserva en el Museo
    Arqueologio Nacional; 42 colored plates, Madrid.

Relacion de la Ciudad de Merida.
  1900, in _Colección de Documentos inéditos relativos al
    descubrimiento, conquista y organizacion de las antiguas posesiones
    Españolas de Ultra mar_ (_Segunda serie_), Tomo XI, pp. 37-75,

Relación de Cotuta y Tibolon.
  1900, in _Colección de Documentos inéditos etc._, (_Segunda serie_),
    Tomo XI, pp. 93-103, Madrid.

Rosny, Leon de.
  1876, Essai sur le dechiffrement de l'écriture hiératique de
    l'Amérique Centrale, Paris.

  1887, Codex Peresianus, Manuscrit hiératique des anciens Indiens de
    l'Améirque[TN-14] Centrale conservé à la Bibliothéque[TN-15] National
    de Paris, Paris.

Schellhas, Paul.
  1904, Representations of deities of the Maya manuscripts; in _Papers
    of the Peabody Museum_, Vol. IV, No. 1, pp. 1-47, Cambridge.
    (Revised translation of second German edition of 1904.)

Seler, Eduard.
  1900-1901, The Tonalamatl of the Aubin Collection, (English edition),
    pp. 147, plates 19, Berlin and London. (Loubat edition.)

  1901, Codex Fejérváry-Mayer. Manuscrit Mexicain précolombien du Free
    Public Museum de Liverpool (M 12014). Text and plates, Paris.
    (Loubat edition.)

  1902-1903, Codex Vaticanus 3773, Text and plates, Berlin. (Loubat ed.)

  1904, Venus period in the picture writings of the Borgia Codex group;
    in _Bureau of Ethnology, Bulletin_ 28, pp. 355-391, Washington.
    (Translation of German edition of 1898.)

  1904a, The Bat god of the Maya race; in _Bureau of Ethnology,
    Bulletin_ 28, pp. 231-242, Washington. (Translation of the German
    edition of 1894.)

  1904b, Antiquities from Guatemala: in _Bureau of Ethnology, Bulletin_
    28, pp. 75-121, Washington. (Translation of the German edition of
    1895. republished[TN-16] in his collected works, Vol. III, pp.

  1904-1906, Codex Borgia. Eine altmexikanische Bilderschrift der
    Bibliothek der Congregatio de Propaganda Fide; 4^o, 2 vols. plates,
    Berlin (Loubat edition.)

  1909, Die Tierbilder der mexikanischen und Maya-Handschriften:[TN-17] in
    _Zeitschrift für Ethnologie_, 1909, pp. 209-257, 381-457 (not

Stempell, W.
  1908, Die Tierbilder der Mayahandschriften; in _Zeitschrift für
    Ethnologie_, 40 Jahrgang, Vol. V, pp. 704-743.

Strebel, Hermann.
  1899, Uber Tierornamente auf Thongefässen aus Alt-Mexico; in
    _Veröffentlichen aus dem Konig. Mus. für Völkerkunde_, Vol. VI, part
    1, pp. 1-33, Berlin.

Thomas, Cyrus.
  1882, A study of the Manuscript Troana; in _Contributions to North
    American Ethnology_, Vol. V, pp. 234, Washington.

  1884-1885, Aids to the study of the Maya codices; in _Bureau of
    Ethnology_, 6th annual report, pp. 253-371, Washington.

Tozzer, Alfred M.
  1907, A comparative study of the Mayas and the Lacandones. Report of
    the Fellow in American Archaeology, 1902-1905; Archaeological
    Institute of America, 8^o, pp. 195, plates 29, New York.

Troano Codex, See Brasseur de Bourbourg, 1867-1870.

Villagutierre Soto Mayor, Juan.
  1701, Historia de la Conquista de la Provincia de el Itza; 4^o, pp.
    660, Madrid.

Vaticanus 3773, See Seler, 1902.




   1. Man emerging from shell, Dresden 41b.
   2. Same, Borgia 4.
   3. Bologna 4.
   4. Dresden 37b.
   5. Vaticanus 3773, 66.
   6. Nuttall 16.
   7. Sign for zero, Dresden 64.
   8. Glyph, Dresden 41b.
   9. Nuttall 16.


  10, 11. Sign for zero, Dresden 63.
  12. Same, Dresden 55b.


  13. Sign for zero, Dresden 54b.
  14. Same. Bivalve, Dresden 63.
  15. Bivalve, Nuttall 25.
  16. Nuttall 49.
  17. Nuttall 23.
  18. Nuttall 16.
  19. Nuttall 36.
  20. Nuttall 75.
  21. Bivalve closed, seen in profile, Nuttall 75.
  22. Same, Nuttall 25.
  23. Probably bivalve, Nuttall 16.
  24. Same. Nuttall 36.

[Illustration: PLATE 1]



HONEY BEE (_Melipona_)

   1. Possibly a drone, Tro-Cortesianus 108a.
   2, 3. Tro-Cortesianus 108a.
   4, 6[TN-18] Bees more conventionalized, Tro-Cortesianus 80b.
   5. Bee and honey comb, Tro-Cortesianus 109c.
   7. Honey combs, apparently in a hive, Tro-Cortesianus 11c.
   8. Maya day sign, _Cauac_, possibly representing a honey comb,
        Tro-Cortesianus 106b.
   9. Tro-Cortesianus 103c.
  10. Honey combs in a hive, Tro-Cortesianus 104a.
  11. Bee and honey comb, Tro-Cortesianus 109c.

[Illustration: PLATE 2]



   1. Maggots, probably of Blowfly (_Sarcophaga_), Tro-Cortesianus 27d.
   2. Same, Tro-Cortesianus 24d.
   3. Larva of _Acentrocneme kollari_, Tro-Cortesianus 28c.
   4. Conventionalized insect, possibly a hornet, Nuttall 3.
   5. Conventionalized insect, unidentified, Nuttall 19.
   6. Same, Nuttall 55.
   7. Same, Nuttall 51.
   8. Butterfly or moth, Nuttall 19.
   9. Butterfly, Aubin.
  10. Maya day sign, _Akbal_, possibly representing the head of a
  11. Glyph belonging to god D, apparently composed of signs for
        centipede, Dresden 7b.
  12. Glyph for god D, Dresden 14b.
  13. Glyph, Dresden 44b.
  14. Same, Dresden 27a.
  15. Centipede in connection with head-dress of god D, Dresden 15c.
  16. Glyph, Dresden 9b.
  17. Same, Dresden 15c.
  18. Centipede in connection with head-dress of god D, Dresden 7c.

[Illustration: PLATE 3]



   1. Scorpion and deer, Tro-Cortesianus 48c.
   2. Scorpion with sting conventionalized as a hand, Tro-Cortesianus 44c.
   3. Scorpion highly conventionalized, Nuttall 22.
   4. Spider, possibly a tarantula, Borbonicus 9.
   5. Crayfish, Nuttall 16.
   6. Crab, Nuttall 37.

[Illustration: PLATE 4]



   1. Parts of a conventionalized centipede with quetzal tail, Vaticanus
        3773, 13.
   2. Fish with teeth, Chichen Itza, Temple of the Tigers, Lower Chamber
        (Maudslay, III, Pl. 48).
   3. Fish captured by heron, Dresden 36b. (Compare Pl. 15, fig. 5.)
   4. Chichen Itza, Temple of the Tigers, Lower Chamber (Maudslay, III,
        Pl. 45).
   5. Fish.
   6. Pottery fish, Chajcar (Maudslay, IV, Pl. 93).
   7. Same.
   8. Fish as offering, Tro-Cortesianus 3a.
   9. Same, Dresden 29b.

[Illustration: PLATE 5]



   1. Possibly a flying-fish (_Exocetus_), Nuttall 75.
   2. Palenque, Temple of the Cross (Maudslay, IV, Pl. 68).
   3. Nuttall 36.
   4, 5. Glyphs, possibly of a shark, Dresden 40a.
   6. Fish as offering, Dresden 27c.
   7. Fish without dorsal fins, possibly an eel (_Muraena_), Dresden 65b.
   8. Fish as offering, Dresden 23b.
   9. Pottery animal from Santa Rita (Gann, 1897-1898, Pl. 34).
  10. Dresden 44c.
  11. Nuttall 16.
  12. Palenque, Palace (Maudslay, IV, Pl. 11).
  13. Fish as offering, Dresden 33a.
  14. Fish as part of the Great Cycle glyph, Copan, Stela C, north
        (Maudslay, I, Pl. 41).
  15. Same, Copan, Stela C, south (Maudslay, I, Pl. 41.)
  16. Same, Copan, Stela D (Maudslay, I, Pl. 48).
  17. Same, Copan, Stela C, south (Maudslay, I, Pl. 41).

[Illustration: PLATE 6]



   1. Frog (_Rana_), Tro-Cortesianus 31a.
   2, 3. Same, Tro-Cortesianus 101d.
   4. Probably a toad (_Bufo_), Copan, Oblong altar (Maudslay, I, Pl.
   5. Frog or toad, Tro-Cortesianus 17b.
   6. Frog and fish, Copan, Altar O (Maudslay, I, Pl. 85).
   7. Chichen Itza, Temple of the Tigers, Lower Chamber (Maudslay, III,
        Pl. 46).

[Illustration: PLATE 7]



   1. God F representing a tree-toad (_Hyla eximia_), Tro-Cortesianus
   2. Glyph evidently belonging to fig. 3, Tro-Cortesianus 26a.
   3. Same as fig. 1, Tro-Cortesianus 26a.
   4. Snake, Nuttall 6.
   5. Same, Nuttall 45.
   6. Same, Nuttall 37.
   7. Snake used as head-dress of a woman, Dresden 39b.
   8. Same, Dresden 23b.
   9. Same, Dresden 43b.
  10. Same, Dresden 22b.
  11. Same, Dresden 9c.
  12. Same, Dresden 15b.
  13. Same, Dresden 18a.
  14. Dresden 42a.
  15. Same as figs. 7-13, Dresden 20a.

[Illustration: PLATE [8][TN-19]]



RATTLESNAKE (_Crotalus_)

   1. Tro-Cortesianus 33b.
   2. Nahua day sign, _Couatl_, Aubin 10.
   3. Tro-Cortesianus 52c.
   4. Tro-Cortesianus 40b.
   5. Chichen Itza, Temple of the Tigers, Painted Chamber (Maudslay, III,
        Pl. 40).
   6. Nuttall 29.
   7. Glyph representing rattles, Tro-Cortesianus 106c.
   8. Tro-Cortesianus 100d.
   9. Chichen Itza, Temple of the Tigers, Painted Chamber (Maudslay, III,
        Pl. 40).
  10. Nuttall 54.

[Illustration: PLATE 9]




   1. Tree snake (possibly _Lachesis_), Dresden 27c.
   2. Nuttall 37.
   3. Dresden 57b.
   4. Nuttall 5.
   5. Nuttall 37.
   6. Nuttall.
   7. Serpent in connection with long number series, Dresden 62.
   8. Dresden 37b.
   9. Dresden 40c.

[Illustration: PLATE 10.]




   1. Large snake with conventionalized spots, Tro-Cortesianus 30a.
   2. Tro-Cortesianus 31b.

[Illustration: PLATE 11]




   1. Iguana as offering, Tro-Cortesianus 105c.
   2. Iguana, Tro-Cortesianus 3b.
   3. Iguana, as offering with _Kan_, Dresden 43c.
   4. Same, Tro-Cortesianus 107b.
   5. Same, Tro-Cortesianus 6a.
   6. Same, Dresden 29b.
   7. Offering, possibly representing a lizard, Dresden 27b.
   8. Same, Dresden 34a.
   9. Lizard used for _Uinal_ glyph, Copan, Stela D, gl. 4. (Maudslay, I,
        Pl. 48).
  10. Nahua day sign, _Cuetzpalin_ (lizard), Aubin 10.
  11. Lizard, Dresden 3a.
  12. Nuttall 10.
  13. Offering, the portion with serrated margin possibly representing
        an iguana, Tro-Cortesianus 12b.
  14. Lizard, Nuttall 2.

[Illustration: PLATE 12]



CROCODILE (_Crocodilus_)

   1. Glyph of the Nahua day sign, _Cipactli_, Nuttall 1.
   2. Crocodile represented by head and limb, Nuttall 36.
   3. Same as fig. 1, Nuttall 1.
   4. Same as fig. 1, Nuttall 4.
   5. Same as fig. 1, Nuttall 9.
   6. Same as fig. 1, Nuttall 47.
   7. Same as fig. 1, Nuttall 1.
   8. Nuttall 75.
   9. Head of lizard or possibly crocodile used as a _Uinal_ glyph,
        Palenque, Temple of the Foliated Cross (Maudslay, IV, Pl. 82,
        gl. 6).
  10. Head of crocodile, Dresden 52b.
  11. Head, possibly of a crocodile, Palenque, Temple of the Foliated
        Cross (Maudslay, IV, Pl. 82, gl. 0,[TN-20] 4).
  12. Conventionalized head of a crocodile, Dresden 53b.

[Illustration: PLATE 13.]




   1. Turtle, Tro-Cortesianus 19b.
   2. Same, Tro-Cortesianus 17b.
   3. Swimming turtle, Tro-Cortesianus 17a.
   4. Possibly representing a turtle, Nuttall 33.
   5. Turtle, Tro-Cortesianus 81c.
   6. Freshwater turtle (_Chelydra_) with leeches attached,
        Tro-Cortesianus 72b.
   7. Glyph for fig. 3.
   8. Glyph.
   9. Glyph.
  10. Glyph.
  11. Turtle, Nuttall 43.
  12. Turtle god, _Aac_, Dresden 49.

[Illustration: PLATE 14]




   1. Heron, stucco ornament, Palenque, Palace, House B (Maudslay, IV,
        Pl. 18).
   2. Heron head-dress, Chichen Itza, Temple of the Tigers, Lower Chamber
        (Maudslay, III, Pl. 45).
   3. Head and neck of a heron, Dresden 37b.
   4. Heron, Nuttall 74.
   5. Heron with fish, Palenque, Temple of the Cross, West side panel
        (Maudslay, IV, Pl. 71).
   6. Heron[TN-22]
   7. Heron with a fish as a head-dress, Dresden 36a.
   8. Fork-tailed bird, probably a Frigate bird (_Fregata aquila_),
        Tro-Cortesianus 34a.
   9. Same, arranged for offering, Dresden 35a.

[Illustration: PLATE 15]



OCELLATED TURKEY (_Agriocharis ocellata_)

   1. Turkey in trap, Tro-Cortesianus 93a.
   2. Turkey, Tro-Cortesianus 10b.
   3. Turkey snared, Tro-Cortesianus 91a.
   4. Tro-Cortesianus 4a.
   5. Tro-Cortesianus 95c.
   6. Tro-Cortesianus 37b.
   7. Vaticanus 3773, 14.
   8. Tro-Cortesianus 36a.
   9. Whole turkey as offering, Dresden 26c.
  10. Head of turkey as offering, Dresden 34a.
  11. Same, Tro-Cortesianus 12b.
  12. Same, Tro-Cortesianus 105b.
  13. Dresden 20a.
  14. Head of turkey as offering, Dresden 41c.
  15. Same, Tro-Cortesianus 107b.
  16. Same, Dresden 29c.
  17. Same, Dresden 28c.

[Illustration: PLATE 16]



KING VULTURE (_Sarcorhamphus papa_)

   1. Tro-Cortesianus 67a.
   2. Tro-Cortesianus 22c.
   3. God with head of King Vulture, Dresden 19a.
   4. King Vulture and Ocellated Turkey, Tro-Cortesianus 85a.
   5. Glyph, showing head, Dresden 39c.
   6. Same, Tro-Cortesianus 107c.
   7. Same, Dresden 38b.
   8. Same.
   9. King Vulture, tearing out entrails of deer, Tro-Cortesianus 40a.
  10. _Tun_ period glyph (Maudslay, IV, Pl. 89).
  11. Tro-Cortesianus 94c.
  12. Tro-Cortesianus 26c.
  13. Glyph, Chichen Itza, Monjas, east (Maudslay, III, Pl. 13).

[Illustration: PLATE 17]



KING VULTURE (_Sarcorhamphus papa_), BLACK VULTURE (_Catharista urubu_)

   1. Glyph of head of King Vulture, Dresden 11b.
   2. Glyph for Nahua day sign, _Cozcaquauhtli_, Nuttall 5.
   3. Same as fig. 2, Nuttall 41.
   4. Same as fig. 2, Nuttall 5.
   5. Same as fig. 2, Nuttall 4.
   6. Same as fig. 2, showing considerable conventionalization. Nuttall
   7. Same as fig. 2, Nuttall 3.
   8. Same as fig[TN-23] 2, further reduced, Nuttall 18.
   9. Same as fig. 2, Nuttall 3.
  10. Same as fig. 2, Nuttall 20.
  11. Probably a Black Vulture, Tro-Cortesianus 95c.
  12. Black Vulture, Tro-Cortesianus 70a.
  13. Same, Dresden 17b.
  14. Possibly a Black Vulture, Chichen Itza, Monjas, east (Maudslay,
        III, Pl. 13).
  15. Head of Black Vulture, Nuttall 32.
  16. Glyph of head of same, Dresden 54b.
  17. Black Vulture, Tro-Cortesianus 36b.
  18. Head of same, Tro-Cortesianus 26c.
  19. Same, Dresden 39c.
  20. Same, Nuttall 19.
  21. Same, Nuttall 34.
  22. Same, Dresden 37c.
  23. Same, Nuttall 27.
  24. Same, Nuttall 1.
  25. Same, Nuttall 34.
  26. Same, Nuttall 9.
  27. Same, Tro-Cortesianus 19b.

[Illustration: PLATE 18]




   1. Vulture (probably a King Vulture) tearing at entrails of an animal,
        Tro-Cortesianus 42a.
   2. Nuttall 69.
   3. Nuttall 74.
   4. Possibly a Black Vulture, Tro-Cortesianus 35b.
   5. Tro-Cortesianus 26d.
   6. Tro-Cortesianus 26d.
   7. Dresden 3a.
   8. Glyph, Copan (Maudslay, I, Pl. 16).
   9. Glyph, Copan, Altar K (Maudslay, I, gl. 73).
  10. Glyph, Tikal, House 9 (Maudslay, III, Pl. 79).
  11. Black Vulture and snake, Dresden 36b.
  12. Probably vultures, Tro-Cortesianus 100b.
  13. Probably a vulture, Tro-Cortesianus 18b.
  14. Same, Temple of the Tigers, Lower Chamber, Chichen Itza (Maudslay,
        III, Pl. 46).

[Illustration: PLATE 19]



HARPY EAGLE (_Thrasaetos harpyia_)

   1. Glyph, Copan (Maudslay, I, Pl. 16, gl. 3).
   2. Nuttall 53.
   3. Glyph, Copan (Maudslay, I, Pl. 16, gl. 13).
   4. Tro-Cortesianus 88c.
   5. Part of a head-dress, Dresden 14c.
   6. Peresianus 2.
   7. Dresden 14b.
   8. Eagle with crest feathers tipped by flints, Nuttall[TN-24]
   9. Glyph, Tro-Cortesianus 107c.
  10. Stone carving, Chichen Itza (Maudslay, III, Pl. 52).
  11. Dresden 23c.
  12. Possibly an eagle's head, Dresden 43c.
  13. Possibly an eagle, Dresden 74.
  14. Bologna 7.

[Illustration: PLATE 20]



YUCATAN HORNED OWL (_Bubo virginianus mayensis_)

   1. Owl in flight, Stucco ornament, Palenque, Palace, House E
        (Maudslay, IV, Pl. 43).
   2. Stone carving of owl, Yaxchilan, Stela 4 (Peabody Museum Memoirs,
        II, Pl. 70).
   3. Owl in flight, carved in wood, Tikal, House C, lintel (Maudslay,
        III, Pl. 78).

[Illustration: PLATE 21]



YUCATAN HORNED OWL (_Bubo virginianus mayensis_)

   1. Bologna 7.
   2. As a head-dress, Tro-Cortesianus 95c.
   3. Borgia 7.
   4. On end of staff carried by warrior, Chichen Itza, Temple of the
        Tigers, Lower Chamber (Maudslay, III, Pl. 49).
   5. Aubin 13.
   6. Head highly conventionalized, Palenque, Temple of the Sun
        (Maudslay, IV, Pl. 88).
   7. Screech-owl (_chiquàtli_), Aubin.

[Illustration: [PLATE] 22[TN-25]]



YUCATAN SCREECH OWL or _Moan-bird_ (_Otus choliba thompsoni_)

   1. Dresden 7c.
   2. Tro-Cortesianus 66a.
   3. Dresden 11a.
   4. As a head-dress, Tro-Cortesianus 94c.
   5. As a head-dress, Dresden 18b.
   6. Glyph associated with Moan-bird, Dresden 7c.
   7. Same, Dresden 7c.
   8. Dresden 10a.
   9. Peresianus 10.
  10. Peresianus 5.
  11. Glyph representing head, Dresden 38c.
  12. Same, Dresden 8b.
  13. Same, Dresden 53b.
  14. Same, Dresden 16c.
  15. Glyph possibly representing Moan-bird, Dresden 38c.
  16. Glyph of head, Dresden 53b.
  17. Glyph associated with Moan-bird.
  18. Tro-Cortesianus 73b.
  19. As a head-dress, Dresden 16c.
  20. As a head-dress, Tro-Cortesianus 95c.
  21. Glyph associated with Moan-bird, Dresden 7c.

[Illustration: PLATE 2[3][TN-26]]



COPPERY-TAILED TROGON or QUETZAL (_Pharomacrus mocinno_)

   1. Head-dress with crest feathers shown as knobs, Dresden 7c.
   2. Head-dress, Dresden 13b.
   3. Same, Dresden 16c.
   4. Tro-Cortesianus 100b.
   5. Tro-Cortesianus 70a.
   6. Head-dress, Tro-Cortesianus 94c.
   7. Nuttall 33.
   8. Conventionalized tail as a head ornament, Dresden 20c.
   9. Vaticanus 3773, 17.
  10. Glyph, Palenque, Temple of the Sun (Maudslay, IV, Pl. 89, gl. O,
  11. Trogon descending on a sacrifice, Bologna 8.
  12. Tro-Cortesianus 36b.
  13. Glyph, Copan (Maudslay, I, Pl. 111, gl. 54).
  14. Glyph apparently representing a trogon's head, Dresden 20c.
  15. Same, Dresden 9b.
  16. Same, Dresden 3a.
  17. Head, Nuttall 43.
  18. Tro-Cortesianus 26c.
  19. Figure with head ornament resembling a trogon glyph, Dresden 20c.

[Illustration: PLATE 24]



BLUE MACAW (_Ara militaris_)

   1. Figure with macaw head and holding firebrands, Dresden 40b.
   2. Head-dress, Dresden 16c.
   3. Tro-Cortesianus 12a.
   4. Glyph, Copan, Stela 11 (Maudslay, I, Pl. 112, gl. 12).
   5. Same, Copan, Stela B (Maudslay, I, Pl. 38).
   6. Glyph used in connection with fig. 1.
   7. Glyph.
   8. Stone carving of upper mandible and head, Copan, Stela B (Maudslay,
        I, Pl. 37).
   9. Head, probably of a turtle, month sign _Kayab_, Quirigua, Stela A
        (Maudslay, II, Pl. 7, gl. 14).
  10. Head, probably of a macaw, Copan, Altar Q (Maudslay, I, Pl. 93).
  11. Tro-Cortesianus 37b.
  12. Head, probably of a macaw, Copan, Stela A (Maudslay, I, Pl. 30,
        gl. 19).
  13. Tro-Cortesianus 94c.

[Illustration: PLATE 25]




   1. Macaw as a head-dress, Tro-Cortesianus 26c.
   2. Bird of sacrifice, doubtless an Ocellated Turkey (_Agriocharis_)
        Dresden 25c. (Compare also Dresden 26c[TN-27] 27c, 28c.)
   3. Head-dress, probably a macaw, Copan, Altar Q (Maudslay, I, Pl. 92).
   4. Possibly a parrot (_Amazona_), Nuttall 4.
   5. Head-dress, head of a macaw, Tro-Cortesianus 89a.
   6. Head-dress, possibly representing a parrot, Dresden 12b.
   7. Possibly a parrot (_Amazona_), Nuttall 71.
   8. Glyph representing a macaw's head, Tikal, Temple C (Maudslay, III,
        Pl. 78).
   9. Parrot-like head-dress, Dresden 19a.
  10. Possibly a macaw, Tro-Cortesianus 37b.
  11. Parrot-like head-dress, Dresden 11b.
  12. Bird of sacrifice, probably an Ocellated Turkey or a Chachalaca,
        Nuttall 22.
  13. Parrot-like head-dress, Dresden 11a.
  14. Head of Ocellated Turkey or a Chachalaca, Nuttall 5.

[Illustration: PLATE 26]




   1. Bird of sacrifice, an Ocellated Turkey or a Chachalaca, Nuttall 2.
   2. Same, Nuttall 16.
   3. Same, Nuttall 19.
   4. Same, Nuttall 1.
   5. Woodpecker possibly _Campephilus imperialis_, Nuttall 74.
   6. Same, Nuttall 71.
   7. Possibly a Raven (_Corvus corax sinuatus_), Nuttall 48.
   8. Parrot (_cocho_), Aubin 11.
   9. Same, Aubin 13.
  10. Turkey-cock (_uexolot_),[TN-28] Aubin 11.
  11. Same, Aubin 13.

[Illustration: PLATE 27]



   1. Earthenware vessel representing a tapir (_Tapirella_) with a
        necklace of Oliva shells (Seler, 1904b, p. 106, fig. 23).
   2. Stone carving, possibly of a King Vulture (_Sarcorhamphus papa_),
        Copan, Altar T (Maudslay, I, Pl. 96).
   3. Stone carving, possibly a lizard, Copan, Stela 6 (Maudslay I, Pl.
   4. Stone carving, probably a jaguar (_Felis onca hernandezi_), Copan,
        Stela 2 (Maudslay, I, Pl. 102).
   5. Stone carving of a Black Vulture (_Catharista urubu_), Copan, Stela
        D (Maudslay, I, Pl. 48).
   6. Lizard (?) attacked by two birds (?) perhaps vultures, Quirigua,
        Altar B (Maudslay, II, Pl. 15).

[Illustration: PLATE 28]




   1. Nine-banded Armadillo (_Tatu novemcinctum_), Tro-Cortesianus 103a.
   2. Same, Tro-Cortesianus 92d.
   3. Same, Tro-Cortesianus 103a.
   4. Armadillo captured in a pitfall, Tro-Cortesianus 48a.
   5. Undetermined animal, Dresden 14c.
   6. Undetermined animal, possibly a frog or a marsupial,
        Tro-Cortesianus 33a.
   7. Rodent, Nuttall 11.
   8. Undetermined animal, Tro-Cortesianus 24d.

[Illustration: PLATE 29]




   1. Yucatan deer, caught in a snare, Tro-Cortesianus 48b.
   2. Yucatan brocket (_Mazama pandora_) caught in a pitfall,
        Tro-Cortesianus 92a.
   3. Glyph for hare or rabbit, Nuttall 16.
   4. Same, Nuttall 5.
   5. Yucatan deer, Dresden 60a.
   6. Same, Tro-Cortesianus 30b.
   7. Hare or rabbit, Nuttall 22.
   8. Same, Dresden 61[TN-29]

[Illustration: PLATE 30]



YUCATAN DEER (_Odocoileus yucatanensis_)

   1. Doe, Dresden 45c.
   2. Same, Fégerváry-Mayer 26.
   3. Same, Tro-Cortesianus 29c.
   4. Same, Nuttall 50.
   5. Same captured in snare, Tro-Cortesianus 86a.
   6. Head-dress of god M, Tro-Cortesianus 50b.
   7. Same, Tro-Cortesianus 51c.
   8. Doe, Tro-Cortesianus 2b.
   9. Head of same, Nuttall 43.
  10. Head of doe as sacrifice, Tro-Cortesianus 77.
  11. Same, Peresianus 10.
  12. Haunch of venison as a sacrifice, Dresden 35a.
  13. Same, Tro-Cortesianus 105b.
  14. Same, Dresden 28c.
  15. Same, Tro-Cortesianus 108a.

[Illustration: PLATE 31]



YUCATAN PECCARY (_Tayassu angulatum yucatanense_)
YUCATAN DEER (_Odocoileus yucatanensis_)

   1. Peccary, Nuttall 79.
   2. Same, Dresden 68a.
   3. Combination, a peccary's head and forefoot, with long tail and
        hindfoot without hoofs, Tro-Cortesianus 66a[TN-30]
   4. Peccary, Dresden 45b.
   5. Man with peccary head, Copan, Sela[TN-31] D, cast (Maudslay, I, Pl.
   6. Combination animal, with hoofs and dorsal crest of a peccary and
        scales of a reptile, Dresden 75.
   7. Peccary, Nuttall 9.
   8. Yucatan deer, with conventionalized antler, glyph for Nahua day
        sign, _Maçatl_, Nuttall 26.
   9. Same, Peresianus 5.
  10. Glyph for Nahua day sign _Maçatl_, Aubin 10.
  11. Same, Nuttall 5.
  12. Deer, Copan, Stela N, East (Maudslay, I, Pl. 79).

[Illustration: PLATE 32]



YUCATAN PECCARY (_Tayassu angulatum yucatanense_)

   1. Peccary caught in a snare, Tro-Cortesianus 49c.
   2. Glyph, Chichen Itza, Monjas, East (Maudslay, III, Pl. 13).
   3. Head as a head-dress, Chichen Itza, Temple of the Tigers, Lower
        Chamber (Maudslay, III).
   4. Peccary caught in a snare, Tro-Cortesianus 93a.
   5. Tro-Cortesianus 30b.
   6. Dresden 62.
   7. Glyph representing a peccary's head, Dresden 45b.
   8. Same, Dresden 43b.
   9. Peccary caught in a snare, Tro-Cortesianus 49a.

[Illustration: PLATE 33]




   1. Jaguar (_Felis hernandezi_), Nuttall 24.
   2. Man seated in the open mouth of an animal, possibly a jaguar,
        Tro-Cortesianus 20a.
   3. Nahua day sign, _Oceolotl_, Aubin 9.
   4. Pot representing a jaguar or puma (Gann, 1897-1898, Pl. 34).
   5. Probably a puma (_Felis bangsi costaricensis_), Chichen Itza,
        Temple of the Tigers, Painted Chamber (Maudslay, III, Pl. 40).
   6. Chichen Itza, Temple of the Tigers, Lower Chamber (Maudslay, III,
        Pl. 50).
   7. Probably a puma, Dresden 47.

[Illustration: PLATE 34,[TN-32]]




   1. Probably a coyote (_Canis_), Nuttall 6.
   2. Same, Nuttall 26.
   3. Possibly a bear (_Ursus_), Dresden 37a.
   4. Same, Chichen Itza, Temple of the Tigers (Maudslay, III, 38).
   5. Jaguar (_Felis hernandezi_), Dresden 8a.
   6. Glyph, probably of a jaguar head, Copan, Stela 4 (Maudslay, I, Pl.
   7. Copan, Altar F (Maudslay, I, Pl. 114).
   8. Jaguar, Tro-Cortesianus 28c.
   9. Stone carving of jaguar head, Palenque, Palace, House C (Maudslay,
        IV, Pl. 24).
  10. Jaguar, Tro-Cortesianus 30b.
  11. Glyph, probably of a jaguar.
  12. Head of jaguar in fresco, Santa Rita (Gann, 1897-1898, Pl. 31).
  13. Same, Tro-Cortesianus 2a.
  14. Same, Nuttall 27.

[Illustration: PLATE 35]



DOG (_Canis_)

   1. Dog and crab, Tro-Cortesianus 88c.
   2. Tro-Cortesianus 37b.
   3. Tro-Cortesianus 66b.
   4. Head, Nuttall 34.
   5. Nuttall 72.
   6. Head, Nuttall 20.
   7. Probably a dog, Nuttall 3.
   8. Aubin 9.
   9. Glyph for day sign _Oc_.
  10. Same.
  11. Same.
  12. Tro-Cortesianus 91d.
  13. Glyph for Nahua day sign _Itzcuintli_, Aubin 9.
  14. Tro-Cortesianus 27d.

[Illustration: PLATE 36]



DOG (_Canis_)

   1. Dog bearing firebrands, Dresden 40b.
   2. Same, Dresden 39a.
   3. Same, Dresden 36a.
   4. Tro-Cortesianus 88a.
   5. Dresden 21b.
   6. Tro-Cortesianus 24c.
   7. Dresden 13c.
   8. Tro-Cortesianus 37a.
   9. Dresden 30a.
  10. Dresden 7a.
  11. Glyph supposed to represent a dog's ribs, Dresden 13c.
  12. Dresden 29a.
  13. Head, Tro-Cortesianus 91d.

[Illustration: PLATE 37]



LEAF-NOSED BAT (_Vampyrus spectrum_ or _Phyllostomus hastatus

   1. Glyph, Chichen Itza, Akat 'Cib (Maudslay, III, Pl. 19.)[TN-33]
   2. Glyph, Copan (Maudslay, I, Pl. 8).
   3. Bat god, drawn as glyph, Copan, Stela D (Maudslay, I, Pl. 48).
   4. Glyph, Copan (Maudslay, I, Pl. 8).
   5. Glyph, Palenque, Temple of the Inscriptions (Maudslay, IV, Pl. 60,
        gl. Q 1).
   6. Glyph, Tikal (Maudslay III, Pl. 74, gl. 41).
   7. Bat gad used as decoration on pottery, Chama (Dieseldorff, 1904).

[Illustration: PLATE 38]




   1. Capuchin monkey (_Cebus capucinus_), Nuttall 1.
   2. Same, Nuttall 5.
   3. Head of same, Nuttall 38.
   4. Nondescript animal, possibly a combination of monkey and peccary,
        Tro-Cortesianus 88c.
   5. Glyph, possibly representing a monkey, found in connection with
        fig. 4.
   6. Glyph of head of monkey, Nuttall 1.
   7. Head of long-nosed god, Tro-Cortesianus 30a.
   8. Head of monkey, glyph for Nahua day sign, _Oçomatli_, Aubin 9.
   9. Long-nosed god, Tro-Cortesianus 30b.
  10. God with head-dress, Dresden 5c.

[Illustration: PLATE 39]

Transcriber's Note:

The following typographical errors were noted in the original text:

  TN-1  279  "Yucatan Horned Ow" should read "Yucatan Horned Owl"
  TN-2  281  "Mandslay" should read "Maudslay"
  TN-3  284  "deRosny" should read "de Rosny"
  TN-4  299  "connnection" should read "connection"
  TN-5  299  "signifiance" should read "significance"
  TN-6  299  "lightening" should read "lightning"
  TN-7  340  "indicatd" should read "indicated"
  TN-8  344  "Kayae" should read "Kayab"
  TN-9  353  "(Dresden 44b, 45b, (Pl. 32, fig. 4)" Has an extra ( before
  TN-10 366  "C. hypoleucus Auct.)" should read "Auct.)."
  TN-11 Footnote 327-†  "coasa" should read "cosas"
  TN-12 Footnote 349-*    "for" should read "por"
  TN-13 371  "Españales" should read "Españoles"
  TN-14 371  "l'Améirque" should read "l'Amérique"
  TN-15 371  "Bibliothéque" should read "Bibliothèque"
  TN-16 372  "1895. republished" should read "1895. Republished"
  TN-17 372  "und Maya-Handschriften:" colon should be a semi-colon
  TN-18 Plate 2 caption  "4, 6" should have a . following
  TN-19 Plate 8  Plate number was not printed on the page
  TN-20 Plate 13 caption  "Pl. 82, gl. 0, 4" should read "O, 4"
  TN-21 Plate 15 caption  "HERONS FRIGATE" should read "HERONS, FRIGATE"
  TN-22 Plate 15 caption  "6. Heron" should have a . at the end
  TN-23 Plate 18 caption  "8. Same as fig" should read "fig."
  TN-24 Plate 20 caption  "flints, Nuttall" should end with a .
  TN-25 Plate 22  The word "Plate" was incompletely printed
  TN-26 Plate 23  "23" was missing the second digit
  TN-27 Plate 26 caption  "Dresden 26c 27c," should have a , after 26c
  TN-28 Plate 28 caption  "uexolot" should read "uexolotl"
  TN-29 Plate 29 caption  "Dresden 61" was missing the . at the end
  TN-30 Plate 32 caption  "Tro-Cortesianus 66a" was missing the . at the
  TN-31 Plate 32 caption  "Sela" should read "Stela"
  TN-32 Plate 34  "PLATE 34," should not end with a comma
  TN-33 Plate 38  "Pl. 19.)" should read "Pl. 19)."

The following words had inconsistent hyphenation:

  Blow-fly / Blowfly
  cross-hatched / crosshatched
  pit-fall / pitfall

The following words had inconsistent spelling:

  dechiffrement / déchiffrement
  Fégerváry-Mayer / Fejérváry-Mayer / Fejervary-Mayer
  Rélacion / Relacion
  rôle / role

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Animal Figures in the Maya Codices" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.